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Sample records for 2a receptor gene

  1. Positive association between a DNA sequence variant in the serotonin 2A receptor gene and schizophrenia

    SciTech Connect

    Inayama, Y.; Yoneda, H.; Sakai, T.

    1996-02-16

    Sixty-two patients with schizophrenia and 96 normal controls were investigated for genetic association with restriction fragment length polymorphisms (RFLPs) in the serotonin receptor genes. A positive association between the serotonin 2A receptor gene (HTR2A) and schizophrenia was found, but not between schizophrenia and the serotonin 1A receptor gene. The positive association we report here would suggest that the DNA region with susceptibility to schizophrenia lies in the HTR2A on the long arm of chromosome 13. 15 refs., 2 tabs.

  2. 5-HT2A receptor gene polymorphisms in Croatian subjects with autistic disorder.

    PubMed

    Hranilovic, Dubravka; Blazevic, Sofia; Babic, Marina; Smurinic, Maja; Bujas-Petkovic, Zorana; Jernej, Branimir

    2010-08-15

    Disturbances in the expression/function of the 5-HT2A receptor are implicated in autism. The association of the 5-HT2A receptor gene with autism was studied in the Croatian population. Distribution frequencies for alleles, genotypes and haplotypes of -1438 A/G and His452Tyr polymorphisms were compared in samples of 103 autistic and 214 control subjects. Significant overrepresentation of the G allele and the GG genotype of the -1438 A/G polymorphism was observed in group of autistic subjects, supporting the possible involvement of the 5-HT2A receptor in the development of autism.

  3. Lack of association between serotonin-2A receptor gene (HTR2A) polymorphisms and tardive dyskinesia in schizophrenia.

    PubMed

    Basile, V S; Ozdemir, V; Masellis, M; Meltzer, H Y; Lieberman, J A; Potkin, S G; Macciardi, F M; Petronis, A; Kennedy, J L

    2001-03-01

    Tardive dyskinesia (TD) is a disabling neurological side effect associated with long-term treatment with typical antipsychotics. Family studies and animal models lend evidence for hereditary predisposition to TD. The newer atypical antipsychotics pose a minimal risk for TD which is in part attributed to their ability to block the serotonin-2A (5-HT(2A)) receptor. 5-HT(2A) receptors were also identified in the basal ganglia; a brain region that plays a critical role in antipsychotic-induced movement disorders. We tested the significance of variation in the 5-HT(2A) receptor gene (HTR2A) in relation to the TD phenotype. Three polymorphisms in HTR2A, one silent (C102T), one that alters the amino acid sequence (his452tyr) and one in the promoter region (A-1437G) were investigated in 136 patients refractory or intolerant to treatment with typical antipsychotics and with a DSM-IIIR diagnosis of schizophrenia. We did not find any significant difference in allele, genotype or haplotype frequencies of polymorphisms in HTR2A among patients with or without TD (P > 0.05). Further analysis using the ANCOVA statistic with a continuous measure of the TD phenotype (Abnormal Involuntary Movement Scale (AIMS) score) found that the AIMS scores were not significantly influenced by HTR2A polymorphisms, despite controlling for potential confounders such as age, gender and ethnicity (P > 0.05). Theoretically, central serotonergic function can be subject to genetic control at various other mechanistic levels including the rate of serotonin synthesis (tryptophane hydroxylase gene), release, reuptake (serotonin transporter gene) and degradation (monoamine oxidase gene). Analyses of these other serotonergic genes are indicated. In summary, polymorphisms in HTR2A do not appear to influence the risk for TD. Further studies evaluating in tandem multiple candidate genes relevant for the serotonergic system are warranted to dissect the genetic basis of the complex TD phenotype.

  4. Increased hypothalamic 5-HT2A receptor gene expression and effects of pharmacologic 5-HT2A receptor inactivation in obese A{sup y} mice

    SciTech Connect

    Nonogaki, Katsunori . E-mail: knonogaki-tky@umin.ac.jp; Nozue, Kana; Oka, Yoshitomo

    2006-12-29

    Serotonin (5-hydroxytryptamine; 5-HT) 2A receptors contribute to the effects of 5-HT on platelet aggregation and vascular smooth muscle cell proliferation, and are reportedly involved in decreases in plasma levels of adiponectin, an adipokine, in diabetic subjects. Here, we report that systemic administration of sarpogrelate, a 5-HT2A receptor antagonist, suppressed appetite and increased hypothalamic pro-opiomelanocortin and cocaine- and amphetamine-regulated transcript, corticotropin releasing hormone, 5-HT2C, and 5-HT1B receptor gene expression. A{sup y} mice, which have ectopic expression of the agouti protein, significantly increased hypothalamic 5-HT2A receptor gene expression in association with obesity compared with wild-type mice matched for age. Systemic administration of sarpogrelate suppressed overfeeding, body weight gain, and hyperglycemia in obese A{sup y} mice, whereas it did not increase plasma adiponectin levels. These results suggest that obesity increases hypothalamic 5-HT2A receptor gene expression, and pharmacologic inactivation of 5-HT2A receptors inhibits overfeeding and obesity in A{sup y} mice, but did not increase plasma adiponectin levels.

  5. Adenosine A(2A) receptor gene (ADORA2A) variants may increase autistic symptoms and anxiety in autism spectrum disorder.

    PubMed

    Freitag, Christine M; Agelopoulos, Konstantin; Huy, Ellen; Rothermundt, Matthias; Krakowitzky, Petra; Meyer, Jobst; Deckert, Jürgen; von Gontard, Alexander; Hohoff, Christa

    2010-01-01

    Autism spectrum disorders (ASDs) are heterogeneous disorders presenting with increased rates of anxiety. The adenosine A(2A) receptor gene (ADORA2A) is associated with panic disorder and is located on chromosome 22q11.23. Its gene product, the adenosine A(2A) receptor, is strongly expressed in the caudate nucleus, which also is involved in ASD. As autistic symptoms are increased in individuals with 22q11.2 deletion syndrome, and large 22q11.2 deletions and duplications have been observed in ASD individuals, in this study, 98 individuals with ASD and 234 control individuals were genotyped for eight single-nucleotide polymorphisms in ADORA2A. Nominal association with the disorder was observed for rs2236624-CC, and phenotypic variability in ASD symptoms was influenced by rs3761422, rs5751876 and rs35320474. In addition, association of ADORA2A variants with anxiety was replicated for individuals with ASD. Findings point toward a possible mediating role of ADORA2A variants on phenotypic expression in ASD that need to be replicated in a larger sample.

  6. Structure and variation of three canine genes involved in serotonin binding and transport: the serotonin receptor 1A gene (htr1A), serotonin receptor 2A gene (htr2A), and serotonin transporter gene (slc6A4).

    PubMed

    van den Berg, L; Kwant, L; Hestand, M S; van Oost, B A; Leegwater, P A J

    2005-01-01

    Aggressive behavior is the most frequently encountered behavioral problem in dogs. Abnormalities in brain serotonin metabolism have been described in aggressive dogs. We studied canine serotonergic genes to investigate genetic factors underlying canine aggression. Here, we describe the characterization of three genes of the canine serotonergic system: the serotonin receptor 1A and 2A gene (htr1A and htr2A) and the serotonin transporter gene (slc6A4). We isolated canine bacterial artificial chromosome clones containing these genes and designed oligonucleotides for genomic sequencing of coding regions and intron-exon boundaries. Golden retrievers were analyzed for DNA sequence variations. We found two nonsynonymous single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in the coding sequence of htr1A; one SNP close to a splice site in htr2A; and two SNPs in slc6A4, one in the coding sequence and one close to a splice site. In addition, we identified a polymorphic microsatellite marker for each gene. Htr1A is a strong candidate for involvement in the domestication of the dog. We genotyped the htr1A SNPs in 41 dogs of seven breeds with diverse behavioral characteristics. At least three SNP haplotypes were found. Our results do not support involvement of the gene in domestication.

  7. Polymorphism in the Serotonin Receptor 2a (HTR2A) Gene as Possible Predisposal Factor for Aggressive Traits

    PubMed Central

    Banlaki, Zsofia; Elek, Zsuzsanna; Nanasi, Tibor; Szekely, Anna; Nemoda, Zsofia; Sasvari-Szekely, Maria; Ronai, Zsolt

    2015-01-01

    Aggressive manifestations and their consequences are a major issue of mankind, highlighting the need for understanding the contributory factors. Still, aggression-related genetic analyses have so far mainly been conducted on small population subsets such as individuals suffering from a certain psychiatric disorder or a narrow-range age cohort, but no data on the general population is yet available. In the present study, our aim was to identify polymorphisms in genes affecting neurobiological processes that might explain some of the inter-individual variation between aggression levels in the non-clinical Caucasian adult population. 55 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNP) were simultaneously determined in 887 subjects who also filled out the self-report Buss-Perry Aggression Questionnaire (BPAQ). Single marker association analyses between genotypes and aggression scores indicated a significant role of rs7322347 located in the HTR2A gene encoding serotonin receptor 2a following Bonferroni correction for multiple testing (p = 0.0007) both for males and females. Taking the four BPAQ subscales individually, scores for Hostility, Anger and Physical Aggression showed significant association with rs7322347 T allele in themselves, while no association was found with Verbal Aggression. Of the subscales, relationship with rs7322347 was strongest in the case of Hostility, where statistical significance virtually equaled that observed with the whole BPAQ. In conclusion, this is the first study to our knowledge analyzing SNPs in a wide variety of genes in terms of aggression in a large sample-size non-clinical adult population, also describing a novel candidate polymorphism as predisposal to aggressive traits. PMID:25658328

  8. Serotonin 2A Receptor Gene Polymorphism in Korean Children with Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder

    PubMed Central

    Cho, Soo-Churl; Kim, Boong-Nyun; Kim, Jae-Won; Yoo, Hee-Jeong; Hwang, Jun-Won; Cho, Dae-Yeon; Chung, Un-Sun; Park, Tae-Won

    2012-01-01

    Objective The purpose of this study was to investigate the association between the T102C polymorphism in the serotonin 2A receptor gene and attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) in Korean patients. Methods A total of 189 Korean children with ADHD as well as both parents of the ADHD children and 150 normal children participated in this study. DNA was extracted from blood samples from all of the subjects, and genotyping was conducted. Based on the allele and genotype information obtained, case-control analyses were performed to compare the ADHD and normal children, and Transmission disequilibrium tests (TDTs) were used for family-based association testing (number of trios=113). Finally, according to the significant finding which was showed in the case-control analyses, the results of behavioral characterastics and neuropsychological test were compared between ADHD children with and without the C allele. Results In the case-control analyses, statistically significant differences were detected in the frequencies of genotypes containing the C allele (χ2=4.73, p=0.030). In the family-based association study, TDTs failed to detect linkage disequilibrium of the T102C polymorphism associated with ADHD children. In the ADHD children, both the mean reaction time and the standard deviation of the reaction time in the auditory continuous performance test were longer in the group with the C allele compared to the group without the C allele. Conclusion The results of this study suggest that there is a significant genetic association between the T102C polymorphism in the serotonin 2A receptor gene and ADHD in Korean children. PMID:22993527

  9. Functional polymorphisms of the glutamate receptor N-methyl D-aspartate 2A gene are associated with heroin addiction.

    PubMed

    Zhong, H J; Huo, Z H; Dang, J; Chen, J; Zhu, Y S; Liu, J H

    2014-10-27

    Heroin dependence is a debilitating psychiatric disorder with a complex inheritance mechanism. Genetic polymorphisms in functional regions of the glutamate receptor, N-methyl D-aspartate 2A (GRIN2A) gene, which encodes the 2A subunit of the N-methyl D-aspartate (NMDA) receptor, may modulate the risk of heroin addiction. We investigated the potential association between 8 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) of the GRIN2A gene (SNPs rs3219790, rs1014531, rs8044472, rs8045712, rs9933624, rs9940680, rs1420040, and rs767749) and heroin addiction using the MassARRAY system and GeneScan. A total of 405 heroin-addicted patients and 397 healthy control subjects were recruited for this study. Statistically significant differences were observed for rs3219790 in the promoter region of the GRIN2A gene. The frequency of the (GT)26 repeats in the heroin addiction group was significantly higher than that in the control group [X(2) = 5.475, P = 0.019, odds ratio (OR) = 1.367, 95% confidence interval (CI) = 1.051-1.776]. Strong linkage disequilibrium was observed in block 1 (D' > 0.9). However, significant evidence of linkage disequilibrium was not observed between the 7 SNPs in our sample population. These data suggest that GRIN2A gene polymorphisms confer susceptibility to heroin addiction and support the hypothesis that dysfunction of GRIN2A is involved in the pathophysiological process of heroin addiction.

  10. Serotonin 5-HT2A receptor gene variants influence antidepressant response to repeated total sleep deprivation in bipolar depression.

    PubMed

    Benedetti, Francesco; Barbini, Barbara; Bernasconi, Alessandro; Fulgosi, Mara Cigala; Colombo, Cristina; Dallaspezia, Sara; Gavinelli, Chiara; Marino, Elena; Pirovano, Adele; Radaelli, Daniele; Smeraldi, Enrico

    2008-12-12

    5-HT2A receptor density in prefrontal cortex was associated with depression and suicide. 5-HT2A receptor gene polymorphism rs6313 was associated with 5-HT2A receptor binding potential, with the ability of individuals to use environmental support in order to prevent depression, and with sleep improvement after antidepressant treatment with mirtazapine. Studies on response to antidepressant drugs gave inconsistent results. Here we studied the effect of rs6313 on response to repeated total sleep deprivation (TSD) in 80 bipolar depressed inpatients treated with three consecutive TSD cycles (each one made of 36 h awake followed by a night of undisturbed sleep). All genotype groups showed comparable acute effects of the first TSD, but patients homozygotes for the T variant had better perceived and observed benefits from treatment than carriers of the C allele. These effects became significant after the first recovery night and during the following days, leading to a 36% higher final response rate (Hamilton depression rating<8). The higher density of postsynaptic excitatory 5-HT2A receptors in T/T homozygotes could have led to higher behavioural effects of increased 5-HT neurotransmission due to repeated TSD. Other possible mechanisms involve allostatic/homeostatic adaptation to sleep loss, and a different effect of the allele variants on epigenetic influences. Results confirm the interest for individual gene variants of the serotonin pathway in shaping clinical characteristics of depression and antidepressant response.

  11. Emotional management and 5-HT2A receptor gene variance in patients with schizophrenia.

    PubMed

    Lo, Chi-Hsuan; Tsai, Guochuan E; Liao, Chun-Hui; Wang, Ming-Yu; Chang, Jane Pei-Chen; Tsuang, Hui-Chun; Lane, Hsien-Yuan

    2010-02-01

    Individuals with schizophrenia exhibit impaired social cognitive functions, particularly emotion management. Emotion management may be partially regulated by the serotoninergic system; the -1438 A/G polymorphism in the promoter region of the 5-HT2A gene can modulate 5-HT2A activity and is linked to certain emotional traits and anger- and aggression-related behaviors. The current study aimed to investigate whether this 5-HT2A genetic variance is associated with social cognitive function, particularly the management of emotions. One hundred and fifteen patients with chronic schizophrenia were stabilized with an optimal-dose of antipsychotic treatment. All were genotyped for the -1438 A/G polymorphism and assessed with symptom rating scales, neurocognitive instruments, and the "Managing Emotions" section of Mayer-Salovey-Caruso Emotional Intelligence Test (MSCEIT). Multiple regression showed that patients with the A/G genotype performed better than those with G/G in managing emotion (p=0.018) but did not differ from those with the A/A genotype. Regarding the two subtasks of the Managing Emotions section, the A/G heterozygotes also performed better than the G/G homozygotes in the emotion management (p=0.026) and emotional relations (p=0.027) subtasks. The results suggest that variability in the 5-HT2A gene may influence emotion management in patients with schizophrenia.

  12. Effect of serotonin receptor 2A gene polymorphism on mirtazapine response in major depression.

    PubMed

    Kang, Rhee-Hun; Choi, Myoung-Jin; Paik, Jong-Woo; Hahn, Sang-Woo; Lee, Min-Soo

    2007-01-01

    The 5-HTR2A gene is a candidate gene for influencing the clinical response to treatment with antidepressants. The purpose of this study was to determine the relationship between the -1438A/G polymorphism of the 5-HTR2A gene and the response to mirtazapine in a Korean population with major depressive disorder. Mirtazapine was administered for eight weeks to the 101 patients who completed the study, during which we evaluated the clinical outcome using repeated-measures ANCOVA. A main effect of genotype or an effect of genotype-time interactions on the decrease in HAMD score during the eight-week follow-up was not found, which suggests that the 5-HTR2A -1438A/G polymorphism does not affect the clinical outcome to mirtazapine administration. However, significant effects of genotype and allele carriers on the decrease in the sleep score over the eight weeks were found (genotype: F = 4.093, p = 0.017; allele: F = 4.371, p = 0.037), whereas no effect of genotype-time interactions on the decrease in the HAMD score over the eight-week follow-up was found. These observations suggest that the -1438A/G polymorphism on the sleep improvement at each time period revealed significant differences in the sleep scores after two weeks of mirtazapine administration. The sleep scores were lower for carriers of the A+ allele than of the A- allele after two weeks of mirtazapine administration (p = 0.041), which means that the -1438GG genotype is associated with less improvement in sleep, and suggests that the effect of mirtazapine on improving the sleep quality differs with the 5-HTR2A -1438A/G polymorphism within two weeks of mirtazapine treatment. In conclusion, although the -1438A/G polymorphism affects the sleep improvement resulting from the administration of mirtazapine to Korean patients with major depressive disorder, our results do not support the hypothesis that this polymorphism of the 5-HTR2A gene is involved in the therapeutic response to mirtazapine.

  13. Interaction between serotonin 5-HT2A receptor gene and dopamine transporter (DAT1) gene polymorphisms influences personality trait of persistence in Austrian Caucasians.

    PubMed

    Schosser, Alexandra; Fuchs, Karoline; Scharl, Theresa; Schloegelhofer, Monika; Kindler, Jochen; Mossaheb, Nilufar; Kaufmann, Rainer M; Leisch, Friedrich; Kasper, Siegfried; Sieghart, Werner; Aschauer, Harald N

    2010-03-01

    We examined 89 normal volunteers using Cloninger's Temperament and Character Inventory (TCI). Genotyping the 102T/C polymorphism of the serotonin 5HT2A receptor gene and the ser9gly polymorphism in exon 1 of the dopamine D3 receptor (DRD3) gene was performed using PCR-RFLP, whereas the dopamine transporter (DAT1) gene variable number of tandem repeats (VNTR) polymorphism was investigated using PCR amplification followed by electrophoresis in an 8% acrylamide gel with a set of size markers. We found a nominally significant association between gender and harm avoidance (P=0.017; women showing higher scores). There was no association of either DAT1, DRD3 or 5HT2A alleles or genotypes with any dimension of the TCI applying Kruskal-Wallis rank-sum tests. Comparing homozygote and heterozygote DAT1 genotypes, we found higher novelty seeking scores in homozygotes (P=0.054). We further found a nominally significant interaction between DAT1 and 5HT2A homo-/heterozygous gene variants (P=0.0071; DAT1 and 5HT2A genotypes P value of 0.05), performing multivariate analysis of variance (MANOVA). Examining the temperamental TCI subscales, this interaction was associated with persistence (genotypes: P=0.004; homo-/heterozygous gene variants: P=0.0004). We conclude that an interaction between DAT1 and 5HT2A genes might influence the temperamental personality trait persistence.

  14. Targeted mutagenesis of aryl hydrocarbon receptor 2a and 2b genes in Atlantic killifish (Fundulus heteroclitus).

    PubMed

    Aluru, Neelakanteswar; Karchner, Sibel I; Franks, Diana G; Nacci, Diane; Champlin, Denise; Hahn, Mark E

    2015-01-01

    Understanding molecular mechanisms of toxicity is facilitated by experimental manipulations, such as disruption of function by gene targeting, that are especially challenging in non-standard model species with limited genomic resources. While loss-of-function approaches have included gene knock-down using morpholino-modified oligonucleotides and random mutagenesis using mutagens or retroviruses, more recent approaches include targeted mutagenesis using zinc finger nuclease (ZFN), transcription activator-like effector nuclease (TALENs) and clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats (CRISPR)-Cas9 technology. These latter methods provide more accessible opportunities to explore gene function in non-traditional model species. To facilitate evaluation of toxic mechanisms for important categories of aryl hydrocarbon pollutants, whose actions are known to be receptor mediated, we used ZFN and CRISPR-Cas9 approaches to generate aryl hydrocarbon receptor 2a (AHR2a) and AHR2b gene mutations in Atlantic killifish (Fundulus heteroclitus) embryos. This killifish is a particularly valuable non-traditional model, with multiple paralogs of AHR whose functions are not well characterized. In addition, some populations of this species have evolved resistance to toxicants such as halogenated aromatic hydrocarbons. AHR-null killifish will be valuable for characterizing the role of the individual AHR paralogs in evolved resistance, as well as in normal development. We first used five-finger ZFNs targeting exons 1 and 3 of AHR2a. Subsequently, CRISPR-Cas9 guide RNAs were designed to target regions in exon 2 and 3 of AHR2a and AHR2b. We successfully induced frameshift mutations in AHR2a exon 3 with ZFN and CRISPR-Cas9 guide RNAs, with mutation frequencies of 10% and 16%, respectively. In AHR2b, mutations were induced using CRISPR-Cas9 guide RNAs targeting sites in both exon 2 (17%) and exon 3 (63%). We screened AHR2b exon 2 CRISPR-Cas9-injected embryos for off

  15. 5-Hydroxytryptamine-2A receptor gene (HTR 2 A) candidate polymorphism (T 102 C): Role for human platelet function under pharmacological challenge ex vivo.

    PubMed

    Ozdener, F; Gülbas, Z; Erol, K; Ozdemir, V

    2005-01-01

    Although the environmental and life-style factors influencing individual predisposition to acute myocardial infarction (AMI) have been well documented, little is known on the identity of genetic loci that may contribute to risk for AMI. Recently, genetic studies in patients with nonfatal AMI have suggested an association with the T 102 C polymorphism in the serotonin 5-HT(2A) receptor gene (HTR 2 A). Considering the significant role of the 5-HT(2A) receptor in serotonin-induced platelet responses and the contribution of platelet (patho)physiology to thromboembolic events, we postulated that the increased susceptibility to AMI in patients with the T 102 homozygosity may be attributable, in part, to altered serotonin-mediated platelet function. In a group of healthy volunteers recruited from the Eskisehir region in central Turkey (N=37), we investigated the functional consequences of HTR 2 A T 102 C polymorphism in relation to platelet pharmacodynamics ex vivo. The platelet shape change and aggregation response to serotonin were measured with use of the platelet aggregometry and expressed as aggregometer output (mm). Because the circulating catecholamine hormone epinephrine can augment platelet aggregation, pharmacodynamic response (aggregation and its inhibition by 5-HT(2A) receptor antagonist cyproheptadine) was measured in the presence of both serotonin and epinephrine, to mimic the clinical situation in patients. The mean platelet aggregation was higher by 38% in subjects with T 10 2 homozygosity (T/T genotype, N=13) when compared with the carriers of the 102 C-allele (T/C and the C/C genotypic groups, N=24) (39.5 mm+/-12.3 vs. 28.7 mm+/-16.8, respectively) (mean+/-SD) (p<0.05). On the other hand, neither the serotonin-induced platelet shape change nor the cyproheptadine inhibition of platelet aggregation was influenced by the HTR 2 A T 102 C genetic variation (p>0.05). These findings in healthy subjects may provide a mechanistic explanation for the previously

  16. Serotonin receptor gene (HTR2A) T102C polymorphism modulates individuals’ perspective taking ability and autistic-like traits

    PubMed Central

    Gong, Pingyuan; Liu, Jinting; Blue, Philip R.; Li, She; Zhou, Xiaolin

    2015-01-01

    Previous studies have indicated that empathic traits, such as perspective taking, are associated with the levels of serotonin in the brain and with autism spectrum conditions. Inspired by the finding that the serotonin receptor 2A gene (HTR2A) modulates the availability of serotonin, this study investigated to what extent HTR2A modulates individuals’ perspective taking ability and autistic-like traits. To examine the associations of the functional HTR2A polymorphism T102C (rs6313) with individuals’ perspective taking abilities and autistic-like traits, we differentiated individuals according to this polymorphism and measured empathic and autistic-like traits with Interpersonal Reactivity Index (IRI) and Autism-Spectrum Quotient (AQ) scale in 523 Chinese people. The results indicated that this polymorphism was significantly associated with the scores on Perspective Taking and Personal Distress subscales of IRI, and Communication subscale of AQ. Individuals with a greater number of the C alleles were less likely to spontaneously adopt the point of view of others, more likely to be anxious when observing the pain endured by others, and more likely to have communication problems. Moreover, the genotype effect on communication problems was mediated by individuals’ perspective taking ability. These findings provide evidence that the HTR2A T102C polymorphism is a predictor of individual differences in empathic and autistic-like traits and highlight the role of the gene in the connection between perspective taking and autistic-like traits. PMID:26557070

  17. Serotonin receptor gene (HTR2A) T102C polymorphism modulates individuals' perspective taking ability and autistic-like traits.

    PubMed

    Gong, Pingyuan; Liu, Jinting; Blue, Philip R; Li, She; Zhou, Xiaolin

    2015-01-01

    Previous studies have indicated that empathic traits, such as perspective taking, are associated with the levels of serotonin in the brain and with autism spectrum conditions. Inspired by the finding that the serotonin receptor 2A gene (HTR2A) modulates the availability of serotonin, this study investigated to what extent HTR2A modulates individuals' perspective taking ability and autistic-like traits. To examine the associations of the functional HTR2A polymorphism T102C (rs6313) with individuals' perspective taking abilities and autistic-like traits, we differentiated individuals according to this polymorphism and measured empathic and autistic-like traits with Interpersonal Reactivity Index (IRI) and Autism-Spectrum Quotient (AQ) scale in 523 Chinese people. The results indicated that this polymorphism was significantly associated with the scores on Perspective Taking and Personal Distress subscales of IRI, and Communication subscale of AQ. Individuals with a greater number of the C alleles were less likely to spontaneously adopt the point of view of others, more likely to be anxious when observing the pain endured by others, and more likely to have communication problems. Moreover, the genotype effect on communication problems was mediated by individuals' perspective taking ability. These findings provide evidence that the HTR2A T102C polymorphism is a predictor of individual differences in empathic and autistic-like traits and highlight the role of the gene in the connection between perspective taking and autistic-like traits.

  18. Converging translational evidence for the involvement of the serotonin 2A receptor gene in major depressive disorder.

    PubMed

    Petit, Anne-Cécile; Quesseveur, Gaël; Gressier, Florence; Colle, Romain; David, Denis J; Gardier, Alain M; Ferreri, Florian; Lépine, Jean-Pierre; Falissard, Bruno; Verstuyft, Céline; Guiard, Bruno P; Corruble, Emmanuelle

    2014-10-03

    An association between serotonin 2A receptor (5-HT2AR), encoded by HTR2A gene, and major depressive disorder (MDD) has been suggested. Here, we combined preclinical and ecological clinical approaches to explore the impact of impaired 5-HT2AR-mediated transmission on MDD or anxio-depressive-like phenotype in mice. Htr2a knock-out mice (Htr2a(-/-)) and wild-type mice were compared for the ability of chronic corticosterone to elicit some anxio-depressive-like phenotype in three behavioral paradigms (elevated plus maze, tail suspension test and splash test). Accordingly, two single nucleotide polymorphisms of the HTR2A gene (rs6314 ie His452Tyr and rs6313 ie 102C/T), which specific allelic variants may decrease 5-HT2AR-mediated transmission (as in Htr2a(-/-)mice), were studied in a sample of 485 Caucasian patients with MDD. In response to chronic corticosterone exposure, Htr2a(-/-) mice displayed more pronounced anxiodepressive-like phenotype than wild-type mice, as shown by a significant higher "emotionality score" (p<0.01). In patients, the C allele of rs6313 was more frequent in depressed patients (p=0.019) and was also associated with a more severe major depressive episode (p=0.03). This translational and ecological study involving constitutive Htr2a(-/-) knock-out mice and related SNPs in depressed patients suggests that a lower neurotransmission at the 5-HT2AR may favor the susceptibility and severity of MDE. It also suggests that specific allelic variants of the rs6313 and rs6314 may reduce 5-HT2AR-mediated transmission.

  19. Hyperactivity in Childhood as a Predictor of School Performance in Elementary School: Modifying Effect of a Serotonin Receptor Gene (5-HTR2A)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pulkki-Raback, Laura; Pullmann, Helle; Hintsanen, Mirka; Alatupa, Saija; Ravaja, Niklas; Lehtimaki, Terho; Keltikangas-jarvinen, Liisa

    2010-01-01

    Introduction: Genes have been suggested to interact with predictors of school performance, but evidence is scarce. The purpose was to examine whether a hyperactive temperament leads to different school performance, depending on variability in a serotonin receptor gene (5-HTR2A). Method: The participants were a population-based sample of 909 girls…

  20. Psychological, neuroimaging, and biochemical studies on functional association between impulsive behavior and the 5-HT2A receptor gene polymorphism in humans.

    PubMed

    Nomura, Michio; Nomura, Yasuyuki

    2006-11-01

    It has been suggested that impulsive behavior is caused by dysfunctional serotonergic 5-HT neurotransmission in the central nervous system (CNS). Brain neuroimaging studies have shown that behavioral inhibition is linked to the activation of cortex sites such as the ventral frontal cortex. Positron emission tomography (PET) imaging with [(18)F]altanserin to characterize 5-HT(2A) receptor binding revealed a reduction in 5-HT(2A) binding in the ventral frontal cortex in women who had recovered from impulsive diseases. These clinical, neuroimaging, and pharmacological studies appear to support the hypothesis that functional alteration of neurotransmission due to genetic polymorphisms of the 5-HT receptors may be involved in impulsive behavior modulation. Following evaluation by a self-reporting measure, it was proposed that a polymorphism in the promoter of the 5-HT(2A) receptor gene is the underlying cause of impulsive behavior; however, this hypothesis is not convincing. We examined whether the polymorphism in the 5-HT(2A) receptor gene promoter is involved in impulsive aggression by evaluating a behavioral task (Go/No-go task) in normal volunteers. The polymorphism of the 5-HT(2A) receptor gene promoter in lymphocytes from 71 volunteers was analyzed by using PCR. Impulsivity was defined as the number of commission errors (responding when one should not) recorded during a Go/No-go task; a larger number of commission errors indicate greater difficulty in inhibiting impulsive behavior. The subjects of the A-1438A allele group for the 5-HT(2A) receptor gene made more commission errors under the punishment-reward (PR)condition in a Go/No-go task than those in the G-1438G group. In the present review, we discuss and suggest the possible involvement of the A-1438A polymorphism of the 5HT2A receptor gene promoter in impulsive behavior. This hypothesis was evaluated by using a behavioral task measure that could directly reveal impulsive behavioral traits in humans.

  1. DRD2, DRD3 and 5HT2A receptor genes polymorphisms in obsessive-compulsive disorder.

    PubMed

    Nicolini, H; Cruz, C; Camarena, B; Orozco, B; Kennedy, J L; King, N; Weissbecker, K; de la Fuente, J R; Sidenberg, D

    1996-12-01

    We performed an association analysis of the DRD2, DRD3 and 5HT2A genes polymorphisms in 67 Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder (OCD) patients and 54 healthy controls. There were no statistically significant differences in genotype or allele frequencies for any of the polymorphisms studied between OCD subjects and controls. For the subgrouped analysis, no results were significant after correction for multiple testing, although homozygosity of DRD2/A2A2 in subjects displaying vocal or motor tics approached significance compared to controls (Fisher exact test, P = 0.008). Our results may follow the notion that OCD patients with tics represent a different genetic subtype of the disease.

  2. Analysis of variations in the glutamate receptor, N-methyl D-aspartate 2A (GRIN2A) gene reveals their relative importance as genetic susceptibility factors for heroin addiction.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Bin; Zhu, Yongsheng; Wang, Wei; Cui, Hai-Min; Wang, Yun-Peng; Lai, Jiang-Hua

    2013-01-01

    The glutamate receptor, N-methyl D-aspartate 2A (GRIN2A) gene that encodes the 2A subunit of the N-methyl D-aspartate (NMDA) receptor was recently shown to be involved in the development of opiate addiction. Genetic polymorphisms in GRIN2A have a plausible role in modulating the risk of heroin addiction. An association of GRIN2A single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) with heroin addiction was found earlier in African Americans. To identify markers that contribute to the genetic susceptibility to heroin addiction, we examined the potential association between heroin addiction and forty polymorphisms of the GRIN2A gene using the MassARRAY system and GeneScan in this study. The frequency of the (GT)26 repeats (rs3219790) in the heroin addiction group was significantly higher than that in the control group (χ(2) = 5.360, P = 0.021). The allele frequencies of three polymorphisms (rs1102972, rs1650420, and rs3104703 in intron 3) were strongly associated with heroin addiction (P<0.001, 0.0002, and <0.001, after Bonferroni correction). Three additional SNPs from the same intron (rs1071502, rs6497730, and rs1070487) had nominally significant P values for association (P<0.05), but did not pass the threshold value. Haplotype analysis revealed that the G-C-T-C-C-T-A (block 6) and T-T (block 10) haplotypes of the GRIN2A gene displayed a protective effect (P = <0.001 and 0.003). These findings point to a role for GRIN2A polymorphisms in heroin addiction among the Han Chinese from Shaanxi province, and may be informative for future genetic or neurobiological studies on heroin addiction.

  3. The secret ingredient for social success of young males: a functional polymorphism in the 5HT2A serotonin receptor gene.

    PubMed

    Dijkstra, Jan Kornelis; Lindenberg, Siegwart; Zijlstra, Lieuwe; Bouma, Esther; Veenstra, René

    2013-01-01

    In adolescence, being socially successful depends to a large extent on being popular with peers. Even though some youths have what it takes to be popular, they are not, whereas others seem to have a secret ingredient that just makes the difference. In this study the G-allele of a functional polymorphism in the promotor region of the 5HT2A serotonin receptor gene (-G1438A) was identified as a secret ingredient for popularity among peers. These findings build on and extend previous work by Burt (2008, 2009). Tackling limitations from previous research, the role of the 5HT2A serotonin receptor gene was examined in adolescent males (N = 285; average age 13) using a unique sample of the TRAILS study. Carrying the G-allele enhanced the relation between aggression and popularity, particularly for those boys who have many female friends. This seems to be an "enhancer" effect of the G-allele whereby popularity relevant characteristics are made more noticeable. There is no "popularity gene", as the G-allele by itself had no effect on popularity.

  4. Cultural consonance, a 5HT2A receptor polymorphism, and depressive symptoms: a longitudinal study of gene x culture interaction in urban Brazil.

    PubMed

    Dressler, William W; Balieiro, Mauro C; Ribeiro, Rosane P; Dos Santos, José Ernesto

    2009-01-01

    In this study in urban Brazil we examine, as a predictor of depressive symptoms, the interaction between a single nucleotide polymorphism in the 2A receptor in the serotonin system (-1438G/A) and cultural consonance in family life, a measure of the degree to which an individual perceives her family as corresponding to a widely shared cultural model of the prototypical family. A community sample of 144 adults was followed over a 2-year-period. Cultural consonance in family life was assessed by linking individuals' perceptions of their own families with a shared cultural model of the family derived from cultural consensus analysis. The -1438G/A polymorphism in the 2A serotonin receptor was genotyped using a standard protocol for DNA extracted from leukocytes. Covariates included age, sex, socioeconomic status, and stressful life events. Cultural consonance in family life was prospectively associated with depressive symptoms. In addition, the interaction between genotype and cultural consonance in family life was significant. For individuals with the A/A variant of the -1438G/A polymorphism of the 2A receptor gene, the effect of cultural consonance in family life on depressive symptoms over a 2-year-period was larger (beta = -0.533, P < 0.01) than those effects for individuals with either the G/A (beta = -0.280, P < 0.10) or G/G (beta = -0.272, P < 0.05) variants. These results are consistent with a process in which genotype moderates the effects of culturally meaningful social experience on depressive symptoms.

  5. Variation in Dopamine D2 and Serotonin 5-HT2A Receptor Genes is Associated with Working Memory Processing and Response to Treatment with Antipsychotics

    PubMed Central

    Blasi, Giuseppe; Selvaggi, Pierluigi; Fazio, Leonardo; Antonucci, Linda Antonella; Taurisano, Paolo; Masellis, Rita; Romano, Raffaella; Mancini, Marina; Zhang, Fengyu; Caforio, Grazia; Popolizio, Teresa; Apud, Jose; Weinberger, Daniel R; Bertolino, Alessandro

    2015-01-01

    Dopamine D2 and serotonin 5-HT2A receptors contribute to modulate prefrontal cortical physiology and response to treatment with antipsychotics in schizophrenia. Similarly, functional variation in the genes encoding these receptors is also associated with these phenotypes. In particular, the DRD2 rs1076560 T allele predicts a lower ratio of expression of D2 short/long isoforms, suboptimal working memory processing, and better response to antipsychotic treatment compared with the G allele. Furthermore, the HTR2A T allele is associated with lower 5-HT2A expression, impaired working memory processing, and poorer response to antipsychotics compared with the C allele. Here, we investigated in healthy subjects whether these functional polymorphisms have a combined effect on prefrontal cortical physiology and related cognitive behavior linked to schizophrenia as well as on response to treatment with second-generation antipsychotics in patients with schizophrenia. In a total sample of 620 healthy subjects, we found that subjects with the rs1076560 T and rs6314 T alleles have greater fMRI prefrontal activity during working memory. Similar results were obtained within the attentional domain. Also, the concomitant presence of the rs1076560 T/rs6314 T alleles also predicted lower behavioral accuracy during working memory. Moreover, we found that rs1076560 T carrier/rs6314 CC individuals had better responses to antipsychotic treatment in two independent samples of patients with schizophrenia (n=63 and n=54, respectively), consistent with the previously reported separate effects of these genotypes. These results indicate that DRD2 and HTR2A genetic variants together modulate physiological prefrontal efficiency during working memory and also modulate the response to antipsychotics. Therefore, these results suggest that further exploration is needed to better understand the clinical consequences of these genotype–phenotype relationships. PMID:25563748

  6. Epac2: a sulfonylurea receptor?

    PubMed

    Rehmann, Holger

    2012-02-01

    Sulfonylureas are widely used oral drugs in the treatment of diabetes mellitus. They function by the inhibition of ATP-sensitive K+ channels in pancreatic β-cells, which are thus considered the 'classical' sulfonylurea receptor. Next to the ATP-sensitive K+ channels, additional sulfonylurea-interacting proteins were identified, which might contribute to the physiological effects of this drug family. Most recently, Epac2 (exchange protein directly activated by cAMP 2) was added to the list of sulfonylurea receptors. However, this finding caused controversy in the literature. The critical discussion of the present paper comes to the conclusion that sulfonylureas are not able to activate Epac2 directly and are unlikely to bind to Epac2. Increased blood glucose levels after food intake result in the secretion of insulin from pancreatic β-cells. Glucose levels are detected 'indirectly' by β-cells: owing to increased glycolysis rates, the ratio of cellular ATP/ADP increases and causes the closure of ATP-sensitive K+ channels. In consequence, cells depolarize and voltage-dependent Ca2+ channels open to cause an increase in the cellular Ca2+ concentration. Finally, Ca2+ induces the fusion of insulin-containing granules with the plasma membrane. Sulfonylureas, such as tolbutamide, glibenclamide or acetohexamide, form a class of orally applicable drugs used in the treatment of non-insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus.

  7. [Influence of occupational stress and 5-hydroxytryptamine 2A receptor gene polymorphisms on depression in workers in a thermal power plant].

    PubMed

    Wu, H; Wang, F F; Zhou, W H; Gu, G Z; Yu, S F

    2016-10-20

    Objective: To investigate the association of occupational stress and 5-hydroxytryptamine 2A (5-HT2A) receptor gene polymorphisms with depression. Methods: In November 2010, cluster sampling was used to select 589 workers in a thermal power plant as study subjects. Questionnaires were used to investigate demographic features and occupational stressors. Polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism was used to detect the genotypes of T102C and A-1438G in 5-HT2A receptor gene in 589 workers. Results: High-level daily hassles (OR=3.013, 95%CI 1.642~5.530) , more negative emotion (OR=4.808, 95% CI 2.662~8.681) , more body needs (OR=1.890, 95% CI 1.034~3.453) , and severe role conflict (OR=1.815, 95% CI 1.002~3.288) were risk factors for depression, while high rewards (OR=0.424, 95% CI 0.226~0.796) was the protective factor against depression (all P<0.05). There were no significant differences in T102C genotype and allele distributions between the groups with and without depression (P>0.05) ; there was a significant difference in A-1438G genotype distribution between the groups with and without depression (χ(2)= 9.573, P<0.05) , while there was no significant difference in A-1438G allele distribution between these groups (P>0.05). The risk of depression in the workers with high-level daily hassles who carried TC genotype (OR= 4.473, 95% CI 1.161~17.238) or CC genotype (OR=5.176, 95% CI 1.367~19.593) of T102C was 4.473 and 5.176 times that in those with low-level daily hassles who carried TT genotype, and the risk of depression in the workers with more negative emotions who carried TC genotype (OR=5.667, 95%CI 1.204~26.673) or CC genotype (OR=8.114, 95% CI 1.747~37.677) of T102C was 5.667 and 8.114 times that in those with less negative emotion who carried TT genotype. The risk of depression in the workers with high-level daily hassles who carried AG genotype (OR=4.505, 95% CI 2.215~9.162) or GG genotype (OR=6.484, 95% CI 2.562~ 16.414) of A-1438G

  8. DNA Hypermethylation of the Serotonin Receptor Type-2A Gene Is Associated with a Worse Response to a Weight Loss Intervention in Subjects with Metabolic Syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Perez-Cornago, Aurora; Mansego, Maria L.; Zulet, María Angeles; Martinez, José Alfredo

    2014-01-01

    Understanding the regulation of gene activities depending on DNA methylation has been the subject of much recent study. However, although polymorphisms of the HTR2A gene have been associated with both obesity and psychiatric disorders, the role of HTR2A gene methylation in these illnesses remains uncertain. The aim of this study was to evaluate the association of HTR2A gene promoter methylation levels in white blood cells (WBC) with obesity traits and depressive symptoms in individuals with metabolic syndrome (MetS) enrolled in a behavioural weight loss programme. Analyses were based on 41 volunteers (mean age 49 ± 1 year) recruited within the RESMENA study. Depressive symptoms (as determined using the Beck Depression Inventory), anthropometric and biochemical measurements were analysed at the beginning and after six months of weight loss treatment. At baseline, DNA from WBC was isolated and cytosine methylation in the HTR2A gene promoter was quantified by a microarray approach. In the whole-study sample, a positive association of HTR2A gene methylation with waist circumference and insulin levels was detected at baseline. Obesity measures significantly improved after six months of dietary treatment, where a lower mean HTR2A gene methylation at baseline was associated with major reductions in body weight, BMI and fat mass after the treatment. Moreover, mean HTR2A gene methylation at baseline significantly predicted the decrease in depressive symptoms after the weight loss treatment. In conclusion, this study provides newer evidence that hypermethylation of the HTR2A gene in WBC at baseline is significantly associated with a worse response to a weight-loss intervention and with a lower decrease in depressive symptoms after the dietary treatment in subjects with MetS. PMID:24959950

  9. The aryl hydrocarbon receptor and glucocorticoid receptor interact to activate human metallothionein 2A

    SciTech Connect

    Sato, Shoko; Shirakawa, Hitoshi; Tomita, Shuhei; Tohkin, Masahiro; Gonzalez, Frank J.; Komai, Michio

    2013-11-15

    Although the aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AHR) and glucocorticoid receptor (GR) play essential roles in mammalian development, stress responses, and other physiological events, crosstalk between these receptors has been the subject of much debate. Metallothioneins are classic glucocorticoid-inducible genes that were reported to increase upon treatment with AHR agonists in rodent tissues and cultured human cells. In this study, the mechanism of human metallothionein 2A (MT2A) gene transcription activation by AHR was investigated. Cotreatment with 3-methylcholanthrene and dexamethasone, agonists of AHR and GR respectively, synergistically increased MT2A mRNA levels in HepG2 cells. MT2A induction was suppressed by RNA interference against AHR or GR. Coimmunoprecipitation experiments revealed a physical interaction between AHR and GR proteins. Moreover, chromatin immunoprecipitation assays indicated that AHR was recruited to the glucocorticoid response element in the MT2A promoter. Thus, we provide a novel mechanism whereby AHR modulates expression of human MT2A via the glucocorticoid response element and protein–protein interactions with GR. - Highlights: • Aryl hydrocarbon receptor forms a complex with glucocorticoid receptor in cells. • Human metallothionein gene is regulated by the AHR and GR interaction. • AHR–GR complex binds to glucocorticoid response element in metallothionein gene. • We demonstrated a novel transcriptional mechanism via AHR and GR interaction.

  10. Polymorphism of the 5-HT2A Receptor Gene: Association with Stress-Related Indices in Healthy Middle-Aged Adults

    PubMed Central

    Fiocco, Alexandra J.; Joober, Ridha; Poirier, Judes; Lupien, Sonia

    2007-01-01

    Past research has concentrated on the stress system and personality in order to explain the variance found in cognitive performance in old age. A growing body of research is starting to focus on genetic polymorphism as an individual difference factor to explain the observed heterogeneity in cognitive function. While the functional mechanism is still under investigation, polymorphism of the 5-HT2A receptor gene (−1438A/G) has been linked to certain behavioral and physiological outcomes, including cortisol secretion, the expression of certain personality traits, and memory performance. It was the goal of the present study to investigate the association between the −1438A/G polymorphism and stress hormone secretion, stress-related psychological measures, and cognitive performance in a group of adults between the ages of 50 and 65. To examine these associations, 101 middle-aged adults were recruited, completed a battery of psychological questionnaires and were administered a battery of cognitive tasks that assess frontal lobe and hippocampal function. Basal and stress-reactive salivary cortisol levels were collected, at home and in the laboratory. Analyses on psychological measures showed that participants with the GG genotype reported significantly higher levels of neuroticism compared to the AG group and higher levels of depression and more emotion-based coping strategies compared to both the AG and AA group. In terms of cortisol secretion, the AA genotype was related to a significantly higher awakening cortisol response (ACR) compared to the AG and GG group and the GG genotype group displayed a greater increase in cortisol secretion following a psychosocial stressor compared to the two other groups. On measures of cognitive performance, the AA genotype group performed significantly better on a test of declarative memory and selective attention compared to the other two groups. Together, these results suggest that carriers of the GG genotype are more susceptible

  11. Effects of chronic fluoxetine treatment on catalepsy and the immune response in mice with a genetic predisposition to freezing reactions: the roles of types 1A and 2A serotonin receptors and the tph2 and SERT genes.

    PubMed

    Tikhonova, M A; Alperina, E L; Tolstikova, T G; Bazovkina, D V; Di, V Y; Idova, G V; Kulikov, A V; Popova, N K

    2010-06-01

    ASC (Antidepressant-Sensitive Catalepsy) mice, bred for a high predisposition to catalepsy, are characterized by depression-like behavior and decreased immune responses. Chronic administration of fluoxetine, which is a selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor antidepressant widely used in clinical practice, to mice of this strain weakened catalepsy and normalized the number of rosette-forming cells in the spleen. In mice of the parental cataleptic strain CBA/Lac, fluoxetine had no effect on the level of catalepsy or the immune response. Analysis of the effects of fluoxetine on the functional activity of 5-HT(1A) and 5-HT(2A) receptors, and the expression of 5-HT(1A) receptor genes in the frontal cortex and midbrain and 5-HT(2A) receptors in the frontal cortex, as well as the tryptophan hydroxylase-2 and the serotonin transporter genes in the midbrain showed that the antidepressant had no effect on these parameters in ASC mice, but decreased the functional activity of 5-HT(2A) receptors in CBA/Lac mice. The possibility that the actions of fluoxetine on catalepsy and the immune response in mice with depression-like states are mediated via other serotoninergic mechanisms is discussed.

  12. The aryl hydrocarbon receptor and glucocorticoid receptor interact to activate human metallothionein 2A.

    PubMed

    Sato, Shoko; Shirakawa, Hitoshi; Tomita, Shuhei; Tohkin, Masahiro; Gonzalez, Frank J; Komai, Michio

    2013-11-15

    Although the aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AHR) and glucocorticoid receptor (GR) play essential roles in mammalian development, stress responses, and other physiological events, crosstalk between these receptors has been the subject of much debate. Metallothioneins are classic glucocorticoid-inducible genes that were reported to increase upon treatment with AHR agonists in rodent tissues and cultured human cells. In this study, the mechanism of human metallothionein 2A (MT2A) gene transcription activation by AHR was investigated. Cotreatment with 3-methylcholanthrene and dexamethasone, agonists of AHR and GR respectively, synergistically increased MT2A mRNA levels in HepG2 cells. MT2A induction was suppressed by RNA interference against AHR or GR. Coimmunoprecipitation experiments revealed a physical interaction between AHR and GR proteins. Moreover, chromatin immunoprecipitation assays indicated that AHR was recruited to the glucocorticoid response element in the MT2A promoter. Thus, we provide a novel mechanism whereby AHR modulates expression of human MT2A via the glucocorticoid response element and protein-protein interactions with GR.

  13. Impact of the -1438G>a polymorphism in the serotonin 2A receptor gene on anthropometric profile and obesity risk: a case-control study in a Spanish Mediterranean population.

    PubMed

    Sorlí, José V; Francés, Francesc; González, José I; Guillén, Marisa; Portolés, Olga; Sabater, Antonio; Coltell, Oscar; Corella, Dolores

    2008-01-01

    Research into the genetic factors that regulate food intake is arousing great interest. The polymorphism -1438G>A in the serotonin 2A receptor or 5-hydroxytriptamine (5-HT) type 2A receptor (5-HTR2A) gene has been associated with alterations in food intake such as anorexia and bulimia. However, its association with obesity has not been studied to the same extent. Our aim, therefore, was to estimate the association between the -1438G>A polymorphism and obesity risk and related anthropometric variables in a Spanish Mediterranean population. A case-control study including 303 cases and 606 controls paired by gender and age was undertaken. The association between the -1438G>A polymorphism and obesity and other anthropometric measures was studied. No association with obesity risk was observed. However, when only the obese group was analyzed, it was observed that AA subjects presented a lower body mass index (BMI) than G allele carriers (35.2+/-5.3 kg/m2 vs 37.5+/-7.8 kg/m2; P=0.039). Moreover, significant differences were also obtained in waist perimeter that was lower in AA subjects compared to G allele carriers (105+/-11 cm vs 112+/-17 cm; P=0.011). In conclusion, although the -1438G>A polymorphism is not a relevant marker for obesity risk, this variant may play a role in determining BMI in obese subjects.

  14. Cannabinoid 2 receptor- and beta Arrestin 2-dependent upregulation of serotonin 2A receptors.

    PubMed

    Franklin, J M; Vasiljevik, T; Prisinzano, T E; Carrasco, G A

    2013-07-01

    Recent evidence suggests that cannabinoid receptor agonists may regulate serotonin 2A (5-HT(2A)) receptor neurotransmission in the brain, although no molecular mechanism has been identified. Here, we present experimental evidence that sustained treatment with a non-selective cannabinoid agonist (CP55,940) or selective CB2 receptor agonists (JWH133 or GP1a) upregulate 5-HT(2A) receptors in a neuronal cell line. Furthermore, this cannabinoid receptor agonist-induced upregulation of 5-HT(2A) receptors was prevented in cells stably transfected with either CB2 or β-Arrestin 2 shRNA lentiviral particles. Additionally, inhibition of clathrin-mediated endocytosis also prevented the cannabinoid receptor-induced upregulation of 5-HT(2A) receptors. Our results indicate that cannabinoid agonists might upregulate 5-HT(2A) receptors by a mechanism that requires CB2 receptors and β-Arrestin 2 in cells that express both CB2 and 5-HT(2A) receptors. 5-HT(2A) receptors have been associated with several physiological functions and neuropsychiatric disorders such as stress response, anxiety and depression, and schizophrenia. Therefore, these results might provide a molecular mechanism by which activation of cannabinoid receptors might be relevant to some cognitive and mood disorders in humans.

  15. Adenosine A2A Receptor Gene Knockout Prevents l-3,4-Dihydroxyphenylalanine-Induced Dyskinesia by Downregulation of Striatal GAD67 in 6-OHDA-Lesioned Parkinson’s Mice

    PubMed Central

    Yin, Su-bing; Zhang, Xiao-guang; Chen, Shuang; Yang, Wen-ting; Zheng, Xia-wei; Zheng, Guo-qing

    2017-01-01

    l-3,4-Dihydroxyphenylalanine (l-DOPA) remains the primary pharmacological agent for the symptomatic treatment of Parkinson’s disease (PD). However, the development of l-DOPA-induced dyskinesia (LID) limits the long-term use of l-DOPA for PD patients. Some data have reported that adenosine A2A receptor (A2AR) antagonists prevented LID in animal model of PD. However, the mechanism in which adenosine A2AR blockade alleviates the symptoms of LID has not been fully clarified. Here, we determined to knock out (KO) the gene of A2AR and explored the possible underlying mechanisms implicated in development of LID in a mouse model of PD. A2AR gene KO mice were unilaterally injected into the striatum with 6-hydroxydopamine (6-OHDA) in order to damage dopamine neurons on one side of the brain. 6-OHDA-lesioned mice were then injected once daily for 21 days with l-DOPA. Abnormal involuntary movements (AIMs) were evaluated on days 3, 8, 13, and 18 after l-DOPA administration, and real-time polymerase chain reaction and immunohistochemistry for glutamic acid decarboxylase (GAD) 65 and GAD67 were performed. We found that A2AR gene KO was effective in reducing AIM scores and accompanied with decrease of striatal GAD67, rather than GAD65. These results demonstrated that the possible mechanism involved in alleviation of AIM symptoms by A2AR gene KO might be through reducing the expression of striatal GAD67. PMID:28377741

  16. Adenosine A2A Receptors and A2A Receptor Heteromers as Key Players in Striatal Function

    PubMed Central

    Ferré, Sergi; Quiroz, César; Orru, Marco; Guitart, Xavier; Navarro, Gemma; Cortés, Antonio; Casadó, Vicent; Canela, Enric I.; Lluis, Carme; Franco, Rafael

    2011-01-01

    A very significant density of adenosine A2A receptors (A2ARs) is present in the striatum, where they are preferentially localized postsynaptically in striatopallidal medium spiny neurons (MSNs). In this localization A2ARs establish reciprocal antagonistic interactions with dopamine D2 receptors (D2Rs). In one type of interaction, A2AR and D2R are forming heteromers and, by means of an allosteric interaction, A2AR counteracts D2R-mediated inhibitory modulation of the effects of NMDA receptor stimulation in the striatopallidal neuron. This interaction is probably mostly responsible for the locomotor depressant and activating effects of A2AR agonist and antagonists, respectively. The second type of interaction involves A2AR and D2R that do not form heteromers and takes place at the level of adenylyl cyclase (AC). Due to a strong tonic effect of endogenous dopamine on striatal D2R, this interaction keeps A2AR from signaling through AC. However, under conditions of dopamine depletion or with blockade of D2R, A2AR-mediated AC activation is unleashed with an increased gene expression and activity of the striatopallidal neuron and with a consequent motor depression. This interaction is probably the main mechanism responsible for the locomotor depression induced by D2R antagonists. Finally, striatal A2ARs are also localized presynaptically, in cortico-striatal glutamatergic terminals that contact the striato-nigral MSN. These presynaptic A2ARs heteromerize with A1 receptors (A1Rs) and their activation facilitates glutamate release. These three different types of A2ARs can be pharmacologically dissected by their ability to bind ligands with different affinity and can therefore provide selective targets for drug development in different basal ganglia disorders. PMID:21731559

  17. Astrocytic adenosine receptor A2A and Gs-coupled signaling regulate memory

    PubMed Central

    Orr, Anna G.; Hsiao, Edward C.; Wang, Max M.; Ho, Kaitlyn; Kim, Daniel H.; Wang, Xin; Guo, Weikun; Kang, Jing; Yu, Gui-Qiu; Adame, Anthony; Devidze, Nino; Dubal, Dena B.; Masliah, Eliezer; Conklin, Bruce R.; Mucke, Lennart

    2014-01-01

    Astrocytes express a variety of G protein-coupled receptors and might influence cognitive functions, such as learning and memory. However, the roles of astrocytic Gs-coupled receptors in cognitive function are not known. We found that humans with Alzheimer’s disease (AD) had increased levels of the Gs-coupled adenosine receptor A2A in astrocytes. Conditional genetic removal of these receptors enhanced long-term memory in young and aging mice, and increased the levels of Arc/Arg3.1, an immediate-early gene required for long-term memory. Chemogenetic activation of astrocytic Gs-coupled signaling reduced long-term memory in mice without affecting learning. Similar to humans with AD, aging mice expressing human amyloid precursor protein (hAPP) showed increased levels of astrocytic A2A receptors. Conditional genetic removal of these receptors enhanced memory in aging hAPP mice. Together, these findings establish a regulatory role for astrocytic Gs-coupled receptors in memory and suggest that AD-linked increases in astrocytic A2A receptor levels contribute to memory loss. PMID:25622143

  18. Agonist Derived Molecular Probes for A2A Adenosine Receptors

    PubMed Central

    Jacobson, Kenneth A.; Pannell, Lewis K.; Ji, Xiao-duo; Jarvis, Michael F.; Williams, Michael; Hutchison, Alan J.; Barrington, William W.; Stiles, Gary L.

    2011-01-01

    The adenosine agonist 2-(4-(2-carboxyethyl)phenylethylamino)-5′-N-ethylcarboxamidoadenosine (CGS21680) was recently reported to be selective for the A2A adenosine receptor subtype, which mediates its hypotensive action. To investigate structurelactivity relationships at a distal site, CGS21680 was derivatized using a functionalized congener approach. The carboxylic group of CGS21680 has been esterified to form a methyl ester, which was then treated with ethylenediamine to produce an amine congener. The amine congener was an intermediate for acylation reactions, in which the reactive acyl species contained a reported group, or the precursor for such. For radioiodination, derivatives of p-hydroxyphenylpropionic, 2-thiophenylacetic, and p-aminophenylacetic acids were prepared. The latter derivative (PAPA-APEC) was iodinated electrophilically using [125I]iodide resulting in a radioligand which was used for studies of competition of binding to striatal A, adenosine receptors in bovine brain. A biotin conjugate and an aryl sulfonate were at least 350-fold selective for A, receptors. For spectroscopic detection, a derivative of the stable free radical tetramethyl-1-piperidinyloxy (TEMPO) was prepared. For irreversible inhibition of receptors, meta- and para-phenylenediisothiocyanate groups were incorporated in the analogs. We have demonstrated that binding at A2A receptors is relatively insensitive to distal structural changes at the 2-position, and we report high affinity molecular probes for receptor characterization by radioactive, spectroscopic and affinity labelling methodology. PMID:2561548

  19. Allelic association of the D2 dopamine receptor gene with receptor-binding characteristics in alcoholism

    SciTech Connect

    Noble, E.P.; Blum, K.; Ritchie, T.; Montgomery, A.; Sheridan, P.J. )

    1991-07-01

    The allelic association of the human D2 dopamine receptor gene with the binding characteristics of the D2 dopamine receptor was determined in 66 brains of alcoholic and non-alcoholic subjects. In a blinded experiment, DNA from the cerebral cortex was treated with the restriction endonuclease Taql and probed with a 1.5-kilobase (kb) digest of a clone (lambda hD2G1) of the human D2 dopamine receptor gene. The binding characteristics (Kd (binding affinity) and Bmax (number of binding sites)) of the D2 dopamine receptor were determined in the caudate nuclei of these brains using tritiated spiperone as the ligand. The adjusted Kd was significantly lower in alcoholic than in nonalcoholic subjects. In subjects with the A1 allele, in whom a high association with alcoholism was found, the Bmax was significantly reduced compared with the Bmax of subjects with the A2 allele. Moreover, a progressively reduced Bmax was found in subjects with A2/A2, A1/A2, and A1/A1 alleles, with subjects with A2/A2 having the highest mean values, and subjects with A1/A1, the lowest. The polymorphic pattern of the D2 dopamine receptor gene and its differential expression of receptors suggests the involvement of the dopaminergic system in conferring susceptibility to at least one subtype of severe alcoholism.

  20. Striatal adenosine-cannabinoid receptor interactions in rats over-expressing adenosine A2A receptors.

    PubMed

    Chiodi, Valentina; Ferrante, Antonella; Ferraro, Luca; Potenza, Rosa Luisa; Armida, Monica; Beggiato, Sarah; Pèzzola, Antonella; Bader, Michael; Fuxe, Kjell; Popoli, Patrizia; Domenici, Maria Rosaria

    2016-03-01

    Adenosine A2A receptors (A2 A Rs) and cannabinoid CB1 receptors (CB1 Rs) are highly expressed in the striatum, where they functionally interact and form A2A /CB1 heteroreceptor complexes. We investigated the effects of CB1 R stimulation in a transgenic rat strain over-expressing A2 A Rs under the control of the neural-specific enolase promoter (NSEA2A rats) and in age-matched wild-type (WT) animals. The effects of the CB1 R agonist WIN 55,212-2 (WIN) were significantly lower in NSEA2A rats than in WT animals, as demonstrated by i) electrophysiological recordings of synaptic transmission in corticostriatal slices; ii) the measurement of glutamate outflow from striatal synaptosomes and iii) in vivo experiments on locomotor activity. Moreover, while the effects of WIN were modulated by both A2 A R agonist (CGS 21680) and antagonists (ZM 241385, KW-6002 and SCH-442416) in WT animals, the A2 A R antagonists failed to influence WIN-mediated effects in NSEA2A rats. The present results demonstrate that in rats with genetic neuronal over-expression of A2 A Rs, the effects mediated by CB1 R activation in the striatum are significantly reduced, suggesting a change in the stoichiometry of A2A and CB1 receptors and providing a strategy to dissect the involvement of A2 A R forming or not forming heteromers in the modulation of striatal functions. These findings add additional evidence for the existence of an interaction between striatal A2 A Rs and CB1 Rs, playing a fundamental role in the regulation of striatal functions. We studied A2A -CB1 receptor interaction in transgenic rats over-expressing adenosine A2A receptors under the control of the neuron-specific enolase promoter (NSEA2A ). In these rats, we demonstrated a reduced effect of the CB1 receptor agonist WIN 55,212-2 in the modulation of corticostriatal synaptic transmission and locomotor activity, while CB1 receptor expression level did not change with respect to WT rats. A reduction in the expression of A2A -CB1

  1. Gene expression studies of mRNAs encoding the NMDA receptor subunits NMDAR1, NMDAR2A, NMDAR2B, NMDAR2C, and NMDAR2D following long-term treatment with cis-and trans-flupenthixol as a model for understanding the mode of action of schizophrenia drug treatment.

    PubMed

    Chen, A C; McDonald, B; Moss, S J; Gurling, H M

    1998-02-01

    It has been hypothesized that glutamate receptor function is important in both the aetiology and treatment of schizophrenia. In order to understand how specific glutamate receptor genes are involved in the treatment of schizophrenia we have used a multiprobe oligonucleotide solution hybridization (MOSH) technique to examine the regulation of gene express of the NMDAR1, 2A, 2B, 2C, 2D receptor subunits in the left rat brain following treatment with the optical isomers of flupenthixol. cis- and trans-flupenthixol are both present in the commonly used oral and depot treatments for schizophrenia and a controlled trial showed that cis-flupenthixol had a significantly superior ability to ameliorate the positive symptoms of schizophrenia compared to its trans-isomer. At a dose of 0.2 mg/kg/day over a period of 1, 2, 4, 8, 12 and 24 weeks, we found that both isomers down regulated the expression of NMDAR1 mRNA in most regions of the brain. NMDAR2A, 2B and 2C receptor subunits showed a significantly decreased expression from 12 to 24 weeks but after 2 weeks NMDAR2B, 2C, 2D expression was increased in several brain regions. The NMDAR1 receptor subunit immunoreactivity in the right brain following 4 and 24 weeks of drug treatment was also examined by Western blotting. Both trans- and cis-flupenthixol significantly decreased the NR1 immunoreactivity in the right cerebellum after 24 weeks of treatment. These results suggest that NMDA receptor subunits may have a role in the action of antipsychotic drugs. If we assume that the NMDA receptor expression changes reflect a beneficial and significant mechanism in the treatment of schizophrenia, it could be argued that NMDA receptor changes are more related to the negative or non-specific symptoms of schizophrenia.

  2. Antibody-mediated targeted gene transfer of helper virus-free HSV-1 vectors to rat neocortical neurons that contain either NMDA receptor 2B or 2A subunits.

    PubMed

    Cao, Haiyan; Zhang, Guo-rong; Geller, Alfred I

    2011-09-30

    Because of the numerous types of neurons in the brain, and particularly the forebrain, neuron type-specific expression will benefit many potential applications of direct gene transfer. The two most promising approaches for achieving neuron type-specific expression are targeted gene transfer to a specific type of neuron and using a neuron type-specific promoter. We previously developed antibody-mediated targeted gene transfer with Herpes Simplex Virus (HSV-1) vectors by modifying glycoprotein C (gC) to replace the heparin binding domain, which mediates the initial binding of HSV-1 particles to many cell types, with the Staphylococcus A protein ZZ domain, which binds immunoglobulin (Ig) G. We showed that a chimeric gC-ZZ protein is incorporated into vector particles and binds IgG. As a proof-of-principle for antibody-mediated targeted gene transfer, we isolated complexes of these vector particles and an anti-NMDA NR1 subunit antibody, and demonstrated targeted gene transfer to neocortical cells that contain NR1 subunits. However, because most forebrain neurons contain NR1, we obtained only a modest increase in the specificity of gene transfer, and this targeting specificity is of limited utility for physiological experiments. Here, we report efficient antibody-mediated targeted gene transfer to NMDA NR2B- or NR2A-containing cells in rat postrhinal cortex, and a neuron-specific promoter further restricted recombinant expression to neurons. Of note, because NR2A-containing neurons are relatively rare, these results show that antibody-mediated targeted gene transfer with HSV-1 vectors containing neuron type-specific promoters can restrict recombinant expression to specific types of forebrain neurons of physiological significance.

  3. cDNA cloning, molecular characterization, and chromosomal localization of NET(EPHT2), a human EPH-related receptor protein-tyrosine kinase gene preferentially expressed in brain

    SciTech Connect

    Tang, X.X.; Yoshioka, A.; Pleasure, D.E.

    1995-09-20

    By screening a human fetal brain cDNA expression library using a monoclonal anti-phosphotyrosine antibody , we have isolated a cDNA clone encoding a receptor type protein-tyrosine kinase belonging to the EPH family, NET (neuronally expressed EPH-related tyrosine kinase). NET shows 87% homology in nucleotide sequence and 99% homology in the deduced amino acid sequence to rat elk, suggesting that NET is the human homologue of elk. The NET gene is mapped to human chromosome 3q21-q23 by PCR screening of a human rodent somatic cell hybrid panel and by fluorescence in situ hybridization. Examination of NET mRNA expression in several human tissues has shown that the NET gene is expressed preferentially in brain as a 5-kb transcript. Steady-state levels of NET mRNA in human brain are greater in the midterm fetus than in the adult. Lower levels of NET mRNA are found in fetal kidney and adult skeletal muscle. The expression pattern of NET mRNA thus differs from that of elk, suggesting that these two gene products may preform distinct roles in human and rat. NET transcripts are detected in human acid-induced neuronal differentiation. Several human tumor cell lines derived from neuroectoderm including primitive neuroblastoma also express NET transcripts. Since the NET mRNA expression in human brain is developmentally regulated and is induced during neuronal differentiation, NET potentially plays important roles in human neurogenesis. 89 refs., 7 figs.

  4. Functional efficacy of adenosine A2A receptor agonists is positively correlated to their receptor residence time

    PubMed Central

    Guo, Dong; Mulder-Krieger, Thea; IJzerman, Adriaan P; Heitman, Laura H

    2012-01-01

    BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE The adenosine A2A receptor belongs to the superfamily of GPCRs and is a promising therapeutic target. Traditionally, the discovery of novel agents for the A2A receptor has been guided by their affinity for the receptor. This parameter is determined under equilibrium conditions, largely ignoring the kinetic aspects of the ligand-receptor interaction. The aim of this study was to assess the binding kinetics of A2A receptor agonists and explore a possible relationship with their functional efficacy. EXPERIMENTAL APPROACH We set up, validated and optimized a kinetic radioligand binding assay (a so-called competition association assay) at the A2A receptor from which the binding kinetics of unlabelled ligands were determined. Subsequently, functional efficacies of A2A receptor agonists were determined in two different assays: a novel label-free impedance-based assay and a more traditional cAMP determination. KEY RESULTS A simplified competition association assay yielded an accurate determination of the association and dissociation rates of unlabelled A2A receptor ligands at their receptor. A correlation was observed between the receptor residence time of A2A receptor agonists and their intrinsic efficacies in both functional assays. The affinity of A2A receptor agonists was not correlated to their functional efficacy. CONCLUSIONS AND IMPLICATIONS This study indicates that the molecular basis of different agonist efficacies at the A2A receptor lies within their different residence times at this receptor. PMID:22324512

  5. The androgen receptor gene mutations database.

    PubMed

    Patterson, M N; Hughes, I A; Gottlieb, B; Pinsky, L

    1994-09-01

    The androgen receptor gene mutations database is a comprehensive listing of mutations published in journals and meetings proceedings. The majority of mutations are point mutations identified in patients with androgen insensitivity syndrome. Information is included regarding the phenotype, the nature and location of the mutations, as well as the effects of the mutations on the androgen binding activity of the receptor. The current version of the database contains 149 entries, of which 114 are unique mutations. The database is available from EMBL (NetServ@EMBL-Heidelberg.DE) or as a Macintosh Filemaker file (mc33001@musica.mcgill.ca).

  6. Adenosine 2A receptors in acute kidney injury.

    PubMed

    Vincent, I S; Okusa, M D

    2015-07-01

    Acute kidney injury (AKI) is an important clinical problem that may lead to death and for those who survive, the sequelae of AKI include loss of quality of life, chronic kidney disease and end-stage renal disease. The incidence of AKI continues to rise without clear successes in humans for the pharmacological prevention of AKI or treatment of established AKI. Dendritic cells and macrophages are critical early initiators of innate immunity in the kidney and orchestrate inflammation subsequent to ischaemia-reperfusion injury. These innate cells are the most abundant leucocytes present in the kidney, and they represent a heterogeneous population of cells that are capable of responding to cues from the microenvironment derived from pathogens or endogenous inflammatory mediators such as cytokines or anti-inflammatory mediators such as adenosine. Lymphocyte subsets such as natural killer T cells and Tregs also play roles in regulating ischaemic injury by promoting and suppressing inflammation respectively. Adenosine, produced in response to IR, is generally considered as a protective signalling molecule and elicits its physiological responses through four distinct adenosine receptors. However, its short half-life, lack of specificity and rapid metabolism limit the use of adenosine as a therapeutic agent. These adenosine receptors play various roles in regulating the activity of the aforementioned hematopoietic cells in elevated levels of adenosine such as during hypoxia. This review focuses on the importance of one receptor, the adenosine 2A subtype, in blocking inflammation associated with AKI.

  7. CRISPLD2: a novel NSCLP candidate gene.

    PubMed

    Chiquet, Brett T; Lidral, Andrew C; Stal, Samuel; Mulliken, John B; Moreno, Lina M; Arcos-Burgos, Mauricio; Arco-Burgos, Mauricio; Valencia-Ramirez, Consuelo; Blanton, Susan H; Hecht, Jacqueline T

    2007-09-15

    Non-syndromic cleft lip with or without cleft palate (NSCLP) results from the complex interaction between genes and environmental factors. Candidate gene analysis and genome scans have been employed to identify the genes contributing to NSCLP. In this study, we evaluated the 16q24.1 chromosomal region, which has been identified by multiple genome scans as an NSCLP region of interest. Two candidate genes were found in the region: interferon regulatory factor 8 (IRF8) and cysteine-rich secretory protein LCCL domain containing 2 (CRISPLD2). Initially, Caucasian and Hispanic NSCLP multiplex families and simplex parent-child trios were genotyped for single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in both IRF8 and CRISPLD2. CRISPLD2 was subsequently genotyped in a data set comprised of NSCLP families from Colombia, South America. Linkage disequilibrium analysis identified a significant association between CRISPLD2 and NSCLP in both our Caucasian and Hispanic NSCLP cohorts. SNP rs1546124 and haplotypes between rs1546124 and either rs4783099 or rs16974880 were significant in the Caucasian multiplex population (P=0.01, P=0.002 and P=0.001, respectively). An altered transmission of CRISPLD2 SNPs rs8061351 (P=0.02) and rs2326398 (P=0.06) was detected in the Hispanic population. No association was found between CRISPLD2 and our Colombian population or IRF8 and NSCLP. In situ hybridization showed that CRISPLD2 is expressed in the mandible, palate and nasopharynx regions during craniofacial development at E13.5-E17.5, respectively. Altogether, these data suggest that genetic variation in CRISPLD2 has a role in the etiology of NSCLP.

  8. Social regulation of cortisol receptor gene expression

    PubMed Central

    Korzan, Wayne J.; Grone, Brian P.; Fernald, Russell D.

    2014-01-01

    In many social species, individuals influence the reproductive capacity of conspecifics. In a well-studied African cichlid fish species, Astatotilapia burtoni, males are either dominant (D) and reproductively competent or non-dominant (ND) and reproductively suppressed as evidenced by reduced gonadotropin releasing hormone (GnRH1) release, regressed gonads, lower levels of androgens and elevated levels of cortisol. Here, we asked whether androgen and cortisol levels might regulate this reproductive suppression. Astatotilapia burtoni has four glucocorticoid receptors (GR1a, GR1b, GR2 and MR), encoded by three genes, and two androgen receptors (ARα and ARβ), encoded by two genes. We previously showed that ARα and ARβ are expressed in GnRH1 neurons in the preoptic area (POA), which regulates reproduction, and that the mRNA levels of these receptors are regulated by social status. Here, we show that GR1, GR2 and MR mRNAs are also expressed in GnRH1 neurons in the POA, revealing potential mechanisms for both androgens and cortisol to influence reproductive capacity. We measured AR, MR and GR mRNA expression levels in a microdissected region of the POA containing GnRH1 neurons, comparing D and ND males. Using quantitative PCR (qPCR), we found D males had higher mRNA levels of ARα, MR, total GR1a and GR2 in the POA compared with ND males. In contrast, ND males had significantly higher levels of GR1b mRNA, a receptor subtype with a reduced transcriptional response to cortisol. Through this novel regulation of receptor type, neurons in the POA of an ND male will be less affected by the higher levels of cortisol typical of low status, suggesting GR receptor type change as a potential adaptive mechanism to mediate high cortisol levels during social suppression. PMID:25013108

  9. Remodeling of striatal NMDA receptors by chronic A(2A) receptor blockade in Huntington's disease mice.

    PubMed

    Martire, Alberto; Ferrante, Antonella; Potenza, Rosa Luisa; Armida, Monica; Ferretti, Roberta; Pézzola, Antonella; Domenici, Maria Rosaria; Popoli, Patrizia

    2010-01-01

    Excitotoxicity plays a major role in the pathogenesis of Huntington disease (HD), a fatal neurodegenerative disorder. Adenosine A(2A) receptors (A(2A)Rs) modulate excitotoxicity and have been suggested to play a pathogenetic role in HD. The main aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of A(2A)R blockade on the expression and functions of NMDA receptors in the striatum of HD mice (R6/2). We found that 3 weeks' treatment with SCH 58261 (0.01 mg/kg/day i.p. from the 8th week of age) modified NR1 and NR2A/NR2B expression in the striatum of R6/2 (Western blotting) while had no effect on NMDA-induced toxicity in corticostriatal slices (electrophysiological experiments). In conclusion, in vivo A(2A)R blockade induced a remodeling of NMDA receptors in the striatum of HD mice. Even though the functional relevance of the above effect remains to be fully elucidated, these results add further evidence to the modulatory role of A(2A)Rs in HD.

  10. CHK2, A Candidate Prostate Cancer Susceptibility Gene

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2005-01-01

    confirmation. One pari 2000; Bulavin et al. 2001). Recently, heterozygous o germline mutations in the CHEK2 gene have been iden- family had Hispanic ancestry...AD Award Number: DAMD17-02-1-0093 TITLE: CHK2, A Candidate Prostate Cancer Susceptibility Gene PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR: Wanguo Liu, Ph.D. CONTRACTING...blank) January 2005 Final (1 Jan 2002 - 31 Dec 2004) 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE 5. FUNDING NUMBERS CHK2, A Candidate Prostate Cancer Susceptibility Gene DAMD17

  11. The Evolution of Mammalian Olfactory Receptor Genes

    PubMed Central

    Issel-Tarver, L.; Rine, J.

    1997-01-01

    We performed a comparative study of four subfamilies of olfactory receptor genes first identified in the dog to assess changes in the gene family during mammalian evolution, and to begin linking the dog genetic map to that of humans. The human subfamilies were localized to chromosomes 7, 11, and 19. The two subfamilies that were tightly linked in the dog genome were also tightly linked in the human genome. The four subfamilies were compared in human (primate), horse (perissodactyl), and a variety of artiodactyls and carnivores. Some changes in gene number were detected, but overall subfamily size appeared to have been established before the divergence of these mammals 60-100 million years ago. PMID:9017400

  12. A2A-D2 receptor-receptor interaction modulates gliotransmitter release from striatal astrocyte processes.

    PubMed

    Cervetto, Chiara; Venturini, Arianna; Passalacqua, Mario; Guidolin, Diego; Genedani, Susanna; Fuxe, Kjell; Borroto-Esquela, Dasiel O; Cortelli, Pietro; Woods, Amina; Maura, Guido; Marcoli, Manuela; Agnati, Luigi F

    2017-01-01

    Evidence for striatal A2A-D2 heterodimers has led to a new perspective on molecular mechanisms involved in schizophrenia and Parkinson's disease. Despite the increasing recognition of astrocytes' participation in neuropsychiatric disease vulnerability, involvement of striatal astrocytes in A2A and D2 receptor signal transmission has never been explored. Here, we investigated the presence of D2 and A2A receptors in isolated astrocyte processes prepared from adult rat striatum by confocal imaging; the effects of receptor activation were measured on the 4-aminopyridine-evoked release of glutamate from the processes. Confocal analysis showed that A2A and D2 receptors were co-expressed on the same astrocyte processes. Evidence for A2A-D2 receptor-receptor interactions was obtained by measuring the release of the gliotransmitter glutamate: D2 receptors inhibited the glutamate release, while activation of A2A receptors, per se ineffective, abolished the effect of D2 receptor activation. The synthetic D2 peptide VLRRRRKRVN corresponding to the receptor region involved in electrostatic interaction underlying A2A-D2 heteromerization abolished the ability of the A2A receptor to antagonize the D2 receptor-mediated effect. Together, the findings are consistent with heteromerization of native striatal astrocytic A2A-D2 receptors that via allosteric receptor-receptor interactions could play a role in the control of striatal glutamatergic transmission. These new findings suggest possible new pathogenic mechanisms and/or therapeutic approaches to neuropsychiatric disorders.

  13. Engineering AAV receptor footprints for gene therapy.

    PubMed

    Madigan, Victoria J; Asokan, Aravind

    2016-06-01

    Adeno-associated viruses (AAV) are currently at the forefront of human gene therapy clinical trials as recombinant vectors. Significant progress has been made in elucidating the structure, biology and tropisms of different naturally occurring AAV isolates in the past decade. In particular, a spectrum of AAV capsid interactions with host receptors have been identified and characterized. These studies have enabled a better understanding of key determinants of AAV cell recognition and entry in different hosts. This knowledge is now being applied toward engineering new, lab-derived AAV capsids with favorable transduction profiles. The current review conveys a structural perspective of capsid-glycan interactions and provides a roadmap for generating synthetic strains by engineering AAV receptor footprints.

  14. The Androgen Receptor Gene Mutations Database.

    PubMed

    Gottlieb, B; Lehvaslaiho, H; Beitel, L K; Lumbroso, R; Pinsky, L; Trifiro, M

    1998-01-01

    The current version of the androgen receptor (AR) gene mutations database is described. The total number of reported mutations has risen from 272 to 309 in the past year. We have expanded the database: (i) by giving each entry an accession number; (ii) by adding information on the length of polymorphic polyglutamine (polyGln) and polyglycine (polyGly) tracts in exon 1; (iii) by adding information on large gene deletions; (iv) by providing a direct link with a completely searchable database (courtesy EMBL-European Bioinformatics Institute). The addition of the exon 1 polymorphisms is discussed in light of their possible relevance as markers for predisposition to prostate or breast cancer. The database is also available on the internet (http://www.mcgill. ca/androgendb/ ), from EMBL-European Bioinformatics Institute (ftp. ebi.ac.uk/pub/databases/androgen ), or as a Macintosh FilemakerPro or Word file (MC33@musica.mcgill.ca).

  15. The NMDA receptor NR2A subunit regulates proliferation of MKN45 human gastric cancer cells

    SciTech Connect

    Watanabe, Kanako; Kanno, Takeshi; Oshima, Tadayuki; Miwa, Hiroto; Tashiro, Chikara; Nishizaki, Tomoyuki

    2008-03-07

    The present study investigated proliferation of MKN28 and MKN45 human gastric cancer cells regulated by the N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) receptor subunit. The NMDA receptor antagonist DL-2-amino-5-phosphonovaleric acid (AP5) inhibited proliferation of MKN45 cells, but not MKN28 cells. Of the NMDA subunits such as NR1, NR2 (2A, 2B, 2C, and 2D), and NR3 (3A and 3B), all the NMDA subunit mRNAs except for the NR2B subunit mRNA were expressed in both MKN28 and MKN45 cells. MKN45 cells were characterized by higher expression of the NR2A subunit mRNA and lower expression of the NR1 subunit mRNA, but MKN28 otherwise by higher expression of the NR1 subunit mRNA and lower expression of the NR2A subunit mRNA. MKN45 cell proliferation was also inhibited by silencing the NR2A subunit-targeted gene. For MKN45 cells, AP5 or knocking-down the NR2A subunit increased the proportion of cells in the G{sub 1} phase of cell cycling and decreased the proportion in the S/G{sub 2} phase. The results of the present study, thus, suggest that blockage of NMDA receptors including the NR2A subunit suppresses MKN45 cell proliferation due to cell cycle arrest at the G{sub 1} phase; in other words, the NR2A subunit promotes MKN45 cell proliferation by accelerating cell cycling.

  16. Identification of a family of muscarinic acetylcholine receptor genes

    SciTech Connect

    Bonner, T.I.; Buckley, N.J.; Young, A.C.; Brann, M.R.

    1987-07-31

    Complementary DNAs for three different muscarinic acetylcholine receptors were isolated from a rat cerebral cortex library, and the cloned receptors were expressed in mammalian cells. Analysis of human and rat genomic clones indicates that there are at least four functional muscarinic receptor genes and that these genes lack introns in the coding sequence. This gene family provides a new basis for evaluating the diversity of muscarinic mechanisms in the nervous system.

  17. Potential therapeutic interest of adenosine A2A receptors in psychiatric disorders.

    PubMed

    Cunha, Rodrigo A; Ferré, Sergi; Vaugeois, Jean-Marie; Chen, Jiang-Fan

    2008-01-01

    The interest on targeting adenosine A(2A) receptors in the realm of psychiatric diseases first arose based on their tight physical and functional interaction with dopamine D(2) receptors. However, the role of central A(2A) receptors is now viewed as much broader than just controlling D(2) receptor function. Thus, there is currently a major interest in the ability of A(2A) receptors to control synaptic plasticity at glutamatergic synapses. This is due to a combined ability of A(2A) receptors to facilitate the release of glutamate and the activation of NMDA receptors. Therefore, A(2A) receptors are now conceived as a normalizing device promoting adequate adaptive responses in neuronal circuits, a role similar to that fulfilled, in essence, by dopamine. This makes A(2A) receptors particularly attractive targets to manage psychiatric disorders since adenosine may act as go-between glutamate and dopamine, two of the key players in mood processing. Furthermore, A(2A) receptors also control glia function and brain metabolic adaptation, two other emerging mechanisms to understand abnormal processing of mood, and A(2A) receptors are important players in controlling the demise of neurodegeneration, considered an amplificatory loop in psychiatric disorders. Current data only provide an indirect confirmation of this putative role of A(2A) receptors, based on the effects of caffeine (an antagonist of both A(1) and A(2A) receptors) in psychiatric disorders. However, the introduction of A(2A) receptors antagonists in clinics as anti-parkinsonian agents is hoped to bolster our knowledge on the role of A(2A) receptors in mood disorders in the near future.

  18. Constitutive androstane receptor activation evokes the expression of glycolytic genes.

    PubMed

    Yarushkin, Andrei A; Kazantseva, Yuliya A; Prokopyeva, Elena A; Markova, Diana N; Pustylnyak, Yuliya A; Pustylnyak, Vladimir O

    2016-09-23

    It is well-known that constitutive androstane receptor (CAR) activation by 1,4-bis[2-(3,5-dichloropyridyloxy)]benzene (TCPOBOP) increases the liver-to-body weight ratio. CAR-mediated liver growth is correlated with increased expression of the pleiotropic transcription factor cMyc, which stimulates cell cycle regulatory genes and drives proliferating cells into S phase. Because glycolysis supports cell proliferation and cMyc is essential for the activation of glycolytic genes, we hypothesized that CAR-mediated up-regulation of cMyc in mouse livers might play a role in inducing the expression of glycolytic genes. The aim of the present study was to examine the effect of long-term CAR activation on glycolytic genes in a mouse model not subjected to metabolic stress. We demonstrated that long-term CAR activation by TCPOBOP increases expression of cMyc, which was correlated with reduced expression of gluconeogenic genes and up-regulation of glucose transporter, glycolytic and mitochondrial pyruvate metabolising genes. These changes in gene expression after TCPOBOP treatment were strongly correlated with changes in levels of glycolytic intermediates in mouse livers. Moreover, we demonstrated a significant positive regulatory effect of TCPOBOP-activated CAR on both mRNA and protein levels of Pkm2, a master regulator of glucose metabolism and cell proliferation. Thus, our findings provide evidence to support the conclusion that CAR activation initiates a transcriptional program that facilitates the coordinated metabolic activities required for cell proliferation.

  19. The importance of the adenosine A(2A) receptor-dopamine D(2) receptor interaction in drug addiction.

    PubMed

    Filip, M; Zaniewska, M; Frankowska, M; Wydra, K; Fuxe, K

    2012-01-01

    Drug addiction is a serious brain disorder with somatic, psychological, psychiatric, socio-economic and legal implications in the developed world. Illegal (e.g., psychostimulants, opioids, cannabinoids) and legal (alcohol, nicotine) drugs of abuse create a complex behavioral pattern composed of drug intake, withdrawal, seeking and relapse. One of the hallmarks of drugs that are abused by humans is that they have different mechanisms of action to increase dopamine (DA) neurotransmission within the mesolimbic circuitry of the brain and indirectly activate DA receptors. Among the DA receptors, D(2) receptors are linked to drug abuse and addiction because their function has been proven to be correlated with drug reinforcement and relapses. The recognition that D(2) receptors exist not only as homomers but also can form heteromers, such as with the adenosine (A)(2A) receptor, that are pharmacologically and functionally distinct from their constituent receptors, has significantly expanded the range of potential drug targets and provided new avenues for drug design in the search for novel drug addiction therapies. The aim of this review is to bring current focus on A(2A) receptors, their physiology and pharmacology in the central nervous system, and to discuss the therapeutic relevance of these receptors to drug addiction. We concentrate on the contribution of A(2A) receptors to the effects of different classes of drugs of abuse examined in preclinical behavioral experiments carried out with pharmacological and genetic tools. The consequences of chronic drug treatment on A(2A) receptor-assigned functions in preclinical studies are also presented. Finally, the neurochemical mechanism of the interaction between A(2A) receptors and drugs of abuse in the context of the heteromeric A(2A)-D(2) receptor complex is discussed. Taken together, a significant amount of experimental analyses provide evidence that targeting A(2A) receptors may offer innovative translational strategies

  20. Regulatory Features for Odorant Receptor Genes in the Mouse Genome

    PubMed Central

    Degl’Innocenti, Andrea; D’Errico, Anna

    2017-01-01

    The odorant receptor genes, seven transmembrane receptor genes constituting the vastest mammalian gene multifamily, are expressed monogenically and monoallelicaly in each sensory neuron in the olfactory epithelium. This characteristic, often referred to as the one neuron–one receptor rule, is driven by mostly uncharacterized molecular dynamics, generally named odorant receptor gene choice. Much attention has been paid by the scientific community to the identification of sequences regulating the expression of odorant receptor genes within their loci, where related genes are usually arranged in genomic clusters. A number of studies identified transcription factor binding sites on odorant receptor promoter sequences. Similar binding sites were also found on a number of enhancers that regulate in cis their transcription, but have been proposed to form interchromosomal networks. Odorant receptor gene choice seems to occur via the local removal of strongly repressive epigenetic markings, put in place during the maturation of the sensory neuron on each odorant receptor locus. Here we review the fast-changing state of art for the study of regulatory features for odorant receptor genes. PMID:28270833

  1. Regulatory Features for Odorant Receptor Genes in the Mouse Genome.

    PubMed

    Degl'Innocenti, Andrea; D'Errico, Anna

    2017-01-01

    The odorant receptor genes, seven transmembrane receptor genes constituting the vastest mammalian gene multifamily, are expressed monogenically and monoallelicaly in each sensory neuron in the olfactory epithelium. This characteristic, often referred to as the one neuron-one receptor rule, is driven by mostly uncharacterized molecular dynamics, generally named odorant receptor gene choice. Much attention has been paid by the scientific community to the identification of sequences regulating the expression of odorant receptor genes within their loci, where related genes are usually arranged in genomic clusters. A number of studies identified transcription factor binding sites on odorant receptor promoter sequences. Similar binding sites were also found on a number of enhancers that regulate in cis their transcription, but have been proposed to form interchromosomal networks. Odorant receptor gene choice seems to occur via the local removal of strongly repressive epigenetic markings, put in place during the maturation of the sensory neuron on each odorant receptor locus. Here we review the fast-changing state of art for the study of regulatory features for odorant receptor genes.

  2. Analysis of antigen receptor genes in Hodgkin's disease.

    PubMed Central

    Angel, C A; Pringle, J H; Naylor, J; West, K P; Lauder, I

    1993-01-01

    AIM--To analyse the configuration of the antigen receptor genes in Hodgkin's disease. METHODS--DNA extracted from 45 samples of Hodgkin's disease was analysed using Southern blotting and DNA hybridisation, using probes to the joining region of the immunoglobulin heavy chain gene, the constant region of kappa immunoglobulin light chain gene, and the constant region of the beta chain of the T cell receptor gene. RESULTS--A single case of nodular sclerosing disease showed clonal rearrangement of the immunoglobulin heavy and light chain genes, all other samples having germline immunoglobulin genes. The nature of the clonal population in the diseased tissue is uncertain, because the intensity of the rearranged bands did not correlate with the percentage of Reed-Sternberg cells present. The T cell receptor genes were in germline configuration in all the samples. CONCLUSIONS--Antigen receptor gene rearrangement is a rare finding in unselected cases of Hodgkin's disease. Images PMID:8388407

  3. 5-HT2A SEROTONIN RECEPTOR BIOLOGY: Interacting proteins, kinases and paradoxical regulation

    PubMed Central

    Roth, Bryan L

    2011-01-01

    5-hydroxytryptamine2A (5-HT2A) serotonin receptors are important pharmacological targets for a large number of central nervous system and peripheral serotonergic medications. In this review article I summarize work mainly from my lab regarding serotonin receptor anatomy, pharmacology, signaling and regulation. I highlight the role of serotonin receptor interacting proteins and the emerging paradigm of G-protein coupled receptor functional selectivity. PMID:21288474

  4. Adenosine A2A receptor antagonism and neuroprotection: mechanisms, lights, and shadows.

    PubMed

    Popoli, Patrizia; Minghetti, Luisa; Tebano, Maria Teresa; Pintor, Annita; Domenici, Maria Rosaria; Massotti, Marino

    2004-01-01

    Adenosine A2A receptor antagonists are regarded as potential neuroprotective drugs, although the mechanisms underlying their effects remain to be elucidated. In this review, quinolinic acid (QA)-induced striatal toxicity was used as a tool to investigate the mechanisms of the neuroprotective effects of A2A receptor antagonists. After having examined the effects of selective A2A receptor antagonists toward different mechanisms of QA toxicity, we conclude that (1) the effect elicited by A2A receptor blockade on QA-induced glutamate outflow may be one of the mechanisms of the neuroprotective activity of A2A receptor antagonists; (2) A2A receptor antagonists have a potentially worsening influence on QA-dependent NMDA receptor activation; and (3) the ability of A2A receptor antagonists to prevent QA-induced lipid peroxidation does not correlate with the neuroprotective effects. These results suggest that A2A receptor antagonists may have either potentially beneficial or detrimental influence in models of neurodegeneration that are mainly due to increased glutamate levels or enhanced sensitivity of NMDA receptors, respectively.

  5. The androgen receptor gene mutations database.

    PubMed

    Gottlieb, B; Trifiro, M; Lumbroso, R; Vasiliou, D M; Pinsky, L

    1996-01-01

    The current version of the androgen receptor (AR) gene mutations database is described. We have added (if available) data on the androgen binding phenotype of the mutant AR, the clinical phenotype of the affected persons, the family history and whether the pathogenicity of a mutation has been proven. Exonic mutations are now listed in 5'-->3' sequence regardless of type and single base pair changes are presented in codon context. Splice site and intronic mutations are listed separately. The database has allowed us to substantiate and amplify the observation of mutational hot spots within exons encoding the AR androgen binding domain. The database is available from EML (ftp://www.ebi.ac.uk/pub/databases/androgen) or as a Macintosh Filemaker file (MC33@musica.mcgill.ca).

  6. The androgen receptor gene mutations database.

    PubMed

    Gottlieb, B; Trifiro, M; Lumbroso, R; Pinsky, L

    1997-01-01

    The current version of the androgen receptor (AR) gene mutations database is described. The total number of reported mutations has risen from 212 to 272. We have expanded the database: (i) by adding a large amount of new data on somatic mutations in prostatic cancer tissue; (ii) by defining a new constitutional phenotype, mild androgen insensitivity (MAI); (iii) by placing additional relevant information on an internet site (http://www.mcgill.ca/androgendb/ ). The database has allowed us to examine the contribution of CpG sites to the multiplicity of reports of the same mutation in different families. The database is also available from EMBL (ftp.ebi.ac.uk/pub/databases/androgen) or as a Macintosh Filemaker Pro or Word file (MC33@musica,mcgill.ca)

  7. Insights into the regulation of 5-HT2A serotonin receptors by scaffolding proteins and kinases.

    PubMed

    Allen, John A; Yadav, Prem N; Roth, Bryan L

    2008-11-01

    5-HT(2A) serotonin receptors are essential molecular targets for the actions of LSD-like hallucinogens and atypical antipsychotic drugs. 5-HT(2A) serotonin receptors also mediate a variety of physiological processes in peripheral and central nervous systems including platelet aggregation, smooth muscle contraction, and the modulation of mood and perception. Scaffolding proteins have emerged as important regulators of 5-HT(2A) receptors and our recent studies suggest multiple scaffolds exist for 5-HT(2A) receptors including PSD95, arrestin, and caveolin. In addition, a novel interaction has emerged between p90 ribosomal S6 kinase and 5-HT(2A) receptors which attenuates receptor signaling. This article reviews our recent studies and emphasizes the role of scaffolding proteins and kinases in the regulation of 5-HT(2A) trafficking, targeting and signaling.

  8. A tail of two signals: the C terminus of the A(2A)-adenosine receptor recruits alternative signaling pathways.

    PubMed

    Gsandtner, Ingrid; Freissmuth, Michael

    2006-08-01

    G protein-coupled receptors are endowed with carboxyl termini that vary greatly in length and sequence. In most instances, the distal portion of the C terminus is dispensable for G protein coupling. This is also true for the A(2A)-adenosine receptor, where the last 100 amino acids are of very modest relevance to G(s) coupling. The C terminus was originally viewed mainly as the docking site for regulatory proteins of the beta-arrestin family. These beta-arrestins bind to residues that have been phosphorylated by specialized kinases (G protein-coupled receptor kinases) and thereby initiate receptor desensitization and endocytosis. More recently, it has become clear that many additional "accessory" proteins bind to C termini of G protein-coupled receptors. The article by Sun et al. in the current issue of Molecular Pharmacology identifies translin-associated protein-X as yet another interaction partner of the A(2A) receptor; translin-associated protein allows the A(2A) receptor to impinge on the signaling mechanisms by which p53 regulates neuronal differentiation, but the underlying signaling pathways are uncharted territory. With a list of five known interaction partners, the C terminus of the A(2A) receptor becomes a crowded place. Hence, there must be rules that regulate the interaction. This allows the C terminus to act as coincidence detector and as signal integrator. Despite our ignorance about the precise mechanisms, the article has exciting implications: the gene encoding for translin-associated protein-X maps to a locus implicated in some forms of schizophrenia; A(2A) receptor agonists are candidate drugs for the treatment of schizophrenic symptoms. It is of obvious interest to explore a possible link.

  9. Dopamine Receptor Genes Modulate Associative Memory in Old Age.

    PubMed

    Papenberg, Goran; Becker, Nina; Ferencz, Beata; Naveh-Benjamin, Moshe; Laukka, Erika J; Bäckman, Lars; Brehmer, Yvonne

    2017-02-01

    Previous research shows that associative memory declines more than item memory in aging. Although the underlying mechanisms of this selective impairment remain poorly understood, animal and human data suggest that dopaminergic modulation may be particularly relevant for associative binding. We investigated the influence of dopamine (DA) receptor genes on item and associative memory in a population-based sample of older adults (n = 525, aged 60 years), assessed with a face-scene item associative memory task. The effects of single-nucleotide polymorphisms of DA D1 (DRD1; rs4532), D2 (DRD2/ANKK1/Taq1A; rs1800497), and D3 (DRD3/Ser9Gly; rs6280) receptor genes were examined and combined into a single genetic score. Individuals carrying more beneficial alleles, presumably associated with higher DA receptor efficacy (DRD1 C allele; DRD2 A2 allele; DRD3 T allele), performed better on associative memory than persons with less beneficial genotypes. There were no effects of these genes on item memory or other cognitive measures, such as working memory, executive functioning, fluency, and perceptual speed, indicating a selective association between DA genes and associative memory. By contrast, genetic risk for Alzheimer disease (AD) was associated with worse item and associative memory, indicating adverse effects of APOE ε4 and a genetic risk score for AD (PICALM, BIN1, CLU) on episodic memory in general. Taken together, our results suggest that DA may be particularly important for associative memory, whereas AD-related genetic variations may influence overall episodic memory in older adults without dementia.

  10. Glycine Potentiates AMPA Receptor Function through Metabotropic Activation of GluN2A-Containing NMDA Receptors

    PubMed Central

    Li, Li-Jun; Hu, Rong; Lujan, Brendan; Chen, Juan; Zhang, Jian-Jian; Nakano, Yasuko; Cui, Tian-Yuan; Liao, Ming-Xia; Chen, Jin-Cao; Man, Heng-Ye; Feng, Hua; Wan, Qi

    2016-01-01

    NMDA receptors are Ca2+-permeable ion channels. The activation of NMDA receptors requires agonist glutamate and co-agonist glycine. Recent evidence indicates that NMDA receptor also has metabotropic function. Here we report that in cultured mouse hippocampal neurons, glycine increases AMPA receptor-mediated currents independent of the channel activity of NMDA receptors and the activation of glycine receptors. The potentiation of AMPA receptor function by glycine is antagonized by the inhibition of ERK1/2. In the hippocampal neurons and in the HEK293 cells transfected with different combinations of NMDA receptors, glycine preferentially acts on GluN2A-containing NMDA receptors (GluN2ARs), but not GluN2B-containing NMDA receptors (GluN2BRs), to enhance ERK1/2 phosphorylation independent of the channel activity of GluN2ARs. Without requiring the channel activity of GluN2ARs, glycine increases AMPA receptor-mediated currents through GluN2ARs. Thus, these results reveal a metabotropic function of GluN2ARs in mediating glycine-induced potentiation of AMPA receptor function via ERK1/2 activation. PMID:27807405

  11. Characterization of the promoter of human CRTh2, a prostaglandin D{sub 2} receptor

    SciTech Connect

    Quapp, Russell; Madsen, Norman; Cameron, Lisa

    2007-11-30

    Chemoattractant-receptor homologous molecule expressed on Th2 cells (CRTh2) is a receptor for prostaglandin (PG)D{sub 2}, a lipid mediator involved in allergic inflammation. CRTh2 is expressed by Th2 cells, eosinophils and basophils and PDG{sub 2}-CRTh2 signaling induces calcium mobilization, cell migration and expression of the Th2 cytokines IL-4, IL-5, and IL-13. Despite the role of CRTh2 in allergic inflammation, transcriptional regulation of this gene has not been studied. Here, we demonstrated that a reporter construct of the CRTh2 promoter was induced following T cell stimulation. This activity could be further enhanced by over-expression of GATA-3, but not NFAT2 or STAT6. Electromobility shift assay demonstrated GATA-3 binding to a probe from the CRTh2 promoter. This study provides the first detailed analysis of transcriptional regulation of the human CRTh2 promoter. These findings may help identify strategies to attenuate expression of this gene and influence the maintenance and proliferation of Th2 cells in allergic inflammation.

  12. Gene Transfer and Molecular Cloning of the Human NGF Receptor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chao, Moses V.; Bothwell, Mark A.; Ross, Alonzo H.; Koprowski, Hilary; Lanahan, Anthony A.; Buck, C. Randall; Sehgal, Amita

    1986-04-01

    Nerve growth factor (NGF) and its receptor are important in the development of cells derived from the neural crest. Mouse L cell transformants have been generated that stably express the human NGF receptor gene transfer with total human DNA. Affinity cross-linking, metabolic labeling and immunoprecipitation, and equilibrium binding with 125I-labeled NGF revealed that this NGF receptor had the same size and binding characteristics as the receptor from human melanoma cells and rat PC12 cells. The sequences encoding the NGF receptor were molecularly cloned using the human Alu repetitive sequence as a probe. A cosmid clone that contained the human NGF receptor gene allowed efficient transfection and expression of the receptor.

  13. 5-HT2 Receptor Regulation of Mitochondrial Genes: Unexpected Pharmacological Effects of Agonists and Antagonists.

    PubMed

    Harmon, Jennifer L; Wills, Lauren P; McOmish, Caitlin E; Demireva, Elena Y; Gingrich, Jay A; Beeson, Craig C; Schnellmann, Rick G

    2016-04-01

    In acute organ injuries, mitochondria are often dysfunctional, and recent research has revealed that recovery of mitochondrial and renal functions is accelerated by induction of mitochondrial biogenesis (MB). We previously reported that the nonselective 5-HT2 receptor agonist DOI [1-(4-iodo-2,5-dimethoxyphenyl)propan-2-amine] induced MB in renal proximal tubular cells (RPTCs). The goal of this study was to determine the role of 5-HT2 receptors in the regulation of mitochondrial genes and oxidative metabolism in the kidney. The 5-HT2C receptor agonist CP-809,101 [2-[(3-chlorophenyl)methoxy]-6-(1-piperazinyl)pyrazine] and antagonist SB-242,084 [6-chloro-2,3-dihydro-5-methyl-N-[6-[(2-methyl-3-pyridinyl)oxy]-3-pyridinyl]-1H-indole-1-carboxyamide dihydrochloride] were used to examine the induction of renal mitochondrial genes and oxidative metabolism in RPTCs and in mouse kidneys in the presence and absence of the 5-HT2C receptor. Unexpectedly, both CP-809,101 and SB-242,084 increased RPTC respiration and peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ coactivator-1α (PGC-1α) mRNA expression in RPTCs at 1-10 nM. In addition, CP-809,101 and SB-242,084 increased mRNA expression of PGC-1α and the mitochondrial proteins NADH dehydrogenase subunit 1 and NADH dehydrogenase (ubiquinone) β subcomplex 8 in mice. These compounds increased mitochondrial genes in RPTCs in which the 5-HT2C receptor was downregulated with small interfering RNA and in the renal cortex of mice lacking the 5-HT2C receptor. By contrast, the ability of these compounds to increase PGC-1α mRNA and respiration was blocked in RPTCs treated with 5-HT2A receptor small interfering RNA or the 5-HT2A receptor antagonist eplivanserin. In addition, the 5-HT2A receptor agonist NBOH-2C-CN [4-[2-[[(2-hydroxyphenyl)methyl]amino]ethyl]-2,5-dimethoxybenzonitrile] increased RPTC respiration at 1-100 nM. These results suggest that agonism of the 5-HT2A receptor induces MB and that the classic 5-HT2C receptor agonist CP

  14. Activation, internalization, and recycling of the serotonin 2A receptor by dopamine

    PubMed Central

    Bhattacharyya, Samarjit; Raote, Ishier; Bhattacharya, Aditi; Miledi, Ricardo; Panicker, Mitradas M.

    2006-01-01

    Serotonergic and dopaminergic systems, and their functional interactions, have been implicated in the pathophysiology of various CNS disorders. Here, we use recombinant serotonin (5-HT) 2A (5-HT2A) receptors to further investigate direct interactions between dopamine and 5-HT receptors. Previous studies in Xenopus oocytes showed that dopamine, although not the cognate ligand for the 5-HT2A receptor, acts as a partial-efficacy agonist. At micromolar concentrations, dopamine also acts as a partial-efficacy agonist on 5-HT2A receptors in HEK293 cells. Like 5-HT, dopamine also induces receptor-internalization in these cells, although at significantly higher concentrations than 5-HT. Interestingly, if the receptors are first sensitized or “primed” by subthreshold concentrations of 5-HT, then dopamine-induced internalization occurs at concentrations ≈10-fold lower than when dopamine is used alone. Furthermore, unlike 5-HT-mediated internalization, dopamine-mediated receptor internalization, alone, or after sensitization by 5-HT, does not depend on PKC. Dopamine-internalized receptors recycle to the surface at rates similar to those of 5-HT-internalized receptors. Our results suggest a previously uncharacterized role for dopamine in the direct activation and internalization of 5-HT2A receptors that may have clinical relevance to the function of serotonergic systems in anxiety, depression, and schizophrenia and also to the treatment of these disorders. PMID:17005723

  15. Regulation of cytochrome P450 (CYP) genes by nuclear receptors.

    PubMed Central

    Honkakoski, P; Negishi, M

    2000-01-01

    Members of the nuclear-receptor superfamily mediate crucial physiological functions by regulating the synthesis of their target genes. Nuclear receptors are usually activated by ligand binding. Cytochrome P450 (CYP) isoforms often catalyse both formation and degradation of these ligands. CYPs also metabolize many exogenous compounds, some of which may act as activators of nuclear receptors and disruptors of endocrine and cellular homoeostasis. This review summarizes recent findings that indicate that major classes of CYP genes are selectively regulated by certain ligand-activated nuclear receptors, thus creating tightly controlled networks. PMID:10749660

  16. Dopamine receptor genes: new tools for molecular psychiatry.

    PubMed Central

    Niznik, H B; Van Tol, H H

    1992-01-01

    For over a decade it has been generally assumed that all the pharmacological and biochemical actions of dopamine within the central nervous system and periphery were mediated by two distinct dopamine receptors. These receptors, termed D1 and D2, were defined as those coupled to the stimulation or inhibition of adenylate cyclase, respectively, and by their selectivity and avidity for various drugs and compounds. The concept that two dopamine receptors were sufficient to account for all the effects mediated by dopamine was an oversimplification. Recent molecular biological studies have identified five distinct genes which encode at least eight functional dopamine receptors. The members of the expanded dopamine receptor family, however, can still be codifed by way of the original D1 and D2 receptor dichotomy. These include two genes encoding dopamine D1-like receptors (D1 [D1A]/D5 [D1B]) and three genes encoding D2-like receptors (D2/D3/D4). We review here our recent work on the cloning and characterization of some of the members of the dopamine receptor gene family (D1, D2, D4, D5), their relationship to neuropsychiatric disorders and their potential role in antipsychotic drug action. Images Fig. 1 PMID:1450188

  17. Functional Characterization of Soybean Glyma04g39610 as a Brassinosteroid Receptor Gene and Evolutionary Analysis of Soybean Brassinosteroid Receptors

    PubMed Central

    Peng, Suna; Tao, Ping; Xu, Feng; Wu, Aiping; Huo, Weige; Wang, Jinxiang

    2016-01-01

    Brassinosteroids (BR) play important roles in plant growth and development. Although BR receptors have been intensively studied in Arabidopsis, the BR receptors in soybean remain largely unknown. Here, in addition to the known receptor gene Glyma06g15270 (GmBRI1a), we identified five putative BR receptor genes in the soybean genome: GmBRI1b, GmBRL1a, GmBRL1b, GmBRL2a, and GmBRL2b. Analysis of their expression patterns by quantitative real-time PCR showed that they are ubiquitously expressed in primary roots, lateral roots, stems, leaves, and hypocotyls. We used rapid amplification of cDNA ends (RACE) to clone GmBRI1b (Glyma04g39160), and found that the predicted amino acid sequence of GmBRI1b showed high similarity to those of AtBRI1 and pea PsBRI1. Structural modeling of the ectodomain also demonstrated similarities between the BR receptors of soybean and Arabidopsis. GFP-fusion experiments verified that GmBRI1b localizes to the cell membrane. We also explored GmBRI1b function in Arabidopsis through complementation experiments. Ectopic over-expression of GmBRI1b in Arabidopsis BR receptor loss-of-function mutant (bri1-5 bak1-1D) restored hypocotyl growth in etiolated seedlings; increased the growth of stems, leaves, and siliques in light; and rescued the developmental defects in leaves of the bri1-6 mutant, and complemented the responses of BR biosynthesis-related genes in the bri1-5 bak1-D mutant grown in light. Bioinformatics analysis demonstrated that the six BR receptor genes in soybean resulted from three gene duplication events during evolution. Phylogenetic analysis classified the BR receptors in dicots and monocots into three subclades. Estimation of the synonymous (Ks) and the nonsynonymous substitution rate (Ka) and selection pressure (Ka/Ks) revealed that the Ka/Ks of BR receptor genes from dicots and monocots were less than 1.0, indicating that BR receptor genes in plants experienced purifying selection during evolution. PMID:27338344

  18. Adenovirus receptors and their implications in gene delivery

    PubMed Central

    Sharma, Anurag; Li, Xiaoxin; Bangari, Dinesh S.; Mittal, Suresh K.

    2010-01-01

    Adenoviruses (Ads) have gained popularity as gene delivery vectors for therapeutic and prophylactic applications. Ad entry into host cells involves specific interactions between cell surface receptors and viral capsid proteins. Several cell surface molecules have been identified as receptors for Ad attachment and entry. Tissue tropism of Ad vectors is greatly influenced by their receptor usage. A variety of strategies have been investigated to modify Ad vector tropism by manipulating the receptor-interacting moieties. Many such strategies are aimed at targeting and/or detargeting of Ad vectors. In this review, we discuss the various cell surface molecules that are implicated as receptors for virus attachment and internalization. Special emphasis is given to Ad types that are utilized as gene delivery vectors. Various strategies to modify Ad tropism using the knowledge of Ad receptors are also discussed. PMID:19647886

  19. Functions of 5-HT2A receptor and its antagonists in the cardiovascular system.

    PubMed

    Nagatomo, Takafumi; Rashid, Mamunur; Abul Muntasir, Habib; Komiyama, Tadazumi

    2004-10-01

    The serotonin (5-hydroxytryptamine, 5-HT) receptors have conventionally been divided into seven subfamilies, most of which have several subtypes. Among them, 5-HT(2A) receptor is associated with the contraction of vascular smooth muscle, platelet aggregation and thrombus formation and coronary artery spasms. Accordingly, selective 5-HT(2A) antagonists may have potential in the treatment of cardiovascular diseases. Sarpogrelate, a selective 5-HT(2A) antagonist, has been introduced clinically as a therapeutic agent for the treatment of ischemic diseases associated with thrombosis. Molecular modeling studies also suggest that sarpogrelate is a 5-HT(2A) selective antagonist and is likely to have pharmacological effects beneficial in the treatment of cardiovascular diseases. This review describes the above findings as well as the signaling linkages of the 5-HT(2A) receptors and the mode of agonist binding to 5-HT(2A) receptor using data derived from molecular modeling and site-directed mutagenesis.

  20. 5-HT2A Serotonin Receptor Density in Adult Male Rats’ Hippocampus after Morphine-based Conditioned Place Preference

    PubMed Central

    Mohammadi, Rabie; Jahanshahi, Mehrdad; Jameie, Seyed Behnamedin

    2016-01-01

    Introduction: A close interaction exists between the brain opioid and serotonin (5-HT) neurotransmitter systems. Brain neurotransmitter 5-HT plays an important role in the regulation of reward-related processing. However, a few studies have investigated the potential role of 5-HT2A receptors in this behavior. Therefore, the aim of the present study was to assess the influence of morphine and Conditioned Place Preference (CPP) on the density of 5-HT2A receptor in neurons of rat hippocampal formation. Methods: Morphine (10 mg/kg, IP) was injected in male Wistar rats for 7 consecutive days (intervention group), but control rats received just normal saline (1 mL/kg, IP). We used a hotplate test of analgesia to assess induction of tolerance to analgesic effects of morphine on days 1 and 8 of injections. Later, two groups of rats were sacrificed one day after 7 days of injections, their whole brains removed, and the striatum and PFC immediately dissected. Then, the NR1 gene expression was examined with a semi-quantitative RT-PCR method. Results: Our data showed that the maximum response was obtained with 2.5 mg/kg of morphine. The density of 5-HT2A receptor in different areas of the hippocampus increased significantly at sham-morphine and CPP groups (P<0.05). On the other hand, the CPP groups had more 5-HT2A receptors than sham-morphine groups and also the sham-morphine groups had more 5-HT2A receptors than the control groups. Conclusion: We concluded that the phenomenon of conditioned place preference induced by morphine can cause a significant increase in the number of serotonin 5-HT2A receptors in neurons of all areas of hippocampus. PMID:27563418

  1. A new ethyladenine antagonist of adenosine A(2A) receptors: behavioral and biochemical characterization as an antiparkinsonian drug.

    PubMed

    Pinna, Annalisa; Tronci, Elisabetta; Schintu, Nicoletta; Simola, Nicola; Volpini, Rosaria; Pontis, Silvia; Cristalli, Gloria; Morelli, Micaela

    2010-03-01

    Adenosine A(2A) receptor antagonists have emerged as an attractive non-dopaminergic target in clinical trials aimed at evaluating improvement in motor deficits in Parkinson's disease (PD). Moreover, preclinical studies suggest that A(2A) receptor antagonists may slow the course of the underlying neurodegeneration of dopaminergic neurons. In this study, we evaluated the efficacy of the new adenosine A(2A) receptor antagonist 8-ethoxy-9-ethyladenine (ANR 94) in parkinsonian models of akinesia and tremor. In addition, induction of the immediate early gene zif-268, and neuroprotective and anti-inflammatory effects of ANR 94 were evaluated. ANR 94 was effective in reversing parkinsonian tremor induced by the administration of tacrine. ANR 94 also counteracted akinesia (stepping test) and sensorimotor deficits (vibrissae-elicited forelimb-placing test), as well as potentiating l-dopa-induced contralateral turning behavior in 6-hydroxydopamine (6-OHDA) lesion model of PD. Potentiation of motor behavior in 6-OHDA-lesioned rats was not associated with increased induction of the immediate early gene zif-268 in the striatum, suggesting that ANR 94 does not induce long-term plastic changes in this structure. Finally, in a subchronic 1-methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridine (MPTP) mouse model of PD, ANR 94 protected nigrostriatal dopaminergic neurons from degeneration and counteracted neuroinflammatory processes by contrasting astroglial (glial fibrillary acidic protein, GFAP) and microglial (CD11b) activation. A(2A) receptor antagonism represents a uniquely realistic opportunity for improving PD treatment, since A(2A) receptor antagonists offer substantial symptomatic benefits and possibly disease-modifying activity. The characterization of ANR 94 may represent a further therapeutic opportunity for the treatment of PD with this new class of drugs.

  2. Btn2a2, a T cell immunomodulatory molecule coregulated with MHC class II genes

    PubMed Central

    Sarter, Kerstin; Leimgruber, Elisa; Gobet, Florian; Agrawal, Vishal; Dunand-Sauthier, Isabelle; Barras, Emmanuèle; Mastelic-Gavillet, Béatris; Kamath, Arun; Fontannaz, Paola; Guéry, Leslie; Duraes, Fernanda do Valle; Lippens, Carla; Ravn, Ulla; Santiago-Raber, Marie-Laure; Magistrelli, Giovanni; Fischer, Nicolas; Siegrist, Claire-Anne; Hugues, Stéphanie

    2016-01-01

    Evidence has recently emerged that butyrophilins, which are members of the extended B7 family of co-stimulatory molecules, have diverse functions in the immune system. We found that the human and mouse genes encoding butyrophilin-2A2 (BTN2A2) are regulated by the class II trans-activator and regulatory factor X, two transcription factors dedicated to major histocompatibility complex class II expression, suggesting a role in T cell immunity. To address this, we generated Btn2a2-deficient mice. Btn2a2−/− mice exhibited enhanced effector CD4+ and CD8+ T cell responses, impaired CD4+ regulatory T cell induction, potentiated antitumor responses, and exacerbated experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis. Altered immune responses were attributed to Btn2a2 deficiency in antigen-presenting cells rather than T cells or nonhematopoietic cells. These results provide the first genetic evidence that BTN2A2 is a co-inhibitory molecule that modulates T cell–mediated immunity. PMID:26809444

  3. A critical evaluation of adenosine A2A receptors as potentially "druggable" targets in Huntington's disease.

    PubMed

    Popoli, Patrizia; Blum, David; Domenici, Maria Rosaria; Burnouf, Sylvie; Chern, Yijuang

    2008-01-01

    Huntington's disease (HD) is a dominantly inherited neurodegenerative disorder caused by the expansion of a polymorphic CAG trinucleotide repeat encoding a poly-glutamine tract within the Huntingtin protein. GABAergic enkephalin neurons of the basal ganglia, which show the highest levels of expression of adenosine A(2A) receptors, are the most vulnerable in HD. Such a selective neuronal vulnerability, which occurs despite ubiquitous expression of mutant and normal Huntingtin, has suggested that adenosine A(2A) receptors might play a pathogenetic role in HD. In agreement, changes in A(2A) receptor expression and signaling have been reported in various experimental models of HD. The interpretation of the functional significance of the aberrant A(2A) receptor phenotype in HD mice is however complicated by the conflicting data so far reported on the potential neuroprotective and neurodegenerative effects of these receptors in the brain, with some data suggesting a potential pathogenetic role and some other data suggesting activation of trophic or protective pathways in neurons. The same complex profile has emerged in experimental models of HD, in which both A(2A) receptor agonists and antagonists have shown beneficial effects. The main aim of this review is to critically evaluate whether adenosine A(2A) receptors may represent a suitable target to develop drugs against HD.

  4. Impact of estrogen receptor α gene and oxytocin receptor gene polymorphisms on female sexuality.

    PubMed

    Armeni, Anastasia K; Assimakopoulos, Konstantinos; Marioli, Dimitra; Koika, Vassiliki; Michaelidou, Euthychia; Mourtzi, Niki; Iconomou, Gregoris; Georgopoulos, Neoklis A

    2017-01-01

    Over the past decades, research attention has increasingly been paid to the neurobiological component of sexual behavior. The aim of the present study was to investigate the correlation of estrogen receptor α (ERA) gene polymorphism (rs2234693-PvuII) (T→C substitution) and oxytocin receptor gene polymorphism (rs53576) (G→A substitution) with sexuality parameters of young, healthy women. One hundred thirty-three Greek heterosexual women, students in higher education institutions, 20-25 years of age, sexually active, with normal menstrual cycles (28-35 days), were recruited in the study. Exclusion criteria were chronic and/or major psychiatric diseases, use of oral contraceptive pills (OCs), polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS), thyroid diseases as well as drugs that are implicated in hypothalamus-pituitary-gonadal axis. T allele (wildtype) of rs2234693 (PvuII) polymorphism of ERA gene was correlated with increased levels of arousal and lubrication, whereas A allele (polymorphic) of rs53576 (OXTR) polymorphism was correlated with increased arousal levels. The simultaneous presence of both T allele of rs2234693 (PvuII) and A allele of rs53576 (OXTR) polymorphisms (T + A group) was correlated with increased arousal, orgasm levels as well as female sexual function index full score. To our knowledge, this is the first study to investigate the interaction between ERA and OXTR with regard to sexual function in women. Female sexuality is a complex behavioral trait that encompasses both biological and psychological components. It seems that variability in female sexual response stems from genetic variability that characterizes endocrine, neurotransmitter and central nervous system influences.

  5. Impact of estrogen receptor α gene and oxytocin receptor gene polymorphisms on female sexuality

    PubMed Central

    Armeni, Anastasia K; Assimakopoulos, Konstantinos; Marioli, Dimitra; Koika, Vassiliki; Michaelidou, Euthychia; Mourtzi, Niki; Iconomou, Gregoris

    2017-01-01

    Over the past decades, research attention has increasingly been paid to the neurobiological component of sexual behavior. The aim of the present study was to investigate the correlation of estrogen receptor α (ERA) gene polymorphism (rs2234693-PvuII) (T→C substitution) and oxytocin receptor gene polymorphism (rs53576) (G→A substitution) with sexuality parameters of young, healthy women. One hundred thirty-three Greek heterosexual women, students in higher education institutions, 20–25 years of age, sexually active, with normal menstrual cycles (28–35 days), were recruited in the study. Exclusion criteria were chronic and/or major psychiatric diseases, use of oral contraceptive pills (OCs), polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS), thyroid diseases as well as drugs that are implicated in hypothalamus–pituitary–gonadal axis. T allele (wildtype) of rs2234693 (PvuII) polymorphism of ERA gene was correlated with increased levels of arousal and lubrication, whereas A allele (polymorphic) of rs53576 (OXTR) polymorphism was correlated with increased arousal levels. The simultaneous presence of both T allele of rs2234693 (PvuII) and A allele of rs53576 (OXTR) polymorphisms (T + A group) was correlated with increased arousal, orgasm levels as well as female sexual function index full score. To our knowledge, this is the first study to investigate the interaction between ERA and OXTR with regard to sexual function in women. Female sexuality is a complex behavioral trait that encompasses both biological and psychological components. It seems that variability in female sexual response stems from genetic variability that characterizes endocrine, neurotransmitter and central nervous system influences. PMID:28069897

  6. Karyopherin alpha2: a control step of glucose-sensitive gene expression in hepatic cells.

    PubMed Central

    Guillemain, Ghislaine; Muñoz-Alonso, Maria J; Cassany, Aurélia; Loizeau, Martine; Faussat, Anne-Marie; Burnol, Anne-Françoise; Leturque, Armelle

    2002-01-01

    Glucose is required for an efficient expression of the glucose transporter GLUT2 and other genes. We have shown previously that the intracytoplasmic loop of GLUT2 can divert a signal, resulting in the stimulation of glucose-sensitive gene transcription. In the present study, by interaction with the GLUT2 loop, we have cloned the rat karyopherin alpha2, a receptor involved in nuclear import. The specificity of the binding was restricted to GLUT2, and not GLUT1 or GLUT4, and to karyopherin alpha2, not alpha1. When rendered irreversible by a cross-linking agent, this transitory interaction was detected in vivo in hepatocytes. A role for karyopherin alpha2 in the transcription of two glucose-sensitive genes was investigated by transfection of native and inactive green fluorescent protein-karyopherin alpha2 in GLUT2-expressing hepatoma cells. The amount of inactive karyopherin alpha2 receptor reduced, in a dose-dependent manner, the GLUT2 and liver pyruvate kinase mRNA levels by competition with endogenous active receptor. In contrast, the overexpression of karyopherin alpha2 did not significantly stimulate GLUT2 and liver pyruvate kinase mRNA accumulation in green fluorescent protein-sorted cells. The present study suggests that, in concert with glucose metabolism, karyopherin alpha2 transmits a signal to the nucleus to regulate glucose-sensitive gene expression. The transitory tethering of karyopherin alpha2 to GLUT2 at the plasma membrane might indicate that the receptor can load the cargo to be imported locally. PMID:11988093

  7. Karyopherin alpha2: a control step of glucose-sensitive gene expression in hepatic cells.

    PubMed

    Guillemain, Ghislaine; Muñoz-Alonso, Maria J; Cassany, Aurélia; Loizeau, Martine; Faussat, Anne-Marie; Burnol, Anne-Françoise; Leturque, Armelle

    2002-05-15

    Glucose is required for an efficient expression of the glucose transporter GLUT2 and other genes. We have shown previously that the intracytoplasmic loop of GLUT2 can divert a signal, resulting in the stimulation of glucose-sensitive gene transcription. In the present study, by interaction with the GLUT2 loop, we have cloned the rat karyopherin alpha2, a receptor involved in nuclear import. The specificity of the binding was restricted to GLUT2, and not GLUT1 or GLUT4, and to karyopherin alpha2, not alpha1. When rendered irreversible by a cross-linking agent, this transitory interaction was detected in vivo in hepatocytes. A role for karyopherin alpha2 in the transcription of two glucose-sensitive genes was investigated by transfection of native and inactive green fluorescent protein-karyopherin alpha2 in GLUT2-expressing hepatoma cells. The amount of inactive karyopherin alpha2 receptor reduced, in a dose-dependent manner, the GLUT2 and liver pyruvate kinase mRNA levels by competition with endogenous active receptor. In contrast, the overexpression of karyopherin alpha2 did not significantly stimulate GLUT2 and liver pyruvate kinase mRNA accumulation in green fluorescent protein-sorted cells. The present study suggests that, in concert with glucose metabolism, karyopherin alpha2 transmits a signal to the nucleus to regulate glucose-sensitive gene expression. The transitory tethering of karyopherin alpha2 to GLUT2 at the plasma membrane might indicate that the receptor can load the cargo to be imported locally.

  8. Estrogen increases renal oxytocin receptor gene expression.

    PubMed

    Ostrowski, N L; Young, W S; Lolait, S J

    1995-04-01

    Estrogens have been implicated in the sodium and fluid imbalances associated with the menstrual cycle and late pregnancy. An estrogen-dependent role for renal oxytocin receptors in fluid homeostasis is suggested by the present findings which demonstrate that estradiol benzoate treatment increases the expression of the oxytocin receptor messenger ribonucleic acid and 125I-OTA binding to oxytocin receptors in the renal cortex and medullary collecting ducts of ovariectomized female rats. Moreover, estradiol induced high levels of oxytocin receptor expression in outer stripe proximal tubules of ovariectomized female and adrenalectomized male rats. Proximal tubule induction was inhibited in a dose-dependent manner by the antiestrogen tamoxifen, but cortical expression of oxytocin receptors in macula densa cells was unaffected by tamoxifen. These data demonstrate cell-specific regulation of oxytocin receptor expression in macula densa and proximal tubule cells, and suggest a important role for these receptors in mediating estrogen-induced alterations in renal fluid dynamics by possibly affecting glomerular filtration and water and solute reabsorption during high estrogen states.

  9. True but not false memories are associated with the HTR2A gene.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Bi; Chen, Chuansheng; Loftus, Elizabeth F; Moyzis, Robert K; Dong, Qi; Lin, Chongde

    2013-11-01

    Previous research reported that serotonin receptor 2A gene (HTR2A) polymorphisms were associated with memory. However, it is unknown whether these genetic variants were associated with both true and false memories. The current study of 336 Han Chinese subjects tested 30 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) within the HTR2A gene for potential associations with true and false memories. False memories were assessed using the Deese-Roediger-McDermott (DRM) paradigm, in which people falsely remember semantically related (but unpresented) words. We found that 11 SNPs within the HTR2A gene were associated with true memory (p=0.000076-0.043). The associations between true memory and seven adjacent SNPs (i.e., rs1923888, rs1745837, rs9567739, rs3742279, rs655888, rs655854, and rs2296972) were still significant after multiple testing corrections. Haplotype-based association analysis revealed that, true memory was positively associated with haplotype A-C-C-G-C-T-A for these seven adjacent SNPs (p=0.000075), which was still significant after multiple testing correction. Only one SNP rs655854 was associated with false memory (p=0.023), and it was not significant after multiple testing correction. This study replicates, in an Asian population, that genetic variation in HTR2A is associated with episodic memory, and also suggests that this association is restricted to true memory.

  10. Amelioration of hypoxia-induced striatal 5-HT(2A) receptor, 5-HT transporter and HIF1 alterations by glucose, oxygen and epinephrine in neonatal rats.

    PubMed

    Anju, T R; Paulose, C S

    2011-09-20

    Alterations in neurotransmitters and its receptors expression induce brain injury during neonatal hypoxic insult. Molecular processes regulating the serotonergic receptors play an important role in the control of respiration under hypoxic insult. The present study focused on the serotonergic regulation of neonatal hypoxia and its resuscitation methods. Receptor binding assays and gene expression studies were done to evaluate the changes in 5HT(2A) receptors and its transporter in the corpus striatum of hypoxic neonatal rats and hypoxic rats resuscitated with glucose, oxygen and epinephrine. Total 5HT and 5HT(2A) receptor number was increased in hypoxic neonates along with an up regulation of 5HT(2A) receptor and 5HT transporter gene. The enhanced striatal 5HT(2A) receptors modulate the ventilatory response to hypoxia. Immediate glucose resuscitation was found to ameliorate the receptor and transporter alterations. Hypoxia induced ATP depletion mediated reduction in blood glucose levels can be encountered by glucose administration and oxygenation helps in overcoming the anaerobic condition. The adverse effect of immediate oxygenation and epinephrine supplementation was also reported. This has immense clinical significance in establishing a proper resuscitation for the management of neonatal hypoxia.

  11. Characteristics of the mouse genomic histamine H1 receptor gene

    SciTech Connect

    Inoue, Isao; Taniuchi, Ichiro; Kitamura, Daisuke

    1996-08-15

    We report here the molecular cloning of a mouse histamine H1 receptor gene. The protein deduced from the nucleotide sequence is composed of 488 amino acid residues with characteristic properties of GTP binding protein-coupled receptors. Our results suggest that the mouse histamine H1 receptor gene is a single locus, and no related sequences were detected. Interspecific backcross analysis indicated that the mouse histamine H1 receptor gene (Hrh1) is located in the central region of mouse Chromosome 6 linked to microphthalmia (Mitfmi), ras-related fibrosarcoma oncogene 1 (Raf1), and ret proto-oncogene (Ret) in a region of homology with human chromosome 3p. 12 refs., 3 figs.

  12. GABAergic involvement in motor effects of an adenosine A(2A) receptor agonist in mice.

    PubMed

    Khisti, R T; Chopde, C T; Abraham, E

    2000-04-03

    Adenosine A(2A) agonists are known to induce catalepsy and inhibit dopamine mediated motor hyperactivity. An antagonistic interaction between adenosine A(2A) and dopamine D(2) receptors is known to regulate GABA-mediated neurotransmission in striatopallidal neurons. Stimulation of adenosine A(2A) and dopamine D(2) receptors has been shown to increase and inhibit GABA release respectively in pallidal GABAergic neurons. However, the role of GABAergic neurotransmission in the motor effects of adenosine A(2A) receptors is not yet known. Therefore in the present study the effect of GABAergic agents on adenosine A(2A) receptor agonist (NECA- or CGS 21680) induced catalepsy and inhibition of amphetamine elicited motor hyperactivity was examined. Pretreatment with GABA, the GABA(A) agonist muscimol or the GABA(B) agonist baclofen potentiated whereas the GABA(A) antagonist bicuculline attenuated NECA- or CGS 21680-induced catalepsy. However, the GABA(B) antagonists phaclophen and delta-aminovaleric acid had no effect. Administration of NECA or CGS 21680 not only reduced spontaneous locomotor activity but also antagonized amphetamine elicited motor hyperactivity. These effects of NECA and CGS 21680 were potentiated by GABA or muscimol and antagonized by bicuculline. These findings provide behavioral evidence for the role of GABA in the motor effects of adenosine A(2A) receptor agonists. Activation of adenosine A(2A) receptors increases GABA release which could reduce dopaminergic tone and induce catalepsy or inhibit amphetamine mediated motor hyperactivity.

  13. Prolactin receptor and signal transduction to milk protein genes

    SciTech Connect

    Djiane, J.; Daniel, N.; Bignon, C.

    1994-06-01

    After cloning of the mammary gland prolactin (PRL) receptor cDNA, a functional assay was established using co-transfection of PRL receptor cDNA together with a milk protein promoter/chloramphenicol acetyl transferase (CAT) construct in Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) cells. Different mutants of the PRL receptor were tested in this CAT assay to delimit the domains in the receptor necessary for signal transduction to milk protein genes. In CHO cells stably transfected with PRL receptor cDNA, high numbers of PRL receptor are expressed. By metabolic labeling and immunoprecipitation, expressed PRL receptor was identified as a single species of 100 kDa. Using these cells, we analyzed the effects of PRL on intracellular free Ca{sup ++} concentration. PRL stimulates Ca{sup ++} entry and induces secondary Ca{sup ++} mobilization. The entry of Ca{sup ++} is a result of an increase in K{sup +} conductance that hyperpolarizes the membranes. We have also analyzed tyrosine phosphorylation induced by PRL. In CHO cells stably transfected with PRL receptor cDNA, PRL induced a very rapid and transient tyrosine phosphorylation of a 100-kDa protein which is most probably the PRL receptor. The same finding was obtained in mammary membranes after PRL injection to lactating rabbits. Whereas tyrosine kinase inhibitors genistein and lavendustin were without effect, PRL stimulation of milk protein gene promoters was partially inhibited by 2 {mu}M herbimycin in CHO cells co-transfected with PRL receptor cDNA and the {Beta} lactoglobulin CAT construct. Taken together these observations indicate that the cytoplasmic domain of the PRL receptor interacts with one or several tyrosine kinases, which may represent early postreceptor events necessary for PRL signal transduction to milk protein genes. 14 refs., 4 figs.

  14. Lysergic acid diethylamide-induced Fos expression in rat brain: role of serotonin-2A receptors.

    PubMed

    Gresch, P J; Strickland, L V; Sanders-Bush, E

    2002-01-01

    Lysergic acid diethylamide (LSD) produces altered mood and hallucinations in humans and binds with high affinity to serotonin-2A (5-HT(2A)) receptors. Although LSD interacts with other receptors, the activation of 5-HT(2A) receptors is thought to mediate the hallucinogenic properties of LSD. The goal of this study was to identify the brain sites activated by LSD and to determine the influence of 5-HT(2A) receptors in this activation. Rats were pretreated with the 5-HT(2A) receptor antagonist MDL 100907 (0.3 mg/kg, i.p.) or vehicle 30 min prior to LSD (500 microg/kg, i.p.) administration and killed 3 h later. Brain tissue was examined for Fos protein expression by immunohistochemistry. LSD administration produced a five- to eight-fold increase in Fos-like immunoreactivity in medial prefrontal cortex, anterior cingulate cortex, and central nucleus of amygdala. However, in dorsal striatum and nucleus accumbens no increase in Fos-like immunoreactivity was observed. Pretreatment with MDL 100907 completely blocked LSD-induced Fos-like immunoreactivity in medial prefrontal cortex and anterior cingulate cortex, but only partially blocked LSD-induced Fos-like immunoreactivity in amygdala. Double-labeled immunohistochemistry revealed that LSD did not induce Fos-like immunoreactivity in cortical cells expressing 5-HT(2A) receptors, suggesting an indirect activation of cortical neurons. These results indicate that the LSD activation of medial prefrontal cortex and anterior cingulate cortex is mediated by 5-HT(2A) receptors, whereas in amygdala 5-HT(2A) receptor activation is a component of the response. These findings support the hypothesis that the medial prefrontal cortex, anterior cingulate cortex, and perhaps the amygdala, are important regions involved in the production of hallucinations.

  15. A2a and a2b adenosine receptors affect HIF-1α signaling in activated primary microglial cells.

    PubMed

    Merighi, Stefania; Borea, Pier Andrea; Stefanelli, Angela; Bencivenni, Serena; Castillo, Carlos Alberto; Varani, Katia; Gessi, Stefania

    2015-05-15

    Microglia are central nervous system (CNS)-resident immune cells, that play a crucial role in neuroinflammation. Hypoxia-inducible factor-1 (HIF-1), the main transcription factor of hypoxia-inducible genes, is also involved in the immune response, being regulated in normoxia by inflammatory mediators. Adenosine is an ubiquitous nucleoside that has an influence on many immune properties of microglia through interaction with four receptor subtypes. The aim of this study was to investigate whether adenosine may affect microglia functions by acting on HIF-1α modulation. Primary murine microglia were activated with lipopolysaccharide (LPS) with or without adenosine, adenosine receptor agonists and antagonists and HIF-1α accumulation and downstream genes regulation were determined. Adenosine increased LPS-induced HIF-1α accumulation leading to an increase in HIF-1α target genes involved in cell metabolism [glucose transporter-1 (GLUT-1)] and pathogens killing [inducible nitric-oxide synthase (iNOS)] but did not induce HIF-1α dependent genes related to angiogenesis [vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF)] and inflammation [tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α)]. The stimulatory effect of adenosine on HIF-1α and its target genes was essentially exerted by activation of A2A through p44/42 and A2B subtypes via p38 mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPKs) and Akt phosphorylation. Furthermore the nucleoside raised VEGF and decreased TNF-α levels, by activating A2B subtypes. In conclusion adenosine increases GLUT-1 and iNOS gene expression in a HIF-1α-dependent way, through A2A and A2B receptors, suggesting their role in the regulation of microglial cells function following injury. However, inhibition of TNF-α adds an important anti-inflammatory effect only for the A2B subtype. GLIA 2015.

  16. NMDA receptor gene variations as modifiers in Huntington disease: a replication study.

    PubMed

    Saft, Carsten; Epplen, Jörg T; Wieczorek, Stefan; Landwehrmeyer, G Bernhard; Roos, Raymund A C; de Yebenes, Justo Garcia; Dose, Matthias; Tabrizi, Sarah J; Craufurd, David; Arning, Larissa

    2011-10-04

    Several candidate modifier genes which, in addition to the pathogenic CAG repeat expansion, influence the age at onset (AO) in Huntington disease (HD) have already been described. The aim of this study was to replicate association of variations in the N-methyl D-aspartate receptor subtype genes GRIN2A and GRIN2B in the "REGISTRY" cohort from the European Huntington Disease Network (EHDN). The analyses did replicate the association reported between the GRIN2A rs2650427 variation and AO in the entire cohort. Yet, when subjects were stratified by AO subtypes, we found nominally significant evidence for an association of the GRIN2A rs1969060 variation and the GRIN2B rs1806201 variation. These findings further implicate the N-methyl D-aspartate receptor subtype genes as loci containing variation associated with AO in HD.

  17. Adenosine A2A Receptors Modulate Acute Injury and Neuroinflammation in Brain Ischemia

    PubMed Central

    Pedata, Felicita; Pugliese, Anna Maria; Coppi, Elisabetta; Dettori, Ilaria; Maraula, Giovanna; Cellai, Lucrezia; Melani, Alessia

    2014-01-01

    The extracellular concentration of adenosine in the brain increases dramatically during ischemia. Adenosine A2A receptor is expressed in neurons and glial cells and in inflammatory cells (lymphocytes and granulocytes). Recently, adenosine A2A receptor emerged as a potential therapeutic attractive target in ischemia. Ischemia is a multifactorial pathology characterized by different events evolving in the time. After ischemia the early massive increase of extracellular glutamate is followed by activation of resident immune cells, that is, microglia, and production or activation of inflammation mediators. Proinflammatory cytokines, which upregulate cell adhesion molecules, exert an important role in promoting recruitment of leukocytes that in turn promote expansion of the inflammatory response in ischemic tissue. Protracted neuroinflammation is now recognized as the predominant mechanism of secondary brain injury progression. A2A receptors present on central cells and on blood cells account for important effects depending on the time-related evolution of the pathological condition. Evidence suggests that A2A receptor antagonists provide early protection via centrally mediated control of excessive excitotoxicity, while A2A receptor agonists provide protracted protection by controlling massive blood cell infiltration in the hours and days after ischemia. Focus on inflammatory responses provides for adenosine A2A receptor agonists a wide therapeutic time-window of hours and even days after stroke. PMID:25165414

  18. Role for NKG2-A and NKG2-C surface receptors in chronic CD4+ T-cell responses.

    PubMed

    Ortega, Consuelo; Romero, Pilar; Palma, Agustín; Orta, Teresa; Peña, José; García-Vinuesa, Amaya; Molina, Ignacio J; Santamaría, Manuel

    2004-12-01

    The participation of CD94 and NKG2 gene family members in the function of NK cells and CD8+ cytolytic cells has recently been addressed in detail. However, the role that these molecules play in the key CD4+ regulatory cells remains largely unexplored. This study has examined the expression and regulation of CD94 and NKG2 genes in purified human peripheral CD4+ cells stimulated with several agents. We found a constitutive expression of NKG2-E in CD94-depleted resting peripheral CD4+ cells, whereas inductions of NKG2-A and NKG2-C required chronic cell activation and occurred after expression of CD94. We found that CD3-mediated stimulation induces the expression of CD94 first by day 5 of culture, followed by NKG2-A by day 15 and finally NKG2-C, which is not detected until 20 days after repeated stimulation. This pattern of gene expression differs sharply from that observed in purified CD8+ T cells, where mRNA from all NKG2 gene family members are detected after 5 days of stimulation. Selective activation of TCR V beta 2-bearing cells with toxic shock syndrome toxin-1 superantigen reveals that mRNA induction of NKG2-A and NKG2-C genes is significantly influenced by the presence of cytokines (IL-10 and TGF-beta) and by the restimulation of the cells. In addition, the occupancy of the CD94/NKG2-A receptor expressed on these superantigen-stimulated CD4+ T lymphocytes abrogates TNF-alpha and IFN-gamma production, whereas NKG2-C enhances production of these cytokines. Taken together our results reveal strict gene regulatory mechanisms for CD94 and NKG2 gene expression on CD4+ cells that are different from those governing the expression of these same genes in CD8+ cells. The results suggest that these genes also participate in chronic CD4+ T-cell responses.

  19. Pre-synaptic adenosine A2A receptors control cannabinoid CB1 receptor-mediated inhibition of striatal glutamatergic neurotransmission.

    PubMed

    Martire, Alberto; Tebano, Maria Teresa; Chiodi, Valentina; Ferreira, Samira G; Cunha, Rodrigo A; Köfalvi, Attila; Popoli, Patrizia

    2011-01-01

    An interaction between adenosine A(2A) receptors (A(2A) Rs) and cannabinoid CB(1) receptors (CB(1) Rs) has been consistently reported to occur in the striatum, although the precise mechanisms are not completely understood. As both receptors control striatal glutamatergic transmission, we now probed the putative interaction between pre-synaptic CB(1) R and A(2A) R in the striatum. In extracellular field potentials recordings in corticostriatal slices from Wistar rats, A(2A) R activation by CGS21680 inhibited CB(1) R-mediated effects (depression of synaptic response and increase in paired-pulse facilitation). Moreover, in superfused rat striatal nerve terminals, A(2A) R activation prevented, while A(2A) R inhibition facilitated, the CB(1) R-mediated inhibition of 4-aminopyridine-evoked glutamate release. In summary, the present study provides converging neurochemical and electrophysiological support for the occurrence of a tight control of CB(1) R function by A(2A) Rs in glutamatergic terminals of the striatum. In view of the key role of glutamate to trigger the recruitment of striatal circuits, this pre-synaptic interaction between CB(1) R and A(2A) R may be of relevance for the pathogenesis and the treatment of neuropsychiatric disorders affecting the basal ganglia.

  20. Triggering neurotrophic factor actions through adenosine A2A receptor activation: implications for neuroprotection

    PubMed Central

    Sebastião, Ana M; Ribeiro, Joaquim A

    2009-01-01

    G protein coupled receptors and tropomyosin-related kinase (Trk) receptors have distinct structure and transducing mechanisms; therefore, cross-talk among them was unexpected. Evidence has, however, accumulated showing that tonic adenosine A2A receptor activity is a required step to allow synaptic actions of neurotrophic factors, namely upon synaptic transmission at both pre- and post-synaptic level as well as upon synaptic plasticity. An enhancement of A2A receptor tonus upon ageing may partially compensate the loss of TrkB receptors, rescuing to certain degree the facilitatory action of brain derived neurotrophic factor in aged animals, which might prove particularly relevant in the prevention of neurodegeneration upon ageing. A2A receptors also trigger synaptic actions of other neurotrophic factors, such as glial derived neurotrophic factor at dopaminergic striatal nerve endings. The growing evidence that tonic adenosine A2A receptor activity is a crucial step to allow actions of neurotrophic factors in neurones will be reviewed and discussed in the light of therapeutic strategies for neurodegenerative diseases. PMID:19508402

  1. 5-HT2A receptor activation is necessary for CO2-induced arousal

    PubMed Central

    Smith, Haleigh R.; MacAskill, Amanda; Richerson, George B.

    2015-01-01

    Hypercapnia-induced arousal from sleep is an important protective mechanism pertinent to a number of diseases. Most notably among these are the sudden infant death syndrome, obstructive sleep apnea and sudden unexpected death in epilepsy. Serotonin (5-HT) plays a significant role in hypercapnia-induced arousal. The mechanism of 5-HT's role in this protective response is unknown. Here we sought to identify the specific 5-HT receptor subtype(s) involved in this response. Wild-type mice were pretreated with antagonists against 5-HT receptor subtypes, as well as antagonists against adrenergic, cholinergic, histaminergic, dopaminergic, and orexinergic receptors before challenge with inspired CO2 or hypoxia. Antagonists of 5-HT2A receptors dose-dependently blocked CO2-induced arousal. The 5-HT2C receptor antagonist, RS-102221, and the 5-HT1A receptor agonist, 8-OH-DPAT, attenuated but did not completely block CO2-induced arousal. Blockade of non-5-HT receptors did not affect CO2-induced arousal. None of these drugs had any effect on hypoxia-induced arousal. 5-HT2 receptor agonists were given to mice in which 5-HT neurons had been genetically eliminated during embryonic life (Lmx1bf/f/p) and which are known to lack CO2-induced arousal. Application of agonists to 5-HT2A, but not 5-HT2C, receptors, dose-dependently restored CO2-induced arousal in these mice. These data identify the 5-HT2A receptor as an important mediator of CO2-induced arousal and suggest that, while 5-HT neurons can be independently activated to drive CO2-induced arousal, in the absence of 5-HT neurons and endogenous 5-HT, 5-HT receptor activation can act in a permissive fashion to facilitate CO2-induced arousal via another as yet unidentified chemosensor system. PMID:25925320

  2. Structure of the human histamine H1 receptor gene.

    PubMed Central

    De Backer, M D; Loonen, I; Verhasselt, P; Neefs, J M; Luyten, W H

    1998-01-01

    Histamine H1 receptor expression has been reported to change in disorders such as allergic rhinitis, autoimmune myocarditis, rheumatoid arthritis and atherosclerosis. Here we report the isolation and characterization of genomic clones containing the 5' flanking (regulatory) region of the human histamine H1 receptor gene. An intron of approx. 5.8 kb was identified in the 5' untranslated region, which suggests that an entire subfamily of G-protein-coupled receptors may contain an intron immediately upstream of the start codon. The transcription initiation site was mapped by 5' rapid amplification of cDNA ends to a region 6.2 kb upstream of the start codon. Immediately upstream of the transcription start site a fragment of 1.85 kb was identified that showed promoter activity when placed upstream of a luciferase reporter gene and transiently transfected into cells expressing the histamine H1 receptor. The promoter sequence shares a number of characteristics with the promoter sequences of other G-protein-coupled receptor encoding genes, including binding sites for several transcription factors, and the absence of TATA and CAAT sequences at the appropriate locations. The promoter sequence described here differs from that reported previously [Fukui, Fujimoto, Mizuguchi, Sakamoto, Horio, Takai, Yamada and Ito (1994) Biochem. Biophys. Res. Commun. 201, 894-901] because the reported genomic clone was chimaeric. Furthermore our study provides evidence that the 3' untranslated region of the H1 receptor mRNA is much longer than previously accepted. Together, these findings provide a complete view of the structure of the human histamine H1 receptor gene. Both the coding region of the H1 receptor gene and its promoter region were independently mapped to chromosome 3p25. PMID:9794809

  3. A2A Adenosine Receptor Antagonism Enhances Synaptic and Motor Effects of Cocaine via CB1 Cannabinoid Receptor Activation

    PubMed Central

    Tozzi, Alessandro; de Iure, Antonio; Marsili, Valentina; Romano, Rosaria; Tantucci, Michela; Di Filippo, Massimiliano; Costa, Cinzia; Napolitano, Francesco; Mercuri, Nicola Biagio; Borsini, Franco; Giampà, Carmen; Fusco, Francesca Romana; Picconi, Barbara; Usiello, Alessandro; Calabresi, Paolo

    2012-01-01

    Background Cocaine increases the level of endogenous dopamine (DA) in the striatum by blocking the DA transporter. Endogenous DA modulates glutamatergic inputs to striatal neurons and this modulation influences motor activity. Since D2 DA and A2A-adenosine receptors (A2A-Rs) have antagonistic effects on striatal neurons, drugs targeting adenosine receptors such as caffeine-like compounds, could enhance psychomotor stimulant effects of cocaine. In this study, we analyzed the electrophysiological effects of cocaine and A2A-Rs antagonists in striatal slices and the motor effects produced by this pharmacological modulation in rodents. Principal Findings Concomitant administration of cocaine and A2A-Rs antagonists reduced glutamatergic synaptic transmission in striatal spiny neurons while these drugs failed to produce this effect when given in isolation. This inhibitory effect was dependent on the activation of D2-like receptors and the release of endocannabinoids since it was prevented by L-sulpiride and reduced by a CB1 receptor antagonist. Combined application of cocaine and A2A-R antagonists also reduced the firing frequency of striatal cholinergic interneurons suggesting that changes in cholinergic tone might contribute to this synaptic modulation. Finally, A2A-Rs antagonists, in the presence of a sub-threshold dose of cocaine, enhanced locomotion and, in line with the electrophysiological experiments, this enhanced activity required activation of D2-like and CB1 receptors. Conclusions The present study provides a possible synaptic mechanism explaining how caffeine-like compounds could enhance psychomotor stimulant effects of cocaine. PMID:22715379

  4. Identification of functional TFAP2A and SP1 binding sites in new TFAP2A-modulated genes

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Different approaches have been developed to dissect the interplay between transcription factors (TFs) and their cis-acting sequences on DNA in order to identify TF target genes. Here we used a combination of computational and experimental approaches to identify novel direct targets of TFAP2A, a key TF for a variety of physiological and pathological cellular processes. Gene expression profiles of HeLa cells either silenced for TFAP2A by RNA interference or not were previously compared and a set of differentially expressed genes was revealed. Results The regulatory regions of 494 TFAP2A-modulated genes were analyzed for the presence of TFAP2A binding sites, employing the canonical TFAP2A Positional Weight Matrix (PWM) reported in Jaspar http://jaspar.genereg.net/. 264 genes containing at least 2 high score TFAP2A binding sites were identified, showing a central role in "Cellular Movement" and "Cellular Development". In an attempt to identify TFs that could cooperate with TFAP2A, a statistically significant enrichment for SP1 binding sites was found for TFAP2A-activated but not repressed genes. The direct binding of TFAP2A or SP1 to a random subset of TFAP2A-modulated genes was demonstrated by Chromatin ImmunoPrecipitation (ChIP) assay and the TFAP2A-driven regulation of DCBLD2/ESDN/CLCP1 gene studied in details. Conclusions We proved that our computational approaches applied to microarray selected genes are valid tools to identify functional TF binding sites in gene regulatory regions as confirmed by experimental validations. In addition, we demonstrated a fine-tuned regulation of DCBLD2/ESDN transcription by TFAP2A. PMID:20525283

  5. Impaired Discrimination Learning in Mice Lacking the NMDA Receptor NR2A Subunit

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brigman, Jonathan L.; Feyder, Michael; Saksida, Lisa M.; Bussey, Timothy J.; Mishina, Masayoshi; Holmes, Andrew

    2008-01-01

    N-Methyl-D-aspartate receptors (NMDARs) mediate certain forms of synaptic plasticity and learning. We used a touchscreen system to assess NR2A subunit knockout mice (KO) for (1) pairwise visual discrimination and reversal learning and (2) acquisition and extinction of an instrumental response requiring no pairwise discrimination. NR2A KO mice…

  6. Androgen receptor gene mutation, rearrangement, polymorphism

    PubMed Central

    Eisermann, Kurtis; Wang, Dan; Jing, Yifeng; Pascal, Laura E.

    2013-01-01

    Genetic aberrations of the androgen receptor (AR) caused by mutations, rearrangements, and polymorphisms result in a mutant receptor that has varied functions compared to wild type AR. To date, over 1,000 mutations have been reported in the AR with most of these being associated with androgen insensitivity syndrome (AIS). While mutations of AR associated with prostate cancer occur less often in early stage localized disease, mutations in castration-resistant prostate cancer (CRPC) patients treated with anti-androgens occur more frequently with 10-30% of these patients having some form of mutation in the AR. Resistance to anti-androgen therapy usually results from gain-of-function mutations in the LBD such as is seen with bicalutamide and more recently with enzalutamide (MDV3100). Thus, it is crucial to investigate these new AR mutations arising from drug resistance to anti-androgens and other small molecule pharmacological agents. PMID:25045626

  7. Adenosine A2A receptors are necessary and sufficient to trigger memory impairment in adult mice

    PubMed Central

    Pagnussat, N; Almeida, A S; Marques, D M; Nunes, F; Chenet, G C; Botton, P H S; Mioranzza, S; Loss, C M; Cunha, R A; Porciúncula, L O

    2015-01-01

    Background and Purpose Caffeine (a non-selective adenosine receptor antagonist) prevents memory deficits in aging and Alzheimer’s disease, an effect mimicked by adenosine A2A receptor, but not A1 receptor, antagonists. Hence, we investigated the effects of adenosine receptor agonists and antagonists on memory performance and scopolamine-induced memory impairment in mice. Experimental Approach We determined whether A2A receptors are necessary for the emergence of memory impairments induced by scopolamine and whether A2A receptor activation triggers memory deficits in naïve mice, using three tests to assess short-term memory, namely the object recognition task, inhibitory avoidance and modified Y-maze. Key Results Scopolamine (1.0 mg·kg−1, i.p.) impaired short-term memory performance in all three tests and this scopolamine-induced amnesia was prevented by the A2A receptor antagonist (SCH 58261, 0.1–1.0 mg·kg−1, i.p.) and by the A1 receptor antagonist (DPCPX, 0.2–5.0 mg·kg−1, i.p.), except in the modified Y-maze where only SCH58261 was effective. Both antagonists were devoid of effects on memory or locomotion in naïve rats. Notably, the activation of A2A receptors with CGS 21680 (0.1–0.5 mg·kg−1, i.p.) before the training session was sufficient to trigger memory impairment in the three tests in naïve mice, and this effect was prevented by SCH 58261 (1.0 mg·kg−1, i.p.). Furthermore, i.c.v. administration of CGS 21680 (50 nmol) also impaired recognition memory in the object recognition task. Conclusions and Implications These results show that A2A receptors are necessary and sufficient to trigger memory impairment and further suggest that A1 receptors might also be selectively engaged to control the cholinergic-driven memory impairment. PMID:25939452

  8. Mouse T-cell receptor variable gene segment families

    SciTech Connect

    Arden, B.; Kabelitz, D.; Clark, S.P.; Mak, T.W.

    1995-10-01

    All mouse T-cell receptor {alpha}/{delta}, {beta}, and {gamma} variable (Tcra/d-, b-, and g-V) gene segments were aligned to compare the sequences with one another, to group them into subfamilies, and to derive a name which complies with the standard nomenclature. it was necessary to change the names of some V gene segments because they conflicted with those of other segments. The traditional classification into subfamilies was re-evaluated using a much larger pool of sequences. In the mouse, most V gene segments can be grouped into subfamilies of closely related genes with significantly less similarity between different subfamilies. 118 refs., 11 figs., 4 tabs.

  9. Targeting Adenosine A2A Receptors in Parkinson’s Disease

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2006-11-01

    dysfunction in the rat hippocampus (collaboration with MA Lynch). Conclusion: These results prompt the hypothesis that the neuroprotection associated...stimuli and show reduced responses to morphine . The role of the A2A receptor in pain is less clear and we, and others, have shown the receptor is absent...cerebral cortex, striatum, hippocampus , olfactory bulb, and hypothalamus) but not in the cerebellum. (2), immunohistochemical analysis showed that

  10. Serotonin 2a Receptor and Serotonin 1a Receptor Interact Within the Medial Prefrontal Cortex During Recognition Memory in Mice

    PubMed Central

    Morici, Juan F.; Ciccia, Lucia; Malleret, Gaël; Gingrich, Jay A.; Bekinschtein, Pedro; Weisstaub, Noelia V.

    2015-01-01

    Episodic memory, can be defined as the memory for unique events. The serotonergic system one of the main neuromodulatory systems in the brain appears to play a role in it. The serotonin 2a receptor (5-HT2aR) one of the principal post-synaptic receptors for 5-HT in the brain, is involved in neuropsychiatric and neurological disorders associated with memory deficits. Recognition memory can be defined as the ability to recognize if a particular event or item was previously encountered and is thus considered, under certain conditions, a form of episodic memory. As human data suggest that a constitutively decrease of 5-HT2A signaling might affect episodic memory performance we decided to compare the performance of mice with disrupted 5-HT2aR signaling (htr2a−/−) with wild type (htr2a+/+) littermates in different recognition memory and working memory tasks that differed in the level of proactive interference. We found that ablation of 5-HT2aR signaling throughout development produces a deficit in tasks that cannot be solved by single item strategy suggesting that 5-HT2aR signaling is involved in interference resolution. We also found that in the absence of 5-HT2aR signaling serotonin has a deleterious effect on recognition memory retrieval through the activation of 5-HT1aR in the medial prefrontal cortex. PMID:26779016

  11. Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor alpha target genes.

    PubMed

    Rakhshandehroo, Maryam; Knoch, Bianca; Müller, Michael; Kersten, Sander

    2010-01-01

    The peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor alpha (PPARα) is a ligand-activated transcription factor involved in the regulation of a variety of processes, ranging from inflammation and immunity to nutrient metabolism and energy homeostasis. PPARα serves as a molecular target for hypolipidemic fibrates drugs which bind the receptor with high affinity. Furthermore, PPARα binds and is activated by numerous fatty acids and fatty acid-derived compounds. PPARα governs biological processes by altering the expression of a large number of target genes. Accordingly, the specific role of PPARα is directly related to the biological function of its target genes. Here, we present an overview of the involvement of PPARα in lipid metabolism and other pathways through a detailed analysis of the different known or putative PPARα target genes. The emphasis is on gene regulation by PPARα in liver although many of the results likely apply to other organs and tissues as well.

  12. Peroxisome Proliferator-Activated Receptor Alpha Target Genes

    PubMed Central

    Rakhshandehroo, Maryam; Knoch, Bianca; Müller, Michael; Kersten, Sander

    2010-01-01

    The peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor alpha (PPARα) is a ligand-activated transcription factor involved in the regulation of a variety of processes, ranging from inflammation and immunity to nutrient metabolism and energy homeostasis. PPARα serves as a molecular target for hypolipidemic fibrates drugs which bind the receptor with high affinity. Furthermore, PPARα binds and is activated by numerous fatty acids and fatty acid-derived compounds. PPARα governs biological processes by altering the expression of a large number of target genes. Accordingly, the specific role of PPARα is directly related to the biological function of its target genes. Here, we present an overview of the involvement of PPARα in lipid metabolism and other pathways through a detailed analysis of the different known or putative PPARα target genes. The emphasis is on gene regulation by PPARα in liver although many of the results likely apply to other organs and tissues as well. PMID:20936127

  13. Cartography of 5-HT1A and 5-HT2A Receptor Subtypes in Prefrontal Cortex and Its Projections.

    PubMed

    Mengod, Guadalupe; Palacios, José M; Cortés, Roser

    2015-07-15

    Since the development of chemical neuroanatomical tools in the 1960s, a tremendous wealth of information has been generated on the anatomical components of the serotonergic system, at the microscopic level in the brain including the prefrontal cortex (PFC). The PFC receives a widespread distribution of serotonin (5-hydroxytryptamine, 5-HT) terminals from the median and dorsal raphe nuclei. 5-HT receptors were first visualized using radioligand autoradiography in the late 1980s and early 1990s and showed, in contrast to 5-HT innervation, a differential distribution of binding sites associated with different 5-HT receptor subtypes. Due to the cloning of the different 5-HT receptor subtype genes in the late 1980s and early 1990s, it was possible, using in situ hybridization histochemistry, to localize cells expressing mRNA for these receptors. Double in situ hybridization histochemistry and immunohistochemistry allowed for the chemical characterization of the phenotype of cells expressing 5-HT receptors. Tract tracing technology allowed a detailed cartography of the neuronal connections of PFC and other brain areas. Based on these data, maps have been constructed that reflect our current understanding of the different circuits where 5-HT receptors can modulate the electrophysiological, pharmacological, and behavioral functions of the PFC. We will review current knowledge regarding the cellular localization of 5-HT1A and 5-HT2A receptors in mammalian PFC and their possible functions in the neuronal circuits of the PFC. We will discuss data generated in our laboratory as well as in others, focusing on localization in the pyramidal and GABAergic neuronal cell populations in different mammalian species using molecular neuroanatomy and on the connections with other brain regions.

  14. Functional expression of 5-HT{sub 2A} receptor in osteoblastic MC3T3-E1 cells

    SciTech Connect

    Hirai, Takao; Kaneshige, Kota; Kurosaki, Teruko; Nishio, Hiroaki

    2010-05-28

    In the previous study, we reported the gene expression for proteins related to the function of 5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT, serotonin) and elucidated the expression patterns of 5-HT{sub 2} receptor subtypes in mouse osteoblasts. In the present study, we evaluated the possible involvement of 5-HT receptor subtypes and its inactivation system in MC3T3-E1 cells, an osteoblast cell line. DOI, a 5-HT{sub 2A} and 5-HT{sub 2C} receptor selective agonist, as well as 5-HT concentration-dependently increased proliferative activities of MC3T3-E1 cells in their premature period. This effect of 5-HT on cell proliferation were inhibited by ketanserin, a 5-HT{sub 2A} receptor specific antagonist. Moreover, both DOI-induced cell proliferation and phosphorylation of ERK1 and 2 proteins were inhibited by PD98059 and U0126, selective inhibitors of MEK in a concentration-dependent manner. Furthermore, treatment with fluoxetine, a 5-HT specific re-uptake inhibitor which inactivate the function of extracellular 5-HT, significantly increased the proliferative activities of MC3T3-E1 cells in a concentration-dependent manner. Our data indicate that 5-HT fill the role for proliferation of osteoblast cells in their premature period. Notably, 5-HT{sub 2A} receptor may be functionally expressed to regulate mechanisms underlying osteoblast cell proliferation, at least in part, through activation of ERK/MAPK pathways in MC3T3-E1 cells.

  15. The A2a adenosine receptor modulates the reinforcement efficacy and neurotoxicity of MDMA.

    PubMed

    Ruiz-Medina, Jessica; Ledent, Catherine; Carretón, Olga; Valverde, Olga

    2011-04-01

    Adenosine is an endogenous purine nucleoside that plays a neuromodulatory role in the central nervous system. A2a adenosine receptors have been involved in reward-related processes, inflammatory phenomena and neurotoxicity reactions. In the present study, we investigated the role of A2a adenosine receptors on the acute pharmacological effects, reinforcement and neuroinflammation induced by MDMA administration. First, the acute effects of MDMA on body temperature, locomotor activity and anxiety-like responses were measured in A2a knockout mice and wild-type littermates. Second, MDMA reinforcing properties were evaluated using the intravenous self-administration paradigm. Finally, we assessed striatal astrogliosis and microgliosis as markers of MDMA neurotoxicity. Our results showed that acute MDMA produced a biphasic effect on body temperature and increased locomotor activity and anxiogenic-like responses in both genotypes. However, MDMA reinforcing properties were dramatically affected by the lack of A2a adenosine receptors. Thus, wild-type mice maintained MDMA self-administration under a fixed ratio 1 reinforcement schedule, whereas the operant response appeared completely abolished in A2a knockout mice. In addition, the MDMA neurotoxic regime produced an enhanced inflammatory response in striatum of wild-type mice, revealed by a significant increase in glial expression, whereas such activation was attenuated in mutant mice. This is the first report indicating that A2a adenosine receptors play a key role in reinforcement and neuroinflammation induced by the widely used psychostimulant.

  16. Mechanisms of the adenosine A2A receptor-induced sensitization of esophageal C fibers.

    PubMed

    Brozmanova, M; Mazurova, L; Ru, F; Tatar, M; Hu, Y; Yu, S; Kollarik, M

    2016-02-01

    Clinical studies indicate that adenosine contributes to esophageal mechanical hypersensitivity in some patients with pain originating in the esophagus. We have previously reported that the esophageal vagal nodose C fibers express the adenosine A2A receptor. Here we addressed the hypothesis that stimulation of the adenosine A2A receptor induces mechanical sensitization of esophageal C fibers by a mechanism involving transient receptor potential A1 (TRPA1). Extracellular single fiber recordings of activity originating in C-fiber terminals were made in the ex vivo vagally innervated guinea pig esophagus. The adenosine A2A receptor-selective agonist CGS21680 induced robust, reversible sensitization of the response to esophageal distention (10-60 mmHg) in a concentration-dependent fashion (1-100 nM). At the half-maximally effective concentration (EC50: ≈3 nM), CGS21680 induced an approximately twofold increase in the mechanical response without causing an overt activation. This sensitization was abolished by the selective A2A antagonist SCH58261. The adenylyl cyclase activator forskolin mimicked while the nonselective protein kinase inhibitor H89 inhibited mechanical sensitization by CGS21680. CGS21680 did not enhance the response to the purinergic P2X receptor agonist α,β-methylene-ATP, indicating that CGS21680 does not nonspecifically sensitize to all stimuli. Mechanical sensitization by CGS21680 was abolished by pretreatment with two structurally different TRPA1 antagonists AP18 and HC030031. Single cell RT-PCR and whole cell patch-clamp studies in isolated esophagus-specific nodose neurons revealed the expression of TRPA1 in A2A-positive C-fiber neurons and demonstrated that CGS21682 potentiated TRPA1 currents evoked by allylisothiocyanate. We conclude that stimulation of the adenosine A2A receptor induces mechanical sensitization of nodose C fibers by a mechanism sensitive to TRPA1 antagonists indicating the involvement of TRPA1.

  17. Evolution of an expanded mannose receptor gene family.

    PubMed

    Staines, Karen; Hunt, Lawrence G; Young, John R; Butter, Colin

    2014-01-01

    Sequences of peptides from a protein specifically immunoprecipitated by an antibody, KUL01, that recognises chicken macrophages, identified a homologue of the mammalian mannose receptor, MRC1, which we called MRC1L-B. Inspection of the genomic environment of the chicken gene revealed an array of five paralogous genes, MRC1L-A to MRC1L-E, located between conserved flanking genes found either side of the single MRC1 gene in mammals. Transcripts of all five genes were detected in RNA from a macrophage cell line and other RNAs, whose sequences allowed the precise definition of spliced exons, confirming or correcting existing bioinformatic annotation. The confirmed gene structures were used to locate orthologues of all five genes in the genomes of two other avian species and of the painted turtle, all with intact coding sequences. The lizard genome had only three genes, one orthologue of MRC1L-A and two orthologues of the MRC1L-B antigen gene resulting from a recent duplication. The Xenopus genome, like that of most mammals, had only a single MRC1-like gene at the corresponding locus. MRC1L-A and MRC1L-B genes had similar cytoplasmic regions that may be indicative of similar subcellular migration and functions. Cytoplasmic regions of the other three genes were very divergent, possibly indicating the evolution of a new functional repertoire for this family of molecules, which might include novel interactions with pathogens.

  18. Selection for Genes Encoding Secreted Proteins and Receptors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Klein, Robert D.; Gu, Qimin; Goddard, Audrey; Rosenthal, Arnon

    1996-07-01

    Extracellular proteins play an essential role in the formation, differentiation, and maintenance of multicellular organisms. Despite that, the systematic identification of genes encoding these proteins has not been possible. We describe here a highly efficient method to isolate genes encoding secreted and membrane-bound proteins by using a single-step selection in yeast. Application of this method, termed signal peptide selection, to various tissues yielded 559 clones that appear to encode known or novel extracellular proteins. These include members of the transforming growth factor and epidermal growth factor protein families, endocrine hormones, tyrosine kinase receptors, serine/threonine kinase receptors, seven transmembrane receptors, cell adhesion molecules, extracellular matrix proteins, plasma proteins, and ion channels. The eventual identification of most, or all, extracellular signaling molecules will advance our understanding of fundamental biological processes and our ability to intervene in disease states.

  19. Characterization of the "CCR5" Chemokine Receptor Gene

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thomas, John C.

    2004-01-01

    The life cycle of retroviruses is an essential topic of modern cell biology instruction. Furthermore, the process of HIV viral entry into the cell is a question of great interest in basic and clinical biology. This paper describes how students can easily recover their own DNA, amplify a portion of the "CCR5" chemokine receptor gene, characterize…

  20. Dissecting striatal adenosine-cannabinoid receptor interactions. New clues from rats over-expressing adenosine A2A receptors.

    PubMed

    Ferré, Sergi; Sebastião, Ana Maria

    2016-03-01

    This Editorial highlights a study by Chiodi et al. () showing that the effects mediated by cannabinoid CB1 receptor (CB1R) activation in the striatum are significantly reduced in rats with neuronal over-expression of adenosine A2A receptors (A2AR). Two hypotheses are derived from that study. Hypothesis A: two subpopulations of pre-synaptic CB1R in corticostriatal glutamatergic terminals exist, one forming and another not forming heteromers with A2AR. Hypothesis B: CB1R are predominantly forming heteromers with A2AR. In the case of hypothesis A, the A2AR might be required for CB1R-A2AR heteromeric signaling, whereas non-heteromeric CB1R activity is inhibited by A2ARs. In the case of hypothesis B, up-regulation of A2ARs may perturb heteromeric stoichiometry, thus reducing CB1R functioning. In any case, pre-synaptic striatal A2AR-CB1R heteromers emerge as important targets of the effects of cannabinoids demonstrated at the neuronal and behavioral level. Read the highlighted article 'Striatal adenosine-cannabinoid receptor interactions in rats over-expressing adenosine A2A receptors' on page 907.

  1. Adenosine A2A receptors enable the synaptic effects of cannabinoid CB1 receptors in the rodent striatum.

    PubMed

    Tebano, Maria Teresa; Martire, Alberto; Chiodi, Valentina; Pepponi, Rita; Ferrante, Antonella; Domenici, Maria Rosaria; Frank, Claudio; Chen, Jiang-Fan; Ledent, Catherine; Popoli, Patrizia

    2009-09-01

    Adenosine A(2A), cannabinoid CB(1) and metabotropic glutamate 5 (mGlu(5)) receptors are all highly expressed in the striatum. The aim of the present work was to investigate whether, and by which mechanisms, the above receptors interact in the regulation of striatal synaptic transmission. By extracellular field potentials (FPs) recordings in corticostriatal slices, we demonstrated that the ability of the selective type 1 cannabinoid receptor (CB(1)R) agonist WIN55,212-2 to depress synaptic transmission was prevented by the pharmacological blockade or the genetic inactivation of A(2A)Rs. Such a permissive effect of A(2A)Rs towards CB(1)Rs does not seem to occur pre-synaptically as the ability of WIN55,212-2 to increase the R2/R1 ratio under a protocol of paired-pulse stimulation was not modified by ZM241385. Furthermore, the effects of WIN55,212-2 were reduced in slices from mice lacking post-synaptic striatal A(2A)Rs. The selective mGlu(5)R agonist (RS)-2-chloro-5-hydroxyphenylglycine (CHPG) potentiated the synaptic effects of WIN55,212-2, and such a potentiation was abolished by A(2A)R blockade. Unlike the synaptic effects, the ability of WIN55,212-2 to prevent NMDA-induced toxicity was not influenced by ZM241385. Altogether, these results show that the state of activation of A(2A)Rs regulates the synaptic effects of CB(1)Rs and that A(2A)Rs may control CB(1) effects also indirectly, namely through mGlu(5)Rs.

  2. Receptor-like kinases from Arabidopsis form a monophyletic gene family related to animal receptor kinases

    PubMed Central

    Shiu, Shin-Han; Bleecker, Anthony B.

    2001-01-01

    Plant receptor-like kinases (RLKs) are proteins with a predicted signal sequence, single transmembrane region, and cytoplasmic kinase domain. Receptor-like kinases belong to a large gene family with at least 610 members that represent nearly 2.5% of Arabidopsis protein coding genes. We have categorized members of this family into subfamilies based on both the identity of the extracellular domains and the phylogenetic relationships between the kinase domains of subfamily members. Surprisingly, this structurally defined group of genes is monophyletic with respect to kinase domains when compared with the other eukaryotic kinase families. In an extended analysis, animal receptor kinases, Raf kinases, plant RLKs, and animal receptor tyrosine kinases form a well supported group sharing a common origin within the superfamily of serine/threonine/tyrosine kinases. Among animal kinase sequences, Drosophila Pelle and related cytoplasmic kinases fall within the plant RLK clade, which we now define as the RLK/Pelle family. A survey of expressed sequence tag records for land plants reveals that mosses, ferns, conifers, and flowering plants have similar percentages of expressed sequence tags representing RLK/Pelle homologs, suggesting that the size of this gene family may have been close to the present-day level before the diversification of land plant lineages. The distribution pattern of four RLK subfamilies on Arabidopsis chromosomes indicates that the expansion of this gene family is partly a consequence of duplication and reshuffling of the Arabidopsis genome and of the generation of tandem repeats. PMID:11526204

  3. TRAIL-R2: a novel apoptosis-mediating receptor for TRAIL.

    PubMed Central

    Walczak, H; Degli-Esposti, M A; Johnson, R S; Smolak, P J; Waugh, J Y; Boiani, N; Timour, M S; Gerhart, M J; Schooley, K A; Smith, C A; Goodwin, R G; Rauch, C T

    1997-01-01

    TRAIL is a member of the tumor necrosis factor (TNF) family of cytokines and induces apoptosis in a wide variety of cells. Based on homology searching of a private database, a receptor for TRAIL (DR4 or TRAIL-R1) was recently identified. Here we report the identification of a distinct receptor for TRAIL, TRAIL-R2, by ligand-based affinity purification and subsequent molecular cloning. TRAIL-R2 was purified independently as the only receptor for TRAIL detectable on the surface of two different human cell lines that undergo apoptosis upon stimulation with TRAIL. TRAIL-R2 contains two extracellular cysteine-rich repeats, typical for TNF receptor (TNFR) family members, and a cytoplasmic death domain. TRAIL binds to recombinant cell-surface-expressed TRAIL-R2, and TRAIL-induced apoptosis is inhibited by a TRAIL-R2-Fc fusion protein. TRAIL-R2 mRNA is widely expressed and the gene encoding TRAIL-R2 is located on human chromosome 8p22-21. Like TRAIL-R1, TRAIL-R2 engages a caspase-dependent apoptotic pathway but, in contrast to TRAIL-R1, TRAIL-R2 mediates apoptosis via the intracellular adaptor molecule FADD/MORT1. The existence of two distinct receptors for the same ligand suggests an unexpected complexity to TRAIL biology, reminiscent of dual receptors for TNF, the canonical member of this family. PMID:9311998

  4. Interspecies variations in Bordetella catecholamine receptor gene regulation and function.

    PubMed

    Brickman, Timothy J; Suhadolc, Ryan J; Armstrong, Sandra K

    2015-12-01

    Bordetella bronchiseptica can use catecholamines to obtain iron from transferrin and lactoferrin via uptake pathways involving the BfrA, BfrD, and BfrE outer membrane receptor proteins, and although Bordetella pertussis has the bfrD and bfrE genes, the role of these genes in iron uptake has not been demonstrated. In this study, the bfrD and bfrE genes of B. pertussis were shown to be functional in B. bronchiseptica, but neither B. bronchiseptica bfrD nor bfrE imparted catecholamine utilization to B. pertussis. Gene fusion analyses found that expression of B. bronchiseptica bfrA was increased during iron starvation, as is common for iron receptor genes, but that expression of the bfrD and bfrE genes of both species was decreased during iron limitation. As shown previously for B. pertussis, bfrD expression in B. bronchiseptica was also dependent on the BvgAS virulence regulatory system; however, in contrast to the case in B. pertussis, the known modulators nicotinic acid and sulfate, which silence Bvg-activated genes, did not silence expression of bfrD in B. bronchiseptica. Further studies using a B. bronchiseptica bvgAS mutant expressing the B. pertussis bvgAS genes revealed that the interspecies differences in bfrD modulation are partly due to BvgAS differences. Mouse respiratory infection experiments determined that catecholamine utilization contributes to the in vivo fitness of B. bronchiseptica and B. pertussis. Additional evidence of the in vivo importance of the B. pertussis receptors was obtained from serologic studies demonstrating pertussis patient serum reactivity with the B. pertussis BfrD and BfrE proteins.

  5. Interspecies Variations in Bordetella Catecholamine Receptor Gene Regulation and Function

    PubMed Central

    Brickman, Timothy J.; Suhadolc, Ryan J.

    2015-01-01

    Bordetella bronchiseptica can use catecholamines to obtain iron from transferrin and lactoferrin via uptake pathways involving the BfrA, BfrD, and BfrE outer membrane receptor proteins, and although Bordetella pertussis has the bfrD and bfrE genes, the role of these genes in iron uptake has not been demonstrated. In this study, the bfrD and bfrE genes of B. pertussis were shown to be functional in B. bronchiseptica, but neither B. bronchiseptica bfrD nor bfrE imparted catecholamine utilization to B. pertussis. Gene fusion analyses found that expression of B. bronchiseptica bfrA was increased during iron starvation, as is common for iron receptor genes, but that expression of the bfrD and bfrE genes of both species was decreased during iron limitation. As shown previously for B. pertussis, bfrD expression in B. bronchiseptica was also dependent on the BvgAS virulence regulatory system; however, in contrast to the case in B. pertussis, the known modulators nicotinic acid and sulfate, which silence Bvg-activated genes, did not silence expression of bfrD in B. bronchiseptica. Further studies using a B. bronchiseptica bvgAS mutant expressing the B. pertussis bvgAS genes revealed that the interspecies differences in bfrD modulation are partly due to BvgAS differences. Mouse respiratory infection experiments determined that catecholamine utilization contributes to the in vivo fitness of B. bronchiseptica and B. pertussis. Additional evidence of the in vivo importance of the B. pertussis receptors was obtained from serologic studies demonstrating pertussis patient serum reactivity with the B. pertussis BfrD and BfrE proteins. PMID:26371128

  6. High-throughput chemiluminometric genotyping of single nucleotide polymorphisms of histamine, serotonin, and adrenergic receptor genes.

    PubMed

    Toubanaki, Dimitra K; Christopoulos, Theodore K; Ioannou, Penelope C; Flordellis, Christodoulos S

    2009-02-01

    Several pharmacogenetic studies are focused on the investigation of the relation between the efficacy of various antipsychotic agents (e.g., clozapine) and the genetic profile of the patient with an emphasis on genes that code for neurotransmitter receptors such as histamine, serotonin, and adrenergic receptors. We report a high-throughput method for genotyping of single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) within the genes of histamine H2 receptor (HRH2), serotonin receptor (HTR2A1 and HTR2A2), and beta(3) adrenergic receptor (ADRB3). The method combines the high specificity of allele discrimination by oligonucleotide ligation reaction (OLR) and the superior sensitivity and simplicity of chemiluminometric detection in a microtiter well assay configuration. The genomic region that spans the locus of interest is first amplified by polymerase chain reaction (PCR). Subsequently, an oligonucleotide ligation reaction is performed using a biotinylated common probe and two allele-specific probes that are labeled at the 3' end with digoxigenin and fluorescein. The ligation products are immobilized in polystyrene wells via biotin-streptavidin interaction, and the hybrids are denatured. Detection is accomplished by the addition of alkaline phosphatase-conjugated anti-digoxigenin or anti-fluorescein antibodies in combination with a chemiluminogenic substrate. The ratio of the luminescence signals obtained from digoxigenin and fluorescein indicates the genotype of the sample. The method was applied successfully to the genotyping of 23 blood samples for all four SNPs. The results were in concordance with both PCR-restriction fragment length polymorphism analysis and sequencing.

  7. Folate receptor gene variants and neural tube defect occurrence

    SciTech Connect

    Finnell, R.; Greer, K.; Lammer, E.

    1994-09-01

    Recent epidemiological evidence shows that periconceptional use of folic acid supplements may prevent 40-50% of neural tube defects (NTDs). The FDA has subsequently recommended folic acid supplementation of all women of childbearing potential, even though the mechanism by which folic acid prevents NTDs is unknown. We investigated genetic variation of a candidate gene, the 5-methyltetrahydrofolate (5-MeTHF) receptor, that may mediate this preventive effect. The receptor concentrates folate within cells and we have localized its mRNA to neuroepithelial cells during neurulation. Our hypothesis is that dysfunctional 5-MeTHF receptors inadequately concentrate folate intracellularly, predisposing infants to NTDs. We have completed SSCP analysis on 3 of the 4 coding exons of the 5-MeTHF receptor gene of 474 infants participating in a large population-based epidemiological case-control study of NTDs in California; genotyping of another 500 infants is ongoing. Genomic DNA was extracted from residual blood spots from newborn screening samples of cases and controls. Genotyping was done blinded to case status. Polymorphisms have been detected for exons 4 and 5; fourteen percent of the infants have exon 5 polymorphisms. Data will be presented on the prevalence of 5-MeTHF receptor polymorphisms among cases and controls. Relationships among the polymorphisms and NTD occurrence may shed light on how folic acid supplementation prevents NTDs.

  8. CRDB: Database of Chemosensory Receptor Gene Families in Vertebrate

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Xiaoli; Zhong, Yang

    2012-01-01

    Chemosensory receptors (CR) are crucial for animals to sense the environmental changes and survive on earth. The emergence of whole-genome sequences provides us an opportunity to identify the entire CR gene repertoires. To completely gain more insight into the evolution of CR genes in vertebrates, we identified the nearly all CR genes in 25 vertebrates using homology-based approaches. Among these CR gene repertoires, nearly half of them were identified for the first time in those previously uncharacterized species, such as the guinea pig, giant panda and elephant, etc. Consistent with previous findings, we found that the numbers of CR genes vary extensively among different species, suggesting an extreme form of ‘birth-and-death’ evolution. For the purpose of facilitating CR gene analysis, we constructed a database with the goals to provide a resource for CR genes annotation and a web tool for exploring their evolutionary patterns. Besides a search engine for the gene extraction from a specific chromosome region, an easy-to-use phylogenetic analysis tool was also provided to facilitate online phylogeny study of CR genes. Our work can provide a rigorous platform for further study on the evolution of CR genes in vertebrates. PMID:22393364

  9. Amplification of HER2 and TOP2A and deletion of TOP2A genes in a series of Taiwanese breast cancer

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Jim-Ray; Chien, Hui-Ping; Chen, Kuo-Su; Hwang, Cheng-Cheng; Chen, Huang-Yang; Yeh, Kun-Yan; Hsieh, Tsan-Yu; Chang, Liang-Che; Hsu, Yuan-Chun; Lu, Ren-Jie; Hua, Chung-Ching

    2017-01-01

    Abstract Background: The prognostic relevance of topoisomerase II alpha (TOP2A) copy number change remains not well established. This study is aimed to investigate the frequency and pattern of TOP2A aberrations; to correlate TOP2A alterations with human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER2) status and clinicopathological parameters, and further to explore prognostic value of TOP2A and HER2 status in breast cancer in Taiwan. Methods: We analyzed tissue samples from 311 invasive carcinomas in tissue microarrays for TOP2A and HER2 status by fluorescent in situ hybridization. Results: TOP2A copy number change is an infrequent genetic event (9.8% amplification and 2.7% deletion) and is present in both HER2-amplified and nonamplified tumors. TOP2A amplification is statistically associated with age >50 at diagnosis (P = 0.016) and HER2 amplification (P < 0.001). HER2 amplification, but not TOP2A amplification, is a predictor of unfavorable prognosis (P = 0.002). Univariate and multivariate analysis showed that higher histologic grading, positive nodal involvement, and HER2 positivity were associated with poorer overall survival. Cytogenetically, double minutes-type amplification is the predominant pattern for both genes (HER2: 64% and TOP2A: 93.1%). Homogeneous staining region-type signals of both genes are resistant to RNase digestion, supporting that these were not nuclear accumulation of mRNA transcripts. Conclusion: Our results demonstrate the prognostic value of tumor grading, nodal involvement, and HER2 status in Taiwanese breast cancer. TOP2A aberrations are an infrequent event independent of HER2 status, and TOP2A amplification carries no prognostic value. The predictive value of TOP2A aberrations in patients of breast cancer taking athracycline-containing treatment in Taiwan remains to be determined in prospectively well-designed clinical trials. PMID:28079792

  10. Deletion of the G2A receptor fails to attenuate experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis

    PubMed Central

    Osmers, Inga; Smith, Sherry S.; Parks, Brian W.; Yu, Shaohua; Srivastava, Roshni; Wohler, Jillian E.; Barnum, Scott R.; Kabarowski, Janusz H.S.

    2009-01-01

    Lysophosphatidylcholine (LPC) is a chemotactic lysolipid produced during inflammation by the hydrolytic action of phospholipase A2 enzymes. LPC stimulates chemotaxis of T cells in vitro through activation of the G protein-coupled receptor, G2A. This has led to the proposition that G2A contributes to the recruitment of T cells to sites of inflammation and thus promotes chronic inflammatory autoimmune diseases associated with the generation and subsequent tissue infiltration of auto-antigen-specific effector T cells. However, one study suggests that G2A may negatively regulate T cell proliferative responses to antigen receptor engagement and thereby attenuates autoimmunity by reducing the generation of autoreactive T cells. To address the relative contribution of these G2A-mediated effects to the pathophysiology of T cell-mediated autoimmune disease, we examined the impact of G2A inactivation on the onset and severity of murine experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE), a model of multiple sclerosis (MS). Wild type (G2A+/+) and G2A-deficient (G2A-/-) C57BL/6J mice exhibited a similar incidence and onset of disease following immunization with MOG35-55 peptide. Disease severity was only moderately reduced in G2A-/- mice. Similar numbers of MOG35-55 specific T cells were generated in secondary lymphoid organs of MOG35-55-immunized G2A+/+ and G2A-/- mice. Comparable numbers of T cells were detected in spinal cords of G2A+/+ and G2A-/- mice. We conclude that the proposed anti-proliferative and chemotactic functions of G2A are not manifested in vivo and therefore therapeutic targeting of G2A is unlikely to be beneficial in the treatment of MS. PMID:19135725

  11. Expression of α(1)-adrenergic receptors in rat prefrontal cortex: cellular co-localization with 5-HT(2A) receptors.

    PubMed

    Santana, Noemí; Mengod, Guadalupe; Artigas, Francesc

    2013-06-01

    The prefrontal cortex (PFC) is involved in behavioural control and cognitive processes that are altered in schizophrenia. The brainstem monoaminergic systems control PFC function, yet the cells/networks involved are not fully known. Serotonin (5-HT) and norepinephrine (NE) increase PFC neuronal activity through the activation of α(1)-adrenergic receptors (α(1)ARs) and 5-HT(2A) receptors (5-HT(2A)Rs), respectively. Neurochemical and behavioural interactions between these receptors have been reported. Further, classical and atypical antipsychotic drugs share nm in vitro affinity for α(1)ARs while having preferential affinity for D(2) and 5-HT(2A)Rs, respectively. Using double in situ hybridization we examined the cellular expression of α(1)ARs in pyramidal (vGluT1-positive) and GABAergic (GAD(65/67)-positive) neurons in rat PFC and their co-localization with 5-HT(2A)Rs. α(1)ARs are expressed by a high proportion of pyramidal (59-85%) and GABAergic (52-79%) neurons. The expression in pyramidal neurons exhibited a dorsoventral gradient, with a lower percentage of α(1)AR-positive neurons in infralimbic cortex compared to anterior cingulate and prelimbic cortex. The expression of α(1A), α(1B) and α(1D) adrenergic receptors was segregated in different layers and subdivisions. In all them there is a high co-expression with 5-HT(2A)Rs (∼80%). These observations indicate that NE controls the activity of most PFC pyramidal neurons via α(1)ARs, either directly or indirectly, via GABAergic interneurons. Antipsychotic drugs can thus modulate the activity of PFC via α(1)AR blockade. The high co-expression with 5-HT(2A)Rs indicates a convergence of excitatory serotonergic and noradrenergic inputs onto the same neuronal populations. Moreover, atypical antipsychotics may exert a more powerful control of PFC function through the simultaneous blockade of α(1)ARs and 5-HT(2A)Rs.

  12. 5-HT2A Receptor Binding in the Frontal Cortex of Parkinson's Disease Patients and Alpha-Synuclein Overexpressing Mice: A Postmortem Study.

    PubMed

    Rasmussen, Nadja Bredo; Olesen, Mikkel Vestergaard; Brudek, Tomasz; Plenge, Per; Klein, Anders Bue; Westin, Jenny E; Fog, Karina; Wörtwein, Gitta; Aznar, Susana

    2016-01-01

    The 5-HT2A receptor is highly involved in aspects of cognition and executive function and seen to be affected in neurodegenerative diseases like Alzheimer's disease and related to the disease pathology. Even though Parkinson's disease (PD) is primarily a motor disorder, reports of impaired executive function are also steadily being associated with this disease. Not much is known about the pathophysiology behind this. The aim of this study was thereby twofold: (1) to investigate 5-HT2A receptor binding levels in Parkinson's brains and (2) to investigate whether PD associated pathology, alpha-synuclein (AS) overexpression, could be associated with 5-HT2A alterations. Binding density for the 5-HT2A-specific radioligand [(3)H]-MDL 100.907 was measured in membrane suspensions of frontal cortex tissue from PD patients. Protein levels of AS were further measured using western blotting. Results showed higher AS levels accompanied by increased 5-HT2A receptor binding in PD brains. In a separate study, we looked for changes in 5-HT2A receptors in the prefrontal cortex in 52-week-old transgenic mice overexpressing human AS. We performed region-specific 5-HT2A receptor binding measurements followed by gene expression analysis. The transgenic mice showed lower 5-HT2A binding in the frontal association cortex that was not accompanied by changes in gene expression levels. This study is one of the first to look at differences in serotonin receptor levels in PD and in relation to AS overexpression.

  13. Olfactory receptor gene expression in tiger salamander olfactory epithelium.

    PubMed

    Marchand, James E; Yang, Xinhai; Chikaraishi, Dona; Krieger, Jurgen; Breer, Heinz; Kauer, John S

    2004-06-28

    Physiological studies of odor-elicited responses from the olfactory epithelium and bulb in the tiger salamander, Ambystoma tigrinum, have elucidated a number of features of olfactory coding that appear to be conserved across several vertebrate species. This animal model has provided an accessible in vivo system for observing individual and ensemble olfactory responses to odorant stimulation using biochemical, neurophysiological, and behavioral assays. In this paper we have complemented these studies by characterizing 35 candidate odorant receptor genes. These receptor sequences are similar to those of the large families of olfactory receptors found in mammals and fish. In situ hybridization, using RNA probes to 20 of these sequences, demonstrates differential distributions of labeled cells across the extent and within the depth of the olfactory epithelium. The distributions of cells labeled with probes to different receptors show spatially restricted patterns that are generally localized to different degrees in medial-lateral and anterior-posterior directions. The patterns of receptor expression in the ventral olfactory epithelium (OE) are mirrored in the dorsal OE. We present a hypothesis as to how the sensory neuron populations expressing different receptor types responding to a particular odorant may relate to the distribution patterns of epithelial and bulbar responses previously characterized using single-unit and voltage-sensitive dye recording methods.

  14. 5-HT2A receptors are involved in cognitive but not antidepressant effects of fluoxetine.

    PubMed

    Castañé, Anna; Kargieman, Lucila; Celada, Pau; Bortolozzi, Analía; Artigas, Francesc

    2015-08-01

    The prefrontal cortex (PFC) plays a crucial role in cognitive and affective functions. It contains a rich serotonergic (serotonin, 5-HT) innervation and a high density of 5-HT receptors. Endogenous 5-HT exerts robust actions on the activity of pyramidal neurons in medial PFC (mPFC) via excitatory 5-HT2A and inhibitory 5-HT1A receptors, suggesting the involvement of 5-HT neurotransmission in cortical functions. However, the underlying mechanisms must be elucidated. Here we examine the role of 5-HT2A receptors in the processing of emotional and cognitive signals evoked by increasing the 5-HT tone after acute blockade of the 5-HT transporter. Fluoxetine (5-20mg/kg i.p.) dose-dependently reduced the immobility time in the tail-suspension test in wild-type (WT) and 5-HT2Aknockout (KO2A) mice, with non-significant differences between genotypes. Fluoxetine (10mg/kg i.p.) significantly impaired mice performance in the novel object recognition test 24h post-administration in WT, but not in KO2A mice. The comparable effect of fluoxetine on extracellular 5-HT in the mPFC of both genotypes suggests that presynaptic differences are not accountable. In contrast, single unit recordings of mPFC putative pyramidal neurons showed that fluoxetine (1.8-7.2mg/kg i.v.) significantly increased neuronal discharge in KO2A but not in WT mice. This effect is possibly mediated by an altered excitatory/inhibitory balance in the PFC in KO2A mice. Overall, the present results suggest that 5-HT2A receptors play a detrimental role in long-term memory deficits mediated by an excess 5-HT in PFC.

  15. Parallel evolution of domesticated Caenorhabditis species targets pheromone receptor genes.

    PubMed

    McGrath, Patrick T; Xu, Yifan; Ailion, Michael; Garrison, Jennifer L; Butcher, Rebecca A; Bargmann, Cornelia I

    2011-08-17

    Evolution can follow predictable genetic trajectories, indicating that discrete environmental shifts can select for reproducible genetic changes. Conspecific individuals are an important feature of an animal's environment, and a potential source of selective pressures. Here we show that adaptation of two Caenorhabditis species to growth at high density, a feature common to domestic environments, occurs by reproducible genetic changes to pheromone receptor genes. Chemical communication through pheromones that accumulate during high-density growth causes young nematode larvae to enter the long-lived but non-reproductive dauer stage. Two strains of Caenorhabditis elegans grown at high density have independently acquired multigenic resistance to pheromone-induced dauer formation. In each strain, resistance to the pheromone ascaroside C3 results from a deletion that disrupts the adjacent chemoreceptor genes serpentine receptor class g (srg)-36 and -37. Through misexpression experiments, we show that these genes encode redundant G-protein-coupled receptors for ascaroside C3. Multigenic resistance to dauer formation has also arisen in high-density cultures of a different nematode species, Caenorhabditis briggsae, resulting in part from deletion of an srg gene paralogous to srg-36 and srg-37. These results demonstrate rapid remodelling of the chemoreceptor repertoire as an adaptation to specific environments, and indicate that parallel changes to a common genetic substrate can affect life-history traits across species.

  16. Multiple sclerosis lymphocytes upregulate A2A adenosine receptors that are antiinflammatory when stimulated.

    PubMed

    Vincenzi, Fabrizio; Corciulo, Carmen; Targa, Martina; Merighi, Stefania; Gessi, Stefania; Casetta, Ilaria; Gentile, Mauro; Granieri, Enrico; Borea, Pier Andrea; Varani, Katia

    2013-08-01

    Multiple sclerosis (MS) is an autoimmune-mediated inflammatory disease characterized by multifocal areas of demyelination. Experimental evidence indicates that A2A adenosine receptors (ARs) play a pivotal role in the inhibition of inflammatory processes. The aim of this study was to investigate the contribution of A2A ARs in the inhibition of key pro-inflammatory mediators for the pathogenesis of MS. In lymphocytes from MS patients, A1, A2A, A2B, and A3 ARs were analyzed by using RT-PCR, Western blotting, immunofluorescence, and binding assays. Moreover the effect of A2A AR stimulation on proinflammatory cytokine release such as TNF-α, IFN-γ, IL-6, IL-1β, IL-17, and on lymphocyte proliferation was evaluated. The capability of an A2A AR agonist on the modulation of very late antigen (VLA)-4 expression and NF-κB was also explored. A2A AR upregulation was observed in lymphocytes from MS patients in comparison with healthy subjects. The stimulation of these receptors mediated a significant inhibition of TNF-α, IFN-γ, IL-6, IL-1β, IL-17, and cell proliferation as well as VLA-4 expression and NF-κB activation. This new evidence highlights that A2A AR agonists could represent a novel therapeutic tool for MS treatment as suggested by the antiinflammatory role of A2A ARs in lymphocytes from MS patients.

  17. Identification of novel androgen receptor target genes in prostate cancer

    PubMed Central

    Jariwala, Unnati; Prescott, Jennifer; Jia, Li; Barski, Artem; Pregizer, Steve; Cogan, Jon P; Arasheben, Armin; Tilley, Wayne D; Scher, Howard I; Gerald, William L; Buchanan, Grant; Coetzee, Gerhard A; Frenkel, Baruch

    2007-01-01

    Background The androgen receptor (AR) plays critical roles in both androgen-dependent and castrate-resistant prostate cancer (PCa). However, little is known about AR target genes that mediate the receptor's roles in disease progression. Results Using Chromatin Immunoprecipitation (ChIP) Display, we discovered 19 novel loci occupied by the AR in castrate resistant C4-2B PCa cells. Only four of the 19 AR-occupied regions were within 10-kb 5'-flanking regulatory sequences. Three were located up to 4-kb 3' of the nearest gene, eight were intragenic and four were in gene deserts. Whereas the AR occupied the same loci in C4-2B (castrate resistant) and LNCaP (androgen-dependent) PCa cells, differences between the two cell lines were observed in the response of nearby genes to androgens. Among the genes strongly stimulated by DHT in C4-2B cells – D-dopachrome tautomerase (DDT), Protein kinase C delta (PRKCD), Glutathione S- transferase theta 2 (GSTT2), Transient receptor potential cation channel subfamily V member 3 (TRPV3), and Pyrroline-5-carboxylate reductase 1 (PYCR1) – most were less strongly or hardly stimulated in LNCaP cells. Another AR target gene, ornithine aminotransferase (OAT), was AR-stimulated in a ligand-independent manner, since it was repressed by AR siRNA knockdown, but not stimulated by DHT. We also present evidence for in vivo AR-mediated regulation of several genes identified by ChIP Display. For example, PRKCD and PYCR1, which may contribute to PCa cell growth and survival, are expressed in PCa biopsies from primary tumors before and after ablation and in metastatic lesions in a manner consistent with AR-mediated stimulation. Conclusion AR genomic occupancy is similar between LNCaP and C4-2B cells and is not biased towards 5' gene flanking sequences. The AR transcriptionally regulates less than half the genes nearby AR-occupied regions, usually but not always, in a ligand-dependent manner. Most are stimulated and a few are repressed. In general

  18. A covalent antagonist for the human adenosine A2A receptor.

    PubMed

    Yang, Xue; Dong, Guo; Michiels, Thomas J M; Lenselink, Eelke B; Heitman, Laura; Louvel, Julien; IJzerman, Ad P

    2016-12-03

    The structure of the human A2A adenosine receptor has been elucidated by X-ray crystallography with a high affinity non-xanthine antagonist, ZM241385, bound to it. This template molecule served as a starting point for the incorporation of reactive moieties that cause the ligand to covalently bind to the receptor. In particular, we incorporated a fluorosulfonyl moiety onto ZM241385, which yielded LUF7445 (4-((3-((7-amino-2-(furan-2-yl)-[1, 2, 4]triazolo[1,5-a][1, 3, 5]triazin-5-yl)amino)propyl)carbamoyl)benzene sulfonyl fluoride). In a radioligand binding assay, LUF7445 acted as a potent antagonist, with an apparent affinity for the hA2A receptor in the nanomolar range. Its apparent affinity increased with longer incubation time, suggesting an increasing level of covalent binding over time. An in silico A2A-structure-based docking model was used to study the binding mode of LUF7445. This led us to perform site-directed mutagenesis of the A2A receptor to probe and validate the target lysine amino acid K153 for covalent binding. Meanwhile, a functional assay combined with wash-out experiments was set up to investigate the efficacy of covalent binding of LUF7445. All these experiments led us to conclude LUF7445 is a valuable molecular tool for further investigating covalent interactions at this receptor. It may also serve as a prototype for a therapeutic approach in which a covalent antagonist may be needed to counteract prolonged and persistent presence of the endogenous ligand adenosine.

  19. The Role of Metabotropic Glutamate Receptor Genes in Schizophrenia

    PubMed Central

    Maj, Carlo; Minelli, Alessandra; Giacopuzzi, Edoardo; Sacchetti, Emilio; Gennarelli, Massimo

    2016-01-01

    Genomic studies revealed two main components in the genetic architecture of schizophrenia, one constituted by common variants determining a distributed polygenic effect and one represented by a large number of heterogeneous rare and highly disruptive mutations. These gene modifications often affect neural transmission and different studies proved an involvement of metabotropic glutamate receptors in schizophrenia phenotype. Through the combination of literature information with genomic data from public repositories, we analyzed the current knowledge on the involvement of genetic variations of the human metabotropic glutamate receptors in schizophrenia and related endophenotypes. Despite the analysis did not reveal a definitive connection, different suggestive associations have been identified and in particular a relevant role has emerged for GRM3 in affecting specific schizophrenia endophenotypes. This supports the hypothesis that these receptors are directly involved in schizophrenia disorder. PMID:27296644

  20. The Role of Metabotropic Glutamate Receptor Genes in Schizophrenia.

    PubMed

    Maj, Carlo; Minelli, Alessandra; Giacopuzzi, Edoardo; Sacchetti, Emilio; Gennarelli, Massimo

    2016-01-01

    Genomic studies revealed two main components in the genetic architecture of schizophrenia, one constituted by common variants determining a distributed polygenic effect and one represented by a large number of heterogeneous rare and highly disruptive mutations. These gene modifications often affect neural transmission and different studies proved an involvement of metabotropic glutamate receptors in schizophrenia phenotype. Through the combination of literature information with genomic data from public repositories, we analyzed the current knowledge on the involvement of genetic variations of the human metabotropic glutamate receptors in schizophrenia and related endophenotypes. Despite the analysis did not reveal a definitive connection, different suggestive associations have been identified and in particular a relevant role has emerged for GRM3 in affecting specific schizophrenia endophenotypes. This supports the hypothesis that these receptors are directly involved in schizophrenia disorder.

  1. E6-Associated Protein Dependent Estrogen Receptor Regulation of Protein Kinase A Regulatory Subunit R2A Expression in Neuroblastoma.

    PubMed

    Obeid, Jean-Pierre; Zeidan, Youssef H; Zafar, Nawal; El Hokayem, Jimmy

    2017-02-18

    E6ap is a known transcriptional coregulator for estrogen receptor alpha (Er, Erα) in the presence of estrogen. Protein kinase A (PKA) contains two regulatory subunits derived from four genes. Recent evidence demonstrates that PKA regulates E6ap activity. Data generated in our lab indicated estrogen dependent regulation of Pkar2a levels. Our project sets to investigate a possible feedback mechanism constituting of Erα and E6ap transcriptional regulation of Pkar2a expression. Western blot evaluated protein regulation correlations with E2 in mouse neuroblastoma lines. Bioinformatics detected estrogen response element (ERE) sequences. quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR) validated the western blot results. ERE oligonucleotides were synthesized. Reporter gene transcriptional activity was evaluated via Luciferase assay output. Electromobility shift assay (EMSA) assessed direct binding between Erα relevant sequences. Chromatin immunoprecipitation (ChIP) and Re-ChIP were conducted in quantifying protein complex recruitment levels. Pkar2a protein expression directly correlated with E2, and four putative ERE sequences were identified. Pkar2a mRNA expression reverted to baseline with either E2 or E6ap absent. In the presence of E2, ERE-1 and ERE-4 possessed Luciferase reporter gene transcriptional capabilities. ERE-1 portrayed band shifts, representing direct binding to Erα with E2 supplementation. With E2, ERE-1 significantly enhanced Erα and E6ap recruitment levels to the Pkar2a promoter. Pkar2a is directly regulated by Erα and E6ap in the presence of estrogen stimulus. This work indicates a feedback mechanism in the interplay between PKA and E6ap, which may prove crucial for the role of both proteins in cancers and neurogenetic diseases like Angelman syndrome.

  2. Liver X receptor alpha mediated genistein induction of human dehydroepiandrosterone sulfotransferase (hSULT2A1) in Hep G2 cells

    SciTech Connect

    Chen, Yue; Zhang, Shunfen; Zhou, Tianyan; Huang, Chaoqun; McLaughlin, Alicia; Chen, Guangping

    2013-04-15

    Cytosolic sulfotransferases are one of the major families of phase II drug metabolizing enzymes. Sulfotransferase-catalyzed sulfonation regulates hormone activities, metabolizes drugs, detoxifies xenobiotics, and bioactivates carcinogens. Human dehydroepiandrosterone sulfotransferase (hSULT2A1) plays important biological roles by sulfating endogenous hydroxysteroids and exogenous xenobiotics. Genistein, mainly existing in soy food products, is a naturally occurring phytoestrogen with both chemopreventive and chemotherapeutic potential. Our previous studies have shown that genistein significantly induces hSULT2A1 in Hep G2 and Caco-2 cells. In this study, we investigated the roles of liver X receptor (LXRα) in the genistein induction of hSULT2A1. LXRs have been shown to induce expression of mouse Sult2a9 and hSULT2A1 gene. Our results demonstrate that LXRα mediates the genistein induction of hSULT2A1, supported by Western blot analysis results, hSULT2A1 promoter driven luciferase reporter gene assay results, and mRNA interference results. Chromatin immunoprecipitation (ChIP) assay results demonstrate that genistein increase the recruitment of hLXRα binding to the hSULT2A1 promoter. These results suggest that hLXRα plays an important role in the hSULT2A1 gene regulation. The biological functions of phytoestrogens may partially relate to their induction activity toward hydroxysteroid SULT. - Highlights: ► Liver X receptor α mediated genistein induction of hSULT2A1 in Hep G2 cells. ► LXRα and RXRα dimerization further activated this induction. ► Western blot results agreed well with luciferase reporter gene assay results. ► LXRs gene silencing significantly decreased hSULT2A1 expression. ► ChIP analysis suggested that genistein enhances hLXRα binding to the hSULT2A1 promoter.

  3. Functions, dysfunctions and possible therapeutic relevance of adenosine A2A receptors in Huntington's disease.

    PubMed

    Popoli, Patrizia; Blum, David; Martire, Alberto; Ledent, Catherine; Ceruti, Stefania; Abbracchio, Maria P

    2007-04-01

    The aim of this review is to summarize and critically discuss the complex role played by adenosine A(2A) receptors (A(2A)Rs) in Huntington's disease (HD). Since A(2A)Rs are mainly localized on the neurons, which degenerate early in HD, and given their ability to stimulate glutamate outflow and inflammatory gliosis, it was hypothesized that they could be involved in the pathogenesis of HD, and that A(2A)R antagonists could be neuroprotective. This was further sustained by the demonstration that A(2A)Rs and underlying signaling systems undergo profound changes in cellular and animal models of HD. More recently, however, the equation A(2A) receptor blockade=neuroprotection has appeared too simplistic. First, it is now definitely clear that, besides mediating 'bad' responses (for example, stimulation of glutamate outflow and excessive glial activation), A(2A)Rs also promote 'good' responses (such as trophic and antinflammatory effects). This implies that A(2A)R blockade results either in pro-toxic or neuroprotective effects according to the mechanisms involved in a given experimental model. Second, since HD is a chronically progressive disease, the multiple mechanisms involving A(2A)Rs may play different relative roles along the degenerative process. Such different mechanisms can be influenced by A(2A)R activation or blockade in different ways, even leading to opposite outcomes depending on the time of agonist/antagonist administration. The number, and the complexity, of the possible scenarios is further increased by the influence of mutant Huntingtin on both the expression and functions of A(2A)Rs, and by the strikingly different effects mediated by A(2A)Rs expressed by different cell populations within the brain.

  4. Therapeutic Opportunities for Caffeine and A2A Receptor Antagonists in Retinal Diseases.

    PubMed

    Boia, Raquel; Ambrósio, António Francisco; Santiago, Ana Raquel

    2016-01-01

    Caffeine, the major component of coffee, is the most consumed psychostimulant in the world. Caffeine is an adenosine analog and acts as a nonselective adenosine receptor antagonist. The majority of the effects of caffeine are mainly mediated by the blockade of adenosine receptors, and the proved neuroprotective effects of caffeine in brain disorders have been mimicked by the blockade of adenosine A2A receptor (A2AR). A growing body of evidence demonstrates that microglia-mediated neuroinflammation plays a key role in the pathophysiology of brain and retinal diseases. Moreover, the control of microglia reactivity by blocking A2AR has been proposed to be the mechanism underlying the observed protective effects of caffeine. Hence, it is conceivable that caffeine and A2AR antagonists offer therapeutic value for the treatment of retinal diseases, mainly those involving microglia-mediated neuroinflammation.

  5. Control of transcriptional repression of the vitellogenin receptor gene in largemouth bass (Micropterus salmoides) by select estrogen receptors isotypes.

    PubMed

    Dominguez, Gustavo A; Bisesi, Joseph H; Kroll, Kevin J; Denslow, Nancy D; Sabo-Attwood, Tara

    2014-10-01

    The vitellogenin receptor (Vtgr) plays an important role in fish reproduction. This receptor functions to incorporate vitellogenin (Vtg), a macromolecule synthesized and released from the liver in the bloodstream, into oocytes where it is processed into yolk. Although studies have focused on the functional role of Vtgr in fish, the mechanistic control of this gene is still unexplored. Here we report the identification and analysis of the first piscine 5' regulatory region of the vtgr gene which was cloned from largemouth bass (Micropterus salmoides). Using this putative promoter sequence, we investigated a role for hormones, including insulin and 17β-estradiol (E2), in transcriptional regulation through cell-based reporter assays. No effect of insulin was observed, however, E2 was able to repress transcriptional activity of the vtgr promoter through select estrogen receptor subtypes, Esr1 and Esr2a but not Esr2b. Electrophoretic mobility shift assay demonstrated that Esr1 likely interacts with the vtgr promoter region through half ERE and/or SP1 sites, in part. Finally we also show that ethinylestradiol (EE2), but not bisphenol-A (BPA), represses promoter activity similarly to E2. These results reveal for the first time that the Esr1 isoform may play an inhibitory role in the expression of LMB vtgr mRNA under the influence of E2, and potent estrogens such as EE2. In addition, this new evidence suggests that vtgr may be a target of select endocrine disrupting compounds through environmental exposures.

  6. Replicated Risk Nicotinic Cholinergic Receptor Genes for Nicotine Dependence

    PubMed Central

    Zuo, Lingjun; Garcia-Milian, Rolando; Guo, Xiaoyun; Zhong, Chunlong; Tan, Yunlong; Wang, Zhiren; Wang, Jijun; Wang, Xiaoping; Kang, Longli; Lu, Lu; Chen, Xiangning; Li, Chiang-Shan R.; Luo, Xingguang

    2016-01-01

    It has been hypothesized that the nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChRs) play important roles in nicotine dependence (ND) and influence the number of cigarettes smoked per day (CPD) in smokers. We compiled the associations between nicotinic cholinergic receptor genes (CHRNs) and ND/CPD that were replicated across different studies, reviewed the expression of these risk genes in human/mouse brains, and verified their expression using independent samples of both human and mouse brains. The potential functions of the replicated risk variants were examined using cis-eQTL analysis or predicted using a series of bioinformatics analyses. We found replicated and significant associations for ND/CPD at 19 SNPs in six genes in three genomic regions (CHRNB3-A6, CHRNA5-A3-B4 and CHRNA4). These six risk genes are expressed in at least 18 distinct areas of the human/mouse brain, with verification in our independent human and mouse brain samples. The risk variants might influence the transcription, expression and splicing of the risk genes, alter RNA secondary or protein structure. We conclude that the replicated associations between CHRNB3-A6, CHRNA5-A3-B4, CHRNA4 and ND/CPD are very robust. More research is needed to examine how these genetic variants contribute to the risk for ND/CPD. PMID:27827986

  7. Replicated Risk Nicotinic Cholinergic Receptor Genes for Nicotine Dependence.

    PubMed

    Zuo, Lingjun; Garcia-Milian, Rolando; Guo, Xiaoyun; Zhong, Chunlong; Tan, Yunlong; Wang, Zhiren; Wang, Jijun; Wang, Xiaoping; Kang, Longli; Lu, Lu; Chen, Xiangning; Li, Chiang-Shan R; Luo, Xingguang

    2016-11-07

    It has been hypothesized that the nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChRs) play important roles in nicotine dependence (ND) and influence the number of cigarettes smoked per day (CPD) in smokers. We compiled the associations between nicotinic cholinergic receptor genes (CHRNs) and ND/CPD that were replicated across different studies, reviewed the expression of these risk genes in human/mouse brains, and verified their expression using independent samples of both human and mouse brains. The potential functions of the replicated risk variants were examined using cis-eQTL analysis or predicted using a series of bioinformatics analyses. We found replicated and significant associations for ND/CPD at 19 SNPs in six genes in three genomic regions (CHRNB3-A6, CHRNA5-A3-B4 and CHRNA4). These six risk genes are expressed in at least 18 distinct areas of the human/mouse brain, with verification in our independent human and mouse brain samples. The risk variants might influence the transcription, expression and splicing of the risk genes, alter RNA secondary or protein structure. We conclude that the replicated associations between CHRNB3-A6, CHRNA5-A3-B4,CHRNA4 and ND/CPD are very robust. More research is needed to examine how these genetic variants contribute to the risk for ND/CPD.

  8. Mechanisms of oestrogen receptor (ER) gene regulation in breast cancer

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Most breast cancers are driven by a transcription factor called oestrogen receptor (ER). Understanding the mechanisms of ER activity in breast cancer has been a major research interest and recent genomic advances have revealed extraordinary insights into how ER mediates gene transcription and what occurs during endocrine resistance. This review discusses our current understanding on ER activity, with an emphasis on several evolving, but important areas of ER biology. PMID:26884552

  9. Complete structural characterisation of the human aryl hydrocarbon receptor gene

    PubMed Central

    Bennett, P; Ramsden, D B; Williams, A C

    1996-01-01

    Aims—To clone and characterise the complete structural gene for the human aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR). This gene, located on chromosome 7, encodes a cytosolic receptor protein which, upon activation by various xenobiotic ligands, translocates to the nucleus, where it acts as a specific transcription factor. Methods—Primers, based on the AhR cDNA sequence, were used in conjunction with recently developed long range PCR techniques to amplify contiguous sections of the cognate gene. The amplicons produced were then cloned and characterised. A cDNA probe was also used to screen a human P1 library. Results—Using the cDNA primers, DNA fragments which mapped the entire coding region of the gene were amplified and cloned. All but one of these fragments were amplified directly from human genomic DNA. The remaining fragment was amplified using DNA prepared from a P1 clone as the PCR template. This P1 clone, obtained by screening a human P1 library, also contained the entire Ah locus. Characterisation of amplified and cloned DNA fragments provided sufficient information for the construction of a complete structural map of the gene. This also included 150 base pairs of nucleotide sequence data at all intronic termini. Conclusions—These data indicate that the human AhR gene is about 50 kilobases long and contains 11 exons. The overall intron/exon structure of the human gene is homologous to that of the previously characterised mouse gene; however, it is probably some 20 kilobases larger. These results demonstrate the need for further characterisation and provide the data to facilitate this. Images PMID:16696038

  10. T102C polymorphism in the 5HT2A gene and schizophrenia: relation to phenotype and drug response variability.

    PubMed Central

    Joober, R; Benkelfat, C; Brisebois, K; Toulouse, A; Turecki, G; Lal, S; Bloom, D; Labelle, A; Lalonde, P; Fortin, D; Alda, M; Palmour, R; Rouleau, G A

    1999-01-01

    Although genes play a major role in the etiology of schizophrenia, no major genes involved in this disease have been identified. However, several genes with small effect have been reported, though inconsistently, to increase the risk for schizophrenia. Recently, the 5HT2A 2 allele (T102C polymorphism) was reported to be over-represented in patients with schizophrenia. Other reports have found an excess of allele 2(C) only in schizophrenic patients who are resistant to clozapine, not in those who respond to clozapine. In this study, the 5HT2A receptor allele 2 frequencies were compared between 2 groups of patients with schizophrenia (39 responders and 63 nonresponders) based on long-term outcome and response to typical neuroleptics. A control group of 90 healthy volunteers screened for mental disorders was also included. Genotype 2/2 tended to be more frequent in patients with schizophrenia with poor long-term outcome and poor response to typical neuroleptics (Bonferroni corrected p = 0.09). This difference was significant in men (Bonferroni corrected p = 0.054) but not in women. In addition, the age at first contact with psychiatric care was significantly younger in the patients with schizophrenia with genotype 2/2 than in patients with genotype 1/1. These result suggest that the 5HT2A-receptor gene may play a role in a subset of schizophrenia characterized by poor long-term outcome and poor response to neuroleptics. PMID:10212557

  11. Neuroprotection by caffeine in the MPTP model of parkinson's disease and its dependence on adenosine A2A receptors.

    PubMed

    Xu, K; Di Luca, D G; Orrú, M; Xu, Y; Chen, J-F; Schwarzschild, M A

    2016-05-13

    Considerable epidemiological and laboratory data have suggested that caffeine, a nonselective adenosine receptor antagonist, may protect against the underlying neurodegeneration of parkinson's disease (PD). Although both caffeine and more specific antagonists of the A2A subtype of adenosine receptor (A2AR) have been found to confer protection in animal models of PD, the dependence of caffeine's neuroprotective effects on the A2AR is not known. To definitively determine its A2AR dependence, the effect of caffeine on 1-methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6 tetra-hydropyridine (MPTP) neurotoxicity was compared in wild-type (WT) and A2AR gene global knockout (A2A KO) mice, as well as in central nervous system (CNS) cell type-specific (conditional) A2AR knockout (cKO) mice that lack the receptor either in postnatal forebrain neurons or in astrocytes. In WT and in heterozygous A2AR KO mice caffeine pretreatment (25mg/kgip) significantly attenuated MPTP-induced depletion of striatal dopamine. By contrast in homozygous A2AR global KO mice caffeine had no effect on MPTP toxicity. In forebrain neuron A2AR cKO mice, caffeine lost its locomotor stimulant effect, whereas its neuroprotective effect was mostly preserved. In astrocytic A2AR cKO mice, both caffeine's locomotor stimulant and protective properties were undiminished. Taken together, these results indicate that neuroprotection by caffeine in the MPTP model of PD relies on the A2AR, although the specific cellular localization of these receptors remains to be determined.

  12. Activation of NR2A receptors induces ischemic tolerance through CREB signaling.

    PubMed

    Terasaki, Yasukazu; Sasaki, Tsutomu; Yagita, Yoshiki; Okazaki, Shuhei; Sugiyama, Yukio; Oyama, Naoki; Omura-Matsuoka, Emi; Sakoda, Saburo; Kitagawa, Kazuo

    2010-08-01

    Previous exposure to a nonlethal ischemic insult protects the brain against subsequent harmful ischemia. N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) receptors are a highly studied target of neuroprotection after ischemia. Recently, NMDA receptor subtypes were implicated in neuronal survival and death. We focused on the contribution of NR2A and cyclic-AMP response element (CRE)-binding protein (CREB) signaling to ischemic tolerance using primary cortical neurons. Ischemia in vitro was modeled by oxygen-glucose deprivation (OGD). Ischemic tolerance was induced by applying 45-mins OGD 24 h before 180-mins OGD. Sublethal OGD also induced cross-tolerance against lethal glutamate and hydrogen peroxide. After sublethal OGD, expression of phosphorylated CREB and CRE transcriptional activity were significantly increased. When CRE activity was inhibited by CREB-S133A, a mutant CREB, ischemic tolerance was abolished. Inhibiting NR2A using NVP-AAM077 attenuated preconditioning-induced neuroprotection and correlated with decreased CRE activity levels. Activating NR2A using bicuculline and 4-aminopiridine induced resistance to lethal ischemia accompanied by elevated CRE activity levels, and this effect was abolished by NVP-AAM077. Elevated brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) transcriptional activities were observed after sublethal OGD and administration of bicuculline and 4-aminopiridine. NR2A-containing NMDA receptors and CREB signaling have important functions in the induction of ischemic tolerance. This may provide potential novel therapeutic strategies to treat ischemic stroke.

  13. Expression and Function of Serotonin 2A and 2B Receptors in the Mammalian Respiratory Network

    PubMed Central

    Koch, Uwe R.; Bischoff, Anna-Maria; Kron, Miriam; Bock, Nathalie; Manzke, Till

    2011-01-01

    Neurons of the respiratory network in the lower brainstem express a variety of serotonin receptors (5-HTRs) that act primarily through adenylyl cyclase. However, there is one receptor family including 5-HT2A, 5-HT2B, and 5-HT2C receptors that are directed towards protein kinase C (PKC). In contrast to 5-HT2ARs, expression and function of 5-HT2BRs within the respiratory network are still unclear. 5-HT2BR utilizes a Gq-mediated signaling cascade involving calcium and leading to activation of phospholipase C and IP3/DAG pathways. Based on previous studies, this signal pathway appears to mediate excitatory actions on respiration. In the present study, we analyzed receptor expression in pontine and medullary regions of the respiratory network both at the transcriptional and translational level using quantitative RT-PCR and self-made as well as commercially available antibodies, respectively. In addition we measured effects of selective agonists and antagonists for 5-HT2ARs and 5-HT2BRs given intra-arterially on phrenic nerve discharges in juvenile rats using the perfused brainstem preparation. The drugs caused significant changes in discharge activity. Co-administration of both agonists revealed a dominance of the 5-HT2BR. Given the nature of the signaling pathways, we investigated whether intracellular calcium may explain effects observed in the respiratory network. Taken together, the results of this study suggest a significant role of both receptors in respiratory network modulation. PMID:21789169

  14. Sleep Deprivation Increases Cerebral Serotonin 2A Receptor Binding in Humans

    PubMed Central

    Elmenhorst, David; Kroll, Tina; Matusch, Andreas; Bauer, Andreas

    2012-01-01

    Study Objectives: Serotonin and its cerebral receptors play an important role in sleep-wake regulation. The aim of the current study is to investigate the effect of 24-h total sleep deprivation on the apparent serotonin 2A receptor (5-HT2AR) binding capacity in the human brain to test the hypothesis that sleep deprivation induces global molecular alterations in the cortical serotonergic receptor system. Design: Volunteers were tested twice with the subtype-selective radiotracer [18F]altanserin and positron emission tomography (PET) for imaging of 5-HT2ARs at baseline and after 24 h of sleep deprivation. [18F]Altanserin binding potentials were analyzed in 13 neocortical regions of interest. The efficacy of sleep deprivation was assessed by questionnaires, waking electroencephalography, and cognitive performance measurements. Setting: Sleep laboratory and neuroimaging center. Patients or Participants: Eighteen healthy volunteers. Interventions: Sleep deprivation. Measurements and Results: A total of 24 hours of sleep deprivation led to a 9.6% increase of [18F]altanserin binding on neocortical 5-HT2A receptors. Significant region-specific increases were found in the medial inferior frontal gyrus, insula, and anterior cingulate, parietal, sensomotoric, and ventrolateral prefrontal cortices. Conclusions: This study demonstrates that a single night of total sleep deprivation causes significant increases of 5-HT2AR binding potentials in a variety of cortical regions although the increase declines as sleep deprivation continued. It provides in vivo evidence that total sleep deprivation induces adaptive processes in the serotonergic system of the human brain. Citation: Elmenhorst D; Kroll T; Matusch A; Bauer A. Sleep Deprivation Increases Cerebral Serotonin 2A Receptor Binding in Humans. SLEEP 2012;35(12):1615-1623. PMID:23204604

  15. Prosurvival NMDA 2A receptor signaling mediates postconditioning neuroprotection in the hippocampus.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Xi; Zhang, Quanguang; Tu, Jingyi; Zhu, Ying; Yang, Fang; Liu, Bin; Brann, Darrell; Wang, Ruimin

    2015-03-01

    Ischemic postconditioning (Post C), which involves administration of a brief ischemia after the initial ischemic event, has been demonstrated to be strongly neuroprotective against global cerebral ischemia (GCI) and to improve cognitive outcome. To enhance understanding of the underlying mechanisms, the current study examined the role of NMDA receptors in mediating the beneficial effects of Post C (3 min ischemia) administered 2 days after GCI in adult male rats. The results revealed that Post C was strongly neuroprotective against GCI, and that this effect was blocked by administration of the NMDA receptor antagonist MK-801. Further work revealed that the NR2A-type NMDA receptors mediate the Post C beneficial effects as administration of a NR2A-preferring antagonist (NVP-A) blocked Post C neuroprotection and cognitive enhancement, while administration of a NR2B-preferring antagonist (Ro25) was without effect. Post C significantly up-regulated NR2A levels and phosphorylation of NR2A in the hippocampal CA1 region after Post C. Post C also increased Ca(2+) influx and activation/phosphorylation of CamKIIα at Thr(286), effects that were NR2A mediated as they were blocked by NVP-A. Phosphorylation of ERK and CREB was also increased by Post C, as were two downstream CREB-dependent prosurvival factors, brain derived neurotropic factor (BDNF) and Bcl2, effects that were blocked by the NR2A antagonist, NVP-A. Taken as a whole, the current study provides evidence that NR2A-activation and downstream prosurvival signaling is a critical mediator of Post C-induced neuroprotection and cognitive enhancement following GCI.

  16. Potentiation by tonic A2a-adenosine receptor activation of CGRP-facilitated [3H]-ACh release from rat motor nerve endings.

    PubMed Central

    Correia-de-Sá, P.; Ribeiro, J. A.

    1994-01-01

    1. The effect of calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP) on [3H]-acetylcholine ([3H]-ACh) release from motor nerve endings and its interaction with presynaptic facilitatory A2a-adenosine and nicotinic acetylcholine receptors was studied on rat phrenic nerve-hemidiaphragm preparations loaded with [3H]-choline. 2. CGRP (100-400 nM) increased electrically evoked [3H]-ACh release from phrenic nerve endings in a concentration-dependent manner. 3. The magnitude of CGRP excitation increased with the increase of the stimulation pulse duration from 40 microseconds to 1 ms, keeping the frequency, the amplitude and the train length constants. With 1 ms pulses, the evoked [3H]-ACh release was more intense than with 40 microseconds pulse duration. 4. Both the nicotinic acetylcholine receptor agonist, 1,1-dimethyl-4-phenylpiperazinium, and the A2a adenosine receptor agonist, CGS 21680C, increased evoked [3H]-ACh release, but only CGS 21680C potentiated the facilitatory effect of CGRP. This potentiation was prevented by the A2a adenosine receptor antagonist, PD 115,199. 5. Adenosine deaminase prevented the excitatory effect of CGRP (400 nM) on [3H]-ACh release. This effect was reversed by the non-hydrolysable A2a-adenosine receptor agonist, CGS 21680C. 6. The nicotinic antagonist, tubocurarine, did not significantly change, whereas the A2-adenosine receptor antagonist, PD 115,199, blocked the CGRP facilitation. The A1-adenosine receptor antagonist, 1,3-dipropyl-8-cyclopentylxanthine, potentiated the CGRP excitatory effect. 7. The results suggest that the facilitatory effect of CGRP on evoked [3H]-ACh release from rat phrenic motor nerve endings depends on the presence of endogenous adenosine which tonically activates A2a-adenosine receptors.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:8004402

  17. Effects of serotonin 2A/1A receptor stimulation on social exclusion processing.

    PubMed

    Preller, Katrin H; Pokorny, Thomas; Hock, Andreas; Kraehenmann, Rainer; Stämpfli, Philipp; Seifritz, Erich; Scheidegger, Milan; Vollenweider, Franz X

    2016-05-03

    Social ties are crucial for physical and mental health. However, psychiatric patients frequently encounter social rejection. Moreover, an increased reactivity to social exclusion influences the development, progression, and treatment of various psychiatric disorders. Nevertheless, the neuromodulatory substrates of rejection experiences are largely unknown. The preferential serotonin (5-HT) 2A/1A receptor agonist, psilocybin (Psi), reduces the processing of negative stimuli, but whether 5-HT2A/1A receptor stimulation modulates the processing of negative social interactions remains unclear. Therefore, this double-blind, randomized, counterbalanced, cross-over study assessed the neural response to social exclusion after the acute administration of Psi (0.215 mg/kg) or placebo (Pla) in 21 healthy volunteers by using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) and resting-state magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS). Participants reported a reduced feeling of social exclusion after Psi vs. Pla administration, and the neural response to social exclusion was decreased in the dorsal anterior cingulate cortex (dACC) and the middle frontal gyrus, key regions for social pain processing. The reduced neural response in the dACC was significantly correlated with Psi-induced changes in self-processing and decreased aspartate (Asp) content. In conclusion, 5-HT2A/1A receptor stimulation with psilocybin seems to reduce social pain processing in association with changes in self-experience. These findings may be relevant to the normalization of negative social interaction processing in psychiatric disorders characterized by increased rejection sensitivity. The current results also emphasize the importance of 5-HT2A/1A receptor subtypes and the Asp system in the control of social functioning, and as prospective targets in the treatment of sociocognitive impairments in psychiatric illnesses.

  18. Effects of serotonin 2A/1A receptor stimulation on social exclusion processing

    PubMed Central

    Preller, Katrin H.; Pokorny, Thomas; Hock, Andreas; Kraehenmann, Rainer; Stämpfli, Philipp; Seifritz, Erich; Scheidegger, Milan; Vollenweider, Franz X.

    2016-01-01

    Social ties are crucial for physical and mental health. However, psychiatric patients frequently encounter social rejection. Moreover, an increased reactivity to social exclusion influences the development, progression, and treatment of various psychiatric disorders. Nevertheless, the neuromodulatory substrates of rejection experiences are largely unknown. The preferential serotonin (5-HT) 2A/1A receptor agonist, psilocybin (Psi), reduces the processing of negative stimuli, but whether 5-HT2A/1A receptor stimulation modulates the processing of negative social interactions remains unclear. Therefore, this double-blind, randomized, counterbalanced, cross-over study assessed the neural response to social exclusion after the acute administration of Psi (0.215 mg/kg) or placebo (Pla) in 21 healthy volunteers by using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) and resting-state magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS). Participants reported a reduced feeling of social exclusion after Psi vs. Pla administration, and the neural response to social exclusion was decreased in the dorsal anterior cingulate cortex (dACC) and the middle frontal gyrus, key regions for social pain processing. The reduced neural response in the dACC was significantly correlated with Psi-induced changes in self-processing and decreased aspartate (Asp) content. In conclusion, 5-HT2A/1A receptor stimulation with psilocybin seems to reduce social pain processing in association with changes in self-experience. These findings may be relevant to the normalization of negative social interaction processing in psychiatric disorders characterized by increased rejection sensitivity. The current results also emphasize the importance of 5-HT2A/1A receptor subtypes and the Asp system in the control of social functioning, and as prospective targets in the treatment of sociocognitive impairments in psychiatric illnesses. PMID:27091970

  19. Role of Adenosine Receptor A2A in Traumatic Optic Neuropathies

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-12-01

    in Traumatic Optic Neuropathies ” PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR: Gregory I. Liou, PhD CONTRACTING ORGANIZATION: Georgia Health Sciences...Adenosine Receptor A2A in Traumatic Optic Neuropathies 5b. GRANT NUMBER W81XWH-11-2-0046 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER 6. AUTHOR(S) 5d. PROJECT...ABSTRACT Our goal is to develop an early therapeutic intervention before the progression of traumatic optic neuropathy (TON), a vision-threatening

  20. Key modulatory role of presynaptic adenosine A2A receptors in cortical neurotransmission to the striatal direct pathway.

    PubMed

    Quiroz, César; Luján, Rafael; Uchigashima, Motokazu; Simoes, Ana Patrícia; Lerner, Talia N; Borycz, Janusz; Kachroo, Anil; Canas, Paula M; Orru, Marco; Schwarzschild, Michael A; Rosin, Diane L; Kreitzer, Anatol C; Cunha, Rodrigo A; Watanabe, Masahiko; Ferré, Sergi

    2009-11-18

    Basal ganglia processing results from a balanced activation of direct and indirect striatal efferent pathways, which are controlled by dopamine D1 and D2 receptors, respectively. Adenosine A2A receptors are considered novel antiparkinsonian targets, based on their selective postsynaptic localization in the indirect pathway, where they modulate D2 receptor function. The present study provides evidence for the existence of an additional, functionally significant, segregation of A2A receptors at the presynaptic level. Using integrated anatomical, electrophysiological, and biochemical approaches, we demonstrate that presynaptic A2A receptors are preferentially localized in cortical glutamatergic terminals that contact striatal neurons of the direct pathway, where they exert a selective modulation of corticostriatal neurotransmission. Presynaptic striatal A2A receptors could provide a new target for the treatment of neuropsychiatric disorders.

  1. 5-HT2A/C receptors mediate the antipsychotic-like effects of alstonine.

    PubMed

    Linck, V M; Bessa, M M; Herrmann, A P; Iwu, M M; Okunji, C O; Elisabetsky, E

    2012-01-10

    The purpose of this study was to determine the effects of alstonine, an indole alkaloid with putative antipsychotic effects, on working memory by using the step-down inhibitory avoidance paradigm and MK801-induced working memory deficits in mice. Additionally, the role of serotonin 5-HT2A/C receptors in the effects of alstonine on mouse models associated with positive (MK801-induced hyperlocomotion), negative (MK801-induced social interaction deficit), and cognitive (MK801-induced working memory deficit) schizophrenia symptoms was examined. Treatment with alstonine was able to prevent MK801-induced working memory deficit, indicating its potential benefit for cognitive deficits now seen as a core symptom in the disease. Corroborating previously reported data, alstonine was also effective in counteracting MK801-induced hyperlocomotion and social interaction deficit. Ritanserin, a 5-HT2A/C receptor antagonist, prevented alstonine's effects on these three behavioral parameters. This study presents additional evidence that 5-HT2A/C receptors are central to the antipsychotic-like effects of alstonine, consistently seen in mouse models relevant to the three dimensions of schizophrenia symptoms.

  2. The G2A receptor (GPR132) contributes to oxaliplatin-induced mechanical pain hypersensitivity.

    PubMed

    Hohmann, Stephan W; Angioni, Carlo; Tunaru, Sorin; Lee, Seungkyu; Woolf, Clifford J; Offermanns, Stefan; Geisslinger, Gerd; Scholich, Klaus; Sisignano, Marco

    2017-03-27

    Chemotherapy-induced peripheral neuropathic pain (CIPN) is a common and severe debilitating side effect of many widely used cytostatics. However, there is no approved pharmacological treatment for CIPN available. Among other substances, oxaliplatin causes CIPN in up to 80% of treated patients. Here, we report the involvement of the G-protein coupled receptor G2A (GPR132) in oxaliplatin-induced neuropathic pain in mice. We found that mice deficient in the G2A-receptor show decreased mechanical hypersensitivity after oxaliplatin treatment. Lipid ligands of G2A were found in increased concentrations in the sciatic nerve and dorsal root ganglia of oxaliplatin treated mice. Calcium imaging and patch-clamp experiments show that G2A activation sensitizes the ligand-gated ion channel TRPV1 in sensory neurons via activation of PKC. Based on these findings, we conclude that targeting G2A may be a promising approach to reduce oxaliplatin-induced TRPV1-sensitization and the hyperexcitability of sensory neurons and thereby to reduce pain in patients treated with this chemotherapeutic agent.

  3. Carbon dioxide receptor genes in cotton bollworm Helicoverpa armigera

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Wei; Anderson, Alisha

    2015-04-01

    Carbon dioxide (CO2) is important in insect ecology, eliciting a range of behaviours across different species. Interestingly, the numbers of CO2 gustatory receptors (GRs) vary among insect species. In the model organism Drosophila melanogaster, two GRs (DmelGR21a and DmelGR63a) have been shown to detect CO2. In the butterfly, moth, beetle and mosquito species studied so far, three CO2 GR genes have been identified, while in tsetse flies, four CO2 GR genes have been identified. In other species including honeybees, pea aphids, ants, locusts and wasps, no CO2 GR genes have been identified from the genome. These genomic differences may suggest different mechanisms for CO2 detection exist in different insects but, with the exception of Drosophila and mosquitoes, limited attention has been paid to the CO2 GRs in insects. Here, we cloned three putative CO2 GR genes from the cotton bollworm Helicoverpa armigera and performed phylogenetic and expression analysis. All three H. armigera CO2 GRs (HarmGR1, HarmGR2 and HarmGR3) are specifically expressed in labial palps, the CO2-sensing tissue of this moth. HarmGR3 is significantly activated by NaHCO3 when expressed in insect Sf9 cells but HarmGR1 and HarmGR2 are not. This is the first report characterizing the function of lepidopteran CO2 receptors, which contributes to our general understanding of the molecular mechanisms of insect CO2 gustatory receptors.

  4. Carbon dioxide receptor genes in cotton bollworm Helicoverpa armigera.

    PubMed

    Xu, Wei; Anderson, Alisha

    2015-04-01

    Carbon dioxide (CO2) is important in insect ecology, eliciting a range of behaviours across different species. Interestingly, the numbers of CO2 gustatory receptors (GRs) vary among insect species. In the model organism Drosophila melanogaster, two GRs (DmelGR21a and DmelGR63a) have been shown to detect CO2. In the butterfly, moth, beetle and mosquito species studied so far, three CO2 GR genes have been identified, while in tsetse flies, four CO2 GR genes have been identified. In other species including honeybees, pea aphids, ants, locusts and wasps, no CO2 GR genes have been identified from the genome. These genomic differences may suggest different mechanisms for CO2 detection exist in different insects but, with the exception of Drosophila and mosquitoes, limited attention has been paid to the CO2 GRs in insects. Here, we cloned three putative CO2 GR genes from the cotton bollworm Helicoverpa armigera and performed phylogenetic and expression analysis. All three H. armigera CO2 GRs (HarmGR1, HarmGR2 and HarmGR3) are specifically expressed in labial palps, the CO2-sensing tissue of this moth. HarmGR3 is significantly activated by NaHCO3 when expressed in insect Sf9 cells but HarmGR1 and HarmGR2 are not. This is the first report characterizing the function of lepidopteran CO2 receptors, which contributes to our general understanding of the molecular mechanisms of insect CO2 gustatory receptors.

  5. Prospects and limitations of T cell receptor gene therapy.

    PubMed

    Jorritsma, Annelies; Schotte, Remko; Coccoris, Miriam; de Witte, Moniek A; Schumacher, Ton N M

    2011-08-01

    Adoptive transfer of antigen-specific T cells is an attractive means to provide cancer patients with immune cells of a desired specificity and the efficacy of such adoptive transfers has been demonstrated in several clinical trials. Because the T cell receptor is the single specificity-determining molecule in T cell function, adoptive transfer of TCR genes into patient T cells may be used as an alternative approach for the transfer of tumor-specific T cell immunity. On theoretical grounds, TCR gene therapy has two substantial advantages over conventional cellular transfer. First, it circumvents the demanding process of in vitro generation of large numbers of specific immune cells. Second, it allows the use of a set of particularly effective TCR genes in large patient groups. Conversely, TCR gene therapy may be associated with a number of specific problems that are not confronted during classical cellular therapy. Here we review our current understanding of the potential and possible problems of TCR gene therapy, as based on in vitro experiments, mouse model systems and phase I clinical trials. Furthermore, we discuss the prospects of widespread clinical application of this gene therapy approach for the treatment of human cancer.

  6. Clinical/pharmacological aspect of adenosine A2A receptor antagonist for dyskinesia.

    PubMed

    Kanda, Tomoyuki; Uchida, Shin-ichi

    2014-01-01

    Dopamine replacement therapy using the dopamine precursor, l-3,4-dihydroxyphenylalanine (l-DOPA), with a peripheral dopa decarboxylase inhibitor is the most effective treatment currently available for the symptoms of Parkinson's disease (PD). However, the long-term use of dopaminergic therapies for PD is often limited by the development of motor response complications, such as dyskinesia. Adenosine A2A receptors are a promising nondopaminergic target for the treatment of PD. The treatment of motor response complications involves combinations of regular and controlled release L-DOPA, perhaps with the addition of a COMT inhibitor or the use of a longer-acting dopamine agonist. However, when dyskinesia is already established, the increase in dopaminergic load produced by the addition of a dopamine agonist can result in an increase in the severity and duration of dyskinesia. Currently, there are no well-tolerated antidyskinesia agents available. Amantadine, which may exert its effects through the inhibition of N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) receptors, shows some effects on established dyskinesia. Dyskinesia has a negative impact on the quality of life of patients, sometimes being more disabling than PD itself. Although some patients prefer experiencing dyskinesia than being in the OFF state and unable to move, alternative, more effective therapies are still required for severe disabling dyskinesia to afford patients an improved quality of life while in the ON state. The mechanisms causing and maintaining the dyskinesia have not been clarified. The application of a nondopaminergic approach to modify the basal ganglial activity would be helpful to better understand and treat dyskinesia. The use of an adenosine A2A receptor may provide one such approach. In this literature review, we will summarize the current knowledge from both clinical and nonclinical studies on the effects of adenosine A2A receptor blockade on dyskinesia.

  7. Selective 5HT2A and 5HT6 Receptor Antagonists Promote Sleep in Rats

    PubMed Central

    Morairty, Stephen R.; Hedley, Linda; Flores, Judith; Martin, Renee; Kilduff, Thomas S.

    2008-01-01

    Study Objectives: Serotonin (5-HT) has long been implicated in the control of sleep and wakefulness. This study evaluated the hypnotic efficacy of the 5-HT6 antagonist RO4368554 (RO) and the 5-HT2A receptor antagonist MDL100907 (MDL) relative to zolpidem. Design: A randomized, repeated-measures design was utilized in which Wistar rats received intraperitoneal injections of RO (1.0, 3.0, and 10 mg/kg), MDL (0.1, 1.0 and 3.0 mg/kg), zolpidem (10 mg/kg), or vehicle in the middle of the dark (active) period. Electroencephalogram, electromyogram, body temperature (Tb) and locomotor activity were analyzed for 6 hours after injection. Measurements and Results: RO, MDL, and zolpidem all produced significant increases in sleep and decreases in waking, compared with vehicle control. All 3 doses of MDL produced more consolidated sleep, increased non-rapid eye movement sleep (NREM) sleep, and increased electroencephalographic delta power during NREM sleep. The highest dose of RO (10.0 mg/kg) produced significant increases in sleep and decreases in waking during hour 2 following dosing. These increases in sleep duration were associated with greater delta power during NREM sleep. ZO Zolpidem induced sleep with the shortest latency and significantly increased NREM sleep and delta power but also suppressed rapid eye movement sleep sleep; in contrast, neither RO nor MDL affected rapid eye movement sleep. Whereas RO did not affect Tb, both zolpidem and MDL reduced Tb relative to vehicle-injected controls. Conclusions: These results support a role for 5-HT2A receptor modulation in NREM sleep and suggest a previously unrecognized role for 5-HT6 receptors in sleep-wake regulation. Citation: Morairty SR; Hedley L; Flores J; Martin R; Kilduff TS. Selective 5HT2A and 5HT6 receptor antagonists promote sleep in rats. SLEEP 2008;31(1):34-44. PMID:18220076

  8. Cerebral metabolic responses to 5-HT2A/C receptor activation in mice with genetically modified serotonin transporter (SERT) expression.

    PubMed

    Dawson, Neil; Ferrington, Linda; Lesch, Klaus-Peter; Kelly, Paul A T

    2011-01-01

    Variation in the human serotonin transporter gene (hSERT; 5-HTT) resulting in a life-long alteration in SERT function influences anxiety and the risk of developing affective disorders. The mechanisms underlying the influence of the hSERT gene on these phenotypes remain unclear but may involve altered 5-HT receptor function. Here we characterise the cerebral metabolic response to 5-HT(2A/C) receptor activation in two transgenic mouse models of altered SERT function, SERT knock-out (SERT KO) and hSERT over-expressing (hSERT OE) mice, to test the hypothesis that genetically mediated variability in SERT expression alters 5-HT(2A/C) function. We found that a constitutive increase in SERT expression (hSERT OE) enhanced, whereas a constitutive decrease in SERT expression (SERT KO) attenuated, 5-HT(2A/C) function. Therefore, altered 5-HT(2A/C) receptor functioning in response to hSERT gene variation may contribute to its influence on affective phenotypes.

  9. The role of serotonin 5-HT2A receptors in memory and cognition

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Gongliang; Stackman, Robert W.

    2015-01-01

    Serotonin 5-HT2A receptors (5-HT2ARs) are widely distributed in the central nervous system, especially in brain region essential for learning and cognition. In addition to endogenous 5-HT, several hallucinogens, antipsychotics, and antidepressants function by targeting 5-HT2ARs. Preclinical studies show that 5-HT2AR antagonists have antipsychotic and antidepressant properties, whereas agonist ligands possess cognition-enhancing and hallucinogenic properties. Abnormal 5-HT2AR activity is associated with a number of psychiatric disorders and conditions, including depression, schizophrenia, and drug addiction. In addition to its traditional activity as a G protein-coupled receptor (GPCR), recent studies have defined novel operations of 5-HT2ARs. Here we review progress in the (1) receptor anatomy and biology: distribution, signaling, polymerization and allosteric modulation; and (2) receptor functions: learning and memory, hallucination and spatial cognition, and mental disorders. Based on the recent progress in basic research on the 5-HT2AR, it appears that post-training 5-HT2AR activation enhances non-spatial memory consolidation, while pre-training 5-HT2AR activation facilitates fear extinction. Further, the potential influence that 5-HT2AR-elicited visual hallucinations may have on visual cue (i.e., landmark) guided spatial cognition is discussed. We conclude that the development of selective 5-HT2AR modulators to target distinct signaling pathways and neural circuits represents a new possibility for treating emotional, neuropsychiatric, and neurodegenerative disorders. PMID:26500553

  10. Ultraslow Water-Mediated Transmembrane Interactions Regulate the Activation of A2A Adenosine Receptor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Yoonji; Kim, Songmi; Choi, Sun; Hyeon, Changbong

    2016-09-01

    Water molecules inside G-protein coupled receptor have recently been spotlighted in a series of crystal structures. To decipher the dynamics and functional roles of internal waters in GPCR activity, we studied A$_{\\text{2A}}$ adenosine receptor using $\\mu$sec-molecular dynamics simulations. Our study finds that the amount of water flux across the transmembrane (TM) domain varies depending on the receptor state, and that the water molecules of the TM channel in the active state flow three times slower than those in the inactive state. Depending on the location in solvent-protein interface as well as the receptor state, the average residence time of water in each residue varies from $\\sim\\mathcal{O}(10^2)$ psec to $\\sim\\mathcal{O}(10^2)$ nsec. Especially, water molecules, exhibiting ultraslow relaxation ($\\sim\\mathcal{O}(10^2)$ nsec) in the active state, are found around the microswitch residues that are considered activity hotspots for GPCR function. A continuous allosteric network spanning the TM domain, arising from water-mediated contacts, is unique in the active state, underscoring the importance of slow waters in the GPCR activation.

  11. Disrupting 5-HT2A Receptor/PDZ Protein Interactions Reduces Hyperalgesia and Enhances SSRI Efficacy in Neuropathic Pain

    PubMed Central

    Pichon, Xavier; Wattiez, Anne S; Becamel, Carine; Ehrlich, Ingrid; Bockaert, Joel; Eschalier, Alain; Marin, Philippe; Courteix, Christine

    2010-01-01

    Antidepressants are one of the first-line treatments for neuropathic pain. Despite the influence of serotonin (5-hydroxytryptamine, 5-HT) in pain modulation, selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs) are less effective than tricyclic antidepressants. Here, we show, in diabetic neuropathic rats, an alteration of the antihyperalgesic effect induced by stimulation of 5-HT2A receptors, which are known to mediate SSRI-induced analgesia. 5-HT2A receptor density was not changed in the spinal cord of diabetic rats, whereas postsynaptic density protein-95 (PSD-95), one of the PSD-95/disc large suppressor/zonula occludens-1 (PDZ) domain containing proteins interacting with these receptors, was upregulated. Intrathecal injection of a cell-penetrating peptidyl mimetic of the 5-HT2A receptor C-terminus, which disrupts 5-HT2A receptor–PDZ protein interactions, induced an antihyperalgesic effect in diabetic rats, which results from activation of 5-HT2A receptors by endogenous 5-HT. The peptide also enhanced antihyperalgesia induced by the SSRI fluoxetine. Its effects likely resulted from an increase in receptor responsiveness, because it revealed functional 5-HT2A receptor-operated Ca2+ responses in neurons, an effect mimicked by knockdown of PSD-95. Hence, 5-HT2A receptor/PDZ protein interactions might contribute to the resistance to SSRI-induced analgesia in painful diabetic neuropathy. Disruption of these interactions might be a valuable strategy to design novel treatments for neuropathic pain and to increase the effectiveness of SSRIs. PMID:20531396

  12. Integrating Pharmacophore into Membrane Molecular Dynamics Simulations to Improve Homology Modeling of G Protein-coupled Receptors with Ligand Selectivity: A2A Adenosine Receptor as an Example.

    PubMed

    Zeng, Lingxiao; Guan, Mengxin; Jin, Hongwei; Liu, Zhenming; Zhang, Liangren

    2015-12-01

    Homology modeling has been applied to fill in the gap in experimental G protein-coupled receptors structure determination. However, achievement of G protein-coupled receptors homology models with ligand selectivity remains challenging due to structural diversity of G protein-coupled receptors. In this work, we propose a novel strategy by integrating pharmacophore and membrane molecular dynamics (MD) simulations to improve homology modeling of G protein-coupled receptors with ligand selectivity. To validate this integrated strategy, the A2A adenosine receptor (A2A AR), whose structures in both active and inactive states have been established, has been chosen as an example. We performed blind predictions of the active-state A2A AR structure based on the inactive-state structure and compared the performance of different refinement strategies. The blind prediction model combined with the integrated strategy identified ligand-receptor interactions and conformational changes of key structural elements related to the activation of A2 A AR, including (i) the movements of intracellular ends of TM3 and TM5/TM6; (ii) the opening of ionic lock; (iii) the movements of binding site residues. The integrated strategy of pharmacophore with molecular dynamics simulations can aid in the optimization in the identification of side chain conformations in receptor models. This strategy can be further investigated in homology modeling and expand its applicability to other G protein-coupled receptor modeling, which should aid in the discovery of more effective and selective G protein-coupled receptor ligands.

  13. Perilipin, a critical regulator of fat storage and breakdown, is a target gene of estrogen receptor-related receptor {alpha}

    SciTech Connect

    Akter, Mst. Hasina; Yamaguchi, Tomohiro; Hirose, Fumiko; Osumi, Takashi

    2008-04-11

    Perilipin is a protein localized on lipid droplet surfaces in adipocytes and steroidogenic cells, playing a central role in regulated lipolysis. Expression of the perilipin gene is markedly induced during adipogenesis. We found that transcription from the perilipin gene promoter is activated by an orphan nuclear receptor, estrogen receptor-related receptor (ERR){alpha}. A response element to this receptor was identified in the promoter region by a gene reporter assay, the electrophoretic-gel mobility-shift assay and the chromatin immunoprecipitation assay. Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor {gamma} coactivator (PGC)-1{alpha} enhanced, whereas small heterodimer partner (SHP) repressed, the transactivating function of ERR{alpha} on the promoter. Thus, the perilipin gene expression is regulated by a transcriptional network controlling energy metabolism, substantiating the functional importance of perilipin in the maintenance of body energy balance.

  14. Role of constitutive androstane receptor in Toll-like receptor-mediated regulation of gene expression of hepatic drug-metabolizing enzymes and transporters.

    PubMed

    Shah, Pranav; Guo, Tao; Moore, David D; Ghose, Romi

    2014-01-01

    Impairment of drug disposition in the liver during inflammation has been attributed to downregulation of gene expression of drug-metabolizing enzymes (DMEs) and drug transporters. Inflammatory responses in the liver are primarily mediated by Toll-like receptors (TLRs). We have recently shown that activation of TLR2 or TLR4 by lipoteichoic acid (LTA) and lipopolysaccharide (LPS), respectively, leads to the downregulation of gene expression of DMEs/transporters. However, the molecular mechanism underlying this downregulation is not fully understood. The xenobiotic nuclear receptors, pregnane X receptor (PXR) and constitutive androstane receptor (CAR), regulate the expression of DMEs/transporter genes. Downregulation of DMEs/transporters by LTA or LPS was associated with reduced expression of PXR and CAR genes. To determine the role of CAR, we injected CAR(+/+) and CAR(-/-) mice with LTA or LPS, which significantly downregulated (~40%-60%) RNA levels of the DMEs, cytochrome P450 (Cyp)3a11, Cyp2a4, Cyp2b10, uridine diphosphate glucuronosyltransferase 1a1, amine N-sulfotransferase, and the transporter, multidrug resistance-associated protein 2, in CAR(+/+) mice. Suppression of most of these genes was attenuated in LTA-treated CAR(-/-) mice. In contrast, LPS-mediated downregulation of these genes was not attenuated in CAR(-/-) mice. Induction of these genes by mouse CAR activator 1,4-bis-[2-(3,5-dichloropyridyloxy)]benzene was sustained in LTA- but not in LPS-treated mice. Similar observations were obtained in humanized CAR mice. We have replicated these results in primary hepatocytes as well. Thus, LPS can downregulate DME/transporter genes in the absence of CAR, whereas the effect of LTA on these genes is attenuated in the absence of CAR, indicating the potential involvement of CAR in LTA-mediated downregulation of DME/transporter genes.

  15. Effect of low frequency electromagnetic fields on A2A adenosine receptors in human neutrophils

    PubMed Central

    Varani, Katia; Gessi, Stefania; Merighi, Stefania; Iannotta, Valeria; Cattabriga, Elena; Spisani, Susanna; Cadossi, Ruggero; Borea, Pier Andrea

    2002-01-01

    The present study describes the effect of low frequency, low energy, pulsing electromagnetic fields (PEMFs) on A2A adenosine receptors in human neutrophils.Saturation experiments performed using a high affinity adenosine antagonist [3H]-ZM 241385 revealed a single class of binding sites in control and in PEMF-treated human neutrophils with similar affinity (KD=1.05±0.10 and 1.08±0.12 nM, respectively). Furthermore, after 1 h of exposure to PEMFs the receptor density was statistically increased (P<0.01) (Bmax =126±10 and 215±15 fmol mg−1 protein, respectively).The effect of PEMFs was specific to the A2A adenosine receptors. This effect was also intensity, time and temperature dependent.In the adenylyl cyclase assays the A2A receptor agonists, HE-NECA and NECA, increased cyclic AMP accumulation in untreated human neutrophils with an EC50 value of 43 (40 – 47) and 255 (228 – 284) nM, respectively. The capability of HE-NECA and NECA to stimulate cyclic AMP levels in human neutrophils was increased (P<0.01) after exposure to PEMFs with an EC50 value of 10(8 – 13) and 61(52 – 71) nM, respectively.In the superoxide anion (O2−) production assays HE-NECA and NECA inhibited the generation of O2− in untreated human neutrophils, with an EC50 value of 3.6(3.1 – 4.2) and of 23(20 – 27) nM, respectively. Moreover, in PEMF-treated human neutrophils, the same compounds show an EC50 value of 1.6(1.2 – 2.1) and of 6.0(4.7 – 7.5) nM respectively.These results indicate the presence of significant alterations in the expression and in the functionality of adenosine A2A receptors in human neutrophils treated with PEMFs. PMID:11976268

  16. Dissecting the regulation of yeast genes by the osmotin receptor

    PubMed Central

    Kupchak, Brian R.; Villa, Nancy Y.; Kulemina, Lidia; Lyons, Thomas J.

    2008-01-01

    The Izh2p protein from Saccharomyces cerevisiae is a receptor for the plant antifungal protein, osmotin. Since Izh2p is conserved in fungi, understanding its biochemical function could inspire novel strategies for the prevention of fungal growth. However, it has been difficult to determine the exact role of Izh2p because it has pleiotropic effects on cellular biochemistry. Herein, we demonstrate that Izh2p negatively regulates functionally divergent genes through a CCCTC promoter motif. Moreover, we show that Izh2p-dependent promoters containing this motif are regulated by the Nrg1p/Nrg2p and Msn2p/Msn4p transcription factors. The fact that Izh2p can regulate gene expression through this widely dispersed element presents a reasonable explanation of its pleiotropy. The involvement of Nrg1p/Nrgp2 in Izh2p-dependent gene regulation also suggests a role for this receptor in regulating fungal differentiation in response to stimuli produced by plants. PMID:18625204

  17. Internalization and recycling of 5-HT2A receptors activated by serotonin and protein kinase C-mediated mechanisms

    PubMed Central

    Bhattacharyya, Samarjit; Puri, Sapna; Miledi, Ricardo; Panicker, Mitradas M.

    2002-01-01

    Serotonin (5-HT), a major neurotransmitter, has a large number of G protein-coupled receptors in mammals. On activation by exposure to their ligand, 5-HT2 receptor subtypes increase IP3 levels and undergo desensitization and internalization. To visualize the receptor in cells during these processes, we have constructed a 5-HT2A-enhanced GFP (SR2-GFP) fusion receptor. We show that this fusion receptor undergoes internalization on exposure to its natural ligand, 5-HT. Because 5-HT2A receptors activate the phospholipase C pathway, we studied the effect of protein kinase C (PKC) on the internalization process and found that activation of PKC by its specific activator phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate, in the absence of 5-HT, leads to internalization of the receptor. Moreover, inhibition of PKC by its inhibitor sphingosine in the presence of 5-HT prevents the internalization process, suggesting that activation of PKC is sufficient and necessary for the internalization of 5-HT2A receptors. We also show that SR2-GFP recycles back to the plasma membrane after 5-HT-dependent internalization, suggesting a mechanism for resensitization. In addition, receptors that have been internalized on addition of phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate in the absence of 5-HT also recycle to the surface, with a time course similar to that seen after activation of the receptors by 5-HT. Our study suggests that 5-HT2A receptors internalize and return to the surface after both serotonin- and PKC-mediated processes. This study reveals a role for PKC in receptor internalization and also shows that 5-HT2A receptors are recycled. PMID:12388782

  18. Potential therapeutic relevance of adenosine A2B and A2A receptors in the central nervous system.

    PubMed

    Popoli, Patrizia; Pepponi, Rita

    2012-09-01

    Adenosine A2B and, much more importantly, adenosine A2A receptors modulate many physiological and pathological processes in the brain. In this review, the most recent evidence concerning the role of such receptors and their potential therapeutic relevance is discussed. The low affinity of A2B receptors for adenosine implies that they might represent a good therapeutic target, since they are activated only under pathological conditions (when adenosine levels raise up to micromolar concentrations). The availability of selective ligands for A2B receptors would allow exploration of such an hypothesis. Since adenosine A2A receptors mediate both potentially neuroprotective and potentially neurotoxic effects, their role in neurodegenerative diseases is highly controversial. Nevertheless, A2A receptor antagonists have shown clear antiparkinsonian effects, and a great interest exists on the role of A2A receptors in Alzheimer's disease, brain ischaemia, spinal cord injury, drug addiction and other conditions. In order to establish whether such receptors represent a target for CNS diseases, at least two conditions are needed: the full comprehension of A2A-dependent mechanisms and the availability of ligands capable of discriminating among the different receptor populations.

  19. Functional characterization of ecdysone receptor gene switches in mammalian cells.

    PubMed

    Panguluri, Siva K; Kumar, Prasanna; Palli, Subba R

    2006-12-01

    Regulated expression of transgene is essential in basic research as well as for many therapeutic applications. The main purpose of the present study is to understand the functioning of the ecdysone receptor (EcR)-based gene switch in mammalian cells and to develop improved versions of EcR gene switches. We utilized EcR mutants to develop new EcR gene switches that showed higher ligand sensitivity and higher magnitude of induction of reporter gene expression in the presence of ligand. We also developed monopartite versions of EcR gene switches with reduced size of the components that are accommodated into viral vectors. Ligand binding assays revealed that EcR alone could not bind to the nonsteroidal ligand, RH-2485. The EcR's heterodimeric partner, ultraspiracle, is required for efficient binding of EcR to the ligand. The essential role of retinoid X receptor (RXR) or its insect homolog, ultraspiracle, in EcR function is shown by RXR knockdown experiments using RNAi. Chromatin immunoprecipitation assays demonstrated that VP16 (activation domain, AD):GAL4(DNA binding domain, DBD):EcR(ligand binding domain, LBD) or GAL4(DBD):EcR(LBD) fusion proteins can bind to GAL4 response elements in the absence of ligand. The VP16(AD) fusion protein of a chimera between human and locust RXR could heterodimerize with GAL4(DBD):EcR(LBD) in the absence of ligand but the VP16(AD) fusion protein of Homo sapiens RXR requires ligand for its heterodimerization with GAL4(DBD):EcR(LBD).

  20. Nuclear Receptor Corepressor Recruitment by Unliganded Thyroid Hormone Receptor in Gene Repression during Xenopus laevis Development

    PubMed Central

    Sachs, Laurent M.; Jones, Peter L.; Havis, Emmanuelle; Rouse, Nicole; Demeneix, Barbara A.; Shi, Yun-Bo

    2002-01-01

    Thyroid hormone receptors (TR) act as activators of transcription in the presence of the thyroid hormone (T3) and as repressors in its absence. While many in vitro approaches have been used to study the molecular mechanisms of TR action, their physiological relevance has not been addressed. Here we investigate how TR regulates gene expression during vertebrate postembryonic development by using T3-dependent amphibian metamorphosis as a model. Earlier studies suggest that TR acts as a repressor during premetamorphosis when T3 is absent. We hypothesize that corepressor complexes containing the nuclear receptor corepressor (N-CoR) are key factors in this TR-dependent gene repression, which is important for premetamorphic tadpole growth. To test this hypothesis, we isolated Xenopus laevis N-CoR (xN-CoR) and showed that it was present in pre- and metamorphic tadpoles. Using a chromatin immunoprecipitation assay, we demonstrated that xN-CoR was recruited to the promoters of T3 response genes during premetamorphosis and released upon T3 treatment, accompanied by a local increase in histone acetylation. Furthermore, overexpression of a dominant-negative N-CoR in tadpole tail muscle led to increased transcription from a T3-dependent promoter. Our data indicate that N-CoR is recruited by unliganded TR to repress target gene expression during premetamorphic animal growth, an important process that prepares the tadpole for metamorphosis. PMID:12446772

  1. Period-2: a tumor suppressor gene in breast cancer

    PubMed Central

    Xiang, Shulin; Coffelt, Seth B; Mao, Lulu; Yuan, Lin; Cheng, Qi; Hill, Steven M

    2008-01-01

    Previous reports have suggested that the ablation of the Period 2 gene (Per 2) leads to enhanced development of lymphoma and leukemia in mice. Employing immunoblot analyses, we have demonstrated that PER 2 is endogenously expressed in human breast epithelial cell lines but is not expressed or is expressed at significantly reduced level in human breast cancer cell lines. Expression of PER 2 in MCF-7 breast cancer cells significantly inhibited the growth of MCF-7 human breast cancer cells, and, when PER 2 was co-expressed with the Crytochrome 2 (Cry 2) gene, an even greater growth-inhibitory effect was observed. The inhibitory effect of PER 2 on breast cancer cells was also demonstrated by its suppression of the anchorage-independent growth of MCF-7 cells as evidenced by the reduced number and size of colonies. A corresponding blockade of MCF-7 cells in the G1 phase of the cell cycle was also observed in response to the expression of PER 2 alone or in combination with CRY 2. Expression of PER 2 also induced apoptosis of MCF-7 breast cancer cells as demonstrated by an increase in PARP [poly (ADP-ribose) polymerase] cleavage. Finally, our studies demonstrate that PER 2 expression in MCF-7 breast cancer cells is associated with a significant decrease in the expression of cyclin D1 and an up-regulation of p53 levels. PMID:18334030

  2. Period-2: a tumor suppressor gene in breast cancer.

    PubMed

    Xiang, Shulin; Coffelt, Seth B; Mao, Lulu; Yuan, Lin; Cheng, Qi; Hill, Steven M

    2008-03-11

    Previous reports have suggested that the ablation of the Period 2 gene (Per 2) leads to enhanced development of lymphoma and leukemia in mice. Employing immunoblot analyses, we have demonstrated that PER 2 is endogenously expressed in human breast epithelial cell lines but is not expressed or is expressed at significantly reduced level in human breast cancer cell lines. Expression of PER 2 in MCF-7 breast cancer cells significantly inhibited the growth of MCF-7 human breast cancer cells, and, when PER 2 was co-expressed with the Crytochrome 2 (Cry 2) gene, an even greater growth-inhibitory effect was observed. The inhibitory effect of PER 2 on breast cancer cells was also demonstrated by its suppression of the anchorage-independent growth of MCF-7 cells as evidenced by the reduced number and size of colonies. A corresponding blockade of MCF-7 cells in the G1 phase of the cell cycle was also observed in response to the expression of PER 2 alone or in combination with CRY 2. Expression of PER 2 also induced apoptosis of MCF-7 breast cancer cells as demonstrated by an increase in PARP [poly (ADP-ribose) polymerase] cleavage. Finally, our studies demonstrate that PER 2 expression in MCF-7 breast cancer cells is associated with a significant decrease in the expression of cyclin D1 and an up-regulation of p53 levels.

  3. MicroRNA signatures predict dysregulated vitamin D receptor and calcium pathways status in limb girdle muscle dystrophies (LGMD) 2A/2B.

    PubMed

    Aguennouz, M; Lo Giudice, C; Licata, N; Rodolico, C; Musumeci, O; Fanin, M; Migliorato, A; Ragusa, M; Macaione, V; Di Giorgio, R M; Angelini, C; Toscano, A

    2016-08-01

    miRNA expression profile and predicted pathways involved in selected limb-girdle muscular dystrophy (LGMD)2A/2B patients were investigated. A total of 187 miRNAs were dysregulated in all patients, with six miRNAs showing opposite regulation in LGMD2A versus LGMD2B patients. Silico analysis evidence: (1) a cluster of the dysregulated miRNAs resulted primarily involved in inflammation and calcium metabolism, and (2) two genes predicted as controlled by calcium-assigned miRNAs (Vitamin D Receptor gene and Guanine Nucleotide Binding protein beta polypeptide 1gene) showed an evident upregulation in LGMD2B patients, in accordance with miRNA levels. Our data support alterations in calcium pathway status in LGMD 2A/B, suggesting myofibre calcium imbalance as a potential therapeutic target. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  4. Human T-cell receptor variable gene segment families

    SciTech Connect

    Arden, B.; Kabelitz, D.; Clark, S.P.; Mak, T.W.

    1995-10-01

    Multiple DNA and protein sequence alignments have been constructed for the human T-cell receptor {alpha}/{delta}, {beta}, and {gamma} (TCRA/D, B, and G) variable (V) gene segments. The traditional classification into subfamilies was confirmed using a much larger pool of sequences. For each sequence, a name was derived which complies with the standard nomenclature. The traditional numbering of V gene segments in the order of their discovery was continued and changed when in conflict with names of other segments. By discriminating between alleles at the same locus versus genes from different loci, we were able to reduce the number of more than 150 different TCRBV sequences in the database to a repertoire of only 47 functional TCRBV gene segments. An extension of this analysis to the over 100 TCRAV sequences results in a predicted repertoire of 42 functional TCRAV gene segments. Our alignment revealed two residues that distinguish between the highly homologous V{delta} and V{alpha}, one at a site that in V{sub H} contacts the constant region, the other at the interface between immunoglobulin V{sub H} and V{sub L}. This site may be responsible for restricted pairing between certain V{delta} and V{gamma} chains. On the other hand, V{beta} and V{gamma} appear to be related by the fact that their CDR2 length is increased by four residues as compared with that of V{alpha}/{delta} peptides. 150 refs., 12 figs., 5 tabs.

  5. Molecular Determinants of CGS21680 Binding to the Human Adenosine A2A Receptor.

    PubMed

    Lebon, Guillaume; Edwards, Patricia C; Leslie, Andrew G W; Tate, Christopher G

    2015-06-01

    The adenosine A2A receptor (A(2A)R) plays a key role in transmembrane signaling mediated by the endogenous agonist adenosine. Here, we describe the crystal structure of human A2AR thermostabilized in an active-like conformation bound to the selective agonist 2-[p-(2-carboxyethyl)phenylethyl-amino]-5'-N-ethylcarboxamido adenosine (CGS21680) at a resolution of 2.6 Å. Comparison of A(2A)R structures bound to either CGS21680, 5'-N-ethylcarboxamido adenosine (NECA), UK432097 [6-(2,2-diphenylethylamino)-9-[(2R,3R,4S,5S)-5-(ethylcarbamoyl)-3,4-dihydroxy-tetrahydrofuran-2-yl]-N-[2-[[1-(2-pyridyl)-4-piperidyl]carbamoylamino]ethyl]purine-2-carboxamide], or adenosine shows that the adenosine moiety of the ligands binds to the receptor in an identical fashion. However, an extension in CGS21680 compared with adenosine, the (2-carboxyethyl)phenylethylamino group, binds in an extended vestibule formed from transmembrane regions 2 and 7 (TM2 and TM7) and extracellular loops 2 and 3 (EL2 and EL3). The (2-carboxyethyl)phenylethylamino group makes van der Waals contacts with side chains of amino acid residues Glu169(EL2), His264(EL3), Leu267(7.32), and Ile274(7.39), and the amine group forms a hydrogen bond with the side chain of Ser67(2.65). Of these residues, only Ile274(7.39) is absolutely conserved across the human adenosine receptor subfamily. The major difference between the structures of A(2A)R bound to either adenosine or CGS21680 is that the binding pocket narrows at the extracellular surface when CGS21680 is bound, due to an inward tilt of TM2 in that region. This conformation is stabilized by hydrogen bonds formed by the side chain of Ser67(2.65) to CGS21680, either directly or via an ordered water molecule. Mutation of amino acid residues Ser67(2.65), Glu169(EL2), and His264(EL3), and analysis of receptor activation either in the presence or absence of ligands implicates this region in modulating the level of basal activity of A(2A)R.

  6. Cardiac gene expression data and in silico analysis provide novel insights into human and mouse taste receptor gene regulation.

    PubMed

    Foster, Simon R; Porrello, Enzo R; Stefani, Maurizio; Smith, Nicola J; Molenaar, Peter; dos Remedios, Cristobal G; Thomas, Walter G; Ramialison, Mirana

    2015-10-01

    G protein-coupled receptors are the principal mediators of the sweet, umami, bitter, and fat taste qualities in mammals. Intriguingly, the taste receptors are also expressed outside of the oral cavity, including in the gut, airways, brain, and heart, where they have additional functions and contribute to disease. However, there is little known about the mechanisms governing the transcriptional regulation of taste receptor genes. Following our recent delineation of taste receptors in the heart, we investigated the genomic loci encoding for taste receptors to gain insight into the regulatory mechanisms that drive their expression in the heart. Gene expression analyses of healthy and diseased human and mouse hearts showed coordinated expression for a subset of chromosomally clustered taste receptors. This chromosomal clustering mirrored the cardiac expression profile, suggesting that a common gene regulatory block may control the taste receptor locus. We identified unique domains with strong regulatory potential in the vicinity of taste receptor genes. We also performed de novo motif enrichment in the proximal promoter regions and found several overrepresented DNA motifs in cardiac taste receptor gene promoters corresponding to ubiquitous and cardiac-specific transcription factor binding sites. Thus, combining cardiac gene expression data with bioinformatic analyses, this study has provided insights into the noncoding regulatory landscape for taste GPCRs. These findings also have broader relevance for the study of taste GPCRs outside of the classical gustatory system, where understanding the mechanisms controlling the expression of these receptors may have implications for future therapeutic development.

  7. The Orphan Nuclear Receptor ERRγ Regulates Hepatic CB1 Receptor-Mediated Fibroblast Growth Factor 21 Gene Expression

    PubMed Central

    Jung, Yoon Seok; Lee, Ji-Min; Kim, Don-Kyu; Lee, Yong-Soo; Kim, Ki-Sun; Kim, Yong-Hoon; Kim, Jina; Lee, Myung-Shik; Lee, In-Kyu; Kim, Seong Heon; Cho, Sung Jin; Jeong, Won-Il; Lee, Chul-Ho; Harris, Robert A.; Choi, Hueng-Sik

    2016-01-01

    Background Fibroblast growth factor 21 (FGF21), a stress inducible hepatokine, is synthesized in the liver and plays important roles in glucose and lipid metabolism. However, the mechanism of hepatic cannabinoid type 1 (CB1) receptor-mediated induction of FGF21 gene expression is largely unknown. Results Activation of the hepatic CB1 receptor by arachidonyl-2’-chloroethylamide (ACEA), a CB1 receptor selective agonist, significantly increased FGF21 gene expression. Overexpression of estrogen-related receptor (ERR) γ increased FGF21 gene expression and secretion both in hepatocytes and mice, whereas knockdown of ERRγ decreased ACEA-mediated FGF21 gene expression and secretion. Moreover, ERRγ, but not ERRα and ERRβ, induced FGF21 gene promoter activity. In addition, deletion and mutation analysis of the FGF21 promoter identified a putative ERRγ-binding motif (AGGTGC, a near-consensus response element). A chromatin immunoprecipitation assay revealed direct binding of ERRγ to the FGF21 gene promoter. Finally, GSK5182, an ERRγ inverse agonist, significantly inhibited hepatic CB1 receptor-mediated FGF21 gene expression and secretion. Conclusion Based on our data, we conclude that ERRγ plays a key role in hepatic CB1 receptor-mediated induction of FGF21 gene expression and secretion. PMID:27455076

  8. Elongation factor-2: a useful gene for arthropod phylogenetics.

    PubMed

    Regier, J C; Shultz, J W

    2001-07-01

    Robust resolution of controversial higher-level groupings within Arthropoda requires additional sources of characters. Toward this end, elongation factor-2 sequences (1899 nucleotides) were generated from 17 arthropod taxa (5 chelicerates, 6 crustaceans, 3 hexapods, 3 myriapods) plus an onychophoran and a tardigrade as outgroups. Likelihood and parsimony analyses of nucleotide and amino acid data sets consistently recovered Myriapoda and major chelicerate groups with high bootstrap support. Crustacea + Hexapoda (= Pancrustacea) was recovered with moderate support, whereas the conflicting group Myriapoda + Hexapoda (= Atelocerata) was never recovered and bootstrap values were always <5%. With additional nonarthropod sequences included, one indel supports monophyly of Tardigrada, Onychophora, and Arthropoda relative to molluscan, annelidan, and mammalian outgroups. New and previously published sequences from RNA polymerase II (1038 nucleotides) and elongation factor-1alpha (1092 nucleotides) were analyzed for the same taxa. A comparison of bootstrap values from the three genes analyzed separately revealed widely varying values for some clades, although there was never strong support for conflicting groups. In combined analyses, there was strong bootstrap support for the generally accepted clades Arachnida, Arthropoda, Euchelicerata, Hexapoda, and Pycnogonida, and for Chelicerata, Myriapoda, and Pancrustacea, whose monophyly is more controversial. Recovery of some additional groups was fairly robust to method of analysis but bootstrap values were not high; these included Pancrustacea + Chelicerata, Hexapoda + Cephalocarida + Remipedia, Cephalocarida + Remipedia, and Malaocostraca + Cirripedia. Atelocerata (= Myriapoda + Hexapoda) was never recovered. Elongation factor-2 is now the second protein-encoding, nuclear gene (in addition to RNA polymerase II) to support Pancrustacea over Atelocerata. Atelocerata is widely cited in morphology-based analyses, and the

  9. Ex vivo Perfusion with Adenosine A2A Receptor Agonist Enhances Rehabilitation of Murine Donor Lungs after Circulatory Death

    PubMed Central

    Stone, Mathew L.; Sharma, Ashish K.; Mas, Valeria. R.; Gehrau, Ricardo C.; Mulloy, Daniel P.; Zhao, Yunge; Lau, Christine L.; Kron, Irving L.; Laubach, Victor E.

    2015-01-01

    Background Ex vivo lung perfusion (EVLP) enables assessment and rehabilitation of marginal donor lungs prior to transplantation. We previously demonstrated that adenosine A2A receptor (A2AR) agonism attenuates lung ischemia-reperfusion injury. The current study utilizes a novel murine EVLP model to test the hypothesis that A2AR agonist enhances EVLP-mediated rehabilitation of donation after circulatory death (DCD) lungs. Methods Mice underwent euthanasia and 60 min warm ischemia, and lungs were flushed with Perfadex and underwent cold static preservation (CSP, 60 min). Three groups were studied: no EVLP (CSP), EVLP with Steen solution for 60 min (EVLP), and EVLP with Steen solution supplemented with ATL1223, a selective A2AR agonist (EVLP+ATL1223). Lung function, wet/dry weight, cytokines and neutrophil numbers were measured. Microarrays were performed using the Affymetrix GeneChip Mouse Genome 430A 2.0 Array. Results EVLP significantly improved lung function versus CSP, which was further, significantly improved by EVLP+ATL1223. Lung edema, cytokines and neutrophil counts were reduced after EVLP and further, significantly reduced after EVLP+ATL1223. Gene array analysis revealed differential expression of 1,594 genes after EVLP, which comprise canonical pathways involved in inflammation and innate immunity including IL-1, IL-8, IL-6 and IL-17 signaling. Several pathways were uniquely regulated by EVLP+ATL1223 including the downregulation of genes involved in IL-1 signaling such as ADCY9, ECSIT, IRAK1, MAPK12 and TOLLIP. Conclusion EVLP modulates pro-inflammatory genes and reduces pulmonary dysfunction, edema and inflammation in DCD lungs, which are further reduced by A2AR agonism. This murine EVLP model provides a novel platform to study rehabilitative mechanisms of DCD lungs. PMID:26262504

  10. A reference gene set for chemosensory receptor genes of Manduca sexta.

    PubMed

    Koenig, Christopher; Hirsh, Ariana; Bucks, Sascha; Klinner, Christian; Vogel, Heiko; Shukla, Aditi; Mansfield, Jennifer H; Morton, Brian; Hansson, Bill S; Grosse-Wilde, Ewald

    2015-11-01

    The order of Lepidoptera has historically been crucial for chemosensory research, with many important advances coming from the analysis of species like Bombyx mori or the tobacco hornworm, Manduca sexta. Specifically M. sexta has long been a major model species in the field, especially regarding the importance of olfaction in an ecological context, mainly the interaction with its host plants. In recent years transcriptomic data has led to the discovery of members of all major chemosensory receptor families in the species, but the data was fragmentary and incomplete. Here we present the analysis of the newly available high-quality genome data for the species, supplemented by additional transcriptome data to generate a high quality reference gene set for the three major chemosensory receptor gene families, the gustatory (GR), olfactory (OR) and antennal ionotropic receptors (IR). Coupled with gene expression analysis our approach allows association of specific receptor types and behaviors, like pheromone and host detection. The dataset will provide valuable support for future analysis of these essential chemosensory modalities in this species and in Lepidoptera in general.

  11. Update of the androgen receptor gene mutations database.

    PubMed

    Gottlieb, B; Beitel, L K; Lumbroso, R; Pinsky, L; Trifiro, M

    1999-01-01

    The current version of the androgen receptor (AR) gene mutations database is described. The total number of reported mutations has risen from 309 to 374 during the past year. We have expanded the database by adding information on AR-interacting proteins; and we have improved the database by identifying those mutation entries that have been updated. Mutations of unknown significance have now been reported in both the 5' and 3' untranslated regions of the AR gene, and in individuals who are somatic mosaics constitutionally. In addition, single nucleotide polymorphisms, including silent mutations, have been discovered in normal individuals and in individuals with male infertility. A mutation hotspot associated with prostatic cancer has been identified in exon 5. The database is available on the internet (http://www.mcgill.ca/androgendb/), from EMBL-European Bioinformatics Institute (ftp.ebi.ac.uk/pub/databases/androgen), or as a Macintosh FilemakerPro or Word file (MC33@musica.mcgill.ca).

  12. Gender, personality, and serotonin-2A receptor binding in healthy subjects

    PubMed Central

    Soloff, Paul H.; Price, Julie C.; Mason, Neale Scott; Becker, Carl; Meltzer, Carolyn C.

    2009-01-01

    The vulnerability to mood disorders, impulsive-aggression, eating disorders, and suicidal behavior varies greatly with gender, and may reflect gender differences in central serotonergic function. We investigated the relationships of gender, mood, impulsivity, aggression and temperament to 5HT2A receptor binding in 21 healthy subjects using [18F]altanserin and PET neuro-imaging. Binding potentials in pre-defined Regions of Interest (ROI) were calculated using the Logan graphical method, corrected for partial volume effects, and compared by gender with age co-varied. SPM analysis was used for voxel level comparisons. Altanserin binding (BPp) was greater in male than female subjects in 9 ROIs: hippocampus (HIP) and Lt. HIP, lateral orbital frontal cortex (LOF) and Lt.LOF, left medial frontal cortex (Lt.MFC), left medial temporal cortex (Lt. MTC), left occipital cortex (Lt. OCC), thalamus (THL) and Lt. THL. Differences in Lt. HIP and Lt. MTL remained significant after Bonferroni correction. Gender differences were noted in the co-variation of psychological traits with BPp values in specific ROIs. Among males alone, aggression was negatively correlated with BPp values in Lt. LOF and Lt. MFC, and Suspiciousness positively correlated in LOF, Lt. LOF and Lt. MFC. Among female subjects alone, Negativism was positively correlated with BPp values in HIP, and Verbal Hostility in Lt. HIP. Altanserin binding in Lt. MTC was positively correlated with Persistence, with no significant gender effect. Gender differences in 5HT2A receptor function in specific ROIs may mediate expression of psychological characteristics such as aggression, suspiciousness and negativism. Future studies of 5HT2A receptor function and its relationship to behavior should control for gender. PMID:19959344

  13. Evolution of dopamine receptor genes of the D1 class in vertebrates.

    PubMed

    Yamamoto, Kei; Mirabeau, Olivier; Bureau, Charlotte; Blin, Maryline; Michon-Coudouel, Sophie; Demarque, Michaël; Vernier, Philippe

    2013-04-01

    The receptors of the dopamine neurotransmitter belong to two unrelated classes named D1 and D2. For the D1 receptor class, only two subtypes are found in mammals, the D1A and D1B, receptors, whereas additional subtypes, named D1C, D1D, and D1X, have been found in other vertebrate species. Here, we analyzed molecular phylogeny, gene synteny, and gene expression pattern of the D1 receptor subtypes in a large range of vertebrate species, which leads us to propose a new view of the evolution of D1 dopamine receptor genes. First, we show that D1C and D1D receptor sequences are encoded by orthologous genes. Second, the previously identified Cypriniform D1X sequence is a teleost-specific paralog of the D1B sequences found in all groups of jawed vertebrates. Third, zebrafish and several sauropsid species possess an additional D1-like gene, which is likely to form another orthology group of vertebrate ancestral genes, which we propose to name D1E. Ancestral jawed vertebrates are thus likely to have possessed four classes of D1 receptor genes-D1A, D1B(X), D1C(D), and D1E-which arose from large-scale gene duplications. The D1C receptor gene would have been secondarily lost in the mammalian lineage, whereas the D1E receptor gene would have been lost independently in several lineages of modern vertebrates. The D1A receptors are well conserved throughout jawed vertebrates, whereas sauropsid D1C receptors have rapidly diverged, to the point that they were misidentified as D1D. The functional significance of the D1C receptor loss is not known. It is possible that the function may have been substituted with D1A or D1B receptors in mammals, following the disappearance of D1C receptors in these species.

  14. Physical origins of remarkable thermostabilization by an octuple mutation for the adenosine A2a receptor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kajiwara, Yuta; Ogino, Takahiro; Yasuda, Satoshi; Takamuku, Yuuki; Murata, Takeshi; Kinoshita, Masahiro

    2016-07-01

    It was experimentally showed that the thermal stability of a membrane protein, the adenosine A2a receptor, was remarkably enhanced by an octuple mutation. Here we theoretically prove that the energy decrease arising from the formation of protein intramolecular hydrogen bonds and the solvent-entropy gain upon protein folding are made substantially larger by the mutation, leading to the remarkable enhancement. The solvent is formed by hydrocarbon groups constituting nonpolar chains of the lipid bilayer within a membrane. The mutation modifies geometric characteristics of the structure so that the solvent crowding can be reduced to a larger extent when the protein folds.

  15. Role of Adenosine Receptor A2A in Traumatic Optic Neuropathies (Addendum)

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2016-03-01

    diabetic retinopathy. Life Sci. 2013 Jul 30;93(2-3):78-88. doi: 10.1016/j.lfs.2013.05.024. Epub 2013 Jun 12.PMID:23770229 7 AIMS: This study was...undertaken to determine the effect of an adenosine kinase inhibitor (AKI) in diabetic retinopathy (DR). We have shown previously that adenosine signaling...via A2A receptors (A2AAR) is involved in retinal protection from diabetes -induced inflammation. Here we demonstrate that AKI-enhanced adenosine

  16. Protein phosphatase 2A regulates interleukin-2 receptor complex formation and JAK3/STAT5 activation.

    PubMed

    Ross, Jeremy A; Cheng, Hanyin; Nagy, Zsuzsanna S; Frost, Jeffrey A; Kirken, Robert A

    2010-02-05

    Reversible protein phosphorylation plays a key role in interleukin-2 (IL-2) receptor-mediated activation of Janus tyrosine kinase 3 (JAK3) and signal transducer and activator of transcription 5 (STAT5) in lymphocytes. Although the mechanisms governing IL-2-induced tyrosine phosphorylation and activation of JAK3/STAT5 have been extensively studied, the role of serine/threonine phosphorylation in controlling these effectors remains to be elucidated. Using phosphoamino acid analysis, JAK3 and STAT5 were determined to be serine and tyrosine-phosphorylated in response to IL-2 stimulation of the human natural killer-like cell line, YT. IL-2 stimulation also induced serine/threonine phosphorylation of IL-2Rbeta, but not IL-2Rgamma. To investigate the regulation of serine/threonine phosphorylation in IL-2 signaling, the roles of protein phosphatase 1 (PP1) and 2A (PP2A) were examined. Inhibition of phosphatase activity by calyculin A treatment of YT cells resulted in a significant induction of serine phosphorylation of JAK3 and STAT5, and serine/threonine phosphorylation of IL-2Rbeta. Moreover, inhibition of PP2A, but not PP1, diminished IL-2-induced tyrosine phosphorylation of IL-2Rbeta, JAK3, and STAT5, and abolished STAT5 DNA binding activity. Serine/threonine phosphorylation of IL-2Rbeta by a staurosporine-sensitive kinase also blocked its association with JAK3 and IL-2Rgamma in YT cells. Taken together, these data indicate that serine/threonine phosphorylation negatively regulates IL-2 signaling at multiple levels, including receptor complex formation and JAK3/STAT5 activation, and that this regulation is counteracted by PP2A. These findings also suggest that PP2A may serve as a therapeutic target for modulating JAK3/STAT5 activation in human disease.

  17. Thyrotropin receptor gene alterations in thyroid hyperfunctioning adenomas

    SciTech Connect

    Russo, D.; Arturi, F.; Filetti, S.

    1996-04-01

    Forty-four thyroid autonomously hyperfunctioning adenomas were analyzed to assess the frequency of mutations occurring in the TSH receptor (TSHR). PCR-amplified fragments encompassing the entire exon 10 of the TSHR gene were obtained from the genomic DNA extracted from the tumors and their adjacent normal tissues and were examined by direct nucleotide sequencing. Point mutations were found in 9 of 44 adenomas examined (20%). One mutation occurred in codon 619 (Asp to Gly), four in codon 623 (three were Ala to Ser, one Ala to substitution), two in codon 632 (both Thr to Ile), and two in codon 633 (Asp to Tyr or His). All the alterations were located in a part of the gene coding for an area including the third intracellular loop and the sixth transmembrane domain of the TSH receptor. All mutations were somatic and heterozygotic, and none was simultaneous with alterations of ras or gsp oncogenes. Thus, our data show that in our series of 44 hyperfunctioning thyroid adenomas, a somatic mutation of the TSHR, responsible for the constitutive activation of the cAMP pathway, occurs in 20% of the tumors. 28 refs., 2 tabs.

  18. Variability of the Transferrin Receptor 2 Gene in AMD

    PubMed Central

    Blasiak, Janusz; Dorecka, Mariola; Kowalska, Marta; Pawlowska, Elzbieta; Szaflik, Jerzy; Szaflik, Jacek Pawel

    2014-01-01

    Oxidative stress is a major factor in the pathogenesis of age-related macular degeneration (AMD). Iron may catalyze the Fenton reaction resulting in overproduction of reactive oxygen species. Transferrin receptor 2 plays a critical role in iron homeostasis and variability in its gene may influence oxidative stress and AMD occurrence. To verify this hypothesis we assessed the association between polymorphisms of the TFR2 gene and AMD. A total of 493 AMD patients and 171 matched controls were genotyped for the two polymorphisms of the TFR2 gene: c.1892C>T (rs2075674) and c.−258+123T>C (rs4434553). We also assessed the modulation of some AMD risk factors by these polymorphisms. The CC and TT genotypes of the c.1892C>T were associated with AMD occurrence but the latter only in obese patients. The other polymorphism was not associated with AMD occurrence, but the CC genotype was correlated with an increasing AMD frequency in subjects with BMI < 26. The TT genotype and the T allele of this polymorphism decreased AMD occurrence in subjects above 72 years, whereas the TC genotype and the C allele increased occurrence of AMD in this group. The c.1892C>T and c.−258+123T>C polymorphisms of the TRF2 gene may be associated with AMD occurrence, either directly or by modulation of risk factors. PMID:24648608

  19. Variability of the transferrin receptor 2 gene in AMD.

    PubMed

    Wysokinski, Daniel; Blasiak, Janusz; Dorecka, Mariola; Kowalska, Marta; Robaszkiewicz, Jacek; Pawlowska, Elzbieta; Szaflik, Jerzy; Szaflik, Jacek Pawel

    2014-01-01

    Oxidative stress is a major factor in the pathogenesis of age-related macular degeneration (AMD). Iron may catalyze the Fenton reaction resulting in overproduction of reactive oxygen species. Transferrin receptor 2 plays a critical role in iron homeostasis and variability in its gene may influence oxidative stress and AMD occurrence. To verify this hypothesis we assessed the association between polymorphisms of the TFR2 gene and AMD. A total of 493 AMD patients and 171 matched controls were genotyped for the two polymorphisms of the TFR2 gene: c.1892C>T (rs2075674) and c.-258+123T>C (rs4434553). We also assessed the modulation of some AMD risk factors by these polymorphisms. The CC and TT genotypes of the c.1892C>T were associated with AMD occurrence but the latter only in obese patients. The other polymorphism was not associated with AMD occurrence, but the CC genotype was correlated with an increasing AMD frequency in subjects with BMI < 26. The TT genotype and the T allele of this polymorphism decreased AMD occurrence in subjects above 72 years, whereas the TC genotype and the C allele increased occurrence of AMD in this group. The c.1892C>T and c.-258+123T>C polymorphisms of the TRF2 gene may be associated with AMD occurrence, either directly or by modulation of risk factors.

  20. Evolution of Dopamine Receptor Genes of the D1 Class in Vertebrates

    PubMed Central

    Yamamoto, Kei; Mirabeau, Olivier; Bureau, Charlotte; Blin, Maryline; Michon-Coudouel, Sophie; Demarque, Michaël; Vernier, Philippe

    2013-01-01

    The receptors of the dopamine neurotransmitter belong to two unrelated classes named D1 and D2. For the D1 receptor class, only two subtypes are found in mammals, the D1A and D1B, receptors, whereas additional subtypes, named D1C, D1D, and D1X, have been found in other vertebrate species. Here, we analyzed molecular phylogeny, gene synteny, and gene expression pattern of the D1 receptor subtypes in a large range of vertebrate species, which leads us to propose a new view of the evolution of D1 dopamine receptor genes. First, we show that D1C and D1D receptor sequences are encoded by orthologous genes. Second, the previously identified Cypriniform D1X sequence is a teleost-specific paralog of the D1B sequences found in all groups of jawed vertebrates. Third, zebrafish and several sauropsid species possess an additional D1-like gene, which is likely to form another orthology group of vertebrate ancestral genes, which we propose to name D1E. Ancestral jawed vertebrates are thus likely to have possessed four classes of D1 receptor genes—D1A, D1B(X), D1C(D), and D1E—which arose from large-scale gene duplications. The D1C receptor gene would have been secondarily lost in the mammalian lineage, whereas the D1E receptor gene would have been lost independently in several lineages of modern vertebrates. The D1A receptors are well conserved throughout jawed vertebrates, whereas sauropsid D1C receptors have rapidly diverged, to the point that they were misidentified as D1D. The functional significance of the D1C receptor loss is not known. It is possible that the function may have been substituted with D1A or D1B receptors in mammals, following the disappearance of D1C receptors in these species. PMID:23197594

  1. Postsynaptic Adenosine A2A Receptors Modulate Intrinsic Excitability of Pyramidal Cells in the Rat Basolateral Amygdala

    PubMed Central

    Rau, Andrew R.; Ariwodola, Olusegun J.

    2015-01-01

    Background: The basolateral amygdala plays a critical role in the etiology of anxiety disorders and addiction. Pyramidal neurons, the primary output cells of this region, display increased firing following exposure to stressors, and it is thought that this increase in excitability contributes to stress responsivity and the expression of anxiety-like behaviors. However, much remains unknown about the underlying mechanisms that regulate the intrinsic excitability of basolateral amygdala pyramidal neurons. Methods: Ex vivo gramicidin perforated patch recordings were conducted in current clamp mode where hyper- and depolarizing current steps were applied to basolateral amygdala pyramidal neurons to assess the effects of adenosine A2A receptor modulation on intrinsic excitability. Results: Activation of adenosine A2A receptors with the selective A2A receptor agonist CGS-21680 significantly increased the firing rate of basolateral amygdala pyramidal neurons in rat amygdala brain slices, likely via inhibition of the slow afterhyperpolarization potential. Both of these A2A receptor-mediated effects were blocked by preapplication of a selective A2A receptor antagonist (ZM-241385) or by intra-pipette infusion of a protein kinase A inhibitor, suggesting a postsynaptic locus of A2A receptors on basolateral amygdala pyramidal neurons. Interestingly, bath application of the A2A receptor antagonist alone significantly attenuated basolateral amygdala pyramidal cell firing, consistent with a role for tonic adenosine in the regulation of the intrinsic excitability of these neurons. Conclusions: Collectively, these data suggest that adenosine, via activation of A2A receptors, may directly facilitate basolateral amygdala pyramidal cell output, providing a possible balance for the recently described inhibitory effects of adenosine A1 receptor activation on glutamatergic excitation of basolateral amygdala pyramidal cells. PMID:25716780

  2. Anxious behavior induces elevated hippocampal Cb2 receptor gene expression.

    PubMed

    Robertson, James M; Achua, Justin K; Smith, Justin P; Prince, Melissa A; Staton, Clarissa D; Ronan, Patrick J; Summers, Tangi R; Summers, Cliff H

    2017-04-07

    Anxiety is differentially expressed across a continuum of stressful/fearful intensity, influenced endocannabinoid systems and receptors. The hippocampus plays important roles in the regulation of affective behavior, emotion, and anxiety, as well as memory. Location of Cb1/Cb2 receptor action could be important in determining emotional valence, because while the dorsal hippocampus is involved in spatial memory and cognition, the ventral hippocampus has projections to the PFC, BNST, amygdala, and HPA axis, and is important for emotional responses to stress. During repeated social defeat in a Stress-Alternatives Model arena (SAM; an oval open field with escape portals only large enough for smaller mice), smaller C57BL6/N mice are subject to fear conditioning (tone=CS), and attacked by novel larger aggressive CD1 mice (US) over four daily (5min) trials. Each SAM trial presents an opportunity for escape or submission, with stable behavioral responses established by the second day of interaction. Additional groups had access to a running wheel. Social aggression plus fear conditioning stimulates enhanced Cb2 receptor gene expression in the dorsal CA1, dorsal and ventral dentate gyrus subregions in animals displaying a submissive behavioral phenotype. Escape behavior is associated with reduced Cb2 expression in the dorsal CA1 region, with freezing and escape latency correlated with mRNA levels. Escaping and submitting animals with access to running wheels had increased Cb2 mRNA in dorsal DG/CA1. These results suggest that the Cb2 receptor system is rapidly induced during anxiogenic social interactions plus fear conditioning or exercise; with responses potentially adaptive for coping mechanisms.

  3. Interferon-α Induces Neurotoxicity Through Activation of the Type I Receptor and the GluN2A Subunit of the NMDA Receptor

    PubMed Central

    Kessing, Cari F.

    2015-01-01

    Elevated levels of interferon-alpha (IFNα) in the central nervous system (CNS) are linked to cognitive dysfunction in patients with inflammatory CNS diseases such as HIV-associated neurocognitive disorders (HAND). Increased CNS IFNα has also been found to be associated with cognitive dysfunction in a HAND mouse model. Here, we corroborate previous studies showing a dose-dependent decrease in dendritic branching and length caused by IFNα treatment and extend those studies. Because both direct and indirect mechanisms of IFNα-induced neurotoxicity are likely involved, the cell signaling pathway involving the IFNα receptor (IFNAR) was initially evaluated. Rat neuronal cultures exposed to IFNα demonstrate increased phosphorylation of STAT1 and increased interferon stimulating gene 15 (ISG15) expression, indicators of IFNAR engagement. However, specific blocking antibodies to the IFNAR were found to only partially protect neurons from IFNα-induced neurotoxicity. Additionally, inhibiting the GluN2A subunit of N-methyl-D-asparate receptor (NMDAR) was also found to be partially protective against IFNα-induced neurotoxicity compared with the GluN2B subunit. Neurotoxicity is evident in neurons extracted from IFNAR KO mice treated with IFNα as well, further indicating that IFNAR signaling is not required for IFNα neurotoxicity. The neurotoxic actions of IFNα are mediated through both the IFNAR as well as the GluN2A subunit of the NMDAR to reduce dendritic arborization in neurons. Complete protection from IFNα-induced neurotoxicity was demonstrated when both pathways were blocked. Blocking these pathways could lead to potential therapies for cognitive dysfunction during neuroinflammation and specifically lead to better treatments for HAND. PMID:25517826

  4. Behavioural and neurochemical characterization of the adenosine A2A receptor antagonist ST1535.

    PubMed

    Galluzzo, Mariangela; Pintor, Anita; Pèzzola, Antonella; Grieco, Rosa; Borsini, Franco; Popoli, Patrizia

    2008-01-28

    ST1535 (2-butyl-9-methyl-8-(2H-1,2,3-triazol 2-yl)-9 H-purin-6-ylamine) is a novel compound showing a preferential adenosine A(2A) receptor antagonist profile. To explore the potential neuroprotective profile of this compound, we evaluated whether ST1535 prevented quinolinic acid (QA)-induced glutamate outflow in the rat striatum (a reliable index of neuroprotective activity in vivo). Microdialysis experiments were performed in naive Wistar rats. In these experiments, a behaviourally active and inactive doses of ST1535 were used. Both doses significantly prevented QA-induced glutamate outflow in the striatum. These results show that ST1535 protects towards striatal excitotoxicity, even though its reduced A(2A)/A(1) selectivity might limit its actual neuroprotective potential.

  5. Reduced striatal adenosine A2A receptor levels define a molecular subgroup in schizophrenia.

    PubMed

    Villar-Menéndez, Izaskun; Díaz-Sánchez, Sara; Blanch, Marta; Albasanz, José Luis; Pereira-Veiga, Thais; Monje, Alfonso; Planchat, Luis Maria; Ferrer, Isidre; Martín, Mairena; Barrachina, Marta

    2014-04-01

    Schizophrenia (SZ) is a mental disorder of unknown origin. Some scientific evidence seems to indicate that SZ is not a single disease entity, since there are patient groups with clear symptomatic, course and biomarker differences. SZ is characterized by a hyperdopaminergic state related to high dopamine D2 receptor activity. It has also been proposed that there is a hypoadenosynergic state. Adenosine is a nucleoside widely distributed in the organism with neuromodulative and neuroprotective activity in the central nervous system. In the brain, the most abundant adenosine receptors are A1R and A2AR. In the present report, we characterize the presence of both receptors in human postmortem putamens of patients suffering SZ with real time TaqMan PCR, western blotting and radioligand binding assay. We show that A1R levels remain unchanged with respect to age-matched controls, whereas nearly fifty percent of patients have reduced A2AR, at the transcriptional and translational levels. Moreover, we describe how DNA methylation plays a role in the pathological A2AR levels with the bisulfite-sequencing technique. In fact, an increase in 5-methylcytosine percentage in the 5' UTR region of ADORA2A was found in those SZ patients with reduced A2AR levels. Interestingly, there was a relationship between the A2A/β-actin ratio and motor disturbances as assessed with some items of the PANSS, AIMS and SAS scales. Therefore, there may be a subgroup of SZ patients with reduced striatal A2AR levels accompanied by an altered motor phenotype.

  6. In vitro metabolism studies of new adenosine A 2A receptor antagonists.

    PubMed

    Marucci, Gabriella; Finaurini, Sara; Buccioni, Michela; Lammi, Carmen; Kandhavelu, Meenakshisundaram; Volpini, Rosaria; Ricciutelli, Massimo; Angeli, Piero; Commandeur, Jan N M; Cristalli, Gloria

    2008-12-01

    Evidence, obtained in rodent and primate models of Parkinson's disease (PD) and in preliminary clinical trials, indicates that adenosine A(2A) receptor antagonists might represent a promising non-dopaminergic therapeutic tool for the treatment of PD. Recently, we have reported the biological evaluation of 8-substituted 9-ethyladenines (ANR) as new A(2A) receptor antagonists, three of which (ANR 82, ANR 94, and ANR 152) showed high efficacy in in vivo models for Parkinson's. Understanding the metabolic pathways of new drug candidates is an important aspect of drug discovery. The ANR compounds have been investigated in order to clarify their activity on rat liver microsomes, and more specifically on recombinant human cytochrome P450 2D6 (CYP2D6). The metabolites of all three compounds were detected by liquid chromatography/tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS). The results indicate that this class of 9-ethyladenines is metabolized only to a fraction of 1.5-5%. These compounds also act as potent mechanism-based inhibitors of CYP450 and in particular of human isoform CYP2D6. Kinetic-analysis of enzyme inactivation was used to describe the effect of these time-dependent inhibitors and to derive the inhibition parameters K(inact) and K(i) defined with respect to the O-demethylation of dextromethorphan.

  7. FGF acts as a co-transmitter through Adenosine A2A receptor to regulate morphological and physiological synaptic plasticity

    PubMed Central

    Flajolet, Marc; Wang, Zhongfeng; Futter, Marie; Shen, Weixing; Nuangchamnong, Nina; Bendor, Jacob; Palaszewski, Iwona; Nairn, Angus C.; Surmeier, D. James; Greengard, Paul

    2009-01-01

    Summary Abnormalities of striatal function have been implicated in several major neurological and psychiatric disorders, including Parkinson's disease, schizophrenia, and depression. Adenosine, by activation of A2A receptors, antagonizes dopamine signaling at D2 receptors and A2A receptor antagonists have been tested as therapeutic agents for Parkinson's disease. We report here a direct physical interaction between the G protein-coupled A2A receptor and the receptor tyrosine kinase FGF receptor. Concomitant activation of these two classes of receptors, but not individual activation of either one alone, causes a robust activation of the MAPK/ERK pathway, differentiation and neurite extension of PC12 cells, spine morphogenesis in primary neuronal cultures, and cortico-striatal plasticity induced by a novel A2AR/FGFR-dependent mechanism. The discovery of a direct physical interaction between the A2A and FGF receptors and the robust physiological consequences of this association shed light on the mechanism underlying FGF functions as a co-transmitter and open new avenues for therapeutic interventions. PMID:18953346

  8. Fc-receptor and M-protein genes of group A streptococci are products of gene duplication.

    PubMed Central

    Heath, D G; Cleary, P P

    1989-01-01

    The partial nucleotide sequence for an Fc-receptor gene from an M-type 76 group A streptococcus was determined. DNA sequence analysis revealed considerable sequence similarity between the Fc-receptor and M-protein genes in their proposed promoter regions, signal sequences, and 3' termini. Additional analysis indicated that the deduced Fc-receptor protein contains a proline-rich region and membrane anchor region highly similar to that of M protein. In view of these results, we postulated that Fc-receptor and M-protein genes of group A streptococci are the products of gene duplication from a common ancestral gene. It is proposed that DNA sequence similarity between these two genes may allow for extragenic homologous recombination as a means of generating antigenic diversity in these two surface proteins. PMID:2660147

  9. A homology-based model of the human 5-HT2A receptor derived from an in silico activated G-protein coupled receptor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chambers, James J.; Nichols, David E.

    2002-07-01

    A homology-based model of the 5-HT2A receptor was produced utilizing an activated form of the bovine rhodopsin (Rh) crystal structure [1,2]. In silico activation of the Rh structure was accomplished by isomerization of the 11- cis-retinal (1) chromophore, followed by constrained molecular dynamics to relax the resultant high energy structure. The activated form of Rh was then used as a structural template for development of a human 5-HT2A receptor model. Both the 5-HT2A receptor and Rh are members of the G-protein coupled receptor (GPCR) super-family. The resulting homology model of the receptor was then used for docking studies of compounds representing a cross-section of structural classes that activate the 5-HT2A receptor, including ergolines, tryptamines, and amphetamines. The ligand/receptor complexes that ensued were refined and the final binding orientations were observed to be compatible with much of the data acquired through both diversified ligand design and site directed mutagenesis.

  10. Altered Expression of Genes Encoding Neurotransmitter Receptors in GnRH Neurons of Proestrous Mice

    PubMed Central

    Vastagh, Csaba; Rodolosse, Annie; Solymosi, Norbert; Liposits, Zsolt

    2016-01-01

    Gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) neurons play a key role in the central regulation of reproduction. In proestrous female mice, estradiol triggers the pre-ovulatory GnRH surge, however, its impact on the expression of neurotransmitter receptor genes in GnRH neurons has not been explored yet. We hypothesized that proestrus is accompanied by substantial changes in the expression profile of genes coding for neurotransmitter receptors in GnRH neurons. We compared the transcriptome of GnRH neurons obtained from intact, proestrous, and metestrous female GnRH-GFP transgenic mice, respectively. About 1500 individual GnRH neurons were sampled from both groups and their transcriptome was analyzed using microarray hybridization and real-time PCR. In this study, changes in mRNA expression of genes involved in neurotransmitter signaling were investigated. Differential gene expression was most apparent in GABA-ergic (Gabbr1, Gabra3, Gabrb3, Gabrb2, Gabrg2), glutamatergic (Gria1, Gria2, Grin1, Grin3a, Grm1, Slc17a6), cholinergic (Chrnb2, Chrm4) and dopaminergic (Drd3, Drd4), adrenergic (Adra1b, Adra2a, Adra2c), adenosinergic (Adora2a, Adora2b), glycinergic (Glra), purinergic (P2rx7), and serotonergic (Htr1b) receptors. In concert with these events, expression of genes in the signaling pathways downstream to the receptors, i.e., G-proteins (Gnai1, Gnai2, Gnas), adenylate-cyclases (Adcy3, Adcy5), protein kinase A (Prkaca, Prkacb) protein kinase C (Prkca) and certain transporters (Slc1a4, Slc17a6, Slc6a17) were also changed. The marked differences found in the expression of genes involved in neurotransmitter signaling of GnRH neurons at pro- and metestrous stages of the ovarian cycle indicate the differential contribution of these neurotransmitter systems to the induction of the pre-ovulatory GnRH surge, the known prerequisite of the subsequent hormonal cascade inducing ovulation. PMID:27774052

  11. Past, present and future of A(2A) adenosine receptor antagonists in the therapy of Parkinson's disease.

    PubMed

    Armentero, Marie Therese; Pinna, Annalisa; Ferré, Sergi; Lanciego, José Luis; Müller, Christa E; Franco, Rafael

    2011-12-01

    Several selective antagonists for adenosine A(2A) receptors (A(2A)R) are currently under evaluation in clinical trials (phases I to III) to treat Parkinson's disease, and they will probably soon reach the market. The usefulness of these antagonists has been deduced from studies demonstrating functional interactions between dopamine D₂ and adenosine A(2A) receptors in the basal ganglia. At present it is believed that A(2A)R antagonists can be used in combination with the dopamine precursor L-DOPA to minimize the motor symptoms of Parkinson's patients. However, a considerable body of data indicates that in addition to ameliorating motor symptoms, adenosine A(2A)R antagonists may also prevent neurodegeneration. Despite these promising indications, one further issue must be considered in order to develop fully optimized antiparkinsonian drug therapy, namely the existence of (hetero)dimers/oligomers of G protein-coupled receptors, a topic that is currently the focus of intense debate within the scientific community. Dopamine D₂ receptors (D₂Rs) expressed in the striatum are known to form heteromers with A(2A) adenosine receptors. Thus, the development of heteromer-specific A(2A) receptor antagonists represents a promising strategy for the identification of more selective and safer drugs.

  12. Comparative analysis of expression of histone H2a genes in mouse

    PubMed Central

    Nishida, Hiromi; Suzuki, Takahiro; Ookawa, Hiroki; Tomaru, Yasuhiro; Hayashizaki, Yoshihide

    2005-01-01

    Background At least 18 replication-dependent histone H2a genes are distributed in 3 Hist gene clusters on different chromosomes of the mouse genome. In this analysis we designed specific PCR primers for each histone H2a transcript and studied the expression levels and patterns using quantitative RT-PCR (qRT-PCR). In addition, we compared histone H3 K9 acetylation levels in the promoter regions of H2a genes by ChIP (chromatin immunoprecipitation) – quantitative PCR (qPCR) analysis. Results RT-PCR analysis indicated that all 20 histone H2a genes assessed in this study are expressed. The replication-dependent histone H2a genes have different expression levels but similar expression patterns. Among the 20 histone H2a genes, the expression-level of H2afz, a replication-independent gene, was highest, and that of Hist1h2aa, a replication-dependent gene, was lowest. Among 18 replication-dependent H2a genes, the expression level of Hist3h2a was highest. The ChIP-qPCR analysis showed that histone H3 K9 acetylation levels in promoter regions of both H2afz and Hist3h2a are clearly higher than that in the promoter region of Hist1h2aa. The H3 K9 acetylation level in the promoter of Hist1h2aa is similar to that in the γ-satellite region. Conclusion These results strongly suggest that histone H3 K9 acetylation plays a role in the expression of histone genes. PMID:16098230

  13. Agonist properties of N,N-dimethyltryptamine at serotonin 5-HT2A and 5-HT2C receptors.

    PubMed

    Smith, R L; Canton, H; Barrett, R J; Sanders-Bush, E

    1998-11-01

    Extensive behavioral and biochemical evidence suggests an agonist role at the 5-HT2A receptor, and perhaps the 5-HT2C receptor, in the mechanism of action of hallucinogenic drugs. However the published in vitro pharmacological properties of N,N-dimethyltryptamine (DMT), an hallucinogenic tryptamine analog, are not consistent with this hypothesis. We, therefore, undertook an extensive investigation into the properties of DMT at 5-HT2A and 5-HT2C receptors. In fibroblasts transfected with the 5-HT2A receptor or the 5-HT2C receptor, DMT activated the major intracellular signaling pathway (phosphoinositide hydrolysis) to an extent comparable to that produced by serotonin. Because drug efficacy changes with receptor density and cellular microenvironment, we also examined the properties of DMT in native preparations using a behavioral and biochemical approach. Rats were trained to discriminate an antagonist ketanserin from an agonist 1-(2,5-dimethoxy-4-iodophenyl)-2-aminopropane (DOI) in a two-lever choice paradigm. Pharmacological studies showed that responding on the DOI and ketanserin lever reflected agonist and antagonist activity at 5-HT2A receptors, and hence, was a suitable model for evaluating the in vivo functional properties of DMT. Like other 5-HT2A receptor agonists, DMT substituted fully for DOI. Intact choroid plexus was used to evaluate the agonist properties at endogenous 5-HT2C receptors; DMT was a partial agonist at 5-HT2C receptors in this native preparation. Thus, we conclude that DMT behaves as an agonist at both 5-HT2A and 5-HT2A receptors. One difference was evident in that the 5-HT2C, but not the 5-HT2A, receptor showed a profound desensitization to DMT over time. This difference is interesting in light of the recent report that the hallucinogenic activity of DMT does not tolerate in humans and suggests the 5-HT2C receptor plays a less prominent role in the action of DMT.

  14. Age-dependent effects of the 5-hydroxytryptamine-2a-receptor polymorphism (His452Tyr) on human memory.

    PubMed

    Papassotiropoulos, Andreas; Henke, Katharina; Aerni, Amanda; Coluccia, Daniel; Garcia, Esmeralda; Wollmer, Marc A; Huynh, Kim-Dung; Monsch, Andreas U; Stähelin, Hannes B; Hock, Christoph; Nitsch, Roger M; de Quervain, Dominique J-F

    2005-05-31

    A polymorphism (His452Tyr) of the 5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT)2a receptor is associated with episodic memory in healthy young humans. Because 5-HT2a-receptor density decreases with increasing age, we tested whether the 5-HT2a receptor genotype effect on memory is influenced by age. We investigated the association of the His452Tyr genotype with memory performance in 622 healthy study participants aged from 18 to 90 years. In young to middle-aged participants, age significantly influenced genotype effects on episodic memory: the His452Tyr genotype exerted a significant influence on memory only in young participants. In the group of elderly cognitively healthy participants, the His452Tyr genotype did not affect memory performance. We conclude that age strongly modulates the effect of the 5-HT2a receptor polymorphism at residue 452 on episodic memory.

  15. Decreased glucocorticoid receptor activity following glucocorticoid receptor antisense RNA gene fragment transfection.

    PubMed Central

    Pepin, M C; Barden, N

    1991-01-01

    Depression is often characterized by increased cortisol secretion caused by hyperactivity of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis and by nonsuppression of cortisol secretion following dexamethasone administration. This hyperactivity of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis could result from a reduced glucocorticoid receptor (GR) activity in neurons involved in its control. To investigate the effect of reduced neuronal GR levels, we have blocked cellular GR mRNA processing and/or translation by introduction of a complementary GR antisense RNA strand. Two cell lines were transfected with a reporter plasmid carrying the chloramphenicol acetyltransferase (CAT) gene under control of the mouse mammary tumor virus long terminal repeat (a glucocorticoid-inducible promoter). This gene construction permitted assay of the sensitivity of the cells to glucocorticoid hormones. Cells were also cotransfected with a plasmid containing 1,815 bp of GR cDNA inserted in the reverse orientation downstream from either a neurofilament gene promoter element or the Rous sarcoma virus promoter element. Northern (RNA) blot analysis demonstrated formation of GR antisense RNA strands. Measurement of the sensitivity of CAT activity to exogeneous dexamethasone showed that although dexamethasone increased CAT activity by as much as 13-fold in control incubations, expression of GR antisense RNA caused a 2- to 4-fold decrease in the CAT response to dexamethasone. Stable transfectants bearing the GR antisense gene fragment construction demonstrated a 50 to 70% decrease of functional GR levels compared with normal cells, as evidenced by a ligand-binding assay with the type II glucocorticoid receptor-specific ligand [3H]RU 28362. These results validate the use of antisense RNA to GR to decrease cellular response to glucocorticoids. Images PMID:1996114

  16. Transcriptional Characterization of Porcine Leptin and Leptin Receptor Genes

    PubMed Central

    Pérez-Montarelo, Dafne; Fernández, Almudena; Barragán, Carmen; Noguera, Jose L.; Folch, Josep M.; Rodríguez, M. Carmen; Óvilo, Cristina; Silió, Luis; Fernández, Ana I.

    2013-01-01

    The leptin (LEP) and its receptor (LEPR) regulate food intake and energy balance through hypothalamic signaling. However, the LEP-LEPR axis seems to be more complex and its expression regulation has not been well described. In pigs, LEP and LEPR genes have been widely studied due to their relevance. Previous studies reported significant effects of SNPs located in both genes on growth and fatness traits. The aim of this study was to determine the expression profiles of LEP and LEPR across hypothalamic, adipose, hepatic and muscle tissues in Iberian x Landrace backcrossed pigs and to analyze the effects of gene variants on transcript abundance. To our knowledge, non porcine LEPR isoforms have been described rather than LEPRb. A short porcine LEPR isoform (LEPRa), that encodes a protein lacking the intracellular residues responsible of signal transduction, has been identified for the first time. The LEPRb isoform was only quantifiable in hypothalamus while LEPRa appeared widely expressed across tissues, but at higher levels in liver, suggesting that both isoforms would develop different roles. The unique LEP transcript showed expression in backfat and muscle. The effects of gene variants on transcript expression revealed interesting results. The LEPRc.1987C>T polymorphism showed opposite effects on LEPRb and LEPRa hypothalamic expression. In addition, one out of the 16 polymorphisms identified in the LEPR promoter region revealed high differential expression in hepatic LEPRa. These results suggest a LEPR isoform-specific regulation at tissue level. Conversely, non-differential expression of LEP conditional on the analyzed polymorphisms could be detected, indicating that its regulation is likely affected by other mechanisms rather than gene sequence variants. The present study has allowed a transcriptional characterization of LEP and LEPR isoforms on a range of tissues. Their expression patterns seem to indicate that both molecules develop peripheral roles apart from

  17. Calcium-Sensing Receptor Gene: Regulation of Expression

    PubMed Central

    Hendy, Geoffrey N.; Canaff, Lucie

    2016-01-01

    The human calcium-sensing receptor gene (CASR) has 8 exons, and localizes to chromosome 3q. Exons 1A and 1B encode alternative 5′-untranslated regions (UTRs) that splice to exon 2 encoding the AUG initiation codon. Exons 2–7 encode the CaSR protein of 1078 amino acids. Promoter P1 has TATA and CCAAT boxes upstream of exon 1A, and promoter P2 has Sp1/3 motifs at the start site of exon 1B. Exon 1A transcripts from the P1 promoter are reduced in parathyroid tumors and colon carcinomas. Studies of colon carcinomas and neuroblastomas have emphasized the importance of epigenetic changes—promoter methylation of the GC-rich P2 promoter, histone acetylation—as well as involvement of microRNAs in bringing about CASR gene silencing and reduced CaSR expression. Functional cis-elements in the CASR promoters responsive to 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D [1,25(OH)2D], proinflammatory cytokines, and the transcription factor glial cells missing-2 (GCM2) have been characterized. Reduced levels of CaSR and reduced responsiveness to active vitamin D in parathyroid neoplasia and colon carcinoma may blunt the “tumor suppressor” activity of the CaSR. The hypocalcemia of critically ill patients with burn injury or sepsis is associated with CASR gene upregulation by TNF-alpha and IL-1beta via kappaB elements, and by IL-6 via Stat1/3 and Sp1/3 elements in the CASR gene promoters, respectively. The CASR is transactivated by GCM2—the expression of which is essential for parathyroid gland development. Hyperactive forms of GCM2 may contribute to later parathyroid hyperactivity or tumorigenesis. The expression of the CaSR—the calciostat—is regulated physiologically and pathophysiologically at the gene level. PMID:27679579

  18. Receptor protein kinase gene encoded at the self-incompatibility locus

    DOEpatents

    Nasrallah, June B.; Nasrallah, Mikhail E.; Stein, Joshua

    1996-01-01

    Described herein is a S receptor kinase gene (SRK), derived from the S locus in Brassica oleracea, having a extracellular domain highly similar to the secreted product of the S-locus glycoprotein gene.

  19. Atypical Protein Phosphatase 2A Gene Families Do Not Expand via Paleopolyploidization1[OPEN

    PubMed Central

    2017-01-01

    Protein phosphatase 2A (PP2A) presents unique opportunities for analyzing molecular mechanisms of functional divergence between gene family members. The canonical PP2A holoenzyme regulates multiple eukaryotic signaling pathways by dephosphorylating target proteins and contains a catalytic (C) subunit, a structural/scaffolding (A) subunit, and a regulatory (B) subunit. Genes encoding PP2A subunits have expanded into multigene families in both flowering plants and mammals, and the extent to which different isoform functions may overlap is not clearly understood. To gain insight into the diversification of PP2A subunits, we used phylogenetic analyses to reconstruct the evolutionary histories of PP2A gene families in Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana). Genes encoding PP2A subunits in mammals represent ancient lineages that expanded early in vertebrate evolution, while flowering plant PP2A subunit lineages evolved much more recently. Despite this temporal difference, our data indicate that the expansion of PP2A subunit gene families in both flowering plants and animals was driven by whole-genome duplications followed by nonrandom gene loss. Selection analysis suggests that the expansion of one B subunit gene family (B56/PPP2R5) was driven by functional diversification rather than by the maintenance of gene dosage. We also observed reduced expansion rates in three distinct B subunit subclades. One of these subclades plays a highly conserved role in cell division, while the distribution of a second subclade suggests a specialized function in supporting beneficial microbial associations. Thus, while whole-genome duplications have driven the expansion and diversification of most PP2A gene families, members of functionally specialized subclades quickly revert to singleton status after duplication events. PMID:28034953

  20. A1 and A2a receptors mediate inhibitory effects of adenosine on the motor activity of human colon.

    PubMed

    Fornai, M; Antonioli, L; Colucci, R; Ghisu, N; Buccianti, P; Marioni, A; Chiarugi, M; Tuccori, M; Blandizzi, C; Del Tacca, M

    2009-04-01

    Experimental evidence in animal models suggests that adenosine is involved in the regulation of digestive functions. This study examines the influence of adenosine on the contractile activity of human colon. Reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction revealed A(1) and A(2a) receptor expression in colonic neuromuscular layers. Circular muscle preparations were connected to isotonic transducers to determine the effects of 8-cyclopentyl-1,3-dipropylxanthine (DPCPX; A(1) receptor antagonist), ZM 241385 (A(2a) receptor antagonist), CCPA (A(1) receptor agonist) and 2-[(p-2-carboxyethyl)-phenethylamino]-5'-N-ethyl-carboxamide-adenosine (CGS 21680; A(2a) receptor agonist) on motor responses evoked by electrical stimulation or carbachol. Electrically evoked contractions were enhanced by DPCPX and ZM 241385, and reduced by CCPA and CGS 21680. Similar effects were observed when colonic preparations were incubated with guanethidine (noradrenergic blocker), L-732,138, GR-159897 and SB-218795 (NK receptor antagonists). However, in the presence of guanethidine, NK receptor antagonists and N(omega)-propyl-L-arginine (NPA; neuronal nitric oxide synthase inhibitor), the effects of DPCPX and CCPA were still evident, while those of ZM 241385 and CGS 21680 no longer occurred. Carbachol-induced contractions were unaffected by A(2a) receptor ligands, but they were enhanced or reduced by DPCPX and CCPA, respectively. When colonic preparations were incubated with guanethidine, NK antagonists and atropine, electrically induced relaxations were partly reduced by ZM 241385 or NPA, but unaffected by DPCPX. Dipyridamole or application of exogenous adenosine reduced electrically and carbachol-evoked contractions, whereas adenosine deaminase enhanced such motor responses. In conclusion, adenosine exerts an inhibitory control on human colonic motility. A(1) receptors mediate direct modulating actions on smooth muscle, whereas A(2a) receptors operate through inhibitory nitrergic nerve pathways.

  1. Toll-like receptors and microbial exposure: gene-gene and gene-environment interaction in the development of atopy.

    PubMed

    Reijmerink, N E; Kerkhof, M; Bottema, R W B; Gerritsen, J; Stelma, F F; Thijs, C; van Schayck, C P; Smit, H A; Brunekreef, B; Postma, D S; Koppelman, G H

    2011-10-01

    Environmental and genetic factors contribute to atopy development. High microbial exposure may confer a protective effect on atopy. Toll-like receptors (TLRs) bind microbial products and are important in activating the immune system. To assess whether interactions between microbial exposures and genes encoding TLRs (and related genes) result in atopy, genes, environmental factors and gene-environment interactions of 66 single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) of 12 genes (TLR 1-6, 9 and 10, CD14, MD2, lipopolysaccharide-binding protein (LBP) and Dectin-1), and six proxy parameters of microbial exposure (sibship size, pets (three different parameters), day-care and intrauterine and childhood tobacco smoke exposure) were analysed for association with atopic phenotypes in 3,062 Dutch children (the Allergenic study). The presence of two or more older siblings increased the risk of developing high total immunoglobulin (Ig)E levels at different ages. This risk increased further in children aged 1-2 yrs carrying the minor allele of TLR6 SNP rs1039559. Furthermore, novel two- and three-factor gene-gene and gene-environment interactions were found (e.g. between sibship size, day-care and LBP SNP rs2232596). Larger sibship size is associated with increased total IgE levels. Furthermore, complex two- and three-factor interactions exist between genes and the environment. The TLRs and related genes interact with proxy parameters of high microbial exposure in atopy development.

  2. Influence of CGS 21680, a selective adenosine A(2A) receptor agonist, on NMDA receptor function and expression in the brain of Huntington's disease mice.

    PubMed

    Ferrante, Antonella; Martire, Alberto; Armida, Monica; Chiodi, Valentina; Pézzola, Antonella; Potenza, Rosa Luisa; Domenici, Maria Rosaria; Popoli, Patrizia

    2010-04-06

    The effect of chronic treatment with the selective adenosine A(2A) receptor agonist CGS 21680 on N-Methyl-d-Aspartate (NMDA) receptor function and expression has been studied in the striatum and cortex of R6/2 mice, a genetic mouse model of Huntington's disease (HD). Starting from 8weeks of age, R6/2 and wild type (WT) mice were treated daily with CGS 21680 (0.5mg/kg i.p.) for 3weeks and the expression levels of NMDA receptor subunits were then evaluated. In addition, to study CGS 21680-induced changes in NMDA receptor function, NMDA-induced toxicity in corticostriatal slices from both R6/2 and WT mice was investigated. We found that CGS 21680 increased NR2A subunit expression and the NR2A/NR2B ratio in the cortex of R6/2 mice, having no effect in WT mice. In the striatum, CGS 21680 reduced NR1 expression in both R6/2 and WT mice while the effect on NR2A and NR2/NR2B expression was genotype-dependent, reducing and increasing their expression in WT and R6/2 mice, respectively. On the contrary, NMDA-induced toxicity in corticostriatal slices was not modified by the treatment in WT or HD mice. These results demonstrate that in vivo activation of A(2A) receptors modulates the subunit composition of NMDA receptors in the brain of HD mice.

  3. Serotonin-2C and -2A Receptor Co-expression on Cells in the Rat Medial Prefrontal Cortex

    PubMed Central

    Nocjar, Christine; Alex, Katherine D; Sonneborn, Alex; Abbas, Atheir I; Roth, Bryan L; Pehek, Elizabeth A

    2015-01-01

    Neural function within the medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC) regulates normal cognition, attention and impulse control, implicating neuroregulatory abnormalities within this region in mental dysfunction related to schizophrenia, depression and drug abuse. Both serotonin -2A (5-HT2A) and -2C (5-HT2C) receptors are known to be important in neuropsychiatric drug action and are distributed throughout the mPFC. However, their interactive role in serotonergic cortical regulation is poorly understood. While the main signal transduction mechanism for both receptors is stimulation of phosphoinositide production, they can have opposite effects downstream. 5-HT2A versus 5-HT2C receptor activation oppositely regulates behavior and can oppositely affect neurochemical release within the mPFC. These distinct receptor effects could be caused by their differential cellular distribution within the cortex and/or other areas. It is known that both receptors are located on GABAergic and pyramidal cells within the mPFC, but it is not clear whether they are expressed on the same or different cells. The present work employed immunofluorescence with confocal microscopy to examine this in layers V-VI of the prelimbic mPFC. The majority of GABA cells in the deep prelimbic mPFC expressed 5-HT2C receptor immunoreactivity. Furthermore, most cells expressing 5-HT2C receptor immunoreactivity notably co-expressed 5-HT2A receptors. However, 27% of 5-HT2C receptor immunoreactive cells were not GABAergic, indicating that a population of prelimbic pyramidal projection cells could express the 5-HT2C receptor. Indeed, some cells with 5-HT2C and 5-HT2A receptor co-labeling had a pyramidal shape and were expressed in the typical layered fashion of pyramidal cells. This indirectly demonstrates that 5-HT2C and 5-HT2A receptors may be commonly co-expressed on GABAergic cells within the deep layers of the prelimbic mPFC and perhaps co-localized on a small population of local pyramidal projection cells. Thus a

  4. AT1 receptor A1166C and AT2 receptor -1332A/G gene polymorphisms: efficient genotyping by single-tube PCR.

    PubMed

    Zivković, Maja; Stanković, Aleksandra; Alavantić, Dragan

    2005-01-01

    Angiotensin II type 1 receptor (AT1) and angiotensin II type 2 receptor (AT2) genes have been investigated in recent years as potential etiologic candidates for cardiovascular and renal diseases. The pathogenic implications of AT1 A1166C and AT2 A-1332G gene polymorphisms have been shown. Here we describe a rapid and reliable method for detecting both AT1 and AT2 gene polymorphisms by a single-tube PCR, to reduce analysis time and simplify the genotyping procedure. In contrast to previously described methods, our method does not require hybridization, primer extension, or nested PCR for genotyping. In most previous studies concerning gene polymorphisms of RAS, both AT1 and AT2 receptor gene polymorphisms were investigated. The advantage of our method is that it makes it possible to detect both of these polymorphisms in a duplex PCR. The procedure described is convenient for routine laboratory use with manual sample processing, and offers the potential for further automation as well. Its simplicity makes it practical for large-scale screening of individuals and families at risk for cardiovascular or renal diseases.

  5. Characterization of [125I]ZM 241385 binding to adenosine A2A receptors in the pineal of sheep brain.

    PubMed

    Yan, X; Koos, B J; Kruger, L; Linden, J; Murray, T F

    2006-06-22

    Adenosine is a ubiquitous neuromodulator and homeostatic regulator that exerts its physiologic actions through activation of A(1), A(2A), A(2B) and A(3) adenosine receptor subtypes. In the central nervous system, adenosine's action in neurons is manifested in its modulation of tonic inhibitory control. Adenosine released in the brain during hypoxia has critical depressant effects on breathing in fetal and newborn mammals, an action suggested to be mediated by A(2A) receptors in the posteromedial thalamus. In an effort to more accurately define the spatial distribution of adenosine A(2A) receptors in fetal sheep diencephalon, we have used a receptor autoradiographic technique utilizing an iodinated radioligand [(125)I]ZM 241385, which has greater sensitivity and resolution than the tritiated compound. The distribution of ligand binding sites in the fetal sheep diencephalon indicated that the highest levels of binding were in select thalamic nuclei, including those implicated in hypoxic depression of fetal breathing, and the pineal. Given the high density of labeled A(2A) receptors in the pineal, these sites were characterized more fully in homogenate radioligand binding assays. These data indicate that [(125)I]ZM 241385 binding sites display a pharmacological signature consistent with that of adenosine A(2A) receptors and are expressed at similar levels in fetal, lamb and adult ovine brain. The adenosine A(2A) receptor pharmacologic signature of the [(125)I]ZM 241385 binding site in pineal cell membranes generalized to the site characterized in membranes derived from other portions of the lamb thalamus, including the sector involved in hypoxic inhibition of fetal breathing. These results have important implications for the functional roles of adenosine A(2A) receptors in the thalamus and pineal of sheep brain.

  6. Differences in 5-HT2A and mGlu2 Receptor Expression Levels and Repressive Epigenetic Modifications at the 5-HT2A Promoter Region in the Roman Low- (RLA-I) and High- (RHA-I) Avoidance Rat Strains.

    PubMed

    Fomsgaard, Luna; Moreno, Jose L; de la Fuente Revenga, Mario; Brudek, Tomasz; Adamsen, Dea; Rio-Alamos, Cristobal; Saunders, Justin; Klein, Anders Bue; Oliveras, Ignasi; Cañete, Toni; Blazquez, Gloria; Tobeña, Adolf; Fernandez-Teruel, Albert; Gonzalez-Maeso, Javier; Aznar, Susana

    2017-03-06

    The serotonin 2A (5-HT2A) and metabotropic glutamate 2 (mGlu2) receptors regulate each other and are associated with schizophrenia. The Roman high- (RHA-I) and the Roman low- (RLA-I) avoidance rat strains present well-differentiated behavioral profiles, with the RHA-I strain emerging as a putative genetic rat model of schizophrenia-related features. The RHA-I strain shows increased 5-HT2A and decreased mGlu2 receptor binding levels in prefrontal cortex (PFC). Here, we looked for differences in gene expression and transcriptional regulation of these receptors. The striatum (STR) was included in the analysis. 5-HT2A, 5-HT1A, and mGlu2 mRNA and [(3)H]ketanserin binding levels were measured in brain homogenates. As expected, 5-HT2A binding was significantly increased in PFC in the RHA-I rats, while no difference in binding was observed in STR. Surprisingly, 5-HT2A gene expression was unchanged in PFC but significantly decreased in STR. mGlu2 receptor gene expression was significantly decreased in both PFC and STR. No differences were observed for the 5-HT1A receptor. Chromatin immunoprecipitation assay revealed increased trimethylation of histone 3 at lysine 27 (H3K27me3) at the promoter region of the HTR2A gene in the STR. We further looked at the Akt/GSK3 signaling pathway, a downstream point of convergence of the serotonin and glutamate system, and found increased phosphorylation levels of GSK3β at tyrosine 216 and increased β-catenin levels in the PFC of the RHA-I rats. These results reveal region-specific regulation of the 5-HT2A receptor in the RHA-I rats probably due to absence of mGlu2 receptor that may result in differential regulation of downstream pathways.

  7. Enhancement of AMPA currents and GluR1 membrane expression through PKA-coupled adenosine A(2A) receptors.

    PubMed

    Dias, Raquel B; Ribeiro, Joaquim A; Sebastião, Ana M

    2012-02-01

    Phosphorylation of glutamate α-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methyl-4-isoxazolepropionic acid (AMPA) receptors by Protein Kinase A (PKA) is known to regulate AMPA receptor (AMPAR) trafficking and stabilization at the postsynaptic membrane, which in turn is one of the key mechanisms by which synaptic transmission and plasticity are tuned. However, not much is known as to how Gs-coupled receptors contribute to endogenous PKA-mediated regulation of AMPA receptor function. Here we report that activation of the excitatory A(2A) adenosine receptor by 2-[4-(2-p-carboxyethyl)phenylamino]-5'-N-ethylcarboxamidoadenosine (CGS 21680, 1-30 nM) facilitates AMPA-evoked currents in CA1 pyramidal neurons, by a mechanism dependent on PKA activation, but not on protein synthesis. This modulation of AMPA currents was mimicked by forskolin (1 μM) and did not occur in stratum radiatum interneurons. Superfusion of the A(2A) receptor agonist also caused an increase in the amplitude of miniature excitatory postsynaptic currents (mEPSCs), as well as in the membrane levels of GluR1 subunits phosphorylated at the PKA site (Ser845). The impact of this increase on GluR1-containing AMPA receptor expression was evidenced by the potentiation of LTP at the CA3-CA1 synapse that followed brief activation of A(2A) receptors. We thus propose that in conditions of increased adenosine availability, A(2A) receptor activation is responsible for setting part of the endogenous GluR1 Ser-845 phosphorylation tonus and hence, the availability of the GluR1-containing AMPA receptor extrasynaptic pool for synaptic insertion and reinforcement of synaptic strength.

  8. Variants in the vitamin D receptor gene and asthma

    PubMed Central

    Wjst, Matthias

    2005-01-01

    Background Early lifetime exposure to dietary or supplementary vitamin D has been predicted to be a risk factor for later allergy. Twin studies suggest that response to vitamin D exposure might be influenced by genetic factors. As these effects are primarily mediated through the vitamin D receptor (VDR), single base variants in this gene may be risk factors for asthma or allergy. Results 951 individuals from 224 pedigrees with at least 2 asthmatic children were analyzed for 13 SNPs in the VDR. There was no preferential transmission to children with asthma. In their unaffected sibs, however, one allele in the 5' region was 0.5-fold undertransmitted (p = 0.049), while two other alleles in the 3' terminal region were 2-fold over-transmitted (p = 0.013 and 0.018). An association was also seen with bronchial hyperreactivity against methacholine and with specific immunoglobulin E serum levels. Conclusion The transmission disequilibrium in unaffected sibs of otherwise multiple-affected families seem to be a powerful statistical test. A preferential transmission of vitamin D receptor variants to children with asthma could not be confirmed but raises the possibility of a protective effect for unaffected children. PMID:15651992

  9. Selective adenosine A2A receptor agonists and antagonists protect against spinal cord injury through peripheral and central effects

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Permanent functional deficits following spinal cord injury (SCI) arise both from mechanical injury and from secondary tissue reactions involving inflammation. Enhanced release of adenosine and glutamate soon after SCI represents a component in the sequelae that may be responsible for resulting functional deficits. The role of adenosine A2A receptor in central ischemia/trauma is still to be elucidated. In our previous studies we have demonstrated that the adenosine A2A receptor-selective agonist CGS21680, systemically administered after SCI, protects from tissue damage, locomotor dysfunction and different inflammatory readouts. In this work we studied the effect of the adenosine A2A receptor antagonist SCH58261, systemically administered after SCI, on the same parameters. We investigated the hypothesis that the main action mechanism of agonists and antagonists is at peripheral or central sites. Methods Spinal trauma was induced by extradural compression of SC exposed via a four-level T5-T8 laminectomy in mouse. Three drug-dosing protocols were utilized: a short-term systemic administration by intraperitoneal injection, a chronic administration via osmotic minipump, and direct injection into the spinal cord. Results SCH58261, systemically administered (0.01 mg/kg intraperitoneal. 1, 6 and 10 hours after SCI), reduced demyelination and levels of TNF-α, Fas-L, PAR, Bax expression and activation of JNK mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) 24 hours after SCI. Chronic SCH58261 administration, by mini-osmotic pump delivery for 10 days, improved the neurological deficit up to 10 days after SCI. Adenosine A2A receptors are physiologically expressed in the spinal cord by astrocytes, microglia and oligodendrocytes. Soon after SCI (24 hours), these receptors showed enhanced expression in neurons. Both the A2A agonist and antagonist, administered intraperitoneally, reduced expression of the A2A receptor, ruling out the possibility that the neuroprotective effects

  10. 5-HT2A Gene Variants Moderate the Association between PTSD and Reduced Default Mode Network Connectivity.

    PubMed

    Miller, Mark W; Sperbeck, Emily; Robinson, Meghan E; Sadeh, Naomi; Wolf, Erika J; Hayes, Jasmeet P; Logue, Mark; Schichman, Steven A; Stone, Angie; Milberg, William; McGlinchey, Regina

    2016-01-01

    The default mode network (DMN) has been used to study disruptions of functional connectivity in a wide variety of psychiatric and neurological conditions, including posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD). Studies indicate that the serotonin system exerts a modulatory influence on DMN connectivity; however, no prior study has examined associations between serotonin receptor gene variants and DMN connectivity in either clinical or healthy samples. We examined serotonin receptor single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs), PTSD, and their interactions for association with DMN connectivity in 134 White non-Hispanic veterans. We began by analyzing candidate SNPs identified in prior meta-analyses of relevant psychiatric traits and found that rs7997012 (an HTR2A SNP), implicated previously in anti-depressant medication response in the Sequenced Treatment Alternatives for Depression study (STAR(*)D; McMahon et al., 2006), interacted with PTSD to predict reduced connectivity between the posterior cingulate cortex (PCC) and the right medial prefrontal cortex and right middle temporal gyrus (MTG). rs130058 (HTR1B) was associated with connectivity between the PCC and right angular gyrus. We then expanded our analysis to 99 HTR1B and HTR2A SNPs and found two HTR2A SNPs (rs977003 and rs7322347) that significantly moderated the association between PTSD severity and the PCC-right MTG component of the DMN after correcting for multiple testing. Finally, to obtain a more precise localization of the most significant SNP × PTSD interaction, we performed a whole cortex vertex-wise analysis of the rs977003 effect. This analysis revealed the locus of the pre-frontal effect to be in portions of the superior frontal gyrus, while the temporal lobe effect was centered in the middle and inferior temporal gyri. These findings point to the influence of HTR2A variants on DMN connectivity and advance knowledge of the role of 5-HT2A receptors in the neurobiology of PTSD.

  11. 5-HT2A Gene Variants Moderate the Association between PTSD and Reduced Default Mode Network Connectivity

    PubMed Central

    Miller, Mark W.; Sperbeck, Emily; Robinson, Meghan E.; Sadeh, Naomi; Wolf, Erika J.; Hayes, Jasmeet P.; Logue, Mark; Schichman, Steven A.; Stone, Angie; Milberg, William; McGlinchey, Regina

    2016-01-01

    The default mode network (DMN) has been used to study disruptions of functional connectivity in a wide variety of psychiatric and neurological conditions, including posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD). Studies indicate that the serotonin system exerts a modulatory influence on DMN connectivity; however, no prior study has examined associations between serotonin receptor gene variants and DMN connectivity in either clinical or healthy samples. We examined serotonin receptor single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs), PTSD, and their interactions for association with DMN connectivity in 134 White non-Hispanic veterans. We began by analyzing candidate SNPs identified in prior meta-analyses of relevant psychiatric traits and found that rs7997012 (an HTR2A SNP), implicated previously in anti-depressant medication response in the Sequenced Treatment Alternatives for Depression study (STAR*D; McMahon et al., 2006), interacted with PTSD to predict reduced connectivity between the posterior cingulate cortex (PCC) and the right medial prefrontal cortex and right middle temporal gyrus (MTG). rs130058 (HTR1B) was associated with connectivity between the PCC and right angular gyrus. We then expanded our analysis to 99 HTR1B and HTR2A SNPs and found two HTR2A SNPs (rs977003 and rs7322347) that significantly moderated the association between PTSD severity and the PCC-right MTG component of the DMN after correcting for multiple testing. Finally, to obtain a more precise localization of the most significant SNP × PTSD interaction, we performed a whole cortex vertex-wise analysis of the rs977003 effect. This analysis revealed the locus of the pre-frontal effect to be in portions of the superior frontal gyrus, while the temporal lobe effect was centered in the middle and inferior temporal gyri. These findings point to the influence of HTR2A variants on DMN connectivity and advance knowledge of the role of 5-HT2A receptors in the neurobiology of PTSD. PMID:27445670

  12. Transcriptional regulation of the bovine oxytocin receptor gene.

    PubMed

    Telgmann, Ralph; Bathgate, Ross A D; Jaeger, Stefanie; Tillmann, Gina; Ivell, Richard

    2003-03-01

    The oxytocin receptor (OTR) is expressed in the cow uterus at high levels at estrus and at term of pregnancy. This expression appears to be controlled mostly at the transcriptional level and correlates with increasing estrogen concentration and progesterone withdrawal. Approximately 3200 base pairs of the upstream region of the bovine OTR gene were cloned and analyzed using a combination of bioinformatic, electrophoretic mobility shift (EMSA), and transfection analyses. Using nuclear proteins from high- and low-expressing tissues, EMSA indicated no significant quantitative or qualitative changes in specific DNA-protein binding, suggesting that transcription is probably controlled by signalling systems targeting constitutive factors. Using various cell types, including primary and immortalized ruminant endometrial epithelial cells, as hosts for transfection of promoter-reporter constructs showed that endogenous activity resided only in the longest, i.e., 3.2-kb, construct but not in those shorter than 1.0 kb. While estrogen appears to be important in vivo, no effect of estradiol was found on any construct directly; only when the longest 3.2-kb construct was used in combination with some cotransfected steroid receptor cofactors, e.g., SRC1e, was an estradiol-dependent effect observed. A putative interferon-responsive element (IRE) was found at approximately -2,400 from the transcription start site. This element was shown to bind mouse IRF1 and IRF2 as well as similar proteins from bovine endometrial and myometrial nuclear extracts. This element also responded to these factors when cotransfected into various cell types. The bovine equivalents to IRF1 and IRF2 were molecularly cloned from endometrial tissue and shown to be expressed in a temporal fashion, supporting the role of interferon-tau in maternal recognition of pregnancy. Of many factors tested or analyzed, these components of the IFN system are the only ones found to significantly influence the transcription

  13. Optimizing T-cell receptor gene therapy for hematologic malignancies

    PubMed Central

    Morris, Emma C.

    2016-01-01

    Recent advances in genetic engineering have enabled the delivery of clinical trials using patient T cells redirected to recognize tumor-associated antigens. The most dramatic results have been seen with T cells engineered to express a chimeric antigen receptor (CAR) specific for CD19, a differentiation antigen expressed in B cells and B lineage malignancies. We propose that antigen expression in nonmalignant cells may contribute to the efficacy of T-cell therapy by maintaining effector function and promoting memory. Although CAR recognition is limited to cell surface structures, T-cell receptors (TCRs) can recognize intracellular proteins. This not only expands the range of tumor-associated self-antigens that are amenable for T-cell therapy, but also allows TCR targeting of the cancer mutagenome. We will highlight biological bottlenecks that potentially limit mutation-specific T-cell therapy and may require high-avidity TCRs that are capable of activating effector function when the concentrations of mutant peptides are low. Unexpectedly, modified TCRs with artificially high affinities function poorly in response to low concentration of cognate peptide but pose an increased safety risk as they may respond optimally to cross-reactive peptides. Recent gene-editing tools, such as transcription activator–like effector nucleases and clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats, provide a platform to delete endogenous TCR and HLA genes, which removes alloreactivity and decreases immunogenicity of third-party T cells. This represents an important step toward generic off-the-shelf T-cell products that may be used in the future for the treatment of large numbers of patients. PMID:27207802

  14. Liver X Receptor Genes Variants Modulate ALS Phenotype.

    PubMed

    Mouzat, Kevin; Molinari, Nicolas; Kantar, Jovana; Polge, Anne; Corcia, Philippe; Couratier, Philippe; Clavelou, Pierre; Juntas-Morales, Raul; Pageot, Nicolas; Lobaccaro, Jean -Marc A; Raoul, Cedric; Lumbroso, Serge; Camu, William

    2017-02-27

    Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) is one of the most severe motor neuron (MN) disorders in adults. Phenotype of ALS patients is highly variable and may be influenced by modulators of energy metabolism. Recent works have implicated the liver X receptors α and β (LXRs), either in the propagation process of ALS or in the maintenance of MN survival. LXRs are nuclear receptors activated by oxysterols, modulating cholesterol levels, a suspected modulator of ALS severity. In a cohort of 438 ALS patients and 330 healthy controls, the influence of LXR genes on ALS risk and phenotype was studied using single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs). The two LXRα SNPs rs2279238 and rs7120118 were shown to be associated with age at onset in ALS patients. Consistently, homozygotes were twice more correlated than were heterozygotes to delayed onset. The onset was thus delayed by 3.9 years for rs2279238 C/T carriers and 7.8 years for T/T carriers. Similar results were obtained for rs7120118 (+2.1 years and +6.7 years for T/C and C/C genotypes, respectively). The LXRβ SNP rs2695121 was also shown to be associated with a 30% increase of ALS duration (p = 0.0055, FDR = 0.044). The tested genotypes were not associated with ALS risk. These findings add further evidence to the suspected implication of LXR genes in the disease process of ALS and might open new perspectives in ALS therapeutics.

  15. Fc gamma receptor 3A and 2A polymorphisms do not predict response to rituximab in follicular lymphoma

    PubMed Central

    Kenkre, Vaishalee P.; Hong, Fangxin; Cerhan, James R.; Lewis, Marcia; Sullivan, Leslie; Williams, Michael E.; Gascoyne, Randy D.; Horning, Sandra J.; Kahl, Brad S.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose Pre-clinical studies suggest that single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in the Fcγ receptor (FCGR) genes influence response to rituximab, but the clinical relevance of this is uncertain. Experimental Design We prospectively obtained specimens for genotyping in the RESORT study, where 408 previously untreated, low tumor burden follicular lymphoma (FL) patients were treated with single agent rituximab. Patients received rituximab in 4 weekly doses and responders were randomized to rituximab re-treatment (RR) upon progression versus maintenance rituximab (MR). SNP genotyping was performed in 321 consenting patients. Results Response rates to initial therapy and response duration were correlated with the FCGR3A SNP at position 158 (rs396991) and the FCGR2A SNP at position 131 (rs1801274). The response rate to initial rituximab was 71%. No FCGR genotypes or grouping of genotypes were predictive of initial response. 289 patients were randomized to RR (n = 143) or to MR (n = 146). With a median follow up of 5.5 years, the 3-yr response duration in the RR arm and the MR arm was 50% and 78%, respectively. Genotyping was available in 235 of 289 randomized patients. In patients receiving RR (n = 115) or MR (n =120), response duration was not associated with any FCGR genotypes or genotype combinations. Conclusions Based on this analysis of treatment-naïve, low tumor burden FL, we conclude that the FCGR3A and FCGR2A SNPs do not confer differential responsiveness to rituximab. PMID:26510856

  16. New adenosine A2A receptor antagonists: actions on Parkinson's disease models.

    PubMed

    Pinna, Annalisa; Volpini, Rosaria; Cristalli, Gloria; Morelli, Micaela

    2005-04-11

    The 8-substituted 9-ethyladenine derivatives: 8-bromo-9-ethyladenine (ANR 82), 8-ethoxy- 9-ethyladenine (ANR 94), and 8-furyl-9-ethyladenine (ANR 152) have been characterized in vitro as adenosine receptor antagonists. Adenosine is deeply involved in the control of motor behaviour and substantial evidences indicate that adenosine A(2A) receptor antagonists improve motor deficits in animal models of Parkinson's disease. On this basis, the efficacy of ANR 82, ANR 94, and ANR 152 in rat models of Parkinson's disease was evaluated. All compounds tested reversed the catalepsy induced by haloperidol. However, in unilaterally 6-hydroxydopamine-lesioned rats, only ANR 94 and ANR 152 potentiated l-dihydroxy-phenylalanine (l-DOPA) effect on turning behaviour and induced contralateral turning behaviour in rats sensitised to l-DOPA. Taken together the results of this study indicate that some 8-substituted 9-ethyladenine derivatives ameliorate motor deficits in rat models of Parkinson's disease, suggesting a potential therapeutic role of these compounds.

  17. A2A adenosine receptors are up-regulated in lymphocytes from amyotrophic lateral sclerosis patients.

    PubMed

    Vincenzi, Fabrizio; Corciulo, Carmen; Targa, Martina; Casetta, Ilaria; Gentile, Mauro; Granieri, Enrico; Borea, Pier Andrea; Popoli, Patrizia; Varani, Katia

    2013-09-01

    Adenosine, a purine nucleoside interacting with A1, A2A, A2B and A3 adenosine receptors (ARs), is a potent endogenous modulator of inflammatory and neuronal processes involved in the pathophysiology of several neurodegenerative diseases. In the present study, ARs were investigated in lymphocytes from patients with amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) and compared with age-matched healthy subjects. In ALS patients A2AARs were analysed by using RT-PCR, Western blotting and saturation binding experiments. The effect of A2AAR stimulation on cyclic AMP levels was evaluated in lymphocytes from ALS patients and healthy subjects. An up-regulation of A2AARs was observed in ALS patients with respect to healthy subjects while A1, A2B and A3AR affinity and density did not change. In ALS patients, the A2AAR density values correlated with the Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis Functional Rating Scale-Revised (ALSFRS-R) scores. Furthermore, the stimulation of A2AARs mediated a significant increase in cyclic AMP levels in lymphocytes from ALS patients, with a higher potency than in lymphocytes from healthy subjects. In conclusion, the positive correlation between A2AAR density and ALSFRS-R scores could indicate a possible protective effect of this receptor subtype, representing an interesting starting point for the study of alternative therapeutic approaches for ALS based on A2AAR modulation.

  18. Biochemical profile of YM992, a novel selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor with 5-HT2A receptor antagonistic activity.

    PubMed

    Hatanaka, K; Nomura, T; Hidaka, K; Takeuchi, H; Yatsugi, S; Fujii, M; Yamaguchi, T

    1996-01-01

    YM992, (S)-2-[[(7-fluoro-4-indanyl)oxy]methyl]morpholine monohydrochloride, exhibited the biochemical profile of a selective serotonin (5-HT) reuptake inhibitor (SSRI) with 5-HT2A receptor antagonistic activity. YM922 showed the same high affinity as fluoxetine against the 5-HT reuptake site (Ki = 21 nM) and a similar affinity to that of crazodone against the 5-HT2A receptor (Ki = 86 nM). In other receptor binding studies, an affinity for the adrenergic alpha 1 receptor (Ki = 200 nM) and 5-HT2C receptor (Ki = 680 nM) was observed. In a monoamine uptake study, YM992 showed a selective 5-HT uptake inhibition (IC50 = 0.15 microM), but only very weakly inhibited both noradrenaline (NA) and dopamine (DA) uptake (IC50 = 3.1 microM (NA), > 10 microM (DA)). YM992 was also found to potently inhibit the aggregation of human platelets (IC50 = 1.9 microM), revealing antagonistic activity for the 5-HT2A receptor in vitro. Enhanced serotonergic neurotransmission, in particular that mediated by the 5-HT1A receptor, has recently been reported to be important in the long-term treatment of depressive disorders with antidepressants. In addition, some 5-HT1A receptor-mediated responses are known to be potentiated by co-administration of 5-HT2A receptor antagonists. Thus, YM992, having both selective 5-HT reuptake inhibition and 5-HT2A antagonistic activity, might show potent therapeutic activity as a novel antidepressant in comparison with conventional SSRIs.

  19. Molecular dynamics of 5-HT1A and 5-HT2A serotonin receptors with methylated buspirone analogues

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bronowska, Agnieszka; Chilmonczyk, Zdzisław; Leś, Andrzej; Edvardsen, Øyvind; Østensen, Roy; Sylte, Ingebrigt

    2001-11-01

    In the present study experimentally determined ligand selectivity of three methylated buspirone analogues (denoted as MM2, MM5 and P55) towards 5-HT1A and 5-HT2A serotonin receptors was theoretically investigated on a molecular level. The relationships between the ligand structure and 5-HT1A and 5-HT2A receptor affinities were studied and the results were found to be in agreement with the available site-directed mutagenesis and binding affinity data. Molecular dynamics (MD) simulations of ligand-receptor complexes were performed for each investigated analogue, docked twice into the central cavity of 5-HT1A/5-HT2A, each time in a different orientation. Present results were compared with our previous theoretical results, obtained for buspirone and its non-methylated analogues. It was found that due to the presence of the methyl group in the piperazine ring the ligand position alters and the structure of the ligand-receptor complex is modified. Further, the positions of derivatives with pyrimidinyl aromatic moiety and quinolinyl moiety are significantly different at the 5-HT2A receptor. Thus, methylation of such derivatives alters the 3D structures of ligand-receptor complexes in different ways. The ligand-induced changes of the receptor structures were also analysed. The obtained results suggest, that helical domains of both receptors have different dynamical behaviour. Moreover, both location and topography of putative binding sites for buspirone analogues are different at 5-HT1A and 5-HT2A receptors.

  20. The Dopamine D2 Receptor Gene, Perceived Parental Support, and Adolescent Loneliness: Longitudinal Evidence for Gene-Environment Interactions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    van Roekel, Eeske; Goossens, Luc; Scholte, Ron H. J.; Engels, Rutger C. M. E.; Verhagen, Maaike

    2011-01-01

    Background: Loneliness is a common problem in adolescence. Earlier research focused on genes within the serotonin and oxytocin systems, but no studies have examined the role of dopamine-related genes in loneliness. In the present study, we focused on the dopamine D2 receptor gene (DRD2). Methods: Associations among the DRD2, sex, parental support,…

  1. 5-HT2A receptor antagonist M100907 reduces serotonin synthesis: An autoradiographic study

    PubMed Central

    Hasegawa, Shu; Fikre-Merid, Maraki; Diksic, Mirko

    2013-01-01

    The effects of the administration of the serotonin (5-HT)2A antagonist, M100907, on 5-HT synthesis rates, were evaluated using the α-[14C]methyl-L-tryptophan (α-MTrp) autoradiographic method. In the treatment study, M100907 (10 mg/kg) was injected intraperitoneally 30 min before the α-MTrp injection (30 μCi over 2 min). A single dose of M100907 caused a significant decrease in the synthesis in the anterior olfactory nucleus, accumbens nucleus, frontal cortex, sensory-motor cortex, cingulate cortex, medial caudate-putamen, dorsal thalamus, substantia nigra, inferior collicus, raphe magnus nucleus, superior olive, and raphe pallidus nucleus. These data suggest that the terminal 5-HT2A receptors are involved in the regulation of 5-HT synthesis in the entire brain. Further, 5-HT synthesis is likely regulated by the 5-HT2A antagonistic property of M100907 in the cortices, anterior olfactory nucleus, caudate putamen, and nucleus accumbens. PMID:22056993

  2. Chronic methamphetamine treatment induces oxytocin receptor up-regulation in the amygdala and hypothalamus via an adenosine A2A receptor-independent mechanism.

    PubMed

    Zanos, Panos; Wright, Sherie R; Georgiou, Polymnia; Yoo, Ji Hoon; Ledent, Catherine; Hourani, Susanna M; Kitchen, Ian; Winsky-Sommerer, Raphaelle; Bailey, Alexis

    2014-04-01

    There is mounting evidence that the neuropeptide oxytocin is a possible candidate for the treatment of drug addiction. Oxytocin was shown to reduce methamphetamine self-administration, conditioned place-preference, hyperactivity and reinstatement in rodents, highlighting its potential for the management of methamphetamine addiction. Thus, we hypothesised that the central endogenous oxytocinergic system is dysregulated following chronic methamphetamine administration. We tested this hypothesis by examining the effect of chronic methamphetamine administration on oxytocin receptor density in mice brains with the use of quantitative receptor autoradiographic binding. Saline (4ml/kg/day, i.p.) or methamphetamine (1mg/kg/day, i.p.) was administered daily for 10 days to male, CD1 mice. Quantitative autoradiographic mapping of oxytocin receptors was carried out with the use of [(125)I]-vasotocin in brain sections of these animals. Chronic methamphetamine administration induced a region specific upregulation of oxytocin receptor density in the amygdala and hypothalamus, but not in the nucleus accumbens and caudate putamen. As there is evidence suggesting an involvement of central adenosine A2A receptors on central endogenous oxytocinergic function, we investigated whether these methamphetamine-induced oxytocinergic neuroadaptations are mediated via an A2A receptor-dependent mechanism. To test this hypothesis, autoradiographic oxytocin receptor binding was carried out in brain sections of male CD1 mice lacking A2A receptors which were chronically treated with methamphetamine (1mg/kg/day, i.p. for 10 days) or saline. Similar to wild-type animals, chronic methamphetamine administration induced a region-specific upregulation of oxytocin receptor binding in the amygdala and hypothalamus of A2A receptor knockout mice and no genotype effect was observed. These results indicate that chronic methamphetamine use can induce profound neuroadaptations of the oxytocinergic receptor

  3. Adenosine A(2A)-cannabinoid CB(1) receptor interaction: an integrative mechanism in striatal glutamatergic neurotransmission.

    PubMed

    Tebano, Maria Teresa; Martire, Alberto; Popoli, Patrizia

    2012-10-02

    The striatum is a subcortical area involved in sensorimotor, cognitive and emotional processes. Adenosine A(2A) receptors (A(2A)Rs) are highly expressed in the striatum, and their ability to establish functional and molecular interactions with many other receptors attributes to a pivotal role in the modulation and integration of striatal neurotransmission. This review will focus on the interaction between A(2A)Rs and cannabinoid CB(1) receptors (CB(1)Rs), taking it as a paradigmatic example of synaptic integration. Indeed, A(2A)Rs can exert an opposite (permissive vs. inhibitory) influence on CB1-dependent synaptic effect. These apparently irreconcilable functions could depend on a different role of pre- vs. postsynaptic A(2A)Rs, on their interaction with other receptors (namely adenosine A(1), metabotropic glutamate 5 and dopamine D2 receptors), and on whether A(2A)Rs form or not heteromers with CB(1)Rs. Besides providing a good example of the intricate pattern of events taking place in striatal synapses, the A(2A)/CB(1)R interaction proves very informative to understand the physiology of the basal ganglia and the mechanisms of related diseases. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled: Brain Integration.

  4. Food Cravings, Food Addiction, and a Dopamine-Resistant (DRD2 A1) Receptor Polymorphism in Asian American College Students

    PubMed Central

    Yeh, Joanna; Trang, Amy; Henning, Susanne M; Wilhalme, Holly; Carpenter, Catherine; Heber, David; Li, Zhaoping

    2016-01-01

    Background/Objectives In an era where obesity remains an important public health concern, food addiction has emerged as a possible contributor to obesity. The DRD2 gene is the most studied polymorphism. The aim of this study was to investigate a relationship between food craving and food addiction questionnaires, body composition measurements, and a dopamine-resistant receptor polymorphism (DRD2 A1) among healthy Asian Americans. Subjects/Methods A total of 84 Asian American college students were recruited. Participants underwent body composition measurement via bioelectrical impedance, answered subjective questionnaires, and had blood drawn for genotyping. Results Among Asian American college students, there was no difference in body composition (BMI, percent body fat) between the A1 (A1A1 or A1A2) and A2 (A2A2) groups. There were statistically significant differences in food cravings of carbohydrates and fast food on the Food Craving Inventory between the A1 and A2 groups (p=0.03), but not for sugar or fat. Among female Asian college students, there was also a difference on the Power of Food questionnaire (p=0.04), which was not seen among males. 13 out of 55 females also had > 30% body fat at a BMI of 21.4 to 28.5 kg/m2. Conclusion Greater carbohydrate and fast food craving was associated with the DRD2 A1 versus A2 allele among Asian Americans. Further studies examining the ability of dopamine agonists to affect food craving and to reduce body fat in Asian American are warranted. More studies in food addiction among obese Asian Americans are needed with careful definition of obesity, specifically for Asian women. PMID:27222427

  5. Localization of the A{sub 3} adenosine receptor gene (ADORA3) to human chromosome 1p

    SciTech Connect

    Monitto, C.L.; Levitt, R.C.; Holroyd, K.J.

    1995-04-10

    Adenosine modulates important physiologic functions involving the cardiovascular system, brain, kidneys, lungs, GI tract, and immune system. To date four adenosine receptors have been identified: A{sub 1}, A{sub 2a}, A{sub 2b}, and A{sub 3}. Activation of these receptors results in inhibition (A{sub 1} and A{sub 3}) or stimulation (A{sub 2a} and A{sub 2b}) of intracellular adenyl cyclase activity, stimulation of K{sup +} flux, inhibition of Ca{sup 2+} flux, and modulation of inositol phospholipid turnover. A{sub 3} receptors have been identified and sequenced in the testes, brain, lung, liver, kidney, and heart of various species, including the rat, mouse, and human. A{sub 3} receptor activation is responsible for release of inflammatory mediators from mast cells, which can cause allergic bronchoconstriction. In addition, they can produce systemic vasodilation and locomotor depression via activation of A{sub 3} receptors in the brain. Given the potential importance of A{sub 3} receptor activity in the pathogenesis of pulmonary, cardiovascular, and central nervous system disease states, we set out to localize the human A{sub 3} adenosine receptor gene (ADORA3). 9 refs., 1 fig.

  6. Common α2A and α2C adrenergic receptor polymorphisms do not affect plasma membrane trafficking.

    PubMed

    Hurt, Carl M; Sorensen, Matt W; Angelotti, Timothy

    2014-06-01

    Various naturally occurring polymorphic forms of human G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs) have been identified and linked to diverse pathological diseases, including receptors for vasopressin type 2 (nephrogenic diabetes insipidus) and gonadotropin releasing hormone (hypogonadotropic hypogonadism). In most cases, polymorphic amino acid mutations disrupt protein folding, altering receptor function as well as plasma membrane expression. Other pathological GPCR variants have been found that do not alter receptor function, but instead affect only plasma membrane trafficking (e.g., delta opiate and histamine type 1 receptors). Thus, altered membrane trafficking with retained receptor function may be another mechanism causing polymorphic GPCR dysfunction. Two common human α2A and α2C adrenergic receptor (AR) variants have been identified (α2A N251K and α2C Δ322-325 ARs), but pharmacological analysis of ligand binding and second messenger signaling has not consistently demonstrated altered receptor function. However, possible alterations in plasma membrane trafficking have not been investigated. We utilized a systematic approach previously developed for the study of GPCR trafficking motifs and accessory proteins to assess whether these α2 AR variants affected intracellular trafficking or plasma membrane expression. By combining immunofluorescent microscopy, glycosidic processing analysis, and quantitative fluorescent-activated cell sorting (FACS), we demonstrate that neither variant receptor had altered intracellular localization, glycosylation, nor plasma membrane expression compared to wild-type α2 ARs. Therefore, pathopharmacological properties of α2A N251K and α2C Δ322-325 ARs do not appear to be due to altered receptor pharmacology or plasma membrane trafficking, but may involve interactions with other intracellular signaling cascades or proteins.

  7. Expression of androgen receptor target genes in skeletal muscle.

    PubMed

    Rana, Kesha; Lee, Nicole K L; Zajac, Jeffrey D; MacLean, Helen E

    2014-01-01

    We aimed to determine the mechanisms of the anabolic actions of androgens in skeletal muscle by investigating potential androgen receptor (AR)-regulated genes in in vitro and in vivo models. The expression of the myogenic regulatory factor myogenin was significantly decreased in skeletal muscle from testosterone-treated orchidectomized male mice compared to control orchidectomized males, and was increased in muscle from male AR knockout mice that lacked DNA binding activity (AR(ΔZF2)) versus wildtype mice, demonstrating that myogenin is repressed by the androgen/AR pathway. The ubiquitin ligase Fbxo32 was repressed by 12 h dihydrotestosterone treatment in human skeletal muscle cell myoblasts, and c-Myc expression was decreased in testosterone-treated orchidectomized male muscle compared to control orchidectomized male muscle, and increased in AR(∆ZF2) muscle. The expression of a group of genes that regulate the transition from myoblast proliferation to differentiation, Tceal7 , p57(Kip2), Igf2 and calcineurin Aa, was increased in AR(∆ZF2) muscle, and the expression of all but p57(Kip2) was also decreased in testosterone-treated orchidectomized male muscle compared to control orchidectomized male muscle. We conclude that in males, androgens act via the AR in part to promote peak muscle mass by maintaining myoblasts in the proliferative state and delaying the transition to differentiation during muscle growth and development, and by suppressing ubiquitin ligase-mediated atrophy pathways to preserve muscle mass in adult muscle.

  8. Melanocortin-4 receptor gene mutations in obese Slovak children.

    PubMed

    Stanikova, D; Surova, M; Ticha, L; Petrasova, M; Virgova, D; Huckova, M; Skopkova, M; Lobotkova, D; Valentinova, L; Mokan, M; Stanik, J; Klimes, I; Gasperikova, D

    2015-01-01

    The most common etiology of non-syndromic monogenic obesity are mutations in gene for the Melanocortin-4 receptor (MC485) with variable prevalence in different countries (1.2-6.3 % of obese children). The aim of our study was 1) to search for MC4R mutations in obese children in Slovakia and compare their prevalence with other European countries, and 2) to describe the phenotype of the mutation carriers. DNA analysis by direct Sanger sequencing of the coding exons and intron/exon boundaries of the MC4R gene was performed in 268 unrelated Slovak children and adolescents with body mass index above the 97(th) percentile for age and sex and obesity onset up to 11 years (mean 4.3+/-2.8 years). Two different previously described heterozygous loss of function MC4R variants (i.e. p.Ser19Alafs*34, p.Ser127Leu) were identified in two obese probands, and one obese (p.Ser19Alafs*34), and one lean (p.Ser127Leu) adult family relatives. No loss of function variants were found in lean controls. The prevalence of loss-of-function MC4R variants in obese Slovak children was 0.7 %, what is one of the lowest frequencies in Europe.

  9. Anti-Epidermal Growth Factor Receptor Gene Therapy for Glioblastoma

    PubMed Central

    Hicks, Martin J.; Chiuchiolo, Maria J.; Ballon, Douglas; Dyke, Jonathan P.; Aronowitz, Eric; Funato, Kosuke; Tabar, Viviane; Havlicek, David; Fan, Fan; Sondhi, Dolan; Kaminsky, Stephen M.; Crystal, Ronald G.

    2016-01-01

    Glioblastoma multiforme (GBM) is the most common and aggressive primary intracranial brain tumor in adults with a mean survival of 14 to 15 months. Aberrant activation of the epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) plays a significant role in GBM progression, with amplification or overexpression of EGFR in 60% of GBM tumors. To target EGFR expressed by GBM, we have developed a strategy to deliver the coding sequence for cetuximab, an anti-EGFR antibody, directly to the CNS using an adeno-associated virus serotype rh.10 gene transfer vector. The data demonstrates that single, local delivery of an anti-EGFR antibody by an AAVrh.10 vector coding for cetuximab (AAVrh.10Cetmab) reduces GBM tumor growth and increases survival in xenograft mouse models of a human GBM EGFR-expressing cell line and patient-derived GBM. AAVrh10.CetMab-treated mice displayed a reduction in cachexia, a significant decrease in tumor volume and a prolonged survival following therapy. Adeno-associated-directed delivery of a gene encoding a therapeutic anti-EGFR monoclonal antibody may be an effective strategy to treat GBM. PMID:27711187

  10. The Sigma-2 Receptor and Progesterone Receptor Membrane Component 1 are Different Binding Sites Derived From Independent Genes

    PubMed Central

    Chu, Uyen B.; Mavlyutov, Timur A.; Chu, Ming-Liang; Yang, Huan; Schulman, Amanda; Mesangeau, Christophe; McCurdy, Christopher R.; Guo, Lian-Wang; Ruoho, Arnold E.

    2015-01-01

    The sigma-2 receptor (S2R) is a potential therapeutic target for cancer and neuronal diseases. However, the identity of the S2R has remained a matter of debate. Historically, the S2R has been defined as (1) a binding site with high affinity to 1,3-di-o-tolylguanidine (DTG) and haloperidol but not to the selective sigma-1 receptor ligand (+)-pentazocine, and (2) a protein of 18–21 kDa, as shown by specific photolabeling with [3H]-Azido-DTG and [125I]-iodoazido-fenpropimorph ([125I]-IAF). Recently, the progesterone receptor membrane component 1 (PGRMC1), a 25 kDa protein, was reported to be the S2R (Nature Communications, 2011, 2:380). To confirm this identification, we created PGRMC1 knockout NSC34 cell lines using the CRISPR/Cas9 technology. We found that in NSC34 cells devoid of or overexpressing PGRMC1, the maximum [3H]-DTG binding to the S2R (Bmax) as well as the DTG-protectable [125I]-IAF photolabeling of the S2R were similar to those of wild-type control cells. Furthermore, the affinities of DTG and haloperidol for PGRMC1 (KI = 472 μM and 350 μM, respectively), as determined in competition with [3H]-progesterone, were more than 3 orders of magnitude lower than those reported for the S2R (20–80 nM). These results clarify that PGRMC1 and the S2R are distinct binding sites expressed by different genes. PMID:26870805

  11. Mannose receptor-mediated gene delivery into antigen presenting dendritic cells.

    PubMed

    Diebold, Sandra S; Plank, Christian; Cotten, Matt; Wagner, Ernst; Zenke, Martin

    2002-11-01

    Dendritic cells are professional antigen presenting cells and are unique in their ability to prime naïve T cells. Gene modification of dendritic cells is of particular interest for immunotherapy of diseases where the immune system has failed or is aberrantly regulated, such as in cancer or autoimmune disease, respectively. Dendritic cells abundantly express mannose receptor and mannose receptor-related receptors, and receptor-mediated gene transfer via mannose receptor offers a versatile tool for targeted gene delivery into these cells. Accordingly, mannose polyethylenimine DNA transfer complexes were generated and used for gene delivery into dendritic cells. Mannose receptor belongs to the group of scavenger receptors that allow dendritic cells to take up pathogenic material, which is directed for degradation and MHC class II presentation. Therefore, a limiting step of transgene expression by mannose receptor-mediated gene delivery is endosomal degradation of DNA. Several strategies have been explored to overcome this limitation including the addition of endosomolytic components to DNA transfer complexes like adenovirus particles and influenza peptides. Here, we review the current understanding of mannose receptor-mediated gene delivery into dendritic cells and discuss strategies to identify appropriate endosomolytic agents to improve DNA transfer efficacy.

  12. Effect of metallothionein 2A gene polymorphism on allele-specific gene expression and metal content in prostate cancer

    SciTech Connect

    Krześlak, Anna; Forma, Ewa; Jóźwiak, Paweł; Szymczyk, Agnieszka; Bryś, Magdalena

    2013-05-01

    Metallothioneins (MTs) are highly conserved, small molecular weight, cysteine rich proteins. The major physiological functions of metallothioneins include homeostasis of essential metals Zn and Cu and protection against cytotoxicity of heavy metals. The aim of this study was to determine whether there is an association between the − 5 A/G single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP; rs28366003) in core promoter region and expression of metallothionein 2A (MT2A) gene and metal concentration in prostate cancer tissues. MT2A polymorphism was determined by the polymerase chain reaction–restriction fragment length polymorphism technique (PCR–RFLP) using 412 prostate cancer tissue samples. MT2A gene expression analysis was performed by real-time RT-PCR method. A significant association between rs28366003 genotype and MT2A expression level was found. The average mRNA level was found to be lower among minor allele carriers (the risk allele) than average expression among homozygotes for the major allele. Metal levels were analyzed by flamed atomic absorption spectrometer system. Highly statistically significant associations were detected between the SNP and Cd, Zn, Cu and Pb levels. The results of Spearman's rank correlation showed that the expressions of MT2A and Cu, Pb and Ni concentrations were negatively correlated. On the basis of the results obtained in this study, we suggest that SNP polymorphism may affect the MT2A gene expression in prostate and this is associated with some metal accumulation. - Highlights: • MT2A gene expression and metal content in prostate cancer tissues • Association between SNP (rs28366003) and expression of MT2A • Significant associations between the SNP and Cd, Zn, Cu and Pb levels • Negative correlation between MT2A gene expression and Cu, Pb and Ni levels.

  13. Androgen Activation of the Folate Receptor α Gene through Partial Tethering of the Androgen Receptor by C/EBPα○

    PubMed Central

    Sivakumaran, Suneethi; Zhang, Juan; Kelley, Karen M.M.; Gonit, Mesfin; Hao, Hong; Ratnam, Manohar

    2010-01-01

    The folate receptor α (FRα) is critical for normal embryonic and fetal development. The receptor has a relatively narrow tissue specificity which includes the visceral endoderm and the placenta and mediates delivery of folate, inadequacy of which results in termination of pregnancy or developmental defects. We have previously reported that the FRα gene is negatively and directly regulated by estrogen and positively but indirectly by progesterone and glucocorticoid. To further investigate hormonal control of this gene and in view of the growing evidence for the importance of the androgen receptor (AR) in endometrial and placental functions, we examined the response of the FRα gene to androgen. Here we demonstrate that the FRα gene is directly activated by androgen. The P4 promoter of the FRα gene is the target of hormone-dependent activation by the androgen receptor (AR) in a manner that is co-activator-dependent. The site of functional association of AR in the FRα gene maps to a 35bp region occurring ~1500bp upstream of the target promoter. The functional elements within this region are an androgen response element (ARE) half-site and a non-canonical C/EBP element that cooperate to recruit AR in a manner that is dependent on the DNA-bound C/EBPα. Since the placenta is rich in C/EBPα, the findings underscore the multiplicity of mechanisms by which the FRα gene is under the exquisite control of steroid hormones. PMID:20817090

  14. Differential expression of hoxa2a and hoxa2b genes during striped bass embryonic development.

    PubMed

    Scemama, Jean-Luc; Vernon, Jamie L; Stellwag, Edmund J

    2006-10-01

    Here, we report the cloning and expression analysis of two previously uncharacterized paralogs group 2 Hox genes, striped bass hoxa2a and hoxa2b, and the developmental regulatory gene egr2. We demonstrate that both Hox genes are expressed in the rhombomeres of the developing hindbrain and the pharyngeal arches albeit with different spatio-temporal distributions relative to one another. While both hoxa2a and hoxa2b share the r1/r2 anterior boundary of expression characteristic of the hoxa2 paralog genes of other species, hoxa2a gene expression extends throughout the hindbrain, whereas hoxa2b gene expression is restricted to the r2-r5 region. Egr2, which is used in this study as an early developmental marker of rhombomeres 3 and 5, is expressed in two distinct bands with a location and spacing typical for these two rhombomeres in other species. Within the pharyngeal arches, hoxa2a is expressed at higher levels in the second pharyngeal arch, while hoxa2b is more strongly expressed in the posterior arches. Further, hoxa2b expression within the arches becomes undetectable at 60hpf, while hoxa2a expression is maintained at least up until the beginning of chondrogenesis. Comparison of the striped bass HoxA cluster paralog group 2 (PG2) genes to their orthologs and trans-orthologs shows that the striped bass hoxa2a gene expression pattern is similar to the overall expression pattern described for the hoxa2 genes in the lobe-finned fish lineage and for the hoxa2b gene from zebrafish. It is notable that the pharyngeal arch expression pattern of the striped bass hoxa2a gene is more divergent from its sister paralog, hoxa2b, than from the zebrafish hoxa2b gene. Overall, our results suggest that differences in the Hox PG2 gene complement of striped bass and zebrafish affects both their rhombomeric and pharyngeal arch expression patterns and may account for the similarities in pharyngeal arch expression between striped bass hoxa2a and zebrafish hoxa2b.

  15. Characterization of the hormone responsive element involved in the regulation of the progesterone receptor gene.

    PubMed Central

    Savouret, J F; Bailly, A; Misrahi, M; Rauch, C; Redeuilh, G; Chauchereau, A; Milgrom, E

    1991-01-01

    The transcription of the progesterone receptor gene is induced by estrogens and decreased by progestins. Studies were performed to define the regions of the gene and the molecular mechanisms involved. No hormonal regulation could be observed using 5' flanking regions of the gene up to -2762 in front of a heterologous gene. Estrogen and progestin regulation could be observed only when using fragments of the gene extending down to +788. Progressive deletions from the 5' and 3' ends, site-directed mutagenesis and DNase protection experiments with purified estrogen receptor suggested that the biologically active estrogen responsive element (ERE) is present at +698/+723, overlapping the initiation of translation. An oligonucleotide was synthesized bearing this ERE and shown to impart estrogen inducibility to a heterologous gene. Its regulation by anti-estrogens corresponded to that of the in situ progesterone receptor gene since tamoxifen was a partial agonist whereas ICI 164384 was a full antagonist. This ERE also mediated down-regulation by progestins in the presence of the progesterone receptor, even though it has no progesterone receptor binding ability. DNase footprinting showed that this effect was not due to a decrease of estrogen receptor affinity for the ERE in the presence of progesterone receptor. Finally, use of deletion mutants of the progesterone receptor showed that the steroid binding and the DNA binding domains were necessary for down-regulation whereas deletions of various parts of the N-terminal domain were without effect. Images PMID:2050123

  16. Olfactory Receptor Gene Polymorphisms and Nonallergic Vasomotor Rhinitis

    PubMed Central

    Bernstein, Jonathan A.; Zhang, Ge; Jin, Li; Abbott, Carol; Nebert, Daniel W.

    2009-01-01

    We sought a genotype-phenotype association: between single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in olfactory receptor (OR) genes from the two largest OR gene clusters and odor-triggered nonallergic vasomotor rhinitis (nVMR). In the initial pedigree screen, using transmission disequilibrium test (TDT) analysis, six SNPs showed “significant” p-values between 0.0449 and 0.0043. In a second case-control population, the previously identified six SNPs did not re-emerge, whereas four new SNPs showed p-values between 0.0490 and 0.0001. Combining both studies, none of the SNPs in the TDT analysis survived the Bonferroni correction. In the population study, one SNP showed an empirical p-value of 0.0066 by shuffling cases and controls with 105 replicates; however, the p-value for this SNP was 0.83 in the pedigree study. This study emphasizes that underpowered studies having p-values between <0.05 and 0.0001 should be regarded as inconclusive and require further replication before concluding the study is “informative.” However, we believe that our hypothesis that an association between OR genotypes and the nVMR phenotype remains feasible. Future studies using either a genomewide association study of all OR gene-pseudogene regions throughout the genome—at the current recommended density of 2.5 to 5 kb per tag SNP—or studies incorporating microarray analyses of the entire “OR genome” in well-characterized nVMR patients are required. PMID:18446592

  17. Dopamine receptor DRD4 gene and stressful life events in persistent attention deficit hyperactivity disorder.

    PubMed

    Sánchez-Mora, Cristina; Richarte, Vanesa; Garcia-Martínez, Iris; Pagerols, Mireia; Corrales, Montse; Bosch, Rosa; Vidal, Raquel; Viladevall, Laia; Casas, Miguel; Cormand, Bru; Ramos-Quiroga, Josep Antoni; Ribasés, Marta

    2015-09-01

    We performed a case-control association study in persistent ADHD considering eight candidate genes (DRD4, DAT1/SLC6A3, COMT, ADRA2A, CES1, CYP2D6, LPHN3, and OPRM1) and found additional evidence for the involvement of the Dup 120bp and VNTR 48bp functional variants within the dopamine receptor DRD4 gene in the etiology of adult ADHD. We subsequently investigated the interaction of stressful life events with these two DRD4 polymorphisms, and the impact of such events on the severity of ADHD symptomatology. The gene-by-environment analysis revealed an independent effect of stressful experiences on the severity of persistent ADHD, and a gene-by-environment interaction on the inattentive dimension of the disorder, where non carriers of the Dup 120bp (L) - VNTR 48bp (7R) haplotype were more sensitive to environmental adversity than carriers. These results are in agreement with previous works reporting a relationship between DRD4 and the effect of adverse experiences, which may explain the discordant findings in previous genetic studies and strengthen the importance of gene-by-environment interactions on the severity of ADHD. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  18. MYO7A and USH2A gene sequence variants in Italian patients with Usher syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Sodi, Andrea; Mariottini, Alessandro; Passerini, Ilaria; Murro, Vittoria; Bianchi, Benedetta; Menchini, Ugo; Torricelli, Francesca

    2014-01-01

    Purpose To analyze the spectrum of sequence variants in the MYO7A and USH2A genes in a group of Italian patients affected by Usher syndrome (USH). Methods Thirty-six Italian patients with a diagnosis of USH were recruited. They received a standard ophthalmologic examination, visual field testing, optical coherence tomography (OCT) scan, and electrophysiological tests. Fluorescein angiography and fundus autofluorescence imaging were performed in selected cases. All the patients underwent an audiologic examination for the 0.25–8,000 Hz frequencies. Vestibular function was evaluated with specific tests. DNA samples were analyzed for sequence variants of the MYO7A gene (for USH1) and the USH2A gene (for USH2) with direct sequencing techniques. A few patients were analyzed for both genes. Results In the MYO7A gene, ten missense variants were found; three patients were compound heterozygous, and two were homozygous. Thirty-four USH2A gene variants were detected, including eight missense variants, nine nonsense variants, six splicing variants, and 11 duplications/deletions; 19 patients were compound heterozygous, and three were homozygous. Four MYO7A and 17 USH2A variants have already been described in the literature. Among the novel mutations there are four USH2A large deletions, detected with multiplex ligation dependent probe amplification (MLPA) technology. Two potentially pathogenic variants were found in 27 patients (75%). Affected patients showed variable clinical pictures without a clear genotype-phenotype correlation. Conclusions Ten variants in the MYO7A gene and 34 variants in the USH2A gene were detected in Italian patients with USH at a high detection rate. A selective analysis of these genes may be valuable for molecular analysis, combining diagnostic efficiency with little time wastage and less resource consumption. PMID:25558175

  19. A2A adenosine receptor regulates the human blood brain barrier permeability

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Do-Geun; Bynoe, Margaret S.

    2015-01-01

    The blood brain barrier (BBB) symbolically represents the gateway to the central nervous system. It is a single layer of specialized endothelial cells that coats the central nervous system (CNS) vasculature and physically separates the brain environment from the blood constituents, to maintain the homeostasis of the CNS. However, this protective measure is a hindrance to the delivery of therapeutics to treat neurological diseases. Here, we show that activation of A2A adenosine receptor (AR) with an FDA-approved agonist potently permeabilizes an in vitro primary human brain endothelial barrier (hBBB) to the passage of chemotherapeutic drugs and T cells. T cell migration under AR signaling occurs primarily by paracellular transendothelial route. Permeabilization of the hBBB is rapid, time-dependent and reversible and is mediated by morphological changes in actin-cytoskeletal reorganization induced by RhoA signaling and a potent down-regulation of Claudin-5 and VE-Cadherin. Moreover, the kinetics of BBB permeability in mice closely overlaps with the permeability kinetics of the hBBB. These data suggest that activation of A2A AR is an endogenous mechanism that may be used for CNS drug delivery in human. PMID:25262373

  20. Estrogen receptor genes in gastropods: phylogenetic divergence and gene expression responses to a synthetic estrogen.

    PubMed

    Hultin, Cecilia L; Hallgren, Per; Hansson, Maria C

    2016-11-01

    Endocrine disrupting chemicals (EDCs) have the potential to affect development and reproduction in gastropods. However, one is today lacking basic understanding of the Molluscan endocrine system and one can therefore not fully explain these EDC-induced affects. Furthermore, only a few genes that potentially may be connected to the endocrine system have been sequenced in gastropods. An example is the estrogen receptor gene (er) that have been identified in a restricted number of freshwater and marine gastropods. Here, we have identified a new partial coding sequence of an estrogen receptor gene (er) in the European common heterobranch Radix balthica. The following phylogenetic analysis divided the ers of heterobranchs and ceanogastropods in two branches. Furthermore, exposure to the synthetic estrogen 17α-ethinylestradiol (EE2) showed that exposure could significantly affect er expression level in the heterobranch R. balthica. This paper is the first that phylogenetically compares gastropods' er, basal er expression profiles, and transcriptional estrogenic responses in gastropods from two different evolutionary groups.

  1. Olfactory receptor accessory proteins play crucial roles in receptor function and gene choice

    PubMed Central

    Sharma, Ruchira; Ishimaru, Yoshiro; Davison, Ian; Ikegami, Kentaro; Chien, Ming-Shan; You, Helena; Chi, Quiyi; Kubota, Momoka; Yohda, Masafumi; Ehlers, Michael; Matsunami, Hiroaki

    2017-01-01

    Each of the olfactory sensory neurons (OSNs) chooses to express a single G protein-coupled olfactory receptor (OR) from a pool of hundreds. Here, we show the receptor transporting protein (RTP) family members play a dual role in both normal OR trafficking and determining OR gene choice probabilities. Rtp1 and Rtp2 double knockout mice (RTP1,2DKO) show OR trafficking defects and decreased OSN activation. Surprisingly, we discovered a small subset of the ORs are expressed in larger numbers of OSNs despite the presence of fewer total OSNs in RTP1,2DKO. Unlike typical ORs, some overrepresented ORs show robust cell surface expression in heterologous cells without the co-expression of RTPs. We present a model in which developing OSNs exhibit unstable OR expression until they choose to express an OR that exits the ER or undergo cell death. Our study sheds light on the new link between OR protein trafficking and OR transcriptional regulation. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.21895.001 PMID:28262096

  2. Adenosine A2A receptor blockade differentially influences excitotoxic mechanisms at pre- and postsynaptic sites in the rat striatum.

    PubMed

    Tebano, Maria Teresa; Pintor, Annita; Frank, Claudio; Domenici, Maria Rosaria; Martire, Alberto; Pepponi, Rita; Potenza, Rosa Luisa; Grieco, Rosa; Popoli, Patrizia

    2004-07-01

    Adenosine A(2A) receptor antagonists are being regarded as potential neuroprotective drugs, although the mechanisms underlying their effects need to be better studied. The aim of this work was to investigate further the mechanism of the neuroprotective action of A(2A) receptor antagonists in models of pre- and postsynaptic excitotoxicity. In microdialysis studies, the intrastriatal perfusion of the A(2A) receptor antagonist ZM 241385 (5 and 50 nM) significantly reduced, in an inversely dose-dependent way, the raise in glutamate outflow induced by 5 mM quinolinic acid (QA). In rat corticostriatal slices, ZM 241385 (30-100 nM) significantly reduced 4-aminopyridine (4-AP)-induced paired-pulse inhibition (PPI; an index of neurotransmitter release), whereas it worsened the depression of field potential amplitude elicited by N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA; 12.5 and 50 microM). The A(2A) antagonist SCH 58261 (30 nM) mimicked the effects of ZM 241385, whereas the A(2A) agonist CGS 21680 (100 nM) showed a protective influence toward 50 microM NMDA. In rat striatal neurons, 50 nM ZM 241385 did not affect the increase in [Ca(2+)](i) or the release of lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) induced by 100 and 300 microM NMDA, respectively. The ability of ZM 241385 to prevent QA-induced glutamate outflow and 4-AP-induced effects confirms that A(2A) receptor antagonists have inhibitory effects on neurotransmitter release, whereas the results obtained toward NMDA-induced effects suggest that A(2A) receptor blockade does not reduce, or even amplifies, excitotoxic mechanisms due to direct NMDA receptor stimulation. This indicates that the neuroprotective potential of A(2A) antagonists may be evident mainly in models of neurodegeneration in which presynaptic mechanisms play a major role.

  3. Age-dependent effects on social interaction of NMDA GluN2A receptor subtype-selective antagonism.

    PubMed

    Green, Torrian L; Burket, Jessica A; Deutsch, Stephen I

    2016-07-01

    NMDA receptor-mediated neurotransmission is implicated in the regulation of normal sociability in mice. The heterotetrameric NMDA receptor is composed of two obligatory GluN1 and either two "modulatory" GluN2A or GluN2B receptor subunits. GluN2A and GluN2B-containing receptors differ in terms of their developmental expression, distribution between synaptic and extrasynaptic locations, and channel kinetic properties, among other differences. Because age-dependent differences in disruptive effects of GluN2A and GluN2B subtype-selective antagonists on sociability and locomotor activity have been reported in rats, the current investigation explored age-dependent effects of PEAQX, a GluN2A subtype-selective antagonist, on sociability, stereotypic behaviors emerging during social interaction, and spatial working memory in 4- and 8-week old male Swiss Webster mice. The data implicate an age-dependent contribution of GluN2A-containing NMDA receptors to the regulation of normal social interaction in mice. Specifically, at a dose of PEAQX devoid of any effect on locomotor activity and mouse rotarod performance, the social interaction of 8-week old mice was disrupted without any effect on the social salience of a stimulus mouse. Moreover, PEAQX attenuated stereotypic behavior emerging during social interaction in 4- and 8-week old mice. However, PEAQX had no effect on spontaneous alternations, a measure of spatial working memory, suggesting that neural circuits mediating sociability and spatial working memory may be discrete and dissociable from each other. Also, the data suggest that the regulation of stereotypic behaviors and sociability may occur independently of each other. Because expression of GluN2A-containing NMDA receptors occurs at a later developmental stage, they may be more involved in mediating the pathogenesis of ASDs in patients with histories of "regression" after a period of normal development than GluN2B receptors.

  4. 5-HT2A receptors control body temperature in mice during LPS-induced inflammation via regulation of NO production.

    PubMed

    Voronova, Irina P; Khramova, Galina M; Kulikova, Elizabeth A; Petrovskii, Dmitrii V; Bazovkina, Daria V; Kulikov, Alexander V

    2016-01-01

    G protein-coupled 5-HT2A receptors are involved in the regulation of numerous normal and pathological physiological functions. At the same time, its involvement in the regulation of body temperature (Tb) in normal conditions is obscure. Here we study the effect of the 5-HT2A receptor activation or blockade on Tb in sick animals. The experiments were carried out on adult C57BL/6 mouse males. Systemic inflammation and sickness were produced by lipopolysaccharide (LPS, 0.1mg/kg, ip), while the 5-HT2A receptor was stimulated or blocked through the administration of the receptor agonist DOI or antagonist ketanserin (1mg/kg), respectively. LPS, DOI or ketanserin alone produced no effect on Tb. However, administration of LPS together with a peripheral or central ketanserin injection reduced Tb (32.2°C). Ketanserin reversed the LPS-induced expression of inducible NO synthase in the brain. Consequently, an involvement of NO in the mechanism of the hypothermic effect of ketanserin in sick mice was hypothesized. Administration of LPS together with NO synthase inhibitor, l-nitro-arginine methyl ester (60mg/kg, ip) resulted in deep (28.5°C) and prolonged (8h) hypothermia, while administration of l-nitro-arginine methyl ester alone produced no effect on Tb. Thus, 5-HT2A receptors play a key role in Tb control in sick mice. Blockade of this GPCR produces hypothermia in mice with systemic inflammation via attenuation of LPS-induced NO production. These results indicate an unexpected role of 5-HT2A receptors in inflammation and NO production and have a considerable biological impact on understanding the mechanism of animal adaptation to pathogens and parasites. Moreover, adverse side effects of 5-HT2A receptor antagonists in patients with inflammation may be expected.

  5. The selective 5-HT2A receptor antagonist M100907 enhances antidepressant-like behavioral effects of the SSRI fluoxetine.

    PubMed

    Marek, Gerard J; Martin-Ruiz, Raul; Abo, Allyson; Artigas, Francesc

    2005-12-01

    The addition of low doses of atypical antipsychotic drugs, which saturate 5-HT(2A) receptors, enhances the therapeutic effect of selective serotonin (5-hydroxytryptamine; 5-HT) reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs) in patients with major depression as well as treatment-refractory obsessive-compulsive disorder. The purpose of the present studies was to test the effects of combined treatment with a low dose of a highly selective 5-HT(2A) receptor antagonist (M100907; formerly MDL 100,907) and low doses of a SSRI using a behavioral screen in rodents (the differential-reinforcement-of low rate 72-s schedule of reinforcement; DRL 72-s) which previously has been shown to be sensitive both to 5-HT(2) antagonists and SSRIs. M100907 has a approximately 100-fold or greater selectivity at 5-HT(2A) receptors vs other 5-HT receptor subtypes, and would not be expected to appreciably occupy non-5-HT(2A) receptors at doses below 100 microg/kg. M100907 increased the reinforcement rate, decreased the response rate, and shifted the inter-response time distributions to the right in a pattern characteristic of antidepressant drugs. In addition, a positive synergistic interaction occurred when testing low doses of the 5-HT(2A) receptor antagonist (6.25-12.5 microg/kg) with clinically relevant doses of the SSRI fluoxetine (2.5-5 mg/kg), which both exerted minimal antidepressant-like effects by themselves. In vivo microdialysis study revealed that a low dose of M100907 (12.5 microg/kg) did not elevate extracellular 5-HT levels in the prefrontal cortex over those observed with fluoxetine alone (5 mg/kg). These results will be discussed in the context that the combined blockade of 5-HT(2A) receptors and serotonin transporters (SERT) may result in greater efficacy in treating neuropsychiatric syndromes than blocking either site alone.

  6. A2A receptor antagonists do not induce dyskinesias in drug-naive or L-dopa sensitized rats.

    PubMed

    Jones, N; Bleickardt, C; Mullins, D; Parker, E; Hodgson, R

    2013-09-01

    L-dopa, the precursor to dopamine, is currently the gold standard treatment for Parkinson's disease (PD). However, chronic exposure is associated with L-dopa-induced dyskinesias (LIDs), a serious side effect characterized by involuntary movements. Adenosine A2A receptor antagonists have been studied as a novel non-dopaminergic PD treatment. Because A2A receptor antagonists do not act on dopamine receptors, it has been hypothesized that they will not induce dyskinesias characteristic of L-dopa. To test this hypothesis in a rodent model, the A2A receptor antagonists SCH 412348 (3 mg/kg), vipadenant (10 mg/kg), caffeine (30 mg/kg), or istradefylline (3 mg/kg) were chronically (19-22 days) administered to Sprague Dawley rats, and dyskinetic behaviors were scored across this chronic dosing paradigm. Unlike L-dopa, there was no evidence of dyskinetic activity resulting from any of the four A2A receptor antagonists tested. When delivered to animals previously sensitized with L-dopa (6 mg/kg), SCH 412348, vipadenant, caffeine or istradefylline treatment produced no dyskinesias. When administered in combination with L-dopa (6 mg/kg), SCH 412348 (3 mg/kg) neither exacerbated nor prevented the induction of LIDs over the course of 19 days of treatment. Collectively, our data indicate that A2A receptor antagonists are likely to have a reduced dyskinetic liability relative to L-dopa but do not block dyskinesias when coadministered with L-dopa. Clinical studies are required to fully understand the dyskinesia profiles of A2A receptor antagonists.

  7. Structure of the adenosine A(2A) receptor in complex with ZM241385 and the xanthines XAC and caffeine.

    PubMed

    Doré, Andrew S; Robertson, Nathan; Errey, James C; Ng, Irene; Hollenstein, Kaspar; Tehan, Ben; Hurrell, Edward; Bennett, Kirstie; Congreve, Miles; Magnani, Francesca; Tate, Christopher G; Weir, Malcolm; Marshall, Fiona H

    2011-09-07

    Methylxanthines, including caffeine and theophylline, are among the most widely consumed stimulant drugs in the world. These effects are mediated primarily via blockade of adenosine receptors. Xanthine analogs with improved properties have been developed as potential treatments for diseases such as Parkinson's disease. Here we report the structures of a thermostabilized adenosine A(2A) receptor in complex with the xanthines xanthine amine congener and caffeine, as well as the A(2A) selective inverse agonist ZM241385. The receptor is crystallized in the inactive state conformation as defined by the presence of a salt bridge known as the ionic lock. The complete third intracellular loop, responsible for G protein coupling, is visible consisting of extended helices 5 and 6. The structures provide new insight into the features that define the ligand binding pocket of the adenosine receptor for ligands of diverse chemotypes as well as the cytoplasmic regions that interact with signal transduction proteins.

  8. Identification and characterization of a truncated variant of the 5-hydroxytryptamine(2A) receptor produced by alternative splicing.

    PubMed

    Guest, P C; Salim, K; Skynner, H A; George, S E; Bresnick, J N; McAllister, G

    2000-09-08

    We have identified an alternatively spliced 5-hydroxytryptamine 2A receptor (5-HT(2A)-R) transcript by PCR of human brain cDNA using degenerate oligonucleotide primers to transmembrane (TM) domains 3 and 7 of the 5-HT(2)-R subfamily. The variant contains a 118-bp insertion at the exon II/III boundary of the 5-HT(2A)-R, which produces a frame shift in the coding sequence and a premature stop codon. PCR analysis showed that the truncated receptor (5-HT(2A-tr)) and native 5-HT(2A)-R were co-expressed in most brain tissues, with the highest levels being found in hippocampus, corpus collosum, amygdala and caudate nucleus. Western blot analysis of HEK-293 cells transfected transiently with a 5-HT(2A-tr) construct showed that a 30-kDa protein was expressed on cell membranes. Co-transfection studies showed no effect of the 5-HT(2A-tr) variant on 3H-ketanserin binding to the native 5-HT(2A)-R or on functional coupling of the 5-HT(2A)-R to 5-HT-stimulated Ca(2+) mobilization. The functional significance of the 5-HT(2A-tr) variant and other truncated receptors remains to be established.

  9. Evolutionary Analysis of the B56 Gene Family of PP2A Regulatory Subunits

    PubMed Central

    Sommer, Lauren M.; Cho, Hyuk; Choudhary, Madhusudan; Seeling, Joni M.

    2015-01-01

    Protein phosphatase 2A (PP2A) is an abundant serine/threonine phosphatase that functions as a tumor suppressor in numerous cell-cell signaling pathways, including Wnt, myc, and ras. The B56 subunit of PP2A regulates its activity, and is encoded by five genes in humans. B56 proteins share a central core domain, but have divergent amino- and carboxy-termini, which are thought to provide isoform specificity. We performed phylogenetic analyses to better understand the evolution of the B56 gene family. We found that B56 was present as a single gene in eukaryotes prior to the divergence of animals, fungi, protists, and plants, and that B56 gene duplication prior to the divergence of protostomes and deuterostomes led to the origin of two B56 subfamilies, B56αβε and B56γδ. Further duplications led to three B56αβε genes and two B56γδ in vertebrates. Several nonvertebrate B56 gene names are based on distinct vertebrate isoform names, and would best be renamed. B56 subfamily genes lack significant divergence within primitive chordates, but each became distinct in complex vertebrates. Two vertebrate lineages have undergone B56 gene loss, Xenopus and Aves. In Xenopus, B56δ function may be compensated for by an alternatively spliced transcript, B56δ/γ, encoding a B56δ-like amino-terminal region and a B56γ core. PMID:25950761

  10. Suppression of adenosine 2a receptor (A2aR)-mediated adenosine signaling improves disease phenotypes in a mouse model of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis.

    PubMed

    Ng, Seng Kah; Higashimori, Haruki; Tolman, Michaela; Yang, Yongjie

    2015-05-01

    Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) is a rapidly progressing neurodegenerative disease in which the majority of upper and lower motor neurons are degenerated. Despite intensive efforts to identify drug targets and develop neuroprotective strategies, effective therapeutics for ALS remains unavailable. The identification and characterization of novel targets and pathways remain crucial in the development of ALS therapeutics. Adenosine is a major neuromodulator that actively regulates synaptic transmission. Interestingly, adenosine levels are significantly elevated in the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) of progressing human ALS patients. In the current study, we showed that adenosine 2a receptor (A2aR), but not adenosine 1 receptor (A1R), is highly enriched in spinal (motor) neurons. A2aR expression is also selectively increased at the symptomatic onset in the spinal cords of SOD1G93A mice and end-stage human ALS spinal cords. Interestingly, we found that direct adenosine treatment is sufficient to induce embryonic stem cell-derived motor neuron (ESMN) cell death in cultures. Subsequent pharmacological inhibition and partial genetic ablation of A2aR (A2aR(+/-)) significantly protect ESMN from SOD1G93A(+) astrocyte-induced cell death and delay disease progression of SOD1G93A mice. Taken together, our results provide compelling novel evidence that A2aR-mediated adenosine signaling contributes to the selective spinal motor neuron degeneration observed in the SOD1G93A mouse model of ALS.

  11. Suppression of adenosine 2a receptor (A2aR)-mediated adenosine signaling improves disease phenotypes in a mouse model of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis

    PubMed Central

    Ng, Seng kah; Higashimori, Haruki; Tolman, Michaela; Yang, Yongjie

    2017-01-01

    Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) is a rapidly progressing neurodegenerative disease in which the majority of upper and lower motor neurons are degenerated. Despite intensive efforts to identify drug targets and develop neuroprotective strategies, effective therapeutics for ALS remains unavailable. The identification and characterization of novel targets and pathways remain crucial in the development of ALS therapeutics. Adenosine is a major neuromodulator that actively regulates synaptic transmission. Interestingly, adenosine levels are significantly elevated in the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) of progressing human ALS patients. In the current study, we showed that adenosine 2a receptor (A2aR), but not adenosine 1 receptor (A1R), is highly enriched in spinal (motor) neurons. A2aR expression is also selectively increased at the symptomatic onset in the spinal cords of SOD1G93A mice and end-stage human ALS spinal cords. Interestingly, we found that direct adenosine treatment is sufficient to induce embryonic stem cell-derived motor neuron (ESMN) cell death in cultures. Subsequent pharmacological inhibition and partial genetic ablation of A2aR (A2aR+/−) significantly protect ESMN from SOD1G93A+ astrocyte-induced cell death and delay disease progression of SOD1G93A mice. Taken together, our results provide compelling novel evidence that A2aR-mediated adenosine signaling contributes to the selective spinal motor neuron degeneration observed in the SOD1G93A mouse model of ALS. PMID:25779930

  12. Ghrelin axis genes, peptides and receptors: recent findings and future challenges.

    PubMed

    Seim, Inge; Josh, Peter; Cunningham, Peter; Herington, Adrian; Chopin, Lisa

    2011-06-20

    The ghrelin axis consists of the gene products of the ghrelin gene (GHRL), and their receptors, including the classical ghrelin receptor GHSR. While it is well-known that the ghrelin gene encodes the 28 amino acid ghrelin peptide hormone, it is now also clear that the locus encodes a range of other bioactive molecules, including novel peptides and non-coding RNAs. For many of these molecules, the physiological functions and cognate receptor(s) remain to be determined. Emerging research techniques, including proteogenomics, are likely to reveal further ghrelin axis-derived molecules. Studies of the role of ghrelin axis genes, peptides and receptors, therefore, promises to be a fruitful area of basic and clinical research in years to come.

  13. IMP2, a gene involved in the expression of glucose-repressible genes in Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

    PubMed

    Lodi, T; Goffrini, P; Ferrero, I; Donnini, C

    1995-09-01

    Two mutants carrying different deletions of the IMP2 coding sequence of Saccharomyces cerevisiae, delta T1, which encodes a protein lacking the last 26 C-terminal amino acids, and delta T2, which completely lacks the coding region, were analysed for derepression of glucose-repressible maltose, galactose, raffinose and ethanol utilization pathways in response to glucose limitation. The role of the IMP2 gene product in the regulation of carbon catabolite repressible enzymes maltase, invertase, alcohol dehydrogenase, NAD-dependent glutamate dehydrogenase (NAD-GDH) and L-lactate:ferricytochrome-c oxidoreductase (L-LCR) was also analysed. The IMP2 gene product is required for the rapid glucose derepression of all above-mentioned carbon source utilization pathways and of all the enzymes except for L-LCR. NAD-GDH is regulated by IMP2 in the opposite way and, in fact, this enzyme was released at higher levels in both imp2 mutants than in the wild-type strain. Therefore, the product of IMP2 appears to be involved in positive and negative regulation. Both deletions result in growth and catalytic defects; in some cases partial modification of the gene product yielded more dramatic effects than its complete absence. Moreover, evidence is provided that the IMP2 gene product regulates galactose- and maltose-inducible genes at the transcriptional level and is a positive regulator of maltase, maltose permease and galactose permease gene expression.

  14. The Nucleosome Assembly Protein TSPYL2 Regulates the Expression of NMDA Receptor Subunits GluN2A and GluN2B

    PubMed Central

    Tsang, Ka Hing; Lai, Suk King; Li, Qi; Yung, Wing Ho; Liu, Hang; Mak, Priscilla Hoi Shan; Ng, Cypress Chun Pong; McAlonan, Grainne; Chan, Ying Shing; Chan, Siu Yuen

    2014-01-01

    TSPYL2 is an X-linked gene encoding a nucleosome assembly protein. TSPYL2 interacts with calmodulin-associated serine/threonine kinase, which is implicated in X-linked mental retardation. As nucleosome assembly and chromatin remodeling are important in transcriptional regulation and neuronal function, we addressed the importance of TSPYL2 through analyzing Tspyl2 loss-of-function mice. We detected down-regulation of N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor subunits 2A and 2B (GluN2A and GluN2B) in the mutant hippocampus. Evidence from luciferase reporter assays and chromatin immunoprecipitation supported that TSPYL2 regulated the expression of Grin2a and Grin2b, the genes encoding GluN2A and GluN2B. We also detected an interaction between TSPYL2 and CBP, indicating that TSPYL2 may activate gene expression through binding CBP. In terms of functional outcome, Tspyl2 loss-of-function impaired long-term potentiation at hippocampal Schaffer collateral-CA1 synapses. Moreover, mutant mice showed a deficit in fear learning and memory. We conclude that TSPYL2 contributes to cognitive variability through regulating the expression of Grin2a and Grin2b. PMID:24413569

  15. Membrane omega-3 fatty acids modulate the oligomerisation kinetics of adenosine A2A and dopamine D2 receptors

    PubMed Central

    Guixà-González, Ramon; Javanainen, Matti; Gómez-Soler, Maricel; Cordobilla, Begoña; Domingo, Joan Carles; Sanz, Ferran; Pastor, Manuel; Ciruela, Francisco; Martinez-Seara, Hector; Selent, Jana

    2016-01-01

    Membrane levels of docosahexaenoic acid (DHA), an essential omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid (ω-3 PUFA), are decreased in common neuropsychiatric disorders. DHA modulates key cell membrane properties like fluidity, thereby affecting the behaviour of transmembrane proteins like G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs). These receptors, which have special relevance for major neuropsychiatric disorders have recently been shown to form dimers or higher order oligomers, and evidence suggests that DHA levels affect GPCR function by modulating oligomerisation. In this study, we assessed the effect of membrane DHA content on the formation of a class of protein complexes with particular relevance for brain disease: adenosine A2A and dopamine D2 receptor oligomers. Using extensive multiscale computer modelling, we find a marked propensity of DHA for interaction with both A2A and D2 receptors, which leads to an increased rate of receptor oligomerisation. Bioluminescence resonance energy transfer (BRET) experiments performed on living cells suggest that this DHA effect on the oligomerisation of A2A and D2 receptors is purely kinetic. This work reveals for the first time that membrane ω-3 PUFAs play a key role in GPCR oligomerisation kinetics, which may have important implications for neuropsychiatric conditions like schizophrenia or Parkinson’s disease. PMID:26796668

  16. Membrane omega-3 fatty acids modulate the oligomerisation kinetics of adenosine A2A and dopamine D2 receptors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guixà-González, Ramon; Javanainen, Matti; Gómez-Soler, Maricel; Cordobilla, Begoña; Domingo, Joan Carles; Sanz, Ferran; Pastor, Manuel; Ciruela, Francisco; Martinez-Seara, Hector; Selent, Jana

    2016-01-01

    Membrane levels of docosahexaenoic acid (DHA), an essential omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid (ω-3 PUFA), are decreased in common neuropsychiatric disorders. DHA modulates key cell membrane properties like fluidity, thereby affecting the behaviour of transmembrane proteins like G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs). These receptors, which have special relevance for major neuropsychiatric disorders have recently been shown to form dimers or higher order oligomers, and evidence suggests that DHA levels affect GPCR function by modulating oligomerisation. In this study, we assessed the effect of membrane DHA content on the formation of a class of protein complexes with particular relevance for brain disease: adenosine A2A and dopamine D2 receptor oligomers. Using extensive multiscale computer modelling, we find a marked propensity of DHA for interaction with both A2A and D2 receptors, which leads to an increased rate of receptor oligomerisation. Bioluminescence resonance energy transfer (BRET) experiments performed on living cells suggest that this DHA effect on the oligomerisation of A2A and D2 receptors is purely kinetic. This work reveals for the first time that membrane ω-3 PUFAs play a key role in GPCR oligomerisation kinetics, which may have important implications for neuropsychiatric conditions like schizophrenia or Parkinson’s disease.

  17. Long-lasting alterations in 5-HT2A receptor after a binge regimen of methamphetamine in mice.

    PubMed

    Chiu, Hong-Yi; Chan, Ming-Huan; Lee, Mei-Yi; Chen, Shao-Tsu; Zhan, Zih-Yi; Chen, Hwei-Hsien

    2014-10-01

    The repeated administration of methamphetamine (MA) to animals in a single-day 'binge' dosing regimen produces damage to dopamine and serotonin terminals and psychosis-like behaviours similar to those observed in MA abusers. The present study aimed to examine the effects of MA binge exposure on 5-HT2A receptors, the subtype of serotonin receptors putatively involved in psychosis. ICR male mice were treated with MA (4 × 5 mg/kg) or saline at 2 h intervals. Recognition memory and social behaviours were sequentially evaluated by a novel location recognition test, a novel object recognition test, a social interaction and a nest-building test to confirm the persistent cognitive and behavioural impairments after this dosing regimen. Subsequently, a hallucinogenic 5-HT2A/2C receptor agonist 2,5-dimethoxy-4-iodoamphetamine (DOI)-induced head-twitch, molecular and electrophysiological responses were monitored. Finally, the levels of 5-HT2C, 5-HT1A, 5-HT2A and mGlu2 receptors in the medial prefrontal cortex were determined. MA binge exposure produced recognition memory impairment, reduced social behaviours, and increased DOI-induced head-twitch response, c-Fos and Egr-2 expression and field potentials in the medial prefrontal cortex. Furthermore, MA binge exposure increased 5-HT2A and decreased mGlu2 receptor expression in the medial frontal cortex, whereas 5-HT2C and 5-HT1A receptors were unaffected. These data reveal that the increased behavioural, molecular and electrophysiological responses to DOI might be associated with an up-regulation of 5-HT2A receptors in the medial prefrontal cortex after MA binge exposure. Identifying the biochemical alterations that parallel the behavioural changes in a mouse model of MA binge exposure may facilitate targeting therapies for treatment of MA-related psychiatric disorders.

  18. Classification of Dopamine Receptor Genes in Vertebrates: Nine Subtypes in Osteichthyes.

    PubMed

    Yamamoto, Kei; Fontaine, Romain; Pasqualini, Catherine; Vernier, Philippe

    2015-01-01

    Dopamine neurotransmission regulates various brain functions, and its regulatory roles are mediated by two families of G protein-coupled receptors: the D1 and D2 receptor families. In mammals, the D1 family comprises two receptor subtypes (D1 and D5), while the D2 family comprises three receptor subtypes (D2, D3 and D4). Phylogenetic analyses of dopamine receptor genes strongly suggest that the common ancestor of Osteichthyes (bony jawed vertebrates) possessed four subtypes in the D1 family and five subtypes in the D2 family. Mammals have secondarily lost almost half of the ancestral dopamine receptor genes, whereas nonmammalian species kept many of them. Although the mammalian situation is an exception among Osteichthyes, the current classification and characterization of dopamine receptors are based on mammalian features, which have led to confusion in the identification of dopamine receptor subtypes in nonmammalian species. Here we begin by reviewing the history of the discovery of dopamine receptors in vertebrates. The recent genome sequencing of coelacanth, gar and elephant shark led to the proposal of a refined scenario of evolution of dopamine receptor genes. We also discuss a current problem of nomenclature of dopamine receptors. Following the official nomenclature of mammalian dopamine receptors from D1 to D5, we propose to name newly identified receptor subtypes from D6 to D9 in order to facilitate the use of an identical name for orthologous genes among different species. To promote a nomenclature change which allows distinguishing the two dopamine receptor families, a nomenclature consortium is needed. This comparative perspective is crucial to correctly interpret data obtained in animal studies on dopamine-related brain disorders, and more fundamentally, to understand the characteristics of dopamine neurotransmission in vertebrates.

  19. Escitalopram reduces attentional performance in anxious older adults with high-expression genetic variants at serotonin 2A and 1B receptors

    PubMed Central

    Lenze, Eric J.; Dixon, David; Nowotny, Petra; Lotrich, Francis E.; Doré, Peter M.; Pollock, Bruce G.; Hinrichs, Anthony L.; Butters, Meryl A.

    2014-01-01

    Older adults are among the most vulnerable to adverse cognitive effects of psychotropic medications and, therefore, the personalization of psychotropic treatment based on adverse drug reactions in this demographic is of great importance. We examined changes on neuropsychological tests of attention attributable to selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor (SSRI) treatment in anxious older adults. We also examined whether variation in serotonin receptor genes was associated with reduced attentional performance with SSRIs. We examined change from pre- to post-treatment in two attention measures – digit span and coding – in 133 adults aged ≥60 yr with generalized anxiety disorder in a 12-wk trial of escitalopram vs. placebo. We also examined attentional change in relation to genetic variability in four central serotonin receptors: the serotonin transporter and serotonin 1A, 2A and 1B receptors. Digit span scores were significantly lowered in patients receiving escitalopram relative to placebo, indicating reduced attentional performance attributable to the SSRI. Individuals with high-transcription variants in the receptors 5-HTR2A rs6311 and 5-HTR1B rs11568817 had greater reductions in attention with SSRI treatment compared to placebo. We conclude that SSRIs reduce attention in older adults, particularly in those with high-expression genetic variants at the serotonin 2A and 1B receptors. Analysing neuropsychological changes with SSRIs in relation to genetic variation in the serotonin system may be a useful strategy for detecting subgroups of older adults who are more susceptible to side-effects of SSRIs. These results, if confirmed, could lead to the personalization of SSRI use to reduce adverse neurocognitive effects. PMID:22717018

  20. Escitalopram reduces attentional performance in anxious older adults with high-expression genetic variants at serotonin 2A and 1B receptors.

    PubMed

    Lenze, Eric J; Dixon, David; Nowotny, Petra; Lotrich, Francis E; Doré, Peter M; Pollock, Bruce G; Hinrichs, Anthony L; Butters, Meryl A

    2013-03-01

    Older adults are among the most vulnerable to adverse cognitive effects of psychotropic medications and, therefore, the personalization of psychotropic treatment based on adverse drug reactions in this demographic is of great importance. We examined changes on neuropsychological tests of attention attributable to selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor (SSRI) treatment in anxious older adults. We also examined whether variation in serotonin receptor genes was associated with reduced attentional performance with SSRIs. We examined change from pre- to post-treatment in two attention measures - digit span and coding - in 133 adults aged ≥60 yr with generalized anxiety disorder in a 12-wk trial of escitalopram vs. placebo. We also examined attentional change in relation to genetic variability in four central serotonin receptors: the serotonin transporter and serotonin 1A, 2A and 1B receptors. Digit span scores were significantly lowered in patients receiving escitalopram relative to placebo, indicating reduced attentional performance attributable to the SSRI. Individuals with high-transcription variants in the receptors 5-HTR2A rs6311 and 5-HTR1B rs11568817 had greater reductions in attention with SSRI treatment compared to placebo. We conclude that SSRIs reduce attention in older adults, particularly in those with high-expression genetic variants at the serotonin 2A and 1B receptors. Analysing neuropsychological changes with SSRIs in relation to genetic variation in the serotonin system may be a useful strategy for detecting subgroups of older adults who are more susceptible to side-effects of SSRIs. These results, if confirmed, could lead to the personalization of SSRI use to reduce adverse neurocognitive effects.

  1. GluN2A Subunit-Containing NMDA Receptors Are the Preferential Neuronal Targets of Homocysteine

    PubMed Central

    Sibarov, Dmitry A.; Abushik, Polina A.; Giniatullin, Rashid; Antonov, Sergei M.

    2016-01-01

    Homocysteine (HCY) is an endogenous redox active amino acid, best known as contributor to various neurodegenerative disorders. Although it is known that HCY can activate NMDA receptors (NMDARs), the mechanisms of its action on receptors composed of different NMDA receptor subunits remains almost unknown. In this study, using imaging and patch clamp technique in cultured cortical neurons and heterologous expression in HEK293T cells we tested the agonist activity of HCY on NMDARs composed of GluN1 and GluN2A subunits (GluN1/2A receptors) and GluN1 and GluN2B subunits (GluN1/2B receptors). We demonstrate that the time courses of Ca2+ transients and membrane currents activated by HCY and NMDA in cortical neurons are drastically different. Application of HCY to cortical neurons induced responses, which in contrast to currents induced by NMDA (both in the presence of glycine) considerably decreased to steady state of small amplitude. In contrast to NMDA, HCY-activated currents at steady state were resistant to the selective GluN2B subunit inhibitor ifenprodil. In calcium-free external solution the decrease of NMDA evoked currents was abolished, suggesting the Ca2+-dependent NMDAR desensitization. Under these conditions HCY evoked currents still declined almost to the baseline suggesting Ca2+-independent desensitization. In HEK293T cells HCY activated NMDARs of GluN1/2A and GluN1/2B subunit compositions with EC50s of 9.7 ± 1.8 and 61.8 ± 8.9 μM, respectively. Recombinant GluN1/2A receptors, however, did not desensitize by HCY, whereas GluN1/2B receptors were almost fully desensitized by HCY. Thus, HCY is a high affinity agonist of NMDARs preferring the GluN1/2A subunit composition. Our data suggest that HCY induced native NMDAR currents in neurons are mainly mediated by the “synaptic type” GluN1/2A NMDARs. This implies that in hyperhomocysteinemia, a disorder with enlarged level of HCY in plasma, HCY may persistently contribute to post-synaptic responses mediated

  2. Caffeine and adenosine A(2a) receptor antagonists prevent beta-amyloid (25-35)-induced cognitive deficits in mice.

    PubMed

    Dall'Igna, Oscar P; Fett, Paulo; Gomes, Marcio W; Souza, Diogo O; Cunha, Rodrigo A; Lara, Diogo R

    2007-01-01

    Consumption of caffeine, an adenosine receptor antagonist, was found to be inversely associated with the incidence of Alzheimer's disease. Moreover, caffeine protects cultured neurons against beta-amyloid-induced toxicity, an effect mimicked by adenosine A(2A) but not A(1) receptor antagonists. We now tested if caffeine administration would prevent beta-amyloid-induced cognitive impairment in mice and if this was mimicked by A(2A) receptor blockade. One week after icv administration of the 25-35 fragment of beta-amyloid (Abeta, 3 nmol), mice displayed impaired performance in both inhibitory avoidance and spontaneous alternation tests. Prolonged treatment with caffeine (1 mg/ml) had no effect alone but prevented the Abeta-induced cognitive impairment in both tasks when associated with acute caffeine (30 mg/kg) 30 min treatment before Abeta administration. The same protective effect was observed after subchronic (4 days) treatment with daily injections of either caffeine (30 mg/kg) or the selective adenosine A(2A) receptor antagonist SCH58261 (0.5 mg/kg). This provides the first direct in vivo evidence that caffeine and A(2A) receptor antagonists afford a protection against Abeta-induced amnesia, which prompts their interest for managing Alzheimer's disease.

  3. Allelic association of human dopamine D sub 2 receptor gene in alcoholism

    SciTech Connect

    Blum, K.; Sheridan, P.J.; Montgomery, A.; Jagadeeswaran, P.; Nogami, H.; Briggs, A.H. ); Noble, E.P.; Ritchie, T.; Cohn, J.B. )

    1990-04-18

    In a blinded experiment, the authors report the first allelic association of the dopamine D{sub 2} receptor gene in alcoholism. From 70 brain samples of alcoholics and nonalcoholics, DNA was digested with restriction endonucleases and probed with a clone that contained the entire 3{prime} coding exon, the polyadenylation signal, and approximately 16.4 kilobases of noncoding 3{prime} sequence of the human dopamine D{sub 2} receptor gene ({lambda}hD2G1). In the present samples, the presence of A1 allele of the dopamine D{sub 2} receptor gene correctly classified 77% of alcoholics, and its absence classified 72% of nonalcoholics. The polymorphic pattern of this receptor gene suggests that a gene that confers susceptibility to at least one form of alcoholism is located on the q22-q23 region of chromosome 11.

  4. A genetic polymorphism in coumarin 7-hydroxylation: Sequence of the human CYP2A genes and identification of variant CYP2A6 alleles

    SciTech Connect

    Fernandez-Salguero, P.; Hoffman, S.M.G.; Mohrenweiser, H.

    1995-09-01

    A group of human cytochrome P450 genes encompassing the CYP2A, CYP2B, and CYP2F subfamilies were cloned and assembled into a 350-kb contig localized on the long arm of chromosome 19. Three complete CYP2A genes - CYP2A6, CYP2A7, and CYP2A13 - plus two pseudogenes truncated after exon 5 were identified and sequenced. A variant CYP2A6 allele that differed from the corresponding CYP2A6 and CYP2A7 cDNAs previously sequenced was found and was designated CYP2A6{nu}2. Sequence differences in the CY-P2A6{nu}2 gene are restricted to regions encompassing exons 3, 6, and 8, which bear sequence relatedness with the corresponding exons of the CYP2A7 gene, located downstream and centromeric of CYP2A6{nu}2, suggesting recent gene-conversion events. The sequencing of all the CYP2A genes allowed the design of a PCR diagnostic test for the normal CYP2A6 allele, the CYP2A6{nu}2 allele, and a variant - designated CYP2A6{nu}1 - that encodes an enzyme with a single inactivating amino acid change. These variant alleles were found in individuals who were deficient in their ability to metabolize the CYP2A6 probe drug coumarin. The allelic frequencies of CYP2A6{nu}1 and CYP2A6{nu}2 differed significantly between Caucasian, Asian, and African-American populations. These studies establish the existence of a new cytochrome P450 genetic polymorphism. 30 refs., 4 figs., 2 tabs.

  5. Association of temporomandibular dysfunction with the 102T-C polymorphism in the serotonin receptor gene in Brazilian patients

    PubMed Central

    de Freitas, Luciana Venâncio Secches; Lopes, Ana Cláudia Polli; Maniglia, José Victor

    2013-01-01

    Introduction Serotonin is a key neurotransmitter in the central nervous system. It has been suggested that serotoninergic dysfunction mediates the pathophysiology of temporomandibular dysfunction (TMD). Polymorphisms in the serotonin receptor gene (HTR2A) can alter its transcription, affecting the number of receptors in the serotoninergic system, altering nociceptive pain and hyperalgesia in TMD. The aim of this study is to investigate the association of the 102T-C polymorphism in the HTR2A gene in Brazilian patients with TMD. Material and methods This cross-sectional study examined 100 patients, of both genders, with TMD as index cases and 100 healthy volunteers as controls, also of both genders. DNA was extracted from peripheral blood leukocytes, and the site that encompassed the polymorphism in the HTR2A gene was amplified by polymerase chain reaction followed by restriction fragment length polymorphism (PCR-RFLP). Results Our results revealed that there were significantly more females among index cases compared with the control group (p < 0.05). The CC genotype of the 102T-C polymorphism was more frequent in patients with TMD vs. controls (OR: 2.25; 95% CI: 1.13–4.46; p < 0.05). Conclusions The present study supports the view that the 102T-C polymorphism in the HTR2A gene is associated with TMD in this studied Brazilian population. PMID:24482644

  6. Identification of Modulators of the Nuclear Receptor Peroxisome Proliferator-Activated Receptor α (PPARα) in a Mouse Liver Gene Expression Compendium

    EPA Science Inventory

    The nuclear receptor family member peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor α (PPARα) is activated by therapeutic hypolipidemic drugs and environmentally-relevant chemicals to regulate genes involved in lipid transport and catabolism. Chronic activation of PPARα in rodents inc...

  7. Association study of dopamine D3 receptor gene and schizophrenia

    SciTech Connect

    Kennedy, J.L.; Billett, E.A.; Macciardi, F.M.

    1995-12-18

    Several groups have reported an association between schizophrenia and the MscI polymorphism in the first exon of the dopamine D3 receptor gene (DRD3). We studied this polymorphism using a North American sample (117 patients plus 188 controls) and an Italian sample (97 patients plus 64 controls). In the first part of the study, we compared allele frequencies of schizophrenia patients and unmatched controls and observed a significant difference in the total sample (P = 0.01). The second part of the study involved a case control approach in which each schizophrenia patient was matched to a control of the same sex, and of similar age and ethnic background. The DRD3 allele frequencies of patients and controls revealed no significant difference between the two groups in the Italian (N = 53) or the North American (N = 54) matched populations; however, when these two matched samples were combined, a significant difference was observed (P = 0.026). Our results suggest that the MscI polymorphism may be associated with schizophrenia in the populations studied. 32 refs., 2 tabs.

  8. Penguins reduced olfactory receptor genes common to other waterbirds

    PubMed Central

    Lu, Qin; Wang, Kai; Lei, Fumin; Yu, Dan; Zhao, Huabin

    2016-01-01

    The sense of smell, or olfaction, is fundamental in the life of animals. However, penguins (Aves: Sphenisciformes) possess relatively small olfactory bulbs compared with most other waterbirds such as Procellariiformes and Gaviiformes. To test whether penguins have a reduced reliance on olfaction, we analyzed the draft genome sequences of the two penguins, which diverged at the origin of the order Sphenisciformes; we also examined six closely related species with available genomes, and identified 29 one-to-one orthologous olfactory receptor genes (i.e. ORs) that are putatively functionally conserved and important across the eight birds. To survey the 29 one-to-one orthologous ORs in penguins and their relatives, we newly generated 34 sequences that are missing from the draft genomes. Through the analysis of totaling 378 OR sequences, we found that, of these functionally important ORs common to other waterbirds, penguins have a significantly greater percentage of OR pseudogenes than other waterbirds, suggesting a reduction of olfactory capability. The penguin-specific reduction of olfactory capability arose in the common ancestor of penguins between 23 and 60 Ma, which may have resulted from the aquatic specializations for underwater vision. Our study provides genetic evidence for a possible reduction of reliance on olfaction in penguins. PMID:27527385

  9. Identification of Androgen Receptor and Beta-Catenin Target Genes in Prostate and Prostate Cancer

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-10-01

    Transdisciplinary Research in Epigenetics and Cancer Journal Clubs and Transdisciplinary Science Meetings, biweekly and monthly 3. To gain expertise...Target Genes in Prostate and Prostate Cancer PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR: Laura Lamb CONTRACTING ORGANIZATION: Washington University...TITLE AND SUBTITLE Identification of Androgen Receptor and Beta-Catenin Target Genes in Prostate and Prostate Cancer 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER Genes in

  10. Regulation of nuclear TDP-43 by NR2A-containing NMDA receptors and PTEN

    PubMed Central

    Zheng, Mei; Liao, Mingxia; Cui, Tianyuan; Tian, Honglin; Fan, Dong-Sheng; Wan, Qi

    2012-01-01

    The dysfunction of TAR DNA-binding protein-43 (TDP-43) is implicated in neurodegenerative diseases. However, the function of TDP-43 is not fully elucidated. Here we show that the protein level of endogenous TDP-43 in the nucleus is increased in mouse cortical neurons in the early stages, but return to basal level in the later stages after glutamate accumulation-induced injury. The elevation of TDP-43 results from a downregulation of phosphatase and tensin homolog (PTEN). We further demonstrate that activation of NR2A-containing NMDA receptors (NR2ARs) leads to PTEN downregulation and subsequent reduction of PTEN import from the cytoplasm to the nucleus after glutamate accumulation. The decrease of PTEN in the nucleus contributes to its reduced association with TDP-43, and thereby mediates the elevation of nuclear TDP-43. We provide evidence that the elevation of nuclear TDP-43, mediated by NR2AR activation and PTEN downregulation, confers protection against cortical neuronal death in the late stages after glutamate accumulation. Thus, this study reveals a NR2AR–PTEN–TDP-43 signaling pathway by which nuclear TDP-43 promotes neuronal survival. These results suggest that upregulation of nuclear TDP-43 represents a self-protection mechanism to delay neurodegeneration in the early stages after glutamate accumulation and that prolonging the upregulation process of nuclear TDP-43 might have therapeutic significance. PMID:22526419

  11. From "junk" to gene: curriculum vitae of a primate receptor isoform gene.

    PubMed

    Singer, Silke S; Männel, Daniela N; Hehlgans, Thomas; Brosius, Jürgen; Schmitz, Jürgen

    2004-08-20

    Exonization of Alu retroposons awakens public opinion, particularly when causing genetic diseases. However, often neglected, alternative "Alu-exons" also carry the potential to greatly enhance genetic diversity by increasing the transcriptome of primates chiefly via alternative splicing.Here, we report a 5' exon generated from one of the two alternative transcripts in human tumor necrosis factor receptor gene type 2 (p75TNFR) that contains an ancient Alu-SINE, which provides an alternative N-terminal protein-coding domain. We follow the primate evolution over the past 63 million years to reconstruct the key events that gave rise to a novel receptor isoform. The Alu integration and start codon formation occurred between 58 and 40 million years ago (MYA) in the common ancestor of anthropoid primates. Yet a functional gene product could not be generated until a novel splice site and an open reading frame were introduced between 40 and 25 MYA on the catarrhine lineage (Old World monkeys including apes).

  12. Isolation of Drosophila genes encoding G protein-coupled receptor kinases.

    PubMed Central

    Cassill, J A; Whitney, M; Joazeiro, C A; Becker, A; Zuker, C S

    1991-01-01

    G protein-coupled receptors are regulated via phosphorylation by a variety of protein kinases. Recently, termination of the active state of two such receptors, the beta-adrenergic receptor and rhodopsin, has been shown to be mediated by agonist- or light-dependent phosphorylation of the receptor by members of a family of protein-serine/threonine kinases (here referred to as G protein-coupled receptor kinases). We now report the isolation of a family of genes encoding a set of Drosophila protein kinases that appear to code for G protein-coupled receptor kinases. These proteins share a high degree of sequence homology with the bovine beta-adrenergic receptor kinase. The presence of a conserved family of G protein-coupled receptor kinases in vertebrates and invertebrates points to the central role of these kinases in signal transduction cascades. Images PMID:1662381

  13. Epigenetic regulation of olfactory receptor gene expression by the Myb–MuvB/dREAM complex

    PubMed Central

    Sim, Choon Kiat; Perry, Sarah; Tharadra, Sana Khalid; Lipsick, Joseph S.; Ray, Anandasankar

    2012-01-01

    In both mammals and insects, an olfactory neuron will usually select a single olfactory receptor and repress remaining members of large receptor families. Here we show that a conserved multiprotein complex, Myb–MuvB (MMB)/dREAM, plays an important role in mediating neuron-specific expression of the carbon dioxide (CO2) receptor genes (Gr63a/Gr21a) in Drosophila. Activity of Myb in the complex is required for expression of Gr63a/Gr21a and acts in opposition to the histone methyltransferase Su(var)3-9. Consistent with this, we observed repressive dimethylated H3K9 modifications at the receptor gene loci, suggesting a mechanism for silencing receptor gene expression. Conversely, other complex members, Mip120 (Myb-interacting protein 120) and E2F2, are required for repression of Gr63a in inappropriate neurons. Misexpression in mutants is accompanied by an increase in the H3K4me3 mark of active chromatin at the receptor gene locus. Nuclei of CO2 receptor-expressing neurons contain reduced levels of the repressive subunit Mip120 compared with surrounding neurons and increased levels of Myb, suggesting that activity of the complex can be regulated in a cell-specific manner. Our evidence suggests a model in which olfactory receptors are regulated epigenetically and the MMB/dREAM complex plays a critical role in specifying, maintaining, and modulating the receptor-to-neuron map. PMID:23105004

  14. The Triggering Receptor Expressed on Myeloid Cells 2: A Molecular Link of Neuroinflammation and Neurodegenerative Diseases*

    PubMed Central

    Walter, Jochen

    2016-01-01

    The triggering receptor expressed on myeloid cells (TREM) 2 is a member of the immunoglobulin superfamily of receptors and mediates signaling in immune cells via engagement of its co-receptor DNAX-activating protein of 12 kDa (DAP12). Homozygous mutations in TREM2 or DAP12 cause Nasu-Hakola disease, which is characterized by bone abnormalities and dementia. Recently, a variant of TREM2 has also been associated with an increased risk for Alzheimer disease. The selective expression of TREM2 on immune cells and its association with different forms of dementia indicate a contribution of this receptor in common pathways of neurodegeneration. PMID:26694609

  15. The nuclear orphan receptors COUP-TFII and Ear-2 act as silencers of the human oxytocin gene promoter.

    PubMed

    Chu, K; Zingg, H H

    1997-10-01

    We have previously shown that COUP-TFII and Ear-2, two members of the nuclear orphan receptor family, are able to repress oestrogen-stimulated transcriptional activity of the human oxytocin (OT) gene promoter by binding to a site that overlaps with the oestrogen response element (ERE) present in the 5' flanking region of the gene. Although most nuclear receptor-mediated transcriptional repression conforms with the paradigm of passive repression and involves competitive binding to an activator site, active repression, i.e. silencing of basal promoter activity, has been observed in a limited number of cases. Here we show by co-transfection experiments using COUP-TFII and Ear-2 expression vectors and reporter constructs containing OT gene promoter fragments linked to the chloramphenicol acetyltransferase gene that both COUP-TFII and Ear-2 are capable of silencing basal OT gene promoter activity by 54 and 75% respectively. 5' Deletion and footprint analyses revealed two areas of functionally important interaction sites: (1) a direct TGACC(T/C) repeat overlapping the ERE and (2) a more promoter-proximal area centred at - 90 containing three imperfect direct repeats (R1-R3) spaced by four nucleotides each. Mutagenesis of reporter constructs as well as electrophoretic mobility-shift assays demonstrated that each of the three proximal repeats R1-R3 contributed to orphan receptor binding and the silencing effect. Inasmuch as the orphan receptor-binding sites are not involved in mediating basal transcriptional activity of the OT gene promoter, the observed effects are best interpreted as active repression or promoter silencing. Moreover, since COUP-TFII and Ear-2 are both co-expressed in OT-expressing uterine epithelial cells, the novel transcriptional effects described here are likely to be of functional importance in the fine-tuning of uterine OT gene expression in vivo.

  16. [Beta]-Adrenergic Receptor Activation Rescues Theta Frequency Stimulation-Induced LTP Deficits in Mice Expressing C-Terminally Truncated NMDA Receptor GluN2A Subunits

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moody, Teena D.; Watabe, Ayako M.; Indersmitten, Tim; Komiyama, Noboru H.; Grant, Seth G. N.; O'Dell, Thomas J.

    2011-01-01

    Through protein interactions mediated by their cytoplasmic C termini the GluN2A and GluN2B subunits of NMDA receptors (NMDARs) have a key role in the formation of NMDAR signaling complexes at excitatory synapses. Although these signaling complexes are thought to have a crucial role in NMDAR-dependent forms of synaptic plasticity such as long-term…

  17. A differential role for the adenosine A2A receptor in opiate reinforcement vs opiate-seeking behavior.

    PubMed

    Brown, Robyn Mary; Short, Jennifer Lynn; Cowen, Michael Scott; Ledent, Catherine; Lawrence, Andrew John

    2009-03-01

    The adenosine A(2A) receptor is specifically enriched in the medium spiny neurons that make up the 'indirect' output pathway from the ventral striatum, a structure known to have a crucial, integrative role in processes such as reward, motivation, and drug-seeking behavior. In the present study we investigated the impact of adenosine A(2A) receptor deletion on behavioral responses to morphine in a number of reward-related paradigms. The acute, rewarding effects of morphine were evaluated using the conditioned place preference paradigm. Operant self-administration of morphine on both fixed and progressive ratio schedules as well as cue-induced drug-seeking was assessed. In addition, the acute locomotor response to morphine as well as sensitization to morphine was evaluated. Decreased morphine self-administration and breakpoint in A(2A) knockout mice was observed. These data support a decrease in motivation to consume the drug, perhaps reflecting diminished rewarding effects of morphine in A(2A) knockout mice. In support of this finding, a place preference to morphine was not observed in A(2A) knockout mice but was present in wild-type mice. In contrast, robust cue-induced morphine-seeking behavior was exhibited by both A(2A) knockout and wild-type mice after a period of withdrawal. The acute locomotor response to morphine in the A(2A) knockout was similar to wild-type mice, yet A(2A) knockout mice did not display tolerance to chronic morphine under the present paradigm. Both genotypes display locomotor sensitization to morphine, implying a lack of a role for the A(2A) receptor in the drug-induced plasticity necessary for the development or expression of sensitization. Collectively, these data suggest a differential role for adenosine A(2A) receptors in opiate reinforcement compared to opiate-seeking.

  18. Profiling of Olfactory Receptor Gene Expression in Whole Human Olfactory Mucosa

    PubMed Central

    Tarabichi, Maxime; Gregoire, Françoise; Dumont, Jacques E.; Chatelain, Pierre

    2014-01-01

    Olfactory perception is mediated by a large array of olfactory receptor genes. The human genome contains 851 olfactory receptor gene loci. More than 50% of the loci are annotated as nonfunctional due to frame-disrupting mutations. Furthermore haplotypic missense alleles can be nonfunctional resulting from substitution of key amino acids governing protein folding or interactions with signal transduction components. Beyond their role in odor recognition, functional olfactory receptors are also required for a proper targeting of olfactory neuron axons to their corresponding glomeruli in the olfactory bulb. Therefore, we anticipate that profiling of olfactory receptor gene expression in whole human olfactory mucosa and analysis in the human population of their expression should provide an opportunity to select the frequently expressed and potentially functional olfactory receptors in view of a systematic deorphanization. To address this issue, we designed a TaqMan Low Density Array (Applied Biosystems), containing probes for 356 predicted human olfactory receptor loci to investigate their expression in whole human olfactory mucosa tissues from 26 individuals (13 women, 13 men; aged from 39 to 81 years, with an average of 67±11 years for women and 63±12 years for men). Total RNA isolation, DNase treatment, RNA integrity evaluation and reverse transcription were performed for these 26 samples. Then 384 targeted genes (including endogenous control genes and reference genes specifically expressed in olfactory epithelium for normalization purpose) were analyzed using the same real-time reverse transcription PCR platform. On average, the expression of 273 human olfactory receptor genes was observed in the 26 selected whole human olfactory mucosa analyzed, of which 90 were expressed in all 26 individuals. Most of the olfactory receptors deorphanized to date on the basis of sensitivity to known odorant molecules, which are described in the literature, were found in the

  19. 5-HT2A receptor antagonists improve motor impairments in the MPTP mouse model of Parkinson's disease.

    PubMed

    Ferguson, Marcus C; Nayyar, Tultul; Deutch, Ariel Y; Ansah, Twum A

    2010-01-01

    Clinical observations have suggested that ritanserin, a 5-HT(2A/C) receptor antagonist may reduce motor deficits in persons with Parkinson's Disease (PD). To better understand the potential antiparkinsonian actions of ritanserin, we compared the effects of ritanserin with the selective 5-HT(2A) receptor antagonist M100907 and the selective 5-HT(2C) receptor antagonist SB 206553 on motor impairments in mice treated with 1-methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridine (MPTP). MPTP-treated mice exhibited decreased performance on the beam-walking apparatus. These motor deficits were reversed by acute treatment with L-3,4-dihydroxyphenylalanine (levodopa). Both the mixed 5-HT(2A/C) antagonist ritanserin and the selective 5-HT(2A) antagonist M100907 improved motor performance on the beam-walking apparatus. In contrast, SB 206553 was ineffective in improving the motor deficits in MPTP-treated mice. These data suggest that 5-HT(2A) receptor antagonists may represent a novel approach to ameliorate motor symptoms of Parkinson's disease.

  20. Family structure and phylogenetic analysis of odorant receptor genes in the large yellow croaker (Larimichthys crocea)

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Chemosensory receptors, which are all G-protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs), come in four types: odorant receptors (ORs), vomeronasal receptors, trace-amine associated receptors and formyl peptide receptor-like proteins. The ORs are the most important receptors for detecting a wide range of environmental chemicals in daily life. Most fish OR genes have been identified from genome databases following the completion of the genome sequencing projects of many fishes. However, it remains unclear whether these OR genes from the genome databases are actually expressed in the fish olfactory epithelium. Thus, it is necessary to clone the OR mRNAs directly from the olfactory epithelium and to examine their expression status. Results Eighty-nine full-length and 22 partial OR cDNA sequences were isolated from the olfactory epithelium of the large yellow croaker, Larimichthys crocea. Bayesian phylogenetic analysis classified the vertebrate OR genes into two types, with several clades within each type, and showed that the L. crocea OR genes of each type are more closely related to those of fugu, pufferfish and stickleback than they are to those of medaka, zebrafish and frog. The reconciled tree showed 178 duplications and 129 losses. The evolutionary relationships among OR genes in these fishes accords with their evolutionary history. The fish OR genes have experienced functional divergence, and the different clades of OR genes have evolved different functions. The result of real-time PCR shows that different clades of ORs have distinct expression levels. Conclusion We have shown about 100 OR genes to be expressed in the olfactory epithelial tissues of L. crocea. The OR genes of modern fishes duplicated from their common ancestor, and were expanded over evolutionary time. The OR genes of L. crocea are closely related to those of fugu, pufferfish and stickleback, which is consistent with its evolutionary position. The different expression levels of OR genes of large

  1. The antidepressant 5-HT2A receptor antagonists pizotifen and cyproheptadine inhibit serotonin-enhanced platelet function.

    PubMed

    Lin, Olivia A; Karim, Zubair A; Vemana, Hari Priya; Espinosa, Enma V P; Khasawneh, Fadi T

    2014-01-01

    There is considerable interest in defining new agents or targets for antithrombotic purposes. The 5-HT2A receptor is a G-protein coupled receptor (GPCR) expressed on many cell types, and a known therapeutic target for many disease states. This serotonin receptor is also known to regulate platelet function. Thus, in our FDA-approved drug repurposing efforts, we investigated the antiplatelet activity of cyproheptadine and pizotifen, two antidepressant 5-HT2A Receptor antagonists. Our results revealed that cyproheptadine and pizotifen reversed serotonin-enhanced ADP-induced platelet aggregation in vitro and ex vivo. And the inhibitory effects of these two agents were found to be similar to that of EMD 281014, a 5-HT2A Receptor antagonist under development. In separate experiments, our studies revealed that these 5-HT2A receptor antagonists have the capacity to reduce serotonin-enhanced ADP-induced elevation in intracellular calcium levels and tyrosine phosphorylation. Using flow cytometry, we also observed that cyproheptadine, pizotifen, and EMD 281014 inhibited serotonin-enhanced ADP-induced phosphatidylserine (PS) exposure, P-selectin expression, and glycoprotein IIb-IIIa activation. Furthermore, using a carotid artery thrombosis model, these agents prolonged the time for thrombotic occlusion in mice in vivo. Finally, the tail-bleeding time was investigated to assess the effect of cyproheptadine and pizotifen on hemostasis. Our findings indicated prolonged bleeding time in both cyproheptadine- and pizotifen-treated mice. Notably, the increases in occlusion and bleeding times associated with these two agents were comparable to that of EMD 281014, and to clopidogrel, a commonly used antiplatelet drug, again, in a fashion comparable to clopidogrel and EMD 281014. Collectively, our data indicate that the antidepressant 5-HT2A antagonists, cyproheptadine and pizotifen do exert antiplatelet and thromboprotective effects, but similar to clopidogrel and EMD 281014, their

  2. MDMA Increases Excitability in the Dentate Gyrus: Role of 5HT2A Receptor Induced PGE2 Signaling

    PubMed Central

    Collins, Stuart A.; Huff, Courtney; Chiaia, Nicolas; Gudelsky, Gary A.; Yamamoto, Bryan K.

    2015-01-01

    MDMA is a widely abused psychostimulant which causes release of serotonin in various forebrain regions. Recently, we reported that MDMA increases extracellular glutamate concentrations in the dentate gyrus, via activation of 5HT2A receptors. We examined the role of prostaglandin signaling in mediating the effects of 5HT2A receptor activation on the increases in extracellular glutamate and the subsequent long-term loss of parvalbumin interneurons in the dentate gyrus caused by MDMA. Administration of MDMA into the dentate gyrus of rats increased PGE2 concentrations which was prevented by coadministration of MDL100907, a 5HT2A receptor antagonist. MDMA-induced increases in extracellular glutamate were inhibited by local administration of SC-51089, an inhibitor of the EP1 prostaglandin receptor. Systemic administration of SC-51089 during injections of MDMA prevented the decreases in parvalbumin interneurons observed 10 days later. The loss of parvalbumin immunoreactivity after MDMA exposure coincided with a decrease in paired-pulse inhibition and afterdischarge threshold in the dentate gyrus. These changes were prevented by inhibition of EP1 and 5HT2A receptors during MDMA. Additional experiments revealed an increased susceptibility to kainic acid-induced seizures in MDMA treated rats which could be prevented with SC51089 treatments during MDMA exposure. Overall, these findings suggest that 5HT2A receptors mediate MDMA-induced PGE2 signaling and subsequent increases in glutamate. This signaling mediates parvalbumin cell losses as well as physiologic changes in the dentate gyrus, suggesting that the lack of the inhibition provided by these neurons increases the excitability within the dentate gyrus of MDMA treated rats. PMID:26670377

  3. Quinoline derivatives: candidate drugs for a Class B G-protein coupled receptor, the Calcitonin gene-related peptide receptor, a cause of migraines

    PubMed Central

    Iftikhar, Hira; Ahmad, Iqra; Gan, Siew Hua; Shaik, Munvar Miya; Iftikhar, Naveed; Nawaz, Muhammad Sulaman; Greig, Nigel H.; Kamal, Mohammad A

    2016-01-01

    Class B G-protein coupled receptors are involved in a wide variety of diseases and are a major focus in drug design. Migraines are a common problem, and one of their major causative agents is class B G-protein coupled receptor, Calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP) receptor, a target for competitive drug discovery. The calcitonin receptor-like receptor generates complexes with a receptor activity-modifying protein, which determines the type of receptor protein formed. The CGRP receptor comprises a complex formed from the calcitonin receptor-like receptor and receptor activity-modifying protein 1. In this study, an in silico docking approach was used to target calcitonin receptor-like receptor in the bound form with receptor activity-modifying protein 1 (CGRP receptor), as well as in the unbound form. In both cases, the resulting inhibitors bound to the same cavity of the calcitonin receptor-like receptor. The twelve evaluated compounds were competitive inhibitors and showed efficient inhibitory activity against the CGRP receptor and Calcitonin receptor-like receptor. The two studied quinoline derivatives demonstrated potentially ideal inhibitory activity in terms of binding interactions and low range nano-molar inhibition constants. These compounds could prove helpful in designing drugs for the effective treatment of migraines. We propose that quinoline derivatives possess inhibitory activity by disturbing CGRP binding in the trigeminovascular system and may be considered for further preclinical appraisal for the treatment of migraines. PMID:25230231

  4. Controlling the Dissociation of Ligands from the Adenosine A2A Receptor through Modulation of Salt Bridge Strength.

    PubMed

    Segala, Elena; Guo, Dong; Cheng, Robert K Y; Bortolato, Andrea; Deflorian, Francesca; Doré, Andrew S; Errey, James C; Heitman, Laura H; IJzerman, Adriaan P; Marshall, Fiona H; Cooke, Robert M

    2016-07-14

    The association and dissociation kinetics of ligands binding to proteins vary considerably, but the mechanisms behind this variability are poorly understood, limiting their utilization for drug discovery. This is particularly so for G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs) where high resolution structural information is only beginning to emerge. Engineering the human A2A adenosine receptor has allowed structures to be solved in complex with the reference compound ZM241385 and four related ligands at high resolution. Differences between the structures are limited, with the most pronounced being the interaction of each ligand with a salt bridge on the extracellular side of the receptor. Mutagenesis experiments confirm the role of this salt bridge in controlling the dissociation kinetics of the ligands from the receptor, while molecular dynamics simulations demonstrate the ability of ligands to modulate salt bridge stability. These results shed light on a structural determinant of ligand dissociation kinetics and identify a means by which this property may be optimized.

  5. Chronic treatment with LY341495 decreases 5-HT(2A) receptor binding and hallucinogenic effects of LSD in mice.

    PubMed

    Moreno, José L; Holloway, Terrell; Rayannavar, Vinayak; Sealfon, Stuart C; González-Maeso, Javier

    2013-03-01

    Hallucinogenic drugs, such as lysergic acid diethylamide (LSD), mescaline and psilocybin, alter perception and cognitive processes. All hallucinogenic drugs have in common a high affinity for the serotonin 5-HT(2A) receptor. Metabotropic glutamate 2/3 (mGlu2/3) receptor ligands show efficacy in modulating the cellular and behavioral responses induced by hallucinogenic drugs. Here, we explored the effect of chronic treatment with the mGlu2/3 receptor antagonist 2S-2-amino-2-(1S,2S-2-carboxycyclopropan-1-yl)-3-(xanth-9-yl)-propionic acid (LY341495) on the hallucinogenic-like effects induced by LSD (0.24mg/kg). Mice were chronically (21 days) treated with LY341495 (1.5mg/kg), or vehicle, and experiments were carried out one day after the last injection. Chronic treatment with LY341495 down-regulated [(3)H]ketanserin binding in somatosensory cortex of wild-type, but not mGlu2 knockout (KO), mice. Head-twitch behavior, and expression of c-fos, egr-1 and egr-2, which are responses induced by hallucinogenic 5-HT(2A) agonists, were found to be significantly decreased by chronic treatment with LY341495. These findings suggest that repeated blockade of the mGlu2 receptor by LY341495 results in reduced 5-HT(2A) receptor-dependent hallucinogenic effects of LSD.

  6. A nonsense mutation in the LDL receptor gene leads to familial hypercholesterolemia in the Druze sect

    SciTech Connect

    Landsberger, D.; Meiner, V.; Reshef, A.; Leitersdorf, E. ); Levy, Yishai ); Westhytzen, D.R. van der; Coetzee, G.A. )

    1992-02-01

    Familial hypercholesterolemia (FH) is an autosomal dominant disease caused by mutations in the LDL receptor gene. Here the authors characterize and LDL receptor mutation that is associated with a distinct haplotype and causes FH in the Druze, a small Middle Eastern Islamic sect with a high degree of inbreeding. The mutation was found in FH families from two distinct Druze villages from the Golan Heights (northern Israel). It was not found either in another Druze FH family residing in a different geographical area nor in eight Arab and four Jewish FH heterozygote index cases whose hypercholesterolemia cosegregates with an identical LDL receptor gene haplotype. The mutation, a single-base substitution, results in a termination codon in exon 4 of the LDL receptor gene that encodes for the fourth repeat of the binding domain of the mature receptor. It can be diagnosed by allele-specific oligonucleotide hybridization of PCR-amplified DNA from FH patients.

  7. Adolescent anabolic-androgenic steroid exposure alters lateral anterior hypothalamic serotonin-2A receptors in aggressive male hamsters.

    PubMed

    Schwartzer, Jared J; Ricci, Lesley A; Melloni, Richard H

    2009-05-16

    Chronic anabolic-androgenic steroid (AAS) treatment during adolescence facilitates offensive aggression in male Syrian hamsters (Mesocricetus auratus). Serotonin (5-HT) modulates aggressive behavior and has been shown to be altered after chronic treatment with AAS. Furthermore, 5-HT type 2 receptors have been implicated in the control of aggression. For example, treatment with 5-HT(2A) receptor antagonists suppress the generation of the offensive aggressive phenotype. However, it is unclear whether these receptors are sensitive to adolescent AAS exposure. The current study assessed whether treatment with AAS throughout adolescence influenced the immunohistochemical localization of 5-HT(2A) in areas of the hamster brain implicated in the control of aggression. Hamsters were administered AAS (5.0 mg/kg) each day throughout adolescence, scored for offensive aggression, and then examined for differences in 5-HT(2A)-immunoreactivity (5-HT(2A)-ir). When compared with non-aggressive oil-treated controls, aggressive AAS-treated hamsters showed significant increases in 5-HT(2A)-ir fibers in the lateral portion of the anterior hypothalamus (LAH). Further analysis revealed that AAS treatment also produced a significant increase in the number of cells expressing 5-HT(2A)-ir in the LAH. Together, these results support a role for altered 5-HT(2A) expression and further implicate the LAH as a central brain region important in the control of adolescent AAS-induced offensive aggression.

  8. A novel replication-independent histone H2a gene in mouse

    PubMed Central

    Nishida, Hiromi; Suzuki, Takahiro; Tomaru, Yasuhiro; Hayashizaki, Yoshihide

    2005-01-01

    Background An uncharacterized histone H2a-coding transcript (E130307C13) has been cloned from a mouse full-length cDNA library. This transcript is encoded on chromosome 6, approximately 4 kb upstream of a histone H4 gene, Hist4h4. The proteins encoded by this transcript and the human H2afj mRNA isoform-2 have the highest amino acid similarity. In this paper, we characterize it from the expression pattern given by quantitative RT-PCR. Results Quantitative RT-PCR indicated that the gene that encodes E130307C13 (E130307C13) is regulated in a replication-independent manner, and therefore it is H2afj. Certainly, H2afj transcript lacks a stem-loop structure at the 3'-UTR but contains a poly (A) signal. In addition, its promoter region has a different structure from those of the replication-dependent histone H2a genes. Conclusion The bioinformatics imply that E130307C13 is a replication-independent H2a gene. In addition, quantitative RT-PCR analysis shows that it is replication-independent. Thus, it is H2afj, a novel replication-independent H2a gene in mouse. PMID:15720718

  9. Widely distributed mutations in the COL2A1 gene produce achondrogenesis type II/hypochondrogenesis.

    PubMed

    Körkkö, J; Cohn, D H; Ala-Kokko, L; Krakow, D; Prockop, D J

    2000-05-15

    The COL2A1 gene was assayed for mutations in genomic DNA from 12 patients with achondrogenesis type II/hypochondrogenesis. The exons and flanking sequences of the 54 exons in the COL2A1 gene were amplified by a series of specific primers using PCR. The PCR products were scanned for mutations by conformation sensitive gel electrophoresis, and PCR products that generated heteroduplex bands were then sequenced. Mutations in the COL2A1 gene were found in all 12 patients. Ten of the mutations were single base substitutions that converted a codon for an obligate glycine to a codon for an amino acid with a bulkier side chain. One of the mutations was a change in a consensus RNA splice site. Another was an 18-base pair deletion of coding sequences. The results confirmed previous indications that conformation sensitive gel electrophoresis is highly sensitive for detection of mutations in large and complex genes. They also demonstrate that most, if not all, patients with achondrogenesis type II/hypochondrogenesis have mutations in the COL2A1 gene.

  10. Involvement of 5-HT(2A/2B/2C) receptors on memory formation: simple agonism, antagonism, or inverse agonism?

    PubMed

    Meneses, Alfredo

    2002-12-01

    1. The 5-HT2 receptors subdivision into the 5-HT(2A/2B/2C) subtypes along with the advent of the selective antagonists has allowed a more detailed investigation on the role and therapeutic significance of these subtypes in cognitive functions. The present study further analyzed the 5-HT2 receptors role on memory consolidation. 2. The SB-200646 (a selective 5-HT(2B/2C) receptor antagonist) and LY215840 (a nonselective 5-HT(2/7) receptor antagonist) posttraining administration had no effect on an autoshaped memory consolidation. However, both drugs significantly and differentially antagonized the memory impairments induced by 1-(3-chlorophenyl)piperazine (mCPP), 1-naphtyl-piperazine (1-NP), mesulergine, or N-(3-trifluoromethylphenyl) piperazine (TFMPP). 3. In contrast, SB-200646 failed to modify the facilitatory procognitive effect produced by (+/-)-2.5-dimethoxy-4-iodoamphetamine (DOI) or ketanserin, which were sensitive to MDL100907 (a selective 5-HT2A receptor antagonist) and to a LY215840 high dose. 4. Finally, SB-200646 reversed the learning deficit induced by dizocilpine, but not that by scopolamine: while SB-200646 and MDL100907 coadministration reversed memory deficits induced by both drugs. 5. It is suggested that 5-HT(2B/2C) receptors might be involved on memory formation probably mediating a suppressive or constraining action. Whether the drug-induced memory impairments in this study are explained by simple agonism, antagonism, or inverse agonism at 5-HT2 receptors remains unclear at this time. 6. Notably, the 5-HT2 receptor subtypes blockade may provide some benefit to reverse poor memory consolidation conditions associated with decreasedcholinergic, glutamatergic, and/or serotonergic neurotransmission.

  11. Early thyroid hormone-induced gene expression changes in N2a-β neuroblastoma cells.

    PubMed

    Bedó, Gabriela; Pascual, Angel; Aranda, Ana

    2011-10-01

    Thyroid hormone has long been known to regulate neural development. Hypothyroidism during pregnancy and early postnatal period has severe neurological consequences including even mental retardation. The purpose of this study was to characterize gene expression pattern during thyroid hormone-induced differentiation of neuro-2a β cells in order to select "direct response genes" for further analysis. In this neuroblastoma cell line, thyroid hormone blocks proliferation and induces differentiation. Changes in gene expression level were examined after a T3 treatment of 3 and 24 h using cDNA arrays. Sixteen genes were significantly up-regulated and 79 down-regulated by T3 treatment. Five up-regulated genes not previously described as regulated by thyroid hormone and selected for their putative significance to understand T3 action on cell differentiation, were verified by RT-PCR analysis. The transcription factors Phox2a and basic helix-loop-helix domain containing, class B2 mRNAs exhibited a clear increase after 3- and 24-h treatment. The guanine-nucleotide exchange factor RalGDS was greatly up-regulated after 3-h treatment but not 24 h after. The results suggest an early involvement of these genes in T3 action during neuroblastoma cell differentiation probably mediating later changes in gene expression pattern.

  12. Effect of Caffeine Chronically Consumed During Pregnancy on Adenosine A1 and A2A Receptors Signaling in Both Maternal and Fetal Heart from Wistar Rats.

    PubMed

    Iglesias, Inmaculada; Albasanz, Jose Luis; Martín, Mairena

    2014-12-01

    Background: Caffeine is the most widely consumed psychoactive substance in the world, even during pregnancy. Its stimulatory effects are mainly due to antagonism of adenosine actions by blocking adenosine A1 and A2A receptors. Previous studies have shown that caffeine can cross the placenta and therefore modulate these receptors not only in the fetal brain but also in the heart. Methods: In the present work, the effect of caffeine chronically consumed during pregnancy on A1 and A2A receptors in Wistar rat heart, from both mothers and their fetuses, were studied using radioligand binding, Western-blotting, and adenylyl cyclase activity assays, as well as reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction. Results: Caffeine did not significantly alter A1R neither at protein nor at gene expression level in both the maternal and fetal heart. On the contrary, A2AR significantly decreased in the maternal heart, although mRNA was not affected. Gi and Gs proteins were also preserved. Finally, A1R-mediated inhibition of adenylyl cyclase activity did not change in the maternal heart, but A2AR mediated stimulation of this enzymatic activity significantly decreased according to the detected loss of this receptor. Conclusions: Opposite to the downregulation and desensitization of the A1R/AC pathway previously reported in the brain, these results show that this pathway is not affected in rat heart after caffeine exposure during pregnancy. In addition, A2AR is downregulated and desensitized in the maternal heart, suggesting a differential modulation of these receptor-mediated pathways by caffeine.

  13. Effect of Caffeine Chronically Consumed During Pregnancy on Adenosine A1 and A2A Receptors Signaling in Both Maternal and Fetal Heart from Wistar Rats

    PubMed Central

    Iglesias, Inmaculada; Albasanz, Jose Luis

    2014-01-01

    Background: Caffeine is the most widely consumed psychoactive substance in the world, even during pregnancy. Its stimulatory effects are mainly due to antagonism of adenosine actions by blocking adenosine A1 and A2A receptors. Previous studies have shown that caffeine can cross the placenta and therefore modulate these receptors not only in the fetal brain but also in the heart. Methods: In the present work, the effect of caffeine chronically consumed during pregnancy on A1 and A2A receptors in Wistar rat heart, from both mothers and their fetuses, were studied using radioligand binding, Western-blotting, and adenylyl cyclase activity assays, as well as reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction. Results: Caffeine did not significantly alter A1R neither at protein nor at gene expression level in both the maternal and fetal heart. On the contrary, A2AR significantly decreased in the maternal heart, although mRNA was not affected. Gi and Gs proteins were also preserved. Finally, A1R-mediated inhibition of adenylyl cyclase activity did not change in the maternal heart, but A2AR mediated stimulation of this enzymatic activity significantly decreased according to the detected loss of this receptor. Conclusions: Opposite to the downregulation and desensitization of the A1R/AC pathway previously reported in the brain, these results show that this pathway is not affected in rat heart after caffeine exposure during pregnancy. In addition, A2AR is downregulated and desensitized in the maternal heart, suggesting a differential modulation of these receptor-mediated pathways by caffeine. PMID:25538864

  14. Season of Birth and Dopamine Receptor Gene Associations with Impulsivity, Sensation Seeking and Reproductive Behaviors

    PubMed Central

    Eisenberg, Dan T. A.; Campbell, Benjamin; MacKillop, James; Lum, J. Koji; Wilson, David S.

    2007-01-01

    Background Season of birth (SOB) has been associated with many physiological and psychological traits including novelty seeking and sensation seeking. Similar traits have been associated with genetic polymorphisms in the dopamine system. SOB and dopamine receptor genetic polymorphisms may independently and interactively influence similar behaviors through their common effects on the dopaminergic system. Methodology/Principal Findings Based on a sample of 195 subjects, we examined whether SOB was associated with impulsivity, sensation seeking and reproductive behaviors. Additionally we examined potential interactions of dopamine receptor genes with SOB for the same set of traits. Phenotypes were evaluated using the Sociosexual Orientation Inventory, the Barratt Impulsivity Scale, the Eysenck Impulsivity Questionnaire, the Sensation Seeking Scale, and the Delay Discounting Task. Subjects were also asked about their age at first sex as well as their desired age at the birth of their first child. The dopamine gene polymorphisms examined were Dopamine Receptor D2 (DRD2) TaqI A and D4 (DRD4) 48 bp VNTR. Primary analyses included factorial gender×SOB ANOVAs or binary logistic regression models for each dependent trait. Secondary analysis extended the factorial models by also including DRD2 and DRD4 genotypes as independent variables. Winter-born males were more sensation seeking than non-winter born males. In factorial models including both genotype and season of birth as variables, two previously unobserved effects were discovered: (1) a SOB×DRD4 interaction effect on venturesomeness and (2) a DRD2×DRD4 interaction effect on sensation seeking. Conclusion These results are consistent with past findings that SOB is related to sensation seeking. Additionally, these results provide tentative support for the hypothesis that SOB modifies the behavioral expression of dopaminergic genetic polymorphism. These findings suggest that SOB should be included in future studies of

  15. Two different forms of lethal chondrodysplasias caused by COL2A1 gene mutations

    SciTech Connect

    Winterpacht, A.; Hilbert, K.; Schwarze, U.

    1994-09-01

    Two bone dysplasia families seem to be due to mutations in the type II procollagen gene (COL2A1): the so-called spondyloepiphyseal dysplasia congenita (SEDC) group with achondrogenesis II, hypochondrogenesis, SEDC, osteoarthrosis and the Stickler-Kniest pattern that include different forms of Kniest and Stickler dysplasia. Both groups comprise a clinical spectrum ranging from lethal to mild. COL2A1-mutations have been identified in lethal forms of the SEDC family but not in lethal forms of the Stickler/Kniest group. We now report a COL2A-1 mutation in an additional case of hypochondrogenesis (patient S) and in a lethal case of Kniest dysplasia (patient B). We amplified all 54 exons of the COL2A1 gene in both patients and screened the PCR products for mutations by SSCP analysis and sequencing. In patient B, we identified an 18 bp deletion in exon 34 which removes 6 amino acids from the mature protein. In patient S, we were able to identify a two base pair exchange (GG to AT) in exon 31, which leads to the very unusual conversion of Gly to Ile. To our knowledge, this is the first report of a Gly to Ile conversion in the COL2A1 gene, and the first report of a COL2A1 gene mutation in a lethal form of Kniest dysplasia. On the basis of the known COL2A1 gene mutations and the genotype-phenotype correlations established so far, we provide molecular data (an in frame deletion in patient B and a Gly conversion in patient S) that support their clinical classification as Kniest dysplasia and hypochondrogenesis, respectively.

  16. Detection of new biased agonists for the serotonin 5-HT2A receptor: modeling and experimental validation.

    PubMed

    Martí-Solano, Maria; Iglesias, Alba; de Fabritiis, Gianni; Sanz, Ferran; Brea, José; Loza, M Isabel; Pastor, Manuel; Selent, Jana

    2015-04-01

    Detection of biased agonists for the serotonin 5-HT2A receptor can guide the discovery of safer and more efficient antipsychotic drugs. However, the rational design of such drugs has been hampered by the difficulty detecting the impact of small structural changes on signaling bias. To overcome these difficulties, we characterized the dynamics of ligand-receptor interactions of known biased and balanced agonists using molecular dynamics simulations. Our analysis revealed that interactions with residues S5.46 and N6.55 discriminate compounds with different functional selectivity. Based on our computational predictions, we selected three derivatives of the natural balanced ligand serotonin and experimentally validated their ability to act as biased agonists. Remarkably, our approach yielded compounds promoting an unprecedented level of signaling bias at the 5-HT2A receptor, which could help interrogate the importance of particular pathways in conditions like schizophrenia.

  17. Sustained Suppression of Hyperalgesia during Latent Sensitization by μ-, δ-, and κ-opioid receptors and α2A Adrenergic Receptors: Role of Constitutive Activity

    PubMed Central

    Walwyn, Wendy M.; Chen, Wenling; Kim, Hyeyoung; Minasyan, Ani; Ennes, Helena S.; McRoberts, James A.

    2016-01-01

    Many chronic pain disorders alternate between bouts of pain and periods of remission. The latent sensitization model reproduces this in rodents by showing that the apparent recovery (“remission”) from inflammatory or neuropathic pain can be reversed by opioid antagonists. Therefore, this remission represents an opioid receptor-mediated suppression of a sustained hyperalgesic state. To identify the receptors involved, we induced latent sensitization in mice and rats by injecting complete Freund's adjuvant (CFA) in the hindpaw. In WT mice, responses to mechanical stimulation returned to baseline 3 weeks after CFA. In μ-opioid receptor (MOR) knock-out (KO) mice, responses did not return to baseline but partially recovered from peak hyperalgesia. Antagonists of α2A-adrenergic and δ-opioid receptors reinstated hyperalgesia in WT mice and abolished the partial recovery from hyperalgesia in MOR KO mice. In rats, antagonists of α2A adrenergic and μ-, δ-, and κ-opioid receptors reinstated hyperalgesia during remission from CFA-induced hyperalgesia. Therefore, these four receptors suppress hyperalgesia in latent sensitization. We further demonstrated that suppression of hyperalgesia by MORs was due to their constitutive activity because of the following: (1) CFA-induced hyperalgesia was reinstated by the MOR inverse agonist naltrexone (NTX), but not by its neutral antagonist 6β-naltrexol; (2) pro-enkephalin, pro-opiomelanocortin, and pro-dynorphin KO mice showed recovery from hyperalgesia and reinstatement by NTX; (3) there was no MOR internalization during remission; (4) MORs immunoprecipitated from the spinal cord during remission had increased Ser375 phosphorylation; and (5) electrophysiology recordings from dorsal root ganglion neurons collected during remission showed constitutive MOR inhibition of calcium channels. SIGNIFICANCE STATEMENT Chronic pain causes extreme suffering to millions of people, but its mechanisms remain to be unraveled. Latent

  18. ADRA2A Germline Gene Polymorphism is Associated to the Severity, but not to the Risk, of Breast Cancer.

    PubMed

    Kaabi, Batoul; Belaaloui, Ghania; Benbrahim, Wassila; Hamizi, Kamel; Sadelaoud, Mourad; Toumi, Wided; Bounecer, Hocine

    2016-04-01

    Breast cancer (BC) prognosis and risk were associated to obesity, metabolic syndrome and type 2 diabetes mellitus. Two Single Nucleotide Polymorphisms (SNPs) of the adrenergic receptor-2a gene (ADRA2A): rs1800544 and rs553668, have been associated to these metabolic disorders. We investigated these SNPs in BC risk and prognosis. A total of 102 BC patients and 102 healthy controls were included. The rs1800544 and rs553668 were determined by real-time PCR. Genotypes and haplotypes frequencies between patients and controls, and for different clinico-pathologic parameters were compared. We found a significant association of rs1800544 GG genotype with young age at diagnosis, premenopausal status, higher tumor size, metastasis in lymph nodes, advanced TNM stages and higher Nottingham Prognosis Indicator (NPI) (p < 0.05). There was no association between rs1800544 and SBR stages, Her2, ER and PR statuses and the molecular classification. The rs553668 AA genotype was associated to young age at diagnosis and premenopausal status (p < 0.05). The haplotype GA was associated to the early age of diagnosis (p = 0.03), and the haplotype GG to higher tumor size, lymph node involvement, advanced TNM stages and Her2 positive status (p < 0.05). There was no polymorphism or haplotype association with BC risk (p > 0.05). ADRA2A polymorphism is associated with indicators BC poor prognosis but not with BC susceptibility. This is the first report suggesting that ADRA2A germline gene polymorphism could represent a predictor factor for BC outcome. Further investigation of other ADRA2A polymorphisms in BC risk or prognosis are needed and may lead to a genotype-based therapy.

  19. (±)-Nantenine analogs as antagonists at human 5-HT2A receptors: C1 and flexible congeners

    PubMed Central

    Chaudhary, Sandeep; Pecic, Stevan; LeGendre, Onica; Navarro, Hérnan A.; Harding, Wayne W.

    2009-01-01

    C1 and flexible analogs of (±)-nantenine were synthesized and evaluated for antagonist activity at human 5-HT2A receptors in a calcium mobilization assay. This work has resulted in the identification of the most potent 5-HT2A antagonist known based on an aporphine. Our results also suggest that the C1 position may be a key site for increasing 5-HT2A antagonist activity in this compound series. In addition, the structural rigidity of the aporphine core appears to be required for nantenine to function as a 5-HT2A antagonist. PMID:19328689

  20. Differential regulation of alpha7 nicotinic receptor gene (CHRNA7) expression in schizophrenic smokers.

    PubMed

    Mexal, Sharon; Berger, Ralph; Logel, Judy; Ross, Randal G; Freedman, Robert; Leonard, Sherry

    2010-01-01

    The alpha7 neuronal nicotinic receptor gene (CHRNA7) has been implicated in the pathophysiology of schizophrenia by genetic and pharmacological studies. Expression of the alpha7* receptor, as measured by [(125)I]alpha-bungarotoxin autoradiography, is decreased in postmortem brain of schizophrenic subjects compared to non-mentally ill controls. Most schizophrenic patients are heavy smokers, with high levels of serum cotinine. Smoking changes the expression of multiple genes and differentially regulates gene expression in schizophrenic hippocampus. We examined the effects of smoking on CHRNA7 expression in the same tissue and find that smoking differentially regulates expression of both mRNA and protein for this gene. CHRNA7 mRNA and protein levels are significantly lower in schizophrenic nonsmokers compared to control nonsmokers and are brought to control levels in schizophrenic smokers. Sufficient protein but low surface expression of the alpha7* receptor, seen in the autoradiographic studies, suggests aberrant assembly or trafficking of the receptor.

  1. Hippocampal serotonin-2A receptor-immunoreactive neurons density increases after testosterone therapy in the gonadectomized male mice

    PubMed Central

    Nikmahzar, Emsehgol; Ghaemi, Amir; Naseri, Gholam Reza; Moharreri, Ali Reza; Lotfinia, Ahmad Ali

    2016-01-01

    The change of steroid levels may also exert different modulatory effects on the number and class of serotonin receptors present in the plasma membrane. The effects of chronic treatment of testosterone for anxiety were examined and expression of 5-HT2A serotonergic receptor, neuron, astrocyte, and dark neuron density in the hippocampus of gonadectomized male mice was determined. Thirty-six adult male NMRI mice were randomly divided into six groups: intact-no testosterone treatment (No T), gonadectomy (GDX)-No T, GDX-Vehicle, GDX-6.25 mg/kg testosterone (T), GDX-12.5 mg/kg T, and GDX-25 mg/kg T. Anxiety-related behavior was evaluated using elevated plus maze apparatus. The animals were anesthetized after 48 hours after behavioral testing, and decapitated and micron slices were prepared for immunohistochemical as well as histopathological assessment. Subcutaneous injection of testosterone (25 mg/kg) may induce anxiogenic-like behavior in male mice. In addition, immunohistochemical data reveal reduced expression of 5-HT2A serotonergic receptor after gonadectomy in all areas of the hippocampus. However, treatment with testosterone could increase the mean number of dark neurons as well as immunoreactive neurons in CA1 and CA3 area, dose dependently. The density of 5-HT2A receptor-immunoreactive neurons may play a crucial role in the induction of anxiety like behavior. As reduction in such receptor expression have shown to significantly enhance anxiety behaviors. However, replacement of testosterone dose dependently enhances the number of 5-HT2A receptor-immunoreactive neurons and interestingly also reduced anxiety like behaviors. PMID:28127501

  2. High salt diet exacerbates vascular contraction in the absence of adenosine A2A receptor

    PubMed Central

    Pradhan, Isha; Zeldin, Darryl C.; Ledent, Catherine; Mustafa, S. Jamal; Falck, John R.; Nayeem, Mohammed A

    2014-01-01

    High salt (4%NaCl, HS) diet modulates adenosine-induced vascular response through adenosine A2A-receptor (A2AAR). Evidence suggests A2AAR stimulates cyp450-epoxygenases, leading to epoxyeicosatrienoic acids (EETs) generation. The aim of this study was to understand the vascular reactivity to HS and underlying signaling mechanism in the presence or absence of A2AAR. Therefore, we hypothesized that HS enhances adenosine-induced relaxation through EETs in A2AAR+/+, but exaggerates contraction in A2AAR−/−. Organ-bath and Western-blot experiments were conducted in HS and normal salt (NS, 0.18% NaCl)-fed A2AAR+/+ and A2AAR−/− mice aortae. HS produced concentration-dependent relaxation to non-selective adenosine analog, NECA in A2AAR+/+, whereas contraction was observed in A2AAR−/− mice and this was attenuated by A1AR antagonist (DPCPX). CGS-21680 (selective A2AAR-agonist) enhanced relaxation in HS-A2AAR+/+ vs. NS-A2AAR+/+, that was blocked by EETs antagonist (14,15-EEZE). Compared to NS, HS significantly upregulated expression of vasodilators A2AAR and cyp2c29, while vasoconstrictors A1AR and cyp4a in A2AAR+/+ were downregulated. In A2AAR−/− mice, however, HS significantly downregulated the expression of cyp2c29, while A1AR and cyp4a were upregulated compared to A2AAR+/+ mice. Hence, our data suggest that in A2AAR+/+, HS enhances A2AAR-induced relaxation through increased cyp-expoxygenases-derived EETs and decreased A1AR levels, whereas in A2AAR−/−, HS exaggerates contraction through decreased cyp-epoxygenases and increased A1AR levels. PMID:24390173

  3. A2A Adenosine Receptor (A2AAR) as a Therapeutic Target in Diabetic Retinopathy

    PubMed Central

    Ibrahim, Ahmed S.; El-shishtawy, Mamdouh M.; Zhang, Wenbo; Caldwell, Ruth B.; Liou, Gregory I.

    2011-01-01

    In diabetic retinopathy (DR), abnormalities in vascular and neuronal function are closely related to the local production of inflammatory mediators whose potential source is microglia. A2A adenosine receptor (A2AAR) has been shown to possess anti-inflammatory properties that have not been studied in DR. Here, we evaluate the role of A2AAR and its underlying signaling in retinal complications associated with diabetes. Initial studies in wild-type mice revealed that the treatment with the A2AAR agonist resulted in marked decreases in hyperglycemia-induced retinal cell death and tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α release. To further assess the role of A2AAR in DR, we studied the effects of A2AAR ablation on diabetes-induced retinal abnormalities. Diabetic A2AAR−/− mice had significantly more terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase-mediated dUTP nick-end labeling-positive cells, TNF-α release, and intercellular adhesion molecule-1 expression compared with diabetic wild-type mice. To explore a potential mechanism by which A2AAR signaling regulates inflammation in DR, we performed additional studies using microglial cells treated with Amadori-glycated albumin, a risk factor in diabetic disorders. The results showed that activation of A2AAR attenuated Amadori-glycated albumin-induced TNF-α release in a cAMP/exchange protein directly activated by cAMP-dependent mechanism and significantly repressed the inflammatory cascade, C-Raf/extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK), in activated microglia. Collectively, this work provides pharmacological and genetic evidence for A2AAR signaling as a control point of cell death in DR and suggests that the retinal protective effect of A2AAR is mediated by abrogating the inflammatory response that occurs in microglia via interaction with C-Raf/ERK pathway. PMID:21514428

  4. Histamine H1 Receptor Gene Expression and Drug Action of Antihistamines.

    PubMed

    Fukui, Hiroyuki; Mizuguchi, Hiroyuki; Nemoto, Hisao; Kitamura, Yoshiaki; Kashiwada, Yoshiki; Takeda, Noriaki

    2016-11-25

    The upregulation mechanism of histamine H1 receptor through the activation of protein kinase C-δ (PKCδ) and the receptor gene expression was discovered. Levels of histamine H1 receptor mRNA and IL-4 mRNA in nasal mucosa were elevated by the provocation of nasal hypersensitivity model rats. Pretreatment with antihistamines suppressed the elevation of mRNA levels. Scores of nasal symptoms were correlatively alleviated to the suppression level of mRNAs above. A correlation between scores of nasal symptoms and levels of histamine H1 receptor mRNA in the nasal mucosa was observed in patients with pollinosis. Both scores of nasal symptoms and the level of histamine H1 receptor mRNA were improved by prophylactic treatment of antihistamines. Similar to the antihistamines, pretreatment with antiallergic natural medicines showed alleviation of nasal symptoms with correlative suppression of gene expression in nasal hypersensitivity model rats through the suppression of PKCδ. Similar effects of antihistamines and antiallergic natural medicines support that histamine H1 receptor-mediated activation of histamine H1 receptor gene expression is an important signaling pathway for the symptoms of allergic diseases. Antihistamines with inverse agonist activity showed the suppression of constitutive histamine H1 receptor gene expression, suggesting the advantage of therapeutic effect.

  5. Farnesoid X receptor represses hepatic human APOA gene expression

    PubMed Central

    Chennamsetty, Indumathi; Claudel, Thierry; Kostner, Karam M.; Baghdasaryan, Anna; Kratky, Dagmar; Levak-Frank, Sanja; Frank, Sasa; Gonzalez, Frank J.; Trauner, Michael; Kostner, Gert M.

    2011-01-01

    High plasma concentrations of lipoprotein(a) [Lp(a), which is encoded by the APOA gene] increase an individual’s risk of developing diseases, such as coronary artery diseases, restenosis, and stroke. Unfortunately, increased Lp(a) levels are minimally influenced by dietary changes or drug treatment. Further, the development of Lp(a)-specific medications has been hampered by limited knowledge of Lp(a) metabolism. In this study, we identified patients suffering from biliary obstructions with very low plasma Lp(a) concentrations that rise substantially after surgical intervention. Consistent with this, common bile duct ligation in mice transgenic for human APOA (tg-APOA mice) lowered plasma concentrations and hepatic expression of APOA. To test whether farnesoid X receptor (FXR), which is activated by bile acids, was responsible for the low plasma Lp(a) levels in cholestatic patients and mice, we treated tg-APOA and tg-APOA/Fxr–/– mice with cholic acid. FXR activation markedly reduced plasma concentrations and hepatic expression of human APOA in tg-APOA mice but not in tg-APOA/Fxr–/– mice. Incubation of primary hepatocytes from tg-APOA mice with bile acids dose dependently downregulated APOA expression. Further analysis determined that the direct repeat 1 element between nucleotides –826 and –814 of the APOA promoter functioned as a negative FXR response element. This motif is also bound by hepatocyte nuclear factor 4α (HNF4α), which promotes APOA transcription, and FXR was shown to compete with HNF4α for binding to this motif. These findings may have important implications in the development of Lp(a)-lowering medications. PMID:21804189

  6. Blunted dynamics of adenosine A2A receptors is associated with increased susceptibility to Candida albicans infection in the elderly

    PubMed Central

    Rodrigues, Lisa; Miranda, Isabel M.; Andrade, Geanne M.; Mota, Marta; Cortes, Luísa; Rodrigues, Acácio G.; Cunha, Rodrigo A.; Gonçalves, Teresa

    2016-01-01

    Opportunistic gut infections and chronic inflammation, in particular due to overgrowth of Candida albicans present in the gut microbiota, are increasingly reported in the elder population. In aged, adult and young mice, we now compared the relative intestinal over-colonization by ingested C. albicans and their translocation to other organs, focusing on the role of adenosine A2A receptors that are a main stop signal of inflammation. We report that elderly mice are more prone to over-colonization by C. albicans than adult and young mice. This fungal over-growth seems to be related with higher growth rate in intestinal lumen, independent of gut tissues invasion, but resulting in higher GI tract inflammation. We observed a particularly high colonization of the stomach, with increased rate of yeast-to-hypha transition in aged mice. We found a correlation between A2A receptor density and tissue damage due to yeast infection: comparing with young and adults, aged mice have a lower gut A2A receptor density and C. albicans infection failed to increase it. In conclusion, this study shows that aged mice have a lower ability to cope with inflammation due to C. albicans over-colonization, associated with an inability to adaptively adjust adenosine A2A receptors density. PMID:27590517

  7. Dorsal prefrontal cortical serotonin 2A receptor binding indices are differentially related to individual scores on harm avoidance.

    PubMed

    Baeken, Chris; Bossuyt, Axel; De Raedt, Rudi

    2014-02-28

    Although the serotonergic system has been implicated in healthy as well as in pathological emotional states, knowledge about its involvement in personality is limited. Earlier research on this topic suggests that post-synaptic 5-HT2A receptors could be involved in particular in frontal cortical areas. In drug-naïve healthy individuals, we examined the relationship between these 5-HT2A receptors and the temperament dimension harm avoidance (HA) using 123I-5-I-R91150 single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT). HA is a personality feature closely related to stress, anxiety and depression proneness, and it is thought to be mediated by the serotonergic system. We focused on the prefrontal cortices as these regions are frequently implicated in cognitive processes related to a variety of affective disorders. We found a positive relationship between dorsal prefrontal cortical (DPFC) 5-HT2A receptor binding indices (BI) and individual HA scores. Further, our results suggest that those individuals with a tendency to worry or to ruminate are particularly prone to display significantly higher 5-HT2A receptor BI in the left DPFC. Although we only examined psychologically healthy individuals, this relationship suggests a possible vulnerability for affective disorders.

  8. Genetic deletion of the adenosine A(2A) receptor prevents nicotine-induced upregulation of α7, but not α4β2* nicotinic acetylcholine receptor binding in the brain.

    PubMed

    Metaxas, Athanasios; Al-Hasani, Ream; Farshim, Pamela; Tubby, Kristina; Berwick, Amy; Ledent, Catherine; Hourani, Susanna; Kitchen, Ian; Bailey, Alexis

    2013-08-01

    Considerable evidence indicates that adenosine A(2A) receptors (A(2A)Rs) modulate cholinergic neurotransmission, nicotinic acetylcholine receptor (nAChR) function, and nicotine-induced behavioural effects. To explore the interaction between A(2A) and nAChRs, we examined if the complete genetic deletion of adenosine A(2A)Rs in mice induces compensatory alterations in the binding of different nAChR subtypes, and whether the long-term effects of nicotine on nAChR regulation are altered in the absence of the A(2A)R gene. Quantitative autoradiography was used to measure cytisine-sensitive [¹²⁵I]epibatidine and [¹²⁵I]α-bungarotoxin binding to α4β2* and α7 nAChRs, respectively, in brain sections of drug-naïve (n = 6) or nicotine treated (n = 5-7), wild-type and adenosine A(2A)R knockout mice. Saline or nicotine (7.8 mg/kg/day; free-base weight) were administered to male CD1 mice via subcutaneous osmotic minipumps for a period of 14 days. Blood plasma levels of nicotine and cotinine were measured at the end of treatment. There were no compensatory developmental alterations in nAChR subtype distribution or density in drug-naïve A(2A)R knockout mice. In nicotine treated wild-type mice, both α4β2* and α7 nAChR binding sites were increased compared with saline treated controls. The genetic ablation of adenosine A(2A)Rs prevented nicotine-induced upregulation of α7 nAChRs, without affecting α4β2* receptor upregulation. This selective effect was observed at plasma levels of nicotine that were within the range reported for smokers (10-50 ng ml⁻¹). Our data highlight the involvement of adenosine A(2A)Rs in the mechanisms of nicotine-induced α7 nAChR upregulation, and identify A(2A)Rs as novel pharmacological targets for modulating the long-term effects of nicotine on α7 receptors.

  9. Thyroid hormones regulate phosphate homoeostasis through transcriptional control of the renal type IIa sodium-dependent phosphate co-transporter (Npt2a) gene.

    PubMed

    Ishiguro, Mariko; Yamamoto, Hironori; Masuda, Masashi; Kozai, Mina; Takei, Yuichiro; Tanaka, Sarasa; Sato, Tadatoshi; Segawa, Hiroko; Taketani, Yutaka; Arai, Hidekazu; Miyamoto, Ken-Ichi; Takeda, Eiji

    2010-03-15

    The type IIa renal sodium-dependent phosphate (Na/Pi) co-transporter Npt2a is implicated in the control of serum phosphate levels. It has been demonstrated previously that renal Npt2a protein and its mRNA expression are both up-regulated by the thyroid hormone T3 (3,3',5-tri-iodothyronine) in rats. However, it has never been established whether the induction was mediated by a direct effect of thyroid hormones on the Npt2a promoter. To address the role of Npt2a in T3-dependent regulation of phosphate homoeostasis and to identify the molecular mechanisms by which thyroid hormones modulate Npt2a gene expression, mice were rendered pharmacologically hypo- and hyper-thyroid. Hypothyroid mice showed low levels of serum phosphate and a marked decrease in renal Npt2a protein abundance. Importantly, we also showed that Npt2a-deficient mice had impaired serum phosphate responsiveness to T3 compared with wild-type mice. Promoter analysis with a luciferase assay revealed that the transcriptional activity of a reporter gene containing the Npt2a promoter and intron 1 was dependent upon TRs (thyroid hormone receptors) and specifically increased by T3 in renal cells. Deletion analysis and EMSAs (electrophoretic mobility-shift assays) determined that there were unique TREs (thyroid-hormone-responsive elements) within intron 1 of the Npt2a gene. These results suggest that Npt2a plays a critical role as a T3-target gene, to control phosphate homoeostasis, and that T3 transcriptionally activates the Npt2a gene via TRs in a renal cell-specific manner.

  10. mRNA Expression and DNA Methylation Analysis of Serotonin Receptor 2A (HTR2A) in the Human Schizophrenic Brain

    PubMed Central

    Cheah, Sern-Yih; Lawford, Bruce R.; Young, Ross McD.; Morris, Charles P.; Voisey, Joanne

    2017-01-01

    Serotonin receptor 2A (HTR2A) is an important signalling factor implicated in cognitive functions and known to be associated with schizophrenia. The biological significance of HTR2A in schizophrenia remains unclear as molecular analyses including genetic association, mRNA expression and methylation studies have reported inconsistent results. In this study, we examine HTR2A expression and methylation and the interaction with HTR2A polymorphisms to identify their biological significance in schizophrenia. Subjects included 25 schizophrenia and 25 control post-mortem brain samples. Genotype and mRNA data was generated by transcriptome sequencing. DNA methylation profiles were generated for CpG sites within promoter-exon I region. Expression, genotype and methylation data were examined for association with schizophrenia. HTR2A mRNA levels were reduced by 14% (p = 0.006) in schizophrenia compared to controls. Three CpG sites were hypermethylated in schizophrenia (cg5 p = 0.028, cg7 p = 0.021, cg10 p = 0.017) and HTR2A polymorphisms rs6314 (p = 0.008) and rs6313 (p = 0.026) showed genetic association with schizophrenia. Differential DNA methylation was associated with rs6314 and rs6313. There was a strong correlation between HTR2A DNA methylation and mRNA expression. The results were nominally significant but did not survive the rigorous Benjamini-Hochberg correction for multiple testing. Differential HTR2A expression in schizophrenia in our study may be the result of the combined effect of multiple differentially methylated CpG sites. Epigenetic HTR2A regulation may alter brain function, which contributes to the development of schizophrenia. PMID:28054990

  11. mRNA Expression and DNA Methylation Analysis of Serotonin Receptor 2A (HTR2A) in the Human Schizophrenic Brain.

    PubMed

    Cheah, Sern-Yih; Lawford, Bruce R; Young, Ross McD; Morris, Charles P; Voisey, Joanne

    2017-01-04

    Serotonin receptor 2A (HTR2A) is an important signalling factor implicated in cognitive functions and known to be associated with schizophrenia. The biological significance of HTR2A in schizophrenia remains unclear as molecular analyses including genetic association, mRNA expression and methylation studies have reported inconsistent results. In this study, we examine HTR2A expression and methylation and the interaction with HTR2A polymorphisms to identify their biological significance in schizophrenia. Subjects included 25 schizophrenia and 25 control post-mortem brain samples. Genotype and mRNA data was generated by transcriptome sequencing. DNA methylation profiles were generated for CpG sites within promoter-exon I region. Expression, genotype and methylation data were examined for association with schizophrenia. HTR2A mRNA levels were reduced by 14% (p = 0.006) in schizophrenia compared to controls. Three CpG sites were hypermethylated in schizophrenia (cg5 p = 0.028, cg7 p = 0.021, cg10 p = 0.017) and HTR2A polymorphisms rs6314 (p = 0.008) and rs6313 (p = 0.026) showed genetic association with schizophrenia. Differential DNA methylation was associated with rs6314 and rs6313. There was a strong correlation between HTR2A DNA methylation and mRNA expression. The results were nominally significant but did not survive the rigorous Benjamini-Hochberg correction for multiple testing. Differential HTR2A expression in schizophrenia in our study may be the result of the combined effect of multiple differentially methylated CpG sites. Epigenetic HTR2A regulation may alter brain function, which contributes to the development of schizophrenia.

  12. Association of COL2A1 Gene Polymorphism with Degenerative Lumbar Scoliosis

    PubMed Central

    Hwang, Dae Woo; Lee, Sang Hoon; Kim, Jung Youn; Kim, Dong Hwan

    2014-01-01

    Background Degenerative lumbar scoliosis (DLS) progresses with aging after 50-60 years, and the genetic association of DLS remains largely unclear. In this study, the genetic association between collagen type II alpha 1 (COL2A1) gene and DLS was investigated. Methods COL2A1 gene polymorphism was investigated in DLS subjects compared to healthy controls to investigate the possibility of its association with COL2A1 gene. Based on a single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) database, SNP (rs2276454) in COL2A1 were selected and genotyped using direct sequencing in 51 patients with DLS and 235 healthy controls. The SNP effects were analyzed using three models of codominant, dominant, and recessive. Logistic regression models were calculated for odds ratios (ORs) with 95% confidence intervals (CIs) and corresponding p-values, controlling age and gender as co-variables. Results SNP (rs2276454) in COL2A1 was significantly associated with the degenerative lumbar scoliosis in the codominant (OR, 1.90; 95% CI, 1.17 to 3.10; p = 0.008) and dominant models (OR, 3.58; 95% CI, 1.59 to 9.29; p = 0.001). Conclusions The results suggest that COL2A1 is associated with the risk of DLS in Korean population. PMID:25436060

  13. Characterization of lobulated fibers in limb girdle muscular dystrophy type 2A by gene expression profiling.

    PubMed

    Keira, Yoko; Noguchi, Satoru; Kurokawa, Rumi; Fujita, Masako; Minami, Narihiro; Hayashi, Yukiko K; Kato, Takashi; Nishino, Ichizo

    2007-04-01

    Limb girdle muscular dystrophy type 2A (LGMD2A) is caused by mutations in CAPN3, which encodes an intracellular cysteine protease. To elucidate the fundamental molecular changes that may be responsible for the pathological features of LGMD2A, we employed cDNA microarray analysis. We divided LGMD2A muscles into two groups according to specific pathological features: an early-stage group characterized by the presence of active necrosis and a regeneration process and a later-stage group characterized by the presence of lobulated fibers. After comparing the gene expression profiles of the two groups of LGMD2A muscles with control muscles, we identified 29 genes whose mRNA expression profiles were specifically altered in muscles with lobulated fibers. Interestingly, this group included genes that encode actin filament binding and regulatory proteins, such as gelsolin, PDZ and LIM domain 3 (PDLIM3) and troponin I1. Western blot analysis confirmed the upregulation of these proteins. From these results, we propose that abnormal increased expression of actin filament binding proteins may contribute to the changes of the intra-myofiber structures, observed in lobulated fibers in LGMD2A.

  14. Differential regulation of HIF-1α and HIF-2α in neuroblastoma: Estrogen-related receptor alpha (ERRα) regulates HIF2A transcription and correlates to poor outcome

    SciTech Connect

    Hamidian, Arash; Stedingk, Kristoffer von; Munksgaard Thorén, Matilda; Mohlin, Sofie; Påhlman, Sven

    2015-06-05

    Hypoxia-inducible factors (HIFs) are differentially regulated in tumor cells. While the current paradigm supports post-translational regulation of the HIF-α subunits, we recently showed that hypoxic HIF-2α is also transcriptionally regulated via insulin-like growth factor (IGF)-II in the childhood tumor neuroblastoma. Here, we demonstrate that transcriptional regulation of HIF-2α seems to be restricted to neural cell-derived tumors, while HIF-1α is canonically regulated at the post-translational level uniformly across different tumor forms. Enhanced expression of HIF2A mRNA at hypoxia is due to de novo transcription rather than increased mRNA stability, and chemical stabilization of the HIF-α proteins at oxygen-rich conditions unexpectedly leads to increased HIF2A transcription. The enhanced HIF2A levels do not seem to be dependent on active HIF-1. Using a transcriptome array approach, we identified members of the Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma coactivator (PGC)/Estrogen-related receptor (ERR) complex families as potential regulators of HIF2A. Knockdown or inhibition of one of the members, ERRα, leads to decreased expression of HIF2A, and high expression of the ERRα gene ESRRA correlates with poor overall and progression-free survival in a clinical neuroblastoma material consisting of 88 tumors. Thus, targeting of ERRα and pathways regulating transcriptional HIF-2α are promising therapeutic avenues in neuroblastoma. - Highlights: • Transcriptional control of HIF-2α is restricted to neural cell-derived tumors. • Enhanced transcription of HIF2A is not due to increased mRNA stability. • Chemical stabilization of the HIF-α subunits leads to increased HIF2A transcription. • ERRα regulates HIF2A mRNA expression in neuroblastoma. • High expression of ESRRA correlates to poor outcome in neuroblastoma.

  15. The Circadian Rhythm Gene Arntl2 Is a Metastasis Susceptibility Gene for Estrogen Receptor-Negative Breast Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Ha, Ngoc-Han; Long, Jirong; Cai, Qiuyin; Shu, Xiao Ou

    2016-01-01

    Breast cancer mortality is primarily due to metastasis rather than primary tumors, yet relatively little is understood regarding the etiology of metastatic breast cancer. Previously, using a mouse genetics approach, we demonstrated that inherited germline polymorphisms contribute to metastatic disease, and that these single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) could be used to predict outcome in breast cancer patients. In this study, a backcross between a highly metastatic (FVB/NJ) and low metastatic (MOLF/EiJ) mouse strain identified Arntl2, a gene encoding a circadian rhythm transcription factor, as a metastasis susceptibility gene associated with progression, specifically in estrogen receptor-negative breast cancer patients. Integrated whole genome sequence analysis with DNase hypersensitivity sites reveals SNPs in the predicted promoter of Arntl2. Using CRISPR/Cas9-mediated substitution of the MOLF promoter, we demonstrate that the SNPs regulate Arntl2 transcription and affect metastatic burden. Finally, analysis of SNPs associated with ARNTL2 expression in human breast cancer patients revealed reproducible associations of ARNTL2 expression quantitative trait loci (eQTL) SNPs with disease-free survival, consistent with the mouse studies. PMID:27656887

  16. Alternative splicing, a new target to block cellular gene expression by poliovirus 2A protease

    SciTech Connect

    Alvarez, Enrique; Castello, Alfredo; Carrasco, Luis; Izquierdo, Jose M.

    2011-10-14

    Highlights: {yields} Novel role for poliovirus 2A protease as splicing modulator. {yields} Poliovirus 2A protease inhibits the alternative splicing of pre-mRNAs. {yields} Poliovirus 2A protease blocks the second catalytic step of splicing. -- Abstract: Viruses have developed multiple strategies to interfere with the gene expression of host cells at different stages to ensure their own survival. Here we report a new role for poliovirus 2A{sup pro} modulating the alternative splicing of pre-mRNAs. Expression of 2A{sup pro} potently inhibits splicing of reporter genes in HeLa cells. Low amounts of 2A{sup pro} abrogate Fas exon 6 skipping, whereas higher levels of protease fully abolish Fas and FGFR2 splicing. In vitro splicing of MINX mRNA using nuclear extracts is also strongly inhibited by 2A{sup pro}, leading to accumulation of the first exon and the lariat product containing the unspliced second exon. These findings reveal that the mechanism of action of 2A{sup pro} on splicing is to selectively block the second catalytic step.

  17. Activation of A1, A2A, or A3 adenosine receptors attenuates lung ischemia-reperfusion injury

    PubMed Central

    Gazoni, Leo M.; Walters, Dustin M.; Unger, Eric B.; Linden, Joel; Kron, Irving L.; Laubach, Victor E.

    2010-01-01

    Objective Adenosine and the activation of specific adenosine receptors are implicated in the attenuation of inflammation and organ ischemia-reperfusion (IR) injury. We hypothesized that activation of A1, A2A, or A3 adenosine receptors would provide protection against lung IR injury. Methods Using an isolated, ventilated, blood-perfused rabbit lung model, lungs underwent 18 hours cold ischemia followed by 2 hours reperfusion. Lungs were administered either vehicle, adenosine, or selective A1, A2A, or A3 receptor agonists (CCPA, ATL-313, or IB-MECA, respectively) alone or with their respective antagonists (DPCPX, ZM241385, or MRS1191) during reperfusion. Results Compared to the vehicle-treated control group, treatment with A1, A2A, or A3 agonists significantly improved function (increased lung compliance and oxygenation and decreased pulmonary artery pressure), decreased neutrophil infiltration by myeloperoxidase activity, decreased edema, and reduced TNF-α production. Adenosine treatment was also protective but not to the level of the agonists. When each agonist was paired with its respective antagonist, all protective effects were blocked. The A2A agonist reduced pulmonary artery pressure and myeloperoxidase activity and increased oxygenation to a greater degree than the A1 or A3 agonists. Conclusions Selective activation of A1, A2A, or A3 adenosine receptors provides significant protection against lung IR injury. The decreased elaboration of the potent proinflammatory cytokine, TNF-α, and decreased neutrophil sequestration likely contribute to the overall improvement in pulmonary function. These results provide evidence for the therapeutic potential of specific adenosine receptor agonists in lung transplant recipients. PMID:20398911

  18. A2A Adenosine Receptor Antagonism Reverts the Blood-Brain Barrier Dysfunction Induced by Sleep Restriction

    PubMed Central

    Hurtado-Alvarado, Gabriela; Domínguez-Salazar, Emilio; Velázquez-Moctezuma, Javier

    2016-01-01

    Chronic sleep restriction induces blood-brain barrier disruption and increases pro-inflammatory mediators in rodents. Those inflammatory mediators may modulate the blood-brain barrier and constitute a link between sleep loss and blood-brain barrier physiology. We propose that adenosine action on its A2A receptor may be modulating the blood-brain barrier dynamics in sleep-restricted rats. We administrated a selective A2A adenosine receptor antagonist (SCH58261) in sleep-restricted rats at the 10th day of sleep restriction and evaluated the blood-brain barrier permeability to dextrans coupled to fluorescein (FITC-dextrans) and Evans blue. In addition, we evaluated by western blot the expression of tight junction proteins (claudin-5, occludin, ZO-1), adherens junction protein (E-cadherin), A2A adenosine receptor, adenosine-synthesizing enzyme (CD73), and neuroinflammatory markers (Iba-1 and GFAP) in the cerebral cortex, hippocampus, basal nuclei and cerebellar vermis. Sleep restriction increased blood-brain barrier permeability to FITC-dextrans and Evans blue, and the effect was reverted by the administration of SCH58261 in almost all brain regions, excluding the cerebellum. Sleep restriction increased the expression of A2A adenosine receptor only in the hippocampus and basal nuclei without changing the expression of CD73 in all brain regions. Sleep restriction reduced the expression of tight junction proteins in all brain regions, except in the cerebellum; and SCH58261 restored the levels of tight junction proteins in the cortex, hippocampus and basal nuclei. Finally, sleep restriction induced GFAP and Iba-1 overexpression that was attenuated with the administration of SCH58261. These data suggest that the action of adenosine on its A2A receptor may have a crucial role in blood-brain barrier dysfunction during sleep loss probably by direct modulation of brain endothelial cell permeability or through a mechanism that involves gliosis with subsequent inflammation and

  19. Increased non-rapid eye movement sleep by cocaine withdrawal: possible involvement of A2A receptors.

    PubMed

    Yang, Shu-Long; Han, Jin-Yi; Kim, Yun-Bae; Nam, Sang-Yoon; Song, Sukgil; Hong, Jin Tae; Oh, Ki-Wan

    2011-02-01

    This study attempted to clarify whether cocaine withdrawal altered sleep architecture and the role of adenosine receptors in this process. Cocaine (20 mg/kg) was administered subcutaneously once per day for 7 days to rat implanted with sleep/wake recording electrode. Polygraphic signs of undisturbed sleep/wake activities were recorded for 24 h before cocaine administration (basal recording as control); withdrawal-day 1 (after 1 day of repeated cocaine administration), withdrawal-day 8 (after 8 days of repeated cocaine administration), and withdrawal-day 14 (after 14 days of repeated cocaine administration), respectively. On cocaine withdrawal-day 1, wakefulness was significantly increased, total sleep was decreased, non-rapid eye movement sleep was markedly reduced, and rapid eye movement sleep was enhanced. Sleep/wake cycles were also increased on cocaine withdrawal day 1. However, non-rapid eye movement sleep was increased on withdrawal-day 8 and 14, whereas rapid eye movement sleep was decreased and no significant changes were observed in the total sleep and sleep/wake cycles during these periods. Adenosine A(2A) receptors expression was increased on withdrawal-day 8 and 14, whereas A(1) receptors levels were reduced after 14 days of withdrawal and the A(2B) receptors remained unchanged. Our findings suggest that alterations of sleep and sleep architecture during cocaine subacute and subchronic withdrawals after repeated cocaine administration may be partially involved in A(2A) receptors over-expression in the rat hypothalamus.

  20. Deletion of striatal adenosine A(2A) receptor spares latent inhibition and prepulse inhibition but impairs active avoidance learning.

    PubMed

    Singer, Philipp; Wei, Catherine J; Chen, Jiang-Fan; Boison, Detlev; Yee, Benjamin K

    2013-04-01

    Following early clinical leads, the adenosine A(2A)R receptor (A(2A)R) has continued to attract attention as a potential novel target for treating schizophrenia, especially against the negative and cognitive symptoms of the disease because of A(2A)R's unique modulatory action over glutamatergic in addition to dopaminergic signaling. Through (i) the antagonistic interaction with the dopamine D(2) receptor, and (ii) the regulation of glutamate release and N-methyl-d-aspartate receptor function, striatal A(2A)R is ideally positioned to fine-tune the dopamine-glutamate balance, the disturbance of which is implicated in the pathophysiology of schizophrenia. However, the precise function of striatal A(2A)Rs in the regulation of schizophrenia-relevant behavior is poorly understood. Here, we tested the impact of conditional striatum-specific A(2A)R knockout (st-A(2A)R-KO) on latent inhibition (LI) and prepulse inhibition (PPI) - behavior that is tightly regulated by striatal dopamine and glutamate. These are two common cross-species translational tests for the assessment of selective attention and sensorimotor gating deficits reported in schizophrenia patients; and enhanced performance in these tests is associated with antipsychotic drug action. We found that neither LI nor PPI was significantly affected in st-A(2A)R-KO mice, although a deficit in active avoidance learning was identified in these animals. The latter phenotype, however, was not replicated in another form of aversive conditioning - namely, conditioned taste aversion. Hence, the present study shows that neither learned inattention (as measured by LI) nor sensory gating (as indexed by PPI) requires the integrity of striatal A(2A)Rs - a finding that may undermine the hypothesized importance of A(2A)R in the genesis and/or treatment of schizophrenia.

  1. Polymorphism of the progesterone receptor gene associated with endometriosis in patients from Goiás, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Costa, I R; Silva, R C P C; Frare, A B; Silva, C T X; Bordin, B M; Souza, S R; Ribeiro Júnior, C L; Moura, K K V O

    2011-07-06

    We investigated a possible link between endometriosis and polymorphism of the progesterone receptor gene (PROGINS). The endometriosis group consisted of 54 patients with a diagnosis of endometriosis by laparoscopy, and the control group comprised 44 women without endometriosis. Genotypes for PROGINS polymorphisms (A1/A1, A1/A2 and A2/A2) were determined by polymerase chain reaction and analyzed on a 2% agarose gel stained with ethidium bromide. The frequency of polymorphic genotypes (A1/A2 and A2/A2) was significantly higher in patients with endometriosis (33%) than in the control group (16%). We conclude that there is a significant correlation between PROGINS polymorphism and endometriosis.

  2. Cytochrome P450 2A5 and bilirubin: Mechanisms of gene regulation and cytoprotection

    SciTech Connect

    Kim, Sangsoo Daniel; Antenos, Monica; Squires, E. James; Kirby, Gordon M.

    2013-07-15

    Bilirubin (BR) has recently been identified as the first endogenous substrate for cytochrome P450 2A5 (CYP2A5) and it has been suggested that CYP2A5 plays a major role in BR clearance as an alternative mechanism to BR conjugation by uridine-diphosphate glucuronyltransferase 1A1. This study investigated the mechanisms of Cyp2a5 gene regulation by BR and the cytoprotective role of CYP2A5 in BR hepatotoxicity. BR induced CYP2A5 expression at the mRNA and protein levels in a dose-dependent manner in primary mouse hepatocytes. BR treatment also caused nuclear translocation of Nuclear factor-E2 p45-related factor 2 (Nrf2) in hepatocytes. In reporter assays, BR treatment of primary hepatocytes transfected with a Cyp2a5 promoter-luciferase reporter construct resulted in a 2-fold induction of Cyp2a5 reporter activity. Furthermore, cotransfection of the hepatocytes with a Nrf2 expression vector without BR treatment resulted in an increase in Cyp2a5 reporter activity of approximately 2-fold and BR treatment of Nrf2 cotransfectants further increased reporter activity by 4-fold. In addition, site-directed mutation of the ARE in the reporter construct completely abolished both the BR- and Nrf2-mediated increases in reporter activity. The cytoprotective role of CYP2A5 against BR-mediated apoptosis was also examined in Hepa 1–6 cells that lack endogenous CYP2A5. Transient overexpression of CYP2A5 partially blocked BR-induced caspase-3 cleavage in Hepa 1–6 cells. Furthermore, in vitro degradation of BR was increased by microsomes from Hepa 1–6 cells overexpressing CYP2A5 compared to control cells transfected with an empty vector. Collectively, these results suggest that Nrf2-mediated CYP2A5 transactivation in response to BR may provide an additional mechanism for adaptive cytoprotection against BR hepatotoxicity. - Highlights: • The mechanism of Cyp2a5 gene regulation by BR was investigated. • The cytoprotective role of CYP2A5 in BR hepatotoxicity was determined. • BR

  3. Molecular Pathways: Breaking the Epithelial Cancer Barrier for Chimeric Antigen Receptor and T-cell Receptor Gene Therapy.

    PubMed

    Hinrichs, Christian S

    2016-04-01

    Adoptive transfer of T cells genetically engineered to express a tumor-targeting chimeric antigen receptor (CAR) or T-cell receptor (TCR) can mediate cancer regression in some patients. CARs are synthetic single-chain proteins that use antibody domains to target cell surface antigens. TCRs are natural heterodimeric proteins that can target intracellular antigens through recognition of peptides bound to human leukocyte antigens. CARs have shown promise in B-cell malignancies and TCRs in melanoma, but neither approach has achieved clear success in an epithelial cancer. Treatment of epithelial cancers may be particularly challenging because of a paucity of target antigens expressed by carcinomas and not by important healthy tissues. In addition, epithelial cancers may be protected by inhibitory ligands and soluble factors in the tumor microenvironment. One strategy to overcome these negative regulators is to modulate expression of T-cell genes to enhance intrinsic T-cell function. Programmable nucleases, which can suppress inhibitory genes, and inducible gene expression systems, which can enhance stimulatory genes, are entering clinical testing. Other work is delineating whether control of genes for immune checkpoint receptors (e.g.,PDCD1, CTLA4) and cytokine and TCR signaling regulators (e.g.,CBLB, CISH, IL12, IL15) can increase the antitumor activity of therapeutic T cells.

  4. Structure and chromosomal localization of the human antidiuretic hormone receptor gene

    SciTech Connect

    Seibold, A.; Brabet, P.; Rosenthal, W.; Birnbaumer, M. )

    1992-11-01

    Applying a genomic DNA-expression approach, the authors cloned the gene and cDNA coding for the human antidiuretic hormone receptor, also called vasopressin V2 receptor' (V2R). The nucleotide sequence of both cloned DNAs provided the information to elucidate the structure of the isolated transcriptional unit. The structure of this gene is unusual in that it is the first G protein-coupled receptor gene that contains two very small intervening sequences, the second of which separates the region encoding the seventh transmembrane region from the rest of the open reading frame. The sequence information was used to synthesize appropriate oligonucleotides to be used as primers in the PCR. The V2R gene was localized by PCR using DNA from hybrid cells as template. The gene was found to reside in the q28-qter portion of the human X chromosome, a region identified as the locus for congential nephrogenic diabetes insipidus. 27 refs., 4 figs.

  5. A cosmid and yeast artificial chromosome contig containing the complete ryanodine receptor (RYR1) gene

    SciTech Connect

    Rouquier, S.; Giorgi, D.; Trask, B.; Bergmann, A.; De Jong, P. ); Phillips, M.S.; MacLennan, D.H. )

    1993-08-01

    The ryanodine receptor (RYR1) gene is responsible for some forms of malignant hyperthermia and has been localized to 19q13.1. Central core disease is a genetic myopathy that is genetically linked to RYR1. The authors have identified an overlapping set of cosmid and YAC clones that spans more than 800 kb and includes the RYR1 gene ([approximately]205 kb). Cosmids from this region were identified by screening three chromosome 19 cosmid libraries (11-fold coverage) with six subclones representing the entire RYR1 cDNA. Genomic sequences from positive cosmids were then used as probes to identify additional cosmids. A minimally overlapping set of 23 cosmids was assembled into two contigs on the basis of restriction fragment analysis and hybridization data. Three YAC clones were isolated by screening a human YAC library with selected cosmid inserts. Overlaps among these YACs and the cosmid contigs were determined by hybridizing YAC Alu-PCR products to cosmid DNAs. The YACs bridged the gap between the cosmid contigs and extended the contig on both sides. Fluorescence in situ hybridization experiments positioned the RYR1 contig between GPI, MAG, and D19S191 on the proximal side and D19S190, CYP2A, CYP2F, SNRPA, BCKDHA, and other markers on the distal side. The 800-kb contig of cloned reagents will facilitate the detailed characterization of the RYR1 gene and other loci that may be closely related to central core disease. 62 refs., 3 figs., 3 tabs.

  6. Species differences in cannabinoid receptor 2 (CNR2 gene): identification of novel human and rodent CB2 isoforms, differential tissue expression, and regulation by cannabinoid receptor ligands

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Qing-Rong; Pan, Chun-Hung; Hishimoto, Akitoyo; Li, Chuan-Yun; Xi, Zheng-Xiong; Llorente-Berzal, Alvaro; Viveros, Maria-Paz; Ishiguro, Hiroki; Arinami, Tadao; Onaivi, Emmanuel Shan; Uhl, George R.

    2009-01-01

    Cannabinoids, endocannabinoids and marijuana activate two well-characterized cannabinoid receptors (CBRs), CB1-Rs and CB2-Rs. The expression of CB1-Rs in the brain and periphery has been well studied but neuronal CB2-Rs have received much less attention than CB1-Rs. Many studies have now identified and characterized functional glial and neuronal CB2-Rs in the central nervous system. However, many features of CB2-R gene structure, regulation and variation remain poorly characterized in comparison to the CB1-R. Here, we report on the discovery of a novel human CB2 gene promoter encoding testis (CB2A) isoform with starting exon located ca 45 kb upstream from the previously identified promoter encoding the spleen isoform (CB2B). The 5′ exons of both CB2 isoforms are untranslated 5′UTRs and alternatively spliced to the major protein coding exon of the CB2 gene. CB2A is expressed higher in testis and brain than CB2B that is expressed higher in other peripheral tissues than CB2A. Species comparison found that the CB2 gene of human, rat and mouse genomes deviated in their gene structures and isoform expression patterns. mCB2A expression was increased significantly in the cerebellum of mice treated with the CB-R mixed agonist, WIN55212-2. These results provide much improved information about CB2 gene structure and its human and rodent variants that should be considered in developing CB2-R-based therapeutic agents. PMID:19496827

  7. LSD and DOB: interaction with 5-HT2A receptors to inhibit NMDA receptor-mediated transmission in the rat prefrontal cortex.

    PubMed

    Arvanov, V L; Liang, X; Russo, A; Wang, R Y

    1999-09-01

    Both the phenethylamine hallucinogen (-)-1-2, 5-dimethoxy-4-bromophenyl-2-aminopropane (DOB), a selective serotonin 5-HT2A,2C receptor agonist, and the indoleamine hallucinogen D-lysergic acid diethylamide (LSD, which binds to 5-HT1A, 1B, 1D, 1E, 1F, 2A, 2C, 5, 6, 7, dopamine D1 and D2, and alpha1 and alpha2 adrenergic receptors), but not their non-hallucinogenic congeners, inhibited N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA)-induced inward current and NMDA receptor-mediated synaptic responses evoked by electrical stimulation of the forceps minor in pyramidal cells of the prefrontal cortical slices. The inhibitory effect of hallucinogens was mimicked by 5-HT in the presence of selective 5-HT1A and 5-HT3 receptor antagonists. The inhibitory action of DOB, LSD and 5-HT on the NMDA transmission was blocked by the 5-HT2A receptor antagonists R-(+)-alpha-(2, 3-dimethoxyphenil)-1-[4-fluorophenylethyl]-4-piperidineme thanol (M100907) and ketanserin. However, at low concentrations, when both LSD and DOB by themselves only partially depressed the NMDA response, they blocked the inhibitory effect of 5-HT, suggesting a partial agonist action. Whereas N-(4-aminobutyl)-5-chloro-2-naphthalenesulphonamide (W-7, a calmodulin antagonist) and N-[2-[[[3-(4'-chlorophenyl)- 2-propenyl]methylamino]methyl]phenyl]-N-(2-hydroxyethyl)-4'-methoxy-b enzenesulphonamide phosphate (KN-93, a Ca2+/CaM-KII inhibitor), but not the negative control 2-[N-4'methoxybenzenesulphonyl]amino-N-(4'-chlorophenyl)-2-propeny l-N -methylbenzylamine phosphate (KN-92), blocked the inhibitory action of LSD and DOB, the selective protein kinase C inhibitor chelerythrine was without any effect. We conclude that phenethylamine and indoleamine hallucinogens may exert their hallucinogenic effect by interacting with 5-HT2A receptors via a Ca2+/CaM-KII-dependent signal transduction pathway as partial agonists and modulating the NMDA receptors-mediated sensory, perceptual, affective and cognitive processes.

  8. SERCA2a Gene Therapy Can Improve Symptomatic Heart Failure in δ-Sarcoglycan-Deficient Animals

    PubMed Central

    Bouyon, Sophie; Roussel, Véronique

    2014-01-01

    Abstract The loss of dystrophin or its associated proteins results in the development of muscle wasting frequently associated with cardiomyopathy. Contractile cardiac tissue is injured and replaced by fibrous tissue or fatty infiltrates, leading to a progressive decrease of the contractile force and finally to end-stage heart failure. At the time symptoms appear, restoration of a functional allele of the causative gene might not be sufficient to prevent disease progression. Alterations in Ca2+ transport and intracellular calcium levels have been implicated in many types of pathological processes, especially in heart disease. On the basis of a gene transfer strategy, we analyzed the therapeutic efficacy of primary gene correction in a δ-sarcoglycan (δ-SG)-deficient animal model versus gene transfer of the Ca2+ pump hSERCA2a (human sarco-endoplasmic reticulum calcium ATPase 2a), at a symptomatic stage of heart disease. Our results strongly suggest that restoration of δ-SG at this stage of disease will not lead to improved clinical outcome. However, restoration of proper Ca2+ handling by means of amplifying SERCA2a expression in the myocardium can lead to functional improvement. Abnormalities in Ca2+ handling play an important role in disease progression toward heart failure, and increased SERCA2a levels appear to significantly improve cardiac contraction and relaxation. Beneficial effects persist at least over a period of 6 months, and the evolution of cardiac functional parameters paralleled those of normal controls. Furthermore, we demonstrate that a plasmid formulation based on amphiphilic block copolymers can provide a safe and efficient platform for myocardial gene therapies. The use of synthetic formulations for myocardial gene transfer might thus overcome one of the major hurdles linked to viral vectors, that is, repeat administrations. PMID:24645914

  9. Novel androgen receptor gene mutation in patient with complete androgen insensitivity syndrome.

    PubMed

    Ning, Ye; Zhang, Feng; Zhu, Yong; Chen, Huixing; Lu, Jianqi; Li, Zheng

    2012-07-01

    To present a rare case of a patient probably with complete androgen insensitivity syndrome (CAIS) and studied its potential genetic cause. A 24-year-old woman with a normal-appearing vulva and vagina presented to us because of primary amenorrhea. Imaging studies showed no uterus or ovary development but inguinal cryptorchism. Histopathologic examination revealed normal testicular structures. Sequencing the CAIS-associated androgen receptor gene revealed a novel missense mutation of T to G (F698L). A novel androgen receptor gene mutation in the ligand binding domain was detected in the present patient with CAIS, supporting the important role of an androgen receptor defect in the etiology of CAIS.

  10. Chx10 Consolidates V2a Interneuron Identity through Two Distinct Gene Repression Modes.

    PubMed

    Clovis, Yoanne M; Seo, So Yeon; Kwon, Ji-Sun; Rhee, Jennifer C; Yeo, Sujeong; Lee, Jae W; Lee, Seunghee; Lee, Soo-Kyung

    2016-08-09

    During development, two cell types born from closely related progenitor pools often express identical transcriptional regulators despite their completely distinct characteristics. This phenomenon implies the need for a mechanism that operates to segregate the identities of the two cell types throughout differentiation after initial fate commitment. To understand this mechanism, we investigated the fate specification of spinal V2a interneurons, which share important developmental genes with motor neurons (MNs). We demonstrate that the paired homeodomain factor Chx10 functions as a critical determinant for V2a fate and is required to consolidate V2a identity in postmitotic neurons. Chx10 actively promotes V2a fate, downstream of the LIM-homeodomain factor Lhx3, while concomitantly suppressing the MN developmental program by preventing the MN-specific transcription complex from binding and activating MN genes. This dual activity enables Chx10 to effectively separate the V2a and MN pathways. Our study uncovers a widely applicable gene regulatory principle for segregating related cell fates.

  11. Different RET gene mutation-induced multiple endocrine neoplasia type 2A in 3 Chinese families

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Qiuli; Tong, Dali; Yuan, Wenqiang; Liu, Gaolei; Yuan, Gang; Lan, Weihua; Zhang, Dianzheng; Zhang, Jun; Huang, Zaoming; Zhang, Yao; Jiang, Jun

    2017-01-01

    Abstract Backgroud: Multiple endocrine neoplasia type 2A (MEN2A) is a condition with inherited autosomal dominant mutations in RET (rearranged during transfection) gene that predisposes the carrier to extremely high risk of medullary thyroid cancer (MTC) and other MEN2A-associated tumors such as parathyroid cancer and/or pheochromocytoma. Little is reported about MEN2A syndrome in the Chinese population. Methods: All members of the 3 families along with specific probands of MEN2A were analyzed for their clinical, laboratory, and genetic characteristics. Exome sequencing was performed on the 3 probands, and specific mutation in RET was further screened on each of the family members. Results: Different mutations in the RET gene were identified: C634S in Family 1, C611Y in Family 2, and C634Y in Family 3. Proband 1 mainly showed pheochromocytoma with MTC, both medullary thyroid carcinoma and pheochromocytoma were seen in proband 2, and proband 3 showed medullary thyroid carcinoma. Conclusion: The genetic evaluation is strongly recommended for patients with a positive family history, early onset of age, or multiple sites of masses. If the results verified the mutations of RET gene, thyroidectomy should be undertaken as the guide for better prognosis. PMID:28099363

  12. Arabidopsis meiotic crossover hot spots overlap with H2A.Z nucleosomes at gene promoters.

    PubMed

    Choi, Kyuha; Zhao, Xiaohui; Kelly, Krystyna A; Venn, Oliver; Higgins, James D; Yelina, Nataliya E; Hardcastle, Thomas J; Ziolkowski, Piotr A; Copenhaver, Gregory P; Franklin, F Chris H; McVean, Gil; Henderson, Ian R

    2013-11-01

    PRDM9 directs human meiotic crossover hot spots to intergenic sequence motifs, whereas budding yeast hot spots overlap regions of low nucleosome density (LND) in gene promoters. To investigate hot spots in plants, which lack PRDM9, we used coalescent analysis of genetic variation in Arabidopsis thaliana. Crossovers increased toward gene promoters and terminators, and hot spots were associated with active chromatin modifications, including H2A.Z, histone H3 Lys4 trimethylation (H3K4me3), LND and low DNA methylation. Hot spot-enriched A-rich and CTT-repeat DNA motifs occurred upstream and downstream, respectively, of transcriptional start sites. Crossovers were asymmetric around promoters and were most frequent over CTT-repeat motifs and H2A.Z nucleosomes. Pollen typing, segregation and cytogenetic analysis showed decreased numbers of crossovers in the arp6 H2A.Z deposition mutant at multiple scales. During meiosis, H2A.Z forms overlapping chromosomal foci with the DMC1 and RAD51 recombinases. As arp6 reduced the number of DMC1 or RAD51 foci, H2A.Z may promote the formation or processing of meiotic DNA double-strand breaks. We propose that gene chromatin ancestrally designates hot spots within eukaryotes and PRDM9 is a derived state within vertebrates.

  13. Striatal adenosine A2A and cannabinoid CB1 receptors form functional heteromeric complexes that mediate the motor effects of cannabinoids.

    PubMed

    Carriba, Paulina; Ortiz, Oskar; Patkar, Kshitij; Justinova, Zuzana; Stroik, Jessica; Themann, Andrea; Müller, Christa; Woods, Anima S; Hope, Bruce T; Ciruela, Francisco; Casadó, Vicent; Canela, Enric I; Lluis, Carme; Goldberg, Steven R; Moratalla, Rosario; Franco, Rafael; Ferré, Sergi

    2007-11-01

    The mechanism of action responsible for the motor depressant effects of cannabinoids, which operate through centrally expressed cannabinoid CB1 receptors, is still a matter of debate. In the present study, we report that CB1 and adenosine A2A receptors form heteromeric complexes in co-transfected HEK-293T cells and rat striatum, where they colocalize in fibrilar structures. In a human neuroblastoma cell line, CB1 receptor signaling was found to be completely dependent on A2A receptor activation. Accordingly, blockade of A2A receptors counteracted the motor depressant effects produced by the intrastriatal administration of a cannabinoid CB1 receptor agonist. These biochemical and behavioral findings demonstrate that the profound motor effects of cannabinoids depend on physical and functional interactions between striatal A2A and CB1 receptors.

  14. Responding for a conditioned reinforcer, and its enhancement by nicotine, is blocked by dopamine receptor antagonists and a 5-HT(2C) receptor agonist but not by a 5-HT(2A) receptor antagonist.

    PubMed

    Guy, Elizabeth Glenn; Fletcher, Paul J

    2014-10-01

    An aspect of nicotine reinforcement that may contribute to tobacco addiction is the effect of nicotine to enhance the motivational properties of reward-associated cues, or conditioned stimuli (CSs). Several studies have now shown that nicotine enhances responding for a stimulus that has been paired with a natural reinforcer. This effect of nicotine to enhance responding for a conditioned reinforcer is likely due to nicotine-induced enhancements in mesolimbic dopaminergic activity, but this has not been directly assessed. In this study, we assessed roles for dopamine (DA) D1 or D2 receptors, and two serotonin (5-HT) receptor subtypes known to modulate DA activity, the 5-HT2C or 5-HT2A subtypes, on nicotine-enhanced responding for a conditioned reinforcer. Water-restricted rats were exposed to Pavlovian conditioning sessions, where a CS was paired with water delivery. Then, in a second phase, animals were required to perform a novel, lever-pressing response for presentations of the CS as a conditioned reinforcer. Nicotine (0.4 mg/kg) enhanced responding for the conditioned reinforcer. To examine potential roles for dopamine (DA) and serotonin (5-HT) receptors in this effect, separate groups of animals were used to assess the impact of administering the D1 receptor antagonist SCH 23390, D2 receptor antagonist eticlopride, 5-HT2C receptor agonist Ro 60-0175, or 5-HT2A receptor antagonist M100907 on nicotine-enhanced responding for conditioned reinforcement. SCH 23390, eticlopride, and Ro 60-0175 all reduced responding for conditioned reinforcement, and the ability of nicotine to enhance this effect. M100907 did not alter this behavior. Together, these studies indicate that DA D1 and D2 receptors, but not 5-HT2A receptors, contribute to the effect of nicotine to enhance responding for a conditioned reinforcer. This effect can also be modulated by 5-HT2C receptor activation.

  15. Orphan nuclear receptor oestrogen-related receptor γ (ERRγ) plays a key role in hepatic cannabinoid receptor type 1-mediated induction of CYP7A1 gene expression

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Yaochen; Kim, Don-Kyu; Lee, Ji-Min; Park, Seung Bum; Jeong, Won-IL; Kim, Seong Heon; Lee, In-Kyu; Lee, Chul-Ho; Chiang, John Y.L.; Choi, Hueng-Sik

    2017-01-01

    Bile acids are primarily synthesized from cholesterol in the liver and have important roles in dietary lipid absorption and cholesterol homoeostasis. Detailed roles of the orphan nuclear receptors regulating cholesterol 7α-hydroxylase (CYP7A1), the rate-limiting enzyme in bile acid synthesis, have not yet been fully elucidated. In the present study, we report that oestrogen-related receptor γ (ERRγ) is a novel transcriptional regulator of CYP7A1 expression. Activation of cannabinoid receptor type 1 (CB1 receptor) signalling induced ERRγ-mediated transcription of the CYP7A1 gene. Overexpression of ERRγ increased CYP7A1 expression in vitro and in vivo, whereas knockdown of ERRγ attenuated CYP7A1 expression. Deletion analysis of the CYP7A1 gene promoter and a ChIP assay revealed an ERRγ -binding site on the CYP7A1 gene promoter. Small heterodimer partner (SHP) inhibited the transcriptional activity of ERRγ and thus regulated CYP7A1 expression. Overexpression of ERRγ led to increased bile acid levels, whereas an inverse agonist of ERRγ, GSK5182, reduced CYP7A1 expression and bile acid synthesis. Finally, GSK5182 significantly reduced hepatic CB1 receptor-mediated induction of CYP7A1 expression and bile acid synthesis in alcohol-treated mice. These results provide the molecular mechanism linking ERRγ and bile acid metabolism. PMID:26348907

  16. Orphan nuclear receptor oestrogen-related receptor γ (ERRγ) plays a key role in hepatic cannabinoid receptor type 1-mediated induction of CYP7A1 gene expression.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yaochen; Kim, Don-Kyu; Lee, Ji-Min; Park, Seung Bum; Jeong, Won-Il; Kim, Seong Heon; Lee, In-Kyu; Lee, Chul-Ho; Chiang, John Y L; Choi, Hueng-Sik

    2015-09-01

    Bile acids are primarily synthesized from cholesterol in the liver and have important roles in dietary lipid absorption and cholesterol homoeostasis. Detailed roles of the orphan nuclear receptors regulating cholesterol 7α-hydroxylase (CYP7A1), the rate-limiting enzyme in bile acid synthesis, have not yet been fully elucidated. In the present study, we report that oestrogen-related receptor γ (ERRγ) is a novel transcriptional regulator of CYP7A1 expression. Activation of cannabinoid receptor type 1 (CB1 receptor) signalling induced ERRγ-mediated transcription of the CYP7A1 gene. Overexpression of ERRγ increased CYP7A1 expression in vitro and in vivo, whereas knockdown of ERRγ attenuated CYP7A1 expression. Deletion analysis of the CYP7A1 gene promoter and a ChIP assay revealed an ERRγ-binding site on the CYP7A1 gene promoter. Small heterodimer partner (SHP) inhibited the transcriptional activity of ERRγ and thus regulated CYP7A1 expression. Overexpression of ERRγ led to increased bile acid levels, whereas an inverse agonist of ERRγ, GSK5182, reduced CYP7A1 expression and bile acid synthesis. Finally, GSK5182 significantly reduced hepatic CB1 receptor-mediated induction of CYP7A1 expression and bile acid synthesis in alcohol-treated mice. These results provide the molecular mechanism linking ERRγ and bile acid metabolism.

  17. mGlu5, Dopamine D2 and Adenosine A2A Receptors in L-DOPA-induced Dyskinesias

    PubMed Central

    Morin, Nicolas; Morissette, Marc; Grégoire, Laurent; Di Paolo, Thérèse

    2016-01-01

    Patients with Parkinson’s disease (PD) receiving L-3,4-dihydroxyphenylalanine (L-DOPA, the gold-standard treatment for this disease) frequently develop abnormal involuntary movements, termed L-DOPA-induced dyskinesias (LID). Glutamate overactivity is well documented in PD and LID. An approach to manage LID is to add to L-DOPA specific agents to reduce dyskinesias such as metabotropic glutamate receptor (mGlu receptor) drugs. This article reviews the contribution of mGlu type 5 (mGlu5) receptors in animal models of PD. Several mGlu5 negative allosteric modulators acutely attenuate LID in 1-methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridine (MPTP) monkeys and 6-hydroxydopamine(6-OHDA)-lesioned rats. Chronic administration of mGlu5 negative allosteric modulators to MPTP monkeys and 6-OHDA rats also attenuates LID while maintaining the anti-parkinsonian effect of L-DOPA. Radioligand autoradiography shows an elevation of striatal mGlu5 receptors of dyskinetic L-DOPA-treated MPTP monkeys but not in those without LID. The brain molecular correlates of the long-term effect of mGlu5 negative allosteric modulators treatments with L-DOPA attenuating development of LID was shown to extend beyond mGlu5 receptors with normalization of glutamate activity in the basal ganglia of L-DOPA-induced changes of NMDA, AMPA, mGlu2/3 receptors and VGlut2 transporter. In the basal ganglia, mGlu5 receptor negative allosteric modulators also normalize the L-DOPA-induced changes of dopamine D2 receptors, their associated signaling proteins (ERK1/2 and Akt/GSK3β) and neuropeptides (preproenkephalin, preprodynorphin) as well as the adenosine A2A receptors expression. These results show in animal models of PD reduction of LID with mGlu5 negative allosteric modulation associated with normalization of glutamate, dopamine and adenosine receptors suggesting a functional link of these receptors in chronic treatment with L-DOPA. PMID:26639458

  18. mGlu5, Dopamine D2 and Adenosine A2A Receptors in L-DOPA-induced Dyskinesias.

    PubMed

    Morin, Nicolas; Morissette, Marc; Grégoire, Laurent; Di Paolo, Thérèse

    2016-01-01

    Patients with Parkinson's disease (PD) receiving L-3,4-dihydroxyphenylalanine (L-DOPA, the gold-standard treatment for this disease) frequently develop abnormal involuntary movements, termed L-DOPA-induced dyskinesias (LID). Glutamate overactivity is well documented in PD and LID. An approach to manage LID is to add to L-DOPA specific agents to reduce dyskinesias such as metabotropic glutamate receptor (mGlu receptor) drugs. This article reviews the contribution of mGlu type 5 (mGlu5) receptors in animal models of PD. Several mGlu5 negative allosteric modulators acutely attenuate LID in 1-methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6- tetrahydropyridine (MPTP) monkeys and 6-hydroxydopamine(6-OHDA)-lesioned rats. Chronic administration of mGlu5 negative allosteric modulators to MPTP monkeys and 6-OHDA rats also attenuates LID while maintaining the antiparkinsonian effect of L-DOPA. Radioligand autoradiography shows an elevation of striatal mGlu5 receptors of dyskinetic L-DOPA-treated MPTP monkeys but not in those without LID. The brain molecular correlates of the long-term effect of mGlu5 negative allosteric modulators treatments with L-DOPA attenuating development of LID was shown to extend beyond mGlu5 receptors with normalization of glutamate activity in the basal ganglia of L-DOPA-induced changes of NMDA, AMPA, mGlu2/3 receptors and VGlut2 transporter. In the basal ganglia, mGlu5 receptor negative allosteric modulators also normalize the L-DOPA-induced changes of dopamine D2receptors, their associated signaling proteins (ERK1/2 and Akt/GSK3β) and neuropeptides (preproenkephalin, preprodynorphin) as well as the adenosine A2A receptors expression. These results show in animal models of PD reduction of LID with mGlu5 negative allosteric modulation associated with normalization of glutamate, dopamine and adenosine receptors suggesting a functional link of these receptors in chronic treatment with L-DOPA.

  19. [Severe type A insulin resistance syndrome due to a mutation in the insulin receptor gene].

    PubMed

    Ros, P; Colino-Alcol, E; Grasso, V; Barbetti, F; Argente, J

    2015-01-01

    Insulin resistance syndromes without lipodystrophy are an infrequent and heterogeneous group of disorders with variable clinical phenotypes, associated with hyperglycemia and hyperinsulinemia. The three conditions related to mutations in the insulin receptor gene are leprechaunism or Donohue syndrome, Rabson-Mendenhall syndrome, and Type A syndrome. A case is presented on a patient diagnosed with type A insulin resistance, defined by the triad of extreme insulin resistance, acanthosis nigricans, and hyperandrogenism, carrying a heterozygous mutation in exon 19 of the insulin receptor gene coding for its tyrosine kinase domain that is crucial for the catalytic activity of the receptor. The molecular basis of the syndrome is reviewed, focusing on the structure-function relationships of the insulin receptor, knowing that the criteria for survival are linked to residual insulin receptor function. It is also pointed out that, although type A insulin resistance appears to represent a somewhat less severe condition, these patients have a high morbidity and their treatment is still unsatisfactory.

  20. Scavenger receptor A gene regulatory elements target gene expression to macrophages and to foam cells of atherosclerotic lesions.

    PubMed Central

    Horvai, A; Palinski, W; Wu, H; Moulton, K S; Kalla, K; Glass, C K

    1995-01-01

    Transcription of the macrophage scavenger receptor A gene is markedly upregulated during monocyte to macrophage differentiation. In these studies, we demonstrate that 291 bp of the proximal scavenger receptor promoter, in concert with a 400-bp upstream enhancer element, is sufficient to direct macrophage-specific expression of a human growth hormone reporter in transgenic mice. These regulatory elements, which contain binding sites for PU.1, AP-1, and cooperating ets-domain transcription factors, are also sufficient to mediate regulation of transgene expression during the in vitro differentiation of bone marrow progenitor cells in response to macrophage colony-stimulating factor. Mutation of the PU.1 binding site within the scavenger receptor promoter severely impairs transgene expression, consistent with a crucial role of PU.1 in regulating the expression of the scavenger receptor gene. The ability of the scavenger receptor promoter and enhancer to target gene expression to macrophages in vivo, including foam cells of atherosclerotic lesions, suggests that these regulatory elements will be of general utility in the study of macrophage differentiation and function by permitting specific modifications of macrophage gene expression. Images Fig. 2 Fig. 3 Fig. 4 Fig. 5 PMID:7777517

  1. Evolution of a symbiotic receptor through gene duplications in the legume-rhizobium mutualism.

    PubMed

    De Mita, Stéphane; Streng, Arend; Bisseling, Ton; Geurts, René

    2014-02-01

    The symbiosis between legumes and nitrogen-fixing rhizobia co-opted pre-existing endomycorrhizal features. In particular, both symbionts release lipo-chitooligosaccharides (LCOs) that are recognized by LysM-type receptor kinases. We investigated the evolutionary history of rhizobial LCO receptor genes MtLYK3-LjNFR1 to gain insight into the evolutionary origin of the rhizobial symbiosis. We performed a phylogenetic analysis integrating gene copies from nonlegumes and legumes, including the non-nodulating, phylogenetically basal legume Cercis chinensis. Signatures of differentiation between copies were investigated through patterns of molecular evolution. We show that two rounds of duplication preceded the evolution of the rhizobial symbiosis in legumes. Molecular evolution patterns indicate that the resulting three paralogous gene copies experienced different selective constraints. In particular, one copy maintained the ancestral function, and another specialized into perception of rhizobial LCOs. It has been suggested that legume LCO receptors evolved from a putative ancestral defense-related chitin receptor through the acquisition of two kinase motifs. However, the phylogenetic analysis shows that these domains are actually ancestral, suggesting that this scenario is unlikely. Our study underlines the evolutionary significance of gene duplication and subsequent neofunctionalization in MtLYK3-LjNFR1 genes. We hypothesize that their ancestor was more likely a mycorrhizal LCO receptor, than a defense-related receptor kinase.

  2. CXC motif chemokine receptor 4 gene polymorphism and cancer risk

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Yang; Zhang, Chun; Xu, Weizhang; Zhang, Jianzhong; Zheng, Yuxiao; Lu, Zipeng; Liu, Dongfang; Jiang, Kuirong

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Background: Previous epidemiological studies have reported the relationship between CXC motif chemokine receptor 4 (CXCR4) synonymous polymorphism (rs2228014), and risk of cancer, but the results remained conflicting and controversial. Therefore, this study was devised to evaluate the genetic effects of the rs2228014 polymorphism on cancer risk in a large meta-analysis. Methods: The computer-based databases (EMBASE, Web of Science, and PubMed) were searched for all relevant studies evaluating rs2228014 and susceptibility to cancer. In the analysis, pooled odds ratios (ORs) with its corresponding 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were calculated in 5 genetic models to assess the genetic risk. Egger regression and Begg funnel plots test were conducted to appraise the publication bias. Results: Data on rs2228014 polymorphism and overall cancer risk were available for 3684 cancer patients and 5114 healthy controls participating in 11 studies. Overall, a significantly increased risk of cancer was associated with rs2228014 polymorphism in homozygote model (OR = 2.01, 95% CI: 1.22–3.33) and in recessive model (OR = 1.97, 95% CI: 1.23–3.16). When stratified by ethnicity, the results were positive only in Asian populations (heterozygote model: OR = 1.36, 95% CI: 1.13–1.65; homozygote model: OR = 2.43, 95% CI: 1.21–4.91; dominant model: OR = 1.47, 95% CI: 1.13–1.90; recessive model: OR = 2.25, 95% CI: 1.13–4.48; and allele model: OR = 1.48, 95% CI: 1.10–1.99). Besides, in the subgroup analysis by source of control, the result was significant only in population-based control (homozygote model: OR = 2.39, 95% CI: 1.06–5.40; recessive model: pooled OR = 2.24, 95% CI: 1.02–4.96). Conclusion: In general, our results first indicated that the rs2228014 polymorphism in CXCR4 gene is correlated with an increased risk of cancer, especially among Asian ethnicity. Large, well-designed epidemiological studies are required to verify the current findings. PMID

  3. A common polymorphism in the LDL receptor gene has multiple effects on LDL receptor function.

    PubMed

    Gao, Feng; Ihn, Hansel E; Medina, Marisa W; Krauss, Ronald M

    2013-04-01

    A common synonymous single nucleotide polymorphism in exon 12 of the low-density lipoprotein receptor (LDLR) gene, rs688, has been associated with increased plasma total and LDL cholesterol in several populations. Using immortalized lymphoblastoid cell lines from a healthy study population, we confirmed an earlier report that the minor allele of rs688 is associated with increased exon 12 alternative splicing (P < 0.05) and showed that this triggered nonsense-mediated decay (NMD) of the alternatively spliced LDLR mRNA. However, since synonymous single nucleotide polymorphisms may influence structure and function of the encoded proteins by co-translational effects, we sought to test whether rs688 was also functional in the full-length mRNA. In HepG2 cells expressing LDLR cDNA constructs engineered to contain the major or minor allele of rs688, the latter was associated with a smaller amount of LDLR protein at the cell surface (-21.8 ± 0.6%, P = 0.012), a higher amount in the lysosome fraction (+25.7 ± 0.3%, P = 0.037) and reduced uptake of fluorescently labeled LDL (-24.3 ± 0.7%, P < 0.01). Moreover, in the presence of exogenous proprotein convertase subtilisin/kexin type 9 (PCSK9), a protein that reduces cellular LDL uptake by promoting lysosomal degradation of LDLR, the minor allele resulted in reduced capacity of a PCSK9 monoclonal antibody to increase LDL uptake. These findings are consistent with the hypothesis that rs688, which is located in the β-propeller region of LDLR, has effects on LDLR activity beyond its role in alternative splicing due to impairment of LDLR endosomal recycling and/or PCSK9 binding, processes in which the β-propeller is critically involved.

  4. Adrenomedullin and calcitonin gene-related peptide receptors in endocrine-related cancers: opportunities and challenges.

    PubMed

    Hay, Debbie L; Walker, Christopher S; Poyner, David R

    2011-02-01

    Adrenomedullin (AM), adrenomedullin 2 (AM2/intermedin) and calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP) are members of the calcitonin family of peptides. They can act as growth or survival factors for a number of tumours, including those that are endocrine-related. One mechanism through which this occurs is stimulating angiogenesis and lymphangiogenesis. AM is expressed by numerous tumour types and for some cancers, plasma AM levels can be correlated with the severity of the disease. In cancer models, lowering AM content or blocking AM receptors can reduce tumour mass. AM receptors are complexes formed between a seven transmembrane protein, calcitonin receptor-like receptor and one of the two accessory proteins, receptor activity-modifying proteins (RAMPs) 2 or 3 to give the AM1 and AM2 receptors respectively. AM also has affinity at the CGRP receptor, which uses RAMP1. Unfortunately, due to a lack of selective pharmacological tools or antibodies to distinguish AM and CGRP receptors, the precise receptors and signal transduction pathways used by the peptides are often uncertain. Two other membrane proteins, RDC1 and L1/G10D (the 'ADMR'), are not currently considered to be genuine CGRP or AM receptors. In order to properly evaluate whether AM or CGRP receptor inhibition has a role in cancer therapy, it is important to identify which receptors mediate the effects of these peptides. To effectively distinguish AM1 and AM2 receptors, selective receptor antagonists need to be developed. The development of specific CGRP receptor antagonists suggests that this is now feasible.

  5. Binding mode similarity measures for ranking of docking poses: a case study on the adenosine A2A receptor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Anighoro, Andrew; Bajorath, Jürgen

    2016-06-01

    We report an investigation designed to explore alternative approaches for ranking of docking poses in the search for antagonists of the adenosine A2A receptor, an attractive target for structure-based virtual screening. Calculation of 3D similarity of docking poses to crystallographic ligand(s) as well as similarity of receptor-ligand interaction patterns was consistently superior to conventional scoring functions for prioritizing antagonists over decoys. Moreover, the use of crystallographic antagonists and agonists, a core fragment of an antagonist, and a model of an agonist placed into the binding site of an antagonist-bound form of the receptor resulted in a significant early enrichment of antagonists in compound rankings. Taken together, these findings showed that the use of binding modes of agonists and/or antagonists, even if they were only approximate, for similarity assessment of docking poses or comparison of interaction patterns increased the odds of identifying new active compounds over conventional scoring.

  6. Effects of Constant Flickering Light on Refractive Status, 5-HT and 5-HT2A Receptor in Guinea Pigs

    PubMed Central

    Li, Tao; Zheng, Changyue; Ji, Shunmei; Ma, Yuanyuan; Zhang, Shuangshuang; Zhou, Xiaodong

    2016-01-01

    Purpose To investigate the effects of constant flickering light on refractive development, the role of serotonin (i.e.5-hydroxytryptamine, 5-HT)and 5-HT2A receptor in myopia induced by flickering light in guinea pigs. Methods Forty-five guinea pigs were randomly divided into three groups: control, form deprivation myopia (FDM) and flickering light induced myopia (FLM) groups(n = 15 for each group). The right eyes of the FDM group were covered with semitransparent hemispherical plastic shells serving as eye diffusers. Guinea pigs in FLM group were raised with illumination of a duty cycle of 50% at a flash frequency of 0.5Hz. The refractive status, axial length (AL), corneal radius of curvature(CRC) were measured by streak retinoscope, A-scan ultrasonography and keratometer, respectively. Ultramicroscopy images were taken by electron microscopy. The concentrations of 5-HTin the retina, vitreous body and retinal pigment epithelium (RPE) were assessed by high performance liquid chromatography, the retinal 5-HT2A receptor expression was evaluated by immunohistofluorescence and western blot. Results The refraction of FDM and FLM eyes became myopic from some time point (the 4th week and the 6th week, respectively) in the course of the experiment, which was indicated by significantly decreased refraction and longer AL when compared with the controls (p<0.05). The concentrations of 5-HT in the retina, vitreous body and RPE of FDM and FLM eyes were significantly increased in comparison with those of control eyes (both p<0.05). Similar to FDM eyes, the expression of retinal 5-HT2A receptor in FLM eyes was significantly up-regulated compared to that of control eyes (both p<0.05). Western blot analysis showed that retinal 5-HT2A receptor level elevated less in the FLM eyes than that in the FDM eyes. Moreover, the levels of norepinephrine and epinephrine in FDM and FLM groups generally decreased when compared with control groups (all p<0.05). Conclusions Constant flickering

  7. Identification of a null mutation in the human dopamine D4 receptor gene

    SciTech Connect

    Noethen, M.M.; Cichon, S.; Hebebrand, J.

    1994-09-01

    Dopamine receptors belong to the family of G protein-coupled receptors. Five different dopamine receptor genes have thus far been identified. These receptors are classified into two main subfamilies: D1, which includes the D1 and D5 receptors, and D2, which includes the D2, D3, and D4 receptors. The dopamine D4 receptor is of great interest for research into neuropsychiatric disorders and psychopharmacology in light of the fact that it binds the antipsychotic medication clozapine with higher affinity than does any other dopamine receptor. In addition, among the dopamine receptors, the D4 receptor shows a uniquely high degree of genetic variation in the human population. We identified a new 13 bp deletion in exon 1 of the D4 gene. This frameshift creates a terminator codon at amino acid position 98. mRNA isolated from brain tissue of two heterozygous persons showed both alleles to be expressed. The deletion occurs with a frequency of 2% in the German population. One person was identified to be homozygous for the deletion. Interestingly, he has a normal intelligence and did not exhibit a major psychiatric disorder as defined by DSM III-R. The 13 bp deletion is the first mutation resulting in premature translation termination reported for a dopamine receptor gene so far. This mutation is a good candidate to test for potential effects on disease and/or individual response to pharmacotherapy. Association studies in patients with various psychiatric illnesses and differences in response to clozapine are underway.

  8. Identification and characterization of a ubiquitinconjugating enzyme UBE2A gene from lamprey.

    PubMed

    Chen, Liyong; Wu, Fenfang; Feng, Bo

    2016-02-01

    Ubiquitin-conjugating enzymes (E2s) play an important role in the mechanism of ubiquitin transfer. Although in most species many of these enzymes share high sequence and structural conservation, their existence and functions in the lamprey remain unknown. In this study, we identified and characterized a ubiquitin-conjugating enzyme (UBE2A)-like gene in lamprey. The gene, designated as LaUBE2A, contained a 456-bp open reading frame encoding a 152-amino acid protein with a typical UBC domain. Real-time PCR assay showed that LaUBE2A was expressed in various tissues of the adult lamprey, with higher levels in the leukocytes and muscle and lower levels in the skin and liver. The high conservation in amino acid sequence between LaUBE2A and UBE2As from Homo sapiens, Mus musculus, Cavia porcellus, and Alligator sinensi implied that the function of LaUBE2A may be similar to that of UBE2A.

  9. Behavioral tolerance to lysergic acid diethylamide is associated with reduced serotonin-2A receptor signaling in rat cortex.

    PubMed

    Gresch, Paul J; Smith, Randy L; Barrett, Robert J; Sanders-Bush, Elaine

    2005-09-01

    Tolerance is defined as a decrease in responsiveness to a drug after repeated administration. Tolerance to the behavioral effects of hallucinogens occurs in humans and animals. In this study, we used drug discrimination to establish a behavioral model of lysergic acid diethylamide (LSD) tolerance and examined whether tolerance to the stimulus properties of LSD is related to altered serotonin receptor signaling. Rats were trained to discriminate 60 microg/kg LSD from saline in a two-lever drug discrimination paradigm. Two groups of animals were assigned to either chronic saline treatment or chronic LSD treatment. For chronic treatment, rats from each group were injected once per day with either 130 microg/kg LSD or saline for 5 days. Rats were tested for their ability to discriminate either saline or 60 microg/kg LSD, 24 h after the last chronic injection. Rats receiving chronic LSD showed a 44% reduction in LSD lever selection, while rats receiving chronic vehicle showed no change in percent choice on the LSD lever. In another group of rats receiving the identical chronic LSD treatment, LSD-stimulated [35S]GTPgammaS binding, an index of G-protein coupling, was measured in the rat brain by autoradiography. After chronic LSD, a significant reduction in LSD-stimulated [35S]GTPgammaS binding was observed in the medial prefrontal cortex and anterior cingulate cortex. Furthermore, chronic LSD produced a significant reduction in 2,5-dimethoxy-4-iodoamphetamine-stimulated [35S]GTPgammaS binding in medial prefrontal cortex and anterior cingulate cortex, which was blocked by MDL 100907, a selective 5-HT2A receptor antagonist, but not SB206553, a 5-HT2C receptor antagonist, indicating a reduction in 5-HT2A receptor signaling. 125I-LSD binding to 5-HT2A receptors was reduced in cortical regions, demonstrating a reduction in 5-HT2A receptor density. Taken together, these results indicate that adaptive changes in LSD-stimulated serotonin receptor signaling may mediate tolerance

  10. Multimodality Imaging of Gene Transfer with a Receptor-Based Reporter Gene

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Ron; Parry, Jesse J.; Akers, Walter J.; Berezin, Mikhail Y.; El Naqa, Issam M.; Achilefu, Samuel; Edwards, W. Barry; Rogers, Buck E.

    2010-01-01

    Gene therapy trials have traditionally used tumor and tissue biopsies for assessing the efficacy of gene transfer. Non-invasive imaging techniques offer a distinct advantage over tissue biopsies in that the magnitude and duration of gene transfer can be monitored repeatedly. Human somatostatin receptor subtype 2 (SSTR2) has been used for the nuclear imaging of gene transfer. To extend this concept, we have developed a somatostatin receptor–enhanced green fluorescent protein fusion construct (SSTR2-EGFP) for nuclear and fluorescent multimodality imaging. Methods An adenovirus containing SSTR2-EGFP (AdSSTR2-EGFP) was constructed and evaluated in vitro and in vivo. SCC-9 human squamous cell carcinoma cells were infected with AdEGFP, AdSSTR2, or AdSSTR2-EGFP for in vitro evaluation by saturation binding, internalization, and fluorescence spectroscopy assays. In vivo biodistribution and nano-SPECT imaging studies were conducted with mice bearing SCC-9 tumor xenografts directly injected with AdSSTR2-EGFP or AdSSTR2 to determine the tumor localization of 111In-diethylenetriaminepentaacetic acid (DTPA)-Tyr3-octreotate. Fluorescence imaging was conducted in vivo with mice receiving intratumoral injections of AdSSTR2, AdSSTR2-EGFP, or AdEGFP as well as ex vivo with tissues extracted from mice. Results The similarity between AdSSTR2-EGFP and wild-type AdSSTR2 was demonstrated in vitro by the saturation binding and internalization assays, and the fluorescence emission spectra of cells infected with AdSSTR2-EGFP was almost identical to the spectra of cells infected with wild-type AdEGFP. Biodistribution studies demonstrated that the tumor uptake of 111In-DTPA-Tyr3-octreotate was not significantly different (P > 0.05) when tumors (n = 5) were injected with AdSSTR2 or AdSSTR2-EGFP but was significantly greater than the uptake in control tumors. Fluorescence was observed in tumors injected with AdSSTR2-EGFP and AdEGFP in vivo and ex vivo but not in tumors injected with AdSSTR2

  11. The low-density lipoprotein receptor gene family: a cellular Swiss army knife?

    PubMed

    Nykjaer, Anders; Willnow, Thomas E

    2002-06-01

    The low-density lipoprotein receptor gene family is an evolutionarily conserved group of cell-surface receptors produced by mammals and other organisms. Initially thought to be endocytic receptors that mediate the uptake of lipoproteins, recent findings have shown that these receptors have other roles in a range of cellular processes. Among other activities, members of this family act as signal transducers in neuronal migration processes, regulate synaptic plasticity or control vitamin homeostasis. Such multifunctionality is achieved by interaction with diverse cell-surface proteins including glycolipid-anchored receptors, G-protein-coupled receptors and ion channels. Here, we review the molecular interactions of this protein family with other cell-surface proteins that provide specificity and versatility - a versatility that may be reminiscent of a cellular Swiss army knife.

  12. Identification of Gene Markers for Activation of the Nuclear Receptor Pregnane X Receptor

    EPA Science Inventory

    Many environmentally-relevant chemicals and drugs activate the nuclear receptor pregnane X receptor (PXR). Activation of PXR in the mouse liver can lead to increases in liver weight in part through increased hepatocyte replication similar to chemicals that activate other nuclear ...

  13. Crystal structure of the adenosine A2A receptor bound to an antagonist reveals a potential allosteric pocket

    PubMed Central

    Sun, Bingfa; Bachhawat, Priti; Chu, Matthew Ling-Hon; Wood, Martyn; Ceska, Tom; Sands, Zara A.; Mercier, Joel; Lebon, Florence; Kobilka, Tong Sun; Kobilka, Brian K.

    2017-01-01

    The adenosine A2A receptor (A2AR) has long been implicated in cardiovascular disorders. As more selective A2AR ligands are being identified, its roles in other disorders, such as Parkinson’s disease, are starting to emerge, and A2AR antagonists are important drug candidates for nondopaminergic anti-Parkinson treatment. Here we report the crystal structure of A2A receptor bound to compound 1 (Cmpd-1), a novel A2AR/N-methyl d-aspartate receptor subtype 2B (NR2B) dual antagonist and potential anti-Parkinson candidate compound, at 3.5 Å resolution. The A2A receptor with a cytochrome b562-RIL (BRIL) fusion (A2AR–BRIL) in the intracellular loop 3 (ICL3) was crystallized in detergent micelles using vapor-phase diffusion. Whereas A2AR–BRIL bound to the antagonist ZM241385 has previously been crystallized in lipidic cubic phase (LCP), structural differences in the Cmpd-1–bound A2AR–BRIL prevented formation of the lattice observed with the ZM241385–bound receptor. The crystals grew with a type II crystal lattice in contrast to the typical type I packing seen from membrane protein structures crystallized in LCP. Cmpd-1 binds in a position that overlaps with the native ligand adenosine, but its methoxyphenyl group extends to an exosite not previously observed in other A2AR structures. Structural analysis revealed that Cmpd-1 binding results in the unique conformations of two tyrosine residues, Tyr91.35 and Tyr2717.36, which are critical for the formation of the exosite. The structure reveals insights into antagonist binding that are not observed in other A2AR structures, highlighting flexibility in the binding pocket that may facilitate the development of A2AR-selective compounds for the treatment of Parkinson’s disease. PMID:28167788

  14. Gene expression profiles of estrogen receptor positive and estrogen receptor negative breast cancers are detectable in histologically normal breast epithelium

    PubMed Central

    Graham, Kelly; Ge, Xijin; de las Morenas, Antonio; Tripathi, Anusri; Rosenberg, Carol L.

    2010-01-01

    Purpose Previously, we found that gene expression in histologically normal breast epithelium (NlEpi) from women at high breast cancer risk can resemble gene expression in NlEpi from cancer-containing breasts. Therefore, we hypothesized that gene expression characteristic of a cancer subtype might be seen in NlEpi of breasts containing that subtype. Experimental Design We examined gene expression in 46 cases of microdissected NlEpi from untreated women undergoing breast cancer surgery. From 30 age-matched cases (15 estrogen receptor (ER)+, 15 ER-) we used Affymetryix U133A arrays. From 16 independent cases (9 ER+, 7 ER-), we validated selected genes using qPCR. We then compared gene expression between NlEpi and invasive breast cancer using 4 publicly available datasets. Results We identified 198 genes that are differentially expressed between NlEpi from breasts with ER+ (NlEpiER+) compared to ER- cancers (NlEpiER-). These include genes characteristic of ER+ and ER- cancers (e.g., ESR1, GATA3, and CX3CL1, FABP7). QPCR validated the microarray results in both the 30 original cases and the 16 independent cases. Gene expression in NlEpiER+ and NlEpiER- resembled gene expression in ER+ and ER- cancers, respectively: 25-53% of the genes or probes examined in 4 external datasets overlapped between NlEpi and the corresponding cancer subtype. Conclusions Gene expression differs in NlEpi of breasts containing ER+ compared to ER- breast cancers. These differences echo differences in ER+ and ER- invasive cancers. NlEpi gene expression may help elucidate subtype-specific risk signatures, identify early genomic events in cancer development and locate targets for prevention and therapy. PMID:21059815

  15. Evidence for association between polymorphisms in the Cannabinoid Receptor 1 (CNR1) gene and cannabis dependence

    PubMed Central

    Agrawal, Arpana; Wetherill, Leah; Dick, Danielle M.; Xuei, Xiaoling; Hinrichs, Anthony; Hesselbrock, Victor; Kramer, John; Nurnberger, John I.; Schuckit, Marc; Bierut, Laura J.; Edenberg, Howard J.; Foroud, Tatiana

    2009-01-01

    Genomic studies of cannabis use disorders have been limited. The cannabinoid receptor 1 gene (CNR1) on chromosome 6q14–15 is an excellent candidate gene for cannabis dependence due to the important role of the G-protein coupled receptor encoded by this gene in the rewarding effects of Δ9-tetrahydrocannabinol. Previous studies have found equivocal evidence for an association between SNPs in CNR1 and a general vulnerability to substance use disorders. We investigate the association between 9 SNPs spanning CNR1 and cannabis dependence in 1,923 individuals. Two SNPs that were previously associated with cannabis dependence in other studies were also significant with this phenotype in our analyses [rs806368 (p = 0.05) and rs806380 (p = 0.009)]. Haplotype analyses revealed the association to be largely driven by the SNP rs806380. These results suggest a role for the cannabinoid receptor 1 gene in cannabis dependence. PMID:19016476

  16. PET/CT imaging of human somatostatin receptor 2 (hsstr2) as reporter gene for gene therapy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hofmann, M.; Gazdhar, A.; Weitzel, T.; Schmid, R.; Krause, T.

    2006-12-01

    Localized information on region-selective gene expression in small animals is widely obtained by use of reporter genes inducing light emission. Using these reporter genes for imaging deep inside the human body fluorescent probes are hindered by attenuation, scattering and possible fluorescence quenching. This can be overcome by use of radio-peptide receptors as reporter genes. Therefore, the feasibility of the somatostatin receptor 2 expression vector system for expression imaging was checked against a control vector containing luciferase gene. For in vivo transduction of vector DNA into the rat forelimb muscles the in vivo electroporation technique was chosen because of its high regio-selectivity. The gene expression was imaged by high-sensitive CCD camera (luciferase activity) and by PET/CT using a Ga-68-DOTATOC as radio peptide probe. The relative sstr2 expression was enhanced by gene transduction at maximum to a factor of 15. The PET/CT images could be fully quantified. The above demonstrated feasibility of radio-peptide PET/CT reporter gene imaging may serve in the future as a tool for full quantitative understanding of regional gene expression, especially in large animals and humans.

  17. Discovering the mechanisms underlying serotonin (5-HT)2A and 5-HT2C receptor regulation following nicotine withdrawal in rats.

    PubMed

    Zaniewska, Magdalena; Alenina, Natalia; Wydra, Karolina; Fröhler, Sebastian; Kuśmider, Maciej; McCreary, Andrew C; Chen, Wei; Bader, Michael; Filip, Małgorzata

    2015-08-01

    We have previously demonstrated that nicotine withdrawal produces depression-like behavior and that serotonin (5-HT)2A/2C receptor ligands modulate that mood-like state. In the present study we aimed to identify the mechanisms (changes in radioligand binding, transcription or RNA-editing) related to such a behavioral outcome. Rats received vehicle or nicotine (0.4 mg/kg, s.c.) for 5 days in home cages. Brain 5-HT2A/2C receptors were analyzed on day 3 of nicotine withdrawal. Nicotine withdrawal increased [(3)H]ketanserin binding to 5-HT2A receptors in the ventral tegmental area and ventral dentate gyrus, yet decreased binding in the nucleus accumbens shell. Reduction in [(3)H]mesulergine binding to 5-HT2C receptors was seen in the ventral dentate gyrus. Profound decrease in the 5-HT2A receptor transcript level was noted in the hippocampus and ventral tegmental area. Out of five 5-HT2C receptor mRNA editing sites, deep sequencing data showed a reduction in editing at the E site and a trend toward reduction at the C site in the hippocampus. In the ventral tegmental area, a reduction for the frequency of CD 5-HT2C receptor transcript was seen. These results show that the reduction in the 5-HT2A receptor transcript level may be an auto-regulatory response to the increased receptor density in the hippocampus and ventral tegmental area during nicotine withdrawal, while decreased 5-HT2C receptor mRNA editing may explain the reduction in receptor labeling in the hippocampus. Serotonin (5-HT)2A/2C receptor ligands alleviate depression-like state in nicotine-withdrawn rats. Here, we show that the reduction in 5-HT2A receptor transcript level may be an auto-regulatory response to the increased receptor number in the hippocampus and ventral tegmental area during nicotine withdrawal, while attenuated 5-HT2C receptor mRNA editing in the hippocampus might explain reduced inverse agonist binding to 5-HT2C receptor and suggest a shift toward a population of more active receptors. 5

  18. The nuclear receptors pregnane X receptor and constitutive androstane receptor contribute to the impact of fipronil on hepatic gene expression linked to thyroid hormone metabolism.

    PubMed

    Roques, Béatrice B; Leghait, Julien; Lacroix, Marlène Z; Lasserre, Frédéric; Pineau, Thierry; Viguié, Catherine; Martin, Pascal G P

    2013-10-01

    Fipronil is described as a thyroid disruptor in rat. Based on the hypothesis that this results from a perturbation of hepatic thyroid hormone metabolism, our goal was to investigate the pathways involved in fipronil-induced liver gene expression regulations. First, we performed a microarray screening in the liver of rats treated with fipronil or vehicle. Fipronil treatment led to the upregulation of several genes involved in the metabolism of xenobiotics, including the cytochrome P450 Cyp2b1, Cyp2b2 and Cyp3a1, the carboxylesterases Ces2 and Ces6, the phase II enzymes Ugt1a1, Sult1b1 and Gsta2, and the membrane transporters Abcc2, Abcc3, Abcg5, Abcg8, Slco1a1 and Slco1a4. Based on a large overlap with the target genes of constitutive androstane receptor (CAR) and pregnane X receptor (PXR), we postulated that these two nuclear receptors are involved in mediating the effects of fipronil on liver gene expression in rodents. We controlled that liver gene expression changes induced by fipronil were generally reproduced in mice, and then studied the effects of fipronil in wild-type, CAR- and PXR-deficient mice. For most of the genes studied, the gene expression modulations were abolished in the liver of PXR-deficient mice and were reduced in the liver of CAR-deficient mice. However, CAR and PXR activation in mouse liver was not associated with a marked increase of thyroid hormone clearance, as observed in rat. Nevertheless, our data clearly indicate that PXR and CAR are key modulators of the hepatic gene expression profile following fipronil treatment which, in rats, may contribute to increase thyroid hormone clearance.

  19. Molecular characterization of the Aphis gossypii olfactory receptor gene families.

    PubMed

    Cao, Depan; Liu, Yang; Walker, William B; Li, Jianhong; Wang, Guirong

    2014-01-01

    The cotton aphid, Aphis gossypii Glover, is a polyphagous pest that inflicts great damage to cotton yields worldwide. Antennal olfaction, which is extremely important for insect survival, mediates key behaviors such as host preference, mate choice, and oviposition site selection. In insects, odor detection is mediated by odorant receptors (ORs) and ionotropic receptors (IRs), which ensure the specificity of the olfactory sensory neuron responses. In this study, our aim is to identify chemosensory receptors in the cotton aphid genome, as a means to uncover olfactory encoding of the polyphagous feeding habits as well as to aid the discovery of new targets for behavioral interference. We identified a total of 45 candidate ORs and 14 IRs in the cotton aphid genome. Among the candidate AgoORs, 9 are apparent pseudogenes, while 19 can be clustered with ORs from the pea aphid, forming 16 AgoOR/ApOR orthologous subgroups. Among the candidate IRs, we identified homologs of the two highly conserved co-receptors IR8a and IR25a; no AgoIR retain the complete glutamic acid binding domain, suggesting that putative AgoIRs bind different ligands. Our results provide the necessary information for functional characterization of the chemosensory receptors of A. gossypii, with potential for new or refined applications of semiochemicals-based control of this pest insect.

  20. Genomic organization of the mouse T-cell receptor beta-chain gene family.

    PubMed Central

    Lai, E; Barth, R K; Hood, L

    1987-01-01

    We have combined three different methods, deletion mapping of T-cell lines, field-inversion gel electrophoresis, and the restriction mapping of a cosmid clone, to construct a physical map of the murine T-cell receptor beta-chain gene family. We have mapped 19 variable (V beta) gene segments and the two clusters of diversity (D beta) and joining (J beta) gene segments and constant (C beta) genes. These members of the beta-chain gene family span approximately equal to 450 kilobases of DNA, excluding one potential gap in the DNA fragment alignments. Images PMID:3035555

  1. The atypical 5-HT2 receptor mediating tachycardia in pithed rats: pharmacological correlation with the 5-HT2A receptor subtype

    PubMed Central

    Centurión, David; Ortiz, Mario I; Saxena, Pramod R; Villalón, Carlos M

    2002-01-01

    In pithed rats, 5-HT mediates tachycardia both directly (by 5-HT2 receptors) and indirectly (by a tyramine-like effect). The receptor mediating tachycardia directly has been classified as an ‘atypical' 5-HT2 receptor since it was ‘weakly' blocked by ketanserin. Moreover, 1-(2,5-dimethoxy-4-iodophenyl)-2-aminopropane (DOI), a 5-HT2 agonist, failed to mimic 5-HT-induced tachycardia. Since 5-HT2 receptors consist of 5-HT2A, 5-HT2B and 5-HT2C subtypes, this study investigated if these subtypes mediate the above response. In pithed rats, intraperitoneally (i.p.) pre-treated with reserpine (5 mg kg−1), intravenous (i.v.) administration of 5-HT, 5-methoxytryptamine (5-MeO-T), 1-(3-chlorophenyl) piperazine (mCPP) and 5-carboxamidotryptamine (5-CT) (10, 30, 100 and 300 μg kg−1 each), produced dose-dependent tachycardic responses. Interestingly, DOI (10 – 1000 μg kg−1, i.v.) induced only slight, dose-unrelated, tachycardic responses, whilst the 5-HT2C agonist, Ro 60-0175 (10 – 1000 μg kg−1, i.v.), produced a slight tachycardia only at 300 and 1000 μg kg−1. In contrast, sumatriptan and 1-(m-trifluoromethylphenyl)- piperazine (TFMPP) were inactive. The rank order of potency was: 5-HT⩾5-MeO-T> mCPP⩾5-CT⩾DOI>Ro 60-0175. The tachycardic responses to 5-HT, which remained unaffected after i.v. saline (0.3 and 1 ml kg−1) or propranolol (3 mg kg−1), were selectively blocked by the 5-HT2A antagonists ketanserin (30 and 100 μg kg−1) or spiperone (10 and 30 μg kg−1) as well as by the non-selective 5-HT2 antagonists, ritanserin (10 and 30 μg kg−1) or mesulergine (100 μg kg−1). Remarkably, these responses were unaffected by the antagonists rauwolscine (5-HT2B), SB204741 (5-HT2B/2C) or Ro 04-6790 (5-ht6) (300 and 1000 μg kg−1 each). These results suggest that the ‘atypical' 5-HT2 receptors mediating tachycardia in reserpinized pithed rats are pharmacologically similar to the 5-HT2A

  2. Steroid hormone receptor gene expression in human breast cancer cells: inverse relationship between oestrogen and glucocorticoid receptor messenger RNA levels.

    PubMed

    Hall, R E; Lee, C S; Alexander, I E; Shine, J; Clarke, C L; Sutherland, R L

    1990-12-15

    The relative expression in human breast cancer cells of messenger ribonucleic acids (mRNA) encoding different steroid hormone receptors is unknown. Accordingly, mRNA levels in total RNA extracted from 13 human breast cancer cell lines were measured by Northern analysis employing complementary DNA probes for the human oestrogen (ER), progesterone (PR), androgen (AR), vitamin D3 (VDR) and glucocorticoid receptors (GR). The 7 ER+ lines expressed a single 6.4 kilobases (kb) ER mRNA. Interestingly, low concentrations of ER mRNA were detected in the ER- cell lines, MDA-MB-330 and BT 20. PR mRNA, predominantly a 13.5 kb species, was expressed in the 6 lines known to be ER+, PR+ by radioligand binding; however, one ER+ cell line, MDA-MB-134, failed to express PR mRNA. A 10.5 kb AR mRNA was expressed at significantly higher levels in ER+ than ER- cell lines. All cell lines expressed a single 4.6 kb mRNA for VDR and a single 7.4 kb mRNA for GR. ER and PR mRNA levels were positively correlated (p = 0.011) and each was positively correlated with androgen receptor (AR) mRNA levels (p less than or equal to 0.009). ER, PR and AR mRNAs were negatively associated with GR levels (p less than or equal to 0.012), while ER and AR mRNA levels were negatively correlated with mRNA for the epidermal growth factor receptor. In contrast, levels of VDR mRNA were unrelated to the concentration of any other steroid receptor mRNA. Our data demonstrate the coordinate expression of ER, PR and AR genes, and an inverse relationship between sex steroid hormone receptor and GR gene expression in human breast cancer cell lines.

  3. Novel deletions involving the USH2A gene in patients with Usher syndrome and retinitis pigmentosa

    PubMed Central

    García-García, Gema; Jaijo, Teresa; Aparisi, Maria J.; Larrieu, Lise; Faugère, Valérie; Blanco-Kelly, Fiona; Ayuso, Carmen; Roux, Anne-Francoise; Millán, José M.

    2014-01-01

    Purpose The aim of the present work was to identify and characterize large rearrangements involving the USH2A gene in patients with Usher syndrome and nonsyndromic retinitis pigmentosa. Methods The multiplex ligation-dependent probe amplification (MLPA) technique combined with a customized array-based comparative genomic hybridization (aCGH) analysis was applied to 40 unrelated patients previously screened for point mutations in the USH2A gene in which none or only one pathologic mutation was identified. Results We detected six large deletions involving USH2A in six out of the 40 cases studied. Three of the patients were homozygous for the deletion, and the remaining three were compound heterozygous with a previously identified USH2A point mutation. In five of these cases, the patients displayed Usher type 2, and the remaining case displayed nonsyndromic retinitis pigmentosa. The exact breakpoint junctions of the deletions found in USH2A in four of these cases were characterized. Conclusions Our study highlights the need to develop improved efficient strategies of mutation screening based upon next generation sequencing (NGS) that reduce cost, time, and complexity and allow simultaneous identification of all types of disease-causing mutations in diagnostic procedures. PMID:25352746

  4. Promotion of Wound Healing by an Agonist of Adenosine A2A Receptor Is Dependent on Tissue Plasminogen Activator.

    PubMed

    Montesinos, M Carmen; Desai-Merchant, Avani; Cronstein, Bruce N

    2015-12-01

    Impaired wound healing, as it occurs in diabetes mellitus or long-term corticoid treatment, is commonly associated with disability, diminished quality of life, and high economic costs. Selective agonists of the A2A receptor subtype of adenosine, an endogenous regulator of inflammation, promote tissue repair in animal models, both healthy and with impaired healing. Plasmin-mediated proteolysis of fibrin and other matrix proteins is essential for cell migration at sites of injury. Since adenosine A2A receptor activation increases plasminogen activator release from macrophages and mast cells, we studied the effect of a selective agonist, CGS-21680, on full-thickness excisional wound closure in wild-type, urokinase plasminogen activator (uPA)-deficient, and tissue plasminogen activator (tPA)-deficient mice. Wound closure was impaired in tPA- and uPA-deficient mice as compared with wild-type mice, and topical application of CGS-21680 significantly increased the rate at which wounds closed in wild-type mice and uPA-deficient mice, but not in tPA-deficient mice. Immunostaining of tissue sections showed that tPA was present in endothelial cells and histiocytes by day 3 post-wound and also by day 6. In contrast, uPA was more prominent in these cell types only by day 6 post-wound. Our results confirm that plasminogen activation contributes to wound repair and are consistent with the hypothesis that adenosine A2A receptor activation promotes wound closure by a mechanism that depends upon tPA, but not uPA. Moreover, our results suggest that topical adenosine A2A receptor agonists may be useful in promotion of wound closure in patients with impaired wound healing.

  5. Endogenous hepatic glucocorticoid receptor signaling coordinates sex-biased inflammatory gene expression.

    PubMed

    Quinn, Matthew A; Cidlowski, John A

    2016-02-01

    An individual's sex affects gene expression and many inflammatory diseases present in a sex-biased manner. Glucocorticoid receptors (GRs) are regulators of inflammatory genes, but their role in sex-specific responses is unclear. Our goal was to evaluate whether GR differentially regulates inflammatory gene expression in male and female mouse liver. Twenty-five percent of the 251 genes assayed by nanostring analysis were influenced by sex. Of these baseline sexually dimorphic inflammatory genes, 82% was expressed higher in female liver. Pathway analyses defined pattern-recognition receptors as the most sexually dimorphic pathway. We next exposed male and female mice to the proinflammatory stimulus LPS. Female mice had 177 genes regulated by treatment with LPS, whereas males had 149, with only 66% of LPS-regulated genes common between the sexes. To determine the contribution of GR to sexually dimorphic inflammatory genes we performed nanostring analysis on liver-specific GR knockout (LGRKO) mice in the presence or absence of LPS. Comparing LGRKO to GR(flox/flox) revealed that 36 genes required GR for sexually dimorphic expression, whereas 24 genes became sexually dimorphic in LGRKO. Fifteen percent of LPS-regulated genes in GR(flox/flox) were not regulated in male and female LGRKO mice treated with LPS. Thus, GR action is influenced by sex to regulate inflammatory gene expression.

  6. [60]Fullerene derivative modulates adenosine and metabotropic glutamate receptors gene expression: a possible protective effect against hypoxia

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Glutamate, the main excitatory neurotransmitter, is involved in learning and memory processes but at higher concentration results excitotoxic causing degeneration and neuronal death. Adenosine is a nucleoside that exhibit neuroprotective effects by modulating of glutamate release. Hypoxic and related oxidative conditions, in which adenosine and metabotropic glutamate receptors are involved, have been demonstrated to contribute to neurodegenerative processes occurring in certain human pathologies. Results Human neuroblastoma cells (SH-SY5Y) were used to evaluate the long time (24, 48 and 72 hours) effects of a [60]fullerene hydrosoluble derivative (t3ss) as potential inhibitor of hypoxic insult. Low oxygen concentration (5% O2) caused cell death, which was avoided by t3ss exposure in a concentration dependent manner. In addition, gene expression analysis by real time PCR of adenosine A1, A2A and A2B and metabotropic glutamate 1 and 5 receptors revealed that t3ss significantly increased A1 and mGlu1 expression in hypoxic conditions. Moreover, t3ss prevented the hypoxia-induced increase in A2A mRNA expression. Conclusions As t3ss causes overexpression of adenosine A1 and metabotropic glutamate receptors which have been shown to be neuroprotective, our results point to a radical scavenger protective effect of t3ss through the enhancement of these neuroprotective receptors expression. Therefore, the utility of these nanoparticles as therapeutic target to avoid degeneration and cell death of neurodegenerative diseases is suggested. PMID:25123848

  7. Direct interaction of Ikaros and Foxp1 modulates expression of the G protein-coupled receptor G2A in B-lymphocytes and acute lymphoblastic leukemia

    PubMed Central

    Roman-Trufero, Mónica; Sabbattini, Pierangela; Ferreiros-Vidal, Isabel; Gerrard, Gareth; Asnafi, Vahid; Macintyre, Elizabeth; Merkenschlager, Matthias; Dillon, Niall

    2016-01-01

    Ikaros and Foxp1 are transcription factors that play key roles in normal lymphopoiesis and lymphoid malignancies. We describe a novel physical and functional interaction between the proteins, which requires the central zinc finger domain of Ikaros. The Ikaros-Foxp1 interaction is abolished by deletion of this region, which corresponds to the IK6 isoform that is commonly associated with high-risk acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL). We also identify the Gpr132 gene, which encodes the orphan G protein-coupled receptor G2A, as a novel target for Foxp1. Increased expression of Foxp1 enhanced Gpr132 transcription and caused cell cycle changes, including G2 arrest. Co-expression of wild-type Ikaros, but not IK6, displaced Foxp1 binding from the Gpr132 gene, reversed the increase in Gpr132 expression and inhibited G2 arrest. Analysis of primary ALL samples revealed a significant increase in GPR132 expression in IKZF1-deleted BCR-ABL negative patients, suggesting that levels of wild-type Ikaros may influence the regulation of G2A in B-ALL. Our results reveal a novel effect of Ikaros haploinsufficiency on Foxp1 functioning, and identify G2A as a potential modulator of the cell cycle in Ikaros-deleted B-ALL. PMID:27588474

  8. Massive Losses of Taste Receptor Genes in Toothed and Baleen Whales

    PubMed Central

    Feng, Ping; Zheng, Jinsong; Rossiter, Stephen J.; Wang, Ding; Zhao, Huabin

    2014-01-01

    Taste receptor genes are functionally important in animals, with a surprising exception in the bottlenose dolphin, which shows extensive losses of sweet, umami, and bitter taste receptor genes. To examine the generality of taste gene loss, we examined seven toothed whales and five baleen whales and sequenced the complete repertoire of three sweet/umami (T1Rs) and ten bitter (T2Rs) taste receptor genes. We found all amplified T1Rs and T2Rs to be pseudogenes in all 12 whales, with a shared premature stop codon in 10 of the 13 genes, which demonstrated massive losses of taste receptor genes in the common ancestor of whales. Furthermore, we analyzed three genome sequences from two toothed whales and one baleen whale and found that the sour taste marker gene Pkd2l1 is a pseudogene, whereas the candidate salty taste receptor genes are intact and putatively functional. Additionally, we examined three genes that are responsible for taste signal transduction and found the relaxation of functional constraints on taste signaling pathways along the ancestral branch leading to whales. Together, our results strongly suggest extensive losses of sweet, umami, bitter, and sour tastes in whales, and the relaxation of taste function most likely arose in the common ancestor of whales between 36 and 53 Ma. Therefore, whales represent the first animal group to lack four of five primary tastes, probably driven by the marine environment with high concentration of sodium, the feeding behavior of swallowing prey whole, and the dietary switch from plants to meat in the whale ancestor. PMID:24803572

  9. Massive losses of taste receptor genes in toothed and baleen whales.

    PubMed

    Feng, Ping; Zheng, Jinsong; Rossiter, Stephen J; Wang, Ding; Zhao, Huabin

    2014-05-06

    Taste receptor genes are functionally important in animals, with a surprising exception in the bottlenose dolphin, which shows extensive losses of sweet, umami, and bitter taste receptor genes. To examine the generality of taste gene loss, we examined seven toothed whales and five baleen whales and sequenced the complete repertoire of three sweet/umami (T1Rs) and ten bitter (T2Rs) taste receptor genes. We found all amplified T1Rs and T2Rs to be pseudogenes in all 12 whales, with a shared premature stop codon in 10 of the 13 genes, which demonstrated massive losses of taste receptor genes in the common ancestor of whales. Furthermore, we analyzed three genome sequences from two toothed whales and one baleen whale and found that the sour taste marker gene Pkd2l1 is a pseudogene, whereas the candidate salty taste receptor genes are intact and putatively functional. Additionally, we examined three genes that are responsible for taste signal transduction and found the relaxation of functional constraints on taste signaling pathways along the ancestral branch leading to whales. Together, our results strongly suggest extensive losses of sweet, umami, bitter, and sour tastes in whales, and the relaxation of taste function most likely arose in the common ancestor of whales between 36 and 53 Ma. Therefore, whales represent the first animal group to lack four of five primary tastes, probably driven by the marine environment with high concentration of sodium, the feeding behavior of swallowing prey whole, and the dietary switch from plants to meat in the whale ancestor.

  10. Lower cortical serotonin 2A receptors in major depressive disorder, suicide and in rats after administration of imipramine.

    PubMed

    Dean, Brian; Tawadros, Nahed; Seo, Myoung Suk; Jeon, Won Je; Everall, Ian; Scarr, Elizabeth; Gibbons, Andrew

    2014-06-01

    We have attempted to replicate studies showing higher levels of serotonin 2A receptors (HTR2A) in the cortex of people with mood disorders and to determine the effects of treating rats with antidepressant drugs on levels of that receptor. In situ [3H]ketanserin binding and autoradiography was used to measure levels of HTR2A in Brodmann's area (BA) 46 and 24 from people with major depressive disorders (MDD, n = 16), bipolar disorders (BD, n = 14) and healthy controls (n = 14) as well as the central nervous system (CNS) of rats (20 per treatment arm) treated for 10 or 28 d with fluoxetine (10 mg/kg/d) or imipramine (20 mg/kg/d). Compared with controls, HTR2A were lower in BA 24, but not BA 46, from people with MDD (p = 0.005); HTR2A were not changed in BD. Levels of HTR2A were lower in BA 24 (p = 0.007), but not BA 46, from people who had died by suicide. Finally, levels of HTR2A were lower in the CNS of rats treated with imipramine, but not fluoxetine, for 28 d, but not 10 d. From our current and previous data we conclude cortical HTR2A are lower in schizophrenia, MDD, people with mood disorders who died by suicide, rats treated with some antipsychotic or some antidepressant drugs. As levels of cortical HTR2A can be affected by the aetiologies of different disorders and mechanisms of action of different drugs, a better understanding of how such changes can occur needs to be elucidated.

  11. T cell receptor genes in an alloreactive CTL clone: implications for rearrangement and germline diversity of variable gene segments.

    PubMed Central

    Chou, H S; Behlke, M A; Godambe, S A; Russell, J H; Brooks, C G; Loh, D Y

    1986-01-01

    Both cDNA and genomic clones of the T cell receptor (TCR) alpha- and beta-chain genes of the alloreactive cytotoxic T lymphocyte (CTL) clone F3 were examined. Two distinct rearrangement events, one functional and one non-functional, were found for both the alpha and beta loci. Thus only a single functional TCR alpha beta heterodimer could be defined, consistent with allelic exclusion in the TCR genes. The V alpha gene employed by F3 is part of a six-member V alpha subfamily. Genomic clones containing each member of this subfamily were isolated and the V alpha nucleotide sequences determined. Five of these six genes are functional; these genes differ from each other by 7-14% at the amino acid level. A single dominant hypervariable region was defined within this subfamily, in contrast to the pattern of variability seen between V alpha genes in general. Images Fig. 4. Fig. 5. PMID:3490968

  12. Potential Modes of Interaction of 9-Aminomethyl-9,10-dihydroanthracene (AMDA) Derivatives with the 5-HT2A Receptor: A Ligand Structure-Affinity Relationship, Receptor Mutagenesis and Receptor Modeling Investigation⊕

    PubMed Central

    Runyon, Scott P.; Mosier, Philip D.; Roth, Bryan L.; Glennon, Richard A.; Westkaemper, Richard B.

    2011-01-01

    The effects of 3-position substitution of 9-aminomethyl-9,10-dihydroanthracene (AMDA) on 5-HT2A receptor affinity were determined and compared to a parallel series of DOB-like 1-(2,5-dimethoxyphenyl)-2-aminopropanes substituted at the 4-position. The results were interpreted within the context of 5-HT2A receptor models that suggest that members of the DOB-like series can bind to the receptor in two distinct modes that correlate with the compounds’ functional activity. Automated ligand docking and molecular dynamics suggest that all of the AMDA derivatives, the parent of which is a 5-HT2A antagonist, bind in a fashion analogous to that for the sterically demanding antagonist DOB-like compounds. The failure of the F3406.52L mutation to adversely affect the affinity of AMDA and the 3-bromo derivative is consistent with the proposed modes of orientation. Evaluation of ligand-receptor complex models suggest that a valine/threonine exchange between the 5-HT2A and D2 receptors may be the origin of selectivity for AMDA and two substituted derivatives. PMID:18847250

  13. Natural Killer Cell Receptor Genes in the Family Equidae: Not only Ly49

    PubMed Central

    Futas, Jan; Horin, Petr

    2013-01-01

    Natural killer (NK) cells have important functions in immunity. NK recognition in mammals can be mediated through killer cell immunoglobulin-like receptors (KIR) and/or killer cell lectin-like Ly49 receptors. Genes encoding highly variable NK cell receptors (NKR) represent rapidly evolving genomic regions. No single conservative model of NKR genes was observed in mammals. Single-copy low polymorphic NKR genes present in one mammalian species may expand into highly polymorphic multigene families in other species. In contrast to other non-rodent mammals, multiple Ly49-like genes appear to exist in the horse, while no functional KIR genes were observed in this species. In this study, Ly49 and KIR were sought and their evolution was characterized in the entire family Equidae. Genomic sequences retrieved showed the presence of at least five highly conserved polymorphic Ly49 genes in horses, asses and zebras. These findings confirmed that the expansion of Ly49 occurred in the entire family. Several KIR-like sequences were also identified in the genome of Equids. Besides a previously identified non-functional KIR-Immunoglobulin-like transcript fusion gene (KIR-ILTA) and two putative pseudogenes, a KIR3DL-like sequence was analyzed. In contrast to previous observations made in the horse, the KIR3DL sequence, genomic organization and mRNA expression suggest that all Equids might produce a functional KIR receptor protein molecule with a single non-mutated immune tyrosine-based inhibition motif (ITIM) domain. No evidence for positive selection in the KIR3DL gene was found. Phylogenetic analysis including rhinoceros and tapir genomic DNA and deduced amino acid KIR-related sequences showed differences between families and even between species within the order Perissodactyla. The results suggest that the order Perissodactyla and its family Equidae with expanded Ly49 genes and with a potentially functional KIR gene may represent an interesting model for evolutionary biology of

  14. Natural killer cell receptor genes in the family Equidae: not only Ly49.

    PubMed

    Futas, Jan; Horin, Petr

    2013-01-01

    Natural killer (NK) cells have important functions in immunity. NK recognition in mammals can be mediated through killer cell immunoglobulin-like receptors (KIR) and/or killer cell lectin-like Ly49 receptors. Genes encoding highly variable NK cell receptors (NKR) represent rapidly evolving genomic regions. No single conservative model of NKR genes was observed in mammals. Single-copy low polymorphic NKR genes present in one mammalian species may expand into highly polymorphic multigene families in other species. In contrast to other non-rodent mammals, multiple Ly49-like genes appear to exist in the horse, while no functional KIR genes were observed in this species. In this study, Ly49 and KIR were sought and their evolution was characterized in the entire family Equidae. Genomic sequences retrieved showed the presence of at least five highly conserved polymorphic Ly49 genes in horses, asses and zebras. These findings confirmed that the expansion of Ly49 occurred in the entire family. Several KIR-like sequences were also identified in the genome of Equids. Besides a previously identified non-functional KIR-Immunoglobulin-like transcript fusion gene (KIR-ILTA) and two putative pseudogenes, a KIR3DL-like sequence was analyzed. In contrast to previous observations made in the horse, the KIR3DL sequence, genomic organization and mRNA expression suggest that all Equids might produce a functional KIR receptor protein molecule with a single non-mutated immune tyrosine-based inhibition motif (ITIM) domain. No evidence for positive selection in the KIR3DL gene was found. Phylogenetic analysis including rhinoceros and tapir genomic DNA and deduced amino acid KIR-related sequences showed differences between families and even between species within the order Perissodactyla. The results suggest that the order Perissodactyla and its family Equidae with expanded Ly49 genes and with a potentially functional KIR gene may represent an interesting model for evolutionary biology of

  15. Mechanistic Insight into NMDA Receptor Dysregulation by Rare Variants in the GluN2A and GluN2B Agonist Binding Domains.

    PubMed

    Swanger, Sharon A; Chen, Wenjuan; Wells, Gordon; Burger, Pieter B; Tankovic, Anel; Bhattacharya, Subhrajit; Strong, Katie L; Hu, Chun; Kusumoto, Hirofumi; Zhang, Jing; Adams, David R; Millichap, John J; Petrovski, Slavé; Traynelis, Stephen F; Yuan, Hongjie

    2016-12-01

    Epilepsy and intellectual disability are associated with rare variants in the GluN2A and GluN2B (encoded by GRIN2A and GRIN2B) subunits of the N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor (NMDAR), a ligand-gated ion channel with essential roles in brain development and function. By assessing genetic variation across GluN2 domains, we determined that the agonist binding domain, transmembrane domain, and the linker regions between these domains were particularly intolerant to functional variation. Notably, the agonist binding domain of GluN2B exhibited significantly more variation intolerance than that of GluN2A. To understand the ramifications of missense variation in the agonist binding domain, we investigated the mechanisms by which 25 rare variants in the GluN2A and GluN2B agonist binding domains dysregulated NMDAR activity. When introduced into recombinant human NMDARs, these rare variants identified in individuals with neurologic disease had complex, and sometimes opposing, consequences on agonist binding, channel gating, receptor biogenesis, and forward trafficking. Our approach combined quantitative assessments of these effects to estimate the overall impact on synaptic and non-synaptic NMDAR function. Interestingly, similar neurologic diseases were associated with both gain- and loss-of-function variants in the same gene. Most rare variants in GluN2A were associated with epilepsy, whereas GluN2B variants were associated with intellectual disability with or without seizures. Finally, discerning the mechanisms underlying NMDAR dysregulation by these rare variants allowed investigations of pharmacologic strategies to correct NMDAR function.

  16. Expression and functional analysis of genes encoding cytokinin receptor-like histidine kinase in maize (Zea mays L.).

    PubMed

    Wang, Bo; Chen, Yanhong; Guo, Baojian; Kabir, Muhammad Rezaul; Yao, Yingyin; Peng, Huiru; Xie, Chaojie; Zhang, Yirong; Sun, Qixin; Ni, Zhongfu

    2014-08-01

    Cytokinin signaling is vital for plant growth and development which function via the two-component system (TCS). As one of the key component of TCS, transmembrane histidine kinases (HK) are encoded by a small gene family in plants. In this study, we focused on expression and functional analysis of cytokinin receptor-like HK genes (ZmHK) in maize. Firstly, bioinformatics analysis revealed that seven cloned ZmHK genes have different expression patterns during maize development. Secondly, ectopic expression by CaMV35S promoter in Arabidopsis further revealed that functional differentiation exists among these seven members. Among them, the ZmHK1a2-OX transgenic line has the lowest germination rate in the dark, ZmHK1-OX and ZmHK2a2-OX can delay leaf senescence, and seed size of ZmHK1-OX, ZmHK1a2-OX, ZmHK2-OX, ZmHK3b-OX and ZmHK2a2-OX was obviously reduced as compared to wild type. Additionally, ZmHK genes play opposite roles in shoot and root development; all ZmHK-OX transgenic lines display obvious shorter root length and reduced number of lateral roots, but enhanced shoot development compared with the wild type. Most notably, Arabidopsis response regulator ARR5 gene was up-regulated in ZmHK1-OX, ZmHK1a2-OX, ZmHK2-OX, ZmHK3b-OX and ZmHK2a2-OX as compared to wild type. Although the causal link between ZmHK genes and cytokinin signaling pathway is still an area to be further elucidated, these findings reflected that the diversification of ZmHK genes expression patterns and functions occurred in the course of maize evolution, indicating that some ZmHK genes might play different roles during maize development.

  17. Habit Formation after Random Interval Training Is Associated with Increased Adenosine A2A Receptor and Dopamine D2 Receptor Heterodimers in the Striatum

    PubMed Central

    He, Yan; Li, Yan; Chen, Mozi; Pu, Zhilan; Zhang, Feiyang; Chen, Long; Ruan, Yang; Pan, Xinran; He, Chaoxiang; Chen, Xingjun; Li, Zhihui; Chen, Jiang-Fan

    2016-01-01

    Striatal adenosine A2A receptors (A2ARs) modulate striatal synaptic plasticity and instrumental learning, possibly by functional interaction with the dopamine D2 receptors (D2Rs) and metabotropic glutamate receptors 5 (mGluR5) through receptor-receptor heterodimers, but in vivo evidence for these interactions is lacking. Using in situ proximity ligation assay (PLA), we studied the subregional distribution of the A2AR-D2R and A2AR-mGluR5 heterodimer complexes in the striatum and their adaptive changes over the random interval and random ratio training of instrumental learning. After confirming the specificity of the PLA detection of the A2AR-D2R heterodimers with the A2AR knockout and D2R knockout mice, we detected a heterogeneous distribution of the A2AR-D2R heterodimer complexes in the striatum, being more abundant in the dorsolateral than the dorsomedial striatum. Importantly, habit formation after the random interval training was associated with the increased formation of the A2AR-D2R heterodimer complexes, with prominant increase in the dorsomedial striatum. Conversely, goal-directed behavior after the random ratio schedule was not associated with the adaptive change in the A2AR-D2R heterodimer complexes. In contrast to the A2AR-D2R heterodimers, the A2AR-mGluR5 heterodimers showed neither subregional variation in the striatum nor adaptive changes over either the random ratio (RR) or random interval (RI) training of instrumental learning. These findings suggest that development of habit formation is associated with increased formation of the A2AR-D2R heterodimer protein complexes which may lead to reduced dependence on D2R signaling in the striatum. PMID:28082865

  18. Sulfotransferase genes: Regulation by nuclear receptors in response to xeno/endo-biotics

    PubMed Central

    Kodama, Susumu; Negishi, Masahiko

    2014-01-01

    Pregnane X receptor (PXR) and constitutive active/androstane receptor (CAR), members of the nuclear receptor superfamily, are two major xeno-sensing transcription factors. They can be activated by a broad range of lipophilic xenobiotics including therapeutics drugs. In addition to xenobiotics, endogenous compounds such as steroid hormones and bile acids can also activate PXR and/or CAR. These nuclear receptors regulate genes that encode enzymes and transporters that metabolize and excrete both xenobiotics and endobiotics. Sulfotransferases (SULTs) are a group of these enzymes and sulfate xenobiotics for detoxification. In general, inactivation by sulfation constitutes the mechanism to maintain homeostasis of endobiotics. Thus, deciphering the molecular mechanism by which PXR and CAR regulate SULT genes is critical for understanding the roles of SULTs in the alterations of physiological and pathophysiological processes caused by drug treatment or environmental exposures. PMID:24025090

  19. Increase of AMPA receptor glutamate receptor 1 subunit and B-cell receptor-associated protein 31 gene expression in hippocampus of fatigued mice.

    PubMed

    Kamakura, Masaki; Tamaki, Keisuke; Sakaki, Toshiyuki; Yoneda, Yukio

    2005-10-14

    Central fatigue is an indispensable biosignal for maintaining life, but the neuronal and molecular mechanisms involved remain unclear. In this study, we searched for genes differentially expressed in the hippocampus of fatigued mice to elucidate the mechanisms underlying fatigue. Mice were forced to swim in an adjustable-current water pool, and the maximum swimming time (endurance) until fatigue was measured thrice. Fatigued and nonfatigued mice with equal swimming capacity and body weight were compared. We found that the genes of GluR1 and B-cell receptor-associated protein 31 (Bap31), which acts as a transport molecule in the secretory pathway or as a mediator of apoptosis, were upregulated in the hippocampus of fatigued mice, and increases of GluR1 and Bap31 were confirmed by Northern blotting and real-time PCR. No change of gene expression of AMPA receptor subunits other than GluR1 was observed. These results suggest that a compositional change of AMPA receptor (increase of GluR1) and upregulation of the Bap31 gene may be implicated in fatigue in mice.

  20. Selective Gene Regulation by Androgen Receptor in Prostate Cancer

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-10-01

    androgen receptor pathway in prostate cancer. Curr Opin Pharmacol, 2008. 8(4): p. 440-8. 6. Claessens, F., P. Alen , A. Devos, B. Peeters, G...Chem, 1996. 271(32): p. 19013-6. 7. Schoenmakers, E., P. Alen , G. Verrijdt, B. Peeters, G. Verhoeven, W. Rombauts, and F. Claessens, Differential DNA