Science.gov

Sample records for 2a below-ground vaults

  1. Recommendations to the NRC for review criteria for alternative methods of low-level radioactive waste disposal: Task 2a, Below-ground vaults

    SciTech Connect

    Denson, R.H.; Bennett, R.D.; Wamsley, R.M.; Bean, D.L.; Ainsworth, D.L.

    1987-12-01

    The US Army Engineer Waterways Experiment Station (WES) and the US Army Engineer Division, Huntsville (HNDED) have developed general design criteria and specific design review criteria for the below-ground vault (BGV) alternative method of low-level radioactive waste (LLW) disposal. A BGV is a reinforced concrete vault (floor, walls, and roof) placed underground below the frost line, and above the water table, surrounded by filter blanket and drainage zones and covered with a low permeability earth layer and top soil with vegetation. Eight major review criteria categories have been developed ranging from the loads imposed on the BGV structure through material quality and durability considerations. Specific design review criteria have been developed in detail for seven of the eight major categories. 59 refs., 14 figs., 2 tabs.

  2. Recommendations to the NRC (Nuclear Regulatory Commission) for Review Criteria for Alternative Methods of Low-Level Radioactive Waste Disposal. Task 2A. Below-Ground Vaults.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1988-01-01

    cross- sectional diameter of three to four times the maximum aggregate dimension. 2.6-16 2.6.2.6.2 Shrinkage and Swelling The range of the embedded meter...Inhomogeneity of Concrete ........ 2.6-16 2.6.2.6.2 Shrinkage and Swelling ........... 2.6-17 2.6.2.6.3 Temperature ...................... 2.6-17 2.6.2.6.4...Collector System ................. 2.7-13 2.7.2.4.2 Free -draining Fill Around Waste Packages ................... 2.7-14 2.7.2.4.3 Floors

  3. Below-ground chemical ecology and IPM

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The phasing out of methyl bromide as a soil fumigant has led to a need for new technologies to manage below-ground plant pests and a sustainable approach would be to utilize semiochemicals comparable to above-ground IPM. Soil-dwelling beneficial entomopathogenic (EPNs) (Steinernema spp. and Heteror...

  4. Nondestructive Analysis of MET-5 Paint Can at TA35 Building 2 A-Wing Vault

    SciTech Connect

    Desimone, David J.; Vo, Duc Ta

    2016-11-03

    In Building 2 A-wing vault MET-5 has some drums and other packages they wanted NEN-1 help identifying nondestructively. Measurements using a mechanically cooled portable high-purity germanium HPGe Ortec detective were taken of a paint can container labeled DU-2A to determine if any radioactive material was inside. The HPGe detector measures the gamma rays emitted by radioactive material and displays it as a spectrum. The spectrum is used to identify this radioactive material by using appropriate analysis software and identifying the gamma ray peaks. A paint can container, DU-2A, was analyzed with PeakEasy 4.84 and FRAM 5.2. The FRAM report is shown. The enrichment is 0.091% U235 and 99.907% U238. This material is depleted uranium. The measurement was performed in the near field, and to extract a mass a far field measurement will need to be taken.

  5. 90. View of elevator approximately two feet below ground, pit ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    90. View of elevator approximately two feet below ground, pit "B", showing building 156, Warhead Building in center background, looking northwest - Nike Missile Battery MS-40, County Road No. 260, Farmington, Dakota County, MN

  6. Thermal inertia mapping of below ground objects and voids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Del Grande, Nancy K.; Ascough, Brian M.; Rumpf, Richard L.

    2013-05-01

    Thermal inertia (effusivity) contrast marks the borders of naturally heated below ground object and void sites. The Dual Infrared Effusivity Computed Tomography (DIRECT) method, patent pending, detects and locates the presence of enhanced heat flows from below ground object and void sites at a given area. DIRECT maps view contrasting surface temperature differences between sites with normal soil and sites with soil disturbed by subsurface, hollow or semi-empty object voids (or air gaps) at varying depths. DIRECT utilizes an empirical database created to optimize the scheduling of daily airborne thermal surveys to view and characterize unseen object and void types, depths and volumes in "blind" areas.

  7. Mycorrhizae alter quality and quantity of carbon allocated below ground

    SciTech Connect

    Rygiewicz, P.T.; Andersen, C.P.

    1994-01-01

    Plants and soils are a critically important element in the global carbon-energy equation. It is estimated that in forest ecosystems over two-thirds of the carbon is contained in soils and peat deposits. Despite the importance of forest soils in the global carbon cycle, fluxes of carbon associated with fundamental processes and soil functional groups are inadequately quantified, limiting our understanding of carbon movement and sequestration in soils. The authors report the direct measurement of carbon in and through all major pools of a mycorrhizal (fungus-root) coniferous seedling (a complete carbon budget). The mycorrhizal symbiont reduces overall retention of carbon in the plant-fungus symbiosis by increasing carbon in roots and below-ground respiration and reducing its retention and release above ground. Below ground, mycorrhizal plants shifted allocation of carbon to pools that are rapidly turned over, primarily to fine roots and fungal hyphae, the host root and fungal respiration. Mycorrhizae alter the size of below-ground carbon pools, the quality and, therefore, the retention time of carbon below ground.

  8. Agricultural management affects below ground carbon input estimations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hirte, Juliane; Leifeld, Jens; Abiven, Samuel; Oberholzer, Hans-Rudolf; Mayer, Jochen

    2017-04-01

    Root biomass and rhizodeposition carbon (C release by living roots) are among the most relevant root parameters for studies of plant response to environmental change, soil C modelling or estimations of soil C sequestration. Below ground C inputs of agricultural crops are typically estimated from above ground biomass or yield, thereby implying constant below to above ground C ratios. Agricultural management practices affect above ground biomass considerably; however, their effects on below ground C inputs are only poorly understood. Our aims were therefore to (i) quantify root biomass C and rhizodeposition C of maize and wheat grown in agricultural management systems with different fertilization intensities and (ii) determine management effects on below/above ground C ratios and vertical distribution of below ground C inputs into soil. We conducted a comprehensive field study on two Swiss long-term field trials, DOK (Basel) and ZOFE (Zurich), with silage (DOK) and grain (ZOFE) maize in 2013 and winter wheat in 2014 (ZOFE) and 2015 (DOK). Three treatments in DOK (2 bio-organic, 1 mixed conventional) and 4 treatments in ZOFE (1 without, 1 manure, 2 mineral fertilization) reflected increasing fertilization intensities. In each of 4 replicated field plots per treatment, one microplot (steel tube of 0.5m depth) was inserted into soil, covering an area of 0.1m2. The microplot plants were pulse-labelled with 13C-CO2 in weekly intervals throughout the respective growing season. After harvest, the microplot soil was sampled in three soil depths (0 - 0.25, 0.25 - 0.5, 0.5 - 0.75m), roots were separated from soil by picking and wet sieving, and root and soil samples were analysed for their δ13C values by IRMS. Carbon rhizodeposition was calculated from 13C-excess values in bulk soil and roots. (i) Average root biomasses of maize and wheat were 1.9 and 1.4 tha 1, respectively, in DOK and 0.9 and 1.1 tha 1, respectively, in ZOFE. Average amounts of C rhizodeposition of maize

  9. Collection of liquid from below-ground location

    DOEpatents

    Phillips, Steven J.; Alexander, Robert G.

    1995-01-01

    A method of retrieving liquid from a below-ground collection area by permitting gravity flow of the liquid from the collection area to a first closed container; monitoring the level of the liquid in the closed container; and after the liquid reaches a given level in the first closed container, transferring the liquid to a second closed container disposed at a location above the first closed container, via a conduit, by introducing into the first closed container a gas which is substantially chemically inert with respect to the liquid, the gas being at a pressure sufficient to propel the liquid from the first closed container to the second closed container.

  10. High-Energy Neutron Spectra and Flux Measurements Below Ground

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roecker, Caleb; Bernstein, Adam; Marleau, Peter; Vetter, Kai

    2016-03-01

    High-energy neutrons are a ubiquitous and often poorly measured background. Below ground, these neutrons could potentially interfere with antineutrino based reactor monitoring experiments as well as other rare-event neutral particle detectors. We have designed and constructed a transportable fast neutron detection system for measuring neutron energy spectra and flux ranging from tens to hundreds of MeV. The spectrometer uses a multiplicity technique in order to have a higher effective area than traditional transportable high-energy neutron spectrometers. Transportability ensures a common detector-related systematic bias for future measurements. The spectrometer is composed of two Gd containing plastic scintillator detectors arranged around a lead spallation target. A high-energy neutron may interact in the lead producing many secondary neutrons. The detector records the correlated secondary neutron multiplicity. Over many events, the response can be used to infer the incident neutron energy spectrum and flux. As a validation of the detector response, surface measurements have been performed; results confirm agreement with previous experiments. Below ground measurements have been performed at 3 depths (380, 600, and 1450 m.w.e.); results from these measurements will be presented.

  11. Collection of liquid from below-ground location

    DOEpatents

    Phillips, S.J.; Alexander, R.G.

    1995-05-30

    A method is described for retrieving liquid from a below-ground collection area by permitting gravity flow of the liquid from the collection area to a first closed container; monitoring the level of the liquid in the closed container; and after the liquid reaches a given level in the first closed container, transferring the liquid to a second closed container disposed at a location above the first closed container, via a conduit, by introducing into the first closed container a gas which is substantially chemically inert with respect to the liquid, the gas being at a pressure sufficient to propel the liquid from the first closed container to the second closed container. 3 figs.

  12. Are above- and below-ground phenology in sync?

    PubMed

    Abramoff, Rose Z; Finzi, Adrien C

    2015-02-01

    Globally, root production accounts for 33-67% of terrestrial net primary productivity and influences decomposition via root production and turnover, carbon (C) allocation to mycorrhizal fungi and root exudation. As recognized above ground, the timing of phenological events affects terrestrial C balance, yet there is no parallel understanding for below-ground phenology. In this paper we examine the phenology of root production and its relationship to temperature, soil moisture, and above-ground phenology. Synthesizing 87 observations of whole-plant phenology from 40 studies, we found that, on average, root growth occurs 25 ± 8 d after shoot growth but that the offset between the peak in root and shoot growth varies > 200 d across biomes (boreal, temperate, Mediterranean, and subtropical). Root and shoot growth are positively correlated with median monthly temperature and mean monthly precipitation in boreal, temperate, and subtropical biomes. However, a temperature hysteresis in these biomes leads to the hypothesis that internal controls over C allocation to roots are an equally, if not more, important driver of phenology. The specific mechanisms are as yet unclear but they are likely mediated by some combination of photoassimilate supply, hormonal signaling, and growth form.

  13. Above and below ground biomass patterns in arid lands

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ursino, N.

    2009-04-01

    Regular vegetation patterns have been observed in many arid zones around the word. This particular spontaneous arrangement of the vegetation optimizes the use of the scarce water resources and could be imitated to restore vulnerable ecosystems; at the same time, the patterns of vegetation act as an early warning signal of the fact that fragile ecosystems may suddenly undergo irreversible shifts, thus, they deserve a special attention. The formation of vegetation patterns is the object of many theoretical and experimental studies, nevertheless, in previous works, the interest that is deserved to below ground biomass allocation is minor as compared to the effort that is spent to describe the organization of vegetation above ground. A simple model for the study of vegetation patterns in arid lands has been used here to investigate the interrelations between plant ecology and hydrology, and the interplay between above and belove ground mass patterns. The results of the numerical simulations that are reported and discussed hereinafter, have been obtained by postulating different biomass growth rates and root density distributions, under water stress. By so doing, the impact of root architecture on patterns of above ground biomass with different survival strategy has been demonstrated.

  14. Development of polymer concrete vaults for natural gas regulator stations

    SciTech Connect

    Fontana, J.J.; Miller, C.A.; Reams, W.; Elling, D.

    1990-08-01

    Vaults for natural gas regulator stations have traditionally been fabricated with steel-reinforced portland cement concrete. Since these vaults are installed below ground level, they are usually coated with a water-proofing material to prevent the ingress of moisture into the vault. In some cases, penetrations for piping that are normally cast into the vault do not line up with the gas lines in the streets. This necessitates off-setting the lines to line up with the penetrations in the vault or breaking out new penetrations which could weaken the structure and/or allow water ingress. By casting the vaults using a new material of construction such as polymer concrete, a longer maintenance free service life is possible because the physical and durability properties of polymer concrete composites are much superior to those of portland cement concrete. The higher strengths of polymer concrete allow the design engineer to reduce the wall, floor, and ceiling thicknesses making the vaults lighter for easier transportation and installation. Penetrations can be cut after casting to match existing street lines, thus making the vault more universal and reducing the number of vaults that are normally in stock. The authors developed a steel-fiber reinforced polymer concrete composite that could be used for regulator vaults. Based on the physical properties of his new composite, vaults were designed to replace the BUG PV-008 and Con Ed GR-6 regulator vaults made of reinforced portland cement concrete. Quarter-scale models of the polymer concrete vaults were tested and the results reaffirmed the reduced wall thickness design. Two sets of vaults, cast by Hardinge Bros., were inspected by representatives of the utilities and BNL (Brookhaven National Laboratory), and were accepted for delivery. 6 refs., 5 figs., 12 tabs.

  15. Below-ground herbivory limits induction of extrafloral nectar by above-ground herbivores.

    PubMed

    Huang, Wei; Siemann, Evan; Carrillo, Juli; Ding, Jianqing

    2015-04-01

    Many plants produce extrafloral nectar (EFN), and increase production following above-ground herbivory, presumably to attract natural enemies of the herbivores. Below-ground herbivores, alone or in combination with those above ground, may also alter EFN production depending on the specificity of this defence response and the interactions among herbivores mediated through plant defences. To date, however, a lack of manipulative experiments investigating EFN production induced by above- and below-ground herbivory has limited our understanding of how below-ground herbivory mediates indirect plant defences to affect above-ground herbivores and their natural enemies. In a greenhouse experiment, seedlings of tallow tree (Triadica sebifera) were subjected to herbivory by a specialist flea beetle (Bikasha collaris) that naturally co-occurs as foliage-feeding adults and root-feeding larvae. Seedlings were subjected to above-ground adults and/or below-ground larvae herbivory, and EFN production was monitored. Above- and/or below-ground herbivory significantly increased the percentage of leaves with active nectaries, the volume of EFN and the mass of soluble solids within the nectar. Simultaneous above- and below-ground herbivory induced a higher volume of EFN and mass of soluble solids than below-ground herbivory alone, but highest EFN production was induced by above-ground herbivory when below-ground herbivores were absent. The induction of EFN production by below-ground damage suggests that systemic induction underlies some of the EFN response. The strong induction by above-ground herbivory in the absence of below-ground herbivory points to specific induction based on above- and below-ground signals that may be adaptive for this above-ground indirect defence. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Annals of Botany Company. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  16. Below-ground herbivory limits induction of extrafloral nectar by above-ground herbivores

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Wei; Siemann, Evan; Carrillo, Juli; Ding, Jianqing

    2015-01-01

    Background and Aims Many plants produce extrafloral nectar (EFN), and increase production following above-ground herbivory, presumably to attract natural enemies of the herbivores. Below-ground herbivores, alone or in combination with those above ground, may also alter EFN production depending on the specificity of this defence response and the interactions among herbivores mediated through plant defences. To date, however, a lack of manipulative experiments investigating EFN production induced by above- and below-ground herbivory has limited our understanding of how below-ground herbivory mediates indirect plant defences to affect above-ground herbivores and their natural enemies. Methods In a greenhouse experiment, seedlings of tallow tree (Triadica sebifera) were subjected to herbivory by a specialist flea beetle (Bikasha collaris) that naturally co-occurs as foliage-feeding adults and root-feeding larvae. Seedlings were subjected to above-ground adults and/or below-ground larvae herbivory, and EFN production was monitored. Key Results Above- and/or below-ground herbivory significantly increased the percentage of leaves with active nectaries, the volume of EFN and the mass of soluble solids within the nectar. Simultaneous above- and below-ground herbivory induced a higher volume of EFN and mass of soluble solids than below-ground herbivory alone, but highest EFN production was induced by above-ground herbivory when below-ground herbivores were absent. Conclusions The induction of EFN production by below-ground damage suggests that systemic induction underlies some of the EFN response. The strong induction by above-ground herbivory in the absence of below-ground herbivory points to specific induction based on above- and below-ground signals that may be adaptive for this above-ground indirect defence. PMID:25681822

  17. High yielding biomass genotypes of willow (Salix spp.) show differences in below ground biomass allocation

    PubMed Central

    Cunniff, Jennifer; Purdy, Sarah J.; Barraclough, Tim J.P.; Castle, March; Maddison, Anne L.; Jones, Laurence E.; Shield, Ian F.; Gregory, Andrew S.; Karp, Angela

    2015-01-01

    Willows (Salix spp.) grown as short rotation coppice (SRC) are viewed as a sustainable source of biomass with a positive greenhouse gas (GHG) balance due to their potential to fix and accumulate carbon (C) below ground. However, exploiting this potential has been limited by the paucity of data available on below ground biomass allocation and the extent to which it varies between genotypes. Furthermore, it is likely that allocation can be altered considerably by environment. To investigate the role of genotype and environment on allocation, four willow genotypes were grown at two replicated field sites in southeast England and west Wales, UK. Above and below ground biomass was intensively measured over two two-year rotations. Significant genotypic differences in biomass allocation were identified, with below ground allocation differing by up to 10% between genotypes. Importantly, the genotype with the highest below ground biomass also had the highest above ground yield. Furthermore, leaf area was found to be a good predictor of below ground biomass. Growth environment significantly impacted allocation; the willow genotypes grown in west Wales had up to 94% more biomass below ground by the end of the second rotation. A single investigation into fine roots showed the same pattern with double the volume of fine roots present. This greater below ground allocation may be attributed primarily to higher wind speeds, plus differences in humidity and soil characteristics. These results demonstrate that the capacity exists to breed plants with both high yields and high potential for C accumulation. PMID:26339128

  18. High yielding biomass genotypes of willow (Salix spp.) show differences in below ground biomass allocation.

    PubMed

    Cunniff, Jennifer; Purdy, Sarah J; Barraclough, Tim J P; Castle, March; Maddison, Anne L; Jones, Laurence E; Shield, Ian F; Gregory, Andrew S; Karp, Angela

    2015-09-01

    Willows (Salix spp.) grown as short rotation coppice (SRC) are viewed as a sustainable source of biomass with a positive greenhouse gas (GHG) balance due to their potential to fix and accumulate carbon (C) below ground. However, exploiting this potential has been limited by the paucity of data available on below ground biomass allocation and the extent to which it varies between genotypes. Furthermore, it is likely that allocation can be altered considerably by environment. To investigate the role of genotype and environment on allocation, four willow genotypes were grown at two replicated field sites in southeast England and west Wales, UK. Above and below ground biomass was intensively measured over two two-year rotations. Significant genotypic differences in biomass allocation were identified, with below ground allocation differing by up to 10% between genotypes. Importantly, the genotype with the highest below ground biomass also had the highest above ground yield. Furthermore, leaf area was found to be a good predictor of below ground biomass. Growth environment significantly impacted allocation; the willow genotypes grown in west Wales had up to 94% more biomass below ground by the end of the second rotation. A single investigation into fine roots showed the same pattern with double the volume of fine roots present. This greater below ground allocation may be attributed primarily to higher wind speeds, plus differences in humidity and soil characteristics. These results demonstrate that the capacity exists to breed plants with both high yields and high potential for C accumulation.

  19. Below-ground carbon flux and partitioning: global patterns and response to temperature

    Treesearch

    C.M. Litton; C.P. Giardina

    2008-01-01

    1. The fraction of gross primary production (GPP) that is total below-ground carbon flux (TBCF) and the fraction of TBCF that is below-ground net primary production (BNPP) represent globally significant C fluxes that are fundamental in regulating ecosystem C balance. However, global estimates of the partitioning of GPP to TBCF and of TBCF to BNPP, as well as the...

  20. Below-ground herbivory in natural communities: a review emphasizing fossorial animals

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Andersen, Douglas C.

    1987-01-01

    Roots, bulbs, corms, and other below-ground organs are almost universally present in communities containing vascular plants. A large and taxonomically diverse group of herbivores uses these below-ground plant parts as its sole or primary source of food. Important within this group are plant-parasitic nematodes and several fossorial taxa that affect plants through their soil-disturbing activities as well as by consuming plant tissue. The fossorial taxa are probably best exemplified by fossorial rodents, which are distributed on all continents except Australia. All other fossorial herbivores are insects. The impact of below-groud herbivory on individual plant fitness will depend upon the extent to which, and under what circumstances, the consumption of plant tissue disrupts one or more of the six functions of below-ground plant parts. Below-ground herbivory is probably more often chronic than acute. Indirect evidence suggests that plants have responded evolutionarily to herbivory by enhancing the functional capacities of below-ground organs, thus developing a degree of tolerance, and by producing compounds that serve as feeding deterrents. Many plant species respond to the removal of root tissues by increasing the growth rate of the remaining roots and initiating new roots. Soil movement and mixing by fossorial rodents infleuce the environment of other below-ground herbivores as well as that of plants and plant propagules. The relationships among the various groups of below-ground herbivores, and between below-ground herbivores and plants, are at best poorly known, yet they appear to have major roles in determining the structure and regulating the functioning of natural communities.

  1. Inspecting Juno Radiation Vault

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2010-07-12

    A technician inspects the special radiation vault being installed atop the propulsion module of NASA Juno spacecraft; the vault has titanium walls to protect the spacecraft electronic brain and heart from Jupiter harsh radiation environment.

  2. Lowering Juno Radiation Vault

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2010-07-12

    Technicians lowered a special radiation vault onto the propulsion module of NASA Juno spacecraft. The vault will dramatically slow the aging effect radiation has on the electronics for the duration of the mission.

  3. Above- and below-ground net primary productivity across ten Amazonian forests on contrasting soils

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aragão, L. E. O. C.; Malhi, Y.; Metcalfe, D. B.; Silva-Espejo, J. E.; Jiménez, E.; Navarrete, D.; Almeida, S.; Costa, A. C. L.; Salinas, N.; Phillips, O. L.; . Anderson, L. O.; Baker, T. R.; Goncalvez, P. H.; Huamán-Ovalle, J.; Mamani-Solórzano, M.; Meir, P.; Monteagudo, A.; Peñuela, M. C.; Prieto, A.; Quesada, C. A.; Rozas-Dávila, A.; Rudas, A.; Silva Junior, J. A.; Vásquez, R.

    2009-02-01

    The net primary productivity (NPP) of tropical forests is one of the most important and least quantified components of the global carbon cycle. Most relevant studies have focused particularly on the quantification of the above-ground coarse wood productivity, and little is known about the carbon fluxes involved in other elements of the NPP, the partitioning of total NPP between its above- and below-ground components and the main environmental drivers of these patterns. In this study we quantify the above- and below-ground NPP of ten Amazonian forests to address two questions: (1) How do Amazonian forests allocate productivity among its above- and below-ground components? (2) How do soil and leaf nutrient status and soil texture affect the productivity of Amazonian forests? Using a standardized methodology to measure the major elements of productivity, we show that NPP varies between 9.3±1.3 Mg C ha-1 yr-1 (mean±standard error), at a white sand plot, and 17.0±1.4 Mg C ha-1 yr-1 at a very fertile Terra Preta site, with an overall average of 12.8±0.9 Mg C ha-1 yr-1. The studied forests allocate on average 64±3% and 36±3% of the total NPP to the above- and below-ground components, respectively. The ratio of above-ground and below-ground NPP is almost invariant with total NPP. Litterfall and fine root production both increase with total NPP, while stem production shows no overall trend. Total NPP tends to increase with soil phosphorus and leaf nitrogen status. However, allocation of NPP to below-ground shows no relationship to soil fertility, but appears to decrease with the increase of soil clay content.

  4. Above- and below-ground net primary productivity across ten Amazonian forests on contrasting soils

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aragão, L. E. O. C.; Malhi, Y.; Metcalfe, D. B.; Silva-Espejo, J. E.; Jiménez, E.; Navarrete, D.; Almeida, S.; Costa, A. C. L.; Salinas, N.; Phillips, O. L.; Anderson, L. O.; Alvarez, E.; Baker, T. R.; Goncalvez, P. H.; Huamán-Ovalle, J.; Mamani-Solórzano, M.; Meir, P.; Monteagudo, A.; Patiño, S.; Peñuela, M. C.; Prieto, A.; Quesada, C. A.; Rozas-Dávila, A.; Rudas, A.; Silva, J. A., Jr.; Vásquez, R.

    2009-12-01

    The net primary productivity (NPP) of tropical forests is one of the most important and least quantified components of the global carbon cycle. Most relevant studies have focused particularly on the quantification of the above-ground coarse wood productivity, and little is known about the carbon fluxes involved in other elements of the NPP, the partitioning of total NPP between its above- and below-ground components and the main environmental drivers of these patterns. In this study we quantify the above- and below-ground NPP of ten Amazonian forests to address two questions: (1) How do Amazonian forests allocate productivity among its above- and below-ground components? (2) How do soil and leaf nutrient status and soil texture affect the productivity of Amazonian forests? Using a standardized methodology to measure the major elements of productivity, we show that NPP varies between 9.3±1.3 Mg C ha-1 yr-1 (mean±standard error), at a white sand plot, and 17.0±1.4 Mg C ha-1 yr-1 at a very fertile Terra Preta site, with an overall average of 12.8±0.9 Mg C ha-1 yr-1. The studied forests allocate on average 64±3% and 36±3% of the total NPP to the above- and below-ground components, respectively. The ratio of above-ground and below-ground NPP is almost invariant with total NPP. Litterfall and fine root production both increase with total NPP, while stem production shows no overall trend. Total NPP tends to increase with soil phosphorus and leaf nitrogen status. However, allocation of NPP to below-ground shows no relationship to soil fertility, but appears to decrease with the increase of soil clay content.

  5. Above- and below-ground grass growth responds to grazing management

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    How is grass productivity above- and below-ground affected by grazing at different heights or by leaving different residuals after grazing? A recent study found no simple answer to this question. Meadow fescue and orchardgrass were grazed by Holstein heifers to remove 50 or 100% of above-ground fora...

  6. Fertilization Increases Below-Ground Carbon Sequestration of Loblolly Pine Plantations

    Treesearch

    K.H. Johnsen; J.R. Butnor; C. Maier; R. Oren; R. Pangle; L. Samuelson; J. Seiler; S.E. McKeand; H.L. Allen

    2001-01-01

    The extent of fertilization of southern pine forests is increasing rapidly; industrial fertilization increased from 16,200 ha per year in 1988, to 344,250 ha in 1998. Fertilization increases stand productivity and can increase carbon (C) sequestration by: 1) increasing above-ground standing C; 2) increasing C stored in forest products; and 3) increasing below-ground...

  7. Above- and below-ground effects of aspen clonal regeneration and succession to conifers

    Treesearch

    Wayne D. Shepperd; Dale L. Bartos; Stephen A. Mata

    2001-01-01

    Above- and below-ground characteristics were measured and compared for six sets of paired trembling aspen (Populus tremuloides Michx.) clones on the Fishlake National Forest in central Utah. Three self-regenerating clones were compared with three non-regenerating clones and three pure aspen stands were compared with three mixed aspen-conifer stands. Regenerating clones...

  8. THE EFFECT OF OZONE ON BELOW-GROUND CARBON ALLOCATION IN WHEAT

    EPA Science Inventory

    Short term 14CO2 pulse and chase experiments were conducted in order to investigate the effect ozone on below-ground carbon allocation in spring wheat seedlings (Triticum aestivumL. ?ANZA'). Wheat seedlings were grown in a sand-hydroponic system and exposed to either high ozone ...

  9. Above- and below-ground characteristics associated with wind toppling in a young Populus plantation.

    Treesearch

    Constance A. Harrington; Dean S. DeBell

    1996-01-01

    Damage from a dormant-season windstorm in a 3-year-old Populus research trial differed among four clones and three spacings and between monoclonal and polyclonal plots. Clonal differences in susceptibility to toppling (or leaning) were associated with both above and below-ground characteristics. Susceptible clones had less taper in the lower stem...

  10. Carbon allocation below ground transfers and lipid turnover in a plant-microbial association

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Radioactive tracers were used to study the carbon allocation to above ground, coarse- and fine-roots, plant tissues, mycorrhizal lipids, below-ground respiration, and to soil in a mycorrhizal association. Sorghum bicolor was grown in soil with a non mycorrhizal microbial inoculum with and without Gl...

  11. THE EFFECT OF OZONE ON BELOW-GROUND CARBON ALLOCATION IN WHEAT

    EPA Science Inventory

    Short term 14CO2 pulse and chase experiments were conducted in order to investigate the effect ozone on below-ground carbon allocation in spring wheat seedlings (Triticum aestivumL. ?ANZA'). Wheat seedlings were grown in a sand-hydroponic system and exposed to either high ozone ...

  12. How much older are Appalachian oaks below-ground than above-ground?

    Treesearch

    Daniel J. Heggenstaller; Eric K. Zenner; Patrick H. Brose; Jerilynn E. Peck

    2012-01-01

    Young oaks (Quercus spp.) are known to invest more in early root growth than shoot growth, enabling seedlings to tolerate stem die-back and resprouting. The resulting disparity in age between above- and below-ground tissues has been previously demonstrated for seedling-sized stems, but not for successful canopy-ascending trees. We compared the age of stem cross...

  13. A below-ground herbivore shapes root defensive chemistry in natural plant populations

    PubMed Central

    Huber, Meret; Bont, Zoe; Fricke, Julia; Brillatz, Théo; Aziz, Zohra; Gershenzon, Jonathan; Erb, Matthias

    2016-01-01

    Plants display extensive intraspecific variation in secondary metabolites. However, the selective forces shaping this diversity remain often unknown, especially below ground. Using Taraxacum officinale and its major native insect root herbivore Melolontha melolontha, we tested whether below-ground herbivores drive intraspecific variation in root secondary metabolites. We found that high M. melolontha infestation levels over recent decades are associated with high concentrations of major root latex secondary metabolites across 21 central European T. officinale field populations. By cultivating offspring of these populations, we show that both heritable variation and phenotypic plasticity contribute to the observed differences. Furthermore, we demonstrate that the production of the sesquiterpene lactone taraxinic acid β-d-glucopyranosyl ester (TA-G) is costly in the absence, but beneficial in the presence of M. melolontha, resulting in divergent selection of TA-G. Our results highlight the role of soil-dwelling insects for the evolution of plant defences in nature. PMID:27009228

  14. A below-ground herbivore shapes root defensive chemistry in natural plant populations.

    PubMed

    Huber, Meret; Bont, Zoe; Fricke, Julia; Brillatz, Théo; Aziz, Zohra; Gershenzon, Jonathan; Erb, Matthias

    2016-03-30

    Plants display extensive intraspecific variation in secondary metabolites. However, the selective forces shaping this diversity remain often unknown, especially below ground. Using Taraxacum officinale and its major native insect root herbivore Melolontha melolontha, we tested whether below-ground herbivores drive intraspecific variation in root secondary metabolites. We found that high M. melolontha infestation levels over recent decades are associated with high concentrations of major root latex secondary metabolites across 21 central European T. officinale field populations. By cultivating offspring of these populations, we show that both heritable variation and phenotypic plasticity contribute to the observed differences. Furthermore, we demonstrate that the production of the sesquiterpene lactone taraxinic acid β-D-glucopyranosyl ester (TA-G) is costly in the absence, but beneficial in the presence of M. melolontha, resulting in divergent selection of TA-G. Our results highlight the role of soil-dwelling insects for the evolution of plant defences in nature.

  15. Imaging spectroscopy links aspen genotype with below-ground processes at landscape scales

    PubMed Central

    Madritch, Michael D.; Kingdon, Clayton C.; Singh, Aditya; Mock, Karen E.; Lindroth, Richard L.; Townsend, Philip A.

    2014-01-01

    Fine-scale biodiversity is increasingly recognized as important to ecosystem-level processes. Remote sensing technologies have great potential to estimate both biodiversity and ecosystem function over large spatial scales. Here, we demonstrate the capacity of imaging spectroscopy to discriminate among genotypes of Populus tremuloides (trembling aspen), one of the most genetically diverse and widespread forest species in North America. We combine imaging spectroscopy (AVIRIS) data with genetic, phytochemical, microbial and biogeochemical data to determine how intraspecific plant genetic variation influences below-ground processes at landscape scales. We demonstrate that both canopy chemistry and below-ground processes vary over large spatial scales (continental) according to aspen genotype. Imaging spectrometer data distinguish aspen genotypes through variation in canopy spectral signature. In addition, foliar spectral variation correlates well with variation in canopy chemistry, especially condensed tannins. Variation in aspen canopy chemistry, in turn, is correlated with variation in below-ground processes. Variation in spectra also correlates well with variation in soil traits. These findings indicate that forest tree species can create spatial mosaics of ecosystem functioning across large spatial scales and that these patterns can be quantified via remote sensing techniques. Moreover, they demonstrate the utility of using optical properties as proxies for fine-scale measurements of biodiversity over large spatial scales. PMID:24733949

  16. Below-ground carbon transfer among Betula nana may increase with warming in Arctic tundra.

    PubMed

    Deslippe, Julie R; Simard, Suzanne W

    2011-11-01

    • Shrubs are expanding in Arctic tundra, but the role of mycorrhizal fungi in this process is unknown. We tested the hypothesis that mycorrhizal networks are involved in interplant carbon (C) transfer within a tundra plant community. • Here, we installed below-ground treatments to control for C transfer pathways and conducted a (13)CO(2)-pulse-chase labelling experiment to examine C transfer among and within plant species. • We showed that mycorrhizal networks exist in tundra, and facilitate below-ground transfer of C among Betula nana individuals, but not between or within the other tundra species examined. Total C transfer among conspecific B. nana pairs was 10.7 ± 2.4% of photosynthesis, with the majority of C transferred through rhizomes or root grafts (5.2 ± 5.3%) and mycorrhizal network pathways (4.1 ± 3.3%) and very little through soil pathways (1.4 ± 0.35%). • Below-ground C transfer was of sufficient magnitude to potentially alter plant interactions in Arctic tundra, increasing the competitive ability and mono-dominance of B. nana. C transfer was significantly positively related to ambient temperatures, suggesting that it may act as a positive feedback to ecosystem change as climate warms.

  17. Interior of southwest vault, opened southwest vault door, closed southeast ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Interior of southwest vault, opened southwest vault door, closed southeast vault door, and evidence of forced entry in north interior wall. View from west interior wall of southwest vault. Facing east. - Travis Air Force Base, Building No. 925, W Street, Fairfield, Solano County, CA

  18. Installing Juno Radiation Vault

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2010-07-12

    Technicians installed a special radiation vault onto the propulsion module of NASA Juno spacecraft. Each titanium wall measures nearly a square meter nearly 10 square feet in area and about 1 centimeter a third of an inch in thickness.

  19. Overly wide cartilaginous middle vault.

    PubMed

    Thomas, J Regan; Prendiville, Stephen

    2004-02-01

    Any maneuver in rhinoplasty that alters the ULCs should be based on a preoperative analysis of the patient's functional complaints and aesthetic characteristics. All techniques should be harmonious with the desired postsurgical result. The majority of established procedures to alter the middle vault focus on dorsal hump reduction, correction of internal nasal valve collapse, or correction of a twisted nose with the use of spreader grafts [9 12]. Although the latter two techniques achieve satisfying functional results, they can have the effect of broadening the middle third of the nose. Reduction of the dorsal height of the middlenasal vault by way of horizontal shaving of the ULC scan sometimes result in functional compromise by narrowing the nasal valve [13]. Each technique has advantages when performed with appropriate indications. For example, a narrow middle vault with internal nasal valve collapse is functionally and aesthetically addressed by the insertion of spreader grafts; however, the inverse of this situation is sometimes encountered. A patient who has a broad middle vault without internal nasal valve collapse will benefit from reduction of the horizontal width of the cartilaginous dorsum, which is, in effect,the reverse of spreader grafts [2]. A select patient population requires aesthetic refinement of the middle vault in a way that avoids functional compromise. This reverse spreader technique has probably been applied clinically by others, but it is has not been reflected in the literature before this year [2]. Johnson and Toriumi have described a similar maneuver in addressing a wide bony dorsum, encouraging the surgeon to "think vertically" [8]. Likewise, Toriumiand Ries have described a selective tangential shaving of the convex side dorsal septum to assist in correction of the C-shaped deformity [11]. In the setting of a wide middle vault, the reverse spreader technique is a useful alternative to dorsal augmentation, which creates the illusion of

  20. Measurement of the High-Energy Neutron Flux Above and Below Ground

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roecker, Caleb Daniel

    This dissertation introduces the new multiplicity measurement approach, the MCMC inversion algorithm, the Monte Carlo model and associated calibrations, and presents results from the four measurements. Above ground, the MARS measurement results agree with most of the previous measurements in the energy range between 90 MeV and 250 MeV. Above 250 MeV the MARS results report slightly lower flux than most of the previous measurements, but are still within the spread of all previous measurements. Below ground, no direct comparison can be made to the MARS results at 377 m.w.e. The MARS result at 540 m.w.e. appears to be in rough agreement with one of the previous below ground measurements, at the one measured energy where the results overlap. At 1450 m.w.e., the MARS results shows reasonable agreement with previous simulation predictions. The rough agreement of the MARS results, at all relevant locations, with previous measurements and existing simulation where applicable, provide confidence that all MARS measurements have produced the correct high-energy neutron energy-dependent flux. Above ground, the new independent results strengthen the results of previous measurements. Below ground, the three measurements provide consistent results with minimal detector related bias between measurements due to the transportable nature of MARS, that will be used to produce a depth-dependent model of the high-energy neutron energy-dependent flux. For the rare-event particle and nuclear physics experiments affected by high-energy neutron backgrounds, this model will allow for the prediction of the high-energy neutron background at different measurement locations, a more robust instrumental design, and the ability to estimate the high-energy neutron background contribution in their final measured data; the confidence in the results of these experiments will be improved. (Abstract shortened by ProQuest.).

  1. Space sequestration below ground in old-growth spruce-beech forests—signs for facilitation?

    PubMed Central

    Bolte, Andreas; Kampf, Friederike; Hilbrig, Lutz

    2013-01-01

    Scientists are currently debating the effects of mixing tree species for the complementary resource acquisition in forest ecosystems. In four unmanaged old-growth spruce-beech forests in strict nature reserves in southern Sweden and northern Germany we assessed forest structure and fine rooting profiles and traits (≤2 mm) by fine root sampling and the analysis of fine root morphology and biomass. These studies were conducted in selected tree groups with four different interspecific competition perspectives: (1) spruce as a central tree, (2) spruce as competitor, (3) beech as a central tree, and (4) beech as competitor. Mean values of life fine root attributes like biomass (FRB), length (FRL), and root area index (RAI) were significantly lower for spruce than for beech in mixed stands. Vertical profiles of fine root attributes adjusted to one unit of basal area (BA) exhibited partial root system stratification when central beech is growing with spruce competitors. In this constellation, beech was able to raise its specific root length (SRL) and therefore soil exploration efficiency in the subsoil, while increasing root biomass partitioning into deeper soil layers. According to relative values of fine root attributes (rFRA), asymmetric below-ground competition was observed favoring beech over spruce, in particular when central beech trees are admixed with spruce competitors. We conclude that beech fine rooting is facilitated in the presence of spruce by lowering competitive pressure compared to intraspecific competition whereas the competitive pressure for spruce is increased by beech admixture. Our findings underline the need of spatially differentiated approaches to assess interspecific competition below ground. Single-tree approaches and simulations of below-ground competition are required to focus rather on microsites populated by tree specimens as the basic spatial study area. PMID:24009616

  2. Allometric scaling relationship between above- and below-ground biomass within and across five woody seedlings.

    PubMed

    Cheng, Dongliang; Ma, Yuzhu; Zhong, Quanling; Xu, Weifeng

    2014-10-01

    Allometric biomass allocation theory predicts that leaf biomass (M L ) scaled isometrically with stem (M S ) and root (M R ) biomass, and thus above-ground biomass (leaf and stem) (M A ) and root (M R ) scaled nearly isometrically with below-ground biomass (root) for tree seedlings across a wide diversity of taxa. Furthermore, prior studies also imply that scaling constant should vary with species. However, litter is known about whether such invariant isometric scaling exponents hold for intraspecific biomass allocation, and how variation in scaling constants influences the interspecific scaling relationship between above- and below-ground biomass. Biomass data of seedlings from five evergreen species were examined to test scaling relationships among biomass components across and within species. Model Type II regression was used to compare the numerical values of scaling exponents and constants among leaf, stem, root, and above- to below-ground biomass. The results indicated that M L and M S scaled in an isometric or a nearly isometric manner with M R , as well as M A to M R for five woody species. Significant variation was observed in the Y-intercepts of the biomass scaling curves, resulting in the divergence for intraspecific scaling and interspecific scaling relationships for M L versus M S and M L versus M R , but not for M S versus M R and M A versus M R . We conclude, therefore, that a nearly isometric scaling relationship of M A versus M R holds true within each of the studied woody species and across them irrespective the negative scaling relationship between leaf and stem.

  3. Space sequestration below ground in old-growth spruce-beech forests-signs for facilitation?

    PubMed

    Bolte, Andreas; Kampf, Friederike; Hilbrig, Lutz

    2013-01-01

    Scientists are currently debating the effects of mixing tree species for the complementary resource acquisition in forest ecosystems. In four unmanaged old-growth spruce-beech forests in strict nature reserves in southern Sweden and northern Germany we assessed forest structure and fine rooting profiles and traits (≤2 mm) by fine root sampling and the analysis of fine root morphology and biomass. These studies were conducted in selected tree groups with four different interspecific competition perspectives: (1) spruce as a central tree, (2) spruce as competitor, (3) beech as a central tree, and (4) beech as competitor. Mean values of life fine root attributes like biomass (FRB), length (FRL), and root area index (RAI) were significantly lower for spruce than for beech in mixed stands. Vertical profiles of fine root attributes adjusted to one unit of basal area (BA) exhibited partial root system stratification when central beech is growing with spruce competitors. In this constellation, beech was able to raise its specific root length (SRL) and therefore soil exploration efficiency in the subsoil, while increasing root biomass partitioning into deeper soil layers. According to relative values of fine root attributes (rFRA), asymmetric below-ground competition was observed favoring beech over spruce, in particular when central beech trees are admixed with spruce competitors. We conclude that beech fine rooting is facilitated in the presence of spruce by lowering competitive pressure compared to intraspecific competition whereas the competitive pressure for spruce is increased by beech admixture. Our findings underline the need of spatially differentiated approaches to assess interspecific competition below ground. Single-tree approaches and simulations of below-ground competition are required to focus rather on microsites populated by tree specimens as the basic spatial study area.

  4. Using simple environmental variables to estimate below-ground productivity in grasslands

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Gill, R.A.; Kelly, R.H.; Parton, W.J.; Day, K.A.; Jackson, R.B.; Morgan, J.A.; Scurlock, J.M.O.; Tieszen, L.L.; Castle, J.V.; Ojima, D.S.; Zhang, X.S.

    2002-01-01

    In many temperate and annual grasslands, above-ground net primary productivity (NPP) can be estimated by measuring peak above-ground biomass. Estimates of below-ground net primary productivity and, consequently, total net primary productivity, are more difficult. We addressed one of the three main objectives of the Global Primary Productivity Data Initiative for grassland systems to develop simple models or algorithms to estimate missing components of total system NPP. Any estimate of below-ground NPP (BNPP) requires an accounting of total root biomass, the percentage of living biomass and annual turnover of live roots. We derived a relationship using above-ground peak biomass and mean annual temperature as predictors of below-ground biomass (r2 = 0.54; P = 0.01). The percentage of live material was 0.6, based on published values. We used three different functions to describe root turnover: constant, a direct function of above-ground biomass, or as a positive exponential relationship with mean annual temperature. We tested the various models against a large database of global grassland NPP and the constant turnover and direct function models were approximately equally descriptive (r2 = 0.31 and 0.37), while the exponential function had a stronger correlation with the measured values (r2 = 0.40) and had a better fit than the other two models at the productive end of the BNPP gradient. When applied to extensive data we assembled from two grassland sites with reliable estimates of total NPP, the direct function was most effective, especially at lower productivity sites. We provide some caveats for its use in systems that lie at the extremes of the grassland gradient and stress that there are large uncertainties associated with measured and modelled estimates of BNPP.

  5. Vault Area (original section), east corridor, interior of Vault No. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Vault Area (original section), east corridor, interior of Vault No. 7, looking up flue - Fort McNair, Film Store House, Fort Lesley J. McNair, P Street between Third & Fourth Streets, Southwest, Washington, District of Columbia, DC

  6. Vault Area (original section), east corridor, interior of Vault No. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Vault Area (original section), east corridor, interior of Vault No. 7, view west - Fort McNair, Film Store House, Fort Lesley J. McNair, P Street between Third & Fourth Streets, Southwest, Washington, District of Columbia, DC

  7. Vault Area (original section), east corridor, Vault No. 3 showing ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Vault Area (original section), east corridor, Vault No. 3 showing inside surface of outer door - Fort McNair, Film Store House, Fort Lesley J. McNair, P Street between Third & Fourth Streets, Southwest, Washington, District of Columbia, DC

  8. Vault Area (original section), east corridor, looking north (Vault Nos. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Vault Area (original section), east corridor, looking north (Vault Nos. 1-9 - Fort McNair, Film Store House, Fort Lesley J. McNair, P Street between Third & Fourth Streets, Southwest, Washington, District of Columbia, DC

  9. Untangling positive and negative biotic interactions: views from above and below ground in a forest ecosystem.

    PubMed

    Montgomery, Rebecca A; Reich, Peter B; Palik, Brian J

    2010-12-01

    In ecological communities, the outcome of plant-plant interactions represents the net effect of positive and negative interactions occurring above and below ground. Untangling these complex relationships can provide a better understanding of mechanisms that underlie plant-plant interactions and enhance our ability to predict population, community, and ecosystem effects of biotic interactions. In forested ecosystems, tree seedlings interact with established vegetation, but the mechanisms and outcomes of these interactions are not well understood. To explore such mechanisms, we manipulated above- and belowground interactions among tree seedlings, shrubs, and trees and monitored seedling survival and growth of six species (Pinus banksiana, Betula papyrifera, P. resinosa, Quercus rubra, P. strobus, and Acer rubrum) in mature pine-dominated forest in northern Minnesota, USA. The forest had a moderately open canopy and sandy soils. Understory manipulations were implemented in the forest interior and in large gaps and included removal of shrubs (no interactions), tieback of shrubs (belowground), removal of shrubs with addition of shade (aboveground), and unmanipulated shrubs (both below- and aboveground). We found that shrubs either suppressed or facilitated seedling survival and growth depending on the seedling species, source of interaction (e.g., above- or belowground), and ecological context (e.g., gap or forest interior). In general, shrubs strongly influenced survival and growth in gaps, with more modest effects in the forest interior. In gaps, the presence of shrub roots markedly decreased seedling growth and survival, supporting the idea that belowground competition may be more important in dry, nutrient-poor sites. Shrub shade effects were neutral for three species and facilitative for the other three. Facilitation was more likely for shade-tolerant species. In the forest interior, shrub shade negatively affected seedling survival for the most shade

  10. Vault Area (original section), east corridor, Vault No. 5, showing ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Vault Area (original section), east corridor, Vault No. 5, showing inner set of doors on vault - Fort McNair, Film Store House, Fort Lesley J. McNair, P Street between Third & Fourth Streets, Southwest, Washington, District of Columbia, DC

  11. Arctic ecosystem functional zones: identification and quantification using an above and below ground monitoring strategy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hubbard, Susan S.; Ajo-Franklin, Jonathan B.; Dafflon, Baptiste; Dou, Shan; Kneafsey, Tim J.; Peterson, John E.; Tas, Neslihan; Torn, Margaret S.; Phuong Tran, Anh; Ulrich, Craig; Wainwright, Haruko; Wu, Yuxin; Wullschleger, Stan

    2015-04-01

    Although accurate prediction of ecosystem feedbacks to climate requires characterization of the properties that influence terrestrial carbon cycling, performing such characterization is challenging due to the disparity of scales involved. This is particularly true in vulnerable Arctic ecosystems, where microbial activities leading to the production of greenhouse gasses are a function of small-scale hydrological, geochemical, and thermal conditions influenced by geomorphology and seasonal dynamics. As part of the DOE Next-Generation Ecosystem Experiment (NGEE-Arctic), we are advancing two approaches to improve the characterization of complex Arctic ecosystems, with an initial application to an ice-wedge polygon dominated tundra site near Barrow, AK, USA. The first advance focuses on developing a new strategy to jointly monitor above- and below- ground properties critical for carbon cycling in the tundra. The strategy includes co-characterization of properties within the three critical ecosystem compartments: land surface (vegetation, water inundation, snow thickness, and geomorphology); active layer (peat thickness, soil moisture, soil texture, hydraulic conductivity, soil temperature, and geochemistry); and permafrost (mineral soil and ice content, nature, and distribution). Using a nested sampling strategy, a wide range of measurements have been collected at the study site over the past three years, including: above-ground imagery (LiDAR, visible, near infrared, NDVI) from various platforms, surface geophysical datasets (electrical, electromagnetic, ground penetrating radar, seismic), and point measurements (such as CO2 and methane fluxes, soil properties, microbial community composition). A subset of the coincident datasets is autonomously collected daily. Laboratory experiments and new inversion approaches are used to improve interpretation of the field geophysical datasets in terms of ecosystem properties. The new strategy has significantly advanced our ability

  12. Completing below-ground carbon budgets for pastures, recovering forests, and mature forests of Amazonia

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Davidson, Eric A.; Nepstad, Daniel C.; Trumbore, Susan E.

    1994-01-01

    The objective of this grant was to complete below-ground carbon budgets for pastures and forest soils in the Amazon. Profiles of radon and carbon dioxide were used to estimate depth distribution of CO2 production in soil. This information is necessary for determining the importance of deep roots as sources of carbon inputs. Samples were collected for measuring root biomass from new research sites at Santana de Araguaia and Trombetas. Soil gases will be analyzed for CO2 and (14)CO2, and soil organic matter will be analyzed for C-14. Estimates of soil texture from the RADAMBRASIL database were merged with climate data to calculate soil water extraction by forest canopies during the dry season. In addition, a preliminary map of areas where deep roots are needed for deep soil water was produced. A list of manuscripts and papers prepared during the reporting periods is given.

  13. Ozone-induced reductions in below-ground biomass: an anatomical approach in potato.

    PubMed

    Asensi-Fabado, Amparo; García-Breijo, Francisco J; Reig-Armiñana, José

    2010-07-01

    Potato plants were grown in open-top chambers under three ozone concentrations during two complete cropping seasons (93 and 77 d in 2004 and 2005, respectively). The effects of chronic exposure to ozone on leaf anatomy, cell ultrastructure and crop yield were studied. Severe cell damage was found, even at ambient ozone levels, mainly affecting the spongy parenchyma and areas near the stomata. Damage to the cell wall caused loss of cell contact, and loss of turgor pressure due to tonoplast disintegration, contributed to cell collapse. Phloem sieve plates were obstructed by callose accumulation, and damaged mesophyll cells increased their starch stores. Tuber yield fell sharply (24-44%), due to the biggest tubers becoming smaller, which affected commercial yield. These anatomical findings show the mechanisms of ozone effect on assimilate partitioning, and thus crop yield decrease, in potato. Further implications of ozone causing reductions in below-ground biomass are also discussed.

  14. Above- and below-ground biomass relationships across 1534 forested communities.

    PubMed

    Cheng, Dong-Liang; Niklas, Karl J

    2007-01-01

    Prior work has shown that above- and below-ground dry biomass across individual plants scale in a near isometric manner across phyletically and ecologically diverse species. Allometric theory predicts that a similar isometric scaling relationship should hold true across diverse forest-types, regardless of vegetational composition. To test this hypothesis, two compendia for forest-level above- and below-ground dry biomass per hectare (M(A) and M(R), respectively) were examined to test the hypothesis that M(A) vs. M(R) scales isometrically and in the same manner as reported for data from individual plants. Model Type II regression protocols were used to compare the numerical values of M(A) vs. M(R) scaling exponents (i.e. slopes of log-log linear relationships) for the combined data sets (n =1534), each of the two data sets, and data sorted into a total of 17 data subsets for community- and biome-types as well as communities dominated by angiosperms or conifers. Among the 20 regressions examined, 15 had scaling exponents that were indistinguishable from that reported for M(A) vs. M(R) across individual plants. The isometric hypothesis could not be strictly rejected on statistical grounds; four of these 15 exponents had broad 95% confidence intervals resulting from small sample sizes. Significant variation was observed in the y-intercepts of the 20 regression curves, because of absolute differences in M(A) or M(R). The allometries of forest- and individual plant-level M(A) vs. M(R) relationships share strikingly similar scaling exponents, but differ because of considerable variation in y-intercepts. These results support prior allometric theory and provide boundary conditions for the scaling of M(A) and M(R).

  15. Soil Organic Carbon and Below Ground Biomass: Development of New GLOBE Special Measurements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Levine, Elissa; Haskett, Jonathan

    1999-01-01

    A scientific consensus is building that changes in the atmospheric concentrations of radiatively active gases are changing the climate (IPCC, 1990). One of these gases CO2 has been increasing in concentration due to additions from anthropogenic sources that are primarily industrial and land use related. The soil contains a very large pool of carbon, estimated at 1550 Gt (Lal 1995) which is larger than the atmospheric and biosphere pools of carbon combined (Greenland, 1995). The flux between the soil and the atmosphere is very large, 60 Pg C/yr (Lal 1997), and is especially important because the soil can act as either a source or a sink for carbon. On any given landscape, as much as 50% of the biomass that provides the major source of carbon can be below ground. In addition, the movement of carbon in and out of the soil is mediated by the living organisms. At present, there is no widespread sampling of soil biomass in any consistent or coordinated manner. Current large scale estimates of soil carbon are limited by the number and widely dispersed nature of the data points available. A measurement of the amount of carbon in the soil would supplement existing carbon data bases as well as provide a benchmark that can be used to determine whether the soil is storing carbon or releasing it to the atmosphere. Information on the below ground biomass would be a valuable addition to our understanding of net primary productivity and standing biomass. The addition of these as special measurements within GLOBE would be unique in terms of areal extent and continuity, and make a real contribution to scientific understanding of carbon dynamics.

  16. Soil Organic Carbon and Below Ground Biomass: Development of New GLOBE Special Measurements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Levine, Elissa; Haskett, Jonathan

    1999-01-01

    A scientific consensus is building that changes in the atmospheric concentrations of radiatively active gases are changing the climate (IPCC, 1990). One of these gases CO2 has been increasing in concentration due to additions from anthropogenic sources that are primarily industrial and land use related. The soil contains a very large pool of carbon, estimated at 1550 Gt (Lal 1995) which is larger than the atmospheric and biosphere pools of carbon combined (Greenland, 1995). The flux between the soil and the atmosphere is very large, 60 Pg C/yr (Lal 1997), and is especially important because the soil can act as either a source or a sink for carbon. On any given landscape, as much as 50% of the biomass that provides the major source of carbon can be below ground. In addition, the movement of carbon in and out of the soil is mediated by the living organisms. At present, there is no widespread sampling of soil biomass in any consistent or coordinated manner. Current large scale estimates of soil carbon are limited by the number and widely dispersed nature of the data points available. A measurement of the amount of carbon in the soil would supplement existing carbon data bases as well as provide a benchmark that can be used to determine whether the soil is storing carbon or releasing it to the atmosphere. Information on the below ground biomass would be a valuable addition to our understanding of net primary productivity and standing biomass. The addition of these as special measurements within GLOBE would be unique in terms of areal extent and continuity, and make a real contribution to scientific understanding of carbon dynamics.

  17. Inside the Vault, 2001.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Griffitts, Dawn

    2001-01-01

    This "Inside the Vault" newsletter contains two issues. Issue 1 contains a lead article, "Reading the Fed's Playbook," a question-and-answer section, and a bulletin board. The Federal Reserve's primary mission is to ensure that enough money and credit are available to sustain economic growth without inflation. The article…

  18. Conifer encroachment and hydrology: Altered above and below ground hydrologic fluxes in western juniper (Juniperus occidentalis)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Niemeyer, R. J.; Link, T. E.; Heinse, R.; Seyfried, M. S.

    2013-12-01

    Western juniper (Juniperus occidentalis) occupy 9 million acres in Oregon, California, Idaho, and Nevada. In many of these areas juniper has expanded 10-fold since Euro-American settlement into what was mostly sagebrush steppe due to grazing, changes in fire regimes, and climate. Despite the importance of elucidating if juniper encroachment appreciably changes semi-arid hydrology, there have been few process-based studies linking above and below ground hydrologic fluxes or that assess variations across a gradient of shrub to tree-dominated areas. Our objectives are to determine: A) the differences in interception and throughfall at a lower density juniper stand dominated by low sagebrush (Artemisia arbuscula) and a moderate density juniper stand dominated by juniper, B) soil moisture dynamics between lower and moderate density juniper stands, and C) how those above and below ground processes are linked. Our study area was located at the USDA-ARS Reynolds Creek Experimental Watershed in the Owyhee Mountains of southwestern Idaho. We used multiple methods to measure and estimate above and below ground hydrologic fluxes. Above ground precipitation was estimated with large (approximately 5.5 m2) precipitation lysimeters; two located under tree canopies and two in the open. Soil moisture was measured continuously at four trees and across both plots once every 1 - 2 months once snow melted. Continuous measurements under the canopy consisted of four soil moisture probes each; two outside and under the canopy at 15 cm and 60 cm. Plot wide soil moisture changes were estimated based on changes in conductivity measured with electromagnetic induction (EMI) at both 0-75 cm and 0-150 cm. Results show some clear patterns in differences in hydrologic fluxes across the two stands. Rain and snow throughfall from mid-October through mid-April under the canopy was 289 mm, compared to 381 mm outside the canopy, therefore interception was 24% of incoming precipitation. Snowmelt rates

  19. Climate change effects on above- and below-ground interactions in a dryland ecosystem.

    PubMed

    González-Megías, Adela; Menéndez, Rosa

    2012-11-19

    Individual species respond to climate change by altering their abundance, distribution and phenology. Less is known, however, about how climate change affects multitrophic interactions, and its consequences for food-web dynamics. Here, we investigate the effect of future changes in rainfall patterns on detritivore-plant-herbivore interactions in a semiarid region in southern Spain by experimentally manipulating rainfall intensity and frequency during late spring-early summer. Our results show that rain intensity changes the effect of below-ground detritivores on both plant traits and above-ground herbivore abundance. Enhanced rain altered the interaction between detritivores and plants affecting flower and fruit production, and also had a direct effect on fruit and seed set. Despite this finding, there was no net effect on plant reproductive output. This finding supports the idea that plants will be less affected by climatic changes than by other trophic levels. Enhanced rain also affected the interaction between detritivores and free-living herbivores. The effect, however, was apparent only for generalist and not for specialist herbivores, demonstrating a differential response to climate change within the same trophic level. The complex responses found in this study suggest that future climate change will affect trophic levels and their interactions differentially, making extrapolation from individual species' responses and from one ecosystem to another very difficult.

  20. Experimental and numerical investigation of interactions between above and below ground drainage systems.

    PubMed

    Djordjević, Slobodan; Saul, Adrian J; Tabor, Gavin R; Blanksby, John; Galambos, Istvan; Sabtu, Nuridah; Sailor, Gavin

    2013-01-01

    This paper presents the results of the experimental and numerical investigation of interactions between surface flood flow in urban areas and the flow in below ground drainage systems (sewer pipes and manholes). An experimental rig has been set up at the Water Engineering Laboratory at the University of Sheffield. It consists of a full scale gully structure with inlet grating, which connects the 8 m(2) surface area with the pipe underneath that can function as an outfall and is also further connected to a tank so that it can come under surcharging conditions and cause outflow from the gully. A three-dimensional CFD (Computational Fluid Dynamics) model has been set up to investigate the hydraulic performance of this type of gully inlet during the interactions between surface flood flow and surcharged pipe flow. Preliminary results show that the numerical model can replicate various complex 3D flow features observed in laboratory conditions. This agreement is overall better in the case of water entering the gully than for the outflow conditions. The influence of the surface transverse slope on flow characteristics has been demonstrated. It is shown that re-circulation zones can form downstream from the gully. The number and size of these zones is influenced by the transverse terrain slope.

  1. A global Fine-Root Ecology Database to address below-ground challenges in plant ecology.

    PubMed

    Iversen, Colleen M; McCormack, M Luke; Powell, A Shafer; Blackwood, Christopher B; Freschet, Grégoire T; Kattge, Jens; Roumet, Catherine; Stover, Daniel B; Soudzilovskaia, Nadejda A; Valverde-Barrantes, Oscar J; van Bodegom, Peter M; Violle, Cyrille

    2017-02-28

    Variation and tradeoffs within and among plant traits are increasingly being harnessed by empiricists and modelers to understand and predict ecosystem processes under changing environmental conditions. While fine roots play an important role in ecosystem functioning, fine-root traits are underrepresented in global trait databases. This has hindered efforts to analyze fine-root trait variation and link it with plant function and environmental conditions at a global scale. This Viewpoint addresses the need for a centralized fine-root trait database, and introduces the Fine-Root Ecology Database (FRED, http://roots.ornl.gov) which so far includes > 70 000 observations encompassing a broad range of root traits and also includes associated environmental data. FRED represents a critical step toward improving our understanding of below-ground plant ecology. For example, FRED facilitates the quantification of variation in fine-root traits across root orders, species, biomes, and environmental gradients while also providing a platform for assessments of covariation among root, leaf, and wood traits, the role of fine roots in ecosystem functioning, and the representation of fine roots in terrestrial biosphere models. Continued input of observations into FRED to fill gaps in trait coverage will improve our understanding of changes in fine-root traits across space and time.

  2. Climate change effects on above- and below-ground interactions in a dryland ecosystem

    PubMed Central

    González-Megías, Adela; Menéndez, Rosa

    2012-01-01

    Individual species respond to climate change by altering their abundance, distribution and phenology. Less is known, however, about how climate change affects multitrophic interactions, and its consequences for food-web dynamics. Here, we investigate the effect of future changes in rainfall patterns on detritivore–plant–herbivore interactions in a semiarid region in southern Spain by experimentally manipulating rainfall intensity and frequency during late spring–early summer. Our results show that rain intensity changes the effect of below-ground detritivores on both plant traits and above-ground herbivore abundance. Enhanced rain altered the interaction between detritivores and plants affecting flower and fruit production, and also had a direct effect on fruit and seed set. Despite this finding, there was no net effect on plant reproductive output. This finding supports the idea that plants will be less affected by climatic changes than by other trophic levels. Enhanced rain also affected the interaction between detritivores and free-living herbivores. The effect, however, was apparent only for generalist and not for specialist herbivores, demonstrating a differential response to climate change within the same trophic level. The complex responses found in this study suggest that future climate change will affect trophic levels and their interactions differentially, making extrapolation from individual species' responses and from one ecosystem to another very difficult. PMID:23045709

  3. Entomopathogenic Nematodes for Control of Insect Pests Above and Below Ground with Comments on Commercial Production

    PubMed Central

    Lacey, Lawrence A.; Georgis, Ramon

    2012-01-01

    Entomopathogenic nematodes (EPNs) have been utilized in classical, conservation, and augmentative biological control programs. The vast majority of applied research has focused on their potential as inundatively applied augmentative biological control agents. Extensive research over the past three decades has demonstrated both their successes and failures for control of insect pests of crops, ornamental plants, trees and lawn and turf. In this paper we present highlights of their development for control of insect pests above and below ground. The target insects include those from foliar, soil surface, cryptic and subterranean habitats. Advances in mass-production and formulation technology of EPNs, the discovery of numerous efficacious isolates/strains, and the desirability of reducing pesticide usage have resulted in a surge of commercial use and development of EPNs. Commercially produced EPNs are currently in use for control of scarab larvae in lawns and turf, fungus gnats in mushroom production, invasive mole crickets in lawn and turf, black vine weevil in nursery plants, and Diaprepes root weevil in citrus in addition to other pest insects. However, demonstrated successful control of several other insects, often has not lead to capture of a significant share of the pesticide market for these pests. PMID:23482993

  4. Redefining fine roots improves understanding of below-ground contributions to terrestrial biosphere processes.

    PubMed

    McCormack, M Luke; Dickie, Ian A; Eissenstat, David M; Fahey, Timothy J; Fernandez, Christopher W; Guo, Dali; Helmisaari, Heljä-Sisko; Hobbie, Erik A; Iversen, Colleen M; Jackson, Robert B; Leppälammi-Kujansuu, Jaana; Norby, Richard J; Phillips, Richard P; Pregitzer, Kurt S; Pritchard, Seth G; Rewald, Boris; Zadworny, Marcin

    2015-08-01

    Fine roots acquire essential soil resources and mediate biogeochemical cycling in terrestrial ecosystems. Estimates of carbon and nutrient allocation to build and maintain these structures remain uncertain because of the challenges of consistently measuring and interpreting fine-root systems. Traditionally, fine roots have been defined as all roots ≤ 2 mm in diameter, yet it is now recognized that this approach fails to capture the diversity of form and function observed among fine-root orders. Here, we demonstrate how order-based and functional classification frameworks improve our understanding of dynamic root processes in ecosystems dominated by perennial plants. In these frameworks, fine roots are either separated into individual root orders or functionally defined into a shorter-lived absorptive pool and a longer-lived transport fine-root pool. Using these frameworks, we estimate that fine-root production and turnover represent 22% of terrestrial net primary production globally - a c. 30% reduction from previous estimates assuming a single fine-root pool. Future work developing tools to rapidly differentiate functional fine-root classes, explicit incorporation of mycorrhizal fungi into fine-root studies, and wider adoption of a two-pool approach to model fine roots provide opportunities to better understand below-ground processes in the terrestrial biosphere.

  5. Below-ground ectomycorrhizal community in natural Tuber melanosporum truffle grounds and dynamics after canopy opening.

    PubMed

    Garcia-Barreda, Sergi; Reyna, Santiago

    2012-07-01

    The ectomycorrhizal fungus Tuber melanosporum fruits in association with Quercus in natural forests of Spain. Some of these stands are managed to keep an open canopy and meet the habitat requirements of the fungus. However, there are few quantitative studies analysing in these forests the relationship between soil environment and T. melanosporum. Eight forest stands which produce T. melanosporum have been monitored for 6 years in order to characterise the below-ground ectomycorrhizal community and to assess its temporal dynamics after experimental canopy opening. The brûlé, the ground where T. melanosporum fruits, shows a distinct ectomycorrhizal community, characterised by lower density of active ectomycorrhizal tips, lower morphotype richness per soil volume, higher abundance of T. melanosporum and lower abundance of Cenococcum geophilum than soil closest to the trunk of the host Quercus ilex. Opening the canopy has not stimulated an increase in T. melanosporum, suggesting that a shift in the soil environment alone will not trigger the formation of new truffières in the short term. The dry climate of these truffières may be a factor as T. melanosporum abundance appears to be sensitive to annual weather conditions.

  6. A global Fine-Root Ecology Database to address below-ground challenges in plant ecology

    DOE PAGES

    Iversen, Colleen M.; McCormack, M. Luke; Powell, A. Shafer; ...

    2017-02-28

    Variation and tradeoffs within and among plant traits are increasingly being harnessed by empiricists and modelers to understand and predict ecosystem processes under changing environmental conditions. And while fine roots play an important role in ecosystem functioning, fine-root traits are underrepresented in global trait databases. This has hindered efforts to analyze fine-root trait variation and link it with plant function and environmental conditions at a global scale. This Viewpoint addresses the need for a centralized fine-root trait database, and introduces the Fine-Root Ecology Database (FRED, http://roots.ornl.gov) which so far includes > 70 000 observations encompassing a broad range of rootmore » traits and also includes associated environmental data. FRED represents a critical step toward improving our understanding of below-ground plant ecology. For example, FRED facilitates the quantification of variation in fine-root traits across root orders, species, biomes, and environmental gradients while also providing a platform for assessments of covariation among root, leaf, and wood traits, the role of fine roots in ecosystem functioning, and the representation of fine roots in terrestrial biosphere models. There has been a continued input of observations into FRED to fill gaps in trait coverage will improve our understanding of changes in fine-root traits across space and time.« less

  7. Above- and below-ground methane fluxes and methanotrophic activity in a landfill-cover soil

    SciTech Connect

    Schroth, M.H.; Eugster, W.; Gomez, K.E.; Gonzalez-Gil, G.; Niklaus, P.A.; Oester, P.

    2012-05-15

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer We quantify above- and below-ground CH{sub 4} fluxes in a landfill-cover soil. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer We link methanotrophic activity to estimates of CH{sub 4} loading from the waste body. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Methane loading and emissions are highly variable in space and time. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Eddy covariance measurements yield largest estimates of CH{sub 4} emissions. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Potential methanotrophic activity is high at a location with substantial CH{sub 4} loading. - Abstract: Landfills are a major anthropogenic source of the greenhouse gas methane (CH{sub 4}). However, much of the CH{sub 4} produced during the anaerobic degradation of organic waste is consumed by methanotrophic microorganisms during passage through the landfill-cover soil. On a section of a closed landfill near Liestal, Switzerland, we performed experiments to compare CH{sub 4} fluxes obtained by different methods at or above the cover-soil surface with below-ground fluxes, and to link methanotrophic activity to estimates of CH{sub 4} ingress (loading) from the waste body at selected locations. Fluxes of CH{sub 4} into or out of the cover soil were quantified by eddy-covariance and static flux-chamber measurements. In addition, CH{sub 4} concentrations at the soil surface were monitored using a field-portable FID detector. Near-surface CH{sub 4} fluxes and CH{sub 4} loading were estimated from soil-gas concentration profiles in conjunction with radon measurements, and gas push-pull tests (GPPTs) were performed to quantify rates of microbial CH{sub 4} oxidation. Eddy-covariance measurements yielded by far the largest and probably most representative estimates of overall CH{sub 4} emissions from the test section (daily mean up to {approx}91,500 {mu}mol m{sup -2} d{sup -1}), whereas flux-chamber measurements and CH{sub 4} concentration profiles indicated that at the majority of locations the cover soil was a

  8. A stable isotopic view on lianas' and trees' below ground competition for water

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    De Deurwaerder, Hannes; Hervé-Fernández, Pedro; Stahl, Clément; Bonal, Damien; Burban, Benoît; Petronelli, Pascal; Boeckx, Pascal; Verbeeck, Hans

    2017-04-01

    Various studies highlight an increase in liana abundance and biomass in the neotropics in the last decades. To date, the reason why this growth form expresses this trend is still unclear. One of the proposed hypotheses ascribes tropical lianas, in comparison to tropical trees, of being able to adapt better to increased drought conditions resulting from climate change. Moreover, lianas presumably have a deeper root system, providing access to deeper soil layers less susceptible for dehydration during drought events. A dual stable water isotopic approach (δ18O and δ2H) enables studying vegetation below ground competition and in combination with Bayesian mixing models can provide insight in the fractional contribution of distinct soil layer depths. In this perspective, precipitation (bulk and through fall), bulk soil (at different depths), stream and xylem water of both lianas and trees were sampled between October 7-13, 2015. The study focusses on two distinct plots differing in soil texture (sand and clay), localized in close vicinity of the Guyana flux tower at Paracou (French Guyana). Our study highlights the erroneous of the deep tap root hypothesis and provides new insights in water and nutrient competition between tropical lianas and trees during dry season. Lianas isotopic signature is enriched compared to those of trees. This can be linked to water source depth and soil seasonal replenishment. Moreover, liana displaying a very active soil surface root activity, efficiently capturing the low amount of dry season precipitation, while trees show to tap the deeper and less drought susceptible soil layers. A strategy, which not only results in a spatial niche separation in the underground competition for water, but it also provides lianas with a definite advantage in nutrient competition.

  9. Mapping Above- and Below-Ground Carbon Pools in Boreal Forests: The Case for Airborne Lidar

    PubMed Central

    Kristensen, Terje; Næsset, Erik; Ohlson, Mikael; Bolstad, Paul V.; Kolka, Randall

    2015-01-01

    A large and growing body of evidence has demonstrated that airborne scanning light detection and ranging (lidar) systems can be an effective tool in measuring and monitoring above-ground forest tree biomass. However, the potential of lidar as an all-round tool for assisting in assessment of carbon (C) stocks in soil and non-tree vegetation components of the forest ecosystem has been given much less attention. Here we combine the use airborne small footprint scanning lidar with fine-scale spatial C data relating to vegetation and the soil surface to describe and contrast the size and spatial distribution of C pools within and among multilayered Norway spruce (Picea abies) stands. Predictor variables from lidar derived metrics delivered precise models of above- and below-ground tree C, which comprised the largest C pool in our study stands. We also found evidence that lidar canopy data correlated well with the variation in field layer C stock, consisting mainly of ericaceous dwarf shrubs and herbaceous plants. However, lidar metrics derived directly from understory echoes did not yield significant models. Furthermore, our results indicate that the variation in both the mosses and soil organic layer C stock plots appears less influenced by differences in stand structure properties than topographical gradients. By using topographical models from lidar ground returns we were able to establish a strong correlation between lidar data and the organic layer C stock at a stand level. Increasing the topographical resolution from plot averages (~2000 m2) towards individual grid cells (1 m2) did not yield consistent models. Our study demonstrates a connection between the size and distribution of different forest C pools and models derived from airborne lidar data, providing a foundation for future research concerning the use of lidar for assessing and monitoring boreal forest C. PMID:26426532

  10. Speciation below ground: Tempo and mode of diversification in a radiation of endogean ground beetles.

    PubMed

    Andújar, Carmelo; Pérez-González, Sergio; Arribas, Paula; Zaballos, Juan P; Vogler, Alfried P; Ribera, Ignacio

    2017-09-19

    Dispersal is a critical factor determining the spatial scale of speciation, which is constrained by the ecological characteristics and distribution of a species' habitat and the intrinsic traits of species. Endogean taxa are strongly affected by the unique qualities of the below-ground environment and its effect on dispersal, and contrasting reports indicate either high dispersal capabilities favoured by small body size and mediated by passive mechanisms, or low dispersal due to restricted movement and confinement inside the soil. We studied a species rich endogean ground beetle lineage, Typhlocharina, including three genera and more than 60 species, as a model for the evolutionary biology of dispersal and speciation in the deep soil. A time calibrated molecular phylogeny generated from >400 individuals was used to delimit candidate species, to study the accumulation of lineages through space and time by species-area-age relationships, and to determine the geographical structure of the diversification using the relationship between phylogenetic and geographic distances across the phylogeny. Our results indicated a small spatial scale of speciation in Typhlocharina and low dispersal capacity combined with sporadic long distance, presumably passive dispersal events that fuelled the speciation process. Analysis of lineage growth within Typhlocharina revealed a richness plateau correlated with the range of distribution of lineages, suggesting a long-term species richness equilibrium mediated by density dependence through limits of habitat availability. The interplay of area and age dependent processes ruling the lineage diversification in Typhlocharina may serve as a general model for the evolution of high species diversity in endogean mesofauna. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

  11. Arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi alter above- and below-ground chemical defense expression differentially among Asclepias species

    PubMed Central

    Vannette, Rachel L.; Hunter, Mark D.; Rasmann, Sergio

    2013-01-01

    Below-ground (BG) symbionts of plants can have substantial influence on plant growth and nutrition. Recent work demonstrates that mycorrhizal fungi can affect plant resistance to herbivory and the performance of above- (AG) and BG herbivores. Although these examples emerge from diverse systems, it is unclear if plant species that express similar defensive traits respond similarly to fungal colonization, but comparative work may inform this question. To examine the effects of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF) on the expression of chemical resistance, we inoculated 8 species of Asclepias (milkweed)—which all produce toxic cardenolides—with a community of AMF. We quantified plant biomass, foliar and root cardenolide concentration and composition, and assessed evidence for a growth-defense tradeoff in the presence and absence of AMF. As expected, total foliar and root cardenolide concentration varied among milkweed species. Importantly, the effect of mycorrhizal fungi on total foliar cardenolide concentration also varied among milkweed species, with foliar cardenolides increasing or decreasing, depending on the plant species. We detected a phylogenetic signal to this variation; AMF fungi reduced foliar cardenolide concentrations to a greater extent in the clade including A. curassavica than in the clade including A. syriaca. Moreover, AMF inoculation shifted the composition of cardenolides in AG and BG plant tissues in a species-specific fashion. Mycorrhizal inoculation changed the relative distribution of cardenolides between root and shoot tissue in a species-specific fashion, but did not affect cardenolide diversity or polarity. Finally, a tradeoff between plant growth and defense in non-mycorrhizal plants was mitigated completely by AMF inoculation. Overall, we conclude that the effects of AMF inoculation on the expression of chemical resistance can vary among congeneric plant species, and ameliorate tradeoffs between growth and defense. PMID:24065971

  12. Arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi alter above- and below-ground chemical defense expression differentially among Asclepias species.

    PubMed

    Vannette, Rachel L; Hunter, Mark D; Rasmann, Sergio

    2013-01-01

    Below-ground (BG) symbionts of plants can have substantial influence on plant growth and nutrition. Recent work demonstrates that mycorrhizal fungi can affect plant resistance to herbivory and the performance of above- (AG) and BG herbivores. Although these examples emerge from diverse systems, it is unclear if plant species that express similar defensive traits respond similarly to fungal colonization, but comparative work may inform this question. To examine the effects of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF) on the expression of chemical resistance, we inoculated 8 species of Asclepias (milkweed)-which all produce toxic cardenolides-with a community of AMF. We quantified plant biomass, foliar and root cardenolide concentration and composition, and assessed evidence for a growth-defense tradeoff in the presence and absence of AMF. As expected, total foliar and root cardenolide concentration varied among milkweed species. Importantly, the effect of mycorrhizal fungi on total foliar cardenolide concentration also varied among milkweed species, with foliar cardenolides increasing or decreasing, depending on the plant species. We detected a phylogenetic signal to this variation; AMF fungi reduced foliar cardenolide concentrations to a greater extent in the clade including A. curassavica than in the clade including A. syriaca. Moreover, AMF inoculation shifted the composition of cardenolides in AG and BG plant tissues in a species-specific fashion. Mycorrhizal inoculation changed the relative distribution of cardenolides between root and shoot tissue in a species-specific fashion, but did not affect cardenolide diversity or polarity. Finally, a tradeoff between plant growth and defense in non-mycorrhizal plants was mitigated completely by AMF inoculation. Overall, we conclude that the effects of AMF inoculation on the expression of chemical resistance can vary among congeneric plant species, and ameliorate tradeoffs between growth and defense.

  13. Postfire regeneration in Cytisus oromediterraneus: sources of variation and morphology of the below-ground parts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fernández-Santos, Belén; Martínez, Carolina; García, Jose A.; Puerto, Angel

    2004-10-01

    Postfire regeneration in Cytisus oromediterraneus, a Mediterranean-basin mountain matorral species, shows a wide range of possibilities and variations in sexual and asexual regeneration. Its interpretation requires basic information on the below-ground structure of parent plants as well as on the origin and development of seedlings and various ramet (sprout clump) types: rootstock, basal-branch, and lateral-root ramets. Morphology and emergence of such ramets in C. oromediterraneus is similar to that in related species but with some specific features described here in detail. In order to determine if characteristics of 1-year-old populations depended on the age of the burned parent plants, two populations were investigated: (A 7-year-old, and B 14-year-old). In the most frequent populations in our study area, i.e. those from parent populations of ca. 7 years (A): a—plant density and biomass were highly variable and positively correlated; b—frequency distribution differed significantly from normal distribution for plant weight, but not for other parameters such as diameters, perimeter, and height, in which it did, however, show asymmetry; c—perimeter was the best parameter for estimating individuals' weight; d—there was a higher number of seedlings than ramets but their biomass was smaller; e—the size of seedlings and ramets showed wide variation. In comparison with population A (7-year-old) population B (14-year-old) showed: significantly higher density, slightly lower biomass, higher number of small individuals, mainly seedlings, and less vigorous resprouting. In general, 1 year after fire, Cytisus oromeditarraneus population density mainly depends on the germination response, while the above-ground biomass mainly depends on the vegetative response and the intensity of both of them is conditioned by parent plant age.

  14. Mapping Above- and Below-Ground Carbon Pools in Boreal Forests: The Case for Airborne Lidar.

    PubMed

    Kristensen, Terje; Næsset, Erik; Ohlson, Mikael; Bolstad, Paul V; Kolka, Randall

    2015-01-01

    A large and growing body of evidence has demonstrated that airborne scanning light detection and ranging (lidar) systems can be an effective tool in measuring and monitoring above-ground forest tree biomass. However, the potential of lidar as an all-round tool for assisting in assessment of carbon (C) stocks in soil and non-tree vegetation components of the forest ecosystem has been given much less attention. Here we combine the use airborne small footprint scanning lidar with fine-scale spatial C data relating to vegetation and the soil surface to describe and contrast the size and spatial distribution of C pools within and among multilayered Norway spruce (Picea abies) stands. Predictor variables from lidar derived metrics delivered precise models of above- and below-ground tree C, which comprised the largest C pool in our study stands. We also found evidence that lidar canopy data correlated well with the variation in field layer C stock, consisting mainly of ericaceous dwarf shrubs and herbaceous plants. However, lidar metrics derived directly from understory echoes did not yield significant models. Furthermore, our results indicate that the variation in both the mosses and soil organic layer C stock plots appears less influenced by differences in stand structure properties than topographical gradients. By using topographical models from lidar ground returns we were able to establish a strong correlation between lidar data and the organic layer C stock at a stand level. Increasing the topographical resolution from plot averages (~2000 m2) towards individual grid cells (1 m2) did not yield consistent models. Our study demonstrates a connection between the size and distribution of different forest C pools and models derived from airborne lidar data, providing a foundation for future research concerning the use of lidar for assessing and monitoring boreal forest C.

  15. Above- and below-ground methane fluxes and methanotrophic activity in a landfill-cover soil.

    PubMed

    Schroth, M H; Eugster, W; Gómez, K E; Gonzalez-Gil, G; Niklaus, P A; Oester, P

    2012-05-01

    Landfills are a major anthropogenic source of the greenhouse gas methane (CH(4)). However, much of the CH(4) produced during the anaerobic degradation of organic waste is consumed by methanotrophic microorganisms during passage through the landfill-cover soil. On a section of a closed landfill near Liestal, Switzerland, we performed experiments to compare CH(4) fluxes obtained by different methods at or above the cover-soil surface with below-ground fluxes, and to link methanotrophic activity to estimates of CH(4) ingress (loading) from the waste body at selected locations. Fluxes of CH(4) into or out of the cover soil were quantified by eddy-covariance and static flux-chamber measurements. In addition, CH(4) concentrations at the soil surface were monitored using a field-portable FID detector. Near-surface CH(4) fluxes and CH(4) loading were estimated from soil-gas concentration profiles in conjunction with radon measurements, and gas push-pull tests (GPPTs) were performed to quantify rates of microbial CH(4) oxidation. Eddy-covariance measurements yielded by far the largest and probably most representative estimates of overall CH(4) emissions from the test section (daily mean up to ∼91,500μmolm(-2)d(-1)), whereas flux-chamber measurements and CH(4) concentration profiles indicated that at the majority of locations the cover soil was a net sink for atmospheric CH(4) (uptake up to -380μmolm(-2)d(-1)) during the experimental period. Methane concentration profiles also indicated strong variability in CH(4) loading over short distances in the cover soil, while potential methanotrophic activity derived from GPPTs was high (v(max)∼13mmolL(-1)(soil air)h(-1)) at a location with substantial CH(4) loading. Our results provide a basis to assess spatial and temporal variability of CH(4) dynamics in the complex terrain of a landfill-cover soil. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Examination of Below-Ground Structure and Soil Respiration Rates of Stable and Deteriorating Salt Marshes in Jamaica Bay (NY)

    EPA Science Inventory

    CAT scan imaging is currently being used to examine below-ground peat and root structure in cores collected from salt marshes of Jamaica Bay, part of the Gateway National Recreation Area (NY). CAT scans or Computer-Aided Tomography scans use X-ray equipment to produce multiple i...

  17. Effects of above- and below-ground competition from shrubs on photosynthesis, transpiration and growth in Quercus robur L

    Treesearch

    Anna M. Jensen; Magnus Lof; Emile S. Gardiner

    2011-01-01

    For a tree seedling to successfully establish in dense shrubbery, it must maintain function under heterogeneous resource availability. We evaluated leaf-level acclimation in photosynthetic capacity, seedling-level transpiration, and seedling morphology and growth to gain an understanding of the effects of above- and below-ground competition on Quercus robur seedlings....

  18. Above- and below-ground microclimate of grow tubes in an organic mulch-incorporated, raised bed system for blueberry

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Grow tubes are well established in forestry and are gaining attention in establishing some woody perennial crops. To date, microclimate descriptions have addressed the above-ground environment, but a mulched raised bed system with organic mulch-incorporated soil requires both above- and below-ground...

  19. Competitive responses of seedlings and understory plants in longleaf pine woodlands: separating canopy influences above and below ground

    Treesearch

    Stephen D. Pecot; Robert J. Mitchell; Brian J. Palik; Barry Moser; J. Kevin Hiers

    2007-01-01

    A trenching study was used to investigate above- and below-ground competition in a longleaf pine (Pinus palustris P. Mill.) woodland. Trenched and nontrenched plots were replicated in the woodland matrix, at gap edges, and in gap centers representing a range of overstory stocking. One-half of each plot received a herbicide treatment to remove the...

  20. Below-ground process responses to elevated CO2 and temperature: a discussion of observations, measurement methods, and models

    Treesearch

    Elise Pendall; Scott Bridgham; Paul J. Hanson; Bruce Hungate; David W. Kicklighter; Dale W. Johnson; Beverly E. Law; Yiqi Luo; J. Patrick Megonigal; Maria Olsrud; Michael G. Ryan; Shiqiang Wan

    2004-01-01

    Rising atmospheric CO2 and temperatures are probably altering ecosystem carbon cycling, causing both positive and negative feedbacks to climate. Below-ground processes play a key role in the global carbon (C) cycle because they regulate storage of large quantities of C, and are potentially very sensitive to direct and indirect effects of elevated...

  1. Examination of Below-Ground Structure and Soil Respiration Rates of Stable and Deteriorating Salt Marshes in Jamaica Bay (NY)

    EPA Science Inventory

    CAT scan imaging is currently being used to examine below-ground peat and root structure in cores collected from salt marshes of Jamaica Bay, part of the Gateway National Recreation Area (NY). CAT scans or Computer-Aided Tomography scans use X-ray equipment to produce multiple i...

  2. [Injuries during Equestrian Vaulting].

    PubMed

    Endruweit, M; Dargel, J; Siewe, J; Becker, I; Sobottke, R

    2016-12-01

    Background: Vaulting is the least studied equestrian sports regarding the occurrence of injuries. As its sequences of motion do not compare to riding, vaulting must be assessed separately. Material and Methods: This retrospective, questionnaire-aided survey was aimed to gain insight into the overall frequency of injuries among equestrian vaulters. The second part of the study looked into the knee injuries that occurred. Survey forms were sent to 60 vaulting and equestrian clubs all over Germany, making for a response rate of 63 %. Results: 95 % of 624 responding athletes were female. The pool of participants consisted of both amateur and professional level vaulters with a mean age of 15 years. The survey showed a mean number of 4.1 injuries sustained during the observation period, i. e. the entire time an athlete had been active in the sport up to the data collection. The lower extremities were the most commonly injured area with a total proportion of 45 %, followed by injuries to the spine and the head with 30 %, and the upper extremities with 25 %. Contusions accounted for the highest number of reported injuries. Other frequently reported injuries included muscle strain to the head and spine, fractures to the upper extremity and ligament damage to the lower extremity. 14 % of the participants experienced at least one knee injury. The medial collateral ligament (27 %) was found to be most prone to lesions, followed by the anterior cruciate ligament (23 %) and the medial meniscus (22 %). Half of all knee injuries occurred during dismounts, especially when swing-offs or flanks led to faulty landings. Conclusions: The results show that the lower extremity is the most commonly affected area. The ligamentous injuries affecting the lower extremity mainly result from dismounts. A specific training aimed at improving landing techniques might therefore prove beneficial in preventing injuries. The frequency of contusions and fractures to the upper

  3. Contribution of above- and below-ground plant traits to the structure and function of grassland soil microbial communities

    PubMed Central

    Legay, N.; Baxendale, C.; Grigulis, K.; Krainer, U.; Kastl, E.; Schloter, M.; Bardgett, R. D.; Arnoldi, C.; Bahn, M.; Dumont, M.; Poly, F.; Pommier, T.; Clément, J. C.; Lavorel, S.

    2014-01-01

    Background and Aims Abiotic properties of soil are known to be major drivers of the microbial community within it. Our understanding of how soil microbial properties are related to the functional structure and diversity of plant communities, however, is limited and largely restricted to above-ground plant traits, with the role of below-ground traits being poorly understood. This study investigated the relative contributions of soil abiotic properties and plant traits, both above-ground and below-ground, to variations in microbial processes involved in grassland nitrogen turnover. Methods In mountain grasslands distributed across three European sites, a correlative approach was used to examine the role of a large range of plant functional traits and soil abiotic factors on microbial variables, including gene abundance of nitrifiers and denitrifiers and their potential activities. Key Results Direct effects of soil abiotic parameters were found to have the most significant influence on the microbial groups investigated. Indirect pathways via plant functional traits contributed substantially to explaining the relative abundance of fungi and bacteria and gene abundances of the investigated microbial communities, while they explained little of the variance in microbial activities. Gene abundances of nitrifiers and denitrifiers were most strongly related to below-ground plant traits, suggesting that they were the most relevant traits for explaining variation in community structure and abundances of soil microbes involved in nitrification and denitrification. Conclusions The results suggest that consideration of plant traits, and especially below-ground traits, increases our ability to describe variation in the abundances and the functional characteristics of microbial communities in grassland soils. PMID:25122656

  4. Contribution of above- and below-ground plant traits to the structure and function of grassland soil microbial communities.

    PubMed

    Legay, N; Baxendale, C; Grigulis, K; Krainer, U; Kastl, E; Schloter, M; Bardgett, R D; Arnoldi, C; Bahn, M; Dumont, M; Poly, F; Pommier, T; Clément, J C; Lavorel, S

    2014-10-01

    Abiotic properties of soil are known to be major drivers of the microbial community within it. Our understanding of how soil microbial properties are related to the functional structure and diversity of plant communities, however, is limited and largely restricted to above-ground plant traits, with the role of below-ground traits being poorly understood. This study investigated the relative contributions of soil abiotic properties and plant traits, both above-ground and below-ground, to variations in microbial processes involved in grassland nitrogen turnover. In mountain grasslands distributed across three European sites, a correlative approach was used to examine the role of a large range of plant functional traits and soil abiotic factors on microbial variables, including gene abundance of nitrifiers and denitrifiers and their potential activities. Direct effects of soil abiotic parameters were found to have the most significant influence on the microbial groups investigated. Indirect pathways via plant functional traits contributed substantially to explaining the relative abundance of fungi and bacteria and gene abundances of the investigated microbial communities, while they explained little of the variance in microbial activities. Gene abundances of nitrifiers and denitrifiers were most strongly related to below-ground plant traits, suggesting that they were the most relevant traits for explaining variation in community structure and abundances of soil microbes involved in nitrification and denitrification. The results suggest that consideration of plant traits, and especially below-ground traits, increases our ability to describe variation in the abundances and the functional characteristics of microbial communities in grassland soils. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Annals of Botany Company. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  5. Below-ground plant–fungus network topology is not congruent with above-ground plant–animal network topology

    PubMed Central

    Toju, Hirokazu; Guimarães, Paulo R.; Olesen, Jens M.; Thompson, John N.

    2015-01-01

    In nature, plants and their pollinating and/or seed-dispersing animals form complex interaction networks. The commonly observed pattern of links between specialists and generalists in these networks has been predicted to promote species coexistence. Plants also build highly species-rich mutualistic networks below ground with root-associated fungi, and the structure of these plant–fungus networks may also affect terrestrial community processes. By compiling high-throughput DNA sequencing data sets of the symbiosis of plants and their root-associated fungi from three localities along a latitudinal gradient, we uncovered the entire network architecture of these interactions under contrasting environmental conditions. Each network included more than 30 plant species and hundreds of mycorrhizal and endophytic fungi belonging to diverse phylogenetic groups. The results were consistent with the notion that processes shaping host-plant specialization of fungal species generate a unique linkage pattern that strongly contrasts with the pattern of above-ground plant–partner networks. Specifically, plant–fungus networks lacked a “nested” architecture, which has been considered to promote species coexistence in plant–partner networks. Rather, the below-ground networks had a conspicuous “antinested” topology. Our findings lead to the working hypothesis that terrestrial plant community dynamics are likely determined by the balance between above-ground and below-ground webs of interspecific interactions. PMID:26601279

  6. Installing Electronics in Juno Vault

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2010-12-16

    Technicians install components that will aid with guidance, navigation and control of NASA Juno spacecraft. Like most of Juno sensitive electronics, these components are situated within the spacecraft titanium radiation vault.

  7. Effects of Grazing on Above- vs. Below-Ground Biomass Allocation of Alpine Grasslands on the Northern Tibetan Plateau.

    PubMed

    Zeng, Chaoxu; Wu, Jianshuang; Zhang, Xianzhou

    2015-01-01

    Biomass allocation is an essential concept for understanding above- vs. below-ground functions and for predicting the dynamics of community structure and ecosystem service under ongoing climate change. There is rare available knowledge of grazing effects on biomass allocation in multiple zonal alpine grassland types along climatic gradients across the Northern Tibetan Plateau. We collected the peak above- and below-ground biomass (AGB and BGB) values at 106 pairs of well-matched grazed vs. fenced sites during summers of 2010-2013, of which 33 pairs were subject to meadow, 52 to steppe and 21 to desert-steppe. The aboveground net primary productivity (ANPP) was represented by the peak AGB while the belowground net primary productivity (BNPP) was estimated from ANPP, the ratio of living vs. dead BGB, and the root turnover rate. Two-ways analyses of variance (ANOVA) and paired samples comparisons with t-test were applied to examine the effects of pasture managements (PMS, i.e., grazed vs. fenced) and zonal grassland types on both ANPP and BNPP. Allometric and isometric allocation hypotheses were also tested between logarithmically transformed ANPP and BNPP using standardized major axis (SMA) analyses across grazed, fenced and overall sites. In our study, a high community-dependency was observed to support the allometric biomass allocation hypothesis, in association with decreased ANPP and a decreasing-to-increasing BNPP proportions with increasing aridity across the Northern Tibetan Plateau. Grazing vs. fencing seemed to have a trivial effect on ANPP compared to the overwhelming influence of different zonal grassland types. Vegetation links above- and below-ground ecological functions through integrated meta-population adaptive strategies to the increasing severity of habitat conditions. Therefore, more detailed studies on functional diversity are essentially to achieve conservation and sustainability goals under ongoing climatic warming and intensifying human

  8. Effects of Grazing on Above- vs. Below-Ground Biomass Allocation of Alpine Grasslands on the Northern Tibetan Plateau

    PubMed Central

    Zeng, Chaoxu; Wu, Jianshuang; Zhang, Xianzhou

    2015-01-01

    Biomass allocation is an essential concept for understanding above- vs. below-ground functions and for predicting the dynamics of community structure and ecosystem service under ongoing climate change. There is rare available knowledge of grazing effects on biomass allocation in multiple zonal alpine grassland types along climatic gradients across the Northern Tibetan Plateau. We collected the peak above- and below-ground biomass (AGB and BGB) values at 106 pairs of well-matched grazed vs. fenced sites during summers of 2010–2013, of which 33 pairs were subject to meadow, 52 to steppe and 21 to desert-steppe. The aboveground net primary productivity (ANPP) was represented by the peak AGB while the belowground net primary productivity (BNPP) was estimated from ANPP, the ratio of living vs. dead BGB, and the root turnover rate. Two-ways analyses of variance (ANOVA) and paired samples comparisons with t-test were applied to examine the effects of pasture managements (PMS, i.e., grazed vs. fenced) and zonal grassland types on both ANPP and BNPP. Allometric and isometric allocation hypotheses were also tested between logarithmically transformed ANPP and BNPP using standardized major axis (SMA) analyses across grazed, fenced and overall sites. In our study, a high community-dependency was observed to support the allometric biomass allocation hypothesis, in association with decreased ANPP and a decreasing-to-increasing BNPP proportions with increasing aridity across the Northern Tibetan Plateau. Grazing vs. fencing seemed to have a trivial effect on ANPP compared to the overwhelming influence of different zonal grassland types. Vegetation links above- and below-ground ecological functions through integrated meta-population adaptive strategies to the increasing severity of habitat conditions. Therefore, more detailed studies on functional diversity are essentially to achieve conservation and sustainability goals under ongoing climatic warming and intensifying human

  9. Structural studies of large nucleoprotein particles, vaults

    PubMed Central

    TANAKA, Hideaki; TSUKIHARA, Tomitake

    2012-01-01

    Vault is the largest nonicosahedral cytosolic nucleoprotein particle ever described. The widespread presence and evolutionary conservation of vaults suggest important biologic roles, although their functions have not been fully elucidated. X-ray structure of vault from rat liver was determined at 3.5 Å resolution. It exhibits an ovoid shape with a size of 40 × 40 × 67 nm3. The cage structure of vault consists of a dimer of half-vaults, with each half-vault comprising 39 identical major vault protein (MVP) chains. Each MVP monomer folds into 12 domains: nine structural repeat domains, a shoulder domain, a cap-helix domain and a cap-ring domain. Interactions between the 42-turn-long cap-helix domains are key to stabilizing the particle. The other components of vaults, telomerase-associated proteins, poly(ADP-ribose) polymerases and small RNAs, are in location in the vault particle by electron microscopy. PMID:23060231

  10. Ecosystem partitioning of recent assimilates studying below-ground sources for atmospheric CO2 and CH4

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Olsrud, M.; Christensen, T. R.; Ström, L.

    2003-04-01

    Quantification of carbon inputs to different ecosystem pools is important for the study of carbon dynamics including predictions of changes in ecosystem carbon balance in a changing environment. Depending on the substrate quality, carbon pools has different stoichiometry and will respond differently in a changing climate. The objectives of this work were to study the ecosystem partitioning and below-ground allocation of recent assimilates in three different tundra vegetation types dominated by Empetrum hermaphroditum, Eriophorum vaginatum and E. angustifolium respectively. Seasonal carbon balance between the atmosphere and these tundra ecosystems was modelled using instantaneous CO2 flux measurements and continuous logging of environmental and climate variables. Secondly by using in situ 14C pulse labelling, the loss of recent assimilated carbon as respired CO2, and the allocation to above- versus below-ground compartments were quantified. Carbon allocation to different organic compartments such as coarse roots, fine roots, hair roots, DOC, Microbial C, and root exudates such as acetate and citric acid was measured over the growing season. Carbon pools with a high turnover rate, such as DOC, hair roots and organic acids might be functionally connected to fast or immediate production of CO2 and CH4. Altogether this gives a comprehensive seasonal picture of some of the more important and less studied parts in the carbon cycling considering subarctic tundra ecosystem. The information could be used in process-based models, predicting changes in arctic tundra soil carbon balance as driven by changes in the climate.

  11. Alternations of Structure and Functional Activity of Below Ground Microbial Communities at Elevated Atmospheric Carbon Dioxide

    SciTech Connect

    He, Zhili; Xu, Meiying; Deng, Ye; Kang, Sanghoon; Wu, Liyou; Van Nostrand, Joy D.; Hobbie, Sarah E.; Reich, Peter B.; Zhou, Jizhong

    2010-05-17

    The global atmospheric concentration of CO2 has increased by more than 30percent since the industrial revolution. Although the stimulating effects of elevated CO2 (eCO2) on plant growth and primary productivity have been well studied, its influences on belowground microbial communities are poorly understood and controversial. In this study, we showed a significant change in the structure and functional potential of soil microbial communities at eCO2 in a grassland ecosystem, the BioCON (Biodiversity, CO2 and Nitrogen) experimental site (http://www.biocon.umn.edu/) using a comprehensive functional gene array, GeoChip 3.0, which contains about 28,0000 probes and covers approximately 57,000 gene variants from 292 functional gene families involved in carbon, nitrogen, phosphorus and sulfur cycles as well as other functional processes. GeoChip data indicated that the functional structure of microbial communities was markedly different between ambient CO2 (aCO2) and eCO2 by detrended correspondence analysis (DCA) of all 5001 detected functional gene probes although no significant differences were detected in the overall microbial diversity. A further analysis of 1503 detected functional genes involved in C, N, P, and S cycles showed that a considerable portion (39percent) of them were only detected under either aCO2 (14percent) or eCO2 (25percent), indicating that the functional characteristics of the microbial community were significantly altered by eCO2. Also, for those shared genes (61percent) detected, some significantly (p<0.05) changed their abundance at eCO2. Especially, genes involved in labile C degradation, such as amyA, egl, and ara for starch, cellulose, and hemicelluloses, respectively, C fixation (e.g., rbcL, pcc/acc), N fixation (nifH), and phosphorus utilization (ppx) were significantly increased under eCO2, while those involved in decomposing recalcitrant C, such as glx, lip, and mnp for lignin degradation remained unchanged. This study provides insights

  12. Is the simple auger coring method reliable for below-ground standing biomass estimation in Eucalyptus forest plantations?

    PubMed Central

    Levillain, Joseph; Thongo M'Bou, Armel; Deleporte, Philippe; Saint-André, Laurent; Jourdan, Christophe

    2011-01-01

    Background and Aims Despite their importance for plant production, estimations of below-ground biomass and its distribution in the soil are still difficult and time consuming, and no single reliable methodology is available for different root types. To identify the best method for root biomass estimations, four different methods, with labour requirements, were tested at the same location. Methods The four methods, applied in a 6-year-old Eucalyptus plantation in Congo, were based on different soil sampling volumes: auger (8 cm in diameter), monolith (25 × 25 cm quadrate), half Voronoi trench (1·5 m3) and a full Voronoi trench (3 m3), chosen as the reference method. Key Results With the reference method (0–1m deep), fine-root biomass (FRB, diameter <2 mm) was estimated at 1·8 t ha−1, medium-root biomass (MRB diameter 2–10 mm) at 2·0 t ha−1, coarse-root biomass (CRB, diameter >10 mm) at 5·6 t ha−1 and stump biomass at 6·8 t ha−1. Total below-ground biomass was estimated at 16·2 t ha−1 (root : shoot ratio equal to 0·23) for this 800 tree ha−1 eucalypt plantation density. The density of FRB was very high (0·56 t ha−1) in the top soil horizon (0–3 cm layer) and decreased greatly (0·3 t ha−1) with depth (50–100 cm). Without labour requirement considerations, no significant differences were found between the four methods for FRB and MRB; however, CRB was better estimated by the half and full Voronoi trenches. When labour requirements were considered, the most effective method was auger coring for FRB, whereas the half and full Voronoi trenches were the most appropriate methods for MRB and CRB, respectively. Conclusions As CRB combined with stumps amounted to 78 % of total below-ground biomass, a full Voronoi trench is strongly recommended when estimating total standing root biomass. Conversely, for FRB estimation, auger coring is recommended with a design pattern accounting for the spatial variability of fine-root distribution. PMID

  13. Is the simple auger coring method reliable for below-ground standing biomass estimation in Eucalyptus forest plantations?

    PubMed

    Levillain, Joseph; Thongo M'Bou, Armel; Deleporte, Philippe; Saint-André, Laurent; Jourdan, Christophe

    2011-07-01

    Despite their importance for plant production, estimations of below-ground biomass and its distribution in the soil are still difficult and time consuming, and no single reliable methodology is available for different root types. To identify the best method for root biomass estimations, four different methods, with labour requirements, were tested at the same location. The four methods, applied in a 6-year-old Eucalyptus plantation in Congo, were based on different soil sampling volumes: auger (8 cm in diameter), monolith (25 × 25 cm quadrate), half Voronoi trench (1·5 m(3)) and a full Voronoi trench (3 m(3)), chosen as the reference method. With the reference method (0-1m deep), fine-root biomass (FRB, diameter <2 mm) was estimated at 1·8 t ha(-1), medium-root biomass (MRB diameter 2-10 mm) at 2·0 t ha(-1), coarse-root biomass (CRB, diameter >10 mm) at 5·6 t ha(-1) and stump biomass at 6·8 t ha(-1). Total below-ground biomass was estimated at 16·2 t ha(-1) (root : shoot ratio equal to 0·23) for this 800 tree ha(-1) eucalypt plantation density. The density of FRB was very high (0·56 t ha(-1)) in the top soil horizon (0-3 cm layer) and decreased greatly (0·3 t ha(-1)) with depth (50-100 cm). Without labour requirement considerations, no significant differences were found between the four methods for FRB and MRB; however, CRB was better estimated by the half and full Voronoi trenches. When labour requirements were considered, the most effective method was auger coring for FRB, whereas the half and full Voronoi trenches were the most appropriate methods for MRB and CRB, respectively. As CRB combined with stumps amounted to 78 % of total below-ground biomass, a full Voronoi trench is strongly recommended when estimating total standing root biomass. Conversely, for FRB estimation, auger coring is recommended with a design pattern accounting for the spatial variability of fine-root distribution.

  14. Movement Regulation of Handsprings on Vault

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Heinen, Thomas; Vinken, Pia M.; Jeraj, Damian; Velentzas, Konstantinos

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: Visual information is utilized in gymnastics vaulting. The question remains as to which informational sources are used to regulate handspring performance. The purpose of this study was to examine springboard and vaulting table position as informational sources in gymnastics vaulting. The hypothesis tested was that the approach-run and…

  15. Movement Regulation of Handsprings on Vault

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Heinen, Thomas; Vinken, Pia M.; Jeraj, Damian; Velentzas, Konstantinos

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: Visual information is utilized in gymnastics vaulting. The question remains as to which informational sources are used to regulate handspring performance. The purpose of this study was to examine springboard and vaulting table position as informational sources in gymnastics vaulting. The hypothesis tested was that the approach-run and…

  16. 49 CFR 192.749 - Vault maintenance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Vault maintenance. 192.749 Section 192.749 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) PIPELINE AND HAZARDOUS MATERIALS SAFETY... BY PIPELINE: MINIMUM FEDERAL SAFETY STANDARDS Maintenance § 192.749 Vault maintenance. (a) Each vault...

  17. Biogeographic patterns in below-ground diversity in New York City's Central Park are similar to those observed globally

    PubMed Central

    Ramirez, Kelly S.; Leff, Jonathan W.; Barberán, Albert; Bates, Scott Thomas; Betley, Jason; Crowther, Thomas W.; Kelly, Eugene F.; Oldfield, Emily E.; Shaw, E. Ashley; Steenbock, Christopher; Bradford, Mark A.; Wall, Diana H.; Fierer, Noah

    2014-01-01

    Soil biota play key roles in the functioning of terrestrial ecosystems, however, compared to our knowledge of above-ground plant and animal diversity, the biodiversity found in soils remains largely uncharacterized. Here, we present an assessment of soil biodiversity and biogeographic patterns across Central Park in New York City that spanned all three domains of life, demonstrating that even an urban, managed system harbours large amounts of undescribed soil biodiversity. Despite high variability across the Park, below-ground diversity patterns were predictable based on soil characteristics, with prokaryotic and eukaryotic communities exhibiting overlapping biogeographic patterns. Further, Central Park soils harboured nearly as many distinct soil microbial phylotypes and types of soil communities as we found in biomes across the globe (including arctic, tropical and desert soils). This integrated cross-domain investigation highlights that the amount and patterning of novel and uncharacterized diversity at a single urban location matches that observed across natural ecosystems spanning multiple biomes and continents. PMID:25274366

  18. Evaluation of shelter ventilation by model tests, option 1 - below ground shelters. Final report Sep 82-Dec 83

    SciTech Connect

    Krishnakumar, C.K.; Koh, J.B.; Fields, S.F.; Henninger, R.H.

    1983-12-01

    Wind-induced ventilation rates that could be achieved in a 100-man below-ground shelter with simple designs of passive flow enhancement devices (FEDs) were estimated by scale model tests in a low-speed wind tunnel. Air volume flow rates through the model were determined by using bubble flow tracers and motion photography. Test results indicate that adequate ventilation can be achieved in the type of shelter considered by the use of FEDs even at relatively low wind speeds. The study also generated guidelines for the relatively low speeds. The study also generated guidelines for the design of FEDs and their placement around stairway openings. In addition, estimates of reductions in ventilation rates due to an obstruction upstream of the windward FED and due to a decrease in the area of wall openings were made.

  19. Above- and Below-Ground Carbon Stocks in an Indigenous Tree (Mytilaria laosensis) Plantation Chronosequence in Subtropical China

    PubMed Central

    Zhao, Jinlong; Tao, Yi

    2014-01-01

    More than 60% of the total area of tree plantations in China is in subtropical, and over 70% of subtropical plantations consist of pure stands of coniferous species. Because of the poor ecosystem services provided by pure coniferous plantations and the ecological instability of these stands, a movement is under way to promote indigenous broadleaf plantation cultivation as a promising alternative. However, little is known about the carbon (C) stocks in indigenous broadleaf plantations and their dependence on stand age. Thus, we studied above- and below-ground biomass and C stocks in a chronosequence of Mytilaria laosensis plantations in subtropical China; stands were 7, 10, 18, 23, 29 and 33 years old. Our assessments included tree, shrub, herb and litter layers. We used plot-level inventories and destructive tree sampling to determine vegetation C stocks. We also measured soil C stocks by analyses of soil profiles to 100 cm depth. C stocks in the tree layer dominated the above-ground ecosystem C pool across the chronosequence. C stocks increased with age from 7 to 29 years and plateaued thereafter due to a reduction in tree growth rates. Minor C stocks were found in the shrub and herb layers of all six plantations and their temporal fluctuations were relatively small. C stocks in the litter and soil layers increased with stand age. Total above-ground ecosystem C also increased with stand age. Most increases in C stocks in below-ground and total ecosystems were attributable to increases in soil C content and tree biomass. Therefore, considerations of C sequestration potential in indigenous broadleaf plantations must take stand age into account. PMID:25343446

  20. Above- and below-ground carbon stocks in an indigenous tree (Mytilaria laosensis) plantation chronosequence in subtropical China.

    PubMed

    Ming, Angang; Jia, Hongyan; Zhao, Jinlong; Tao, Yi; Li, Yuanfa

    2014-01-01

    More than 60% of the total area of tree plantations in China is in subtropical, and over 70% of subtropical plantations consist of pure stands of coniferous species. Because of the poor ecosystem services provided by pure coniferous plantations and the ecological instability of these stands, a movement is under way to promote indigenous broadleaf plantation cultivation as a promising alternative. However, little is known about the carbon (C) stocks in indigenous broadleaf plantations and their dependence on stand age. Thus, we studied above- and below-ground biomass and C stocks in a chronosequence of Mytilaria laosensis plantations in subtropical China; stands were 7, 10, 18, 23, 29 and 33 years old. Our assessments included tree, shrub, herb and litter layers. We used plot-level inventories and destructive tree sampling to determine vegetation C stocks. We also measured soil C stocks by analyses of soil profiles to 100 cm depth. C stocks in the tree layer dominated the above-ground ecosystem C pool across the chronosequence. C stocks increased with age from 7 to 29 years and plateaued thereafter due to a reduction in tree growth rates. Minor C stocks were found in the shrub and herb layers of all six plantations and their temporal fluctuations were relatively small. C stocks in the litter and soil layers increased with stand age. Total above-ground ecosystem C also increased with stand age. Most increases in C stocks in below-ground and total ecosystems were attributable to increases in soil C content and tree biomass. Therefore, considerations of C sequestration potential in indigenous broadleaf plantations must take stand age into account.

  1. Land-use type and intensity differentially filter traits in above- and below-ground arthropod communities.

    PubMed

    Birkhofer, Klaus; Gossner, Martin M; Diekötter, Tim; Drees, Claudia; Ferlian, Olga; Maraun, Mark; Scheu, Stefan; Weisser, Wolfgang W; Wolters, Volkmar; Wurst, Susanne; Zaitsev, Andrey S; Smith, Henrik G

    2017-05-01

    Along with the global decline of species richness goes a loss of ecological traits. Associated biotic homogenization of animal communities and narrowing of trait diversity threaten ecosystem functioning and human well-being. High management intensity is regarded as an important ecological filter, eliminating species that lack suitable adaptations. Below-ground arthropods are assumed to be less sensitive to such effects than above-ground arthropods. Here, we compared the impact of management intensity between (grassland vs. forest) and within land-use types (local management intensity) on the trait diversity and composition in below- and above-ground arthropod communities. We used data on 722 arthropod species living above-ground (Auchenorrhyncha and Heteroptera), primarily in soil (Chilopoda and Oribatida) or at the interface (Araneae and Carabidae). Our results show that trait diversity of arthropod communities is not primarily reduced by intense local land use, but is rather affected by differences between land-use types. Communities of Auchenorrhyncha and Chilopoda had significantly lower trait diversity in grassland habitats as compared to forests. Carabidae showed the opposite pattern with higher trait diversity in grasslands. Grasslands had a lower proportion of large Auchenorrhyncha and Carabidae individuals, whereas Chilopoda and Heteroptera individuals were larger in grasslands. Body size decreased with land-use intensity across taxa, but only in grasslands. The proportion of individuals with low mobility declined with land-use intensity in Araneae and Auchenorrhyncha, but increased in Chilopoda and grassland Heteroptera. The proportion of carnivorous individuals increased with land-use intensity in Heteroptera in forests and in Oribatida and Carabidae in grasslands. Our results suggest that gradients in management intensity across land-use types will not generally reduce trait diversity in multiple taxa, but will exert strong trait filtering within

  2. Altered Precipitation Impacts on Above- and Below-Ground Grassland Invertebrates: Summer Drought Leads to Outbreaks in Spring

    PubMed Central

    Torode, Marcel D.; Barnett, Kirk L.; Facey, Sarah L.; Nielsen, Uffe N.; Power, Sally A.; Johnson, Scott N.

    2016-01-01

    Climate change is predicted to result in altered precipitation patterns, which may reshape many grassland ecosystems. Rainfall is expected to change in a number of different ways, ranging from periods of prolonged drought to extreme precipitation events, yet there are few community wide studies to accurately simulate future changes. We aimed to test how above- and below-ground grassland invertebrate populations were affected by contrasting future rainfall scenarios. We subjected a grassland community to potential future rainfall scenarios including ambient, increased amount (+50% of ambient), reduced amount (–50% of ambient), reduced frequency (no water for 21 days, followed by the total ambient rainfall applied in a single application) and summer drought (no rainfall for 13 weeks during the growing season). During Austral spring (September 2015), we sampled aboveground invertebrates, belowground macro invertebrates and nematodes. Aboveground communities showed a significant response to altered rainfall regime with the greatest effects observed in summer drought plots. This was mostly due to a large increase in sucking herbivores (658% higher than ambient plots). Plots experiencing summer droughts also had higher populations of parasitoids, chewing herbivores and detritivores. These plots had 92% more plant biomass suggesting that primary productivity increased rapidly following the end of the summer drought 5 months earlier. We interpret these results as supporting the plant vigor hypothesis (i.e., that rapid plant growth is beneficial to aboveground invertebrates). While belowground invertebrates were less responsive to altered precipitation, we observed a number of correlations between the abundances of above- and below-ground invertebrate groups under ambient rainfall that dissipated under altered rainfall regimes. Mechanisms underpinning these associations, and reasons for them to become decoupled under altered precipitation regimes (we term this

  3. Sources of Below-Ground Respired Carbon in a Northern Minnesota Ombrotrophic Spruce Bog and the Influence of Heating Manipulations.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guilderson, T. P.; McFarlane, K. J.; McNicol, G.; Hanson, P. J.; Chanton, J.; Wilson, R.; Bosworth, R.; Singleton, M. J.

    2015-12-01

    A significant uncertainty in future land-surface carbon budgets is the response of wetlands to climate change. A related question is the future net climate (radiative) forcing impact due to ecosystem and environmental change in wetlands. Active wetlands emit both CO2 and CH4 to the atmosphere. CH4 is, over a few decades, a much more potent greenhouse gas than CO2 whereas as a consequence of a much longer atmospheric lifetime, CO2 has a longer 'tail' to its influence. Whether wetlands are a net source or sink of atmospheric carbon under future climate change will depend on the response of the ecosystem to rising temperatures and elevated CO2. The largest uncertainty in future wetland budgets, and its climate forcing, is the stability of the large belowground carbon stocks, often in the form of peat, and the partitioning of CO2 and CH4released via ecosystem respiration. We have characterized the isotopic signatures (14,13C of CO2 and CH4, D-CH4) of the respired carbon used for the production of CO2 and CH4 from the DOE Spruce and Peatland Responses Under Climatic and Environmental Change (SPRUCE) site in the Marcell Experimental Forest, which contains replicated mesocosm manipulations including above/below ground warming and elevated CO2. Deep warming (1-2 m) was initiated in July of 2014 and above ground heating will be initiated in July 2015. Comparison of the respired CO2 and CH4with recently fixed photosynthate, below-ground peat (up to 11,000 years old), and dissolved organic carbon allow us to determine the primary substrates used by the microbial community. Control and pre-perturbed plots are characterized by the consumption and respiration of recently fixed photosynthate and recent (few years to 15 yr) carbon. Although CH4 fluxes have begun to respond to deep-heating, the source of carbon remains similar in the control and perturbed plots. Respired CO2 remains consistent with being sourced from carbon only a few years old. We will present additional data

  4. Altered Precipitation Impacts on Above- and Below-Ground Grassland Invertebrates: Summer Drought Leads to Outbreaks in Spring.

    PubMed

    Torode, Marcel D; Barnett, Kirk L; Facey, Sarah L; Nielsen, Uffe N; Power, Sally A; Johnson, Scott N

    2016-01-01

    Climate change is predicted to result in altered precipitation patterns, which may reshape many grassland ecosystems. Rainfall is expected to change in a number of different ways, ranging from periods of prolonged drought to extreme precipitation events, yet there are few community wide studies to accurately simulate future changes. We aimed to test how above- and below-ground grassland invertebrate populations were affected by contrasting future rainfall scenarios. We subjected a grassland community to potential future rainfall scenarios including ambient, increased amount (+50% of ambient), reduced amount (-50% of ambient), reduced frequency (no water for 21 days, followed by the total ambient rainfall applied in a single application) and summer drought (no rainfall for 13 weeks during the growing season). During Austral spring (September 2015), we sampled aboveground invertebrates, belowground macro invertebrates and nematodes. Aboveground communities showed a significant response to altered rainfall regime with the greatest effects observed in summer drought plots. This was mostly due to a large increase in sucking herbivores (658% higher than ambient plots). Plots experiencing summer droughts also had higher populations of parasitoids, chewing herbivores and detritivores. These plots had 92% more plant biomass suggesting that primary productivity increased rapidly following the end of the summer drought 5 months earlier. We interpret these results as supporting the plant vigor hypothesis (i.e., that rapid plant growth is beneficial to aboveground invertebrates). While belowground invertebrates were less responsive to altered precipitation, we observed a number of correlations between the abundances of above- and below-ground invertebrate groups under ambient rainfall that dissipated under altered rainfall regimes. Mechanisms underpinning these associations, and reasons for them to become decoupled under altered precipitation regimes (we term this 'climatic

  5. The Rate and Process of Mangrove Forest Expansion on Above and Below Ground Carbon Relations in Coastal Louisiana

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Doyle, T. W.; Pham, T. H.; Reyes, M. R.; Meriwether, J. R.

    2016-02-01

    Recent field studies have documented measureable mangrove expansion landward in tropical zones and poleward in temperate saltmarsh around the northern Gulf of Mexico. Louisiana, in particular, has been recolonized by black mangrove, Avicennia germinans, over a large spatial extent since complete dieback from freeze dating back two decades. Study sites were established near Fourchon, Louisiana to account for the rate and process of marsh/mangrove dominance on carbon burial and elevation change over the past 50 years. Transects were oriented perpendicular from waterway berm of tall and scrub mangrove cover on higher ground grading to low marsh settings of saltmarsh and mixed mangrove ingrowth. Elevation mapping, plant cover and biomass sampling, and soil core dating were conducted to evaluate carbon relations above and below ground. Results showed that sites with tall mangrove have significantly higher above ground biomass than Spartina marsh and mixed marsh/mangrove zone. AG biomass was positively correlated with soil surface elevation and negatively with tidal flood frequency. In addition, tall mangrove zones recorded a twofold increase in soil accretion and carbon burial rates compared with saltmarsh soils based on 137Cs dating. These findings support a positive feedback of mangrove ingrowth and persistence on carbon production and burial allowing higher accretion rates and elevation gains when favored by warmer climate periods lacking or following episodic freeze events.

  6. Biogeographic patterns in below-ground diversity in New York City's Central Park are similar to those observed globally.

    PubMed

    Ramirez, Kelly S; Leff, Jonathan W; Barberán, Albert; Bates, Scott Thomas; Betley, Jason; Crowther, Thomas W; Kelly, Eugene F; Oldfield, Emily E; Shaw, E Ashley; Steenbock, Christopher; Bradford, Mark A; Wall, Diana H; Fierer, Noah

    2014-11-22

    Soil biota play key roles in the functioning of terrestrial ecosystems, however, compared to our knowledge of above-ground plant and animal diversity, the biodiversity found in soils remains largely uncharacterized. Here, we present an assessment of soil biodiversity and biogeographic patterns across Central Park in New York City that spanned all three domains of life, demonstrating that even an urban, managed system harbours large amounts of undescribed soil biodiversity. Despite high variability across the Park, below-ground diversity patterns were predictable based on soil characteristics, with prokaryotic and eukaryotic communities exhibiting overlapping biogeographic patterns. Further, Central Park soils harboured nearly as many distinct soil microbial phylotypes and types of soil communities as we found in biomes across the globe (including arctic, tropical and desert soils). This integrated cross-domain investigation highlights that the amount and patterning of novel and uncharacterized diversity at a single urban location matches that observed across natural ecosystems spanning multiple biomes and continents. © 2014 The Author(s) Published by the Royal Society. All rights reserved.

  7. Disease ecology across soil boundaries: effects of below-ground fungi on above-ground host-parasite interactions.

    PubMed

    Tao, Leiling; Gowler, Camden D; Ahmad, Aamina; Hunter, Mark D; de Roode, Jacobus C

    2015-10-22

    Host-parasite interactions are subject to strong trait-mediated indirect effects from other species. However, it remains unexplored whether such indirect effects may occur across soil boundaries and connect spatially isolated organisms. Here, we demonstrate that, by changing plant (milkweed Asclepias sp.) traits, arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF) significantly affect interactions between a herbivore (the monarch butterfly Danaus plexippus) and its protozoan parasite (Ophryocystis elektroscirrha), which represents an interaction across four biological kingdoms. In our experiment, AMF affected parasite virulence, host resistance and host tolerance to the parasite. These effects were dependent on both the density of AMF and the identity of milkweed species: AMF indirectly increased disease in monarchs reared on some species, while alleviating disease in monarchs reared on other species. The species-specificity was driven largely by the effects of AMF on both plant primary (phosphorus) and secondary (cardenolides; toxins in milkweeds) traits. Our study demonstrates that trait-mediated indirect effects in disease ecology are extensive, such that below-ground interactions between AMF and plant roots can alter host-parasite interactions above ground. In general, soil biota may play an underappreciated role in the ecology of many terrestrial host-parasite systems. © 2015 The Author(s).

  8. Internal methane transport through Juncus effusus: experimental manipulation of morphological barriers to test above- and below-ground diffusion limitation.

    PubMed

    Henneberg, Anders; Sorrell, Brian K; Brix, Hans

    2012-11-01

    Aerenchymatous plants can transport methane (CH(4) ) from the root zone to the atmosphere, bypassing the surface-oxidizing layers of the soil, yet morphological and anatomical factors that govern the transport of methane have rarely been critically tested in manipulative experiments. Here, we investigated the methane transport capacity of hydroponically grown Juncus effusus, in experiments with roots submerged in nutrient solutions sparged with methane (1.16 mmol CH(4) l(-1)). Through a range of manipulations of the above- and below-ground plant parts, we tested the contradictory claims in the literature regarding which sites provide the greatest resistance to gas transport. Root manipulations had the greatest effect on methane transport. Removing root material reduced methane transport significantly, and especially the lateral roots and the root tips were important. Cutting of the shoots, with or without subsequent sealing, did not alter methane transport significantly. We confirm modelling predictions that the limiting factor for methane transport in the tussock forming wetland graminoid, J. effusus, is the amount of permeable root surface, estimated using the proxy measurement of root length. The aerial tissues do not provide any significant resistance to methane transport, and the methane is emitted from the lower 50 mm of the shoots.

  9. The presence of a below-ground neighbour alters within-plant seed size distribution in Phaseolus vulgaris

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Bin J. W.; During, Heinjo J.; Vermeulen, Peter J.; Anten, Niels P. R.

    2014-01-01

    Background and Aims Considerable variation in seed size commonly exists within plants, and is believed to be favoured under natural selection. This study aims to examine the extent to which seed size distribution depends on the presence of competing neighbour plants. Methods Phaseolus vulgaris plants rooting with or without a conspecific neighbour were grown in soil with high or low nutrient availability. Seeds were harvested at the end of the growth cycle, the total nitrogen and phosphorus invested in seed production were measured and within-plant seed size distribution was quantified using a set of statistical descriptors. Key Results Exposure to neighbours' roots induced significant changes in seed size distribution. Plants produced proportionally more large seeds and fewer small ones, as reflected by significant increases in minimal seed size, mean seed size, skewness and Lorenz asymmetry coefficient. These effects were different from, and in several cases opposite to, the responses when the soil nutrient level was reduced, and were significant after correction for the amount of resources invested in seed production. Conclusions Below-ground neighbour presence affects within-plant seed size distribution in P. vulgaris. This effect appears to be non-resource-mediated, i.e. to be independent of neighbour-induced effects on resource availability. It implies that, based on current environmental cues, plants can make an anticipatory adjustment of their investment strategy in offspring as an adaptation to the local environment in the future. PMID:25100676

  10. Disease ecology across soil boundaries: effects of below-ground fungi on above-ground host–parasite interactions

    PubMed Central

    Tao, Leiling; Gowler, Camden D.; Ahmad, Aamina; Hunter, Mark D.; de Roode, Jacobus C.

    2015-01-01

    Host–parasite interactions are subject to strong trait-mediated indirect effects from other species. However, it remains unexplored whether such indirect effects may occur across soil boundaries and connect spatially isolated organisms. Here, we demonstrate that, by changing plant (milkweed Asclepias sp.) traits, arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF) significantly affect interactions between a herbivore (the monarch butterfly Danaus plexippus) and its protozoan parasite (Ophryocystis elektroscirrha), which represents an interaction across four biological kingdoms. In our experiment, AMF affected parasite virulence, host resistance and host tolerance to the parasite. These effects were dependent on both the density of AMF and the identity of milkweed species: AMF indirectly increased disease in monarchs reared on some species, while alleviating disease in monarchs reared on other species. The species-specificity was driven largely by the effects of AMF on both plant primary (phosphorus) and secondary (cardenolides; toxins in milkweeds) traits. Our study demonstrates that trait-mediated indirect effects in disease ecology are extensive, such that below-ground interactions between AMF and plant roots can alter host–parasite interactions above ground. In general, soil biota may play an underappreciated role in the ecology of many terrestrial host–parasite systems. PMID:26468247

  11. Disentangling above- and below-ground facilitation drivers in arid environments: the role of soil microorganisms, soil properties and microhabitat.

    PubMed

    Lozano, Yudi M; Armas, Cristina; Hortal, Sara; Casanoves, Fernando; Pugnaire, Francisco I

    2017-03-06

    Nurse plants promote establishment of other plant species by buffering climate extremes and improving soil properties. Soil biota plays an important role, but an analysis to disentangle the effects of soil microorganisms, soil properties and microclimate on facilitation is lacking. In three microhabitats (gaps, small and large Retama shrubs), we placed six microcosms with sterilized soil, two per soil origin (i.e. from each microhabitat). One in every pair received an alive, and the other a sterile, inoculum from its own soil. Seeds of annual plants were sown into the microcosms. Germination, survival and biomass were monitored. Soil bacterial communities were characterized by pyrosequencing. Germination in living Retama inoculum was nearly double that of germination in sterile inoculum. Germination was greater under Retama canopies than in gaps. Biomass was up to three times higher in nurse than in gap soils. Soil microorganisms, soil properties and microclimate showed a range of positive to negative effects on understory plants depending on species identity and life stage. Nurse soil microorganisms promoted germination, but the effect was smaller than the positive effects of soil properties and microclimate under nurses. Nurse below-ground environment (soil properties and microorganisms) promoted plant growth and survival more than nurse microhabitat.

  12. Structural Dynamics of the Vault Ribonucleoprotein Particle

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Casañas, Arnau; Querol, Jordi; Fita, Ignasi; Verdaguer, Núria

    Vaults are ubiquitous, highly conserved, 13 MDa ribonucleoprotein particles, involved in a diversity of cellular processes, including multidrug resistance, transport mechanisms and signal transmission. There are between 104 and 106 vault particles per mammalian cell and they do not trigger autoimmunity. The vault particle shows a hollow barrel-shaped structure organized in two identical moieties, each consisting of 39 copies of the major vault protein (MVP). Other data indicated that vault halves can dissociate at acidic pH. The high resolution, crystal structure of the of the seven N-terminal domains (R1-R7) of MVP, forming the central vault barrel, together with that of the native vault particle (solved at 8 Å resolution), revealed the interactions governing vault association and suggested a pH-dependent mechanism for a reversible dissociation induced by low pH. Vault particles posses many features making them very promising vehicles for the delivery of therapeutic agents including self-assembly, 100 nm size range, emerging atomic-level structural information, natural presence in humans ensuring biocompability, recombinant production system, existing features for targeting species to the large lumen and a dynamic structure that may be controlled for manipulation of drug release kinetics. All these attributes provide vaults with enormous potential as a drug/gene delivery platform.

  13. Facilitation and inhibition: changes in plant nitrogen and secondary metabolites mediate interactions between above-ground and below-ground herbivores

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Wei; Siemann, Evan; Yang, Xuefang; Wheeler, Gregory S.; Ding, Jianqing

    2013-01-01

    To date, it remains unclear how herbivore-induced changes in plant primary and secondary metabolites impact above-ground and below-ground herbivore interactions. Here, we report effects of above-ground (adult) and below-ground (larval) feeding by Bikasha collaris on nitrogen and secondary chemicals in shoots and roots of Triadica sebifera to explain reciprocal above-ground and below-ground insect interactions. Plants increased root tannins with below-ground herbivory, but above-ground herbivory prevented this increase and larval survival doubled. Above-ground herbivory elevated root nitrogen, probably contributing to increased larval survival. However, plants increased foliar tannins with above-ground herbivory and below-ground herbivory amplified this increase, and adult survival decreased. As either foliar or root tannins increased, foliar flavonoids decreased, suggesting a trade-off between these chemicals. Together, these results show that plant chemicals mediate contrasting effects of conspecific larval and adult insects, whereas insects may take advantage of plant responses to facilitate their offspring performance, which may influence population dynamics. PMID:23902902

  14. PRTR ion exchange vault water removal

    SciTech Connect

    Ham, J.E.

    1995-11-01

    This report documents the removal of radiologically contaminated water from the Plutonium Recycle Test Reactor (PRTR) ion exchange vault. Approximately 57,000 liters (15,000 gallons) of water had accumulated in the vault due to the absence of a rain cover. The water was removed and the vault inspected for signs of leakage. No evidence of leakage was found. The removal and disposal of the radiologically contaminated water decreased the risk of environmental contamination.

  15. An alternative method of middle vault reconstruction.

    PubMed

    Gassner, Holger G; Friedman, Oren; Sherris, David A; Kern, Eugene B

    2006-01-01

    Surgery of the nasal valves is a challenging aspect of rhinoplasty surgery. The middle nasal vault assumes an important role in certain aspects of nasal valve collapse. Techniques that address pathologies of the middle vault include the placement of spreader grafts and the butterfly graft. We present an alternative technique of middle vault reconstruction that allows simultaneous repair of nasal valve collapse and creation of a smooth dorsal profile. The surgical technique is described in detail and representative cases are discussed.

  16. Above- and below-ground aspects of flow, sediment and vegetation interactions and timescales in alluvial rivers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Perona, P.

    2012-12-01

    The biologic dynamics of riparian vegetation play a key role in the ecomorphodynamic of alluvial rivers in response to either natural and changed flow regimes. Scientific research has started addressing these issues by studying vegetation as a passive element first, and, more recently, as an active one establishing feedbacks with river morphodynamics. Many aspects remain poorly explored such, for instance, the role of vegetation roots growing in riverbeds. Below-ground biomass distribution indeed controls the mechanisms of uprooting by floods (Edmaier et al., 2011), and may change the reworking return period (i.e., the magnitude of impacting floods) of islands and bars. Unraveling the role of roots in morphodynamics has a speculative importance to understand present and also ancient fluvial ecomorphodynamic processes, but also has practical relevance to engineering river restoration and management. In this paper we first discuss the ecomorphodynamic response of the braided reach of River Maggia (Switzerland) to altered flow regime due to the impoundment of catchment headwaters. A lumped stochastic model (Perona et al., 2009) that reproduces the observed statistics of floodplain coverage classes of water sediment and vegetation is presented as a starting point to better understand vegetation below-ground processes in relation to hydrologic ones. To this regards, we present the results of a series of field and laboratory flume experiments to show that: i) river hydrology may influence root tropisms and related growing architecture of vegetation cuttings (Pasquale et al., 2012); ii) survival and recruitment of young vegetation during floods occurs with a selection mechanism (Perona et al., 2012; Crouzy et al., in revision); iii) hydrodynamic, hydrologic and biologic dynamics interact at certain timescales and this influences the distribution of the biomass removed by floods at the laboratory scale (Crouzy and Perona, 2012). At this scale, and in the limit where the

  17. The presence of a below-ground neighbour alters within-plant seed size distribution in Phaseolus vulgaris.

    PubMed

    Chen, Bin J W; During, Heinjo J; Vermeulen, Peter J; Anten, Niels P R

    2014-10-01

    Considerable variation in seed size commonly exists within plants, and is believed to be favoured under natural selection. This study aims to examine the extent to which seed size distribution depends on the presence of competing neighbour plants. Phaseolus vulgaris plants rooting with or without a conspecific neighbour were grown in soil with high or low nutrient availability. Seeds were harvested at the end of the growth cycle, the total nitrogen and phosphorus invested in seed production were measured and within-plant seed size distribution was quantified using a set of statistical descriptors. Exposure to neighbours' roots induced significant changes in seed size distribution. Plants produced proportionally more large seeds and fewer small ones, as reflected by significant increases in minimal seed size, mean seed size, skewness and Lorenz asymmetry coefficient. These effects were different from, and in several cases opposite to, the responses when the soil nutrient level was reduced, and were significant after correction for the amount of resources invested in seed production. Below-ground neighbour presence affects within-plant seed size distribution in P. vulgaris. This effect appears to be non-resource-mediated, i.e. to be independent of neighbour-induced effects on resource availability. It implies that, based on current environmental cues, plants can make an anticipatory adjustment of their investment strategy in offspring as an adaptation to the local environment in the future. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Annals of Botany Company. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  18. Simulated Sea-Level Rise Effects on the Above and Below-Ground Growth of Two Tidal Marsh Plant Species

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schile, L. M.; Callaway, J. C.; Kelly, M.

    2011-12-01

    Sea-level is expected to rise between 55 and 140 cm in the next century and is likely to have significant effects on the distribution and maintenance of tidal wetlands; however, little is known about the effects of increased sea level on Pacific coast tidal marsh vegetation. We initiated a field experiment in March 2011 to examine how increased depth and duration of inundation affect above and below-ground growth of two tidal wetland plant species: Schoenoplectus acutus and S. americanus. PVC planters, referred to as marsh organs, were installed at fixed elevations in channels at two ancient marshes in the San Francisco Bay Estuary: Browns Island and Rush Ranch. Each marsh organ structure is comprised of five rows of three six-inch PVC pipes, with each row 15cm lower than the row above, and was filled with surrounding mudflat sediment. Elevations span 60 cm and were chosen to be lower than the average current elevations of both species at each marsh to reflect projected increases in sea level. Rhizomes were collected from Browns Island, the less-saline site, and were cut to uniform sizes before planting. In every row, each species was grown individually and together. On a monthly basis, plant heights were recorded and pore-water sulfide concentration, salinity, and soil oxidation-reduction potential were measured. Schoenoplectus americanus growth and density significantly decreased with increased inundation at both sites. Schoenoplectus acutus growth was impacted more significantly at lower elevations at Rush Ranch but had little variation in density and growth across elevations at Browns Island. Salinity and sulfide concentrations varied little across elevations within a site but differed between sites. Above and belowground biomass will be collected in September 2011 to measure total annual productivity. The experiment provides basic yet crucial information on the impacts of increased inundation on tidal wetland vegetation and insight into potential changes in

  19. Derivation of the mammalian skull vault

    PubMed Central

    MORRISS-KAY, GILLIAN M.

    2001-01-01

    This review describes the evolutionary history of the mammalian skull vault as a basis for understanding its complex structure. Current information on the developmental tissue origins of the skull vault bones (mesoderm and neural crest) is assessed for mammals and other tetrapods. This information is discussed in the context of evolutionary changes in the proportions of the skull vault bones at the sarcopterygian-tetrapod transition. The dual tissue origin of the skull vault is considered in relation to the molecular mechanisms underlying osteogenic cell proliferation and differentiation in the sutural growth centres and in the proportionate contributions of different sutures to skull growth. PMID:11523816

  20. 49 CFR 192.183 - Vaults: Structural design requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... HAZARDOUS MATERIALS SAFETY ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION (CONTINUED) PIPELINE SAFETY... Components § 192.183 Vaults: Structural design requirements. (a) Each underground vault or pit for valves...

  1. 49 CFR 192.187 - Vaults: Sealing, venting, and ventilation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... HAZARDOUS MATERIALS SAFETY ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION (CONTINUED) PIPELINE SAFETY... Components § 192.187 Vaults: Sealing, venting, and ventilation. Each underground vault or closed top pit...

  2. 49 CFR 192.185 - Vaults: Accessibility.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Vaults: Accessibility. 192.185 Section 192.185 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) PIPELINE AND HAZARDOUS MATERIALS SAFETY... BY PIPELINE: MINIMUM FEDERAL SAFETY STANDARDS Design of Pipeline Components § 192.185 Vaults...

  3. 49 CFR 192.749 - Vault maintenance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 3 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Vault maintenance. 192.749 Section 192.749 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) PIPELINE AND HAZARDOUS MATERIALS SAFETY... BY PIPELINE: MINIMUM FEDERAL SAFETY STANDARDS Maintenance § 192.749 Vault maintenance. (a) Each...

  4. Impacts of an Invasive Non-Native Annual Weed, Impatiens glandulifera, on Above- and Below-Ground Invertebrate Communities in the United Kingdom

    PubMed Central

    Tanner, Robert A.; Varia, Sonal; Eschen, René; Wood, Suzy; Murphy, Sean T.; Gange, Alan C.

    2013-01-01

    Vegetation community composition and the above- and below-ground invertebrate communities are linked intrinsically, though few studies have assessed the impact of non-native plants on both these parts of the community together. We evaluated the differences in the above- (foliage- and ground-dwelling) and below-ground invertebrate communities in nine uninvaded plots and nine plots invaded by the annual invasive species Impatiens glandulifera, in the UK during 2007 and 2008. Over 139,000 invertebrates were identified into distinct taxa and categorised into functional feeding groups. The impact of I. glandulifera on the vegetation and invertebrate community composition was evaluated using multivariate statistics including principal response curves (PRC) and redundancy analysis (RDA). In the foliage-dwelling community, all functional feeding groups were less abundant in the invaded plots, and the species richness of Coleoptera and Heteroptera was significantly reduced. In the ground-dwelling community, herbivores, detritivores, and predators were all significantly less abundant in the invaded plots. In contrast, these functional groups in the below-ground community appeared to be largely unaffected, and even positively associated with the presence of I. glandulifera. Although the cover of I. glandulifera decreased in the invaded plots in the second year of the study, only the below-ground invertebrate community showed a significant response. These results indicate that the above- and below-ground invertebrate communities respond differently to the presence of I. glandulifera, and these community shifts can potentially lead to a habitat less biologically diverse than surrounding native communities; which could have negative impacts on higher trophic levels and ecosystem functioning. PMID:23840648

  5. The nose and nasal vault.

    PubMed

    Vogelzang, P J; Babbel, R W; Harnsberger, H R

    1991-12-01

    In this article we have reviewed the anatomy of the nose and nasal vault, with emphasis on specific features that are imaged with the SSCT. Important areas of the lateral wall anatomy include the OMU and SER, areas that are key to understanding the obstructive patterns of inflammatory sinonasal disease. Lesions that result in these specific obstructive patterns include anatomic variants and other focal pathological lesions, such as polyps. Other types of sinonasal inflammatory disease include sinonasal polyposis and granulomatous and fungal disease. Congenital lesions of the nose may be understood through a knowledge of the relevant developmental anatomy. These lesions include nasal dermoids and epidermoids, cephaloceles, gliomas, and choanal atresia. Important benign masses include antrochoanal polyps, inverting papillomas, angiomatous polyps, JNAs, and osteomas. Benign nasal masses have characteristic features that distinguish them from malignant lesions. Malignant nasal tumors, such as SSCa, esthesioneuroblastoma, and others, are characterized by their more aggressive and destructive behavior.

  6. Understory Plant Community Composition Is Associated with Fine-Scale Above- and Below-Ground Resource Heterogeneity in Mature Lodgepole Pine (Pinus contorta) Forests

    PubMed Central

    McIntosh, Anne C. S.; Macdonald, S. Ellen; Quideau, Sylvie A.

    2016-01-01

    Understory plant communities play critical ecological roles in forest ecosystems. Both above- and below-ground ecosystem properties and processes influence these communities but relatively little is known about such effects at fine (i.e., one to several meters within-stand) scales, particularly for forests in which the canopy is dominated by a single species. An improved understanding of these effects is critical for understanding how understory biodiversity is regulated in such forests and for anticipating impacts of changing disturbance regimes. Our primary objective was to examine the patterns of fine-scale variation in understory plant communities and their relationships to above- and below-ground resource and environmental heterogeneity within mature lodgepole pine forests. We assessed composition and diversity of understory vegetation in relation to heterogeneity of both the above-ground (canopy tree density, canopy and tall shrub basal area and cover, downed wood biomass, litter cover) and below-ground (soil nutrient availability, decomposition, forest floor thickness, pH, and phospholipid fatty acids (PLFAs) and multiple carbon-source substrate-induced respiration (MSIR) of the forest floor microbial community) environment. There was notable variation in fine-scale plant community composition; cluster and indicator species analyses of the 24 most commonly occurring understory species distinguished four assemblages, one for which a pioneer forb species had the highest cover levels, and three others that were characterized by different bryophyte species having the highest cover. Constrained ordination (distance-based redundancy analysis) showed that two above-ground (mean tree diameter, litter cover) and eight below-ground (forest floor pH, plant available boron, microbial community composition and function as indicated by MSIR and PLFAs) properties were associated with variation in understory plant community composition. These results provide novel insights

  7. Understory Plant Community Composition Is Associated with Fine-Scale Above- and Below-Ground Resource Heterogeneity in Mature Lodgepole Pine (Pinus contorta) Forests.

    PubMed

    McIntosh, Anne C S; Macdonald, S Ellen; Quideau, Sylvie A

    2016-01-01

    Understory plant communities play critical ecological roles in forest ecosystems. Both above- and below-ground ecosystem properties and processes influence these communities but relatively little is known about such effects at fine (i.e., one to several meters within-stand) scales, particularly for forests in which the canopy is dominated by a single species. An improved understanding of these effects is critical for understanding how understory biodiversity is regulated in such forests and for anticipating impacts of changing disturbance regimes. Our primary objective was to examine the patterns of fine-scale variation in understory plant communities and their relationships to above- and below-ground resource and environmental heterogeneity within mature lodgepole pine forests. We assessed composition and diversity of understory vegetation in relation to heterogeneity of both the above-ground (canopy tree density, canopy and tall shrub basal area and cover, downed wood biomass, litter cover) and below-ground (soil nutrient availability, decomposition, forest floor thickness, pH, and phospholipid fatty acids (PLFAs) and multiple carbon-source substrate-induced respiration (MSIR) of the forest floor microbial community) environment. There was notable variation in fine-scale plant community composition; cluster and indicator species analyses of the 24 most commonly occurring understory species distinguished four assemblages, one for which a pioneer forb species had the highest cover levels, and three others that were characterized by different bryophyte species having the highest cover. Constrained ordination (distance-based redundancy analysis) showed that two above-ground (mean tree diameter, litter cover) and eight below-ground (forest floor pH, plant available boron, microbial community composition and function as indicated by MSIR and PLFAs) properties were associated with variation in understory plant community composition. These results provide novel insights

  8. The Telomerase/Vault-Associated Protein Tep1 Is Required for Vault RNA Stability and Its Association with the Vault Particle

    PubMed Central

    Kickhoefer, Valerie A.; Liu, Yie; Kong, Lawrence B.; Snow, Bryan E.; Stewart, Phoebe L.; Harrington, Lea; Rome, Leonard H.

    2001-01-01

    Vaults and telomerase are ribonucleoprotein (RNP) particles that share a common protein subunit, TEP1. Although its role in either complex has not yet been defined, TEP1 has been shown to interact with the mouse telomerase RNA and with several of the human vault RNAs in a yeast three-hybrid assay. An mTep1−/− mouse was previously generated which resulted in no apparent change in telomere length or telomerase activity in six generations of mTep1-deficient mice. Here we show that the levels of the telomerase RNA and its association with the telomerase RNP are also unaffected in mTep1−/− mice. Although vaults purified from the livers of mTep1−/− mice appear structurally intact by both negative stain and cryoelectron microscopy, three-dimensional reconstruction of the mTep1−/− vault revealed less density in the cap than previously observed for the intact rat vault. Furthermore, the absence of TEP1 completely disrupted the stable association of the vault RNA with the purified vault particle and also resulted in a decrease in the levels and stability of the vault RNA. Therefore, we have uncovered a novel role for TEP1 in vivo as an integral vault protein important for the stabilization and recruitment of the vault RNA to the vault particle. PMID:11149928

  9. Contrasting land uses in Mediterranean agro-silvo-pastoral systems generated patchy diversity patterns of vascular plants and below-ground microorganisms.

    PubMed

    Bagella, Simonetta; Filigheddu, Rossella; Caria, Maria Carmela; Girlanda, Mariangela; Roggero, Pier Paolo

    2014-12-01

    The aims of this paper were (i) to define how contrasting land uses affected plant biodiversity in Mediterranean agro-silvo-pastoral-systems across a gradient of disturbance regimes: cork oak forests, secondary grasslands, hay crops, grass covered vineyards, tilled vineyards; (ii) to determine whether these patterns mirrored those of below-ground microorganisms and whether the components of γ-diversity followed a similar model. The disturbance regimes affected plant assemblage composition. Species richness decreased with increasing land use intensity, the Shannon index showed the highest values in grasslands and hay crops. Plant assemblage composition patterns mirrored those of Basidiomycota and Ascomycota. Richness in Basidiomycota, denitrifying bacteria and microbial biomass showed the same trend as that observed for vascular plant richness. The Shannon index pattern of below-ground microorganisms was different from that of plants. The plant γ-diversity component model weakly mirrored those of Ascomycota. Patchy diversity patterns suggest that the maintenance of contrasting land uses associated with different productions typical of agro-silvo-pastoral-systems can guarantee the conservation of biodiversity.

  10. Quantification of effects of season and nitrogen supply on tree below-ground carbon transfer to ectomycorrhizal fungi and other soil organisms in a boreal pine forest.

    PubMed

    Högberg, Mona N; Briones, Maria J I; Keel, Sonja G; Metcalfe, Daniel B; Campbell, Catherine; Midwood, Andrew J; Thornton, Barry; Hurry, Vaughan; Linder, Sune; Näsholm, Torgny; Högberg, Peter

    2010-07-01

    *The flux of carbon from tree photosynthesis through roots to ectomycorrhizal (ECM) fungi and other soil organisms is assumed to vary with season and with edaphic factors such as nitrogen availability, but these effects have not been quantified directly in the field. *To address this deficiency, we conducted high temporal-resolution tracing of (13)C from canopy photosynthesis to different groups of soil organisms in a young boreal Pinus sylvestris forest. *There was a 500% higher below-ground allocation of plant C in the late (August) season compared with the early season (June). Labelled C was primarily found in fungal fatty acid biomarkers (and rarely in bacterial biomarkers), and in Collembola, but not in Acari and Enchytraeidae. The production of sporocarps of ECM fungi was totally dependent on allocation of recent photosynthate in the late season. There was no short-term (2 wk) effect of additions of N to the soil, but after 1 yr, there was a 60% reduction of below-ground C allocation to soil biota. *Thus, organisms in forest soils, and their roles in ecosystem functions, appear highly sensitive to plant physiological responses to two major aspects of global change: changes in seasonal weather patterns and N eutrophication.

  11. Diurnal dynamics of oxygen and carbon dioxide concentrations in shoots and rhizomes of a perennial in a constructed wetland indicate down-regulation of below ground oxygen consumption.

    PubMed

    Faußer, Anna C; Dušek, Jiří; Čížková, Hana; Kazda, Marian

    2016-01-01

    Wetland plants actively provide oxygen for aerobic processes in submerged tissues and the rhizosphere. The novel concomitant assessment of diurnal dynamics of oxygen and carbon dioxide concentrations under field conditions tests the whole-system interactions in plant-internal gas exchange and regulation. Oxygen concentrations ([O2]) were monitored in-situ in central culm and rhizome pith cavities of common reed (Phragmites australis) using optical oxygen sensors. The corresponding carbon dioxide concentrations ([CO2]) were assessed via gas samples from the culms. Highly dynamic diurnal courses of [O2] were recorded, which started at 6.5-13 % in the morning, increased rapidly up to 22 % during midday and declined exponentially during the night. Internal [CO2] were high in the morning (1.55-17.5 %) and decreased (0.04-0.94 %) during the rapid increase of [O2] in the culms. The observed negative correlations between [O2] and [CO2] particularly describe the below ground relationship between plant-mediated oxygen supply and oxygen use by respiration and biogeochemical processes in the rhizosphere. Furthermore, the nocturnal declining slopes of [O2] in culms and rhizomes indicated a down-regulation of the demand for oxygen in the complete below ground plant-associated system. These findings emphasize the need for measurements of plant-internal gas exchange processes under field conditions because it considers the complex interactions in the oxic-anoxic interface.

  12. Identifying qualitative effects of different grazing types on below-ground communities and function in a long-term field experiment.

    PubMed

    Macdonald, Catriona A; Crawley, Michael J; Wright, Denis J; Kuczynski, Justin; Robinson, Lucinda; Knight, Rob; Al-Soud, Waleed Abu; Sørensen, Søren J; Deng, Ye; Zhou, Jizhong; Singh, Brajesh K

    2015-03-01

    Herbivory is an important modulator of plant biodiversity and productivity in grasslands, but our understanding of herbivore-induced changes on below-ground processes and communities is limited. Using a long-term (17 years) experimental site, we evaluated impacts of rabbit and invertebrate grazers on some soil functions involved in carbon cycling, microbial diversity, structure and functional composition. Both rabbit and invertebrate grazing impacted soil functions and microbial community structure. All functional community measures (functions, biogeochemical cycling genes, network association between different taxa) were more strongly affected by invertebrate grazers than rabbits. Furthermore, our results suggest that exclusion of invertebrate grazers decreases both microbial biomass and abundance of genes associated with key biogeochemical cycles, and could thus have long-term consequences for ecosystem functions. The mechanism behind these impacts are likely to be driven by both direct effects of grazing altering the pattern of nutrient inputs and by indirect effects through changes in plant species composition. However, we could not entirely discount that the pesticide used to exclude invertebrates may have affected some microbial community measures. Nevertheless, our work illustrates that human activity that affects grazing intensity may affect ecosystem functioning and sustainability, as regulated by multi-trophic interactions between above- and below-ground communities. © 2014 Society for Applied Microbiology and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  13. Diurnal dynamics of oxygen and carbon dioxide concentrations in shoots and rhizomes of a perennial in a constructed wetland indicate down-regulation of below ground oxygen consumption

    PubMed Central

    Faußer, Anna C.; Dušek, Jiří; Čížková, Hana; Kazda, Marian

    2016-01-01

    Wetland plants actively provide oxygen for aerobic processes in submerged tissues and the rhizosphere. The novel concomitant assessment of diurnal dynamics of oxygen and carbon dioxide concentrations under field conditions tests the whole-system interactions in plant-internal gas exchange and regulation. Oxygen concentrations ([O2]) were monitored in-situ in central culm and rhizome pith cavities of common reed (Phragmites australis) using optical oxygen sensors. The corresponding carbon dioxide concentrations ([CO2]) were assessed via gas samples from the culms. Highly dynamic diurnal courses of [O2] were recorded, which started at 6.5–13 % in the morning, increased rapidly up to 22 % during midday and declined exponentially during the night. Internal [CO2] were high in the morning (1.55–17.5 %) and decreased (0.04–0.94 %) during the rapid increase of [O2] in the culms. The observed negative correlations between [O2] and [CO2] particularly describe the below ground relationship between plant-mediated oxygen supply and oxygen use by respiration and biogeochemical processes in the rhizosphere. Furthermore, the nocturnal declining slopes of [O2] in culms and rhizomes indicated a down-regulation of the demand for oxygen in the complete below ground plant-associated system. These findings emphasize the need for measurements of plant-internal gas exchange processes under field conditions because it considers the complex interactions in the oxic-anoxic interface. PMID:27207278

  14. 49 CFR 192.189 - Vaults: Drainage and waterproofing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... HAZARDOUS MATERIALS SAFETY ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION (CONTINUED) PIPELINE SAFETY... Components § 192.189 Vaults: Drainage and waterproofing. (a) Each vault must be designed so as to minimize...

  15. 49 CFR 192.183 - Vaults: Structural design requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... Components § 192.183 Vaults: Structural design requirements. (a) Each underground vault or pit for valves... which may be imposed upon it, and to protect installed equipment. (b) There must be enough working...

  16. 49 CFR 192.183 - Vaults: Structural design requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... Components § 192.183 Vaults: Structural design requirements. (a) Each underground vault or pit for valves... which may be imposed upon it, and to protect installed equipment. (b) There must be enough working...

  17. 49 CFR 192.183 - Vaults: Structural design requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... Components § 192.183 Vaults: Structural design requirements. (a) Each underground vault or pit for valves... which may be imposed upon it, and to protect installed equipment. (b) There must be enough working...

  18. 27. RECORDS VAULT UNDER STAIRWAY IN NORTHEAST CORNER OF MAIN ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    27. RECORDS VAULT UNDER STAIRWAY IN NORTHEAST CORNER OF MAIN MEETING ROOM. It is not known when this vault was built. It has cavity walls. - Twelfth Street Meeting House, 20 South Twelfth Street, Philadelphia, Philadelphia County, PA

  19. Hazard evaluation for 244-AR vault facility

    SciTech Connect

    BRAUN, D.J.

    1999-08-25

    This document presents the results of a hazard identification and evaluation performed on the 244-AR Vault Facility to close a USQ (USQ No.TF-98-0785, Potential Inadequacy in Authorization Basis (PIAB): To Evaluate Miscellaneous Facilities Listed In HNF-2503 And Not Addressed In The TWRS Authorization Basis) that was generated as part of an evaluation of inactive TWRS facilities. A hazard evaluation for the Hanford Site 244-AR Vault Facility was performed. The process and results of the hazard evaluation are provided in this document. A previous hazard evaluation was performed for the 244-AR Vault Facility in 1996 in support of the Basis for Interim Operation (BIO) (HNF-SD-WM-BIO-001, 1998, Revision 1) of the Tank Waste Remediation System (TWRS). The results of that evaluation are provided in the BIO. Upon review of those results it was determined that hazardous conditions that could lead to the release of radiological and toxicological material from the 244-AR vaults due to flooding was not addressed in the original hazards evaluation. This supplemental hazard evaluation addresses this oversight of the original hazard evaluation. The results of the hazard evaluation were compared to the current TWRS BIO to identify any hazardous conditions where Authorization Basis (AB) controls may not be sufficient or may not exist. This document is not part of the AB and is not a vehicle for requesting changes to the AB. It is only intended to provide information about hazardous conditions associated with the condition and configuration of the 244-AR vault facility. The AB Control Decision process could be used to determine the applicability and adequacy of existing AB controls as well as any new controls that may be needed for the identified hazardous conditions associated with 244-AR vault flooding. This hazard evaluation does not constitute an accident analysis.

  20. 1. VIEW OF ONE OF THE INNER ROOMS WITHIN VAULT ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    1. VIEW OF ONE OF THE INNER ROOMS WITHIN VAULT 996. THE UNDERGROUND VAULTS WERE USED TO STORE SPECIAL NUCLEAR MATERIAL AWAITING ON- AND OFF-SITE SHIPMENT. - Rocky Flats Plant, Storage Vault, Southeast corner of protected area, Northwest of Building 991, Golden, Jefferson County, CO

  1. 49 CFR 192.187 - Vaults: Sealing, venting, and ventilation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... minimize the formation of combustible atmosphere in the vault or pit; and (3) The ducts must be high enough... explosive mixture might be ignited, and there must be a means for testing the internal atmosphere before... of ignition from reaching the vault atmosphere; or (3) If the vault or pit is ventilated, paragraph...

  2. Rupture Loop Annex (RLA) ion exchange vault entry and characterization

    SciTech Connect

    Ham, J.E.

    1996-01-04

    This engineering report documents the entry and characterization of the Rupture Loop Annex Ion Exchange (RLAIX) Vault located near the 309 Building`s Plutonium Recycle Test Reactor (PRTR). Twelve ion exchange columns were found in the vault. Some of which contained transuranics, Cs 137, and Co 60. The characterization information is necessary for future vault cleanout and column disposal.

  3. 49 CFR 192.187 - Vaults: Sealing, venting, and ventilation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 3 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Vaults: Sealing, venting, and ventilation. 192.187... TRANSPORTATION OF NATURAL AND OTHER GAS BY PIPELINE: MINIMUM FEDERAL SAFETY STANDARDS Design of Pipeline Components § 192.187 Vaults: Sealing, venting, and ventilation. Each underground vault or closed top...

  4. 49 CFR 192.187 - Vaults: Sealing, venting, and ventilation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 3 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Vaults: Sealing, venting, and ventilation. 192.187... Components § 192.187 Vaults: Sealing, venting, and ventilation. Each underground vault or closed top pit... ventilating effect of a pipe 4 inches (102 millimeters) in diameter; (2) The ventilation must be enough...

  5. 49 CFR 192.187 - Vaults: Sealing, venting, and ventilation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 3 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Vaults: Sealing, venting, and ventilation. 192.187... Components § 192.187 Vaults: Sealing, venting, and ventilation. Each underground vault or closed top pit... ventilating effect of a pipe 4 inches (102 millimeters) in diameter; (2) The ventilation must be enough...

  6. 49 CFR 192.183 - Vaults: Structural design requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 3 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Vaults: Structural design requirements. 192.183... TRANSPORTATION OF NATURAL AND OTHER GAS BY PIPELINE: MINIMUM FEDERAL SAFETY STANDARDS Design of Pipeline Components § 192.183 Vaults: Structural design requirements. (a) Each underground vault or pit for...

  7. 36 CFR 910.70 - Vault.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Vault. 910.70 Section 910.70 Parks, Forests, and Public Property PENNSYLVANIA AVENUE DEVELOPMENT CORPORATION GENERAL GUIDELINES AND UNIFORM STANDARDS FOR URBAN PLANNING AND DESIGN OF DEVELOPMENT WITHIN THE PENNSYLVANIA AVENUE DEVELOPMENT...

  8. Hazard Evaluation for 244-CR Vault

    SciTech Connect

    GRAMS, W.H.

    1999-08-19

    This document presents the results of a hazards identification and evaluation performed on the 244-CR Vault to close a USQ (USQ No.TF-98-0785, Potential Inadequacy in Authorization Basis (PIAB): To Evaluate Miscellaneous Facilities Listed In HNF-2503 And Not Addressed In The TWRS Authorization Basis) that was generated as part of an evaluation of inactive TWRS facilities.

  9. 36 CFR 910.70 - Vault.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Vault. 910.70 Section 910.70 Parks, Forests, and Public Property PENNSYLVANIA AVENUE DEVELOPMENT CORPORATION GENERAL GUIDELINES AND UNIFORM STANDARDS FOR URBAN PLANNING AND DESIGN OF DEVELOPMENT WITHIN THE PENNSYLVANIA AVENUE DEVELOPMENT...

  10. Postirradiation angiosarcoma of the vaginal vault

    SciTech Connect

    Chan, W.W.; SenGupta, S.K. )

    1991-05-01

    We describe a unique case of an angiosarcoma arising in the vaginal vault 21 years after hysterectomy and radiotherapy for stage I carcinoma of the cervix. We also review the literature regarding angiosarcomas arising after previous radiation therapy for gynecologic malignancies.

  11. Above- and below-ground response to soil moisture change on an alpine wetland ecosystem in the Qinghai-Tibetan Plateau, China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, G.-L.; Li, W.; Zhao, L.-P.; Shi, Z.-H.; Shangguan, Z.-P.

    2011-07-01

    Climate change is expected to affect plant communities worldwide. However, less is known about the consequences of global warming-induced decrease of soil moisture on alpine wetland ecosystem in the Qinghai-Tibetan Plateau. To determine response of natural alpine wetland community to decrease of soil moisture, we did a gradient analysis of soil moisture by sequence space-series variation. We used sequence space-series variation of soil moisture to reflect potential time-series variation of soil moisture in alpine wetland community, by examining the effects of spatial heterogeneity of soil moisture on wetland community, as well as by determining how shifts in above- and below-ground properties of alpine wetland community. We found that vegetation aboveground biomass, cover and height all significantly increased with increase of soil moisture, but species richness was decreased. Soil organic carbon, total nitrogen, available nitrogen, total phosphorus and available phosphorus all significantly increased with increase of soil moisture, but soil pH value, total potassium and available potassium were significantly decreased. Meanwhile, species richness showed significantly positive correlations to aboveground biomass, covers and height. Aboveground biomass, vegetation covers and height were all significant positively related to soil organic carbon, total N, P, and available N, P, but negatively related to total K. But, species richness were significant negatively related to soil organic carbon, total N, P, and available N, P, but positively related to total K. Our observation indicates that decreasing of soil moisture may potentially negatively impact on the above- and below-ground properties in alpine wetland community.

  12. Biomass and morphology of fine roots in temperate broad-leaved forests differing in tree species diversity: is there evidence of below-ground overyielding?

    PubMed

    Meinen, Catharina; Hertel, Dietrich; Leuschner, Christoph

    2009-08-01

    Biodiversity effects on ecosystem functioning in forests have only recently attracted increasing attention. The vast majority of studies in forests have focused on above-ground responses to differences in tree species diversity, while systematic analyses of the effects of biodiversity on root systems are virtually non-existent. By investigating the fine root systems in 12 temperate deciduous forest stands in Central Europe, we tested the hypotheses that (1) stand fine root biomass increases with tree diversity, and (2) 'below-ground overyielding' of species-rich stands in terms of fine root biomass is the consequence of spatial niche segregation of the roots of different species. The selected stands represent a gradient in tree species diversity on similar bedrock from almost pure beech forests to medium-diverse forests built by beech, ash, and lime, and highly-diverse stands dominated by beech, ash, lime, maple, and hornbeam. We investigated fine root biomass and necromass at 24 profiles per stand and analyzed species differences in fine root morphology by microscopic analysis. Fine root biomass ranged from 440 to 480 g m(-2) in the species-poor to species-rich stands, with 63-77% being concentrated in the upper 20 cm of the soil. In contradiction to our two hypotheses, the differences in tree species diversity affected neither stand fine root biomass nor vertical root distribution patterns. Fine root morphology showed marked distinctions between species, but these root morphological differences did not lead to significant differences in fine root surface area or root tip number on a stand area basis. Moreover, differences in species composition of the stands did not alter fine root morphology of the species. We conclude that 'below-ground overyielding' in terms of fine root biomass does not occur in the species-rich stands, which is most likely caused by the absence of significant spatial segregation of the root systems of these late-successional species.

  13. Above- and below ground trophic interactions on creeping thistle (Cirsium arvense) in high- and low-diversity plant communities: potential for biotic resistance?

    PubMed

    Bezemer, T M; Graça, O; Rousseau, P; van der Putten, W H

    2004-01-01

    The capacity of local communities to control introduced plants is called biotic resistance. Biotic resistance has been almost exclusively tested for plant competition and above ground herbivores and pathogens, while neglecting root herbivores and soil pathogens. Here, we present biotic resistance by above- and below ground herbivores in concert, and relate the abundance of the plant enemies to the species diversity of the local plant communities. The study was carried out in a 7-year-old biodiversity field experiment. We used creeping thistle (Cirsium arvense) as a model, and quantified sap-sucking herbivores: above ground aphids, their antagonists, and root-feeding nematodes. As plant diversity treatments, we used field plots sown with high (15 plant species, HSD) or low (4 plant species, LSD) diverse seed mixtures in 1996 and that were not weeded. Creeping thistle became established spontaneously at the start of the experiment. In 2002, in HSD plots, 90 % of the plant community was made up by 11 species, compared to seven species in LSD plots. No differences were found for C. arvense abundance or biomass. Above ground, three aphid species were found on C. arvense-Uroleucon cirsii, Aphis fabae, and Macrosiphum euphorbiae, but the latter was found only in low densities. Significantly more aphid species were found on individual plants in HSD plots. Moreover, in HSD plots, on average 10 % of aphids were parasitized, while no parasitism was observed in LSD plots. In the root zone of C. arvense, significantly more nematodes were found in HSD than in LSD plots, and a significantly higher proportion of those nematodes were plant parasites. The dominant plant parasitic nematode in both treatments was Paratylenchus. We conclude that biotic resistance by natural enemies may be enhanced by plant species diversity, but that above- and below ground sap-sucking herbivores do not necessarily have to respond similarly to the diversity of the surrounding plant community.

  14. Rupture loop annex ion exchange RLAIX vault deactivation

    SciTech Connect

    Ham, J.E.; Harris, D.L., Westinghouse Hanford

    1996-08-01

    This engineering report documents the deactivation, stabilization and final conditions of the Rupture Loop Annex Ion Exchange (RLAIX) Vault located northwest of the 309 Building`s Plutonium Recycle Test Reactor (PRTR). Twelve ion exchange columns, piping debris, and column liquid were removed from the vault, packaged and shipped for disposal. The vault walls and floor were decontaminated, and portions of the vault were painted to fix loose contamination. Process piping and drains were plugged, and the cover blocks and rain cover were installed. Upon closure,the vault was empty, stabilized, isolated.

  15. Evidence that acidification-induced declines in plant diversity and productivity are mediated by changes in below-ground communities and soil properties in a semi-arid steppe

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Chen, Dima; Lan, Zhichun; Bai, Xue; Grace, James B.; Bai, Yongfei

    2013-01-01

    Synthesis. Our results suggest that the below-ground microbial and nematode communities are more sensitive to soil acidification than the plant communities are, and further that soil acidification–induced changes in plants are mediated by changes in below-ground communities and soil nutrients. These findings improve our understanding of the links between below- and above-ground communities in the Inner Mongolia grassland, especially in the context of anthropogenic acid enrichment.

  16. E-Area Vault Concrete Material Property And Vault Durability/Degradation Projection Recommendations

    SciTech Connect

    Phifer, M. A.

    2014-03-11

    Subsequent to the 2008 E-Area Low-Level Waste Facility (ELLWF) Performance Assessment (PA) (WSRC 2008), two additional E-Area vault concrete property testing programs have been conducted (Dixon and Phifer 2010 and SIMCO 2011a) and two additional E-Area vault concrete durability modeling projections have been made (Langton 2009 and SIMCO 2012). All the information/data from these reports has been evaluated and consolidated herein by the Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) at the request of Solid Waste Management (SWM) to produce E-Area vault concrete hydraulic and physical property data and vault durability/degradation projection recommendations that are adequately justified for use within associated Special Analyses (SAs) and future PA updates. The Low Activity Waste (LAW) and Intermediate Level (IL) Vaults structural degradation predictions produced by Carey 2006 and Peregoy 2006, respectively, which were used as the basis for the 2008 ELLWF PA, remain valid based upon the results of the E-Area vault concrete durability simulations reported by Langton 2009 and those reported by SIMCO 2012. Therefore revised structural degradation predictions are not required so long as the mean thickness of the closure cap overlying the vaults is no greater than that assumed within Carey 2006 and Peregoy 2006. For the LAW Vault structural degradation prediction (Carey 2006), the mean thickness of the overlying closure cap was taken as nine feet. For the IL Vault structural degradation prediction (Peregoy 2006), the mean thickness of the overlying closure cap was taken as eight feet. The mean closure cap thicknesses as described here for both E-Area Vaults will be included as a key input and assumption (I&A) in the next revision to the closure plan for the ELLWF (Phifer et al. 2009). In addition, it has been identified as new input to the PA model to be assessed in the ongoing update to the new PA Information UDQE (Flach 2013). Once the UDQE is approved, the SWM Key I

  17. Below-ground abiotic and biotic heterogeneity shapes above-ground infection outcomes and spatial divergence in a host-parasite interaction.

    PubMed

    Tack, Ayco J M; Laine, Anna-Liisa; Burdon, Jeremy J; Bissett, Andrew; Thrall, Peter H

    2015-09-01

    We investigated the impact of below-ground and above-ground environmental heterogeneity on the ecology and evolution of a natural plant-pathogen interaction. We combined field measurements and a reciprocal inoculation experiment to investigate the potential for natural variation in abiotic and biotic factors to mediate infection outcomes in the association between the fungal pathogen Melampsora lini and its wild flax host, Linum marginale, where pathogen strains and plant lines originated from two ecologically distinct habitat types that occur in close proximity ('bog' and 'hill'). The two habitat types differed strikingly in soil moisture and soil microbiota. Infection outcomes for different host-pathogen combinations were strongly affected by the habitat of origin of the plant lines and pathogen strains, the soil environment and their interactions. Our results suggested that tradeoffs play a key role in explaining the evolutionary divergence in interaction traits among the two habitat types. Overall, we demonstrate that soil heterogeneity, by mediating infection outcomes and evolutionary divergence, can contribute to the maintenance of variation in resistance and pathogenicity within a natural host-pathogen metapopulation.

  18. Positive effects of organic farming on below-ground mutualists: large-scale comparison of mycorrhizal fungal communities in agricultural soils.

    PubMed

    Verbruggen, Erik; Röling, Wilfred F M; Gamper, Hannes A; Kowalchuk, George A; Verhoef, Herman A; van der Heijden, Marcel G A

    2010-06-01

    *The impact of various agricultural practices on soil biodiversity and, in particular, on arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF), is still poorly understood, although AMF can provide benefit to plants and ecosystems. Here, we tested whether organic farming enhances AMF diversity and whether AMF communities from organically managed fields are more similar to those of species-rich grasslands or conventionally managed fields. *To address this issue, the AMF community composition was assessed in 26 arable fields (13 pairs of organically and conventionally managed fields) and five semi-natural grasslands, all on sandy soil. Terminal restriction fragment length polymorphism community fingerprinting was used to characterize AMF community composition. *The average number of AMF taxa was highest in grasslands (8.8), intermediate in organically managed fields (6.4) and significantly lower in conventionally managed fields (3.9). Moreover, AMF richness increased significantly with the time since conversion to organic agriculture. AMF communities of organically managed fields were also more similar to those of natural grasslands when compared with those under conventional management, and were less uniform than their conventional counterparts, as expressed by higher beta-diversity (between-site diversity). *We suggest that organic management in agro-ecosystems contributes to the restoration and maintenance of these important below-ground mutualists.

  19. Needle removal by pine sawfly larvae increases branch-level VOC emissions and reduces below-ground emissions of Scots pine.

    PubMed

    Ghimire, Rajendra P; Markkanen, Juha M; Kivimäenpää, Minna; Lyytikäinen-Saarenmaa, Päivi; Holopainen, Jarmo K

    2013-05-07

    Climate warming is expected to increase the frequency of insect outbreaks in Boreal conifer forests. We evaluated how needle removal by the larvae of two diprionid sawfly species affects the composition and quantity of VOC emissions from Pinus sylvestris L. saplings. Feeding damage significantly increased the rate of localized VOC emissions from the damaged branch. The emissions of total monoterpenes (MTs) were dominating (96-98% of total VOCs) and increased by14-fold in Neodiprion sertifer-damaged branches and by 16-fold in Diprion pini-damaged branches compared to intact branches. Emissions of δ-3-carene, α-pinene, sabinene, and β-phellandrene were most responsive. Feeding damage by N. sertifer larvae increased the emission rates of total sesquiterpenes by 7-fold (4% of total VOCs) and total green leaf volatiles by 13-fold (<1% of total VOCs). The VOC emissions from N. sertifer larvae constituted nearly 25% of the total branch emissions. N. sertifer feeding in the lower branches induced 4-fold increase in MT emissions in the top crown. Defoliation of Scots pine by D. pini significantly reduced the below-ground emissions of total MTs by approximately 80%. We conclude that defoliators could significantly increase total VOC emissions from the Scots pine canopy including MT emissions from resin storing sawfly larvae.

  20. Integrated plant phenotypic responses to contrasting above- and below-ground resources: key roles of specific leaf area and root mass fraction.

    PubMed

    Freschet, Grégoire T; Swart, Elferra M; Cornelissen, Johannes H C

    2015-06-01

    Plants adapt phenotypically to different conditions of light and nutrient supply, supposedly in order to achieve colimitation of these resources. Their key variable of adjustment is the ratio of leaf area to root length, which relies on plant biomass allocation and organ morphology. We recorded phenotypic differences in leaf and root mass fractions (LMF, RMF), specific leaf area (SLA) and specific root length (SRL) of 12 herbaceous species grown in factorial combinations of high/low irradiance and fertilization treatments. Leaf area and root length ratios, and their components, were influenced by nonadditive effects between light and nutrient supply, and differences in the strength of plant responses were partly explained by Ellenberg's species values representing ecological optima. Changes in allocation were critical in plant responses to nutrient availability, as the RMF contribution to changes in root length was 2.5× that of the SRL. Contrastingly, morphological adjustments (SLA rather than LMF) made up the bulk of plant response to light availability. Our results suggest largely predictable differences in responses of species and groups of species to environmental change. Nevertheless, they stress the critical need to account for adjustments in below-ground mass allocation to understand the assembly and responses of communities in changing environments. © 2015 The Authors. New Phytologist © 2015 New Phytologist Trust.

  1. Cranial vault thickness in primates: Homo erectus does not have uniquely thick vault bones.

    PubMed

    Copes, Lynn E; Kimbel, William H

    2016-01-01

    Extremely thick cranial vaults have been noted as a diagnostic characteristic of Homo erectus since the first fossil of the species was identified, but relatively little work has been done on elucidating its etiology or variation across fossils, living humans, or extant non-human primates. Cranial vault thickness (CVT) is not a monolithic trait, and the responsiveness of its layers to environmental stimuli is unknown. We obtained measurements of cranial vault thickness in fossil hominins from the literature and supplemented those data with additional measurements taken on African fossil specimens. Total CVT and the thickness of the cortical and diploë layers individually were compared to measures of CVT in extant species measured from more than 500 CT scans of human and non-human primates. Frontal and parietal CVT in fossil primates was compared to a regression of CVT on cranial capacity calculated for extant species. Even after controlling for cranial capacity, African and Asian H. erectus do not have uniquely high frontal or parietal thickness residuals, either among hominins or extant primates. Extant primates with residual CVT thickness similar to or exceeding H. erectus (depending on the sex and bone analyzed) include Nycticebus coucang, Perodicticus potto, Alouatta caraya, Lophocebus albigena, Galago alleni, Mandrillus sphinx, and Propithecus diadema. However, the especially thick vaults of extant non-human primates that overlap with H. erectus values are composed primarily of cortical bone, while H. erectus and other hominins have diploë-dominated vault bones. Thus, the combination of thick vaults comprised of a thickened diploë layer may be a reliable autapomorphy for members of the genus Homo.

  2. 15. VIEW LOOKING EAST AT UNDERGROUND VAULT, BUILDING 997, UNDER ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    15. VIEW LOOKING EAST AT UNDERGROUND VAULT, BUILDING 997, UNDER CONSTRUCTION. THE VAULTS WERE USED TO STORE TRIGGERS AWAITING OFF-SITE SHIPMENT, OR RETURNED TRIGGERS AWAITING TO BE TRANSPORTED TO A BUILDING FOR RECOVERY OF THE PLUTONIUM. THE VAULT WALLS WERE CONSTRUCTED 14.5 FEET THICK. BUILDING 991, IN THE BACKGROUND, WAS THE FIRST OPERATIONAL BUILDING ON SITE (2/1/52). - Rocky Flats Plant, Bounded by Indiana Street & Routes 93, 128 & 72, Golden, Jefferson County, CO

  3. Radiological air quality in a depleted uranium storage vault

    SciTech Connect

    Robinson, T.; Cucchiara, A.L.

    1999-03-01

    The radiological air quality of two storage vaults, one with depleted uranium (DU) and one without, was evaluated and compared. The intent of the study was to determine if the presence of stored DU would significantly contribute to the gaseous/airborne radiation level compared to natural background. Both vaults are constructed out of concrete and are dimensionally similar. The vaults are located on the first floor of the same building. Neither vault has air supply or air exhaust. The doors to both vaults remained closed during the evaluation period, except for brief and infrequent access by the operational group. One vault contained 700 KG of depleted uranium, and the other vault contained documents inside of file cabinets. Radon detectors and giraffe air samplers were used to gather data on the quantity of gaseous/airborne radionuclides in both vaults. The results of this study indicated that there was no significant difference in the quantity of gaseous/airborne radionuclides in the two vaults. This paper gives a discussion of the effects of the stored DU on the air quality, and poses several theories supporting the results.

  4. Concept study: Use of grout vaults for disposal of long-length contaminated equipment

    SciTech Connect

    Clem, D.K.

    1994-09-21

    Study considers the potential for use of grout vaults for disposal of untreated long length equipment removed from waste tanks. Looks at ways to access vaults, material handling, regulatory aspects, and advantages and disadvantages of vault disposal.

  5. Defoliation and below-ground herbivory in the grass Muhlenbergiaquadridentata : Effects on plant performance and on the root-feeder Phyllophaga sp. (Coleoptera, Melolonthidae).

    PubMed

    Morón-Ríos, A; Dirzo, Rodolfo; Jaramillo, V J

    1997-04-01

    In this study we evaluated (1) the combined effects of simulated defoliation and below-ground herbivory (BGH) on the biomass and nitrogen content of tillers and roots of the bunchgrass Muhlenbergia quadridentata and (2) the effect of defoliation on the survival of third-instar root-feeder larvae of Phyllophaga sp. The experiment was performed in a pine forest area at an altitude of 3200 m above sea level. The grass and the root-feeder species were native and dominant in the understory and in the macroarthropod root-feeder communities, respectively. Plants were established in pots in the field and were subjected to the following treatments in a factorial design: simulated defoliation (three levels) and BGH (with or without root-feeder larvae) with ten replicates per treatment. Plants were defoliated three times at 2-month intervals. The interaction between defoliation and root herbivory was significant for all components of plant biomass. In every case, light defoliation with BGH decreased live above-ground, root and total plant biomass, and the number of live tillers by more than 50% with respect to the same defoliation level without root-feeders. Plants apparently did not compensate for the carbon drain by root-feeders when a high proportion of older leaves were not removed by defoliation. Plants under heavy defoliation were not affected by the presence of root-feeders and showed a greater live/dead above-ground biomass ratio than lightly defoliated and control plants. Defoliation and BGH did not change tiller and root N concentrations but root herbivores did decrease live-tiller N content in lightly defoliated plants. Root-feeders but not defoliation decreased the root/shoot ratio by 40% and the live/dead above-ground biomass ratio by 45% through increased tiller mortality. Survivorship and final biomass of Phyllophaga sp. larvae were not affected by defoliation treatments during the 6-month study period.

  6. Above- and below-ground response to soil water change in an alpine wetland ecosystem on the Qinghai-Tibetan Plateau, China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Gao-Lin; Ren, Guo-Hua; Wang, Dong; Shi, Zhi-Hua; Warrington, David

    2013-01-01

    The reduction of soil water content induced by global warming is expected to affect plant communities worldwide. However, less is known about the consequences of global warming-induced decreases of soil water on alpine wetland ecosystems on the Qinghai-Tibetan Plateau. To determine the responses of a natural alpine wetland community to decreases in soil moisture, we conducted a gradient analysis of soil water using a sequence space-series variation. We used the sequence space-series variation of soil water contents to reflect potential time-series variations by examining the effects of spatial heterogeneity on soil water, as well as determining the changes that would occur in above- and below-ground properties of an alpine wetland community. We found that vegetation aboveground biomass, vegetation cover and height all significantly increased along soil moisture, but species richness decreased. Soil organic carbon, total nitrogen, available nitrogen, total phosphorus and available phosphorus all significantly increased along soil moisture, but soil pH, total potassium and available potassium significantly decreased. Species richness was significantly and negatively correlated to aboveground biomass, vegetation cover and height. Aboveground biomass, vegetation cover and height were all significantly and positively related to soil organic carbon, total N and P, and available N and P, but were negatively related to total K. Conversely, species richness was significantly and negatively related to soil organic carbon, total N and P, and available N and P, but positively related to total K. Our observations indicate that decreased soil water would potentially have a negative influence on the alpine wetland plant communities and soil properties.

  7. Quantifying above- and below-ground growth responses of the western Australian oil mallee, Eucalyptus kochii subsp. plenissima, to contrasting decapitation regimes.

    PubMed

    Wildy, Dan T; Pate, John S

    2002-08-01

    Resprouting in the oil mallee, Eucalyptus kochii Maiden & Blakely subsp. plenissima Gardner (Brooker), involves generation of new shoots from preformed meristematic foci on the lignotuber. Numbers of such foci escalated from 200 per lignotuber in trees aged 1 year to 3,000 on 4- to 5-year-old trees. Removal of shoot biomass by decapitation 5 cm above ground in summer (February) or spring (October) resulted in initiation of 140-170 new shoots, but approx. 400 shoots were induced to form if crops of new shoots were successively removed until sprouting ceased and rootstocks senesced. Initially, the new shoot biomass of regenerating coppices increased slowly and the root biomass failed to increase appreciably until 1.7-2.5 years after cutting. Newly cut trees showed loss of fine root biomass, and structural roots failed to secondarily thicken to the extent shown by uncut trees. After 2 years, the biomass of shoots of coppiced plants was only one-third that of uncut control trees and shoot:root dry mass ratios of coppiced plants were still low (1.5-2.0) compared with those of the controls (average ratio of 3.1). Spring cutting promoted quicker and greater biomass recovery than summer cutting. Starch in below-ground biomass fell quickly following decapitation and remained low for a 12-18 month period. Utilization of starch reserves in naturally regenerating coppices was estimated to provide only a small proportion of the dry matter accumulated in new shoots. Results are discussed in relation to their impact on coppicing ability of the species under natural conditions or when successively coppiced for shoot biomass production.

  8. Uprooting force balance for pioneer woody plants: A quantification of the relative contribution of above- and below-ground plant architecture to uprooting susceptibility

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bywater-Reyes, S.; Wilcox, A. C.; Lightbody, A.; Skorko, K.; Stella, J. C.

    2012-12-01

    Cottonwood (Populus), willow (Salix), and tamarisk (Tamarix) populate riparian areas in many dryland regions, and their recruitment depends heavily on hydrogeomorphic conditions. The survival of pioneer woody seedlings depends in part on the establishment of root systems capable of anchoring plants in subsequent floods, and this root system development in turn influences the cohesion that plants provide to bars. The factors influencing the anchoring ability and resistance to scour of woody seedlings include plant frontal area and flexibility, root structure, and water table elevation. This study aims to quantify the factors comprising the force balance to uproot woody seedlings and saplings in two field sites characterized by different hydrologic conditions. The Bill Williams River (AZ) is an impounded river with elevated water table elevations produced by dam-released base flows. The Bitterroot River (MT) is an unimpounded river with a snowmelt hydrograph and seasonal fluctuations in river and water table elevation. We simulate uprooting from flooding events by saturating substrates and applying force near the base of the plant in a lateral, downstream direction until uprooting occurs, for a range of plant sizes but with a focus on small (<1 m high) seedlings. Preliminary results indicate a positive correlation between root diameter and stem length and the force required to pull out plants, with cottonwood and tamarisk seedlings showing greater variability than willow. In contrast, root length and stem diameter are only weakly correlated with pull-out force. By combining pull test results with measurements of geomorphic and groundwater conditions, this study provides insights into the relative contribution of a plant's above-ground and below-ground architecture to uprooting potential and into the feedbacks between vegetation and morphodynamics on river bars.

  9. Local forest environment largely affects below-ground growth, clonal diversity and fine-scale spatial genetic structure in the temperate deciduous forest herb Paris quadrifolia.

    PubMed

    Jacquemyn, Hans; Brys, Rein; Honnay, Olivier; Hermy, Martin; Roldán-Ruiz, Isabel

    2005-12-01

    Paris quadrifolia (herb Paris) is a long-lived, clonal woodland herb that shows strong differences in local population size and shoot density along an environmental gradient of soil and light conditions. This environmentally based structuring may be mediated by differences in clonal growth and seedling recruitment through sexual reproduction. To study the interrelationship between environmental conditions and spatial patterns of clonal growth, the spatial genetic structure of four P. quadrifolia populations growing in strongly contrasting sites was determined. In the first place, plant excavations were performed in order to (i) determine differences in below-ground growth of genets, (ii) investigate connectedness of ramets and (iii) determine total genet size. Although no differences in internode length were found among sites, clones in moist sites were much smaller (genets usually consisted of 1-3 interconnected shoots, most of them flowering) than genets in dry sites, which consisted of up to 15 interconnected shoots, the majority of which were vegetative. Further, amplified fragment length polymorphism (AFLP) markers were used. Clonal diversity was higher in populations located in moist and productive ash-poplar forests compared to those found in drier and less productive mixed forest sites (G/N: 0.27 and 0.14 and Simpson's D: 0.84 and 0.75, respectively). Patterns of spatial population genetic structure under dry conditions revealed several large clones dominating the entire population, whereas in moist sites many small genets were observed. Nevertheless, strong spatial genetic structure of the genet population was observed. Our results clearly demonstrate that patterns of clonal diversity and growth form of P. quadrifolia differ among environments. Limited seedling recruitment and large clone sizes due to higher connectedness of ramets explain the low clonal diversity in dry sites. In moist sites, higher levels of clonal diversity and small clone sizes

  10. No consistent effect of plant species richness on resistance to simulated climate change for above- or below-ground processes in managed grasslands.

    PubMed

    Dormann, Carsten F; von Riedmatten, Lars; Scherer-Lorenzen, Michael

    2017-06-17

    Species richness affects processes and functions in many ecosystems. Since management of temperate grasslands is directly affecting species composition and richness, it can indirectly govern how systems respond to fluctuations in environmental conditions. Our aim in this study was to investigate whether species richness in managed grasslands can buffer the effects of drought and warming manipulations and hence increase the resistance to climate change. We established 45 plots in three regions across Germany, each with three different management regimes (pasture, meadow and mown pasture). We manipulated spring warming using open-top chambers and summer drought using rain-out shelters for 4 weeks. Measurements of species richness, above- and below-ground biomass and soil carbon and nitrogen concentrations showed significant but inconsistent differences among regions, managements and manipulations. We detected a three-way interaction between species richness, management and region, indicating that our study design was sensitive enough to detect even intricate effects. We could not detect a pervasive effect of species richness on biomass differences between treatments and controls, indicating that a combination of spring warming and summer drought effects on grassland systems are not consistently moderated by species richness. We attribute this to the relatively high number of species even at low richness levels, which already provides the complementarity required for positive biodiversity-ecosystem functioning relationships. A review of the literature also indicates that climate manipulations largely fail to show richness-buffering, while natural experiments do, suggesting that such manipulations are milder than reality or incur treatment artefacts.

  11. Engineering of vault nanocapsules with enzymatic and fluorescent properties.

    PubMed

    Kickhoefer, Valerie A; Garcia, Yvette; Mikyas, Yeshi; Johansson, Erik; Zhou, Jing C; Raval-Fernandes, Sujna; Minoofar, Payam; Zink, Jeffrey I; Dunn, Bruce; Stewart, Phoebe L; Rome, Leonard H

    2005-03-22

    One of the central issues facing the emerging field of nanotechnology is cellular compatibility. Nanoparticles have been proposed for diagnostic and therapeutic applications, including drug delivery, gene therapy, biological sensors, and controlled catalysis. Viruses, liposomes, peptides, and synthetic and natural polymers have been engineered for these applications, yet significant limitations continue to prevent their use. Avoidance of the body's natural immune system, lack of targeting specificity, and the inability to control packaging and release are remaining obstacles. We have explored the use of a naturally occurring cellular nanoparticle known as the vault, which is named for its morphology with multiple arches reminiscent of cathedral ceilings. Vaults are 13-MDa ribonucleoprotein particles with an internal cavity large enough to sequester hundreds of proteins. Here, we report a strategy to target and sequester biologically active materials within the vault cavity. Attachment of a vault-targeting peptide to two proteins, luciferase and a variant of GFP, resulted in their sequestration within the vault cavity. The targeted proteins confer enzymatic and fluorescent properties on the recombinant vaults, both of which can be detected by their emission of light. The modified vaults are compatible with living cells. The ability to engineer vault particles with designed properties and functionalities represents an important step toward development of a biocompatible nanocapsule.

  12. 63. VIEW TO SOUTHWEST IN MAIN SHEAVE VAULT: View towards ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    63. VIEW TO SOUTHWEST IN MAIN SHEAVE VAULT: View towards the southwest in the main sheave vault showing the double sheave used to deflect the California Street cable in and out of the powerhouse. - San Francisco Cable Railway, Washington & Mason Streets, San Francisco, San Francisco County, CA

  13. Vault Area (original section), east corridor, looking north, showing tops ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Vault Area (original section), east corridor, looking north, showing tops of individual vaults and vent housings - Fort McNair, Film Store House, Fort Lesley J. McNair, P Street between Third & Fourth Streets, Southwest, Washington, District of Columbia, DC

  14. Realization of correlation attack against the fuzzy vault scheme

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kholmatov, Alisher; Yanikoglu, Berrin

    2008-02-01

    User privacy and template security are major concerns in the use of biometric systems. These are serious concerns based on the fact that once compromised, biometric traits can not be canceled or reissued. The Fuzzy Vault scheme has emerged as a promising method to alleviate the template security problem. The scheme is based on binding the biometric template with a secret key and scrambling it with a large amount of redundant data, such that it is computationally infeasible to extract the secret key without possession of the biometric trait. It was recently claimed that the scheme is susceptible to correlation based attacks which assume the availability of two fuzzy vaults created using the same biometric data (e.g. two impressions of the same fingerprint) and suggests that correlating them would reveal the biometric data hidden inside. In this work, we implemented the fuzzy vault scheme using fingerprints and performed correlation attacks against a database of 400 fuzzy vaults (200 matching pairs). Given two matching vaults, we could successfully unlock 59% of them within a short time. Furthermore, it was possible to link an unknown vault to a short list containing its matching pair, for 41% of all vaults. These results prove the claim that the fuzzy vault scheme without additional security measures is indeed vulnerable to correlation attacks.

  15. 1. Photocopy of photograph 'ONE OF THE WINE VAULTS AT ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    1. Photocopy of photograph 'ONE OF THE WINE VAULTS AT HERMANN - 300 FEET LONG' From William G. Bek, The German Settlement Society of Philadelphia and its Colony Herman, Missouri, (Philadelphia: Americana Germanica Press, 1907), 154. - Wine Vault, Hermann, Gasconade County, MO

  16. A vault ribonucleoprotein particle exhibiting 39-fold dihedral symmetry

    SciTech Connect

    Kato, Koji; Tanaka, Hideaki; Sumizawa, Tomoyuki; Yoshimura, Masato; Yamashita, Eiki; Iwasaki, Kenji; Tsukihara, Tomitake

    2008-05-01

    A vault from rat liver was crystallized in space group C2. Rotational symmetry searches indicated that the particle has 39-fold dihedral symmetry. Vault is a 12.9 MDa ribonucleoprotein particle with a barrel-like shape, two protruding caps and an invaginated waist structure that is highly conserved in a wide variety of eukaryotes. Multimerization of the major vault protein (MVP) is sufficient to assemble the entire exterior shell of the barrel-shaped vault particle. Multiple copies of two additional proteins, vault poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase (VPARP) and telomerase-associated protein 1 (TEP1), as well as a small vault RNA (vRNA), are also associated with vault. Here, the crystallization of vault particles is reported. The crystals belong to space group C2, with unit-cell parameters a = 708.0, b = 385.0, c = 602.9 Å, β = 124.8°. Rotational symmetry searches based on the R factor and correlation coefficient from noncrystallographic symmetry (NCS) averaging indicated that the particle has 39-fold dihedral symmetry.

  17. 244-AR Vault Interim Stabilization Project Plan

    SciTech Connect

    LANEY, T.

    2000-03-24

    The 244-AR Vault Facility, constructed between 1966 and 1968, was designed to provide lag storage and treatment for the Plutonium-Uranium Extraction Facility (PUREX) tank farm sludges. Tank farm personnel transferred the waste from the 244-AR Vault Facility to B Plant for recovery of cesium and strontium. B Plant personnel then transferred the treatment residuals back to the tank farms for storage of the sludge and liquids. The last process operations, which transferred waste supporting the cesium/strontium recovery mission, occurred in April 1978. After the final transfer in 1978, the 244-AR facility underwent a cleanout. However, 2,271 L (600 gal) of sludge were left in Tank 004AR from an earlier transfer from Tank 241-AX-104. When the cleanout was completed, the facility was placed in a standby status. The sludge had been transferred to Tank 004AR to support Pacific Northwest National Laboratory [PNNL] vitrification work. Documentation of waste transfers suggests that a portion of the sludge may have been moved from Tank 004AR to Tank 002AR in preparation for transfer back to the AX Tank Farm; however, quantities of the sludge that were moved to Tank 002AR from that transfer must be estimated.

  18. Mechanical Stability and Reversible Fracture of Vault Particles

    PubMed Central

    Llauró, Aida; Guerra, Pablo; Irigoyen, Nerea; Rodríguez, José F.; Verdaguer, Núria; de Pablo, Pedro J.

    2014-01-01

    Vaults are the largest ribonucleoprotein particles found in eukaryotic cells, with an unclear cellular function and promising applications as vehicles for drug delivery. In this article, we examine the local stiffness of individual vaults and probe their structural stability with atomic force microscopy under physiological conditions. Our data show that the barrel, the central part of the vault, governs both the stiffness and mechanical strength of these particles. In addition, we induce single-protein fractures in the barrel shell and monitor their temporal evolution. Our high-resolution atomic force microscopy topographies show that these fractures occur along the contacts between two major vault proteins and disappear over time. This unprecedented systematic self-healing mechanism, which enables these particles to reversibly adapt to certain geometric constraints, might help vaults safely pass through the nuclear pore complex and potentiate their role as self-reparable nanocontainers. PMID:24507609

  19. Effects of the 100-year most severe El Niño driven drought on above and below ground CO2 exchanges in a seasonal tropical forest

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Detto, M.; Muller-Landau, H. C.; Davies, S. J.; Rubio Ramos, V. E.

    2015-12-01

    The role of environmental drivers in regulating carbon exchanges, such as the combined effects of different meteorological and hydrological factors, are still poorly understood in many tropical forests. For example, Central American tropical forests are characterized by a distinct dry season with large atmospheric evaporative demand, driven by solar radiations and sustained winds. In contrast, during the wet seasons, cloudiness results in lower radiation inputs but higher diffuse fraction, and higher water availability. Our site, Barro Colorado Island, located in Gatun Lake, Central Panama, averages 2800 mm of annual precipitation, with a pronounced dry season in Jan-Apr. Forest age varies between 100 and >400 yr. In July 2012, an eddy covariance system was installed on a 41 m tower on the top plateau of the island. In the current year (2015) the island is experiencing the most severe El Niño driven drought on record (precipitation is measured since 1921). The eddy covariance measurements show that carbon and water fluxes are strongly influenced by hydrological conditions. Prolonged dry spells during the dry season limit both above ground fluxes (ET and GPP) and below ground processes (root and microbial activities). Light use efficiency is about 30% lower during the dry season and evapotranspiration can be as 40% below potential. These decreases in ecosystem functions are driven primarily by a combination of structural (reduction in leaf area) and physiological (stomata regulation) adaptation. Similarly, soil effluxes respond strongly to hydrological conditions. In the dry season, lower soil respiration rates are spaced out by rare rain events generating large pulses. In contrast, during the wet season, frequent rain events suppress soil CO2effluxes, because of reduced diffusivity and oxygen depletion. Diurnal variation of soil respiration also suggested a potential translocation of photosynthates from leaf to roots to increase nutrient uptake during the dry

  20. Evaluation of carbon stocks in above- and below-ground biomass in Central Africa: case study of Lesio-louna tropical rainforest of Congo

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, X.; Ekoungoulou, R.; Loumeto, J. J.; Ifo, S. A.; Bocko, Y. E.; Koula, F. E.

    2014-07-01

    The study was aimed to estimate the carbon stocks of above- and below-ground biomass in Lesio-louna forest of Congo. The methodology of allometric equations was used to measure the carbon stocks of Lesio-louna natural forest. We are based precisely on the model II which is also called non-destructive method or indirect method of measuring carbon stocks. While there has been use of parameters such as the DBH and wood density. The research was done with 22 circular plots each 1256 m2. In the 22 plots studied, 19 plots are in the gallery forest and three plots in the secondary forest. Also, 22 circular plots were distributed in 5 sites studies of Lesio-louna forest, including: Inkou forest island, Iboubikro, Ngoyili, Blue lake and Ngambali. So, there are two forest types (secondary forest and gallery forest) in this forest ecosystem. In the 5 sites studied, we made measurements on a total of 347 trees with 197 trees for the class of 10-30 cm diameter, 131 trees for the class of 30-60 cm diameter and 19 trees in the diameter class > 60 cm. The results show that in the whole forest, average carbon stock for the 22 plots of the study was 168.601 t C ha-1 for AGB, or 81% and 39.551 t C ha-1 for BGB, or 19%. The total carbon stocks in all the biomass was 3395.365 t C for AGB, which is 3.395365 × 10-6 Gt C and 909.689934 t C for BGB, which was 9.09689934 × 10-7 Gt C. In this forest, the carbon stock was more important in AGB compared to BGB with respectively 3395.365 t C against 909.689934 t C. Plot10 (AGB = 363.899 t C ha-1 and BGB = 85.516 t C ha-1) was the most dominant in terms of carbon quantification in Lesio-louna.

  1. Spatial Root Distribution and Clonal Connectivity in Trembling Aspen Along a Hillslope Catena; Implications for Above and Below Ground Water Regulation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Snedden, J.; Silins, U.; Landhausser, S.

    2008-12-01

    Spatial exploitation of available soil water by tree roots is considered an important mechanism governing the ability of trees to survive in water limited environments. However, there is limited information on horizontal and vertical root distribution, particularly in mature trees growing in natural environments. Even less is known about morphological characteristics in clonal tree species, such as trembling aspen (Populus tremuloides), that likely affect intra- and inter-clonal water transport, uptake and transpiration dynamics. As part of a larger study that investigates above/below ground controls over water uptake, transpiration and hillslope dynamics in aspen, we measured and described the vertical and horizontal distribution of fine and coarse roots, and the occurrence of intra- and inter-clonal root grafts in several aspen clones along three belt transects along a hillslope catena. Each transect included an aspen clone at the base of the slope and a second clone located near the top of the slope. Root systems were excavated to a depth of 30cm in three 10cm layers using a fire pump. Most roots (79% of total) were found in the upper 20cm of the soil profile. Few roots were found below 30cm except for tap-roots, which did not exceed a depth of 1m. Fine roots (< 1cm dia.) comprised 52% of the total root surface area within the top 30cm of the soil profile, whereas medium (1-2.5cm dia.) and coarse (> 2.5cm dia.) roots comprised only 28% and 20% of total root system surface area, respectively. While fine roots dominated both the root mass per unit area and the root surface area in the upper 20cm, root size classes were more uniformly distributed at the lower soil layer. Although intra-clonal root grafts were very common, no inter-clonal grafts were observed suggesting that inter-clonal transport of water through root grafts to the upper hillslope is not likely. However, it was observed that the aspen clones located on the top of the hillslope had shallow roots

  2. Isometric scaling of above- and below-ground biomass at the individual and community levels in the understorey of a sub-tropical forest

    PubMed Central

    Cheng, Dongliang; Zhong, Quanlin; Niklas, Karl J.; Ma, Yuzhu; Yang, Yusheng; Zhang, Jianhua

    2015-01-01

    Background and Aims Empirical studies and allometric partitioning (AP) theory indicate that plant above-ground biomass (MA) scales, on average, one-to-one (isometrically) with below-ground biomass (MR) at the level of individual trees and at the level of entire forest communities. However, the ability of the AP theory to predict the biomass allocation patterns of understorey plants has not been established because most previous empirical tests have focused on canopy tree species or very large shrubs. Methods In order to test the AP theory further, 1586 understorey sub-tropical forest plants from 30 sites in south-east China were harvested and examined. The numerical values of the scaling exponents and normalization constants (i.e. slopes and y-intercepts, respectively) of log–log linear MA vs. MR relationships were determined for all individual plants, for each site, across the entire data set, and for data sorted into a total of 19 sub-sets of forest types and successional stages. Similar comparisons of MA/MR were also made. Key Results The data revealed that the mean MA/MR of understorey plants was 2·44 and 1·57 across all 1586 plants and for all communities, respectively, and MA scaled nearly isometrically with respect to MR, with scaling exponents of 1·01 for all individual plants and 0·99 for all communities. The scaling exponents did not differ significantly among different forest types or successional stages, but the normalization constants did, and were positively correlated with MA/MR and negatively correlated with scaling exponents across all 1586 plants. Conclusions The results support the AP theory’s prediction that MA scales nearly one-to-one with MR (i.e. MA ∝ MR ≈1·0) and that plant biomass partitioning for individual plants and at the community level share a strikingly similar pattern, at least for the understorey plants examined in this study. Furthermore, variation in environmental conditions appears to affect the numerical values of

  3. Structure of the vault, a ubiquitous celular component.

    PubMed

    Kong, L B; Siva, A C; Rome, L H; Stewart, P L

    1999-04-15

    The vault is a ubiquitous and highly conserved ribonucleoprotein particle of approximately 13 MDa. This particle has been shown to be upregulated in certain multidrug-resistant cancer cell lines and to share a protein component with the telomerase complex. Determination of the structure of the vault was undertaken to provide a first step towards understanding the role of this cellular component in normal metabolism and perhaps to shed some light on its role in mediating drug resistance. Over 1300 particle images were combined to calculate an approximately 31 A resolution structure of the vault. Rotational power spectra did not yield a clear symmetry peak, either because of the thin, smooth walls or inherent flexibility of the vault. Although cyclic eightfold (C8) symmetry was imposed, the resulting reconstruction may be partially cylindrically averaged about the eightfold axis. Our results reveal the vault to be a hollow, barrel-like structure with two protruding caps and an invaginated waist. Although the normal cellular function of the vault is as yet undetermined, the structure of the vault is consistent with either a role in subcellular transport, as previously suggested, or in sequestering macromolecular assemblies.

  4. Shielding design of the Mayo Clinic Scottsdale cyclotron vault

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Riper, Kenneth A. Van; Metzger, Robert L.; Nelson, Kevin

    2017-09-01

    Mayo Clinic Scottsdale (Scottsdale, Arizona) is building a cyclotron vault containing a cyclotron with adjacent targets and a beam line leading to an external target. The targets are irradiated by high energy (15 to 16.5 MeV) protons for the production of radioisotopes. We performed Monte Carlo radiation transport simulations to calculate the radiation dose outside of the vault during irradiation of the cyclotron and external targets. We present the Monte Carlo model including the geometry, sources, and variance reduction methods. Mesh tallies surrounding the vault show the external dose rate is within acceptable limits.

  5. 9. Interior of Building 1001 (administration building), Room 204, vault, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    9. Interior of Building 1001 (administration building), Room 204, vault, looking east - Naval Air Station Chase Field, Building 1001, Independence Street, .45 mile south of intersection of Texas State Highway & Independence Street, Beeville, Bee County, TX

  6. Detail of Bright Angel stone vault, containing condenser, Hoffman condensation ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Detail of Bright Angel stone vault, containing condenser, Hoffman condensation pump, Jennings vacuum heating pump, and misc. pipes and valves. - Grand Canyon Village Utilities, Grand Canyon National Park, Grand Canyon Village, Coconino County, AZ

  7. 19. INTERIOR: ARCH AND CORBELED VAULT NEAR FRONT Copy photograph ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    19. INTERIOR: ARCH AND CORBELED VAULT NEAR FRONT Copy photograph of photogrammetric plate LC-HABS-GS07-1116-113L. - Provident Life & Trust Company Bank, 407-409 Chestnut Street, Philadelphia, Philadelphia County, PA

  8. Perspective of Bright Angel stone vault, view south, with HAER ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Perspective of Bright Angel stone vault, view south, with HAER field team measuring (Michael Lee and Dominic Duran foreground, Christopher Marston rear). - Grand Canyon Village Utilities, Grand Canyon National Park, Grand Canyon Village, Coconino County, AZ

  9. Bright Angel stone vault, with HAER field team members Dominic ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Bright Angel stone vault, with HAER field team members Dominic Duran, Christopher Marston, and Michael Lee (l to r). - Grand Canyon Village Utilities, Grand Canyon National Park, Grand Canyon Village, Coconino County, AZ

  10. Detail of southeast corner showing vaulted stair and balcony supports, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Detail of southeast corner showing vaulted stair and balcony supports, and railing panels of tile filler, facing southwest. - Marine Barracks, Panama Canal, Officers' Quarters, 800' West of Bruja Road, Balboa, Former Panama Canal Zone, CZ

  11. Vault Area (original section), south corridor, looking west Fort ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Vault Area (original section), south corridor, looking west - Fort McNair, Film Store House, Fort Lesley J. McNair, P Street between Third & Fourth Streets, Southwest, Washington, District of Columbia, DC

  12. Interior view, barrel vaulted store room opening from the south ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Interior view, barrel vaulted store room opening from the south side of the ground floors central east-west passage (PA-1622-A-51) looking northeast. - U. S. Naval Asylum, Biddle Hall, Gray's Ferry Avenue, Philadelphia, Philadelphia County, PA

  13. 4. View from chief clerk's office into clerk room. Vault ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    4. View from chief clerk's office into clerk room. Vault at center in background. View to south. - Duluth & Iron Range Rail Road Company Shops, Office, Southwest of downtown Two Harbors, northwest of Agate Bay, Two Harbors, Lake County, MN

  14. NORTH SIDE FACING TRACK, SHOWING ELECTRICAL BOX AND CONCRETE VAULT ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    NORTH SIDE FACING TRACK, SHOWING ELECTRICAL BOX AND CONCRETE VAULT - Edwards Air Force Base, South Base Sled Track, Electrical Distribution Station, South side of Sled Track, Lancaster, Los Angeles County, CA

  15. COUNTERWEIGHT, CONNECTED TO HYDRAULIC BRAKE SYSTEM, IN REAR OF VAULT ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    COUNTERWEIGHT, CONNECTED TO HYDRAULIC BRAKE SYSTEM, IN REAR OF VAULT MOTOR ROOM, LOOKING SOUTHWEST. - Mad River Glen, Single Chair Ski Lift, 62 Mad River Glen Resort Road, Fayston, Washington County, VT

  16. Detail of northeast stair entry with vaulted stair landing and ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Detail of northeast stair entry with vaulted stair landing and ghost of former stair arch below stepped rail, facing west. - Marine Barracks, Panama Canal, Barracks Building, 100' North of Thatcher Highway, Balboa, Former Panama Canal Zone, CZ

  17. 14. END VIEW OF THE PLUTONIUM STORAGE VAULT FROM THE ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    14. END VIEW OF THE PLUTONIUM STORAGE VAULT FROM THE REMOTE CONTROL STATION. THE STACKER-RETRIEVER, A REMOTELY-OPERATED, MECHANIZED TRANSPORT SYSTEM, RETRIEVES CONTAINERS OF PLUTONIUM FROM SAFE GEOMETRY PALLETS STORED ALONG THE LENGTH OF THE VAULT. THE STACKER-RETRIEVER RUNS ALONG THE AISLE BETWEEN THE PALLETS OF THE STORAGE CHAMBER. (3/2/86) - Rocky Flats Plant, Plutonium Recovery Facility, Northwest portion of Rocky Flats Plant, Golden, Jefferson County, CO

  18. Reversible PH Lability of Cross-Linked Vault Nanocapsules

    SciTech Connect

    Yu, M.; Ng, B.C.; Rome, L.H.; Tolbert, S.H.; Monbouquette, H.G.

    2009-05-28

    Vaults are ubiquitous, self-assembled protein nanocapsules with dimension in the sub-100 nm range that are conserved across diverse phyla from worms to humans. Their normal presence in humans at a copy number of over 10 000/cell makes them attractive as potential drug delivery vehicles. Toward this goal, bifunctional amine-reactive reagents are shown to be useful for the reversible cross-linking of recombinant vaults such that they may be closed and opened in a controllable manner.

  19. Optimal technique for maximal forward rotating vaults in men's gymnastics.

    PubMed

    Hiley, Michael J; Jackson, Monique I; Yeadon, Maurice R

    2015-08-01

    In vaulting a gymnast must generate sufficient linear and angular momentum during the approach and table contact to complete the rotational requirements in the post-flight phase. This study investigated the optimization of table touchdown conditions and table contact technique for the maximization of rotation potential for forwards rotating vaults. A planar seven-segment torque-driven computer simulation model of the contact phase in vaulting was evaluated by varying joint torque activation time histories to match three performances of a handspring double somersault vault by an elite gymnast. The closest matching simulation was used as a starting point to maximize post-flight rotation potential (the product of angular momentum and flight time) for a forwards rotating vault. It was found that the maximized rotation potential was sufficient to produce a handspring double piked somersault vault. The corresponding optimal touchdown configuration exhibited hip flexion in contrast to the hyperextended configuration required for maximal height. Increasing touchdown velocity and angular momentum lead to additional post-flight rotation potential. By increasing the horizontal velocity at table touchdown, within limits obtained from recorded performances, the handspring double somersault tucked with one and a half twists, and the handspring triple somersault tucked became theoretically possible.

  20. Dynamic research of masonry vault in a technical scale

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Golebiewski, Michal; Lubowiecka, Izabela; Kujawa, Marcin

    2017-03-01

    The paper presents preliminary results of dynamic tests of the masonry barrel vault in a technical scale. Experimental studies are intended to identify material properties of homogenized masonry vaults under dynamic loads. The aim of the work is to create numerical models to analyse vault's dynamic response to dynamic loads in a simplest and accurate way. The process of building the vault in a technical scale is presented in the paper. Furthermore a excitation of vibrations with an electrodynamic modal exciter placed on the vault, controlled by an arbitrary waveform function generator, is discussed. Finally paper presents trends in the research for homogenization algorithm enabling dynamic analysis of masonry vaults. Experimental results were compared with outcomes of so-called macromodels (macromodel of a brick masonry is a model in which masonry, i.e. a medium consisting of two different fractions - bricks and mortar, is represented by a homogenized, uniformed, material). Homogenization entail significant simplifications, nevertheless according to the authors, can be a useful approach in a static and dynamic analysis of masonry structures.

  1. Experimental Analysis of Dynamic Effects of FRP Reinforced Masonry Vaults

    PubMed Central

    Corradi, Marco; Borri, Antonio; Castori, Giulio; Coventry, Kathryn

    2015-01-01

    An increasing interest in the preservation of historic structures has produced a need for new methods for reinforcing curved masonry structures, such as arches and vaults. These structures are generally very ancient, have geometries and materials which are poorly defined and have been exposed to long-term historical movements and actions. Consequently, they are often in need of repair or reinforcement. This article presents the results of an experimental study carried out in the laboratory and during on-site testing to investigate the behaviour of brick masonry vaults under dynamic loading strengthened with FRPs (Fiber Reinforced Polymers). For the laboratory tests, the brick vaults were built with solid sanded clay bricks and weak mortar and were tested under dynamic loading. The experimental tests were designed to facilitate analysis of the dynamic behaviour of undamaged, damaged and reinforced vaulted structures. On-site tests were carried out on an earthquake-damaged thin brick vault of an 18th century aristocratic residence in the city of L’Aquila, Italy. The provision of FRP reinforcement is shown to re-establish elastic behavior previously compromised by time induced damage in the vaults. PMID:28793697

  2. Exploratory Investigation of Impact Loads During the Forward Handspring Vault

    PubMed Central

    Penitente, Gabriella; Sands, William A.

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine kinematic and kinetic differences in low and high intensity hand support impact loads during a forward handspring vault. A high-speed video camera (500 Hz) and two portable force platforms (500 Hz) were installed on the surface of the vault table. Two-dimensional analyses were conducted on 24 forward handspring vaults performed by 12 senior level, junior Olympic program female gymnasts (16.9 ±1.4 yr; body height 1.60 ±0.1 m; body mass 56.7 ±7.8 kg). Load intensities at impact with the vault table were classified as low (peak force < 0.8 × body weight) and high (peak force > 0.8 × body weight). These vaults were compared via crucial kinetic and kinematic variables using independent t-tests and Pearson correlations. Statistically significant (p < 0.001) differences were observed in peak force (t(24) = 4.75, ES = 3.37) and time to peak force (t(24) = 2.07, ES = 1.56). Statistically significant relationships between the loading rate and time to peak force were observed for high intensity loads. Peak force, time to peak force, and a shoulder angle at impact were identified as primary variables potentially involved in the determination of large repetitive loading rates on the forward handspring vault. PMID:26240649

  3. Studing cranial vault modifications in ancient Mesoamerica.

    PubMed

    Tiesler, Vera

    2012-01-01

    The artificial modification of infant cranial vaults through massages or by means of constriction and compression devices constitutes a readily visible, permanent body modification that has been employed cross-culturally to express identity, ethnicity, beauty, status and gender. For those ancient societies that staged head shaping, these cultural correlates may be ascertained by examining cranial shapes together with other data sets from the archaeological record. Studies of skulls modified for cultural reasons also provide important clues for understanding principles in neural growth and physiopathological variation in cranial expansion. This paper focuses on head shaping techniques in Mesoamerica, where the practice was deeply rooted and widespread before the European conquest. It provides a comprehensive review of the Mesoamericanistic research on shaping techniques, implements and taxonomies. An up-dated, interdisciplinary examination of the physiological implications and the cultural meanings of artificially produced head shapes in different times and culture areas within Mesoamerica leads to a discussion of the scope, caveats, and future directions involved in this kind of research in the region and beyond.

  4. Neutron monitoring of plutonium at the ZPPR storage vault

    SciTech Connect

    Caldwell, J.T.; Kuckertz, T.H.; Bieri, J.M.; France, S.W.; Goin, R.W.; Hastings, R.D.; Pratt, J.C.; Shunk, E.R.

    1981-12-01

    We investigated a method for monitoring a typical large storage vault for unauthorized removal of plutonium. The method is based on the assumption that the neutron field in a vault produced by a particular geometric configuration of bulk plutonium remains constant in time and space as long as the configuration is undisturbed. To observe such a neutron field, we installed an array of 25 neutron detectors in the ceiling of a plutonium storage vault at Argonne National Laboratory West. Each neutron detector provided an independent spatial measurement of the vault neutron field. Data collected by each detector were processed to determine whether statistically significant changes had occurred in the neutron field. Continuous observation experiments measured the long-term stability of the system. Removal experiments were performed in which known quantities of plutonium were removed from the vault. Both types of experiments demonstrated that the neutron monitoring system can detect removal or addition of bulk plutonium (11% /sup 240/Pu) whose mass is as small as 0.04% of the total inventory.

  5. Thermal analysis of the failed equipment storage vault system

    SciTech Connect

    Jerrell, J.; Lee, S.Y.; Shadday, A.

    1995-07-01

    A storage facility for failed glass melters is required for radioactive operation of the Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF). It is currently proposed that the failed melters be stored in the Failed Equipment Storage Vaults (FESV`s) in S area. The FESV`s are underground reinforced concrete structures constructed in pairs, with adjacent vaults sharing a common wall. A failed melter is to be placed in a steel Melter Storage Box (MSB), sealed, and lowered into the vault. A concrete lid is then placed over the top of the FESV. Two melters will be placed within the FESV/MSB system, separated by the common wall. There is no forced ventilation within the vault so that the melter is passively cooled. Temperature profiles in the Failed Equipment Storage Vault Structures have been generated using the FLOW3D software to model heat conduction and convection within the FESV/MSB system. Due to complexities in modeling radiation with FLOW3D, P/THERMAL software has been used to model radiation using the conduction/convection temperature results from FLOW3D. The final conjugate model includes heat transfer by conduction, convection, and radiation to predict steady-state temperatures. Also, the FLOW3D software has been validated as required by the technical task request.

  6. Inner and outer waste storage vaults with leak-testing accessibility

    SciTech Connect

    Splinter, B.C.

    1985-04-23

    A storage arrangement for waste materials of the type which tend to pollute the environment consists of a waterproof reinforced concrete vault, preferably located underground, and a permanent reinforced concrete storage vault within the underground vault and spaced from the walls thereof by a water lock. Sealed containers filled with chemical or nuclear waste are deposited in the permanent storage vault and sealed therein with bitumen. The underground vault is provided with an access opening to the water lock to enable testing of the water periodically for contamination due to leakage from the permanent storage vault. If no leakage is evident after a predetermined time period has elapsed, the permanent storage vault is removed from the underground vault and shipped to a permanent storage site.

  7. Seismic Behaviour of Masonry Vault-Slab Structures

    SciTech Connect

    Chesi, Claudio; Butti, Ferdinando; Ferrari, Marco

    2008-07-08

    Spandrel walls typically play a structural role in masonry buildings, transferring load from a slab to the supporting vault. Some indications are given in the literature on the behaviour of spandrels under the effect of vertical loads, but little attention is given to the effect coming from lateral forces acting on the building. An opportunity to investigate this problem has come from the need of analyzing a monumental building which was damaged by the Nov. 24, 2004 Val Sabbia earthquake in the north of Italy. The finite element model set up for the analysis of the vault-spandrel-slab system is presented and the structural role resulting for the spandrels is discussed.

  8. The fate of organics from hot semiworks in CR vault

    SciTech Connect

    REYNOLDS, D.A.

    1999-08-23

    The 244-CR vault contains four tanks: two 40,000-gallon carbon steel tanks and two 15,000-gallon stainless steel tanks. On occasion, the waste from 201-C Semiworks was routed through the tanks in 244-CR. This had the potential for mixing the organics from 201-C Semiworks and a residual heel in 244-CR which may be acidic. The purpose of this study is to determine if there is a possibility that a reactive waste could be present in 244-CR vault.

  9. HYDRAULIC AND PHYSICAL PROPERTIES OF SALTSTONE GROUTS AND VAULT CONCRETES

    SciTech Connect

    Dixon, K; John Harbour, J; Mark Phifer, M

    2008-11-25

    The Saltstone Disposal Facility (SDF), located in the Z-Area of the Savannah River Site (SRS), is used for the disposal of low-level radioactive salt solution. The SDF currently contains two vaults: Vault 1 (6 cells) and Vault 4 (12 cells). Additional disposal cells are currently in the design phase. The individual cells of the saltstone facility are filled with saltstone. Saltstone is produced by mixing the low-level radioactive salt solution, with blast furnace slag, fly ash, and cement (dry premix) to form a dense, micro-porous, monolithic, low-level radioactive waste form. The saltstone is pumped into the disposal cells where it subsequently solidifies. Significant effort has been undertaken to accurately model the movement of water and contaminants through the facility. Key to this effort is an accurate understanding of the hydraulic and physical properties of the solidified saltstone. To date, limited testing has been conducted to characterize the saltstone. The primary focus of this task was to estimate the hydraulic and physical properties of three types of saltstone and two vault concretes. The saltstone formulations included saltstone premix batched with (1) Deliquification, Dissolution, and Adjustment (DDA) salt simulant (w/pm 0.60), (2) Actinide Removal Process (ARP)/Modular Caustic Side Solvent Extraction Unit (MCU) salt simulant (w/pm 0.60), and (3) Salt Waste Processing Facility (SWPF) salt simulant (w/pm 0.60). The vault concrete formulations tested included the Vault 1/4 concrete and two variations of the Vault 2 concrete (Mix 1 and Mix 2). Wet properties measured for the saltstone formulations included yield stress, plastic viscosity, wet unit weight, bleed water volume, gel time, set time, and heat of hydration. Hydraulic and physical properties measured on the cured saltstone and concrete samples included saturated hydraulic conductivity, moisture retention, compressive strength, porosity, particle density, and dry bulk density. These properties

  10. 3. View, piping and stack associated with the oxidizer vault ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    3. View, piping and stack associated with the oxidizer vault storage area in foreground with Systems Integration Laboratory (T-28) in background, looking northwest. - Air Force Plant PJKS, Systems Integration Laboratory, Waterton Canyon Road & Colorado Highway 121, Lakewood, Jefferson County, CO

  11. Posterior Cranial Vault Distraction Osteogenesis: Evolution of Technique

    PubMed Central

    Ong, Juling; Harshbarger, Raymond J.; Kelley, Patrick; George, Timothy

    2014-01-01

    The rapid growth of the brain in the first few years of life drives the expansion of the cranial vault. This expansion occurs primarily at the cranial sutures; premature fusion of these results in growth restriction perpendicular to the axis of the suture. The result of this is physical deformation of the cranial and facial skeleton, as well as the distortion of the underling brain and its physiology. These patients can present with symptoms of raised intracranial pressure, neurodevelopmental delay, as well as the morphological features of craniosynostosis. Acquired conditions such as the slit ventricle syndrome may also result in cephalocranial disproportion with these clinical features. Traditional vault remodeling surgery is able to correct the physical abnormalities as well as correcting cephalocranial disproportion. Its limitations include the degree of scalp expansion achievable as well as resulting defects in the bone. The use of distraction osteogenesis of the cranial vault permits a controlled expansion in a predetermined vector in a gradual manner. When used in the calvarium, this combines the benefits of tissue expansion on the scalp, as well as stimulating the production of new bone, reducing the defects resulting from expansion. In this review, the authors describe some of the surgical considerations important to the use of this technique. This includes the relevant anatomy and technical aspects illustrated with the use of clinical cases. Finally, they present a summary of their experience and discuss the complications associated with cranial vault distraction osteogenesis. PMID:25383052

  12. Interior detail of vault door in Post Office space of ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Interior detail of vault door in Post Office space of Facility 64A, view facing north - U.S. Naval Base, Pearl Harbor, Temporary Storehouse & Gas Cylinder Storage, Avenue D, adjacent to east side of Facility No. 29, Pearl City, Honolulu County, HI

  13. Storage Area (1942 section), looking east, showing all of Vault ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Storage Area (1942 section), looking east, showing all of Vault No. 1 door behind wall opening and sprinkler system - Fort McNair, Film Store House, Fort Lesley J. McNair, P Street between Third & Fourth Streets, Southwest, Washington, District of Columbia, DC

  14. 49 CFR 192.189 - Vaults: Drainage and waterproofing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... HAZARDOUS MATERIALS SAFETY ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION (CONTINUED) PIPELINE SAFETY TRANSPORTATION OF NATURAL AND OTHER GAS BY PIPELINE: MINIMUM FEDERAL SAFETY STANDARDS Design of Pipeline... the entrance of water. (b) A vault containing gas piping may not be connected by means of a drain...

  15. 7. Photocopy of Elevations drawing (from the BPA Engineering Vault, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    7. Photocopy of Elevations drawing (from the BPA Engineering Vault, Drawing C13-J2-342-D1, Sheet 3, 13 March 1939) - Bonneville Power Administration South Bank Substation, I-84, South of Bonneville Dam Powerhouse, Bonneville, Multnomah County, OR

  16. DRIVE TERMINAL WITH VAULT MOTOR ROOM IN BASEMENT. SINGLE CHAIR ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    DRIVE TERMINAL WITH VAULT MOTOR ROOM IN BASEMENT. SINGLE CHAIR SKI LIFT (1947) ON LEFT, DOUBLE CHAIR SKI LIFT (1962) ON RIGHT. LOOKING SOUTHWEST WITH GENERAL STARK MOUNTAIN IN THE BACKGROUND. - Mad River Glen, Single Chair Ski Lift, 62 Mad River Glen Resort Road, Fayston, Washington County, VT

  17. BASE OF BULLWHEEL DRIVE SHAFT IN VAULT MOTOR ROOM, CONNECTING ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    BASE OF BULLWHEEL DRIVE SHAFT IN VAULT MOTOR ROOM, CONNECTING TO REDUCTION GEAR SHAFTING. FERREL SPEED REDUCER IN FOREGROUND, FACING WEST. NOTE TWO DIAGONAL LINES: TORQUE CONVERTER CABLE (IN PIECE OF WHITE GUTTER), THROTTLE CABLE (IN LOWER STEEL TUBING). - Mad River Glen, Single Chair Ski Lift, 62 Mad River Glen Resort Road, Fayston, Washington County, VT

  18. View west of the front of the brick vault built ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    View west of the front of the brick vault built into the northern slope of Mount Zion Cemetery. - Mount Zion Cemetery/ Female Union Band Cemetery, Bounded by 27th Street right-of-way N.W. (formerly Lyons Mill Road), Q Street N.W., & Mill Road N.W., Washington, District of Columbia, DC

  19. View north of the brick vault built into the northern ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    View north of the brick vault built into the northern slope of Mount Zion Cemetery with Rock Creek and Rock Creek Park beyond the trees. - Mount Zion Cemetery/ Female Union Band Cemetery, Bounded by 27th Street right-of-way N.W. (formerly Lyons Mill Road), Q Street N.W., & Mill Road N.W., Washington, District of Columbia, DC

  20. BASE OF BULLWHEEL DRIVE SHAFT IN VAULT MOTOR ROOM, CONNECTING ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    BASE OF BULLWHEEL DRIVE SHAFT IN VAULT MOTOR ROOM, CONNECTING TO REDUCTION GEAR SHAFTING. FERREL SPEED REDUCER IN FOREGROUND, FACING WEST. NOTE TWO DIAGONAL LINES: TORQUE CONVERTER CABLE (IN PIECE OF WHITE GUTTER), THROTTLE CABLE (IN LOWER STEEL TUBING). - Mad River Glen, Single Chair Ski Lift, 62 Mad River Glen Resort Road, Fayston, Washington County, VT

  1. Particle image velocimetry of a flow at a vaulted wall.

    PubMed

    Kertzscher, U; Berthe, A; Goubergrits, L; Affeld, K

    2008-05-01

    The assessment of flow along a vaulted wall (with two main finite radii of curvature) is of general interest; in biofluid mechanics, it is of special interest. Unlike the geometry of flows in engineering, flow geometry in nature is often determined by vaulted walls. Specifically the flow adjacent to the wall of blood vessels is particularly interesting since this is where either thrombi are formed or atherosclerosis develops. Current measurement methods have problems assessing the flow along vaulted walls. In contrast with conventional particle image velocimetry (PIV), this new method, called wall PIV, allows the investigation of a flow adjacent to transparent flexible surfaces with two finite radii of curvature. Using an optical method which allows the observation of particles up to a predefined depth enables the visualization solely of the boundary layer flow. This is accomplished by adding a specific dye to the fluid which absorbs the monochromatic light used to illuminate the region of observation. The obtained images can be analysed with the methods of conventional PIV and result in a vector field of the velocities along the wall. With wall PIV, the steady flow adjacent to the vaulted wall of a blood pump was investigated and the resulting velocity field as well as the velocity fluctuations were assessed.

  2. 1. INTERIOR VIEW WITH NAVE, BARREL VAULTED SOLEA, ICONOSTAS WITH ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    1. INTERIOR VIEW WITH NAVE, BARREL VAULTED SOLEA, ICONOSTAS WITH ICON AND SANCTUARY. IN ARCH ABOVE THE SANCTUARY IS THE TABLE OF ABRAHAM. THE ICONOSTAS INCLUDES ICONS OF THE ARCHANGEL MICHAEL, THE HOLY TRINITY, MOTHER OF GOD HOLDING THE CHRIST CHILD, JESUS. - Holy Trinity-Holy Cross Greek Orthodox Church, 200 Nineteenth Street South, Birmingham, Jefferson County, AL

  3. Direct visualization of vaults within intact cells by electron cryo-tomography

    PubMed Central

    Woodward, Cora L.; Mendonça, Luiza M.

    2016-01-01

    The vault complex is the largest cellular ribonucleoprotein complex ever characterized and is present across diverse Eukarya. Despite significant information regarding the structure, composition and evolutionary conservation of the vault, little is know about the complex’s actual biological function. To determine if intracellular vaults are morphologically similar to previously studied purified and recombinant vaults, we have used electron cryo-tomography to characterize the vault complexes found in the thin edges of primary human cells growing in tissue culture. Our studies confirm that intracellular vaults are similar in overall size and shape to purified and recombinant vaults previously analyzed. Results from subtomogram averaging indicate that densities within the vault lumen are not ordered, but randomly distributed. We also observe that vaults located in the extreme periphery of the cytoplasm predominately associate with granule-like structures and actin. Our ultrastructure studies augment existing biochemical, structural and genetic information on the vault, and provide important intracellular context for the ongoing efforts to understand the biological function of the native cytoplasmic vault. PMID:25864047

  4. Structural and seismic analyses of waste facility reinforced concrete storage vaults

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, C.Y.

    1995-07-01

    Facility 317 of Argonne National Laboratory consists of several reinforced concrete waste storage vaults designed and constructed in the late 1940`s through the early 1960`s. In this paper, structural analyses of these concrete vaults subjected to various natural hazards are described, emphasizing the northwest shallow vault. The natural phenomenon hazards considered include both earthquakes and tornados. Because these vaults are deeply embedded in the soil, the SASSI (System Analysis of Soil-Structure Interaction) code was utilized for the seismic calculations. The ultimate strength method was used to analyze the reinforced concrete structures. In all studies, moment and shear strengths at critical locations of the storage vaults were evaluated. Results of the structural analyses show that almost all the waste storage vaults meet the code requirements according to ACI 349--85. These vaults also satisfy the performance goal such that confinement of hazardous materials is maintained and functioning of the facility is not interrupted.

  5. Below ground competition among invading detritivores

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The factors regulating soil animal communities are poorly understood. Current theory favors niche complementarity and facilitation over competition as the primary forms of non-trophic interspecific interaction in soil fauna. However, competition frequently has been suggested as an important communi...

  6. The role of below-ground competition during early stages of secondary succession: the case of 3-year-old Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) seedlings in an abandoned grassland.

    PubMed

    Picon-Cochard, Catherine; Coll, Lluis; Balandier, Philippe

    2006-06-01

    In abandoned or extensively managed grasslands, the mechanisms involved in pioneer tree species success are not fully explained. Resource competition among plants and microclimate modifications have been emphasised as possible mechanisms to explain variation of survivorship and growth. In this study, we evaluated a number of mechanisms that may lead to successful survival and growth of seedlings of a pioneer tree species (Pinus sylvestris) in a grass-dominated grassland. Three-year-old Scots pines were planted in an extensively managed grassland of the French Massif Central and for 2 years were either maintained in bare soil or subjected to aerial and below-ground interactions induced by grass vegetation. Soil temperatures were slightly higher in bare soil than under the grass vegetation, but not to an extent explaining pine growth differences. The tall grass canopy reduced light transmission by 77% at ground level and by 20% in the upper part of Scots pine seedlings. Grass vegetation presence also significantly decreased soil volumetric water content (Hv) and soil nitrate in spring and in summer. In these conditions, the average tree height was reduced by 5% compared to trees grown in bare soil, and plant biomass was reduced by 85%. Scots pine intrinsic water-use efficiency (A/g), measured by leaf gas-exchange, increased when Hv decreased owing to a rapid decline of stomatal conductance (g). This result was also confirmed by delta 13C analyses of needles. A summer 15N labelling of seedlings and grass vegetation confirmed the higher NO3 capture capacity of grass vegetation in comparison with Scots pine seedlings. Our results provide evidence that the seedlings' success was linked to tolerance of below-ground resource depletion (particularly water) induced by grass vegetation based on morphological and physiological plasticity as well as to resource conservation.

  7. Special Analysis: Revision of Saltstone Vault 4 Disposal Limits (U)

    SciTech Connect

    Cook, J

    2005-05-26

    New disposal limits have been computed for Vault 4 of the Saltstone Disposal Facility based on several revisions to the models in the existing Performance Assessment and the Special Analysis issued in 2002. The most important changes are the use of a more rigorous groundwater flow and transport model, and consideration of radon emanation. Other revisions include refinement of the aquifer mesh to more accurately model the footprint of the vault, a new plutonium chemistry model accounting for the different transport properties of oxidation states III/IV and V/VI, use of variable infiltration rates to simulate degradation of the closure system, explicit calculation of gaseous releases and consideration of the effects of settlement and seismic activity on the vault structure. The disposal limits have been compared with the projected total inventory expected to be disposed in Vault 4. The resulting sum-of-fractions of the 1000-year disposal limits is 0.2, which indicates that the performance objectives and requirements of DOE 435.1 will not be exceeded. This SA has not altered the conceptual model (i.e., migration of radionuclides from the Saltstone waste form and Vault 4 to the environment via the processes of diffusion and advection) of the Saltstone PA (MMES 1992) nor has it altered the conclusions of the PA (i.e., disposal of the proposed waste in the SDF will meet DOE performance measures). Thus a PA revision is not required and this SA serves to update the disposal limits for Vault 4. In addition, projected doses have been calculated for comparison with the performance objectives laid out in 10 CFR 61. These doses are 0.05 mrem/year to a member of the public and 21.5 mrem/year to an inadvertent intruder in the resident scenario over a 10,000-year time-frame, which demonstrates that the 10 CFR 61 performance objectives will not be exceeded. This SA supplements the Saltstone PA and supersedes the two previous SAs (Cook et al. 2002; Cook and Kaplan 2003).

  8. Vault poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase is associated with mammalian telomerase and is dispensable for telomerase function and vault structure in vivo.

    PubMed

    Liu, Yie; Snow, Bryan E; Kickhoefer, Valerie A; Erdmann, Natalie; Zhou, Wen; Wakeham, Andrew; Gomez, Marla; Rome, Leonard H; Harrington, Lea

    2004-06-01

    Vault poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase (VPARP) was originally identified as a minor protein component of the vault ribonucleoprotein particle, which may be involved in molecular assembly or subcellular transport. In addition to the association of VPARP with the cytoplasmic vault particle, subpopulations of VPARP localize to the nucleus and the mitotic spindle, indicating that VPARP may have other cellular functions. We found that VPARP was associated with telomerase activity and interacted with exogenously expressed telomerase-associated protein 1 (TEP1) in human cells. To study the possible role of VPARP in telomerase and vault complexes in vivo, mVparp-deficient mice were generated. Mice deficient in mVparp were viable and fertile for up to five generations, with no apparent changes in telomerase activity or telomere length. Vaults purified from mVparp-deficient mouse liver appeared intact, and no defect in association with other vault components was observed. Mice deficient in mTep1, whose disruption alone does not affect telomere function but does affect the stability of vault RNA, showed no additional telomerase or telomere-related phenotypes when the mTep1 deficiency was combined with an mVparp deficiency. These data suggest that murine mTep1 and mVparp, alone or in combination, are dispensable for normal development, telomerase catalysis, telomere length maintenance, and vault structure in vivo.

  9. Targeted Vault Nanoparticles Engineered with an Endosomolytic Peptide Deliver Biomolecules to the Cytoplasm

    PubMed Central

    Han, Muri; Kickhoefer, Valerie A.; Nemerow, Glen R.; Rome, Leonard H.

    2011-01-01

    Vault nanoparticles were engineered to enhance their escape from the endosomal compartment by fusing a membrane lytic peptide derived from adenovirus protein VI (pVI) to the N-terminus of the major vault protein to form pVI-vaults. We demonstrate that these pVI-vaults disrupt the endosomal membrane using three different experimental protocols including: 1) enhancement of DNA transfection, 2) co-delivery of a cytosolic ribotoxin, and 3) direct visualization by fluorescence. Furthermore, direct targeting of vaults to specific cell surface epidermal growth factor receptors led to enhanced cellular uptake and efficient delivery of vaults to the cytoplasm. This process was monitored with fluorescent vaults and morphological changes in the endosomal compartment were observed. By combining targeting and endosomal escape into a single recombinant vault, high levels of transfection efficiency were achieved using low numbers of vault particles. These results demonstrate that engineered vaults are effective, efficient, and non-toxic nanoparticles for targeted delivery of biomaterials to the cell cytoplasm. PMID:21740042

  10. Spectra and Neutron Dosimetry Inside a PET Cyclotron Vault Room

    SciTech Connect

    Vega-Carrillo, Hector Rene; Mendez, Roberto; Iniguez, Maria Pilar; Marti-Climent, Joseph; Penuelas, Ivan; Barquero, Raquel

    2006-09-08

    The neutron field around a PET cyclotron was investigated during 18F radioisotope production with an 18 MeV proton beam. Pairs of thermoluminescent dosemeters, TLD600 and TLD700, were used as thermal neutron detector inside a Bonner Spheres Spectrometer to measure the neutron spectra at three different positions inside the cyclotron's vault room. Neutron spectra were also determined by Monte Carlo calculations. The hardest spectrum was observed in front of cyclotron target and the softest was noticed at the antipode of target. Neutron doses derived from the measured spectra vary between 11 and 377 mSv/{mu}A-h of proton integrated current, Doses were also measured with a single-moderator remmeter, with an active thermal neutron detector, whose response in affected by the radiation field in the vault room.

  11. 20. Interior view of fuel storage pit or vault adjacent ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    20. Interior view of fuel storage pit or vault adjacent to Test Cell 9 in Component Test Laboratory (T-27), looking west. Photograph shows upgraded instrumentation, piping, tanks, and technological modifications installed in 1997-99 to accommodate component testing requirements for the Atlas V missile. - Air Force Plant PJKS, Systems Integration Laboratory, Components Test Laboratory, Waterton Canyon Road & Colorado Highway 121, Lakewood, Jefferson County, CO

  12. Conference room 211, adjacent to commander's quarters, with vault door ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Conference room 211, adjacent to commander's quarters, with vault door at right. Projection area at center is equipped with automatic security drapes. Projection room uses a 45 degree mirror to reflect the image onto the frosted glass screen. Door on far left leads to display area senior battle staff viewing bridge, and the commander's quarters - March Air Force Base, Strategic Air Command, Combat Operations Center, 5220 Riverside Drive, Moreno Valley, Riverside County, CA

  13. 60. VIEW OF THE CURRENT TRANSFORMER VAULT. THIS CURRENT TRANSFORMER ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    60. VIEW OF THE CURRENT TRANSFORMER VAULT. THIS CURRENT TRANSFORMER WAS USED TO SENSE HIGH CURRENT BEING GENERATED ON GENERATOR NUMBER 3 AND REDUCE IT TO A LOWER, EXACT ANALOG VALUE THAT COULD BE SAFELY HANDLED AND MONITORED WITH THE CONTROL CIRCUITRY. THE CURRENT TRANSFORMER IS LOCATED IN THE CENTER OF THE PHOTOGRAPH. THE CONNECTING BUS ABOVE THE TRANSFORMER WAS REMOVED FOR SALVAGE. - New York, New Haven & Hartford Railroad, Cos Cob Power Plant, Sound Shore Drive, Greenwich, Fairfield County, CT

  14. PHASE II VAULT TESTING OF THE ARGONNE RFID SYSTEM

    SciTech Connect

    Willoner, T.; Turlington, R.; Koenig, R.

    2012-06-25

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) (Environmental Management [EM], Office of Packaging and Transportation [EM-45]) Packaging and Certification Program (DOE PCP) has developed a Radio Frequency Identification (RFID) tracking and monitoring system, called ARG-US, for the management of nuclear materials packages during transportation and storage. The performance of the ARG-US RFID equipment and system has been fully tested in two demonstration projects in April 2008 and August 2009. With the strong support of DOE-SR and DOE PCP, a field testing program was completed in Savannah River Site's K-Area Material Storage (KAMS) Facility, an active Category I Plutonium Storage Facility, in 2010. As the next step (Phase II) of continued vault testing for the ARG-US system, the Savannah River Site K Area Material Storage facility has placed the ARG-US RFIDs into the 910B storage vault for operational testing. This latest version (Mark III) of the Argonne RFID system now has the capability to measure radiation dose and dose rate. This paper will report field testing progress of the ARG-US RFID equipment in KAMS, the operability and reliability trend results associated with the applications of the system, and discuss the potential benefits in enhancing safety, security and materials accountability. The purpose of this Phase II K Area test is to verify the accuracy of the radiation monitoring and proper functionality of the ARG-US RFID equipment and system under a realistic environment in the KAMS facility. Deploying the ARG-US RFID system leads to a reduced need for manned surveillance and increased inventory periods by providing real-time access to status and event history traceability, including environmental condition monitoring and radiation monitoring. The successful completion of the testing program will provide field data to support a future development and testing. This will increase Operation efficiency and cost effectiveness for vault operation. As the next step (Phase

  15. Vault Nanoparticles Engineered with the Protein Transduction Domain, TAT48, Enhances Cellular Uptake

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Jian; Srinivasan, Aswin; Sun, Yang; Mrazek, Jan; Shu, Zhanyong; Kickhoefer, Valerie A.

    2013-01-01

    Vaults are naturally-occurring ribonucleoprotein particles found in nearly all eukaryotic cells. They were named for their morphological resemblance to the vaulted ceilings of gothic cathedrals. These ubiquitous nanoparticles are quite abundant with 104-106 copies found in the cytoplasm depending on cell type. The structural shell of the particle can self-assemble from 78 copies of a single protein, the major vault protein. This finding has allowed vaults to be bioengineered, resulting in a variety of new functions and capabilities directed toward overcoming many limitations posed by current gene and drug delivery systems. In this study, we demonstrate that recombinant vaults, with the addition of a cell penetration peptide, TAT, can be rapidly delivered to cells in vitro with significantly elevated binding and uptake efficiency. This TAT-vault nanoparticle could be a valuable tool for improving the retention and penetration of therapeutic drugs at tumor sites. PMID:22785558

  16. Calculation of the nuclear material inventory in a sealed vault by 3D radiation mapping

    SciTech Connect

    Adsley, Ian; Klepikov, Alexander; Tur, Yevgeniy; Wells, David

    2013-07-01

    The paper relates to the determination of the amount of nuclear material contained in a closed, concrete lined vault at the Aktau fast breeder reactor in Kazakhstan. This material had been disposed into the vault after examination in an experimental hot cell directly above the vault. In order to comply with IAEA Safeguards requirements it was necessary to determine the total quantities of nuclear materials - enriched uranium and plutonium - that were held with Kazakhstan. Although it was possible to determine the inventory of all of the accessible nuclear material - the quantity remaining in the vault was unknown. As part of the Global Threat Reduction Programme the UK Government funded a project to determine the inventory of these nuclear materials in this vault. This involved drilling three penetrations through the concrete lined roof of the vault; this enabled the placement of lights and a camera into the vault through two penetrations; while the third penetration enabled a lightweight manipulator arm to be introduced into the vault. This was used to provide a detailed 3D mapping of the dose rate within the vault and it also enabled the collection of samples for radionuclide analysis. The deconvolution of the 3D dose rate profile within the vault enabled the determination of the gamma emitting source distribution on the floor and walls of the vault. The samples were analysed to determine the fingerprint of those radionuclides producing the gamma dose - namely {sup 137}Cs and {sup 60}Co - to the nuclear materials. The combination of the dose rate source terms on the surfaces of the vault and the fingerprint then enabled the quantities of nuclear materials to be determined. The project was a major success and enabled the Kazakhstan Government to comply with IAEA Safeguards requirements. It also enabled the UK DECC Ministry to develop a technology of national (and international) use. Finally the technology was well received by IAEA Safeguards as an acceptable

  17. Interaction of Vault Particles with Estrogen Receptor in the MCF-7 Breast Cancer Cell

    PubMed Central

    Abbondanza, Ciro; Rossi, Valentina; Roscigno, Annarita; Gallo, Luigi; Belsito, Angela; Piluso, Giulio; Medici, Nicola; Nigro, Vincenzo; Molinari, Anna Maria; Moncharmont, Bruno; Puca, Giovanni A.

    1998-01-01

    A 104-kD protein was coimmunoprecipitated with the estrogen receptor from the flowtrough of a phosphocellulose chromatography of MCF-7 cell nuclear extract. mAbs to this protein identified several cDNA clones coding for the human 104-kD major vault protein. Vaults are large ribonucleoprotein particles of unknown function present in all eukaryotic cells. They have a complex morphology, including several small molecules of RNA, but a single protein species, the major vault protein, accounts for >70% of their mass. Their shape is reminiscent of the nucleopore central plug, but no proteins of known function have been described to interact with them. Western blot analysis of vaults purified on sucrose gradient showed the presence of estrogen receptor co-migrating with the vault peak. The AER317 antibody to estrogen receptor coimmunoprecipitated the major vault protein and the vault RNA also in the 20,000 g supernatant fraction. Reconstitution experiments of estrogen receptor fragments with the major vault protein mapped the site of the interaction between amino acids 241 and 280 of human estrogen receptor, where the nuclear localization signal sequences are located. Estradiol treatment of cells increased the amount of major vault protein present in the nuclear extract and coimmunoprecipitated with estrogen receptor, whereas the anti-estrogen ICI182,780 had no effect. The hormone-dependent interaction of vaults with estrogen receptor was reproducible in vitro and was prevented by sodium molybdate. Antibodies to progesterone and glucocorticoid receptors were able to coimmunoprecipitate the major vault protein. The association of nuclear receptors with vaults could be related to their intracellular traffic. PMID:9628887

  18. Bioengineered Vaults: Self-Assembling Protein Shell–Lipophilic Core Nanoparticles for Drug Delivery

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    We report a novel approach to a new class of bioengineered, monodispersed, self-assembling vault nanoparticles consisting of a protein shell exterior with a lipophilic core interior designed for drug and probe delivery. Recombinant vaults were engineered to contain a small amphipathic α-helix derived from the nonstructural protein 5A of hepatitis C virus, thereby creating within the vault lumen a lipophilic microenvironment into which lipophilic compounds could be reversibly encapsulated. Multiple types of electron microscopy showed that attachment of this peptide resulted in larger than expected additional mass internalized within the vault lumen attributable to incorporation of host lipid membrane constituents spanning the vault waist (>35 nm). These bioengineered lipophilic vaults reversibly associate with a sample set of therapeutic compounds, including all-trans retinoic acid, amphotericin B, and bryostatin 1, incorporating hundreds to thousands of drug molecules per vault nanoparticle. Bryostatin 1 is of particular therapeutic interest because of its ability to potently induce expression of latent HIV, thus representing a preclinical lead in efforts to eradicate HIV/AIDS. Vaults loaded with bryostatin 1 released free drug, resulting in activation of HIV from provirus latency in vitro and induction of CD69 biomarker expression following intravenous injection into mice. The ability to preferentially and reversibly encapsulate lipophilic compounds into these novel bioengineered vault nanoparticles greatly advances their potential use as drug delivery systems. PMID:25061969

  19. Vaginal vault dehiscence after laparoscopic hysterectomy over a nine-year period at Sydney West Advanced Pelvic Surgery Unit - our experiences and current understanding of vaginal vault dehiscence.

    PubMed

    Chan, Warren S W; Kong, Karen K Y; Nikam, Yogesh A; Merkur, Harry

    2012-04-01

    A retrospective analysis of all women undergoing hysterectomy at Sydney West Advanced Pelvic Surgery Unit (SWAPS) was performed in the nine-year period from 2001 to 2009. To evaluate the incidence, timing and presenting symptoms of vaginal vault dehiscence after hysterectomy, especially via the laparoscopic approach to gain further understanding of patient risk factors and surgical factors that may predispose to this complication. Women who presented with vaginal vault dehiscence were identified and possible pre-operative, intra-operative and post-operative risk factors were assessed. A comprehensive literature search was performed to assess the current understanding and incidence of vault dehiscence after laparoscopic hysterectomy. A total of 1224 hysterectomies were performed between 2001 and 2009. 989 (80.80%) were performed laparoscopically of which five women (0.42%) presented with vault dehiscence post-operatively. All had undergone total laparoscopic hysterectomy resulting in a vault dehiscence rate of 1.59% after total laparoscopic hysterectomy specifically. Baseline characteristics included a mean age of 42.8 years (37-51 years), mean BMI of 26.8 kg/m(2) (23.8-32.3 kg/m(2)) and a mean parity of two deliveries (1-3 deliveries). The main presenting symptom of vaginal vault dehiscence was vaginal bleeding. Women with confirmed vaginal vault dehiscence readmitted to hospital at a mean of 18 days (11-28 days) post-operatively. Vaginal vault dehiscence is a rare complication after hysterectomy, but more common after a laparoscopic approach. A delayed presentation with vaginal bleeding was the main presenting symptom in this study - a literature review has shown common presenting symptoms to include abdominal pain, vaginal evisceration and vaginal bleeding. Techniques specific to total laparoscopic hysterectomy seem especially important in the increased risk of vaginal vault dehiscence seen after laparoscopic hysterectomy. © 2012 The Authors ANZJOG © 2012 The

  20. An Algorithm for Managing Syndromic Craniosynostosis Using Posterior Vault Distraction Osteogenesis.

    PubMed

    Swanson, Jordan W; Samra, Fares; Bauder, Andrew; Mitchell, Brianne T; Taylor, Jesse A; Bartlett, Scott P

    2016-05-01

    The authors hypothesize that early posterior vault distraction osteogenesis safely confers considerable cranial vault remodeling, sufficient to enable fronto-orbital advancement to be delayed to a later age, with improved outcomes. The authors conducted a retrospective cohort study of children with syndromic craniosynostosis treated before (2003 to 2008) or after (2009 to 2014) implementation of posterior vault distraction osteogenesis. Sixty children with syndromic craniosynostosis presented during the study period. Forty met inclusion criteria with care continuity and complete records: 22 before and 18 after implementation of posterior vault distraction osteogenesis. Only 11 patients (61 percent) who underwent initial posterior vault distraction osteogenesis required frontal advancement, at a mean follow-up of 4.0 years of age, compared with 22 patients (100 percent) before implementation of posterior vault distraction osteogenesis. Kaplan-Meier survival analysis indicated significant delay of first fronto-orbital advancement in the posterior vault distraction osteogenesis cohort compared with the pre-posterior vault distraction osteogenesis cohort (p = 0.011). Comparing treatment in the first 5 years of life among posterior vault distraction osteogenesis versus non-posterior vault distraction osteogenesis subcohorts of patients older than 5 years, there were significantly fewer fronto-orbital advancements performed (0.6 versus 1.5 per patient; p = 0.023). Using early posterior vault distraction osteogenesis for patients with syndromic craniosynostosis significantly reduces the average number of fronto-orbital advancement procedures in the first 5 years of life, delays initial fronto-orbital advancement, and is likely to reduce the total number of major craniofacial procedures. Therapeutic, III.

  1. Field-based Evaluation of a Novel SPME-GC-MS Method for Investigation of Below-ground Interaction between Brassica Roots and Larvae of Cabbage Root Fly, Delia radicum L.

    PubMed

    Deasy, William; Shepherd, Tom; Alexander, Colin J; Birch, A Nicholas E; Evans, K Andrew

    2016-11-01

    Collection of volatiles from plant roots poses technical challenges due to difficulties accessing the soil environment without damaging the roots. To validate a new non-invasive method for passive sampling of root volatiles in situ, from plants grown under field conditions, using solid phase micro-extraction (SPME). SPME fibres were inserted into perforated polytetrafluoroethene (PTFE) tubes positioned in the soil next to broccoli plants for collection of root volatiles pre- and post-infestation with Delia radicum larvae. After sample analysis by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS), principal component analysis (PCA) was applied to determine differences in the profiles of volatiles between samples. GC-MS analysis revealed that this method can detect temporal changes in root volatiles emitted before and after Delia radicum damage. PCA showed that samples collected pre- and post-infestation were compositionally different due to the presence of root volatiles induced by D. radicum feeding. Sulphur containing compounds, in particular, accounted for the differences observed. Root volatiles emission patterns post-infestation are thought to follow the feeding and developmental progress of larvae. This study shows that volatiles released by broccoli roots can be collected in situ using SPME fibres within perforated PTFE tubes under field conditions. Plants damaged by Delia radicum larvae could be distinguished from plants sampled pre-infestation and soil controls on the basis of larval feeding-induced sulphur-containing volatiles. These results show that this new method is a powerful tool for non-invasive sampling of root volatiles below-ground. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  2. Risk Management in the Original Extreme Sporting Event: The Pole Vault

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bemiller, Jim; Hardin, Robin

    2010-01-01

    The pole vault was considered the ultimate test of physical ability and daring before the advent of modern extreme sports such as skateboarding, snowboarding, and mountain biking. The inherent risks of the pole vault have been well documented. The National Center for Catastrophic Sport Injury Research reported in 2007 that the catastrophic injury…

  3. Cleanup Verification Package for the 118-F-7, 100-F Miscellaneous Hardware Storage Vault

    SciTech Connect

    M. J. Appel

    2006-11-02

    This cleanup verification package documents completion of remedial action for the 118-F-7, 100-F Miscellaneous Hardware Storage Vault. The site consisted of an inactive solid waste storage vault used for temporary storage of slightly contaminated reactor parts that could be recovered and reused for the 100-F Area reactor operations.

  4. Bioaugmentation with Vaults: Novel In Situ Remediation Strategy for Transformation of Perfluoroalkyl Compounds

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2016-01-01

    degradation of poly- and perfluoroalkyl compounds (PFCs), and potentially other water contaminants, without the need for repeated bioaugmentation with...and laccases into vaults. Vault packaged enzymes were stable across a broader range of temperatures and pH , and in PFC-contaminated groundwater. Since

  5. Effect of Materials and Manufacturing on the Bending Stiffness of Vaulting Poles

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Davis, C. L.; Kukureka, S. N.

    2012-01-01

    The increase in the world record height achieved in pole vaulting can be related to the improved ability of the athletes, in terms of their fitness and technique, and to the change in materials used to construct the pole. For example in 1960 there was a change in vaulting pole construction from bamboo to glass fibre reinforced polymer (GFRP)…

  6. Risk Management in the Original Extreme Sporting Event: The Pole Vault

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bemiller, Jim; Hardin, Robin

    2010-01-01

    The pole vault was considered the ultimate test of physical ability and daring before the advent of modern extreme sports such as skateboarding, snowboarding, and mountain biking. The inherent risks of the pole vault have been well documented. The National Center for Catastrophic Sport Injury Research reported in 2007 that the catastrophic injury…

  7. Effect of Materials and Manufacturing on the Bending Stiffness of Vaulting Poles

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Davis, C. L.; Kukureka, S. N.

    2012-01-01

    The increase in the world record height achieved in pole vaulting can be related to the improved ability of the athletes, in terms of their fitness and technique, and to the change in materials used to construct the pole. For example in 1960 there was a change in vaulting pole construction from bamboo to glass fibre reinforced polymer (GFRP)…

  8. 105. VIEW NORTH FROM SLC3W CABLE TUNNEL INTO CABLE VAULT ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    105. VIEW NORTH FROM SLC-3W CABLE TUNNEL INTO CABLE VAULT AND SLC-3E CABLE TUNNEL. NOTE WOODEN PLANKING ON FLOOR OF TUNNEL AND CABLE TRAYS LINING TUNNEL WALLS. STAIRS ON EAST WALL OF CABLE VAULT LEAD INTO LANDLINE INSTRUMENTATION ROOM. - Vandenberg Air Force Base, Space Launch Complex 3, Launch Operations Building, Napa & Alden Roads, Lompoc, Santa Barbara County, CA

  9. Accounting for cranial vault growth in experimental design.

    PubMed

    Power, Stephanie M; Matic, Damir B; Holdsworth, David W

    2014-05-01

    Earlier studies have not accounted for continued growth when using the rat calvarial defect model to evaluate bone healing in vivo. The purpose of this study was: 1) to calculate rat cranial vault growth over time; and 2) to determine the effects of accounting for growth on defect healing. Bilateral parietal defects were created in 10 adult Wistar rats. Serial microscopic computerized tomography scans were performed. Bone mineral content (BMC) measured according to standard technique and repeated accounting for cranial growth over time was compared with the use of parametric and nonparametric tests. Cranial vault growth continued through 22 weeks of age, increasing 7.5% in width and 9.1% in length, and calvarial defects expanded proportionately. BMC was greater within defects accounting for growth 2-12 weeks postoperatively (P < .003). BMC was underestimated through standard analysis, which demonstrates the importance of accounting for cranial growth given advances in serial imaging techniques. Crown Copyright © 2014. Published by Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Catapult effect in pole vaulting: is muscle coordination determinant?

    PubMed

    Frère, Julien; Göpfert, Beat; Hug, François; Slawinski, Jean; Tourny-Chollet, Claire

    2012-02-01

    This study focused on the phase between the time of straightened pole and the maximum height (HP) of vaulter and aimed at determining the catapult effect in pole vaulting on HP. Seven experienced vaulters performed 5-10 vaults recorded by two video cameras, while the surface electromyography (sEMG) activity of 10 upper limbs muscles was recorded. HP was compared with an estimated maximum height (HP(est)) allowing the computation of a push-off index. Muscle synergies were extracted from the sEMG activity profiles using a non-negative matrix factorization algorithm. No significant difference (p>0.47) was found between HP(est) (4.64±0.21m) and HP (4.69±0.23m). Despite a high inter-individual variability in sEMG profiles, two muscle synergies were extracted for all the subjects which accounted for 96.1±2.9% of the total variance. While, the synergy activation coefficients were very similar across subjects, a higher variability was found in the muscle synergy vectors. Consequently, whatever the push-off index among the pole vaulters, the athletes used different muscle groupings (i.e., muscle synergy vectors) which were activated in a similar fashion (i.e., synergy activation coefficients). Overall, these results suggested that muscle coordination adopted between the time of straightened pole and the maximum height does not have a major influence on HP.

  11. D Surveying and Geometric Assessment of a Gothic Nave Vaulting from Point Clouds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Costa-Jover, A.; Ginovart, J. Lluis i.; Coll-Pla, S.; López Piquer, M.; Samper-Sosa, A.; Moreno García, D.; Solís Lorenzo, A. M.

    2017-02-01

    The development of massive data captures techniques (MDC) in recent years, such as the Terrestrial laser Scanner (TLS), raises the possibility of developing new assessment procedures for architectural heritage. The 3D models that it is able to obtain is a great potential tool, both for conservation purposes and for historical and architectural studies. The paper proposes a simple, non-invasive methodology for the assessment of masonry vaults from point clouds which makes it possible to obtain relevant data about the formal anomalies. The methodology is tested in Tortosa's Gothic Cathedral's vaults, where the geometrical differences between vaults, a priori equal, are identified and related with the partially known construction phases. The procedure can be easily used on any other vaulted construction of any kind, but is especially useful to deal with the complex geometry of Gothic masonry vaults.

  12. Vault Nanoparticles Packaged with Enzymes as an Efficient Pollutant Biodegradation Technology.

    PubMed

    Wang, Meng; Abad, Danny; Kickhoefer, Valerie A; Rome, Leonard H; Mahendra, Shaily

    2015-11-24

    Vault nanoparticles packaged with enzymes were synthesized as agents for efficiently degrading environmental contaminants. Enzymatic biodegradation is an attractive technology for in situ cleanup of contaminated environments because enzyme-catalyzed reactions are not constrained by nutrient requirements for microbial growth and often have higher biodegradation rates. However, the limited stability of extracellular enzymes remains a major challenge for practical applications. Encapsulation is a recognized method to enhance enzymatic stability, but it can increase substrate diffusion resistance, lower catalytic rates, and increase the apparent half-saturation constants. Here, we report an effective approach for boosting enzymatic stability by single-step packaging into vault nanoparticles. With hollow core structures, assembled vault nanoparticles can simultaneously contain multiple enzymes. Manganese peroxidase (MnP), which is widely used in biodegradation of organic contaminants, was chosen as a model enzyme in the present study. MnP was incorporated into vaults via fusion to a packaging domain called INT, which strongly interacts with vaults' interior surface. MnP fused to INT and vaults packaged with the MnP-INT fusion protein maintained peroxidase activity. Furthermore, MnP-INT packaged in vaults displayed stability significantly higher than that of free MnP-INT, with slightly increased Km value. Additionally, vault-packaged MnP-INT exhibited 3 times higher phenol biodegradation in 24 h than did unpackaged MnP-INT. These results indicate that the packaging of MnP enzymes in vault nanoparticles extends their stability without compromising catalytic activity. This research will serve as the foundation for the development of efficient and sustainable vault-based bioremediation approaches for removing multiple contaminants from drinking water and groundwater.

  13. Major vault protein regulates cell growth/survival signaling through oxidative modifications.

    PubMed

    Das, Dividutta; Wang, Yi-Hsuan; Hsieh, Cheng-Ying; Suzuki, Yuichiro J

    2016-01-01

    Major vault protein forms a hollow, barrel-like structure in the cell called the vault, whose functions and regulation are not well understood. The present study reports that major vault protein regulates growth/survival signaling in human airway smooth muscle cells through oxidative modifications. The promotion of protein S-glutathionylation by asthma mediators such as interleukin-22 and platelet-derived growth factor or by knocking down glutaredoxin-1 or thioredoxin activated cell growth signaling. Mass spectrometry identified that major vault protein is glutathionylated. Major vault protein knockdown enhanced cell death and inhibited STAT3 and Akt signaling. We identified a protein partner of major vault protein that is regulated by glutaredoxin-1, namely myosin-9, which was found to serve as a cell death factor. Knocking down myosin-9 or promoting protein S-glutathionylation by knocking down glutaredoxin-1 inhibited the death of airway smooth muscle cells by heating to simulate bronchial thermoplasty, a clinically successful procedure for the treatment of severe asthma. These results establish a novel signaling pathway in which ligand/receptor-mediated oxidation promotes the S-glutathionylation of major vault protein, which in turn binds to myosin-9 to suppress the heating-induced death of airway smooth muscle cells.

  14. In silico resurrection of the major vault protein suggests it is ancestral in modern eukaryotes.

    PubMed

    Daly, Toni K; Sutherland-Smith, Andrew J; Penny, David

    2013-01-01

    Vaults are very large oligomeric ribonucleoproteins conserved among a variety of species. The rat vault 3D structure shows an ovoid oligomeric particle, consisting of 78 major vault protein monomers, each of approximately 861 amino acids. Vaults are probably the largest ribonucleoprotein structures in eukaryote cells, being approximately 70 nm in length with a diameter of 40 nm--the size of three ribosomes and with a lumen capacity of 50 million Å(3). We use both protein sequences and inferred ancestral sequences for in silico virtual resurrection of tertiary and quaternary structures to search for vaults in a wide variety of eukaryotes. We find that the vault's phylogenetic distribution is widespread in eukaryotes, but is apparently absent in some notable model organisms. Our conclusion from the distribution of vaults is that they were present in the last eukaryote common ancestor but they have apparently been lost from a number of groups including fungi, insects, and probably plants. Our approach of inferring ancestral 3D and quaternary structures is expected to be useful generally.

  15. Composite analysis E-area vaults and saltstone disposal facilities

    SciTech Connect

    Cook, J.R.

    1997-09-01

    This report documents the Composite Analysis (CA) performed on the two active Savannah River Site (SRS) low-level radioactive waste (LLW) disposal facilities. The facilities are the Z-Area Saltstone Disposal Facility and the E-Area Vaults (EAV) Disposal Facility. The analysis calculated potential releases to the environment from all sources of residual radioactive material expected to remain in the General Separations Area (GSA). The GSA is the central part of SRS and contains all of the waste disposal facilities, chemical separations facilities and associated high-level waste storage facilities as well as numerous other sources of radioactive material. The analysis considered 114 potential sources of radioactive material containing 115 radionuclides. The results of the CA clearly indicate that continued disposal of low-level waste in the saltstone and EAV facilities, consistent with their respective radiological performance assessments, will have no adverse impact on future members of the public.

  16. Comparative Tests Between Shallow Downhole Installation and Classical Seismic Vaults

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Charade, Olivier; Vergne, Jérôme; Bonaimé, Sébastien; Bonnin, Mickaël; Louis-Xavier, Thierry; Beucler, Eric; Manhaval, Bertrand; Arnold, Benoît

    2016-04-01

    The French permanent broadband network is engaged in a major evolution with the installation of a hundred of new stations within the forthcoming years. Since most of them will be located in open field environments, we are looking for a standardized installation method able to provide good noise level performance at a reasonable cost. Nowadays, the use of posthole seismometers that can be deployed at the bottom of shallow boreholes appears to be an affordable and alternative solution to more traditional installation methods such as seismic vaults or dedicated underground cellars. Here we present some comparative tests performed at different sites (including two GEOSCOPE stations), spanning various geological conditions. On each site, posthole sensors were deployed for several weeks to months at various depths from 1.5m up to 20m. We compare the seismic noise levels measured in the different boreholes with the one for a reference sensor either directly buried or installed in a tunnel, a cellar or a seismic vault. Apart from the microseism frequency band, seismic noise level in most of the boreholes equals or outperforms the one obtained for the reference sensors. At periods higher than 20s we observe a strong reduction of the seismic noise on the horizontal components in the deepest boreholes compared to near surface installations. This improvement can reach up to 30dB and appears to be mostly due to a reduction in tilt noise induced by wind or local pressure variations. However, the absolute noise level that can be achieved strongly depends on the local geology.

  17. Sensor concentrator unit for the Continuous Automated Vault Inventory System

    SciTech Connect

    Nodine, R.N.; Lenarduzzi, R.

    1997-06-01

    The purpose of this document is to describe the use and operation of the sensor concentrator in the Continuous Automated Vault Inventory System (CAVIS). The CAVIS electronically verifies the presence of items of stored special nuclear material (SNM). US Department of Energy orders require that stored SNM be inventoried periodically to provide assurance that the material is secure. Currently this inventory is a highly manual activity, requiring personnel to enter the storage vaults. Using a CAVIS allows the frequency of physical inventories to be significantly reduced, resulting in substantial cost savings, increased security, and improved safety. The electronic inventory of stored SNM requires two different types of sensors for each item. The two sensors measure different parameters of the item, usually weight and gamma rays. A CAVIS is constructed using four basic system components: sensors, sensor concentrators, a data collection unit, and a database/user interface unit. One sensor concentrator supports the inventory of up to 20 items (40 sensors) and continuously takes readings from the item sensors. On request the sensor concentrator outputs the most recent sensor readings to the data collection unit. The information transfer takes place over a RS485 communications link. The data collection unit supports from 1 to 120 sensor concentrators (1 to 2,400 items) and is referred to as the Sensor Polling and Configuration System (SPCS). The SPCS is connected by a secure Transmission Control Protocol/Internet Protocol (TCP/IP) network to the database/user interface unit, which is referred to as the Graphical Facility Information Center (GraFIC). A CAVIS containing more than 2,400 items is supported by connecting additional SPCS units to the GraFIC.

  18. Quality assurance plan for placement of cold-cap grout, demonstration vault, Hanford Grout Vault Program. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Harrington, P.T.; Wakeley, L.D.; Ernzen, J.J.; Walley, D.M.

    1992-08-01

    During FY 91, the U.S. Army Engineer Waterways Experiment Station (WES) developed a grout to be used as a cold cap, a nonradioactive layer, between the solidified waste and the cover blocks of a demonstration waste disposal vault at the U.S. Department of Energy Hanford Facility. This document recommends requirements for a quality assurance (QA) plan for field mixing and placing of the cold-cap grout during final closure of the demonstration vault. Preplacement activities emphasize selection and testing of materials that will match the performance of materials used in the WES grout. Materials sources and applicable American Society of Testing and Materials, American Concrete Institute, and American Petroleum Institute specifications and requirements are provided. Archiving of physical samples of materials is essential, in addition to careful maintenance of test reports and laboratory data. Full-scale field trial mixing and a detailed preconstruction conference are recommended. Placement activities focus on production and placement of a grout that remains sufficiently constant throughout all batches and meets performance requirements. QA activities must be coordinated between the batch plant and delivery site. Recommended sampling during placement includes cylinders cast for subsequent tests of compressive strength and for nondestructive evaluation and prisms cast for monitoring volume stability. A minimum of two lifts is recommended. Postplacement activities include long-term monitoring of the properties of grout specimens cast during placement. Minimum testing of cylinders includes pulse velocity, fundamental frequency, and unconfined compressive strength. Monitoring characteristics of the microstructure also are recommended. The QA plan should designate an organization to have responsibility for maintaining complete records, reports, and archived samples, including details of deviations from plans written before field placement.

  19. Addendum to the composite analysis for the E-Area Vaults and Saltstone Disposal Facilities

    SciTech Connect

    Cook, J.R.

    2000-03-13

    This report documents the composite analysis performed on the two active SRS low-level radioactive waste disposal facilities. The facilities are the Z-Area Saltstone Disposal Facility and the E-Area Vaults Disposal Facility.

  20. GardnerDenver compressor, now occupying the former transformer vault to the ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Gardner-Denver compressor, now occupying the former transformer vault to the West of the plant switch house - Bureau of Mines Metallurgical Research Laboratory, Original Building, Date Street north of U.S. Highway 93, Boulder City, Clark County, NV

  1. Vault Safety and Inventory System users manual, PRIME 2350. Revision 1

    SciTech Connect

    Downey, N.J.

    1994-12-14

    This revision is issued to request review of the attached document: VSIS User Manual, PRIME 2350, which provides user information for the operation of the VSIS (Vault Safety and Inventory System). It describes operational aspects of Prime 2350 minicomputer and vault data acquisition equipment. It also describes the User`s Main Menu and menu functions, including REPORTS. Also, system procedures for the Prime 2350 minicomputer are covered.

  2. An estimation of tritium inventory limits for the E-Area vaults

    SciTech Connect

    Yu, A.D.; Cook, J.R.

    1991-12-02

    At the request of Waste Management, Interim Waste Technology has conducted a modeling study to estimate the tritium inventory limits for the E-Area vaults. These inventory limits are based on the groundwater impact of the planned waste disposal. The tritium inventory limit for an Intermediate Level Tritium Vault (ILTV) is estimated to be 400,000 Curies with a 100 year storage period. During this period, it is assumed that the ILTV will be vented, any leachate will be extracted, and its performance will be carefully monitored. The tritium inventory limits for a Low Activity Waste Vault (LAWV) and an Intermediate Level Non-Tritium Vault (ILNTV) are estimated to be 15,000 and 11,000 Curies, respectively. Venting and leachate extraction were not assumed necessary. These operational alternatives would further enhance the performance of these vaults. These limits are significantly higher than the forecasted maximum tritium inventories for the vaults. Details of the modeling study are described in the attached report.

  3. In Silico Resurrection of the Major Vault Protein Suggests It Is Ancestral in Modern Eukaryotes

    PubMed Central

    Daly, Toni K.; Sutherland-Smith, Andrew J.; Penny, David

    2013-01-01

    Vaults are very large oligomeric ribonucleoproteins conserved among a variety of species. The rat vault 3D structure shows an ovoid oligomeric particle, consisting of 78 major vault protein monomers, each of approximately 861 amino acids. Vaults are probably the largest ribonucleoprotein structures in eukaryote cells, being approximately 70 nm in length with a diameter of 40 nm—the size of three ribosomes and with a lumen capacity of 50 million Å3. We use both protein sequences and inferred ancestral sequences for in silico virtual resurrection of tertiary and quaternary structures to search for vaults in a wide variety of eukaryotes. We find that the vault’s phylogenetic distribution is widespread in eukaryotes, but is apparently absent in some notable model organisms. Our conclusion from the distribution of vaults is that they were present in the last eukaryote common ancestor but they have apparently been lost from a number of groups including fungi, insects, and probably plants. Our approach of inferring ancestral 3D and quaternary structures is expected to be useful generally. PMID:23887922

  4. LIBS identification of pigments from Aula Leopoldina vault

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ostrowski, R.; Skrzeczanowski, W.; Marczak, J.; Sarzynski, A.

    2009-07-01

    Aula Leopoldina is the most representative, baroque hall in Wroclaw University. In 2008, LIBS measurements of paintings layers of Aula vault were done. LIBS spectra permitted identification of mineral pigments used for specific colors of painting layers. This identification could not be unambiguous in each case since simultaneous occurrence of elements that could be components of different pigments of the same color was observed in some samples. For example, in some red samples the presence of aluminum and iron was stated, and hence red ochre or Mars red could be used as a pigment. In other samples the cinnabar can be additionally responsible for red color. Similar problems were observed in case of blue pigments, where existence of copper may show that azurite was used, but the presence of aluminum, sodium, silicon and iron can point to application of ultramarine, Egyptian or Prussian blues. The greatest difficulties occurred during identification of white pigments. Because of presence of barium, zinc, lead and titanium, the potential pigments might be lithopone, barite, zinc white, lead white or titanium white. Final choice of the pigment is determined by the time of last renovation and this points out that the zinc white was used.

  5. Hemangioma of the nasal vault: MR and CT features.

    PubMed

    Dillon, W P; Som, P M; Rosenau, W

    1991-09-01

    Six patients with a history of epistaxis (five patients) or nasal obstruction (one patient) were found to have a capillary hemangioma of the nasal vault that involved one or more nasal turbinates. Four patients underwent computed tomographic (CT) examination; two of these also underwent magnetic resonance (MR) imaging. Four others underwent only MR imaging. At CT and MR, all of the lesions were well circumscribed and intensely enhancing, with contralateral deviation of the nasal septum. Remodeling of the surrounding bone was present in three patients. On T1-weighted MR images, the masses were intermediate in signal intensity. Varying degrees of T2 shortening were shown on T2-weighted MR images, with an appearance that suggested the presence of blood products surrounding an inner matrix of higher-signal-intensity tumor. Intense enhancement at CT and MR assisted differentiation of tumor from retained sinonasal secretions. In two patients, external carotid arteriography revealed small foci of pooling contrast material; in one of these patients, arteriovenous shunting was also present. Pathologic examination in all patients demonstrated capillary hemangiomas with varying degrees of fibrosis and hemosiderin deposition.

  6. 324 Building radiochemical engineering cells, high-level vault, low-level vault, and associated areas closure plan

    SciTech Connect

    Barnett, J.M.

    1998-03-25

    The Hanford Site, located adjacent to and north of Richland, Washington, is operated by the US Department of Energy, Richland Operations Office (RL). The 324 Building is located in the 300 Area of the Hanford Site. The 324 Building was constructed in the 1960s to support materials and chemical process research and development activities ranging from laboratory/bench-scale studies to full engineering-scale pilot plant demonstrations. In the mid-1990s, it was determined that dangerous waste and waste residues were being stored for greater than 90 days in the 324 Building Radiochemical Engineering Cells (REC) and in the High-Level Vault/Low-Level Vault (HLV/LLV) tanks. [These areas are not Resource Conservation and Recovery Act of 1976 (RCRA) permitted portions of the 324 Building.] Through the Hanford Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order (Tri-Party Agreement) Milestone M-89, agreement was reached to close the nonpermitted RCRA unit in the 324 Building. This closure plan, managed under TPA Milestone M-20-55, addresses the identified building areas targeted by the Tri-Party Agreement and provides commitments to achieve the highest degree of compliance practicable, given the special technical difficulties of managing mixed waste that contains high-activity radioactive materials, and the physical limitations of working remotely in the areas within the subject closure unit. This closure plan is divided into nine chapters. Chapter 1.0 provides the introduction, historical perspective, 324 Building history and current mission, and the regulatory basis and strategy for managing the closure unit. Chapters 2.0, 3.0, 4.0, and 5.0 discuss the detailed facility description, process information, waste characteristics, and groundwater monitoring respectively. Chapter 6.0 deals with the closure strategy and performance standard, including the closure activities for the B-Cell, D-Cell, HLV, LLV; piping and miscellaneous associated building areas. Chapter 7.0 addresses the

  7. Radiological performance assessment for the E-Area Vaults Disposal Facility

    SciTech Connect

    Cook, J.R.; Hunt, P.D.

    1994-04-15

    The E-Area Vaults (EAVs) located on a 200 acre site immediately north of the current LLW burial site at Savannah River Site will provide a new disposal and storage site for solid, low-level, non-hazardous radioactive waste. The EAV Disposal Facility will contain several large concrete vaults divided into cells. Three types of structures will house four designated waste types. The Intermediate Level Non-Tritium Vaults will receive waste radiating greater than 200 mR/h at 5 cm from the outer disposal container. The Intermediate Level Tritium Vaults will receive waste with at least 10 Ci of tritium per package. These two vaults share a similar design, are adjacent, share waste handling equipment, and will be closed as one facility. The second type of structure is the Low Activity Waste Vaults which will receive waste radiating less than 200 mR/h at 5 cm from the outer disposal container and containing less than 10 Ci of tritium per package. The third facility, the Long Lived Waste Storage Building, provides covered, long term storage for waste containing long lived isotopes. Two additional types of disposal are proposed: (1) trench disposal of suspect soil, (2) naval reactor component disposal. To evaluate the long-term performance of the EAVs, site-specific conceptual models were developed to consider: (1) exposure pathways and scenarios of potential importance; (2) potential releases from the facility to the environment; (3) effects of degradation of engineered features; (4) transport in the environment; (5) potential doses received from radionuclides of interest in each vault type.

  8. New Generation Dresden NPP Demineralizer Vault Cleanup Project

    SciTech Connect

    Denton, M.S.; CET, Ph.D.; Forrester, K.; Azar, M.

    2008-07-01

    Electro-coagulation (EC) is a technique that facilitates rapid destabilization and flocculation of colloidal suspensions to cause the suspended solids to separate from slurry phase. It is generally accepted that coagulation is brought about primarily by the reduction of the net surface charge to a point where the colloidal particles, previously stabilized by electrostatic repulsion, can approach closely enough for van der Waals forces to hold them together and allow aggregation. In the EC process, the coagulant is generated in situ by electrolytic oxidation of an appropriate anode material (aluminum in this case). In this process, charged ionic species, metals or otherwise, and suspended solids are removed from wastewater by allowing them to interact with an ion having opposite charge, or with floc of metallic hydroxides generated electrochemically within the effluent. Typically, no supplementary organic polymer coagulant addition is required. Thus, electro-coagulation (EC) was found to be an attractive treatment option to rapidly destabilize the colloidal particulate phase, allowing more facile particulate removal by decantation and/or coarse filtration. However, the liquid medium must have some conductivity (> 100 {mu}mho is preferred), in order to allow effective electrical coupling with the EC electrodes. A very small amount of aluminum or sodium sulfate salts can be added to the feed slurry, adjusting the water quality parameters to a conductivity of >100 {mu}mho and a pH value near 6.0-7.0. The EC-treated vault slurry had a pH value near 6.5 (within the pH range for minimal solubility of amphoteric aluminum hydroxide). In contrast to untreated wastewater, the agglomerated particles in the EC-treated aliquot could be filtered relatively rapidly, yielding a clear filtrate, indicating that the flocs that have been formed are now > 20- {mu}m in size, are pumpable (high shear strength), and filterable/dewaterable with ease (low water content). Final waste volumes

  9. Effect of materials and manufacturing on the bending stiffness of vaulting poles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Davis, C. L.; Kukureka, S. N.

    2012-09-01

    The increase in the world record height achieved in pole vaulting can be related to the improved ability of the athletes, in terms of their fitness and technique, and to the change in materials used to construct the pole. For example in 1960 there was a change in vaulting pole construction from bamboo to glass fibre reinforced polymer (GFRP) composites. The lighter GFRP pole enabled the athletes to have a faster run-up, resulting in a greater take-off speed, giving them more kinetic energy to convert into potential energy and hence height. GFRP poles also have a much higher failure stress than bamboo, so the poles were engineered to bend under the load of the athlete, thereby storing elastic strain energy that can be released as the pole straightens, resulting in greater energy efficiency. The bending also allowed athletes to change their vaulting technique from a style that involved the body remaining almost upright during the vault to one where the athlete goes over the bar with their feet upwards. Modern vaulting poles can be made from GFRP and/or carbon fibre reinforced polymer (CFRP) composites. The addition of carbon fibres maintains the mechanical properties of the pole, but allows a reduction in the weight. The number and arrangement of the fibres determines the mechanical properties, in particular the bending stiffness. Vaulting poles are also designed for an individual athlete to take into account each athlete’s ability and physical characteristics. The poles are rated by ‘weight’ to allow athletes to select an appropriate pole for their ability. This paper will review the development of vaulting poles and the requirements to maximize performance. The properties (bending stiffness and pre-bend) and microstructure (fibre volume fraction and lay-up) of typical vaulting poles will be discussed. Originally published as Davis C L and Kukureka S N (2004) Effect of materials and manufacturing on the bending stiffness of vaulting poles The Engineering of

  10. Quantitative Analysis of Change in Intracranial Volume After Posterior Cranial Vault Distraction.

    PubMed

    Shimizu, Azusa; Komuro, Yuzo; Shimoji, Kazuaki; Miyajima, Masakazu; Arai, Hajime

    2016-07-01

    Posterior cranial vault distraction is considered to be more effective for increasing intracranial volume than fronto-orbital advancement or anterior cranial vault expansion, but the changes in intracranial volumes after posterior cranial vault distraction remain unclear. The changes in intracranial volume were investigated in patients of premature craniosynostosis treated by this technique. Seven patients, 3 boys and 4 girls aged from 5 months to 3 years 3 months (mean 23 months) at operation, with craniosynostosis underwent posterior cranial vault distraction at Juntendo University Hospital from 2011 to 2014. Patient characteristics, length of distraction, and pre- and postoperative computed tomography findings were reviewed. Total intracranial volume, including the supratentorial space and posterior cranial fossa, was measured using the workstation functions on three-dimensional computed tomography scans. Posterior distraction was performed without severe complications except in 2 patients requiring additional surgeries. The distraction length was 22.3 to 39 mm (mean 31 mm), the intracranial volume change was 144 to 281 mL (mean 192 mL), and the enlargement ratio of intracranial volume was 113% to 134% (mean 121%). The present quantitative analysis of intracranial volume change after posterior distraction showed greater increases in intracranial volume compared with previous reports. Furthermore, intracranial volumes in our patients became nearly normal and were maintained for the follow-up period (maximum 13 months). Posterior cranial vault distraction is very effective to increase cranial volume, so may be the first choice of treatment in patients of craniosynostosis.

  11. Resection of the vaginal vault for vaginal recurrence of cervical cancer after hysterectomy and brachytherapy.

    PubMed

    Abe, Akiko; Matoda, Maki; Okamoto, Sanshiro; Kondo, Eiji; Kato, Kazuyoshi; Omatsu, Kohei; Umayahara, Kenji; Utsugi, Kuniko; Takeshima, Nobuhiro

    2015-04-02

    We describe our experiences with vaginal vault resection for vaginal recurrence of cervical cancer after hysterectomy and radiotherapy. After operative treatment, the rate of vaginal vault recurrence of uterine cervical cancer is reported to be about 5%. There is no consensus regarding the treatment for these cases. Between 2004 and 2012, eight patients with vaginal vault recurrence underwent removal of the vaginal wall via laparotomy after hysterectomy and radiotherapy. The median patient age was 45 years (range 35 to 70 years). The median operation time was 244.5 min (range 172 to 590 min), the median estimated blood loss was 362.5 mL (range 49 to 1,890 mL), and the median duration of hospitalization was 24.5 days (range 11 to 50 days). Two patients had intraoperative complications: a grade 1 bowel injury and a grade 1 bladder injury. The following postoperative complications were observed: one patient had vaginal vault bleeding, three patients developed vesicovaginal fistulae, and one patient had repeated ileus. Two patients needed clean intermittent catheterization. Local control was achieved in five of the eight cases. Vaginal vault resection is an effective treatment for vaginal recurrence of cervical cancer after hysterectomy and radiotherapy. However, complications of this procedure can be expected to reduce quality of life. Therefore, this operation should be selected with great care.

  12. A Protective Vaccine against Chlamydia Genital Infection Using Vault Nanoparticles without an Added Adjuvant

    PubMed Central

    Jiang, Janina; Liu, Guangchao; Kickhoefer, Valerie A.; Rome, Leonard H.; Li, Lin-Xi; McSorley, Stephen J.; Kelly, Kathleen A.

    2017-01-01

    Chlamydia trachomatis genital infection is the most common sexually transmitted bacterial disease, causing a significant burden to females due to reproductive dysfunction. Intensive screening and antibiotic treatment are unable to completely prevent female reproductive dysfunction, thus, efforts have become focused on developing a vaccine. A major impediment is identifying a safe and effective adjuvant which induces cluster of differentiation 4 (CD4) cells with attributes capable of halting genital infection and inflammation. Previously, we described a natural nanocapsule called the vault which was engineered to contain major outer membrane protein (MOMP) and was an effective vaccine which significantly reduced early infection and favored development of a cellular immune response in a mouse model. In the current study, we used another chlamydial antigen, a polymorphic membrane protein G-1 (PmpG) peptide, to track antigen-specific cells and evaluate, in depth, the vault vaccine for its protective capacity in the absence of an added adjuvant. We found PmpG-vault immunized mice significantly reduced the genital bacterial burden and histopathologic parameters of inflammation following a C. muridarum challenge. Immunization boosted antigen-specific CD4 cells with a multiple cytokine secretion pattern and reduced the number of inflammatory cells in the genital tract making the vault vaccine platform safe and effective for chlamydial genital infection. We conclude that vaccination with a Chlamydia-vault vaccine boosts antigen-specific immunities that are effective at eradicating infection and preventing reproductive tract inflammation. PMID:28106821

  13. Abdominal sacral colpopexy and abdominal enterocele repair in the management of vaginal vault prolapse.

    PubMed

    Winters, J C; Cespedes, R D; Vanlangendonck, R

    2000-12-04

    Vaginal vault prolapse and enterocele represent challenging forms of female pelvic organ relaxation. These conditions are most commonly associated with other pelvic organ defects. Proper diagnosis and management is essential to achieve long-term successful outcomes. Physical examination should be carried out in the lithotomy and standing positions (if necessary) in order to detect a loss of vaginal vault support. With proper identification of the vaginal cuff, one should assess the degree of mobility of the vaginal cuff with a Valsalva maneuver. If there is significant descent of the vaginal cuff, vaginal vault prolapse is present, and correction should be considered. The abdominal sacral colpopexy is an excellent means to provide vaginal vault suspension. This procedure entails suspension of the vaginal cuff to the sacrum with fascia or synthetic mesh. This procedure should always be accompanied by an abdominal enterocele repair and cul-de-sac obliteration. In addition, many patients require surgical procedures to correct stress urinary incontinence, which is either symptomatic or latent (occurs postoperatively after prolapse correction). Complications include: mesh infection, mesh erosion, bowel obstruction, ileus, and bleeding from the presacral venous complex. If the procedure is carried out using meticulous technique, few complications occur and excellent long-term reduction of vaginal vault prolapse and enterocele are achieved. The purpose of this article is to review the preoperative evaluation of women with pelvic organ prolapse, and provide a detailed description of the surgical technique of an abdominal sacral colpopexy.

  14. A new method for generating an invariant iris private key based on the fuzzy vault system.

    PubMed

    Lee, Youn Joo; Park, Kang Ryoung; Lee, Sung Joo; Bae, Kwanghyuk; Kim, Jaihie

    2008-10-01

    Cryptographic systems have been widely used in many information security applications. One main challenge that these systems have faced has been how to protect private keys from attackers. Recently, biometric cryptosystems have been introduced as a reliable way of concealing private keys by using biometric data. A fuzzy vault refers to a biometric cryptosystem that can be used to effectively protect private keys and to release them only when legitimate users enter their biometric data. In biometric systems, a critical problem is storing biometric templates in a database. However, fuzzy vault systems do not need to directly store these templates since they are combined with private keys by using cryptography. Previous fuzzy vault systems were designed by using fingerprint, face, and so on. However, there has been no attempt to implement a fuzzy vault system that used an iris. In biometric applications, it is widely known that an iris can discriminate between persons better than other biometric modalities. In this paper, we propose a reliable fuzzy vault system based on local iris features. We extracted multiple iris features from multiple local regions in a given iris image, and the exact values of the unordered set were then produced using the clustering method. To align the iris templates with the new input iris data, a shift-matching technique was applied. Experimental results showed that 128-bit private keys were securely and robustly generated by using any given iris data without requiring prealignment.

  15. Posterior Cranial Vault Distraction Osteogenesis with Barrel Stave Osteotomy in the Treatment of Craniosynostosis

    PubMed Central

    KOMURO, Yuzo; SHIMIZU, Azusa; SHIMOJI, Kazuaki; MIYAJIMA, Masakazu; ARAI, Hajime

    2015-01-01

    Twenty years have passed since distraction osteogenesis was introduced into the field of craniomaxillofacial surgery, with distraction osteogenesis gradually consolidating its position for midface advancement in syndromic craniosynostosis. On the other hand, no consensus has been reached regarding its adaptation to calvarial bone. We reported that distraction osteogenesis was useful in posterior cranial vault expansion, and subsequently, similar reports have been successively observed worldwide. In posterior cranial vault distraction, intracranial capacity could be greatly expanded due to its simultaneous expansion with the scalp, with little risk of relapse because new bone is regenerated in the distraction gap. The possibility was suggested that the standard of first carrying out fronto-orbital advancement (FOA) for brachycephaly observed in syndromic craniosynostosis will greatly change posterior cranial vault distraction. PMID:26226978

  16. [Sacropexy with abdominal fascia in treatment of vaginal prolapse vault of menopausal women].

    PubMed

    Lemus Rocha, Santiago Roberto; Martínez Rodríguez, Oscar Arturo; Matute González, Manuel; Sánchez Juárez, Armando; Ramírez Rangel, Rosario; Hernández Valencia, Marcelino

    2003-12-01

    Vaginal vault prolapsed is a rare complication, with a frequency from 0.2 to 1% after hysterectomy, which is presented due to a bad surgical technique in fixation of the vault suspension elements, as well others factors as the multiparity, menopause, chronic lungs disease, obesity, smoking and weak physical activity. There are many techniques reported to correct this pelvic disease, although the conventional sacropexy has been established for abdominal way, where the diversity of materials of fixation is varied, including natural material as the abdominal fascia and aponeurosis of muscle rectos. This descriptive and clinical study was carried out in a group of patient with vaginal vault prolapsed, with the objective to know the results and experience of this correction with the surgical technique of sacropexy utilizing abdominal fascia. 32 menopausal patient with mean age of 53.9 years, 5 gestations, as well as index of Quetelet of 26.2, were studied, a following of a year was carried out. In these women the main symptom were the sensation of vaginal strange body and subsequently urinary incontinence of effort. Moreover, considering to all group the mean in presentation of the vaginal vault prolapsed after hysterectomy was of 7.7 years, with surgical time of 129 minutes and bled of 172 milliliters. RESULTS. The 97.5% of the patient returned to its sexual life without difficulties and only one referred dyspareunia. Post-surgical complications were not presented and only a patient presented vault prolapsed again (0.31%). With this results we can consider that the sacropexy with abdominal fascia is a good technique for the correction of the vaginal vault prolapsed in healthy menopausal women with regular sexual activity and then is a natural material who cause not any.

  17. Beyond BLASTing: Tertiary and Quaternary Structure Analysis Helps Identify Major Vault Proteins

    PubMed Central

    Daly, Toni K.; Sutherland-Smith, Andrew J.; Penny, David

    2013-01-01

    We examine the advantages of going beyond sequence similarity and use both protein three-dimensional (3D) structure prediction and then quaternary structure (docking) of inferred 3D structures to help evaluate whether comparable sequences can fold into homologous structures with sufficient lateral associations for quaternary structure formation. Our test case is the major vault protein (MVP) that oligomerizes in multiple copies to form barrel-like vault particles and is relatively widespread among eukaryotes. We used the iterative threading assembly refinement server (I-TASSER) to predict whether putative MVP sequences identified by BLASTp and PSI Basic Local Alignment Search Tool are structurally similar to the experimentally determined rodent MVP tertiary structures. Then two identical predicted quaternary structures from I-TASSER are analyzed by RosettaDock to test whether a pair-wise association occurs, and hence whether the oligomeric vault complex is likely to form for a given MVP sequence. Positive controls for the method are the experimentally determined rat (Rattus norvegicus) vault X-ray crystal structure and the purple sea urchin (Strongylocentrotus purpuratus) MVP sequence that forms experimentally observed vaults. These and two kinetoplast MVP structural homologs were predicted with high confidence value, and RosettaDock predicted that these MVP sequences would dock laterally and therefore could form oligomeric vaults. As the negative control, I-TASSER did not predict an MVP-like structure from a randomized rat MVP sequence, even when constrained to the rat MVP crystal structure (PDB:2ZUO), thus further validating the method. The protocol identified six putative homologous MVP sequences in the heterobolosean Naegleria gruberi within the excavate kingdom. Two of these sequences are predicted to be structurally similar to rat MVP, despite being in excess of 300 residues shorter. The method can be used generally to help test predictions of homology via

  18. Radioactive air emissions notice of construction use of a portable exhauster at 244-AR vault. Revision 2

    SciTech Connect

    Carrell, D.J.

    1997-12-17

    This document serves as a notice of construction (NOC), pursuant to the requirements of Washington Administrative Code (WAC) 246-247-060, and as a request for approval to construct, pursuant to 40 Code of Federal Regulations (CFR) 61.96, a portable exhauster at the 244-AR Vault. The exhauster would be used during air jetting of accumulated liquids from the cell sumps into the tanks and to make transfers among the tanks within the vault when needed. The 244-AR Vault is considered to be a double-contained receiver tank (OCRT) based on its functional characteristics, although it is not listed as one of the five designated DCRTs in the 200 Area Tank Farm systems. Process operations at the vault have been inactive since 1978 and the vault`s two stacks have not operated since 1993. Since cessation of vault operations an extremely large amount of rain water and snow melt have accumulated in the cell sumps. The water level in the sumps is substantially above their respective operating levels and there is concern for leakage to the environment through containment failure due to corrosion from backed-up sump liquid. Active ventilation is required to provide contamination control during air jetting operations within the vault. It has been determined that it would not be cost effective to repair the existing exhaust systems to an operational condition; thus, a portable exhauster will be used to support the intermittent operations.

  19. Virtual surgical planning and 3D printing in repeat calvarial vault reconstruction for craniosynostosis: technical note.

    PubMed

    LoPresti, Melissa; Daniels, Bradley; Buchanan, Edward P; Monson, Laura; Lam, Sandi

    2017-04-01

    Repeat surgery for restenosis after initial nonsyndromic craniosynostosis intervention is sometimes needed. Calvarial vault reconstruction through a healed surgical bed adds a level of intraoperative complexity and may benefit from preoperative and intraoperative definitions of biometric and aesthetic norms. Computer-assisted design and manufacturing using 3D imaging allows the precise formulation of operative plans in anticipation of surgical intervention. 3D printing turns virtual plans into anatomical replicas, templates, or customized implants by using a variety of materials. The authors present a technical note illustrating the use of this technology: a repeat calvarial vault reconstruction that was planned and executed using computer-assisted design and 3D printed intraoperative guides.

  20. Nondestructive Analysis of MET-5 Drum at TA35 Building 2 A-Wing Vault.

    SciTech Connect

    Desimone, David J.; Vo, Duc Ta

    2016-11-03

    Measurements using a mechanically cooled portable high purity germanium HPGe Ortec detective were taken of a type B drum Serial number R-1157 to determine if any radioactive material was inside. The Drum, R-1157, spectrum was analyzed using PeakEasy 4.84 and a visual look at the spectrum showed background radiation.

  1. Techniques used in high-scoring and low-scoring 'Roche' vaults performed by elite male gymnasts.

    PubMed

    Takei, Yoshiaki; Dunn, J Hubert; Blucker, Erik

    2003-07-01

    The 16 highest-scored Roche vaults (G1) performed during the 2000 Olympic Games were compared with those receiving the 16 lowest-scores (G2). A 16-mm motion picture camera operating at 100 Hz recorded the vaults during the competition. The results of t tests (p < .05) indicated G1, compared to G2, had (a) shorter time of board support, greater normalised average upward vertical force and backward horizontal force exerted by the board, greater change in the vertical velocity while on the board, and greater vertical velocity at board take-off, (b) comparable linear and angular motions in pre-flight, (c) smaller backward horizontal impulse exerted by the horse, smaller loss of the horizontal velocity while on the horse, and greater horizontal and vertical velocities at horse take-off, (d) greater height and larger horizontal distance of post-flight, (e) higher body mass centre at knee release, and (f) higher mass centre, greater normalised moment of inertia, and smaller vertical velocity at mat touchdown. Therefore, gymnasts and coaches should focus on sprinting the approach; blocking and pushing-off the take-off board rapidly and vigorously; departing the board with a large vertical velocity; exerting large downward vertical force and small forward horizontal force from the hand-stand position while on the horse; departing the horse with large horizontal and vertical velocities; and completing the majority of the double salto forward near the peak of trajectory and releasing the knees above the top of the horse to prepare for a controlled landing.

  2. MTR, TRA603. SOURCE STORAGE VAULT IN BASEMENT. MAZE ENTRY. SOLID ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    MTR, TRA-603. SOURCE STORAGE VAULT IN BASEMENT. MAZE ENTRY. SOLID CONCRETE WALLS. CONCRETE PLUGS, ONE LINED WITH LEAD, AND LIFT HANDLES. FLOOR WELLS SIX FEET DEEP BELOW FLOOR. IDO MTR-603-IDO-5, 12/1952. INL INDEX NO. 531-0603-00-396-110469, REV. 0. - Idaho National Engineering Laboratory, Test Reactor Area, Materials & Engineering Test Reactors, Scoville, Butte County, ID

  3. Shape and Construction of Brick Vaults. Criteria, Methods and Tools for a Possible Catalogue

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brumana, R.; Condoleo, P.; Grimoldi, A.; Landi, A. G.

    2017-05-01

    The use of cloister vaults in the construction of noble buildings, as covering elements for square or rectangular rooms, is widespread and well-known. The geometric continuity at the intrados makes generally possible the execution all over the span of frescoes, stucco and decorations. The construction of brick vaults, from the late Middle Age, was sped up by limiting the centering to the wooden planks arches that were instrumental in the profile determination. Nowadays, the availability of several procedures, phases and tools for carrying out a survey allows to draw reliable assumptions about the construction methods and the execution time. It is mandatory to determine the properties of the binders, the shape and dimensions of the bricks, and to carry out a comparison between the geometry of the intrados surface and the evidences emerging at the extrados. The support of the laser scanner technique allows to accurately identify the surface profile and thickness. All these indications, in turn, are useful, in view of an interpretation of the structural behavior, to identify weaknesses, and to highlight contributing factors of instability (if any). The paper focuses on a well-documented case, the Magio Grasselli palace in Cremona in which the cloister vaults of two main rooms show different construction systems, although they were built almost at the same time. The thermographic recordings and laser-scanner surveys highlight the various arrangements used for the cloister vaults.

  4. Reliability and variability of day-to-day vault training measures in artistic gymnastics.

    PubMed

    Bradshaw, Elizabeth; Hume, Patria; Calton, Mark; Aisbett, Brad

    2010-06-01

    Inter-day training reliability and variability in artistic gymnastics vaulting was determined using a customised infra-red timing gate and contact mat timing system. Thirteen Australian high performance gymnasts (eight males and five females) aged 11-23 years were assessed during two consecutive days of normal training. Each gymnast completed a number of vault repetitions per daily session. Inter-day variability of vault run-up velocities (at -18 to -12 m, -12 to -6 m, -6 to -2 m, and -2 to 0 m from the nearest edge of the beat board), and board contact, pre-flight, and table contact times were determined using mixed modelling statistics to account for random (within-subject variability) and fixed effects (gender, number of subjects, number of trials). The difference in the mean (Mdiff) and Cohen's effect sizes for reliability assessment and intra-class correlation coefficients, and the coefficient of variation percentage (CV%) were calculated for variability assessment. Approach velocity (-18 to -2m, CV = 2.4-7.8%) and board contact time (CV = 3.5%) were less variable measures when accounting for day-to-day performance differences, than pre-flight time (CV = 17.7%) and table contact time (CV = 20.5%). While pre-flight and table contact times are relevant training measures, approach velocity and board contact time are more reliable when quantifying vaulting performance.

  5. 14. Photocopy of1931 drawing titled: BUILDING 78, FIRE PROOF VAULTS ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    14. Photocopy of1931 drawing titled: BUILDING 78, FIRE PROOF VAULTS FOR GENERAL FILES; PLAN, ELEVATION, SECTIONS. HABS photograph is an 8x10' contact print made from a high contrast copy negative of the original drawing in the collection of Department of Public Works, Puget Sound Naval Shipyard, Bremerton, WA. - Puget Sound Naval Shipyard, Administration Building, Farragut Avenue, Bremerton, Kitsap County, WA

  6. BRINE STORAGE PIT AND PUMP HOUSE, TRA631. ELEVATIONS. CONCRETE VAULT ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    BRINE STORAGE PIT AND PUMP HOUSE, TRA-631. ELEVATIONS. CONCRETE VAULT FOR BRINE PITS. CONCRETE BLOCK BUILDING FOR BRINE PUMPS. CONCRETE PIPE TRENCH. BLAW-KNOX 3150-808-3, 1/1951. INL INDEX NO. 531-0608-00-098-100677. - Idaho National Engineering Laboratory, Test Reactor Area, Materials & Engineering Test Reactors, Scoville, Butte County, ID

  7. LPT. EBOR (TAN646) interior, installing reactor in STF pool ("vault"). ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    LPT. EBOR (TAN-646) interior, installing reactor in STF pool ("vault"). Pressure vessel shows core barrel and outlet nozzle (next to man below) to inner duct weld, which is prepared and in position for stress relieving. Camera facing southeast. Photographer: Comiskey. Date: January 20, 1965. INEEL negative no. 65-239 - Idaho National Engineering Laboratory, Test Area North, Scoville, Butte County, ID

  8. LPT. EBOR (TAN646). Reactor vault and pool arrangement. Stepped arrangement ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    LPT. EBOR (TAN-646). Reactor vault and pool arrangement. Stepped arrangement of shielding blocks. Floor plan, elevation of reactor, and details. Kaiser engineers EBOR/GA-646-P-102. Date: May 1963. INEEL index code no. 037-0646-00-486-119116 - Idaho National Engineering Laboratory, Test Area North, Scoville, Butte County, ID

  9. Cranial vault modification as a cultural artifact: a comparison of the Eurasian steppes and the Andes.

    PubMed

    Torres-Rouff, C; Yablonsky, L T

    2005-01-01

    This paper details the practice of intentional cranial vault modification in the Eurasian steppes as well as in the pre-Columbian Andes focusing on the similarities and differences in how the practice was used to respond to changes in society. The appearance of vault modification in the steppes and the forms seen in the cemeteries of the Syr Darya and Amu Darya River deltas are discussed. Temporal changes in the pattern of modification are also investigated, especially the dramatic homogenization of the custom resulting from the conquests of the Huns. This is contrasted with incidences of cranial modification in the south-central Andes, including the appearance of deliberate head shaping as well as shifts in the practice during the expansion of the Bolivian Altiplano state of Tiwanaku. Similarities in the use of cranial vault modification between these unrelated areas and in the alterations of the practice resulting from foreign contact are considered in light of vault modification's role as a malleable cultural artifact.

  10. Grout to meet physical and chemical requirements for closure at Hanford grout vaults. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1994-07-21

    The US Army Engineer Waterways Experiment Station (WES) developed a grout based on portland cement, Class F fly ash, and bentonite clay, for the Hanford Grout Vault Program. The purpose of this grout was to fill the void between a wasteform containing 106-AN waste and the vault cover blocks. Following a successful grout development program, heat output, volume change, and compressive strength were monitored with time in simulated repository conditions and in full-depth physical models. This research indicated that the cold-cap grout could achieve and maintain adequate volume stability and other required physical properties in the internal environment of a sealed vault. To determine if contact with 106-AN liquid waste would cause chemical deterioration of the cold-cap grout, cured specimens were immersed in simulated waste. Over a period of 21 days at 150 F, specimens increased in mass without significant changes in volume. X-ray diffraction of reacted specimens revealed crystallization of sodium aluminum silicate hydrate. Scanning electron microscopy used with X-ray fluorescence showed that clusters if this phase had formed in grout pores, increasing grout density and decreasing its effective porosity. Physical and chemical tests collectively indicate a sealing component. However, the Hanford Grout Vault Program was cancelled before completion of this research. This report summarizes close-out Waterways Experiment Station when the Program was cancelled.

  11. Grout for closure of the demonstration vault at the US DOE Hanford Facility. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Wakeley, L.D.; Ernzen, J.J.

    1992-08-01

    The Waterways Experiment Station (WES) developed a grout to be used as a cold- (nonradioactive) cap or void-fill grout between the solidified low-level waste and the cover blocks of a demonstration vault for disposal of phosphate-sulfate waste (PSW) at the US Department of Energy (DOE) Hanford Facility. The project consisted of formulation and evaluation of candidate grouts and selection of the best candidate grout, followed by a physical scale-model test to verify grout performance under project-specific conditions. Further, the project provided data to verify numerical models (accomplished elsewhere) of stresses and isotherms inside the Hanford demonstration vault. Evaluation of unhardened grout included obtaining data on segregation, bleeding, flow, and working time. For hardened grout, strength, volume stability, temperature rise, and chemical compatibility with surrogate wasteform grout were examined. The grout was formulated to accommodate unique environmental boundary conditions (vault temperature = 45 C) and exacting regulatory requirements (mandating less than 0.1% shrinkage with no expansion and no bleeding); and to remain pumpable for a minimum of 2 hr. A grout consisting of API Class H oil-well cement, an ASTM C 618 Class F fly ash, sodium bentonite clay, and a natural sand from the Hanford area met performance requirements in laboratory studies. It is recommended for use in the DOE Hanford demonstration PSW vault.

  12. Veterans' Accelerated Urban Learning for Teaching (V.A.U.L.T.); Program Development and Projection.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Webster Coll., St. Louis, MO.

    The Webster College Veterans' Accelerated Urban Learning for Teaching (VAULT) program, initiated in 1968-69, is designed to train the disadvantaged (primarily Negro veterans who would not normally attend college) to teach in ghetto elementary schools. Its purpose is to serve veterans and to control the following deficiencies in higher education:…

  13. Disposal Analysis of I-129 Bearing Waste Streams at the Intermediate Level Vault

    SciTech Connect

    Collard, L.B.

    2001-01-25

    This report examines the effects of new waste-specific sorption characteristics reported for I-129 bearing wastes on inventory limits in the Intermediate Level Vault (ILV). Inventory limits are described based on the revised performance assessment model using the waste-specific Kd's. Results are compared with inventory projections of waste streams for the next ten years.

  14. The Comprehensive AOCMF Classification: Skull Base and Cranial Vault Fractures – Level 2 and 3 Tutorial

    PubMed Central

    Ieva, Antonio Di; Audigé, Laurent; Kellman, Robert M.; Shumrick, Kevin A.; Ringl, Helmut; Prein, Joachim; Matula, Christian

    2014-01-01

    The AOCMF Classification Group developed a hierarchical three-level craniomaxillofacial classification system with increasing level of complexity and details. The highest level 1 system distinguish four major anatomical units, including the mandible (code 91), midface (code 92), skull base (code 93), and cranial vault (code 94). This tutorial presents the level 2 and more detailed level 3 systems for the skull base and cranial vault units. The level 2 system describes fracture location outlining the topographic boundaries of the anatomic regions, considering in particular the endocranial and exocranial skull base surfaces. The endocranial skull base is divided into nine regions; a central skull base adjoining a left and right side are divided into the anterior, middle, and posterior skull base. The exocranial skull base surface and cranial vault are divided in regions defined by the names of the bones involved: frontal, parietal, temporal, sphenoid, and occipital bones. The level 3 system allows assessing fracture morphology described by the presence of fracture fragmentation, displacement, and bone loss. A documentation of associated intracranial diagnostic features is proposed. This tutorial is organized in a sequence of sections dealing with the description of the classification system with illustrations of the topographical skull base and cranial vault regions along with rules for fracture location and coding, a series of case examples with clinical imaging and a general discussion on the design of this classification. PMID:25489394

  15. Effects of Run-Up Velocity on Performance, Kinematics, and Energy Exchanges in The Pole Vault

    PubMed Central

    Linthorne, Nicholas P.; Weetman, A. H. Gemma

    2012-01-01

    This study examined the effect of run-up velocity on the peak height achieved by the athlete in the pole vault and on the corresponding changes in the athlete's kinematics and energy exchanges. Seventeen jumps by an experienced male pole vaulter were video recorded in the sagittal plane and a wide range of run-up velocities (4.5-8.5 m/s) was obtained by setting the length of the athlete's run-up (2-16 steps). A selection of performance variables, kinematic variables, energy variables, and pole variables were calculated from the digitized video data. We found that the athlete's peak height increased linearly at a rate of 0.54 m per 1 m/s increase in run-up velocity and this increase was achieved through a combination of a greater grip height and a greater push height. At the athlete's competition run-up velocity (8.4 m/s) about one third of the rate of increase in peak height arose from an increase in grip height and about two thirds arose from an increase in push height. Across the range of run-up velocities examined here the athlete always performed the basic actions of running, planting, jumping, and inverting on the pole. However, he made minor systematic changes to his jumping kinematics, vaulting kinematics, and selection of pole characteristics as the run-up velocity increased. The increase in run-up velocity and changes in the athlete's vaulting kinematics resulted in substantial changes to the magnitudes of the energy exchanges during the vault. A faster run-up produced a greater loss of energy during the take-off, but this loss was not sufficient to negate the increase in run-up velocity and the increase in work done by the athlete during the pole support phase. The athlete therefore always had a net energy gain during the vault. However, the magnitude of this gain decreased slightly as run-up velocity increased. Key pointsIn the pole vault the optimum technique is to run-up as fast as possible.The athlete's vault height increases at a rate of about 0.5 m

  16. Effects of run-up velocity on performance, kinematics, and energy exchanges in the pole vault.

    PubMed

    Linthorne, Nicholas P; Weetman, A H Gemma

    2012-01-01

    This study examined the effect of run-up velocity on the peak height achieved by the athlete in the pole vault and on the corresponding changes in the athlete's kinematics and energy exchanges. Seventeen jumps by an experienced male pole vaulter were video recorded in the sagittal plane and a wide range of run-up velocities (4.5-8.5 m/s) was obtained by setting the length of the athlete's run-up (2-16 steps). A selection of performance variables, kinematic variables, energy variables, and pole variables were calculated from the digitized video data. We found that the athlete's peak height increased linearly at a rate of 0.54 m per 1 m/s increase in run-up velocity and this increase was achieved through a combination of a greater grip height and a greater push height. At the athlete's competition run-up velocity (8.4 m/s) about one third of the rate of increase in peak height arose from an increase in grip height and about two thirds arose from an increase in push height. Across the range of run-up velocities examined here the athlete always performed the basic actions of running, planting, jumping, and inverting on the pole. However, he made minor systematic changes to his jumping kinematics, vaulting kinematics, and selection of pole characteristics as the run-up velocity increased. The increase in run-up velocity and changes in the athlete's vaulting kinematics resulted in substantial changes to the magnitudes of the energy exchanges during the vault. A faster run-up produced a greater loss of energy during the take-off, but this loss was not sufficient to negate the increase in run-up velocity and the increase in work done by the athlete during the pole support phase. The athlete therefore always had a net energy gain during the vault. However, the magnitude of this gain decreased slightly as run-up velocity increased. Key pointsIn the pole vault the optimum technique is to run-up as fast as possible.The athlete's vault height increases at a rate of about 0.5 m

  17. Cranial vault shape in fossil hominids: Fourier descriptors in norma lateralis.

    PubMed

    Lestrel, P E; Ohtsuki, F; Wolfe, C A

    2010-10-01

    Two major views of human evolution have elicited considerable controversy. These are: [1] the "out of Africa" hypothesis and [2] the "multiregional" hypothesis. This paper is an attempt to try to reconcile these two scenarios using hominid cranial vault data. Elliptical Fourier functions (EFFs) were used to describe, in visual and numerical terms, the shape of the human cranial vault in norma lateralis. Using jpeg images, contours of the cranial vault of a large sample of hominid specimens were pre-processed in Photoshop CS and rotated in 2D space (positional-orientation) so that a line drawn from nasion to porion was horizontal. The cranial vault image was then digitized with 72 closely-spaced points and submitted to a specially written routine that computed EFFs normalized by scaling (size-standardization). This ensured that the representation was invariant with respect to starting point, size and orientation. Statistically significant differences were found between the H. sapiens sample and both the H. erectus and H. neanderthalensis samples. In contrast, there were no statistically significant differences between the H. erectus and H. neanderthalensis groups, leading to three conclusions: [1] the similarity in cranial vault shape between H. erectus and H. neanderthalensis suggests a single gradually evolving lineage; [2] The taxon H. heidelbergensis can be embedded into the H. erectus→H. neanderthalensis line; and [3] H. sapiens seems to be a separate evolutionary development and is considered here either as a separate species or as a possible example of an allopatric semispecies (Grant, 1977). The results here suggest that human evolution over the last 2 Ma may turn out to be neither totally multiregional or simply out of Africa but rather represents a considerably more complicated picture. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  18. Evaluating adjacent organ radiation doses from postoperative intracavitary vaginal vault brachytherapy for endometrial cancer.

    PubMed

    Caon, Julianna; Holloway, Caroline; Dubash, Rustom; Yuen, Conrad; Aquino-Parsons, Christina

    2014-01-01

    To document doses received by critical organs during adjuvant high-dose-rate (HDR) vaginal vault brachytherapy. Patients treated with HDR vaginal vault radiation between January 1, 2009, and January 31, 2012, who had a CT simulation with the treatment cylinder in situ were included. The CT scans were retrospectively reviewed and the rectum, sigmoid, small bowel, and bladder were contoured. Standardized plans treating the upper 4 cm of the vaginal vault were used to deliver a total of 21 Gy (Gy) at 0.5 cm from the apex of the vaginal vault in three fractions. There were 41 patients. Median age was 62 years. The median vaginal cylinder diameter was 3 cm. The mean 2cc dose to the rectum, sigmoid, small bowel, and bladder were 5.7, 4.7, 4.0, and 5.6 Gy, respectively. Bladder volume ranged from 67-797cc. Assuming minimal interfraction organ variation, the equivalent dose in 2 Gy/fraction was extrapolated from data and may be near or beyond organ tolerance for rectum, sigmoid, and small bowel in some cases. Spearman correlation found that increased bladder volume was not associated with adjacent organs at risk dose but may be associated with a trend (p=0.06) toward increased bladder dose (R=0.30). This study describes the dose received by adjacent critical structures during vaginal vault HDR brachytherapy. This is important information for documentation in the rare setting of treatment-related toxicity or recurrence. Bladder volume was not associated with dose to adjacent organs. Crown Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. A visual assessment of the concrete vaults which surround underground waste storage tanks

    SciTech Connect

    Wiersma, B.J.; Shurrab, M.S.

    1993-12-01

    Radioactive waste produced at the Savannah River Site (SRS) is stored in underground tanks. There are four different waste tank designs. For each waste tank design the outermost containment shield between the waste and the soil is a concrete vault surrounding the carbon steel liner(s). Should the primary and/or secondary liner be breached, the concrete vault would slow transport of the waste so that contamination of the soil is minimized. The type 3 waste tanks have a stated design life of 40--60 years. With the uncertainty of the schedule for transfer of the waste to the Defense Waste Processing Facility, it is conceivable that the tanks will be required to function past their design life. The Department of Energy formed a Waste Tank Structural Integrity Panel to investigate the potential for aging and degradation of underground radioactive waste storage tanks employed in the weapons complex. The panel is focusing on how each site in the complex: (1) inspects the waste tanks for degradation, (2) understands the potential degradation mechanisms which may occur at their sites, and (3) mitigates the known potential degradation mechanisms. In addition to the carbon steel liners, the degradation of the concrete vault has also been addressed by the panel. High Level Waste Engineering (HLWE) at SRS has formed a task team to identify key issues that determine and/or effect the condition of the concrete. In June 1993, slides were reviewed which showed the inside of the concrete vault in Type 1, 2, and 4 tanks. The authors subsequently visited the tank farm and assessed the visible portions of the outer concrete vault. Later a team of engineers knowledgeable in concrete degradation performed a walk-down. Photographs showing the concrete condition were taken at this time. This report summarizes the findings of these walk-downs and reinforces previous recommendations.

  20. Risk factor evaluation for cataract development in patients with low vaulting after phakic intraocular lens implantation.

    PubMed

    Maeng, Hyo-Sung; Chung, Tae-Young; Lee, Doon-Hoon; Chung, Eui-Sang

    2011-05-01

    To evaluate the occurrence of cataract in eyes with low vaulting after phakic intraocular lens (pIOL) implantation for myopia and suggest guidelines for such cases. Samsung Medical Center, Seoul, Korea. Cross-sectional study. Eyes with low Implantable Collamer Lens pIOL vaulting (<250 μm) were followed 1, 3, and 6 months as well as 1, 2, 3, and 4 years postoperatively. Frequency and time to cataract development were evaluated. Risk factors for cataract development were assessed using logistic regression analysis. Cutoff values for differentiating eyes at higher risk for cataract development were evaluated using Fisher exact and chi-square tests. Cataract developed in 8 (30.8%) of 26 eyes (6 of 20 patients) a mean of 18.7 months ± 10.1 (SD) postoperatively. Risk factors that were significant for cataract formation included lower vaulting (mean 42.4 ± 34.0 μm versus 141.4 ± 82.2 μm; odds ratio [OR], 1.05), older age (mean 42.6 ± 7.3 versus 34.9 ± 6.9 years; OR, 1.22), and higher preoperative spherical equivalent (SE) (mean -17.1 ± 4.4 diopters [D] versus -10.7 ± 2.7 D; OR, 1.64). The optimum cutoff values were 51.7 μm, 45 years, and -14.00 D (P=.0095, P=.0367, and P=.0342 respectively). In cases of low pIOL vaulting, close follow-up should be considered when central vaulting is less than 52 μm, patient age is more than 45 years, or the preoperative SE is greater than -14.00 D because these factors increase the risk for cataract. Copyright © 2011. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  1. Factors influencing performance in the Hecht vault and implications for modelling.

    PubMed

    King, Mark A; Yeadon, Maurice R

    2005-01-01

    This paper investigated the factors that influence Hecht vault performance and assessed the level of model complexity required to give an adequate representation of vaulting. A five-segment planar simulation model with a visco-elastic shoulder joint and a torque generator at the shoulder joint was used to simulate the contact phase in vaulting. The model was customized to an elite gymnast by determining subject-specific segmental inertia and joint torque parameters. The simulation model was matched to a performance of the Hecht vault by varying the visco-elastic characteristics of the shoulders and the arm-horse interface and the activation time history of the shoulder torque generator until the best match was found. Perturbing the matching simulation demonstrated that appropriate initial kinematics are necessary for a successful performance. Fixing the hip and knee angles at their initial values had a small effect with 3 degrees less rotation. Applying shoulder torque during the contact phase also had a small effect with only a 7 degrees range in landing angles. Excluding the hand segment from the model was found to have a moderate effect with 15 degrees less rotation and the time of contact reduced by 38%. Removing shoulder elasticity resulted in 50 degrees less rotation. The use of a five-segment simulation model confirmed that the use of shoulder torque plays a minor role in vaulting performance and that having appropriate initial kinematics at touchdown is essential. However, factors such as shoulder elasticity and the hands which have previously been ignored also have a substantial influence on performance.

  2. NeuroVault.org: a web-based repository for collecting and sharing unthresholded statistical maps of the human brain.

    PubMed

    Gorgolewski, Krzysztof J; Varoquaux, Gael; Rivera, Gabriel; Schwarz, Yannick; Ghosh, Satrajit S; Maumet, Camille; Sochat, Vanessa V; Nichols, Thomas E; Poldrack, Russell A; Poline, Jean-Baptiste; Yarkoni, Tal; Margulies, Daniel S

    2015-01-01

    Here we present NeuroVault-a web based repository that allows researchers to store, share, visualize, and decode statistical maps of the human brain. NeuroVault is easy to use and employs modern web technologies to provide informative visualization of data without the need to install additional software. In addition, it leverages the power of the Neurosynth database to provide cognitive decoding of deposited maps. The data are exposed through a public REST API enabling other services and tools to take advantage of it. NeuroVault is a new resource for researchers interested in conducting meta- and coactivation analyses.

  3. Posthole Broadband Sensor Emplacement vs. Surface Vaults: Observations of Comparative Noise Performance and Trade-offs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sweet, J. R.; Beaudoin, B. C.; Barstow, N.; Pfeifer, M.; Anderson, K. R.; Frassetto, A.

    2015-12-01

    Advances in seismometer design have diversified the range of instruments available for use in temporary field installations. IRIS programs, primarily PASSCAL and the Transportable Array (TA), have helped steer development of these new instruments to meet these evolving needs. PASSCAL operates a small pool of posthole broadband sensors, purpose built for direct burial. Near surface posthole installations are a new, cost effective, and logistically simple technique for broadband emplacement that is an alternative to the vault installations used in portable broadband seismic experiments for nearly 30 years. Direct burial installation is limited to the time and effort required to dig the borehole and emplace the sensor, thus reducing both material costs and time to install. Also, in Alaska, extreme environments and difficult logistics make standard TA tank vaults inappropriate for most sites. TA has developed improved deployment strategies for these environments. There, holes for posthole sensors are hammer- drilled or augered to several meters depth in soil, permafrost, or bedrock and then cased. These emplacement costs are generally less than standard TA vaults. We compare various installation techniques for test cases as well as general deployments of PASSCAL and TA stations. Automated noise performance analyses have been part of the TA throughout its operation, but until recently vault performance for portable installations supported by the PASSCAL program was sparse. In this study, we select a suite of co-located direct burial and surface vault installations and compare their noise performance using probability density functions. Our initial analyses suggest that direct burial sensors have lower noise levels than vault installations on both horizontal and vertical channels across a range of periods spanning <1 s to 100 s. However, most of these initial experiments for PASSCAL were with sensors not purpose built for direct burial and it became obvious that a sensor

  4. Direct burial and vault emplacement data quality comparison at Dotson Ranch, New Mexico

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Beaudoin, B. C.; Aderhold, K.; Anderson, K.; Pfeifer, M.; Parker, T.; Miller, P. E.; Slad, G. W.; Reusch, A.

    2013-12-01

    We compare the data quality of two emplacement methods for portable broadband seismic stations, traditional vault and direct burial, using power spectral density analysis to examine temporal trends in noise, the ratio of signal-to-noise for local, regional and teleseismic earthquakes, coherence of both noise and earthquake signal recordings as well as overall data return. Sensor emplacement in the past has been overwhelmingly dominated by traditional vaults requiring more materials, manpower and time. A new technique of directly burying sensors drastically reduces the expense, personnel and time required to install a seismic station. Comparisons between the data quality of vault and direct buried sensors are needed to show that the time and money saved in emplacement does not downgrade the quality of the data collected. Two identical shallow vaults were installed adjacent to two identical direct burial sites at Dotson Ranch in San Antonio, New Mexico, in a deliberately-chosen noisy, wet and generally inhospitable location. These four sites each used a Guralp 3T sensor retrofitted with a waterproof lid and connector. Eight months of data recorded during 2012 from these four sensors are compared in order to determine if the emplacement method has a profound and systematic effect on data quality using several different metrics that mimic the actual use of seismic data in research. A posthole installation with a Nanometrics Trillium 120PH sensor was also installed at the site for a portion of the study and six months of data are included in the analysis. Overall the variability in data quality metrics used in this study is comparable between sites with differing emplacement method as it is between sites with the same emplacement method. Noise in the vaults is higher in amplitude during the transition from spring to summer as compared to the direct burials and is especially evident on the horizontal components at long periods between 20-170 seconds. Diurnal changes in

  5. Reciprocal feeding facilitation between above- and below-ground herbivores.

    PubMed

    McKenzie, Scott W; Vanbergen, Adam J; Hails, Rosemary S; Jones, T Hefin; Johnson, Scott N

    2013-10-23

    Interspecific interactions between insect herbivores predominantly involve asymmetric competition. By contrast, facilitation, whereby herbivory by one insect benefits another via induced plant susceptibility, is uncommon. Positive reciprocal interactions between insect herbivores are even rarer. Here, we reveal a novel case of reciprocal feeding facilitation between above-ground aphids (Amphorophora idaei) and root-feeding vine weevil larvae (Otiorhynchus sulcatus), attacking red raspberry (Rubus idaeus). Using two raspberry cultivars with varying resistance to these herbivores, we further demonstrate that feeding facilitation occurred regardless of host plant resistance. This positive reciprocal interaction operates via an, as yet, unreported mechanism. Specifically, the aphid induces compensatory growth, possibly as a prelude to greater resistance/tolerance, whereas the root herbivore causes the plant to abandon this strategy. Both herbivores may ultimately benefit from this facilitative interaction.

  6. Biodiversity below ground: probing the subterranean ant fauna of Amazonia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ryder Wilkie, Kari T.; Mertl, Amy L.; Traniello, James F. A.

    2007-09-01

    Ants are abundant, diverse, and ecologically dominant in tropical forests. Subterranean ants in particular are thought to have a significant environmental impact, although difficulties associated with collecting ants underground and examining their ecology and behavior have limited research. In this paper, we present the results of a study of subterranean ant diversity in Amazonian Ecuador that employs a novel probe to facilitate the discovery of species inhabiting the soil horizon. Forty-seven species of ants in 19 genera, including new and apparently rare species, were collected in probes. Approximately 19% of the species collected at different depths in the soil were unique to probe samples. Analysis of similarity (ANOSIM) results showed that the species composition of ants collected with the probe was significantly different from samples collected using other techniques. Additionally, ANOSIM computations indicated the species assemblage of ants collected 12.5 cm below the surface was significantly different from those found at 25, 37.5, and 50 cm. Ant diversity and species accumulation rates decreased with increasing depth. There were no species unique to the lowest depths, suggesting that subterranean ants may not be distributed deep in the soil in Amazonia due to the high water table. The technique we describe could be used to gain new insights into the distribution and biology of subterranean ant species and other members of the species-rich soil invertebrate macrofauna.

  7. Arctic mosses govern below-ground environment and ecosystem processes.

    PubMed

    Gornall, J L; Jónsdóttir, I S; Woodin, S J; Van der Wal, R

    2007-10-01

    Mosses dominate many northern ecosystems and their presence is integral to soil thermal and hydrological regimes which, in turn, dictate important ecological processes. Drivers, such as climate change and increasing herbivore pressure, affect the moss layer thus, assessment of the functional role of mosses in determining soil characteristics is essential. Field manipulations conducted in high arctic Spitsbergen (78 degrees N), creating shallow (3 cm), intermediate (6 cm) and deep (12 cm) moss layers over the soil surface, had an immediate impact on soil temperature in terms of both average temperatures and amplitude of fluctuations. In soil under deep moss, temperature was substantially lower and organic layer thaw occurred 4 weeks later than in other treatment plots; the growing season for vascular plants was thereby reduced by 40%. Soil moisture was also reduced under deep moss, reflecting the influence of local heterogeneity in moss depth, over and above the landscape-scale topographic control of soil moisture. Data from field and laboratory experiments show that moss-mediated effects on the soil environment influenced microbial biomass and activity, resulting in warmer and wetter soil under thinner moss layers containing more plant-available nitrogen. In arctic ecosystems, which are limited by soil temperature, growing season length and nutrient availability, spatial and temporal variation in the depth of the moss layer has significant repercussions for ecosystem function. Evidence from our mesic tundra site shows that any disturbance causing reduction in the depth of the moss layer will alleviate temperature and moisture constraints and therefore profoundly influence a wide range of ecosystem processes, including nutrient cycling and energy transfer.

  8. Biodiversity below ground: probing the subterranean ant fauna of Amazonia.

    PubMed

    Ryder Wilkie, Kari T; Mertl, Amy L; Traniello, James F A

    2007-09-01

    Ants are abundant, diverse, and ecologically dominant in tropical forests. Subterranean ants in particular are thought to have a significant environmental impact, although difficulties associated with collecting ants underground and examining their ecology and behavior have limited research. In this paper, we present the results of a study of subterranean ant diversity in Amazonian Ecuador that employs a novel probe to facilitate the discovery of species inhabiting the soil horizon. Forty-seven species of ants in 19 genera, including new and apparently rare species, were collected in probes. Approximately 19% of the species collected at different depths in the soil were unique to probe samples. Analysis of similarity (ANOSIM) results showed that the species composition of ants collected with the probe was significantly different from samples collected using other techniques. Additionally, ANOSIM computations indicated the species assemblage of ants collected 12.5 cm below the surface was significantly different from those found at 25, 37.5, and 50 cm. Ant diversity and species accumulation rates decreased with increasing depth. There were no species unique to the lowest depths, suggesting that subterranean ants may not be distributed deep in the soil in Amazonia due to the high water table. The technique we describe could be used to gain new insights into the distribution and biology of subterranean ant species and other members of the species-rich soil invertebrate macrofauna.

  9. Aridity increases below-ground niche breadth in grass communities

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Butterfield, Bradley J.; Bradford, John B.; Munson, Seth M.; Gremer, Jennifer R.

    2017-01-01

    Aridity is an important environmental filter in the assembly of plant communities worldwide. The extent to which root traits mediate responses to aridity, and how they are coordinated with leaf traits, remains unclear. Here, we measured variation in root tissue density (RTD), specific root length (SRL), specific leaf area (SLA), and seed size within and among thirty perennial grass communities distributed along an aridity gradient spanning 190–540 mm of climatic water deficit (potential minus actual evapotranspiration). We tested the hypotheses that traits exhibited coordinated variation (1) among species, as well as (2) among communities varying in aridity, and (3) functional diversity within communities declines with increasing aridity, consistent with the “stress-dominance” hypothesis. Across communities, SLA and RTD exhibited a coordinated response to aridity, shifting toward more conservative (lower SLA, higher RTD) functional strategies with increasing aridity. The response of SRL to aridity was more idiosyncratic and was independent of variation in SLA and RTD. Contrary to the stress-dominance hypothesis, the diversity of SRL values within communities increased with aridity, while none of the other traits exhibited significant diversity responses. These results are consistent with other studies that have found SRL to be independent of an SLA–RTD axis of functional variation and suggest that the dynamic nature of soil moisture in arid environments may facilitate a wider array of resource capture strategies associated with variation in SRL.

  10. A THERMAL MODEL OF THE IMMOBILIZATION OF LOW-LEVEL RADIOACTIVE WASTE AS GROUT IN CONCRETE VAULTS

    SciTech Connect

    Shadday, M

    2008-10-27

    Salt solution will be mixed with cement and flyash/slag to form a grout which will be immobilized in above ground concrete vaults. The curing process is exothermic, and a transient thermal model of the pouring and curing process is herein described. A peak temperature limit of 85 C for the curing grout restricts the rate at which it can be poured into a vault. The model is used to optimize the pouring.

  11. Vaginal Vault Suspension at Hysterectomy for Prolapse - Myths and Facts, Anatomical Requirements, Fixation Techniques, Documentation and Cost Accounting.

    PubMed

    Graefe, F; Marschke, J; Dimpfl, T; Tunn, R

    2012-12-01

    Vaginal vault suspension during hysterectomy for prolapse is both a therapy for apical insufficiency and helps prevent recurrence. Numerous techniques exist, with different anatomical results and differing complications. The description of the different approaches together with a description of the vaginal vault suspension technique used at the Department for Urogynaecology at St. Hedwig Hospital could serve as a basis for reassessment and for recommendations by scientific associations regarding general standards.

  12. Vaginal Vault Suspension at Hysterectomy for Prolapse – Myths and Facts, Anatomical Requirements, Fixation Techniques, Documentation and Cost Accounting

    PubMed Central

    Graefe, F.; Marschke, J.; Dimpfl, T.; Tunn, R.

    2012-01-01

    Vaginal vault suspension during hysterectomy for prolapse is both a therapy for apical insufficiency and helps prevent recurrence. Numerous techniques exist, with different anatomical results and differing complications. The description of the different approaches together with a description of the vaginal vault suspension technique used at the Department for Urogynaecology at St. Hedwig Hospital could serve as a basis for reassessment and for recommendations by scientific associations regarding general standards. PMID:25278621

  13. Development of a New Cryptographic Construct Using Palmprint-Based Fuzzy Vault

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kumar, Amioy; Kumar, Ajay

    2009-12-01

    The combination of cryptology and biometrics has emerged as promising component of information security. Despite the current popularity of palmprint biometric, there has not been any attempt to investigate its usage for the fuzzy vault. This paper therefore investigates the possible usage of palmprint in fuzzy vault to develop a user friendly and reliable crypto system. We suggest the use of both symmetric and asymmetric approach for the encryption. The ciphertext of any document is generated by symmetric cryptosystem; the symmetric key is then encrypted by asymmetric approach. Further, Reed and Solomon codes are used on the generated asymmetric key to provide some error tolerance while decryption. The experimental results from the proposed approach on the palmprint images suggest its possible usage in an automated palmprint-based key generation system.

  14. Adding EUNIS and VAULT rocket data to the VSO with Modern Perl frameworks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mansky, Edmund

    2017-08-01

    A new Perl code is described, that uses the modern Object-oriented Moose framework, to add EUNIS and VAULT rocket data to the Virtual Solar Observatory website. The code permits the easy fixing of FITS header fields in the case where some FITS fields that are required are missing from the original data files. The code makes novel use of the Moose extensions “before” and “after” to build in dependencies so that database creation of tables occurs before the loading of data, and that the validation of file-dependent tables occurs after the loading is completed. Also described is the computation and loading of the deferred FITS field CHECKSUM into the database following the loading and validation of the file-dependent tables. The loading of the EUNIS 2006 and 2007 flight data, and the VAULT 2.0 flight data is described in detail as illustrative examples.

  15. Predicting long-lived, neutron-induced activation of concrete in a cyclotron vault

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carroll, L. R.

    2001-07-01

    Many elements in concrete can become activated by neutrons in a cyclotron vault, but only a few of the activation products are long-lived. The most prominent of these are Eu-152, Eu-154, Co-60, and Cs-134 which build up over time from (n, γ) reactions in trace amounts of stable Europium, Cobalt, and Cesium that are normally present in concrete in concentrations of a few parts per million, or less, by weight. A retrospective analysis of data taken in connection with a previous decommissioning of a cyclotron vault, coupled with independent published data, gives us an estimate of the concentrations of these elements in concrete. With that estimate as a benchmark, we then employ a Monte Carlo Radiation Transport Code to estimate the long-term activation profile in concrete for arbitrary irradiation conditions.

  16. An underground characterization program for a nuclear fuel waste disposal vault in plutonic rock

    SciTech Connect

    Thompson, P.M.; Everitt, R.A.

    1993-12-31

    The Canadian Nuclear Fuel Waste Management Program (CNFWMP) is developing a concept for disposing of nuclear fuel waste that involves placing and sealing it in a disposal vault excavated 500 to 1,000 m deep in the stable plutonic rock of the Canadian Shield. In this concept, engineered and natural barriers serve to isolate the waste from the biosphere. Since 1983, underground characterization and testing in support of the CNFWMP has been ongoing at the Underground Research Laboratory (URL) in southeastern Manitoba. This paper draws on experience gained at the URL to recommend an approach to underground characterization that would provide the necessary information to make design decisions for a disposal vault in plutonic rock.

  17. Decrease in pH destabilizes individual vault nanocages by weakening the inter-protein lateral interaction

    PubMed Central

    Llauró, Aida; Guerra, Pablo; Kant, Ravi; Bothner, Brian; Verdaguer, Núria; de Pablo, Pedro J.

    2016-01-01

    Vault particles are naturally occurring proteinaceous cages with promising application as molecular containers. The use of vaults as functional transporters requires a profound understanding of their structural stability to guarantee the protection and controlled payload delivery. Previous results performed with bulk techniques or at non-physiological conditions have suggested pH as a parameter to control vault dynamics. Here we use Atomic Force Microscopy (AFM) to monitor the structural evolution of individual vault particles while changing the pH in real time. Our experiments show that decreasing the pH of the solution destabilize the barrel region, the central part of vault particles, and leads to the aggregation of the cages. Additional analyses using Quartz-Crystal Microbalance (QCM) and Differential Scanning Fluorimetry (DSF) are consistent with our single molecule AFM experiments. The observed topographical defects suggest that low pH weakens the bonds between adjacent proteins. We hypothesize that the observed effects are related to the strong polar character of the protein-protein lateral interactions. Overall, our study unveils the mechanism for the influence of a biologically relevant range of pHs on the stability and dynamics of vault particles. PMID:27739422

  18. Decrease in pH destabilizes individual vault nanocages by weakening the inter-protein lateral interaction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Llauró, Aida; Guerra, Pablo; Kant, Ravi; Bothner, Brian; Verdaguer, Núria; de Pablo, Pedro J.

    2016-10-01

    Vault particles are naturally occurring proteinaceous cages with promising application as molecular containers. The use of vaults as functional transporters requires a profound understanding of their structural stability to guarantee the protection and controlled payload delivery. Previous results performed with bulk techniques or at non-physiological conditions have suggested pH as a parameter to control vault dynamics. Here we use Atomic Force Microscopy (AFM) to monitor the structural evolution of individual vault particles while changing the pH in real time. Our experiments show that decreasing the pH of the solution destabilize the barrel region, the central part of vault particles, and leads to the aggregation of the cages. Additional analyses using Quartz-Crystal Microbalance (QCM) and Differential Scanning Fluorimetry (DSF) are consistent with our single molecule AFM experiments. The observed topographical defects suggest that low pH weakens the bonds between adjacent proteins. We hypothesize that the observed effects are related to the strong polar character of the protein-protein lateral interactions. Overall, our study unveils the mechanism for the influence of a biologically relevant range of pHs on the stability and dynamics of vault particles.

  19. Radiological performance assessment for the E-Area Vaults Disposal Facility. Appendices A through M

    SciTech Connect

    Cook, J.R.

    1994-04-15

    These document contains appendices A-M for the performance assessment. They are A: details of models and assumptions, B: computer codes, C: data tabulation, D: geochemical interactions, E: hydrogeology of the Savannah River Site, F: software QA plans, G: completeness review guide, H: performance assessment peer review panel recommendations, I: suspect soil performance analysis, J: sensitivity/uncertainty analysis, K: vault degradation study, L: description of naval reactor waste disposal, M: porflow input file. (GHH)

  20. Treatment vault shielding for a flattening filter-free medical linear accelerator.

    PubMed

    Kry, Stephen F; Howell, Rebecca M; Polf, Jerimy; Mohan, Radhe; Vassiliev, Oleg N

    2009-03-07

    The requirements for shielding a treatment vault with a Varian Clinac 2100 medical linear accelerator operated both with and without the flattening filter were assessed. Basic shielding parameters, such as primary beam tenth-value layers (TVLs), patient scatter fractions, and wall scatter fractions, were calculated using Monte Carlo simulations of 6, 10 and 18 MV beams. Relative integral target current requirements were determined from treatment planning studies of several disease sites with, and without, the flattening filter. The flattened beam shielding data were compared to data published in NCRP Report No. 151, and the unflattened beam shielding data were presented relative to the NCRP data. Finally, the shielding requirements for a typical treatment vault were determined for a single-energy (6 MV) linac and a dual-energy (6 MV/18 MV) linac. With the exception of large-angle patient scatter fractions and wall scatter fractions, the vault shielding parameters were reduced when the flattening filter was removed. Much of this reduction was consistent with the reduced average energy of the FFF beams. Primary beam TVLs were reduced by 12%, on average, and small-angle scatter fractions were reduced by up to 30%. Head leakage was markedly reduced because less integral target current was required to deliver the target dose. For the treatment vault examined in the current study, removal of the flattening filter reduced the required thickness of the primary and secondary barriers by 10-20%, corresponding to 18 m(3) less concrete to shield the single-energy linac and 36 m(3) less concrete to shield the dual-energy linac. Thus, a shielding advantage was found when the linac was operated without the flattening filter. This translates into a reduction in occupational exposure and/or the cost and space of shielding.

  1. Effect of Plyometric Training on Handspring Vault Performance and Functional Power in Youth Female Gymnasts

    PubMed Central

    Hall, Emma; Bishop, Daniel C.; Gee, Thomas I.

    2016-01-01

    This study aimed to determine the effect of plyometric training (PT) when added to habitual gymnastic training (HT) on handspring vault (HV) performance variables. Twenty youth female competitive gymnasts (Age: 12.5 ± 1.67 y) volunteered to participate and were randomly assigned to two independent groups. The experimental plyometric training group (PTG) undertook a six-week plyometric program, involving two additional 45 min PT sessions a week, alongside their HT, while the control group (CG) performed regular HT only. Videography was used (120 Hz) in the sagittal plane to record both groups performing three HVs for both the baseline and post-intervention trials. Furthermore, participants completed a countermovement jump test (CMJ) to assess the effect of PT on functional power. Through the use of Quintic biomechanics software, significant improvements (P < 0.05) were found for the PTG for run-up velocity, take-off velocity, hurdle to board distance, board contact time, table contact time and post-flight time and CMJ height. However, there were no significant improvements on pre-flight time, shoulder angle or hip angle on the vault for the PTG. The CG demonstrated no improvement for all HV measures. A sport-specific PT intervention improved handspring vault performance measures and functional power when added to the habitual training of youth female gymnasts. The additional two hours plyometric training seemingly improved the power generating capacity of movement-specific musculature, which consequently improved aspects of vaulting performance. Future research is required to examine the whether the improvements are as a consequence of the additional volume of sprinting and jumping activities, as a result of the specific PT method or a combination of these factors. PMID:26859381

  2. Treatment vault shielding for a flattening filter-free medical linear accelerator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kry, Stephen F.; Howell, Rebecca M.; Polf, Jerimy; Mohan, Radhe; Vassiliev, Oleg N.

    2009-03-01

    The requirements for shielding a treatment vault with a Varian Clinac 2100 medical linear accelerator operated both with and without the flattening filter were assessed. Basic shielding parameters, such as primary beam tenth-value layers (TVLs), patient scatter fractions, and wall scatter fractions, were calculated using Monte Carlo simulations of 6, 10 and 18 MV beams. Relative integral target current requirements were determined from treatment planning studies of several disease sites with, and without, the flattening filter. The flattened beam shielding data were compared to data published in NCRP Report No. 151, and the unflattened beam shielding data were presented relative to the NCRP data. Finally, the shielding requirements for a typical treatment vault were determined for a single-energy (6 MV) linac and a dual-energy (6 MV/18 MV) linac. With the exception of large-angle patient scatter fractions and wall scatter fractions, the vault shielding parameters were reduced when the flattening filter was removed. Much of this reduction was consistent with the reduced average energy of the FFF beams. Primary beam TVLs were reduced by 12%, on average, and small-angle scatter fractions were reduced by up to 30%. Head leakage was markedly reduced because less integral target current was required to deliver the target dose. For the treatment vault examined in the current study, removal of the flattening filter reduced the required thickness of the primary and secondary barriers by 10-20%, corresponding to 18 m3 less concrete to shield the single-energy linac and 36 m3 less concrete to shield the dual-energy linac. Thus, a shielding advantage was found when the linac was operated without the flattening filter. This translates into a reduction in occupational exposure and/or the cost and space of shielding.

  3. Monte Carlo neutron doses estimations inside a PET cyclotron vault room.

    PubMed

    Barquero, R; Méndez, R; Martí-Climent, J M; Quincoces, G

    2007-01-01

    Neutron organ equivalent doses, effective doses and dose equivalents received inside a positron emission tomography vault room in a maximum credible accident have been estimated with the Monte Carlo code MCNPX. While an operator was inside the vault room of a Cyclone 18/9 IBA cyclotron, this was producing (18)F with 30 muA proton current in the target and the operator had to activate a stopped emergency device placed on the wall. MC simulation of the cyclotron vault were carried out to estimate the organ and tissue equivalent doses in a mathematical male mannequin simulating the operator facing the wall on which the emergency device is placed. Doses were calculated at two emergency devices for each one of the two targets of the cyclotron, which were able to produce (18)F. The maximum effective dose in the mannequin was 6.70 Sv/h and the maximum organ equivalent dose was 18.47 Sv/h in spleen.

  4. Vaulting mechanics successfully predict decrease in walk-run transition speed with incline.

    PubMed

    Hubel, Tatjana Y; Usherwood, James R

    2013-04-23

    There is an ongoing debate about the reasons underlying gait transition in terrestrial locomotion. In bipedal locomotion, the 'compass gait', a reductionist model of inverted pendulum walking, predicts the boundaries of speed and step length within which walking is feasible. The stance of the compass gait is energetically optimal-at walking speeds-owing to the absence of leg compression/extension; completely stiff limbs perform no work during the vaulting phase. Here, we extend theoretical compass gait vaulting to include inclines, and find good agreement with previous observations of changes in walk-run transition speed (approx. 1% per 1% incline). We measured step length and frequency for humans walking either on the level or up a 9.8 per cent incline and report preferred walk-run, walk-compliant-walk and maximum walk-run transition speeds. While the measured 'preferred' walk-run transition speed lies consistently below the predicted maximum walking speeds, and 'actual' maximum walking speeds are clearly above the predicted values, the onset of compliant walking in level as well as incline walking occurs close to the predicted values. These findings support the view that normal human walking is constrained by the physics of vaulting, but preferred absolute walk-run transition speeds may be influenced by additional factors.

  5. Secure voice-based authentication for mobile devices: vaulted voice verification

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Johnson, R. C.; Scheirer, Walter J.; Boult, Terrance E.

    2013-05-01

    As the use of biometrics becomes more wide-spread, the privacy concerns that stem from the use of biometrics are becoming more apparent. As the usage of mobile devices grows, so does the desire to implement biometric identification into such devices. A large majority of mobile devices being used are mobile phones. While work is being done to implement different types of biometrics into mobile phones, such as photo based biometrics, voice is a more natural choice. The idea of voice as a biometric identifier has been around a long time. One of the major concerns with using voice as an identifier is the instability of voice. We have developed a protocol that addresses those instabilities and preserves privacy. This paper describes a novel protocol that allows a user to authenticate using voice on a mobile/remote device without compromising their privacy. We first discuss the Vaulted Verification protocol, which has recently been introduced in research literature, and then describe its limitations. We then introduce a novel adaptation and extension of the Vaulted Verification protocol to voice, dubbed Vaulted Voice Verification (V3). Following that we show a performance evaluation and then conclude with a discussion of security and future work.

  6. Effect of the upper limbs muscles activity on the mechanical energy gain in pole vaulting.

    PubMed

    Frère, Julien; Göpfert, Beat; Slawinski, Jean; Tourny-chollet, Claire

    2012-04-01

    The shoulder muscles are highly solicited in pole vaulting and may afford energy gain. The objective of this study was to determine the bilateral muscle activity of the upper-limbs to explain the actions performed by the vaulter to bend the pole and store elastic energy. Seven experienced athletes performed 5-10 vaults which were recorded using two video cameras (50Hz). The mechanical energy of the centre of gravity (CG) was computed, while surface electromyographic (EMG) profiles were recorded from 5 muscles bilateral: deltoideus, infraspinatus, biceps brachii, triceps, and latissimus dorsi muscles. The level of intensity from EMG profile was retained in four sub phases between take-off (TO1) and complete pole straightening (PS). The athletes had a mean mechanical energy gain of 22% throughout the pole vault, while the intensities of deltoideus, biceps brachii, and latissimus dorsi muscles were sub phases-dependent (p<0.05). Stabilizing the glenohumeral joint (increase of deltoideus and biceps brachii activity) and applying a pole bending torque (increase of latissimus dorsi activity) required specific muscle activation. The gain in mechanical energy of the vaulter could be linked to an increase in muscle activation, especially from latissimusdorsi muscles. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. PERMEABILITY TESTING OF SIMULATED SALTSTONE CORE AND VAULT 4 CELL E SALTSTONE

    SciTech Connect

    Nichols, R.; Dixon, K.

    2011-08-22

    The Engineering Process Development Group (EPD) of the Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) prepared simulated saltstone core samples to evaluate the effect of sample collection by coring on the permeability of saltstone. The Environmental Restoration Technology Section (ERTS) of the SRNL was given the task of measuring the permeability of cores of simulated saltstone. Saltstone samples collected from Vault 4 Cell E using both dry and wet coring methods were also submitted for permeability analysis. The cores from Vault 4 Cell E were in multiple pieces when they were recovered (Smith, 2008 Cheng et.al, 2009). Permeability testing was only performed on the portions of the core sample that were intact, had no visible fractures or cracks, and met the specifications for 'undisturbed specimens' identified in Method ASTM D5084-03 Standard Test Methods for Measurement of Hydraulic Conductivity of Saturated Porous Materials Using a Flexible Wall Permeameter that was used for the testing. Permeability values for cores of simulated saltstone compared with values from permeability tests conducted on molded saltstone samples by an independent laboratory using the same method. All hydraulic conductivity results for Vault 4 samples exceeded results for both molded and cored saltstone simulant samples. The average hydraulic conductivity result for Vault 4 Cell E samples of 3.9 x 10{sup -7} cm/sec is approximately two orders of magnitude greater than that of the simulated saltstone with an average of 4.1 x 10{sup -9} cm/sec. Numerical flow and transport simulations of moisture movement through saltstone performed for the performance assessment of the Saltstone Disposal Facility (SDF) used 2.0 x 10{sup -9} cm/sec for the hydraulic conductivity of saltstone (Flach et al, 2009). The results for simulated versus actual saltstone were further compared using non-parametric statistics. The results from non-parametric statistical analysis of results indicate that there is at least a

  8. EVALUATION OF SULFATE ATTACK ON SALTSTONE VAULT CONCRETE AND SALTSTONESIMCO TECHNOLOGIES, INC. PART1 FINAL REPORT

    SciTech Connect

    Langton, C

    2008-08-19

    This report summarizes the preliminary results of a durability analysis performed by SIMCO Technologies Inc. to assess the effects of contacting saltstone Vaults 1/4 and Disposal Unit 2 concretes with highly alkaline solutions containing high concentrations of dissolved sulfate. The STADIUM{reg_sign} code and data from two surrogate concretes which are similar to the Vaults 1/4 and Disposal Unit 2 concretes were used in the preliminary durability analysis. Simulation results for these surrogate concrete mixes are provided in this report. The STADIUM{reg_sign} code will be re-run using transport properties measured for the SRS Vaults 1/4 and Disposal Unit 2 concrete samples after SIMCO personnel complete characterization testing on samples of these materials. Simulation results which utilize properties measured for samples of Vaults 1/4 and Disposal Unit 2 concretes will be provided in Revision 1 of this report after property data become available. The modeling performed to date provided the following information on two concrete mixes that will be used to support the Saltstone PA: (1) Relationship between the rate of advancement of the sulfate front (depth of sulfate ion penetration into the concrete) and the rate of change of the concrete permeability and diffusivity. (2) Relationship between the sulfate ion concentration in the corrosive leachate and the rate of the sulfate front progression. (3) Equation describing the change in hydraulic properties (hydraulic conductivity and diffusivity) as a function of sulfate ion concentration in the corrosive leachate. These results have been incorporated into the current Saltstone PA analysis by G. Flach (Flach, 2008). In addition, samples of the Saltstone Vaults 1/4 and Disposal Unit 2 concretes have been prepared by SIMCO Technologies, Inc. Transport and physical properties for these materials are currently being measured and sulfate exposure testing to three high alkaline, high sulfate leachates provided by SRNL is

  9. Detection of Tritium in Storage Vaults Containing RH TRU Waste at the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory

    SciTech Connect

    Pui Kuan

    2005-02-01

    Waste drums containing remote-handled (RH) transuranic (TRU) waste from the Argonne National Laboratory-East (ANL-E) are stored in sealed, underground vaults at the Radioactive Waste Management Complex (RWMC) at the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory (INEEL). The waste consists of laboratory debris from the destructive examination of fuel elements irradiated mostly in the Experimental Breeder Reactor II (EBR-II). In 2004, air samples were obtained from some of these vaults and analyzed for radioactivity. Some of the samples show that the vaults contained several DAC's (derived air concentrations) of tritium, which are considered as non-negligible by Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) regulations. Based on Acceptable Knowledge (AK) records of the waste stored in the vaults, ORIGEN2 calculations were performed to estimate the isotopic contents in the waste drums stored in the vaults. The calculations are based on the irradiation of fuel elements that produced the waste. The absolute amounts of isotopic contents in the waste drums are normalized to Cs-137 contents derived from measured surface dose rates, mostly from the Cs-137 radiation, as documented in AK records. The amounts of tritium thus calculated (assuming no loss from those produced during fission except for decay) are compared to the measured values in the air samples from the vaults. The ratio of measured tritium in the form of tritiated water vapor to un-reduced tritium from fission is found to be from below detection levels to approximately 0.2%, but mostly in the range around 1 10-4 to 1 10-3. It appears that even the debris from cutting and grinding the fuel elements contained substantial amounts of tritium, which were subsequently released from the fuel particles during years of storage in the vaults.

  10. Broad distribution of the multidrug resistance-related vault lung resistance protein in normal human tissues and tumors.

    PubMed Central

    Izquierdo, M. A.; Scheffer, G. L.; Flens, M. J.; Giaccone, G.; Broxterman, H. J.; Meijer, C. J.; van der Valk, P.; Scheper, R. J.

    1996-01-01

    Multidrug resistance (MDR) to anticancer drugs is a major cause of treatment failure in cancer. The lung resistance protein LRP is a newly described protein related to MDR in several in vitro models. LRP has been shown to be a strong predictor of poor response to chemotherapy and prognosis in acute myeloid leukemia and in ovarian carcinoma patients. Recently, based on a 57% and 88% amino acid identity with major vault proteins from Dictyostelium discoideum and Rattus norvegicus, respectively, we identified LRP as the human major vault protein, the main component of highly conserved cellular organelles named vaults. We have studied the immunohistochemical expression of LRP in freshly frozen normal human tissues and 174 cancer specimens of 28 tumor types. LRP was broadly distributed in normal and malignant cells, but distinct patterns of expression were noticed. High LRP expression was seen in bronchus, digestive tract, renal proximal tubules, keratinocytes, macrophages, and adrenal cortex whereas varying ing levels were observed in other organs. LRP was detected in all tumor types examined, but its frequency varied, fairly reflecting the chemosensitivity of different cancers. For example, low rates of LRP positivity were seen in testicular cancer, neuroblastoma, and acute myeloid leukemia; intermediate in ovarian cancer; and high in colon, renal, and pancreatic carcinomas. The wide occurrence of LRP in normal and transformed cells in humans, its similar distribution to that of vaults in other species, as well as the high level of conservation among eukaryotic cells of both the amino acid sequence of the major vault protein and the composition and structure of vaults, suggest that vault function is important to eukaryotic cells. Images Figure 1 Figure 2 Figure 3 PMID:8774142

  11. A comparison of Coulomb and pseudo-Coulomb friction implementations: Application to the table contact phase of gymnastics vaulting.

    PubMed

    Jackson, M I; Hiley, M J; Yeadon, M R

    2011-10-13

    In the table contact phase of gymnastics vaulting both dynamic and static friction act. The purpose of this study was to develop a method of simulating Coulomb friction that incorporated both dynamic and static phases and to compare the results with those obtained using a pseudo-Coulomb implementation of friction when applied to the table contact phase of gymnastics vaulting. Kinematic data were obtained from an elite level gymnast performing handspring straight somersault vaults using a Vicon optoelectronic motion capture system. An angle-driven computer model of vaulting that simulated the interaction between a seven segment gymnast and a single segment vaulting table during the table contact phase of the vault was developed. Both dynamic and static friction were incorporated within the model by switching between two implementations of the tangential frictional force. Two vaulting trials were used to determine the model parameters using a genetic algorithm to match simulations to recorded performances. A third independent trial was used to evaluate the model and close agreement was found between the simulation and the recorded performance with an overall difference of 13.5%. The two-state simulation model was found to be capable of replicating performance at take-off and also of replicating key contact phase features such as the normal and tangential motion of the hands. The results of the two-state model were compared to those using a pseudo-Coulomb friction implementation within the simulation model. The two-state model achieved similar overall results to those of the pseudo-Coulomb model but obtained solutions more rapidly.

  12. New features of vault architecture and dynamics revealed by novel refinement using the deformable elastic network approach.

    PubMed

    Casañas, Arnau; Querol-Audí, Jordi; Guerra, Pablo; Pous, Joan; Tanaka, Hideaki; Tsukihara, Tomitake; Verdaguer, Nuria; Fita, Ignasi

    2013-06-01

    The vault particle, with a molecular weight of about 10 MDa, is the largest ribonucleoprotein that has been described. The X-ray structure of intact rat vault has been solved at a resolution of 3.5 Å [Tanaka et al. (2009), Science, 323, 384-388], showing an overall barrel-shaped architecture organized into two identical moieties, each consisting of 39 copies of the major vault protein (MVP). The model deposited in the PDB includes 39 MVP copies (half a vault) in the crystal asymmetric unit. A 2.1 Å resolution structure of the seven N-terminal repeats (R1-7) of MVP has also been determined [Querol-Audí et al. (2009), EMBO J. 28, 3450-3457], revealing important discrepancies with respect to the MVP models for repeats R1 and R2. Here, the re-refinement of the vault structure by incorporating the high-resolution information available for the R1-7 domains, using the deformable elastic network (DEN) approach and maintaining strict 39-fold noncrystallographic symmetry is reported. The new refinement indicates that at the resolution presently available the MVP shell can be described well as only one independent subunit organized with perfect D39 molecular symmetry. This refinement reveals that significant rearrangements occur in the N-terminus of MVP during the closing of the two vault halves and that the 39-fold symmetry breaks in the cap region. These results reflect the highly dynamic nature of the vault structure and represent a necessary step towards a better understanding of the biology and regulation of this particle.

  13. The influence of touchdown conditions and contact phase technique on post-flight height in the straight handspring somersault vault.

    PubMed

    Yeadon, Maurice R; Jackson, Monique I; Hiley, Michael J

    2014-09-22

    In vaulting the gymnast must generate sufficient linear and angular momentum during the approach and table contact in order to complete the rotational requirements in the post-flight phase. This study investigated the effects of touchdown conditions and contact technique on peak post-flight height of a straight handspring somersault vault. A planar seven-segment torque-driven computer simulation model of the contact phase in vaulting was evaluated by varying joint torque activation time histories to match three performances of a straight handspring somersault vault by an elite gymnast. The closest matching simulation was used as a starting point to optimise peak post-flight height of the mass centre for a straight handspring somersault. It was found that optimising either the touchdown conditions or the contact technique increased post-flight height by 0.1m whereas optimising both together increased post-flight height by 0.4m above that of a simulation matching the recorded performance. Thus touchdown technique and contact technique make similar contributions to post-flight height in the straight handspring somersault vault. Increasing touchdown velocity and angular momentum lead to additional post-flight height although there was a critical value of vertical touchdown velocity beyond which post-flight height decreased.

  14. Computational Vision in Uv-Mapping of Textured Meshes Coming from Photogrammetric Recovery: Unwrapping Frescoed Vaults

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Robleda, P. G.; Caroti, G.; Martínez-Espejo Zaragoza, I.; Piemonte, A.

    2016-06-01

    Sometimes it is difficult to represent "on paper" the existing reality of architectonic elements, depending on the complexity of his geometry, but not only in cases with complex geometries: non-relief surfaces, can need a "special planar format" for its graphical representation. Nowadays, there are a lot of methods to obtain tridimensional recovery of our Cultural Heritage with different ranges of the relationship accuracy / costs, even getting high accuracy using "low-cost" recovery methods as digital photogrammetry, which allow us easily to obtain a graphical representation "on paper": ortho-images of different points of view. This can be useful for many purposes but, for others, an orthographic projection is not really very interesting. In non-site restoration tasks of frescoed vaults, a "planar format" representation in needed to see in true magnitude the paintings represented on the intrados vault, because of the general methodology used: gluing the fresco on a fabric, removing the fresco-fabric from the support, moving to laboratory, removing the fresco from the fabric, restoring the fresco, gluing back the restored fresco on another fabric, laying the restored fresco on the original location and removing the fabric. Because of this, many times, an unfolded model is needed, in a similar way a cylinder or cone can be unfolded, but in this case with a texture included: UV unwrapping. Unfold and fold-back processes, can be especially interesting in restoration field of frescoed vaults and domes at: chromatic recovery of paintings, reconstruction of partially missed geometries, transference of paintings on surfaces, etc.

  15. The military health system's personal health record pilot with Microsoft HealthVault and Google Health.

    PubMed

    Do, Nhan V; Barnhill, Rick; Heermann-Do, Kimberly A; Salzman, Keith L; Gimbel, Ronald W

    2011-01-01

    To design, build, implement, and evaluate a personal health record (PHR), tethered to the Military Health System, that leverages Microsoft® HealthVault and Google® Health infrastructure based on user preference. A pilot project was conducted in 2008-2009 at Madigan Army Medical Center in Tacoma, Washington. Our PHR was architected to a flexible platform that incorporated standards-based models of Continuity of Document and Continuity of Care Record to map Department of Defense-sourced health data, via a secure Veterans Administration data broker, to Microsoft® HealthVault and Google® Health based on user preference. The project design and implementation were guided by provider and patient advisory panels with formal user evaluation. The pilot project included 250 beneficiary users. Approximately 73.2% of users were < 65 years of age, and 38.4% were female. Of the users, 169 (67.6%) selected Microsoft® HealthVault, and 81 (32.4%) selected Google® Health as their PHR of preference. Sample evaluation of users reflected 100% (n = 60) satisfied with convenience of record access and 91.7% (n = 55) satisfied with overall functionality of PHR. Key lessons learned related to data-transfer decisions (push vs pull), purposeful delays in reporting sensitive information, understanding and mapping PHR use and clinical workflow, and decisions on information patients may choose to share with their provider. Currently PHRs are being viewed as empowering tools for patient activation. Design and implementation issues (eg, technical, organizational, information security) are substantial and must be thoughtfully approached. Adopting standards into design can enhance the national goal of portability and interoperability.

  16. The military health system's personal health record pilot with Microsoft HealthVault and Google Health

    PubMed Central

    Barnhill, Rick; Heermann-Do, Kimberly A; Salzman, Keith L; Gimbel, Ronald W

    2011-01-01

    Objective To design, build, implement, and evaluate a personal health record (PHR), tethered to the Military Health System, that leverages Microsoft® HealthVault and Google® Health infrastructure based on user preference. Materials and methods A pilot project was conducted in 2008–2009 at Madigan Army Medical Center in Tacoma, Washington. Our PHR was architected to a flexible platform that incorporated standards-based models of Continuity of Document and Continuity of Care Record to map Department of Defense-sourced health data, via a secure Veterans Administration data broker, to Microsoft® HealthVault and Google® Health based on user preference. The project design and implementation were guided by provider and patient advisory panels with formal user evaluation. Results The pilot project included 250 beneficiary users. Approximately 73.2% of users were <65 years of age, and 38.4% were female. Of the users, 169 (67.6%) selected Microsoft® HealthVault, and 81 (32.4%) selected Google® Health as their PHR of preference. Sample evaluation of users reflected 100% (n=60) satisfied with convenience of record access and 91.7% (n=55) satisfied with overall functionality of PHR. Discussion Key lessons learned related to data-transfer decisions (push vs pull), purposeful delays in reporting sensitive information, understanding and mapping PHR use and clinical workflow, and decisions on information patients may choose to share with their provider. Conclusion Currently PHRs are being viewed as empowering tools for patient activation. Design and implementation issues (eg, technical, organizational, information security) are substantial and must be thoughtfully approached. Adopting standards into design can enhance the national goal of portability and interoperability. PMID:21292705

  17. A Continuous Automated Vault Inventory System (CAVIS) for accountability monitoring of stored nuclear materials

    SciTech Connect

    Pickett, C.A.; Barham, M.A.; Gafford, T.A.; Hutchinson, D.P.; Jordan, J.K.; Maxey, L.C.; Moran, B.W.; Muhs, J.; Nodine, R.; Simpson, M.L.

    1994-12-08

    Nearly all facilities that store hazardous (radioactive or non-radioactive) materials must comply with prevailing federal, state, and local laws. These laws usually have components that require periodic physical inspections to insure that all materials remain safely and securely stored. The inspections are generally labor intensive, slow, put personnel at risk, and only find anomalies after they have occurred. The system described in this paper was developed for monitoring stored nuclear materials resulting from weapons dismantlement, but its applications extend to any storage facility that meets the above criteria. The traditional special nuclear material (SNM) accountability programs, that are currently used within most of the Department of Energy (DOE) complex, require the physical entry of highly trained personnel into SNM storage vaults. This imposes the need for additional security measures, which typically mandate that extra security personnel be present while SNM inventories are performed. These requirements increase labor costs and put additional personnel at risk to radiation exposure. In some cases, individuals have received radiation exposure equivalent to the annual maximum during just one inventory verification. With increasing overhead costs, the current system is rapidly becoming too expensive to operate, the need for an automated method of inventory verification is evident. The Continuous Automated Vault Inventory System (CAVIS) described in this paper was designed and prototyped as a low cost, highly reliable, and user friendly system that is capable of providing, real-time weight, gamma. and neutron energy confirmation from each item stored in a SNM vault. This paper describes the sensor technologies, the CAVIS prototype system (built at Y- 12 for highly enriched uranium storage), the technical requirements that must be achieved to assure successful implementation, and descriptions of sensor technologies needed for a plutonium facility.

  18. Radiological performance assessment for the E-Area Vaults Disposal Facility

    SciTech Connect

    Cook, J.R.

    2000-04-11

    This report is the first revision to ``Radiological Performance Assessment for the E-Area Vaults Disposal Facility, Revision 0'', which was issued in April 1994 and received conditional DOE approval in September 1994. The title of this report has been changed to conform to the current name of the facility. The revision incorporates improved groundwater modeling methodology, which includes a large data base of site specific geotechnical data, and special Analyses on disposal of cement-based wasteforms and naval wastes, issued after publication of Revision 0.

  19. Cavern/Vault Disposal Concepts and Thermal Calculations for Direct Disposal of 37-PWR Size DPCs

    SciTech Connect

    Hardin, Ernest; Hadgu, Teklu; Clayton, Daniel James

    2015-03-01

    This report provides two sets of calculations not presented in previous reports on the technical feasibility of spent nuclear fuel (SNF) disposal directly in dual-purpose canisters (DPCs): 1) thermal calculations for reference disposal concepts using larger 37-PWR size DPC-based waste packages, and 2) analysis and thermal calculations for underground vault-type storage and eventual disposal of DPCs. The reader is referred to the earlier reports (Hardin et al. 2011, 2012, 2013; Hardin and Voegele 2013) for contextual information on DPC direct disposal alternatives.

  20. Numerical and experimental analysis of an in-scale masonry cross-vault prototype up to failure

    SciTech Connect

    Rossi, Michela; Calderini, Chiara; Lagomarsino, Sergio; Milani, Gabriele

    2015-12-31

    A heterogeneous full 3D non-linear FE approach is validated against experimental results obtained on an in-scale masonry cross vault assembled with dry joints, and subjected to various loading conditions consisting on imposed displacement combinations to the abutments. The FE model relies into a discretization of the blocks by means of few rigid-infinitely resistant parallelepiped elements interacting by means of planar four-noded interfaces, where all the deformation (elastic and inelastic) occurs. The investigated response mechanisms of vault are the shear in-plane distortion and the longitudinal opening and closing mechanism at the abutments. After the validation of the approach on the experimentally tested cross-vault, a sensitivity analysis is conducted on the same geometry, but in real scale, varying mortar joints mechanical properties, in order to furnish useful hints for safety assessment, especially in presence of seismic action.

  1. Feedback regulation on PTEN/AKT pathway by the ER stress kinase PERK mediated by interaction with the Vault complex.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Wei; Neo, Suat Peng; Gunaratne, Jayantha; Poulsen, Anders; Boping, Liu; Ong, Esther Hongqian; Sangthongpitag, Kanda; Pendharkar, Vishal; Hill, Jeffrey; Cohen, Stephen M

    2015-03-01

    The high proliferation rate of cancer cells, together with environmental factors such as hypoxia and nutrient deprivation can cause Endoplasmic Reticulum (ER) stress. The protein kinase PERK is an essential mediator in one of the three ER stress response pathways. Genetic and pharmacological inhibition of PERK has been reported to limit tumor growth in xenograft models. Here we provide evidence that inactive PERK interacts with the nuclear pore-associated Vault complex protein and that this compromises Vault-mediated nuclear transport of PTEN. Pharmacological inhibition of PERK under ER stress results is abnormal sequestration of the Vault complex, leading to increased cytoplasmic PTEN activity and lower AKT activation. As the PI3K/PTEN/AKT pathway is crucial for many aspects of cell growth and survival, this unexpected effect of PERK inhibitors on AKT activity may have implications for their potential use as therapeutic agents.

  2. Major vault protein supports glioblastoma survival and migration by upregulating the EGFR/PI3K signalling axis

    PubMed Central

    Lötsch, Daniela; Steiner, Elisabeth; Holzmann, Klaus; Spiegl-Kreinecker, Sabine; Pirker, Christine; Hlavaty, Juraj; Petznek, Helga; Hegedus, Balazs; Garay, Tamas; Mohr, Thomas; Sommergruber, Wolfgang; Grusch, Michael; Berger, Walter

    2013-01-01

    Despite their ubiquitous expression and high conservation during evolution, precise cellular functions of vault ribonucleoparticles, mainly built of multiple major vault protein (MVP) copies, are still enigmatic. With regard to cancer, vaults were shown to be upregulated during drug resistance development as well as malignant transformation and progression. Such in a previous study we demonstrated that human astrocytic brain tumours including glioblastoma are generally high in vault levels while MVP expression in normal brain is comparably low. However a direct contribution to the malignant phenotype in general and that of glioblastoma in particular has not been established so far. Thus we address the questions whether MVP itself has a pro-tumorigenic function in glioblastoma. Based on a large tissue collection, we re-confirm strong MVP expression in gliomas as compared to healthy brain. Further, the impact of MVP on human glioblastoma aggressiveness was analysed by using gene transfection, siRNA knock-down and dominant-negative genetic approaches. Our results demonstrate that MVP/vaults significantly support migratory and invasive competence as well as starvation resistance of glioma cells in vitro and in vivo. The enhanced aggressiveness was based on MVP-mediated stabilization of the epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR)/phosphatidyl-inositol-3-kinase (PI3K) signalling axis. Consequently, MVP overexpression resulted in enhanced growth and brain invasion in human glioblastoma xenograft models. Our study demonstrates, for the first time, that vaults have a tumour-promoting potential by stabilizing EGFR/PI3K-mediated migration and survival pathways in human glioblastoma. PMID:24243798

  3. Homology of the cranial vault in birds: new insights based on embryonic fate-mapping and character analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maddin, Hillary C.; Piekarski, Nadine; Sefton, Elizabeth M.; Hanken, James

    2016-08-01

    Bones of the cranial vault appear to be highly conserved among tetrapod vertebrates. Moreover, bones identified with the same name are assumed to be evolutionarily homologous. However, recent developmental studies reveal a key difference in the embryonic origin of cranial vault bones between representatives of two amniote lineages, mammals and birds, thereby challenging this view. In the mouse, the frontal is derived from cranial neural crest (CNC) but the parietal is derived from mesoderm, placing the CNC-mesoderm boundary at the suture between these bones. In the chicken, this boundary is located within the frontal. This difference and related data have led several recent authors to suggest that bones of the avian cranial vault are misidentified and should be renamed. To elucidate this apparent conflict, we fate-mapped CNC and mesoderm in axolotl to reveal the contributions of these two embryonic cell populations to the cranial vault in a urodele amphibian. The CNC-mesoderm boundary in axolotl is located between the frontal and parietal bones, as in the mouse but unlike the chicken. If, however, the avian frontal is regarded instead as a fused frontal and parietal (i.e. frontoparietal) and the parietal as a postparietal, then the cranial vault of birds becomes developmentally and topologically congruent with those of urodeles and mammals. This alternative hypothesis of cranial vault homology is also phylogenetically consistent with data from the tetrapod fossil record, where frontal, parietal and postparietal bones are present in stem lineages of all extant taxa, including birds. It further implies that a postparietal may be present in most non-avian archosaurs, but fused to the parietal or supraoccipital as in many extant mammals.

  4. Major vault protein supports glioblastoma survival and migration by upregulating the EGFR/PI3K signalling axis.

    PubMed

    Lötsch, Daniela; Steiner, Elisabeth; Holzmann, Klaus; Spiegl-Kreinecker, Sabine; Pirker, Christine; Hlavaty, Juraj; Petznek, Helga; Hegedus, Balazs; Garay, Tamas; Mohr, Thomas; Sommergruber, Wolfgang; Grusch, Michael; Berger, Walter

    2013-11-01

    Despite their ubiquitous expression and high conservation during evolution, precise cellular functions of vault ribonucleoparticles, mainly built of multiple major vault protein (MVP) copies, are still enigmatic. With regard to cancer, vaults were shown to be upregulated during drug resistance development as well as malignant transformation and progression. Such in a previous study we demonstrated that human astrocytic brain tumours including glioblastoma are generally high in vault levels while MVP expression in normal brain is comparably low. However a direct contribution to the malignant phenotype in general and that of glioblastoma in particular has not been established so far. Thus we address the questions whether MVP itself has a pro-tumorigenic function in glioblastoma. Based on a large tissue collection, we re-confirm strong MVP expression in gliomas as compared to healthy brain. Further, the impact of MVP on human glioblastoma aggressiveness was analysed by using gene transfection, siRNA knock-down and dominant-negative genetic approaches. Our results demonstrate that MVP/vaults significantly support migratory and invasive competence as well as starvation resistance of glioma cells in vitro and in vivo. The enhanced aggressiveness was based on MVP-mediated stabilization of the epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR)/phosphatidyl-inositol-3-kinase (PI3K) signalling axis. Consequently, MVP overexpression resulted in enhanced growth and brain invasion in human glioblastoma xenograft models. Our study demonstrates, for the first time, that vaults have a tumour-promoting potential by stabilizing EGFR/PI3K-mediated migration and survival pathways in human glioblastoma.

  5. The effects of whole-vault cranioplasty versus strip craniectomy on long-term neuropsychological outcomes in sagittal craniosynostosis.

    PubMed

    Hashim, Peter W; Patel, Anup; Yang, Jenny F; Travieso, Roberto; Terner, Jordan; Losee, Joseph E; Pollack, Ian; Jane, John; Jane, John; Kanev, Paul; Mayes, Linda; Duncan, Charles; Bridgett, David J; Persing, John A

    2014-09-01

    The optimal type of surgical management for isolated sagittal synostosis remains a source of significant debate. There is a paucity of data regarding possible differences in long-term neuropsychological outcomes following treatment with whole-vault cranioplasty or endoscopic strip craniectomy. This study provides the first comparative analysis examining the effects of the two techniques related to long-term intellectual functioning. A total of 70 patients were enrolled in this multicenter study, 29 of whom had previously undergone endoscopic strip craniectomy and 41 of whom had previously undergone whole-vault cranioplasty. All patients completed a battery of neurodevelopmental tests (Beery-Buktenica Developmental Test of Visual-Motor Integration, Wechsler Abbreviated Scale of Intelligence, and Wechsler Fundamentals) to evaluate various domains of neuropsychological function. In a group comparison of those treated before 6 months of age, whole-vault patients obtained higher scores relative to endoscopic strip craniectomy patients on visuomotor integration, full-scale intelligence quotient, verbal intelligence quotient, word reading, and reading comprehension (p < 0.05 for all). When compared against strip craniectomy performed before 3 months of age, the whole-vault group still showed significantly higher scores in verbal intelligence quotient, reading comprehension, and word reading (p < 0.05 for all). The type of surgical intervention for isolated sagittal synostosis impacts long-term neuropsychological outcomes. Patients undergoing early whole-vault cranioplasty attained higher intelligence quotient and achievement scores relative to those undergoing strip craniectomy. Surgical management with whole-vault cranioplasty performed before 6 months of age provides the most favorable long-term intellectual outcomes in patients with isolated sagittal synostosis. Therapeutic, II.

  6. Homology of the cranial vault in birds: new insights based on embryonic fate-mapping and character analysis

    PubMed Central

    Piekarski, Nadine; Sefton, Elizabeth M.; Hanken, James

    2016-01-01

    Bones of the cranial vault appear to be highly conserved among tetrapod vertebrates. Moreover, bones identified with the same name are assumed to be evolutionarily homologous. However, recent developmental studies reveal a key difference in the embryonic origin of cranial vault bones between representatives of two amniote lineages, mammals and birds, thereby challenging this view. In the mouse, the frontal is derived from cranial neural crest (CNC) but the parietal is derived from mesoderm, placing the CNC–mesoderm boundary at the suture between these bones. In the chicken, this boundary is located within the frontal. This difference and related data have led several recent authors to suggest that bones of the avian cranial vault are misidentified and should be renamed. To elucidate this apparent conflict, we fate-mapped CNC and mesoderm in axolotl to reveal the contributions of these two embryonic cell populations to the cranial vault in a urodele amphibian. The CNC–mesoderm boundary in axolotl is located between the frontal and parietal bones, as in the mouse but unlike the chicken. If, however, the avian frontal is regarded instead as a fused frontal and parietal (i.e. frontoparietal) and the parietal as a postparietal, then the cranial vault of birds becomes developmentally and topologically congruent with those of urodeles and mammals. This alternative hypothesis of cranial vault homology is also phylogenetically consistent with data from the tetrapod fossil record, where frontal, parietal and postparietal bones are present in stem lineages of all extant taxa, including birds. It further implies that a postparietal may be present in most non-avian archosaurs, but fused to the parietal or supraoccipital as in many extant mammals. PMID:27853617

  7. SU-E-T-267: Construction and Evaluation of a Neutron Wall to Shield a 15 MV Linac in a Low-Energy Vault.

    PubMed

    Speiser, M; Hager, F; Foster, R; Solberg, T

    2012-06-01

    To design and quantify the shielding efficacy of an inner Borated Polyethylene (BPE)wall for a 15 MV linac in a low energy vault. A Varian TrueBeam linac with a maximum photon energy of 15 MV was installed in asmaller, preexisting vault. This vault originally housed a low-energy machine and did not havesufficient maze length recommended for neutron attenuation. Effective dose rate calculationswere performed using the Modified Kersey's Method as detailed in NCRP Report No. 151 andfound to be unacceptably high. An initial survey following the machine installation confirmedthese calculations. Rather than restrict the linac beam energy to 10 MV, BPE was investigatedas a neutron moderating addition. An inner wall and door were planned and constructed using4'×8'×1″ thick 5% BPE sheets. The resulting door and wall had 2″ of BPE; conduits and ductwork were also redesigned and shielded. A survey was conducted following construction of thewall. The vault modification reduced the expected effective dose at the vault door from 36.23to 0.010 mSv/week. As specific guidelines for vault modification are lacking, this project quantitativelydemonstrates the potential use of BPE for vault modification. Such modifications may provide alow-cost shielding solution to allow for the use of high energy modes in smaller treatment vaults. © 2012 American Association of Physicists in Medicine.

  8. Dynamic optimization: inverse analysis for the Yurchenko layout vault in women's artistic gymnastics.

    PubMed

    Koh, Michael T H; Jennings, Leslie S

    2003-08-01

    The use of dynamic optimization to compute the trajectory of joint torques is not popular due to the large amount of computation required, the choice of initial "guesstimates" of torque values and the mathematical sophistication required to understand the technique. Modern optimal control algorithms circumvent most of these objections to the method. It is our aim to demonstrate that the dynamic optimization technique is feasible for complex movements, using the Yurchenko layout vault as an example. A dynamic optimization method to compute joint torques so that the histories of the angular orientations of the model segments closely approximate the corresponding observed angular coordinate histories is demonstrated with the Yurchenko layout vault using an optimal control package. The objective function used is a measure of distance of fitted segment angles to the data, plus the distance of the fitted whole body centre of mass (CM), from the whole body CM computed from the data. Including the CM into the objective function, facilitates the optimization process so as to obtain a set of torques which reproduced the data. The paper shows that the approach works well for the task examined, that is, where the dynamics of the system change during a movement (impact to postflight).

  9. A novel web-enabled healthcare solution on health vault system.

    PubMed

    Liao, Lingxia; Chen, Min; Rodrigues, Joel J P C; Lai, Xiaorong; Vuong, Son

    2012-06-01

    Complicated Electronic Medical Records (EMR) systems have created problems in systems regarding an easy implementation and interoperability for a Web-enabled Healthcare Solution, which is normally provided by an independent healthcare giver with limited IT knowledge and interests. An EMR system with well-designed and user-friendly interface, such as Microsoft HealthVault System used as the back-end platform of a Web-enabled healthcare application will be an approach to deal with these problems. This paper analyzes the patient oriented Web-enabled healthcare service application as the new trend to delivery healthcare from hospital/clinic-centric to patient-centric, the current e-healthcare applications, and the main backend EMR systems. Then, we present a novel web-enabled healthcare solution based on Microsoft HealthVault EMR system to meet customers' needs, such as, low total cost, easily development and maintenance, and good interoperability. A sample system is given to show how the solution can be fulfilled, evaluated, and validated. We expect that this paper will provide a deep understanding of the available EMR systems, leading to insights for new solutions and approaches driven to next generation EMR systems.

  10. Concrete disposal vaults: An alternative to Hazardous Waste/Mixed Waste earthen landfills

    SciTech Connect

    Freitag, A.A.; Stewart, D.E.; Peterson, S.L.

    1992-01-01

    The Hazardous Waste/Mixed Waste (HW/MW) Disposal Facility is a new facility planned for on site processing and disposal of existing and future solid hazardous and/or mixed wastes generated at Savannah River Site (SRS). The first phase of the project is the completion of engineered above grade concrete disposal vaults which are to be permitted as hazardous waste disposal facilities and designed in accordance with the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) and appropriate US Department of Energy (DOE) Orders. The RCRA minimum performance standards promulgated in 40 CFR 264 and 265 are based on double lined earthen landfills. The regulations allow for alternative design and operational practices provided that the alternative design and operating practices, together with location characteristics, will prevent the migration of any hazardous constituents into the groundwater or surface water at least as effectively as the specified double lined earthen system. The engineered concrete vault structure for SRS is designed to comply and/or exceed the performance standards of the RCRA regulations and the associated RCRA technical guidance documents issued by the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA).

  11. Concrete disposal vaults: An alternative to Hazardous Waste/Mixed Waste earthen landfills

    SciTech Connect

    Freitag, A.A.; Stewart, D.E.; Peterson, S.L.

    1992-04-01

    The Hazardous Waste/Mixed Waste (HW/MW) Disposal Facility is a new facility planned for on site processing and disposal of existing and future solid hazardous and/or mixed wastes generated at Savannah River Site (SRS). The first phase of the project is the completion of engineered above grade concrete disposal vaults which are to be permitted as hazardous waste disposal facilities and designed in accordance with the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) and appropriate US Department of Energy (DOE) Orders. The RCRA minimum performance standards promulgated in 40 CFR 264 and 265 are based on double lined earthen landfills. The regulations allow for alternative design and operational practices provided that the alternative design and operating practices, together with location characteristics, will prevent the migration of any hazardous constituents into the groundwater or surface water at least as effectively as the specified double lined earthen system. The engineered concrete vault structure for SRS is designed to comply and/or exceed the performance standards of the RCRA regulations and the associated RCRA technical guidance documents issued by the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA).

  12. Cranial vault trauma and selective mortality in medieval to early modern Denmark.

    PubMed

    Boldsen, Jesper L; Milner, George R; Weise, Svenja

    2015-02-10

    To date, no estimates of the long-term effect of cranial vault fractures on the risk of dying have been generated from historical or prehistoric skeletons. Excess mortality provides a perspective on the efficacy of modern treatment, as well as the human cost of cranial injuries largely related to interpersonal violence in past populations. Three medieval to early modern Danish skeletal samples are used to estimate the effect of selective mortality on males with cranial vault injuries who survived long enough for bones to heal. The risk of dying for these men was 6.2 times higher than it was for their uninjured counterparts, estimated through a simulation study based on skeletal observations. That is about twice the increased risk of dying experienced by modern people with traumatic brain injuries. The mortality data indicate the initial trauma was probably often accompanied by brain injury. Although the latter cannot be directly observed in skeletal remains, it can be inferred through the relative risks of dying. The ability to identify the effects of selective mortality in this skeletal sample indicates it must be taken into account in paleopathological research. The problem is analogous to extrapolating from death register data to modern communities, so epidemiological studies based on mortality data have the same inherent possibility of biases as analyses of ancient skeletons.

  13. A Computational Analysis of Bone Formation in the Cranial Vault in the Mouse

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Chanyoung; Richtsmeier, Joan T.; Kraft, Reuben H.

    2015-01-01

    Bones of the cranial vault are formed by the differentiation of mesenchymal cells into osteoblasts on a surface that surrounds the brain, eventually forming mineralized bone. Signaling pathways causative for cell differentiation include the actions of extracellular proteins driven by information from genes. We assume that the interaction of cells and extracellular molecules, which are associated with cell differentiation, can be modeled using Turing’s reaction–diffusion model, a mathematical model for pattern formation controlled by two interacting molecules (activator and inhibitor). In this study, we hypothesize that regions of high concentration of an activator develop into primary centers of ossification, the earliest sites of cranial vault bone. In addition to the Turing model, we use another diffusion equation to model a morphogen (potentially the same as the morphogen associated with formation of ossification centers) associated with bone growth. These mathematical models were solved using the finite volume method. The computational domain and model parameters are determined using a large collection of experimental data showing skull bone formation in mouse at different embryonic days in mice carrying disease causing mutations and their unaffected littermates. The results show that the relative locations of the five ossification centers that form in our model occur at the same position as those identified in experimental data. As bone grows from these ossification centers, sutures form between the bones. PMID:25853124

  14. Ontogenetic changes in cranial vault thickness in a modern sample of Homo sapiens.

    PubMed

    Anzelmo, Marisol; Ventrice, Fernando; Barbeito-Andrés, Jimena; Pucciarelli, Héctor M; Sardi, Marina L

    2015-01-01

    This work assesses cranial vault thickness (CVT) ontogenetic changes using a computed tomography database to register thickness across multiple regions. Vault images of 143 individuals from 0 to 31 years old were analyzed by thickness semiautomatic measurements. For each individual, we obtained a thickness mean measure (TMM) and its coefficient of variation, a measure of endocranial volume (EV), the distribution of relative frequencies of thickness-relative frequency polygon, and a topographic mapping that shows the thickness arrangement through a chromatic scale. Ontogenetic changes of these variables were evaluated by different regression models (TMM vs. age, EV vs. age, TMM vs. EV) and visual comparisons between the age groups. TMM increased during ontogeny until the onset of adulthood without sex differences, but the most accelerated growth rates occur during the first 6 years of postnatal life. TMM variations were associated with EV only in infants and children, but not in later periods. The polygons showed a flattening during ontogeny, probably due to an increase in thickness variation within individuals. However, the adult pattern of thickness arrangement, with the lateral region thinner than the regions near sagittal plane, was detected from infancy. The pattern of thickness arrangement is established early in ontogeny but CVT increases and changes in distribution until adolescence. Several factors may influence CVT, such as the brain, muscles, vessels, and sutures. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  15. Age associated high level of major vault protein is p53 dependent.

    PubMed

    An, Hong-Joo; Ryu, Sung-Jin; Kim, Sung-Young; Choi, Hae-Ri; Chung, Jun-Ho; Park, Sang-Chul

    2009-07-01

    Major vault protein (MVP) represents the main component of vaults and has been linked to multi-drug resistance (MDR) in cancer cells. We previously reported that MVP plays an important role in the resistance of senescent human diploid fibroblasts (HDFs) to apoptosis and also that MVP expression is markedly reduced in young HDFs but not in senescent HDFs. In this study, designed to elucidate the regulation of MVP in young and senescent HDFs, we examined the levels of transcriptional factors for the MVP gene, which revealed that among the putative transcriptional factors, p53 decreased only in young HDFs, but not in senescent HDFs in response to H(2)O(2) treatment in the same mode as the expression of MVP. Moreover, the phosphorylation status of p53 increased only in senescent HDFs but not in young HDFs in response to H(2)O(2) treatment. Therefore, we tested the possibility of MVP regulation by p53 status. MVP is upregulated in p53 over-expressing young HDFs, while MVP is downregulated in p53-specific small interfering RNA (siRNA)-transfected senescent HDFs, which suggests that the expression of MVP would be p53 dependent. Furthermore, using chromatin immunoprecipitation (ChIP) assay, we observed that p53 binds directly to the MVP promoter. Taken together, these results suggest that p53 would be a major transcriptional factor for MVP gene expression. (c) 2009 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  16. Cranial vault trauma and selective mortality in medieval to early modern Denmark

    PubMed Central

    Boldsen, Jesper L.; Milner, George R.; Weise, Svenja

    2015-01-01

    To date, no estimates of the long-term effect of cranial vault fractures on the risk of dying have been generated from historical or prehistoric skeletons. Excess mortality provides a perspective on the efficacy of modern treatment, as well as the human cost of cranial injuries largely related to interpersonal violence in past populations. Three medieval to early modern Danish skeletal samples are used to estimate the effect of selective mortality on males with cranial vault injuries who survived long enough for bones to heal. The risk of dying for these men was 6.2 times higher than it was for their uninjured counterparts, estimated through a simulation study based on skeletal observations. That is about twice the increased risk of dying experienced by modern people with traumatic brain injuries. The mortality data indicate the initial trauma was probably often accompanied by brain injury. Although the latter cannot be directly observed in skeletal remains, it can be inferred through the relative risks of dying. The ability to identify the effects of selective mortality in this skeletal sample indicates it must be taken into account in paleopathological research. The problem is analogous to extrapolating from death register data to modern communities, so epidemiological studies based on mortality data have the same inherent possibility of biases as analyses of ancient skeletons. PMID:25624493

  17. An Order-of-Magnitude Estimation of Benzene Concentration in Saltstone Vault

    SciTech Connect

    ALEXANDER, CHOI

    2005-02-28

    The contents of Tank 48 that include the tetraphenylborate (TPB) precipitates of potassium and cesium will be grouted and stored in the Saltstone vault. The grouting process is exothermic, which should accelerate the decomposition of TPB precipitates eventually to benzene. Because the vault is not currently outfitted with an active ventilation system, there is a concern that a mixture of flammable gases may form in the vapor space of each cell filled with the curing grout. The purpose of this study was to determine if passive breathing induced by the diurnal oscillations of atmospheric pressure would provide any mitigating measure against potential flammability. Specifically, it was requested that a set of algorithms be developed that would predict the equilibrium concentration of benzene as a function of benzene generation rate, fill height, and the amplitude of the barometric pressure oscillations. These algorithms were to be derived based on several simplifying assumptions so that order of magnitude estimates could be made quickly for scoping purposes. This memo documents the resulting algorithms along with those key assumptions made. These algorithms were then applied to simulate several test cases, including the baseline case where the cell was filled to the maximum height of 25 ft at the bulk benzene generation rate of 3.4 g/hr.

  18. Continuous dielectrophoretic particle separation using a microfluidic device with 3D electrodes and vaulted obstacles.

    PubMed

    Jia, Yankai; Ren, Yukun; Jiang, Hongyuan

    2015-08-01

    This paper reports a microfluidic separation device combining 3D electrodes and vaulted obstacles to continuously separate particles experiencing strong positive dielectrophoresis (DEP) from particles experiencing weak positive DEP, or from particles experiencing negative DEP. The separation is achieved by first focusing the particle mixture into a narrow stream by a hydrodynamic focusing flow, and then deviating them into different outlets by AC DEP. The vaulted obstacles facilitate the separation by both increasing the non-uniformity of the electric field, and influencing the particles to move in regions strongly affected by DEP. The 3D electrodes give rise to a spatially non-uniform electric field and extend DEP effect to the channel height. Numerical simulations are performed to investigate the effects of the obstacles on electric field distribution and particle trajectories so as to optimize the obstacle height and compare with the experimental results. The performance of the device is assessed by separating 25 μm gold-coated particles from 10 μm particles in different flow rates by positive DEP and negative DEP, and also separating 25 μm gold-coated particles from yeast cells using only positive DEP. The experimental observation shows a reasonable agreement with numerical simulation results. © 2015 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  19. Pediatric Cranial Vault Fractures: Analysis of Demographics, Injury Patterns, and Factors Predictive of Mortality.

    PubMed

    Adetayo, Oluwaseun A; Naran, Sanjay; Bonfield, Christopher M; Nguyen, Margaret; Chang, Yue-Fang; Pollack, Ian F; Losee, Joseph E

    2015-09-01

    Pediatric cranial vault fractures are a unique subset of injuries that pose distinct management and treatment challenges. They are anatomically distinct from their adult counterparts with potential implications on the development of the brain and craniofacial skeleton, and require unique considerations for management and treatment outcomes.A detailed analysis of the characteristics and outcomes of pediatric cranial vault fractures remains understudied in this population. Thus, the aim of this study was to characterize the demographics, injury patterns, operative interventions, concomitant injuries, and factors predictive of mortality in pediatric patients sustaining cranial vault fractures. A retrospective review of patients less than 18 years of age presenting to the emergency department of a pediatric level I trauma center between 2000 and 2005 with skull fractures was performed. All patients were included regardless of treating specialty, treatment modality, or inpatient status. Patients were stratified into 3 groups (age < = 5 yrs, 5.1-11 yrs, and >11 yrs). ZIP codes were mapped using ArcGIS 10.2 Software (ESRI Inc, Redlands, CA) with ZIP code shapefiles from ESRI's ArcGIS Online. Socioeconomic and demographic variables at the ZIP code level were linked to each geocoded location using the United States Census Bureau summary files, and spatial clusters of injury were performed using GeoDa to conduct a test of local indicator of spatial autocorrelation. Statistical analysis was performed using the SPSS version 17 (SPSS Inc, Chicago, IL). A total of 923 consecutive patients met the inclusion criteria for the study. Caucasian (P < 0.001) males (P = 0.055) were most likely to sustain cranial vault fractures. The average age at injury was 5.97 years. Falls (53.7%) were the most common cause of injury across all age groups, followed by collisions (20.8%), with falls being more common in the youngest age group (< = 5 yrs), and collisions being more

  20. Response to requests by FMF and DWPF concerning disposal of FMF saltstone drums in Z-Area vaults

    SciTech Connect

    Langton, C.A.; Cook, J.R.

    1989-07-25

    Disposal of FMF saltstone in 55 gallon drums in the Z-Area Industrial Waste Landfill requires modification of the landfill permit. Approximately 5000 drums of FMF saltstone are currently stored on SC DHEC-permitted concrete storage pads adjacent to the burial ground. At a meeting with DWPF, FMF, and EPS on July 18, 1989, IWT agreed to supply the following information: (1) Consequence of disposal of CCA (Cu, Cr, As) treated wood pallets in the Z-Area vaults. (Four drums of FMF saltstone are currently banded to each pallet.) (2) Consequence of placing partially filled FMF drums in the Z-Area vaults. (3) Formulation for clean grout back-fill. Grout will be emplaced around and over the drums, thereby isolating them from environment (rainwater) prior to vault capping. (4) Maximum loading of FMF saltstone drums in the Z-Area vaults. (5) Consequence of void volume in drums, in clean grout, or both on groundwater modeling results. This document is a response to the above requests.

  1. 25 CFR 543.18 - What are the minimum internal control standards for the cage, vault, kiosk, cash and cash...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... cage, vault, kiosk, cash and cash equivalents? 543.18 Section 543.18 Indians NATIONAL INDIAN GAMING COMMISSION, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR HUMAN SERVICES MINIMUM INTERNAL CONTROL STANDARDS FOR CLASS II GAMING... individual accountability. All variances must be documented and investigated. (4) The gaming operation...

  2. 25 CFR 543.18 - What are the minimum internal control standards for the cage, vault, kiosk, cash and cash...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... cage, vault, kiosk, cash and cash equivalents? 543.18 Section 543.18 Indians NATIONAL INDIAN GAMING COMMISSION, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR HUMAN SERVICES MINIMUM INTERNAL CONTROL STANDARDS FOR CLASS II GAMING... individual accountability. All variances must be documented and investigated. (4) The gaming operation...

  3. Gothic Churches in Paris ST Gervais et ST Protais Image Matching 3d Reconstruction to Understand the Vaults System Geometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Capone, M.; Campi, M.; Catuogno, R.

    2015-02-01

    This paper is part of a research about ribbed vaults systems in French Gothic Cathedrals. Our goal is to compare some different gothic cathedrals to understand the complex geometry of the ribbed vaults. The survey isn't the main objective but it is the way to verify the theoretical hypotheses about geometric configuration of the flamboyant churches in Paris. The survey method's choice generally depends on the goal; in this case we had to study many churches in a short time, so we chose 3D reconstruction method based on image dense stereo matching. This method allowed us to obtain the necessary information to our study without bringing special equipment, such as the laser scanner. The goal of this paper is to test image matching 3D reconstruction method in relation to some particular study cases and to show the benefits and the troubles. From a methodological point of view this is our workflow: - theoretical study about geometrical configuration of rib vault systems; - 3D model based on theoretical hypothesis about geometric definition of the vaults' form; - 3D model based on image matching 3D reconstruction methods; - comparison between 3D theoretical model and 3D model based on image matching;

  4. [Laparoscopic Y-shaped polypropylene mesh for uterine and vaginal vault prolapse].

    PubMed

    Li, Min; Feng, Yichen; Jin, Shaoyan; Yu, Danhua

    2013-09-01

    To investigate the effectiveness oflaparoscopic Y-shaped polypropylene mesh in the treatment of uterine and vaginal vault prolapse. Between June 2010 and December 2012, 24 patients with uterine and vaginal vault prolapse were treated by laparoscopic pelvic reconstruction (vagina and uterus-sacral fixation) with Y-shaped polypropylene mesh. The age of patients was 35-60 years (mean, 48.6 years). The disease duration was 2-8 years (mean, 5 years). According to the pelvic organ prolapse quatitative (POP-Q) classification by International Continence Society (ICS), 16 cases were classified as uterine prolapsed degree II and 8 cases as degree III; 15 cases were classified as vaginal prolapse degree I, 7 cases as degree II, and 2 cases as degree III. All patients received postoperative follow-up regularly. Subjective evaluation was done based on prolapse quality of life questionnaire (P-QOL), and objective evaluation based on POP-Q classification. All the patients were operated successfully. The operation time was 22-68 minutes (mean, 33 minutes); the blood loss was 30-80 mL (mean, 51 mL); the indwelling urethral catheter remain was 3-7 days (mean, 4 days); and the hospitalization days were 4-9 days (mean, 6.8 days). Twenty-four patients were followed up 3-12 months (mean, 9 months), of whom, 2 were followed up less than 6 months. All patients had normal urination after withdrawal of urethral catheter, and the residual urine volume was in normal range. No patients had mesh erosion and discomfort during sex, vaginal and anal bearing down. The P-QOL scores at 3, 6, and 12 months after operation were significantly improved when compared with the preoperative value (P < 0.05); but there was no significant difference among 3, 6, and 12 months after operation (P > 0.05). The postoperative POP-Q classification was degree 0 in 19 cases and degree I in 3 cases, and the objective cure rate was 91.7%. No recurrence was found during followup. Laparoscopic Y-shaped polypropylene mesh

  5. The role of mode of delivery on elastic fiber architecture and vaginal vault elasticity: a rodent model study.

    PubMed

    Downing, Keith T; Billah, Mubashir; Raparia, Eva; Shah, Anup; Silverstein, Moshe C; Ahmad, Amanda; Boutis, Gregory S

    2014-01-01

    We report on an experimental study of the role of mode of delivery and pregnancy on the architecture of vaginal elastic fibers and vaginal vault elasticity in female Sprague-Dawley rats. In primiparous rats submitted to spontaneous or Cesarean delivery and virgin rats submitted to simulated delivery, the tortuosity of elastic fibers (defined as the ratio of length to end-to-end distance) was observed to decrease when measured from two days to two weeks postpartum. In addition, the measured tortuosity of elastic fibers in multiparous rats was greater than that of virgin rats. The tortuosity of elastic fibers of all rats measured at two days postpartum was found to be similar to that of multiparous rats. At two weeks postpartum the measured tortuosity of vaginal elastic fibers was indistinguishable from virgin rats, regardless of the delivery method. Borrowing from the field of polymer physics, a model is suggested that connects elastic fiber tortuosity to the resulting tension under an applied stress; fibers having high tortuosity are expected to provide less structural support than more linear, low tortuosity fibers. To probe the macroscopic effects in elasticity due to architectural changes observed in elastic fibers, we have measured the stiffness of the vaginal vault in each cohort using a pressure-infusion system. The vaginal vault stiffness of all primiparous rats measured two weeks postpartum was greater than that measured two days postpartum. In addition, the vaginal vault of virgin rats was stiffer than that of multiparous rats. These observations confirmed that vaginal vault elastic fibers undergo significant remodeling due to pregnancy and parturition, and that the complex remodeling may be a significant contributor to tissue elasticity. Remarkably, regardless of the mode of delivery or simulated tissue trauma, elastic fiber tortuosity is observed to decrease from two days to two weeks postpartum indicating the onset of repair and recovery of tissue

  6. The role of mode of delivery on elastic fiber architecture and vaginal vault elasticity: a rodent model study

    PubMed Central

    Downing, Keith; Billah, Mubashir; Raparia, Eva; Shah, Anup; Silverstein, Moshe; Ahmad, Amanda; Boutis, Gregory S.

    2013-01-01

    We report on an experimental study of the role of mode of delivery and pregnancy on the architecture of vaginal elastic fibers and vaginal vault elasticity in female Sprague-Dawley rats. In primiparous rats submitted to spontaneous or Cesarean delivery and virgin rats submitted to simulated delivery, the tortuosity of elastic fibers (defined as the ratio of length to end-to-end distance) was observed to decrease when measured two days to two weeks postpartum. In addition, the measured tortuosity of elastic fibers in multiparous rats was greater than that of virgin rats. The tortuosity of elastic fibers of all rats measured at two days postpartum were found to be similar to that of multiparous rats. At two weeks postpartum the measured tortuosity of vaginal elastic fibers was indistinguishable from virgin rats, regardless of the delivery method. Borrowing from the field of polymer physics, a model is suggested that connects elastic fiber tortuosity to the resulting tension under an applied stress; fibers having high tortuosity are expected to provide less structural support than more linear, low tortuosity fibers. To probe the macroscopic effects in elasticity due to architectural changes observed in elastic fibers, we have measured the stiffness of the vaginal vault in each cohort using a pressure-infusion system. The vaginal vault stiffness of all primiparous rats measured two weeks postpartum was greater than that measured two days postpartum. In addition, the vaginal vault of virgin rats was stiffer than that of multiparous rats. These observations confirmed that vaginal vault elastic fibers undergo significant remodeling due to pregnancy and parturition, and that the complex remodeling may be a significant contributor to tissue elasticity. Remarkably, regardless of the mode of delivery or simulated tissue trauma, elastic fiber tortuosity is observed to decrease from two days to two weeks postpartum indicating the onset of repair and recovery of tissue stiffness

  7. Distribution of residual long-lived radioactivity in the inner concrete walls of a compact medical cyclotron vault room.

    PubMed

    Fujibuchi, Toshioh; Nohtomi, Akihiro; Baba, Shingo; Sasaki, Masayuki; Komiya, Isao; Umedzu, Yoshiyuki; Honda, Hiroshi

    2015-01-01

    Compact medical cyclotrons have been set up to generate the nuclides necessary for positron emission tomography. In accelerator facilities, neutrons activate the concrete used to construct the vault room; this activation increases with the use of an accelerator. The activation causes a substantial radioactive waste management problem when facilities are decommissioned. In the present study, several concrete cores from the walls, ceiling and floor of a compact medical cyclotron vault room were samples 2 years after the termination of operations, and the radioactivity concentrations of radionuclides were estimated. Cylindrical concrete cores 5 cm in diameter and 10 cm in length were bored from the concrete wall, ceiling and floor. Core boring was performed at 18 points. The gamma-ray spectrum of each sample was measured using a high-purity germanium detector. The degree of activation of the concrete in the cyclotron vault room was analyzed, and the range and tendency toward activation in the vault room were examined. (60)Co and (152)Eu were identified by gamma-ray spectrometry of the concrete samples. (152)Eu and (60)Co are produced principally from the stable isotopes of europium and cobalt by neutron capture reactions. The radioactivity concentration did not vary much between the surface of the concrete and at a depth of 10 cm. Although the radioactivity concentration near the target was higher than the clearance level for radioactive waste indicated in IAEA RS-G-1.7, the mean radioactivity concentration in the walls and floor was lower than the clearance level. The radioactivity concentration of the inner concrete wall of the medical cyclotron vault room was not uniform. The areas exceeding the clearance level were in the vicinity of the target, but most of the building did not exceed the clearance levels.

  8. Global Ex-Situ Crop Diversity Conservation and the Svalbard Global Seed Vault: Assessing the Current Status

    PubMed Central

    Westengen, Ola T.; Jeppson, Simon; Guarino, Luigi

    2013-01-01

    Ex-situ conservation of crop diversity is a global concern, and the development of an efficient and sustainable conservation system is a historic priority recognized in international law and policy. We assess the completeness of the safety duplication collection in the Svalbard Global Seed Vault with respect to data on the world's ex-situ collections as reported by the Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations. Currently, 774,601 samples are deposited at Svalbard by 53 genebanks. We estimate that more than one third of the globally distinct accessions of 156 crop genera stored in genebanks as orthodox seeds are conserved in the Seed Vault. The numbers of safety duplicates of Triticum (wheat), Sorghum (sorghum), Pennisetum (pearl millet), Eleusine (finger millet), Cicer (chickpea) and Lens (lentil) exceed 50% of the estimated numbers of distinct accessions in global ex-situ collections. The number of accessions conserved globally generally reflects importance for food production, but there are significant gaps in the safety collection at Svalbard in some genera of high importance for food security in tropical countries, such as Amaranthus (amaranth), Chenopodium (quinoa), Eragrostis (teff) and Abelmoschus (okra). In the 29 food-crop genera with the largest number of accessions stored globally, an average of 5.5 out of the ten largest collections is already represented in the Seed Vault collection or is covered by existing deposit agreements. The high coverage of ITPGRFA Annex 1 crops and of those crops for which there is a CGIAR mandate in the current Seed Vault collection indicates that existence of international policies and institutions are important determinants for accessions to be safety duplicated at Svalbard. As a back-up site for the global conservation system, the Seed Vault plays not only a practical but also a symbolic role for enhanced integration and cooperation for conservation of crop diversity. PMID:23671707

  9. Determination of the biodegradation rate of asphalt for the Hanford grout vaults. Hanford Grout Technology Program

    SciTech Connect

    Luey, J.; Li, S.W.

    1993-04-01

    Testing was initiated in March 1991 and completed in November 1992 to determine the rate at which asphalt is biodegraded by microorganisms native to the Hanford Site soils. The asphalt tested (AR-6000, US Oil, Tacoma, Washington) is to be used in the construction of a diffusion barrier for the Hanford grout vaults. Experiments to determine asphalt biodegradation rates were conducted using three separate test sets. These test sets were initiated in March 1991, January 1992, and June 1992 and ran for periods of 6 months, 11 months, and 6 months, respectively. The experimental method used was one originally developed by Bartha and Pramer (1965), and further refined by Bowerman et al. (1985), that determined the asphalt biodegradation rate through the measurement of carbon dioxide evolved.

  10. Customized vaginal vault brachytherapy with computed tomography imaging-derived applicator prototyping.

    PubMed

    Wiebe, Ericka; Easton, Harry; Thomas, Gillian; Barbera, Lisa; D'Alimonte, Laura; Ravi, Ananth

    2015-01-01

    A novel customized vaginal brachytherapy mould technique has been developed for clinical use. This image-guided technique provides a brachytherapy applicator solution for irregular vaginal vault configuration and/or a wide vaginal apex relative to the vaginal introitus that would be sub-optimally treated with standard cylinders. The customized vaginal applicator is generated by the following process: CT images are obtained with contrast-soaked vaginal packing in situ to highlight unique anatomical detail. A 3-dimensional digital model is developed from the images and subsequently converted into a custom applicator with the use of stereolithography, which is an additive manufacturing technique whereby layers 50-100 μm thick of resin are deposited and polymerized using a laser to create intricate 3-dimensional objects. The density of the applicator and the dose delivered using the custom applicator were both measured to ensure accurate dosimetry. The CT-based densities of a clinical vaginal cylinder and the cylinder generated using stereolithography were 1.29 ± 0.06 g/cm(3) vs 1.28 ± 0.01 g/cm(3), respectively. The mean measured dose from a representative stereolithographed applicator normalized to dose measured for a single plastic catheter was 99.8 ± 4.2%. In patient dosimetric results indicate improved coverage of the lateral aspect of vaginal vault with the custom cylinder relative to the standard cylinder; 700 cGy vs 328 cGy, respectively, at a representative lateral vaginal dose point, while simultaneously achieving relatively narrow dose distribution in the anterior/posterior direction. Stereolithographic applicator production was available within a clinically acceptable timeframe, and its clinical feasibility and utility has been demonstrated. Copyright © 2015 American Brachytherapy Society. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Evolution of vaulting strategy during locomotion of individuals with transfemoral amputation on slopes and cross-slopes compared to level walking.

    PubMed

    Villa, Coralie; Drevelle, Xavier; Bonnet, Xavier; Lavaste, François; Loiret, Isabelle; Fodé, Pascale; Pillet, Hélène

    2015-07-01

    Vaulting is a walking strategy qualitatively characterized in clinics by the sound ankle plantiflexion in midstance to assist prosthetic foot clearance. Even though potentially harmful, this strategy is often observed among people with transfemoral amputation to secure clearance of the prosthetic limb during swing phase. The aim of the study is to provide a quantitative analysis of the evolution of the vaulting strategy in challenging situations of daily living. 17 persons with transfemoral amputation and 17 able-bodied people participated in the study. Kinematic and kinetic gait analyses were performed for level walking, 10% inclined cross-slope walking, 5% and 12% inclined slope ascending. To study vaulting strategy, peak of generated power at the sound ankle at midstance was identified and quantified in the different walking situations. In particular, values were compared to a vaulting threshold corresponding to a peak of generated power superior to 0.15 W/kg. The vaulting threshold was exceeded for a larger proportion of people with amputation during cross-slope locomotion and slope ascent than during level walking. In addition, magnitude of the peak of generated power increased significantly compared to level walking in these situations. Vaulting seems to be widely used by patients with transfemoral amputation in daily living situations. The number of patients using vaulting increased with the difficulty of the walking situation. Results also suggested that patients could dose the amount of vaulting according to gait environment to secure prosthetic toe clearance. During rehabilitation, vaulting should also be corrected or prevented in daily living tasks. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. An Order-of-Magnitude Estimation of Benzene Concentration in Saltstone Vault

    SciTech Connect

    CHOI, A

    2006-03-20

    The contents of Tank 48H that include the tetraphenylborate (TPB) precipitates of potassium and cesium will be grouted and stored in the Saltstone vault. The grouting process is exothermic, which should accelerate the rate of decomposition of TPB precipitates eventually to benzene. Because the vault is not currently outfitted with an active ventilation system, there is a concern that a mixture of flammable gases may form in the vapor space of each cell filled with the curing grout. The purpose of this study was to determine if passive breathing induced by the diurnal fluctuations of barometric pressure would provide any mitigating measure against potential flammability in the cell vapor space. In Revision 0 of this document, a set of algorithms were presented that would predict the equilibrium concentration of benzene in the cell vapor space as a function of benzene generation rate, fill height, and passive breathing rate. The algorithms were derived based on several simplifying assumptions so that order of magnitude estimates could be made quickly for scoping purposes. In particular, it was assumed that passive breathing would occur solely due to barometric pressure fluctuations that were sinusoidal; the resulting algorithm for estimating the rate of passive breathing into or out of each cell is given in Eq. (10). Since Revision 0 was issued, the validity of this critical assumption on the mode of passive breathing was checked against available passive ventilation data for the Hanford waste tanks. It was found that the passive breathing rates estimated from Eq. (10) were on average 50 to 90% lower than those measured for 5 out of 6 Hanford tanks considered in this study (see Table 1); for Tank U-106, the estimated passive breathing rates were on average 20% lower than the measured data. These results indicate that Eq. (10) would most likely under predict passive breathing rates of the Saltstone vault. At a given fill height and benzene generation rate, under

  13. Saltstone Disposal Facility Mechanically Stabilized Earth Vault Closure Cap Degradation Base Case: Institutional Control To Pine Forest Scenario

    SciTech Connect

    Phifer, MA

    2004-03-19

    As part of the current Saltstone Disposal Facility (SDF) Performance Assessment (PA) revision, the closure cap configuration was reevaluated and closure cap degradation mechanisms and their impact upon infiltration through the closure cap was evaluated for the existing SDF concrete vaults (i.e. vaults 1 and 4) for the base case land use scenario (i.e. institutional control to pine forest scenario) and documented in Phifer and Nelson (2003). The closure cap configuration was modified from a compacted kaolin barrier layer concept to a geosynthetic clay layer (GCL) barrier layer concept. The degradation mechanisms developed included pine forest succession, erosion, and colloidal clay migration. These degradation mechanisms resulted in changes in the hydraulic properties of the closure cap layers and resulting increases in infiltration through the closure cap over time.

  14. Studies concerning the durability of concrete vaults for intermediate level radioactive waste disposal: Electrochemical monitoring and corrosion aspects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Duffó, G. S.; Farina, S. B.; Arva, E. A.; Giordano, C. M.; Lafont, C. J.

    2006-11-01

    The Argentine Atomic Energy Commission (CNEA) is responsible of the development of a management nuclear waste disposal programme. This programme contemplates the design and construction of a facility for the final disposal of intermediate-level radioactive waste. The proposed concept is the near-surface monolithic repository similar to those in operation in El Cabril, Spain. The design of this type of repository is based on the use of multiple, independent and redundant barriers. Since the vault and cover are major components of the engineered barriers, the durability of these concrete structures is an important aspect for the facilities integrity. This work presents a laboratory and field investigation performed for the last 6 years on reinforced concrete specimens, in order to predict the service life of the intermediate level radioactive waste disposal vaults from data obtained from electrochemical techniques. On the other hand, the development of sensors that allow on-line measurements of rebar corrosion potential and corrosion current density; incoming oxygen flow that reaches the metal surface; concrete electrical resistivity and chloride concentration is shown. Those sensors, properly embedded in a new full scale vault (nowadays in construction), will allow the monitoring of the corrosion process of the steel rebars embedded in thestructure.

  15. Investigation of the Chromosphere-Corona Interface with the Upgraded Very High Angular Resolution Ultraviolet Telescope (VAULT2.0)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vourlidas, Angelos; Beltran, Samuel Tun; Chintzoglou, Georgios; Eisenhower, Kevin; Korendyke, Clarence; Feldman, Ronen; Moser, John; Shea, John; Johnson-Rambert, Mary; McMullin, Don; Stenborg, Guillermo; Shepler, Ed; Roberts, David

    2016-03-01

    Very high angular resolution ultraviolet telescope (VAULT2.0) is a Lyman-alpha (Lyα; 1216Å) spectroheliograph designed to observe the upper chromospheric region of the solar atmosphere with high spatial (<0.5‧‧) and temporal (8s) resolution. Besides being the brightest line in the solar spectrum, Lyα emission arises at the temperature interface between coronal and chromospheric plasmas and may, hence, hold important clues about the transfer of mass and energy to the solar corona. VAULT2.0 is an upgrade of the previously flown VAULT rocket and was launched successfully on September 30, 2014 from White Sands Missile Range (WSMR). The target was AR12172 midway toward the southwestern limb. We obtained 33 images at 8s cadence at arc second resolution due to hardware problems. The science campaign was a resounding success, with all space and ground-based instruments obtaining high-resolution data at the same location within the AR. We discuss the science rationale, instrument upgrades, and performance during the first flight and present some preliminary science results.

  16. A three dimensional observation of palatal vault growth in children using mixed effect analysis: a 9 year longitudinal study.

    PubMed

    Yang, Sung-Tae; Kim, Hong-Kyun; Lim, Young Seol; Chang, Mi-Sook; Lee, Seung-Pyo; Park, Young-Seok

    2013-12-01

    The understanding of palatine vault growth in normal subjects is important to orthodontists. The aim of this study was to evaluate three dimensional (3D) longitudinal changes in the palatal vault from 6 to 14 years of age. Complete dental stone casts were biennially prepared for 50 subjects (25 girls and 25 boys) followed up from 6 to 14 years of age. Virtual casts were constructed using 3D laser scanning and reconstruction software. The reference gingival plane was constructed. The palatal heights were measured from a total of 12 quadrisectional points between the most gingival points of the palatal dentogingival junctions from the canine to the first molar. In addition, the palatal heights were measured from a total of 12 lateral and medial endpoints of the palatine rugae. The measurement changes over time were analyzed using a mixed-effect analysis. There were significant annual increases in all of the variables related to palatal height. However, the individual random variability at baseline was quite large. There was no significant sexual dimorphism in the linear measurements or in the annual increases as fixed effects in the model. During the observation period, increases in palatal vault height were significant in all regions. The growth pattern seemed to differ between genders even though it was not significant. More elaborate methodology is necessary to gain a better understanding of 3D palatal growth.

  17. An optimization model and solution for radiation shielding design of radiotherapy treatment vaults.

    PubMed

    Newman, Francis; Asadi-Zeydabadi, Masoud

    2008-01-01

    In radiation shielding design, one is usually faced with a set of conflicting goals that are navigated by an experienced physicist. If one has abundant space, the task is simplified because concrete is relatively inexpensive and will provide adequate shielding for high energy photons and neutrons, when applicable. However, if space is constrained (which is usually the case), the design becomes more difficult since one will likely have to employ combinations of steel, lead, and concrete, or other new materials--each with different properties and costs. Very experienced shielding designers can draw upon previous plans, but they do not know if their design is optimal in any sense. We have constructed a linear program that minimizes the cost of the shielding materials and minimizes the dose at the protection point or the shielding thickness subject to space constraints and to Federal or State regulations regarding the allowable exposure to individuals adjacent to the radiotherapy vault. In spite of what appears to be a simple model, the solution may require iterations of the optimization to arrive at the optimal solution.

  18. Cranial vault remodeling in microcephalic osteodysplastic primordial dwarfism type II and craniosynostosis.

    PubMed

    Engel, Michael; Castrillon-Oberndorfer, Gregor; Hoffmann, Jürgen; Egermann, Marcus; Freudlsperger, Christian; Thiele, Oliver Christian

    2012-09-01

    This is a survey of the long-term result after various surgical treatments in a child with microcephalic osteodysplastic primordial dwarfism type II (MOPD II) and craniosynostosis. We report a 17-year-old patient with MOPD II but some unusual clinical signs including bilateral knee dislocation, a misplaced upper lobe bronchus, and hypoplasia of the anterior corpus callosum. Because of premature fusion of several cranial sutures, the child developed signs of increased intracranial pressure with somnolence and papilledema. Cranial vault remodeling with fronto-orbital advancement was performed twice at the age of 16 and 21 months to open the abnormally closed suture, increase the intracranial volume, and relieve the elevated intracranial pressure. Following this procedure, the child's neurologic situation recovered significantly. Surgical procedure of fronto-orbital advancement and the performed reoperation in our patient were safe with no major complications intraoperatively and postoperatively with good functional and satisfying aesthetic outcomes in the long-term follow-up, expressed by the patient, his parents, and the surgeons.

  19. Residual long-lived radioactivity distribution in the inner concrete wall of a cyclotron vault.

    PubMed

    Kimura, K; Ishikawa, T; Kinno, M; Yamadera, A; Nakamura, T

    1994-12-01

    We measured the depth distribution of residual long-lived radioactivity in the inner concrete wall of a cyclotron vault by assaying concrete cores and we estimated the neutron flux distribution in the inner concrete wall by means of activation detectors. Nine long-lived radioactive nuclides (46Sc, 59Fe, 60Co, 65Zn, 134Cs, 152Eu, 154Eu, 22Na, and 54Mn) were identified from the gamma-ray spectra measured in the concrete samples. It was confirmed that the radionuclides induced by thermal neutrons through the (n, gamma) reaction are dominant, and that the induced activity by thermal neutrons is greatest at a depth of 5 to 10 cm rather than at the surface of the concrete and decreases exponentially beyond a depth of about 20 cm. By comparing the radioactivity and neutron flux distributions, we can estimate the induced long-lived radioactivity in concrete after a long period of operation from the short-term activation measurement.

  20. Evaluation of the latent radiation dose from the activated radionuclides in a cyclotron vault

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Hyunduk; Cho, Gyuseong; Kim, Sun A.; Kang, Bo Sun

    2015-02-01

    The production of short-lived radioisotopes for the synthesis of radiopharmaceuticals typically takes advantage of a cyclotron that accelerates a proton beam up to a few tens of MeV. The number of cyclotrons has been continuously increasing since the first operation of the MC-50 for the production of radiopharmaceuticals at the Korea Institute of Radiological & Medical Sciences (KIRAMS) in 1986, and currently 35 cyclotrons are under operation throughout the nation. As the number of operating cyclotrons has increased, concerns about radiation safety for the persons who are working at the facilities and dwelling in the vicinity of the facilities are becoming important issues. Radiation that could emit a time-dependent dose was shown to exist in a cyclotron vault after its shutdown. The calculation of the latent radiation dose rate was performed by using the MCNPX and the FISPACT. The calculated results for the activated long-lived radioisotopes in the concrete wall and the structural components of the cyclotron facility were compared with the measured data that were obtained by using gamma-ray spectroscopy with a HPGe detector.

  1. Characterisation of baroque tin amalgam mirrors of the historical Green Vault in Dresden

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zywitzki, O.; Nedon, W.; Kopte, T.; Modes, T.

    2008-07-01

    The historical Green Vault, one of Europe’s most sumptuous treasure chambers, has reopened in September 2006 in the Dresden Royal Palace. For the baroque presentation of the artworks the special properties of tin amalgam mirrors are of great importance. A comprehensive analytic characterisation was necessary for restoration and reconstruction. The different original casting glasses were analysed in respect of chemical composition, roughness, waviness and optical properties like chromaticity coordinates and transmittance. The microstructure of the tin amalgam layers were investigated on metallographic cross-sections and by X-ray diffraction. The investigations reveal that the tin amalgam layers are composed of γ-HgSn6-10 phase with a grain size between 5 and 50 μm surrounded by a thin mercury phase with about 2 wt. % tin. However the most important property of the baroque tin amalgam mirrors is a relative low reflectivity of about 59% which is drastically lower than for silver mirrors with a reflectivity of about 96%. According to the characterisation results a suitable glass for reconstruction was selected. The mirror layers were produced by historical tin amalgam technology for the rooms not destroyed by bombarding of Dresden in February 1945. For the completely destroyed Jewel Room pure tin layers were deposited by magnetron sputtering. The results show that this new technology enables an adequate substitute for the original tin amalgam layers.

  2. Effect of wind and altitude on record performance in foot races, pole vault, and long jump

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Frohlich, Cliff

    1985-08-01

    Using only elementary physics, one can estimate the effect of wind and altitude on performance in several track and field events. Experiments have shown that the power lost to aerodynamic drag forces is about a tenth of the total power expended in running at sprint speeds. From this observation one can calculate the effect of wind or of air density changes on sprinting speed. In pole vaulting, the sprinter converts his kinetic energy into potential energy to clear the bar. In long jumping, he is a projectile, but he is prevented from reaching his optimum distance expected for his initial velocity by the height which he can attain during his jump. For each of these events, performance in moderate winds of 2.0 m/s or at altitudes comparable to Mexico City differ by several percent from performances at sea level or in still air. In longer running races and in bicycle races, aerodynamic forces play an important role in racing strategy. However, since the athletes perform in groups it is difficult to calculate the effect on individual performances.

  3. Maximal Power of the Lower Limbs of Youth Gymnasts and Biomechanical Indicators of the Forward Handspring Vault Versus the Sports Result

    PubMed Central

    Kochanowicz, Andrzej; Kochanowicz, Kazimierz; Mieszkowski, Jan; Aschenbrenner, Piotr; Bielec, Grzegorz; Szark-Eckardt, Mirosława

    2016-01-01

    Abstract The aim of the study was to define the relationship between maximal power of lower limbs, the biomechanics of the forward handspring vault and the score received during a gymnastics competition. The research involved 42 gymnasts aged 9-11 years competing in the Poland’s Junior Championships. The study consisted of three stages: first -estimating the level of indicators of maximal power of lower limbs tested on a force plate during the countermovement jump; second - estimating the level of biomechanical indicators of the front handspring vault. For both mentioned groups of indicators and the score received by gymnasts during the vault, linear correlation analyses were made. The last stage consisted of conducting multiple regression analysis in order to predict the performance level of the front handspring vault. Results showed a positive correlation (0.401, p < 0.05) of lower limbs’ maximal power (1400 ± 502 W) with the judges’ score for the front handstand vault (13.38 ± 1.02 points). However, the highest significant (p < 0.001) correlation with the judges’ score was revealed in the angle of the hip joint in the second phase of the flight (196.00 ± 16.64°) and the contact time of hands with the vault surface (0.264 ± 0.118 s), where correlation coefficients were: -0.671 and -0.634, respectively. In conclusion, the angles of the hip joint in the second phase of the flight and when the hands touched the vault surface proved to be the most important indicators for the received score. PMID:28149408

  4. The VAULT2.0 Observing Campaign: The First Comprehensive Investigation of the Chromosphere-Corona Interface at Sub-arcsecond scales

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vourlidas, A.; Korendyke, C.; Tun, S.; Ugarte-Urra, I.; Chua, D. H.; Morrill, J. S.; Warren, H. P.; Young, P.; Landi, E.; De Pontieu, B.; Cauzzi, G.; Reardon, K.

    2013-12-01

    We report the first results from an observing campaign in support of the VAULT2.0 sounding rocket launch. VAULT2.0 is a Lya (1216Å) spectroheliograph capable of 0.3' (~250 km) spatial resolution. The objective of the VAULT2.0 project is the study of the chromosphere-corona interface. This interface has acquired renewed emphasis over the last few years, thanks to high-resolution observations from Hinode/SOT and EIS instruments and the Lya imaging from the two VAULT flights. The observations have shown that the upper chromosphere may play a more important role in heating the corona and in affecting EUV observations that previously thought: (1) by supplying the mass via Type-II spicules and, (2) by absorbing coronal emission. Many of the required clues for further progress are located in sub-arcsecond structures with temperatures between 10000 and 50000 K, a regime not accessible by Hinode or SDO. Lyman-alpha observations are, therefore, ideal, for filling in this gap. The observing campaign in support of the VAULT2.0 is closely coordinated with the Hinode and IRIS missions to study the mass/energy flow from the chromosphere to the corona with joint observations of type-II spicules, and the magnetic connectivity of coronal loops using the full imaging and spectral capabilities of IRIS, Hinode and SDO. Several ground-based observatories also provide important observations (IBIS, BBSO, SOLIS). The VAULT2.0 project is funded by the NASA LCAS program. The upgraded payload, VAULT2.0, is ideally suited to address this questions because it observes in a unique line, unavailable elsewhere, it's the only other space telescope with spatial resolution comparable to that of the Hinode instruments, and the science objectives are well suited to the short time span of a rocket flight.

  5. Maximal Power of the Lower Limbs of Youth Gymnasts and Biomechanical Indicators of the Forward Handspring Vault Versus the Sports Result.

    PubMed

    Kochanowicz, Andrzej; Kochanowicz, Kazimierz; Niespodziúski, Bartłomiej; Mieszkowski, Jan; Aschenbrenner, Piotr; Bielec, Grzegorz; Szark-Eckardt, Mirosława

    2016-12-01

    The aim of the study was to define the relationship between maximal power of lower limbs, the biomechanics of the forward handspring vault and the score received during a gymnastics competition. The research involved 42 gymnasts aged 9-11 years competing in the Poland's Junior Championships. The study consisted of three stages: first -estimating the level of indicators of maximal power of lower limbs tested on a force plate during the countermovement jump; second - estimating the level of biomechanical indicators of the front handspring vault. For both mentioned groups of indicators and the score received by gymnasts during the vault, linear correlation analyses were made. The last stage consisted of conducting multiple regression analysis in order to predict the performance level of the front handspring vault. Results showed a positive correlation (0.401, p < 0.05) of lower limbs' maximal power (1400 ± 502 W) with the judges' score for the front handstand vault (13.38 ± 1.02 points). However, the highest significant (p < 0.001) correlation with the judges' score was revealed in the angle of the hip joint in the second phase of the flight (196.00 ± 16.64°) and the contact time of hands with the vault surface (0.264 ± 0.118 s), where correlation coefficients were: -0.671 and -0.634, respectively. In conclusion, the angles of the hip joint in the second phase of the flight and when the hands touched the vault surface proved to be the most important indicators for the received score.

  6. Upregulation of breast cancer resistance protein and major vault protein in drug resistant epilepsy.

    PubMed

    Banerjee Dixit, Aparna; Sharma, Devina; Srivastava, Arpna; Banerjee, Jyotirmoy; Tripathi, Manjari; Prakash, Deepak; Sarat Chandra, P

    2017-04-01

    Identifying factors involved in the development of drug resistant epilepsy (DRE) remains a challenge. Candidate gene studies have shown modulation of resistance to drugs by various multidrug resistance proteins in DRE. However the resistance to drugs in DRE could be more complex and multifactorial involving molecules in different pharmacokinetic processes. In this study for the first time we have analyzed the relative expression of four molecules with different drug resistance mechanisms in two most common DRE pathologies, mesial temporal lobe epilepsy (MTLE) and focal cortical dysplasia (FCD) with respect to each other and also with different non-epileptic controls. Brain tissues resected from MTLE (n=16) and FCD type I and II (n=12) patients who had undergone surgery were analysed for mRNA levels of multidrug resistance-associated protein 1(MRP1), major vault protein (MVP), breast cancer resistance protein (BCRP), and one drug metabolising enzyme (UGT1A4) as compared to non-epileptic controls which were tissues resected from tumor periphery (n=6) and autopsy tissues (n=4) by quantitative PCR. We found significant upregulation of MVP and BCRP whereas MRP1 and UGT1A4 were unaltered in both pathologies. While upregulation of BCRP was significantly higher in MTLE (9.34±0.45; p<0.05), upregulation of MVP was significantly higher in FCD (2.94±0.65; p<0.01). We propose that upregulation of BCRP and MVP is associated with MTLE and FCD and these molecules not only may have the potential to predict pathology specific phenotypes but may also have therapeutic potential as adjunct treatment in these pathologies. Copyright © 2017 British Epilepsy Association. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Major vault protein promotes locomotor recovery and regeneration after spinal cord injury in adult zebrafish.

    PubMed

    Pan, Hong-Chao; Lin, Jin-Fei; Ma, Li-Ping; Shen, Yan-Qin; Schachner, Melitta

    2013-01-01

    In contrast to mammals, adult zebrafish recover locomotor functions after spinal cord injury (SCI), in part due to axonal regrowth and regeneration permissivity of the central nervous system. Upregulation of major vault protein (MVP) expression after spinal cord injury in the brainstem of the adult zebrafish prompted us to probe for its contribution to recovery after SCI. MVP is a multifunctional protein expressed not only in many types of tumours but also in the nervous system, where its importance for regeneration is, however, unclear. Using an established zebrafish SCI model, we found that MVP mRNA and protein expression levels were increased in ependymal cells in the spinal cord caudal to the lesion site at 6 and 11 days after SCI. Double immunolabelling showed that MVP was co-localised with Islet-1 or tyrosine hydroxylase around the central canal of the spinal cord in sham-injured control fish and injured fish 11 days after surgery. MVP co-localised with the neural stem cell marker nestin in ependymal cells after injury. By using an in vivo morpholino-based knock-down approach, we found that the distance moved by MVP morpholino-treated fish was reduced at 4, 5 and 6 weeks after SCI when compared to fish treated with standard control morpholino. Knock-down of MVP resulted in reduced regrowth of axons from brainstem neurons into the spinal cord caudal to the lesion site. These results indicate that MVP supports locomotor recovery and axonal regrowth after SCI in adult zebrafish. © 2012 Federation of European Neuroscience Societies and Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  8. Diverse bacterial groups are associated with corrosive lesions at a Granite Mountain Record Vault (GMRV).

    PubMed

    Kan, J; Chellamuthu, P; Obraztsova, A; Moore, J E; Nealson, K H

    2011-08-01

    This study applied culture-dependent and molecular approaches to examine the bacterial communities at corrosion sites at Granite Mountain Record Vault (GMRV) in Utah, USA, with the goal of understanding the role of microbes in these unexpected corrosion events. Samples from corroded steel chunks, rock particles and waters around the corrosion pits were collected for bacterial isolation and molecular analyses. Bacteria cultivated from these sites were identified as members of Alphaproteobacteria, Gammaproteobacteria, Firmicutes and Actinobacteria. In addition, molecular genetic characterization of the communities via nested-polymerase chain reaction-denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE) indicated the presence of a broad spectrum of bacterial groups, including Alphaproteobacteria, Betaproteobacteria, Deltaproteobacteria, Actinobacteria, Firmicutes and Bacteroidetes. However, neither cultivation nor molecular approaches identified sulfate-reducing bacteria (SRB), the bacteria commonly implicated as causative organisms were found associated with corrosive lesions in a process referred to as microbially influenced corrosion (MIC). The high diversity of bacterial groups at the corrosion sites in comparison with that seen in the source waters suggested to us a role for the microbes in corrosion, perhaps being an expression of a redox-active group of microbes transferring electrons, harvesting energy and producing biomass. The corrosion sites contained highly diverse microbial communities, consistent with the involvement of microbial activities along the redox gradient at corrosion interface. We hypothesize an electron transport model for MIC, involving diverse bacterial groups such as acid-producing bacteria (APB), SRB, sulfur-oxidizing bacteria (SOB), metal-reducing bacteria (MRB) and metal-oxidizing bacteria (MOB). The characterization of micro-organisms that influence metal-concrete corrosion at GMRV has significant implications for corrosion control in high

  9. The impact of air pockets around the vaginal cylinder on vaginal vault brachytherapy

    PubMed Central

    Guler, O C; Dolek, Y

    2015-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate the incidence, size and predisposing factors for air pockets around the vaginal cylinder and their dosimetric effect on the vaginal mucosa. Methods: We investigated 174 patients with endometrial carcinoma treated with external radiotherapy (RT) and brachytherapy (BRT) (101 patients, 58%) or BRT alone (73 patients, 42%). The quantity, volume and dosimetric impact of the air pockets surrounding the vaginal cylinder were quantified. The proportions of patients with or without air pockets during application were stratified according to menopausal status, treatment modality and interval between surgery and RT. Results: Air pockets around the vaginal cylinder were seen in 75 patients (43%), while 99 patients (57%) had no air pockets. Only 11 patients (6.3%) received less than the prescribed dose (average 93.9% of prescribed dose; range, 79.0–99.2%). Air pockets were significantly fewer in pre-menopausal patients or in patients treated with the combination of external RT and BRT than in post-menopausal patients or patients treated with BRT alone. A significant correlation existed between the mucosal displacement of the air gap and the ratio of the measured dose at the surface of the air gap and prescribed dose (Pearson r = −0.775; p < 0.001). Conclusion: Air pockets were still a frequent problem during vaginal vault BRT, especially in post-menopausal patients or in patients treated with BRT alone, which may potentially cause dose reductions at the vaginal mucosa. Advances in knowledge: Air pockets around the vaginal cylinder remain a significant problem, which may potentially cause dose reduction in the target volume. PMID:25562767

  10. Effect of the pole--human body interaction on pole vaulting performance.

    PubMed

    Arampatzis, Adamantios; Schade, Falk; Brüggemann, Gert-Peter

    2004-09-01

    The purposes of this study were: (a) to examine the interactions between the athlete and the pole and the possibility for the athlete to take advantage of the pole's elasticity by means of muscular work and (b) to develop performance criteria during the interaction between the athlete and the pole in pole vaulting. Six athletes performed 4-11 trials each, at 90% of their respective personal best performance. All trials were recorded using four synchronized, genlocked video cameras operating at 50 Hz. The ground reaction forces exerted on the bottom of the pole were measured using a planting box fixed on a force plate (1000 Hz). The interaction between athlete and pole may be split into two parts. During the first part, energy is transferred into the pole and the total energy of the athlete decreases. The difference between the energy decrease of the athlete and the pole energy is an indicator of the energy produced by the athletes by means of muscular work (criterion 1). During the second part of the interaction, energy is transferred back to the athlete and the total energy of the athlete increases. The difference between the returned pole energy and the amount of energy increase of the athlete defines criterion 2. In general, the function of the pole during the interaction is: (a) store part of the kinetic energy that the athlete achieved during the run up as strain energy and convert this strain energy into potential energy of the athlete, (b) allow the active system (athlete) to produce muscular work to increase the total energy potential.

  11. Prediction of neutron induced radioactivity in the concrete walls of a PET cyclotron vault room with MCNPX.

    PubMed

    Martínez-Serrano, J Javier; Díez de los Ríos, Antonio

    2010-11-01

    The authors want to assess the relevance of the neutron activation of the concrete vault of the PET cyclotron at CIMES (Universidad de Malaga) by predicting specific activities of the main activation products in the vault and their variation profiles as a function of penetration depth into concrete at present and after 10 yr of cyclotron operation. The dual proton cyclotron is used for PET isotopes production, mainly 18F. During the years 2006 and 2008, the using rate has been 1 h/day at single beam (40 microA). From January 2008, using rate is 4 h/day at dual beam (80 microA). The energy of the cyclotron proton beam is 18 MeV. Four point locations were chosen on the walls of the cyclotron room to assess neutron induced activity concentrations. In each wall point location, neutron induced radionuclide specific activity was assessed from the wall surface to a depth of 120 cm within concrete. Simulations were carried out with the Monte Carlo based radiation transport code MCNPX (v2.6.0). According to MCNPX calculations, activity depth profiles of activation products studied, except 54Mn, have a maximum at variable depths from the wall surface never beyond 12 cm. 54Mn activity decreases exponentially in all the studied depth ranges within wall concrete. The activity of 152Eu, 154Eu, 60CO, 134Cs, 46Sc, and 65Zn decreases exponentially beyond a 30 cm depth into concrete. 54Mn activity presents the faster decrease within a concrete vault with an attenuation length of 21 cm. According to MCNPX estimations, present activity in the cyclotron vault is mostly due to 46Sc and 60Co, with highest specific activity near the vault surface of 146 +/- 16 and 50 +/- 4.6 Bq/kg, respectively. 46Sc and 60Co activity measurements near the surface wall present an acceptable match with the estimation within the uncertainties, but measured activities of the other radionuclides are quite over the MCNPX estimations. The calculations after 10 yr of cyclotron operation predict a slight increase

  12. Vault-poly-ADP-ribose polymerase in the Octopus vulgaris brain: a regulatory factor of actin polymerization dynamic.

    PubMed

    De Maio, Anna; Natale, Emiliana; Rotondo, Sergio; Di Cosmo, Anna; Faraone-Mennella, Maria Rosaria

    2013-09-01

    Our previous behavioural, biochemical and immunohistochemical analyses conducted in selected regions (supra/sub oesophageal masses) of the Octopus vulgaris brain detected a cytoplasmic poly-ADP-ribose polymerase (more than 90% of total enzyme activity). The protein was identified as the vault-free form of vault-poly-ADP-ribose polymerase. The present research extends and integrates the biochemical characterization of poly-ADP-ribosylation system, namely, reaction product, i.e., poly-ADP-ribose, and acceptor proteins, in the O. vulgaris brain. Immunochemical analyses evidenced that the sole poly-ADP-ribose acceptor was the octopus cytoskeleton 50-kDa actin. It was present in both free, endogenously poly-ADP-ribosylated form (70kDa) and in complex with V-poly-ADP-ribose polymerase and poly-ADP-ribose (260kDa). The components of this complex, alkali and high salt sensitive, were purified and characterized. The kind and the length of poly-ADP-ribose corresponded to linear chains of 30-35 ADP-ribose units, in accordance with the features of the polymer synthesized by the known vault-poly-ADP-ribose polymerase. In vitro experiments showed that V-poly-ADP-ribose polymerase activity of brain cytoplasmic fraction containing endogenous actin increased upon the addition of commercial actin and was highly reduced by ATP. Anti-actin immunoblot of the mixture in the presence and absence of ATP showed that the poly-ADP-ribosylation of octopus actin is a dynamic process balanced by the ATP-dependent polymerization of the cytoskeleton protein, a fundamental mechanism for synaptic plasticity.

  13. Influence of different approaches for calculating the athlete's mechanical energy on energetic parameters in the pole vault.

    PubMed

    Schade, F; Arampatzis, A; Brüggemann, G

    2000-10-01

    The purposes of this study were as follows: (1) To determine the differences between two- and three-dimensionally calculated energy of the athlete in the pole vault. (2) To determine the differences between CM energy and total body energy. (3) To examine the influence of these different approaches of calculating the athlete's energy on energetic parameter values during the pole vault. Kinematic data were gathered during the pole vault final of the track and field world championships in 1997. Two video cameras (50Hz) covered the last step of the approach including the pole plant and 2 cameras covered the pole phase up to bar clearance, respectively. Twenty successful jumps were analysed. The characteristics of the energy development is similar for the different approaches. Initial energy, energy at maximum pole bend and energy at pole release (primary parameters) show significant differences (p<0.05). The findings indicate that rotatory movements and movements relative to the CM have a larger influence on the primary parameters than movements apart from the main plane of movement. For analysing the energy exchange between the athlete and the elastic implement pole only the differences among the secondary parameters (initial energy minus energy at maximum pole bend, final energy minus energy at maximum pole bend) are needed (Arampatzis et al., 1997 Biomechanical Research Project at the Vth World Championships in Athletics, Athens 1997: Preliminary Report. New Studies in Athletics 13, 66-69). For those parameters the relative differences between the calculation approaches range only between 1.47 and 0.04%. This indicates that the influence of the different approaches for calculating the athlete's energy on the analysis of energy exchange is negligible.

  14. Erratum to: Rectocutaneous fistula with transmigration of the suture: a rare delayed complication of vault fixation with the sacrospinous ligament.

    PubMed

    Kadam, Pratima Datta; Chuan, Han How

    2016-03-01

    There was an oversight in the Authorship of a recent Images in Urogynecology article titled: Rectocutaneous fistula with transmigration of the suture: a rare delayed complication of vault fixation with the sacrospinous ligament (DOI 10.1007/ s00192-015-2823-5). We would like to include Adj A/P Han How Chuan’s name in the list of authors. Adj A/P Han is a Senior Consultant and Department Head of Urogynaecology at the KK Hospital for Women and Children, Singapore.

  15. Constraining ground motion parameters and determining the historic earthquake that damaged the vaults underneath the Old City of Jerusalem

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yagoda-Biran, G.; Hatzor, Y. H.

    2013-12-01

    Evidence for seismically induced damage are preserved in historic masonry structures below the Old City of Jerusalem at a site known locally as the 'Western Wall Tunnels' complex, possibly one of the most important tourist attractions in the world. In the tunnels, structures dated to 500 BC and up until modern times have been uncovered by recent archeological excavation. One of the interesting findings is a 100 m long bridge, composed of two rows of barrel vaults, believed to have been constructed during the 3rd century AD to allow easy access to the Temple Mount. In one of the vaults a single masonry block is displaced 7 cm downward with respect to its neighbors (see figure below). Since the damage seems seismically driven, back analysis of the damage with the numerical Discontinuous Deformation Analysis (DDA) method was performed, in order to constrain the peak ground acceleration (PGA) that had caused the damage. First the numerical method used for back analysis was verified with an analytical solution for the case of a rocking monolithic column, then validated with experimental results for site response analysis. The verification and validation prove the DDA is capable of handling dynamic and wave propagation problems. Next, the back analysis was performed. Results of the dynamic numerical simulations suggest that the damage observed at the vault was induced by seismic vibrations that must have taken place before the bridge was buried underground, namely when it was still in service. We find that the PGA required for causing the observed damage was high - between 1.5 and 2 g. The PGA calculated for Jerusalem on the basis of established attenuation relationships for historic earthquakes that struck the region during the relevant time period is about one order of magnitude lower: 0.14 and 0.48 g, for the events that took place at 362 and 746 AD, respectively. This discrepancy is explained by local site effects that must have amplified bedrock ground motions by a

  16. Alternative methods for dispoal of low-level radioactive wastes. Task 1. Description of methods and assessment of criteria. [Alternative methods are belowground vaults, aboveground vaults; earth mounded concrete bunkers, mined cavities, augered holes

    SciTech Connect

    Bennett, R.D.; Miller, W.O.; Warriner, J.B.; Malone, P.G.; McAneny, C.C.

    1984-04-01

    The study reported herein contains the results of Task 1 of a four-task study entitled Criteria for Evaluating Engineered Facilities. The overall objective of this study is to ensure that the criteria needed to evaluate five alternative low-level radioactive waste (LLW) disposal methods are available to the Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) and the Agreement States. The alternative methods considered are belowground vaults, aboveground vaults, earth mounded concrete bunkers, mined cavities, and augered holes. Each of these alternatives is either being used by other countries for low-level radioactive waste (LLW) disposal or is being considered by other countries or US agencies. In this report the performance requirements are listed, each alternative is described, the experience gained with its use is discussed, and the performance capabilities of each method are addressed. Next, the existing 10 CFR Part 61 Subpart D criteria with respect to paragraphs 61.50 through 61.53, pertaining to site suitability, design, operations and closure, and monitoring are assessed for applicability to evaluation of each alternative. Preliminary conclusions and recommendations are offered on each method's suitability as an LLW disposal alternative, the applicability of the criteria, and the need for supplemental or modified criteria.

  17. Measurement of neutron dose equivalent outside and inside of the treatment vault of GRID therapy

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, Xudong; Charlton, Michael A.; Esquivel, Carlos; Eng, Tony Y.; Li, Ying; Papanikolaou, Nikos

    2013-09-15

    Purpose: To evaluate the neutron and photon dose equivalent rates at the treatment vault entrance (H{sub n,D} and H{sub G}), and to study the secondary radiation to the patient in GRID therapy. The radiation activation on the grid was studied.Methods: A Varian Clinac 23EX accelerator was working at 18 MV mode with a grid manufactured by .decimal, Inc. The H{sub n,D} and H{sub G} were measured using an Andersson–Braun neutron REM meter, and a Geiger Müller counter. The radiation activation on the grid was measured after the irradiation with an ion chamber γ-ray survey meter. The secondary radiation dose equivalent to patient was evaluated by etched track detectors and OSL detectors on a RANDO{sup ®} phantom.Results: Within the measurement uncertainty, there is no significant difference between the H{sub n,D} and H{sub G} with and without a grid. However, the neutron dose equivalent to the patient with the grid is, on average, 35.3% lower than that without the grid when using the same field size and the same amount of monitor unit. The photon dose equivalent to the patient with the grid is, on average, 44.9% lower. The measured average half-life of the radiation activation in the grid is 12.0 (±0.9) min. The activation can be categorized into a fast decay component and a slow decay component with half-lives of 3.4 (±1.6) min and 15.3 (±4.0) min, respectively. There was no detectable radioactive contamination found on the surface of the grid through a wipe test.Conclusions: This work indicates that there is no significant change of the H{sub n,D} and H{sub G} in GRID therapy, compared with a conventional external beam therapy. However, the neutron and scattered photon dose equivalent to the patient decrease dramatically with the grid and can be clinical irrelevant. Meanwhile, the users of a grid should be aware of the possible high dose to the radiation worker from the radiation activation on the surface of the grid. A delay in handling the grid after the beam

  18. Estimate of Gaseous 14Carbon Concentrations Emanating from the Intermediate-Level Vault Disposal Facility

    SciTech Connect

    Kaplan, D

    2005-08-31

    {sup 14}Carbon-bearing resin waste will be disposed in the Low-Activity Waste (LAW) Intermediate Level Vaults (ILV) located in E-Area on the Savannah River Site (SRS). This waste will be buried in a cementitious environment in the vadose zone, i.e., the subsurface zone above the aquifer. As the resin ages, and equilibrates with slowly infiltrating water, it is expected that the {sup 14}C will partition to the solid, liquid, and gaseous phases. The objective of this task was to estimate the concentration of gaseous {sup 14}C in the waste pore space that is in contact with the resin leachate. The approach used to estimate this value was built largely around data generated from lysimeter studies that were conducted for 9 years. These lysimeters contained the same type of used resins (mixed-bed deionizer resins used in the purification of the heavy water moderator of SRS reactors) as are being disposed in the ILV. During the 9 year period, pore water {sup 14}C leaching concentrations were monitored to provide an excellent estimate of the long-term behavior of {sup 14}C release rates from the resins. Thermodynamic calculations were conducted to calculate {sup 14}CO{sub 2(g)} concentrations. These calculations included the {sup 14}C pore water data from the lysimeter study, and data from a field study that was a natural analogue to a long-term cementitious environment (Khoury et al. 1992). The calculations predicted an extremely low {sup 14}CO{sub 2(g)} concentration of 1.9 x 10{sup -7} Ci/m{sup 3} {sup 14}CO{sub 2(g)} in the air spaces above the resin leachate. This low concentrations is not surprising in light of both laboratory and field observations that concrete acts as a strong sorbent of CO{sub 2(g)}. This calculated {sup 14}CO{sub 2(g)} concentration will now be included in future risk calculations.

  19. Special Analysis for Disposal of High-Concentration I-129 Waste in the Intermediate-Level Vaults at the E-Area Low-Level Waste Facility

    SciTech Connect

    Collard, L.B.

    2000-09-26

    This revision was prepared to address comments from DOE-SR that arose following publication of revision 0. This Special Analysis (SA) addresses disposal of wastes with high concentrations of I-129 in the Intermediate-Level (IL) Vaults at the operating, low-level radioactive waste disposal facility (the E-Area Low-Level Waste Facility or LLWF) on the Savannah River Site (SRS). This SA provides limits for disposal in the IL Vaults of high-concentration I-129 wastes, including activated carbon beds from the Effluent Treatment Facility (ETF), based on their measured, waste-specific Kds.

  20. NeuroVault.org: A repository for sharing unthresholded statistical maps, parcellations, and atlases of the human brain.

    PubMed

    Gorgolewski, Krzysztof J; Varoquaux, Gael; Rivera, Gabriel; Schwartz, Yannick; Sochat, Vanessa V; Ghosh, Satrajit S; Maumet, Camille; Nichols, Thomas E; Poline, Jean-Baptiste; Yarkoni, Tal; Margulies, Daniel S; Poldrack, Russell A

    2016-01-01

    NeuroVault.org is dedicated to storing outputs of analyses in the form of statistical maps, parcellations and atlases, a unique strategy that contrasts with most neuroimaging repositories that store raw acquisition data or stereotaxic coordinates. Such maps are indispensable for performing meta-analyses, validating novel methodology, and deciding on precise outlines for regions of interest (ROIs). NeuroVault is open to maps derived from both healthy and clinical populations, as well as from various imaging modalities (sMRI, fMRI, EEG, MEG, PET, etc.). The repository uses modern web technologies such as interactive web-based visualization, cognitive decoding, and comparison with other maps to provide researchers with efficient, intuitive tools to improve the understanding of their results. Each dataset and map is assigned a permanent Universal Resource Locator (URL), and all of the data is accessible through a REST Application Programming Interface (API). Additionally, the repository supports the NIDM-Results standard and has the ability to parse outputs from popular FSL and SPM software packages to automatically extract relevant metadata. This ease of use, modern web-integration, and pioneering functionality holds promise to improve the workflow for making inferences about and sharing whole-brain statistical maps. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. On the role of major vault protein in the resistance of senescent human diploid fibroblasts to apoptosis.

    PubMed

    Ryu, S J; An, H J; Oh, Y S; Choi, H R; Ha, M K; Park, S C

    2008-11-01

    Major vault protein (MVP), the main component of vault complex, is overexpressed in many multidrug-resistant cancer cell lines, suggesting a possible role for MVP in cell signaling and survival. In this study, we have found that MVP is markedly increased in senescent human diploid fibroblasts (HDFs) as well as in aged organs. We examined whether MVP expression might be affected by apoptotic stress in an aging-dependent manner. We treated young and senescent HDFs with apoptosis-inducing agents such as H(2)O(2), staurosporine and thapsigargin, and monitored MVP expression. We found that MVP expression is markedly reduced in young HDFs but not in senescent HDFs, in response to apoptotic stresses. Downregulation of MVP increased the sensitivity of senescent HDFs to apoptosis. Also, the level of antiapoptotic B-cell lymphoma protein-2 (Bcl-2) was significantly reduced and the accumulation of c-Jun increased in MVP knocked-down senescent HDFs. Moreover, treatment of MVP knocked-down senescent HDFs with SP600125, a specific c-Jun NH(2)-terminal kinase (JNK) inhibitor, restored the level of Bcl-2 protein. Taken together, these results suggest that MVP is important in the resistance of senescent HDFs to apoptosis by modulation of Bcl-2 expression by JNK pathway.

  2. NeuroVault.org: A repository for sharing unthresholded statistical maps, parcellations, and atlases of the human brain

    PubMed Central

    Gorgolewski, Krzysztof J.; Varoquaux, Gael; Rivera, Gabriel; Schwartz, Yannick; Sochat, Vanessa V.; Ghosh, Satrajit S.; Maumet, Camille; Nichols, Thomas E.; Poline, Jean-Baptiste; Yarkoni, Tal; Margulies, Daniel S.; Poldrack, Russell A.

    2016-01-01

    NeuroVault.org is dedicated to storing outputs of analyses in the form of statistical maps, parcellations and atlases, a unique strategy that contrasts with most neuroimaging repositories that store raw acquisition data or stereotaxic coordinates. Such maps are indispensable for performing meta-analyses, validating novel methodology, and deciding on precise outlines for regions of interest (ROIs). NeuroVault is open to maps derived from both healthy and clinical populations, as well as from various imaging modalities (sMRI, fMRI, EEG, MEG, PET, etc.). The repository uses modern web technologies such as interactive web-based visualization, cognitive decoding, and comparison with other maps to provide researchers with efficient, intuitive tools to improve the understanding of their results. Each dataset and map is assigned a permanent Universal Resource Locator (URL), and all of the data is accessible through a REST Application Programming Interface (API). Additionally, the repository supports the NIDM-Results standard, and has the ability to parse outputs from popular FSL and SPM software packages to automatically extract relevant metadata. This ease of use, modern web-integration, and pioneering functionality holds promise to improve the workflow for making inferences about and sharing whole-brain statistical maps. PMID:25869863

  3. SnoVault and encodeD: A novel object-based storage system and applications to ENCODE metadata

    PubMed Central

    Podduturi, Nikhil R.; Glick, David I.; Baymuradov, Ulugbek K.; Malladi, Venkat S.; Chan, Esther T.; Davidson, Jean M.; Gabdank, Idan; Narayana, Aditi K.; Onate, Kathrina C.; Hilton, Jason; Ho, Marcus C.; Lee, Brian T.; Miyasato, Stuart R.; Dreszer, Timothy R.; Sloan, Cricket A.; Strattan, J. Seth; Tanaka, Forrest Y.; Hong, Eurie L.; Cherry, J. Michael

    2017-01-01

    The Encyclopedia of DNA elements (ENCODE) project is an ongoing collaborative effort to create a comprehensive catalog of functional elements initiated shortly after the completion of the Human Genome Project. The current database exceeds 6500 experiments across more than 450 cell lines and tissues using a wide array of experimental techniques to study the chromatin structure, regulatory and transcriptional landscape of the H. sapiens and M. musculus genomes. All ENCODE experimental data, metadata, and associated computational analyses are submitted to the ENCODE Data Coordination Center (DCC) for validation, tracking, storage, unified processing, and distribution to community resources and the scientific community. As the volume of data increases, the identification and organization of experimental details becomes increasingly intricate and demands careful curation. The ENCODE DCC has created a general purpose software system, known as SnoVault, that supports metadata and file submission, a database used for metadata storage, web pages for displaying the metadata and a robust API for querying the metadata. The software is fully open-source, code and installation instructions can be found at: http://github.com/ENCODE-DCC/snovault/ (for the generic database) and http://github.com/ENCODE-DCC/encoded/ to store genomic data in the manner of ENCODE. The core database engine, SnoVault (which is completely independent of ENCODE, genomic data, or bioinformatic data) has been released as a separate Python package. PMID:28403240

  4. SnoVault and encodeD: A novel object-based storage system and applications to ENCODE metadata.

    PubMed

    Hitz, Benjamin C; Rowe, Laurence D; Podduturi, Nikhil R; Glick, David I; Baymuradov, Ulugbek K; Malladi, Venkat S; Chan, Esther T; Davidson, Jean M; Gabdank, Idan; Narayana, Aditi K; Onate, Kathrina C; Hilton, Jason; Ho, Marcus C; Lee, Brian T; Miyasato, Stuart R; Dreszer, Timothy R; Sloan, Cricket A; Strattan, J Seth; Tanaka, Forrest Y; Hong, Eurie L; Cherry, J Michael

    2017-01-01

    The Encyclopedia of DNA elements (ENCODE) project is an ongoing collaborative effort to create a comprehensive catalog of functional elements initiated shortly after the completion of the Human Genome Project. The current database exceeds 6500 experiments across more than 450 cell lines and tissues using a wide array of experimental techniques to study the chromatin structure, regulatory and transcriptional landscape of the H. sapiens and M. musculus genomes. All ENCODE experimental data, metadata, and associated computational analyses are submitted to the ENCODE Data Coordination Center (DCC) for validation, tracking, storage, unified processing, and distribution to community resources and the scientific community. As the volume of data increases, the identification and organization of experimental details becomes increasingly intricate and demands careful curation. The ENCODE DCC has created a general purpose software system, known as SnoVault, that supports metadata and file submission, a database used for metadata storage, web pages for displaying the metadata and a robust API for querying the metadata. The software is fully open-source, code and installation instructions can be found at: http://github.com/ENCODE-DCC/snovault/ (for the generic database) and http://github.com/ENCODE-DCC/encoded/ to store genomic data in the manner of ENCODE. The core database engine, SnoVault (which is completely independent of ENCODE, genomic data, or bioinformatic data) has been released as a separate Python package.

  5. Shielding evaluation of a medical linear accelerator vault in preparation for installing a high-dose rate 252Cf remote afterloader.

    PubMed

    Melhus, C S; Rivard, M J; Kurkomelis, J; Liddle, C B; Massé, F X

    2005-01-01

    In support of the effort to begin high-dose rate 252Cf brachytherapy treatments at Tufts-New England Medical Center, the shielding capabilities of a clinical accelerator vault against the neutron and photon emissions from a 1.124 mg 252Cf source were examined. Outside the clinical accelerator vault, the fast neutron dose equivalent rate was below the lower limit of detection of a CR-39 etched track detector and below 0.14 +/- 0.02 muSv h(-1) with a proportional counter, which is consistent, within the uncertainties, with natural background. The photon dose equivalent rate was also measured to be below background levels (0.1 muSv h(-1)) using an ionisation chamber and an optically stimulated luminescence dosemeter. A Monte Carlo simulation of neutron transport through the accelerator vault was performed to validate measured values and determine the thermal-energy to low-energy neutron component. Monte Carlo results showed that the dose equivalent rate from fast neutrons was reduced by a factor of 100,000 after attenuation through the vault wall, and the thermal-energy neutron dose equivalent rate would be an additional factor of 1000 below that of the fast neutrons. Based on these findings, the shielding installed in this facility is sufficient for the use of at least 5.0 mg of 252Cf.

  6. Assessing the Impact of Blood Loss in Cranial Vault Remodeling: A Risk Assessment Model Using the 2012 to 2013 Pediatric National Surgical Quality Improvement Program Data Sets.

    PubMed

    Chow, Ian; Purnell, Chad A; Gosain, Arun K

    2015-12-01

    Most cranial vault remodeling for craniosynostosis is associated with substantial blood loss necessitating transfusion. The transfusion of over 25 ml/kg of red blood cells has long been considered an important safety threshold and has been proposed as a potential marker of health care quality, despite a lack of evidence. The authors sought to ascertain risk factors for transfusion in cranial vault remodeling and to quantify the effect of transfusion volume on postoperative complications. Patients who underwent complex cranial vault remodeling for craniosynostosis were identified from the Pediatric National Surgical Quality Improvement Program database. Multivariate regression models were used to identify independent risk factors for transfusion and to assess its impact on subsequent outcomes. One thousand fifty-nine patients met inclusion criteria. Seven hundred seventy-seven patients (73.4 percent) required a transfusion and 520 patients (49.1 percent) required a transfusion in excess of 25 ml/kg. Neither transfusion nor transfusion volume in excess of 25 ml/kg had a significant effect on postoperative outcomes. Therefore, the authors sought to determine a more meaningful threshold. The top 20 percent of transfusion volumes were greater than or equal to 45.28 ml/kg. Recursive partitioning generated a threshold of 62.52 ml/kg, which independently predicted a greater number of complications and was associated with higher odds ratios than the quintile method. A threshold of 60 ml/kg was chosen for simplicity and was independently predictive of overall complications, medical complications, and increased length of stay. Transfusion is common in complex cranial vault remodeling. Currently described occurrence thresholds do not accurately convey postoperative risk. Transfusion in excess of 60 ml/kg significantly increases risk for complications and length of stay in cranial vault remodeling.

  7. Near-field transport of {sup 129}I from a point source in an in-room disposal vault

    SciTech Connect

    Kolar, M.; Leneveu, D.M.; Johnson, L.H.

    1995-12-31

    A very small number of disposal containers of heat generating nuclear waste may have initial manufacturing defects that would lead to pin-hole type failures at the time of or shortly after emplacement. For sufficiently long-lived containers, only the initial defects need to be considered in modeling of release rates from the disposal vault. Two approaches to modeling of near-field mass transport from a single point source within a disposal room have been compared: the finite-element code MOTIF (A Model Of Transport In Fractured/porous media) and a boundary integral method (BIM). These two approaches were found to give identical results for a simplified model of the disposal room without groundwater flow. MOTIF has then been used to study the effects of groundwater flow on the mass transport out of the emplacement room.

  8. SALTSTONE VAULT CLASSIFICATION SAMPLES MODULAR CAUSTIC SIDE SOLVENT EXTRACTION UNIT/ACTINIDE REMOVAL PROCESS WASTE STREAM APRIL 2011

    SciTech Connect

    Eibling, R.

    2011-09-28

    Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) was asked to prepare saltstone from samples of Tank 50H obtained by SRNL on April 5, 2011 (Tank 50H sampling occurred on April 4, 2011) during 2QCY11 to determine the non-hazardous nature of the grout and for additional vault classification analyses. The samples were cured and shipped to Babcock & Wilcox Technical Services Group-Radioisotope and Analytical Chemistry Laboratory (B&W TSG-RACL) to perform the Toxic Characteristic Leaching Procedure (TCLP) and subsequent extract analysis on saltstone samples for the analytes required for the quarterly analysis saltstone sample. In addition to the eight toxic metals - arsenic, barium, cadmium, chromium, mercury, lead, selenium and silver - analytes included the underlying hazardous constituents (UHC) antimony, beryllium, nickel, and thallium which could not be eliminated from analysis by process knowledge. Additional inorganic species determined by B&W TSG-RACL include aluminum, boron, chloride, cobalt, copper, fluoride, iron, lithium, manganese, molybdenum, nitrate/nitrite as Nitrogen, strontium, sulfate, uranium, and zinc and the following radionuclides: gross alpha, gross beta/gamma, 3H, 60Co, 90Sr, 99Tc, 106Ru, 106Rh, 125Sb, 137Cs, 137mBa, 154Eu, 238Pu, 239/240Pu, 241Pu, 241Am, 242Cm, and 243/244Cm. B&W TSG-RACL provided subsamples to GEL Laboratories, LLC for analysis for the VOCs benzene, toluene, and 1-butanol. GEL also determines phenol (total) and the following radionuclides: 147Pm, 226Ra and 228Ra. Preparation of the 2QCY11 saltstone samples for the quarterly analysis and for vault classification purposes and the subsequent TCLP analyses of these samples showed that: (1) The saltstone waste form disposed of in the Saltstone Disposal Facility in 2QCY11 was not characteristically hazardous for toxicity. (2) The concentrations of the eight RCRA metals and UHCs identified as possible in the saltstone waste form were present at levels below the UTS. (3) Most of the

  9. Tumor Epression of Major Vault Protein is an Adverse Prognostic Factor for Radiotherapy Outcome in Oropharyngeal Carcinoma

    SciTech Connect

    Silva, Priyamal; West, Catharine M.; Slevin, Nick F.R.C.R.; Valentine, Helen; Ryder, W. David J. Grad. I.S.; Hampson, Lynne; Bibi, Rufzan; Sloan, Philip; Thakker, Nalin; Homer, Jarrod; Hampson, Ian

    2007-09-01

    Purpose: Vaults are multi-subunit structures that may be involved in nucleo-cytoplasmic transport, with the major vault protein (MVP or lung resistance-related protein [LRP]) being the main component. The MVP gene is located on chromosome 16 close to the multidrug resistance-associated protein and protein kinase c-{beta} genes. The role of MVP in cancer drug resistance has been demonstrated in various cell lines as well as in ovarian carcinomas and acute myeloid leukemia, but nothing is known about its possible role in radiation resistance. Our aim was to examine this in head-and-neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC). Methods and Materials: Archived biopsy material was obtained for 78 patients with squamous cell carcinoma of the oropharynx who received primary radiotherapy with curative intent. Immunohistochemistry was used to detect MVP expression. Locoregional failure and cancer-specific survival were estimated using cumulative incidence and Cox multivariate analyses. Results: In a univariate and multivariate analysis, MVP expression was strongly associated with both locoregional failure and cancer-specific survival. After adjustment for disease site, stage, grade, anemia, smoking, alcohol, gender, and age, the estimated hazard ratio for high MVP (2/3) compared with low (0/1) was 4.98 (95% confidence interval, 2.17-11.42; p 0.0002) for locoregional failure and 4.28 (95% confidence interval, 1.85-9.95; p = 0.001) for cancer-specific mortality. Conclusion: These data are the first to show that MVP may be a useful prognostic marker associated with radiotherapy resistance in a subgroup of patients with HNSCC.

  10. Monte Carlo simulation of the neutron spectral fluence and dose equivalent for use in shielding a proton therapy vault.

    PubMed

    Zheng, Yuanshui; Newhauser, Wayne; Klein, Eric; Low, Daniel

    2009-11-21

    Neutron production is of principal concern when designing proton therapy vault shielding. Conventionally, neutron calculations are based on analytical methods, which do not accurately consider beam shaping components and nozzle shielding. The goal of this study was to calculate, using Monte Carlo modeling, the neutron spectral fluence and neutron dose equivalent generated by a realistic proton therapy nozzle and evaluate how these data could be used in shielding calculations. We modeled a contemporary passive scattering proton therapy nozzle in detail with the MCNPX simulation code. The neutron spectral fluence and dose equivalent at various locations in the treatment room were calculated and compared to those obtained from a thick iron target bombarded by parallel proton beams, the simplified geometry on which analytical methods are based. The neutron spectral fluence distributions were similar for both methods, with deeply penetrating high-energy neutrons (E > 10 MeV) being most prevalent along the beam central axis, and low-energy neutrons predominating the neutron spectral fluence in the lateral region. However, unlike the inverse square falloff used in conventional analytical methods, this study shows that the neutron dose equivalent per therapeutic dose in the treatment room decreased with distance approximately following a power law, with an exponent of about -1.63 in the lateral region and -1.73 in the downstream region. Based on the simulated data according to the detailed nozzle modeling, we developed an empirical equation to estimate the neutron dose equivalent at any location and distance in the treatment vault, e.g. for cases in which detailed Monte Carlo modeling is not feasible. We applied the simulated neutron spectral fluence and dose equivalent to a shielding calculation as an example.

  11. Monte Carlo simulation of the neutron spectral fluence and dose equivalent for use in shielding a proton therapy vault

    PubMed Central

    Zheng, Yuanshui; Newhauser, Wayne; Klein, Eric; Low, Daniel

    2014-01-01

    Neutron production is of principal concern when designing proton therapy vault shielding. Conventionally, neutron calculations are based on analytical methods, which do not accurately consider beam shaping components and nozzle shielding. The goal of this study was to calculate, using Monte Carlo modeling, the neutron spectral fluence and neutron dose equivalent generated by a realistic proton therapy nozzle and evaluate how these data could be used in shielding calculations. We modeled a contemporary passive scattering proton therapy nozzle in detail with the MCNPX simulation code. The neutron spectral fluence and dose equivalent at various locations in the treatment room were calculated and compared to those obtained from a thick iron target bombarded by parallel proton beams, the simplified geometry on which analytical methods are based. The neutron spectral fluence distributions were similar for both methods, with deeply penetrating high-energy neutrons (E > 10 MeV) being most prevalent along the beam central axis, and low-energy neutrons predominating the neutron spectral fluence in the lateral region. However, unlike the inverse square falloff used in conventional analytical methods, this study shows that the neutron dose equivalent per therapeutic dose in the treatment room decreased with distance approximately following a power law, with an exponent of about −1.63 in the lateral region and −1.73 in the downstream region. Based on the simulated data according to the detailed nozzle modeling, we developed an empirical equation to estimate the neutron dose equivalent at any location and distance in the treatment vault, e.g. for cases in which detailed Monte Carlo modeling is not feasible. We applied the simulated neutron spectral fluence and dose equivalent to a shielding calculation as an example. PMID:19887713

  12. Monte Carlo simulation of the neutron spectral fluence and dose equivalent for use in shielding a proton therapy vault

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zheng, Yuanshui; Newhauser, Wayne; Klein, Eric; Low, Daniel

    2009-11-01

    Neutron production is of principal concern when designing proton therapy vault shielding. Conventionally, neutron calculations are based on analytical methods, which do not accurately consider beam shaping components and nozzle shielding. The goal of this study was to calculate, using Monte Carlo modeling, the neutron spectral fluence and neutron dose equivalent generated by a realistic proton therapy nozzle and evaluate how these data could be used in shielding calculations. We modeled a contemporary passive scattering proton therapy nozzle in detail with the MCNPX simulation code. The neutron spectral fluence and dose equivalent at various locations in the treatment room were calculated and compared to those obtained from a thick iron target bombarded by parallel proton beams, the simplified geometry on which analytical methods are based. The neutron spectral fluence distributions were similar for both methods, with deeply penetrating high-energy neutrons (E > 10 MeV) being most prevalent along the beam central axis, and low-energy neutrons predominating the neutron spectral fluence in the lateral region. However, unlike the inverse square falloff used in conventional analytical methods, this study shows that the neutron dose equivalent per therapeutic dose in the treatment room decreased with distance approximately following a power law, with an exponent of about -1.63 in the lateral region and -1.73 in the downstream region. Based on the simulated data according to the detailed nozzle modeling, we developed an empirical equation to estimate the neutron dose equivalent at any location and distance in the treatment vault, e.g. for cases in which detailed Monte Carlo modeling is not feasible. We applied the simulated neutron spectral fluence and dose equivalent to a shielding calculation as an example.

  13. Assessment of the long-term risk of a meteorite impact on a hypothetical Canadian nuclear fuel waste disposal vault deep in plutonic rock

    SciTech Connect

    Wuschke, D.M.; Whitaker, S.H.; Goodwin, B.W.; Rasmussen, L.R.

    1995-12-31

    Canada has conducted an extensive research program on the safe disposal of nuclear fuel waste. The program has focused on disposal of used fuel in durable containers in an engineered facility or ``vault``, 500 to 1,000 m deep in plutonic rock of the Canadian Shield. This paper describes an assessment of the long-term radiological risk to a critical group, resulting from a meteorite impact on a hypothetical reference disposal vault. The authors assume the critical group is a small rural community which, sometime after the impact, moves to the area contaminated by nuclear fuel waste exposed by the impact. The estimated risk is compared to a risk criterion established by Canada`s nuclear regulatory agency.

  14. Extrapolation of creep behavior of high-density polyethylene liner in the Catch Basin of grout vaults

    SciTech Connect

    Whyatt, G.A.

    1995-07-01

    Testing was performed to determine if gravel particles will creep into and puncture the high-density polyethylene (HDPE) liner in the catch basin of a grout vault over a nominal 30-year period. Testing was performed to support a design without a protective geotextile cover after the geotextile was removed from the design. Recently, a protective geotextile cover over the liner was put back into the design. The data indicate that the geotextile has an insignificant effect on the creep of gravel into the liner. However, the geotextile may help to protect the liner during construction. Two types of tests were performed to evaluate the potential for creep-related puncture. In the first type of test, a very sensitive instrument measured the rate at which a probe crept into HDPE over a 20-minute period at temperatures of 176{degrees}F to 212{degrees}F (80{degrees}C to 100{degrees}C). The second type of test consisted of placing the liner between gravel and mortar at 194{degrees}F (90{degrees}C) and 45.1 psi overburden pressure for periods up to 1 year. By combining data from the two tests, the long-term behavior of the creep was extrapolated to 30 years of service. After 30 years of service, the liner will be in a nearly steady condition and further creep will be extremely small. The results indicate that the creep of gravel into the liner will not create a puncture during service at 194{degrees}F (90{degrees}C). The estimated creep over 30 years is expected to be less than 25 mils out of the total initial thickness of 60 mils. The test temperature of 194{degrees}F (90{degrees}C) corresponds to the design basis temperature of the vault. Lower temperatures are expected at the liner, which makes the test conservative. Only the potential for failure of the liner resulting from creep of gravel is addressed in this report.

  15. Regulation of p53 expression and apoptosis by vault RNA2-1-5p in cervical cancer cells

    PubMed Central

    Kong, Lu; Hao, Qi; Wang, Ying; Zhou, Ping; Zou, Binbin; Zhang, Yu-xiang

    2015-01-01

    nc886 or VRNA2-1 has recently been identified as a noncoding RNA instead of a vault RNA or a pre-microRNA. Several studies have reported that pre-miR-886 plays a tumor-suppressive role in a wide range of cancer cells through its activity as a cellular protein kinase RNA-activated (PKR) ligand and repressor. However, by sequencing stem-PCR products, we found that a microRNA originating from this precursor, vault RNA2-1-5p (VTRNA2-1-5p), occurs in cervical cancer cells. The expression levels of the predicted targets of VTRNA2-1-5p are negatively correlated with VTRNA2-1-5p levels by quantitative reversion transcription PCR (qRT-PCR). Previous results have shown that VTRNA2-1-5p is overexpressed in human cervical squamous cell carcinomas (CSCCs) compared with adjacent healthy tissues. Inhibition of VTRNA2-1-5p increases Bax protein expression and apoptotic cell death in cervical cancer cells. Our findings suggest that VTRNA2-1-5p has oncogenic activity related to the progression of cervical cancer. Here, we report that VTRNA2-1-5p directly targeted p53 expression and functioned as an oncomir in cervical cancer. VTRNA2-1-5p inhibition decreased cervical cancer cell invasion, proliferation, and tumorigenicity while increasing apoptosis and p53 expression. Interestingly, VTRNA2-1-5p inhibition also increased cisplatin-induced apoptosis of HeLa and SiHa cells. In human clinical cervical cancer specimens, low p53 expression and high VTRNA2-1-5p expression were positively associated. In addition, VTRNA2-1-5p was found to directly target the 5′ and 3′ untranslated regions (UTRs) of p53. We propose that VTRNA2-1-5p is a direct regulator of p53 and suggest that it plays an essential role in the apoptosis and proliferation of cervical cancer cells. PMID:26318295

  16. SU-E-T-670: Radiotherapy Vault Shielding Evaluation Method for a Flattening Filter-Free (FFF) Linac-Practical Considerations and Recommendations

    SciTech Connect

    Mihailidis, D

    2015-06-15

    Purpose: To date, there isn’t formal approach for flattening filter-free (FFF) linac vault shielding evaluation, thus, we propose an extension to NCRP#151 to accommodate the recent large number of FFF linac installations.Methods and Materials: We extended the approach in NCRP#151 to design two Truebeam vaults in our new cancer center for hypofractionated treatments. Monte Carlo calculations have characterized primary, scattered, leakage and neutron radiations from FFF-modes. These calculations have shown that: a) FFF primary beam is softer on the central-axis compared to flattening filtered (FF), b) the lateral dose profile is peaked on the central axis and less integral target current is required to generate the same tumor dose with the FF beam. Thus, the TVLs for FFF mode are smaller than those of the FF mode and the scatter functions of the FF mode (NCRP#151) may not be appropriate for FFF-mode, c) the neutron source strength and fluence for 18X-FFF is smaller than 18X-FF, but it is not of a concern here, no 18X-FFF-mode is available on the linac under investigation. Results: These barrier thickness are smaller (12% reduction on the average) than those computed for conventional FF mode with same realistic primary workload since, the primary TVLs used here are smaller and the WL is smaller than the conventional (almost half reduced), keeping the TADR in tolerance. Conclusions: A comprehensive method for shielding barrier calculations based on dedicated data for FFF-mode linacs is highly desired. Meanwhile, we provide an extension to NCRP#151 to accommodate the shielding design of such installations. It is also shown that if a vault is already designed for IMRT/VMAT and SABR hypofractionated treatments with FFF-mode linac, the vault can also be used for a FFF mode linac replacement, leaving some leeway for slightly higher workload on the FFF linac.

  17. RF Tomography for Below-Ground Imaging of Extended Areas and Close-in Sensing

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-07-01

    23:21:03 UTC from IEEE Xplore . Restrictions apply. 498 IEEE GEOSCIENCE AND REMOTE SENSING LETTERS, VOL. 7, NO. 3, JULY 2010 investigation region D...targets Authorized licensed use limited to: WASHINGTON UNIVERSITY LIBRARIES. Downloaded on August 16,2010 at 23:21:03 UTC from IEEE Xplore ...Authorized licensed use limited to: WASHINGTON UNIVERSITY LIBRARIES. Downloaded on August 16,2010 at 23:21:03 UTC from IEEE Xplore . Restrictions apply

  18. Mechanosensitivity below Ground: Touch-Sensitive Smell-Producing Roots in the Shy Plant Mimosa pudica.

    PubMed

    Musah, Rabi A; Lesiak, Ashton D; Maron, Max J; Cody, Robert B; Edwards, David; Fowble, Kristen L; Dane, A John; Long, Michael C

    2016-02-01

    The roots of the shy plant Mimosa pudica emit a cocktail of small organic and inorganic sulfur compounds and reactive intermediates into the environment, including SO2, methanesulfinic acid, pyruvic acid, lactic acid, ethanesulfinic acid, propanesulfenic acid, 2-aminothiophenol, S-propyl propane 1-thiosulfinate, phenothiazine, and thioformaldehyde, an elusive and highly unstable compound that, to our knowledge, has never before been reported to be emitted by a plant. When soil around the roots is dislodged or when seedling roots are touched, an odor is detected. The perceived odor corresponds to the emission of higher amounts of propanesulfenic acid, 2-aminothiophenol, S-propyl propane 1-thiosulfinate, and phenothiazine. The mechanosensitivity response is selective. Whereas touching the roots with soil or human skin resulted in odor detection, agitating the roots with other materials such as glass did not induce a similar response. Light and electron microscopy studies of the roots revealed the presence of microscopic sac-like root protuberances. Elemental analysis of these projections by energy-dispersive x-ray spectroscopy revealed them to contain higher levels of K(+) and Cl(-) compared with the surrounding tissue. Exposing the protuberances to stimuli that caused odor emission resulted in reductions in the levels of K(+) and Cl(-) in the touched area. The mechanistic implications of the variety of sulfur compounds observed vis-à-vis the pathways for their formation are discussed. © 2016 American Society of Plant Biologists. All Rights Reserved.

  19. Low below-ground organic carbon storage in a subarctic Alpine permafrost environment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fuchs, M.; Kuhry, P.; Hugelius, G.

    2015-03-01

    This study investigates the soil organic carbon (SOC) storage in Tarfala Valley, northern Sweden. Field inventories, upscaled based on land cover, show that this alpine permafrost environment does not store large amounts of SOC, with an estimate mean of 0.9 ± 0.2 kg C m-2 for the upper meter of soil. This is 1 to 2 orders of magnitude lower than what has been reported for lowland permafrost terrain. The SOC storage varies for different land cover classes and ranges from 0.05 kg C m-2 for stone-dominated to 8.4 kg C m-2 for grass-dominated areas. No signs of organic matter burial through cryoturbation or slope processes were found, and radiocarbon-dated SOC is generally of recent origin (<2000 cal yr BP). An inventory of permafrost distribution in Tarfala Valley, based on the bottom temperature of snow measurements and a logistic regression model, showed that at an altitude where permafrost is probable the SOC storage is very low. In the high-altitude permafrost zones (above 1500 m), soils store only ca. 0.1 kg C m-2. Under future climate warming, an upward shift of vegetation zones may lead to a net ecosystem C uptake from increased biomass and soil development. As a consequence, alpine permafrost environments could act as a net carbon sink in the future, as there is no loss of older or deeper SOC from thawing permafrost.

  20. Does the Slow-Growth, High-Mortality Hypothesis Apply Below Ground?

    PubMed Central

    Bennett, Alison E.; Johnson, Scott N.; Gange, Alan C.

    2016-01-01

    Belowground tri-trophic study systems present a challenging environment in which to study plant-herbivore-natural enemy interactions. For this reason, belowground examples are rarely available for testing general ecological theories. To redress this imbalance, we present, for the first time, data on a belowground tri-trophic system to test the slow growth, high mortality hypothesis. We investigated whether the differing performance of entomopathogenic nematodes (EPNs) in controlling the common pest black vine weevil Otiorhynchus sulcatus could be linked to differently resistant cultivars of the red raspberry Rubus idaeus. The O. sulcatus larvae recovered from R. idaeus plants showed significantly slower growth and higher mortality on the Glen Rosa cultivar, relative to the more commercially favored Glen Ample cultivar creating a convenient system for testing this hypothesis. Heterorhabditis megidis was found to be less effective at controlling O. sulcatus than Steinernema kraussei, but conformed to the hypothesis. However, S. kraussei maintained high levels of O. sulcatus mortality regardless of how larval growth was influenced by R. idaeus cultivar. We link this to direct effects that S. kraussei had on reducing O. sulcatus larval mass, indicating potential sub-lethal effects of S. kraussei, which the slow-growth, high-mortality hypothesis does not account for. Possible origins of these sub-lethal effects of EPN infection and how they may impact on a hypothesis designed and tested with aboveground predator and parasitoid systems are discussed. PMID:27571368

  1. Below-Ground Attack by the Root Knot Nematode Meloidogyne graminicola Predisposes Rice to Blast Disease.

    PubMed

    Kyndt, Tina; Zemene, Henok Yimer; Haeck, Ashley; Singh, Richard; De Vleesschauwer, David; Denil, Simon; De Meyer, Tim; Höfte, Monica; Demeestere, Kristof; Gheysen, Godelieve

    2017-03-01

    Magnaporthe oryzae (rice blast) and the root-knot nematode Meloidogyne graminicola are causing two of the most important pathogenic diseases jeopardizing rice production. Here, we show that root-knot nematode infestation on rice roots leads to important above-ground changes in plant immunity gene expression, which is correlated with significantly enhanced susceptibility to blast disease. A detailed metabolic analysis of oxidative stress responses and hormonal balances demonstrates that the above-ground tissues have a disturbed oxidative stress level, with accumulation of H2O2, as well as hormonal disturbances. Moreover, double infection experiments on an oxidative stress mutant and an auxin-deficient rice line indicate that the accumulation of auxin in the above-ground tissue is at least partly responsible for the blast-promoting effect of root-knot nematode infection.

  2. EPN Chemical ecology and new techniques for below ground sampling and analyses of volatile semiochemicals

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    It is well established that herbivory induced plant volatiles (HIPVs) attract natural enemies of the herbivores. Utilizing this plant response has become a fundamental part of above ground IPM programs. We now know that also roots can release HIPVs and that these compounds attract beneficial organis...

  3. Testing the Growth Rate Hypothesis in Vascular Plants with Above- and Below-Ground Biomass

    PubMed Central

    Yu, Qiang; Wu, Honghui; He, Nianpeng; Lü, Xiaotao; Wang, Zhiping; Elser, James J.; Wu, Jianguo; Han, Xingguo

    2012-01-01

    The growth rate hypothesis (GRH) proposes that higher growth rate (the rate of change in biomass per unit biomass, μ) is associated with higher P concentration and lower C∶P and N∶P ratios. However, the applicability of the GRH to vascular plants is not well-studied and few studies have been done on belowground biomass. Here we showed that, for aboveground, belowground and total biomass of three study species, μ was positively correlated with N∶C under N limitation and positively correlated with P∶C under P limitation. However, the N∶P ratio was a unimodal function of μ, increasing for small values of μ, reaching a maximum, and then decreasing. The range of variations in μ was positively correlated with variation in C∶N∶P stoichiometry. Furthermore, μ and C∶N∶P ranges for aboveground biomass were negatively correlated with those for belowground. Our results confirm the well-known association of growth rate with tissue concentration of the limiting nutrient and provide empirical support for recent theoretical formulations. PMID:22427823

  4. Using forest health monitoring data to integrate above and below ground carbon information

    Treesearch

    Barbara L. Conkling; Coeli M. Hoover; William D. Smith; Craig J. Palmer

    2002-01-01

    The national Forest Health Monitoring (FHM) program conducted a remeasurement study in 1999 to evaluate the usefulness and feasibility of collecting data needed for investigating carbon budgets in forests. This study indicated that FHM data are adequate for detecting a 20% change over 10 years (2% change per year) in percent total carbon and carbon content (MgC/ha)...

  5. Does the Slow-Growth, High-Mortality Hypothesis Apply Below Ground?

    PubMed

    Hourston, James E; Bennett, Alison E; Johnson, Scott N; Gange, Alan C

    2016-01-01

    Belowground tri-trophic study systems present a challenging environment in which to study plant-herbivore-natural enemy interactions. For this reason, belowground examples are rarely available for testing general ecological theories. To redress this imbalance, we present, for the first time, data on a belowground tri-trophic system to test the slow growth, high mortality hypothesis. We investigated whether the differing performance of entomopathogenic nematodes (EPNs) in controlling the common pest black vine weevil Otiorhynchus sulcatus could be linked to differently resistant cultivars of the red raspberry Rubus idaeus. The O. sulcatus larvae recovered from R. idaeus plants showed significantly slower growth and higher mortality on the Glen Rosa cultivar, relative to the more commercially favored Glen Ample cultivar creating a convenient system for testing this hypothesis. Heterorhabditis megidis was found to be less effective at controlling O. sulcatus than Steinernema kraussei, but conformed to the hypothesis. However, S. kraussei maintained high levels of O. sulcatus mortality regardless of how larval growth was influenced by R. idaeus cultivar. We link this to direct effects that S. kraussei had on reducing O. sulcatus larval mass, indicating potential sub-lethal effects of S. kraussei, which the slow-growth, high-mortality hypothesis does not account for. Possible origins of these sub-lethal effects of EPN infection and how they may impact on a hypothesis designed and tested with aboveground predator and parasitoid systems are discussed.

  6. Effects of Surface Fires and Below Ground Heating on the Biogeochemical Structures of Endomycorrhizal Fungal Spores

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bishop, M.; Werts, S. P.

    2015-12-01

    The impact of surface fires on soil properties can vary from negligible to severe, depending on a multitude of factors on both the surface of the soil and within the soil itself. Once a fire moves through an ecosystem, there are no simple ways to know exactly how deep the heat from the fire penetrated into the soil or what those temperatures actually were. Having this information may provide insight into ecosystem recovery and may have further applications to archaeological studies. We are investigating the biogeochemical structure of endomycorrhizal fungal spores, which show little to no morphological change when exposed to temperatures exceeding 500°C and should remain present in the soil following a fire event. We obtained soil samples from a pine dominated forest and a deciduous forest in two different soil types from the piedmont of the southeastern US and extracted the fungal spores for temperature experiments. We utilized a scanning electron microscope with emission dispersive spectroscopy to seek information on the biogeochemical structure of the spores and note any changes in nature of the structure and makeup as temperature increased. Initial results suggest that oxygen ratios may be changing with temperature, however, more work is being done on various species to see if there are species-specific trends.

  7. Topographic patterns of above- and below ground production and nitrogen cycling in alpine tundra

    SciTech Connect

    Fisk, M.C.; Schmidt, S.K.; Seastedt, T.R.

    1998-10-01

    Topography controls snowpack accumulation and hence growing-season length, soil water availability, and the distribution of plant communities in the Colorado Front Range alpine. Nutrient cycles in such an environment are likely to be regulated by interactions between topographically determined climate and plant species composition. The authors investigated variation in plant and soil components of internal N cycling across topographic gradients of dry, moist, and wet alpine tundra meadows at Niwot Ridge, Colorado. They expected that plant production and N cycling would increase from dry to wet alpine tundra meadows, but they hypothesized that variation in N turnover would span a proportionately greater range than productivity, because of feedbacks between plants and soil microbial processes that determine N availability. Plant production of foliage and roots increased over topographic sequences from 280 g{center_dot}m{sup {minus}2}{center_dot}yr{sup {minus}1} in dry meadows to 600 g{center_dot}m{sup {minus}2}{center_dot}yr{sup {minus}1} in wet meadows and was significantly correlated to soil moisture. Contrary to their expectation, plant N uptake for production increased to a lesser degree, from 3.9 g N{center_dot}m{sup {minus}2}{center_dot}yr{sup {minus}1} in dry meadows to 6.8 g N{center_dot}m{sup {minus}2}{center_dot}yr{sup {minus}1} in wet meadows. In all communities, the belowground component accounted for the majority of biomass, production, and N use for production.

  8. Mapping above- and below-ground carbon pools in boreal forests: The case for airborne lidar

    Treesearch

    Terje Kristensen; Erik Naesset; Mikael Ohlson; Paul V. Bolstad; Randall. Kolka

    2015-01-01

    A large and growing body of evidence has demonstrated that airborne scanning light detection and ranging (lidar) systems can be an effective tool in measuring and monitoring above-ground forest tree biomass. However, the potential of lidar as an all-round tool for assisting in assessment of carbon (C) stocks in soil and non-tree vegetation components of the forest...

  9. Above- and below-ground growth of longleaf pine in response to three prescribed burning regimes

    Treesearch

    Mary Ann Sword Sayer; Eric Kuehler

    2000-01-01

    Maintenance of longleaf pine ecosystems requires repeated fire. Past research has indicated that in some situations, regular burning decreases longleaf pine productivity. Growth reductions may be attributed to fire-induced loss of leaf area. It is possible that the loss of leaf area is a function of both fire intensity and the stage of flush development at the time of...

  10. SOURCE-SINK BALANCE AND CARBON ALLOCATION BELOW GROUND IN PLANTS EXPOSED TO OZONE

    EPA Science Inventory

    The role of tropospheric ozone in altering plant growth and development has been the subject of thousands of publications over the last several decades. Still, there is limited understanding regarding the possible effects of ozone on soil processes. In this review, the effects ...

  11. An Indirect Measure of Below-Ground Electric Field, Conductivity, and Dielectric Constant.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1984-09-01

    Telecommunications Policy," is funding a comprehensive program on the effects of nuclear weapons on selected telecom- - munications systems. A portion of...0. 12 4. EFFECTS OF CONSTANT GROUND PARAMETERS--SENSOR CHARACTERIZATION ........ 15 5. EFFECTS OF FREQUENCY-DEPENDENT GROUND PARAETERS--SENSOR...t-, . , .. , ,, 4. EFFECTS OF CONSTANT GROUND PARAMETERS--SENSOR CHARACTERIZATION The E-field data are obtained from the

  12. Below-ground attributes on reclaimed surface minelands over a 40-year chronosequence

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Limb, Ryan; Bohrer, Stefanie; Volk, Jay

    2017-04-01

    Reclamation following mining activities often aims to restore stable soils that support productive and diverse native plant communities. The soil re-spread process increases soil compaction, which may alter soil water, plant composition, rooting depths and soil organic matter. This may have a direct impact on vegetation establishment and species recruitment. Seasonal wet/dry and freeze/thaw patterns are thought to alleviate soil compaction over time. However, this has not been formally evaluated on reclaimed landscapes at large scales. Our objectives were to (1) determine soil compaction alleviation, (2) rooting depth and (3) spatial patterns of soil water content over a time-since-reclamation gradient. Soil resistance to penetration varied by depth, with shallow compaction remaining unchanged, but deeper compaction increased over time rather than being alleviated. Root biomass and depth did not increase with time and was consistently less than reference locations. Plant communities initially had a strong native component, but quickly became dominated by invasive species following reclamation and soil water content became increasingly homogeneous over the 40-year chronosequence. Seasonal weather patterns and soil organic matter additions can reduce soil compaction if water infiltration is not limited. Shallow and strongly fibrous-rooted grasses present in reclaimed sites added organic matter to shallow soil layers, but did not penetrate the compacted layers and allow water infiltration. Strong linkages between land management strategies, soil properties and vegetation composition can advance reclamation efforts and promote heterogeneous landscapes. However, current post-reclamation management strategies are not facilitating natural seasonal weather patterns to reducing soil compaction.

  13. Variability of Total Below Ground Carbon Allocation amongst Common Agricultural Land Management Practices: a Case Study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wacha, K. M.; Papanicolaou, T.; Wilson, C. G.

    2010-12-01

    Field measurements and numerical models are currently being used to estimate quantities of Total Belowground Carbon Allocation (TBCA) for three representative land uses, viz. corn, soybeans, and prairie bromegrass for CRP (Conservation Reserve Program) of an agricultural Iowa sub-watershed, located within the Clear Creek Watershed (CCW). Since it is difficult to measure TBCA directly, a mass balance approach has been implemented to estimate TBCA as follows: TBCA = FS + FE+ Δ(CS + CR + CL) - FA , where the term Fs denotes soil respiration; FE is the carbon content of the eroded/deposited soil; ΔCS, ΔCR, ΔCL denote the changes in carbon content of the mineral soil, plant roots, and litter layer, respectively; and FA is the above ground litter fall of dead plant material to the soil. The terms are hypothesized to have a huge impact on TBCA within agricultural settings due to intensive tillage practices, water-driven soil erosion/deposition, and high usage of fertilizer. To test our hypothesis, field measurements are being performed at the plot scale, replicating common agricultural land management practices. Soil respiration (FS) is being measured with an EGM-4 CO2 Gas Analyzer and SRC-1 Soil Respiration Chamber (PP Systems), soil moisture and temperature are recorded in the top 20 cm for each respective soil respiration measurement, and litter fall rates (FA) are acquired by collecting the residue in a calibrated pan. The change in carbon content of the soil (ΔCS), roots (ΔCR) and litter layer (ΔCL) are being analyzed by collecting soil samples throughout the life cycle of the plant. To determine the term FE for the three representative land management practices, a funnel collection system located at the plot outlet was used for collecting the eroded material after natural rainfall events. Field measurements of TBCA at the plot scale via the mass balance approach are used to calibrate the numerical agronomic process model DAYCENT, which simulates the daily fluxes of carbon (CS) and soil respiration (FS) and incorporates a plant-growth model that allows the determination of the terms FA, CR, and CL. Once calibrated, DAYCENT can be used in conjunction with the Watershed Erosion Prediction Project (WEPP) model, which calculates erosion/deposition rates, to provide estimates of TBCA at a larger global scale.

  14. Tapping another water source: lianas' and trees' below ground competition for water

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    De Deurwaerder, Hannes; Hervé-Fernández, Pedro; Stahl, Clément; Bonal, Damien; Burban, Benoit; Boeckx, Pascal; Verbeeck, Hans

    2016-04-01

    Recent studies indicate that liana abundancy in the Amazon is increasing during the last decades. The dominant underlying mechanism of this liana proliferation is currently unknown. However, several hypothesis have been proposed to answer this phenomenon among which one ascribes lianas, in comparison to trees, being able to adapt better to increased drought conditions resulting from climate change. Moreover, some studies indicate lianas having a deeper root system compared to tropical trees, which would allow them to tap water from deeper soil layers and thus increases their belowground competitiveness. In order to test this hypothesis, water stable isotopes (δ2H and δ18O) were measured in precipitation, bulk soil (at different depths), stream, and xylem water from lianas and trees. This was done in two catchments with different soil texture (sand and clay) in the close vicinity of the Guyana flux tower at Paracou (French Guyana) during October 2015. According to recent studies using water stable isotopes (δ2H and δ18O) have described an ecohydrological separation of water. A mobile soil water compartment, compounded by stream and precipitation waters (or LMWL); and a low mobility or static water compartment mainly used by plants (i.e. xylem water) indicated as the "two water world hypothesis", suggesting that vegetation is using water that is not contributing to stream water. Based on this concept, we further characterized all isotopic data by estimating the precipitation offset (Pp-offset) which represents the distance between the LMWL and xylem δ2H and δ18O signature. Our results show that in both catchments, lianas and trees use different sources of water, with lianas tapping water with a significant heavier isotope signature (i.e. shallower water sources) compared to the lighter isotopic signatures observed on tropical trees (i.e. deeper water sources). Soil texture only affected tree water sources, with heavier isotopic xylem water found in trees growing in sandy soil. In addition, our results support "the two-water-world hypothesis", and show that lianas and trees on clay soils have very different Pp-offsets. This difference was not found for lianas and trees in sandy soils, suggesting that lianas and trees are using water with a different isotopic signature, therefore, distinct water sources in clay soils, but not in sandy soils. In conclusion, our study shows that xylem water from lianas has a heavier isotopic signature than those observed in trees xylem water. Therefore indicating that belowground competition for water between lianas and trees might be less strong than previously expected.

  15. SOURCE-SINK BALANCE AND CARBON ALLOCATION BELOW GROUND IN PLANTS EXPOSED TO OZONE

    EPA Science Inventory

    The role of tropospheric ozone in altering plant growth and development has been the subject of thousands of publications and dozens of reviews over the last several decades. There is still limited understanding, however, regarding the possible effects of ozone on soil processes...

  16. Laser Based Instruments Using Differential Absorption Detection for Above and Below Ground Monitoring of Carbon Dioxide

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Humphries, S. D.; Barr, J. L.; Repasky, K. S.; Carlsten, J. L.; Spangler, L. H.; Dobeck, L. M.

    2008-12-01

    Carbon capture and sequestration in geologic formations provides a method to remove carbon dioxide (CO2) from entering the Earth's atmosphere. An important issue for the successful storage of CO2 is the ability to monitor geologic sequestration sites for leakage to verify site integrity. A field site for testing the performance of CO2 detection instruments and techniques has been developed by the Zero Emissions Research Technology (ZERT) group at Montana State University. A field experiment was conducted at the ZERT field site beginning July 9th, 2008 and ending August 7th, 2008 to test the performance of several CO2 detection instruments. The field site allows a controlled flow rate of CO2 to be released underground through a 100 m long horizontal pipe placed below the water table. A flow rate of 0.3 tons CO2/day was used for the entirety of this experiment. This paper describes the results from two laser based instruments that use differential absorption techniques to determine CO2 concentrations in real time both above and below the ground surface. Both instruments use a continuous wave (cw) temperature tunable distributed feedback (DFB) laser capable of tuning across several CO2 and water vapor absorption features between at 2003 nm and 2006 nm. The first instrument uses the DFB laser to measure path integrated atmospheric concentrations of CO2. The second instrument uses the temperature tunable DFB laser to monitor underground CO2 concentrations using a buried photonic bandgap optical fiber. The above ground instrument operated nearly continuously during the CO2 release experiment and an increase in atmospheric CO2 concentration above the release pipe of approximately 2.5 times higher than the background was observed. The underground instrument also operated continuously during the experiment and saw an increase in underground CO2 concentration of approximately 15 times higher than the background. These results from the 2008 ZERT field experiment demonstrate the potential for these instruments to be used for CO2 monitoring of sequestration sites.

  17. Completing below-ground carbon budgets for pastures, recovering forests, and mature forests of Amazonia

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Davidson, Eric A.; Nepstad, Daniel C.; Trumbore, Susan E.

    1995-01-01

    This progress report covers the following efforts initiated for the year: year-round monthly soil CO2 flux measurements were started in both primary and secondary forests and in managed and degraded pastures; root sorting and weighing has begun and all four ecosystems at Paragominas have been analyzed through samples; regional modeling of soil water dynamics and minimum rooting depth has been done and the RADAMBRASIL soils database has been digitized and a 20 year record of the precipitation for the region has been produced, along with a hydrological ('bucket-tipping') model that will run within a GIS framework; prototype tension lysimeters have been designed and installed in soil pits to begin assessing the importance of DOC as a source of organic matter in deep soils; and many publications, listed in this document, have resulted from this year's research. Two of the papers published are included with this annual report document.

  18. Bodily matters above and below ground: the treatment of American remains from the Korean War.

    PubMed

    Keene, Judith

    2010-02-01

    Throughout most of the twentieth century, depending on the capabilities of the military mortuary services and the time limits set by government, the bodies of the American fallen in foreign wars have been repatriated home to their families. In the Korean War the conditions of combat posed large challenges to the recovery and returns of bodily remains. Almost half a century after that conflict, the American missing in Korea have become significant players within the government's expanding efforts that were prompted in answer to demands to locate American soldiers who remain unaccounted for from the Vietnam War. The essay traces the background to U.S. military mortuary services and the operation in the Korean War and in the subsequent joint expeditions in North Korea. The analysis concludes that in most of these ventures the outlay of resources has produced few remains.

  19. Testing the growth rate hypothesis in vascular plants with above- and below-ground biomass.

    PubMed

    Yu, Qiang; Wu, Honghui; He, Nianpeng; Lü, Xiaotao; Wang, Zhiping; Elser, James J; Wu, Jianguo; Han, Xingguo

    2012-01-01

    The growth rate hypothesis (GRH) proposes that higher growth rate (the rate of change in biomass per unit biomass, μ) is associated with higher P concentration and lower C:P and N:P ratios. However, the applicability of the GRH to vascular plants is not well-studied and few studies have been done on belowground biomass. Here we showed that, for aboveground, belowground and total biomass of three study species, μ was positively correlated with N:C under N limitation and positively correlated with P:C under P limitation. However, the N:P ratio was a unimodal function of μ, increasing for small values of μ, reaching a maximum, and then decreasing. The range of variations in μ was positively correlated with variation in C:N:P stoichiometry. Furthermore, μ and C:N:P ranges for aboveground biomass were negatively correlated with those for belowground. Our results confirm the well-known association of growth rate with tissue concentration of the limiting nutrient and provide empirical support for recent theoretical formulations.

  20. Coupling above and below ground gas measurements to understand greenhouse gas production in the soil profile

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nickerson, Nick; Creelman, Chance

    2016-04-01

    Natural and anthropogenic changes in climate have the potential to significantly affect the Earth's natural greenhouse gas balances. To understand how these climatic changes will manifest in a complex biological, chemical and physical system, a process-based understanding of the production and consumption of greenhouse gases in soils is critical. Commonly, both chamber methods and gradient-based approaches are used to estimate greenhouse gas flux from the soil to the atmosphere. Each approach offers benefits, but not surprisingly, comes with a list of drawbacks. Chambers are easily deployed on the surface without significant disturbance to the soil, and can be easily spatially replicated. However the high costs of automated chamber systems and the inability to partition fluxes by depth are potential downfalls. The gradient method requires a good deal of disturbance for installation, however it also offers users spatiotemporally resolved flux estimates at a reasonable price point. Researchers widely recognize that the main drawback of the gradient approach is the requirement to estimate diffusivity using empirical models based on studies of specific soils or soil types. These diffusivity estimates can often be off by several orders of magnitude, yielding poor flux estimates. Employing chamber and gradient methods in unison allows for in-situ estimation of the diffusion coefficient, and therefore improves gradient-based estimates of flux. A dual-method approach yields more robust information on the temporal dynamics and depth distribution of greenhouse gas production and consumption in the soil profile. Here we present a mathematical optimization framework that allows these complimentary measurement techniques to yield more robust information than a single technique alone. We then focus on how it can be used to improve the process-based understanding of greenhouse gas production in the soil profile.

  1. Long-term resilience of above- and below ground ecosystem components among contrasting ecosystems.

    PubMed

    Wardle, David A; Jonsson, Micael

    2014-07-01

    While several studies have explored how short-term ecological responses to disturbance vary among ecosystems, experimental studies of how contrasting ecosystems recover from disturbance in the longer term are few. We performed a simple long-term experiment on each of 30 contrasting forested islands in northern Sweden that vary in size; as size decreases, time since fire increases, soil fertility and ecosystem productivity declines, and plant species diversity increases. We predicted that resilience of understory plant community properties would be greatest on the larger, more productive islands, and that this would be paralleled by greater resilience of soil biotic and abiotic properties. For each island, we applied three disturbance treatments of increasing intensity to the forest understory once in 1998, i.e., light trimming, heavy trimming, and burning; a fourth treatment was an undisturbed control. We measured recovery of the understory vascular plant community annually over the following 14 years, and at that time also assessed recovery of mosses and several belowground variables. Consistent with our predictions, vascular plant whole-community variables (total cover, species richness, diversity [Shannon's H'], and community composition) recovered significantly more slowly on the smaller (least fertile) than the larger islands, but this difference was not substantial, and only noticeable in the most severely disturbed treatment. When an index of resilience was used, we were unable to detect effects of island size on the recovery of any property. We found that mosses and one shrub species (Empetrum hermaphroditum) recovered particularly slowly, and the higher abundance of this shrub on small islands was sufficient to explain any slower recovery of whole-ecosystem variables on those islands. Further, several belowground variables had not fully recovered from the most intense disturbance after 14 yr, and counter to our predictions, the degree of their recovery was never influenced by island size. While several studies have shown large variation among plant communities in their short-term response (notably resistance) to environmental perturbations, our results reveal that when perturbations are applied equally to highly contrasting ecosystems, differences in resilience among them in the longer term can be relatively minor, regardless of the severity of disturbance.

  2. Hot Cell Liners Category of Transuranic Waste Stored Below Ground within Area G

    SciTech Connect

    Jones, Robert Wesley; Hargis, Kenneth Marshall

    2014-09-01

    A large wildfire called the Las Conchas Fire burned large areas near Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) in 2011 and heightened public concern and news media attention over transuranic (TRU) waste stored at LANL’s Technical Area 54 (TA-54) Area G waste management facility. The removal of TRU waste from Area G had been placed at a lower priority in budget decisions for environmental cleanup at LANL because TRU waste removal is not included in the March 2005 Compliance Order on Consent (Reference 1) that is the primary regulatory driver for environmental cleanup at LANL. The Consent Order is an agreement between LANL and the New Mexico Environment Department (NMED) that contains specific requirements and schedules for cleaning up historical contamination at the LANL site. After the Las Conchas Fire, discussions were held by the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) with the NMED on accelerating TRU waste removal from LANL and disposing it at the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP). This report summarizes available information on the origin, configuration, and composition of the waste containers within the Hot Cell Liners category; their physical and radiological characteristics; the results of the radioassays; and the justification to reclassify the five containers as LLW rather than TRU waste.

  3. Upregulation of a small vault RNA (svtRNA2-1a) is an early event in Parkinson disease and induces neuronal dysfunction

    PubMed Central

    Miñones-Moyano, Elena; Friedländer, Marc R.; Pallares, Joan; Kagerbauer, Birgit; Porta, Sílvia; Escaramís, Georgia; Ferrer, Isidre; Estivill, Xavier; Martí, Eulàlia

    2013-01-01

    MicroRNAs (miRNAs) and other small non-coding RNAs (sncRNAs) are post-transcriptional regulators of gene expression, playing key roles in neuronal development, plasticity, and disease. Transcriptome deregulation caused by miRNA dysfunction has been associated to neurodegenerative diseases. Parkinson disease (PD) is the second most common neurodegenerative disease showing deregulation of the coding and small non-coding transcriptome. On profiling sncRNA in PD brain areas differently affected, we found that upregulation of a small vault RNA (svtRNA2-1a) is widespread in PD brains, occurring early in the course of the disease (at pre-motor stages). SvtRNA2-1a biogenesis was dependent on Dicer activity on its precursor (vtRNA2-1) but independent of Drosha endonuclease, unlike the canonical miRNAs. Although endogenous svtRNA2-1a was enriched in Ago-2 immunoprecipitates in differentiated SH-SY5Y neuronal cells, overexpression of svtRNA2-1a induced subtle transcriptomic changes, suggesting that gene expression regulation may involve other mechanisms than mRNA decay only. Function enrichment analysis of the genes deregulated by svtRNA2-1a overexpression or svtRNA2-1a predicted targets identified pathways related to nervous system development and cell type specification. The expression pattern of svtRNA2-1a during development and aging of the human brain and the detrimental consequences of a svtRNA2-1a mimic overexpression in neuronal cells further indicate that low svtRNA2-1a levels may be important for the maintenance of neurons. Our results suggest that early svtRNA2-1a upregulation in PD may contribute to perturbations of gene expression networks, underlying metabolic impairment and cell dysfunction. A better understanding of the pathways regulated by svtRNA2-a, and also the mechanisms regulating its expression should facilitate the identification of new targets for therapeutic approaches in PD. PMID:23673382

  4. Upregulation of a small vault RNA (svtRNA2-1a) is an early event in Parkinson disease and induces neuronal dysfunction.

    PubMed

    Miñones-Moyano, Elena; Friedländer, Marc R; Pallares, Joan; Kagerbauer, Birgit; Porta, Sílvia; Escaramís, Georgia; Ferrer, Isidre; Estivill, Xavier; Martí, Eulàlia

    2013-07-01

    MicroRNAs (miRNAs) and other small non-coding RNAs (sncRNAs) are post-transcriptional regulators of gene expression, playing key roles in neuronal development, plasticity, and disease. Transcriptome deregulation caused by miRNA dysfunction has been associated to neurodegenerative diseases. Parkinson disease (PD) is the second most common neurodegenerative disease showing deregulation of the coding and small non-coding transcriptome. On profiling sncRNA in PD brain areas differently affected, we found that upregulation of a small vault RNA (svtRNA2-1a) is widespread in PD brains, occurring early in the course of the disease (at pre-motor stages). SvtRNA2-1a biogenesis was dependent on Dicer activity on its precursor (vtRNA2-1) but independent of Drosha endonuclease, unlike the canonical miRNAs. Although endogenous svtRNA2-1a was enriched in Ago-2 immunoprecipitates in differentiated SH-SY5Y neuronal cells, overexpression of svtRNA2-1a induced subtle transcriptomic changes, suggesting that gene expression regulation may involve other mechanisms than mRNA decay only. Function enrichment analysis of the genes deregulated by svtRNA2-1a overexpression or svtRNA2-1a predicted targets identified pathways related to nervous system development and cell type specification. The expression pattern of svtRNA2-1a during development and aging of the human brain and the detrimental consequences of a svtRNA2-1a mimic overexpression in neuronal cells further indicate that low svtRNA2-1a levels may be important for the maintenance of neurons. Our results suggest that early svtRNA2-1a upregulation in PD may contribute to perturbations of gene expression networks, underlying metabolic impairment and cell dysfunction. A better understanding of the pathways regulated by svtRNA2-a, and also the mechanisms regulating its expression should facilitate the identification of new targets for therapeutic approaches in PD.

  5. Grout disposal facility vault exhauster: Technical background document on demonstration of best available control technology for toxics

    SciTech Connect

    Glissmeyer, J.A.; Glantz, C.S.; Rittman, P.D.

    1994-09-01

    The Grout Disposal Facility (GDF) is currently operated on the US Department of Energy`s Hanford Site. The GDF is located near the east end of the Hanford Site`s 200 East operations area, and is used for the treatment and disposal of low-level radioactive liquid wastes. In the grout treatment process, selected radioactive wastes from double-shell tanks are mixed with grout-forming solids; the resulting grout slurry is pumped to near-surface concrete vaults for solidification and permanent disposal. As part of this treatment process, small amounts of toxic particles and volatile organic compounds (VOCs) may be released to the atmosphere through the GDF`s exhaust system. This analysis constitutes a Best Available Control Technology for Toxics (T-BACT) study, as required in the Washington Administrative Code (WAC 173-460) to support a Notice of Construction for the operation of the GDF exhaust system at a modified flow rate that exceeds the previously permitted value. This report accomplishes the following: assesses the potential emissions from the GDF; estimates air quality impacts to the public from toxic air pollutants; identifies control technologies that could reduce GDF emissions; evaluates impacts of the control technologies; and recommends appropriate emissions controls.

  6. Petrophysical rock properties of the Bazhenov Formation of the South-Eastern part of Kaymysovsky Vault (Tomsk Region)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gorshkov, A. M.; Kudryashova, L. K.; Lee-Van-Khe, O. S.

    2016-09-01

    The article presents the results of studying petrophysical rock properties of the Bazhenov Formation of the South-Eastern part of Kaymysovsky Vault with the Gas Research Institute (GRI) method. The authors have constructed dependence charts for bulk and grain density, open porosity and matrix permeability vs. depth. The results of studying petrophysical properties with the GRI method and core description have allowed dividing the entire section into three intervals each of which characterized by different conditions of Bazhenov Formation rock formation. The authors have determined a correlation between the compensated neutron log and the rock density vs. depth chart on the basis of complex well logging and petrophysical section analysis. They have determined a promising interval for producing hydrocarbons from the Bazhenov Formation in the well under study. Besides, they have determined the typical behavior of compensated neutron logs and SP logs on well logs for this interval. These studies will allow re-interpreting available well logs in order to determine the most promising interval to be involved in Bazhenov Formation development in Tomsk Region.

  7. Underground Surveying: 16TH Century Cellar Vaults in the GALERÍA de Convalecientes, Monastery of San Lorenzo del Escorial

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chías, P.; Abad, T.; Echeverría, E.; De Miguel, M.; Llorente, P.

    2017-02-01

    Underground surveying of cellars, caves, and architectural spaces, is quite different from surveying on the surface. Researchers must deal with various challenges derived of the lack of natural light, low temperature, and humidity, but also with inaccessibility. But the essential problem in underground surveying is that of orientating the underground surveys to the surface surveys. For this purpose our methodology integrates different geomatic techniques, as the use of a scanner laser in order to obtain a 3D model, as well as classic topography, and GPS to locate accurately the control points according to the official reference frame of the Spanish Geodetic Network. The developed methodology is described and applied to the case study of the cellars of the Gallery of Convalescents (Galería de Convalecientes) in the Royal Monastery of San Lorenzo de El Escorial. These cellars compose an outstanding series of interrelated singular complex spaces. Their study is particularly relevant because of the quality of the stonework, the geometry of the vaults and lunettes, and the stereotomy. The fact that these spaces were neither surveyed nor studied before, must be stressed. And our work will bring into light an important part of the 16th century Spanish architectural heritage. Finally, the INSPIRE Directive becomes an opportunity to integrate cultural heritage datasets into an interoperable framework, and to share and diffuse them as geographic information.

  8. Venous air embolism from Tisseel use during endoscopic cranial vault remodeling for craniosynostosis repair: a case report.

    PubMed

    Felema, Gohalem G; Bryskin, Robert B; Heger, Ian M; Saswata, Roy

    2013-08-01

    Venous air embolism (VAE) is a potential complication during cranial vault remodeling requiring early detection and prompt therapeutic intervention. The incidence of VAE has been reported to be as high as 82.6% during open craniectomy for craniosynostosis repair. On the other hand, two separate studies reported a much lower incidence of VAE (8% and 2%) during endoscopic strip craniectomy. As surgical advancements progress, minimally invasive neurosurgical procedures are increasing in the pediatric population with reported benefits of decreased blood loss and need for transfusion, shorter hospital stay, decreased cost, lower morbidity, and mortality. In addition, there is a heightened emphasis on achieving hemostasis, which has led to the use of products such as antifibrinolytics and fibrin sealants. We present a case where a VAE causing significant hemodynamic instability (grade III) ensued immediately following aerosolized fibrin sealant application. Exploration of the potential source of VAE pointed to the high pressure and close proximity (between spray device and tissue) during application of the sealant, likely forcing air into the vascular system.

  9. Aging adult skull vaults by applying the concept of fractal geometry to high-resolution computed tomography images.

    PubMed

    Obert, Martin; Seyfried, Maren; Schumacher, Falk; Krombach, Gabriele A; Verhoff, Marcel A

    2014-09-01

    Aging human remains is a critical issue in anthropology and forensic medicine, and the search for accurate, new age-estimation methods is ongoing. In our study, we, therefore, explored a new approach to investigate a possible correlation between age-at-death (aad) and geometric irregularities in the bone structure of human skull caps. We applied the concept of fractal geometry and fractal dimension D analysis to describe heterogeneity within the bone structure. A high-resolution flat-panel computed tomography scanner (eXplore Locus Ultra) was used to obtain 229,500 images from 221 male and 120 female (total 341) European human skulls. Automated image analysis software was developed to evaluate the fractal dimension D, using the mass radius method. The frontal and the occipital portions of the skull caps of adult females and males were investigated separately. The age dependence of the fractal dimension D was studied by correlation analysis, and the prediction accuracy of age-at-death (aad) estimates for individual observations was calculated. D values for human skull caps scatter strongly as a function of age. We found sex-dependent correlation coefficients (CC) between D and age for adults (females CC=-0.67; males CC=-0.05). Prediction errors for aad estimates for individual observations were in the range of ±18 years at a 75% confidence interval. The detailed quantitative description of age-dependent irregularities in the bone microarchitecture of skull vaults through fractal dimension analysis does not, as we had hoped, enable a new aging method. Severe scattering of the data leads to an estimation error that is too great for this method to be of practical relevance in aad estimates. Thus, we disclosed an interesting sex difference. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Deproteinated bovine bone vs. beta-tricalcium phosphate as bone graft substitutes: histomorphometric longitudinal study in the rabbit cranial vault.

    PubMed

    Martinez, Arturo; Balboa, Oscar; Gasamans, Iria; Otero-Cepeda, Xose Luis; Guitian, Francisco

    2015-06-01

    This article aims to study differences in the bone formation and the graft resorption of two bone graft substitutes (BGS). Besides, it is our attempt to observe possible qualitative and quantitative differences in the bone reparation of the outer layer covered by collagen membrane and the uncovered inner layer in close contact with dura mater. Twelve rabbits were employed. Deproteinized bovine bone (DBB) and β-tricalcium phosphate (BTCP) were used as BGS. Four subcritical round defects (7 mm) were drilled in the cranial vault, removing both cortical walls. One of the holes was filled with DBB, and other was filled with BTCP. Each symmetrical position to DBB and BTCP was left empty. The whole defect set was covered with a collagen membrane. Histological and morphometric analysis was performed for 1, 4, 8, 16, 32 and 52 weeks. Morphometry measurements were carried out taking into account the whole defect and splitting inner and outer areas. In DBB sites, a rapid bone growth is observed, linking the remaining particles and integrating them into the bone matrix. Permanence of these DBB particles from week 16 onwards restrains the growth of bone fraction. A greater bone growth appears in areas repaired with BTCP than in those repaired with DBB, both in the outer layer (under-membrane) and the inner layer (over dura mater). In DBB sites, a slower growth is observed in the inner layer, with no significant differences in the final bone fraction at both strata. Both materials favour the closure of the defects provoked. In both cases, a synergistic effect with the collagen membrane is observed. DBB remains integrated in the bone matrix, while BTCP displays a pattern of highly developed progressive resorption with an outstanding bone fraction development. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  11. Anterior Chamber Angle Evaluation following Phakic Posterior Chamber Collamer Lens with CentraFLOW and Its Correlation with ICL Vault and Intraocular Pressure

    PubMed Central

    El-Deeb, Mohamed W. A.

    2016-01-01

    Purpose. To assess intraocular pressure (IOP), lens vaulting, and anterior chamber (AC) angle width, following V4C implantable Collamer lens (ICL) procedure for myopic refractive error. Methods. A prospective case series that enrolled 54 eyes of 27 patients that were evaluated before and after V4C phakic posterior chamber Collamer lens implantation for correction of myopic refractive error. Preoperative measurement of IOP was done using Goldmann applanation tonometer and anterior chamber angle width using both Van Herick slit lamp grading system and Scheimpflug tomography imaging (Oculus Pentacam). Follow-up of the aforementioned variables was at 1, 6, and 18 months postoperatively, together with ICL vault measurements. Results. The mean baseline IOP of 11.69 ± 2.15 showed a statistically significant (P = 0.002) increase after 1 month that remained unchanged at 6 and 18 months postoperatively, with mean value of 16.07 ± 4.12, 16.07 ± 4.10, and 16.07 ± 4.13, respectively. Pentacam AC angle width showed a statistically significant decrease at 1 (P = 0.025), 6 (P = 0.016), and 18 (P = 0.010) months postoperatively, with mean preoperative value of 40.14 ± 5.49 that decreased to 25.28 ± 5.33, 25.46 ± 5.44, and 25.49 ± 5.38, at 1, 6, and 18 months, respectively. Mean ICL vault showed moderate correlation with Pentacam AC angle width at 1 (r = −0.435) and 6 (r = −0.424) months. Conclusion. V4C ICL implantation resulted in decrease in AC angle width and increase in IOP, within acceptable physiological values at all time points. PMID:28053776

  12. Effect of different palatal vault shapes on the dimensional stability of glass fiber-reinforced heat-polymerized acrylic resin denture base material

    PubMed Central

    Dalkiz, Mehmet; Arslan, Demet; Tuncdemir, Ali Riza; Bilgin, M.Selim; Aykul, Halil

    2012-01-01

    Objective: The aim of this study was to determine the effect of different palatal vault shapes on the dimensional stability of a glass fiber reinforced heat polymerized acrylic resin denture base material. Methods: Three edentulous maxilla with shallow, deep and medium shaped palatal vaults were selected and elastomeric impressions were obtained. A maxillary cast with four reference points (A, B, C, and D) was prepared to serve as control. Point (A) was marked in the anterior midline of the edentulous ridge in the incisive papillary region, points (B) and (C) were marked in the right and left posterior midlines of the edentulous ridge in the second molar regions, and point (D) was marked in the posterior palatal midline near the fovea palatina media (Figure 2). To determine linear dimensional changes, distances between four reference points (A–B, A–C, A–D and B–C) were initially measured with a metal gauge accurate within 0.1 mm under a binocular stereo light microscope and data (mm) were recorded. Results: No significant difference of interfacial distance was found in sagittal and frontal sections measured 24 h after polymerization and after 30 days of water storage in any of experimental groups (P>.05). Significant difference of linear dimension were found in all experimental groups (P<.01) between measurements made 24 h after polymerization of specimens and 30 days after water storage. Conclusion: Palatal vault shape and fiber impregnation into the acrylic resin bases did not affect the magnitude of interfacial gaps between the bases and the stone cast surfaces. PMID:22229010

  13. Major Vault Protein May Affect Nonhomologous End-Joining Repair and Apoptosis Through Ku70/80 and BAX Downregulation in Cervical Carcinoma Tumors

    SciTech Connect

    Lloret, Marta Lara, Pedro Carlos; Bordon, Elisa; Fontes, Fausto; Rey, Agustin; Pinar, Beatriz; Falcon, Orlando

    2009-03-15

    Purpose: We investigated the relationship between major vault protein (MVP) expression, the nonhomologous end-joining (NHEJ) repair gene Ku70/80, and related genes involved in the regulation of apoptosis and proliferation to shed light on the possible causes of genetic instability, tumor progression, and resistance to oncologic treatment in patients with clinical cervical cancer. Methods and Materials: One hundred sixteen consecutive patients with localized cervix carcinoma were prospectively included in this study from July 1997 to Dec 2003. Patients were staged according to the tumor, node, metastasis (TNM) classification. Forty patients had Stage I disease, 45 had Stage II, and 31 had Stage III/IVA. Most patients had squamous tumors (98 cases) and Grades II (52 cases) and III (45 cases) carcinomas. Expression of MVP, Ku70/80, Insulin-Like Growth Factor-1 receptor (IGF-1R), BCL2-associated X protein (BAX), B-cell CLL/lymphoma 2 (BCL-2), p53, and Ki67 was studied by using immunohistochemistry in paraffin-embedded tumor tissue. Results: Tumors overexpressing MVP (65 of 116 cases) showed low levels of Ku70/80 (p = 0.013) and BAX expression (p < 0.0001). Furthermore, low Ku70/80 expression was strongly related to suppressed BAX (p < 0.001) and, to a lesser extent, upregulated BCL-2 (p = 0.042), altered p53 (p = 0.038), and increased proliferation (p = 0.002). Conclusion: We hypothesize that an early regulatory mechanism favors homologous or NHEJ repair at first, mediated by vaults along with other factors yet to be elucidated. If vaults are overexpressed, NHEJ repair may be suppressed by means of several mechanisms, with resultant genomic instability. These mechanisms may be associated with the decision of damaged cells to survive and proliferate, favoring tumor progression and reducing tumor response to oncologic treatment through the development of resistant cell phenotypes. Additional clinical studies are necessary to test this hypothesis.

  14. Two parallel, pragmatic, UK multicentre, randomised controlled trials comparing surgical options for upper compartment (vault or uterine) pelvic organ prolapse (the VUE Study): study protocol for a randomised controlled trial.

    PubMed

    Glazener, Cathryn; Constable, Lynda; Hemming, Christine; Breeman, Suzanne; Elders, Andrew; Cooper, Kevin; Freeman, Robert; Smith, Anthony R B; Hagen, Suzanne; McDonald, Alison; McPherson, Gladys; Montgomery, Isobel; Kilonzo, Mary; Boyers, Dwayne; Goulao, Beatriz; Norrie, John

    2016-09-08

    One in three women who have a prolapse operation will go on to have another operation, though not necessarily in the same compartment. Surgery can result in greater impairment of quality of life than the original prolapse itself (such as the development of new-onset urinary incontinence, or prolapse at a different site). Anterior and posterior prolapse surgery is most common (90 % of operations), but around 43 % of women also have a uterine (34 %) or vault (9 %) procedure at the same time. There is not enough evidence from randomised controlled trials (RCTs) to guide management of vault or uterine prolapse. The Vault or Uterine prolapse surgery Evaluation (VUE) study aims to assess the surgical management of upper compartment pelvic organ prolapse (POP) in terms of clinical effectiveness, cost-effectiveness and adverse events. VUE is two parallel, pragmatic, UK multicentre, RCTs (Uterine Trial and Vault Trial). Eligible for inclusion are women with vault or uterine prolapse: requiring a surgical procedure, suitable for randomisation and willing to be randomised. Randomisation will be computer-allocated separately for each trial, minimised on: requiring concomitant anterior and/or posterior POP surgery or not, concomitant incontinence surgery or not, age (under 60 years or 60 years and older) and surgeon. Participants will be randomly assigned, with equal probability to intervention or control arms in either the Uterine Trial or the Vault Trial. Uterine Trial participants will receive either a vaginal hysterectomy or a uterine preservation procedure. Vault Trial participants will receive either a vaginal sacrospinous fixation or an abdominal sacrocolpopexy. Participants will be followed up by postal questionnaires (6 months post surgery and 12 months post randomisation) and also reviewed in clinic 12 months post surgery. The primary outcome is the participant-reported Pelvic Organ Prolapse Symptom Score (POP-SS) at 12 months post randomisation

  15. Results of a 10-year survey of workload for 10 treatment vaults at a high-throughput comprehensive cancer center.

    PubMed

    Saleh, Ziad H; Jeong, Jeho; Quinn, Brian; Mechalakos, James; St Germain, Jean; Dauer, Lawrence T

    2017-05-01

    The workload for shielding purposes of modern linear accelerators (linacs) consists of primary and scatter radiation which depends on the dose delivered to isocenter (cGy) and leakage radiation which depends on the monitor units (MUs). In this study, we report on the workload for 10 treatment vaults in terms of dose to isocenter (cGy), monitor units delivered (MUs), number of treatment sessions (Txs), as well as, use factors (U) and modulation factors (CI) for different treatment techniques. The survey was performed for the years between 2006 and 2015 and included 16 treatment machines which represent different generations of Varian linear accelerators (6EX, 600C, 2100C, 2100EX, and TrueBeam) operating at different electron and x-ray energies (6, 9, 12, 16 and 20 MeV electrons and, 6 and 15 MV x-rays). An institutional review board (IRB) approval was acquired to perform this study. Data regarding patient workload, dose to isocenter, number of monitor units delivered, beam energies, gantry angles, and treatment techniques were exported from an ARIA treatment management system (Varian Medical Systems, Palo Alto, Ca.) into Excel spreadsheets and data analysis was performed in Matlab. The average (± std-dev) number of treatment sessions, dose to isocenter, and number of monitor units delivered per week per machine in 2006 was 119 ± 39 Txs, (300 ± 116) × 10(2) cGys, and (78 ± 28) × 10(3) MUs respectively. In contrast, the workload in 2015 was 112 ± 40 Txs, (337 ± 124) × 10(2) cGys, and (111 ± 46) × 10(3) MUs. 60% of the workload (cGy) was delivered using 6 MV and 30% using 15 MV while the remaining 10% was delivered using electron beams. The modulation factors (MU/cGy) for IMRT and VMAT were 5.0 (± 3.4) and 4.6 (± 1.6) respectively. Use factors using 90° gantry angle intervals were equally distributed (~0.25) but varied considerably among different treatment techniques. The workload, in terms of dose to isocenter (cGy) and subsequently monitor units (MUs

  16. SU-E-T-273: Radiation Shielding for a Fixed Horizontal-Beam Linac in a Shipping Container and a Conventional Treatment Vault

    SciTech Connect

    Hsieh, M; Balter, P; Beadle, B; Chi, P; Stingo, F; Court, L

    2014-06-01

    Purpose: A fixed horizontal-beam linac, where the patient is treated in a seated position, could lower the overall costs of the treatment unit and room shielding substantially. This design also allows the treatment room and control area to be contained within a reduced space, such as a shipping container. The main application is the introduction of low-cost, high-quality radiation therapy to low- and middle-income regions. Here we consider shielding for upright treatments with a fixed-6MV-beam linac in a shipping container and a conventional treatment vault. Methods: Shielding calculations were done for two treatment room layouts using calculation methods in NCRP Report 151: (1) a shipping container (6m × 2.4m with the remaining space occupied by the console area), and (2) the treatment vault in NCRP 151 (7.8m by 5.4m by 3.4m). The shipping container has a fixed gantry that points in one direction at all times. For the treatment vault, various beam directions were evaluated. Results: The shipping container requires a primary barrier of 168cm concrete (4.5 TVL), surrounded by a secondary barrier of 3.6 TVL. The other walls require between 2.8–3.3 TVL. Multiple shielding calculations were done along the side wall. The results show that patient scatter increases in the forward direction and decreases dramatically in the backward direction. Leakage scatter also varies along the wall, depending largely on the distance between the gantry and the wall. For the treatment room, fixed-beam requires a slightly thicker primary barrier than the conventional linac (0.6 TVL), although this barrier is only needed in the center of one wall. The secondary barrier is different only by 0–0.2 TVL. Conclusion: This work shows that (1) the shipping container option is achievable, using indigenous materials for shielding and (2) upright treatments can be performed in a conventional treatment room with minimal additional shielding. Varian Medical Systems.

  17. Assessment of Thickness of Palatal Masticatory Mucosa and Maximum Graft Dimensions at Palatal Vault Associated with Age and Gender – A Clinical Study

    PubMed Central

    P, Swetha; V, Krishnan; R, Mythili; Alla, Rama Krishna; D, Manikandan

    2014-01-01

    Background: Periodontitis is a multifactorial inflammatory disease which leads to alveolar bone loss, followed by exposure of root surfaces, which results in an unaesthetic appearance. Palatal masticatory mucosa is widely used as a donor tissue for root coverage procedures, to achieve an aesthetic appearance and to meet patient’s needs. Obtaining sufficient volume of tissue without injuring the vessels is necessary. Aim: Purpose of this study was to determine thickness of palatal masticatory mucosa in association with age and gender in healthy subjects who were aged 14–59 years. Materials and Methods: Thirtysix healthy subjects were included under two groups (aged 14-29 years and 30-59 years). Each group consisted of 9 males and nine females. Transgingival probing was done by using a UNC-15 (University of North Carolina) periodontal probe under LA (local anaesthesia) and measurements were taken from 15 different sites on palatal masticatory mucosa. Maximum available length and height of the palatal vault were also measured. All measurements were made by using a Boley gauge to the nearest millimetre. Results: Students t-test was used to determine the difference in mucosal thickness between two groups. Two–way ANOVA test was used to measure the height of palatal vault between the groups. The results showed that younger age group had thinner palatal masticatory mucosa of thickness which was between 2.3 mm to 2.65 mm and that younger females had thinner mucosa than males. The mean height which was measured from second premolar area to the second molar area was significantly greater in men (14.03 mm) than in women (13.25 mm). Conclusion: Palatal masticatory mucosa was thicker in older age group than in younger age group and it was thin in females as compared to that in males. The most appropriate donor site for carrying out grafting procedures is distal canine to mid palatal aspect of 1st molar area, with minimum height of 5 mm to 8 mm in the premolar area in all

  18. Anatomical and functional outcomes of posterior intravaginal slingplasty for the treatment of vaginal vault or uterine prolapse: a prospective, multicenter study.

    PubMed

    Lee, Young-Suk; Han, Deok Hyun; Lee, Ji Youl; Kim, Joon Chul; Choo, Myung-Soo; Lee, Kyu-Sung

    2010-03-01

    We aimed to evaluate the anatomical and functional outcomes of posterior intravaginal slingplasty (P-IVS) for the treatment of a vaginal vault or uterine prolapse (VP/UP). This was a 12-month prospective, multicenter, observational study. Women aged over 30 years who presented with stage II or greater VP/UP underwent P-IVS by four urologists at four university hospitals. Preoperatively, pelvic examination by use of the Pelvic Organ Prolapse Quantification (POP-Q) system, the Pelvic Floor Distress Inventory (PFDI) questionnaire, the 3-day frequency volume chart, and uroflowmetry were completed. At the 12-month follow-up, changes in the POP-Q, PFDI, frequency volume chart, and uroflowmetry parameters were assessed. Cure was defined as VP/UP stage 0 and improvement as stage I. The cure and improvement rates among the 32 women were 65.6% and 34.4%, respectively. All subscale scores of the Urinary Distress Inventory, the general subscale score of the Pelvic Organ Prolapse Distress Inventory, and the rectal prolapse subscale score of the Colo-Rectal-Anal Distress Inventory were significantly improved. There were no significant changes in the frequency volume chart or uroflowmetry parameters. There was one case of surgery-related transfusion. Trans-vaginal repair by P-IVS is an effective and safe procedure for restoring the anatomical defect and improving the associated pelvic floor symptoms in women with VP/UP.

  19. Efficacy of a standardized technique of trans-vaginal entry into the peritoneal cavity for post-hysterectomy vaginal vault suspension.

    PubMed

    Park, Amy J; Ridgeway, Beri; Gustilo-Ashby, A Marcus; Paraiso, Marie Fidela R; Walters, Mark D; Barber, Matthew D

    2008-10-01

    The aim of this paper is to describe the efficacy and safety of a standardized technique of trans-vaginal entry into the peritoneal cavity for post-hysterectomy vault prolapse and determine how well the pre-operative pelvic examination predicted successful peritoneal entry. A retrospective review of patients undergoing post-hysterectomy trans-vaginal apical suspensions using a standardized technique of peritoneal entry was employed in this study. A subset of patients underwent a standardized pre-operative evaluation to predict what organ was behind the vaginal cuff and posterior cul-de-sac. Peritoneal entry was attempted in 280 patients, and successfully achieved in 223(80%). One cystotomy and one proctotomy (0.3%) occurred during attempted entry. Of those who underwent the standardized pre-operative evaluation, peritoneal entry was successful 86% of the time when small bowel was predicted to lie behind the vaginal cuff or posterior cul-de-sac. Peritoneal entry can be safely achieved in the majority of post-hysterectomy prolapse patients. Pre-operative examination assists in predicting successful peritoneal entry.

  20. Robust expression of vault RNAs induced by influenza A virus plays a critical role in suppression of PKR-mediated innate immunity

    PubMed Central

    Li, Fang; Chen, Yuhai; Zhang, Zhaoyuan; Ouyang, Jing; Wang, Yi; Yan, Ruoxiang; Huang, Shile; Gao, George Fu; Guo, Guijie; Chen, Ji-Long

    2015-01-01

    Protein kinase R (PKR) is a vital component of host innate immunity against viral infection. However, the mechanism underlying inactivation of PKR by influenza A virus (IAV) remains elusive. Here, we found that vault RNAs (vtRNAs) were greatly induced in A549 cells and mouse lungs after infection with IAV. The viral NS1 protein was shown to be the inducer triggering the upregulation of vtRNAs. Importantly, silencing vtRNA in A549 cells significantly inhibited IAV replication, whereas overexpression of vtRNAs markedly promoted the viral replication. Furthermore, in vivo studies showed that disrupting vtRNA expression in mice significantly decreased IAV replication in infected lungs. The vtRNA knockdown animals exhibited significantly enhanced resistance to IAV infection, as evidenced by attenuated acute lung injury and spleen atrophy and consequently increased survival rates. Interestingly, vtRNAs promoted viral replication through repressing the activation of PKR and the subsequent antiviral interferon response. In addition, increased expression of vtRNAs was required for efficient suppression of PKR by NS1 during IAV infection. Moreover, vtRNAs were also significantly upregulated by infections of several other viruses and involved in the inactivation of PKR signaling by these viruses. These results reveal a novel mechanism by which some viruses circumvent PKR-mediated innate immunity. PMID:26490959

  1. Thirty-three year changes in above- and below-ground biomass in northern hardwood stands in Vermont

    Treesearch

    A. H. Johnson; G. R. Strimbeck

    1996-01-01

    In 1957-1960, R. O. Curtis and B. W. Post surveyed 81 even aged (45-90 y old) northern hardwood stands on acid till soils over the length of Vermont's Green Mountains. The purpose of the original study was to determine predictive relationships between site index and site characteristics, including latitude, elevation, soil drainage class, soil organic matter...

  2. Tritium Packages and 17th RH Canister Categories of Transuranic Waste Stored Below Ground within Area G

    SciTech Connect

    Hargis, Kenneth Marshall

    2015-03-01

    A large wildfire called the Las Conchas Fire burned large areas near Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) in 2011 and heightened public concern and news media attention over transuranic (TRU) waste stored at LANL’s Technical Area 54 (TA-54) Area G waste management facility. The removal of TRU waste from Area G had been placed at a lower priority in budget decisions for environmental cleanup at LANL because TRU waste removal is not included in the March 2005 Compliance Order on Consent (Reference 1) that is the primary regulatory driver for environmental cleanup at LANL. The Consent Order is a settlement agreement between LANL and the New Mexico Environment Department (NMED) that contains specific requirements and schedules for cleaning up historical contamination at the LANL site. After the Las Conchas Fire, discussions were held by the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) with the NMED on accelerating TRU waste removal from LANL and disposing it at the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP). This report summarizes available information on the origin, configuration, and composition of the waste containers within the Tritium Packages and 17th RH Canister categories; their physical and radiological characteristics; the results of the radioassays; and potential issues in retrieval and processing of the waste containers.

  3. Warming-related increases in soil CO2 efflux are explained by increased below-ground carbon flux

    Treesearch

    Christian P. Giardina; Creighton M. Litton; Susan E. Crow; Gregory P Asner

    2014-01-01

    The universally observed exponential increase in soil-surface CO2 effux (‘soil respiration’; FS) with increasing temperature has led to speculation that global warming will accelerate soil organic carbon (SOC) decomposition, reduce SOC storage, and drive a positive feedback to future warming. However, interpreting temperature–FS relationships,...

  4. Quantifying carbon sequestration in forest plantations by modeling the dynamics of above and below ground carbon pools

    Treesearch

    Chris A. Maier; Kurt H. Johnsen

    2010-01-01

    Intensive pine plantation management may provide opportunities to increase carbon sequestration in the Southeastern United States. Developing management options that increase fiber production and soil carbon sequestration require an understanding of the biological and edaphic processes that control soil carbon turnover. Belowground carbon resides primarily in three...

  5. Total below-ground carbon and nitrogen partitioning of mature black spruce displaying genetic x soil moisture interaction in growth

    Treesearch

    John E. Major; Kurt H. Johnsen; Debby C. Barsi; Moira Campbell

    2012-01-01

    Total belowground biomass, soil C, and N mass were measured in plots of 32-year-old black spruce (Picea mariana (Mill.) Britton, Sterns & Poggenb.) from four full-sib families studied previously for drought tolerance and differential productivity on a dry and a wet site. Stump root biomass was greater on the wet than on the dry site;...

  6. Above and below ground carbohydrate allocation differs between ash (Fraxinus excelsior L.) and beech (Fagus sylvatica L.).

    PubMed

    Thoms, Ronny; Köhler, Michael; Gessler, Arthur; Gleixner, Gerd

    2017-01-01

    We investigated soluble carbohydrate transport in trees that differed in their phloem loading strategies in order to better understand the transport of photosynthetic products into the roots and the rhizosphere as this knowledge is needed to better understand the respiratory processes in the rhizosphere. We compared beech, which is suggested to use mainly passive loading of transport sugars along a concentration gradient into the phloem, with ash that uses active loading and polymer trapping of raffinose family oligosaccharides (RFOs). We pulse-labeled 20 four-year old European beech and 20 four-year old ash trees with 13CO2 and tracked the fate of the label within different plant compartments. We extracted soluble carbohydrates from leaves, bark of stems and branches, and fine roots, measured their amount and isotopic content and calculated their turnover times. In beech one part of the sucrose was rapidly transported into sink tissues without major exchange with storage pools whereas another part of sucrose was strongly exchanged with unlabeled possibly stored sucrose. In contrast the storage and allocation patterns in ash depended on the identity of the transported sugars. RFO were the most important transport sugars that had highest turnover in all shoot compartments. However, the turnover of RFOs in the roots was uncoupled from the shoot. The only significant relation between sugars in the stem base and in the roots of ash was found for the amount (r2 = 0.50; p = 0.001) and isotopic content (r2 = 0.47; p = 0.01) of sucrose. The negative relation of the amounts suggested an active transport of sucrose into the roots of ash. Sucrose concentration in the root also best explained the concentration of RFOs in the roots suggesting that RFO in the roots of ash may be resynthesized from sucrose. Our results interestingly suggest that in both tree species only sucrose directly entered the fine root system and that in ash RFOs are transported indirectly into the fine roots only. The direct transport of sucrose might be passive in beech but active in ash (sustained active up- and unloading to co-cells), which would correspond to the phloem loading strategies. Our results give first hints that the transport of carbohydrates between shoot and root is not necessarily continuous and involves passive (beech) and active (ash) transport processes, which may be controlled by the phloem unloading.

  7. Above and below ground carbohydrate allocation differs between ash (Fraxinus excelsior L.) and beech (Fagus sylvatica L.)

    PubMed Central

    Thoms, Ronny; Köhler, Michael; Gessler, Arthur

    2017-01-01

    We investigated soluble carbohydrate transport in trees that differed in their phloem loading strategies in order to better understand the transport of photosynthetic products into the roots and the rhizosphere as this knowledge is needed to better understand the respiratory processes in the rhizosphere. We compared beech, which is suggested to use mainly passive loading of transport sugars along a concentration gradient into the phloem, with ash that uses active loading and polymer trapping of raffinose family oligosaccharides (RFOs). We pulse-labeled 20 four-year old European beech and 20 four-year old ash trees with 13CO2 and tracked the fate of the label within different plant compartments. We extracted soluble carbohydrates from leaves, bark of stems and branches, and fine roots, measured their amount and isotopic content and calculated their turnover times. In beech one part of the sucrose was rapidly transported into sink tissues without major exchange with storage pools whereas another part of sucrose was strongly exchanged with unlabeled possibly stored sucrose. In contrast the storage and allocation patterns in ash depended on the identity of the transported sugars. RFO were the most important transport sugars that had highest turnover in all shoot compartments. However, the turnover of RFOs in the roots was uncoupled from the shoot. The only significant relation between sugars in the stem base and in the roots of ash was found for the amount (r2 = 0.50; p = 0.001) and isotopic content (r2 = 0.47; p = 0.01) of sucrose. The negative relation of the amounts suggested an active transport of sucrose into the roots of ash. Sucrose concentration in the root also best explained the concentration of RFOs in the roots suggesting that RFO in the roots of ash may be resynthesized from sucrose. Our results interestingly suggest that in both tree species only sucrose directly entered the fine root system and that in ash RFOs are transported indirectly into the fine roots only. The direct transport of sucrose might be passive in beech but active in ash (sustained active up- and unloading to co-cells), which would correspond to the phloem loading strategies. Our results give first hints that the transport of carbohydrates between shoot and root is not necessarily continuous and involves passive (beech) and active (ash) transport processes, which may be controlled by the phloem unloading. PMID:28934229

  8. Modeling below-ground biomass to improve sustainable management of Actaea racemosa, a globally important medicinal forest product

    Treesearch

    James L. Chamberlain; Gabrielle Ness; Christine J. Small; Simon J. Bonner; Elizabeth B. Hiebert

    2013-01-01

    Non-timber forest products, particularly herbaceous understory plants, support a multi-billion dollar industry and are extracted from forests worldwide for their therapeutic value. Tens of thousands of kilograms of rhizomes and roots of Actaea racemosa L., a native Appalachian forest perennial, are harvested every year and used for the treatment of...

  9. Below-ground interspecific competition for water in a rubber agroforestry system may enhance water utilization in plants.

    PubMed

    Wu, Junen; Liu, Wenjie; Chen, Chunfeng

    2016-01-19

    Rubber-based (Hevea brasiliensis) agroforestry systems are regarded as the best way to improve the sustainability of rubber monocultures, but few reports have examined water use in such systems. Accordingly, we tested whether interplanting facilitates water utilization of rubber trees using stable isotope (δD, δ(18)O, and δ(13)C) methods and by measuring soil water content (SWC), shoot potential, and leaf C and N concentrations in a Hevea-Flemingia agroforestry system in Xishuangbanna, southwestern China. We detected a big difference in the utilization of different soil layer water between both species in this agroforestry system, as evidenced by the opposite seasonal fluctuations in both δD and δ(18)O in stem water. However, similar predawn shoot potential of rubber trees at both sites demonstrating that the interplanted species did not affect the water requirements of rubber trees greatly. Rubber trees with higher δ(13)C and more stable physiological indexes in this agroforestry system showed higher water use efficiency (WUE) and tolerance ability, and the SWC results suggested this agroforestry is conductive to water conservation. Our results clearly indicated that intercropping legume plants with rubber trees can benefit rubber trees own higher N supply, increase their WUE and better utilize soil water of each soil layer.

  10. Mechanosensitivity below Ground: Touch-Sensitive Smell-Producing Roots in the Shy Plant Mimosa pudica1[OPEN

    PubMed Central

    Musah, Rabi A.; Lesiak, Ashton D.; Maron, Max J.; Edwards, David; Fowble, Kristen L.; Long, Michael C.

    2016-01-01

    The roots of the shy plant Mimosa pudica emit a cocktail of small organic and inorganic sulfur compounds and reactive intermediates into the environment, including SO2, methanesulfinic acid, pyruvic acid, lactic acid, ethanesulfinic acid, propanesulfenic acid, 2-aminothiophenol, S-propyl propane 1-thiosulfinate, phenothiazine, and thioformaldehyde, an elusive and highly unstable compound that, to our knowledge, has never before been reported to be emitted by a plant. When soil around the roots is dislodged or when seedling roots are touched, an odor is detected. The perceived odor corresponds to the emission of higher amounts of propanesulfenic acid, 2-aminothiophenol, S-propyl propane 1-thiosulfinate, and phenothiazine. The mechanosensitivity response is selective. Whereas touching the roots with soil or human skin resulted in odor detection, agitating the roots with other materials such as glass did not induce a similar response. Light and electron microscopy studies of the roots revealed the presence of microscopic sac-like root protuberances. Elemental analysis of these projections by energy-dispersive x-ray spectroscopy revealed them to contain higher levels of K+ and Cl− compared with the surrounding tissue. Exposing the protuberances to stimuli that caused odor emission resulted in reductions in the levels of K+ and Cl− in the touched area. The mechanistic implications of the variety of sulfur compounds observed vis-à-vis the pathways for their formation are discussed. PMID:26661932

  11. Below-ground carbon input to soil is controlled by nutrient availability and fine root dynamics in loblolly pine

    Treesearch

    John S. King; Timothy J. Albaugh; H. Lee Allen; Marilyn Buford; Boyd R. Strain; Phillip Dougherty

    2002-01-01

    Availability of growth limiting resources may alter root dynamics in forest ecosystems, possibly affecting the land-atmosphere exchange of carbon. This was evaluated for a commercially important southern timber species by installing a factorial experiment of fertilization and irrigation treatments in an 8-yr-old loblolly pine (Pinus taeda) plantation...

  12. Above- and below-ground effects of plant diversity depend on species origin: an experimental test with multiple invaders.

    PubMed

    Kuebbing, Sara E; Classen, Aimée T; Sanders, Nathan J; Simberloff, Daniel

    2015-11-01

    Although many plant communities are invaded by multiple nonnative species, we have limited information on how a species' origin affects ecosystem function. We tested how differences in species richness and origin affect productivity and seedling establishment. We created phylogenetically paired native and nonnative plant communities in a glasshouse experiment to test diversity-productivity relationships and responsible mechanisms (i.e. selection or complementarity effects). Additionally, we tested how productivity and associated mechanisms influenced seedling establishment. We used diversity-interaction models to describe how species' interactions influenced diversity-productivity relationships. Communities with more species had higher total biomass than did monoculture communities, but native and nonnative communities diverged in root : shoot ratios and the mechanism responsible for increased productivity: positive selection effect in nonnative communities and positive complementarity effect in native communities. Seedling establishment was 46% lower in nonnative than in native communities and was correlated with the average selection effect. Interspecific interactions contributed to productivity patterns, but the specific types of interactions differed between native and nonnative communities. These results reinforce findings that the diversity-productivity mechanisms in native and nonnative communities differ and are the first to show that these mechanisms can influence seedling establishment and that different types of interactions influence diversity-productivity relationships.

  13. Using American elm in mixed-species plantings to restore above- and below-ground function to degraded riparian buffers

    Treesearch

    C.C. Pinchot; D.J. Lodge; R. Minocha; T.W. Noon; V. D’Amico; C. Flower; K.M. Knight; J. Slavicek

    2017-01-01

    We recently established a study to evaluate the effects of several riparian restoration treatments on degraded streambanks located on the Finger Lakes National Forest (FLNF) in western New York. A legacy of cattle grazing has led to soil compaction, invasion by non-native invasive plant species (NNIP), as well as heavy nitrogen loading and increased bacterial levels in...

  14. Phenology of perennial native grass below-ground axillary buds in the northern mixed-grass prairie

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Vegetative reproduction from belowground bud banks is the primary driver of grassland systems. Despite the importance of vegetative reproduction, the timing of belowground bud recruitment is unknown for most dominant, perennial native grasses as is the relationship between bud development and envir...

  15. Aboveground sink strength in forests controls the allocation of carbon below ground and its [CO2]-induced enhancement

    Treesearch

    Sari Palmroth; Ram Oren; Heather R. McCarthy; Kurt H. Johnsen; Adrien C. Finzi; John R. Butnor; Michael G. Ryan; William H. Schlesinger

    2006-01-01

    The partitioning among carbon (C) pools of the extra C captured under elevated atmospheric CO2 concentration ([CO2]) determines the enhancement in C sequestration, yet no clear partitioning rules exist. Here, we used first principles and published data from four free-air CO2 enrichment (FACE)...

  16. Above and below ground carbon stocks in northeast Siberia tundra ecosystems: a comparison between disturbed and undisturbed areas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Weber, L. R.; Pena, H., III; Curasi, S. R.; Ramos, E.; Loranty, M. M.; Alexander, H. D.; Natali, S.

    2014-12-01

    Changes in arctic tundra vegetation have the potential to alter the regional carbon (C) budget, with feedback implications for global climate. A number of studies have documented both widespread increases in productivity as well as shifts in the dominant vegetation. In particular, shrubs have been replacing other vegetation, such as graminoids, in response to changes in their environment. Shrub expansion is thought to be facilitated by exposure of mineral soil and increased nutrient availability, which are often associated with disturbance. Such disturbances can be naturally occurring, typically associated with permafrost degradation or with direct anthropogenic causes such as infrastructure development. Mechanical disturbance associated with human development is not uncommon in tundra and will likely become more frequent as warming makes the Arctic more hospitable for resource extraction and other human activities. As such, this type of disturbance will become an increasingly important component of tundra C balance. Both increased productivity and shrub expansion have clear impacts on ecosystem C cycling through increased C uptake and aboveground (AG) storage. What is less clear, however, are the concurrent changes in belowground (BG) C storage. Here we inventoried AG and BG C stocks in disturbed and undisturbed tundra ecosystems to determine the effects of disturbance on tundra C balance. We measured differences in plant functional type, AG and BG biomass, soil C, and specific leaf area (SLA) for the dominant shrub (Salix) in 2 tundra ecosystems in northern Siberia—an undisturbed moist acidic tundra and an adjacent ecosystem that was used as a road ~50 years ago. Deciduous shrubs and grasses dominated both ecosystems, but biomass for both functional types was higher in the disturbed area. SLA was also higher inside the disturbance. Conversely, nonvascular plants and evergreen shrubs were less abundant in the disturbed area. BG plant biomass was substantially greater than AG biomass. On average, soil C pool in organic and mineral soils was higher in the disturbed areas. Our results illustrate changes in ecosystem structure and function associated with disturbance that may become increasingly important with continued climate warming and subsequent human activity in the Arctic.

  17. The below-ground perspective of forest plants: soil provides mainly organic nitrogen for plants and mycorrhizal fungi.

    PubMed

    Inselsbacher, Erich; Näsholm, Torgny

    2012-07-01

    • Nitrogen (N) availability has a major impact on a wide range of biogeochemical processes in terrestrial ecosystems. Changes in N availability modify the capacity of plants to sequester carbon (C), but despite the crucial importance for our understanding of terrestrial ecosystems, the relative contribution of different N forms to plant N nutrition in the field is not known. Until now, reliably assessing the highly dynamic pool of plant-available N in soil microsites was virtually impossible, because of the lack of adequate sampling techniques. • For the first time we have applied a novel microdialysis technique for disturbance-free monitoring of diffusive fluxes of inorganic and organic N in 15 contrasting boreal forest soils in situ. • We found that amino acids accounted for 80% of the soil N supply, while ammonium and nitrate contributed only 10% each. In contrast to common soil extractions, microdialysis revealed that the majority of amino acids are available for plant and mycorrhizal uptake. • Our results suggest that the N supply of boreal forest soils is dominated by organic N as a major component of plant-available N and thus as a regulator of growth and C sequestration.

  18. Above- and below-ground biomass accumulation, production, and distribution of sweetgum and loblolly pine grown with irrigation and fertilization

    Treesearch

    David R. Coyle; Mark D. Coleman; Doug P. Aubrey

    2008-01-01

    Increased forest productivity has been obtained by improving resource availability through water and nutrient amendments. However, more stress- tolerant species that have robust site requirements do not respond consistently to irrigation. An important factor contributing to robust site requirements may be the distribution of biomass belowground, yet available...

  19. Below-ground interspecific competition for water in a rubber agroforestry system may enhance water utilization in plants

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Junen; Liu, Wenjie; Chen, Chunfeng

    2016-01-01

    Rubber-based (Hevea brasiliensis) agroforestry systems are regarded as the best way to improve the sustainability of rubber monocultures, but few reports have examined water use in such systems. Accordingly, we tested whether interplanting facilitates water utilization of rubber trees using stable isotope (δD, δ18O, and δ13C) methods and by measuring soil water content (SWC), shoot potential, and leaf C and N concentrations in a Hevea-Flemingia agroforestry system in Xishuangbanna, southwestern China. We detected a big difference in the utilization of different soil layer water between both species in this agroforestry system, as evidenced by the opposite seasonal fluctuations in both δD and δ18O in stem water. However, similar predawn shoot potential of rubber trees at both sites demonstrating that the interplanted species did not affect the water requirements of rubber trees greatly. Rubber trees with higher δ13C and more stable physiological indexes in this agroforestry system showed higher water use efficiency (WUE) and tolerance ability, and the SWC results suggested this agroforestry is conductive to water conservation. Our results clearly indicated that intercropping legume plants with rubber trees can benefit rubber trees own higher N supply, increase their WUE and better utilize soil water of each soil layer. PMID:26781071

  20. Spatial variation in below ground carbon cycling in a pristine peatland, driven by present and past vegetation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mathijssen, Paul; Knorr, Klaus-Holger; Gałka, Mariusz; Borken, Werner

    2017-04-01

    Peat carbon cycling is controlled by both large scale factors, such as climate and hydrological setting, and small scale factors, such as microtopography, vegetation, litter quality, and rooting depth. These small scale factors commonly vary within peatlands, causing variation in the carbon balance at different locations within the same site. Understanding the relationship between small scale carbon cycling and vegetation helps us to assess the variation of carbon dynamics of peatlands, because vegetation composition acts as an integrator of factors such as microtopography, hydrology, and nutrient level. Variation in vegetation illustrates spatial variation of these underlying factors. Furthermore, the presence of certain plant species affects carbon cycling directly through litter quality or aeration through root tissues. In order to understand these within-site variations in terms of carbon cycling, we investigated carbon accumulation, decomposition, and biogeochemistry of pore waters along a transect of peat cores with changing vegetation and water levels in an ombrotrophic peatland in southern Patagonia. The transect ran from a Sphagnum magellanicum dominated spot with relatively high water table, to intermediately wet spots with mixed Sphagnum/shrubs vegetation, or dominated by Cyperaceae, eventually to a more elevated and drier spot dominated by cushion plants (mainly Astelia pumila). There were large differences in peat accumulation rates and peat densities, with faster peat growth and lower densities under Sphagnum, but overall carbon accumulation rates were quite similar in the various microenvironments. At most plots C/N ratios decreased with depth, concurrent with increasing humification index derived from FT-IR spectra. But under cushion plants this relation was opposite: more humification with depth, but also C/N ratios increases. This reflected the differing source material at depth under the cushion plants, and that the cushion plant peat layers were formed on top of Sphagnum peat. The divergent source material throughout a peat core makes it difficult to use C/N ratios to indicate peat decomposition rates. Although the low peat density and higher C/N ratios indicate that overall carbon turnover is slow at Sphagnum plots, pore water methane concentrations were elevated. At cushion plant plots, however, higher redox potentials exist until greater depths due to aerenchymous roots, inhibiting methane production and release. Our results demonstrate that large variation exists within pristine bogs, in terms of decomposition patterns, organic matter quality, and carbon turnover pathways, corresponding to variation in surface moisture levels and vegetation. Furthermore, variation in carbon cycling properties are maintained in buried peat layers and reflect more the organic material of that layer, than the current surface carbon dynamics.

  1. The link between assimilation and below-ground processes - stable isotopes as tools to assess carbon transfer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gessler, A.; Wingate, L.; Ogeé, J.; Offermann, C.; Kodama, N.

    2011-12-01

    At present, there is lack of knowledge on how plant physiological processes, the transfer of carbon within the plant, carbon storage and remobilization in the plant tissues as well as the release of carbon from the roots to the soil interact with ecosystem-scale processes. On the background of global climate change, we need to mechanistically link plant physiology, CO2 net exchange between ecosystems and the atmosphere and plant biomass accumulation. This is the basis for predicting productivity of forests as well as their carbon sequestration potential in future. This paper will give an overview on how stable isotope studies can give insights into the fate of newly assimilated carbon transported within trees and transferred to the soil and atmosphere. The paper includes assessments characterizing temporal and spatial variation in the natural abundance of carbon and oxygen isotopes or applying isotopically enriched tracers. In addition, it highlights the fact that the stable isotope composition of assimilates transported within the plant contains important time integrated information on environmental conditions, leaf physiology, and post-photosynthetic metabolism. The paper on the one hand focuses on the fast turn over carbon pools, which fuel plant respiration and soil microbial activity and on the other hand explores the transfer of the isotope information to long-lived compounds in plant archives such as tree rings.

  2. TOPOGRAPHIC PATTERNS OF ABOVE- AND BELOW-GROUND PRODUCTION AND NITROGEN CYCLING IN ALPINE TUNDRA. (R823442)

    EPA Science Inventory

    The perspectives, information and conclusions conveyed in research project abstracts, progress reports, final reports, journal abstracts and journal publications convey the viewpoints of the principal investigator and may not represent the views and policies of ORD and EPA. Concl...

  3. Nutrient cycling and Above- and Below-ground Interactions in a Runoff Agroforestry System Applied with Composted Tree Trimmings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ilani, Talli; Ephrath, Jhonathan; Silberbush, Moshe; Berliner, Pedro

    2014-05-01

    The primary production in arid zones is limited due to shortage of water and nutrients. Conveying flood water and storing it in plots surrounded by embankments allows their cropping. The efficient exploitation of the stored water can be achieved through an agroforestry system, in which two crops are grown simultaneously: annual crops with a shallow root system and trees with a deeper root system. We posit that the long-term productivity of this system can be maintained by intercropping symbiotic N fixing shrubs with annual crops, and applying the pruned and composted shrub leaves to the soil, thus ensuring an adequate nitrogen level (a limiting factor in drylands) in the soil. To test our hypothesis we carried a two year trial in which fast-growing acacia (A. saligna) trees were the woody component and maize (Zea mays L.) the intercrop. Ten treatments were applied over two maize growth seasons to examine the below- and above-ground effects of tree pruning, compost application and interactions. The addition of compost in the first growth season led to an increase of the soil organic matter reservoir, which was the main N source for the maize during the following growth season. In the second growth season the maize yield was significantly higher in the plots to which compost was applied. Pruning the tree's canopies changed the trees spatial and temporal root development, allowing the annual crop to develop between the trees. The roots of pruned trees intercropped with maize penetrated deeper in the soil. The intercropping of maize within pruned trees and implementing compost resulted in a higher water use efficiency of the water stored in the soil when compared to the not composted and monoculture treatments. The results presented suggest that the approach used in this study can be the basis for achieving sustainable agricultural production under arid conditions.

  4. Toward Modeling the Resistance and Resilience of "Below-ground" Fungal Communities: A Mechanistic and Trait-Based Approach.

    PubMed

    Falconer, Ruth E; Otten, Wilfred; White, Nia A

    2015-01-01

    The role of fungi in shaping ecosystems is well evidenced and there is growing recognition of their importance among scientists and the general public. Establishing and separating the role of key local (soil chemical, biological, and physical properties) and global (climate, dispersal limitation) drivers in fungal community structure and functioning is currently a source of frustration to mycologists. The quest to determine niche processes and environmental characteristics shaping fungal community structure, known to be important for plant and animal communities, is proving difficult, resulting in the acknowledgment that niche neutral processes (climate, dispersal limitations) may dominate. The search for predictable patterns in fungal community structure may have been restricted as the "appropriate" scales at which to measure community structure and characterize the environment have not been fully determined yet, and the focus on taxonomy makes it difficult to link environmental characteristics to fungal traits. While key determinants of microbial community composition have been uncovered for some functional groups, the differential response of functional groups is largely unknown. Before we can truly understand what drives the development of microbial community structure, an understanding of the autecology of major fungal taxa and how they interact with their immediate environment (from the micro- up to kilometer scale) is urgently needed. Furthermore, key information and empirical data is missing at the microscale due to experimental difficulties in mapping this heterogeneous and opaque environment. We therefore present a framework that would help generate this much-needed empirical data and information at the microscale, together with modeling approaches to link the spatial and temporal scales. The latter is important as we propose that there is much to be gained by linking our understanding of fungal community responses across scales, in order to develop species and community-environment-function predictive models. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Occurrence and identification of microorganisms in compacted clay-based buffer material designed for use in a nuclear fuel waste disposal vault.

    PubMed

    Stroes-Gascoyne, S; Pedersen, K; Haveman, S A; Dekeyser, K; Arlinger, J; Daumas, S; Ekendahl, S; Hallbeck, L; Hamon, C J; Jahromi, N; Delaney, T L

    1997-12-01

    A full-scale nuclear fuel waste disposal container experiment was carried out 240 m below ground in an underground granitic rock research laboratory in Canada. An electric heater was surrounded by buffer material composed of sand and bentonite clay and provided heat equivalent to what is anticipated in a Canadian nuclear fuel waste repository. During the experiment, the heat caused a mass transport of water and moisture content gradients developed in the buffer ranging from 13% closest to the heater to 23% at the rock wall of the deposition hole. Upon decommissioning after 2.5 years, microorganisms could be cultured from all samples having a moisture content above 15% but not from samples with a moisture content below 15%. Heterotrophic aerobic and anaerobic bacteria were found in numbers ranging from 10(1) to 10(6) cells/g dry weight buffer. Approximately 10(2), or less, sulphate-reducing bacteria and methanogens per gram of dry weight buffer were also found. Identification of buffer population members was performed using Analytical Profile Index (API) strips for isolated bacteria and 16S rRNA gene sequencing for in situ samples. A total of 79 isolates from five buffer layers were identified with API strips as representing the beta, gamma and delta groups of Proteobacteria and Gram-positive bacteria. Sixty-seven 16S rRNA clones that were obtained from three buffer layers were classified into 21 clone groups representing alpha and gamma groups of Proteobacteria, Gram-positive bacteria, and a yeast. Approximately 20% of the population comprised Gram-positive bacteria. Members of the genera Amycolatopsis, Bacillus, and Nocardia predominated. Among Gram-negative bacteria, the genera Acinetobacter and Pseudomonas predominated. Analysis of lipid biomarker signatures and in situ leucine uptake demonstrated that the buffer population was viable. The results suggest that a nuclear fuel waste buffer will be populated by active microorganisms only if the moisture content is

  6. Tolerance of the vaginal vault to high-dose rate brachytherapy and concomitant chemo-pelvic irradiation: Long-term perspective☆

    PubMed Central

    Kaidar-Person, Orit; Abdah-Bortnyak, Roxolyana; Amit, Amnon; Nevelsky, Alexander; Berniger, Alison; Bar-Deroma, Raquel; Ben-Yosef, Rahamim; Kuten, Abraham

    2013-01-01

    Aim/background We sought to determine the tolerance level and complication rates of the vaginal vault to combined high-dose-rate intra-cavitary brachytherapy with concomitant chemo-radiotherapy. Patients and methods A retrospective review of medical records of all the patients who received definitive chemo-radiotherapy for cervical cancer between 1998 and 2002 was undertaken. The records were reviewed for doses and for radiation-associated early and late sequelae of the vagina, rectum and bladder. Cumulative biological effective dose was calculated for two reference vaginal surface points. Results Fifty patients were included. Average age at diagnosis was 54 years. Median follow-up was 59 months. There were no recorded instances of acute grade IV toxicity. Maximal high-dose-rate vaginal surface dose (upper central point) was 103 Gy, and maximal brachytherapy lateral surface dose was 70 Gy. Maximal cumulative biological effective dose for the lateral surface reference point was 465.5 Gy3, and the maximal cumulative biological effective dose for the superior reference point was 878.6 Gy3. There were no cases of vaginal necrosis or fistulas, and no cases of grade IV late vaginal, rectal or bladder toxicity. No correlation was found between the maximal vaginal surface dose and vaginal, rectal or bladder toxicity. Conclusions The maximal surface HDR brachytherapy dose of 103 Gy and the maximal cBED of 878.6 Gy3 were not associated with fistula or necrosis or other grade 3–4 vaginal complications. Concomitant chemo-radiotherapy, including pelvic radiotherapy and high-dose-rate intracavitary brachytherapy, is relatively safe for cervical cancer patients. PMID:24936320

  7. Inter and intraobserver variation in gross tumor delineation on megavoltage CT images in patients undergoing tomotherapy-based image-guided radiotherapy for postoperative vault recurrences.

    PubMed

    Upasani, Mahesh; Chopra, Supriya; Engineer, Reena; Medhi, Seema; Master, Zubin; Mahantshetty, Umesh; Shrivastava, Shyam Kishore

    2011-01-01

    This study was designed to evaluate inter and intraobserver concordance in gross tumor volume (GTV) delineation on megavoltage CT (MVCT) images in patients with postoperative vault recurrences. Three observers delineated GTV on MVCT and CECT and two observers recontoured on MVCT images. Tumor volumes were calculated and correlated using Spearman correlation. The standard deviation of centre of mass was averaged on per patient basis. The ratio of common volume and encompassing volume was used to determine intra and interobserver spatial concordance. Lack of difference in spatial concordance ratio between MVCT and CECT images was used as an index of usability of MVCT images. Thirty six datasets were available for seven patients. High intraobserver GTV correlation was recorded for observer 1 and 2 (r = 0.93 and r = 0.98; P=0.03 and 0.0001). The average intraobserver spatial concordance ratio was 0.57 and 0.62 respectively. The mean GTV of observers 1, 2 and 3 were 31.6 (18.7-52.2); 28.2 (16.7-51.8) and 46.3 cc (29.1-90.5) respectively. Average standard deviation of centre of mass of all observers was less than 5 mm in either direction. Largest interobserver discordance was observed in anterior, inferior and lateral direction. The interobserver spatial concordance of GTV on MVCT and CECT images was 0.34 and 0.36 (P=0.24) respectively. Moderate to good inter and intraobserver GTV correlation was observed on MVCT images, however, was associated with low interobserver spatial concordance on both MVCT and CECT images. Strategies to improve contouring reproducibility on MVCT and KVCT images are desirable.

  8. Adjuvant Chemotherapy and Vaginal Vault Brachytherapy With or Without Pelvic Radiotherapy for Stage 1 Papillary Serous or Clear Cell Endometrial Cancer.

    PubMed

    Tétreault-Laflamme, Audrey; Nguyen-Huynh, Thu Van; Carrier, Jean-François; Samouëlian, Vanessa; Sauthier, Philippe; Beauchemin, Marie-Claude; Barkati, Maroie

    2016-02-01

    The aim of this study was to assess and compare adjuvant chemotherapy followed by either high-dose-rate vaginal vault brachytherapy (VBT) alone or combined with pelvic external beam radiotherapy (EBRT) for International Federation of Gynaecology and Obstetrics stage 1 serous or clear cell (CC) endometrial cancer. Between 2006 and 2012, 84 women with stage 1 serous or CC endometrial cancer were evaluated postoperatively for adjuvant treatment at our hospital. More than 80% of patients had pelvic lymphadenectomy. Patients declining or not completing adjuvant treatments were excluded. Twenty-five women received 4 to 6 cycles of carboplatin/paclitaxel followed by EBRT and VBT. Thirty-two women received 6 cycles of carboplatin/paclitaxel followed by VBT. Locoregional control and toxicities were assessed during follow-up. The 3-year disease-free survival and overall survival rates for the VBT group compared with the EBRT + VBT group were 88% versus 84%, P = 0.6, and 100% versus 94%, P = 0.6, respectively. Only 1 patient in the EBRT + VBT group developed a distant recurrence. One patient had grade 3 toxicity (chronic gastrointestinal [GI] toxicity) in the EBRT + VBT group. Acute grade 1-to-2 GI and grade 1 genitourinary (GU) toxicities were less frequent in the VBT group compared with the EBRT + VBT group (P = 0.008 and P = 0.019, respectively). Late GI and GU toxicities were comparable. Grade 1 vaginal toxicity was similar in both groups. No acute or late grade 2 GU or vaginal toxicities were reported. According to this study, VBT alone seems to be as effective as EBRT and VBT for stage 1 serous and CC endometrial cancer treated with surgery and adjuvant chemotherapy. Furthermore, less acute GI and GU toxicities were seen in the VBT group.

  9. Telecom 2-A (TC2A)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dulac, J.; Latour, J.

    1991-01-01

    The DSN (Deep Space Network) mission support requirements for Telecom 2-A (TC2A) are summarized. The Telecom 2-A will provide high-speed data link applications, telephone, and television service between France and overseas territories. The mission objectives are outlined and the DSN support requirements are defined through the presentation of tables and narratives describing the spacecraft flight profile; DSN support coverage; frequency assignments; support parameters for telemetry, command and support systems; and tracking support responsibility.

  10. Comparative dosimetric and radiobiological assessment among a nonstandard RapidArc, standard RapidArc, classical intensity-modulated radiotherapy, and 3D brachytherapy for the treatment of the vaginal vault in patients affected by gynecologic cancer

    SciTech Connect

    Pedicini, Piernicola; Caivano, Rocchina; Fiorentino, Alba; Strigari, Lidia; Califano, Giorgia; Barbieri, Viviana; Sanpaolo, Piero; Castaldo, Giovanni; Benassi, Marcello; Fusco, Vincenzo

    2012-01-01

    To evaluate a nonstandard RapidArc (RA) modality as alternative to high-dose-rate brachytherapy (HDR-BRT) or IMRT treatments of the vaginal vault in patients with gynecological cancer (GC). Nonstandard (with vaginal applicator) and standard (without vaginal applicator) RapidArc plans for 27 women with GC were developed to compare with HDR-BRT and IMRT. Dosimetric and radiobiological comparison were performed by means of dose-volume histogram and equivalent uniform dose (EUD) for planning target volume (PTV) and organs at risk (OARs). In addition, the integral dose and the overall treatment times were evaluated. RA, as well as IMRT, results in a high uniform dose on PTV compared with HDR-BRT. However, the average of EUD for HDR-BRT was significantly higher than those with RA and IMRT. With respect to the OARs, standard RA was equivalent of IMRT but inferior to HDR-BRT. Furthermore, nonstandard RA was comparable with IMRT for bladder and sigmoid and better than HDR-BRT for the rectum because of a significant reduction of d{sub 2cc}, d{sub 1cc}, and d{sub max} (p < 0.01). Integral doses were always higher than HDR-BRT, although the values were very low. Delivery times were about the same and more than double for HDR-BRT compared with IMRT and RA, respectively. In conclusion, the boost of dose on vaginal vault in patients affected by GC delivered by a nonstandard RA technique was a reasonable alternative to the conventional HDR-BRT because of a reduction of delivery time and rectal dose at substantial comparable doses for the bladder and sigmoid. However HDR-BRT provides better performance in terms of PTV coverage as evidenced by a greater EUD.

  11. Active Sites Environmental Monitoring Program: Program plan

    SciTech Connect

    Ashwood, T.L.; Wickliff, D.S.; Morrissey, C.M.

    1992-02-01

    The Active Sites Environmental Monitoring Program (ASEMP), initiated in 1989, provides early detection and performance monitoring of transuranic (TRU) waste and active low-level waste (LLW) facilities at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) in accordance with US Department of Energy (DOE) Order 5820.2A. Active LLW facilities in Solid Waste Storage Area (SWSA) 6 include Tumulus I and Tumulus II, the Interim Waste Management Facility (IWMF), LLW silos, high-range wells, asbestos silos, and fissile wells. The tumulus pads and IWMF are aboveground, high-strength concrete pads on which concrete vaults containing metal boxes of LLW are placed; the void space between the boxes and vaults is filled with grout. Eventually, these pads and vaults will be covered by an engineered multilayered cap. All other LLW facilities in SWSA 6 are below ground. In addition, this plan includes monitoring of the Hillcut Disposal Test Facility (HDTF) in SWSA 6, even though this facility was completed prior to the data of the DOE order. In SWSA 5 North, the TRU facilities include below-grade engineered caves, high-range wells, and unlined trenches. All samples from SWSA 6 are screened for alpha and beta activity, counted for gamma-emitting isotopes, and analyzed for tritium. In addition to these analytes, samples from SWSA 5 North are analyzed for specific transuranic elements.

  12. Active Sites Environmental Monitoring Program: Program plan. Revision 1

    SciTech Connect

    Ashwood, T.L.; Wickliff, D.S.; Morrissey, C.M.

    1992-02-01

    The Active Sites Environmental Monitoring Program (ASEMP), initiated in 1989, provides early detection and performance monitoring of transuranic (TRU) waste and active low-level waste (LLW) facilities at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) in accordance with US Department of Energy (DOE) Order 5820.2A. Active LLW facilities in Solid Waste Storage Area (SWSA) 6 include Tumulus I and Tumulus II, the Interim Waste Management Facility (IWMF), LLW silos, high-range wells, asbestos silos, and fissile wells. The tumulus pads and IWMF are aboveground, high-strength concrete pads on which concrete vaults containing metal boxes of LLW are placed; the void space between the boxes and vaults is filled with grout. Eventually, these pads and vaults will be covered by an engineered multilayered cap. All other LLW facilities in SWSA 6 are below ground. In addition, this plan includes monitoring of the Hillcut Disposal Test Facility (HDTF) in SWSA 6, even though this facility was completed prior to the data of the DOE order. In SWSA 5 North, the TRU facilities include below-grade engineered caves, high-range wells, and unlined trenches. All samples from SWSA 6 are screened for alpha and beta activity, counted for gamma-emitting isotopes, and analyzed for tritium. In addition to these analytes, samples from SWSA 5 North are analyzed for specific transuranic elements.

  13. GRIN2A

    PubMed Central

    Turner, Samantha J.; Mayes, Angela K.; Verhoeven, Andrea; Mandelstam, Simone A.; Morgan, Angela T.

    2015-01-01

    Objective: To delineate the specific speech deficits in individuals with epilepsy-aphasia syndromes associated with mutations in the glutamate receptor subunit gene GRIN2A. Methods: We analyzed the speech phenotype associated with GRIN2A mutations in 11 individuals, aged 16 to 64 years, from 3 families. Standardized clinical speech assessments and perceptual analyses of conversational samples were conducted. Results: Individuals showed a characteristic phenotype of dysarthria and dyspraxia with lifelong impact on speech intelligibility in some. Speech was typified by imprecise articulation (11/11, 100%), impaired pitch (monopitch 10/11, 91%) and prosody (stress errors 7/11, 64%), and hypernasality (7/11, 64%). Oral motor impairments and poor performance on maximum vowel duration (8/11, 73%) and repetition of monosyllables (10/11, 91%) and trisyllables (7/11, 64%) supported conversational speech findings. The speech phenotype was present in one individual who did not have seizures. Conclusions: Distinctive features of dysarthria and dyspraxia are found in individuals with GRIN2A mutations, often in the setting of epilepsy-aphasia syndromes; dysarthria has not been previously recognized in these disorders. Of note, the speech phenotype may occur in the absence of a seizure disorder, reinforcing an important role for GRIN2A in motor speech function. Our findings highlight the need for precise clinical speech assessment and intervention in this group. By understanding the mechanisms involved in GRIN2A disorders, targeted therapy may be designed to improve chronic lifelong deficits in intelligibility. PMID:25596506

  14. SCN2A encephalopathy

    PubMed Central

    Howell, Katherine B.; McMahon, Jacinta M.; Carvill, Gemma L.; Tambunan, Dimira; Mackay, Mark T.; Rodriguez-Casero, Victoria; Webster, Richard; Clark, Damian; Freeman, Jeremy L.; Calvert, Sophie; Olson, Heather E.; Mandelstam, Simone; Poduri, Annapurna; Mefford, Heather C.; Harvey, A. Simon

    2015-01-01

    Objective: De novo SCN2A mutations have recently been associated with severe infantile-onset epilepsies. Herein, we define the phenotypic spectrum of SCN2A encephalopathy. Methods: Twelve patients with an SCN2A epileptic encephalopathy underwent electroclinical phenotyping. Results: Patients were aged 0.7 to 22 years; 3 were deceased. Seizures commenced on day 1–4 in 8, week 2–6 in 2, and after 1 year in 2. Characteristic features included clusters of brief focal seizures with multiple hourly (9 patients), multiple daily (2), or multiple weekly (1) seizures, peaking at maximal frequency within 3 months of onset. Multifocal interictal epileptiform discharges were seen in all. Three of 12 patients had infantile spasms. The epileptic syndrome at presentation was epilepsy of infancy with migrating focal seizures (EIMFS) in 7 and Ohtahara syndrome in 2. Nine patients had improved seizure control with sodium channel blockers including supratherapeutic or high therapeutic phenytoin levels in 5. Eight had severe to profound developmental impairment. Other features included movement disorders (10), axial hypotonia (11) with intermittent or persistent appendicular spasticity, early handedness, and severe gastrointestinal symptoms. Mutations arose de novo in 11 patients; paternal DNA was unavailable in one. Conclusions: Review of our 12 and 34 other reported cases of SCN2A encephalopathy suggests 3 phenotypes: neonatal-infantile–onset groups with severe and intermediate outcomes, and a childhood-onset group. Here, we show that SCN2A is the second most common cause of EIMFS and, importantly, does not always have a poor developmental outcome. Sodium channel blockers, particularly phenytoin, may improve seizure control. PMID:26291284

  15. Below-ground effects of enhanced tropospheric ozone and drought in a beech/spruce forest (Fagus sylvatica L. / Picea abies [L.] Karst)

    EPA Science Inventory

    The effects of experimentally elevated O3 on soil respiration rates, standing fine-root biomass, fine-root production and δ13C signature of newly produced fine roots were investigated in an adult European beech/Norway spruce forest in Germany during two subsequent years with cont...

  16. Exposure of unsuspecting workers to deadly atmospheres in below-ground confined spaces and investigation of related whole-air sample composition using adsorption gas chromatography.

    PubMed

    Smith, Philip A; Lockhart, Bonnie; Besser, Brett W; Michalski, Michael A R

    2014-01-01

    Hazardous atmospheres in confined spaces may be obvious when a source of air contamination or oxygen (O2) deficiency is recognized. Such is often the case in general industry settings, especially with work processes which create hazardous atmospheres that may be anticipated. Hazards present in active sewers are also well recognized; but the possibility that O2 deficiency or high airborne contaminant concentrations may exist in new construction sewers or storm drains has been repeatedly ignored with deadly results. Low O2 and high carbon dioxide (CO2) concentrations may exist in new construction manholes that have not yet been connected to an active sewer or drain system, and these concentrations have been shown to vary over time. A recent incident is described where workers repeatedly entered such a confined space without incident, but subsequent entry resulted in a fatality and a near-miss for a co-worker rescuer. Additional cases are discussed, with an emphasis placed on elevated CO2 concentrations as a causative factor. A description is provided for the adsorptive gas chromatography whole-air analysis methodology used to quantitatively determine atmospheric conditions present at this type of fatality site or others after an incident, and for the gas chromatography-mass spectrometry method used to provide confirmation of analyte identity with high certainty. Many types of confined spaces may be encountered in addition to the underground varieties discussed, and many possible atmospheric hazards are possible. The definitive whole-air analysis approach described here may be of use and should be considered to investigate many confined space fatality and near-miss cases, and to better understand the causes of dangerous atmosphere conditions that may arise in confined spaces.

  17. Preliminary work of mangrove ecosystem carbon stock mapping in small island using remote sensing: above and below ground carbon stock mapping on medium resolution satellite image

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wicaksono, Pramaditya; Danoedoro, Projo; Hartono, Hartono; Nehren, Udo; Ribbe, Lars

    2011-11-01

    Mangrove forest is an important ecosystem located in coastal area that provides various important ecological and economical services. One of the services provided by mangrove forest is the ability to act as carbon sink by sequestering CO2 from atmosphere through photosynthesis and carbon burial on the sediment. The carbon buried on mangrove sediment may persist for millennia before return to the atmosphere, and thus act as an effective long-term carbon sink. Therefore, it is important to understand the distribution of carbon stored within mangrove forest in a spatial and temporal context. In this paper, an effort to map carbon stocks in mangrove forest is presented using remote sensing technology to overcome the handicap encountered by field survey. In mangrove carbon stock mapping, the use of medium spatial resolution Landsat 7 ETM+ is emphasized. Landsat 7 ETM+ images are relatively cheap, widely available and have large area coverage, and thus provide a cost and time effective way of mapping mangrove carbon stocks. Using field data, two image processing techniques namely Vegetation Index and Linear Spectral Unmixing (LSU) were evaluated to find the best method to explain the variation in mangrove carbon stocks using remote sensing data. In addition, we also tried to estimate mangrove carbon sequestration rate via multitemporal analysis. Finally, the technique which produces significantly better result was used to produce a map of mangrove forest carbon stocks, which is spatially extensive and temporally repetitive.

  18. Neutron and gamma-ray shielding requirements for a below-ground neutrino detector system at the Rutherford Laboratory Spallation Neutron Source

    SciTech Connect

    Gabriel, T.A.; Lillie, R.A.; Childs, R.L.; Wilczynski, J.; Zeitnitz, B.

    1983-03-01

    The neutron and gamma-ray shielding requirements for a proposed neutrino system below the target station at the Rutherford Laboratory Spallation Neutron Source (SNS) are studied. The present shield below the station consists of 2 meters of iron and 1 meter of concrete, below which is chalk (CaCO/sub 3/). An underground bunker housing the neutrino detector system would require additional shielding consisting of 6 meters of the chalk plus approx. 3 meters of iron to reduce the number of high-energy (> approx. 7 MeV) neutrons and gamma rays entering the detector system to an acceptable level of approx. 1 per day.

  19. THE CONTRIBUTION OF MICROARTHROPODS TO ABOVE GROUND FOOD WEBS: A REVIEW AND MODEL OF BELOW GROUND TRANSFER IN A CONIFEROUS FOREST

    EPA Science Inventory

    Although belowground food webs have received much attention, studies concerning microarthropods in nondetrital food webs are scarce. Because adult oribatid mites often number between 250,000-500,000/m(2) in coniferous forests, microarthropods are a potential food resource for mic...

  20. Impact of no-till cover cropping of Italian ryegrass on above and below ground faunal communities inhabiting a soybean field with special emphasis on soybean cyst nematodes

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Two field trials were conducted in Maryland to evaluate the ability of an Italian ryegrass (IR) (Lolium multiflorum) cover crop in a no-till soybean (Glycine max) planting to 1) reduce populations of plant-parasitic nematodes (i.e., the soybean cyst nematode, Heterodera glycines and lesion nematodes...