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Sample records for 2a6 2b6 2c8

  1. Pharmacogenetics of CYP2B6, CYP2A6 and UGT2B7 in HIV treatment in African populations: focus on efavirenz and nevirapine.

    PubMed

    Čolić, Antoinette; Alessandrini, Marco; Pepper, Michael S

    2015-05-01

    The CYP450 and UGT enzymes are involved in phase I and phase II metabolism of the majority of clinically prescribed drugs, including the non-nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors, efavirenz and nevirapine, used in the treatment of HIV/AIDS. Variations in the activity of these enzymes due to gene polymorphisms can affect an individual's drug response or may lead to adverse drug reactions. There is an inter-ethnic distribution in the frequency of these polymorphisms, with African populations exhibiting higher genetic diversity compared to other populations. African specific alleles with clinical relevance have also emerged. Given the high prevalence of HIV/AIDS in sub-Saharan Africa, understanding the frequency of pharmacogenetically relevant alleles in populations of African origin, and their impact on efavirenz and nevirapine metabolism, is becoming increasingly critical. This review aims to investigate ethnic variation of CYP2B6, CYP2A6 and UGT2B7, and to understand the pharmacogenetic relevance when comparing frequencies in African populations to other populations worldwide. PMID:25391641

  2. Functional characterization of single nucleotide polymorphisms with amino acid substitution in CYP1A2, CYP2A6, and CYP2B6 found in the Japanese population.

    PubMed

    Iwasaki, Masahiko; Yoshimura, Yoshinobu; Asahi, Satoru; Saito, Kimitoshi; Sakai, Shuichi; Morita, Shigemichi; Takenaka, Osamu; Inoda, Toshio; Kashiyama, Eiji; Aoyama, Akinori; Nakabayashi, Takeshi; Omori, Satoshi; Kuwabara, Takashi; Izumi, Takashi; Nakamura, Kouichi; Takanaka, Kaoru; Nakayama, Yukiharu; Takeuchi, Mitsuaki; Nakamura, Hideki; Kametani, Shunichi; Terauchi, Yoshiaki; Hashizume, Takanori; Nagayama, Sekio; Kume, Toshiyuki; Achira, Meguru; Kawai, Hiroyuki; Kawashiro, Takashi; Nakamura, Akio; Nakai, Yasuhiro; Kagayama, Akira; Shiraga, Toshifumi; Niwa, Takuro; Yoshimura, Takuya; Morita, Jun; Ohsawa, Fukuichi; Tani, Masato; Osawa, Nobuo; Ida, Keiichi; Noguchi, Kiyoshi

    2004-12-01

    As a part of the studies conducted by the Pharma SNPs Consortium (PSC), the enzyme activities of CYP1A2, CYP2A6 and CYP2B6 variants with altered amino acids as a result of single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) found among the Japanese population were analyzed under a unified protocol using the same lots of reagents by the laboratories participating in the PSC. Mutations in CYP1A2, CYP2A6 and CYP2B6 were introduced by site-directed mutagenesis and the wild type and mutated CYP molecules were expressed in Escherichia coli. The expressed cytochrome P450s were purified and the enzyme activities were measured in reconstitution systems. CYP1A2 and CYP1A2Gln478His did not show any differences in 7-ethoxyresorufin O-deethylase activity. CYP2A6 and CYP2A6Glu419Asp metabolized coumarin to form 7-hydroxycoumarin in a similar manner, whereas CYP2A6Ile471Thr showed low activity compared to the wild-type CYP2A6. CYP2B6, CYP2B6Pro167Ala and CYP2B6Arg487Cys showed the same activity for 7-ethoxy-4-triflouromethyl-coumarin O-deethylation. However, CYP2B6Gln172His was roughly twice as active as CYP2B6 and the other CYP2B6 variants for 7-ethoxy-4-triflouromethylcoumarin O-deethylation activity. Although higher inter- and intra-laboratory variations were observed for the calculated Km and V(max) values because the studies were conducted in several different laboratories, the degree of variations was reduced by the increased number of analyses and the adoption of a simple analysis system. PMID:15681899

  3. Preliminary Investigation of the Contribution of CYP2A6, CYP2B6, and UGT1A9 Polymorphisms on Artesunate-Mefloquine Treatment Response in Burmese Patients with Plasmodium falciparum Malaria

    PubMed Central

    Phompradit, Papichaya; Muhamad, Poonuch; Cheoymang, Anurak; Na-Bangchang, Kesara

    2014-01-01

    CYP2A6, CYP2B6, and UGT1A9 genetic polymorphisms and treatment response after a three-day course of artesunate-mefloquine was investigated in 71 Burmese patients with uncomplicated Plasmodium falciparum malaria. Results provide evidence for the possible link between CYP2A6 and CYP2B6 polymorphisms and plasma concentrations of artesunate/dihydroartemisinin and treatment response. In one patient who had the CYP2A6*1A/*4C genotype (decreased enzyme activity), plasma concentration of artesunate at one hour appeared to be higher, and the concentration of dihydroartemisinin was lower than for those carrying other genotypes (415 versus 320 ng/mL). The proportion of patients with adequate clinical and parasitologic response who had the CYP2B6*9/*9 genotype (mutant genotype) was significantly lower compared with those with late parasitologic failure (14.0% versus 19.0%). Confirmation through a larger study in various malaria-endemic areas is required before a definite conclusion on the role of genetic polymorphisms of these drug-metabolizing enzymes on treatment response after artesunate-based combination therapy can be made. PMID:24891466

  4. Biotransformation of BDE-47 to Potentially Toxic Metabolites Is Predominantly Mediated by Human CYP2B6

    PubMed Central

    Feo, Maria Luisa; Gross, Michael S.; McGarrigle, Barbara P.; Eljarrat, Ethel; Barceló, Damià; Olson, James R.

    2012-01-01

    Background: Previous studies have indicated that cytochrome P450s (CYPs) are involved in the metabolism of polybrominated diphenyl ether (PBDE) flame retardants in humans, resulting in the formation of hydroxylated PBDEs (OH-PBDEs) that are potentially more toxic than the parent PBDEs. However, the specific enzymes responsible for the formation of OH-PBDEs are unknown. Objectives: The purposes of this study were to characterize the in vitro metabolism of 2,2´,4,4´-tetrabromodiphenyl ether (BDE-47) by human liver microsomes (HLM) and recombinant human CYPs, and to identify the CYP(s) that are active in the oxidative metabolism of BDE-47. Methods: Recombinant human CYPs (CYP1A1, 1A2, 1B1, 2A6, 2B6, 2C8, 2C9, 2C19, 2D6, 2E1, and 3A4) were incubated with BDE-47 (20 µM), and the metabolites were measured and characterized using gas chromatography with tandem mass spectrometry (GC-MS/MS). For kinetic studies, CYP2B6 and pooled human liver microsomes (HLMs) were incubated with BDE-47 (0–60 µM). Results: CYP2B6 was the predominant CYP capable of forming six OH-BDEs, including 3-OH-BDE-47, 5-OH-BDE-47, 6-OH-BDE-47, 4-OH-BDE-42, 4´-OH-BDE-49, and a metabolite tentatively identified as 2´-OH-BDE-66. On the basis of full-scan GC-MS analysis, we hypothesized the formation of two other metabolites: di-OH-tetra-BDE and di-OH-tetrabrominated dioxin. In kinetic studies of BDE-47 metabolism by CYP2B6 and pooled HLMs, we found Km values ranging from 3.8 to 6.4 µM and 7.0 to 11.4 µM, respectively, indicating the high affinity toward the formation of OH-BDEs. Conclusion: Our findings support a predominant role of CYP2B6 in the metabolism of BDE-47 to potentially toxic metabolites, including a hypothesized di-OH-tetrabrominated dioxin metabolite. These results will assist future epidemiological studies investigating the potential of PBDEs and their metabolites to produce neurobehavioral/neurodevelopmental disorders. PMID:23249762

  5. Enantioselective inhibition of Cytochrome P450-mediated drug metabolism by a novel antithrombotic agent, S002-333: Major effect on CYP2B6.

    PubMed

    Bhateria, Manisha; Ramakrishna, Rachumallu; Puttrevu, Santosh Kumar; Saxena, Anil K; Bhatta, Rabi Sankar

    2016-08-25

    A significant number of new chemical entities (NCEs) fail in drug discovery due to inhibition of Cytochrome P450 (CYP) enzymes. Therefore, to avert costly drug failure at the clinical phase it becomes indispensable to evaluate the CYP inhibition profile of NCEs early in drug discovery. In light of these concerns, we envisioned to investigate the inhibitory effects of S002-333 [2-(4-methoxy-benzenesulfonyl)-2,3,4,9-tetrahydro-1H-b-carboxylic acid amide], a novel and potent antithrombotic agent, on nine major CYP enzymes (CYP1A2, 2A6, 2B6, 2C8, 2C9, 2C19, 2D6, 2E1 and 3A4) of human liver microsomes (HLM). S002-333 exists as racemic mixture of S004-1032 (R-isomer) and S007-1558 (S-isomer), consequently, we further examined the enantioselective differences of S002-333 in the inhibition of human CYP enzymes. Of the CYP enzymes tested, CYP2B6-catalyzed bupropion 6-hydroxylation was inhibited by S002-333 (IC50 ∼ 9.25 ± 2.46 μM) in a stereoselective manner with (S)-isomer showing potent inhibition (IC50 ∼ 5.28 ± 1.25 μM) in contrast to (R)-isomer which showed negligible inhibition on CYP2B6 activity (IC50 > 50 μM). S002-333 and its (S)-isomer inhibited CYP2B6 activity in a non-competitive fashion with estimated Ki values of 10.1 ± 3.4 μM and 5.09 ± 1.05 μM, respectively. No shift in the IC50 value was observed for S002-333 and its isomers when preincubated for 30 min in the presence of NADPH suggesting that neither S002-333 nor its enantiomers are time-dependent inhibitors. Thus, the present findings signified that S002-333 is a potent stereoselective inhibitor of CYP2B6, whereas, inhibition for other CYPs was substantially negligible. These in vitro findings would be useful in deciding the development of S002-333 as a single-enantiomer or as a racemic mixture. PMID:27387538

  6. Pharmacogenetics of cytochrome P450 2B6 (CYP2B6): advances on polymorphisms, mechanisms, and clinical relevance

    PubMed Central

    Zanger, Ulrich M.; Klein, Kathrin

    2013-01-01

    Cytochrome P450 2B6 (CYP2B6) belongs to the minor drug metabolizing P450s in human liver. Expression is highly variable both between individuals and within individuals, owing to non-genetic factors, genetic polymorphisms, inducibility, and irreversible inhibition by many compounds. Drugs metabolized mainly by CYP2B6 include artemisinin, bupropion, cyclophosphamide, efavirenz, ketamine, and methadone. CYP2B6 is one of the most polymorphic CYP genes in humans and variants have been shown to affect transcriptional regulation, splicing, mRNA and protein expression, and catalytic activity. Some variants appear to affect several functional levels simultaneously, thus, combined in haplotypes, leading to complex interactions between substrate-dependent and -independent mechanisms. The most common functionally deficient allele is CYP2B6*6 [Q172H, K262R], which occurs at frequencies of 15 to over 60% in different populations. The allele leads to lower expression in liver due to erroneous splicing. Recent investigations suggest that the amino acid changes contribute complex substrate-dependent effects at the activity level, although data from recombinant systems used by different researchers are not well in agreement with each other. Another important variant, CYP2B6*18 [I328T], occurs predominantly in Africans (4–12%) and does not express functional protein. A large number of uncharacterized variants are currently emerging from different ethnicities in the course of the 1000 Genomes Project. The CYP2B6 polymorphism is clinically relevant for HIV-infected patients treated with the reverse transcriptase inhibitor efavirenz, but it is increasingly being recognized for other drug substrates. This review summarizes recent advances on the functional and clinical significance of CYP2B6 and its genetic polymorphism, with particular emphasis on the comparison of kinetic data obtained with different substrates for variants expressed in different recombinant expression systems. PMID

  7. MOLECULAR CHARACTERIZATION OF CYP2B6 SUBSTRATES

    PubMed Central

    Ekins, Sean; Iyer, Manisha; Krasowski, Matthew D.; Kharasch, Evan D.

    2008-01-01

    CYP2B6 has not been as fully characterized at the molecular level as other members of the human cytochrome P450 family. As more widely used in vitro probes for characterizing the involvement of this enzyme in the metabolism of xenobiotics have become available, the number of molecules identified as CYP2B6 substrates has increased. In this study we have analyzed the available kinetic data generated by multiple laboratories with human recombinant expressed CYP2B6 and along with calculated molecular properties derived from the ChemSpider database, we have determined the molecular features that appear to be important for CYP2B6 substrates. In addition we have applied 2D and 3D QSAR methods to generate predictive pharmacophore and 2D models. For 28 molecules with Km data, the molecular weight (mean ± SD) is 253.78±74.03, ACD/logP is 2.68±1.51, LogDpH 5.5 is 1.51±1.43, LogDpH 7.4 is 2.02±1.25, hydrogen bond donor (HBD) count is 0.57 ±0.57, hydrogen bond acceptor (HBA) count is 2.57±1.37, rotatable bonds is 3.50±2.71 and total polar surface area (TPSA) is 27.63±19.42. A second set of 15 molecules without Km data possessed similar mean molecular property values. These properties are comparable to those of a set of 21 molecules used in a previous pharmacophore modeling study (Ekins et al., J Pharmacol Exp Ther 288 (1), 21–29, 1999). Only the LogD and HBD values were statistically significantly different between these different datasets. We have shown that CYP2B6 substrates are generally small hydrophobic molecules that are frequently central nervous system active, which may be important for drug discovery research. PMID:18537573

  8. Characterization of inhibitory effects of perfluorooctane sulfonate on human hepatic cytochrome P450 isoenzymes: focusing on CYP2A6.

    PubMed

    Narimatsu, Shizuo; Nakanishi, Ryoko; Hanioka, Nobumitsu; Saito, Keita; Kataoka, Hiroyuki

    2011-11-15

    Perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS) is a chemically stable compound extensively used as oil and water repellent, surface active agents in our daily life. Accumulative research evidence gradually appears the toxicity of PFOS against mammals, but the whole figure remains to be elucidated. The present study was conducted to know the effects of PFOS on human hepatic drug metabolizing-type cytochrome P450 (CYP) isoenzymes such as CYP1A2 (7-ethoxyresorufin as a substrate), CYP2A6 (coumarin), CYP2B6 (7-ethoxy-4-trifluoromethylcoumarin), CYP2C8 (paclitaxel), CYP2C9 (diclofenac), CYP2C19 (S-mephenytoin), CYP2D6 (bufuralol), CYP2E1 (chlorzoxazone) and CYP3A4 (testosterone) in human livers employing their typical substrates. Although all of the oxidation reactions tested were more or less inhibited by PFOS, diclofenac 4'-hydroxylation mediated mainly by CYP2C9 was most strongly inhibited (K(i) value of 40 nM), followed by paclitaxel 6α-hydroxylation mediated mainly by CYP2C8 (K(i) value of 4 μM). The substrate oxidation reactions catalyzed by CYP2A6, CYP2B6, CYP2C19 and CYP3A4 were moderately (K(i) values of 35 to 45 μM), and those by CYP1A2, CYP2D6 and CYP2E1 were weakly inhibited by PFOS (K(i) values of 190-300 μM). The inhibition by PFOS for coumarin 7-hydroxylation mainly catalyzed by human liver microsomal CYP2A6 as well as by the recombinant enzyme was found to be enhanced by the preincubation of PFOS with human liver microsomes and NADPH as compared to the case without preincubation. The inhibition of the human liver microsomal cumarin 7-hydroxylation was PFOS concentration-dependent, and exhibited pseudo-first-order kinetics with respect to preincubation time, yielding K(inact) and K(I) values of 0.06 min(-1) and 23 μM, respectively. These results suggest that the metabolism of medicines which are substrates for CYP2C9 may be altered by PFOS in human bodies, and that PFOS is a mechanism-based inhibitor of CYP2A6. PMID:21964418

  9. Evaluation of CYP2C8 inhibition in vitro: utility of montelukast as a selective CYP2C8 probe substrate.

    PubMed

    VandenBrink, Brooke M; Foti, Robert S; Rock, Dan A; Wienkers, Larry C; Wahlstrom, Jan L

    2011-09-01

    Understanding the potential for cytochrome P450 (P450)-mediated drug-drug interactions is a critical step in the drug discovery process. Although in vitro studies with CYP3A4, CYP2C9, and CYP2C19 have suggested the presence of multiple binding regions within the P450 active site based on probe substrate-dependent inhibition profiles, similar studies have not been performed with CYP2C8. The ability to understand CYP2C8 probe substrate sensitivity will enable appropriate in vitro and in vivo probe selection. To characterize the potential for probe substrate-dependent inhibition with CYP2C8, the inhibition potency of 22 known inhibitors of CYP2C8 were measured in vitro using four clinically relevant CYP2C8 probe substrates (montelukast, paclitaxel, repaglinide, and rosiglitazone) and amodiaquine. Repaglinide exhibited the highest sensitivity to inhibition in vitro. In vitro phenotyping indicated that montelukast is an appropriate probe for CYP2C8 inhibition studies. The in vivo sensitivities of the CYP2C8 probe substrates cerivastatin, fluvastatin, montelukast, pioglitazone, and rosiglitazone were determined in relation to repaglinide on the basis of clinical drug-drug interaction (DDI) data. Repaglinide exhibited the highest sensitivity in vivo, followed by cerivastatin, montelukast, and pioglitazone. Finally, the magnitude of in vivo CYP2C8 DDI caused by gemfibrozil-1-O-β-glucuronide was predicted. Comparisons of the predictions with clinical data coupled with the potential liabilities of other CYP2C8 probes suggest that montelukast is an appropriate CYP2C8 probe substrate to use for the in vivo situation. PMID:21697463

  10. Role of Cytochrome P450 2C8 in Drug Metabolism and Interactions.

    PubMed

    Backman, Janne T; Filppula, Anne M; Niemi, Mikko; Neuvonen, Pertti J

    2016-01-01

    During the last 10-15 years, cytochrome P450 (CYP) 2C8 has emerged as an important drug-metabolizing enzyme. CYP2C8 is highly expressed in human liver and is known to metabolize more than 100 drugs. CYP2C8 substrate drugs include amodiaquine, cerivastatin, dasabuvir, enzalutamide, imatinib, loperamide, montelukast, paclitaxel, pioglitazone, repaglinide, and rosiglitazone, and the number is increasing. Similarly, many drugs have been identified as CYP2C8 inhibitors or inducers. In vivo, already a small dose of gemfibrozil, i.e., 10% of its therapeutic dose, is a strong, irreversible inhibitor of CYP2C8. Interestingly, recent findings indicate that the acyl-β-glucuronides of gemfibrozil and clopidogrel cause metabolism-dependent inactivation of CYP2C8, leading to a strong potential for drug interactions. Also several other glucuronide metabolites interact with CYP2C8 as substrates or inhibitors, suggesting that an interplay between CYP2C8 and glucuronides is common. Lack of fully selective and safe probe substrates, inhibitors, and inducers challenges execution and interpretation of drug-drug interaction studies in humans. Apart from drug-drug interactions, some CYP2C8 genetic variants are associated with altered CYP2C8 activity and exhibit significant interethnic frequency differences. Herein, we review the current knowledge on substrates, inhibitors, inducers, and pharmacogenetics of CYP2C8, as well as its role in clinically relevant drug interactions. In addition, implications for selection of CYP2C8 marker and perpetrator drugs to investigate CYP2C8-mediated drug metabolism and interactions in preclinical and clinical studies are discussed. PMID:26721703

  11. Human CYP2C8: structure, substrate specificity, inhibitor selectivity, inducers and polymorphisms.

    PubMed

    Lai, Xin-Sheng; Yang, Li-Ping; Li, Xiao-Tian; Liu, Jun-Ping; Zhou, Zhi-Wei; Zhou, Shu-Feng

    2009-11-01

    Human CYP2C8 is a key member of the CYP2C family and metabolizes more than 60 clinical drugs. A number of active site residues in CYP2C8 have been identified based on homology modeling and site-directed mutagenesis studies. In the structure of CYP2C8, the large active site cavity exhibits a trifurcated topology that approximates a T or Y shape, which is consistent with the finding that CYP2C8 can efficiently oxidize relatively large substrates such as paclitaxel and cerivastatin. The active site cavity of CYP2C8 contains at least 48 amino acid residues and many of them are important for substrate binding. The structures of CYP2C8 in complex with distinct ligands have revealed that the enzyme can bind divergent substrates and inhibitors without extensive conformational changes. CYP2C8 is a major catalyst in the metabolism of paclitaxel, amodiaquine, troglitazone, amiodarone, verapamil and ibuprofen, with a secondary role in the biotransformation of cerivastatin and fluvastatin. CYP2C8 also metabolises endogenous compounds such as retinoids and arachidonic acid. Many drugs are inhibitors of CYP2C8 and inhibition of this enzyme may result in clinical drug interactions. The pregnane X receptor, constitutive androstane receptor, and glucocorticoid receptor are likely to involve the regulation of CYP2C8. A number of genetic mutations in the CYP2C8 gene have been identified in humans and some of them have functional impact on the clearance of drugs. Further studies are needed to delineate the role of CYP2C8 in drug development and clinical practice. PMID:20214592

  12. Genetic Polymorphisms of CYP2C8 in the Czech Republic

    PubMed Central

    Buzkova, Helena; Matouskova, Olga; Perlik, Frantisek

    2012-01-01

    Aim: CYP2C8 represents 7% of the hepatic cytochrome system and metabolizes around 5% of drugs in phase I processes. It also plays a significant role in metabolism of endogenous compounds. More than 20 single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) have been noted, mainly in exons 3, 5, and 8. The most studied SNPs may lead to decreased enzyme activity and may have impact on drug metabolism. Variant alleles are called CYP2C8*2 (I269F), CYP2C8*3 (R139K, K399R), and CYP2C8*4(I264M). Our aim was to investigate the frequency of major functional SNPs among the Czech population. Material and methods: DNA was isolated from whole blood of 161 healthy, young, and unrelated subjects (94 men and 67 women, aged from 23 to 28 years). The genotypes of polymorphic positions CYP2C8*2, CYP2C8*3 (G416A, A1196G), and CYP2C8*4 were determined by polymerase chain reaction–restriction fragment length polymorphism. Results and conclusion: Observed allele frequencies were 10.9%, 5.9%, and 0.3% for the alleles CYP2C8*3, CYP2C8*4, and CYP2C8*2, respectively. Both CYP2C8*3 (G416A, A1196G) alleles have been found in complete linkage disequilibrium. The allele distribution complies well with Hardy–Weinberg equilibrium. Allele frequencies of functionally important CYP2C8 variants in the Czech population are similar to that of other Caucasian populations. PMID:22313047

  13. Mechanism-Based Inactivation of Human Cytochrome P450 2B6 by Chlorpyrifos.

    PubMed

    D'Agostino, Jaime; Zhang, Haoming; Kenaan, Cesar; Hollenberg, Paul F

    2015-07-20

    Chlorpyrifos (CPS) is a commonly used pesticide which is metabolized by P450s into the toxic metabolite chlorpyrifos-oxon (CPO). Metabolism also results in the release of sulfur, which has been suggested to be involved in mechanism-based inactivation (MBI) of P450s. CYP2B6 was previously determined to have the greatest catalytic efficiency for CPO formation in vitro. Therefore, we characterized the MBI of CYP2B6 by CPS. CPS inactivated CYP2B6 in a time- and concentration-dependent manner with a kinact of 1.97 min(-1), a KI of 0.47 μM, and a partition ratio of 17.7. We further evaluated the ability of other organophosphate pesticides including chorpyrifos-methyl, diazinon, parathion-methyl, and azinophos-methyl to inactivate CYP2B6. These organophosphate pesticides were also potent MBIs of CYP2B6 characterized by similar kinact and KI values. The inactivation of CYP2B6 by CPS was accompanied by the loss of P450 detectable in the CO reduced spectrum and loss of detectable heme. High molecular weight aggregates were observed when inactivated CYP2B6 was run on SDS-PAGE gels indicating protein aggregation. Interestingly, we found that the rat homologue of CYP2B6, CYP2B1, was not inactivated by CPS despite forming CPO to a similar extent. On the basis of the locations of the Cys residues in the two proteins which could react with released sulfur during the metabolism of CPS, we investigated whether the C475 in CYP2B6, which is not conserved in CYP2B1, was the critical residue for inactivation by mutating it to a Ser. CYP2B6 C475S was inactivated to a similar extent as wild type CYP2B6 indicating that C475 is not likely the key difference between CYP2B1 and CYP2B6 with respect to inactivation. These results indicate that CPS and other organophosphate pesticides are potent MBIs of CYP2B6 which may have implications for the toxicity of these pesticides as well as the potential for pesticide-drug interactions. PMID:26075493

  14. Targeting of Splice Variants of Human Cytochrome P450 2C8 (CYP2C8) to Mitochondria and Their Role in Arachidonic Acid Metabolism and Respiratory Dysfunction*

    PubMed Central

    Bajpai, Prachi; Srinivasan, Satish; Ghosh, Jyotirmoy; Nagy, Leslie D.; Wei, Shouzou; Guengerich, F. Peter; Avadhani, Narayan G.

    2014-01-01

    In this study, we found that the full-length CYP2C8 (WT CYP2C8) and N-terminal truncated splice variant 3 (∼44-kDa mass) are localized in mitochondria in addition to the endoplasmic reticulum. Analysis of human livers showed that the mitochondrial levels of these two forms varied markedly. Molecular modeling based on the x-ray crystal structure coordinates of CYP2D6 and CYP2C8 showed that despite lacking the N-terminal 102 residues variant 3 possessed nearly complete substrate binding and heme binding pockets. Stable expression of cDNAs in HepG2 cells showed that the WT protein is mostly targeted to the endoplasmic reticulum and at low levels to mitochondria, whereas variant 3 is primarily targeted to mitochondria and at low levels to the endoplasmic reticulum. Enzyme reconstitution experiments showed that both microsomal and mitochondrial WT CYP2C8 efficiently catalyzed paclitaxel 6-hydroxylation. However, mitochondrial variant 3 was unable to catalyze this reaction possibly because of its inability to stabilize the large 854-Da substrate. Conversely, mitochondrial variant 3 catalyzed the metabolism of arachidonic acid into 8,9-, 11,12-, and 14,15-epoxyeicosatrienoic acids and 20-hydroxyeicosatetraenoic acid when reconstituted with adrenodoxin and adrenodoxin reductase. HepG2 cells stably expressing variant 3 generated higher levels of reactive oxygen species and showed a higher level of mitochondrial respiratory dysfunction. This study suggests that mitochondrially targeted variant 3 CYP2C8 may contribute to oxidative stress in various tissues. PMID:25160618

  15. A potential therapeutic effect of CYP2C8 overexpression on anti-TNF-α activity

    PubMed Central

    LIU, WANJUN; WANG, BEI; DING, HU; WANG, DAO WEN; ZENG, HESONG

    2014-01-01

    Epoxyeicosatrienoic acids (EETs) are generated from arachidonic acid catalysed by cytochrome P450 (CYP) epoxygenases. In addition to regulating vascular tone EETs may alleviate inflammation and ROS. The present study was conducted to determine whether CYP2C8 gene overexpression was able to increase the level of EETs, and subsequently prevent TNF-α induced inflammation and reactive oxygen species (ROS) in human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs) and macrophages. Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ (PPARγ) activation, nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB) activation, endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS) activation, gp-91 activation, and inflammatory cytokine expression were detected by western blot analysis or enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS) was measured by flow cytometry, while the migration of vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs) was detected by Transwell assay. pCMV-mediated CYP2C8 overexpression and its metabolites, EETs, markedly suppressed TNF-α induced inflammatory cytokines IL-6 and MCP-1 expression via the activation of NF-κB and degradation of IκBα. Moreover, pretreatment with 11,12-EET significantly blocked TNF-α-induced ROS production. CYP2C8-derived EETs also effectively alleviated the migration of VSMCs and improved the function of endothelial cells through the upregulation of eNOS, which was significantly decreased under the stimulation of TNF-α. Furthermore, these protective effects observed were mediated by PPARγ activation. To the best of our knowledge, the results of the present study demonstrated for the first time that CYP2C8-derived EETs exerted antivascular inflammatory and anti-oxidative effects, at least in part, through the activation of PPARγ. Thus, the CYP2C8 gene may be useful in the prevention and treatment of vascular inflammatory diseases. PMID:25017038

  16. Measurements of the Urbach tail for A2B6 mixed crystals by the photothermal method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zakrzewski, J.; Malinski, M.; Strzałkowski, K.; Firszt, F.; Łęgowski, S.; Męczyńska, H.

    2010-03-01

    This paper presents the influence of the composition of several mixed A2B6 crystals on the broadening of the optical absorption coefficient spectra. This broadening is observed as the change of the piezoelectric spectra associated with the change oft he Urbach tail. This effect is interpreted as a result of the increase of the compositional disorder of the crystal lattice.

  17. CYP2B6*6 and CYP2B6*18 Predict Long-Term Efavirenz Exposure Measured in Hair Samples in HIV-Positive South African Women.

    PubMed

    Röhrich, Carola R; Drögemöller, Britt I; Ikediobi, Ogechi; van der Merwe, Lize; Grobbelaar, Nelis; Wright, Galen E B; McGregor, Nathaniel; Warnich, Louise

    2016-06-01

    Long-term exposure to efavirenz (EFV) measured in hair samples may predict response to antiretroviral treatment (ART). Polymorphisms in CYP2B6 are known to alter EFV levels. The aim of this study was to assess the relationship between CYP2B6 genotype, EFV levels measured in hair, and virological outcomes on ART in a real-world setting. We measured EFV levels in hair from HIV-positive South African females who had been receiving EFV-based treatment for at least 3 months from the South African Black (SAB) (n = 81) and Cape Mixed Ancestry (CMA) (n = 53) populations. Common genetic variation in CYP2B6 was determined in 15 individuals from each population using bidirectional Sanger sequencing. Prioritized variants (n = 16) were subsequently genotyped in the entire patient cohort (n = 134). The predictive value of EFV levels in hair and selected variants in CYP2B6 on virological treatment outcomes was assessed. Previously described alleles (CYP2B6*2, CYP2B6*5, CYP2B6*6, CYP2B6*17, and CYP2B6*18), as well as two novel alleles (CYP2B6*31 and CYP2B6*32), were detected in this study. Compared to noncarriers, individuals homozygous for CYP2B6*6 had ∼109% increased EFV levels in hair (p = .016) and CYP2B6*18 heterozygotes demonstrated 82% higher EFV hair levels (p = .0006). This study confirmed that alleles affecting CYP2B6 metabolism and subsequent EFV exposure are present at significant frequencies in both the SAB and CMA populations. Furthermore, this study demonstrated that the use of hair samples for testing EFV concentrations may be a useful tool in determining long-term drug exposure in resource-limited countries. PMID:26655325

  18. Effect of tamoxifen on the enzymatic activity of human cytochrome CYP2B6.

    PubMed

    Sridar, Chitra; Kent, Ute M; Notley, Lisa M; Gillam, Elizabeth M J; Hollenberg, Paul F

    2002-06-01

    Tamoxifen is primarily used in the treatment of breast cancer. It has been approved as a chemopreventive agent for individuals at high risk for this disease. Tamoxifen is metabolized to a number of different products by cytochrome P450 enzymes. The effect of tamoxifen on the enzymatic activity of bacterially expressed human cytochrome CYP2B6 in a reconstituted system has been investigated. The 7-ethoxy-4-(trifluoromethyl)coumarin O-deethylation activity of purified CYP2B6 was inactivated by tamoxifen in a time- and concentration-dependent manner. Enzymatic activity was lost only in samples that were incubated with both tamoxifen and NADPH. The inactivation was characterized by a K(I) of 0.9 microM, a k(inact) of 0.02 min(-1), and a t(1/2) of 34 min. The loss in the 7-ethoxy-4-(trifluoromethyl)coumarin O-deethylation activity did not result in a similar percentage loss in the reduced carbon monoxide spectrum, suggesting that the heme moiety was not the major site of modification. The activity of CYP2B6 was not recovered after removal of free tamoxifen using spin column gel filtration. The loss in activity seemed to be due to a modification of the CYP2B6 and not reductase because adding fresh reductase back to the inactivated samples did not restore enzymatic activity. A reconstituted system containing purified CYP2B6, NADPH-reductase, and NADPH-generating system was found to catalyze tamoxifen metabolism to 4-OH-tamoxifen, 4'-OH-tamoxifen, and N-desmethyl-tamoxifen as analyzed by high-performance liquid chromatography analysis. Preliminary studies showed that tamoxifen had no effect on the activities of CYP1B1 and CYP3A4, whereas CYP2D6 and CYP2C9 exhibited a 25% loss in enzymatic activity. PMID:12023523

  19. Equine cytochrome P450 2B6 — Genomic identification, expression and functional characterization with ketamine

    SciTech Connect

    Peters, L.M.; Demmel, S.; Pusch, G.; Buters, J.T.M.; Zielinski, J.; Leeb, T.; Mevissen, M.; Schmitz, A.

    2013-01-01

    Ketamine is an anesthetic and analgesic regularly used in veterinary patients. As ketamine is almost always administered in combination with other drugs, interactions between ketamine and other drugs bear the risk of either adverse effects or diminished efficacy. Since cytochrome P450 enzymes (CYPs) play a pivotal role in the phase I metabolism of the majority of all marketed drugs, drug–drug interactions often occur at the active site of these enzymes. CYPs have been thoroughly examined in humans and laboratory animals, but little is known about equine CYPs. The characterization of equine CYPs is essential for a better understanding of drug metabolism in horses. We report annotation, cloning and heterologous expression of the equine CYP2B6 in V79 Chinese hamster fibroblasts. After computational annotation of all CYP2B genes, the coding sequence (CDS) of equine CYP2B6 was amplified by RT-PCR from horse liver total RNA and revealed an amino acid sequence identity of 77% and a similarity of 93.7% to its human ortholog. A non-synonymous variant c.226G>A in exon 2 of the equine CYP2B6 was detected in 97 horses. The mutant A-allele showed an allele frequency of 82%. Two further variants in exon 3 were detected in one and two horses of this group, respectively. Transfected V79 cells were incubated with racemic ketamine and norketamine as probe substrates to determine metabolic activity. The recombinant equine CYP2B6 N-demethylated ketamine to norketamine and produced metabolites of norketamine, such as hydroxylated norketamines and 5,6-dehydronorketamine. V{sub max} for S-/and R-norketamine formation was 0.49 and 0.45 nmol/h/mg cellular protein and K{sub m} was 3.41 and 2.66 μM, respectively. The N-demethylation of S-/R-ketamine was inhibited concentration-dependently with clopidogrel showing an IC{sub 50} of 5.63 and 6.26 μM, respectively. The functional importance of the recorded genetic variants remains to be explored. Equine CYP2B6 was determined to be a CYP

  20. Effects of Angiotensin II Receptor Blockers on Metabolism of Arachidonic Acid via CYP2C8.

    PubMed

    Senda, Asuna; Mukai, Yuji; Toda, Takaki; Hayakawa, Toru; Yamashita, Miki; Eliasson, Erik; Rane, Anders; Inotsume, Nobuo

    2015-01-01

    Arachidonic acid (AA) is metabolized to epoxyeicosatrienoic acids (EETs) via cytochrome enzymes such as CYP 2C9, 2C8 and 2J2. EETs play a role in cardioprotection and regulation of blood pressure. Recently, adverse reactions such as sudden heart attack and fatal myocardial infarction were reported among patients taking angiotensin II receptor blockers (ARBs). As some ARBs have affinity for these CYP enzymes, metabolic inhibition of AA by ARBs is a possible cause for the increase in cardiovascular events. In this study, we quantitatively investigated the inhibitory effects of ARBs on the formation of EETs and further metabolites, dihydroxyeicosatrienoic acids (DHETs), from AA via CYP2C8. In incubations with recombinant CYP2C8 in vitro, the inhibitory effects were compared by measuring EETs and DHETs by HPLC-MS/MS. Inhibition of AA metabolism by ARBs was detected in a concentration-dependent manner with IC50 values of losartan (42.7 µM), telmisartan (49.5 µM), irbesartan (55.6 µM), olmesartan (66.2 µM), candesartan (108 µM), and valsartan (279 µM). Losartan, telmisartan and irbesartan, which reportedly accumulate in the liver and kidneys, have stronger inhibitory effects than other ARBs. The lower concentration of EETs leads to less protective action on the cardiovascular system and a higher incidence of adverse effects such as sudden heart attack and myocardial infarction in patients taking ARBs. PMID:26632190

  1. Influence of Surface Preparation for Different Groups of A2B6 Mixed Crystals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zakrzewski, J.; Maliński, M.; Strzałkowski, K.; Firszt, F.; Łęgowski, S.; Męczyńska, H.

    2010-01-01

    Piezoelectric photothermal spectroscopy has been used for measurements of the optical and thermal parameters of semiconductors. The investigated crystals were grown by the high-pressure Bridgman method under argon overpressure. The obtained photoacoustic (PA) spectra show the complexity of the effects observed for the different groups of selected A2B6 crystals. These effects comprise ideal samples and samples with damaged surfaces. The spectra show the influence of the surface treatment on the PA amplitude and phase spectra.

  2. Cytochrome P450 Oxidoreductase Influences CYP2B6 Activity in Cyclophosphamide Bioactivation

    PubMed Central

    El-Serafi, Ibrahim; Afsharian, Parvaneh; Moshfegh, Ali; Hassan, Moustapha; Terelius, Ylva

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Cyclophosphamide is commonly used as an important component in conditioning prior to hematopoietic stem cell transplantation, a curative treatment for several hematological diseases. Cyclophosphamide is a prodrug activated mainly by cytochrome P450 2B6 (CYP2B6) in the liver. A high degree of inter- and intra-individual variation in cyclophosphamide kinetics has been reported in several studies. Materials and Methods Hydroxylation of cyclophosphamide was investigated in vitro using three microsomal batches of CYP2B6*1 with different ratios of POR/CYP expression levels. Twenty patients undergoing hematopoietic stem cell transplantation were also included in the study. All patients received an i.v. infusion of cyclophosphamide (60 mg/kg/day, for two days) as a part of their conditioning. Blood samples were collected from each patient before cyclophosphamide infusion, 6 h after the first dose and before and 6 h after the second dose. POR gene expression was measured by mRNA analysis and the pharmacokinetics of cyclophosphamide and its active metabolite were determined. Results A strong correlation between the in vitro intrinsic clearance of cyclophosphamide and the POR/CYP ratio was found. The apparent Km for CYP2B6.1 was almost constant (3-4 mM), while the CLint values were proportional to the POR/CYP ratio (3-34 μL/min/nmol CYP). In patients, the average expression of the POR gene in blood was significantly (P <0.001) up-regulated after cyclophosphamide infusion, with high inter-individual variations and significant correlation with the concentration ratio of the active metabolite 4-hydroxy-cyclophosphamide/cyclophosphamide. Nine patients were carriers for POR*28; four patients had relatively high POR expression. Conclusions This investigation shows for the first time that POR besides CYP2B6 can influence cyclophosphamide metabolism. Our results indicate that not only CYPs are important, but also POR expression and/or activity may influence

  3. Oxidative metabolism of BDE-99 by human liver microsomes: predominant role of CYP2B6.

    PubMed

    Erratico, Claudio A; Szeitz, András; Bandiera, Stelvio M

    2012-10-01

    Hydroxylated polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) have been found in human serum, suggesting that they are formed by in vivo oxidative metabolism of PBDEs. However, the biotransformation of 2,2',4,4',5-pentabromodiphenyl ether (BDE-99), a major PBDE detected in human tissue and environmental samples, is poorly understood. In the present study, the oxidative metabolism of BDE-99 was assessed using pooled and single-donor human liver microsomes, a panel of human recombinant cytochrome P450 (CYP) enzymes, and CYP-specific antibodies. Hydroxylated metabolites were quantified using a liquid chromatography/tandem mass spectrometry-based method. In total, 10 hydroxylated metabolites of BDE-99 were produced by human liver microsomes. Six metabolites were identified as 2,4,5-tribromophenol (2,4,5-TBP), 4-OH-BDE-90, 5'-OH-BDE-99, 6'-OH-BDE-99, 4'-OH-BDE-101, and 2-OH-BDE-123 using authentic standards. Three monohydroxy- and one dihydroxy-pentabrominated metabolites were unidentified. Rates of formation of the three major metabolites (2,4,5-TBP, 5'-OH-BDE-99, and 4'-OH-BDE-101) by human liver microsomes ranged from 24.4 to 44.8 pmol/min/mg protein. Additional experiments demonstrated that the dihydroxylated metabolite was a primary metabolite of BDE-99 and was not produced by hydroxylation of a monohydroxy metabolite. Among the panel of recombinant CYP enzymes tested, formation of all 10 hydroxylated metabolites was catalyzed solely by CYP2B6. A combined approach using antibodies to CYP2B6 and single-donor liver microsomes expressing a wide range of CYP2B6 levels confirmed that CYP2B6 was responsible for the biotransformation of BDE-99. Collectively, the results show that the oxidative metabolism of BDE-99 by human liver microsomes is catalyzed solely by CYP2B6 and is an important determinant of the toxicity and bioaccumulation of BDE-99 in humans. PMID:22738989

  4. Photoelectron Spectroscopy Study of [Ta2B6]-: a Hexagonal Bipyramdial Cluster

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jian, Tian; Li, Weili; Romanescu, Constantin; Wang, Lai-Sheng

    2014-06-01

    It has been a long-sought goal in cluster science to discover stable atomic clusters as building blocks for cluster-assembled nanomaterials, as exemplified by the fullerenes and their subsequent bulk syntheses.[1,2] Clusters have also been considered as models to understand bulk properties, providing a bridge between molecular and solid-state chemistry.[3] Herein we report a joint photoelectron spectroscopy and theoretical study on the [Ta2B6]- and [Ta2B6] clusters.[4] The photoelectron spectrum of [Ta2B6]- displays a simple spectral pattern and a large HOMO-LUMO gap, suggesting its high symmetry. Theoretical calculations show that both the neutral and anion are D6h pyramidal. The chemical bonding analyses for [Ta2B6] revealed the nature of the B6 and Ta interactions and uncovered strong covalent bonding between B6 and Ta. The D6h-[TaB6Ta] gaseous cluster is reminiscent of the structural pattern in the ReB6X6Re core in the [(Cp*Re)2B6H4Cl2] and the TiB6Ti motif in the newly synthesized Ti7Rh4Ir2B8 solid-state compound.[5,6] The current work provides an intrinsic link between a gaseous cluster and motifs for solid materials. Continued investigations of the transition-metal boron clusters may lead to the discovery of new structural motifs involving pure boron clusters for the design of novel boride materials. Reference [1] H.W. Kroto, J. R. Heath, S. C. OBrien, R. F. Curl, R. E. Smalley, Nature 1985, 318, 162 - 163. [2] W. Krtschmer, L. D. Lamb, K. Fostiropoulos, D. R. Huffman, Nature 1990, 347, 354 - 358. [3] T. P. Fehlner, J.-F. Halet, J.-Y. Saillard, Molecular Clusters: A Bridge to Solid-State Chemitry, Cambridge University Press, UK, 2007. [4] W. L. Li, L. Xie, T. Jian, C. Romanescu, X. Huang, L.-S. Wang, Angew. Chem. Int. Ed. 2014, 126, 1312 - 1316. [5] B. Le Guennic, H. Jiao, S. Kahlal, J.-Y. Saillard, J.-F. Halet, S. Ghosh, M. Shang, A. M. Beatty, A. L. Rheingold, T. P. Fehlner, J. Am. Chem. Soc. 2004, 126, 3203 - 3217. [6] B. P. T. Fokwa, M. Hermus, Angew

  5. Dehydroepiandrosterone Induces Human CYP2B6 through the Constitutive Androstane Receptor

    PubMed Central

    Kőhalmy, Krisztina; Tamási, Viola; Kóbori, László; Sárváry, Enikő; Pascussi, Jean-Marc; Porrogi, Pálma; Rozman, Damjana; Prough, Russell A.; Meyer, Urs A.; Monostory, Katalin

    2008-01-01

    Dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA), the major precursor of androgens and estrogens, has several beneficial effects on the immune system, on memory function, and in modulating the effects of diabetes, obesity, and chemical carcinogenesis. Treatment of rats with DHEA influences expression of cytochrome P450 (P450) genes, including peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor α (PPARα)- and pregnane X receptor (PXR)-mediated induction of CYP4As and CYP3A23, and suppression of CYP2C11. DHEA treatment elevated the expression and activities of CYP3A4, CYP2C9, CYP2C19, and CYP2B6 in primary cultures of human hepatocytes. Induction of CYP3A4 in human hepatocytes was consistent with studies in rats, but induction of CYP2Cs was unexpected. The role of PXR in this response was studied in transient transfection assays. DHEA activated hPXR in a concentration-dependent manner. Because CYP2B6 induction by DHEA in human hepatocytes might involve either PXR or constitutive androstane receptor (CAR) activation, we performed experiments in primary hepatocytes from CAR knockout mice and observed that CAR was required for maximal induction of Cyp2b10 by DHEA. Furthermore, CAR-mediated Cyp2b10 induction by DHEA was inhibited by the inverse agonist of CAR, androstanol (5α-androstan-3α-ol). Further evidence for CAR activation was provided by cytoplasmic/nuclear transfer of CAR upon DHEA treatment. Elucidation of CAR activation and subsequent induction of CYP2B6 by DHEA presented an additional mechanism by which the sterol can modify the expression of P450s. The effect of DHEA on the activation of the xenosensors PPARα, PXR, and CAR, and the consequent potential for adverse drug/toxicant interactions should be considered in humans treated with this nutriceutical agent. PMID:17591676

  6. Transcriptional Regulation of CYP2B6 Expression by Hepatocyte Nuclear Factor 3β in Human Liver Cells

    PubMed Central

    Li, Linhao; Li, Daochuan; Heyward, Scott; Wang, Hongbing

    2016-01-01

    CYP2B6 plays an increasingly important role in xenobiotic metabolism and detoxification. The constitutive androstane receptor (CAR) and the pregnane X receptor (PXR) have been established as predominant regulators for the inductive expression of CYP2B6 gene in human liver. However, there are dramatic interindividual variabilities in CYP2B6 expression that cannot be fully explained by the CAR/PXR-based modulation alone. Here, we show that expression level of CYP2B6 was correlated with that of hepatocyte nuclear factor 3β (HNF3β) in human primary hepatocytes prepared from 35 liver donors. Utilizing recombinant virus-mediated overexpression or knockdown of HNF3β in HepG2 cells, as well as constructs containing serial deletion and site-directed mutation of HNF3β binding motifs in CYP2B6 luciferase reporter assays, we demonstrated that the presence or lack of HNF3β expression markedly correlated with CYP2B6 gene expression and its promoter activity. Novel enhancer modules of HNF3β located upstream of the CYP2B6 gene transcription start site were identified and functionally validated as key elements governing HNF3β-mediated CYP2B6 expression. Chromatin immunoprecipitation assays in human primary hepatocytes and surface plasmon resonance binding affinity experiments confirmed the essential role of these enhancers in the recruitment of HNF3β to the promoter of CYP2B6 gene. Overall, these findings indicate that HNF3β represents a new liver enriched transcription factor that is involved in the transcription of CYP2B6 gene and contributes to the large interindividual variations of CYP2B6 expression in human population. PMID:26930610

  7. Photothermal Investigation of Surface Defects of Pure Semiconducting A2B6 Materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zakrzewski, J.; Maliński, M.; Strzałkowski, K.; Madaj, D.; Firszt, F.; Łęgowski, S.; Męczyńska, H.

    2012-04-01

    Photoacoustic spectroscopy is a sensitive and useful method to investigate the quality of semiconducting A2B6 crystals. An imperfection of surface quality can strongly influence photoacoustic spectra but it shows the different character for the different kinds of semiconducting materials. To properly interpret the amplitude and phase spectra, the temperature distribution and its modifications, due to the surface defects, are needed. The Blonskij model of the temperature distribution was used to investigate the influence of the defect on the amplitude and phase spectra.

  8. Characterization of CYP2B6 in a CYP2B6-Humanized Mouse Model: Inducibility in the Liver by Phenobarbital and Dexamethasone and Role in Nicotine Metabolism In Vivo

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Zhihua; Li, Lei; Wu, Hong; Hu, Jing; Ma, Jun; Zhang, Qing-Yu

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to further characterize the expression and function of human CYP2B6 in a recently generated CYP2A13/2B6/2F1-transgenic (TG) mouse model, in which CYP2B6 is expressed selectively in the liver. The inducibility of CYP2B6 by phenobarbital (PB) and dexamethasone (DEX), known inducers of CYP2B6 in human liver, was examined in the TG mice, as well as in TG/Cyp2abfgs-null (or “CYP2B6-humanized”) mice. Hepatic expression of CYP2B6 mRNA and protein was greatly induced by PB or DEX treatment in both TG and TG/Cyp2abfgs-null mice. Function of the transgenic CYP2B6 was first studied using bupropion as a probe substrate. In PB-treated mice, the rates of hepatic microsomal hydroxybupropion formation (at 50 μM bupropion) were >4-fold higher in TG/Cyp2abfgs-null than in Cyp2abfgs-null mice (for both male and female mice); the rate difference was accompanied by a 5-fold higher catalytic efficiency in the TG/Cyp2abfgs-null mice and was abolished by an antibody to CYP2B6. The ability of CYP2B6 to metabolize nicotine was then examined, both in vitro and in vivo. The rates of hepatic microsomal cotinine formation from nicotine were significantly higher in TG/Cyp2abfgs-null than in Cyp2abfgs-null mice, pretreated with PB or DEX. Furthermore, systemic nicotine metabolism was faster in TG/Cyp2abfgs-null than in Cyp2abfgs-null mice. Thus, the transgenic CYP2B6 was inducible and functional, and, in the absence of mouse CYP2A and CYP2B enzymes, it contributed to nicotine metabolism in vivo. The CYP2B6-humanized mouse will be valuable for studies on in vivo roles of hepatic CYP2B6 in xenobiotic metabolism and toxicity. PMID:25409894

  9. High-temperature Raman spectroscopic study of vanadoborate Na3VO2B6O11

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ji, Zhang; De-Ming, Zhang; Qing-Li, Zhang; Shao-Tang, Yin

    2016-03-01

    Raman spectra of a vanadoborate (Na3VO2B6O11) crystal from room temperature up to the melting point have been recorded. The main internal vibrational modes of the crystal have been assigned. It was found that all the Raman bands exhibit decreases in frequency and the widths of the Raman bands increase with the increase of temperature. However, no phase transition was observed under 525 °C. The micro-structure of its melt was studied by quantum chemistry ab initio calculation. The continuous three-dimensional network of the crystal collapsed and transformed into VO4 and VBO6 clusters during the melting process with an isomerization reaction from four-coordinated boron to a three-coordinated species. Project supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Grant Nos. 51302268 and 51102239) and the Natural Science Foundation of Anhui Province, China (Grant No. KJ2015A339).

  10. Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor alpha, PPARα, directly regulates transcription of cytochrome P450 CYP2C8

    PubMed Central

    Thomas, Maria; Winter, Stefan; Klumpp, Britta; Turpeinen, Miia; Klein, Kathrin; Schwab, Matthias; Zanger, Ulrich M.

    2015-01-01

    The cytochrome P450, CYP2C8, metabolizes more than 60 clinically used drugs as well as endogenous substances including retinoic acid and arachidonic acid. However, predictive factors for interindividual variability in the efficacy and toxicity of CYP2C8 drug substrates are essentially lacking. Recently we demonstrated that peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor alpha (PPARα), a nuclear receptor primarily involved in control of lipid and energy homeostasis directly regulates the transcription of CYP3A4. Here we investigated the potential regulation of CYP2C8 by PPARα. Two linked intronic SNPs in PPARα (rs4253728, rs4823613) previously associated with hepatic CYP3A4 status showed significant association with CYP2C8 protein level in human liver samples (N = 150). Furthermore, siRNA-mediated knock-down of PPARα in HepaRG human hepatocyte cells resulted in up to ∼60 and ∼50% downregulation of CYP2C8 mRNA and activity, while treatment with the PPARα agonist WY14,643 lead to an induction by >150 and >100%, respectively. Using chromatin immunoprecipitation scanning assay we identified a specific upstream gene region that is occupied in vivo by PPARα. Electromobility shift assay demonstrated direct binding of PPARα to a DR-1 motif located at positions –2762/–2775 bp upstream of the CYP2C8 transcription start site. We further validated the functional activity of this element using luciferase reporter gene assays in HuH7 cells. Moreover, based on our previous studies we demonstrated that WNT/β-catenin acts as a functional inhibitor of PPARα-mediated inducibility of CYP2C8 expression. In conclusion, our data suggest direct involvement of PPARα in both constitutive and inducible regulation of CYP2C8 expression in human liver, which is further modulated by WNT/β-catenin pathway. PPARA gene polymorphism could have a modest influence on CYP2C8 phenotype. PMID:26582990

  11. Rifampin enhances cytochrome P450 (CYP) 2B6-mediated efavirenz 8-hydroxylation in healthy volunteers

    PubMed Central

    Cho, Doo-Yeoun; Shen, Joan H.Q.; Lemler, Suzanne M.; Skaar, Todd C; Li, Lang; Blievernicht, Julia; Zanger, Ulrich M.; Kim, Kwon-Bok; Shin, Jae-Gook; Flockhart, David A.; Desta, Zeruesenay

    2016-01-01

    The effect of rifampin on the in vivo metabolism of the antiretroviral drug efavirenz was evaluated in healthy volunteers. In a cross-over placebo control trial, healthy subjects (n = 20) were administered a single 600 mg oral dose of efavirenz after pretreatment with placebo or rifampin (600 mg/day for 10 days). Plasma and urine concentrations of efavirenz, 8-hydroxyefavirenz and 8,14-dihydroxyefavirenz were measured by LC–MS/MS. Compared to placebo treatment, rifampin increased the oral clearance (by ~2.5-fold) and decreased maximum plasma concentration (Cmax) and area under the plasma concentration–time curve (AUC0–∞) of efavirenz (by ~1.6- and ~2.5-fold respectively) (p < 0.001). Rifampin treatment substantially increased the Cmax and AUC0–12h of 8-hydroxyefavirenz and 8,14-dihydroxyefavirenz, metabolic ratio (AUC0–72h of metabolites to AUC0–72h efavirenz) and the amount of metabolites excreted in urine (Ae0–12hr) (all, p < 0.01). Female subjects had longer elimination half-life (1.6–2.2-fold) and larger weight-adjusted distribution volume (1.6– 1.9-fold) of efavirenz than male subjects (p < 0.05) in placebo and rifampin treated groups respectively. In conclusion, rifampin enhances CYP2B6-mediated efavirenz 8-hydroxylation in vivo. The metabolism of a single oral dose of efavirenz may be a suitable in vivo marker of CYP2B6 activity to evaluate induction drug interactions involving this enzyme. PMID:27053325

  12. Cost–effectiveness of CYP2B6 genotyping to optimize efavirenz dosing in HIV clinical practice

    PubMed Central

    Schackman, Bruce R; Haas, David W; Park, Sanghee S; Li, X Cynthia; Freedberg, Kenneth A

    2016-01-01

    Aims To assess the cost–effectiveness of CYP2B6 genotyping to guide efavirenz dosing for initial HIV therapy in the USA. Methods We used the Cost–Effectiveness of Preventing AIDS Complications (CEPAC) microsimulation model to project quality-adjusted life expectancy and lifetime costs (2014 US dollars) for efavirenz-based HIV therapy with or without CYP2B6 genotyping. We assumed that with genotyping 60% of patients would be eligible to receive lower doses. Results Current care without CYP2B6 genotyping has an incremental cost–effectiveness ratio >$100,000/QALY compared with genotype-guided dosing, even if lower dosing reduces efficacy. When we assumed generic efavirenz availability, conclusions were similar unless lower dosing reduces efficacy by 6% or more. Conclusion CYP2B6 genotyping can inform efavirenz dosing and decrease HIV therapy cost. PMID:26607811

  13. CYP2C8 Is a Novel Target of Peroxisome Proliferator-Activated Receptor α in Human Liver.

    PubMed

    Makia, Ngome L; Goldstein, Joyce A

    2016-01-01

    Human cytochrome P450 (CYP) 2C enzymes metabolize ∼30% of clinically prescribed drugs and various environmental chemicals. CYP2C8, an important member of this subfamily, metabolizes the anticancer drug paclitaxel, certain antidiabetic drugs, and endogenous substrates, including arachidonic acid, to physiologically active epoxyeicosatrienoic acids. Previous studies from our laboratory showed that microRNA 107 (miR107) and microRNA 103 downregulate CYP2C8 post-transcriptionally. miR107 is located in intron 5 of the pantothenate kinase 1 (PANK1) gene. p53 has been reported to coregulate the induction of PANK1 and miR107. Here, we examine the possible downregulation of CYP2C8 by drugs capable of inducing miR107. Hypolipidemic drugs, such as bezafibrate, known activators of the peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor α (PPARα), induce both the PANK1 gene and miR107 (∼2.5-fold) in primary human hepatocytes. Surprisingly, CYP2C8 mRNA and protein levels were induced by bezafibrate. CYP2C8 promoter activity was increased by ectopic expression of PPARα in HepG2 cells, with a further increase after bezafibrate (∼18-fold), 4-chloro-6-(2,3-xylidino)-2-pyrimidinylthio acetic acid (∼10-fold) treatment, or the antidiabetic drug rosiglitazone, all known PPAR activators. Promoter sequence analyses, deletion studies, mutagenesis studies, and electrophoretic mobility shift assays identified a PPARα response element located at position -2109 base pair relative to the translation start site of CYP2C8. Chromatin immunopreciptation assay analysis confirmed recruitment of PPARα to this PPARα response element after bezafibrate treatment of human hepatocytes. Thus, we show for the first time that CYP2C8 is transcriptionally regulated by PPARα, suggesting the potential for drug-drug interactions due to upregulation of CYP2C8 by PPAR activators. PMID:26467040

  14. CYP2C8 Is a Novel Target of Peroxisome Proliferator-Activated Receptor α in Human Liver

    PubMed Central

    Makia, Ngome L.

    2016-01-01

    Human cytochrome P450 (CYP) 2C enzymes metabolize ∼30% of clinically prescribed drugs and various environmental chemicals. CYP2C8, an important member of this subfamily, metabolizes the anticancer drug paclitaxel, certain antidiabetic drugs, and endogenous substrates, including arachidonic acid, to physiologically active epoxyeicosatrienoic acids. Previous studies from our laboratory showed that microRNA 107 (miR107) and microRNA 103 downregulate CYP2C8 post-transcriptionally. miR107 is located in intron 5 of the pantothenate kinase 1 (PANK1) gene. p53 has been reported to coregulate the induction of PANK1 and miR107. Here, we examine the possible downregulation of CYP2C8 by drugs capable of inducing miR107. Hypolipidemic drugs, such as bezafibrate, known activators of the peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor α (PPARα), induce both the PANK1 gene and miR107 (∼2.5-fold) in primary human hepatocytes. Surprisingly, CYP2C8 mRNA and protein levels were induced by bezafibrate. CYP2C8 promoter activity was increased by ectopic expression of PPARα in HepG2 cells, with a further increase after bezafibrate (∼18-fold), 4-chloro-6-(2,3-xylidino)-2-pyrimidinylthio acetic acid (∼10-fold) treatment, or the antidiabetic drug rosiglitazone, all known PPAR activators. Promoter sequence analyses, deletion studies, mutagenesis studies, and electrophoretic mobility shift assays identified a PPARα response element located at position −2109 base pair relative to the translation start site of CYP2C8. Chromatin immunopreciptation assay analysis confirmed recruitment of PPARα to this PPARα response element after bezafibrate treatment of human hepatocytes. Thus, we show for the first time that CYP2C8 is transcriptionally regulated by PPARα, suggesting the potential for drug-drug interactions due to upregulation of CYP2C8 by PPAR activators. PMID:26467040

  15. CYP2B6rs2279343 Is Associated with Improved Survival of Pediatric Rhabdomyosarcoma Treated with Cyclophosphamide

    PubMed Central

    A. Abdelrahim, Mohamed E.; Elnadi, Enas; Hesham, Reem M.; Yassin, Dina

    2016-01-01

    Background Rhabdomyosarcoma (RMS) is a small round blue cell malignant tumor, representing 7% of childhood malignancies, and over 50% of all soft tissue sarcomas. Cyclophosphamide (CPA) is a prodrug and is the mainstay of RMS treatment. CYP2B6 is a highly polymorphic drug metabolizing enzyme involved in CPA bioactivation. The influence of CYP2B6 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) on the survival of RMS is still unknown. Methods We genotyped CYP2B6SNPs rs2279343, rs3745274, and rs3211371 by restriction fragment polymorphism (RFLP) after PCR amplification in a cohort of 73 pediatric RMS patients treated with CPA-based first line treatment. We then analyzed the association between those genotypes and survival outcome of RMS. Results The frequencies of CYP2B6 rs2279343, rs3745274, and rs3211371 were 63%, 45.2%, and 5.5%, respectively. There was no association between rs3745274, rs3211371 genotypes and survival outcomes of RMS. However, the carriers of at least one mutant allele CYP2B6rs2279343 had significantly longer event-free survival (p-value = 0.03). Conclusion Our results demonstrated that CYP2B6 rs2279343 may predict EFS in RMS patients and warrants future studies to clarify the pharmacogenetics of CPA in pediatrics. If validated, integration of genetic factors with clinical and molecular characteristics could be used for a composite algorithm to better stratify risk prior to treatment. PMID:27388155

  16. Influence of CYP2B6 and CYP2C19 polymorphisms on sertraline metabolism in major depression patients.

    PubMed

    Yuce-Artun, Nazan; Baskak, Bora; Ozel-Kizil, Erguvan Tugba; Ozdemir, Hatice; Uckun, Zuhal; Devrimci-Ozguven, Halise; Suzen, Halit Sinan

    2016-04-01

    Background Genetic polymorphisms in CYP2B6 and CYP2C19 may cause variability in the metabolism of sertraline, a widely used antidepressant in major depressive disorder treatment. Objective This study investigates the impact of CYP2B6*4 (785A > G), CYP2B6*9 (516G > T), CYP2B6*6 (516G > T + 685G > A) CYP2C19*2 (685G > A), CYP2C19*17 (-3402C > T) polymorphisms on plasma concentrations of sertraline and N-desmethyl sertraline in major depression patients treated with sertraline [n = 50]. Setting Participants were patients who admitted to an adult psychiatry outpatient unit at a university hospital. These were DSM-IV major depression diagnosed patients with a stable sertraline medication regimen [for at least one month]. Methods CYP2B6*4 (rs 2279343; 785A > G), CYP2B6*9 (516G > T; rs 3745274), CYP2B6*6 (516G > T + 685G > A) CYP2C19*2 (rs 4244285; 685G > A), CYP2C19*17 (rs 11188072; -3402C > T), polymorphisms were analyzed by polymerase chain reaction and restriction fragment length polymorphism. Plasma concentrations were measured by high-performance liquid chromatography in patients treated with SERT. Main outcome measure The distribution of CYP2B6*4, *6, *9 and CYP2C19*2, *17 among patient group and the association between genotype and sertraline metabolism. Results Sertraline, N-desmethyl sertraline, N-desmethyl sertraline/sertraline and dose-adjusted plasma concentrations were statistically compared between individuals with wild-type and variant alleles both for CYP2B6 and CYP2C19 enzymes. The mean N-desmethyl sertraline/sertraline value, was significantly lower in all subgroups with *6 and *9 variant alleles (p < 0.05). Sertraline/C values were significantly higher (p <  0.05) and N-desmethyl sertraline/C values were lower in all subgroups with *6 and *9 variant alleles compared to wild-type subgroup. Conclusion CYP2B6*6 and *9 variant alleles had a significant decreasing effect on sertraline metabolism in major depression

  17. Bonding in Complexes of Bis(pentalene)dititanium, Ti2(C8H6)2

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Bonding in the bis(pentalene)dititanium “double-sandwich” species Ti2Pn2 (Pn = C8H6) and its interaction with other fragments have been investigated by density functional calculations and fragment analysis. Ti2Pn2 with C2v symmetry has two metal–metal bonds and a low-lying metal-based empty orbital, all three frontier orbitals having a1 symmetry. The latter may be regarded as being derived by symmetric combinations of the classic three frontier orbitals of two bent bis(cyclopentadienyl) metal fragments. Electrochemical studies on Ti2Pn†2 (Pn† = 1,4-{SiiPr3}2C8H4) revealed a one-electron oxidation, and the formally mixed-valence Ti(II)–Ti(III) cationic complex [Ti2Pn†2][B(C6F5)4] has been structurally characterized. Theory indicates an S = 1/2 ground-state electronic configuration for the latter, which was confirmed by EPR spectroscopy and SQUID magnetometry. Carbon dioxide binds symmetrically to Ti2Pn2, preserving the C2v symmetry, as does carbon disulfide. The dominant interaction in Ti2Pn2CO2 is σ donation into the LUMO of bent CO2, and donation from the O atoms to Ti2Pn2 is minimal, whereas in Ti2Pn2CS2 there is significant interaction with the S atoms. The bridging O atom in the mono(oxo) species Ti2Pn2O, however, employs all three O 2p orbitals in binding and competes strongly with Pn, leading to weaker binding of the carbocyclic ligand, and the sulfur analogue Ti2Pn2S behaves similarly. Ti2Pn2 is also capable of binding one, two, or three molecules of carbon monoxide. The bonding demands of a single CO molecule are incompatible with symmetric binding, and an asymmetric structure is found. The dicarbonyl adduct Ti2Pn2(CO)2 has Cs symmetry with the Ti2Pn2 unit acting as two MCp2 fragments. Synthetic studies showed that in the presence of excess CO the tricarbonyl complex Ti2Pn†2(CO)3 is formed, which optimizes to an asymmetric structure with one semibridging and two terminal CO ligands. Low-temperature 13C NMR spectroscopy revealed a rapid

  18. Inhibitory effect of six herbal extracts on CYP2C8 enzyme activity in human liver microsomes.

    PubMed

    Albassam, Ahmed A; Mohamed, Mohamed-Eslam F; Frye, Reginald F

    2015-05-01

    1. Herbal supplements widely used in the US were screened for the potential to inhibit CYP2C8 activity in human liver microsomes. The herbal extracts screened were garlic, echinacea, saw palmetto, valerian, black cohosh and cranberry. N-desethylamodiaquine (DEAQ) and hydroxypioglitazone metabolite formation were used as indices of CYP2C8 activity. 2. All herbal extracts showed inhibition of CYP2C8 activity for at least one of three concentrations tested. A volume per dose index (VDI) was calculated to determine the volume in which a dose should be diluted to obtain IC50 equivalent concentration. Cranberry and saw palmetto had a VDI value > 5.0 l per dose unit, suggesting a potential for interaction. 3. Inhibition curves were constructed and the IC50 (mean ± SE) values were 24.7 ± 2.7 μg/ml for cranberry and 15.4 ± 1.7 μg/ml for saw palmetto. 4. The results suggest a potential for cranberry or saw palmetto extracts to inhibit CYP2C8 activity. Clinical studies are needed to evaluate the significance of this interaction. PMID:25430798

  19. Cytochrome P450 2C8*2 allele in Botswana: Human genetic diversity and public health implications.

    PubMed

    Motshoge, Thato; Tawe, Leabaneng; Muthoga, Charles Waithaka; Allotey, Joel; Romano, Rita; Quaye, Isaac; Paganotti, Giacomo Maria

    2016-05-01

    Human cytochrome P450 2C8 is a highly polymorphic gene and shows variation according to ethnicity. The CYP2C8*2 is a slow drug metabolism allele and shows 10-24% frequency in Black populations. The objective of this study was to assess the prevalence of CYP2C8*2 allele in Botswana among the San (or Bushmen) and the Bantu ethnic groups. For that purpose we recruited 544 children of the two ethnicities in three districts of Botswana from primary schools, collected blood samples, extracted DNA and genotyped them through PCR-based restriction fragment length polymorphism analysis. The results demonstrated that in the San the prevalence of the CYP2C8*2 allele is significantly higher than among the Bantu-related ethnic groups (17.5% and 8.5% for San and Bantu, respectively; P=0.00002). These findings support the evidence of a different genetic background of the San with respect to Bantu-related populations, and highlight a possible higher risk of longer drug clearance or poor level of activation of pro-drugs among the San group. PMID:26836270

  20. Endosulfan induces CYP2B6 and CYP3A4 by activating the pregnane X receptor.

    PubMed

    Casabar, Richard C T; Das, Parikshit C; Dekrey, Gregory K; Gardiner, Catherine S; Cao, Yan; Rose, Randy L; Wallace, Andrew D

    2010-06-15

    Endosulfan is an organochlorine pesticide commonly used in agriculture. Endosulfan has affects on vertebrate xenobiotic metabolism pathways that may be mediated, in part, by its ability to activate the pregnane X receptor (PXR) and/or the constitutive androstane receptor (CAR) which can elevate expression of cytochrome P450 (CYP) enzymes. This study examined the dose-dependency and receptor specificity of CYP induction in vitro and in vivo. The HepG2 cell line was transiently transfected with CYP2B6- and CYP3A4-luciferase promoter reporter plasmids along with human PXR (hPXR) or hCAR expression vectors. In the presence of hPXR, endosulfan-alpha exposure caused significant induction of CYP2B6 (16-fold) and CYP3A4 (11-fold) promoter activities over control at 10 microM. The metabolite endosulfan sulfate also induced CYP2B6 (12-fold) and CYP3A4 (6-fold) promoter activities over control at 10 microM. In the presence of hCAR-3, endosulfan-alpha induced CYP2B6 (2-fold) promoter activity at 10 microM, but not at lower concentrations. These data indicate that endosulfan-alpha significantly activates hPXR strongly and hCAR weakly. Using western blot analysis of human hepatocytes, the lowest concentrations at which CYP2B6 and CYP3A4 protein levels were found to be significantly elevated by endosulfan-alpha were 1.0 microM and 10 microM, respectively. In mPXR-null/hPXR-transgenic mice, endosulfan-alpha exposure (2.5mg/kg/day) caused a significant reduction of tribromoethanol-induced sleep times by approximately 50%, whereas no significant change in sleep times was observed in PXR-null mice. These data support the role of endosulfan-alpha as a strong activator of PXR and inducer of CYP2B6 and CYP3A4, which may impact metabolism of CYP2B6 or CYP3A4 substrates. PMID:20361990

  1. Endosulfan induces CYP2B6 and CYP3A4 by activating the pregnane X receptor

    SciTech Connect

    Casabar, Richard C.T.; Das, Parikshit C.; DeKrey, Gregory K.; Gardiner, Catherine S.; Cao Yan; Rose, Randy L.; Wallace, Andrew D.

    2010-06-15

    Endosulfan is an organochlorine pesticide commonly used in agriculture. Endosulfan has affects on vertebrate xenobiotic metabolism pathways that may be mediated, in part, by its ability to activate the pregnane X receptor (PXR) and/or the constitutive androstane receptor (CAR) which can elevate expression of cytochrome P450 (CYP) enzymes. This study examined the dose-dependency and receptor specificity of CYP induction in vitro and in vivo. The HepG2 cell line was transiently transfected with CYP2B6- and CYP3A4-luciferase promoter reporter plasmids along with human PXR (hPXR) or hCAR expression vectors. In the presence of hPXR, endosulfan-alpha exposure caused significant induction of CYP2B6 (16-fold) and CYP3A4 (11-fold) promoter activities over control at 10 {mu}M. The metabolite endosulfan sulfate also induced CYP2B6 (12-fold) and CYP3A4 (6-fold) promoter activities over control at 10 {mu}M. In the presence of hCAR-3, endosulfan-alpha induced CYP2B6 (2-fold) promoter activity at 10 {mu}M, but not at lower concentrations. These data indicate that endosulfan-alpha significantly activates hPXR strongly and hCAR weakly. Using western blot analysis of human hepatocytes, the lowest concentrations at which CYP2B6 and CYP3A4 protein levels were found to be significantly elevated by endosulfan-alpha were 1.0 {mu}M and 10 {mu}M, respectively. In mPXR-null/hPXR-transgenic mice, endosulfan-alpha exposure (2.5 mg/kg/day) caused a significant reduction of tribromoethanol-induced sleep times by approximately 50%, whereas no significant change in sleep times was observed in PXR-null mice. These data support the role of endosulfan-alpha as a strong activator of PXR and inducer of CYP2B6 and CYP3A4, which may impact metabolism of CYP2B6 or CYP3A4 substrates.

  2. Mechanisms of interaction between persistent organic pollutants (POPs) and CYP2B6: An in silico approach.

    PubMed

    Maldonado-Rojas, Wilson; Rivera-Julio, Karen; Olivero-Verbel, Jesus; Aga, Diana S

    2016-09-01

    Human Cytochrome P450s (CYP450) are a group of heme-containing metalloenzymes responsible for recognition and metabolism of numerous xenobiotics, including drugs and environmental contaminants. CYP2B6, a member of CYP450, is well known for being a highly inducible and polymorphic enzyme and for its important role in the oxidative metabolism of environmental pollutants, such as the Polybrominated Diphenyl Ethers (PBDEs) and Polychlorinated Biphenyls (PCBs). However the mechanisms of interaction of PBDEs and PCBs with CYP2B6 is not entirely known. In this work, a computational approach was carried out to study the interactions of 41 POPs (17 PBDEs, 17 PCBs, and 7 Dioxins) with four CYP2B6 protein structures downloaded from PDB data base (PDB: 3UA5, 3QOA, 3QU8 and 4I91) using molecular docking protocols with AutoDock Vina. The best binding affinity values (kcal/mol) were obtained for PBDE-99 (-8.5), PCB-187 (-9.6), and octachloro-dibenzo-dioxin (-9.8) that can be attributed to the hydrophobic interactions with important residues, such as Phe-363, in the catalytic site of CYP2B6. Molecular docking validation revealed the best values for PDB: 3UA5 (R = 0.622, p = 0.001) demonstrating the reliability of molecular docking predictions. The information obtained in this work can be useful in evaluating the modes of interaction of xenobiotic compounds with the catalytic site of CYP2B6 and provide insights on the important role of these enzymes in the metabolism of potentially toxic compounds in humans. PMID:27281544

  3. Underlying genetic structure impacts the association between CYP2B6 polymorphisms and response to efavirenz and nevirapine

    PubMed Central

    Frasco, Melissa A.; Mack, Wendy J.; Van Den Berg, David; Aouizerat, Bradley E.; Anastos, Kathryn; Cohen, Mardge; Dehovitz, Jack; Golub, Elizabeth T.; Greenblatt, Ruth M.; Liu, Chenglong; Conti, David V.; Pearce, Celeste Leigh

    2014-01-01

    Objective CYP2B6 variation predicts pharmacokinetic characteristics of its substrates. Consideration for underlying genetic structure is critical to protect against spurious associations with the highly polymorphic CYP2B6 gene. Design The effect of CYP2B6 variation on response to its substrates, nonnucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors (NNRTIs), was explored in the Women's Interagency HIV Study. Methods Five putative functional polymorphisms were tested for associations with virologic suppression within one year after NNRTI initiation in women naïve to antiretroviral agents (n=91). Principal components (PCs) were generated to control for population substructure. Logistic regression was used to test the joint effect of rs3745274 and rs28399499, which together indicate slow, intermediate, and extensive metabolizers. Results Rs3745274 was significantly associated with virologic suppression (OR=3.61, 95% CI 1.16-11.22, p trend=0.03); the remaining polymorphisms tested were not significantly associated with response. Women classified as intermediate and slow metabolizers were 2.90 (95% CI 0.79-12.28) and 13.44 (95% CI 1.66-infinity) times as likely to achieve virologic suppression compared to extensive metabolizers after adjustment for PCs (p trend=0.005). Failure to control for genetic ancestry resulted in substantial confounding of the relationship between the metabolizer phenotype and treatment response. Conclusion The CYP2B6 metabolizer phenotype was significantly associated with virologic response to NNRTIs; this relationship would have been masked by simple adjustment for self-reported ethnicity. Given the appreciable genetic heterogeneity that exists within self-reported ethnicity, these results exemplify the importance of characterizing underlying genetic structure in pharmacogenetic studies. Further follow-up of the CYP2B6 metabolizer phenotype is warranted given the potential clinical importance of this finding. PMID:22951632

  4. Developmental Expression of CYP2B6: A Comprehensive Analysis of mRNA Expression, Protein Content and Bupropion Hydroxylase Activity and the Impact of Genetic Variation.

    PubMed

    Pearce, Robin E; Gaedigk, Roger; Twist, Greyson P; Dai, Hongying; Riffel, Amanda K; Leeder, J Steven; Gaedigk, Andrea

    2016-07-01

    Although CYP2B6 catalyzes the biotransformation of many drugs used clinically for children and adults, information regarding the effects of development on CYP2B6 expression and activity are scarce. Utilizing a large panel of human liver samples (201 donors: 24 fetal, 141 pediatric, and 36 adult), we quantified CYP2B6 mRNA and protein expression levels, characterized CYP2B6 (bupropion hydroxylase) activity in human liver microsomes (HLMs), and performed an extensive genotype analysis to differentiate CYP2B6 haplotypes such that the impact of genetic variation on these parameters could be assessed. Fetal livers contained extremely low levels of CYP2B6 mRNA relative to postnatal samples and fetal HLMs did not appear to catalyze bupropion hydroxylation; however, fetal CYP2B6 protein levels were not significantly different from postnatal levels. Considerable interindividual variation in CYP2B6 mRNA expression, protein levels, and activity was observed in postnatal HLMs (mRNA, ∼40,000-fold; protein, ∼300-fold; activity, ∼600-fold). The extremely wide range of interindividual variability in CYP2B6 expression and activity was significantly associated with age (P < 0.01) following log transformation of the data. Our data suggest that CYP2B6 activity appears as early as the first day of life, increases through infancy, and by 1 year of age, CYP2B6 levels and activity may approach those of adults. Surprisingly, CYP2B6 interindividual variability was not significantly associated with genetic variation in CYP2B6, nor was it associated with differences in gender or ethnicity, suggesting that factors other than these are largely responsible for the wide range of variability in CYP2B6 expression and activity observed among a large group of individuals/samples. PMID:26608082

  5. The Effect of Ritonavir on Human CYP2B6 Catalytic Activity: Heme Modification Contributes to the Mechanism-Based Inactivation of CYP2B6 and CYP3A4 by Ritonavir

    PubMed Central

    Lin, Hsia-lien; D’Agostino, Jaime; Kenaan, Cesar; Calinski, Diane

    2013-01-01

    The mechanism-based inactivation of human CYP2B6 by ritonavir (RTV) in a reconstituted system was investigated. The inactivation is time, concentration, and NADPH dependent and exhibits a KI of 0.9 μM, a kinact of 0.05 min−1, and a partition ratio of approximately 3. Liquid chromatography–tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) analysis showed that the protonated molecular ion of RTV exhibits an m/z at 721 and its two major metabolites are an oxidation product with MH+ at m/z 737 and a deacylated product with MH+ at m/z 580. Inactivation of CYP2B6 by incubation with 10 μM RTV for 10 min resulted in an approximately 50% loss of catalytic activity and native heme, but no modification of the apoprotein was observed. RTV was found to be a potent mixed-type reversible inhibitor (Ki = 0.33 μM) and a type II ligand (spectral dissociation constant-Ks = 0.85 μM) of CYP2B6. Although previous studies have demonstrated that RTV is a potent mechanism-based inactivator of CYP3A4, the molecular mechanism responsible for the inactivation has not been determined. Here, we provide evidence that RTV inactivation of CYP3A4 is due to heme destruction with the formation of a heme-protein adduct. Similar to CYP2B6, there is no significant modification of the apoprotein. Furthermore, LC-MS/MS analysis revealed that both CYP3A4 and human liver microsomes form an RTV-glutathione conjugate having a MH+ at m/z 858 during metabolism of RTV, suggesting the formation of an isocyanate intermediate leading to formation of the conjugate. PMID:23886699

  6. Drug metabolism by CYP2C8.3 is determined by substrate dependent interactions with cytochrome P450 reductase and cytochrome b5.

    PubMed

    Kaspera, Rüdiger; Naraharisetti, Suresh B; Evangelista, Eric A; Marciante, Kristin D; Psaty, Bruce M; Totah, Rheem A

    2011-09-15

    Genetic polymorphisms in CYP2C8 can influence the metabolism of important therapeutic agents and cause interindividual variation in drug response and toxicity. The significance of the variant CYP2C8*3 has been controversial with reports of higher in vivo but lower in vitro activity compared to CYP2C8*1. In this study, the contribution of the redox partners cytochrome P450 reductase (CPR) and cytochrome b5 to the substrate dependent activity of CYP2C8.3 (R139K, K399R) was investigated in human liver microsomes (HLMs) and Escherichia coli expressed recombinant CYP2C8 proteins using amodiaquine, paclitaxel, rosiglitazone and cerivastatin as probe substrates. For recombinant CYP2C8.3, clearance values were two- to five-fold higher compared to CYP2C8.1. CYP2C8.3's higher k(cat) seems to be dominated by a higher, but substrate specific affinity, towards cytochrome b5 and CPR (K(D) and K(m,red)) which resulted in increased reaction coupling. A stronger binding affinity of ligands to CYP2C8.3, based on a two site binding model, in conjunction with a five fold increase in amplitude of heme spin change during binding of ligands and redox partners could potentially contribute to a higher k(cat). In HLMs, carriers of the CYP2C8*1/*3 genotype were as active as CYP2C8*1/*1 towards the CYP2C8 specific reaction amodiaquine N-deethylation. Large excess of cytochrome b5 compared to CYP2C8 in recombinant systems and HLMs inhibited metabolic clearance, diminishing the difference in k(cat) between the two enzymes, and may provide an explanation for the discrepancy to in vivo data. In silico studies illustrate the genetic differences between wild type and variant on the molecular level. PMID:21726541

  7. Direct retroviral delivery of human cytochrome P450 2B6 for gene-directed enzyme prodrug therapy of cancer.

    PubMed

    Kan, O; Griffiths, L; Baban, D; Iqball, S; Uden, M; Spearman, H; Slingsby, J; Price, T; Esapa, M; Kingsman, S; Kingsman, A; Slade, A; Naylor, S

    2001-07-01

    Human cytochrome P450 2B6 (CYP2B6) metabolizes the prodrug cyclophosphamide (CPA) to produce phosphoramide mustard that cross-links DNA leading to cell death. We have constructed a novel retroviral vector encoding CYP2B6 (designated "MetXia-P450") and used it to transduce the human tumor cell lines HT29 and T47D. MetXia-P450 transduction sensitised these cells to the cytotoxic effects of the prodrug CPA. Results from in vitro experiments demonstrated adverse effects on the clonogenic survival of cyclophosphamide-treated cells transduced with MetXia-P450. Cytotoxic activity accompanied by bystander effect was particularly evident in 3-D multicellular spheroid models suggesting that this in vitro system may be a more appropriate model for assessing the efficacy of gene directed-enzyme prodrug therapy (GDEPT). We have applied this approach in a clinically relevant gene therapy protocol on established subcutaneous tumor xenografts. These studies show for the first time the efficacy of a P450-based GDEPT strategy mediated by a direct retroviral gene transfer in vivo. PMID:11498768

  8. Decreased susceptibility of the cytochrome P450 2B6 variant K262R to inhibition by several clinically important drugs.

    PubMed

    Talakad, Jyothi C; Kumar, Santosh; Halpert, James R

    2009-03-01

    Cytochrome P450 (P450) 2B6 metabolizes a number of clinically relevant drugs and is one of the most highly polymorphic human P450 enzymes, with the Lys(262)-->Arg substitution being especially common in several genetic variants. Therefore, K262R (2B6*4) was created in the CYP2B6dH background (N-terminal-modified and C-terminal His-tagged) and expressed in Escherichia coli. The recombinant CYP2B6dH and K262R were purified and studied to investigate the effect of the Lys(262)-->Arg substitution with six of the most potent drug inhibitors of CYP2B6, namely, clopidogrel, clotrimazole, itraconazole, raloxifene, sertraline, and ticlopidine. K262R showed a >3-fold increase in the K(i) values with clopidogrel, itraconazole, and raloxifene and approximately 6-fold increase in K(i) with sertraline compared with CYP2B6dH. Likewise, K262R showed 2-, 4-, and >20-fold higher K(s) values than CYP2B6dH with clopidogrel, sertraline, and itraconazole, respectively. In contrast, when tested with several known type II inhibitors of CYP2B enzymes, K262R showed a 10-fold lower IC(50) with 4-(phenyl)pyridine and approximately 2-fold lower IC(50) with 4-(4-nitrobenzyl)pyridine or 1-(4-phenyl)benzylimidazole than CYP2B6dH. Subsequent analysis predicted possible in vivo drug-drug interactions between the CYP2B6 substrate efavirenz and drug inhibitors clopidogrel, clotrimazole, itraconazole, sertraline, and ticlopidine. Furthermore, Q172H/K262R (2B6*6), which is the most common genetic variant of CYP2B6 harboring K262R, was created in CYP2B6dH, expressed, purified, and characterized for inhibition. Q172H/K262R showed a >6-fold increase in K(i) with sertraline and clopidogrel compared with CYP2B6dH. The results suggest that individuals, especially homozygotes, with the 2B6*4 or 2B6*6 allele might be less susceptible to drug interactions resulting from P450 inhibition. PMID:19074527

  9. MicroRNA hsa-miR-25-3p suppresses the expression and drug induction of CYP2B6 in human hepatocytes.

    PubMed

    Jin, Yaqiong; Yu, Dianke; Tolleson, William H; Knox, Bridgett; Wang, Yong; Chen, Si; Ren, Zhen; Deng, Helen; Guo, Yongli; Ning, Baitang

    2016-08-01

    Cytochrome P450 2B6 (CYP2B6), mainly expressed in the liver and brain, is important for processing a number of widely used drugs. Variations in CYP2B6 expression are associated with decreased drug efficacy or adverse effects in some patients. Although CYP2B6 genetic variants are associated with its differential expression, epigenetic mechanisms affecting CYP2B6 gene regulation have not been established. Sequence analysis identified 29 domains in the CYP2B6 mRNA transcript that could be subject to regulation by microRNAs. Inverse correlations were found in human hepatocytes for the levels of the microRNAs hsa-miR-504-5p and hsa-miR-25-3p compared with CYP2B6 mRNA. Reporter gene assays showed that hsa-miR-25-3p suppresses CYP2B6 expression by targeting a specific sequence in the 3'-untranslated region of the mRNA transcript. Electrophoretic mobility shift assays confirmed that hsa-miR-25-3p forms stable complexes with its cognate mRNA sequence and that it recruits cellular factors, including Ago-4. Transfection of HepaRG cells with hsa-miR-25-3p mimics inhibited expression of the endogenous CYP2B6 gene and it also decreased rifampicin-dependent induction of CYP2B6 at the mRNA and protein levels. In summary, in silico and in vitro analyses show that hsa-miR-25-3p suppresses CYP2B6 expression in human liver cells via an epigenetic mechanism. PMID:27311985

  10. Generation and Characterization of a CYP2A13/2B6/2F1-Transgenic Mouse Model

    PubMed Central

    Wei, Yuan; Wu, Hong; Li, Lei; Liu, Zhihua; Zhou, Xin; Zhang, Qing-Yu; Weng, Yan; D'Agostino, Jaime; Ling, Guoyu; Zhang, Xiuling; Kluetzman, Kerri; Yao, Yunyi

    2012-01-01

    CYP2A13, CYP2B6, and CYP2F1, which are encoded by neighboring cytochrome P450 genes on human chromosome 19, are active in the metabolic activation of many drugs, respiratory toxicants, and chemical carcinogens. To facilitate studies on the regulation and function of these human genes, we have generated a CYP2A13/2B6/2F1-transgenic (TG) mouse model (all *1 alleles). Homozygous transgenic mice are normal with respect to gross morphological features, development, and fertility. The tissue distribution of transgenic mRNA expression agreed well with the known respiratory tract-selective expression of CYP2A13 and CYP2F1 and hepatic expression of CYP2B6 in humans. CYP2A13 protein was detected through immunoblot analyses in the nasal mucosa (NM) (∼100 pmol/mg of microsomal protein; similar to the level of mouse CYP2A5) and the lung (∼0.2 pmol/mg of microsomal protein) but not in the liver of the TG mice. CYP2F1 protein, which could not be separated from mouse CYP2F2 in immunoblot analyses, was readily detected in the NM and lung but not the liver of TG/Cyp2f2-null mice, at levels 10- and 40-fold, respectively, lower than that of mouse CYP2F2 in the TG mice. CYP2B6 protein was detected in the liver (∼0.2 pmol/mg of microsomal protein) but not the NM or lung (with a detection limit of 0.04 pmol/mg of microsomal protein) of the TG mice. At least one transgenic protein (CYP2A13) seems to be active, because the NM of the TG mice had greater in vitro and in vivo activities in bioactivation of a CYP2A13 substrate, 4-(methylnitrosamino)-1-(3-pyridyl)-1-butanone (a lung carcinogen), than did the NM of wild-type mice. PMID:22397853

  11. The effect of the cytochrome P450 CYP2C8 polymorphism on the disposition of (R)-ibuprofen enantiomer in healthy subjects

    PubMed Central

    Martínez, Carmen; García-Martín, Elena; Blanco, Gerardo; Gamito, Francisco J G; Ladero, José M; Agúndez, José A G

    2005-01-01

    Aims To study the effect of CYP2C8*3, the most common CYP2C8 variant allele on the dis-position of (R)-ibuprofen and the association of CYP2C8*3 with variant CYP2C9 alleles. Methods Three hundred and fifty-five randomly selected Spanish Caucasians were screened for the common CYP2C8 and CYP2C9 mutations. The pharmacokinetics of (R)-ibuprofen were studied in 25 individuals grouped into different CYP2C8 genotypes. Results The allele frequency of CYP2C8*3 (0.17) was found to be higher than that reported for other Caucasian populations (P = 0.0001). The frequencies of CYP2C9*2 and CYP2C9*3 were 0.19 (0.16–0.21) and 0.10 (0.08–0.12), respectively. An association between CYP2C8*3 and CYP2C9*2 alleles was observed, occurring together at a frequency 2.4-fold higher than expected for a random association of alleles (P = 0.0001). The presence of the CYP2C8*3 allele was found to influence the pharmacokinetics of (R)-ibuprofen in a gene–dose effect manner. Thus, after administration of 400 mg ibuprofen, the plasma half-life (95% confidence intervals) for individuals with genotypes CYP2C8*1/*1, CYP2C8*1/*3 and CYP2C8*3/*3, was 2.0 h (1.8–2.2), 4.2 h (1.9–6.5; P < 0.05) and 9.0 h (7.8–10.2; P < 0.002), respectively. A statistically significant trend with respect to the number of variant CYP2C8*3 alleles was also observed for the area under the concentration-time curve (P < 0.025), and drug clearance (P < 0.03). Conclusion Polymorphism of the CYP2C8 gene was found to be common, with nearly 30% of the population studied carrying the variant CYP2C8*3 allele. The presence of the latter caused a significant effect on the disposition of (R)-ibuprofen. This suggests that a substantial proportion of Caucasian subjects may show alterations in the disposition of drugs that are CYP2C8 substrates. PMID:15606441

  12. CYP2J2 and CYP2C8 polymorphisms and coronary heart disease risk: the Atherosclerosis Risk in Communities (ARIC) study

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The cytochromes P450 epoxygenases CYP2J2 and CYP2C8 synthesize epoxyeicosatrienoic acids, which regulate endothelial function. We sought to determine if genetic variation in CYP2J2 and CYP2C8 was associated with coronary heart disease risk. We genotyped 2065 Atherosclerosis Risk in Communities stud...

  13. Analysis of the Functional Polymorphism in the Cytochrome P450 CYP2C8 Gene rs11572080 with Regard to Colorectal Cancer Risk

    PubMed Central

    Ladero, José M.; Agúndez, José A. G.; Martínez, Carmen; Amo, Gemma; Ayuso, Pedro; García-Martín, Elena

    2012-01-01

    In addition to the known effects on drug metabolism and response, functional polymorphisms of genes coding for xenobiotic-metabolizing enzymes (XME) play a role in cancer. Genes coding for XME act as low-penetrance genes and confer modest but consistent and significant risks for a variety of cancers related to the interaction of environmental and genetic factors. Consistent evidence supports a role for polymorphisms of the cytochrome P450 CYP2C9 gene as a protecting factor for colorectal cancer susceptibility. It has been shown that CYP2C8 and CYP2C9 overlap in substrate specificity. Because CYP2C8 has the common functional polymorphisms rs11572080 and rs10509681 (CYP2C8*3), it could be speculated that part of the findings attributed to CYP2C9 polymorphisms may actually be related to the presence of polymorphisms in the CYP2C8 gene. Nevertheless, little attention has been paid to the role of the CYP2C8 polymorphism in colorectal cancer. We analyzed the influence of the CYP2C8*3 allele in the risk of developing colorectal cancer in genomic DNA from 153 individuals suffering colorectal cancer and from 298 age- and gender-matched control subjects. Our findings do not support any effect of the CYP2C8*3 allele (OR for carriers of functional CYP2C8 alleles = 0.50 (95% CI = 0.16–1.59; p = 0.233). The absence of a relative risk related to CYP2C8*3 did not vary depending on the tumor site. We conclude that the risk of developing colorectal cancer does not seem to be related to the commonest functional genetic variation in the CYP2C8 gene. PMID:23420707

  14. Dimetallaborane analogues of the octaboranes of the type Cp2M2B6H10: structural variations with changes in the skeletal electron count.

    PubMed

    Brânzanic, Adrian M V; Lupan, Alexandru; King, R Bruce

    2016-05-31

    The structures and energetics of the complete series of hydrogen-rich dimetallaboranes Cp2M2B6H10 and Cp*2M2B6H10 (Cp = η(5)-C5H5; Cp* = η(5)-Me5C5; M = Pd, Pt; Rh, Ir; Ru, Os; Re; Mo, W; Ta), including the experimentally known Cp*2Rh2B6H10 and Cp*2W2B6H10 (Cp* = η(5)-Me5C5), have been investigated by density functional theory. The lowest energy structures of the hyperelectronic Cp2M2B6H10 (M = Pd, Pt; Rh, Ir) systems have central M2B6 frameworks with a hexagonal open face similar to the B8 networks in arachno-B8H14 and nido-B8H12. The two lowest energy structures for Cp2Rh2B6H10 and Cp*2Rh2B6H10, lying within 1 kcal mol(-1) of energy, differ only in the locations of the bridging hydrogen atoms around the hexagonal hole consistent with the experimentally observed fluxionality of the hydrogen atoms in Cp*2Rh2B6H10. Most of the lowest energy Cp2M2B6H10 (M = Ru, Os) structures also have a central M2B6 framework similar to B8H12, typically with such additional features as an additional metal-metal bond or a formal metal-metal double bond. A common motif for the low-energy structures of the hypoelectronic Cp2M2B6H10 (M = Re; Mo, W; Ta) systems, including the experimentally known Cp*2W2B6H10, is a central M2B4 octahedron with its two M2B faces capped by the remaining boron atoms and with four M-B edges bridged by hydrogen atoms. Such structures can also be considered as oblatonido structures derived from the experimentally known 9-vertex oblatocloso Cp*2Re2B7H7 structure by removal of the unique degree 4 vertex atom. PMID:27186632

  15. Potential Contribution of Cytochrome P450 2B6 to Hepatic 4-Hydroxycyclophosphamide Formation In Vitro and In VivoS⃞

    PubMed Central

    Raccor, Brianne S.; Claessens, Adam J.; Dinh, Jean C.; Park, Julie R.; Hawkins, Douglas S.; Thomas, Sushma S.; Makar, Karen W.; McCune, Jeannine S.

    2012-01-01

    Results from retrospective studies on the relationship between cytochrome P450 (P450) 2B6 (CYP2B6) genotype and cyclophosphamide (CY) efficacy and toxicity in adult cancer patients have been conflicting. We evaluated this relationship in children, who have faster CY clearance and receive different CY-based regimens than adults. These factors may influence the P450s metabolizing CY to 4-hydroxycyclophosphamide (4HCY), the principal precursor to CY's cytotoxic metabolite. Therefore, we sought to characterize the in vitro and in vivo roles of hepatic CYP2B6 and its main allelic variants in 4HCY formation. CYP2B6 is the major isozyme responsible for 4HCY formation in recombinant P450 Supersomes. In human liver microsomes (HLM), 4HCY formation correlated with known phenotypic markers of CYP2B6 activity, specifically formation of (S)-2-ethyl-1,5-dimethyl-3,3-diphenyl pyrrolidine and hydroxybupropion. However, in HLM, CYP3A4/5 also contributes to 4HCY formation at the CY concentrations similar to plasma concentrations achieved in children (0.1 mM). 4HCY formation was not associated with CYP2B6 genotype at low (0.1 mM) or high (1 mM) CY concentrations potentially because CYP3A4/5 and other isozymes also form 4HCY. To remove this confounder, 4HCY formation was evaluated in recombinant CYP2B6 enzymes, which demonstrated that 4HCY formation was lower for CYP2B6.4 and CYP2B6.5 compared with CYP2B6.1. In vivo, CYP2B6 genotype was not directly related to CY clearance or ratio of 4HCY/CY areas under the curve in 51 children receiving CY-based regimens. Concomitant chemotherapy agents did not influence 4HCY formation in vitro. We conclude that CYP2B6 genotype is not consistently related to 4HCY formation in vitro or in vivo. PMID:21976622

  16. Glucuronidation converts clopidogrel to a strong time-dependent inhibitor of CYP2C8: a phase II metabolite as a perpetrator of drug-drug interactions.

    PubMed

    Tornio, A; Filppula, A M; Kailari, O; Neuvonen, M; Nyrönen, T H; Tapaninen, T; Neuvonen, P J; Niemi, M; Backman, J T

    2014-10-01

    Cerivastatin and repaglinide are substrates of cytochrome P450 (CYP)2C8, CYP3A4, and organic anion-transporting polypeptide (OATP)1B1. A recent study revealed an increased risk of rhabdomyolysis in patients using cerivastatin with clopidogrel, warranting further studies on clopidogrel interactions. In healthy volunteers, repaglinide area under the concentration-time curve (AUC(0-∞)) was increased 5.1-fold by a 300-mg loading dose of clopidogrel and 3.9-fold by continued administration of 75 mg clopidogrel daily. In vitro, we identified clopidogrel acyl-β-D-glucuronide as a potent time-dependent inhibitor of CYP2C8. A physiologically based pharmacokinetic model indicated that inactivation of CYP2C8 by clopidogrel acyl-β-D-glucuronide leads to uninterrupted 60-85% inhibition of CYP2C8 during daily clopidogrel treatment. Computational modeling resulted in docking of clopidogrel acyl-β-D-glucuronide at the CYP2C8 active site with its thiophene moiety close to heme. The results indicate that clopidogrel is a strong CYP2C8 inhibitor via its acyl-β-D-glucuronide and imply that glucuronide metabolites should be considered potential inhibitors of CYP enzymes. PMID:24971633

  17. Establishment of In Silico Prediction Models for CYP3A4 and CYP2B6 Induction in Human Hepatocytes by Multiple Regression Analysis Using Azole Compounds.

    PubMed

    Nagai, Mika; Konno, Yoshihiro; Satsukawa, Masahiro; Yamashita, Shinji; Yoshinari, Kouichi

    2016-08-01

    Drug-drug interactions (DDIs) via cytochrome P450 (P450) induction are one clinical problem leading to increased risk of adverse effects and the need for dosage adjustments and additional therapeutic monitoring. In silico models for predicting P450 induction are useful for avoiding DDI risk. In this study, we have established regression models for CYP3A4 and CYP2B6 induction in human hepatocytes using several physicochemical parameters for a set of azole compounds with different P450 induction as characteristics as model compounds. To obtain a well-correlated regression model, the compounds for CYP3A4 or CYP2B6 induction were independently selected from the tested azole compounds using principal component analysis with fold-induction data. Both of the multiple linear regression models obtained for CYP3A4 and CYP2B6 induction are represented by different sets of physicochemical parameters. The adjusted coefficients of determination for these models were of 0.8 and 0.9, respectively. The fold-induction of the validation compounds, another set of 12 azole-containing compounds, were predicted within twofold limits for both CYP3A4 and CYP2B6. The concordance for the prediction of CYP3A4 induction was 87% with another validation set, 23 marketed drugs. However, the prediction of CYP2B6 induction tended to be overestimated for these marketed drugs. The regression models show that lipophilicity mostly contributes to CYP3A4 induction, whereas not only the lipophilicity but also the molecular polarity is important for CYP2B6 induction. Our regression models, especially that for CYP3A4 induction, might provide useful methods to avoid potent CYP3A4 or CYP2B6 inducers during the lead optimization stage without performing induction assays in human hepatocytes. PMID:27208383

  18. Structure, Raman and infrared spectroscopic properties of new nonlinear optical material Na3VO2B6O11

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Ji; Dou, Renqin; Zhang, Deming; Zhang, Qingli; Yin, Shaotang

    2016-08-01

    In this paper we report on the structure of Na3VO2B6O11 (NVBO) single crystals which were investigated by XRD, polarized Raman spectra in the range from 10 to 1600 cm-1 and infrared spectrum (IR) in the range from 100 to 1600 cm-1. Factor group analysis has been used to study the full vibrational representation of the crystal. More than 120 phonon modes have been obtained, which are related to Bsbnd O and Vsbnd O vibration in the trigonal planar BO3 triangle groups and tetrahedral BO4/VO4 groups. The high frequency bands located at 1300-1415 cm-1 are assigned to stretching modes of the trigonal planar BO3 groups. Moreover, intense Raman modes located at 631 cm-1 is related to BO3 bending vibration as well. The weak band at 1158 cm-1 (A1 mode) and strong band at 431 cm-1 (A1 mode) are attributed to asymmetric stretching and bending vibration mode of tetrahedral BO4 groups respectively. The vibrational band at 765-738 cm-1 in the Raman spectra of NVBO crystal maybe related to the breathing vibration of the boroxol ring consisting of two BO4 tetrahedra. In addition, we assigned the intense band 900 (A1 mode) and 831 cm-1 (B2 mode) are relative to the v1 symmetric stretching vibration of VO4 tetrahedra. And the middle intense band at 382 (A1 mode) and 385 (A2 mode) are due to Osbnd Vsbnd O vibration in VO4 tetrahedra.

  19. The Role of CYP2C8 and CYP2C9 Genotypes in Losartan-Dependent Inhibition of Paclitaxel Metabolism in Human Liver Microsomes.

    PubMed

    Mukai, Yuji; Senda, Asuna; Toda, Takaki; Eliasson, Erik; Rane, Anders; Inotsume, Nobuo

    2016-06-01

    The aim of the present study was to further investigate a previously identified metabolic interaction between losartan and paclitaxel, which is one of the marker substrates of CYP2C8, by using human liver microsomes (HLMs) from donors with different CYP2C8 and CYP2C9 genotypes. Although CYP2C8 and CYP2C9 exhibit genetic linkage, previous studies have yet to determine whether losartan or its active metabolite, EXP-3174 which is specifically generated by CYP2C9, is responsible for CYP2C8 inhibition. Concentrations of 6α-hydroxypaclitaxel and EXP-3174 were measured by high-performance liquid chromatography after incubations with paclitaxel, losartan or EXP-3174 in HLMs from seven donors with different CYP2C8 and CYP2C9 genotypes. The half maximal inhibitory concentration (IC50 ) values were not fully dependent on CYP2C8 genotypes. Although the degree of inhibition was small, losartan significantly inhibited the production of 6α-hydroxypaclitaxel at a concentration of 1 μmol/L in only HL20 with the CYP2C8*3/*3 genotype. HLMs with either CYP2C9*2/*2 or CYP2C9*1/*3 exhibited a lower losartan intrinsic clearance (Vmax /Km ) than other HLMs including those with CYP2C9*1/*1 and CYP2C9*1/*2. Significant inhibition of 6α-hydroxypaclitaxel formation by EXP-3174 could only be found at levels that were 50 times higher (100 μmol/L) than the maximum concentration generated in the inhibition study using losartan. These results suggest that the metabolic interaction between losartan and paclitaxel is dependent on losartan itself rather than its metabolite and that the CYP2C8 inhibition by losartan is not affected by the CYP2C9 genotype. Further study is needed to define the effect of CYP2C8 genotypes on losartan-paclitaxel interaction. PMID:26551762

  20. Identification of putative substrates for cynomolgus monkey cytochrome P450 2C8 by substrate depletion assays with 22 human P450 substrates and inhibitors.

    PubMed

    Hosaka, Shinya; Murayama, Norie; Satsukawa, Masahiro; Uehara, Shotaro; Shimizu, Makiko; Iwasaki, Kazuhide; Iwano, Shunsuke; Uno, Yasuhiro; Yamazaki, Hiroshi

    2016-07-01

    Cynomolgus monkeys are widely used in drug developmental stages as non-human primate models. Previous studies used 89 compounds to investigate species differences associated with cytochrome P450 (P450 or CYP) function that reported monkey specific CYP2C76 cleared 19 chemicals, and homologous CYP2C9 and CYP2C19 metabolized 17 and 30 human CYP2C9 and/or CYP2C19 substrates/inhibitors, respectively. In the present study, 22 compounds selected from viewpoints of global drug interaction guidances and guidelines were further evaluated to seek potential substrates for monkey CYP2C8, which is highly homologous to human CYP2C8 (92%). Amodiaquine, montelukast, quercetin and rosiglitazone, known as substrates or competitive inhibitors of human CYP2C8, were metabolically depleted by recombinant monkey CYP2C8 at relatively high rates. Taken together with our reported findings of the slow eliminations of amodiaquine and montelukast by monkey CYP2C9, CYP2C19 and CYP2C76, the present results suggest that these at least four chemicals may be good marker substrates for monkey CYP2C8. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. PMID:26581561

  1. Cytochrome P450 2C8 ω3-Long-Chain Polyunsaturated Fatty Acid Metabolites Increase Mouse Retinal Pathologic Neovascularization—Brief Report

    PubMed Central

    Shao, Zhuo; Fu, Zhongjie; Stahl, Andreas; Joyal, Jean-Sébastien; Hatton, Colman; Juan, Aimee; Hurst, Christian; Evans, Lucy; Cui, Zhenghao; Pei, Dorothy; Gong, Yan; Xu, Dan; Tian, Katherine; Bogardus, Hannah; Edin, Matthew L.; Lih, Fred; Sapieha, Przemyslaw; Chen, Jing; Panigrahy, Dipak; Hellstrom, Ann; Zeldin, Darryl C.; Smith, Lois E.H.

    2014-01-01

    Objective Regulation of angiogenesis is critical for many diseases. Specifically, pathological retinal neovascularization, a major cause of blindness, is suppressed with dietary ω3-long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (ω3LCPUFAs) through antiangiogenic metabolites of cyclooxygenase and lipoxygenase. Cytochrome P450 epoxygenases (CYP2C8) also metabolize LCPUFAs, producing bioactive epoxides, which are inactivated by soluble epoxide hydrolase (sEH) to transdihydrodiols. The effect of these enzymes and their metabolites on neovascularization is unknown. Approach and Results The mouse model of oxygen-induced retinopathy was used to investigate retinal neovascularization. We found that CYP2C (localized in wild-type monocytes/macrophages) is upregulated in oxygen-induced retinopathy, whereas sEH is suppressed, resulting in an increased retinal epoxide:diol ratio. With a ω3LCPUFA-enriched diet, retinal neovascularization increases in Tie2-driven human-CYP2C8–overexpressing mice (Tie2-CYP2C8-Tg), associated with increased plasma 19,20-epoxydocosapentaenoic acid and retinal epoxide:diol ratio. 19,20-Epoxydocosapentaenoic acids and the epoxide:diol ratio are decreased with overexpression of sEH (Tie2-sEH-Tg). Overexpression of CYP2C8 or sEH in mice does not change normal retinal vascular development compared with their wild-type littermate controls. The proangiogenic role in retina of CYP2C8 with both ω3LCPUFA and ω6LCPUFA and antiangiogenic role of sEH in ω3LCPUFA metabolism were corroborated in aortic ring assays. Conclusions Our results suggest that CYP2C ω3LCPUFA metabolites promote retinal pathological angiogenesis. CYP2C8 is part of a novel lipid metabolic pathway influencing retinal neovascularization. PMID:24458713

  2. Sequence variants at CHRNB3-CHRNA6 and CYP2A6 affect smoking behavior

    PubMed Central

    Thorgeirsson, Thorgeir E.; Gudbjartsson, Daniel F.; Surakka, Ida; Vink, Jacqueline M.; Amin, Najaf; Geller, Frank; Sulem, Patrick; Rafnar, Thorunn; Esko, Tõnu; Walter, Stefan; Gieger, Christian; Rawal, Rajesh; Mangino, Massimo; Prokopenko, Inga; Mägi, Reedik; Keskitalo, Kaisu; Gudjonsdottir, Iris H.; Gretarsdottir, Solveig; Stefansson, Hreinn; Thompson, John R.; Aulchenko, Yurii S.; Nelis, Mari; Aben, Katja K.; den Heijer, Martin; Dirksen, Asger; Ashraf, Haseem; Soranzo, Nicole; Valdes, Ana M; Steves, Claire; Uitterlinden, André G; Hofman, Albert; Tönjes, Anke; Kovacs, Peter; Hottenga, Jouke Jan; Willemsen, Gonneke; Vogelzangs, Nicole; Döring, Angela; Dahmen, Norbert; Nitz, Barbara; Pergadia, Michele L.; Saez, Berta; De Diego, Veronica; Lezcano, Victoria; Garcia-Prats, Maria D.; Ripatti, Samuli; Perola, Markus; Kettunen, Johannes; Hartikainen, Anna-Liisa; Pouta, Anneli; Laitinen, Jaana; Isohanni, Matti; Huei-Yi, Shen; Allen, Maxine; Krestyaninova, Maria; Hall, Alistair S; Jones, Gregory T.; van Rij, Andre M.; Mueller, Thomas; Dieplinger, Benjamin; Haltmayer, Meinhard; Jonsson, Steinn; Matthiasson, Stefan E.; Oskarsson, Hogni; Tyrfingsson, Thorarinn; Kiemeney, Lambertus A.; Mayordomo, Jose I.; Lindholt, Jes S; Pedersen, Jesper Holst; Franklin, Wilbur A.; Wolf, Holly; Montgomery, Grant W.; Heath, Andrew C.; Martin, Nicholas G.; Madden, Pamela A.F.; Giegling, Ina; Rujescu, Dan; Järvelin, Marjo-Riitta; Salomaa, Veikko; Stumvoll, Michael; Spector, Tim D; Wichmann, H-Erich; Metspalu, Andres; Samani, Nilesh J.; Penninx, Brenda W.; Oostra, Ben A.; Boomsma, Dorret I.; Tiemeier, Henning; van Duijn, Cornelia M.; Kaprio, Jaakko; Gulcher, Jeffrey R.; McCarthy, Mark I.; Peltonen, Leena; Thorsteinsdottir, Unnur; Stefansson, Kari

    2011-01-01

    Smoking is a risk factor for most of the diseases leading in mortality1. We conducted genome-wide association (GWA) meta-analyses of smoking data within the ENGAGE consortium to search for common alleles associating with the number of cigarettes smoked per day (CPD) in smokers (N=31,266) and smoking initiation (N=46,481). We tested selected SNPs in a second stage (N=45,691 smokers), and assessed some in a third sample (N=9,040). Variants in three genomic regions associated with CPD (P< 5·10−8), including previously identified SNPs at 15q25 represented by rs1051730-A (0.80 CPD,P=2.4·10−69), and SNPs at 19q13 and 8p11, represented by rs4105144-C (0.39 CPD, P=2.2·10−12) and rs6474412-T (0.29 CPD,P= 1.4·10−8), respectively. Among the genes at the two novel loci, are genes encoding nicotine-metabolizing enzymes (CYP2A6 and CYP2B6), and nicotinic acetylcholine receptor subunits (CHRNB3 and CHRNA6) highlighted in previous studies of nicotine dependence2-3. Nominal associations with lung cancer were observed at both 8p11 (rs6474412-T,OR=1.09,P=0.04) and 19q13 (rs4105144-C,OR=1.12,P=0.0006). PMID:20418888

  3. Evacetrapib: in vitro and clinical disposition, metabolism, excretion, and assessment of drug interaction potential with strong CYP3A and CYP2C8 inhibitors.

    PubMed

    Cannady, Ellen A; Wang, Ming-Dauh; Friedrich, Stuart; Rehmel, Jessica L F; Yi, Ping; Small, David S; Zhang, Wei; Suico, Jeffrey G

    2015-10-01

    Evacetrapib is an investigational cholesteryl ester transfer protein inhibitor (CETPi) for reduction of risk of major adverse cardiovascular events in patients with high-risk vascular disease. Understanding evacetrapib disposition, metabolism, and the potential for drug-drug interactions (DDI) may help guide prescribing recommendations. In vitro, evacetrapib metabolism was investigated with a panel of human recombinant cytochromes P450 (CYP). The disposition, metabolism, and excretion of evacetrapib following a single 100-mg oral dose of (14)C-evacetrapib were determined in healthy subjects, and the pharmacokinetics of evacetrapib were evaluated in the presence of strong CYP3A or CYP2C8 inhibitors. In vitro, CYP3A was responsible for about 90% of evacetrapib's CYP-associated clearance, while CYP2C8 accounted for about 10%. In the clinical disposition study, only evacetrapib and two minor metabolites circulated in plasma. Evacetrapib metabolism was extensive. A mean of 93.1% and 2.30% of the dose was excreted in feces and urine, respectively. In clinical DDI studies, the ratios of geometric least squares means for evacetrapib with/without the CYP3A inhibitor ketoconazole were 2.37 for area under the curve (AUC)(0-∞) and 1.94 for C max. There was no significant difference in evacetrapib AUC(0-τ) or C max with/without the CYP2C8 inhibitor gemfibrozil, with ratios of 0.996 and 1.02, respectively. Although in vitro results indicated that both CYP3A and CYP2C8 metabolized evacetrapib, clinical studies confirmed that evacetrapib is primarily metabolized by CYP3A. However, given the modest increase in evacetrapib exposure and robust clinical safety profile to date, there is a low likelihood of clinically relevant DDI with concomitant use of strong CYP3A or CYP2C8 inhibitors. PMID:26516590

  4. Evacetrapib: in vitro and clinical disposition, metabolism, excretion, and assessment of drug interaction potential with strong CYP3A and CYP2C8 inhibitors

    PubMed Central

    Cannady, Ellen A; Wang, Ming-Dauh; Friedrich, Stuart; Rehmel, Jessica L F; Yi, Ping; Small, David S; Zhang, Wei; Suico, Jeffrey G

    2015-01-01

    Evacetrapib is an investigational cholesteryl ester transfer protein inhibitor (CETPi) for reduction of risk of major adverse cardiovascular events in patients with high-risk vascular disease. Understanding evacetrapib disposition, metabolism, and the potential for drug–drug interactions (DDI) may help guide prescribing recommendations. In vitro, evacetrapib metabolism was investigated with a panel of human recombinant cytochromes P450 (CYP). The disposition, metabolism, and excretion of evacetrapib following a single 100-mg oral dose of 14C-evacetrapib were determined in healthy subjects, and the pharmacokinetics of evacetrapib were evaluated in the presence of strong CYP3A or CYP2C8 inhibitors. In vitro, CYP3A was responsible for about 90% of evacetrapib's CYP-associated clearance, while CYP2C8 accounted for about 10%. In the clinical disposition study, only evacetrapib and two minor metabolites circulated in plasma. Evacetrapib metabolism was extensive. A mean of 93.1% and 2.30% of the dose was excreted in feces and urine, respectively. In clinical DDI studies, the ratios of geometric least squares means for evacetrapib with/without the CYP3A inhibitor ketoconazole were 2.37 for area under the curve (AUC)(0–∞) and 1.94 for Cmax. There was no significant difference in evacetrapib AUC(0–τ) or Cmax with/without the CYP2C8 inhibitor gemfibrozil, with ratios of 0.996 and 1.02, respectively. Although in vitro results indicated that both CYP3A and CYP2C8 metabolized evacetrapib, clinical studies confirmed that evacetrapib is primarily metabolized by CYP3A. However, given the modest increase in evacetrapib exposure and robust clinical safety profile to date, there is a low likelihood of clinically relevant DDI with concomitant use of strong CYP3A or CYP2C8 inhibitors. PMID:26516590

  5. Biotransformation of 2,2',4,4'-tetrabromodiphenyl ether (BDE-47) by human liver microsomes: identification of cytochrome P450 2B6 as the major enzyme involved.

    PubMed

    Erratico, Claudio A; Szeitz, András; Bandiera, Stelvio M

    2013-05-20

    Polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) were widely used flame retardants that have become persistent environmental pollutants. In the present study, we investigated the in vitro oxidative metabolism of 2,2',4,4'-tetrabromodiphenyl ether (BDE-47), a major PBDE detected in human tissue and environmental samples. Biotransformation of BDE-47 by pooled and individual human liver microsomes and by human recombinant cytochrome P450 (P450) enzymes was assessed using a liquid chromatography/tandem mass spectrometry-based method. Of the nine hydroxylated metabolites of BDE-47 produced by human liver microsomes, seven metabolites were identified using authentic standards. A monohydroxy-tetrabrominated and a dihydroxy-tetrabrominated metabolite remain unidentified. Kinetic analysis of the rates of metabolite formation revealed that the major metabolites were 5-hydroxy-2,2',4,4'-tetrabromodiphenyl ether (5-OH-BDE-47), 6-hydroxy-2,2',4,4'-tetrabromodiphenyl ether (6-OH-BDE-47), and possibly the unidentified monohydroxy-tetrabrominated metabolite. Among the human recombinant P450 enzymes tested, P450 2B6 was the most active enzyme in the formation of the hydroxylated metabolites of BDE-47. Moreover, the formation of all metabolites of BDE-47 by pooled human liver microsomes was inhibited by a P450 2B6-specific antibody and was highly correlated with P450 2B6-mediated activity in single donor liver microsomes indicating that P450 2B6 was the major P450 responsible for the biotransformation of BDE-47. Additional experiments involving the incubation of liver microsomes with individual monohydroxy-tetrabrominated metabolites in place of BDE-47 demonstrated that 2,4-dibromophenol was a product of BDE-47 and several primary metabolites, but the dihydroxy-tetrabrominated metabolite was not formed by sequential hydroxylation of any of the monohydroxy-tetrabrominated metabolites tested. The present study provides a comprehensive characterization of the oxidative metabolism of BDE-47 by

  6. CYP2B6*6 is an independent determinant of inferior response to fludarabine plus cyclophosphamide in chronic lymphocytic leukemia.

    PubMed

    Johnson, Gillian G; Lin, Ke; Cox, Trevor F; Oates, Melanie; Sibson, David R; Eccles, Richard; Lloyd, Bryony; Gardiner, Laura-Jayne; Carr, Daniel F; Pirmohamed, Munir; Strefford, Jonathan C; Oscier, David G; Gonzalez de Castro, David; Else, Monica; Catovsky, Daniel; Pettitt, Andrew R

    2013-12-19

    Fludarabine plus cyclophosphamide (FC) is the chemotherapy backbone of modern chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL) treatment. CYP2B6 is a polymorphic cytochrome P450 isoform that converts cyclophosphamide to its active form. This study investigated the possible impact of genetic variation in CYP2B6 on response to FC chemotherapy in CLL. Available DNA samples from the LRF CLL4 trial, which compared chlorambucil, fludarabine, and FC, were screened by TaqMan real-time polymerase chain reaction assays for CYP2B6 SNPs c.516G>T and c.785A>G, which define the most common variant allele (*6). Among the 455 samples successfully genotyped, 265 (58.2%), 134 (29.5%), and 29 (6.4%) were classified as *1/*1, *1/*6, and *6/*6, respectively. Patients expressing at least one *6 allele were significantly less likely to achieve a complete response (CR) after FC (odds ratio 0.27; P = .004) but not chlorambucil or fludarabine. Analysis of individual response indicators confirmed that this inferior response resulted from impaired cytoreduction rather than delayed hemopoietic recovery. Multivariate analysis controlling for age, gender, stage, IGHV mutational status, 11q deletion, and TP53 deletion/mutation identified CYP2B6*6 and TP53 mutation/deletion as the only independent determinants of CR attainment after FC. Our study provides the first demonstration that host pharmacogenetics can influence therapeutic response in CLL. This trial is registered as an International Standard Randomised Control Trial, number NCT 58585610 at www.clinicaltrials.gov. PMID:24128861

  7. Interactions of endosulfan and methoxychlor involving CYP3A4 and CYP2B6 in human HepaRG cells.

    PubMed

    Savary, Camille C; Jossé, Rozenn; Bruyère, Arnaud; Guillet, Fabrice; Robin, Marie-Anne; Guillouzo, André

    2014-08-01

    Humans are usually exposed to several pesticides simultaneously; consequently, combined actions between pesticides themselves or between pesticides and other chemicals need to be addressed in the risk assessment. Many pesticides are efficient activators of pregnane X receptor (PXR) and/or constitutive androstane receptor (CAR), two major nuclear receptors that are also activated by other substrates. In the present work, we searched for interactions between endosulfan and methoxychlor, two organochlorine pesticides whose major routes of metabolism involve CAR- and PXR-regulated CYP3A4 and CYP2B6, and whose mechanisms of action in humans remain poorly understood. For this purpose, HepaRG cells were treated with both pesticides separately or in mixture for 24 hours or 2 weeks at concentrations relevant to human exposure levels. In combination they exerted synergistic cytotoxic effects. Whatever the duration of treatment, both compounds increased CYP3A4 and CYP2B6 mRNA levels while differently affecting their corresponding activities. Endosulfan exerted a direct reversible inhibition of CYP3A4 activity that was confirmed in human liver microsomes. By contrast, methoxychlor induced this activity. The effects of the mixture on CYP3A4 activity were equal to the sum of those of each individual compound, suggesting an additive effect of each pesticide. Despite CYP2B6 activity being unchanged and increased with endosulfan and methoxychlor, respectively, no change was observed with their mixture, supporting an antagonistic effect. Altogether, our data suggest that CAR and PXR activators endosulfan and methoxychlor can interact together and with other exogenous substrates in human hepatocytes. Their effects on CYP3A4 and CYP2B6 activities could have important consequences if extrapolated to the in vivo situation. PMID:24832206

  8. Transcriptional Regulation of CYP3A4/2B6/2C9 Mediated via Nuclear Receptor PXR by Helicid and Its Metabolites

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Qun; Xie, Hai-tang; Li, Yan; Wang, Guo; Xu, Zhe; Pu, Zhi-chen; Hu, Hua

    2015-01-01

    Objective. This study aims at establishing and validating an in vitro system to screen drug inducers of CYPs mediated via hPXR, as well as studying transcriptional regulation of CYPs mediated via hPXR by helicid and its two metabolites. Methods. Cloning the nuclear receptor hPXR and the promoters of CYP3A4, CYP2B6, CYP2C9, and inserting the trans-element to the upstream of firefly luciferase reporter gene of the pGL4.17 vectors, then cotransfecting the report vectors and hPXR expression plasmid to HepG2 cell line. After 24 hours, the transfected cells were treated with helicid (0.004, 0.04, and 0.4 μmol/L) and its metabolite I and metabolite II (0.0004, 0.004, and 0.04 μmol/L) for 48 h, while rifampin (10 μmol/L) was included as the positive control and 0.1% DMSO as the negative control group. Cells were lysized and luciferase activity was determined using a dual luciferase reporter assay kit. Results. Helicid and its metabolites did not significantly increase promoter activities of CYP3A4, CYP2B6, and CYP2C9 in HepG2 cells transfected with PXR expression plasmid (P > 0.05). Conclusion. PXR-expressed CYP3A4, CYP2B6, and CYP2C9 dual luciferase reporter gene platforms were successfully established, and helicid and its metabolites I, II do not significantly induce the transcription of CYP3A4, CYP2B6, and CYP2C9. PMID:25977700

  9. Synthesis and optical characterization of LiKB4O7, Li2B6O10, and LiCsB6O10 glasses

    SciTech Connect

    Adamiv, V.; Teslyuk, I.; Dyachok, Ya.; Romanyuk, G.; Krupych, O.; Mys, O.; Martynyuk-Lototska, I.; Burak, Ya.; Vlokh, R.

    2010-10-01

    In the current work we report on the synthesis of LiKB4O7, Li2B6O10, and LiCsB6O10 borate glasses. The results for their piezo-optic, acousto-optic, acoustic, elastic, refractive, optical transmission, and optical resistance properties are also presented. It is shown that some of these glasses represent efficient acousto-optic materials that are transparent down to the vacuum ultraviolet range and highly resistant to laser radiation.

  10. Genome-wide association study of plasma levels of polychlorinated biphenyls disclose an association with the CYP2B6 gene in a population-based sample

    PubMed Central

    Ng, Esther; Salihovic, Samira; Monica Lind, P.; Mahajan, Anubha; Syvänen, Anne-Christine; Axelsson, Tomas; Ingelsson, Erik; Lindgren, Cecilia M.; van Bavel, Bert; Morris, Andrew P.; Lind, Lars

    2015-01-01

    Background Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) are a group of man-made environmental pollutants which accumulate in humans with adverse health effects. To date, very little effort has been devoted to the study of the metabolism of PCBs on a genome-wide level. Objectives Here, we conducted a genome-wide association study (GWAS) to identify genomic regions involved in the metabolism of PCBs. Methods Plasma levels of 16 PCBs ascertained in a cohort of elderly individuals from Sweden (n=1016) were measured using gas chromatography–high resolution mass spectrophotometry (GC-HRMS). DNA samples were genotyped on the Infinium Omni Express bead microarray, and imputed up to reference panels from the 1000 Genomes Project. Association testing was performed in a linear regression framework under an additive model. Results Plasma levels of PCB-99 demonstrated genome-wide significant association with single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) mapping to chromosome 19q13.2. The SNP with the strongest association was rs8109848 (p=3.7×10−13), mapping to an intronic region of CYP2B6. Moreover, when all PCBs were conditioned on PCB-99, further signals were revealed for PCBs -74, -105 and -118, mapping to the same genomic region. The lead SNPs were rs8109848 (p=3.8×10−12) for PCB-118, rs4802104 (p=1.4×10−9) for PCB-74 and rs4803413 (p=2.5×10−9) for PCB-105, all of which map to CYP2B6. Conclusions In our study, we found plasma levels of four lower-chlorinated PCBs to be significantly associated with the genetic region mapping to the CYP2B6 locus. These findings show that CYP2B6 is of importance for the metabolism of PCBs in humans, and may help to identify individuals who may be susceptible to PCB toxicity. PMID:25839716

  11. Sequence variants at CHRNB3-CHRNA6 and CYP2A6 affect smoking behavior.

    PubMed

    Thorgeirsson, Thorgeir E; Gudbjartsson, Daniel F; Surakka, Ida; Vink, Jacqueline M; Amin, Najaf; Geller, Frank; Sulem, Patrick; Rafnar, Thorunn; Esko, Tõnu; Walter, Stefan; Gieger, Christian; Rawal, Rajesh; Mangino, Massimo; Prokopenko, Inga; Mägi, Reedik; Keskitalo, Kaisu; Gudjonsdottir, Iris H; Gretarsdottir, Solveig; Stefansson, Hreinn; Thompson, John R; Aulchenko, Yurii S; Nelis, Mari; Aben, Katja K; den Heijer, Martin; Dirksen, Asger; Ashraf, Haseem; Soranzo, Nicole; Valdes, Ana M; Steves, Claire; Uitterlinden, André G; Hofman, Albert; Tönjes, Anke; Kovacs, Peter; Hottenga, Jouke Jan; Willemsen, Gonneke; Vogelzangs, Nicole; Döring, Angela; Dahmen, Norbert; Nitz, Barbara; Pergadia, Michele L; Saez, Berta; De Diego, Veronica; Lezcano, Victoria; Garcia-Prats, Maria D; Ripatti, Samuli; Perola, Markus; Kettunen, Johannes; Hartikainen, Anna-Liisa; Pouta, Anneli; Laitinen, Jaana; Isohanni, Matti; Huei-Yi, Shen; Allen, Maxine; Krestyaninova, Maria; Hall, Alistair S; Jones, Gregory T; van Rij, Andre M; Mueller, Thomas; Dieplinger, Benjamin; Haltmayer, Meinhard; Jonsson, Steinn; Matthiasson, Stefan E; Oskarsson, Hogni; Tyrfingsson, Thorarinn; Kiemeney, Lambertus A; Mayordomo, Jose I; Lindholt, Jes S; Pedersen, Jesper Holst; Franklin, Wilbur A; Wolf, Holly; Montgomery, Grant W; Heath, Andrew C; Martin, Nicholas G; Madden, Pamela A F; Giegling, Ina; Rujescu, Dan; Järvelin, Marjo-Riitta; Salomaa, Veikko; Stumvoll, Michael; Spector, Tim D; Wichmann, H-Erich; Metspalu, Andres; Samani, Nilesh J; Penninx, Brenda W; Oostra, Ben A; Boomsma, Dorret I; Tiemeier, Henning; van Duijn, Cornelia M; Kaprio, Jaakko; Gulcher, Jeffrey R; McCarthy, Mark I; Peltonen, Leena; Thorsteinsdottir, Unnur; Stefansson, Kari

    2010-05-01

    Smoking is a common risk factor for many diseases. We conducted genome-wide association meta-analyses for the number of cigarettes smoked per day (CPD) in smokers (n = 31,266) and smoking initiation (n = 46,481) using samples from the ENGAGE Consortium. In a second stage, we tested selected SNPs with in silico replication in the Tobacco and Genetics (TAG) and Glaxo Smith Kline (Ox-GSK) consortia cohorts (n = 45,691 smokers) and assessed some of those in a third sample of European ancestry (n = 9,040). Variants in three genomic regions associated with CPD (P < 5 x 10(-8)), including previously identified SNPs at 15q25 represented by rs1051730[A] (effect size = 0.80 CPD, P = 2.4 x 10(-69)), and SNPs at 19q13 and 8p11, represented by rs4105144[C] (effect size = 0.39 CPD, P = 2.2 x 10(-12)) and rs6474412-T (effect size = 0.29 CPD, P = 1.4 x 10(-8)), respectively. Among the genes at the two newly associated loci are genes encoding nicotine-metabolizing enzymes (CYP2A6 and CYP2B6) and nicotinic acetylcholine receptor subunits (CHRNB3 and CHRNA6), all of which have been highlighted in previous studies of smoking and nicotine dependence. Nominal associations with lung cancer were observed at both 8p11 (rs6474412[T], odds ratio (OR) = 1.09, P = 0.04) and 19q13 (rs4105144[C], OR = 1.12, P = 0.0006). PMID:20418888

  12. Determinants of Cytochrome P450 2C8 Substrate Binding: Structures of Complexes With Montelukast, Troglitazone, Felodipine And 9-CIS-Retinoic Acid

    SciTech Connect

    Schoch, G.A.; Yano, J.K.; Dansette, P.M.; Stout, C.D.; Johnson, E.F.

    2009-05-27

    Although a crystal structure and a pharmacophore model are available for cytochrome P450 2C8, the role of protein flexibility and specific ligand-protein interactions that govern substrate binding are poorly understood. X-ray crystal structures of P450 2C8 complexed with montelukast (2.8 {angstrom}), troglitazone (2.7 {angstrom}), felodipine (2.3 {angstrom}), and 9-cis-retinoic acid (2.6 {angstrom}) were determined to examine ligand-protein interactions for these chemically diverse compounds. Montelukast is a relatively large anionic inhibitor that exhibits a tripartite structure and complements the size and shape of the active-site cavity. The inhibitor troglitazone occupies the upper portion of the active-site cavity, leaving a substantial part of the cavity unoccupied. The smaller neutral felodipine molecule is sequestered with its dichlorophenyl group positioned close to the heme iron, and water molecules fill the distal portion of the cavity. The structure of the 9-cis-retinoic acid complex reveals that two substrate molecules bind simultaneously in the active site of P450 2C8. A second molecule of 9-cis-retinoic acid is located above the proximal molecule and can restrain the position of the latter for more efficient oxygenation. Solution binding studies do not discriminate between cooperative and noncooperative models for multiple substrate binding. The complexes with structurally distinct ligands further demonstrate the conformational adaptability of active site-constituting residues, especially Arg-241, that can reorient in the active-site cavity to stabilize a negatively charged functional group and define two spatially distinct binding sites for anionic moieties of substrates.

  13. Different effects of proton pump inhibitors and famotidine on the clopidogrel metabolic activation by recombinant CYP2B6, CYP2C19 and CYP3A4.

    PubMed

    Ohbuchi, Masato; Noguchi, Kiyoshi; Kawamura, Akio; Usui, Takashi

    2012-07-01

    Inhibitory potential of proton pump inhibitors (PPIs) and famotidine, an H(2) receptor antagonist, on the metabolic activation of clopidogrel was evaluated using recombinant CYP2B6, CYP2C19 and CYP3A4. Formation of the active metabolite from an intermediate metabolite, 2-oxo-clopidogrel, was investigated by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry and three peaks corresponding to the pharmacologically active metabolite and its stereoisomers were detected. Omeprazole potently inhibited clopidogrel activation by CYP2C19 with an IC(50) of 12.8 μmol/L and more weakly inhibited that by CYP2B6 and CYP3A4. IC(50) of omeprazole for CYP2C19 and CYP3A4 was decreased about two- and three-fold, respectively, by 30-min preincubation with NADPH. Lansoprazole, esomeprazole, pantoprazole, rabeprazole and rabeprazole thioether, a major metabolite, also inhibited metabolic activation by CYP2C19, with an IC(50) of 4.3, 8.9, 48.3, 36.2 and 30.5 μmol/L, respectively. In contrast, famotidine showed no more than 20% inhibition of clopidogrel activation by CYP2B6, CYP2C19 and CYP3A4 at up to 100 μmol/L and had no time-dependent CYP2C19 and CYP3A4 inhibition. These results provide direct evidence that PPIs inhibit clopidogrel metabolic activation and suggest that CYP2C19 inhibition is the main cause of drug-drug interaction between clopidogrel and omeprazole. Famotidine is considered as a safe anti-acid agent for patients taking clopidogrel. PMID:22313038

  14. Synthesis and optical characterization of LiKB4O7, Li2B6O10, and LiCsB6O10 glasses.

    PubMed

    Adamiv, V; Teslyuk, I; Dyachok, Ya; Romanyuk, G; Krupych, O; Mys, O; Martynyuk-Lototska, I; Burak, Ya; Vlokh, R

    2010-10-01

    In the current work we report on the synthesis of LiKB(4)O(7), Li(2)B(6)O(10), and LiCsB(6)O(10) borate glasses. The results for their piezo-optic, acousto-optic, acoustic, elastic, refractive, optical transmission, and optical resistance properties are also presented. It is shown that some of these glasses represent efficient acousto-optic materials that are transparent down to the vacuum ultraviolet range and highly resistant to laser radiation. PMID:20885472

  15. Simultaneous determination of vitamins B1, B2, B6, and niacinamide in multivitamin pharmaceutical preparations by paired-ion reversed-phase high-pressure liquid chromatography.

    PubMed

    Kwok, R P; Rose, W P; Tabor, R; Pattison, T S

    1981-09-01

    A high-pressure liquid chromatographic procedure for the simultaneous determination of vitamins B1, B2, B6, and niacinamide in multivitamin pharmaceutical preparations was developed and evaluated. The method uses paired-ion reversed-phase partition chromatography for baseline separation of the four water-soluble vitamins. This method was applied to the analysis of a multivitamin and multivitamin-multimineral tablets, and a technique was developed to reduce vitamin adsorption by the minerals. The results obtained by this method were compared with those obtained by the official methods. It was concluded that this method is fast, accurate, specific, and suitable for routine quality control use. PMID:6101144

  16. Effect of Cytochrome b5 Content on the Activity of Polymorphic CYP1A2, 2B6, and 2E1 in Human Liver Microsomes

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Haifeng; Gao, Na; Liu, Tingting; Fang, Yan; Qi, Bing; Wen, Qiang; Zhou, Jun; Jia, Linjing; Qiao, Hailing

    2015-01-01

    Human cytochrome b5 (Cyt b5) plays important roles in cytochrome P450 (CYP)-mediated drug metabolism. However, the expression level of Cyt b5 in normal human liver remains largely unknown. The effect of Cyt b5 on overall CYP activity in human liver microsomes (HLM) has rarely been reported and the relationship between Cyt b5 and the activity of polymorphic CYP has not been systematically investigated. In this study, we found that the median value of Cyt b5 protein was 270.01 pmol/mg from 123 HLM samples, and 12- and 19-fold individual variation was observed in Cyt b5 mRNA and protein levels, respectively. Gender and smoking clearly influenced Cyt b5 content. In addition, we found that Cyt b5 protein levels significantly correlated with the overall activity of CYP1A2, 2B6, and 2E1 in HLM. However, when the CYP activities were sorted by single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNP), the effect of Cyt b5 protein on the kinetic parameters varied greatly. There were significant correlations between Cyt b5 content and Vmax and CLint of CYP1A2 wild-types (3860GG, 2159GG, and 5347CC) as well as homozygous mutants (163AA and 3113GG). In contrast to Vmax and CLint, the Km of CYP2B6 516GG and 785AA genotypes was inversely associated with Cyt b5 content. Correlations between Cyt b5 content and Vmax and CLint of CYP2E1 -1293GG, -1293GC, 7632TT, 7632TA, -333TT, and -352AA genotypes were also observed. In conclusion, Cyt b5 expression levels varied considerably in the Chinese cohort from this study. Cyt b5 had significant impact on the overall activity of CYP1A2, 2B6, and 2E1 in HLM and the effects of Cyt b5 protein on polymorphic CYP1A2, 2B6, and 2E1 activity were SNP-dependent. These findings suggest that Cyt b5 plays an important role in CYP-mediated activities in HLM and may possibly be a contributing factor for the individual variation observed in CYP enzyme activities. PMID:26046844

  17. Towards a Best Practice Approach in PBPK Modeling: Case Example of Developing a Unified Efavirenz Model Accounting for Induction of CYPs 3A4 and 2B6.

    PubMed

    Ke, A; Barter, Z; Rowland-Yeo, K; Almond, L

    2016-07-01

    In this study, we present efavirenz physiologically based pharmacokinetic (PBPK) model development as an example of our best practice approach that uses a stepwise approach to verify the different components of the model. First, a PBPK model for efavirenz incorporating in vitro and clinical pharmacokinetic (PK) data was developed to predict exposure following multiple dosing (600 mg q.d.). Alfentanil i.v. and p.o. drug-drug interaction (DDI) studies were utilized to evaluate and refine the CYP3A4 induction component in the liver and gut. Next, independent DDI studies with substrates of CYP3A4 (maraviroc, atazanavir, and clarithromycin) and CYP2B6 (bupropion) verified the induction components of the model (area under the curve [AUC] ratios within 1.0-1.7-fold of observed). Finally, the model was refined to incorporate the fractional contribution of enzymes, including CYP2B6, propagating autoinduction into the model (Racc 1.7 vs. 1.7 observed). This validated mechanistic model can now be applied in clinical pharmacology studies to prospectively assess both the victim and perpetrator DDI potential of efavirenz. PMID:27435752

  18. Towards a Best Practice Approach in PBPK Modeling: Case Example of Developing a Unified Efavirenz Model Accounting for Induction of CYPs 3A4 and 2B6

    PubMed Central

    Ke, A; Barter, Z; Rowland‐Yeo, K

    2016-01-01

    In this study, we present efavirenz physiologically based pharmacokinetic (PBPK) model development as an example of our best practice approach that uses a stepwise approach to verify the different components of the model. First, a PBPK model for efavirenz incorporating in vitro and clinical pharmacokinetic (PK) data was developed to predict exposure following multiple dosing (600 mg q.d.). Alfentanil i.v. and p.o. drug‐drug interaction (DDI) studies were utilized to evaluate and refine the CYP3A4 induction component in the liver and gut. Next, independent DDI studies with substrates of CYP3A4 (maraviroc, atazanavir, and clarithromycin) and CYP2B6 (bupropion) verified the induction components of the model (area under the curve [AUC] ratios within 1.0–1.7‐fold of observed). Finally, the model was refined to incorporate the fractional contribution of enzymes, including CYP2B6, propagating autoinduction into the model (Racc 1.7 vs. 1.7 observed). This validated mechanistic model can now be applied in clinical pharmacology studies to prospectively assess both the victim and perpetrator DDI potential of efavirenz. PMID:27435752

  19. Evidence of "new hot spots" from determining the nonlinear optical behavior of materials: mechanistic studies of the vanadium borate crystal, Na3VO2B6O11.

    PubMed

    Su, Xin; Yang, Zhihua; Lee, Ming-Hsien; Pan, Shilie; Wang, Ying; Fan, Xiaoyun; Huang, Zhenjun; Zhang, Bingbing

    2015-02-21

    A novel mechanism for the nonlinear optical (NLO) effects of vanadium borate crystals, Na3VO2B6O11 (NVB), with distorted VO4 groups was investigated. A comprehensive analysis of the structure-property relationship was performed by combining the experimental measurements, the electronic structures calculations, the SHG-weighted electron density and the real-space atom-contribution analysis to yield the linear and nonlinear optical properties. The contribution of a (VO4)(3-) anionic group to the second harmonic generation (SHG) response was more pronounced than that of the (BO3)(3-) anionic group, which plays a virtual role in the SHG effects in NVB. The anionic (BO3)(3-) groups make dominant contributions to the birefringence, whereas the contribution of the V(5+) cations to these linear optical effects is negligible. PMID:25609419

  20. High density H2 associative absorption on Titanium alpha-borozene (Ti2B6H6): An ab-initio case study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Akbarzadeh, Alireza; Tymzcak, C. J.

    2011-03-01

    Hydrogen is considered as a clean energy carrier that could be a future replacement for our addiction to fossil fuels. However, in order to have hydrogen economy at its highest efficiently we need to store hydrogen at high volumetric and gravimetric density. Using the all electron hybrid density functional theory, we have designed a benzene-like-molecule, Ti2B6H6, which has the promise of achieving this goal. Our results show that the molecule can associatively absorb the hydrogen up to ten percent by weight of hydrogen, which exceeds the 2015 US department of energy target. In this presentation we will discuss the mechanisms of H2 absorption and possible applications of this novel molecule. This research is funded by the Welch Foundation under Grant J. 1675 and the Texas Southern University High Performance Computing Center.

  1. Observed trends in ambient concentrations of C 2-C 8 hydrocarbons in the United Kingdom over the period from 1993 to 2004

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dollard, G. J.; Dumitrean, P.; Telling, S.; Dixon, J.; Derwent, R. G.

    Hourly measurements of up to 26 C 2-C 8 hydrocarbons have been made at eight urban background sites, three urban-industrial sites, a kerbside and a rural site in the UK from 1993 onwards up until the end of December 2004. Average annual mean benzene and 1,3-butadiene concentrations at urban background locations have declined at about -20% per year and the observed declines have exactly mimicked the inferred declines in benzene and 1,3-butadiene emissions over the same period. Ninety-day rolling mean concentrations of ethylene, propylene, n- and i-butane, n- and i-pentane, isoprene and propane at urban and rural sites have also declined steadily by between -10% and -30% per year. Rolling mean concentrations of acetylene, 2- and 3-methylpentane, n-hexane, n-heptane, cis- and trans-but-2-ene, cis- and trans-pent-2-ene, toluene, ethylbenzene and o-, m- and p-xylene at a roadside location in London have all declined at between -14% and -21% per year. These declines demonstrate that motor vehicle exhaust catalysts and evaporative canisters have effectively and efficiently controlled vehicular emissions of hydrocarbons in the UK. Urban ethane concentrations arising largely from natural gas leakage have remained largely unchanged over this same period.

  2. Efavirenz and Metabolites in Cerebrospinal Fluid: Relationship with CYP2B6 c.516G→T Genotype and Perturbed Blood-Brain Barrier Due to Tuberculous Meningitis

    PubMed Central

    Chau, Tran Thi Hong; Fisher, Martin; Nelson, Mark; Winston, Alan; Else, Laura; Carr, Daniel F.; Taylor, Steven; Ustianowski, Andrew; Back, David; Pirmohamed, Munir; Solomon, Tom; Farrar, Jeremy; Törok, M. Estée; Khoo, Saye

    2016-01-01

    Efavirenz (EFZ) has been associated with neuropsychiatric side effects. Recently, the 8-hydroxy-EFZ (8OH-EFZ) metabolite has been shown to be a potent neurotoxin in vitro, inducing neuronal damage at concentrations of 3.3 ng/ml. EFZ induced similar neuronal damage at concentrations of 31.6 ng/ml. We investigated the effect of genotype and blood-brain barrier integrity on EFZ metabolite concentrations in cerebrospinal fluid (CSF). We measured CSF drug concentrations in subjects from two separate study populations: 47 subjects with tuberculous meningitis (TBM) coinfection in Vietnam receiving 800 mg EFZ with standard antituberculous treatment and 25 subjects from the PARTITION study in the United Kingdom without central nervous system infection receiving 600 mg EFZ. EFZ and metabolite concentrations in CSF and plasma were measured and compared with estimates of effectiveness and neurotoxicity from available published in vitro and in vivo data. The effect of the CYP2B6 c.516G→T genotype (GG genotype, fast EFV metabolizer status; GT genotype, intermediate EFV metabolizer status; TT genotype, slow EFV metabolizer status) was examined. The mean CSF concentrations of EFZ and 8OH-EFZ in the TBM group were 60.3 and 39.3 ng/ml, respectively, and those in the no-TBM group were 15.0 and 5.9 ng/ml, respectively. Plasma EFZ and 8OH-EFZ concentrations were similar between the two groups. CSF EFZ concentrations were above the in vitro toxic concentration in 76% of samples (GG genotype, 61%; GT genotype, 90%; TT genotype, 100%) in the TBM group and 13% of samples (GG genotype, 0%; GT genotype, 18%; TT genotype, 50%) in the no-TBM group. CSF 8OH-EFZ concentrations were above the in vitro toxic concentration in 98% of the TBM group and 87% of the no-TBM group; levels were independent of genotype but correlated with the CSF/plasma albumin ratio. Potentially neurotoxic concentrations of 8OH-EFZ are frequently observed in CSF independently of the CYP2B6 genotype, particularly in those

  3. Primary role of cytochrome P450 2B6 in the oxidative metabolism of 2,2',4,4',6-pentabromodiphenyl ether (BDE-100) to hydroxylated BDEs.

    PubMed

    Gross, Michael S; Butryn, Deena M; McGarrigle, Barbara P; Aga, Diana S; Olson, James R

    2015-04-20

    Human exposure to polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) through various routes poses deleterious health effects. PBDEs are biotransformed into hydroxylated metabolites (OH-BDEs) via cytochrome P450s (P450s), which may add to their neurotoxic effects. This study characterizes the in vitro metabolism of 2,2',4,4',6-pentabromodiphenyl ether (BDE-100), one of the most abundant PBDE congeners found in humans, by recombinant human P450s and pooled human liver microsomes (HLMs). Ten recombinant P450s were individually incubated with BDE-100 to monitor P450-specific metabolism. P450 2B6 was found to be the predominant enzyme responsible for nearly all formation of six mono-OH-pentaBDE and two di-OH-pentaBDE metabolites. Four metabolites were identified as 3-hydroxy-2,2',4,4',6-pentabromodiphenyl ether (3-OH-BDE-100), 5'-hydroxy-2,2',4,4',6-pentabromodiphenyl ether (5'-OH-BDE-100), 6'-hydroxy-2,2',4,4',6-pentabromodiphenyl ether (6'-OH-BDE-100), and 4'-hydroxy-2,2',4,5',6-pentabromodiphenyl ether (4'-OH-BDE-103) through use of reference standards. The two remaining mono-OH-pentaBDE metabolites were hypothesized using mass spectral fragmentation characteristics of derivatized OH-BDEs, which allowed prediction of an ortho-OH-pentaBDE and a para-OH-pentaBDE positional isomer. Additional information based on theoretical boiling point calculations using COnductor-like Screening MOdel for Realistic Solvents (COSMO-RS) and experimental chromatographic retention times were used to identify the hypothesized metabolites as 2'-hydroxy-2,3',4,4',6-pentabromodiphenyl ether (2'-OH-BDE-119) and 4-hydroxy-2,2',4',5,6-pentabromodiphenyl ether (4-OH-BDE-91), respectively. Kinetic studies of BDE-100 metabolism using P450 2B6 and HLMs revealed Km values ranging from 4.9 to 7.0 μM and 6-10 μM, respectively, suggesting a high affinity toward the formation of OH-BDEs. Compared to the metabolism of 2,2',4,4'-tetrabromodiphenyl ether (BDE-47) and 2,2',4,4',5-pentabromodiphenyl ether (BDE-99

  4. CYP2C8-mediated interaction between repaglinide and steviol acyl glucuronide: In vitro investigations using rat and human matrices and in vivo pharmacokinetic evaluation in rats.

    PubMed

    Xu, Yunting; Zhou, Dandan; Wang, Yedong; Li, Jiajun; Wang, Meiyu; Lu, Jia; Zhang, Hongjian

    2016-08-01

    CYP2C8 is involved in the metabolic clearance of several important drugs and recent reports have shown that acyl glucuronides of gemfibrozil and clopidogrel are potent time-dependent inhibitors of CYP2C8 activity. In the present study, the inhibitory effect of steviol acyl glucuronide (SVAG), a circulating metabolite formed after the ingestion of rebaudioside A, was investigated using in vitro and in vivo systems. Results indicated that SVAG was a reversible but not a time-dependent inhibitor of CYP2C8-mediated paclitaxel 6α-hydroxylation. SVAG was also capable of inhibiting CYP2C8-mediated repaglinide 3'-hydroxylation in human liver microsomes and recombinant human CYP2C8, with Ki values of 15.8 μM and 11.6 μM, respectively. In contrast, SVAG did not exhibit inhibitory effect on CYP2C8 activity in rat liver microsomes. In addition, co-administration of rebaudioside A with repaglinide in rats did not lead to AUC and Cmax changes of repaglinide. Although mathematic prediction using a simplified mechanistic model revealed a moderate interaction potential between repaglinide and SVAG, cautions should be given to patients with hypoglycemia if repaglinide and rebaudioside A are used in combination for the blood sugar control. PMID:27259818

  5. Phytoremediation of the herbicides atrazine and metolachlor by transgenic rice plants expressing human CYP1A1, CYP2B6, and CYP2C19.

    PubMed

    Kawahigashi, Hiroyuki; Hirose, Sakiko; Ohkawa, Hideo; Ohkawa, Yasunobu

    2006-04-19

    This study evaluated the expression of human cytochrome P450 genes CYP1A1, CYP2B6, and CYP2C19 in rice plants (Oryza sativa cv. Nipponbare) introduced using the plasmid pIKBACH. The transgenic rice plants (pIKBACH rice plants) became more tolerant toward various herbicides than nontransgenic Nipponbare rice plants. Rice plants expressing pIKBACH grown in soil showed tolerance to the herbicides atrazine, metolachlor, and norflurazon and to a mixture of the three herbicides. The degradation of atrazine and metolachlor by pIKBACH rice plants was evaluated to confirm the metabolic activity of the introduced P450s. Although both pIKBACH and nontransgenic Nipponbare rice plants could decrease the amounts of the herbicides in plant tissue and culture medium, pIKBACH rice plants removed greater amounts in greenhouse experiments. The ability of pIKBACH rice plants to remove atrazine and metolachlor from soil was confirmed in large-scale experiments. The metabolism of herbicides by pIKBACH rice plants was enhanced by the introduced P450 species. Assuming that public and commercial acceptance is forthcoming, pIKBACH rice plants may become useful tools for the breeding of herbicide-tolerant crops and for phytoremediation of environmental pollution by organic chemicals. PMID:16608219

  6. Uptake, distribution, and formation of hemoglobin and DNA adducts after inhalation of C2-C8 1-alkenes (olefins) in the rat.

    PubMed

    Eide, I; Hagemann, R; Zahlsen, K; Tareke, E; Törnqvist, M; Kumar, R; Vodicka, P; Hemminki, K

    1995-07-01

    Absorption, distribution, elimination and hemoglobin and DNA adduct formation were studied in the rat after inhalation of individual C2-C8 1-alkenes (olefins) at 300 p.p.m., 12 h a day for 3 consecutive days. The concentrations of olefins were measured in blood, lung, brain, liver, kidney and perirenal fat immediately after each exposure and 12 h after the third exposure. DNA adducts were determined by 32P-postlabeling in liver, and lymphocytes sampled immediately after the last exposure. Hemoglobin adducts were determined by GC/MS and GC/MS/MS in erythrocytes sampled immediately after the last exposure. Concentrations of 1-alkenes in blood and organs reached a steady-state level after the first 12 h exposure, and the concentrations 12 h after the last exposure were generally low, except in fat tissue. Concentrations of 1-alkenes in blood and the different tissues increased with increasing number of carbon atoms. In contrast, levels of hemoglobin and DNA adducts decreased with increasing number of carbon atoms. The decrease was most pronounced from C2 to C3. The decrease through the whole homologous series from ethene to 1-octene was most pronounced for hemoglobin adducts followed by the DNA adducts in the lymphocytes. All 1-alkenes caused formation of detectable levels of hemoglobin and DNA adducts, although the levels of hemoglobin adducts after C4-C8 exposure were low. The project illustrates important aspects of the use of biomarkers. The structure-activity approach gives possibilities for extrapolation within the homologous series. PMID:7614695

  7. Crystal structure of a cytochrome P450 2B6 genetic variant in complex with the inhibitor 4-(4-chlorophenyl)imidazole at 2.0-A resolution.

    PubMed

    Gay, Sean C; Shah, Manish B; Talakad, Jyothi C; Maekawa, Keiko; Roberts, Arthur G; Wilderman, P Ross; Sun, Ling; Yang, Jane Y; Huelga, Stephanie C; Hong, Wen-Xu; Zhang, Qinghai; Stout, C David; Halpert, James R

    2010-04-01

    The structure of the K262R genetic variant of human cytochrome P450 2B6 in complex with the inhibitor 4-(4-chlorophenyl)imidazole (4-CPI) has been determined using X-ray crystallography to 2.0-A resolution. Production of diffraction quality crystals was enabled through a combination of protein engineering, chaperone coexpression, modifications to the purification protocol, and the use of unique facial amphiphiles during crystallization. The 2B6-4-CPI complex is virtually identical to the rabbit 2B4 structure bound to the same inhibitor with respect to the arrangement of secondary structural elements and the placement of active site residues. The structure supports prior P450 2B6 homology models based on other mammalian cytochromes P450 and is consistent with the limited site-directed mutagenesis studies on 2B6 and extensive studies on P450 2B4 and 2B1. Although the K262R genetic variant shows unaltered binding of 4-CPI, altered binding affinity, kinetics, and/or product profiles have been previously shown with several other ligands. On the basis of new P450 2B6 crystal structure and previous 2B4 structures, substitutions at residue 262 affect a hydrogen-bonding network connecting the G and H helices, where subtle differences could be transduced to the active site. Docking experiments indicate that the closed protein conformation allows smaller ligands such as ticlopidine to bind to the 2B6 active site in the expected orientation. However, it is unknown whether 2B6 undergoes structural reorganization to accommodate bulkier molecules, as previously inferred from multiple P450 2B4 crystal structures. PMID:20061448

  8. 42 CFR 2a.6 - Issuance of Confidentiality Certificates; single project limitation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Issuance of Confidentiality Certificates; single project limitation. 2a.6 Section 2a.6 Public Health PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES GENERAL PROVISIONS PROTECTION OF IDENTITY-RESEARCH SUBJECTS § 2a.6 Issuance of...

  9. 42 CFR 2a.6 - Issuance of Confidentiality Certificates; single project limitation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Issuance of Confidentiality Certificates; single project limitation. 2a.6 Section 2a.6 Public Health PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES GENERAL PROVISIONS PROTECTION OF IDENTITY-RESEARCH SUBJECTS § 2a.6 Issuance of...

  10. 42 CFR 2a.6 - Issuance of Confidentiality Certificates; single project limitation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Issuance of Confidentiality Certificates; single project limitation. 2a.6 Section 2a.6 Public Health PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES GENERAL PROVISIONS PROTECTION OF IDENTITY-RESEARCH SUBJECTS § 2a.6 Issuance of...

  11. 42 CFR 2a.6 - Issuance of Confidentiality Certificates; single project limitation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Issuance of Confidentiality Certificates; single project limitation. 2a.6 Section 2a.6 Public Health PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES GENERAL PROVISIONS PROTECTION OF IDENTITY-RESEARCH SUBJECTS § 2a.6 Issuance of...

  12. 42 CFR 2a.6 - Issuance of Confidentiality Certificates; single project limitation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Issuance of Confidentiality Certificates; single project limitation. 2a.6 Section 2a.6 Public Health PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES GENERAL PROVISIONS PROTECTION OF IDENTITY-RESEARCH SUBJECTS § 2a.6 Issuance of...

  13. Structures of cytochrome P450 2B6 bound to 4-benzylpyridine and 4-(4-nitrobenzyl)pyridine: insight into inhibitor binding and rearrangement of active site side chains.

    PubMed

    Shah, Manish B; Pascual, Jaime; Zhang, Qinghai; Stout, C David; Halpert, James R

    2011-12-01

    The biochemical, biophysical, and structural analysis of the cytochrome P450 2B subfamily of enzymes has provided a wealth of information regarding conformational plasticity and substrate recognition. The recent X-ray crystal structure of the drug-metabolizing P450 2B6 in complex with 4-(4-chlorophenyl)imidazole (4-CPI) yielded the first atomic view of this human enzyme. However, knowledge of the structural basis of P450 2B6 specificity and inhibition has remained limited. In this study, structures of P450 2B6 were determined in complex with the potent inhibitors 4-benzylpyridine (4-BP) and 4-(4-nitrobenzyl)pyridine (4-NBP). Comparison of the present structures with the previous P450 2B6-4-CPI complex showed that reorientation of side chains of the active site residue Phe206 on the F-helix and Phe297 on the I-helix was necessary to accommodate the inhibitors. However, P450 2B6 does not require any major side chain rearrangement to bind 4-NBP compared with 4-BP, and the enzyme provides no hydrogen-bonding partners for the polar nitro group of 4-NBP within the hydrophobic active site. In addition, on the basis of these new structures, substitution of residue 172 with histidine as observed in the single nucleotide polymorphism Q172H and in P450 2B4 may contribute to a hydrogen bonding network connecting the E- and I-helices, thereby stabilizing active site residues on the I-helix. These results provide insight into the role of active site side chains upon inhibitor binding and indicate that the recognition of the benzylpyridines in the closed conformation structure of P450 2B6 is based solely on hydrophobicity, size, and shape. PMID:21875942

  14. In vitro inhibition and induction of human liver cytochrome P450 enzymes by gentiopicroside: potent effect on CYP2A6.

    PubMed

    Deng, Yating; Wang, Lu; Yang, Yong; Sun, Wenji; Xie, Renming; Liu, Xueying; Wang, Qingwei

    2013-01-01

    Gentiopicroside (GE), a naturally occurring iridoid glycoside, has been developed into a Novel Traditional Chinese Drug named gentiopicroside injection, and it was approved for the treatment of acute jaundice and chronic active hepatitis by SFDA. However, the inhibitory and inducible effects of GE on the activity of cytochrome P450 (CYP450) are unclear. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the ability of GE to inhibit and induce human cytochrome P450 enzymes in vitro. In human liver microsomes, GE inhibited CYP2A6 and CYP2E1 in a concentration-dependent manner, with IC₅₀ values of 21.8 µg/ml and 594 µg/ml, respectively, and the IC₅₀ of CYP2A6 was close to the C(max) value observed clinically. GE was a non-competitive inhibitor of CYP2A6 at lower concentrations and a competitive inhibitor at higher concentrations. GE did not produce inhibition of CYP2C9, CYP2D6, CYP1A2 or CYP3A4 activities. However, a significant increase of CYP1A2 and CYP3A4 activity was observed at high concentrations. In cultured human hepatocytes no significant induction of CYP1A2, CYP3A4 or CYP2B6 was observed. Given these results, the in vivo potential inhibition of GE on CYP2A6 deserves further investigation, and it seems that the hepatoprotective effect of GE is irrelevant to its effect on P450s. PMID:23419353

  15. Evaluation of metabolism dependent inhibition of CYP2B6 mediated bupropion hydroxylation in human liver microsomes by monoamine oxidase inhibitors and prediction of potential as perpetrators of drug interaction.

    PubMed

    Nirogi, Ramakrishna; Palacharla, Raghava Choudary; Mohammed, Abdul Rasheed; Manoharan, Arunkumar; Ponnamaneni, Ranjith Kumar; Bhyrapuneni, Gopinadh

    2015-03-25

    The objective of the study was to evaluate the metabolism dependent inhibition of CYP2B6 catalyzed bupropion hydroxylation in human liver microsomes by monoamine oxidase (MAO) inhibitors and to predict the drug-drug interaction potential of monoamine oxidase inhibitors as perpetrators of drug interaction. Human liver microsomal CYP2B6 activities were investigated using bupropion hydroxylation as probe substrate marker. The results from single point time dependent inhibition and shift assays suggest that clorgyline, pargyline, phenelzine, and selegiline were metabolism based inhibitors of CYP2B6. In IC50 shift assays, clorgyline, pargyline, phenelzine and selegiline are metabolism based inhibitors of CYP2B6 with fold shit of 3.0-, 3.7-, 2.9-, and 11.4-fold respectively. The inactivation of clorgyline was characterized by KI value of 2.5 ± 0.3 and k(inact) value of 0.045 ± 0.001 min(-1). Phenelzine inactivated CYP2B6 with KI and k(inact) values of 44.9 ± 6.9 μM and 0.085 ± 0.003 min(-1) respectively. Inactivation of selegiline was characterized with KI and k(inact) values of 22.0 ± 3.3 and 0.074 ± 0.002 min(-1) respectively. The inactivation caused by these inhibitors was not reversed by dialysis indicating irreversible inhibition. Based on the mechanistic static model, selegiline showed an increase in the area under the curve (AUC) of efavirenz and bupropion by 1.01-fold. Phenelzine predicted to cause an increase in the AUC of efavirenz and bupropion by 9.4- and 2.4-fold respectively considering unbound hepatic inlet concentrations of phenelzine. In conclusion, the results from this study demonstrated that MAO inhibitors can inactivate human liver microsomal CYP2B6. The likelihood of drug interaction when selegiline co-administered with CYP2B6 substrates is remote. Caution is required while co-administering phenelzine with substrates that are exclusively metabolized by CYP2B6 enzyme and substrates that have narrow therapeutic index. PMID:25656918

  16. High CYP2A6 Enzyme Activity as Measured by a Caffeine Test and Unique Distribution of CYP2A6 Variant Alleles in Ethiopian Population

    PubMed Central

    Djordjevic, Natasa; Carrillo, Juan Antonio; Makonnen, Eyasu; Bertilsson, Leif; Ingelman-Sundberg, Magnus

    2014-01-01

    Abstract CYP2A6 metabolizes clinically relevant drugs, including antiretroviral and antimalarial drugs of major public health importance for the African populations. CYP2A6 genotype–phenotype relationship in African populations, and implications of geographic differences on enzyme activity, remain to be investigated. We evaluated the influence of CYP2A6 genotype, geographical differences, gender, and cigarette smoking on enzyme activity, using caffeine as a probe in 100 healthy unrelated Ethiopians living in Ethiopia, and 72 living in Sweden. CYP2A6 phenotype was estimated by urinary 1,7-dimethyluric acid (17U)/1,7-dimethylxanthine or paraxanthine (17X) ratio. The frequencies of CYP2A6*1B, *1D, *2, *4, *9, and *1x2 in Ethiopians were 31.3, 29.4, 0.6, 0.6, 2.8, and 0.3%, respectively. The overall mean±SD for log 17U/17X was 0.12±0.24 and coefficient of variation 199%. No significant difference in the mean log 17U/17X ratio between Ethiopians living in Sweden versus Ethiopia was observed. Analysis of variance revealed CYP2A6 genotype (p=0.04, F=2.01) but not geographical differences, sex, or cigarette smoking as predictors of CYP2A6 activity. Importantly, the median (interquartile range) of 17U/17X ratio in Ethiopians 1.35 (0.99 to 1.84) was 3- and 11-fold higher than the previously reported value in Swedes 0.52 (0.27 to 1.00) and Koreans 0.13 (0.0 to 0.35), respectively (Djordjevic et al., 2013). Taken together, we report here the relevance of CYP2A6 genotype for enzyme activity in this Ethiopian sample, as well as high CYP2A6 activity and unique distribution of the CYP2A6 variant alleles in Ethiopians as compared other populations described hitherto. Because Omics biomarker research is rapidly accelerating in Africa, CYP2A6 pharmacogenetics and clinical pharmacology observations reported herein for the Ethiopian populations have clinical and biological importance to plan for future rational therapeutics efforts in the African continent as well as therapeutics

  17. Inhibition of CYP2B6 by Medicinal Plant Extracts: Implication for Use of Efavirenz and Nevirapine-Based Highly Active Anti-Retroviral Therapy (HAART) in Resource-Limited Settings.

    PubMed

    Thomford, Nicholas E; Awortwe, Charles; Dzobo, Kevin; Adu, Faustina; Chopera, Denis; Wonkam, Ambroise; Skelton, Michelle; Blackhurst, Dee; Dandara, Collet

    2016-01-01

    Highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) has greatly improved health parameters of HIV infected individuals. However, there are several challenges associated with the chronic nature of HAART administration. For populations in health transition, dual use of medicinal plant extracts and conventional medicine poses a significant challenge. There is need to evaluate interactions between commonly used medicinal plant extracts and antiretroviral drugs used against HIV/AIDS. Efavirenz (EFV) and nevirapine (NVP) are the major components of HAART both metabolized by CYP2B6, an enzyme that can potentially be inhibited or induced by compounds found in medicinal plant extracts. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effects of extracts of selected commonly used medicinal plants on CYP2B6 enzyme activity. Recombinant human CYP2B6 was used to evaluate inhibition, allowing the assessment of herb-drug interactions (HDI) of medicinal plants Hyptis suaveolens, Myrothamnus flabellifolius, Launaea taraxacifolia, Boerhavia diffusa and Newbouldia laevis. The potential of these medicinal extracts to cause HDI was ranked accordingly for reversible inhibition and also classified as potential time-dependent inhibitor (TDI) candidates. The most potent inhibitor for CYP2B6 was Hyptis suaveolens extract (IC50 = 19.09 ± 1.16 µg/mL), followed by Myrothamnus flabellifolius extract (IC50 = 23.66 ± 4.86 µg/mL), Launaea taraxacifolia extract (IC50 = 33.87 ± 1.54 µg/mL), and Boerhavia diffusa extract (IC50 = 34.93 ± 1.06 µg/mL). Newbouldia laevis extract, however, exhibited weak inhibitory effects (IC50 = 100 ± 8.71 µg/mL) on CYP2B6. Launaea taraxacifolia exhibited a TDI (3.17) effect on CYP2B6 and showed a high concentration of known CYP450 inhibitory phenolic compounds, chlorogenic acid and caffeic acid. The implication for these observations is that drugs that are metabolized by CYP2B6 when co-administered with these herbal medicines and when adequate amounts of the extracts

  18. Inactivation of CYP2A6 by the Dietary Phenylpropanoid trans-Cinnamic Aldehyde (Cinnamaldehyde) and Estimation of Interactions with Nicotine and Letrozole.

    PubMed

    Chan, Jeannine; Oshiro, Tyler; Thomas, Sarah; Higa, Allyson; Black, Stephen; Todorovic, Aleksandar; Elbarbry, Fawzy; Harrelson, John P

    2016-04-01

    Human exposure to trans-cinnamic aldehyde [t-CA; cinnamaldehyde; cinnamal; (E)-3-phenylprop-2-enal] is common through diet and through the use of cinnamon powder for diabetes and to provide flavor and scent in commercial products. We evaluated the likelihood of t-CA to influence metabolism by inhibition of P450 enzymes. IC50 values from recombinant enzymes indicated that an interaction is most probable for CYP2A6 (IC50 = 6.1 µM). t-CA was 10.5-fold more selective for human CYP2A6 than for CYP2E1; IC50 values for P450s 1A2, 2B6, 2C9, 2C19, 2D6, and 3A4 were 15.8-fold higher or more. t-CA is a type I ligand for CYP2A6 (KS = 14.9 µM). Inhibition of CYP2A6 by t-CA was metabolism-dependent; inhibition required NADPH and increased with time. Glutathione lessened the extent of inhibition modestly and statistically significantly. The carbon monoxide binding spectrum was dramatically diminished after exposure to NADPH and t-CA, suggesting degradation of the heme or CYP2A6 apoprotein. Using a static model and mechanism-based inhibition parameters (K(I) = 18.0 µM; k(inact) = 0.056 minute(-1)), changes in the area under the concentration-time curve (AUC) for nicotine and letrozole were predicted in the presence of t-CA (0.1 and 1 µM). The AUC fold-change ranged from 1.1 to 3.6. In summary, t-CA is a potential source of pharmacokinetic variability for CYP2A6 substrates due to metabolism-dependent inhibition, especially in scenarios when exposure to t-CA is elevated due to high dietary exposure, or when cinnamon is used as a treatment of specific disease states (e.g., diabetes). PMID:26851241

  19. A long-standing mystery solved: the formation of 3-hydroxydesloratadine is catalyzed by CYP2C8 but prior glucuronidation of desloratadine by UDP-glucuronosyltransferase 2B10 is an obligatory requirement.

    PubMed

    Kazmi, Faraz; Barbara, Joanna E; Yerino, Phyllis; Parkinson, Andrew

    2015-04-01

    Desloratadine (Clarinex), the major active metabolite of loratadine (Claritin), is a nonsedating long-lasting antihistamine that is widely used for the treatment of allergic rhinitis and chronic idiopathic urticaria. For over 20 years, it has remained a mystery as to which enzymes are responsible for the formation of 3-hydroxydesloratadine, the major active human metabolite, largely due to the inability of any in vitro system tested thus far to generate this metabolite. In this study, we demonstrated that cryopreserved human hepatocytes (CHHs) form 3-hydroxydesloratadine and its corresponding O-glucuronide. CHHs catalyzed the formation of 3-hydroxydesloratadine with a Km of 1.6 μM and a Vmax of 1.3 pmol/min per million cells. Chemical inhibition of cytochrome P450 (P450) enzymes in CHHs demonstrated that gemfibrozil glucuronide (CYP2C8 inhibitor) and 1-aminobenzotriazole (general P450 inhibitor) inhibited 3-hydroxydesloratadine formation by 91% and 98%, respectively. Other inhibitors of CYP2C8 (gemfibrozil, montelukast, clopidogrel glucuronide, repaglinide, and cerivastatin) also caused extensive inhibition of 3-hydroxydesloratadine formation (73%-100%). Assessment of desloratadine, amodiaquine, and paclitaxel metabolism by a panel of individual CHHs demonstrated that CYP2C8 marker activity robustly correlated with 3-hydroxydesloratadine formation (r(2) of 0.70-0.90). Detailed mechanistic studies with sonicated or saponin-treated CHHs, human liver microsomes, and S9 fractions showed that both NADPH and UDP-glucuronic acid are required for 3-hydroxydesloratadine formation, and studies with recombinant UDP-glucuronosyltransferase (UGT) and P450 enzymes implicated the specific involvement of UGT2B10 in addition to CYP2C8. Overall, our results demonstrate for the first time that desloratadine glucuronidation by UGT2B10 followed by CYP2C8 oxidation and a deconjugation event are responsible for the formation of 3-hydroxydesloratadine. PMID:25595597

  20. Metabolism of bilirubin by human cytochrome P450 2A6

    SciTech Connect

    Abu-Bakar, A'edah; Arthur, Dionne M.; Wikman, Anna S.; Rahnasto, Minna; Juvonen, Risto O.; Vepsäläinen, Jouko; Raunio, Hannu; Ng, Jack C.; Lang, Matti A.

    2012-05-15

    The mouse cytochrome P450 (CYP) 2A5 has recently been shown to function as hepatic “Bilirubin Oxidase” (Abu-Bakar, A., et al., 2011. Toxicol. Appl. Pharmacol. 257, 14–22). To date, no information is available on human CYP isoforms involvement in bilirubin metabolism. In this paper we provide novel evidence for human CYP2A6 metabolising the tetrapyrrole bilirubin. Incubation of bilirubin with recombinant yeast microsomes expressing the CYP2A6 showed that bilirubin inhibited CYP2A6-dependent coumarin 7-hydroxylase activity to almost 100% with an estimated K{sub i} of 2.23 μM. Metabolite screening by a high-performance liquid chromatography/electrospray ionisation mass spectrometry indicated that CYP2A6 oxidised bilirubin to biliverdin and to three other smaller products with m/z values of 301, 315 and 333. Molecular docking analyses indicated that bilirubin and its positively charged intermediate interacted with key amino acid residues at the enzyme's active site. They were stabilised at the site in a conformation favouring biliverdin formation. By contrast, the end product, biliverdin was less fitting to the active site with the critical central methylene bridge distanced from the CYP2A6 haem iron facilitating its release. Furthermore, bilirubin treatment of HepG2 cells increased the CYP2A6 protein and activity levels with no effect on the corresponding mRNA. Co-treatment with cycloheximide (CHX), a protein synthesis inhibitor, resulted in increased half-life of the CYP2A6 compared to cells treated only with CHX. Collectively, the observations indicate that the CYP2A6 may function as human “Bilirubin Oxidase” where bilirubin is potentially a substrate and a regulator of the enzyme. -- Highlights: ► Human CYP2A6 interacts with bilirubin with a high affinity. ► Bilirubin docking to the CYP2A6 active site is more stable than biliverdin docking. ► Recombinant CYP2A6 microsomes metabolised bilirubin to biliverdin. ► Bilirubin increased the hepatic CYP2

  1. Effects of CYP2B6 and CYP1A2 Genetic Variation on Nevirapine Plasma Concentration and Pharmacodynamics as Measured by CD4 Cell Count in Zimbabwean HIV-Infected Patients

    PubMed Central

    Mhandire, Doreen; Lacerda, Miguel; Castel, Sandra; Mhandire, Kudakwashe; Zhou, Danai; Swart, Marelize; Shamu, Tinei; Smith, Peter; Musingwini, Tutsirai; Wiesner, Lubbe; Stray-Pedersen, Babill

    2015-01-01

    Abstract The extremely high prevalence of HIV/AIDS in sub-Saharan Africa and limitations of current antiretroviral medicines demand new tools to optimize therapy such as pharmacogenomics for person-to-person variations. African populations exhibit greater genetic diversity than other world populations, thus making it difficult to extrapolate findings from one population to another. Nevirapine, an antiretroviral medicine, displays large plasma concentration variability which adversely impacts therapeutic virological response. This study, therefore, aimed to identify sources of variability in nevirapine pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics, focusing on genetic variation in CYP2B6 and CYP1A2. Using a cross-sectional study design, 118 HIV-infected adult Zimbabwean patients on nevirapine-containing highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) were characterized for three key functional single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs), CYP2B6 c.516G>T (rs3745274), CYP2B6 c.983T>C (rs28399499), and CYP1A2 g.-163C>A (rs762551). We investigated whether genotypes at these loci were associated with nevirapine plasma concentration, a therapeutic biomarker, and CD4 cell count, a biomarker of disease progression. CYP2B6 and CYP1A2 were chosen as the candidate genes based on reports in literature, as well as their prominence in the metabolism of efavirenz, a drug in the same class with nevirapine. Nevirapine plasma concentration was determined using LC-MS/MS. The mean nevirapine concentration for CYP2B6 c.516T/T genotype differed significantly from that of 516G/G (p < 0.001) and 516G/T (p < 0.01) genotypes, respectively. There were also significant differences in mean nevirapine concentration between CYP2B6 c.983T > C genotypes (p = 0.04). Importantly, the CYP1A2 g.-163C>A SNP was significantly associated with the pharmacodynamics endpoint, the CD4 cell count (p = 0.012). Variant allele frequencies for the three SNPs observed in this Zimbabwean group were similar to

  2. CYP2A6 Polymorphisms May Strengthen Individualized Treatment for Nicotine Dependence

    PubMed Central

    Akrodou, Yawo Mawuli

    2015-01-01

    Each CYP2A6 gene variant metabolizes nicotine differently depending on its enzymatic activities. The normal nicotine metabolizer CYP2A6*1A is associated with high scores of nicotine dependence (5–10) on the Fagerström Test for Nicotine Dependence (FTND) scale because it encodes for enzymes that catalyze nicotine 100%. Slow nicotine metabolizers (i.e., CYP2A6*1H, CYP2A6*4A, CYP2A6*9, and CYP2A6*12A) are associated with underrated nicotine metabolizing activity (50%–75%), linking them to low scores for nicotine dependence (0–4) on the FTND scale. In a clinical trial involving the use of bupropion, people who were carriers of slow nicotine metabolizers were found to have a tendency to maintain abstinence 1.7 times longer than people with normal nicotine metabolizers. An overview of CYP2A6 polymorphism enzymatic activities in nicotine dependence etiology and treatment revealed that slow nicotine metabolizers may strengthen the individualized treatment of nicotine dependence. PMID:26060595

  3. CYP2B6*6 genotype and high efavirenz plasma concentration but not nevirapine are associated with low lumefantrine plasma exposure and poor treatment response in HIV-malaria-coinfected patients.

    PubMed

    Maganda, B A; Minzi, O M S; Ngaimisi, E; Kamuhabwa, A A R; Aklillu, E

    2016-02-01

    We investigated the influence of efavirenz (EFV)- or nevirapine (NVP)-based antiretroviral therapy (ART) on lumefantrine plasma exposure in HIV-malaria-coinfected patients and implication of pharmacogenetic variations. A total of 269 HIV patients with uncomplicated falciparum malaria on NVP-based ART (NVP-arm), EFV-based ART (EFV-arm) or not receiving ART (control-arm) were enrolled and treated with artemether-lumefantrine. Day-7 lumefantrine, baseline EFV and NVP plasma concentrations, and CYP2B6*6,*18, CYP3A4*1B, CYP3A5*3,*6,*7, ABCB1 c.3435C>T and ABCB1 c.4036A>G genotypes were determined. The median day-7 lumefantrine plasma concentration was significantly lower in the EFV-arm compared with that in NVP- and control-arm. High EFV plasma concentrations and CYP2B6*6/*6 genotype significantly correlated with low lumefantrine plasma concentrations and high rate of recurrent parasitemia. No significant effect of NVP-based ART on lumefantrine exposure was observed. In conclusion, owing to long-term CYP3A induction, EFV-based ART cotreatment significantly reduces lumefantrine plasma exposure leading to poor malaria treatment response, which is more pronounced in CYP2B6 slow metabolizers. PMID:25963334

  4. In vitro metabolism of (-)-camphor using human liver microsomes and CYP2A6.

    PubMed

    Gyoubu, Kunihiko; Miyazawa, Mitsuo

    2007-02-01

    The in vitro metabolism of (-)-camphor was examined in human liver microsomes and recombinant enzymes. Biotransformation of (-)-camphor was investigated by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). (-)-Camphor was oxidized to 5-exo-hydroxyfenchone by human liver microsomal cytochrome (P450) enzymes. The formation of metabolites of (-)-camphor was determined by the relative abundance of mass fragments and retention time on gas chromatography (GC). CYP2A6 was the major enzyme involved in the hydroxylation of (-)-camphor by human liver microsomes, based on the following lines of evidence. First, of eleven recombinant human P450 enzymes tested, CYP2A6 catalyzed the oxidation of (-)-camphor. Second, oxidation of (-)-camphor was inhibited by (+)-menthofuran and anti-CYP2A6 antibody. Finally, there was a good correlation between CYP2A6 contents and (-)-camphor hydroxylation activities in liver microsomes of 9 human samples. PMID:17268056

  5. Complex Drug Interactions of HIV Protease Inhibitors 2: In Vivo Induction and In Vitro to In Vivo Correlation of Induction of Cytochrome P450 1A2, 2B6, and 2C9 by Ritonavir or Nelfinavir

    PubMed Central

    Kirby, Brian J.; Collier, Ann C.; Kharasch, Evan D.; Dixit, Vaishali; Desai, Pankaj; Whittington, Dale; Thummel, Kenneth E.

    2011-01-01

    Drug-drug interactions (DDIs) with the HIV protease inhibitors (PIs) are complex, paradoxical (e.g., ritonavir/alprazolam), and involve multiple mechanisms. As part of a larger study to better understand these DDIs and to devise a framework for in vitro to in vivo prediction of these DDIs, we determined the inductive effect of ∼2 weeks of administration of two prototypic PIs, nelfinavir (NFV), ritonavir (RTV), and rifampin (RIF; induction positive control) on the cytochrome P450 enzymes CYP1A2, CYP2B6, CYP2C9, and CYP2D6 and the inductive or inductive plus inhibitory effect of NFV, RTV, or RIF on CYP3A and P-glycoprotein in healthy human volunteers. Statistically significant induction of CYP1A2 (2.1-, 2.9-, and 2.2-fold), CYP2B6 (1.8-, 2.4-, and 4-fold), and CYP2C9 (1.3-, 1.8-, and 2.6-fold) was observed after NFV, RTV, or RIF treatment, respectively (as expected, CYP2D6 was not induced). Moreover, we accurately predicted the in vivo induction of these enzymes by quantifying their induction by the PIs in human hepatocytes and by using RIF as an in vitro to in vivo scalar. On the basis of the modest in vivo induction of CYP1A2, CYP2B6, or CYP2C9, the in vivo paradoxical DDIs with the PIs are likely explained by mechanisms other than induction of these enzymes such as induction of other metabolic enzymes, transporters, or both. PMID:21930825

  6. Associations of CYP2A6 genotype with smoking behaviors in southern China

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Tao; David, Sean P.; Tyndale, Rachel F.; Wang, Hui; Zhou, Qian; Ding, Peng; He, Yan-Hui; Yu, Xue-Qing; Chen, Wei; Crump, Casey; Wen, Xiao-Zhong; Chen, Wei-Qing

    2011-01-01

    Aims To investigate the association of CYP2A6 genetic polymorphisms with smoking-related phenotypes in Chinese smokers. Design Case-only genetic association study. Setting Southern China Participants A total of 1,328 Han Chinese smokers who participated in a community-based chronic disease screening project in Guangzhou and Zhuhai from 2006 to 2007. Measurements All participants were answered a structured questionnaire about socio-demographic status and smoking behaviors and informative alleles for the cytochrome P450 2A6 (CYP2A6) gene (CYP2A6 *4, *5, *7, *9 and *10) were genotyped. Findings The frequencies of CYP2A6 *4, *5, *7, *9 and *10 alleles were 8.5%, 1.2%, 6.3%, 13.5% and 2.4%, which corresponded to 48.9%, 15.4%, 24.2% and 11.5% of participants being classified as normal, intermediate, slow and poor metabolizers, respectively. Multivariate analyses demonstrated that compared with normal metabolizers, poor metabolizers reported smoking fewer cigarettes per day (adjusted OR = 0.49; 95% CI: 0.32–0.76), started smoking regularly later in life (adjusted OR = 1.55; 95% CI: 1.06–2.26) and, amongst former smokers, reported smoking for a shorter duration prior to quitting (adjusted OR = 0.33; 95% CI: 0.12–0.94). However, poor metabolizers were less likely to quit smoking and remain abstinent than normal metabolizers (OR = 0.54; 95% CI: 0.34–0.86). Conclusions Reduced metabolism function of CYP2A6 in smokers appears to be associated with fewer cigarettes smoked, later initiation of smoking regularly, shorter smoking duration and lower likelihood of smoking cessation. PMID:21205058

  7. Effect of buffer conditions on CYP2C8-mediated paclitaxel 6α-hydroxylation and CYP3A4-mediated triazolam α- and 4-hydroxylation by human liver microsomes.

    PubMed

    Kudo, Toshiyuki; Ozaki, Yuya; Kusano, Tomomi; Hotta, Eri; Oya, Yuka; Komatsu, Seina; Goda, Hitomi; Ito, Kiyomi

    2016-01-01

    1. Buffer conditions in in vitro metabolism studies using human liver microsomes (HLM) have been reported to affect the metabolic activities of several cytochrome P450 (CYP) isozymes in different ways, although there are no reports about the dependence of CYP2C8 activity on buffer conditions. 2. The present study investigated the effect of buffer components (phosphate or Tris-HCl) and their concentration (10-200 mM) on the CYP2C8 and CYP3A4 activities of HLM, using paclitaxel and triazolam, respectively, as marker substrates. 3. The Km (or S50) and Vmax values for both paclitaxel 6α-hydroxylation and triazolam α- and 4-hydroxylation, estimated by fitting analyses based on the Michaelis-Menten or Hill equation, greatly depended on the buffer components and their concentration. 4. The CLint values in phosphate buffer were 1.2-3.0-fold (paclitaxel) or 3.1-6.4-fold (triazolam) higher than in Tris-HCl buffer at 50-100 mM. These values also depended on the buffer concentration, with a maximum 2.3-fold difference observed between 50 and 100 mM which are both commonly used in drug metabolism studies. 5. These findings suggest the necessity for optimization of the buffer conditions in the quantitative evaluation of metabolic clearances, such as in vitro-in vivo extrapolation and also estimating the contribution of a particular enzyme in drug metabolism. PMID:26290405

  8. Structural Insight Into the Altered Substrate Specificity of Human Cytochrome P450 2a6 Mutants

    SciTech Connect

    Sansen, S.; Hsu, M.-H.; Stout, C.David.; Johnson, E.F.

    2007-07-12

    Human P450 2A6 displays a small active site that is well adapted for the oxidation of small planar substrates. Mutagenesis of CYP2A6 resulted in an increased catalytic efficiency for indole biotransformation to pigments and conferred a capacity to oxidize substituted indoles (Wu, Z.-L., Podust, L.M., Guengerich, F.P. J. Biol. Chem. 49 (2005) 41090-41100.). Here, we describe the structural basis that underlies the altered metabolic profile of three mutant enzymes, P450 2A6 N297Q, L240C/N297Q and N297Q/I300V. The Asn297 substitution abolishes a potential hydrogen bonding interaction with substrates in the active site, and replaces a structural water molecule between the helix B-C region and helix I while maintaining structural hydrogen bonding interactions. The structures of the P450 2A6 N297Q/L240C and N297Q/I300V mutants provide clues as to how the protein can adapt to fit the larger substituted indoles in the active site, and enable a comparison with other P450 family 2 enzymes for which the residue at the equivalent position was seen to function in isozyme specificity, structural integrity and protein flexibility.

  9. Metabolism of (+)- and (-)-menthols by CYP2A6 in human liver microsomes.

    PubMed

    Miyazawa, Mitsuo; Marumoto, Shinsuke; Takahashi, Toshiyuki; Nakahashi, Hiroshi; Haigou, Risa; Nakanishi, Kyousuke

    2011-01-01

    The in vitro metabolism of (+)-(1S,3S,4R) and (-)-(1R,3R,4S)-menthol enantiomers was examined by incubation with human liver microsomes, and the oxidative metabolites thus formed were analyzed using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). The (+)- and (-)-menthols were found to be oxidized to the respective (+)-(1S,3S,4S)- and (-)-(1R,3R,4R)-trans-p-menthane-3,8-diol derivatives by human liver microsomal P450 enzymes. Cytochrome P450 (CYP) 2A6 was determined to be the major enzyme involved in the hydroxylation of (+)- and (-)-menthols by human liver microsomes on the basis of the following lines of evidence. First, of 11 recombinant human P450 enzymes tested, CYP2A6 catalyzed the oxidation of (+)- and (-)-menthols. Second, oxidation of (+)- and (-)-menthols was inhibited by (+)-menthofuran and anti-CYP2A6 antibody. Finally, (+)- and (-)-menthol activities were found to correlate with contents of CYP2A6 in liver microsomes of 9 human samples. PMID:21343660

  10. Biotransformation of methyl tert-butyl ether by human cytochrome P450 2A6.

    PubMed

    Shamsipur, Mojtaba; Miran Beigi, Ali Akbar; Teymouri, Mohammad; Poursaberi, Tahereh; Mostafavi, S Mojtaba; Soleimani, Parviz; Chitsazian, Fereshteh; Tash, Shahram Abolhassan

    2012-04-01

    Methyl tert-butyl ether (MTBE) is widely used as gasoline oxygenate and octane number enhancer for more complete combustion in order to reduce the air pollution caused by motor vehicle exhaust. The possible adverse effects of MTBE on human health are of major public concern. However, information on the metabolism of MTBE in human tissues is scarce. The present study demonstrates that human cytochrome P450 2A6 is able to metabolize MTBE to tert-butyl alcohol (TBA), a major circulating metabolite and marker for exposure to MTBE. As CYP2A6 is known to be constitutively expressed in human livers, we infer that it may play a significant role in metabolism of gasoline ethers in liver tissue. PMID:21915685

  11. Expansion of a PBPK model to predict disposition in pregnant women of drugs cleared via multiple CYP enzymes, including CYP2B6, CYP2C9 and CYP2C19

    PubMed Central

    Ke, Alice Ban; Nallani, Srikanth C; Zhao, Ping; Rostami-Hodjegan, Amin; Unadkat, Jashvant D

    2014-01-01

    Aim Conducting PK studies in pregnant women is challenging. Therefore, we asked if a physiologically-based pharmacokinetic (PBPK) model could be used to predict the disposition in pregnant women of drugs cleared by multiple CYP enzymes. Methods We expanded and verified our previously published pregnancy PBPK model by incorporating hepatic CYP2B6 induction (based on in vitro data), CYP2C9 induction (based on phenytoin PK) and CYP2C19 suppression (based on proguanil PK), into the model. This model accounted for gestational age-dependent changes in maternal physiology and hepatic CYP3A, CYP1A2 and CYP2D6 activity. For verification, the pregnancy-related changes in the disposition of methadone (cleared by CYP2B6, 3A and 2C19) and glyburide (cleared by CYP3A, 2C9 and 2C19) were predicted. Results Predicted mean post-partum to second trimester (PP : T2) ratios of methadone AUC, Cmax and Cmin were 1.9, 1.7 and 2.0, vs. observed values 2.0, 2.0 and 2.6, respectively. Predicted mean post-partum to third trimester (PP : T3) ratios of methadone AUC, Cmax and Cmin were 2.1, 2.0 and 2.4, vs. observed values 1.7, 1.7 and 1.8, respectively. Predicted PP : T3 ratios of glyburide AUC, Cmax and Cmin were 2.6, 2.2 and 7.0 vs. observed values 2.1, 2.2 and 3.2, respectively. Conclusions Our PBPK model integrating prior physiological knowledge, in vitro and in vivo data, allowed successful prediction of methadone and glyburide disposition during pregnancy. We propose this expanded PBPK model can be used to evaluate different dosing scenarios, during pregnancy, of drugs cleared by single or multiple CYP enzymes. PMID:23834474

  12. Electrochemical detection of human cytochrome P450 2A6 inhibition: a step toward reducing dependence on smoking.

    PubMed

    Castrignanò, Silvia; Ortolani, Alex; Sadeghi, Sheila J; Di Nardo, Giovanna; Allegra, Paola; Gilardi, Gianfranco

    2014-03-01

    Inhibition of human cytochrome P450 2A6 has been demonstrated to play an important role in nicotine metabolism and consequent smoking habits. Here, the "molecular Lego" approach was used to achieve the first reported electrochemical signal of human CYP2A6 and to improve its catalytic efficiency on electrode surfaces. The enzyme was fused at the genetic level to flavodoxin from Desulfovibrio vulgaris (FLD) to create the chimeric CYP2A6-FLD. Electrochemical characterization by cyclic voltammetry shows clearly defined redox transitions of the haem domain in both CYP2A6 and CYP2A6-FLD. Electrocatalysis experiments using coumarin as substrate followed by fluorimetric quantification of the product were performed with immobilized CYP2A6 and CYP2A6-FLD. Comparison of the kinetic parameters showed that coumarin catalysis was carried out with a higher efficiency by the immobilized CYP2A6-FLD, with a calculated kcat value significantly higher (P < 0.005) than that of CYP2A6, whereas the affinity for the substrate (KM) remained unaltered. The chimeric system was also successfully used to demonstrate the inhibition of the electrochemical activity of the immobilized CYP2A6-FLD, toward both coumarin and nicotine substrates, by tranylcypromine, a potent and selective CYP2A6 inhibitor. This work shows that CYP2A6 turnover efficiency is improved when the protein is linked to the FLD redox module, and this strategy can be utilized for the development of new clinically relevant biotechnological approaches suitable for deciphering the metabolic implications of CYP2A6 polymorphism and for the screening of CYP2A6 substrates and inhibitors. PMID:24527722

  13. A comparison of substrate dynamics in human CYP2E1 and CYP2A6

    SciTech Connect

    Harrelson, John P. . E-mail: harrelsonj@pacificu.edu; Henne, Kirk R.; Alonso, Darwin O.V.; Nelson, Sidney D.

    2007-01-26

    Considering the dynamic nature of CYPs, methods that reveal information about substrate and enzyme dynamics are necessary to generate predictive models. To compare substrate dynamics in CYP2E1 and CYP2A6, intramolecular isotope effect experiments were conducted, using deuterium labeled substrates: o-xylene, m-xylene, p-xylene, 2,6-dimethylnaphthalene, and 4,4'-dimethylbiphenyl. Competitive intermolecular experiments were also conducted using d{sub 0}- and d{sub 6}-labeled p-xylene. Both CYP2E1 and CYP2A6 displayed full isotope effect expression for o-xylene oxidation and almost complete suppression for dimethylbiphenyl. Interestingly (k {sub H}/k {sub D}){sub obs} for d{sub 3}-p-xylene oxidation ((k {sub H}/k {sub D}){sub obs} = 6.04 and (k {sub H}/k {sub D}){sub obs} = 5.53 for CYP2E1 and CYP2A6, respectively) was only slightly higher than (k {sub H}/k {sub D}){sub obs} for d{sub 3}-dimethylnaphthalene ((k {sub H}/k {sub D}){sub obs} = 5.50 and (k {sub H}/k {sub D}){sub obs} = 4.96, respectively). One explanation is that in some instances (k {sub H}/k {sub D}){sub obs} values are generated by the presence of two substrates-bound simultaneously to the CYP. Speculatively, if this explanation is valid, then intramolecular isotope effect experiments should be useful in the mechanistic investigation of P450 cooperativity.

  14. Genetic Polymorphisms of CYP2A6 in a Case-Control Study on Bladder Cancer in Japanese Smokers.

    PubMed

    Kumondai, Masaki; Hosono, Hiroki; Orikasa, Kazuhiko; Arai, Yoichi; Arai, Tomio; Sugimura, Haruhiko; Ozono, Seiichiro; Sugiyama, Takayuki; Takayama, Tatsuya; Sasaki, Takamitsu; Hirasawa, Noriyasu; Hiratsuka, Masahiro

    2016-01-01

    Several of the procarcinogens inhaled in tobacco smoke, the primary risk factor for bladder cancer, are activated by CYP2A6. The association between the whole-gene deletion of CYP2A6 (CYP2A6*4) and a reduced risk of bladder cancer was suggested in Chinese Han smokers. However, there is no evidence for association between the risk of bladder cancer and CYP2A6 genotypes in the Japanese population. Using genomic DNA from smokers of the Japanese population (163 bladder cancer patients and 116 controls), we conducted a case-control study to assess the association between CYP2A6 polymorphisms and the risk of bladder cancer. Determination of CYP2A6 genotypes was carried out by amplifying each exon of CYP2A6 using polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and Sanger sequencing. The CYP2A6*4 allele was identified by an allele-specific PCR assay. Bladder cancer risk was evaluated using the activity score (AS) system based on CYP2A6 genotypes. The odds ratios (95% confidence interval) for the AS 0, AS 0.5, AS 1.0, and AS 1.5 groups were 0.46 (0.12-1.83), 0.43 (0.15-1.25), 0.86 (0.40-1.86), and 1.36 (0.60-3.06), respectively. In conclusion, although decreased CYP2A6 AS tended to reduce the risk of bladder cancer in Japanese smokers, no significant association was recognized in this population. However, given the relatively small size of the sample, further study is required to conclude the lack of a statistically significant association between CYP2A6 genotypes and the risk of bladder cancer. PMID:26725431

  15. The effects of H2S on the activities of CYP2B6, CYP2D6, CYP3A4, CYP2C19 and CYP2C9 in vivo in rat.

    PubMed

    Wang, Xianqin; Han, Anyue; Wen, Congcong; Chen, Mengchun; Chen, Xinxin; Yang, Xuezhi; Ma, Jianshe; Lin, Guanyang

    2013-01-01

    Hydrogen sulfide (H2S) is a colorless, flammable, extremely hazardous gas with a "rotten egg" smell. The human body produces small amounts of H2S and uses it as a signaling molecule. The cocktail method was used to evaluate the influence of H2S on the activities of CYP450 in rats, which were reflected by the changes of pharmacokinetic parameters of five specific probe drugs: bupropion, metroprolol, midazolam, omeprazole and tolbutamide, respectively. The rats were randomly divided into two groups, control group and H2S group. The H2S group rats were given 5 mg/kg NaHS by oral administration once a day for seven days. The mixture of five probes was given to rats through oral administration and the blood samples were obtained at a series of time-points through the caudal vein. The concentrations of probe drugs in rat plasma were measured by LC-MS. In comparing the H2S group with the control group, there was a statistically pharmacokinetics difference for midazolam and tolbutamide; the area under the plasma concentration-time curve (AUC) was decreased for midazolam (p < 0.05) and increased for tolbutamide (p < 0.05); while there was no statistical pharmacokinetics difference for bupropion, metroprolol and omeprazole. H2S could not influence the activities of CYP2B6, CYP2D6 and CYP2C19 in rats, while H2S could induce the activity of CYP3A4 and inhibit the activity of CYP2C9 in rats. PMID:24336065

  16. The Effects of H2S on the Activities of CYP2B6, CYP2D6, CYP3A4, CYP2C19 and CYP2C9 in Vivo in Rat

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Xianqin; Han, Anyue; Wen, Congcong; Chen, Mengchun; Chen, Xinxin; Yang, Xuezhi; Ma, Jianshe; Lin, Guanyang

    2013-01-01

    Hydrogen sulfide (H2S) is a colorless, flammable, extremely hazardous gas with a “rotten egg” smell. The human body produces small amounts of H2S and uses it as a signaling molecule. The cocktail method was used to evaluate the influence of H2S on the activities of CYP450 in rats, which were reflected by the changes of pharmacokinetic parameters of five specific probe drugs: bupropion, metroprolol, midazolam, omeprazole and tolbutamide, respectively. The rats were randomly divided into two groups, control group and H2S group. The H2S group rats were given 5 mg/kg NaHS by oral administration once a day for seven days. The mixture of five probes was given to rats through oral administration and the blood samples were obtained at a series of time-points through the caudal vein. The concentrations of probe drugs in rat plasma were measured by LC-MS. In comparing the H2S group with the control group, there was a statistically pharmacokinetics difference for midazolam and tolbutamide; the area under the plasma concentration-time curve (AUC) was decreased for midazolam (p < 0.05) and increased for tolbutamide (p < 0.05); while there was no statistical pharmacokinetics difference for bupropion, metroprolol and omeprazole. H2S could not influence the activities of CYP2B6, CYP2D6 and CYP2C19 in rats, while H2S could induce the activity of CYP3A4 and inhibit the activity of CYP2C9 in rats. PMID:24336065

  17. Tumour suppressor protein p53 regulates the stress activated bilirubin oxidase cytochrome P450 2A6.

    PubMed

    Hu, Hao; Yu, Ting; Arpiainen, Satu; Lang, Matti A; Hakkola, Jukka; Abu-Bakar, A'edah

    2015-11-15

    Human cytochrome P450 (CYP) 2A6 enzyme has been proposed to play a role in cellular defence against chemical-induced oxidative stress. The encoding gene is regulated by various stress activated transcription factors. This paper demonstrates that p53 is a novel transcriptional regulator of the gene. Sequence analysis of the CYP2A6 promoter revealed six putative p53 binding sites in a 3kb proximate promoter region. The site closest to transcription start site (TSS) is highly homologous with the p53 consensus sequence. Transfection with various stepwise deletions of CYP2A6-5'-Luc constructs--down to -160bp from the TSS--showed p53 responsiveness in p53 overexpressed C3A cells. However, a further deletion from -160 to -74bp, including the putative p53 binding site, totally abolished the p53 responsiveness. Electrophoretic mobility shift assay with a probe containing the putative binding site showed specific binding of p53. A point mutation at the binding site abolished both the binding and responsiveness of the recombinant gene to p53. Up-regulation of the endogenous p53 with benzo[α]pyrene--a well-known p53 activator--increased the expression of the p53 responsive positive control and the CYP2A6-5'-Luc construct containing the intact p53 binding site but not the mutated CYP2A6-5'-Luc construct. Finally, inducibility of the native CYP2A6 gene by benzo[α]pyrene was demonstrated by dose-dependent increases in CYP2A6 mRNA and protein levels along with increased p53 levels in the nucleus. Collectively, the results indicate that p53 protein is a regulator of the CYP2A6 gene in C3A cells and further support the putative cytoprotective role of CYP2A6. PMID:26343999

  18. Structural comparison of cytochromes P450 2A6, 2A13, and 2E1 with pilocarpine

    SciTech Connect

    DeVore, Natasha M.; Meneely, Kathleen M.; Bart, Aaron G.; Stephens, Eva S.; Battaile, Kevin P.; Scott, Emily E.

    2013-11-20

    Human xenobiotic-metabolizing cytochrome P450 (CYP) enzymes can each bind and monooxygenate a diverse set of substrates, including drugs, often producing a variety of metabolites. Additionally, a single ligand can interact with multiple CYP enzymes, but often the protein structural similarities and differences that mediate such overlapping selectivity are not well understood. Even though the CYP superfamily has a highly canonical global protein fold, there are large variations in the active site size, topology, and conformational flexibility. We have determined how a related set of three human CYP enzymes bind and interact with a common inhibitor, the muscarinic receptor agonist drug pilocarpine. Pilocarpine binds and inhibits the hepatic CYP2A6 and respiratory CYP2A13 enzymes much more efficiently than the hepatic CYP2E1 enzyme. To elucidate key residues involved in pilocarpine binding, crystal structures of CYP2A6 (2.4 {angstrom}), CYP2A13 (3.0 {angstrom}), CYP2E1 (2.35 {angstrom}), and the CYP2A6 mutant enzyme, CYP2A6 I208S/I300F/G301A/S369G (2.1 {angstrom}) have been determined with pilocarpine in the active site. In all four structures, pilocarpine coordinates to the heme iron, but comparisons reveal how individual residues lining the active sites of these three distinct human enzymes interact differently with the inhibitor pilocarpine.

  19. Inhibition of human Cytochrome P450 2E1 and 2A6 by aldehydes: Structure and activity relationships

    PubMed Central

    Kandagatla, Suneel K.; Mack, Todd; Simpson, Sean; Sollenberger, Jill; Helton, Eric; Raner, Gregory M.

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to probe active site structure and dynamics of human cytochrome P4502E1 and P4502A6 using a series of related short chain fatty aldehydes. Binding efficiency of the aldehydes was monitored via their ability to inhibit the binding and activation of the probe substrates p-nitrophenol (2E1) and coumarin (2A6). Oxidation of the aldehydes was observed in reactions with individually expressed 2E1, but not 2A6, suggesting alternate binding modes. For saturated aldehydes the optimum chain length for inhibition of 2E1 was 9 carbons (KI=7.8 ±0.3 μM), whereas for 2A6 heptanal was most potent (KI=15.8 ±1.1 μM). A double bond in the 2-position of the aldehyde significantly decreased the observed KI relative to the corresponding saturated compound in most cases. A clear difference in the effect of the double bond was observed between the two isoforms. With 2E1, the double bond appeared to remove steric constraints on aldehyde binding with KI values for the 5–12 carbon compounds ranging between 2.6 ± 0.1 μM and 12.8± 0.5 μM, whereas steric effects remained the dominant factor in the binding of the unsaturated aldehydes to 2A6 (observed KI values between 7.0± 0.5 μM and >1000 μM). The aldehyde function was essential for effective inhibition, as the corresponding carboxylic acids had very little effect on enzyme activity over the same range of concentrations, and branching at the 3-position of the aldehydes increased the corresponding KI value in all cases examined. The results suggest that a conjugated π-system may be a key structural determinant in the binding of these compounds to both enzymes, and may also be an important feature for the expansion of the active site volume in 2E1. PMID:24924949

  20. Binding free energies for nicotine analogs inhibiting cytochrome P450 2A6 by a combined use of molecular dynamics simulations and QM/MM-PBSA calculations.

    PubMed

    Lu, Haiting; Huang, Xiaoqin; AbdulHameed, Mohamed Diwan M; Zhan, Chang-Guo

    2014-04-01

    Molecular dynamics (MD) simulations and hybrid quantum mechanical/molecular mechanical (QM/MM) calculations have been performed to explore the dynamic behaviors of cytochrome P450 2A6 (CYP2A6) binding with nicotine analogs (that are typical inhibitors) and to calculate their binding free energies in combination with Poisson-Boltzmann surface area (PBSA) calculations. The combined MD simulations and QM/MM-PBSA calculations reveal that the most important structural parameters affecting the CYP2A6-inhibitor binding affinity are two crucial internuclear distances, that is, the distance between the heme iron atom of CYP2A6 and the coordinating atom of the inhibitor, and the hydrogen-bonding distance between the N297 side chain of CYP2A6 and the pyridine nitrogen of the inhibitor. The combined MD simulations and QM/MM-PBSA calculations have led to dynamic CYP2A6-inhibitor binding structures that are consistent with the observed dynamic behaviors and structural features of CYP2A6-inhibitor binding, and led to the binding free energies that are in good agreement with the experimentally-derived binding free energies. The agreement between the calculated binding free energies and the experimentally-derived binding free energies suggests that the combined MD and QM/MM-PBSA approach may be used as a valuable tool to accurately predict the CYP2A6-inhibitor binding affinities in future computational design of new, potent and selective CYP2A6 inhibitors. PMID:24631364

  1. Genetic determinants of CYP2A6 activity across racial/ethnic groups with different risks of lung cancer and effect on their smoking intensity.

    PubMed

    Park, Sungshim L; Tiirikainen, Maarit I; Patel, Yesha M; Wilkens, Lynne R; Stram, Daniel O; Le Marchand, Loic; Murphy, Sharon E

    2016-03-01

    Genetic variation in cytochrome P450 2A6 (CYP2A6) gene is the primary contributor to the intraindividual and interindividual differences in nicotine metabolism and has been found to influence smoking intensity. However, no study has evaluated the relationship between CYP2A6 genetic variants and the CYP2A6 activity ratio (total 3-hydroxycotinine/cotinine) and their influence on smoking intensity [total nicotine equivalents (TNE)], across five racial/ethnic groups found to have disparate rates of lung cancer. This study genotyped 10 known functional CYP2A6 genetic or copy number variants in 2115 current smokers from the multiethnic cohort study [African Americans (AA) = 350, Native Hawaiians (NH) = 288, Whites = 413, Latinos (LA) = 437 and Japanese Americans (JA) = 627] to conduct such an investigation. Here, we found that LA had the highest CYP2A6 activity followed by Whites, AA, NH and JA, who had the lowest levels. Adjusting for age, sex, race/ethnicity and body mass index, we found that CYP2A6 diplotypes were predictive of TNE levels, particularly in AA and JA (P trend < 0.0001). However, only in JA did the association remain after accounting for cigarettes per day. Also, it is only in this population that the lower activity ratio supports lower TNE levels, carcinogen exposure and thereby lower risk of lung cancer. Despite the association between nicotine metabolism (CYP2A6 activity phenotype and diplotypes) and smoking intensity (TNE), CYP2A6 levels did not correlate with the higher TNE levels found in AA nor the lower TNE levels found in LA, suggesting that other factors may influence smoking dose in these populations. Therefore, further study in these populations is recommended. PMID:26818358

  2. A Global Health Diagnostic for Personalized Medicine in Resource-Constrained World Settings: A Simple PCR-RFLP Method for Genotyping CYP2B6 g.15582C>T and Science and Policy Relevance for Optimal Use of Antiretroviral Drug Efavirenz.

    PubMed

    Evans, Jonathan; Swart, Marelize; Soko, Nyarai; Wonkam, Ambroise; Huzair, Farah; Dandara, Collet

    2015-06-01

    The use of pharmacogenomics (PGx) knowledge in treatment of individual patients is becoming a common phenomenon in the developed world. However, poorly resourced countries have thus far been constrained for three main reasons. First, the cost of whole genome sequencing is still considerably high in comparison to other (non-genomics) diagnostics in the developing world where both science and social dynamics create a dynamic and fragile healthcare ecosystem. Second, studies correlating genomic differences with drug pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics have not been consistent, and more importantly, often not indexed to impact on societal end-points, beyond clinical practice. Third, ethics regulatory frames over PGx testing require improvements based on nested accountability systems and in ways that address the user community needs. Thus, CYP2B6 is a crucial enzyme in the metabolism of antiretroviral drugs, efavirenz and nevirapine. More than 40 genetic variants have been reported, but only a few contribute to differences in plasma EFV and NVP concentrations. The most widely reported CYP2B6 variants affecting plasma drug levels include c.516G>T, c.983T>C, and to a lesser extent, g.15582C>T, which should be considered in future PGx tests. While the first two variants are easily characterized, the g.15582C>T detection has been performed primarily by sequencing, which is costly, labor intensive, and requires access to barely available expertise in the developing world. We report here on a simple, practical PCR-RFLP method with vast potentials for use in resource-constrained world regions to detect the g.15582C>T variation among South African and Cameroonian persons. The effects of CYP2B6 g.15582C>T on plasma EFV concentration were further evaluated among HIV/AIDS patients. We report no differences in the frequency of the g.15582T variant between the South African (0.08) and Cameroonian (0.06) groups, which are significantly lower than reported in Asians (0.39) and

  3. A Global Health Diagnostic for Personalized Medicine in Resource-Constrained World Settings: A Simple PCR-RFLP Method for Genotyping CYP2B6 g.15582C>T and Science and Policy Relevance for Optimal Use of Antiretroviral Drug Efavirenz

    PubMed Central

    Evans, Jonathan; Swart, Marelize; Soko, Nyarai; Wonkam, Ambroise; Huzair, Farah

    2015-01-01

    Abstract The use of pharmacogenomics (PGx) knowledge in treatment of individual patients is becoming a common phenomenon in the developed world. However, poorly resourced countries have thus far been constrained for three main reasons. First, the cost of whole genome sequencing is still considerably high in comparison to other (non-genomics) diagnostics in the developing world where both science and social dynamics create a dynamic and fragile healthcare ecosystem. Second, studies correlating genomic differences with drug pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics have not been consistent, and more importantly, often not indexed to impact on societal end-points, beyond clinical practice. Third, ethics regulatory frames over PGx testing require improvements based on nested accountability systems and in ways that address the user community needs. Thus, CYP2B6 is a crucial enzyme in the metabolism of antiretroviral drugs, efavirenz and nevirapine. More than 40 genetic variants have been reported, but only a few contribute to differences in plasma EFV and NVP concentrations. The most widely reported CYP2B6 variants affecting plasma drug levels include c.516G>T, c.983T>C, and to a lesser extent, g.15582C>T, which should be considered in future PGx tests. While the first two variants are easily characterized, the g.15582C>T detection has been performed primarily by sequencing, which is costly, labor intensive, and requires access to barely available expertise in the developing world. We report here on a simple, practical PCR-RFLP method with vast potentials for use in resource-constrained world regions to detect the g.15582C>T variation among South African and Cameroonian persons. The effects of CYP2B6 g.15582C>T on plasma EFV concentration were further evaluated among HIV/AIDS patients. We report no differences in the frequency of the g.15582T variant between the South African (0.08) and Cameroonian (0.06) groups, which are significantly lower than reported in Asians (0

  4. Single tube genotyping of CYP2A6 gene deletion based on copy number determination by quantitative real-time PCR.

    PubMed

    Liu, Jin-hui; Xun, Xiao-jie; Pang, Cong; Ma, Jun; Zou, Hui; Chen, Chao; Dai, Peng-gao

    2014-12-01

    The CYP2A6*4 allele, characterized as the whole deletion of this gene, is closely associated with nicotine dependence, cancer susceptibility, and drug responsiveness. It has long been a significant challenge for pharmacogenetics scientists to develop a reliable method to detect this molecular variant due to its high homology with its homologous genes CYP2A6 and CYP2A3 in the clinical setting. Here, we introduce a quantitative real-time PCR assay that specifically amplifies CYP2A6 by designing a specific set of primers and the probe, which effectively prevent the amplification of the CYP2A7 and CYP2A13 alleles. CYP2A6 gene copy numbers were normalized to albumin (ALB) which was co-amplified simultaneously in a single-tube duplex reaction and at a setting as the internal reference gene. The established assay was validated with a selection of previously genotyped DNA samples, which harbored none, one or two CYP2A6 gene copies. The results were in complete concordance with previously published data and no overlap between the three groups was observed. Further analysis of a cohort of 120 samples revealed high specificity and sensitivity of this assay as demonstrated by the agreement of determined gene copy numbers in all of the cases. In conclusion, this novel assay allows reliable and sensitive detection of the CYP2A6 gene deletion, which will be useful for pharmacogenetics studies and routine clinical settings. PMID:25446842

  5. Structure-Function Studies of Naphthalene, Phenanthrene, Biphenyl, and Their Derivatives in Interaction with and Oxidation by Cytochromes P450 2A13 and 2A6.

    PubMed

    Shimada, Tsutomu; Takenaka, Shigeo; Kakimoto, Kensaku; Murayama, Norie; Lim, Young-Ran; Kim, Donghak; Foroozesh, Maryam K; Yamazaki, Hiroshi; Guengerich, F Peter; Komori, Masayuki

    2016-06-20

    Naphthalene, phenanthrene, biphenyl, and their derivatives having different ethynyl, propynyl, butynyl, and propargyl ether substitutions were examined for their interaction with and oxidation by cytochromes P450 (P450) 2A13 and 2A6. Spectral interaction studies suggested that most of these chemicals interacted with P450 2A13 to induce Type I binding spectra more readily than with P450 2A6. Among the various substituted derivatives examined, 2-ethynylnaphthalene, 2-naphthalene propargyl ether, 3-ethynylphenanthrene, and 4-biphenyl propargyl ether had larger ΔAmax/Ks values in inducing Type I binding spectra with P450 2A13 than their parent compounds. P450 2A13 was found to oxidize naphthalene, phenanthrene, and biphenyl to 1-naphthol, 9-hydroxyphenanthrene, and 2- and/or 4-hydroxybiphenyl, respectively, at much higher rates than P450 2A6. Other human P450 enzymes including P450s 1A1, 1A2, 1B1, 2C9, and 3A4 had lower rates of oxidation of naphthalene, phenanthrene, and biphenyl than P450s 2A13 and 2A6. Those alkynylated derivatives that strongly induced Type I binding spectra with P450s 2A13 and 2A6 were extensively oxidized by these enzymes upon analysis with HPLC. Molecular docking studies supported the hypothesis that ligand-interaction energies (U values) obtained with reported crystal structures of P450 2A13 and 2A6 bound to 4-(methylnitrosamino)-1-(3-pyridyl)-1-butanone, indole, pilocarpine, nicotine, and coumarin are of use in understanding the basis of possible molecular interactions of these xenobiotic chemicals with the active sites of P450 2A13 and 2A6 enzymes. In fact, the ligand-interaction energies with P450 2A13 4EJG bound to these chemicals were found to relate to their induction of Type I binding spectra. PMID:27137136

  6. Genome-Wide Pharmacogenomic Study on Methadone Maintenance Treatment Identifies SNP rs17180299 and Multiple Haplotypes on CYP2B6, SPON1, and GSG1L Associated with Plasma Concentrations of Methadone R- and S-enantiomers in Heroin-Dependent Patients

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Hsin-Chou; Chu, Shih-Kai; Huang, Chieh-Liang; Kuo, Hsiang-Wei; Wang, Sheng-Chang; Liu, Sheng-Wen; Ho, Ing-Kang; Liu, Yu-Li

    2016-01-01

    Methadone maintenance treatment (MMT) is commonly used for controlling opioid dependence, preventing withdrawal symptoms, and improving the quality of life of heroin-dependent patients. A steady-state plasma concentration of methadone enantiomers, a measure of methadone metabolism, is an index of treatment response and efficacy of MMT. Although the methadone metabolism pathway has been partially revealed, no genome-wide pharmacogenomic study has been performed to identify genetic determinants and characterize genetic mechanisms for the plasma concentrations of methadone R- and S-enantiomers. This study was the first genome-wide pharmacogenomic study to identify genes associated with the plasma concentrations of methadone R- and S-enantiomers and their respective metabolites in a methadone maintenance cohort. After data quality control was ensured, a dataset of 344 heroin-dependent patients in the Han Chinese population of Taiwan who underwent MMT was analyzed. Genome-wide single-locus and haplotype-based association tests were performed to analyze four quantitative traits: the plasma concentrations of methadone R- and S-enantiomers and their respective metabolites. A significant single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP), rs17180299 (raw p = 2.24 × 10−8), was identified, accounting for 9.541% of the variation in the plasma concentration of the methadone R-enantiomer. In addition, 17 haplotypes were identified on SPON1, GSG1L, and CYP450 genes associated with the plasma concentration of methadone S-enantiomer. These haplotypes accounted for approximately one-fourth of the variation of the overall S-methadone plasma concentration. The association between the S-methadone plasma concentration and CYP2B6, SPON1, and GSG1L were replicated in another independent study. A gene expression experiment revealed that CYP2B6, SPON1, and GSG1L can be activated concomitantly through a constitutive androstane receptor (CAR) activation pathway. In conclusion, this study revealed new

  7. Genetic variation in the 3′-UTR of CYP1A2, CYP2B6, CYP2D6, CYP3A4, NR1I2, and UGT2B7: potential effects on regulation by microRNA and pharmacogenomics relevance

    PubMed Central

    Swart, Marelize; Dandara, Collet

    2014-01-01

    Introduction: Pharmacogenomics research has concentrated on variation in genes coding for drug metabolizing enzymes, transporters and nuclear receptors. However, variation affecting microRNA could also play a role in drug response. This project set out to investigate potential microRNA target sites in 11 genes and the extent of variation in the 3′-UTR of six selected genes; CYP1A2, CYP2B6, CYP2D6, CYP3A4, NR1I2, and UGT2B7. Methods: Fifteen microRNA target prediction algorithms were used to identify microRNAs predicted to regulate 11 genes. The 3′-UTR of the 6 genes which topped the list of potential microRNA targets was sequenced in 30 black South Africans. In addition, genetic variants within these genes were investigated for interference with mRNA-microRNA interactions. Potential effects of observed variants were determined using in silico prediction tools. Results: The 11 genes coding for DMEs, transporters and nuclear receptors were predicted to be targets of microRNAs with CYP2B6, NR1I2 (PXR), CYP3A4, and CYP1A2, interacting with the most microRNAs. The majority of identified genetic variants were predicted to interfere with microRNA regulation. For example, the variant, rs1054190C in NR1I2 was predicted to result in the presence of a binding site for the microRNA miR-1250-5p, while the variant rs1054191G was predicted to result in the absence of a recognition site for miR-371b-3p, miR-4258 and miR-4707-3p. Fifteen of the seventeen, novel variants occurred within microRNA target sequences. Conclusion: The 3′-UTR harbors variation that is likely to influence regulation of specific genes by microRNA. In silico prediction followed by functional validation could aid in decoding the contribution of variation in the 3′-UTR, to some unexplained heritability that affects drug response. Understanding the specific role of each microRNA may lead to identification of markers for targeted therapy and therefore improve personalized drug treatment. PMID:24926315

  8. Genome-Wide Pharmacogenomic Study on Methadone Maintenance Treatment Identifies SNP rs17180299 and Multiple Haplotypes on CYP2B6, SPON1, and GSG1L Associated with Plasma Concentrations of Methadone R- and S-enantiomers in Heroin-Dependent Patients.

    PubMed

    Yang, Hsin-Chou; Chu, Shih-Kai; Huang, Chieh-Liang; Kuo, Hsiang-Wei; Wang, Sheng-Chang; Liu, Sheng-Wen; Ho, Ing-Kang; Liu, Yu-Li

    2016-03-01

    Methadone maintenance treatment (MMT) is commonly used for controlling opioid dependence, preventing withdrawal symptoms, and improving the quality of life of heroin-dependent patients. A steady-state plasma concentration of methadone enantiomers, a measure of methadone metabolism, is an index of treatment response and efficacy of MMT. Although the methadone metabolism pathway has been partially revealed, no genome-wide pharmacogenomic study has been performed to identify genetic determinants and characterize genetic mechanisms for the plasma concentrations of methadone R- and S-enantiomers. This study was the first genome-wide pharmacogenomic study to identify genes associated with the plasma concentrations of methadone R- and S-enantiomers and their respective metabolites in a methadone maintenance cohort. After data quality control was ensured, a dataset of 344 heroin-dependent patients in the Han Chinese population of Taiwan who underwent MMT was analyzed. Genome-wide single-locus and haplotype-based association tests were performed to analyze four quantitative traits: the plasma concentrations of methadone R- and S-enantiomers and their respective metabolites. A significant single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP), rs17180299 (raw p = 2.24 × 10(-8)), was identified, accounting for 9.541% of the variation in the plasma concentration of the methadone R-enantiomer. In addition, 17 haplotypes were identified on SPON1, GSG1L, and CYP450 genes associated with the plasma concentration of methadone S-enantiomer. These haplotypes accounted for approximately one-fourth of the variation of the overall S-methadone plasma concentration. The association between the S-methadone plasma concentration and CYP2B6, SPON1, and GSG1L were replicated in another independent study. A gene expression experiment revealed that CYP2B6, SPON1, and GSG1L can be activated concomitantly through a constitutive androstane receptor (CAR) activation pathway. In conclusion, this study revealed new

  9. Identification of amino acid residues involved in 4-chloroindole 3-hydroxylation by cytochrome P450 2A6 using screening of random libraries

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Zhi-Gang; Liu, Yan; Guengerich, F. Peter; Matse, Johannes H.; Chen, Jun; Wu, Zhong-Liu

    2016-01-01

    Cytochrome P450 (P450) 2A6 is able to catalyze indole hydroxylation to form the blue dye indigo. The wild type P450 2A6 enzyme was randomly mutated throughout the whole open reading frame and screened using 4-chloroindole hydroxylation, a substituted indole selected from 30 indole compounds for enhanced color development. Mutants with up to 5-fold increases of catalytic efficiency (kcat/Km) and 2-fold increases in kcat were selected after two rounds of screening. Important residues located both in (e.g., Thr305) and outside the active site (e.g., Ser224) were identified. The study utilized a better substrate for "indigo assay" to obtain new information on the structure-functional relationship of P450 2A6 that was not revealed by previous mutagenesis studies with this enzyme. PMID:18984015

  10. Relationship between CYP2A6 and CHRNA5-CHRNA3-CHRNB4 variation and smoking behaviors and lung cancer risk.

    PubMed

    Wassenaar, Catherine A; Dong, Qiong; Wei, Qingyi; Amos, Christopher I; Spitz, Margaret R; Tyndale, Rachel F

    2011-09-01

    Genetic variations in the CYP2A6 nicotine metabolic gene and the CHRNA5-CHRNA3-CHRNB4 (CHRNA5-A3-B4) nicotinic gene cluster have been independently associated with lung cancer. With genotype data from ever-smokers of European ancestry (417 lung cancer patients and 443 control subjects), we investigated the relative and combined associations of polymorphisms in these two genes with smoking behavior and lung cancer risk. Kruskal-Wallis tests were used to compare smoking variables among the different genotype groups, and odds ratios (ORs) for cancer risk were estimated using logistic regression analysis. All statistical tests were two-sided. Cigarette consumption (P < .001) and nicotine dependence (P = .036) were the highest in the combined CYP2A6 normal metabolizers and CHRNA5-A3-B4 AA (tag single-nucleotide polymorphism rs1051730 G>A) risk group. The combined risk group also exhibited the greatest lung cancer risk (OR = 2.03; 95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.21 to 3.40), which was even higher among those who smoked 20 or fewer cigarettes per day (OR = 3.03; 95% CI = 1.38 to 6.66). Variation in CYP2A6 and CHRNA5-A3-B4 was independently and additively associated with increased cigarette consumption, nicotine dependence, and lung cancer risk. CYP2A6 and CHRNA5-A3-B4 appear to be more strongly associated with smoking behaviors and lung cancer risk, respectively. PMID:21747048

  11. Oxidation of N-Nitrosoalkylamines by human cytochrome P450 2A6: sequential oxidation to aldehydes and carboxylic acids and analysis of reaction steps.

    PubMed

    Chowdhury, Goutam; Calcutt, M Wade; Guengerich, F Peter

    2010-03-12

    Cytochrome P450 (P450) 2A6 activates nitrosamines, including N,N-dimethylnitrosamine (DMN) and N,N-diethylnitrosamine (DEN), to alkyl diazohydroxides (which are DNA-alkylating agents) and also aldehydes (HCHO from DMN and CH(3)CHO from DEN). The N-dealkylation of DMN had a high intrinsic kinetic deuterium isotope effect ((D)k(app) approximately 10), which was highly expressed in a variety of competitive and non-competitive experiments. The (D)k(app) for DEN was approximately 3 and not expressed in non-competitive experiments. DMN and DEN were also oxidized to HCO(2)H and CH(3)CO(2)H, respectively. In neither case was a lag observed, which was unexpected considering the k(cat) and K(m) parameters measured for oxidation of DMN and DEN to the aldehydes and for oxidation of the aldehydes to the carboxylic acids. Spectral analysis did not indicate strong affinity of the aldehydes for P450 2A6, but pulse-chase experiments showed only limited exchange with added (unlabeled) aldehydes in the oxidations of DMN and DEN to carboxylic acids. Substoichiometric kinetic bursts were observed in the pre-steady-state oxidations of DMN and DEN to aldehydes. A minimal kinetic model was developed that was consistent with all of the observed phenomena and involves a conformational change of P450 2A6 following substrate binding, equilibrium of the P450-substrate complex with a non-productive form, and oxidation of the aldehydes to carboxylic acids in a process that avoids relaxation of the conformation following the first oxidation (i.e. of DMN or DEN to an aldehyde). PMID:20061389

  12. CYP2C8- and CYP3A-mediated C-demethylation of (3-{[(4-tert-butylbenzyl)-(pyridine-3-sulfonyl)-amino]-methyl}-phenoxy)-acetic acid (CP-533,536), an EP2 receptor-selective prostaglandin E2 agonist: characterization of metabolites by high-resolution liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry and liquid chromatography/mass spectrometry-nuclear magnetic resonance.

    PubMed

    Prakash, Chandra; Wang, Weiwei; O'Connell, Thomas; Johnson, Kim A

    2008-10-01

    CP-533,536, (3-{[(4-tert-butyl-benzyl)-(pyridine-3-sulfonyl)-amino]-methyl}-phenoxy)-acetic acid (1), an EP2 receptor-selective prostaglandin E2 agonist, is being developed to aid in the healing of bone fractures. To support the development of this program, in vitro metabolism of 1 was investigated in human liver microsomes and major recombinant human cytochrome P450 (P450) isoforms. 1 was metabolized in vitro by at least three recombinant human P450s: CYP3A4, CYP3A5, and CYP2C8. The turnover of 1 was NADPH-dependent and was completely inhibited by ketoconazole and quercetin in the CYP3A4/5 and CYP2C8 incubations, respectively. The major metabolic pathways were caused by oxidation of the tert-butyl moiety to form the omega-hydroxy metabolite (M4), oxidation of the pyridine moiety, and/or N-dealkylation of the methylphenoxy acetic acid moiety. The alcohol metabolite M4 was further oxidized to the corresponding carboxylic acid M3. In addition to these pathways, three unusual metabolites (M22, M23, and M26) resulting from C-demethylation of the tert-butyl group were identified using high-resolution liquid chromatography/tandem mass spectrometry and liquid chromatography/mass spectrometry/NMR. The C-demethylated metabolites were not detected on incubation of carboxylic acid metabolite M3 with either human liver microsomes or CYP3A/2C8 isoforms, suggesting that these metabolites were not derived from decarboxylation of M3. A possible mechanism for C-demethylation may involve the oxidation of M4 to form an aldehyde metabolite (M24), followed by P450-mediated deformylation, to give an unstable carbon-centered radical and formic acid. The carbon-centered radical intermediate then undergoes either oxygen rebound to form an alcohol metabolite M23 or hydrogen abstraction leading to an olefin metabolite M26. PMID:18653741

  13. Metabolic effects of CYP2A6 and CYP2A13 on 4-(methylnitrosamino)-1-(3-pyridyl)-1-butanone (NNK)-induced gene mutation-A mammalian cell-based mutagenesis approach

    SciTech Connect

    Chiang, Huai-chih; Wang, Chin-Ying; Lee, Hui-Ling; Tsou, Tsui-Chun

    2011-06-01

    Both cytochrome P450 2A6 (CYP2A6) and cytochrome P450 2A13 (CYP2A13) are involved in metabolic activation of tobacco-specific nitrosamines and may play important roles in cigarette smoking-induced lung cancer. Unlike CYP2A6, effects of CYP2A13 on the tobacco-specific nitrosamine-induced mutagenesis in lung cells remain unclear. This study uses a supF mutagenesis assay to examine the relative effects of CYP2A6 and CYP2A13 on metabolic activation of a tobacco-specific nitrosamine, 4-(methylnitrosamino)-1-(3-pyridyl)-1-butanone (NNK), and its resulting mutagenesis in human lung cells. A recombinant adenovirus-mediated CYP2A6/CYP2A13 expression system was established to specifically address the relative effects of these two CYPs. Mutagenesis results revealed that both CYP2A6 and CYP2A13 significantly enhanced the NNK-induced supF mutation and that the mutagenic effect of CYP2A13 was markedly higher than that of CYP2A6. Analysis of NNK metabolism indicated that {>=} 70% of NNK was detoxified to 4-(methylnitrosamino)-1-(3-pyridyl)-1-butanol (NNAL), either with or without CYP2A6/CYP2A13 expression. Both CYP2A6 and CYP2A13 significantly enhanced the {alpha}-hydroxylation of NNK; and the {alpha}-hydroxylation activity of CYP2A13 was significantly higher than that of CYP2A6. Analysis of the NNK-related DNA adduct formation indicated that, in the presence of CYP2A13, NNK treatments caused marked increases in O{sup 6}-methylguanine (O{sup 6}-MeG). The present results provide the first direct in vitro evidence demonstrating the predominant roles of CYP2A13 in NNK-induced mutagenesis, possibly via metabolic activation of NNK {alpha}-hydroxylation.

  14. Genetic determinants of cytochrome P450 2A6 activity and biomarkers of tobacco smoke exposure in relation to risk of lung cancer development in the Shanghai cohort study.

    PubMed

    Yuan, Jian-Min; Nelson, Heather H; Butler, Lesley M; Carmella, Steven G; Wang, Renwei; Kuriger-Laber, Jacquelyn K; Adams-Haduch, Jennifer; Hecht, Stephen S; Gao, Yu-Tang; Murphy, Sharon E

    2016-05-01

    Cytochrome P450 2A6 (CYP2A6) catalyzes nicotine metabolism and contributes to the metabolism of the tobacco-specific lung carcinogen, NNK. Genetic variation in CYP2A6 may affect smoking behavior and contribute to lung cancer risk. A nested case-control study of 325 lung cancer cases and 356 controls was conducted within a prospective cohort of 18,244 Chinese men in Shanghai, China. Quantified were 4 allelic variants of CYP2A6 [*1(+51A), *4, *7, and *9] and urinary total nicotine, total cotinine, total trans-3'-hydroxycotinine (3HC) and total NNAL (an NNK metabolite). Calculated were total nicotine equivalents (TNE), the sum of total nicotine, total cotinine and total 3HC and the total 3HC:total cotinine ratio as a measure of CYP2A6 activity. The nicotine metabolizer status (normal, intermediate, slow and poor) was determined by CYP2A6 genotypes. The smoking-adjusted odds ratios (95% confidence intervals) of lung cancer for the highest vs lowest quartile of total nicotine, total cotinine, total 3HC, TNE and total NNAL were 3.03 (1.80-5.10), 4.70 (2.61-8.46), 4.26 (2.37-7.68), 4.71 (2.61-8.52), and 3.15 (1.86-5.33) (all Ptrend  < 0.001), respectively. Among controls CYP2A6 poor metabolizers had a 78% lower total 3HC:total cotinine ratio and 72% higher total nicotine (Ptrend ≤ 0.002). Poor metabolizers had an odds ratio of 0.64 (95% confidence interval = 0.43-0.97) for lung cancer, which was statistically nonsignificant (odds ratio = 0.74, 95% confidence interval = 0.48-1.15) after adjustment for urinary TNE and smoking intensity and duration. The lower lung cancer risk observed in CYP2A6 poor metabolizers is partially explained by the strong influence of CYP2A6 genetic polymorphisms on nicotine uptake and metabolism. PMID:26662855

  15. Age-Dependent Changes in Human Hepatic CYP2C8 and 1A2 Expression

    EPA Science Inventory

    Predicting age-specific metabolism of pyrethroids is important in evaluating age-related sensitivity. Our goal is to use an in vitro to in vivo extrapolation (IVIVE) approach to predict pyrethroid metabolism for different ages incorporating enzyme ontogeny and expressed enzyme ki...

  16. An ab initio study on (C5H5V)2C8H8

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Luthi, Hans P.; Bauschlicher, Charles W., Jr.

    1987-01-01

    The bonding in the organometalic compound nu-(eta exp 5-(cyclooctatetraene) bis (eta exp 2 cyclopentadienyl) vanadium) involves a complex mixture of metal-metal and metal-ligand contributions. Although there is a direct V-V 3d interaction it is not as strong as a double bond with some triple bond character as has been suggested based upon experiment. The balance between metal-metal and metal-ligand bonding results in the appearance of a low-lying triplet state which retains the V-V 3d bonding. A small singlet-triplet separation is consistent with the change in magnetic properties with temperature.

  17. N-NITROSODIETHYLAMINE AND 4-(METHYLNITROSAMINO)-1-(3-PYRIDYL)-1-BUTANONE INDUCED MORPHOLOGICAL TRANSFORMATION OF CH3/10T1/2CL8 CELLS EXPRESSING HUMAN CYTOCHROME P450 2A6

    EPA Science Inventory

    Transfection of specific genes into cells capable of expressing chemically-induced morphological cell transformation provides a valuable approach to study the mechanisms of action of carcinogens. uman cytochrome P450 isozyme, CYP2A6, has been successfully expressed from a retrovi...

  18. Materials Data on Sr(Ni2B)6 (SG:166) by Materials Project

    DOE Data Explorer

    Kristin Persson

    2016-02-10

    Computed materials data using density functional theory calculations. These calculations determine the electronic structure of bulk materials by solving approximations to the Schrodinger equation. For more information, see https://materialsproject.org/docs/calculations

  19. Metabolism-mediated drug interaction potential of HS-23, a new herbal drug for the treatment of sepsis in human hepatocytes and liver microsomes.

    PubMed

    Jeong, Hyeon-Uk; Lee, Ji Young; Kwon, Soon-Sang; Kim, Ju Hyun; Kim, Young-Mok; Hong, Sung-Woon; Yeon, Sung Hum; Lee, Sun-Mee; Cho, Yong-Yeon; Lee, Hye Suk

    2015-02-01

    HS-23, an extract of the dried flower buds of Lonicera japonica, is a new botanical drug currently being evaluated in a phase I clinical study in Korea for the treatment of sepsis. The in vitro induction and inhibition potentials of HS-23 on the drug-metabolizing enzymes using human hepatocytes and liver microsomes were assessed to evaluate herb-drug interaction according to botanical drug guideline and drug interaction guidance of FDA. HS-23 slightly inhibited CYP2A6, CYP2B6, CYP2C9, CYP2C19, and CYP3A4 enzyme activities in human liver microsomes with IC50 values of 80.6, 160.7, 169.5, 85.4, and 76.6 μg/mL, respectively. HS-23 showed negligible inhibition of CYP1A2, CYP2C8, CYP2D6, UGT1A1, UGT1A4, UGT1A9, and UGT2B7 activities in human liver microsomes. Based on these results, HS-23 may not inhibit the metabolism of CYP2A6, CYP2B6, CYP2C9, CYP2C19, and CYP3A4-catalyzed drugs in humans. HS-23 did not affect the mRNA expression of CYP1A2, CYP2B6, and CYP3A4 after 48 h treatment at three concentrations (0.5, 5, and 50 μg/mL) in three independent human hepatocytes, indicating that HS-23 has no effect on herb-drug interactions that up- or down-regulate CYP1A2, CYP2B6, and CYP3A4. These results indicate that the administration of HS-23 in human may not cause clinically relevant inhibition and induction of these cytochrome P450 (CYP) and UDP-glucuronosyltransferase (UGT) enzymes and HS-23 may be promising therapeutic agent for treatment of sepsis. PMID:25052959

  20. An evaluation of the cytochrome P450 inhibition potential of selected pesticides in human hepatic microsomes.

    PubMed

    Abass, Khaled; Turpeinen, Miia; Pelkonen, Olavi

    2009-08-01

    The goal of this work was to study the ability of 18 pesticides to inhibit selective model activities for all major xenobiotic-metabolizing enzymes, namely CYP1A1/2, 2A6, 2B6, 2C8, 2C9, 2C19, 2D6, 2E1 and 3A4. Generally organophosphorus insecticides were the most potent and extensive inhibitors, especially towards CYP1A1/2 (IC(50) values of chlorpyrifos, fenitrothion and profenofos approximately 3 micro M), CYP2B6 (IC(50) values of chlorpyrifos and fenitrothion 2.5 micro M), CYP2C8 (fenitrothion 4.3 micro M), CYP2C9 (fenitrothion and malathion 4.8 and 2.5 micro M, respectively), CYP2D6 (chlorpyrifos and phenthoate approximately 3 micro M) and CYP3A4 (chlorpyrifos, fenitrothion and phenthoate 3-4 micro M). Otherwise there were quite considerable differences in potency and extent of inhibition between different organophosphates. Pyrethroids were in general very weak or inactive. Deltamethrin and fenvalerate were potent inhibitors of CYP2D6 (IC(50) values of approximately 3 micro M) while lambda-cyhalothrin potently inhibited both CYP2D6 and CYP3A4-mediated activities (IC(50)'s about 3-4 micro M). Some pesticides caused relatively potent inhibitions sporadically (carbendazim, CYP2D6, IC(50) = 12 micro M; atrazine, CYP3A4, IC(50) = 2.8 micro M; glyphosate, CYP2C9, IC(50) = 3.7 micro M; hexaflumuron, IC(50) = 6.0 micro M). With the exceptions of alpha-cypermethrin, cypermethrin, isoproturon, carbaryl and abamectin, most pesticides inhibited relatively potently at least one CYP-selective activity, which may have relevance for potential interactions in occupational exposures and for further studies on the CYP-associated metabolism of respective pesticides. PMID:20183062

  1. An extensive cocktail approach for rapid risk assessment of in vitro CYP450 direct reversible inhibition by xenobiotic exposure.

    PubMed

    Spaggiari, Dany; Daali, Youssef; Rudaz, Serge

    2016-07-01

    Acute exposure to environmental factors strongly affects the metabolic activity of cytochrome P450 (P450). As a consequence, the risk of interaction could be increased, modifying the clinical outcomes of a medication. Because toxic agents cannot be administered to humans for ethical reasons, in vitro approaches are therefore essential to evaluate their impact on P450 activities. In this work, an extensive cocktail mixture was developed and validated for in vitro P450 inhibition studies using human liver microsomes (HLM). The cocktail comprised eleven P450-specific probe substrates to simultaneously assess the activities of the following isoforms: 1A2, 2A6, 2B6, 2C8, 2C9, 2C19, 2D6, 2E1, 2J2 and subfamily 3A. The high selectivity and sensitivity of the developed UHPLC-MS/MS method were critical for the success of this methodology, whose main advantages are: (i) the use of eleven probe substrates with minimized interactions, (ii) a low HLM concentration, (iii) fast incubation (5min) and (iv) the use of metabolic ratios as microsomal P450 activities markers. This cocktail approach was successfully validated by comparing the obtained IC50 values for model inhibitors with those generated with the conventional single probe methods. Accordingly, reliable inhibition values could be generated 10-fold faster using a 10-fold smaller amount of HLM compared to individual assays. This approach was applied to assess the P450 inhibition potential of widespread insecticides, namely, chlorpyrifos, fenitrothion, methylparathion and profenofos. In all cases, P450 2B6 was the most affected with IC50 values in the nanomolar range. For the first time, mixtures of these four insecticides incubated at low concentrations showed a cumulative inhibitory in vitro effect on P450 2B6. PMID:27105555

  2. Metabolism of agrochemicals and related environmental chemicals based on cytochrome P450s in mammals and plants.

    PubMed

    Ohkawa, Hideo; Inui, Hideyuki

    2015-06-01

    A yeast gene expression system originally established for mammalian cytochrome P450 monooxygenase cDNAs was applied to functional analysis of a number of mammalian and plant P450 species, including 11 human P450 species (CYP1A1, CYP1A2, CYP2A6, CYP2B6, CYP2C8, CYP2C9, CYP2C18, CYP2C19, CYP2D6, CYP2E1 and CYP3A4). The human P450 species CYP1A1, CYP1A2, CYP2B6, CYP2C18 and CYP2C19 were identified as P450 species metabolising various agrochemicals and environmental chemicals. CYP2C9 and CYP2E1 specifically metabolised sulfonylurea herbicides and halogenated hydrocarbons respectively. Plant P450 species metabolising phenylurea and sulfonylurea herbicides were also identified mainly as the CYP71 family, although CYP76B1, CYP81B1 and CYP81B2 metabolised phenylurea herbicides. The transgenic plants expressing these mammalian and plant P450 species were applied to herbicide tolerance as well as phytoremediation of agrochemical and environmental chemical residues. The combined use of CYP1A1, CYP2B6 and CYP2C19 belonging to two families and three subfamilies covered a wide variety of herbicide tolerance and phytoremediation of these residues. The use of 2,4-D-and bromoxynil-induced CYP71AH11 in tobacco seemed to enhance herbicide tolerance and selectivity. PMID:25077812

  3. Underlying mechanism of drug-drug interaction between pioglitazone and gemfibrozil: Gemfibrozil acyl-glucuronide is a mechanism-based inhibitor of CYP2C8.

    PubMed

    Takagi, Motoi; Sakamoto, Masaya; Itoh, Tomoo; Fujiwara, Ryoichi

    2015-08-01

    While co-administered gemfibrozil can increase the area under the concentration/time curve (AUC) of pioglitazone more than 3-fold, the underlying mechanism of the drug-drug interaction between gemfibrozil and pioglitazone has not been fully understood. In the present study, gemfibrozil preincubation time-dependently inhibited the metabolism of pioglitazone in the cytochrome P450 (CYP)- and UDP-glucuronosyltransferase (UGT)-activated human liver microsomes. We estimated the kinact and K'app values, which are the maximum inactivation rate constant and the apparent dissociation constant, of gemfibrozil to be 0.071 min(-1) and 57.3 μM, respectively. In this study, the kobs, in vivo value was defined as a parameter that indicates the potency of the mechanism-based inhibitory effect at the blood drug concentration in vivo. The kobs, in vivo values of potent mechanism-based inhibitors, clarithromycin and erythromycin, were estimated to be 0.0096 min(-1) and 0.0051 min(-1), respectively. The kobs, in vivo value of gemfibrozil was 0.0060 min(-1), which was comparable to those of clarithromycin and erythromycin, suggesting that gemfibrozil could be a mechanism-based inhibitor as potent as clarithromycin and erythromycin in vivo. PMID:26195223

  4. Cerocene Revisited: The Electronic Structure of and Interconversion Between Ce2(C8H8)3 and Ce(C8H8)2

    SciTech Connect

    Walter, Marc D.; Booth, Corwin H.; Lukens, Wayne W.; Andersen, Richard A.

    2009-02-02

    New synthetic procedures for the preparation of Ce(cot)2, cerocene, from [Li(thf)4][Ce(cot)2], and Ce2(cot)3 in high yield and purity are reported. Heating solid Ce(cot)2 yields Ce2(cot)3 and COT while heating Ce2(cot)3 with an excess of COT in C6D6 to 65oC over four months yields Ce(cot)2. The solid state magnetic susceptibility of these three organocerium compounds shows that Ce(cot)2 behaves as a TIP (temperature independent paramagnet) over the temperature range of 5-300 K, while that of Ce2(cot)3 shows that the spin carriers are antiferromagnetically coupled below 10 K; above 10 K, the individual spins are uncorrelated, and [Ce(cot)2]- behaves as an isolated f1 paramagnet. The EPR at 1.5K for Ce2(cot)3 and [Ce(cot)2]- have ground state of MJ= +- 1/2. The LIII edge XANES of Ce(cot)2 (Booth, C.H.; Walter, M.D.; Daniel, M.; Lukens, W.W., Andersen, R.A., Phys. Rev. Lett. 2005, 95, 267202) and 2Ce2(cot)3 over 30-500 K are reported; the Ce(cot)2 XANES spectra show Ce(III) and Ce(IV) signatures up to a temperature of approximately 500 K, whereupon the Ce(IV) signature disappears, consistent with the thermal behavior observed in the melting experiment. The EXAFS of Ce(cot)2 and Ce2(cot)3 are reported at 30 K; the agreement between the molecular parameters for Ce(cot)2 derived from EXAFS and single crystal X-ray diffraction data are excellent. In the case of Ce2(cot)3 no X-ray diffraction data are known to exist, but the EXAFS are consistent with a"triple-decker" sandwich structure. A molecular rationalization is presented for the electronic structure of cerocene having a multiconfiguration ground state that is an admixture of the two configurations Ce(III, 4f1)(cot1.5-)2 and Ce(IV, 4f0)(cot2-)2; the multiconfigurational ground state has profound effects on the magnetic properties and on the nature of the chemical bond in cerocene and, perhaps, other molecules.

  5. IUPAC-NIST Solubility Data Series. 91. Phenols with Water. Part 2. C8 to C15 Alkane Phenols with Water

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Góral, Marian; Shaw, David G.; Måczyński, Andrzej; Wiśniewska-Gocłowska, Barbara

    2011-09-01

    The mutual solubilities and related liquid-liquid equilibria of 43 binary systems of C7 to C15 phenols with water are exhaustively and critically reviewed. Reports of experimental determination of solubility that appeared in the primary literature prior to the end of 2009 are compiled. For 11 systems, sufficient data are available to allow critical evaluation. All data are expressed as mass percent and mole fraction as well as the originally reported units. The standard evaluation criteria used throughout the Solubility Data Series were applied.

  6. Molecular wheel to monocyclic ring transition in boron-carbon mixed clusters C2B6⁻ and C3B5⁻.

    PubMed

    Galeev, Timur R; Ivanov, Alexander S; Romanescu, Constantin; Li, Wei-Li; Bozhenko, Konstantin V; Wang, Lai-Sheng; Boldyrev, Alexander I

    2011-05-21

    In this joint experimental and theoretical work we present a novel type of structural transition occurring in the series of C(x)B(8-x)(-) (x=1-8) mixed clusters upon increase of the carbon content from x=2 to x=3. The wheel to ring transition is surprising because it is rather planar-to-linear type of transition to be expected in the series since B(8), B(8)(-), B(8)(2-) and CB(7)(-) are known to possess wheel-type global minimum structures while C(8) is linear. PMID:21487619

  7. RS-Predictor models augmented with SMARTCyp reactivities: robust metabolic regioselectivity predictions for nine CYP isozymes.

    PubMed

    Zaretzki, Jed; Rydberg, Patrik; Bergeron, Charles; Bennett, Kristin P; Olsen, Lars; Breneman, Curt M

    2012-06-25

    RS-Predictor is a tool for creating pathway-independent, isozyme-specific, site of metabolism (SOM) prediction models using any set of known cytochrome P450 (CYP) substrates and metabolites. Until now, the RS-Predictor method was only trained and validated on CYP 3A4 data, but in the present study, we report on the versatility the RS-Predictor modeling paradigm by creating and testing regioselectivity models for substrates of the nine most important CYP isozymes. Through curation of source literature, we have assembled 680 substrates distributed among CYPs 1A2, 2A6, 2B6, 2C19, 2C8, 2C9, 2D6, 2E1, and 3A4, the largest publicly accessible collection of P450 ligands and metabolites released to date. A comprehensive investigation into the importance of different descriptor classes for identifying the regioselectivity mediated by each isozyme is made through the generation of multiple independent RS-Predictor models for each set of isozyme substrates. Two of these models include a density functional theory (DFT) reactivity descriptor derived from SMARTCyp. Optimal combinations of RS-Predictor and SMARTCyp are shown to have stronger performance than either method alone, while also exceeding the accuracy of the commercial regioselectivity prediction methods distributed by Optibrium and Schrödinger, correctly identifying a large proportion of the metabolites in each substrate set within the top two rank-positions: 1A2 (83.0%), 2A6 (85.7%), 2B6 (82.1%), 2C19 (86.2%), 2C8 (83.8%), 2C9 (84.5%), 2D6 (85.9%), 2E1 (82.8%), 3A4 (82.3%), and merged (86.0%). Comprehensive datamining of each substrate set and careful statistical analyses of the predictions made by the different models revealed new insights into molecular features that control metabolic regioselectivity and enable accurate prospective prediction of likely SOMs. PMID:22524152

  8. RS-Predictor models augmented with SMARTCyp reactivities: Robust metabolic regioselectivity predictions for nine CYP isozymes

    PubMed Central

    Zaretzki, Jed; Rydberg, Patrik; Bergeron, Charles; Bennett, Kristin P.; Olsen, Lars

    2012-01-01

    RS-Predictor is a tool for creating pathway-independent, isozyme-specific site of metabolism (SOM) prediction models using any set of known cytochrome P450 substrates and metabolites. Until now, the RS-Predictor method was only trained and validated on CYP 3A4 data, but in the present study we report on the versatility the RS-Predictor modeling paradigm by creating and testing regioselectivity models for substrates of the nine most important CYP isozymes. Through curation of source literature, we have assembled 680 substrates distributed among CYPs 1A2, 2A6, 2B6, 2C19, 2C8, 2C9, 2D6, 2E1 and 3A4, which we believe is the largest publicly accessible collection of P450 ligands and metabolites ever released. A comprehensive investigation into the importance of different descriptor classes for predicting the regioselectivity of each isozyme is made through the generation of multiple independent RS-Predictor models for each set of isozyme substrates. Two of these models include a DFT reactivity descriptor derived from SMARTCyp. Optimal combinations of RS-Predictor and SMARTCyp are shown to have stronger performance than either method alone, while also exceeding the accuracy of the commercial regioselectivity prediction methods distributed by StarDrop and Schrödinger, correctly identifying a large proportion of the metabolites in each substrate set within the top two rank-positions: 1A2(83.0%), 2A6(85.7%), 2B6(82.1%), 2C19(86.2%), 2C8(83.8%), 2C9(84.5%), 2D6(85.9%), 2E1(82.8%), 3A4(82.3%) and merged(86.0%). Comprehensive datamining of each substrate set and careful statistical analyses of the predictions made by the different models revealed new insights into molecular features that control metabolic regioselectivity and enable accurate prospective prediction of likely SOMs. PMID:22524152

  9. Inhibitory Effects of Aschantin on Cytochrome P450 and Uridine 5'-diphospho-glucuronosyltransferase Enzyme Activities in Human Liver Microsomes.

    PubMed

    Kwon, Soon-Sang; Kim, Ju-Hyun; Jeong, Hyeon-Uk; Cho, Yong Yeon; Oh, Sei-Ryang; Lee, Hye Suk

    2016-01-01

    Aschantin is a bioactive neolignan found in Magnolia flos with antiplasmodial, Ca(2+)-antagonistic, platelet activating factor-antagonistic, and chemopreventive activities. We investigated its inhibitory effects on the activities of eight major human cytochrome P450 (CYP) and uridine 5'-diphospho-glucuronosyltransferase (UGT) enzymes of human liver microsomes to determine if mechanistic aschantin-enzyme interactions were evident. Aschantin potently inhibited CYP2C8-mediated amodiaquine N-de-ethylation, CYP2C9-mediated diclofenac 4'-hydroxylation, CYP2C19-mediated [S]-mephenytoin 4'-hydroxylation, and CYP3A4-mediated midazolam 1'-hydroxylation, with Ki values of 10.2, 3.7, 5.8, and 12.6 µM, respectively. Aschantin at 100 µM negligibly inhibited CYP1A2-mediated phenacetin O-de-ethylation, CYP2A6-mediated coumarin 7-hydroxylation, CYP2B6-mediated bupropion hydroxylation, and CYP2D6-mediated bufuralol 1'-hydroxylation. At 200 µM, it weakly inhibited UGT1A1-catalyzed SN-38 glucuronidation, UGT1A6-catalyzed N-acetylserotonin glucuronidation, and UGT1A9-catalyzed mycophenolic acid glucuronidation, with IC50 values of 131.7, 144.1, and 71.0 µM, respectively, but did not show inhibition against UGT1A3, UGT1A4, or UGT2B7 up to 200 µM. These in vitro results indicate that aschantin should be examined in terms of potential interactions with pharmacokinetic drugs in vivo. It exhibited potent mechanism-based inhibition of CYP2C8, CYP2C9, CYP2C19, and CYP3A4. PMID:27128896

  10. Multiple P450 substrates in a single run: rapid and comprehensive in vitro interaction assay.

    PubMed

    Turpeinen, Miia; Uusitalo, Jouko; Jouko, Uusitalo; Jalonen, Jorma; Jorma, Jalonen; Pelkonen, Olavi; Olavi, Pelkeonen

    2005-01-01

    The dramatically increased number of new chemical entities (NCE) used in drug discovery has raised a demand for efficient and rapid drug metabolism screening techniques. The aim of this study was to develop a global in vitro metabolic interaction screening test utilising the N-in-1 approach. A cocktail consisting of 10 CYP-selective probes with known kinetic, metabolic and interaction properties in vivo was incubated in a pool of human liver microsomes, and metabolites of melatonin (CYP1A2), coumarin (CYP2A6), bupropion (CYP2B6), amodiaquine (CYP2C8), tolbutamide (CYP2C9), omeprazole (CYP2C19 and CYP3A4), dextromethorphan (CYP2D6), chlorzoxazone (CYP2E1), midazolam (CYP3A4) and testosterone (CYP3A4) were analysed simultaneously using LC/TOF-MS. Performance of the method was assessed with cDNA expressed P450s and diagnostic CYP-specific inhibitors. The results were in good accordance with literature and our previous studies. The cocktail developed is suitable for fast and reliable in vitro screening of the interaction potential and characteristics of NCEs. PMID:15626586

  11. Cytochrome P450 inhibition potential of new psychoactive substances of the tryptamine class.

    PubMed

    Dinger, Julia; Woods, Campbell; Brandt, Simon D; Meyer, Markus R; Maurer, Hans H

    2016-01-22

    New psychoactive substances (NPS) are not tested for their cytochrome P450 (CYP) inhibition potential before consumption. Therefore, this potential was explored for tryptamine-derived NPS (TDNPS) including alpha-methyl tryptamines (AMTs), dimethyl tryptamines (DMTs), diallyl tryptamines (DALTs), and diisopropyl tryptamines (DiPTs) using test substrates preferred by the Food and Drug Administration in a cocktail assay. All tested TDNPS with the exception of DMT inhibited CYP2D6 activity with IC50 values below 100μM. DALTs inhibited CYP2D6 activity similar to paroxetine and quinidine and CYP1A2 activity comparable to fluvoxamine. 5-Methoxy-N,N-diallyltryptamine reduced in vivo the caffeine metabolism in rats consistent with in vitro results. Five of the AMTs also inhibited CYP1A2 activity comparable to amiodarone. AMT and 6-F-AMT inhibited CYP2A6 activity in the range of the test inhibitor tranylcypromine. CYP2B6 activity was inhibited by 19 tryptamines, but weakly compared to efavirenz. CYP2C8 activity was inhibited by five of the tested TDNPS and three showed values comparable to trimethoprim and gemfibrozil. Six tryptamines inhibited CYP2C9 and seven CYP2C19 activities comparable to fluconazole and chloramphenicol, respectively. Nineteen compounds showed inhibition of CYP2E1 and 18 of CYP3A activity, respectively. These results showed that the CYP inhibition by TDNPS might be clinically relevant, but clinical studies are needed to explore this further. PMID:26599973

  12. High-throughput screening of inhibitory effects of Bo-yang-hwan-o-tang on human cytochrome P450 isoforms in vitro using UPLC/MS/MS.

    PubMed

    Lee, Miran; Park, Jeonghyeon; Lim, Mi-sun; Seong, Sook Jin; Lee, Joomi; Seo, Jeong Ju; Park, Yong-Ki; Lee, Hae Won; Yoon, Young-Ran

    2012-01-01

    Bo-yang-hwan-o-tang (BHT) is an oriental herbal medicine for treating brain disorders such as cerebral ischemia. The objective of this study was to develop an economically feasible and time-saving high-throughput screening method to monitor the potential inhibitory effects of BHT on human cytochrome P450 (CYP) enzymes in vitro. Two cocktail sets were used for incubation of human liver microsomes: Cocktail A: 6 probe substrates for CYP1A2, CYP2A6, CYP2C8, CYP2C19, CYP2D6, CYP3A4; Cocktail B: 3 for CYP2B6, CYP2C9, CYP2E1. The concentrations of the substrate metabolites were simultaneously analyzed using UPLC/MS/MS. The BHT extract had almost negligible inhibitory effects on the nine human CYP isoforms tested, with the half-maximal inhibitory concentration value ranged from 3624.99 to 45412.44 μg/ml. The results suggest that BHT extract has no inhibitory effects on CYP isoforms within the clinically recommended dosage range. We conclude that BHT might be free of drug-herb interactions when co-administered with other medicines. However, more in vivo human studies are needed to confirm these results. The high-throughput screening method can be a useful tool for drug discovery and for understanding drug interactions. PMID:23232241

  13. In vitro evaluation of the effects of 4-aminopyridine on cytochrome P450 enzymes

    PubMed Central

    Caggiano, Anthony; Blight, Andrew

    2013-01-01

    Background Dalfampridine extended release tablets (dalfampridine-ER, known as prolonged-, modified, or sustained-release fampridine tablets in some countries) are approved for the improvement of walking in patients with multiple sclerosis (MS). Dalfampridine-ER is an extended release formulation of 4-aminopyridine (4-AP). Dalfampridine-ER is incorporated into MS management strategies that may include disease-modifying and symptomatic therapies. Since several symptomatic therapies are partially or fully metabolized by enzymes of the hepatic cytochrome P450 system (CYP450) it is important to evaluate drug–drug interactions through potential effects of dalfampridine-ER on CYP450. Methods The ability of 4-AP to inhibit CYP1A2, CYP2A6, CYP2B6, CYP2C8, CYP2C9, CYP2C19, CYP2D6, CYP2E1, and CYP3A4/5 in a direct and time-dependent manner was evaluated using pooled human liver microsomes. 4-AP concentrations were 0.03, 0.1, 0.3, 1, 3, 10, and 30 μM, representing 0.1–100-times the average plasma 4-AP concentration (30 ng/mL; 0.32 μM) at therapeutic dosing; the concentration inhibiting 50% of each enzyme activity (IC50) was determined. The ability of 4-AP (0.025, 0.25, 2.5, and 25 μM) to induce the expression of CYP1A2, 2B6, 2C9, 2C19, 2E1, and 3A4/5 enzymes was evaluated using primary cultures of freshly isolated human hepatocytes from non-transplantable livers. The enzyme-inducing effects of 4-AP were compared with the prototypical inducers. Metabolites were assayed using high-performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry techniques. All inhibition and induction assays included positive controls. Results 4-AP did not directly inhibit CYP1A2, CYP2A6, CYP2B6, CYP2C8, CYP2C9, CYP2C19, CYP2D6, or CYP3A4/5, but at a concentration of 30 μM, CYP2E1 was inhibited by 12%, resulting in an estimated IC50 value of 125 μM. None of the enzymes demonstrated time-dependent inhibition by 4-AP. There was little or no effect by 4-AP on enzyme induction, with

  14. Effect of Single Nucleotide Polymorphisms in Cytochrome P450 Isoenzyme and N-Acetyltransferase 2 Genes on the Metabolism of Artemisinin-Based Combination Therapies in Malaria Patients from Cambodia and Tanzania

    PubMed Central

    Staehli Hodel, Eva Maria; Csajka, Chantal; Ariey, Frédéric; Guidi, Monia; Kabanywanyi, Abdunoor Mulokozi; Duong, Socheat; Decosterd, Laurent Arthur; Olliaro, Piero; Genton, Blaise

    2013-01-01

    The pharmacogenetics of antimalarial agents are poorly known, although the application of pharmacogenetics might be critical in optimizing treatment. This population pharmacokinetic-pharmacogenetic study aimed at assessing the effects of single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in cytochrome P450 isoenzyme genes (CYP, namely, CYP2A6, CYP2B6, CYP2C8, CYP2C9, CYP2C19, CYP2D6, CYP3A4, and CYP3A5) and the N-acetyltransferase 2 gene (NAT2) on the pharmacokinetics of artemisinin-based combination therapies in 150 Tanzanian patients treated with artemether-lumefantrine, 64 Cambodian patients treated with artesunate-mefloquine, and 61 Cambodian patients treated with dihydroartemisinin-piperaquine. The frequency of SNPs varied with the enzyme and the population. Higher frequencies of mutant alleles were found in Cambodians than Tanzanians for CYP2C9*3, CYP2D6*10 (100C→T), CYP3A5*3, NAT2*6, and NAT2*7. In contrast, higher frequencies of mutant alleles were found in Tanzanians for CYP2D6*17 (1023C→T and 2850C→T), CYP3A4*1B, NAT2*5, and NAT2*14. For 8 SNPs, no significant differences in frequencies were observed. In the genetic-based population pharmacokinetic analyses, none of the SNPs improved model fit. This suggests that pharmacogenetic data need not be included in appropriate first-line treatments with the current artemisinin derivatives and quinolines for uncomplicated malaria in specific populations. However, it cannot be ruled out that our results represent isolated findings, and therefore more studies in different populations, ideally with the same artemisinin-based combination therapies, are needed to evaluate the influence of pharmacogenetic factors on the clearance of antimalarials. PMID:23229480

  15. Characterization of 137 Genomic DNA Reference Materials for 28 Pharmacogenetic Genes: A GeT-RM Collaborative Project.

    PubMed

    Pratt, Victoria M; Everts, Robin E; Aggarwal, Praful; Beyer, Brittany N; Broeckel, Ulrich; Epstein-Baak, Ruth; Hujsak, Paul; Kornreich, Ruth; Liao, Jun; Lorier, Rachel; Scott, Stuart A; Smith, Chingying Huang; Toji, Lorraine H; Turner, Amy; Kalman, Lisa V

    2016-01-01

    Pharmacogenetic testing is increasingly available from clinical laboratories. However, only a limited number of quality control and other reference materials are currently available to support clinical testing. To address this need, the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention-based Genetic Testing Reference Material Coordination Program, in collaboration with members of the pharmacogenetic testing community and the Coriell Cell Repositories, has characterized 137 genomic DNA samples for 28 genes commonly genotyped by pharmacogenetic testing assays (CYP1A1, CYP1A2, CYP2A6, CYP2B6, CYP2C8, CYP2C9, CYP2C19, CYP2D6, CYP2E1, CYP3A4, CYP3A5, CYP4F2, DPYD, GSTM1, GSTP1, GSTT1, NAT1, NAT2, SLC15A2, SLC22A2, SLCO1B1, SLCO2B1, TPMT, UGT1A1, UGT2B7, UGT2B15, UGT2B17, and VKORC1). One hundred thirty-seven Coriell cell lines were selected based on ethnic diversity and partial genotype characterization from earlier testing. DNA samples were coded and distributed to volunteer testing laboratories for targeted genotyping using a number of commercially available and laboratory developed tests. Through consensus verification, we confirmed the presence of at least 108 variant pharmacogenetic alleles. These samples are also being characterized by other pharmacogenetic assays, including next-generation sequencing, which will be reported separately. Genotyping results were consistent among laboratories, with most differences in allele assignments attributed to assay design and variability in reported allele nomenclature, particularly for CYP2D6, UGT1A1, and VKORC1. These publicly available samples will help ensure the accuracy of pharmacogenetic testing. PMID:26621101

  16. Development of HepG2-derived cells expressing cytochrome P450s for assessing metabolism-associated drug-induced liver toxicity.

    PubMed

    Xuan, Jiekun; Chen, Si; Ning, Baitang; Tolleson, William H; Guo, Lei

    2016-08-01

    The generation of reactive metabolites from therapeutic agents is one of the major mechanisms of drug-induced liver injury (DILI). In order to evaluate metabolism-related toxicity and improve drug efficacy and safety, we generated a battery of HepG2-derived cell lines that express 14 cytochrome P450s (CYPs) (1A1, 1A2, 1B1, 2A6, 2B6, 2C8, 2C9, 2C18, 2C19, 2D6, 2E1, 3A4, 3A5 and 3A7) individually using a lentiviral expression system. The expression/production of a specific CYP in each cell line was confirmed by an increased abundance of the CYP at both mRNA and protein levels. Moreover, the enzymatic activities of representative CYPs in the corresponding cell lines were also measured. Using our CYP-expressed HepG2 cells, the toxicity of three drugs that could induce DILI (amiodarone, chlorpromazine and primaquine) was assessed, and all of them showed altered (increased or decreased) toxicity compared to the toxicity in drug-treated wild-type HepG2 cells. CYP-mediated drug toxicity examined in our cell system is consistent with previous reports, demonstrating the potential of these cells for assessing metabolism-related drug toxicity. This cell system provides a practical in vitro approach for drug metabolism screening and for early detection of drug toxicity. It is also a surrogate enzyme source for the enzymatic characterization of a particular CYP that contributes to drug-induced liver toxicity. PMID:26477383

  17. Azole antifungal inhibition of buprenorphine, methadone and oxycodone in vitro metabolism.

    PubMed

    Moody, David E; Liu, Fenyun; Fang, Wenfang B

    2015-06-01

    Opioid-related mortality rates have escalated. Drug interactions may increase blood concentrations of the opioid. We therefore used human liver microsomes (HLMs) and cDNA-expressed human cytochrome P450s (rCYPs) to study in vitro inhibition of buprenorphine metabolism to norbuprenorphine (CYP3A4 and 2C8), oxycodone metabolism to noroxycodone (CYP3A4 and 2C18) and oxymorphone (CYP2D6), and methadone metabolism to R- and S-2-ethylidene-1,5-dimethyl-3,3-diphenylpyrrolidine (EDDP; CYP3A4 and 2B6). In this study, we have examined the inhibitory effect of 12 (mostly antifungal) azoles. These compounds have a wide range of solubility; to keep organic solvent ≤1%, there was an equally wide range of highest concentration tested (e.g., itraconazole 5 µM to fluconazole 1000 µM). Inhibitors were first incubated with HLMs at three concentrations with or without preincubation of inhibitor with reducing equivalents to also screen for time-dependent inhibition (TDI). Posaconazole displayed evidence of TDI; metronidazole and albendazole had no significant effect. Azoles were next screened at the highest achievable concentration for non-CYP3A4 pathways. IC50 values (µM) were determined for most CYP3A4 pathways (ranges) and other pathways as dictated by screen results: clotrimazole (0.30 - 0.35; others >30 µM); econazole (2.2 - 4.9; 2B6 R-EDDP - 9.5, S-EDDP - 6.8; 2C8 - 6.0; 2C18 - 1.0; 2D6 - 1.2); fluconazole (7.7 - 66; 2B6 - 313, 361; 2C8 - 1240; 2C18 - 17; 2D6 - 1000); itraconazole (2.5 to >5; others >5); ketoconazole (0.032 - 0.094; 2B6 - 12, 31; 2C8 - 78; 2C18 - 0.98; 2D6 - 182); miconazole (2.3 - 7.6; 2B6 - 2.8, 2.8; 2C8 - 5.3; 2C18 - 3.1; 2D6 - 5.9); posaconazole (3.4 - 20; 2C18 - 3.8; others >30); terconazole (0.48 to >10; 2C18 - 8.1; others >10) and voriconazole (0.40 - 15; 2B6 - 2.4, 2.5; 2C8 - 170; 2C18 - 13; 2D6 >300). Modeling based on estimated Ki values and plasma concentrations from the literature suggest that the orally administered azoles, particularly

  18. Metabolism of the endocrine disruptor pesticide-methoxychlor by human P450s: pathways involving a novel catechol metabolite.

    PubMed

    Hu, Yiding; Kupfer, David

    2002-09-01

    The metabolism of methoxychlor, a proestrogenic pesticide (endocrine disruptor), was investigated with cDNA expressed human cytochrome P450s and liver microsomes (HLM). In addition to 1,1,1-trichloro-2-(4-hydroxyphenyl)-2-(4-methoxyphenyl)ethane (mono-OH-M), 1,1,1-trichloro-2, 2-bis(4-hydroxyphenyl)ethane (bis-OH-M), and 1,1,1-trichloro-2-(4-hydroxyphenyl)-2-(3, 4-dihydroxyphenyl)ethane (tris-OH-M), a new metabolite was identified as 1,1,1-trichloro-2-(4-methoxyphenyl)-2-(3, 4-dihydroxyphenyl)ethane (catechol-M; previously assumed to be ring-OH-M) and as a key metabolic intermediate. A novel metabolic route was proposed involving methoxychlor O-demethylation to mono-OH-M, followed by bifurcation of the pathway, both leading to the same final product tris-OH-M: pathway a, mono-OH-M is demethylated to bis-OH-M, followed by ortho-hydroxylation forming tris-OH-M and pathway b, mono-OH-M is ortho-hydroxylated forming catechol-M that is O-demethylated forming tris-OH-M. Among the human cDNA-expressed P450s examined, CYP1A2, 2A6, 2C8, 2C9, 2C19, and 2D6 exhibited mainly O-demethylation, with CYP2C19 being the most catalytically competent. CYP3A4, 3A5, and rat 2B1 catalyzed primarily ortho-hydroxylation of mono-OH-M (CYP3A4 being catalytically the most active) but were weak in O-demethylation. CYP1A1, 1B1, 2E1, and 4A11 demonstrated little or no catalytic activity. CYP2B6 appeared unique, catalyzing effectively both O-demethylation and ortho-hydroxylation. Thus, CYP2B6 demethylated methoxychlor to mono-OH-M and ortho-hydroxylated the mono-OH-M forming catechol-M; however, 2B6 did not appreciably demethylate mono-OH-M or ortho-hydroxylate bis-OH-M, suggesting a narrow substrate specificity. CYP2C19-catalyzed demethylation of methoxychlor, mono-OH-M and catechol-M, demonstrating relatively good substrate affinity (K(m) = 0.23 - 0.41 microM). However, the 3A4 ortho-hydroxylation of mono-OH-M and bis-OH-M exhibited lower affinity, K(m) = 12 and 25 microM, respectively. Thus, a

  19. Genetic variation in aldo-keto reductase 1D1 (AKR1D1) affects the expression and activity of multiple cytochrome P450s.

    PubMed

    Chaudhry, Amarjit S; Thirumaran, Ranjit K; Yasuda, Kazuto; Yang, Xia; Fan, Yiping; Strom, Stephen C; Schuetz, Erin G

    2013-08-01

    Human liver gene regulatory (Bayesian) network analysis was previously used to identify a cytochrome P450 (P450) gene subnetwork with Aldo-keto reductase 1D1 (AKR1D1) as a key regulatory driver of this subnetwork. This study assessed the biologic importance of AKR1D1 [a key enzyme in the synthesis of bile acids, ligand activators of farnesoid X receptor (FXR), pregnane X receptor (PXR), and constitutive androstane receptor (CAR), known transcriptional regulators of P450s] to hepatic P450 expression. Overexpression of AKR1D1 in primary human hepatocytes led to increased expression of CYP3A4, CYP2C8, CYP2C9, CYP2C19, and CYP2B6. Conversely, AKR1D1 knockdown decreased expression of these P450s. We resequenced AKR1D1 from 98 donor livers and identified a 3'-untranslated region (UTR) (rs1872930) single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) significantly associated with higher AKR1D1 mRNA expression. AKR1D1 3'-UTR-luciferase reporter studies showed that the variant allele resulted in higher luciferase activity, suggesting that the SNP increases AKR1D1 mRNA stability and/or translation efficiency. Consistent with AKR1D1's putative role as a driver of the P450 subnetwork, the AKR1D1 3'-UTR SNP was significantly associated with increased hepatic mRNA expression of multiple P450s (CYP3A4, CYP2C8, CYP2C9, CYP2C19, and CYP2B6) and CYP3A4, CYP2C8, CYP2C19, and CYP2B6 activities. After adjusting for multiple testing, the association remained significant for AKR1D1, CYP2C9, and CYP2C8 mRNA expression and CYP2C8 activity. These results provide new insights into the variation in expression and activity of P450s that can account for interindividual differences in drug metabolism/efficacy and adverse drug events. In conclusion, we provide the first experimental evidence supporting a role for AKR1D1 as a key genetic regulator of the P450 network. PMID:23704699

  20. Iridium Ziegler-Type Hydrogenation Catalysts Made from [(1,5-COD)Ir( -O2C8H15)]2 and AlEt3: Spectroscopic and Kinetic Evidence for the Irn Species Present and for Nanoparticles as the Fastest Catalyst

    SciTech Connect

    Alley, W.; Hamdemir, I; Wang, Q; Frenkel, A; Li, L; Yang, J; Menard, L; Nuzzo, R; Ozkar, S; Finke, R

    2010-01-01

    Ziegler-type hydrogenation catalysts, those made from a group 8-10 transition metal precatalyst and an AlR{sub 3} cocatalyst, are often used for large scale industrial polymer hydrogenation; note that Ziegler-type hydrogenation catalysts are not the same as Ziegler-Natta polymerization catalysts. A review of prior studies of Ziegler-type hydrogenation catalysts (Alley et al. J. Mol. Catal. A: Chem. 2010, 315, 1-27) reveals that a {approx}50 year old problem is identifying the metal species present before, during, and after Ziegler-type hydrogenation catalysis, and which species are the kinetically best, fastest catalysts-that is, which species are the true hydrogenation catalysts. Also of significant interest is whether what we have termed 'Ziegler nanoclusters' are present and what their relative catalytic activity is. Reported herein is the characterization of an Ir Ziegler-type hydrogenation catalyst, a valuable model (vide infra) for the Co-based industrial Ziegler-type hydrogenation catalyst, made from the crystallographically characterized [(1,5-COD)Ir({mu}-O{sub 2}C{sub 8}H{sub 15})]{sub 2} precatalyst plus AlEt{sub 3}. Characterization of this Ir model system is accomplished before and after catalysis using a battery of physical methods including Z-contrast scanning transmission electron microscopy (STEM), high resolution (HR)TEM, and X-ray absorption fine structure (XAFS) spectroscopy. Kinetic studies plus Hg(0) poisoning experiments are then employed to probe which species are the fastest catalysts. The main findings herein are that (i) a combination of the catalyst precursors [(1,5-COD)Ir({mu}-O{sub 2}C{sub 8}H{sub 15})]{sub 2} and AlEt{sub 3} gives catalytically active solutions containing a broad distribution of Ir{sub n} species ranging from monometallic Ir complexes to nanometer scale, noncrystalline Ir{sub n} nanoclusters (up to Ir{sub {approx}100} by Z-contrast STEM) with the estimated mean Ir species being 0.5-0.7 nm, Ir{sub {approx}4-15} clusters considering the similar, but not identical results from the different analytical methods; furthermore, (ii) the mean Ir{sub n} species are practically the same regardless of the Al/Ir ratio employed, suggesting that the observed changes in catalytic activity at different Al/Ir ratios are primarily the result of changes in the form or function of the Al-derived component (and not due to significant AlEt{sub 3}-induced changes in initial Ir{sub n} nuclearity). However (iii), during hydrogenation, a shift in the population of Ir species toward roughly 1.0-1.6 nm, fcc Ir(0){sub {approx}40-150}, Ziegler nanoclusters occurs with, significantly, (iv) a concomitant increase in catalytic activity. Importantly, and although catalysis by discrete subnanometer Ir species is not ruled out by this study, (v) the increases in activity with increased nanocluster size, plus Hg(0) poisoning studies, provide the best evidence to date that the approximately 1.0-1.6 nm, fcc Ir(0){sub {approx}40-150}, heterogeneous Ziegler nanoclusters are the fastest catalysts in this industrially related catalytic hydrogenation system (and in the simplest, Ockham's Razor interpretation of the data). In addition, (vi) Ziegler nanoclusters are confirmed to be an unusual, hydrocarbon-soluble, highly coordinatively unsaturated, Lewis-acid containing, and highly catalytically active type of nanocluster for use in other catalytic applications and other areas.

  1. Computational Identification of the Paralogs and Orthologs of Human Cytochrome P450 Superfamily and the Implication in Drug Discovery.

    PubMed

    Pan, Shu-Ting; Xue, Danfeng; Li, Zhi-Ling; Zhou, Zhi-Wei; He, Zhi-Xu; Yang, Yinxue; Yang, Tianxin; Qiu, Jia-Xuan; Zhou, Shu-Feng

    2016-01-01

    The human cytochrome P450 (CYP) superfamily consisting of 57 functional genes is the most important group of Phase I drug metabolizing enzymes that oxidize a large number of xenobiotics and endogenous compounds, including therapeutic drugs and environmental toxicants. The CYP superfamily has been shown to expand itself through gene duplication, and some of them become pseudogenes due to gene mutations. Orthologs and paralogs are homologous genes resulting from speciation or duplication, respectively. To explore the evolutionary and functional relationships of human CYPs, we conducted this bioinformatic study to identify their corresponding paralogs, homologs, and orthologs. The functional implications and implications in drug discovery and evolutionary biology were then discussed. GeneCards and Ensembl were used to identify the paralogs of human CYPs. We have used a panel of online databases to identify the orthologs of human CYP genes: NCBI, Ensembl Compara, GeneCards, OMA ("Orthologous MAtrix") Browser, PATHER, TreeFam, EggNOG, and Roundup. The results show that each human CYP has various numbers of paralogs and orthologs using GeneCards and Ensembl. For example, the paralogs of CYP2A6 include CYP2A7, 2A13, 2B6, 2C8, 2C9, 2C18, 2C19, 2D6, 2E1, 2F1, 2J2, 2R1, 2S1, 2U1, and 2W1; CYP11A1 has 6 paralogs including CYP11B1, 11B2, 24A1, 27A1, 27B1, and 27C1; CYP51A1 has only three paralogs: CYP26A1, 26B1, and 26C1; while CYP20A1 has no paralog. The majority of human CYPs are well conserved from plants, amphibians, fishes, or mammals to humans due to their important functions in physiology and xenobiotic disposition. The data from different approaches are also cross-validated and validated when experimental data are available. These findings facilitate our understanding of the evolutionary relationships and functional implications of the human CYP superfamily in drug discovery. PMID:27367670

  2. Computational Identification of the Paralogs and Orthologs of Human Cytochrome P450 Superfamily and the Implication in Drug Discovery

    PubMed Central

    Pan, Shu-Ting; Xue, Danfeng; Li, Zhi-Ling; Zhou, Zhi-Wei; He, Zhi-Xu; Yang, Yinxue; Yang, Tianxin; Qiu, Jia-Xuan; Zhou, Shu-Feng

    2016-01-01

    The human cytochrome P450 (CYP) superfamily consisting of 57 functional genes is the most important group of Phase I drug metabolizing enzymes that oxidize a large number of xenobiotics and endogenous compounds, including therapeutic drugs and environmental toxicants. The CYP superfamily has been shown to expand itself through gene duplication, and some of them become pseudogenes due to gene mutations. Orthologs and paralogs are homologous genes resulting from speciation or duplication, respectively. To explore the evolutionary and functional relationships of human CYPs, we conducted this bioinformatic study to identify their corresponding paralogs, homologs, and orthologs. The functional implications and implications in drug discovery and evolutionary biology were then discussed. GeneCards and Ensembl were used to identify the paralogs of human CYPs. We have used a panel of online databases to identify the orthologs of human CYP genes: NCBI, Ensembl Compara, GeneCards, OMA (“Orthologous MAtrix”) Browser, PATHER, TreeFam, EggNOG, and Roundup. The results show that each human CYP has various numbers of paralogs and orthologs using GeneCards and Ensembl. For example, the paralogs of CYP2A6 include CYP2A7, 2A13, 2B6, 2C8, 2C9, 2C18, 2C19, 2D6, 2E1, 2F1, 2J2, 2R1, 2S1, 2U1, and 2W1; CYP11A1 has 6 paralogs including CYP11B1, 11B2, 24A1, 27A1, 27B1, and 27C1; CYP51A1 has only three paralogs: CYP26A1, 26B1, and 26C1; while CYP20A1 has no paralog. The majority of human CYPs are well conserved from plants, amphibians, fishes, or mammals to humans due to their important functions in physiology and xenobiotic disposition. The data from different approaches are also cross-validated and validated when experimental data are available. These findings facilitate our understanding of the evolutionary relationships and functional implications of the human CYP superfamily in drug discovery. PMID:27367670

  3. Guanfu base A, an antiarrhythmic alkaloid of Aconitum coreanum, Is a CYP2D6 inhibitor of human, monkey, and dog isoforms.

    PubMed

    Sun, Jianguo; Peng, Ying; Wu, Hui; Zhang, Xueyuan; Zhong, Yunxi; Xiao, Yanan; Zhang, Fengyi; Qi, Huanhuan; Shang, Lili; Zhu, Jianping; Sun, Yue; Liu, Ke; Liu, Jinghan; A, Jiye; Ho, Rodney J Y; Wang, Guangji

    2015-05-01

    Guanfu base A (GFA) is a novel heterocyclic antiarrhythmic drug isolated from Aconitum coreanum (Lèvl.) rapaics and is currently in a phase IV clinical trial in China. However, no study has investigated the influence of GFA on cytochrome P450 (P450) drug metabolism. We characterized the potency and specificity of GFA CYP2D inhibition based on dextromethorphan O-demethylation, a CYP2D6 probe substrate of activity in human, mouse, rat, dog, and monkey liver microsomes. In addition, (+)-bufuralol 1'-hydroxylation was used as a CYP2D6 probe for the recombinant form (rCYP2D6), 2D1 (rCYP2D1), and 2D2 (rCYP2D2) activities. Results show that GFA is a potent noncompetitive inhibitor of CYP2D6, with inhibition constant Ki = 1.20 ± 0.33 μM in human liver microsomes (HLMs) and Ki = 0.37 ± 0.16 μM for the human recombinant form (rCYP2D6). GFA is also a potent competitive inhibitor of CYP2D in monkey (Ki = 0.38 ± 0.12 μM) and dog (Ki = 2.4 ± 1.3 μM) microsomes. However, GFA has no inhibitory activity on mouse or rat CYP2Ds. GFA did not exhibit any inhibition activity on human recombinant CYP1A2, 2A6, 2C8, 2C19, 3A4, or 3A5, but showed slight inhibition of 2B6 and 2E1. Preincubation of HLMs and rCYP2D6 resulted in the inactivation of the enzyme, which was attenuated by GFA or quinidine. Beagle dogs treated intravenously with dextromethorphan (2 mg/ml) after pretreatment with GFA injection showed reduced CYP2D metabolic activity, with the Cmax of dextrorphan being one-third that of the saline-treated group and area under the plasma concentration-time curve half that of the saline-treated group. This study suggests that GFA is a specific CYP2D6 inhibitor that might play a role in CYP2D6 medicated drug-drug interaction. PMID:25681130

  4. Nuclear Receptors in Drug Metabolism, Drug Response and Drug Interactions

    PubMed Central

    Prakash, Chandra; Zuniga, Baltazar; Song, Chung Seog; Jiang, Shoulei; Cropper, Jodie; Park, Sulgi; Chatterjee, Bandana

    2016-01-01

    Orally delivered small-molecule therapeutics are metabolized in the liver and intestine by phase I and phase II drug-metabolizing enzymes (DMEs), and transport proteins coordinate drug influx (phase 0) and drug/drug-metabolite efflux (phase III). Genes involved in drug metabolism and disposition are induced by xenobiotic-activated nuclear receptors (NRs), i.e. PXR (pregnane X receptor) and CAR (constitutive androstane receptor), and by the 1α, 25-dihydroxy vitamin D3-activated vitamin D receptor (VDR), due to transactivation of xenobiotic-response elements (XREs) present in phase 0-III genes. Additional NRs, like HNF4-α, FXR, LXR-α play important roles in drug metabolism in certain settings, such as in relation to cholesterol and bile acid metabolism. The phase I enzymes CYP3A4/A5, CYP2D6, CYP2B6, CYP2C9, CYP2C19, CYP1A2, CYP2C8, CYP2A6, CYP2J2, and CYP2E1 metabolize >90% of all prescription drugs, and phase II conjugation of hydrophilic functional groups (with/without phase I modification) facilitates drug clearance. The conjugation step is mediated by broad-specificity transferases like UGTs, SULTs, GSTs. This review delves into our current understanding of PXR/CAR/VDR-mediated regulation of DME and transporter expression, as well as effects of single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) and epigenome (specified by promoter methylation, histone modification, microRNAs, long non coding RNAs) on the expression of PXR/CAR/VDR and phase 0-III mediators, and their impacts on variable drug response. Therapeutic agents that target epigenetic regulation and the molecular basis and consequences (overdosing, underdosing, or beneficial outcome) of drug-drug/drug-food/drug-herb interactions are also discussed. Precision medicine requires understanding of a drug’s impact on DME and transporter activity and their NR-regulated expression in order to achieve optimal drug efficacy without adverse drug reactions. In future drug screening, new tools such as humanized mouse models and

  5. The impact of individual cytochrome P450 enzymes on oxidative metabolism of benzo[a]pyrene in human livers

    PubMed Central

    Šulc, Miroslav; Indra, Radek; Moserová, Michaela; Schmeiser, Heinz H.; Frei, Eva; Arlt, Volker M.; White, P.

    2016-01-01

    Benzo[a]pyrene (BaP) is a human carcinogen that covalently binds to DNA after metabolic activation by cytochrome P450 (CYP) enzymes. In this study human recombinant CYPs (CYP1A1, 1A2, 1B1, 2A6, 2B6, 2C8, 2C9, 2C19, 2E1, 3A4, and 3A5) were expressed in Supersomes™ together with their reductases, NADPH:CYP oxidoreductase, epoxide hydrolase and cytochrome b5, to investigate BaP metabolism. Human CYPs produced up to eight BaP metabolites. Among these, BaP‐7,8‐dihydrodiol and BaP‐9‐ol, which are intermediates in BaP‐derived DNA adduct formation, were mainly formed by CYP1A1 and 1B1, and to a lesser extent by CYP2C19 and 3A4. BaP‐3‐ol, a metabolite that is a ‘detoxified’ product of BaP, was formed by most human CYPs tested, although CYP1A1 and 1B1 produced it the most efficiently. Based on the amounts of the individual BaP metabolites formed by these CYPs and their expression levels in human liver, we determined their contributions to BaP metabolite formation in this organ. Our results indicate that hepatic CYP1A1 and CYP2C19 are most important in the activation of BaP to BaP‐7,8‐dihydrodiol, whereas CYP2C19, 3A4, and 1A1 are the major enzymes contributing to the formation of BaP‐9‐ol. BaP‐3‐ol is predominantly formed by hepatic CYP3A4, while CYP1A1 and 2C19 are less active. Environ. Mol. Mutagen. 57:229–235, 2016. © 2016 The Authors. Environmental and Molecular Mutagenesis Published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:26919089

  6. Population pharmacogenetic-based pharmacokinetic modeling of efavirenz, 7-hydroxy- and 8-hydroxyefavirenz

    PubMed Central

    Abdelhady, A.M.; Desta, Z.; Jiang, F.; Yeo, C.W.; Shin, J.; Overholser, B. R.

    2015-01-01

    Objectives The purpose of this study was to determine the demographic and pharmacogenetic covariates that influence the disposition of efavirenz (EFV) and its major metabolites. Methods: A population pharmacokinetic (PK) model was developed from a randomized, cross-over, drug-interaction study in healthy male Korean subjects (n=17). Plasma concentrations of EFV and its hydroxy-metabolites (0–120 hrs) were measured by LC/MS/MS. Genomic DNA was genotyped for variants in the cytochrome P450 (CYP) 2A6, 2B6, 3A5 and MDR1 genes. A PK model was built in a stepwise procedure using nonlinear mixed effect modeling in NONMEM 7. The covariate model was built using the generalized additive modeling and forward selection-backward elimination. Model-based simulations were performed to predict EFV steady-state concentrations following 200, 400, and 600 mg daily oral dose among different CYP2B6 genotypes Results The final model included only CYP2B6 genotype as covariate that predicts EFV clearance through the formation of 8-OH EFV that represented 65% to 80% of EFV clearance. The total clearance of EFV in CYP2B6*6/*6 genotype was ~ 30% lower than CYP2B6*1/*1 or CYP2B6*1/*6 alleles (P<0.001). Clopidogrel reduced both formation and elimination clearances of 8-OH EFV by 22% and 19% respectively (P= 0.033 and 0.041). Other demographics and genotype of accessory CYP pathways did not predict EFV or metabolites PK. Conclusion CYP2B6 genotype was the only significant predictor of EFV disposition. The developed model may serve as the foundation for further exploration of pharmacogenetic-based dosing of EFV. PMID:24142869

  7. Multiple genetic variants predict steady-state nevirapine clearance in HIV-infected Cambodians

    PubMed Central

    Bertrand, Julie; Chou, Monidarin; Richardson, Danielle M.; Verstuyft, Céline; Leger, Paul D.; Mentré, France; Taburet, Anne-Marie; Haas, David W.

    2013-01-01

    Objective In a previous analysis involving protocol ANRS 12154, interindividual variability in steady-state nevirapine clearance among HIV-infected Cambodians was partially explained by CYP2B6 516G→T (CYP2B6*6). Here, we examine whether additional genetic variants predict nevirapine clearance in this cohort. Methods Analyses included Phnom Penh ESTHER (Ensemble pour une Solidarité Thérapeutique Hospitalière en Réseau) cohort participants who had consented for genetic testing. All participants were receiving nevirapine plus two nucleoside analogs. The mean individual nevirapine clearance estimates were derived from a population model developed on nevirapine concentrations at 18 and 36 months of therapy. Polymorphisms were assayed in ABCB1, CYP2A6, CYP2B6, CYP2C19, CYP3A4, CYP3A5, and NR1I2. Results Of 198 assayed loci, 130 were polymorphic. Among 129 individuals with evaluable genetic data, nevirapine clearance ranged from 1.06 to 5.00 l/h in 128 individuals and was 7.81 l/h in one individual. In bivariate linear regression, CYP2B6 516G→T (CYP2B6*6) was associated with lower nevirapine clearances (P = 3.5 × 10–6). In a multivariate linear regression model conditioned on CYP2B6 516G→T, independent associations were identified with CYP2B6 rs7251950, CYP2B6 rs2279343, and CYP3A4 rs2687116. The CYP3A4 association disappeared after censoring the outlier clearance value. A model that included CYP2B6 516G→T (P = 1.0 × 10–9), rs7251950 (P = 4.8 × 10–5), and rs2279343 (P = 7.1 × 10–5) explained 11% of interindividual variability in nevirapine clearance. Conclusion Among HIV-infected Cambodians, several CYP2B6 polymorphisms were associated independently with steady-state nevirapine clearance. The prediction of nevirapine clearance was improved by considering several polymorphisms in combination. PMID:23104099

  8. Further Characterization of the Metabolism of Desloratadine and Its Cytochrome P450 and UDP-glucuronosyltransferase Inhibition Potential: Identification of Desloratadine as a Relatively Selective UGT2B10 Inhibitor.

    PubMed

    Kazmi, Faraz; Yerino, Phyllis; Barbara, Joanna E; Parkinson, Andrew

    2015-09-01

    Desloratadine (Clarinex), the major active metabolite of loratadine (Claritin), is a nonsedating antihistamine used for the treatment of seasonal allergies and hives. Previously we reported that the formation of 3-hydroxydesloratadine, the major human metabolite of desloratadine, involves three sequential reactions, namely N-glucuronidation by UGT2B10 followed by 3-hydroxylation by CYP2C8 followed by deconjugation (rapid, nonenzymatic hydrolysis of the N-glucuronide). In this study we assessed the perpetrator potential of desloratadine based on in vitro studies of its inhibitory effects on cytochrome P450 and UDP-glucuronosyltransferase (UGT) enzymes in human liver microsomes (HLM). Desloratadine (10 µM) caused no inhibition (<15%) of CYP1A2, CYP2C8, CYP2C9, or CYP2C19 and weak inhibition (32-48%) of CYP2B6, CYP2D6, and CYP3A4/5. In cryopreserved human hepatocytes (CHH), which can form the CYP2C8 substrate desloratadine N-glucuronide, desloratadine did not inhibit the CYP2C8-dependent metabolism of paclitaxel or amodiaquine. Assessment of UGT inhibition identified desloratadine as a potent and relatively selective competitive inhibitor of UGT2B10 (Ki value of 1.3 μM). Chemical inhibition of UGT enzymes in HLM demonstrated that nicotine (UGT2B10 inhibitor) but not hecogenin (UGT1A4 inhibitor) completely inhibited the conversion of desloratadine (1 µM) to 3-hydroxydesloratadine in HLM fortified with both NADPH and UDP-glucuronic acid. 3-Hydroxydesloratadine formation correlated well with levomedetomidine glucuronidation (UGT2B10 marker activity) with a panel of individual CHH (r(2) = 0.72). Overall, the results of this study confirm the role of UGT2B10 in 3-hydroxydesloratadine formation and identify desloratadine as a relatively selective in vitro inhibitor of UGT2B10. PMID:26135009

  9. Assessment of cytochrome P450-mediated drug-drug interaction potential of orteronel and exposure changes in patients with renal impairment using physiologically based pharmacokinetic modeling and simulation.

    PubMed

    Lu, Chuang; Suri, Ajit; Shyu, Wen Chyi; Prakash, Shimoga

    2014-12-01

    Orteronel is a nonsteroidal, selective inhibitor of 17,20-lyase that was recently in phase 3 clinical development as a treatment for castration-resistant prostate cancer. In humans, the primary clearance route for orteronel is renal excretion. Human liver microsomal studies indicated that orteronel weakly inhibits CYP1A2, 2C8, 2C9 and 2C19, with IC50 values of 17.8, 27.7, 30.8 and 38.8 µm, respectively, whereas orteronel does not inhibit CYP2B6, 2D6 or 3A4/5 (IC50  > 100 µm). Orteronel also does not exhibit time-dependent inhibition of CYP1A2, 2B6, 2C8, 2C9, 2C19, 2D6 or 3A4/5. The results of a static model indicated an [I]/Ki ratio >0.1 for CYP1A2, 2C8, 2C9 and 2C19. Therefore, a physiologically based pharmacokinetic (PBPK) model was developed to assess the potential for drug-drug interactions (DDIs) between orteronel and theophylline, repaglinide, (S)-warfarin and omeprazole, which are sensitive substrates of CYP1A2, 2C8, 2C9 and 2C19, respectively. Simulation of the area under the plasma concentration-time curve (AUC) of these four CYP substrates in the presence and absence of orteronel revealed geometric mean AUC ratios <1.25. Therefore, in accordance with the 2012 US FDA Draft Guidance on DDIs, orteronel can be labeled a 'non-inhibitor' and further clinical DDI evaluation is not required. In PBPK models of moderate and severe renal impairment, the AUC of orteronel was predicted to increase by 52% and 83%, respectively. These results are in agreement with those of a clinical trial in which AUC increases of 38% and 87% were observed in patients with moderate and severe renal impairment, respectively. PMID:25264242

  10. Novel Cytochrome P450 Reaction Phenotyping for Low-Clearance Compounds Using the Hepatocyte Relay Method.

    PubMed

    Yang, Xin; Atkinson, Karen; Di, Li

    2016-03-01

    A novel cytochrome P450 (P450) reaction phenotyping method for low-clearance compounds has been developed for eight P450 enzymes (CYP1A2, 2B6, 2D6, 2C8, 2C9, 2C19, 3A, and 3A4) and pan-cytochrome using the hepatocyte relay approach. Selective mechanism-based inhibitors were used to inactivate the individual P450 enzymes during preincubation, and inactivators were removed from the incubation before adding substrates to minimize reversible inhibition and maximize inhibitor specificity. The inhibitors were quite selective for specific P450 isoforms using the following inhibitor concentrations and preincubation times: furafylline (1 µM, 15 minutes) for CYP1A2, phencyclidine (20 µM, 15 minutes) for 2B6, paroxetine (1.8 µM, 15 minutes) for CYP2D6, gemfibrozil glucuronide (100 µM, 30 minutes) for 2C8, tienilic acid (15 µM, 30 minutes) for 2C9, esomeprazole (8 µM, 15 minutes) for 2C19, troleandomycin (25 µM, 15 minutes) for 3A4/5, CYP3cide (2 µM, 15 minutes) for 3A4, and 1-aminobenzotriazole (1 mM, 30 minutes) supplemented with tienilic acid (15 µM, 30 minutes) for pan-cytochrome. The inhibitors were successfully applied to the hepatocyte relay method in a 48-well format for P450 reaction phenotyping of low-clearance compounds. This novel method provides a new approach for determining the fraction metabolized of low-turnover compounds that are otherwise challenging with the traditional methods, such as chemical inhibitors with human liver microsomes and hepatocytes or human recombinant P450 enzymes. PMID:26700955

  11. Pharmacogenetics of plasma efavirenz exposure in HIV-infected adults and children in South Africa

    PubMed Central

    Sinxadi, Phumla Z; Leger, Paul D; McIlleron, Helen M; Smith, Peter J; Dave, Joel A; Levitt, Naomi S; Maartens, Gary; Haas, David W

    2015-01-01

    Aims Genetic factors, notably CYP2B6 516G→T [rs3745274] and 983T→C [rs28399499], explain much of the interindividual variability in efavirenz pharmacokinetics, but data from Africa are limited. We characterized relationships between genetic polymorphisms and plasma efavirenz concentrations in HIV-infected Black South African adults and children. Methods Steady-state mid-dosing interval efavirenz concentrations were measured. We genotyped 241 polymorphisms in genes potentially relevant to efavirenz metabolism and transport, including ABCB1, CYP2A6, CYP2B6, CYP3A4, CYP3A5, NR1I2 and NR1I3. Results Among 113 participants (59 adults and 54 children), minor allele frequencies for CYP2B6 516G→T, 983T→C, and 15582C→T [rs4803419] were 0.36, 0.07, and 0.09, respectively. Based on composite CYP2B6 15582/516/983 genotype, there were 33 extensive metabolizer, 62 intermediate metabolizer and 18 slow metabolizer genotypes. Median (IQR) mid-dose efavirenz concentrations were 1.44 (1.21–1.93) µg ml–1, 2.08 (1.68–2.94) µg ml–1 and 7.26 (4.82–8.34) µg ml–1 for extensive, intermediate and slow metabolizers, respectively. In univariate analyses, a model that included composite genotype best predicted efavirenz concentrations (β = 0.28, 95% CI 0.21, 0.35, P = 2.4 × 10–11). Among individual CYP2B6 polymorphisms, 516G→T best predicted efavirenz concentrations (β = 0.22, 95% CI 0.13, 0.30, P = 1.27 × 10−6). There was also associations with 983T→C (β = 0.27, 95% CI 0.10, 0.44, P = 0.002) and 15582C→T (β = 0.11, 95% CI 0.01, 0.22, P = 0.04). Associations were consistent in adults and children. No other polymorphisms were independently associated with efavirenz concentrations. Conclusions Composite CYP2B6 genotype based on CYP2B6 516G→T, 983T→C, and 15582C→T best described efavirenz exposure in HIV-infected Black South African adults and children. PMID:25611810

  12. 76 FR 15820 - Airworthiness Directives; B-N Group Ltd. Model BN-2, BN-2A, BN-2A-2, BN-2A-3, BN-2A-6, BN-2A-8...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-03-22

    ... published in the Federal Register on December 21, 2010 (75 FR 79990). That NPRM proposed to correct an... ``significant rule'' under DOT Regulatory Policies and Procedures (44 FR 11034, February 26, 1979); and (3) Will... result in, or be caused by, internal structural delamination and/or failure. Such a failure could have...

  13. 75 FR 79990 - Airworthiness Directives; B-N Group Ltd. Model BN-2, BN-2A, BN-2A-2, BN-2A-3, BN-2A-6, BN-2A-8...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-12-21

    ... Procedures (44 FR 11034, February 26, 1979); and 3. Will not have a significant economic impact, positive or... profiles. There is concern that this could potentially result in, or be caused by, internal structural..., internal structural delamination and/or failure. Such a failure could have a serious effect on the...

  14. Inhibition of Cytochrome P450 by Propolis in Human Liver Microsomes

    PubMed Central

    Ryu, Chang Seon; Oh, Soo Jin; Oh, Jung Min; Lee, Ji-Yoon; Lee, Sang Yoon; Chae, Jung-woo; Kwon, Kwang-il; Kim, Sang Kyum

    2016-01-01

    Although propolis is one of the most popular functional foods for human health, there have been no comprehensive studies of herb-drug interactions through cytochrome P450 (CYP) inhibition. The purpose of this study was to determine the inhibitory effects of propolis on the activities of CYP1A2, 2A6, 2B6, 2C9, 2C19, 2D6, 2E1 and 3A4 using pooled human liver microsomes (HLMs). Propolis inhibited CYP1A2, CYP2E1 and CYP2C19 with an IC50 value of 6.9, 16.8, and 43.1 μg/mL, respectively, whereas CYP2A6, 2B6, 2C9, 2D6, and 3A4 were unaffected. Based on half-maximal inhibitory concentration shifts between microsomes incubated with and without nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate, propolis-induced CYP1A2, CYP2C19, and CYP2E1 inhibition was metabolism-independent. To evaluate the interaction potential between propolis and therapeutic drugs, the effects of propolis on metabolism of duloxetine, a serotonin-norepinephrine reuptake inhibitor, were determined in HLMs. CYP1A2 and CYP2D6 are involved in hydroxylation of duloxetine to 4-hydroxy duloxetine, the major metabolite, which was decreased following propolis addition in HLMs. These results raise the possibility of interactions between propolis and therapeutic drugs metabolized by CYP1A2. PMID:27437087

  15. Inhibitory effects of sanguinarine on human liver cytochrome P450 enzymes.

    PubMed

    Qi, Xiao-Yi; Liang, Si-Cheng; Ge, Guang-Bo; Liu, Yong; Dong, Pei-Pei; Zhang, Jiang-Wei; Wang, Ao-Xue; Hou, Jie; Zhu, Liang-Liang; Yang, Ling; Tu, Cai-Xia

    2013-06-01

    Sanguinarine (SAG) has been recognized as an anticancer drug candidate. However, the drug-drug interactions (DDI) potential for SAG via the inhibition against human cytochrome P450 (CYP) enzymes remains unclear. In the present study, the inhibitory effects of SAG on seven major human CYP isoforms 1A2, 2A6, 2E1, 2D6, 2C8, 2C9 and 3A4 were investigated with human liver microsomes (HLM). The results showed that SAG was a potent noncompetitive inhibitor of CYP2C8 activity (Ki=8.9 μM), and competitive inhibitor of CYP1A2, CYP2C9 and CYP3A4 activities (Ki=2.7, 3.8 and 2.0 μM, respectively). Furthermore, SAG exhibited time- and NADPH-dependent inhibition towards CYP1A2 and CYP3A4 with KI/kinact values of 13.3/0.087 and 5.58/0.029 min(-1) μM(-1), respectively. Weak inhibition of SAG against CYP2E1, CYP2D6 and CYP2A6 was also observed. In vitro-in vivo extrapolation (IV-IVE) from HLM data showed that more than 35.9% of CYP1A2, CYP2C9, CYP2C8 and CYP3A4 activities in vivo could be inhibited by SAG, suggesting that harmful DDIs could occur when SAG or its medical preparations are co-administered with drugs primarily cleared by these CYP isoforms. Further in vivo studies are needed to evaluate the clinical significance of the data presented herein. PMID:23500771

  16. [Effect of oligosaccharide esters and polygalaxanthone Ill from Polygala tenuifolia willd towards cytochrome P450].

    PubMed

    Li, Zhao-liang; Dong, Xian-zhe; Wang, Dong-xiao; Dong, Rui-hua; Guo, Ting-ting; Sun, Yan; Liu, Ping

    2014-11-01

    Five compounds (tenuifoliside C, tenuifoliside D, telephiose A, telephiose C and polygalaxanthone III) from polygala tenuifolia wild were incubated together with CYP probe substrate in human liver microsomes to investigate the inhibitory effect towards CYP450 enzyme. Phenacetin (CYP1A2), coumarin (CYP2A6), paclitaxel (CYP2C8), diclofenac (CYP2C9), S-mepheriytoin (CYP2C19), dextromethorphan (CYP2D6), chlorzoxazone (CYP2E1), midazolam (CYP3A) were selected as the isoforfn specific substrate. And the formation of paracetamol, 7-hydroxycoumarin, 6alpha-hydroxy paclitaxel, 4'-hydroxydiclofenac, dextrorphan, 6-hydroxychlorzoxazone, 1'-hydroxymidazolam, 4'-hydroxymephenytoin were detected respectively to measure the effect towards CYP450 by high-pressure liquid chromatography (HPLC). The result shows that five compounds from polygala tenuifolia willd significantly inhibit chlorzoxazone 6-hydroxylation catalyzed by CYP2E1, while showed no effect towards CYP1A2, CYP2A6, CYP2C8, CYP2C9, CYP2C19, CYP2D6, CYP3A. And IC50 value was 38.73, 54.14, 61.77, 62.22, 50.56 micromol x L(-1), respectively. PMID:25850285

  17. An Expanded Analysis of Pharmacogenetics Determinants of Efavirenz Response that Includes 3′-UTR Single Nucleotide Polymorphisms among Black South African HIV/AIDS Patients

    PubMed Central

    Swart, Marelize; Evans, Jonathan; Skelton, Michelle; Castel, Sandra; Wiesner, Lubbe; Smith, Peter J.; Dandara, Collet

    2016-01-01

    Introduction: Efavirenz (EFV) is a non-nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitor prescribed as part of first-line highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) in South Africa. Despite administration of fixed doses of EFV, inter-individual variability in plasma concentrations has been reported. Poor treatment outcomes such as development of adverse drug reactions or treatment failure have been linked to EFV plasma concentrations outside the therapeutic range (1–4 μg/mL) in some studies. The drug metabolizing enzyme (DME), CYP2B6, is primarily responsible for EFV metabolism with minor contributions by CYP1A2, CYP2A6, CYP3A4, CYP3A5, and UGT2B7. DME coding genes are also regulated by microRNAs through targeting the 3′-untranslated region. Expanded analysis of 30 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs), including those in the 3′-UTR, was performed to identify pharmacogenetics determinants of EFV plasma concentrations in addition to CYP2B6 c.516G>T and c.983T>C SNPs. Methods: SNPs in CYP1A2, CYP2B6, UGT2B7, and NR1I2 (PXR) were selected for genotyping among 222 Bantu-speaking South African HIV-infected patients receiving EFV-containing HAART. This study is a continuation of earlier pharmacogenetics studies emphasizing the role of genetic variation in the 3′-UTR of genes which products are either pharmacokinetic or pharmacodynamic targets of EFV. Results: Despite evaluating thirty SNPs, CYP2B6 c.516G>T and c.983T>C SNPs remain the most prominent predictors of EFV plasma concentration. Conclusion: We have shown that CYP2B6 c.516G>T and c.983T>C SNPs are the most important predictors of EFV plasma concentration after taking into account all other SNPs, including genetic variation in the 3′-UTR, and variables affecting EFV metabolism. PMID:26779253

  18. In vitro assessment of metabolic drug-drug interaction potential of apixaban through cytochrome P450 phenotyping, inhibition, and induction studies.

    PubMed

    Wang, Lifei; Zhang, Donglu; Raghavan, Nirmala; Yao, Ming; Ma, Li; Frost, Charles E; Frost, Charles A; Maxwell, Brad D; Chen, Shiang-yuan; He, Kan; Goosen, Theunis C; Humphreys, W Griffith; Grossman, Scott J

    2010-03-01

    Apixaban is an oral, direct, and highly selective factor Xa inhibitor in late-stage clinical development for the prevention and treatment of thromboembolic diseases. The metabolic drug-drug interaction potential of apixaban was evaluated in vitro. The compound did not show cytochrome P450 inhibition (IC(50) values >20 microM) in incubations of human liver microsomes with the probe substrates of CYP1A2, 2B6, 2C8, 2C9, 2C19, 2D6, or 3A4/5. Apixaban did not show any effect at concentrations up to 20 muM on enzyme activities or mRNA levels of selected P450 enzymes (CYP1A2, 2B6, and 3A4/5) that are sensitive to induction in incubations with primary human hepatocytes. Apixaban showed a slow metabolic turnover in incubations of human liver microsomes with formation of O-demethylation (M2) and hydroxylation products (M4 and M7) as prominent in vitro metabolites. Experiments with human cDNA-expressed P450 enzymes and P450 chemical inhibitors and correlation with P450 activities in individual human liver microsomes demonstrated that the oxidative metabolism of apixaban for formation of all metabolites was predominantly catalyzed by CYP3A4/5 with a minor contribution of CYP1A2 and CYP2J2 for formation of M2. The contribution of CYP2C8, 2C9, and 2C19 to metabolism of apixaban was less significant. In addition, a human absorption, distribution, metabolism, and excretion study showed that more than half of the dose was excreted as unchanged parent (f(m CYP) <0.5), thus significantly reducing the overall metabolic drug-drug interaction potential of apixaban. Together with a low clinical efficacious concentration and multiple clearance pathways, these results demonstrate that the metabolic drug-drug interaction potential between apixaban and coadministered drugs is low. PMID:19940026

  19. In Vivo Profiling and Distribution of Known and Novel Phase I and Phase II Metabolites of Efavirenz in Plasma, Urine, and Cerebrospinal Fluid.

    PubMed

    Aouri, Manel; Barcelo, Catalina; Ternon, Béatrice; Cavassini, Matthias; Anagnostopoulos, Alexia; Yerly, Sabine; Hugues, Henry; Vernazza, Pietro; Günthard, Huldrych F; Buclin, Thierry; Telenti, Amalio; Rotger, Margalida; Decosterd, Laurent A

    2016-01-01

    Efavirenz (EFV) is principally metabolized by CYP2B6 to 8-hydroxy-efavirenz (8OH-EFV) and to a lesser extent by CYP2A6 to 7-hydroxy-efavirenz (7OH-EFV). So far, most metabolite profile analyses have been restricted to 8OH-EFV, 7OH-EFV, and EFV-N-glucuronide, even though these metabolites represent a minor percentage of EFV metabolites present in vivo. We have performed a quantitative phase I and II metabolite profile analysis by tandem mass spectrometry of plasma, cerebrospinal fluid (CSF), and urine samples in 71 human immunodeficiency virus patients taking efavirenz, prior to and after enzymatic (glucuronidase and sulfatase) hydrolysis. We have shown that phase II metabolites constitute the major part of the known circulating efavirenz species in humans. The 8OH-EFV-glucuronide (gln) and 8OH-EFV-sulfate (identified for the first time) in humans were found to be 64- and 7-fold higher than the parent 8OH-EFV, respectively. In individuals (n = 67) genotyped for CYP2B6, 2A6, and CYP3A metabolic pathways, 8OH-EFV/EFV ratios in plasma were an index of CYP2B6 phenotypic activity (P < 0.0001), which was also reflected by phase II metabolites 8OH-EFV-glucuronide/EFV and 8OH-EFV-sulfate/EFV ratios. Neither EFV nor 8OH-EFV, nor any other considered metabolites in plasma were associated with an increased risk of central nervous system (CNS) toxicity. In CSF, 8OH-EFV levels were not influenced by CYP2B6 genotypes and did not predict CNS toxicity. The phase II metabolites 8OH-EFV-gln, 8OH-EFV-sulfate, and 7OH-EFV-gln were present in CSF at 2- to 9-fold higher concentrations than 8OH-EFV. The potential contribution of known and previously unreported EFV metabolites in CSF to the neuropsychological effects of efavirenz needs to be further examined in larger cohort studies. PMID:26553012

  20. Investigation of Efavirenz Discontinuation in Multi-ethnic Populations of HIV-positive Individuals by Genetic Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Cummins, Nathan W.; Neuhaus, Jacqueline; Chu, Haitao; Neaton, James; Wyen, Christoph; Rockstroh, Jürgen K.; Skiest, Daniel J.; Boyd, Mark A.; Khoo, Saye; Rotger, Margalida; Telenti, Amalio; Weinshilboum, Richard; Badley, Andrew D.

    2015-01-01

    Background Efavirenz (EFV) based antiretroviral therapy is expanding worldwide. However discontinuation of EFV containing regimens is common in some patients, particularly black patients, due most often to neuropsychiatric side effects. These adverse drug effects often result in premature drug discontinuation, as well as considerable morbidity. Methods We genotyped CYP2A6, CYP2B6 and CYP3A4, which encode enzymes principally involved in EFV metabolism, from patients enrolled in the multinational SMART, FIRST and ESPRIT studies, for whom outcome data of treatment adherence was available. Patients with loss or decrease of function single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in the above genes were assigned a risk score based upon the number of SNPs present weighted relative to whether CYP2B6 (main metabolism pathway) and/or CYP2A6 and CYP3A4 (accessory pathways) were involved. Cox regression models were used to study the association between high genetic risk and time from initiation to EFV discontinuation. Failure was defined as discontinuation of an antiretroviral regimen other than for virologic failure or protocol determined discontinuation. Findings Patients with highest pharmacogenetic risk, as defined by cumulative SNPs in CYP2A6, CYP2B6 and CYP3A4, have an increased risk of discontinuation of EFV containing therapy compared to patients with lower genetic risk scores (adjusted HR 1.9, 95% CI 1.2, 3.1, P = 0.009). High genetic risk score was not associated with an increased risk of discontinuing atazanavir or nevirapine. High genetic risk was present more often in blacks compared to non-blacks (Adjusted OR 4.5, 95% CI: 1.9,10.5), and treatment discontinuation was also increased in blacks overall (Adjusted HR 1.4, 95% CI 1.0, 1.9). However, high genetic risk was more associated with treatment discontinuation than race alone for both blacks (Adjusted OR 1.9, 95% CI 0.8, 4.8) and non-blacks (Adjusted OR 5.3, 95% CI 1.5, 18.0). Interpretation Premature discontinuation

  1. Cobicistat versus ritonavir boosting and differences in the drug-drug interaction profiles with co-medications.

    PubMed

    Marzolini, Catia; Gibbons, Sara; Khoo, Saye; Back, David

    2016-07-01

    Nearly all HIV PIs and the integrase inhibitor elvitegravir require a pharmacokinetic enhancer in order to achieve therapeutic plasma concentrations at the desired dose and frequency. Whereas ritonavir has been the only available pharmacokinetic enhancer for more than a decade, cobicistat has recently emerged as an alternative boosting agent. Cobicistat and ritonavir are equally strong inhibitors of cytochrome P450 (CYP) 3A4 and consequently were shown to be equivalent pharmacokinetic enhancers for elvitegravir and for the PIs atazanavir and darunavir. Since cobicistat is a more selective CYP inhibitor than ritonavir and is devoid of enzyme-inducing properties, differences are expected in their interaction profiles with some co-medications. Drugs whose exposure might be altered by ritonavir but unaltered by cobicistat are drugs primarily metabolized by CYP1A2, CYP2B6, CYP2C8, CYP2C9 and CYP2C19 or drugs undergoing mainly glucuronidation. Thus, co-medications should be systematically reviewed when switching the pharmacokinetic enhancer to anticipate potential dosage adjustments. PMID:26945713

  2. CYP3A4 Mediates Oxidative Metabolism of the Synthetic Cannabinoid AKB-48.

    PubMed

    Holm, Niels Bjerre; Nielsen, Line Marie; Linnet, Kristian

    2015-09-01

    Synthetic cannabinoid designer drugs have emerged as drugs of abuse during the last decade, and acute intoxication cases are documented in the scientific literature. Synthetic cannabinoids are extensively metabolized, but our knowledge of the involved enzymes is limited. Here, we investigated the metabolism of N-(1-adamantyl)-1-pentyl-1H-indazole-3-carboxamide (AKB-48), a compound identified in herbal blends from 2012 and onwards. We screened for metabolite formation using a panel of nine recombinant cytochrome P450 (CYP) enzymes (CYP1A2, 2B6, 2C8, 2C9, 2C18, 2C19, 2D6, 2E1, and 3A4) and compared the formed metabolites to human liver microsomal (HLM) incubations with specific inhibitors against CYP2D6, 2C19, and 3A4, respectively. The data reported here demonstrate CYP3A4 to be the major CYP enzyme responsible for the oxidative metabolism of AKB-48, preferentially performing the oxidation on the adamantyl moiety. Genetic polymorphisms are likely not important with regard to toxicity given the major involvement of CYP3A4. Adverse drug-drug interactions (DDIs) could potentially occur in cases with co-intake of strong CYP3A4 inhibitors, e.g., HIV antivirals and azole antifungal agents. PMID:26002511

  3. An improved substrate cocktail for assessing direct inhibition and time-dependent inhibition of multiple cytochrome P450s

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Zhong-hua; Zhang, Su-xing; Long, Na; Lin, Li-shan; Chen, Tao; Zhang, Fei-peng; Lv, Xue-qin; Ye, Pei-zhen; Li, Ning; Zhang, Ke-zhi

    2016-01-01

    Aim: The substrate cocktail is frequently used to evaluate cytochrome P450 (CYP) enzyme-mediated drug interactions and potential interactions among the probe substrates. Here, we re-optimized the substrate cocktail method to increase the reliability and accuracy of screening for candidate compounds and expanded the method from a direct CYP inhibition assay to a time-dependent inhibition (TDI) assay. Methods: In the reaction mixtures containing human liver microsome (0.1 mg/mL), both the concentrations of a substrate cocktail (phenacetin for 1A2, coumarin for 2A6, bupropion for 2B6, diclofenac for 2C9, dextromethorphan for 2D6, and testosterone for 3A4) and the incubation time were optimized. Metabolites of the substrate probes were simultaneously analyzed by multiple-reaction monitoring (MRM) using a routine LC/MS/MS. Direct CYP inhibition was validated using 7 inhibitors (α-naphthoflavone, tranylcypromine, ticlopidine, fluconazole, quinidine, ketoconazole and 1-ABT). The time-dependent inhibition was partially validated with 5 inhibitors (ketoconazole, verapamil, quinidine, paroxetine and 1-ABT). Results: The inhibition curve profiles and IC50 values of 7 CYP inhibitors were approximate when a single substrate and the substrate cocktail were tested, and were consistent with the previously reported values. Similar results were obtained in the IC50 shifts of 5 inhibitors when a single substrate and the substrate cocktail were tested in the TDI assay. Conclusion: The 6-in-1 substrate cocktail (for 1A2, 2A6, 2B6, 2C9, 2D6 and 3A) is reliable for assessing CYP inhibition and time-dependent inhibition of drug candidates. PMID:27063220

  4. Pharmacokinetic and Pharmacodynamic Comparison of Once‐Daily Efavirenz (400 mg vs. 600 mg) in Treatment‐Naïve HIV‐Infected Patients: Results of the ENCORE1 Study

    PubMed Central

    Amin, J; Else, L; Boffito, M; Egan, D; Owen, A; Khoo, S; Back, D; Orrell, C; Clarke, A; Losso, M; Phanuphak, P; Carey, D; Cooper, DA; Emery, S

    2015-01-01

    Daily efavirenz 400 mg (EFV400) was virologically noninferior to 600 mg (EFV600) at 48 weeks in treatment‐naïve patients. We evaluated EFV400 and EFV600 pharmacokinetics (NONMEM v. 7.2), assessing patient demographics and genetic polymorphisms (CYP2B6, CYP2A6, CYP3A4, NR1I3) as covariates and explored relationships with efficacy (plasma HIV‐RNA (pVL) <200 copies/mL) and safety outcomes at 48 weeks in 606 randomized ENCORE1 patients (female = 32%, African = 37%, Asian = 33%; EFV400 = 311, EFV600 = 295). CYP2B6 516G>T/983T>C/CYP2A6*9B/*17 and weight were associated with efavirenz CL/F. Exposure was significantly lower for EFV400 (geometric mean ratio, GMR; 90% confidence interval, CI: 0.73 (0.68–0.78)) but 97% (EFV400) and 98% (EFV600) of evaluable pVL was <200 copies/mL at 48 weeks (P = 0.802). Four of 20 patients with mid‐dose concentrations <1.0 mg/L had pVL ≥200 copies/mL (EFV400 = 1; EFV600 = 3). Efavirenz exposure was similar between those with and without efavirenz‐related side effects (GMR; 90% CI: 0.95 (0.88–1.02)). HIV suppression was comparable between doses despite significantly lower EFV400 exposure. Comprehensive evaluation of efavirenz pharmacokinetics/pharmacodynamics revealed important limitations in the accepted threshold concentration. PMID:26044067

  5. Pharmacokinetic drug interactions with clopidogrel: updated review and risk management in combination therapy

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Zhi-Yu; Chen, Meng; Zhu, Ling-Ling; Yu, Lu-Shan; Zeng, Su; Xiang, Mei-Xiang; Zhou, Quan

    2015-01-01

    Background Coprescribing of clopidogrel and other drugs is common. Available reviews have addressed the drug–drug interactions (DDIs) when clopidogrel is as an object drug, or focused on combination use of clopidogrel and a special class of drugs. Clinicians may still be ignorant of those DDIs when clopidogrel is a precipitant drug, the factors determining the degree of DDIs, and corresponding risk management. Methods A literature search was performed using PubMed, MEDLINE, Web of Science, and the Cochrane Library to analyze the pharmacokinetic DDIs of clopidogrel and new P2Y12 receptor inhibitors. Results Clopidogrel affects the pharmacokinetics of cerivastatin, repaglinide, ferulic acid, sibutramine, efavirenz, and omeprazole. Low efficacy of clopidogrel is anticipated in the presence of omeprazole, esomeprazole, morphine, grapefruit juice, scutellarin, fluoxetine, azole antifungals, calcium channel blockers, sulfonylureas, and ritonavir. Augmented antiplatelet effects are anticipated when clopidogrel is coprescribed with aspirin, curcumin, cyclosporin, St John’s wort, rifampicin, and angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors. The factors determining the degree of DDIs with clopidogrel include genetic status (eg, cytochrome P540 [CYP]2B6*6, CYP2C19 polymorphism, CYP3A5*3, CYP3A4*1G, and CYP1A2-163C.A), species differences, and dose strength. The DDI risk does not exhibit a class effect, eg, the effects of clopidogrel on cerivastatin versus other statins, the effects of proton pump inhibitors on clopidogrel (omeprazole, esomeprazole versus pantoprazole, rabeprazole), the effects of rifampicin on clopidogrel versus ticagrelor and prasugrel, and the effects of calcium channel blockers on clopidogrel (amlodipine versus P-glycoprotein-inhibiting calcium channel blockers). The mechanism of the DDIs with clopidogrel involves modulating CYP enzymes (eg, CYP2B6, CYP2C8, CYP2C19, and CYP3A4), paraoxonase-1, hepatic carboxylesterase 1, P-glycoprotein, and organic anion

  6. Evaluation of 89 compounds for identification of substrates for cynomolgus monkey CYP2C76, a new bupropion/nifedipine oxidase.

    PubMed

    Hosaka, Shinya; Murayama, Norie; Satsukawa, Masahiro; Shimizu, Makiko; Uehara, Shotaro; Fujino, Hideki; Iwasaki, Kazuhide; Iwano, Shunsuke; Uno, Yasuhiro; Yamazaki, Hiroshi

    2015-01-01

    Cynomolgus monkeys are widely used in preclinical studies during drug development because of their evolutionary closeness to humans, including their cytochrome P450s (P450s). Most cynomolgus monkey P450s are almost identical (≥90%) to human P450s; however, CYP2C76 has low sequence identity (approximately 80%) to any human CYP2Cs. Although CYP2C76 has no ortholog in humans and is partly responsible for species differences in drug metabolism between cynomolgus monkeys and humans, a broad evaluation of potential substrates for CYP2C76 has not yet been conducted. In this study, a screening of 89 marketed compounds, including human CYP2C and non-CYP2C substrates or inhibitors, was conducted to find potential CYP2C76 substrates. Among the compounds screened, 19 chemicals were identified as substrates for CYP2C76, including substrates for human CYP1A2 (7-ethoxyresorufin), CYP2B6 (bupropion), CYP2D6 (dextromethorphan), and CYP3A4/5 (dextromethorphan and nifedipine), and inhibitors for CYP2B6 (sertraline, clopidogrel, and ticlopidine), CYP2C8 (quercetin), CYP2C19 (ticlopidine and nootkatone), and CYP3A4/5 (troleandomycin). CYP2C76 metabolized a wide variety of the compounds with diverse structures. Among them, bupropion and nifedipine showed high selectivity to CYP2C76. As for nifedipine, CYP2C76 formed methylhydroxylated nifedipine, which was not produced by monkey CYP2C9, CYP2C19, or CYP3A4, as identified by mass spectrometry and estimated by a molecular docking simulation. This unique oxidative metabolite formation of nifedipine could be one of the selective marker reactions of CYP2C76 among the major CYP2Cs and CYP3As tested. These results suggest that monkey CYP2C76 contributes to bupropion hydroxylation and formation of different nifedipine oxidative metabolites as a result of its relatively large substrate cavity. PMID:25318994

  7. Pharmacogenetics of nicotine and associated smoking behaviors.

    PubMed

    Tanner, Julie-Anne; Chenoweth, Meghan J; Tyndale, Rachel F

    2015-01-01

    This chapter summarizes genetic factors that contribute to variation in nicotine pharmacokinetics and nicotine's pharmacological action in the central nervous system (CNS), and how this in turn influences smoking behaviors. Nicotine, the major psychoactive compound in cigarette smoke, is metabolized by a number of enzymes, including CYP2A6, CYP2B6, FMOs, and UGTs, among others. Variation in the genes encoding these enzymes, in particular CYP2A6, can alter the rate of nicotine metabolism and smoking behaviors. Faster nicotine metabolism is associated with higher cigarette consumption and nicotine dependence, as well as lower quit rates. Variation in nicotine's CNS targets and downstream signaling pathways can also contribute to interindividual differences in smoking patterns. Binding of nicotine to neuronal nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChRs) mediates the release of several neurotransmitters including dopamine and serotonin. Genetic variation in nAChRs, and in transporter and enzyme systems that leads to altered CNS levels of dopamine and serotonin, is associated with a number of smoking behaviors. To date, the precise mechanism underpinning many of these findings remains unknown. Considering the complex etiology of nicotine addiction, a more comprehensive approach that assesses the contribution of multiple gene variants, and their interaction with environmental factors, will likely improve personalized therapeutic approaches and increase smoking cessation rates. PMID:25655887

  8. Association of cytochrome P450 genetic polymorphisms with neoadjuvant chemotherapy efficacy in breast cancer patients

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background The enzymes of the cytochrome P450 family (CYPs) play an important role in the metabolism of a great variety of anticancer agents; therefore, polymorphisms in genes encoding for metabolizing enzymes and drugs transporters can affect drug efficacy and toxicity. Methods The genetic polymorphisms of cytochrome P450 were studied in 395 patients with breast cancer by RLFP analysis. Results Here, we studied the association of functionally significant variant alleles of CYP3A4, CYP3A5, CYP2B6, CYP2C8, CYP2C9 and CYP2C19 with the clinical response to neoadjuvant chemotherapy in breast cancer patients. A significant correlation was observed between the CYP2C9*2 polymorphism and chemotherapy resistance (OR = 4.64; CI 95% = 1.01 – 20.91), as well as between CYP2C9*2 heterozygotes and chemotherapy resistance in women with nodal forms of breast cancer and a cancer hereditary load (OR = 15.50; CI 95% = 1.08 – 826.12) when the potential combined effects were examined. No significant association between chemotherapy resistance and the other examined genotypes and the potential combined clinical and tumour-related parameters were discovered. Conclusion In conclusion, CYP2C9*2 was associated with neoadjuvant chemotherapy resistance (OR = 4.64; CI 95% = 1.01 – 20.91) in the population of interest. PMID:22702493

  9. A human immunodeficiency virus protease inhibitor is a novel functional inhibitor of human pregnane X receptor.

    PubMed

    Healan-Greenberg, Christine; Waring, Jeffrey F; Kempf, Dale J; Blomme, Eric A G; Tirona, Rommel G; Kim, Richard B

    2008-03-01

    Drug-drug interactions involving induction of cytochrome P450 enzymes (P450s) can lead to loss of drug efficacy. Certain drugs, particularly those used to treat mycobacterial and human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infections, are especially prone to induce P450s. During studies to examine drug-interaction potential of compounds in cultured human hepatocytes, exposure with (S)-1-[(1S,3S,4S)-4-[(S)-2-(3-benzyl-2-oxo-imidazolidin-1-yl)-3,3-dimethyl-butyrylamino]-3-hydroxy-5-phenyl-1-(4-pyridin-2-yl-benzyl)-pentylcarbamoyl]-2,2-dimethyl-propyl-carbamic acid methyl ester (A-792611), a novel HIV protease inhibitor (PI) previously under investigation for the treatment of HIV infection, resulted in significant down-regulation of constitutive CYP3A4 expression. Furthermore, coadministration of A-792611 was found to attenuate CYP3A4 induction mediated by known inducers rifampin and efavirenz. A-792611 also attenuated the rifampin and ritonavir-mediated activation of the human pregnane X receptor (PXR) in luciferase reporter assays. Microarray analysis on cultured human hepatocytes revealed that A-792611 treatment down-regulated the expression of PXR target genes CYP3A4, CYP2B6, CYP2C8, and CYP2C9, whereas there was a lack of inductive effect observed in treated rat hepatocytes. A-792611 did not interact with other ligand-activated nuclear receptors that regulate P450 expression such as constitutive androstane receptor, farnesoid X receptor, vitamin D receptor, and peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor alpha. These data suggest that A-792611 is a functional and effective human PXR inhibitor. Among the class of HIV-PIs, which are typically PXR activators, A-792611 seems to have a unique property for PXR antagonism and could be a useful tool for studying nuclear receptor pathway regulation. PMID:18096673

  10. Role of induction of specific hepatic cytochrome P450 isoforms in epoxidation of 4-vinylcyclohexene.

    PubMed

    Fontaine, S M; Hoyer, P B; Halpert, J R; Sipes, I G

    2001-09-01

    4-Vinyl-1-cyclohexene (VCH) is ovotoxic in B6C3F(1) mice but not in Fischer-344 rats, which can be partially attributed to greater formation of toxic epoxides from VCH in mice compared with rats. Since repeated exposure to VCH is necessary to cause ovotoxicity in mice, it is important to determine whether repeated exposure results in induction of cytochrome P450 (CYP) enzymes involved in its bioactivation. Hepatic microsomes prepared from mice or rats treated repeatedly with VCH demonstrated significantly increased VCH bioactivation in vitro, as assessed by VCH-1,2-epoxide, VCH-7,8-epoxide, or vinylcyclohexene diepoxide (VCD) formation. Mice and rats were then dosed with VCH, VCH-1,2-epoxide, or VCD for 10 days and measured for increases in hepatic microsomal CYP levels or activities. Total hepatic CYP levels were elevated only in microsomes from mice pretreated with VCH or VCH-1,2-epoxide. Immunoblotting analysis of microsomes from VCH-treated rodents revealed elevated levels of CYP2A and CYP2B in mice but not rats. VCH-1,2-epoxide pretreatment also increased CYP2B levels in the mouse. Activities toward specific substrates for CYP2A and CYP2B (coumarin and pentoxyresorufin, respectively) confirmed that VCH and VCH-1,2-epoxide pretreatments resulted in increased catalytic activities of CYP2A and CYP2B in the mouse but not the rat. Pretreatment with phenobarbital, a known inducer of CYP2A and CYP2B, increased VCH bioactivation in both species. Interestingly, metabolism studies with human CYP "Supersomes" reveal that, of eight isoforms tested, only human CYP2E1 and CYP2B6 were capable of significantly catalyzing VCH epoxidation, whereas CYP2B6, CYP2A6, CYP2E1, and CYP3A4 were capable of catalyzing the epoxidation of the monoepoxides. PMID:11502734

  11. Gene polymorphisms and contents of cytochrome P450s have only limited effects on metabolic activities in human liver microsomes.

    PubMed

    Gao, Na; Tian, Xin; Fang, Yan; Zhou, Jun; Zhang, Haifeng; Wen, Qiang; Jia, Linjing; Gao, Jie; Sun, Bao; Wei, Jingyao; Zhang, Yunfei; Cui, Mingzhu; Qiao, Hailing

    2016-09-20

    Extensive inter-individual variations in pharmacokinetics are considered as a major reason for unpredictable drug responses. As the most important drug metabolic enzymes, inter-individual variations of cytochrome P450 (CYP) activities are not clear in human liver. In this paper, metabolic activities, gene polymorphisms and protein contents of 10 CYPs were determined in 105 human normal liver microsomes. The results indicated substantial inter-individual variations in CYP activities, with the greatest being CYP2C19 activity (>600-fold). Only half of 10 CYP isoforms and 26 gene polymorphism sites had limited effects on metabolic activities, such as CYP2A6, CYP2B6, CYP2C9, CYP2D6 and CYP3A4/5, others had almost no effects. Compared with their respective wild type, Km, Vmax, and CLint decreased by 51.6%, 88.7% and 70.7% in CYP2A6*1/*4 genotype, Vmax and CLint decreased by 32.8% and 60.2% in CYP2C9*1/*3 genotype, Km increased by 118.4% and CLint decreased by 65.2% in CYP2D6 100TT genotype, respectively. Moreover, there were only 4 CYP isoforms, CYP1A2, CYP2A6, CYP2E1 and CYP3A5, which had moderate or weak correlations between Vmax values and corresponding contents. In conclusions, the genotypes and contents of some CYPs have only limited effects on metabolic activities, which imply that there are other more important factors to influence inter-individual variations. PMID:27339126

  12. Role of Metabolic Enzymes P450 (CYP) on Activating Procarcinogen and their Polymorphisms on the Risk of Cancers.

    PubMed

    He, Xin; Feng, Shan

    2015-01-01

    Cytochrome P450 (CYP450) enzymes are the most important metabolizing enzyme family exists among all organs. Apart from their role in the deactivation of most endogenous compounds and xenobiotics, they also mediate most procarcinogens oxidation to ultimate carcinogens. There are several modes of CYP450s activation of procarcinogens. 1) Formation of epoxide and diol-epoxides intermediates, such as CYP1A1 and CYP1B1 mediates PAHs oxidation to epoxide intermediates; 2) Formation of diazonium ions, such as CYP2A6, CYP2A13 and CYP2E1 mediates activation of most nitrosamines to unstable metabolites, which can rearrange to give diazonium ions. 3) Formation of reactive semiquinones and quinines, such as CYP1A1 and CYP1B1 transformation of estradiol to catechol estrogens, subsequently formation semiquinones; 4) Formation of toxic O-esterification, such as CYP1A1 and CYP1A2 metabolizes PhIP to N(2)-acetoxy-PhIP and N(2)-sulfonyloxy-PhIP, which are carcinogenic metabolites. 5) Formation of free radical, such as CYP2E1 is involved in activation tetrachloromethane to free radicals. While for CYP2B6 and CYP2D6, only a minor role has been found in procarcinogens activation. In addition, as the gene polymorphisms reflected, the polymorphisms of CYP1A1 (-3801T/C and -4889A/G), CYP1A2 (- 163C/A and -2467T/delT), CYP1B1 (-48G/C, -119G/T and -432G/C), CYP2E1 (-1293G/C and -1053 C/T) have been associated with an increased risk of lung cancer. The polymorphisms CYP1A1 (-3801T/C and -4889A/G), and CYP2E1 (PstI/Rsa and 9-bp insertion) have an association with higher risk colon cancers, whereas CYP1A2 (-163C/A and -3860G/A) polymorphism is found to be among the protective factors. The polymorphisms CYP1A1 (-3801T/C and -4889A/G), CYP1B1 -432G/C, CYP2B6 (-516G/T and -785A/G) may increase the risk of breast cancer. In conclusion, CYP1A1, CYP1A2, CYP1B1, CYP2A6, and CYP2E1 are responsible for most of the procarcinogens activation, and their gene polymorphisms are associated with the risk of

  13. (2aR*,5S*,6aS*,8aS*,E)-Ethyl 5-hy­droxy-7,7,8a-trimethyl-8-oxo-2,2a,6,6a,7,8,8a,8b-octa­hydro-1H-penta­leno[1,6-bc]oxepine-4-carboxyl­ate

    PubMed Central

    Mehta, Goverdhan; Kumar, C. S. Ananda; Sen, Saikat

    2012-01-01

    The title compound, C17H24O5, featuring a 2-carbeth­oxy-3-oxepanone unit in its intra­molecularly O—H⋯O hydrogen-bonded enol form, was obtained via [(CF3CO2)2Rh]2-catal­ysed intra­molecular O—H bond insertion in the α-diazo-ω-hy­droxy-β-ketoester, ethyl 4-[(1S,3aS,6R,6aS)-6-hy­droxy-2,2,3a-trimethyl-3-oxo-octa­hydro­penta­len-1-yl]-2-diazo-3-oxobutano­ate. The seven-membered oxacyclic ring, thus constructed on a cis-fused diquinane platform, was found to adopt a distorted boat–sofa conformation. PMID:23476221

  14. In vitro oxidative metabolism of cajaninstilbene Acid by human liver microsomes and hepatocytes: involvement of cytochrome p450 reaction phenotyping, inhibition, and induction studies.

    PubMed

    Hua, Xin; Peng, Xiao; Tan, Shengnan; Li, Chunying; Wang, Wei; Luo, Meng; Fu, Yujie; Zu, Yuangang; Smyth, Hugh

    2014-10-29

    Cajaninstilbene acid (CSA, 3-hydroxy-4-prenyl-5-methoxystilbene-2-carboxylic acid), an active constituent of pigeonpea leaves, an important tropical crop, is known for its clinical effects in the treatment of diabetes, hepatitis, and measles and its potential antitumor effect. In this study, the effect of the cytochrome P450 isozymes on the activity of CSA was investigated. Two hydroxylation metabolites were identified in the study. The reaction phenotype study showed that CYP3A4, CYP2C9, and CYP1A2 were the major cytochrome P450 isozymes in the metabolism of CSA. The metabolic food-drug interaction potential was also evaluated in vitro. The effect of CSA inhibition/induction of enzymatic activities of seven drug-metabolizing CYP450 isozymes in vitro was estimated by high-performance liquid chromatography and liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry analytical techniques. CSA showed different inhibitory effects on different isozymes. CSA reversibly inhibited CYP3A4 and CYP2C9 activities in human liver microsomes with IC50 values of 28.3 and 31.3 μM, respectively, but exhibited no inhibition activities to CYP1A2, CYP2A6, CYP2C19, CYP2D6, and CYP2E1. CSA showed a weak effect on CYP450 enzymes in a time-dependent manner. CSA did not substantially induce CYP1A2, CYP2A6, CYP2B6, CYP2E1, CYP2C9, CYP2C19, CYP2D6, or CYP3A4 at concentrations up to 30 μM in primary human hepatocytes. The results of our experiments may be helpful to predict clinically significant food-drug interactions when other drugs are administered in combination with CSA. PMID:25272989

  15. Selective Time- and NADPH-Dependent Inhibition of Human CYP2E1 by Clomethiazole.

    PubMed

    Stresser, David M; Perloff, Elke S; Mason, Andrew K; Blanchard, Andrew P; Dehal, Shangara S; Creegan, Timothy P; Singh, Ritu; Gangl, Eric T

    2016-08-01

    The sedative clomethiazole (CMZ) has been used in Europe since the mid-1960s to treat insomnia and alcoholism. It has been previously demonstrated in clinical studies to reversibly inhibit human CYP2E1 in vitro and decrease CYP2E1-mediated elimination of chlorzoxazone. We have investigated the selectivity of CMZ inhibition of CYP2E1 in pooled human liver microsomes (HLMs). In a reversible inhibition assay of the major drug-metabolizing cytochrome P450 (P450) isoforms, CYP2A6 and CYP2E1 exhibited IC50 values of 24 µM and 42 µM, respectively with all other isoforms exhibiting values >300 µM. When CMZ was preincubated with NADPH and liver microsomal protein for 30 minutes before being combined with probe substrates, however, more potent inhibition was observed for CYP2E1 and CYP2B6 but not CYP2A6 or other P450 isoforms. The substantial increase in potency of CYP2E1 inhibition upon preincubation enables the use of CMZ to investigate the role of human CYP2E1 in xenobiotic metabolism and provides advantages over other chemical inhibitors of CYP2E1. The KI and kinact values obtained with HLM-catalyzed 6-hydroxylation of chlorzoxazone were 40 µM and 0.35 minute(-1), respectively, and similar to values obtained with recombinant CYP2E1 (41 µM, 0.32 minute(-1)). The KI and kinact values, along with other parameters, were used in a mechanistic static model to explain earlier observations of a profound decrease in the rate of chlorzoxazone elimination in volunteers despite the absence of detectable CMZ in blood. PMID:27149898

  16. Insights on Cytochrome P450 Enzymes and Inhibitors Obtained Through QSAR Studies

    PubMed Central

    Sridhar, Jayalakshmi; Liu, Jiawang; Foroozesh, Maryam; Stevens, Cheryl L. Klein

    2013-01-01

    The cytochrome P450 (CYP) superfamily of heme enzymes play an important role in the metabolism of a large number of endogenous and exogenous compounds, including most of the drugs currently on the market. Inhibitors of CYP enzymes have important roles in the treatment of several disease conditions such as numerous cancers and fungal infections in addition to their critical role in drug-drug interactions. Structure activity relationships (SAR), and three-dimensional quantitative structure activity relationships (3D-QSAR) represent important tools in understanding the interactions of the inhibitors with the active sites of the CYP enzymes. A comprehensive account of the QSAR studies on the major human CYPs 1A1, 1A2, 1B1, 2A6, 2B6, 2C9, 2C19, 2D6, 2E1, 3A4 and a few other CYPs are detailed in this review which will provide us with an insight into the individual/common characteristics of the active sites of these enzymes and the enzyme-inhibitor interactions. PMID:22864238

  17. Characterisation of the cytochrome P450 enzymes involved in the in vitro metabolism of granisetron.

    PubMed Central

    Bloomer, J C; Baldwin, S J; Smith, G J; Ayrton, A D; Clarke, S E; Chenery, R J

    1994-01-01

    1. The metabolism of granisetron was investigated in human liver microsomes to identify the specific forms of cytochrome P450 responsible. 2. 7-hydroxy and 9'-desmethyl granisetron were identified as the major products of metabolism following incubation of granisetron with human liver microsomes. At low, clinically relevant, concentrations of granisetron the 7-hydroxy metabolite predominated. Rates of granisetron 7-hydroxylation varied over 100-fold in the human livers investigated. 3. Enzyme kinetics demonstrated the involvement of at least two enzymes contributing to the 7-hydroxylation of granisetron, one of which was a high affinity component with a Km of 4 microM. A single, low affinity, enzyme was responsible for the 9'-desmethylation of granisetron. 4. Granisetron caused no inhibition of any of the cytochrome P450 activities investigated (CYP1A2, CYP2A6, CYP2B6, CYP2C9/8, CYP2C19, CYP2D6, CYP2E1 and CYP3A), at concentrations up to 250 microM. 5. Studies using chemical inhibitors selective for individual P450 enzymes indicated the involvement of cytochrome P450 3A (CYP3A), both pathways of granisetron metabolism being very sensitive to ketoconazole inhibition. Correlation data were consistent with the role of CYP3A3/4 in granisetron 9'-desmethylation but indicated that a different enzyme was involved in the 7-hydroxylation. PMID:7888294

  18. Cyp2D6 catalyzes 5-hydroxylation of 1-(2-pyrimidinyl)-piperazine, an active metabolite of several psychoactive drugs, in human liver microsomes.

    PubMed

    Raghavan, Nirmala; Zhang, Donglu; Zhu, Mingshe; Zeng, Jianing; Christopher, Lisa

    2005-02-01

    1-(2-Pyrimidinyl)-piperazine (1-PP) is an active metabolite of several psychoactive drugs including buspirone. 1-PP is also the major metabolite in the human circulation and in rat brains following oral administration of buspirone. This study was conducted to identify the enzyme responsible for the metabolic conversion of 1-PP to 5-hydroxy-1-(2-pyrimidinyl)-piperazine (HO-1-PP) in human liver microsomes (HLMs). The product HO-1-PP was quantified by a validated liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry method. In the presence of NADPH, 1-PP (100 microM) was incubated separately with human cDNA-expressed cytochrome P450 isozymes (including CYP2D6, 3A4, 1A2, 2A6, 2C9, 2C19, 2E1, and 2B6) at 37 degrees C. CYP2D6 catalyzed the formation of HO-1-PP from 1-PP. This catalytic activity was >95% inhibited by quinidine, a CYP2D6 inhibitor. HO-1-PP formation rates correlated well with the bufuralol 1-hydroxylase (CYP2D6) activities of individual HLMs. The formation of HO-1-PP followed a Michaelis-Menten kinetics with a K(m) of 171 microM and V(max) of 313 pmol/min x mg protein in HLMs. Collectively, these results indicate that polymorphic CYP2D6 is responsible for the conversion of 1-PP to HO-1-PP. PMID:15507542

  19. Potent and non-specific inhibition of cytochrome P450 by JM216, a new oral platinum agent.

    PubMed Central

    Ando, Y.; Shimizu, T.; Nakamura, K.; Mushiroda, T.; Nakagawa, T.; Kodama, T.; Kamataki, T.

    1998-01-01

    Bis-acetato-ammine-dichloro-cyclohexylamine-platinum (IV), JM216, is the first antineoplastic platinum compound that can be given to patients orally. Several phase II clinical trials of JM216 monotherapy have already been reported. However, no information on the potential drug interactions caused by JM216 is available. In this study, the capacity of JM216 to inhibit cytochrome P450 (CYP) in human liver microsomes was investigated by measuring the inhibition potential (IC50 and Ki) on prototype reactions. Specific substrates of CYP included testosterone (catalysed by CYP3A4), paclitaxel (CYP2C8), 7-ethoxyresorufin (CYP1A1, CYP1A2), coumarin (CYP2A6), aniline (CYP2E1) and (+/-)-bufuralol (CYP2D6). JM216 inhibited the catalytic activities of CYP isozymes. The IC50 values were between 0.3 microM and 10 microM, indicating strong and non-specific inhibitory effects of JM216. The inhibition occurred in a non-competitive manner, and the Ki value was 1.0 and 0.9 microM for metabolite formation of testosterone and paclitaxel respectively. Therefore, some in vivo studies should be conducted to determine whether or not there is a correlation between in vivo and in vitro results. PMID:9820175

  20. In Vitro Metabolism of 17-(Dimethylaminoethylamino)-17-demethoxygeldanamycin in Human Liver Microsomes

    PubMed Central

    Zheng, Nan; Zou, Peng; Wang, Shaomeng

    2011-01-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate the oxidative metabolism pathways of 17-(dimethylaminoethylamino)-17-demethoxygeldanamycin (17-DMAG), a geldanamycin (GA) derivative and 90-kDa heat shock protein inhibitor. In vitro metabolic profiles of 17-DMAG were examined by using pooled human liver microsomes (HLMs) and recombinant CYP450 isozymes in the presence or absence of reduced GSH. In addition to 17-DMAG hydroquinone and 19-glutathionyl 17-DMAG, several oxidative metabolites of 17-DMAG were detected and characterized by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry. Different from previously reported primary biotransformations of GA and GA derivatives, 17-DMAG was not metabolized primarily through the reduction of benzoquinone and GSH conjugation in HLMs. In contrast, the primary biotransformations of 17-DMAG in HLMs were hydroxylation and demethylation on its side chains. The most abundant metabolite was produced by demethylation from the methoxyl at position 12. The reaction phenotyping study showed that CYP3A4 and 3A5 were the major cytochrome P450 isozymes involved in the oxidative metabolism of 17-DMAG, whereas CYP2C8, 2D6, 2A6, 2C19, and 1A2 made minor contributions to the formation of metabolites. On the basis of the identified metabolite profiles, the biotransformation pathways for 17-DMAG in HLMs were proposed. PMID:21177985

  1. Studies on the interactions between drugs and estrogen: analytical method for prediction system of gynecomastia induced by drugs on the inhibitory metabolism of estradiol using Escherichia coli coexpressing human CYP3A4 with human NADPH-cytochrome P450 reductase.

    PubMed

    Satoh, T; Fujita, K I; Munakata, H; Itoh, S; Nakamura, K; Kamataki, T; Itoh, S; Yoshizawa, I

    2000-11-15

    To establish a prediction system for drug-induced gynecomastia in clinical fields, a model reaction system was developed to explain numerically this side effect. The principle is based on the assumption that 50% inhibition concentration (IC(50)) of drugs on the in vitro metabolism of estradiol (E2) to its major product 2-hydroxyestradiol (2-OH-E2) can be regarded as the index for achieving this purpose. By using human cytochrome P450s coexpressed with human NADPH-cytochrome P450 reductase in Escherichia coli as the enzyme, the reaction was examined. Among the nine enzymes (CYP1A1, 1A2, 2A6, 2C8, 2C9, 2C19, 2D6, 2E1, and 3A4) tested, CYP3A4 having a V(max)/K(m) (ml/min/nmol P450) value of 0.32 for production of 2-OH-E2 was shown to be the most suitable enzyme as the reagent. The inhibitory effects of ketoconazole, cyclosporin A, and cimetidine toward the 2-hydroxylation of E2 catalyzed by CYP3A4 were obtained, and their IC(50) values were 7 nM, 64 nM, and 290 microM, respectively. The present results suggest that IC(50) values thus obtained can be substituted as the prediction index for gynecomastia induced by drugs, considering the patients' individual information. PMID:11067738

  2. In vitro evaluation of hepatotoxic drugs in human hepatocytes from multiple donors: Identification of P450 activity as a potential risk factor for drug-induced liver injuries.

    PubMed

    Utkarsh, Doshi; Loretz, Carol; Li, Albert P

    2016-08-01

    A possible risk factor for drug-induced hepatotoxicity is drug metabolizing enzyme activity, which is known to vary among individuals due to genetic (genetic polymorphism) and environmental factors (environmental pollutants, foods, and medications that are inhibitors or inducers of drug metabolizing enzymes). We hypothesize that hepatic cytochrome P450-dependent monooxygenase (CYP) activity is one of the key risk factors for drug induced liver injuries (DILI) in the human population, especially for drugs that are metabolically activated to cytotoxic/reactive metabolites. Human hepatocytes from 19 donors were evaluated for the activities of 8 major P450 isoforms: CYP1A2, CYP2B6, CYP2C8, CYP2C9, CYP2C19, CYP2D6, CYP2E1 and CYP3A4. Extensive individual variations were observed, consistent with what is known to be in the human population. As CYP3A4 is known to be one of the most important P450 isoforms for drug metabolism, studies were performed to evaluate the relationship between the in vitro cytotoxicity of hepatotoxic drugs and CYP3A4 activity. In a proof of concept study, hepatocytes from six donors (lots) representing the observed range of CYP3A4 activities were chosen for the evaluation of in vitro hepatotoxicity of four drugs known to be associated with acute liver failure: acetaminophen, cyclophosphamide, ketoconazole, and tamoxifen. The hepatocytes were cultured in collagen-coated plates and treated with the hepatotoxicants for approximately 24 h, followed by viability determination based on cellular adenosine triphosphate (ATP) contents. HH1023, the lot of hepatocytes with the highest CYP3A4 activity, was found to be the most sensitive to the cytotoxicity of all 4 hepatotoxic drugs, thereby suggesting that high CYP3A4 activity may be a risk factor. To further validate the relationship, a second study was performed with hepatocytes from 16 donors. In this study, the hepatocytes were quantified for CYP3A4 activity at the time of treatment. Results of the

  3. Absolute protein quantification of clinically relevant cytochrome P450 enzymes and UDP-glucuronosyltransferases by mass spectrometry-based targeted proteomics.

    PubMed

    Gröer, C; Busch, D; Patrzyk, M; Beyer, K; Busemann, A; Heidecke, C D; Drozdzik, M; Siegmund, W; Oswald, S

    2014-11-01

    Cytochrome P450 (CYP) enzymes and UDP-glucuronosyltransferases (UGT) are major determinants in the pharmacokinetics of most drugs on the market. To investigate their impact on intestinal and hepatic drug metabolism, we developed and validated quantification methods for nine CYP (CYP1A2, CYP2B6, CYP2C8, CYP2C9, CYP2C19, CYP2D6, CYP2E1, CYP3A4 and CYP3A5) and four UGT enzymes (UGT1A1, UGT1A3, UGT2B7 and UGT2B15) that have been shown to be of clinical relevance in human drug metabolism. Protein quantification was performed by targeted proteomics using liquid chromatography with tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS)-based determination of enzyme specific peptides after tryptic digestion using in each case stable isotope labelled peptides as internal standard. The chromatography of the respective peptides was performed with gradient elution using a reversed phase (C18) column (Ascentis(®) Express Peptide ES-C18, 100mm×2.1mm, 2.7μm) and 0.1% formic acid (FA) as well as acetonitrile with 0.1% FA as mobile phases at a flow rate of 300μl/min. The MS/MS detection of all peptides was done simultaneously with a scheduled multiple reaction monitoring (MRM) method in the positive mode by monitoring in each case three mass transitions per proteospecific peptide and the internal standard. The assays were validated according to current bioanalytical guidelines with respect to specificity, linearity (0.25-50nM), within-day and between-day accuracy and precision, digestion efficiency as well as stability. Finally, the developed method was successfully applied to determine the CYP and UGT protein amount in human liver and intestinal microsomes. The method was shown to possess sufficient specificity, sensitivity, accuracy, precision and stability to quantify clinically relevant human CYP and UGT enzymes. PMID:25218440

  4. Cytochrome P450 expression and activities in human tongue cells and their modulation by green tea extract

    SciTech Connect

    Yang, S.-P.; Raner, Gregory M. . E-mail: gmraner@uncg.edu

    2005-01-15

    The expression, inducibility, and activities of several cytochrome P450 (CYP) enzymes were investigated in a human tongue carcinoma cell model, CAL 27, and compared with the human liver model HepG2 cells. The modulation effects of green tea on various CYP isoforms in both cell lines were also examined. RT-PCR analysis of CAL 27 cells demonstrated constitutive expression of mRNA for CYPs 1A1, 1A2, 2C, 2E1, 2D6, and 4F3. The results were negative for CYP2A6, 2B6/7, 3A3/4, and 3A7. Both cell lines displayed identical expression and induction profiles for all of the isoforms examined in this study except 3A7 and 2B6/7, which were produced constitutively in HepG2 but not Cal-27 cells. CYP1A1 and 1A2 were both induced by treatment with {beta}-napthoflavone as indicated by RT-PCR and Western blotting, while CYP2C mRNA was upregulated by all-trans retinoic acid and farnesol. RT-PCR and Western blot analysis showed that the expressions of CYP1A1 and 1A2 were induced by green tea extract (GTE), which also caused an increase in mRNA for CYP2E1, CYP2D6, and CYP2C isoforms. The four tea catechins, EGC, EC, EGCG and ECG, applied to either HepG2 or Cal-27 cells at the concentration found in GTE failed to induce CYP1A1 or CYP1A2, as determined by RT-PCR. Of the isoforms that were apparently induced by GTE, only 7-ethoxycoumarin deethylase (ECOD) activity could be detected in CAL 27 or HepG2 cells. Interestingly, mRNA and protein for CYP1A1 and CYP1A2 were detected in both cell lines, and although protein and mRNA levels of CYP1A1 and CYP1A2 were increased by GTE, the observed ECOD activity in both cell lines was decreased.

  5. A Genome-Wide Association Study of a Biomarker of Nicotine Metabolism

    PubMed Central

    Loukola, Anu; Buchwald, Jadwiga; Gupta, Richa; Palviainen, Teemu; Hällfors, Jenni; Tikkanen, Emmi; Korhonen, Tellervo; Ollikainen, Miina; Sarin, Antti-Pekka; Ripatti, Samuli; Lehtimäki, Terho; Raitakari, Olli; Salomaa, Veikko; Rose, Richard J.; Tyndale, Rachel F.; Kaprio, Jaakko

    2015-01-01

    Individuals with fast nicotine metabolism typically smoke more and thus have a greater risk for smoking-induced diseases. Further, the efficacy of smoking cessation pharmacotherapy is dependent on the rate of nicotine metabolism. Our objective was to use nicotine metabolite ratio (NMR), an established biomarker of nicotine metabolism rate, in a genome-wide association study (GWAS) to identify novel genetic variants influencing nicotine metabolism. A heritability estimate of 0.81 (95% CI 0.70–0.88) was obtained for NMR using monozygotic and dizygotic twins of the FinnTwin cohort. We performed a GWAS in cotinine-verified current smokers of three Finnish cohorts (FinnTwin, Young Finns Study, FINRISK2007), followed by a meta-analysis of 1518 subjects, and annotated the genome-wide significant SNPs with methylation quantitative loci (meQTL) analyses. We detected association on 19q13 with 719 SNPs exceeding genome-wide significance within a 4.2 Mb region. The strongest evidence for association emerged for CYP2A6 (min p = 5.77E-86, in intron 4), the main metabolic enzyme for nicotine. Other interesting genes with genome-wide significant signals included CYP2B6, CYP2A7, EGLN2, and NUMBL. Conditional analyses revealed three independent signals on 19q13, all located within or in the immediate vicinity of CYP2A6. A genetic risk score constructed using the independent signals showed association with smoking quantity (p = 0.0019) in two independent Finnish samples. Our meQTL results showed that methylation values of 16 CpG sites within the region are affected by genotypes of the genome-wide significant SNPs, and according to causal inference test, for some of the SNPs the effect on NMR is mediated through methylation. To our knowledge, this is the first GWAS on NMR. Our results enclose three independent novel signals on 19q13.2. The detected CYP2A6 variants explain a strikingly large fraction of variance (up to 31%) in NMR in these study samples. Further, we provide evidence

  6. Substrate-dependent modulation of the catalytic activity of CYP3A by erlotinib

    PubMed Central

    Dong, Pei-pei; Fang, Zhong-ze; Zhang, Yan-yan; Ge, Guang-bo; Mao, Yu-xi; Zhu, Liang-liang; Qu, Yan-qing; Li, Wei; Wang, Li-ming; Liu, Chang-xiao; Yang, Ling

    2011-01-01

    Aim: To ascertain the effects of erlotinib on CYP3A, to investigate the amplitude and kinetics of erlotinib-mediated inhibition of seven major CYP isoforms in human liver microsomes (HLMs) for evaluating the magnitude of erlotinib in drug-drug interaction in vivo. Methods: The activities of 7 major CYP isoforms (CYP1A2, CYP2A6, CYP3A, CYP2C9, CYP2D6, CYP2C8, and CYP2E1) were assessed in HLMs using HPLC or UFLC analysis. A two-step incubation method was used to examine the time-dependent inhibition of erlotinib on CYP3A. Results: The activity of CYP2C8 was inhibited with an IC50 value of 6.17±2.0 μmol/L. Erlotinib stimulated the midazolam 1′-hydroxy reaction, but inhibited the formation of 6β-hydroxytestosterone and oxidized nifedipine. Inhibition of CYP3A by erlotinib was substrate-dependent: the IC50 values for inhibiting testosterone 6β-hydroxylation and nifedipine metabolism were 31.3±8.0 and 20.5±5.3 μmol/L, respectively. Erlotinib also exhibited the time-dependent inhibition on CYP3A, regardless of the probe substrate used: the value of KI and kinact were 6.3 μmol/L and 0.035 min−1 for midazolam; 9.0 μmol/L and 0.045 min−1 for testosterone; and 10.1 μmol/L and 0.058 min−1 for nifedipine. Conclusion: The inhibition of CYP3A by erlotinib was substrate-dependent, while its time-dependent inhibition on CYP3A was substrate-independent. The time-dependent inhibition of CYP3A may be a possible cause of drug-drug interaction, suggesting that attention should be paid to the evaluation of erlotinib's safety, especially in the context of combination therapy. PMID:21372830

  7. Frequencies of 23 functionally significant variant alleles related with metabolism of antineoplastic drugs in the chilean population: comparison with caucasian and asian populations.

    PubMed

    Roco, Angela; Quiñones, Luis; Agúndez, José A G; García-Martín, Elena; Squicciarini, Valentina; Miranda, Carla; Garay, Joselyn; Farfán, Nancy; Saavedra, Iván; Cáceres, Dante; Ibarra, Carol; Varela, Nelson

    2012-01-01

    Cancer is a leading cause of death worldwide. The cancer incidence rate in Chile is 133.7/100,000 inhabitants and it is the second cause of death, after cardiovascular diseases. Most of the antineoplastic drugs are metabolized to be detoxified, and some of them to be activated. Genetic polymorphisms of drug-metabolizing enzymes can induce deep changes in enzyme activity, leading to individual variability in drug efficacy and/or toxicity. The present research describes the presence of genetic polymorphisms in the Chilean population, which might be useful in public health programs for personalized treatment of cancer, and compares these frequencies with those reported for Asian and Caucasian populations, as a contribution to the evaluation of ethnic differences in the response to chemotherapy. We analyzed 23 polymorphisms in a group of 253 unrelated Chilean volunteers from the general population. The results showed that CYP2A6*2, CYP2A6*3, CYP2D6*3, CYP2C19*3, and CYP3A4*17 variant alleles are virtually absent in Chileans. CYP1A1*2A allele frequency (0.37) is similar to that of Caucasians and higher than that reported for Japanese people. Allele frequencies for CYP3A5*3(0.76) and CYP2C9*3(0.04) are similar to those observed in Japanese people. CYP1A1*2C(0.32), CYP1A2*1F(0.77), CYP3A4*1B(0.06), CYP2D6*2(0.41), and MTHFR T(0.52) allele frequencies are higher than the observed either in Caucasian or in Japanese populations. Conversely, CYP2C19*2 allelic frequency (0.12), and genotype frequencies for GSTT1 null (0.11) and GSTM1 null (0.36) are lower than those observed in both populations. Finally, allele frequencies for CYP2A6*4(0.04), CYP2C8*3(0.06), CYP2C9*2(0.06), CYP2D6*4(0.12), CYP2E1*5B(0.14), CYP2E1*6(0.19), and UGT2B7*2(0.40) are intermediate in relation to those described in Caucasian and in Japanese populations, as expected according to the ethnic origin of the Chilean population. In conclusion, our findings support the idea that ethnic variability must be

  8. Frequencies of 23 Functionally Significant Variant Alleles Related with Metabolism of Antineoplastic Drugs in the Chilean Population: Comparison with Caucasian and Asian Populations

    PubMed Central

    Roco, Ángela; Quiñones, Luis; Agúndez, José A. G.; García-Martín, Elena; Squicciarini, Valentina; Miranda, Carla; Garay, Joselyn; Farfán, Nancy; Saavedra, Iván; Cáceres, Dante; Ibarra, Carol; Varela, Nelson

    2012-01-01

    Cancer is a leading cause of death worldwide. The cancer incidence rate in Chile is 133.7/100,000 inhabitants and it is the second cause of death, after cardiovascular diseases. Most of the antineoplastic drugs are metabolized to be detoxified, and some of them to be activated. Genetic polymorphisms of drug-metabolizing enzymes can induce deep changes in enzyme activity, leading to individual variability in drug efficacy and/or toxicity. The present research describes the presence of genetic polymorphisms in the Chilean population, which might be useful in public health programs for personalized treatment of cancer, and compares these frequencies with those reported for Asian and Caucasian populations, as a contribution to the evaluation of ethnic differences in the response to chemotherapy. We analyzed 23 polymorphisms in a group of 253 unrelated Chilean volunteers from the general population. The results showed that CYP2A6*2, CYP2A6*3, CYP2D6*3, CYP2C19*3, and CYP3A4*17 variant alleles are virtually absent in Chileans. CYP1A1*2A allele frequency (0.37) is similar to that of Caucasians and higher than that reported for Japanese people. Allele frequencies for CYP3A5*3(0.76) and CYP2C9*3(0.04) are similar to those observed in Japanese people. CYP1A1*2C(0.32), CYP1A2*1F(0.77), CYP3A4*1B(0.06), CYP2D6*2(0.41), and MTHFR T(0.52) allele frequencies are higher than the observed either in Caucasian or in Japanese populations. Conversely, CYP2C19*2 allelic frequency (0.12), and genotype frequencies for GSTT1 null (0.11) and GSTM1 null (0.36) are lower than those observed in both populations. Finally, allele frequencies for CYP2A6*4(0.04), CYP2C8*3(0.06), CYP2C9*2(0.06), CYP2D6*4(0.12), CYP2E1*5B(0.14), CYP2E1*6(0.19), and UGT2B7*2(0.40) are intermediate in relation to those described in Caucasian and in Japanese populations, as expected according to the ethnic origin of the Chilean population. In conclusion, our findings support the idea that ethnic variability must be

  9. CYP2S1: A short review

    SciTech Connect

    Saarikoski, Sirkku T. . E-mail: sirkku.saarikoski@ktl.fi; Rivera, Steven P.; Hankinson, Oliver; Husgafvel-Pursiainen, Kirsti

    2005-09-01

    A new member of the cytochrome P450 superfamily, CYP2S1, has recently been identified in human and mouse. In this paper, we review the data currently available for CYP2S1. The human CYP2S1 gene is located in chromosome 19q13.2 within a cluster including CYP2 family members CYP2A6, CYP2A13, CYP2B6, and CYP2F1. These genes also show the highest homology to the human CYP2S1. The gene has recently been found to harbor genetic polymorphism. CYP2S1 is inducible by dioxin, the induction being mediated by the Aryl Hydrocarbon Receptor (AHR) and Aryl Hydrocarbon Nuclear Translocator (ARNT) in a manner typical for CYP1 family members. In line with this, CYP2S1 has been shown to be inducible by coal tar, an abundant source of PAHs, and it was recently reported to metabolize naphthalene. This points to the involvement of CYP2S1 in the metabolism of toxic and carcinogenic compounds, similar to other dioxin-inducible CYPs. CYP2S1 is expressed in epithelial cells of a wide variety of extrahepatic tissues. The highest expression levels have been observed in the epithelial tissues frequently exposed to xenobiotics, e.g., the respiratory, gastrointestinal, and urinary tracts, and in the skin. The observed ubiquitous tissue distribution, as well as the expression of CYP2S1 throughout embryogenesis suggest that CYP2S1 is likely to metabolize important endogenous substrates; thus far, retinoic acid has been identified. In conclusion, CYP2S1 exhibits many features of interest for human health and thus warrants further investigation.

  10. CYP2S1: a short review.

    PubMed

    Saarikoski, Sirkku T; Rivera, Steven P; Hankinson, Oliver; Husgafvel-Pursiainen, Kirsti

    2005-09-01

    A new member of the cytochrome P450 superfamily, CYP2S1, has recently been identified in human and mouse. In this paper, we review the data currently available for CYP2S1. The human CYP2S1 gene is located in chromosome 19q13.2 within a cluster including CYP2 family members CYP2A6, CYP2A13, CYP2B6, and CYP2F1. These genes also show the highest homology to the human CYP2S1. The gene has recently been found to harbor genetic polymorphism. CYP2S1 is inducible by dioxin, the induction being mediated by the Aryl Hydrocarbon Receptor (AHR) and Aryl Hydrocarbon Nuclear Translocator (ARNT) in a manner typical for CYP1 family members. In line with this, CYP2S1 has been shown to be inducible by coal tar, an abundant source of PAHs, and it was recently reported to metabolize naphthalene. This points to the involvement of CYP2S1 in the metabolism of toxic and carcinogenic compounds, similar to other dioxin-inducible CYPs. CYP2S1 is expressed in epithelial cells of a wide variety of extrahepatic tissues. The highest expression levels have been observed in the epithelial tissues frequently exposed to xenobiotics, e.g., the respiratory, gastrointestinal, and urinary tracts, and in the skin. The observed ubiquitous tissue distribution, as well as the expression of CYP2S1 throughout embryogenesis suggest that CYP2S1 is likely to metabolize important endogenous substrates; thus far, retinoic acid has been identified. In conclusion, CYP2S1 exhibits many features of interest for human health and thus warrants further investigation. PMID:16054184

  11. Stereochemical aspects of vinylcyclohexene bioactivation in rodent hepatic microsomes and purified human cytochrome P450 enzyme systems.

    PubMed

    Fontaine, S M; Mash, E A; Hoyer, P B; Sipes, I G

    2001-02-01

    The racemic mixture of 4-vinylcyclohexene (VCH) forms ovotoxic epoxides [VCH-1,2-epoxide, VCH-7,8-epoxide, and vinylcyclohexene diepoxide (VCD)] by cytochrome P450 (CYP) in B6C3F(1) female mice. These epoxides deplete primordial and primary follicles. The current studies compared in vitro epoxidation of (R)-VCH with that of (S)-VCH in hepatic microsomes prepared from adult female B6C3F(1) mice and Fischer 344 rats. Bioactivation of VCH in the rat was significantly less compared with that in the mouse. (R)-VCH formed significantly more VCH-1,2-epoxide as compared with (S)-VCH in both species, and less VCH-7,8-epoxide in the mouse. Neither of the enantiomers formed detectable amounts of VCD in the mouse or rat. Hepatic microsomes prepared from mice and rats pretreated with CYP-inducing agents (phenobarbital and acetone) were also incubated with (R)-VCH or (S)-VCH. Although monoepoxide formation was not increased enantioselectively in the mouse, VCD was formed preferentially from (R)-VCH as compared with (S)-VCH. Pretreatment with VCH resulted in nonstereoselective increases in both monoepoxide and diepoxide formation. In the rat, these pretreatments resulted in nonstereoselective increases in monoepoxide formation, but VCD formation was not detectable. Incubations with human CYP2E1 enzyme revealed that (R)-VCH formed significantly more VCH-1,2-epoxide and less VCH-7,8-epoxide than (S)-VCH. Human CYP2A6 was limited in its ability to form epoxides from either enantiomer of VCH. Human CYP2B6 preferentially formed VCH-7,8-epoxide compared with VCH-1,2-epoxide, and to a greater extent from (R)-VCH than from (S)-VCH. These results demonstrate regioselectivity and enantioselectivity in the bioactivation of VCH in rodent hepatic microsomes as well as in expressed human CYP enzymes. PMID:11159809

  12. Rapid clinical induction of bupropion hydroxylation by metamizole in healthy Chinese men

    PubMed Central

    Qin, Wen-Jie; Zhang, Wei; Liu, Zhao-Qian; Chen, Xiao-Ping; Tan, Zhi-Rong; Hu, Dong-Li; Wang, Dan; Fan, Lan; Zhou, Hong-Hao

    2012-01-01

    AIMS This study aimed to investigate the effect of metamizole on bupropion hydroxylation related to different CYP2B6 genotype groups in healthy volunteers. METHODS Sixteen healthy male volunteers (6 CYP2B6*1/*1, 6 CYP2B6*1/*6 and 4 CYP2B6*6/*6) received orally administered bupropion alone and during daily treatment with metamizole 1500 mg day–1 (500 mg tablet taken three times daily) for 4 days. Serial blood samples were obtained up to 48 h after each bupropion dose. RESULTS After metamizole treatment relative to bupropion alone, the geometric mean ratios (GMRs) and 90% confidence interval (CI) of the AUC(0,∞) ratio of 4-hydroxybupropion over bupropion were 1.99 (1.57, 2.55) for the CYP2B6*1/*1 group, 2.15 (1.53, 3.05) for the CYP2B6*1/*6 group and 1.86 (1.36, 2.57) for the CYP2B6*6/*6 group. The GMRs and 90% CI of bupropion were 0.695 (0.622, 0.774) for AUC(0,∞) and 0.400 (0.353, 0.449) for Cmax, respectively. The corresponding values for 4-hydroxybupropion were 1.43 (1.28, 1.53) and 2.63 (2.07, 2.92). The t1/2 value was significantly increased for bupropion and decreased for 4-hydroxybupropion. The tmax values of bupropion and 4-hydroxybupropion were both significantly decreased. The mean percentage changes in pharmacokinetic parameters among the CYP2B6 genotype groups were not significantly different. CONCLUSIONS Oral administration of metamizole for 4 days significantly altered the pharmacokinetics of both bupropion and its active metabolite, 4-hydroxybupropion, and significantly increased the CYP2B6-catalyzed bupropion hydroxylation in all of the subjects. Cautions should be taken when metamizole is co-administered with CYP2B6 substrate drugs. PMID:22519658

  13. The use of human in vitro metabolic parameters to explore the risk assessment of hazardous compounds: the case of ethylene dibromide.

    PubMed

    Ploemen, J P; Wormhoudt, L W; Haenen, G R; Oudshoorn, M J; Commandeur, J N; Vermeulen, N P; de Waziers, I; Beaune, P H; Watabe, T; van Bladeren, P J

    1997-03-01

    Ethylene dibromide (1,2-dibromoethane, EDB) is metabolized by two routes: a conjugative route catalyzed by glutathione S-transferases (GST) and an oxidative route catalyzed by cytochrome P450 (P450). The GST route is associated with carcinogenicity. An approach is presented to use human purified GST and P450 enzymes to explore the importance of these metabolic pathways for man in vivo. This strategy basically consists of four steps: (i) identification of the most important isoenzymes in vitro, (ii) scaling to rate per milligram cytosolic and microsomal protein, (iii) scaling to rate per gram liver, and (iv) incorporation of data in a physiologically based pharmacokinetic (PBPK) model. In the first step, several GST isoenzymes were shown to be active toward EDB and displayed pseudo-first-order kinetics, while the EDB oxidation was catalyzed by CYP2E1, 2A6, and 2B6, which all displayed saturable kinetics. In the second step, the predictions were in agreement with the measured activity in a batch of 21 human liver samples. In the third step, rat liver P450 and GST metabolism of EDB was predicted to be in the same range as human metabolism (expressed per gram). Interindividual differences in GST activity were modeled to determine "extreme cases." For the most active person, an approximately 1.5-fold increase of the amount of conjugative metabolites was predicted. Lastly, it was shown that the GST route, even at low concentrations, will always contribute significantly to total metabolism. In the fourth step, a PBPK model describing liver metabolism after inhalatory exposure to EDB was used. The saturation of the P450 route was predicted to occur faster in the rat than in man. The rat was predicted to have a higher turnover of EDB from both routes. Nevertheless, when all data are combined, it is crucial to recognize that the GST remains significantly active even at low EDB concentrations. The limitations and advantages of the presented strategy are discussed. PMID

  14. The novel azole R126638 is a selective inhibitor of ergosterol synthesis in Candida albicans, Trichophyton spp., and Microsporum canis.

    PubMed

    Vanden Bossche, Hugo; Ausma, Jannie; Bohets, Hilde; Vermuyten, Karen; Willemsens, Gustaaf; Marichal, Patrick; Meerpoel, Lieven; Odds, Frank; Borgers, Marcel

    2004-09-01

    R126638 is a novel triazole with in vitro activity similar to that of itraconazole against dermatophytes, Candida spp., and Malassezia spp. In animal models of dermatophyte infections, R126638 showed superior antifungal activity. R126638 inhibits ergosterol synthesis in Candida albicans, Trichophyton mentagrophytes, Trichophyton rubrum, and Microsporum canis at nanomolar concentrations, with 50% inhibitory concentrations (IC(50)s) similar to those of itraconazole. The decreased synthesis of ergosterol and the concomitant accumulation of 14 alpha-methylsterols provide indirect evidence that R126638 inhibits the activity of CYP51 that catalyzes the oxidative removal of the 14 alpha-methyl group of lanosterol or eburicol. The IC(50)s for cholesterol synthesis from acetate in human hepatoma cells were 1.4 microM for itraconazole and 3.1 microM for R126638. Compared to itraconazole (IC(50) = 3.5 microM), R126638 is a poor inhibitor of the 1 alpha-hydroxylation of 25-hydroxyvitamin D(3) (IC(50) > 10 microM). Micromolar concentrations of R126638 and itraconazole inhibited the 24-hydroxylation of 25-hydroxyvitamin D(3) and the conversion of 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D(3) into polar metabolites. At concentrations up to 10 microM, R126638 had almost no effect on cholesterol side chain cleavage (CYP11A1), 11 beta-hydroxylase (CYP11B1), 17-hydroxylase and 17,20-lyase (CYP17), aromatase (CYP19), or 4-hydroxylation of all-trans retinoic acid (CYP26). At 10 microM, R126638 did not show clear inhibition of CYP1A2, CYP2A6, CYP2D6, CYP2C8, CYP2C9, CYP2C10, CYP2C19, or CYP2E1. Compared to itraconazole, R126638 had a lower interaction potential with testosterone 6 beta hydroxylation and cyclosporine hydroxylation, both of which are catalyzed by CYP3A4, whereas both antifungals inhibited the CYP3A4-catalyzed hydroxylation of midazolam similarly. The results suggest that R126638 has promising properties and merits further in vivo investigations for the treatment of dermatophyte and yeast

  15. Genetic markers in the EET metabolic pathway are associated with outcomes in patients with aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage

    PubMed Central

    Donnelly, Mark K; Conley, Yvette P; Crago, Elizabeth A; Ren, Dianxu; Sherwood, Paula R; Balzer, Jeffery R; Poloyac, Samuel M

    2015-01-01

    Preclinical studies show that epoxyeicosatrienoic acids (EETs) regulate cerebrovascular tone and protect against cerebral ischemia. We investigated the relationship between polymorphic genes involved in EET biosynthesis/metabolism, cytochrome P450 (CYP) eicosanoid levels, and outcomes in 363 patients with aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage (aSAH). Epoxyeicosatrienoic acids and dihydroxyeicosatetraenoic acid (DHET) cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) levels, as well as acute outcomes defined by delayed cerebral ischemia (DCI) or clinical neurologic deterioration (CND), were assessed over 14 days. Long-term outcomes were defined by Modified Rankin Scale (MRS) at 3 and 12 months. CYP2C8*4 allele carriers had 44% and 36% lower mean EET and DHET CSF levels (P=0.003 and P=0.007) and were 2.2- and 2.5-fold more likely to develop DCI and CND (P=0.039 and P=0.041), respectively. EPHX2 55Arg, CYP2J2*7, CYP2C8*1B, and CYP2C8 g.36785A allele carriers had lower EET and DHET CSF levels. CYP2C8 g.25369T and CYP2C8 g.36755A allele carriers had higher EET levels. Patients with CYP2C8*2C and EPHX2 404del variants had worse long-term outcomes while those with EPHX2 287Gln, CYP2J2*7, and CYP2C9 g.816G variants had favorable outcomes. Epoxyeicosatrienoic acid levels were associated with Fisher grade and unfavorable 3-month outcomes. Dihydroxyeicosatetraenoic acids were not associated with outcomes. No associations passed Bonferroni multiple testing correction. These are the first clinical data demonstrating the association between the EET biosynthesis/metabolic pathway and the pathophysiology of aSAH. PMID:25388680

  16. Promoter methylation of E-cadherin, p16, and RAR-beta(2) genes in breast tumors and dietary intake of nutrients important in one-carbon metabolism

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Aberrant DNA methylation plays a critical role in carcinogenesis, and the availability of dietary factors involved in 1-carbon metabolism may contribute to aberrant DNA methylation. We investigated the association of intake of folate, vitamins B(2), B(6), B(12), and methionine with promoter methylat...

  17. Xenobiotic Metabolizing Enzyme and Transporter Gene Expression in Primary Cultures of Human Hepatocytes Modulated by ToxCast Chemicals

    EPA Science Inventory

    ToxCast chemicals were assessed for induction or suppression of xenobiotic metabolizing enzyme and transporter gene expression using primary human hepatocytes. The mRNA levels of 14 target and 2 control genes were measured: ABCB1, ABCB11, ABCG2, SLCO1B1, CYP1A1, CYP1A2, CYP2B6, C...

  18. 78 FR 15403 - Agency Information Collection Activities; Proposed Collection; Comment Request; Company-Run...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-03-11

    ...). \\5\\ 12 U.S.C. 5365(i)(2)(B). \\6\\ 77 FR 61238, October 9, 2012. The OCC intends to use the data... institutions with total consolidated assets of $50 billion or more.\\7\\ \\7\\ See 77 FR 49485 for the Paperwork... Comptroller of the Currency, Attention: 1557-0311, 400 7th Street SW., Suite 3E-218, Mail Stop 9W-...

  19. Modulation of Xenobiotic Metabolizing Enzyme and Transporter Gene Expression in Primary Cultures of Human Hepatocytes by ToxCast Chemicals

    EPA Science Inventory

    ToxCast chemicals were assessed for induction or suppression of xenobiotic metabolizing enzyme and transporter gene expression using primary human hepatocytes. The mRNA levels of 14 target and 2 control genes were measured: ABCB1, ABCB11, ABCG2, SLCO1B1, CYP1A1, CYP1A2, CYP2B6, C...

  20. 12 CFR Appendix B to Part 707 - Model Clauses and Sample Forms

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... instead to each credit union's board of directors. 12 CFR 202.4(c)(2). B-6Sample Form (Regular Share... requirements of 12 CFR part 740. Nonfederally insured credit unions (NICUs) would be expected to disclose... proposed language, must be disclosed. Since account opening disclosures may be provided to...

  1. 77 FR 49485 - Agency Information Collection Activities: Proposed Information Collection; Comment Request

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-08-16

    ..., OMB Supporting Statement for the Capital Assessments and Stress Testing information collection (FR Y....C. 5365(i)(2)(B). \\6\\ 77 FR 3408, Jan. 24, 2012. The OCC intends to use the data collected through... billion or more are required to submit reports using CCAR reporting form FR Y-14A.\\7\\ Therefore, the...

  2. 77 FR 66663 - Agency Information Collection Activities: Proposed Information Collection; Submission for OMB Review

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-11-06

    ... stress test requirement (77 FR 3408). The OCC intends to use the data collected through these templates.... 5365(i)(2)(B). \\6\\ 77 FR 61238, October 9, 2012--Prior to issuance of the final rule, the OCC published... reports using CCAR reporting form FR Y-14A.\\7\\ Therefore, the OCC based its reporting requirements...

  3. 78 FR 63470 - Agency Information Collection Activities: Proposed Information Collection; Submission for OMB Review

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-10-24

    .... 5365(i)(2)(B). \\6\\ 77 FR 62417 (October 15, 2012). The FDIC intends to use the data collected through...\\ See 77 FR 16263 for the Paperwork Reduction Act Notice and the FDIC Web site at http://www.fdic.gov..., 2013 (77 FR 16263), the FDIC published a 60-day notice requesting public comment on the templates...

  4. 78 FR 16263 - Agency Information Collection Activities; Proposed Information Collection; Comment Request

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-03-14

    ...)(2)(A). \\3\\ 12 U.S.C. 5301(12). \\4\\ 12 U.S.C. 5365(i)(2)(C). \\5\\ 12 U.S.C. 5365(i)(2)(B). \\6\\ 77 FR... template for larger banks with total consolidated assets of $50 billion or more. \\7\\ See 77 FR 52718 for... is soliciting comment concerning its information collection titled, ``Annual Stress Test...

  5. 78 FR 51272 - Agency Information Collection Activities: Revision of an Approved Information Collection; Comment...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-08-20

    .... 5365(i)(2)(B). \\6\\ 77 FR 61238 (October 9, 2012). In 2012, the OCC first implemented the reporting templates referenced in the final rule. See 77 FR 49485 (August 16, 2012) and 77 FR 66663 (November 6, 2012... reports using CCAR reporting form FR Y-14A.\\7\\ The OCC also recognizes the Board has a proposal to...

  6. 12 CFR 584.2-2 - Permissible bank holding company activities of savings and loan holding companies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... savings and loan holding companies. 584.2-2 Section 584.2-2 Banks and Banking OFFICE OF THRIFT SUPERVISION, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY SAVINGS AND LOAN HOLDING COMPANIES § 584.2-2 Permissible bank holding company activities of savings and loan holding companies. (a) General. For purposes of § 584.2(b)(6)(i) of this...

  7. 12 CFR Appendix B to Part 707 - Model Clauses and Sample Forms

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... instead to each credit union's board of directors. 12 CFR 202.4(c)(2). B-6Sample Form (Regular Share... requirements of 12 CFR part 740. Nonfederally insured credit unions (NICUs) would be expected to disclose... may result between them and the earlier signature card terms. Given the longevity of credit...

  8. 12 CFR Appendix B to Part 707 - Model Clauses and Sample Forms

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... terms, leaving the decision instead to each credit union's board of directors. 12 CFR 204.2(c)(2). B-6... addresses the requirements of 12 CFR part 740. Nonfederally insured credit unions (NICUs) would be expected... change, discrepancies may result between them and the earlier signature card terms. Given the...

  9. 12 CFR Appendix B to Part 707 - Model Clauses and Sample Forms

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... instead to each credit union's board of directors. 12 CFR 202.4(c)(2). B-6Sample Form (Regular Share... requirements of 12 CFR part 740. Nonfederally insured credit unions (NICUs) would be expected to disclose... may result between them and the earlier signature card terms. Given the longevity of credit...

  10. Characterization of human cytochrome P450 induction by pesticides.

    PubMed

    Abass, Khaled; Lämsä, Virpi; Reponen, Petri; Küblbeck, Jenni; Honkakoski, Paavo; Mattila, Sampo; Pelkonen, Olavi; Hakkola, Jukka

    2012-03-29

    Pesticides are a large group of structurally diverse toxic chemicals. The toxicity may be modified by cytochrome P450 (CYP) enzyme activity. In the current study, we have investigated effects and mechanisms of 24 structurally varying pesticides on human CYP expression. Many pesticides were found to efficiently activate human pregnane X receptor (PXR) and/or constitutive androstane receptor (CAR). Out of the 24 compounds tested, 14 increased PXR- and 15 CAR-mediated luciferase activities at least 2-fold. While PXR was predominantly activated by pyrethroids, CAR was, in addition to pyrethroids, well activated by organophosphates and several carbamates. Induction of CYP mRNAs and catalytic activities was studied in the metabolically competent, human derived HepaRG cell line. CYP3A4 mRNA was induced most powerfully by pyrethroids; 50 μM cypermethrin increased CYP3A4 mRNA 35-fold. CYP2B6 was induced fairly equally by organophosphate, carbamate and pyrethroid compounds. Induction of CYP3A4 and CYP2B6 by these compound classes paralleled their effects on PXR and CAR. The urea herbicide diuron and the triazine herbicide atrazine induced CYP2B6 mRNA more than 10-fold, but did not activate CAR indicating that some pesticides may induce CYP2B6 via CAR-independent mechanisms. CYP catalyzed activities were induced much less than the corresponding mRNAs. At least in some cases, this is probably due to significant inhibition of CYP enzymes by the studied pesticides. Compared with human CAR activation and CYP2B6 expression, pesticides had much less effect on mouse CAR and CYP2B10 mRNA. Altogether, pesticides were found to be powerful human CYP inducers acting through both PXR and CAR. PMID:22310298

  11. Characterization of Two Novel mAbs Recognizing Different Epitopes on CD43

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Soseul; Hong, Jeong won; Cho, Woon-Dong; Moon, Yoo Ri; Yoon, Sang Soon; Kim, Min-Young; Hong, Kwon Pyo; Lee, Yong-Moon; Yi, Jae Hyuk; Ham, Young Jun; Rah, Hyung Chul; Kim, Seung Ryul

    2014-01-01

    JL1, a specific epitope on CD43, is a potential biomarker for the diagnosis of acute leukemia. Although qualitative assays for detecting leukemia-specific CD43 exist, there is a need to develop quantitative assays for the same. Here, we developed two novel monoclonal antibodies (mAbs), 2C8 and 8E10, recognizing different epitopes on CD43. These clones are capable of pairing with YG5, another mAb against JL1 epitope, because they were selectively obtained using sandwich ELISA. Antigens recognized by 2C8 and 8E10 were confirmed as CD43 by western blotting using the CD43-hFC recombinant protein. When expression on various leukemic cell lines was investigated, 2C8 and 8E10 displayed a disparity in the distribution of the epitope. Enzyme assays revealed that these mAbs recognized a sialic acid-dependent epitope on CD43. Using normal thymus and lymph node paraffin-embedded tissues, we confirmed a difference in the epitopes recognized by the two mAbs that was predicted based on the maturity of the cells in the tissue. In summary, we developed and characterized two mAbs, 2C8 and 8E10, which can be used with YG5 in a sandwich ELISA for detecting leukemia-specific CD43. PMID:24999313

  12. 24 CFR 3500.15 - Affiliated business arrangements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... service except where title is being held for the beneficial owner. (6) Franchise is defined in 16 CFR 436.2(a). (7) Franchisor is defined in 16 CFR 436.2(c). (8) Franchisee is defined in 16 CFR 436.2(d). (9... incident thereto, except if such person is a lender, for requiring a buyer, borrower or seller to pay...

  13. 24 CFR 3500.15 - Affiliated business arrangements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... service except where title is being held for the beneficial owner. (6) Franchise is defined in 16 CFR 436.2(a). (7) Franchisor is defined in 16 CFR 436.2(c). (8) Franchisee is defined in 16 CFR 436.2(d). (9... 24 Housing and Urban Development 5 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Affiliated business...

  14. 24 CFR 3500.15 - Affiliated business arrangements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... service except where title is being held for the beneficial owner. (6) Franchise is defined in 16 CFR 436.2(a). (7) Franchisor is defined in 16 CFR 436.2(c). (8) Franchisee is defined in 16 CFR 436.2(d). (9... 24 Housing and Urban Development 5 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Affiliated business...

  15. 24 CFR 3500.15 - Affiliated business arrangements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... service except where title is being held for the beneficial owner. (6) Franchise is defined in 16 CFR 436.2(a). (7) Franchisor is defined in 16 CFR 436.2(c). (8) Franchisee is defined in 16 CFR 436.2(d). (9... 24 Housing and Urban Development 5 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Affiliated business...

  16. 24 CFR 3500.15 - Affiliated business arrangements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... service except where title is being held for the beneficial owner. (6) Franchise is defined in 16 CFR 436.2(a). (7) Franchisor is defined in 16 CFR 436.2(c). (8) Franchisee is defined in 16 CFR 436.2(d). (9... 24 Housing and Urban Development 5 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Affiliated business...

  17. Leukocyte chemoattractant activity of diacylglycerol

    SciTech Connect

    Wright, T.M.; Hoffman, R.D.; Nishijima, J.; Shin, H.S.

    1986-03-05

    Phosphatidylinositol breakdown with the generation of 1,2-diacylglycerol (1,2-DG) and inositol phosphates occurs in response to receptor mediated stimulation of lymphocytes and polymorphonuclear neutrophils (PMN). In the authors attempt to demonstrate the direct role of 1,2-DG in cell migration, they have found 1,2 dioctanoyl glycerol (1,2-C8DG) to be a chemoattractant for 6C3HED, a mouse thymic lymphoma, and human peripheral blood PMN's. The chemoattractant activity for both cell types was observed at concentrations from 0.5 to 10mM in an under agarose assay. The maximum effect of 1,2-C8DG on 6C3HED cells was similar to that of 1mM lysophosphatidylcholine and the maximum effect of 1,2-C8DG on PMN's was similar to that of 10/sup -7/M f-met-leu-phe. Other 1,2-DG's with acyl chains ranging from 6 to 18 carbons in length and 1-oleoyl-2-acetyl-glycerol were also chemoattractants for 6C3HED, although their activities were less than 1,2-C8DG. In addition, phorbol myristate acetate (PMA), another activator of protein kinase C, was a chemoattractant for 6C3HED and human PMN's. PMA was more potent than 1,2-C8DG for both 6C3HED and PMN's with chemoattractant activity in the range of 30nM to 1..mu..M. These studies support the direct role of 1,2-DG in the transduction of chemotactic stimuli in leukocytes and further suggest that the formation of diacylglycerol represents a common step in the migratory responses of lymphoid and myeloid cells.

  18. Surface Engineering of Porous Silicon Microparticles for Intravitreal Sustained Delivery of Rapamycin

    PubMed Central

    Nieto, Alejandra; Hou, Huiyuan; Moon, Sang Woong; Sailor, Michael J.; Freeman, William R.; Cheng, Lingyun

    2015-01-01

    Purpose. To understand the relationship between rapamycin loading/release and surface chemistries of porous silicon (pSi) to optimize pSi-based intravitreal delivery system. Methods. Three types of surface chemical modifications were studied: (1) pSi-COOH, containing 10-carbon aliphatic chains with terminal carboxyl groups grafted via hydrosilylation of undecylenic acid; (2) pSi-C12, containing 12-carbon aliphatic chains grafted via hydrosilylation of 1-dodecene; and (3) pSiO2-C8, prepared by mild oxidation of the pSi particles followed by grafting of 8-hydrocarbon chains to the resulting porous silica surface via a silanization. Results. The efficiency of rapamycin loading follows the order (micrograms of drug/milligrams of carrier): pSiO2-C8 (105 ± 18) > pSi-COOH (68 ± 8) > pSi-C12 (36 ± 6). Powder X-ray diffraction data showed that loaded rapamycin was amorphous and dynamic drug-release study showed that the availability of the free drug was increased by 6-fold (compared with crystalline rapamycin) by using pSiO2-C8 formulation (P = 0.0039). Of the three formulations in this study, pSiO2-C8-RAP showed optimal performance in terms of simultaneous release of the active drug and carrier degradation, and drug-loading capacity. Released rapamycin was confirmed with the fingerprints of the mass spectrometry and biologically functional as the control of commercial crystalline rapamycin. Single intravitreal injections of 2.9 ± 0.37 mg pSiO2-C8-RAP into rabbit eyes resulted in more than 8 weeks of residence in the vitreous while maintaining clear optical media and normal histology of the retina in comparison to the controls. Conclusions. Porous silicon–based rapamycin delivery system using the pSiO2-C8 formulation demonstrated good ocular compatibility and may provide sustained drug release for retina. PMID:25613937

  19. Effect of genetic and coexisting polymorphisms on platelet response to clopidogrel in Chinese Han patients with acute coronary syndrome.

    PubMed

    Liu, Xu; Luo, Yu; Lai, Yan; Yao, Yian; Li, Jimin; Wang, Yunkai; Zheng, S Lilly; Xu, Jianfeng; Liu, Xuebo

    2016-06-01

    Polymorphisms of CYP2C19 are associated with platelet response to clopidogrel. This study was conducted to evaluate the contribution of the previously identified polymorphisms to the response of clopidogrel in a cohort of Chinese Han patients. A total of 222 acute coronary syndrome patients undergoing percutaneous coronary intervention treated with clopidogrel were enrolled from September 2012 to June 2013. Residual platelet aggregations for all patients were measured by the Verify Now P2Y12 system. Sixteen single-nucleotide polymorphisms among nine genes were genotyped including CYP2C19, ABCB1 and PON1. In this study, CYP2C19*2 and CYP2C19*17 were strongly associated with higher platelet aggregation and lower platelet aggregation to clopidogrel treatment, respectively (P <0.001). Patients with CYP2C19*2 allele had a higher risk of high on-treatment platelet reactivity than non carriers (adjusted OR, 5.434; 95% CI, 1.918-15.399, P =0.01). The coexistence of CYP2B6*9 (rs8192719) and P2Y12 (rs2046934) and the coexistence of CYP2B6*1B (rs7254579) and P2Y12 (rs2046934) were also associated with poor response to clopidogrel. No significant relation of CYP2C19*3 and other polymorphisms to the platelet aggregation was found. In conclusion, CYP2C19*2, CYP2C19*17 coexistence of CYP2B6*9 (rs8192719) and P2Y12 (rs2046934) and coexistence of CYP2B6*1B (rs7254579) and P2Y12 (rs2046934) were identified to be associated with response to clopidogrel treatment in Chinese Han patients. PMID:27350664

  20. Application of Micropatterned Cocultured Hepatocytes to Evaluate the Inductive Potential and Degradation Rate of Major Xenobiotic Metabolizing Enzymes.

    PubMed

    Dixit, Vaishali; Moore, Amanda; Tsao, Hong; Hariparsad, Niresh

    2016-02-01

    Long-term coculture models of hepatocytes are promising tools to study drug transport, clearance, and hepatoxicity. In this report we compare the basal expression of drug disposition genes and the inductive response of prototypical inducers (rifampin, phenobarbital, phenytoin) in hepatocyte two-dimensional monocultures and the long-term coculture model (HepatoPac). All the inducers used in the study increased the expression and activity of CYP3A4, CYP2B6 and CYP2C enzymes in the HepatoPac cultures. The coculture model showed a consistent and higher induction of CYP2C enzymes compared with the monocultures. The EC50 of rifampin for CYP3A4 and CYP2C9 was up to 10-fold lower in HepatoPac than the monocultures. The EC50 of rifampin calculated from the clinical drug interaction studies correlated well with the EC50 observed in the HepatoPac cultures. Owing to the long-term stability of the HepatoPac cultures, we were able to directly measure a half-life (t1/2) for both CYP3A4 and CYP2B6 using the depletion kinetics of mRNA and functional activity. The t1/2 for CYP3A4 mRNA was 26 hours and that for the functional protein was 49 hours. The t1/2 of CYP2B6 was 38 hours (mRNA) and 68 hours (activity), which is longer than CYP3A4 and shows the differential turnover of these two proteins. This is the first study to our knowledge to report the turnover rate of CYP2B6 in human hepatocytes. The data presented here demonstrate that the HepatoPac cultures have the potential to be used in long-term culture to mimic complex clinical scenarios. PMID:26658225

  1. Gene variants in CYP2C19 are associated with altered in vivo bupropion pharmacokinetics but not bupropion-assisted smoking cessation outcomes.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Andy Z X; Zhou, Qian; Cox, Lisa Sanderson; Ahluwalia, Jasjit S; Benowitz, Neal L; Tyndale, Rachel F

    2014-11-01

    Bupropion is used clinically to treat depression and to promote smoking cessation. It is metabolized by CYP2B6 to its active metabolite hydroxybupropion, yet alterations in CYP2B6 activity have little impact on bupropion plasma levels. Furthermore, less than 10% of a bupropion dose is excreted as urinary bupropion and its characterized metabolites hydroxybupropion, threohydrobupropion, and erythrohydrobupropion, suggesting that alternative metabolic pathways may exist. In vitro data suggested CYP2C19 could metabolize bupropion. The current study investigated the impact of functional CYP2C19 genetic variants on bupropion pharmacokinetics and treatment outcomes. In 42 healthy volunteers, CYP2C19*2 (a reduced activity allele) was associated with higher bupropion area under the plasma concentration-time curve (AUC), but similar hydroxybupropion AUC. The mean bupropion AUC was 771 versus 670 hours⋅ng/ml in individuals with and without CYP2C19*2, respectively (P = 0.017). CYP2C19*2 was also associated with higher threohydrobupropion and erythrohydrobupropion AUC (P < 0.005). Adjusting for CYP2B6 genotype did not alter these associations, and CYP2C19 variants did not alter the utility of the hydroxybupropion/bupropion ratio as a measure of CYP2B6 activity. Finally, in a clinical trial of 540 smokers, CYP2C19 genotype was not associated with smoking cessation outcomes, supporting the hypothesis that bupropion response is mediated by hydroxybupropion, which is not altered by CYP2C19. In conclusion, our study reports the first in vivo evidence that reduced CYP2C19 activity significantly increases the steady-state exposure to bupropion and its reductive metabolites threohydrobupropion and erythrohydrobupropion. These pharmacokinetic changes were not associated with differences in bupropion's ability to promote smoking cessation in smokers, but may influence the side effects and toxicity associated with bupropion. PMID:25187485

  2. Human variation in CYP-specific chlorpyrifos metabolism.

    PubMed

    Croom, Edward L; Wallace, Andrew D; Hodgson, Ernest

    2010-10-29

    Chlorpyrifos, an organophophorothioate insecticide, is bioactivated to the neurotoxic metabolite, chlorpyrifos-oxon (CPO) by cytochromes P450 (CYPs). To determine the variability in chlorpyrifos bioactivation, CPO production by human liver microsomes from 17 individual donors was compared relative to phenotype and genotype. CPO production varied over 14-fold between individuals in incubations utilizing 20 μM chlorpyrifos as substrate, while CPO production varied 57-fold in incubations with 100 μM chlorpyrifos. For all but two samples, the formation of the less toxic metabolite, 3,5,6-trichloro-2-pyridinol (TCP), was greater than CPO production. TCP production varied 9-fold in incubations utilizing 20 μM chlorpyrifos as substrate and 19-fold using 100 μM chlorpyrifos. Chlorpyrifos metabolism by individual human liver microsomes was significantly correlated with CYP2B6, CYP2C19 and CYP3A4 related activity. CPO formation was best correlated with CYP2B6 related activity at low (20 μM) chlorpyrifos concentrations while CYP3A4 related activity was best correlated with CPO formation at high concentrations (100 μM) of chlorpyrifos. TCP production was best correlated with CYP3A4 activity at all substrate concentrations of chlorpyrifos. The production of both CPO and TCP was significantly lower at a concentration of 20 μM chlorpyrifos as compared to 100 μM chlorpyrifos. Calculations of percent total normalized rates (% TNR) and the chemical inhibitors ketoconazole and ticlopidine were used to confirm the importance of CYP2B6, CYP2C19, and CYP3A4 for the metabolism of chlorpyrifos. The combination of ketoconazole and ticlopidine inhibited the majority of TCP and CPO formation. CPO formation did not differ by CYP2B6 genotype. Individual variations in CPO production may need to be considered in determining the risk of chlorpyrifos poisoning. PMID:20709133

  3. Applicability of second-generation upcyte® human hepatocytes for use in CYP inhibition and induction studies

    PubMed Central

    Ramachandran, Sarada D; Vivarès, Aurélie; Klieber, Sylvie; Hewitt, Nicola J; Muenst, Bernhard; Heinz, Stefan; Walles, Heike; Braspenning, Joris

    2015-01-01

    Human upcyte® hepatocytes are proliferating hepatocytes that retain many characteristics of primary human hepatocytes. We conducted a comprehensive evaluation of the application of second-generation upcyte® hepatocytes from four donors for inhibition and induction assays using a selection of reference inhibitors and inducers. CYP1A2, CYP2B6, CYP2C9, and CYP3A4 were reproducibly inhibited in a concentration-dependent manner and the calculated IC50 values for each compound correctly classified them as potent inhibitors. Upcyte® hepatocytes were responsive to prototypical CYP1A2, CYP2B6, CYP2C9, and CYP3A4 inducers, confirming that they have functional AhR-, CAR-, and PXR-mediated CYP regulation. A panel of 11 inducers classified as potent, moderate or noninducers of CYP3A4 and CYP2B6 were tested. There was a good fit of data from upcyte® hepatocytes to three different predictive models for CYP3A4 induction, namely the Relative Induction Score (RIS), AUCu/F2, and Cmax,u/Ind50. In addition, PXR (rifampicin) and CAR-selective (carbamazepine and phenytoin) inducers of CYP3A4 and CYP2B6 induction, respectively, were demonstrated. In conclusion, these data support the use of second-generation upcyte® hepatocytes for CYP inhibition and induction assays. Under the culture conditions used, these cells expressed CYP activities that were equivalent to or higher than those measured in primary human hepatocyte cultures, which could be inhibited or induced by prototypical CYP inhibitors and inducers, respectively. Moreover, they can be used to predict in vivo CYP3A4 induction potential using three prediction models. Bulk availability of cells from multiple donors makes upcyte® hepatocytes suitable for DDI screening, as well as more in-depth mechanistic investigations. PMID:26516577

  4. 77 FR 70435 - Agency Information Collection Activities: Proposed Information Collection; Submission for OMB Review

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-11-26

    .... 5301(12). \\4\\ 12 U.S.C. 5365(i)(2)(C). \\5\\ 12 U.S.C. 5365(i)(2)(B). \\6\\ 77 FR 62417, October 15, 2012... reporting form FR Y-14A.\\7\\ Therefore, the FDIC based its reporting requirements closely on the Board's form FR Y-14A for covered banks with total consolidated assets of $50 billion or more. The FDIC...

  5. 77 FR 52718 - Agency Information Collection Activities: Proposed Information Collection; Comment Request

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-08-30

    ....C. 5301(12). \\4\\ 12 U.S.C. 5365(i)(2)(C). \\5\\ 12 U.S.C. 5365(i)(2)(B). \\6\\ 77 FR 3166, Jan. 23, 2012... submit reports using CCAR reporting form FR Y-14A.\\7\\ Therefore, the FDIC is proposing to base reporting requirements closely on the Board's form FR Y-14A for covered banks with total consolidated assets of...

  6. Liquid-liquid distribution of B group vitamins in polyethylene glycol-based systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Korenman, Ya. I.; Zykov, A. V.; Mokshina, N. Ya.

    2011-05-01

    General regularities of the liquid-liquid distribution of B1, B2, B6, and B12 vitamins in aqueous polyethylene glycol (PEG-2000, PEG-5000) solution-aqueous salt solution systems are studied. The influence of the salting-out agent, the concentration of the polymer, and its molecular weight on the distribution coefficients and recovery factors of the vitamins are considered. Equations relating the distribution coefficients (log D) to the polymer concentration are derived.

  7. Chemistry of group 9 dimetallaborane analogues of octaborane(12).

    PubMed

    Barik, Subrat Kumar; Roy, Dipak Kumar; Ghosh, Sundargopal

    2015-01-14

    We report the synthesis, isolation and structural characterization of several moderately air stable nido-metallaboranes that represent boron rich open cage systems. The reaction of [Cp*CoCl]2, (Cp* = η(5)-C5Me5), with [BH3·thf] in toluene at ice cold temperature, followed by thermolysis in boiling toluene produced [(Cp*Co)B9H13], 1 [(Cp*Co)2B8H12], 2 and [(Cp*Co)2B6H10] 3. Building upon our earlier reactivity studies on rhodaboranes, we continue to explore the reactivity of dicobalt analogues of octaborane(12) cluster 3 with [Fe2(CO)9] and [Ru3(CO)12] at ambient conditions that yielded novel fused clusters [Fe2(CO)6(Cp*Co)2B6H10], 4 and [Ru4(CO)11(Cp*Co)2B3H3], 5 respectively. In an attempt to synthesize a heterometallic metallaborane compound we performed the reaction of [(Cp*Rh)2B6H10], 6 with [Cp*IrH4] that yielded a Ir-Ir double bonded compound [(Cp*Ir)2H3][B(OH)4], 7. All the new compounds have been characterized by IR, (1)H, (11)B, (13)C NMR spectroscopy, and the molecular structures were unambiguously established by X-ray diffraction analysis. PMID:25385503

  8. A computational analysis of the apparent nido vs. hypho conflict: are we dealing with six- or eight-vertex open-face diheteroboranes?

    PubMed

    Nunes, João Pedro F; Holub, Josef; Rankin, David W H; Wann, Derek A; Hnyk, Drahomír

    2015-07-14

    A series of computational studies have been undertaken to investigate the electronic structures and bonding schemes for six hetero-substituted borane cages, all of which have been presented in the literature as potential hypho structures. The six species are hypho-7,8-[C2B6H13](-) (1a), hypho-7,8-[CSB6H11](-) (1b), hypho-7,8-[S2B6H9](-) (1c), hypho-7,8-[NSB6H11] (1d), exo-7-Me-hypho-7,8-[NCB6H12] (1e), and endo-7-Me-hypho-7,8-[NCB6H12] (1f) and the so-called mno rule has been applied to each of them. As no structural data are known for the carbathia-, azathia-, and dithiahexaboranes, we have also applied the ab initio/GIAO/NMR structural tool for 1b-1d, with 1c having been prepared for this purpose. We conclude that an mno count of 10 means that 1a, 1b, 1d, 1e, and 1f should be termed pseudo-nido or pseudo-hypho. Only 1c can be considered to be correctly termed hypho-7,8-[S2B6H9](-). PMID:26053287

  9. Thermolysis characteristics of salts of o-phthalic acid with the formation of Fe, Co, Ni, Cu metal particles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yudanova, L. I.; Logvinenko, V. A.; Yudanov, N. F.; Rudina, N. A.; Ishchenko, A. V.; Korol'kov, I. V.; Semyannikov, P. P.; Sheludyakova, L. A.; Alferova, N. I.

    2016-06-01

    Studies of the thermolysis of ortho-[Ni(H2O)2(C8H4O4)](H2O)2, [Cu(H2O)(C8H4O4)], and acid [M(H2O)6](C8H5O4)2 (M(II) = Fe(II), Co(II), and Ni(II)), [Cu(H2O)2(C8H5O4)2] phthalates reveal that the solid products of their decomposition are composites with nanoparticles embedded in carbon-polymer matrices. Metallic nanoparticles with oxide nanoparticle impurities are detected in iron/cobalt polymer composites, while nickel/copper composites are composed of only metallic particles. It is found that nickel nanoparticles with the diameters of 6-8 nm are covered with disordered graphene layers, while the copperbased composite matrix contains spherical conglomerates (50-200 nm) with numerous spherical Cu particles (5-10 nm).

  10. Assessment of ambient volatile hydrocarbons from tobacco smoke and from vehicle emissions.

    PubMed

    Barrefors, G; Petersson, G

    1993-07-23

    Quantitative proportions of C2-C8 alkenes, alkadienes, alkynes, alkanes and arenes were determined for indoor smoky air and for air inside a private car. Samples were taken on adsorbent cartridges and analysed by gas chromatography on an aluminium oxide column. The proportions of more than twenty reported alkenes, alkadienes and alkynes were demonstrated to be very similar in a smoky room and in sidestream cigarette smoke. Isoprene, ethene and propene are major components. Urban air polluted by petrol-fuelled vehicles differs mainly by having much lower proportions of isoprene and much higher proportions of petrol alkanes and alkylbenzenes. The total concentration of C2-C8 hydrocarbons was found to be similar in a smoky room and in a car in urban traffic. PMID:7689578

  11. Follow-up to the pre-validation of a harmonised protocol for assessment of CYP induction responses in freshly isolated and cryopreserved human hepatocytes with respect to culture format, treatment, positive reference inducers and incubation conditions.

    PubMed

    Abadie-Viollon, Catherine; Martin, Hélène; Blanchard, Nadège; Pekthong, Dumrongsak; Bachellier, Philippe; Mantion, Georges; Heyd, Bruno; Schuler, Frantz; Coassolo, Philippe; Alexandre, Eliane; Richert, Lysiane

    2010-02-01

    We have compared induction responses of human hepatocytes to known inducers of CYP1A2, CYP2B6, CYP2C and CYP3A4/5 to determine whether the culture format, treatment regimen and/or substrate incubation conditions affected the outcome. CYP induction responses to prototypical inducers were equivalent regardless of pre-culture time (24h or 48h), plate format (60mm or 24-well plates) used or whether CYP activities were measured in microsomes or whole cell monolayers. Fold-induction of CYP3A4/5 by 1000muM PB and 10microM RIF were equivalent. In contrast, the fold-induction of CYP2B6 by PB was 3-fold higher that by 10microM RIF. In addition to inducing CYP1A2, 50microM OME also induced CYP3A4/5 in 50% of the donors tested. CYP2B6 was induced in 14 out of 21 donors by BNF; however CYP3A4/5 was unaffected by BNF in these donors. In order to confirm that donor-to-donor variation was not due to inter-laboratory differences, the induction responses of 5 different batches of cryopreserved human hepatocytes were compared in two different laboratories. The induction of CYP1A2, CYP2B6 and CYP3A4 measured in our laboratory were equivalent to those obtained by the commercial companies, proving good between-laboratory reproducibility. In conclusion, there is some flexibility in the treatment and incubation protocols for classical CYP induction assays on human hepatocytes. Both RIF and PB are suitable positive control inducers of CYP3A4/5 but PB may be more appropriate for CYP2B6 induction. BNF may be more appropriate for CYP1A2 induction than OME since, in contrast to the latter, it does not induce CYP3A4. Induction responses using hepatocytes from the same donor but in different labs can be expected to be similar. The good reproducibility of induction responses between laboratories using cryopreserved hepatocytes underlines the usefulness of these cells for these types of studies. PMID:19497360

  12. Quantitative Rationalization of Gemfibrozil Drug Interactions: Consideration of Transporters-Enzyme Interplay and the Role of Circulating Metabolite Gemfibrozil 1-O-β-Glucuronide.

    PubMed

    Varma, Manthena V S; Lin, Jian; Bi, Yi-an; Kimoto, Emi; Rodrigues, A David

    2015-07-01

    Gemfibrozil has been suggested as a sensitive cytochrome P450 2C8 (CYP2C8) inhibitor for clinical investigation by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration and the European Medicines Agency. However, gemfibrozil drug-drug interactions (DDIs) are complex; its major circulating metabolite, gemfibrozil 1-O-β-glucuronide (Gem-Glu), exhibits time-dependent inhibition of CYP2C8, and both parent and metabolite also behave as moderate inhibitors of organic anion transporting polypeptide 1B1 (OATP1B1) in vitro. Additionally, parent and metabolite also inhibit renal transport mediated by OAT3. Here, in vitro inhibition data for gemfibrozil and Gem-Glu were used to assess their impact on the pharmacokinetics of several victim drugs (including rosiglitazone, pioglitazone, cerivastatin, and repaglinide) by employing both static mechanistic and dynamic physiologically based pharmacokinetic (PBPK) models. Of the 48 cases evaluated using the static models, about 75% and 98% of the DDIs were predicted within 1.5- and 2-fold of the observed values, respectively, when incorporating the interaction potential of both gemfibrozil and its 1-O-β-glucuronide. Moreover, the PBPK model was able to recover the plasma profiles of rosiglitazone, pioglitazone, cerivastatin, and repaglinide under control and gemfibrozil treatment conditions. Analyses suggest that Gem-Glu is the major contributor to the DDIs, and its exposure needed to bring about complete inactivation of CYP2C8 is only a fraction of that achieved in the clinic after a therapeutic gemfibrozil dose. Overall, the complex interactions of gemfibrozil can be quantitatively rationalized, and the learnings from this analysis can be applied in support of future predictions of gemfibrozil DDIs. PMID:25941268

  13. Poly[tetra­kis[μ2-1,3-bis­(4-pyrid­yl)propane-κ2 N:N′]dichloridobis(phenyl­acetato)dimanganese(II)

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Ji-Yong; Xu, Wei

    2010-01-01

    In the title compound, [Mn2(C8H7O2)2Cl2(C13H14N2)4]n, the two MnII atoms lie on inversion centers and are connected by the N-heterocyclic ligands into a wave-like lamellar framework structure. One MnII atom is covalently bonded to two Cl atoms and the other to two benzyl­acetate anions; both Mn atoms show distorted octahedral coordinations. PMID:21580202

  14. Three-layer structure graphene/mesoporous silica composites incorporated with C8-modified interior pore-walls for residue analysis of glucocorticoids in milk by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Liu, Xiaodan; Feng, Jianan; Sun, Xueni; Li, Yan; Duan, Gengli

    2015-07-16

    Three-layer structure graphene/mesoporous silica composites incorporated with C8-modified interior pore-walls (graphene@mSiO2-C8) were prepared and applied for efficient extraction of glucocorticoid residuals in milk followed by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) analysis. The graphene@mSiO2-C8 nanocomposites were synthesized by coating C8-modified mesoporous silica onto hydrophilic graphene nanosheets through a simple surfactant-mediated co-condensation sol-gel process. The obtained nanosheets possess unique properties of large surface area (632 m(2)/g), extended plate-like morphology in the exterior surface, highly open pore structure with uniform pore size (2.8 nm), numerous C8-modified interior pore-walls, as well as good water dispersibility. The performance of the prepared graphene@mSiO2-C8 materials for extracting small hydrophobic molecules directly from complex protein-rich samples was evaluated by analysis of glucocorticoids in milk. Extraction conditions such as sorbents amount, type and volume of eluting solvent, time of adsorption and desorption were investigated and optimized to achieve the best efficiency. Method validations including linearity, recovery, repeatability, and limit of detection (LOD) were also studied. The results indicated that this methodology provided low LOD (S/N=3, 0.0075-0.03 ng mL(-1)) and good linearity (0.03-60 ng mL(-1), R(2)>0.996) for glucocorticoids. Satisfactory reusability and stability were also obtained during the extraction. Finally, the graphene@mSiO2-C8 composites were successfully applied to the extraction and residue analysis of glucocorticoids in real milk samples. The experimental results showed that this novel approach offered an attractive choice for convenient, efficient and rapid solid-phase extraction of targeted hydrophobic compounds in biological samples. PMID:26073810

  15. An Organic Catalyst for Li-O2 Batteries: Dilithium Quinone-1,4-Dicarboxylate.

    PubMed

    Liu, Jia; Renault, Stéven; Brandell, Daniel; Gustafsson, Torbjörn; Edström, Kristina; Zhu, Jiefang

    2015-07-01

    Solid organic electrocatalysts have hardly been tested in Li-O2 batteries. Here, a new solid organic electrocatalyst, dilithium quinone-1,4-dicarboxylate (Li2 C8 H2 O6 ) is presented, which is expected to overcome the shortcomings of inorganic catalysts. The function-oriented synthesis is low cost and low polluting. The electrocatalytic performance is evaluated by following the degradation of Li2 O2 during the charge process in a Li-O2 cell through in situ XRD and operando synchrotron radiation powder XRD (SR-PXD) measurements. The results indicate that the electrocatalytic activity of Li2 C8 H2 O6 is similar to that of commercial Pt. The Li2 O2 decomposition in a cell with Li2 C8 H2 O6 catalyst follows a pseudo-zero-order reaction, virtually without any side reactions. These results provide an insight into the development of new organic catalysts for the oxygen evolution reaction (OER) in Li-O2 batteries. PMID:26073442

  16. Interethnic differences of cytochrome P450 gene polymorphisms may influence outcome of taxane therapy in Roma and Hungarian populations.

    PubMed

    Szalai, Renata; Ganczer, Alma; Magyari, Lili; Matyas, Petra; Bene, Judit; Melegh, Bela

    2015-12-01

    Taxanes are widely used microtubule-stabilizing chemotherapeutic agents in the treatment of cancers. Several cytochrome P450 gene variants have been proven to influence taxane metabolism and therapy. The purpose of this work was to determine the distribution of genetic variations of CYP1B1, CYP2C8 and CYP3A5 genes as the first report on taxane metabolizer cytochrome P450 gene polymorphisms in Roma and Hungarian populations. A total of 397 Roma and 412 Hungarian healthy subjects were genotyped for CYP1B1 c.4326C > G, CYP2C8 c.792C > G and CYP3A5 c.6986A > G variant alleles by PCR-RFLP assay and direct sequencing. We found significant differences in the frequencies of homozygous variant genotypes of CYP1B1 4326 GG (p = 0.002) and CYP3A5 6986 GG (p < 0.001) between Roma and Hungarian populations. Regarding minor allele frequencies, for CYP2C8 a significantly increased prevalence was found in 792G allele frequency in the Hungarian population compared to the Roma population (5.83% vs. 2.14%, p = 0.001). Our results can be used as possible predictive factors in population specific treatment algorithms to developing effective programs for a better outcome in patients treated with taxanes. PMID:26507668

  17. Variation in Human Cytochrome P-450 Drug-Metabolism Genes: A Gateway to the Understanding of Plasmodium vivax Relapses

    PubMed Central

    Silvino, Ana Carolina Rios; Costa, Gabriel Luiz; de Araújo, Flávia Carolina Faustino; Ascher, David Benjamin; Pires, Douglas Eduardo Valente; Fontes, Cor Jesus Fernandes; Carvalho, Luzia Helena; de Brito, Cristiana Ferreira Alves; Sousa, Tais Nobrega

    2016-01-01

    Although Plasmodium vivax relapses are classically associated with hypnozoite activation, it has been proposed that a proportion of these cases are due to primaquine (PQ) treatment failure caused by polymorphisms in cytochrome P-450 2D6 (CYP2D6). Here, we present evidence that CYP2D6 polymorphisms are implicated in PQ failure, which was reinforced by findings in genetically similar parasites, and may explain a number of vivax relapses. Using a computational approach, these polymorphisms were predicted to affect the activity of CYP2D6 through changes in the structural stability that could lead to disruption of the PQ-enzyme interactions. Furthermore, because PQ is co-administered with chloroquine (CQ), we investigated whether CQ-impaired metabolism by cytochrome P-450 2C8 (CYP2C8) could also contribute to vivax recurrences. Our results show that CYP2C8-mutated patients frequently relapsed early (<42 days) and had a higher proportion of genetically similar parasites, suggesting the possibility of recrudescence due to CQ therapeutic failure. These results highlight the importance of pharmacogenetic studies as a tool to monitor the efficacy of antimalarial therapy. PMID:27467145

  18. In Vitro Metabolism of Montelukast by Cytochrome P450s and UDP-Glucuronosyltransferases.

    PubMed

    Cardoso, Josiane de Oliveira; Oliveira, Regina Vincenzi; Lu, Jessica Bo Li; Desta, Zeruesenay

    2015-12-01

    Montelukast has been recommended as a selective in vitro and in vivo probe of cytochrome P450 (P450) CYP2C8 activity, but its selectivity toward this enzyme remains unclear. We performed detailed characterization of montelukast metabolism in vitro using human liver microsomes (HLMs), expressed P450s, and uridine 5'-diphospho-glucuronosyltransferases (UGTs). Kinetic and inhibition experiments performed at therapeutically relevant concentrations reveal that CYP2C8 and CYP2C9 are the principal enzymes responsible for montelukast 36-hydroxylation to 1,2-diol. CYP3A4 was the main catalyst of montelukast sulfoxidation and stereoselective 21-hydroxylation, and multiple P450s participated in montelukast 25-hydroxylation. We confirmed direct glucuronidation of montelukast to an acyl-glucuronide. We also identified a novel peak that appears consistent with an ether-glucuronide. Kinetic analysis in HLMs and experiments in expressed UGTs indicate that both metabolites were exclusively formed by UGT1A3. Comparison of in vitro intrinsic clearance in HLMs suggest that direct glucuronidation may play a greater role in the overall metabolism of montelukast than does P450-mediated oxidation, but the in vivo contribution of UGT1A3 needs further testing. In conclusion, our in vitro findings provide new insight toward montelukast metabolism. The utility of montelukast as a probe of CYP2C8 activity may be compromised owing to involvement of multiple P450s and UGT1A3 in its metabolism. PMID:26374173

  19. Phenobarbital increases DNA adduct and metabolites formed by ochratoxin A: role of CYP 2C9 and microsomal glutathione-S-transferase.

    PubMed

    El Adlouni, C; Pinelli, E; Azémar, B; Zaoui, D; Beaune, P; Pfohl-Leszkowicz, A

    2000-01-01

    Ochratoxin A (OTA), a mycotoxin that induces nephrotoxicity and urinary tract tumors, is genotoxic and can be metabolized not only by different cytochromes P450 (CYP) but also by peroxidases involved in the arachidonic cascade, although the exact nature of the metabolites involved in the genotoxic process is still unknown. In order to establish the relation between OTA genotoxicity and the formation of metabolites, we chose three experimental models: kidney microsomes from rabbit, human bronchial epithelial cells, and microsomes from yeast that specifically express the human cytochrome P450 2C9 or 2B6 genes. OTA-DNA adducts were analyzed by (32)P postlabeling and the OTA derivatives formed were isolated by HPLC after incubation of OTA in the presence of: (1) kidney microsomes from rabbit pretreated or not with phenobarbital (PB); (2) human pulmonary epithelial cells simultaneously pretreated (or not) with PB alone or in the presence of ethacrynic acid (EA); (3) microsomes expressing CYP 2B6 and 2C9. PB pretreatment significantly increased DNA adducts formed after OTA treatment, both in the presence of kidney microsomes and bronchial epithelial cells, and induced the formation of new adducts. Ethacrynic acid, which inhibits microsomal glutathione-S-transferase, reduced DNA adduct level. DNA adducts were detected when OTA were incubated with microsomes expressing human CYP 2C9 but not with those expressing CYP 2B6. Several metabolites detected by HPLC were increased after PB treatment. Some of them could be related to DNA-adduct formation. In conclusion, OTA biotransformation, enhanced by PB pretreatment, increased DNA-adduct formation through pathways involving microsomal glutathion-S-transferase and CYP 2C9. PMID:10712746

  20. Measurement of Human Cytochrome P450 Enzyme Induction Based on Mesalazine and Mosapride Citrate Treatments Using a Luminescent Assay.

    PubMed

    Kim, Young-Hoon; Bae, Young-Ji; Kim, Hyung Soo; Cha, Hey-Jin; Yun, Jae-Suk; Shin, Ji-Soon; Seong, Won-Keun; Lee, Yong-Moon; Han, Kyoung-Moon

    2015-09-01

    Drug metabolism mostly occurs in the liver. Cytochrome P450 (CYP) is a drug-metabolizing enzyme that is responsible for many important drug metabolism reactions. Recently, the US FDA and EU EMA have suggested that CYP enzyme induction can be measured by both enzymatic activity and mRNA expression. However, these experiments are time-consuming and their inter-assay variability can lead to misinterpretations of the results. To resolve these problems and establish a more powerful method to measure CYP induction, we determined CYP induction by using luminescent assay. Luminescent CYP assays link CYP enzyme activity to firefly luciferase luminescence technology. In this study, we measured the induction of CYP isozymes (1A2, 2B6, 2C9, and 3A4) in cryopreserved human hepatocytes (HMC424, 478, and 493) using a luminometer. We then examined the potential induction abilities (unknown so far) of mesalazine, a drug for colitis, and mosapride citrate, which is used as an antispasmodic drug. The results showed that mesalazine promotes CYP2B6 and 3A4 activities, while mosapride citrate promotes CYP1A2, 2B6, and 3A4 activities. Luminescent CYP assays offer rapid and safe advantages over LC-MS/MS and qRT-PCR methods. Furthermore, luminescent CYP assays decrease the interference between the optical properties of the test compound and the CYP substrates. Therefore, luminescent CYP assays are less labor intensive, rapid, and can be used as robust tools for high-throughput CYP screening during early drug discovery. PMID:26336590

  1. Comprehensive Evaluation for Substrate Selectivity of Cynomolgus Monkey Cytochrome P450 2C9, a New Efavirenz Oxidase.

    PubMed

    Hosaka, Shinya; Murayama, Norie; Satsukawa, Masahiro; Uehara, Shotaro; Shimizu, Makiko; Iwasaki, Kazuhide; Iwano, Shunsuke; Uno, Yasuhiro; Yamazaki, Hiroshi

    2015-07-01

    Cynomolgus monkeys are widely used as primate models in preclinical studies, because of their evolutionary closeness to humans. In humans, the cytochrome P450 (P450) 2C enzymes are important drug-metabolizing enzymes and highly expressed in livers. The CYP2C enzymes, including CYP2C9, are also expressed abundantly in cynomolgus monkey liver and metabolize some endogenous and exogenous substances like testosterone, S-mephenytoin, and diclofenac. However, comprehensive evaluation regarding substrate specificity of monkey CYP2C9 has not been conducted. In the present study, 89 commercially available drugs were examined to find potential monkey CYP2C9 substrates. Among the compounds screened, 20 drugs were metabolized by monkey CYP2C9 at a relatively high rates. Seventeen of these compounds were substrates or inhibitors of human CYP2C9 or CYP2C19, whereas three drugs were not, indicating that substrate specificity of monkey CYP2C9 resembled those of human CYP2C9 or CYP2C19, with some differences in substrate specificities. Although efavirenz is known as a marker substrate for human CYP2B6, efavirenz was not oxidized by CYP2B6 but by CYP2C9 in monkeys. Liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry analysis revealed that monkey CYP2C9 and human CYP2B6 formed the same mono- and di-oxidized metabolites of efavirenz at 8 and 14 positions. These results suggest that the efavirenz 8-oxidation could be one of the selective markers for cynomolgus monkey CYP2C9 among the major three CYP2C enzymes tested. Therefore, monkey CYP2C9 has the possibility of contributing to limited specific differences in drug oxidative metabolism between cynomolgus monkeys and humans. PMID:25948712

  2. Human microsomal cyttrochrome P450-mediated reduction of oxysophocarpine, an active and highly toxic constituent derived from Sophora flavescens species, and its intestinal absorption and metabolism in rat.

    PubMed

    Wu, Lili; Zhong, Wanping; Liu, Junjin; Han, Weichao; Zhong, Shilong; Wei, Qiang; Liu, Shuwen; Tang, Lan

    2015-09-01

    Oxysophocarpine (OSC), an active and toxic quinolizidine alkaloid, is highly valued in Sophora flavescens Ait. and Subprostrate sophora Root. OSC is used to treat inflammation and hepatitis for thousands of years in China. This study aims to investigate the CYP450-mediated reduction responsible for metabolizing OSC and to evaluate the absorption and metabolism of OSC in rat in situ. Four metabolites were identified, with sophocarpine (SC) as the major metabolite. SC formation was rapid in human and rat liver microsomes (HLMs and RLMs, respectively). The reduction rates in the liver are two fold higher than in the intestine, both in humans and rats. In HLMs, inhibitors of CYP2C9, 3A4/5, 2D6, and 2B6 had strong inhibitory effects on SC formation. Meanwhile, inhibitors of CYP3A and CYP2D6 had significant inhibition on SC formation in RLMs. Human recombinant CYP3A4/5, 2B6, 2D6, and 2C9 contributed significantly to SC production. The permeability in rat intestine and the excretion rates of metabolites were highest in the duodenum (p<0.05), and the absorbed amount of OSC in duodenum and jejunum was concentration-dependent. The metabolism could be significantly decreased by CYP3A inhibitor ketoconazole. In conclusion, the liver was the main organ responsible for OSC metabolism. First-pass metabolism via CYP3A4/5, 2B6, 2D6, and 2C9 may be the main reason for the poor OSC bioavailability. PMID:26045316

  3. Simultaneous determination of bupropion, metroprolol, midazolam, phenacetin, omeprazole and tolbutamide in rat plasma by UPLC-MS/MS and its application to cytochrome P450 activity study in rats.

    PubMed

    Ma, Jianshe; Wang, Shuanghu; Zhang, Meiling; Zhang, Qingwei; Zhou, Yunfang; Lin, Chongliang; Lin, Guanyang; Wang, Xianqin

    2015-08-01

    A specific ultra-performance liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry method is described for the simultaneous determination of bupropion, metroprolol, midazolam, phenacetin, omeprazole and tolbutamide in rat plasma with diazepam as internal standard, which are the six probe drugs of the six cytochrome P450 isoforms CYP2B6, CYP2D6, CYP3A4, CYP1A2, CYP2C19 and CYP2C9. Plasma samples were protein precipitated with acetonitrile. The chromatographic separation was achieved using a UPLC® BEH C18 column (2.1 × 100 mm, 1.7 µm). The mobile phase consisted of acetonitrile and water (containing 0.1% formic acid) with gradient elution. The triple quadrupole mass spectrometric detection was operated by multiple reaction monitoring in positive electrospray ionization. The precisions were <13%, and the accuracy ranged from 93.3 to 110.4%. The extraction efficiency was >90.5%, and the matrix effects ranged from 84.3 to 114.2%. The calibration curves in plasma were linear in the range of 2-2000 ng/mL, with correlation coefficient (r(2) ) >0.995. The method was successfully applied to pharmacokinetic studies of the six probe drugs of the six CYP450 isoforms and used to evaluate the effects of erlotinib on the activities of CYP2B6, CYP2D6, CYP3A4, CYP1A2, CYP2C19 and CYP2C9 in rats. Erlotinib may inhibit the activity of CYP2B6 and CYP3A4, and may induce CYP2C9 of rats. PMID:25582505

  4. Crystal chemistry and structure refinement of five hydrated calcium borates

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Clark, J.R.; Appleman, D.E.; Christ, C.L.

    1964-01-01

    The crystal structures of the five known members of the series Ca2B6O11??xH2O (x = 1, 5, 5, 7, 9, and 13) have been refined by full-matrix least-squares techniques, yielding bond distances and angles with standard errors of less than 0??01 A?? and 0??5??, respectively. The results illustrate the crystal chemical principles that govern the structures of hydrated borate compounds. The importance of hydrogen bonding in the ferroelectric transition of colemanite is confirmed by more accurate proton assignments. ?? 1964.

  5. Differential effect of meclizine on the activity of human pregnane X receptor and constitutive androstane receptor.

    PubMed

    Lau, Aik Jiang; Yang, Guixiang; Rajaraman, Ganesh; Baucom, Christie C; Chang, Thomas K H

    2011-03-01

    Conflicting data exist as to whether meclizine is an activator of human pregnane X receptor (hPXR). Therefore, we conducted a detailed, systematic investigation to determine whether meclizine affects hPXR activity by performing a cell-based reporter gene assay, a time-resolved fluorescence resonance energy transfer competitive ligand-binding assay, a mammalian two-hybrid assay to assess coactivator recruitment, and a hPXR target gene expression assay. In pregnane X receptor (PXR)-transfected HepG2 cells, meclizine activated hPXR to a greater extent than rat PXR. It bound to hPXR ligand-binding domain and recruited steroid receptor coactivator-1 to the receptor. Consistent with its hPXR agonism, meclizine increased hPXR target gene expression (CYP3A4) in human hepatocytes. However, it did not increase but decreased testosterone 6β-hydroxylation, suggesting inhibition of CYP3A catalytic activity. Meclizine has also been reported to be an inverse agonist and antagonist of human constitutive androstane receptor (hCAR). Therefore, given that certain tissues (e.g., liver) express both hPXR and hCAR and that various genes are cross-regulated by them, we quantified the expression of a hCAR- and hPXR-regulated gene (CYP2B6) in cultured human hepatocytes treated with meclizine. This drug did not decrease constitutive CYP2B6 mRNA expression or attenuate hCAR agonist-mediated increase in CYP2B6 mRNA and CYP2B6-catalyzed bupropion hydroxylation levels. These observations reflect hPXR agonism and the lack of hCAR inverse agonism and antagonism by meclizine, which were assessed by a hCAR reporter gene assay and mammalian two-hybrid assay. In conclusion, meclizine is a hPXR agonist, and it does not act as a hCAR inverse agonist or antagonist in cultured human hepatocytes. PMID:21131266

  6. Multifunctional Fullerene Derivative for Interface Engineering in Perovskite Solar Cells.

    PubMed

    Li, Yaowen; Zhao, Yue; Chen, Qi; Yang, Yang Michael; Liu, Yongsheng; Hong, Ziruo; Liu, Zonghao; Hsieh, Yao-Tsung; Meng, Lei; Li, Yongfang; Yang, Yang

    2015-12-16

    In perovskite based planar heterojunction solar cells, the interface between the TiO2 compact layer and the perovskite film is critical for high photovoltaic performance. The deep trap states on the TiO2 surface induce several challenging issues, such as charge recombination loss and poor stability etc. To solve the problems, we synthesized a triblock fullerene derivative (PCBB-2CN-2C8) via rational molecular design for interface engineering in the perovskite solar cells. Modifying the TiO2 surface with the compound significantly improves charge extraction from the perovskite layer. Together with its uplifted surface work function, open circuit voltage and fill factor are dramatically increased from 0.99 to 1.06 V, and from 72.2% to 79.1%, respectively, resulting in 20.7% improvement in power conversion efficiency for the best performing devices. Scrutinizing the electrical properties of this modified interfacial layer strongly suggests that PCBB-2CN-2C8 passivates the TiO2 surface and thus reduces charge recombination loss caused by the deep trap states of TiO2. The passivation effect is further proven by stability testing of the perovskite solar cells with shelf lifetime under ambient conditions improved by a factor of more than 4, from ∼40 h to ∼200 h, using PCBB-2CN-2C8 as the TiO2 modification layer. This work offers not only a promising material for cathode interface engineering, but also provides a viable approach to address the challenges of deep trap states on TiO2 surface in planar perovskite solar cells. PMID:26592525

  7. Expression and purification of the nucleocapsid protein of Schmallenberg virus, and preparation and characterization of a monoclonal antibody against this protein.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yongning; Wu, Shaoqiang; Wang, Jianchang; Wernike, Kerstin; Lv, Jizhou; Feng, Chunyan; Zhang, Jihong; Wang, Caixia; Deng, Junhua; Yuan, Xiangfen; Lin, Xiangmei

    2013-11-01

    Schmallenberg virus (SBV) is a novel orthobunyavirus that primarily infects ruminants such as cattle, sheep and goats. The nucleocapsid (N) protein of SBV has been shown to be an ideal target antigen for serological detection. To prepare a monoclonal antibody (mAb) against the N protein, the full-length coding sequence of the SBV N gene was cloned into pET-28a-c(+) and pMAL-c5X vectors to generate two recombinant plasmids, which were expressed in Escherichia coli BL21 as histidine (His)-tagged (His-SBV-N) and maltose-binding protein (MBP)-tagged (MBP-SBV-N) fusion proteins, respectively. After affinity purification of His-SBV-N with Ni-NTA agarose and MBP-SBV-N with amylose resin, His-SBV-N was used to immunize BALB/c mice, while MBP-SBV-N was utilized to screen for mAb-secreting hybridomas. Six hybridoma cell lines stably secreting mAbs against N were obtained. Clone 2C8 was selected for further study because of its rapid growth characteristics in vitro and good reactivity with recombinant SBV N proteins in enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays. The epitope recognized by 2C8 is located at amino acids 51-76 of the SBV N protein. Western blot analyses showed that 2C8 reacts with both recombinant SBV N proteins and SBV isolates. It is also cross-reactive with the N proteins of genetically related Shamonda, Douglas and Akabane viruses, but not with the Rift Valley fever virus N protein. The successful preparation of recombinant N proteins and mAbs provides valuable materials that can be used in the serological diagnosis of SBV. PMID:23988909

  8. Biochemical and Computational Analysis of the Substrate Specificities of Cfr and RlmN Methyltransferases

    PubMed Central

    Ntokou, Eleni; Hansen, Lykke Haastrup; Kongsted, Jacob; Vester, Birte

    2015-01-01

    Cfr and RlmN methyltransferases both modify adenine 2503 in 23S rRNA (Escherichia coli numbering). RlmN methylates position C2 of adenine while Cfr methylates position C8, and to a lesser extent C2, conferring antibiotic resistance to peptidyl transferase inhibitors. Cfr and RlmN show high sequence homology and may be evolutionarily linked to a common ancestor. To explore their individual specificity and similarity we performed two sets of experiments. We created a homology model of Cfr and explored the C2/C8 specificity using docking and binding energy calculations on the Cfr homology model and an X-ray structure of RlmN. We used a trinucleotide as target sequence and assessed its positioning at the active site for methylation. The calculations are in accordance with different poses of the trinucleotide in the two enzymes indicating major evolutionary changes to shift the C2/C8 specificities. To explore interchangeability between Cfr and RlmN we constructed various combinations of their genes. The function of the mixed genes was investigated by RNA primer extension analysis to reveal methylation at 23S rRNA position A2503 and by MIC analysis to reveal antibiotic resistance. The catalytic site is expected to be responsible for the C2/C8 specificity and most of the combinations involve interchanging segments at this site. Almost all replacements showed no function in the primer extension assay, apart from a few that had a weak effect. Thus Cfr and RlmN appear to be much less similar than expected from their sequence similarity and common target. PMID:26700482

  9. Drug interactions with lipid-lowering drugs: mechanisms and clinical relevance.

    PubMed

    Neuvonen, Pertti J; Niemi, Mikko; Backman, Janne T

    2006-12-01

    Lipid-lowering drugs, especially 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl-coenzyme A inhibitors (statins), are widely used in the treatment and prevention of atherosclerotic disease. The benefits of statins are well documented. However, lipid-lowering drugs may cause myopathy, even rhabdomyolysis, the risk of which is increased by certain interactions. Simvastatin, lovastatin, and atorvastatin are metabolized by cytochrome P450 (CYP) 3A4 (simvastatin acid is also metabolized by CYP2C8); their plasma concentrations and risk of myotoxicity are greatly increased by strong inhibitors of CYP3A4 (eg, itraconazole and ritonavir). Weak or moderately potent CYP3A4 inhibitors (eg, verapamil and diltiazem) can be used cautiously with small doses of CYP3A4-dependent statins. Cerivastatin is metabolized by CYP2C8 and CYP3A4, and fluvastatin is metabolized by CYP2C9. The exposure to fluvastatin is increased by less than 2-fold by inhibitors of CYP2C9. Pravastatin, rosuvastatin, and pitavastatin are excreted mainly unchanged, and their plasma concentrations are not significantly increased by pure CYP3A4 inhibitors. Cyclosporine (INN, ciclosporin) inhibits CYP3A4, P-glycoprotein (multidrug resistance protein 1), organic anion transporting polypeptide 1B1 (OATP1B1), and some other hepatic uptake transporters. Gemfibrozil and its glucuronide inhibit CYP2C8 and OATP1B1. These effects of cyclosporine and gemfibrozil explain the increased plasma statin concentrations and, together with pharmacodynamic factors, the increased risk of myotoxicity when coadministered with statins. Inhibitors of OATP1B1 may decrease the benefit/risk ratio of statins by interfering with their entry into hepatocytes, the site of action. Lipid-lowering drugs can be involved also in other interactions, including those between enzyme inducers and CYP3A4 substrate statins, as well as those between gemfibrozil and CYP2C8 substrate antidiabetics. Knowledge of the pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic properties of lipid

  10. Tetra­kis(ethyl pyridine-4-carboxyl­ate-κN)bis­(thio­cyanato-κN)cobalt(II)

    PubMed Central

    Feng, Xiu-Ling; Zhang, Yu-Ping

    2012-01-01

    In the title complex, [Co(NCS)2(C8H9NO2)4], the CoII atom is six-coordinated by four N atoms from four ethyl pyridine-4-carboxyl­ate ligands in the equatorial plane and two N atoms of thio­cyanate ligands in the axial positions, showing a slightly distorted octa­hedral geometry. The structure exhibits disorder in one of the ethyl chains, which was refined using a two-site model with 0.70 (6):0.30 (6) occupancy. PMID:22719337

  11. Juniperolide A: a new polyketide isolated from a terrestrial actinomycete, Streptomyces sp.

    PubMed

    Raju, Ritesh; Gromyko, Oleksandr; Fedorenko, Viktor; Luzhetskyy, Andriy; Plaza, Alberto; Müller, Rolf

    2012-12-01

    A new linear polyketide, juniperolide A (1), was produced by the terrestrial actinomycete (Lv1-48) isolated from the rhizosphere of the plant Juniperus excelsa. The juniperolide A (1) structure contains a THP unit and a 3-amino-2,3,6-trideoxyhexose as the glycosidic moiety. Mosher's analysis was used for absolute stereochemistry determinations at C-2, C-8, C-20, and C-4', while the relative stereochemistry assignments of the remaining stereocenters were based on ROESY correlations and J-based coupling. PMID:23170775

  12. Trichlorido-1κ2 Cl,2κCl-(2,6-dimethyl­phenolato-2κO)-μ-oxido-bis{1,2(η5)-2,3,4,5-tetra­methyl-1-[4-(trimethyl­silyl)phen­yl]cyclo­penta­dien­yl}dititanium(IV)

    PubMed Central

    Luo, Xuyang; Wu, Qiaolin; Mu, Ying

    2011-01-01

    The title dinuclear titanocene, [Ti2(C8H9O)(C18H25Si)2Cl3O], contains one Ti atom tetra­hedrally coordinated by two Cl atoms, a bridging O atom and the substituted cyclo­penta­dienyl ligand, and another Ti atom tetra­hedrally coordinated by a Cl atom, a bridging O atom, the 2,6-dimethyl­phenolate ligand and the substituted cyclo­penta­dienyl ligand. The bridging O atom lies on a twofold rotation axis. PMID:22064795

  13. Chlorido(1-cyclo­pentyl­idene-4-ethyl­thio­semicarbazidato-κ2 N 1,S)diphenyl­tin(IV)

    PubMed Central

    Venkatraman, Ramaiyer; Sitole, Lungile; Fronczek, Frank R.

    2009-01-01

    The Sn atom in the title compound, [Sn(C6H5)2(C8H14N3S)Cl], is penta­coordinated with a trigonal-bipyramidal coordination geometry. The 1-cyclo­pentyl­idene-4-ethyl­thio­semicarbazidate (cpetsc) ligand coordinates through the S atom and the N atom bonds to the cyclo­pentyl group, forming a five-membered ring with the Sn center. The chloride ligand and the coordinated N atom are in axial positions. In the crystal structure, inter­molecular N—H⋯Cl hydrogen bonds form chains along [101]. PMID:21578665

  14. Bis(2-phenyl­biguanidium) adipate tetra­hydrate

    PubMed Central

    Matulková, Irena; Císařová, Ivana; Němec, Ivan

    2011-01-01

    In the title salt, 2C8H12N5 +·C6H8O4 2−·4H2O, the anion is located on a centre of symmetry. The observed supra­molecular network of the crystal structure is produced by ten different hydrogen bonds of the N—H⋯N, N—H⋯O and O—H⋯O types. One additional O—H group is not connected to an acceptor site. PMID:21522629

  15. Antiproliferation of berberine is mediated by epigenetic modification of constitutive androstane receptor (CAR) metabolic pathway in hepatoma cells

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Lei; Miao, Xiao-Jie; Wang, Xin; Pan, Hai-Hui; Li, Pu; Ren, Hong; Jia, Yong-Rui; Lu, Chuang; Wang, Hong-Bing; Yuan, Lan; Zhang, Guo-Liang

    2016-01-01

    Constitutive androstane receptor (CAR) regulates hepatic xenobiotic and energy metabolism, as well as promotes cell growth and hepatocarcinogenesis. Berberine is an ancient multipotent alkaloid drug which derived from Coptis chinensis plants. Here we report that berberine is able to be cellular uptake and accessible to chromatin in human hepatoma HepG2 cells. Berberine induces more apoptosis, cell cycle arrest, but less ROS production in CAR overexpressed mCAR-HepG2 cells. Moreover, berberine inhibits expressions of CAR and its target genes CYP2B6 and CYP3A4. Furthermore, berberine enhances DNA methylation level in whole genome but reduces that in promoter regions CpG sites of CYP2B6 and CYP3A4 genes under the presence of CAR condition. These results indicated that the antiproliferation of berberine might be mediated by the unique epigenetic modifying mechanism of CAR metabolic pathway, suggesting that berberine is a promising candidate in anticancer adjuvant chemotherapy, due to its distinct pharmacological properties in clinic. PMID:27311637

  16. Moving toward Personalized Medicine in the Methadone Maintenance Treatment Program: A Pilot Study on the Evaluation of Treatment Responses in Taiwan

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Hsin-Ya; Li, Jih-Heng; Sheu, Yuh-Ling; Tang, Hsin-Pei; Chang, Wei-Chiao; Tang, Tze-Chun; Yeh, Yi-Chun; Wang, Shing-Yaw; Liu, Ray-H.

    2013-01-01

    This pilot study simultaneously evaluated the effects of various factors, including genetic variations of CYP2B6, CYP2C19, and ABCB1, demographic characteristics, disease states, methadone-drug interactions (MDIs), and poly-substance use, on the treatment responses among non-HIV patients in the methadone maintenance treatment program (MMTP) in Taiwan. A total of 178 patients were recruited from two major hospitals that provided MMTP services in southern Taiwan, and information regarding concomitant medications and diseases was acquired from the National Health Insurance (NHI) program. The results demonstrated that the methadone maintenance dose, CYP2B6 785G allele, and ABCB1 2677T allele have positive effects on the methadone plasma concentration. In contrast, patients with HCV coinfection, alcohol problems, and psychiatric diseases may have a negative response to treatment. Thus, a comprehensive evaluation of treatment responses in the MMTP should include not only genetic polymorphisms in methadone metabolism and transporter proteins, but also concomitant diseases, MDIs, and poly-substance use. The results also suggest that personalized medicine may be indispensable for a better outcome of the MMTP. PMID:24455721

  17. Chemical stability study of vitamins thiamine, riboflavin, pyridoxine and ascorbic acid in parenteral nutrition for neonatal use

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background The objective of this work was to study the vitamins B1, B2, B6 and C stability in a pediatric formulation containing high amounts of calcium in the presence of organic phosphate, amino acids, glucose, sodium chloride, magnesium sulfate, pediatric vitamins and trace elements under different conditions using developed and validated analytical methods. Methods The study was carried out during 72 h with formulations packaged in recommended storage temperature (4°C) and 25°C, with and without photoprotection. Results The results showed that the methodologies used for assessing the chemical stability of vitamins B1, B2, B6 and C in the formulation were selective, linear, precise and accurate. The vitamins could be considered stable in the formulation during the three days of study if stored at 4°C. When stored at 25°C vitamin C presented instability after 48 h. Conclusion The pediatric formulation containing high amount of calcium in the presence of organic phosphate, amino acids, glucose, sodium chloride, magnesium sulphate, pediatric vitamins and trace elements packaged in bag-type trilaminate presented a shelf life of the 72 h, when maintained under refrigeration, between 2°C and 8°C. This shelf life was measured considering the vitamins studied. Further studies are needed including all the vitamins present in this formulation. PMID:21569609

  18. Antiproliferation of berberine is mediated by epigenetic modification of constitutive androstane receptor (CAR) metabolic pathway in hepatoma cells.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Lei; Miao, Xiao-Jie; Wang, Xin; Pan, Hai-Hui; Li, Pu; Ren, Hong; Jia, Yong-Rui; Lu, Chuang; Wang, Hong-Bing; Yuan, Lan; Zhang, Guo-Liang

    2016-01-01

    Constitutive androstane receptor (CAR) regulates hepatic xenobiotic and energy metabolism, as well as promotes cell growth and hepatocarcinogenesis. Berberine is an ancient multipotent alkaloid drug which derived from Coptis chinensis plants. Here we report that berberine is able to be cellular uptake and accessible to chromatin in human hepatoma HepG2 cells. Berberine induces more apoptosis, cell cycle arrest, but less ROS production in CAR overexpressed mCAR-HepG2 cells. Moreover, berberine inhibits expressions of CAR and its target genes CYP2B6 and CYP3A4. Furthermore, berberine enhances DNA methylation level in whole genome but reduces that in promoter regions CpG sites of CYP2B6 and CYP3A4 genes under the presence of CAR condition. These results indicated that the antiproliferation of berberine might be mediated by the unique epigenetic modifying mechanism of CAR metabolic pathway, suggesting that berberine is a promising candidate in anticancer adjuvant chemotherapy, due to its distinct pharmacological properties in clinic. PMID:27311637

  19. Identification of Novel Activators of Constitutive Androstane Receptor from FDA-approved Drugs by Integrated Computational and Biological Approaches

    PubMed Central

    Lynch, Caitlin; Pan, Yongmei; Li, Linhao; Ferguson, Stephen S.; Xia, Menghang; Swaan, Peter W.; Wang, Hongbing

    2012-01-01

    Purpose The constitutive androstane receptor (CAR, NR1I3) is a xenobiotic sensor governing the transcription of numerous hepatic genes associated with drug metabolism and clearance. Recent evidence suggests that CAR also modulates energy homeostasis and cancer development. Thus, identification of novel human (h) CAR activators is of both clinical importance and scientific interest. Methods Docking and ligand-based structure-activity models were used for virtual screening of a database containing over 2000 FDA-approved drugs. Identified lead compounds were evaluated in cell-based reporter assays to determine hCAR activation. Potential activators were further tested in human primary hepatocytes (HPHs) for the expression of the prototypical hCAR target gene CYP2B6. Results Nineteen lead compounds with optimal modeling parameters were selected for biological evaluation. Seven of the 19 leads exhibited moderate to potent activation of hCAR. Five out of the seven compounds translocated hCAR from the cytoplasm to the nucleus of HPHs in a concentration-dependent manner. These compounds also induce the expression of CYP2B6 in HPHs with rank-order of efficacies closely resembling that of hCAR activation. Conclusion These results indicate that our strategically integrated approaches are effective in the identification of novel hCAR modulators, which may function as valuable research tools or potential therapeutic molecules. PMID:23090669

  20. Effect of acute paraquat poisoning on CYP450 isoforms activity in rats by cocktail method.

    PubMed

    Wang, Shuanghu; Wang, Zhiyi; Chen, Dongxin; Chen, Mengchun; Lin, Yingying; Liu, Zezheng; Zhang, Lijing; Wen, Congcong; Wang, Xianqin; Ma, Jianshe

    2015-01-01

    Paraquat is a highly effective contact herbicide that is marketed worldwide as a fantastical, non-selective compound for broadleaf weed control. As compared to most pesticides, paraquat is extremely toxic to humans and the lack of strategies to manage paraquat poisoning has resulted in high fatality rates. The rats were randomly divided into acute paraquat poisoning group and control group. The paraquat group rats were given 36 mg/kg paraquat by intragastric administration. The influence of acute paraquat poisoning on the activities of CYP450 isoforms CYP2B6, CYP1A2, CYP2C9, CYP2D6, CYP3A4 and CYP2C19 were evaluated by cocktail method, they were responded by the changes of pharmacokinetic parameters of bupropion, phenacetin, tolbutamide, metoprolol, midazolam and omeprazole. The six probe drugs were given to rats through intragastric administration, and the plasma concentrations were determined by UPLC-MS/MS. In the results of paraquat group compared to control group, there was statistical pharmacokinetic difference for bupropion, tolbutamide, metoprolol, midazolam and omeprazole. Acute paraquat poisoning may induce the activities of CYP2C19, and inhibit of CYP2B6, CYP2C9, CYP2D6 and CYP3A4 in rats. This may give advising for reasonable drug use after acute paraquat poisoning. PMID:26770539

  1. Effect of acute paraquat poisoning on CYP450 isoforms activity in rats by cocktail method

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Shuanghu; Wang, Zhiyi; Chen, Dongxin; Chen, Mengchun; Lin, Yingying; Liu, Zezheng; Zhang, Lijing; Wen, Congcong; Wang, Xianqin; Ma, Jianshe

    2015-01-01

    Paraquat is a highly effective contact herbicide that is marketed worldwide as a fantastical, non-selective compound for broadleaf weed control. As compared to most pesticides, paraquat is extremely toxic to humans and the lack of strategies to manage paraquat poisoning has resulted in high fatality rates. The rats were randomly divided into acute paraquat poisoning group and control group. The paraquat group rats were given 36 mg/kg paraquat by intragastric administration. The influence of acute paraquat poisoning on the activities of CYP450 isoforms CYP2B6, CYP1A2, CYP2C9, CYP2D6, CYP3A4 and CYP2C19 were evaluated by cocktail method, they were responded by the changes of pharmacokinetic parameters of bupropion, phenacetin, tolbutamide, metoprolol, midazolam and omeprazole. The six probe drugs were given to rats through intragastric administration, and the plasma concentrations were determined by UPLC-MS/MS. In the results of paraquat group compared to control group, there was statistical pharmacokinetic difference for bupropion, tolbutamide, metoprolol, midazolam and omeprazole. Acute paraquat poisoning may induce the activities of CYP2C19, and inhibit of CYP2B6, CYP2C9, CYP2D6 and CYP3A4 in rats. This may give advising for reasonable drug use after acute paraquat poisoning. PMID:26770539

  2. Effects of suberoylanilide hydroxamic acid on rat cytochrome P450 enzyme activities

    PubMed Central

    Lin, Kezhi; Zhang, Qingwei; Liu, Zezheng; Yang, Suping; Lin, Yingying; Wen, Congcong; Zheng, Yuancai

    2015-01-01

    Vorinostat (suberoylanilide hydroxamic acid, SAHA) is the first approved histone deacetylase (HDAC) inhibitor for the treatment of cutaneous T-cell lymphoma after progressive disease following two systemic therapies. The rats were randomly divided into SAHA groups (low, medium and high dosage) and control group. The SAHA group rats were given 12.3, 24.5, and 49 mg/kg SAHA, respectively, by continuous intragastric administration for 7 days. The influence of SAHA on the activities of CYP450 isoforms CYP2B6, CYP1A2, CYP2C19, CYP2D6 and CYP2C9 were evaluated by cocktail method, they were responsed by the changes of pharmacokinetic parameters of bupropion, phenacetin, tolbutamide, metroprolol and omeprazole. The five probe drugs were given to rats through intragastric administration, and the plasma concentration were determined by UPLC-MS/MS. The result of SAHA group compared to control group, there were statistical pharmacokinetics difference for bupropion, phenacetin, tolbutamide and metroprolol. Continuous intragastric administration for 7 days may induce the activities of CYP2C19 of rats, inhibit CYP1A2 and slightly inhibit CYP2B6 and CYP2D6 of rats. This may give advising for reasonable drug use after co-used with SAHA. The results indicated that drug co-administrated with SAHA may need dose adjustment. Furthermore, continuous intragastric administration of SAHA for 7 days, liver cell damaged, causing liver cell edema, in liver metabolism process. PMID:26191268

  3. Effects of suberoylanilide hydroxamic acid on rat cytochrome P450 enzyme activities.

    PubMed

    Lin, Kezhi; Zhang, Qingwei; Liu, Zezheng; Yang, Suping; Lin, Yingying; Wen, Congcong; Zheng, Yuancai

    2015-01-01

    Vorinostat (suberoylanilide hydroxamic acid, SAHA) is the first approved histone deacetylase (HDAC) inhibitor for the treatment of cutaneous T-cell lymphoma after progressive disease following two systemic therapies. The rats were randomly divided into SAHA groups (low, medium and high dosage) and control group. The SAHA group rats were given 12.3, 24.5, and 49 mg/kg SAHA, respectively, by continuous intragastric administration for 7 days. The influence of SAHA on the activities of CYP450 isoforms CYP2B6, CYP1A2, CYP2C19, CYP2D6 and CYP2C9 were evaluated by cocktail method, they were responsed by the changes of pharmacokinetic parameters of bupropion, phenacetin, tolbutamide, metroprolol and omeprazole. The five probe drugs were given to rats through intragastric administration, and the plasma concentration were determined by UPLC-MS/MS. The result of SAHA group compared to control group, there were statistical pharmacokinetics difference for bupropion, phenacetin, tolbutamide and metroprolol. Continuous intragastric administration for 7 days may induce the activities of CYP2C19 of rats, inhibit CYP1A2 and slightly inhibit CYP2B6 and CYP2D6 of rats. This may give advising for reasonable drug use after co-used with SAHA. The results indicated that drug co-administrated with SAHA may need dose adjustment. Furthermore, continuous intragastric administration of SAHA for 7 days, liver cell damaged, causing liver cell edema, in liver metabolism process. PMID:26191268

  4. Metabolism of bupropion by baboon hepatic and placental microsomes

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Xiaoming; Abdelrahman, Doaa R.; Fokina, Valentina M.; Hankins, Gary D.V.; Ahmed, Mahmoud S.; Nanovskaya, Tatiana N.

    2011-01-01

    The aim of this investigation was to determine the biotransformation of bupropion by baboon hepatic and placental microsomes, identify the enzyme(s) catalyzing the reaction(s) and determine its kinetics. Bupropion was metabolized by baboon hepatic and placental microsomes to hydroxybupropion (OH-BUP), threo- (TB) and erythrohydrobupropion (EB). OH-bupropion was the major metabolite formed by hepatic microsomes (Km 36 ± 6 µM, Vmax 258 ± 32 pmol mg protein−1 min−1), however the formation of OH-BUP by placental microsomes was below the limit of quantification. The apparent Km values of bupropion for the formation of TB and EB by hepatic and placental microsomes were similar. The selective inhibitors of CYP2B6 (ticlopidine and phencyclidine) and monoclonal antibodies raised against human CYP2B6 isozyme caused 80% inhibition of OH-BUP formation by baboon hepatic microsomes. The chemical inhibitors of aldo-keto reductases (flufenamic acid), carbonyl reductases (menadione), and 11β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenases (18β-glycyrrhetinic acid) significantly decreased the formation of TB and EB by hepatic and placental microsomes. Data indicate that CYP2B of baboon hepatic microsomes is responsible for biotransformation of bupropion to OH-BUP, while hepatic and placental short chain dehydrogenases/reductases and to a lesser extent aldo-keto reductases are responsible for the reduction of bupropion to TB and EB. PMID:21570381

  5. Including Ligand Induced Protein Flexibility into Protein Tunnel Prediction

    PubMed Central

    Kingsley, Laura J.; Lill, Markus A.

    2014-01-01

    In proteins with buried active sites, understanding how ligands migrate through the tunnels that connect the exterior of the protein to the active site can shed light on substrate specificity and enzyme function. A growing body of evidence highlights the importance of protein flexibility in the binding site upon ligand binding; however, the influence of protein flexibility throughout the body of the protein during ligand entry and egress is much less characterized. We have developed a novel tunnel prediction and evaluation method named IterTunnel, which includes the influence of ligand-induced protein flexibility, guarantees ligand egress, and provides detailed free energy information as the ligand proceeds along the egress route. IterTunnel combines geometric tunnel prediction with steered MD in an iterative process to identify tunnels that open as a result of ligand migration and calculates the potential of mean force (PMF) of ligand egress through a given tunnel. Applying this new method to cytochrome P450 2B6 (CYP2B6), we demonstrate the influence of protein flexibility on the shape and accessibility of tunnels. More importantly, we demonstrate that the ligand itself, while traversing through a tunnel, can reshape tunnels due to its interaction with the protein. This process results in the exposure of new tunnels and the closure of pre-existing tunnels as the ligand migrates from the active site. PMID:25043499

  6. Development and Characterization of Three Novel Monoclonal Antibodies Against CA-125

    PubMed Central

    Michurina, Tatiana; Kerzhner, Maxim

    2014-01-01

    Cancer antigen 125 (CA-125) is the most widely used tumor marker for ovarian cancer. Thus, monoclonal antibodies (MAbs) against CA-125 are valuable reagents for the development of diagnostic tests and immunotherapy. We describe here the generation and characterization of three novel hybridoma cell lines producing MAbs against CA-125. CA-125 purified from culture supernatant of ovarian carcinoma cell line OVCAR-3 by affinity chromatography, was used for immunization of BALB/c mice. Three stable cell lines (3C8, 2B6, and 5A12) were selected for production of antibodies against CA-125 and were expanded in mass culture. All three antibodies were shown to recognize linear epitopes. Antibodies 2B6 and 5A12 were determined to recognize epitope cluster B (M 11-like); MAb 3C8 was classified as group A-epitope binders (OC 125-like). The antibodies produced may be used for the development and improvement of CA-125 immunoassays. PMID:25357999

  7. Metabolism of anabolic steroids by recombinant human cytochrome P450 enzymes. Gas chromatographic-mass spectrometric determination of metabolites.

    PubMed

    Rendic, S; Nolteernsting, E; Schänzer, W

    1999-11-26

    Metabolism of steroid hormones with anabolic properties was studied in vitro using human recombinant CYP3A4, CYP2C9 and 2B6 enzymes. The enzyme formats used for CYP3A4 and CYP2C9 were insect cell microsomes expressing human CYP enzymes and purified recombinant human CYP enzymes in a reconstituted system. CYP3A4 enzyme formats incubated with anabolic steroids, testosterone, 17alpha-methyltestosterone, metandienone, boldenone and 4-chloro-1,2-dehydro-17alpha-methyltestosterone, produced 6beta-hydroxyl metabolites identified as trimethylsilyl (TMS)-ethers by a gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) method. When the same formats of CYP2C9 were incubated with the anabolic steroids, no 6beta-hydroxyl metabolites were formed. Human lymphoblast cell microsomes expressing human CYP2B6 incubated with the steroids investigated produced traces of 6beta-hydroxyl metabolites with testosterone and 17alpha-methyltestosterone only. We suggest that the electronic effects of the 3-keto-4-ene structural moiety contribute to the selectivity within the active site of CYP3A4 enzyme resulting in selective 6beta-hydroxylation. PMID:10630892

  8. Interactions of sesquiterpenes zederone and germacrone with the human cytochrome P450 system.

    PubMed

    Pimkaew, Prapapan; Küblbeck, Jenni; Petsalo, Aleksanteri; Jukka, Jouni; Suksamrarn, Apichart; Juvonen, Risto; Auriola, Seppo; Piyachaturawat, Pawinee; Honkakoski, Paavo

    2013-09-01

    Misclassification of Curcuma species (family Zingiberaceae) may lead to unwanted human exposure to Curcuma elata sesquiterpenes zederone and germacrone which have caused hepatotoxicity and changes in CYP expression in laboratory animals. We investigated how these compounds interact with the human cytochrome P450 (CYP) system, in order to evaluate their potential for human liver toxicity and herb-drug interactions. We found that both sesquiterpenes (1-30 μM) greatly induced expression of CYP2B6 and CYP3A4 but not CYP1A2 mRNAs in human primary hepatocytes (HPHs). This induction profile correlated with activation of constitutive androstane and pregnane X receptors. Cytotoxicity was also observed in exposed HPHs. CYP inhibition studies with pooled human liver microsomes (HLMs) indicated that zederone and germacrone moderately inhibited CYP2B6 and CYP3A4 activities in vitro, with IC50 values below 10 μM. When zederone was incubated with HLMs and NADPH, one di-epoxide metabolite was formed and by using glutathione trapping, five epoxide-derived conjugates were detected. Germacrone produced two oxidized metabolites and four glutathione conjugates. The results suggest that enzymes in HLMs convert sesquiterpenes into reactive, electrophilic compounds which may be causative for the reported liver injuries. These findings provide insight on the safety and drug-herb interactions of the Curcuma species. PMID:23850985

  9. A screening study of drug-drug interactions in cerivastatin users: an adverse effect of clopidogrel.

    PubMed

    Floyd, J S; Kaspera, R; Marciante, K D; Weiss, N S; Heckbert, S R; Lumley, T; Wiggins, K L; Tamraz, B; Kwok, P-Y; Totah, R A; Psaty, B M

    2012-05-01

    An analysis of a case-control study of rhabdomyolysis was conducted to screen for previously unrecognized cytochrome P450 enzyme (CYP) 2C8 inhibitors that may cause other clinically important drug-drug interactions. Medication use in cases of rhabdomyolysis using cerivastatin (n = 72) was compared with that in controls using atorvastatin (n = 287) for the period 1998-2001. The use of clopidogrel was strongly associated with rhabdomyolysis (odds ratio (OR) 29.6; 95% confidence interval (CI), 6.1-143). In a replication effort that used the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) Adverse Event Reporting System (AERS), it was found that clopidogrel was used more commonly in patients with rhabdomyolysis receiving cerivastatin (17%) than in those receiving atorvastatin (0%, OR infinity; 95% CI = 5.2-infinity). Several medications were tested in vitro for their potential to cause drug-drug interactions. Clopidogrel, rosiglitazone, and montelukast were the most potent inhibitors of cerivastatin metabolism. Clopidogrel and its metabolites also inhibited cerivastatin metabolism in human hepatocytes. These epidemiological and in vitro findings suggest that clopidogrel may cause clinically important, dose-dependent drug-drug interactions with other medications metabolized by CYP2C8. PMID:22419147

  10. Conjugated dicarboxylate anodes for Li-ion batteries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Armand, M.; Grugeon, S.; Vezin, H.; Laruelle, S.; Ribière, P.; Poizot, P.; Tarascon, J.-M.

    2009-02-01

    Present Li-ion batteries for portable electronics are based on inorganic electrodes. For upcoming large-scale applications the notion of materials sustainability produced by materials made through eco-efficient processes, such as renewable organic electrodes, is crucial. We here report on two organic salts, Li2C8H4O4 (Li terephthalate) and Li2C6H4O4(Li trans-trans-muconate), with carboxylate groups conjugated within the molecular core, which are respectively capable of reacting with two and one extra Li per formula unit at potentials of 0.8 and 1.4V, giving reversible capacities of 300 and 150mAhg-1. The activity is maintained at 80∘C with polyethyleneoxide-based electrolytes. A noteworthy advantage of the Li2C8H4O4 and Li2C6H4O4 negative electrodes is their enhanced thermal stability over carbon electrodes in 1M LiPF6 ethylene carbonate-dimethyl carbonate electrolytes, which should result in safer Li-ion cells. Moreover, as bio-inspired materials, both compounds are the metabolites of aromatic hydrocarbon oxidation, and terephthalic acid is available in abundance from the recycling of polyethylene terephthalate.

  11. Hepatic Disposition of Gemfibrozil and Its Major Metabolite Gemfibrozil 1-O-β-Glucuronide.

    PubMed

    Kimoto, Emi; Li, Rui; Scialis, Renato J; Lai, Yurong; Varma, Manthena V S

    2015-11-01

    Gemfibrozil (GEM), which decreases serum triglycerides and low density lipoprotein, perpetrates drug-drug interactions (DDIs) with several drugs. These DDIs are primarily attributed to the inhibition of drug transporters and metabolic enzymes, particularly cytochrome P450 (CYP) 2C8 by the major circulating metabolite gemfibrozil 1-O-β-glucuronide (GG). Here, we characterized the transporter-mediated hepatic disposition of GEM and GG using sandwich-cultured human hepatocytes (SCHH) and transporter-transfect systems. Significant active uptake was noted in SCHH for the metabolite. GG, but not GEM, showed substrate affinity to organic anion transporting polypeptide (OATP) 1B1, 1B3, and 2B1. In SCHH, glucuronidation was characterized affinity constants (Km) of 7.9 and 61.4 μM, and biliary excretion of GG was observed. Furthermore, GG showed active basolateral efflux from preloaded SCHH and ATP-dependent uptake into membrane vesicles overexpressing multidrug resistance-associated protein (MRP) 2, MRP3, and MRP4. A mathematical model was developed to estimate hepatic uptake and efflux kinetics of GEM and GG based on SCHH studies. Collectively, the hepatic transporters play a key role in the disposition and thus determine the local concentrations of GEM and more so for GG, which is the predominant inhibitory species against CYP2C8 and OATP1B1. PMID:26378985

  12. Assessment of the drug interaction potential and single- and repeat-dose pharmacokinetics of the BRAF inhibitor dabrafenib.

    PubMed

    Suttle, A Benjamin; Grossmann, Kenneth F; Ouellet, Daniele; Richards-Peterson, Lauren E; Aktan, Gursel; Gordon, Michael S; LoRusso, Patricia M; Infante, Jeffrey R; Sharma, Sunil; Kendra, Kari; Patel, Manish; Pant, Shubham; Arkenau, Hendrik-Tobias; Middleton, Mark R; Blackman, Samuel C; Botbyl, Jeff; Carson, Stanley W

    2015-04-01

    The induction of CYP2C9 by dabrafenib using S-warfarin as a probe and the effects of a CYP3A inhibitor (ketoconazole) and a CYP2C8 inhibitor (gemfibrozil) on dabrafenib pharmacokinetics were evaluated in patients with BRAF V600 mutation-positive tumors. Dabrafenib single- and repeat-dose pharmacokinetics were also evaluated. S-warfarin AUC(0- ∞) decreased 37% and Cmax increased 18% with dabrafenib. Dabrafenib AUC(0- τ) and C(max) increased 71% and 33%, respectively, with ketoconazole. Hydroxy- and desmethyl-dabrafenib AUC(0-τ) increased 82% and 68%, respectively, and AUC for carboxy-dabrafenib decreased 16%. Dabrafenib AUC(0-τ) increased 47%, with no change in C(max), after gemfibrozil co-administration. Gemfibrozil did not affect systemic exposure to dabrafenib metabolites. Single- and repeat-dose dabrafenib pharmacokinetics were consistent with previous reports. All cohorts used the commercial capsules. More-frequent monitoring of international normalized ratios is recommended in patients receiving warfarin during initiation or discontinuation of dabrafenib. Substitution of strong inhibitors or strong inducers of CYP3A or CYP2C8 is recommended during treatment with dabrafenib. PMID:25449654

  13. 1-{[4′-(1H-1,2,4-Triazol-2-ium-1-ylmeth­yl)biphenyl-4-yl]meth­yl}-1H-1,2,4-triazol-2-ium bis­(3-carb­oxy-5-iodo­benzoate)–5-iodo­benzene-3,5-dicarb­oxy­lic acid–water (1/2/2)

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Kou-Lin; Deng, Ye; Ng, Seik Weng

    2012-01-01

    The neutral carb­oxy­lic acid mol­ecule and the carboxyl­ate anion in the title compound, C18H18N6 2+·2C8H4IO4 −·2C8H5IO4·2H2O, are both nearly planar (r.m.s. deviations = 0.034 and 0.045 Å, respectively). In the cation, the mid-point of the C—C bond linking the two benzene rings lies on a center of inversion, and the triazole ring is approximately perpendicular to the adjacent benzene ring [dihedral angle = 83.2 (3)°]. In the crystal, the cations, anions, carb­oxy­lic acid and lattice water mol­ecules are linked by N—H⋯O, O—H⋯N and O—H⋯O hydrogen bonds, generating a ribbon running along [1-10]. The crystal studied was a non-merohedral twin with the components in a 51.2 (1):48.8 (1) ratio. PMID:22590256

  14. Impact of Marcellus Shale natural gas development in southwest Pennsylvania on volatile organic compound emissions and regional air quality.

    PubMed

    Swarthout, Robert F; Russo, Rachel S; Zhou, Yong; Miller, Brandon M; Mitchell, Brittney; Horsman, Emily; Lipsky, Eric; McCabe, David C; Baum, Ellen; Sive, Barkley C

    2015-03-01

    The Marcellus Shale is the largest natural gas deposit in the U.S. and rapid development of this resource has raised concerns about regional air pollution. A field campaign was conducted in the southwestern Pennsylvania region of the Marcellus Shale to investigate the impact of unconventional natural gas (UNG) production operations on regional air quality. Whole air samples were collected throughout an 8050 km(2) grid surrounding Pittsburgh and analyzed for methane, carbon dioxide, and C1-C10 volatile organic compounds (VOCs). Elevated mixing ratios of methane and C2-C8 alkanes were observed in areas with the highest density of UNG wells. Source apportionment was used to identify characteristic emission ratios for UNG sources, and results indicated that UNG emissions were responsible for the majority of mixing ratios of C2-C8 alkanes, but accounted for a small proportion of alkene and aromatic compounds. The VOC emissions from UNG operations accounted for 17 ± 19% of the regional kinetic hydroxyl radical reactivity of nonbiogenic VOCs suggesting that natural gas emissions may affect compliance with federal ozone standards. A first approximation of methane emissions from the study area of 10.0 ± 5.2 kg s(-1) provides a baseline for determining the efficacy of regulatory emission control efforts. PMID:25594231

  15. Phase Separation Kinetics in Isopycnic Mixtures of H2O/CO2/Ethoxylated Alcohol Surfactants

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lesemann, Markus; Paulaitis, Michael E.; Kaler, Eric W.

    1999-01-01

    Ternary mixtures of H2O and CO2 with ethoxylated alcohol (C(sub i)E(sub j)) surfactants form three coexisting liquid phases at conditions where two of the phases have equal densities (isopycnic phases). Isopycnic phase behavior has been observed for mixtures containing C8E5, C10E6, and C12E6 surfactants, but not for those mixtures containing either C4E1 or C8E3 surfactants. Pressure-temperature (PT) projections for this three-phase equilibrium were determined for H2O/CO2/C8E5 and H2O/CO2/C10E6 mixtures at temperatures from approximately 25 to 33 C and pressures between 90 and 350 bar. Measurements of the microstructure in H2O/CO2/C12E6 mixtures as a function of temperature (25-31 C), pressure (63.1-90.7 bar), and CO2 composition (0-3.9 wt%) have also been carried out to show that while micellar structure remains essentially un-changed, critical concentration fluctuations increase as the phase boundary and plait point are approached. In this report, we present our first measurements of the kinetics of isopycnic phase separation for ternary mixtures of H2O/CO2/C8E5.

  16. Potential drug interaction between paclitaxel and clopidogrel

    PubMed Central

    SHINODA, YASUTAKA; KIMURA, MICHIO; USAMI, EISEKI; ASANO, HIROKI; YOSHIMURA, TOMOAKI

    2016-01-01

    Paclitaxel is mainly inactivated in vivo by cytochrome P5402C8 (CYP2C8). In recent years, the clopidogrel metabolite has been reported to potently inhibit CYP2C8. However, clinical information regarding the interaction between these two drugs is limited. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first retrospective study investigating the potential for the drug interaction between paclitaxel and clopidogrel. A total of 8 cases in which clopidogrel and paclitaxel were used in combination were examined. The incidence of adverse events and discontinuation rate in these cases were assessed. Neutrophil counts were compared in patients prior and subsequent to the combined administration of clopidogrel and paclitaxel. Grade 3 neutropenia occurred in all cases of combination therapy and grade 4 occurred in 7 cases (88%). In addition, 4 cases (50%) showed febrile neutropenia. Four cases (50%) involved a severe adverse event requiring discontinuation of drug administration. In 1 case involving 6 courses of paclitaxel and nedaplatin therapy prior and subsequent to clopidogrel, there was a significant reduction in the average neutrophil count after 8 days of combination treatment (1,240±395 counts/mm3 without clopidogrel; 370±148 counts/mm3 with clopidogrel; mean ± standard deviation, P<0.01). Drug interactions during co-administration of clopidogrel and paclitaxel may cause severe neutropenia. To avoid these interactions, alternative medications should be considered. If these two drugs are used in combination, it may be necessary to monitor for adverse events more carefully. PMID:27347418

  17. Three pharmaceuticals cocrystals of adefovir: Syntheses, structures and dissolution study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Xiaoming; Sun, Fuxing; Zhang, Tingting; Jia, Jiangtao; Su, Hongmin; Wang, Chenhui; Zhu, Guangshan

    2015-11-01

    We report here three novel cocrystals, which are composed of adefovir as the API (Active Pharmaceutical Ingredient) with p-aminobenzoic acid (1, 2C8H12N5O4P·C7H6NO2·3H2O), 3,5-dihydroxybenzoic acid (2, C8H12N5O4P·C7H6O4·H2O) and 2,6-pyridinedicarboxlic acid (3, C8H12N5O4P·C7H5NO4) as CCFs (cocrystal formers) respectively by crystal engineering strategy. Their structures were characterized by single crystal X-ray diffraction, powder X-ray diffraction (PXRD) analysis, thermogravimetric analyses (TGA), elemental analysis (EA) and infrared spectral analysis (IR). The analysis of single crystal X-ray diffraction demonstrate that cocrystal 1 and 2 form a strong hydrogen-bonded assembly through the phosphoric acids of API with water in the lattice and carboxylic acids of CCF respectively. Cocrystal 3 is formed in which the phosphoric acid groups of API are also held by the carboxylic acid groups of CCF. The PXRD results indicate their high purity of as-synthesized samples. The TGA, EA, IR and dissolution study of API and the cocrystals were also measured and discussed.

  18. Chimeric spider silk proteins mediated by intein result in artificial hybrid silks.

    PubMed

    Lin, Senzhu; Chen, Gefei; Liu, Xiangqin; Meng, Qing

    2016-07-01

    Hybrid silks hold a great potential as specific biomaterials due to its controlled mechanical properties. To produce fibers with tunable properties, here we firstly made chimeric proteins in vitro, called W2C4CT and W2C8CT, with ligation of MaSp repetitive modules (C) with AcSp modules (W) by intein trans splicing technology from smaller precursors without final yield reduction. Intein mediated chimeric proteins form fibers at a low concentration of 0.4 mg/mL in 50 mM K3 PO4 pH 7.5 just drawn by hand. Hybrid fibers show smoother surface, and also have stronger chemical resistance as compared with fibers from W2CT (W fibers) and mixture of W2CT/C8CT (MHF8 fibers). Fibers from chimeric protein W2C4CT (HFH4) have improved mechanical properties than W fibers; however, with more C modules W2C8CT fibers (HFH8) properties decreased, indicates the length proportion of various modules is very important and should be optimized for fibers with specific properties. Generally, hybrid silks generated via chimeric proteins, which can be simplified by intein trans splicing, has greater potential to produce fibers with tunable properties. Our research shows that intein mediated directional protein ligation is a novel way to make large chimeric spider silk proteins and hybrid silks. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. Biopolymers 105: 385-392, 2016. PMID:26948769

  19. Inhibition of human cytochrome P450 enzymes by the natural hepatotoxin safrole.

    PubMed

    Ueng, Yune-Fang; Hsieh, Chih-Hang; Don, Ming-Jaw

    2005-05-01

    The hepatotoxin, safrole is a methylenedioxy phenyl compound, found in sassafras oil and certain other essential oils. Recombinant cytochrome P450 (CYP, P450) and human liver microsomes were studied to investigate the selective inhibitory effects of safrole on human P450 enzymes and the mechanisms of action. Using Escherichia coli-expressed human P450, our results demonstrated that safrole was a non-selective inhibitor of CYP1A2, CYP2A6, CYP2D6, CYP2E1, and CYP3A4 in the IC(50) order CYP2E1 < CYP1A2 < CYP2A6 < CYP3A4 < CYP2D6. Safrole strongly inhibited CYP1A2, CYP2A6, and CYP2E1 activities with IC(50) values less than 20 microM. Safrole caused competitive, non-competitive, and non-competitive inhibition of CYP1A2, CYP2A6 and CYP2E1 activities, respectively. The inhibitor constants were in the order CYP1A2 < CYP2E1 < CYP2A6. In human liver microsomes, 50 microM safrole strongly inhibited 7-ethoxyresorufin O-deethylation, coumarin hydroxylation, and chlorzoxazone hydroxylation activities. These results revealed that safrole was a potent inhibitor of human CYP1A2, CYP2A6, and CYP2E1. With relatively less potency, CYP2D6 and CYP3A4 were also inhibited. PMID:15778010

  20. Cyclophosphamide pharmacokinetics and pharmacogenetics in children with B-cell non-Hodgkin's lymphoma

    PubMed Central

    Veal, Gareth J.; Cole, Michael; Chinnaswamy, Girish; Sludden, Julieann; Jamieson, David; Errington, Julie; Malik, Ghada; Hill, Christopher R.; Chamberlain, Thomas; Boddy, Alan V.

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Variation in cyclophosphamide pharmacokinetics and metabolism has been highlighted as a factor that may impact on clinical outcome in various tumour types. The current study in children with B-cell non-Hodgkin's lymphoma (NHL) was designed to corroborate previous findings in a large prospective study incorporating genotype for common polymorphisms known to influence cyclophosphamide pharmacology. Methods A total of 644 plasma samples collected over a 5 year period, from 49 B-cell NHL patients ≤18 years receiving cyclophosphamide (250 mg/m2), were used to characterise a population pharmacokinetic model. Polymorphisms in genes including CYP2B6 and CYP2C19 were analysed. Results A two-compartment model provided the best fit of the population analysis. The mean cyclophosphamide clearance value following dose 1 was significantly lower than following dose 5 (1.83 ± 1.07 versus 3.68 ± 1.43 L/h/m2, respectively; mean ± standard deviation from empirical Bayes estimates; P < 0.001). The presence of at least one CYP2B6*6 variant allele was associated with a lower cyclophosphamide clearance following both dose 1 (1.54 ± 0.11 L/h/m2 versus 2.20 ± 0.31 L/h/m2, P = 0.033) and dose 5 (3.12 ± 0.17 L/h/m2 versus 4.35 ± 0.37 L/h/m2, P = 0.0028), as compared to homozygous wild-type patients. No pharmacokinetic parameters investigated were shown to have a significant influence on progression free survival. Conclusion The results do not support previous findings of a link between cyclophosphamide pharmacokinetics or metabolism and disease recurrence in childhood B-cell NHL. While CYP2B6 genotype was shown to influence pharmacokinetics, there was no clear impact on clinical outcome. PMID:26773420

  1. Population Pharmacokinetics Analysis To Inform Efavirenz Dosing Recommendations in Pediatric HIV Patients Aged 3 Months to 3 Years

    PubMed Central

    Luo, Man; Chapel, Sunny; Sevinsky, Heather; Savant, Ishani; Cirincione, Brenda; Bertz, Richard

    2016-01-01

    Efavirenz (EFV) is a nonnucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitor approved worldwide for the treatment of HIV in adults and children over 3 years of age or weighing over 10 kg. Only recently EFV was approved in children over 3 months and weighing at least 3.5 kg in the United States and the European Union. The objective of this analysis was to support the selection of an appropriate dose for this younger pediatric population and to explore the impact of CYP2B6 genetic polymorphisms on EFV systemic exposures. A population pharmacokinetic (PPK) model was developed using data from three studies in HIV-1-infected pediatric subjects (n = 168) and one study in healthy adults (n = 24). The EFV concentration-time profile was best described by a two-compartment model with first-order absorption and elimination. Body weight was identified as a significant predictor of efavirenz apparent clearance (CL), oral central volume of distribution (VC), and absorption rate constant (Ka). The typical values of efavirenz apparent CL, VC, oral peripheral volume of distribution (VP), and Ka for a reference pediatric patient were 4.8 liters/h (4.5 to 5.1 liters/h), 84.9 liters (76.8 to 93.0 liters), 287 liters (252.6 to 321.4 liters), and 0.414 h−1 (0.375 to 0.453 h−1), respectively. The final model was used to simulate steady-state efavirenz concentrations in pediatric patients weighing <10 kg to identify EFV doses that produce comparable exposure to adult and pediatric patients weighing ≥10 kg. Results suggest that administration of EFV doses of 100 mg once daily (QD) to children weighing ≥3.5 to <5 kg, 150 mg QD to children weighing ≥5 to <7.5 kg, and 200 mg QD to children weighing ≥7.5 to <10 kg produce exposures within the target range. Further evaluation of the impact of CYP2B6 polymorphisms on EFV PK showed that the identification of CYP2B6 genetic status is not predictive of EFV exposure and thus not informative to guide pediatric dosing regimens. PMID:27067333

  2. Population Pharmacokinetics Analysis To Inform Efavirenz Dosing Recommendations in Pediatric HIV Patients Aged 3 Months to 3 Years.

    PubMed

    Luo, Man; Chapel, Sunny; Sevinsky, Heather; Savant, Ishani; Cirincione, Brenda; Bertz, Richard; Roy, Amit

    2016-06-01

    Efavirenz (EFV) is a nonnucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitor approved worldwide for the treatment of HIV in adults and children over 3 years of age or weighing over 10 kg. Only recently EFV was approved in children over 3 months and weighing at least 3.5 kg in the United States and the European Union. The objective of this analysis was to support the selection of an appropriate dose for this younger pediatric population and to explore the impact of CYP2B6 genetic polymorphisms on EFV systemic exposures. A population pharmacokinetic (PPK) model was developed using data from three studies in HIV-1-infected pediatric subjects (n = 168) and one study in healthy adults (n = 24). The EFV concentration-time profile was best described by a two-compartment model with first-order absorption and elimination. Body weight was identified as a significant predictor of efavirenz apparent clearance (CL), oral central volume of distribution (VC), and absorption rate constant (Ka). The typical values of efavirenz apparent CL, VC, oral peripheral volume of distribution (VP), and Ka for a reference pediatric patient were 4.8 liters/h (4.5 to 5.1 liters/h), 84.9 liters (76.8 to 93.0 liters), 287 liters (252.6 to 321.4 liters), and 0.414 h(-1) (0.375 to 0.453 h(-1)), respectively. The final model was used to simulate steady-state efavirenz concentrations in pediatric patients weighing <10 kg to identify EFV doses that produce comparable exposure to adult and pediatric patients weighing ≥10 kg. Results suggest that administration of EFV doses of 100 mg once daily (QD) to children weighing ≥3.5 to <5 kg, 150 mg QD to children weighing ≥5 to <7.5 kg, and 200 mg QD to children weighing ≥7.5 to <10 kg produce exposures within the target range. Further evaluation of the impact of CYP2B6 polymorphisms on EFV PK showed that the identification of CYP2B6 genetic status is not predictive of EFV exposure and thus not informative to guide pediatric dosing regimens. PMID:27067333

  3. The role of cytochromes p450 and aldo-keto reductases in prognosis of breast carcinoma patients.

    PubMed

    Hlaváč, Viktor; Brynychová, Veronika; Václavíková, Radka; Ehrlichová, Marie; Vrána, David; Pecha, Václav; Trnková, Markéta; Kodet, Roman; Mrhalová, Marcela; Kubáčková, Kateřina; Gatěk, Jiří; Vážan, Petr; Souček, Pavel

    2014-12-01

    Metabolism of anticancer drugs affects their antitumor effects. This study has investigated the associations of gene expression of enzymes metabolizing anticancer drugs with therapy response and survival of breast carcinoma patients. Gene expression of 13 aldo-keto reductases (AKRs), carbonyl reductase 1, and 10 cytochromes P450 (CYPs) was assessed using quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction in tumors and paired adjacent nonneoplastic tissues from 68 posttreatment breast carcinoma patients. Eleven candidate genes were then evaluated in an independent series of 50 pretreatment patients. Protein expression of the most significant genes was confirmed by immunoblotting. AKR1A1 was significantly overexpressed and AKR1C1-4, KCNAB1, CYP2C19, CYP3A4, and CYP3A5 downregulated in tumors compared with control nonneoplastic tissues after correction for multiple testing. Significant association of CYP2B6 transcript levels in tumors with expression of hormonal receptors was found in the posttreatment set and replicated in the pretreatment set of patients. Significantly higher intratumoral levels of AKR1C1, AKR1C2, or CYP2W1 were found in responders to neoadjuvant chemotherapy compared with nonresponders. Patients with high AKR7A3 or CYP2B6 levels in the pretreatment set had significantly longer disease-free survival than patients with low levels. Protein products of AKR1C1, AKR1C2, AKR7A3, CYP3A4, and carbonyl reductase (CBR1) were found in tumors and those of AKR1C1, AKR7A3, and CBR1 correlated with their transcript levels. Small interfering RNA-directed knockdown of AKR1C2 or vector-mediated upregulation of CYP3A4 in MDA-MB-231 model cell line had no effect on cell proliferation after paclitaxel treatment in vitro. Prognostic and predictive roles of drug-metabolizing enzymes strikingly differ between posttreatment and pretreatment breast carcinoma patients. Mechanisms of action of AKR1C2, AKR7A3, CYP2B6, CYP3A4, and CBR1 should continue to be further followed in

  4. Investigation of Ni-B Alloys for Joining of TiB2 Ultra-High-Temperature Ceramic

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xi, L.; Kaban, I.; Nowak, R.; Bruzda, G.; Sobczak, N.; Stoica, M.; Eckert, J.

    2016-02-01

    Melting and wetting behavior of Ni83B17 and Ni50B50 alloys on TiB2 ceramic are investigated upon heating to 1105 and 1050 °C, respectively, using the sessile drop technique. Both alloys show a very good wetting on the TiB2 substrates immediately after incipient melting. Liquid Ni50B50 alloy is revealed not to dissolve TiB2, but penetrates along the grain boundaries into the ceramic. Upon heating and melting of the Ni83B17 alloy on TiB2, a small amount of ceramic is dissolved and the ternary Ni21Ti2B6 phase is formed. Whereas multiple microcracks are observed at the Ni83B17/TiB2 interface, the Ni50B50/TiB2 couple is well bonded and free of interfacial microcracks.

  5. Measurement reports for the cryogenically-cooled drift tube quadrupoles

    SciTech Connect

    1993-12-31

    This compilation contains quadrupole measurement reports for LANL type A and type E drift tube cryoquads. The cryoquad information gives s/n, vendor, field strength, phase, b3/b2, b4/b2, b5/b2, b6/b2, center wire location. The measurements for the harmonic measuring system gives time and date of measurements, magnet p/n, coil p/n, coil radii, coil turns, low and high gain, and temperature. Quadrupole information includes effective B` X L, and magnetic center. Bucked and unbucked calculations give signal in {mu}V{center_dot}sec, field in Tesla{center_dot}meter, B(n)/B(2), absolute and relative phase.

  6. Cytochrome P450-based cancer gene therapy: current status.

    PubMed

    Kan, On; Kingsman, Susan; Naylor, Stuart

    2002-12-01

    Results from a number of preclinical studies have demonstrated that a P450-based gene-directed enzyme prodrug therapy (GDEPT) strategy for the treatment of cancer is both safe and efficacious. This strategy has now moved forward into the clinic. At least two different approaches using different delivery methods (retroviral vector MetXia [Oxford BioMedica] and encapsulated P450 expressing cells), different cytochrome P450 isoforms (human CYP2B6 versus rat CYP2B1) and different prodrugs (cyclophosphamide [CPA] versus ifosfamide [IFA]) have concluded Phase I/II clinical trial with encouraging results. In the future, P450-based GDEPT can potentially be further enhanced by improved vectors for P450 gene delivery and disease-targeted promoters for focused gene expression at the target site. In addition, there is scope for developing synthetic P450s and their respective prodrugs to improve both enzyme kinetics and the profile of the active moiety. PMID:12517265

  7. The macrophage - a novel system to deliver gene therapy to pathological hypoxia.

    PubMed

    Griffiths, L; Binley, K; Iqball, S; Kan, O; Maxwell, P; Ratcliffe, P; Lewis, C; Harris, A; Kingsman, S; Naylor, S

    2000-02-01

    The use of activated macrophages in the treatment of cancer has been largely ineffectual. By 'arming' these cells with the ability to express a therapeutic gene we demonstrate significant advances in the efficacy of this approach. We have used a hypoxia-regulated adenoviral vector to transduce human macrophages with either a reporter or a therapeutic gene encoding human cytochrome P4502B6 (CYP2B6). Infiltration of transduced macrophages into a tumour spheroid results in induction of gene expression. We demonstrate significant tumour cell killing only in the presence of cyclophosphamide via activation by P4502B6 and show that this can be further targeted to tumours through hypoxia regulated gene expression. Gene Therapy (2000) 7, 255-262. PMID:10694803

  8. Human genetic variability and HIV treatment response.

    PubMed

    Haas, David W

    2006-07-01

    Access to potent antiretroviral medications greatly reduces morbidity and mortality due to HIV/AIDS, but drug toxicity limits treatment success in many individuals. The field of pharmacogenomics strives to understand the influence of human genetic variants in response to medications. Investigators have begun to identify associations among human genetic variants, predisposition to HIV drug toxicities, and likelihood of virologic response. These include associations among abacavir hypersensitivity reactions, HLA type, and hsp70-hom genotypes, and among CYP2B6 polymorphisms, efavirenz pharmacokinetics, and central nervous system symptoms. Pharmacogenomics also holds great promise to suggest novel targets for drug development. The discovery that a naturally occurring, nonfunctional variant of the HIV receptor gene CCR5 protected against HIV infection encouraged the development of CCR5 antagonists. Through continued translational and applied research, pharmacogenomics will ultimately benefit persons living with HIV worldwide by identifying new therapeutic targets and through individualized drug prescribing that is informed by human genetic testing. PMID:16608660

  9. Solid state synthesis of calcium borohydroxyapatite

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Güler, H.; Gündoğmaz, G.; Kurtuluş, F.; Çelik, G.; Gacanoğlu, Ş. S.

    2011-11-01

    Calcium borohydroxyapatite was synthesized by the solid-state reaction of colemanite (Ca 2B 6O 11·5H 2O) and diamonium hydrogenphosphate ((NH 4) 2HPO 4) at 1200 °C for 12 h. X-ray diffraction pattern showed only the formation of calcium borohydroxyapatite. The experimental analysis assigned the chemical formula as Ca 10[(PO 4) 5.80(BO 3) 0.20](OH) 2. It was indexed in the hexagonal system with the refined unit cell parameters of a = 9.557(3) Å, c = 6.926(8) Å and space group P6 3/ m. The experimental results verified that if colemanite was used as a primary reactant for both calcium and boron source, the calcium borohydroxyapatite could be obtained.

  10. In Vitro Antioxidant Activity of Selected 4-Hydroxy-chromene-2-one Derivatives—SAR, QSAR and DFT Studies

    PubMed Central

    Mladenović, Milan; Mihailović, Mirjana; Bogojević, Desanka; Matić, Sanja; Nićiforović, Neda; Mihailović, Vladimir; Vuković, Nenad; Sukdolak, Slobodan; Solujić, Slavica

    2011-01-01

    The series of fifteen synthesized 4-hydroxycoumarin derivatives was subjected to antioxidant activity evaluation in vitro, through total antioxidant capacity, 1,1-diphenyl-2-picryl-hydrazyl (DPPH), hydroxyl radical, lipid peroxide scavenging and chelating activity. The highest activity was detected during the radicals scavenging, with 2b, 6b, 2c, and 4c noticed as the most active. The antioxidant activity was further quantified by the quantitative structure-activity relationships (QSAR) studies. For this purpose, the structures were optimized using Paramethric Method 6 (PM6) semi-empirical and Density Functional Theory (DFT) B3LYP methods. Bond dissociation enthalpies of coumarin 4-OH, Natural Bond Orbital (NBO) gained hybridization of the oxygen, acidity of the hydrogen atom and various molecular descriptors obtained, were correlated with biological activity, after which we designed 20 new antioxidant structures, using the most favorable structural motifs, with much improved predicted activity in vitro. PMID:21686153

  11. Simple colorimetric method for determination of thiamine hydrochloride in pharmaceuticals.

    PubMed

    Sane, R T; Doshi, V J; Jukar, S; Joshi, S K; Sawant, S V; Pandit, U R

    1985-01-01

    A simple colorimetric method is described for the determination of thiamine hydrochloride (vitamin B1) in dosage forms. The method is based on measurement of a yellow complex formed when thiamine HCl is treated with p-methylaminophenol sulfate (Metol) under alkaline conditions. Compounds such as vitamins A, B2, B6, B12, C, D, and E, and niacinamide, citric acid, liquid glucose, calcium pantothenate, biotin, liver extract, and folic acid do not interfere in the reaction. Extracting the complex into chloroform before quantitation enhances the stability of the reaction product and removes interference of water-soluble colored constituents in syrup samples. Statistical validation shows that the method is precise and accurate. Results agree well with those obtained by other methods in the literature. PMID:3980419

  12. [Conditions of actual nutrition and immunological reactivity of women students in different seasons].

    PubMed

    Zaĭtseva, I P; Nasolodin, V V; Kononov, O V; Karasev, Iu P

    2000-01-01

    On investigating of 60 healthy female students with use of a questionnaire method, it was found out what amount of basic nutrients, such as: proteins (especially those of animal origin), animal fats, hydrocarbons, vitamins (C, B1, B2, B6) mineral elements (calcium, potassium, magnesium and phosphorus) in students nourishment was lower in the spring than in the fall. Both in the spring and in the fall this amount was not appropriate for recommended physiological nourishment standards. On investigating of immunological reactivity of these students season's fluctuations for some indexes of cellular and humoral immunity were found. Lowering of T-lymphocytes lever together with lowering of blood immunoglobulines (especially those of G-calss) and lowering of lever of immunological complexes, circulating in the blood in spring comparing to the fall combinated with growth of B-lymphocytes lever. PMID:11452376

  13. Drug Metabolizing Enzyme and Transporter Gene Variation, Nicotine Metabolism, Prospective Abstinence, and Cigarette Consumption.

    PubMed

    Bergen, Andrew W; Michel, Martha; Nishita, Denise; Krasnow, Ruth; Javitz, Harold S; Conneely, Karen N; Lessov-Schlaggar, Christina N; Hops, Hyman; Zhu, Andy Z X; Baurley, James W; McClure, Jennifer B; Hall, Sharon M; Baker, Timothy B; Conti, David V; Benowitz, Neal L; Lerman, Caryn; Tyndale, Rachel F; Swan, Gary E

    2015-01-01

    The Nicotine Metabolite Ratio (NMR, ratio of trans-3'-hydroxycotinine and cotinine), has previously been associated with CYP2A6 activity, response to smoking cessation treatments, and cigarette consumption. We searched for drug metabolizing enzyme and transporter (DMET) gene variation associated with the NMR and prospective abstinence in 2,946 participants of laboratory studies of nicotine metabolism and of clinical trials of smoking cessation therapies. Stage I was a meta-analysis of the association of 507 common single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) at 173 DMET genes with the NMR in 449 participants of two laboratory studies. Nominally significant associations were identified in ten genes after adjustment for intragenic SNPs; CYP2A6 and two CYP2A6 SNPs attained experiment-wide significance adjusted for correlated SNPs (CYP2A6 PACT=4.1E-7, rs4803381 PACT=4.5E-5, rs1137115, PACT=1.2E-3). Stage II was mega-regression analyses of 10 DMET SNPs with pretreatment NMR and prospective abstinence in up to 2,497 participants from eight trials. rs4803381 and rs1137115 SNPs were associated with pretreatment NMR at genome-wide significance. In post-hoc analyses of CYP2A6 SNPs, we observed nominally significant association with: abstinence in one pharmacotherapy arm; cigarette consumption among all trial participants; and lung cancer in four case:control studies. CYP2A6 minor alleles were associated with reduced NMR, CPD, and lung cancer risk. We confirmed the major role that CYP2A6 plays in nicotine metabolism, and made novel findings with respect to genome-wide significance and associations with CPD, abstinence and lung cancer risk. Additional multivariate analyses with patient variables and genetic modeling will improve prediction of nicotine metabolism, disease risk and smoking cessation treatment prognosis. PMID:26132489

  14. Drug Metabolizing Enzyme and Transporter Gene Variation, Nicotine Metabolism, Prospective Abstinence, and Cigarette Consumption

    PubMed Central

    Bergen, Andrew W.; Michel, Martha; Nishita, Denise; Krasnow, Ruth; Javitz, Harold S.; Conneely, Karen N.; Lessov-Schlaggar, Christina N.; Hops, Hyman; Zhu, Andy Z. X.; Baurley, James W.; McClure, Jennifer B.; Hall, Sharon M.; Baker, Timothy B.; Conti, David V.; Benowitz, Neal L.; Lerman, Caryn; Tyndale, Rachel F.; Swan, Gary E.

    2015-01-01

    The Nicotine Metabolite Ratio (NMR, ratio of trans-3’-hydroxycotinine and cotinine), has previously been associated with CYP2A6 activity, response to smoking cessation treatments, and cigarette consumption. We searched for drug metabolizing enzyme and transporter (DMET) gene variation associated with the NMR and prospective abstinence in 2,946 participants of laboratory studies of nicotine metabolism and of clinical trials of smoking cessation therapies. Stage I was a meta-analysis of the association of 507 common single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) at 173 DMET genes with the NMR in 449 participants of two laboratory studies. Nominally significant associations were identified in ten genes after adjustment for intragenic SNPs; CYP2A6 and two CYP2A6 SNPs attained experiment-wide significance adjusted for correlated SNPs (CYP2A6 PACT=4.1E-7, rs4803381 PACT=4.5E-5, rs1137115, PACT=1.2E-3). Stage II was mega-regression analyses of 10 DMET SNPs with pretreatment NMR and prospective abstinence in up to 2,497 participants from eight trials. rs4803381 and rs1137115 SNPs were associated with pretreatment NMR at genome-wide significance. In post-hoc analyses of CYP2A6 SNPs, we observed nominally significant association with: abstinence in one pharmacotherapy arm; cigarette consumption among all trial participants; and lung cancer in four case:control studies. CYP2A6 minor alleles were associated with reduced NMR, CPD, and lung cancer risk. We confirmed the major role that CYP2A6 plays in nicotine metabolism, and made novel findings with respect to genome-wide significance and associations with CPD, abstinence and lung cancer risk. Additional multivariate analyses with patient variables and genetic modeling will improve prediction of nicotine metabolism, disease risk and smoking cessation treatment prognosis. PMID:26132489

  15. Mixed-ligand MnII and CuII complexes with alternating 2,2'-bipyrimidine and terephthalate bridges.

    PubMed

    Poleti, Dejan; Rogan, Jelena; Rodić, Marko V; Radovanović, Lidija

    2015-02-01

    The novel polymeric complexes catena-poly[[diaquamanganese(II)]-μ-2,2'-bipyrimidine-κ(4)N(1),N(1'):N(3),N(3')-[diaquamanganese(II)]-bis(μ-terephthalato-κ(2)O(1):O(4))], [Mn2(C8H4O4)2(C8H6N4)(H2O)4]n, (I), and catena-poly[[[aquacopper(II)]-μ-aqua-μ-hydroxido-μ-terephthalato-κ(2)O(1):O(1')-copper(II)-μ-aqua-μ-hydroxido-μ-terephthalato-κ(2)O(1):O(1')-[aquacopper(II)]-μ-2,2'-bipyrimidine-κ(4)N(1),N(1'):N(3),N(3')] tetrahydrate], {[Cu3(C8H4O4)2(OH)2(C8H6N4)(H2O)4]·4H2O}n, (II), containing bridging 2,2'-bipyrimidine (bpym) ligands coordinated as bis-chelates, have been prepared via a ligand-exchange reaction. In both cases, quite unusual coordination modes of the terephthalate (tpht(2-)) anions were found. In (I), two tpht(2-) anions acting as bis-monodentate ligands bridge the Mn(II) centres in a parallel fashion. In (II), the tpht(2-) anions act as endo-bridges and connect two Cu(II) centres in combination with additional aqua and hydroxide bridges. In this way, the binuclear [Mn2(tpht)2(bpym)(H2O)4] entity in (I) and the trinuclear [Cu3(tpht)2(OH)2(bpym)(H2O)4]·4H2O coordination entity in (II) build up one-dimensional polymeric chains along the b axis. In (I), the Mn(II) cation lies on a twofold axis, whereas the four central C atoms of the bpym ligand are located on a mirror plane. In (II), the central Cu(II) cation is also on a special position (site symmetry -1). In the crystal structures, the packing of the chains is further strengthened by a system of hydrogen bonds [in both (I) and (II)] and weak face-to-face π-π interactions [in (I)], forming three-dimensional metal-organic frameworks. The Mn(II) cation in (I) has a trigonally deformed octahedral geometry, whereas the Cu(II) cations in (II) are in distorted octahedral environments. The Cu(II) polyhedra are inclined relative to each other and share common edges. PMID:25652277

  16. Reactivity of functionalized indoles with rare-earth metal amides. Synthesis, characterization and catalytic activity of rare-earth metal complexes incorporating indolyl ligands.

    PubMed

    Feng, Zhijun; Wei, Yun; Zhou, Shuangliu; Zhang, Guangchao; Zhu, Xiancui; Guo, Liping; Wang, Shaowu; Mu, Xiaolong

    2015-12-21

    The reactivity of several functionalized indoles 2-(RNHCH2)C8H5NH (R = C6H5 (1), (t)Bu (2), 2,6-(i)Pr2C6H3 (3)) with rare-earth metal amides is described. Reactions of 1 or 2 with [(Me3Si)2N]3RE(μ-Cl)Li(THF)3 (RE = Eu, Yb) respectively produced the europium complexes [2-(C6H5N[double bond, length as m-dash]CH)C8H5N]2Eu[N(SiMe3)2] (4) and [2-((t)BuN[double bond, length as m-dash]CH)C8H5N]Eu[N(SiMe3)2]2 (5), and the ytterbium complex [2-((t)BuN[double bond, length as m-dash]CH)C8H5N]2Yb[N(SiMe3)2] (6), containing bidentate anionic indolyl ligands via dehydrogenation of the amine to the imine. In contrast, reactions of the more sterically bulky indole 3 with [(Me3Si)2N]3RE(μ-Cl)Li(THF)3 afforded complexes [2-(2,6-(i)Pr2C6H3NCH2)C8H5N]RE[N(SiMe3)2](THF)2 (RE = Yb (7), Y (8), Er (9), Dy (10)) with the deprotonated indolyl ligand. While reactions of 3 with yttrium and ytterbium amides in refluxing toluene respectively gave the complexes [2-(2,6-(i)Pr2C6H3N[double bond, length as m-dash]CH)C8H5N]3Y (11) and [2-(2,6-(i)Pr2C6H3N[double bond, length as m-dash]CH)C8H5N]2Yb(II)(THF)2 (12), along with transformation of the amino group to the imino group, and also with a reduction of Yb(3+) to Yb(2+) in the formation of 12. Reactions of 3 with samarium and neodymium amides provided novel dinuclear complexes {[μ-η(5):η(1):η(1)-2-(2,6-(i)Pr2C6H3NCH2)C8H5N]RE[N(SiMe3)2]}2 (RE = Sm (13), Nd (14)) having indolyl ligands in μ-η(5):η(1):η(1) hapticities. The pathway for the transformation of the amino group to the imino group is proposed on the basis of the experimental results. The new complexes displayed excellent activity in the intramolecular hydroamination of aminoalkenes. PMID:26548974

  17. Effects of cytochrome P-450 metabolites of arachidonic acid on the epithelial sodium channel (ENaC)

    PubMed Central

    Pavlov, Tengis S.; Ilatovskaya, Daria V.; Levchenko, Vladislav; Mattson, David L.; Roman, Richard J.

    2011-01-01

    Sodium reabsorption via the epithelial Na+ channel (ENaC) in the aldosterone-sensitive distal nephron plays a central role in the regulation of body fluid volume. Previous studies have indicated that arachidonic acid (AA) and its metabolite 11,12-EET but not other regioisomers of EETs inhibit ENaC activity in the collecting duct. The goal of this study was to investigate the endogenous metabolism of AA in cultured mpkCCDc14 principal cells and the effects of these metabolites on ENaC activity. Liquid chromatography/mass spectrometry analysis of the mpkCCDc14 cells indicated that these cells produce prostaglandins, 8,9-EET, 11,12-EET, 14,15-EET, 5-HETE, 12/8-HETE, and 15-HETE, but not 20-HETE. Single-channel patch-clamp experiments revealed that 8,9-EET, 14,15-EET, and 11,12-EET all decrease ENaC activity. Neither 5-, 12-, nor 15-HETE had any effect on ENaC activity. Diclofenac and ibuprofen, inhibitors of cyclooxygenase, decreased transepithelial Na+ transport in the mpkCCDc14 cells. Inhibition of cytochrome P-450 (CYP450) with MS-PPOH activated ENaC-mediated sodium transport when cells were pretreated with AA and diclofenac. Coexpression of CYP2C8, but not CYP4A10, with ENaC in Chinese hamster ovary cells significantly decreased ENaC activity in whole-cell experiments, whereas 11,12-EET mimicked this effect. Thus both endogenously formed EETs and their exogenous application decrease ENaC activity. Downregulation of ENaC activity by overexpression of CYP2C8 was PKA dependent and was prevented by myristoylated PKI treatment. Biotinylation experiments and single-channel analysis revealed that long-term treatment with 11,12-EET and overexpression of CYP2C8 decreased the number of channels in the membrane. In contrast, the acute inhibitory effects are mediated by a decrease in the open probability of the ENaC. We conclude that 11,12-EET, 8,9-EET, and 14,15-EET are endogenously formed eicosanoids that modulate ENaC activity in the collecting duct. PMID:21697242

  18. Engineering Macaca fascicularis cytochrome P450 2C20 to reduce animal testing for new drugs.

    PubMed

    Rua, Francesco; Sadeghi, Sheila J; Castrignanò, Silvia; Di Nardo, Giovanna; Gilardi, Gianfranco

    2012-12-01

    In order to develop in vitro methods as an alternative to P450 animal testing in the drug discovery process, two main requisites are necessary: 1) gathering of data on animal homologues of the human P450 enzymes, currently very limited, and 2) bypassing the requirement for both the P450 reductase and the expensive cofactor NADPH. In this work, P450 2C20 from Macaca fascicularis, homologue of the human P450 2C8 has been taken as a model system to develop such an alternative in vitro method by two different approaches. In the first approach called "molecular Lego", a soluble self-sufficient chimera was generated by fusing the P450 2C20 domain with the reductase domain of cytochrome P450 BM3 from Bacillus megaterium (P450 2C20/BMR). In the second approach, the need for the redox partner and also NADPH were both obviated by the direct immobilization of the P450 2C20 on glassy carbon and gold electrodes. Both systems were then compared to those obtained from the reconstituted P450 2C20 monooxygenase in presence of the human P450 reductase and NADPH using paclitaxel and amodiaquine, two typical drug substrates of the human P450 2C8. The K(M) values calculated for the 2C20 and 2C20/BMR in solution and for 2C20 immobilized on electrodes modified with gold nanoparticles were 1.9 ± 0.2, 5.9 ± 2.3, 3.0 ± 0.5 μM for paclitaxel and 1.2 ± 0.2, 1.6±0.2 and 1.4 ± 0.2 μM for amodiaquine, respectively. The data obtained not only show that the engineering of M. fascicularis did not affect its catalytic properties but also are consistent with K(M) values measured for the microsomal human P450 2C8 and therefore show the feasibility of developing alternative in vitro animal tests. PMID:22819650

  19. Association of dietary and genetic factors related to one-carbon metabolism with global methylation level of leukocyte DNA.

    PubMed

    Ono, Hiroe; Iwasaki, Motoki; Kuchiba, Aya; Kasuga, Yoshio; Yokoyama, Shiro; Onuma, Hiroshi; Nishimura, Hideki; Kusama, Ritsu; Ohnami, Sumiko; Sakamoto, Hiromi; Yoshida, Teruhiko; Tsugane, Shoichiro

    2012-12-01

    Global hypomethylation of leukocyte DNA has been associated with an increased risk of cancer. As dietary and genetic factors related to one-carbon metabolism may influence both the methylation and synthesis of DNA, we investigated associations between these factors and the global methylation level of peripheral blood leukocyte DNA based on a cross-sectional study of 384 Japanese women. Dietary intake of folate and vitamins B2, B6, and B12 was assessed with a validated semiquantitative food frequency questionnaire. Five polymorphisms in methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR) (rs1801133 and rs1801131), methionine synthase (MTR) (rs1805087), and methionine synthase reductase (MTRR) (rs10380 and rs162049) were genotyped. Global DNA methylation of leukocyte DNA was quantified using Luminometric Methylation Assay. A linear trend of association between methylation and dietary and genetic factors was evaluated by regression coefficients in a multivariable linear regression model. Mean global methylation level (standard deviation) was 70.2% (3.4) and range was from 59.0% to 81.2%. Global methylation level significantly decreased by 0.36% (95% confidence interval, 0.03-0.69) per quartile category for folate level. Subgroup analysis suggested that alcohol drinking modified the association between folate intake and global methylation level (P(interaction)  = 0.01). However, no statistically significant association was observed for intake of vitamins B2, B6, and B12, alcohol consumption, or five single nucleotide polymorphisms of MTHFR, MTR, and MTRR. We found that higher folate intake was significantly associated with a lower level of global methylation of leukocyte DNA in a group of healthy Japanese females. PMID:22957669

  20. Plasma Efavirenz Concentrations Are Associated With Lipid and Glucose Concentrations

    PubMed Central

    Sinxadi, Phumla Zuleika; McIlleron, Helen Margaret; Dave, Joel Alex; Smith, Peter John; Levitt, Naomi Sharlene; Haas, David William; Maartens, Gary

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Efavirenz-based antiretroviral therapy (ART) has been associated with dyslipidemia and dysglycemia, risk factors for cardiovascular disease. However, the pathogenesis is not well understood. We characterized relationships between plasma efavirenz concentrations and lipid and glucose concentrations in HIV-infected South Africans. Participants on efavirenz-based ART were enrolled into a cross-sectional study. The oral glucose tolerance test was performed after an overnight fast, and plasma drawn for mid-dosing interval efavirenz, fasting total cholesterol, low-density lipoprotein (LDL) and high-density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol, and triglycerides concentrations. Among 106 participants (77 women), median age was 38 years, median CD4 + T-cell count was 322 cells/μL, median duration on ART was 18 months, and median (interquartile range) efavirenz concentration was 2.23 (1.66 to 4.10) μg/mL. On multivariable analyses (adjusting for age, sex, body mass index, and ART duration) doubling of efavirenz concentrations resulted in mean changes in mmol/L (95%CI) of: total cholesterol (0.40 [0.22 to 0.59]), LDL cholesterol (0.19 [0.04 to 0.30]), HDL cholesterol (0.14 [0.07 to 0.20]), triglycerides (0.17 [0.03 to 0.33]), fasting glucose (0.18 [0.03 to 0.33]), and 2-h glucose concentrations (0.33 [0.08 to 0.60]). Among 57 participants with CYP2B6 genotype data, associations between slow metabolizer genotypes and metabolic profiles were generally consistent with those for measured efavirenz concentrations. Higher plasma efavirenz concentrations are associated with higher plasma lipid and glucose concentrations. This may have implications for long-term cardiovascular complications of efavirenz-based ART, particularly among populations with high prevalence of CYP2B6 slow metabolizer genotypes. PMID:26765416

  1. Effects of Pharmacogenetics on the Pharmacokinetics and Pharmacodynamics of Tamoxifen.

    PubMed

    de Vries Schultink, Aurelia H M; Zwart, Wilbert; Linn, Sabine C; Beijnen, Jos H; Huitema, Alwin D R

    2015-08-01

    The antiestrogenic drug tamoxifen is widely used in the treatment of estrogen receptor-α-positive breast cancer and substantially decreases recurrence and mortality rates. However, high interindividual variability in response is observed, calling for a personalized approach to tamoxifen treatment. Tamoxifen is bioactivated by cytochrome P450 (CYP) enzymes such as CYP2B6, CYP2C9, CYP2C19, CYP2D6 and CYP3A4/5, resulting in the formation of active metabolites, including 4-hydroxy-tamoxifen and endoxifen. Therefore, polymorphisms in the genes encoding these enzymes are proposed to influence tamoxifen and active tamoxifen metabolites in the serum and consequently affect patient response rates. To tailor tamoxifen treatment, multiple studies have been performed to clarify the influence of polymorphisms on its pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics. Nevertheless, personalized treatment of tamoxifen based on genotyping has not yet met consensus. This article critically reviews the published data on the effect of various genetic polymorphisms on the pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics of tamoxifen, and reviews the clinical implications of its findings. For each CYP enzyme, the influence of polymorphisms on pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic outcome measures is described throughout this review. No clear effects on pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics were seen for various polymorphisms in the CYP encoding genes CYP2B6, CYP2C9, CYP2C19 and CYP3A4/5. For CYP2D6, there was a clear gene-exposure effect that was able to partially explain the interindividual variability in plasma concentrations of the pharmacologically most active metabolite endoxifen; however, a clear exposure-response effect remained controversial. These controversial findings and the partial contribution of genotype in explaining interindividual variability in plasma concentrations of, in particular, endoxifen, imply that tailored tamoxifen treatment may not be fully realized through pharmacogenetics of

  2. Assessment of effect of Zhu-tan Tong-luo decoction on CYP450 isoforms activity of rats

    PubMed Central

    Jin, Yongxi; Shao, Lingjiu; Li, Gaowen; Shao, Mengmeng; Zhi, Yinghao; Zhu, Wenzong

    2015-01-01

    In order to investigate the effects of Zhu-tan Tong-luo decoction on the metabolic capacity of cytochrome P450 (CYP) enzymes, a cocktail method was employed to evaluate the activities of CYP2B6, CYP2C19, CYP1A2, CYP3A4, CYP2C9, CYP2D6. The rats were randomly divided into acute Zhu-Tan Tong-Luo decoction group (Low, High), chronic Zhu-Tan Tong-Luo decoction group (Low, High) and control group. The acute group rats were given 0.6, 1.2 g/kg (Low, High) Zhu-tan Tong-luo decoction by intragastric administration for 1 day, and the chronic group for 14 days. Six probe drugs bupropion, omeprazole, phenacetin, testosterone, tolbutamide, and metroprolol were given to rats through intragastric administration, and the plasma concentrations were determined by UPLC-MS/MS. There statistical pharmacokinetics differences for omeprazole, phenacetin, testosterone, tolbutamide, and metroprolol in rats were observed by comparing acute Zhu-tan Tong-luo decoction group with control group; and statistical pharmacokinetics differences for bupropion, omeprazole, phenacetin, testosterone, tolbutamide, and metroprolol were observed by comparing chronic Zhu-Tan Tong-Luo decoction group with control group. After intragastric administration of Zhu-Tan Tong-Luo decoction may slightly induce the activities of CYP2B6, CYP2C19, CYP1A2, CYP3A4, CYP2C9, CYP2D6 of rats. Induction of drug metabolizing enzyme by Zhu-Tan Tong-Luo decoction would reduce the efficacy of other drug. Additional, there no statistical difference for biochemical results after 1 or 14 intragastric administration of Zhu-Tan Tong-Luo decoction. PMID:26629097

  3. Genetic determinants of on-clopidogrel high platelet reactivity.

    PubMed

    Campo, Gianluca; Miccoli, Matteo; Tebaldi, Matteo; Marchesini, Jlenia; Fileti, Luca; Monti, Monia; Valgimigli, Marco; Ferrari, Roberto

    2011-01-01

    Clopidogrel has been used (alone or in association with aspirin) to prevent vascular complications in atherothrombotic patients, to prevent stent thrombosis (ST) in patients undergoing percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) and as a long-term prevention of cardiovascular and cerebrovascular events. Unfortunately, it is important to note that there are a number of patients who, during clopidogrel therapy, show and maintain a high platelet reactivity (PR), similar to that observed before the start of antiplatelet therapy. Clopidogrel pro-drug is absorbed in the intestine and this process is influenced by P-glycoprotein-1 (P-GP). Its conversion into 2-oxo clopidogrel is regulated by cytochromes (CYP) called CYP2C19, CYP2B6 and CYP1A2. Whereas, the final transformation into the active metabolite is regulated by CYP called CYP2C19, CYP2C9, CYP2B6, CYP3A4, CYP3A5 and, as recently emerged, by the glycoprotein paraoxonase-1 (PON1). The genes encoding these enzymes are characterized by several polymorphisms. Some of these are able to modify the activity of proteins, reducing the concentration of active metabolite and the values of on-clopidogrel PR. Only one gene polymorphism (CYP2C19*17) increases the clopidogrel metabolization and so the clopidogrel-induced platelet inhibition. Several studies have clearly associated these gene polymorphisms to both ischemic and bleeding complications in patients receiving dual antiplatelet therapy. The aim of this review is to describe the principal gene polymorphisms influencing on-clopidogrel PR and their relationship with long-term clinical outcome. PMID:21627411

  4. Benefit of Chondroitinase ABC on Sensory Axon Regeneration in a Laceration Model of Spinal Cord Injury in the Rat

    PubMed Central

    Shields, Lisa B. E.; Zhang, Yi Ping; Burke, Darlene A.; Gray, Rebecca; Shields, Christopher B.

    2008-01-01

    Background Chondroitin sulfate proteoglycans (CSPGs) are upregulated in the spinal cord following spinal cord injury (SCI) creating a molecular barrier inhibitory to axon growth. Chondroitinase ABC (ChABC) degrades CSPGs in vitro and in vivo. Methods We studied whether intrathecal (IT) ChABC promotes axonal regeneration in a laceration model of SCI. Three groups of Sprague Dawley rats were used: control and rats treated with low dose and high dose IT ChABC. CSPG breakdown products were measured by 2-B-6 expression, and intact CSPGs by CS-56 expression. Sensory axonal regeneration was traced following CTB injection into the median, ulnar, and sciatic nerves. Results CS-56 expression was downregulated and 2-B-6 expression was increased in the groups treated with IT ChABC but not in the control. Laminin and GFAP immunoreactivity was unaltered in the ChABC groups. The number of axons growing into the scar was 3.1 times greater (p<0.01) in the high dose ChABC group and 2.1 times greater (p<0.01) in the low dose group compared to the controls. The length of axonal growth following high and low dose ChABC was 9.9 (p<0.01) and 8.3 (p<0.01) times greater, respectively, than in the control group. Axons extended across the lesion gap and into the distal spinal cord stump in 2/8 (low dose) and in 3/9 (high dose) rats compared to none in the control group. Conclusions IT ChABC administration caused a slight decrease in CSPGs in the scar following a laceration SCI with a minimal increase in sensory axonal regeneration into and across the laceration gap. PMID:18486695

  5. Evaluation of cytochrome P450 inductions by anti-epileptic drug oxcarbazepine, 10-hydroxyoxcarbazepine, and carbamazepine using human hepatocytes and HepaRG cells.

    PubMed

    Sugiyama, Ikuo; Murayama, Norie; Kuroki, Ayaka; Kota, Jagannath; Iwano, Shunsuke; Yamazaki, Hiroshi; Hirota, Takashi

    2016-09-01

    Anti-epileptic drug oxcarbazepine is structurally related to carbamazepine, but has reportedly different metabolic pathway. Auto-induction potentials of oxcarbazepine, its pharmacologically active metabolite 10-hydroxyoxcarbazepine and carbamazepine were evaluated by cytochrome P450 (CYP) 1A2, CYP2B6 and CYP3A4 mRNA levels and primary metabolic rates using human hepatocytes and HepaRG cells. For the CYP1A2 the induction potential determined as the fold change in mRNA levels was 7.2 (range: 2.3-11.5) and 10.0 (6.2-13.7) for oxcarbazepine and carbamazepine, respectively, while 10-hydroxyoxcarbazepine did not induce. The fold change in mRNA levels for CYP2B6 was 11.5 (3.2-19.3), 7.0 (2.5-10.8) and 14.8 (3.1-29.1) for oxcarbazepine, 10-hydroxyoxcarbazepine and carbamazepine, respectively. The fold change for CYP3A4 induction level by oxcarbazepine, 10-hydroxyoxcarbazepine and carbamazepine was 3.5 (1.2-7.4), 2.7 (0.8-5.7) and 8.3 (3.5-14.5), respectively. The data suggest lower induction potential of oxcarbazepine and 10-hydroxyoxcarbazepine relative to carbamazepine. The results in HepaRG cells showed similar trend as the human hepatocytes. After incubation for 72 h in hepatocytes and HepaRG cells, auto-induction was evident for only carbamazepine metabolism. The 10-keto group instead of double bond at C10 position is evidently a determinant factor for limited auto-induction of P450 enzymes by oxcarbazepine. PMID:26711482

  6. GW4064, an agonist of farnesoid X receptor, represses CYP3A4 expression in human hepatocytes by inducing small heterodimer partner expression.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Shu; Pan, Xian; Jeong, Hyunyoung

    2015-05-01

    Farnesoid X receptor (FXR) functions as a regulator of bile acid and lipid homeostasis and is recognized as a promising therapeutic target for metabolic diseases. The biologic function of FXR is mediated in part by a small heterodimer partner (SHP); ligand-activated FXR enhances SHP expression, and SHP in turn represses the activity of multiple transcription factors. This study aimed to investigate the effect of FXR activation on expression of the major drug-metabolizing enzyme CYP3A4. The effects of 3-(2,6-dichlorophenyl)-4-(3'-carboxy-2-chlorostilben-4-yl)oxymethyl-5-isopropylisoxazole (GW4064), a synthetic agonist of FXR, on the expression and activity of CYP3A4 were examined in primary human hepatocytes by using quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction and S9 phenotyping. In human hepatocytes, treatment of GW4064 (1 μM) for 48 hours resulted in a 75% decrease in CYP3A4 mRNA expression and a 25% decrease in CYP3A4 activity, accompanied by ∼3-fold increase in SHP mRNA expression. In HepG2 cells, SHP repressed transactivation of CYP3A4 promoter by pregnane X receptor (PXR), constitutive androstane receptor (CAR), and glucocorticoid receptor. Interestingly, GW4064 did not repress expression of CYP2B6, another target gene of PXR and CAR; GW4064 enhanced CYP2B6 promoter activity. In conclusion, GW4064 represses CYP3A4 expression in human hepatocytes, potentially through upregulation of SHP expression and subsequent repression of CYP3A4 promoter activity. Clinically significant drug-drug interaction involving FXR agonists and CYP3A4 substrates may occur. PMID:25725071

  7. Structure and Function of Cytochromes P450 2B: From Mechanism-Based Inactivators to X-Ray Crystal Structures and Back

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    This article reviews work from the author dating back to 1978 and focuses on the structural basis of cytochrome P450 (P450) function using available contemporary techniques. Early studies used mechanism-based inactivators that bound to the protein moiety of hepatic P450s to try to localize the active site. Subsequent studies used cDNA cloning, heterologous expression, site-directed mutagenesis, and homology modeling based on multiple bacterial P450 X-ray crystal structures to predict the active sites of CYP2B enzymes with considerable accuracy. Breakthroughs in engineering and expression of mammalian P450s enabled us to determine our first X-ray crystal structure of ligand-free rabbit CYP2B4. To date, we have solved 11 CYP2B4 and three human CYP2B6 structures, which represent four significantly different conformations. The plasticity of CYP2B4 has been confirmed by deuterium exchange mass spectrometry and is substantiated by molecular dynamics simulations. In addition to major movement of secondary structure elements, more subtle reorientation of active site side chains, especially Phe206, Phe297, and Glu301, contributes to the ability of CYP2B enzymes to bind various ligands. Isothermal titration calorimetry has proven to be a useful tool for studying the thermodynamics of ligand binding to CYP2B4 and CYP2B6, and NMR has enabled study of ligand binding orientation in solution as an adjunct to X-ray crystallography. A major challenge remains to harness the power of the various approaches to facilitate prediction of CYP2B specificity and inhibition. PMID:21502194

  8. The stress response of human proximal tubule cells to cadmium involves up-regulation of haemoxygenase 1 and metallothionein but not cytochrome P450 enzymes.

    PubMed

    Boonprasert, Kanyarat; Satarug, Soisungwan; Morais, Christudas; Gobe, Glenda C; Johnson, David W; Na-Bangchang, Kesara; Vesey, David A

    2016-05-13

    Enzymes of the cytochrome P450 (CYP) super-family are implicated in cadmium (Cd) -induced nephrotoxicity, however, direct evidence is lacking. This study investigated the endogenous expression of various CYP proteins together with the stress-response proteins, heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1) and metallothionein (MT) in human kidney sections and in cadmium-exposed primary cultures of human proximal tubular epithelial cells (PTC). By immunohistochemistry, the CYP members 2B6, 4A11 and 4F2 were prominently expressed in the cortical proximal tubular cells and to a lesser extent in distal tubular cells. Low levels of CYPs 2E1 and 3A4 were also detected. In PTC, in the absence of Cd, CYP2E1, CYP3A4, CYP4F2 and MT were expressed, but HO-1, CYP2B6 and CYP4A11 were not detected. A range of cadmium concentrations (0-100μM) were utilized to induce stress conditions. MT protein was further induced by as little as 0.5μM cadmium, reaching a 6-fold induction at 20μM, whereas for HO-1, a 5μM cadmium concentration was required for initial induction and at 20μM cadmium reached a 15-fold induction. The expression of CYP2E1, CYP3A4, and CYP4F2 were not altered by any cadmium concentrations tested at 48h. Cadmium caused a reduction in cell viability at concentrations above 10μM. In conclusion although cultured PTC, do express CYP proteins, (CYP2E1, CYP3A4, and CYP4F2), Cd-induced cell stress as indicted by induction of HO-1 and MT does not alter expression of these CYP proteins at 48h. PMID:27005776

  9. Impact of isomalathion on malathion cytotoxicity and genotoxicity in human HepaRG cells.

    PubMed

    Josse, Rozenn; Sharanek, Ahmad; Savary, Camille C; Guillouzo, Andre

    2014-02-25

    Isomalathion is a major impurity of technical grade malathion, one of the most abundantly applied insecticides; however little is known about its hepatotoxicity. In the present study, cytotoxicity and genotoxicity of malathion and isomalathion either individually or in combination, were assessed using the metabolically competent human liver HepaRG cell line. Isomalathion reduced cell viability starting at a 100 μM concentration after a 24h exposure. It also significantly induced caspase-3 activity in a dose-dependent manner starting at 5 μM. On the contrary, even at concentrations as high as 500 μM malathion affected neither cell viability nor caspase-3 activity. Moreover, co-exposure of both compounds resulted in decreased toxicity of isomalathion. By contrast, malathion and isomalathion either separately or in combination, slightly induced micronuclei formation at low concentrations and had additive genotoxic effects when combined at 25 μM. Individually or combined isomalathion directly inhibited activity of carboxyesterases which are involved in detoxication of malathion. In addition, transcripts of CYP2B6 and CYP3A4, two CYPs responsible for malathion phase I metabolism, were strongly induced by the mixture while isomalathion alone only moderately decreased CYP1A2 and increased CYP2B6 transcripts. However, these CYPs were not altered at the protein or activity levels. Taken altogether, our results showed that isomalathion was much more cytotoxic than malathion while both compounds had comparable genotoxic effects in HepaRG hepatocytes at low concentrations and brought further support to the importance of considering impurities and interactions during evaluation of health risks of pesticides. PMID:24333466

  10. Interactions of the hepatitis C virus protease inhibitor faldaprevir with cytochrome P450 enzymes: in vitro and in vivo correlation.

    PubMed

    Sabo, John P; Kort, Jens; Ballow, Charles; Kashuba, Angela D M; Haschke, Manuel; Battegay, Manuel; Girlich, Birgit; Ting, Naitee; Lang, Benjamin; Zhang, Wei; Cooper, Curtis; O'Brien, Drané; Seibert, Eleanore; Chan, Tom S; Tweedie, Donald; Li, Yongmei

    2015-04-01

    The potential inhibition of the major human cytochrome P450 (CYP) enzymes by faldaprevir was evaluated both in vitro and in clinical studies (healthy volunteers and hepatitis C virus [HCV] genotype 1-infected patients). In vitro studies indicated that faldaprevir inhibited CYP2B6, CYP2C9, and CYP3A, and was a weak-to-moderate inactivator of CYP3A4. Faldaprevir 240 mg twice daily in healthy volunteers demonstrated moderate inhibition of hepatic and intestinal CYP3A (oral midazolam: 2.96-fold increase in AUC(0-24 h)), weak inhibition of hepatic CYP3A (intravenous midazolam: 1.56-fold increase in AUC(0-24 h)), weak inhibition of CYP2C9 ([S]-warfarin: 1.29-fold increase in AUC(0-120 h)), and had no relevant effects on CYP1A2, CYP2B6, or CYP2D6. Faldaprevir 120 mg once daily in HCV-infected patients demonstrated weak inhibition of hepatic and intestinal CYP3A (oral midazolam: 1.52-fold increase in AUC(0-∞)), and had no relevant effects on CYP2C9 or CYP1A2. In vitro drug-drug interaction predictions based on inhibitor concentration ([I])/inhibition constant (Ki) ratios tended to overestimate clinical effects and a net-effect model provided a more accurate approach. These studies suggest that faldaprevir shows a dose-dependent inhibition of CYP3A and CYP2C9, and does not induce CYP isoforms. PMID:25449227

  11. The inhibition of major human hepatic cytochrome P450 enzymes by 18 pesticides: comparison of the N-in-one and single substrate approaches.

    PubMed

    Abass, Khaled; Pelkonen, Olavi

    2013-08-01

    In the present study on human hepatic microsomes, the N-in-one assay with ten probe substrates for nine cytochrome-P450 enzymes (CYPs) was compared with the single substrate assays to investigate pesticides-CYP interactions. CYP inhibition was measured by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC/MS-MS). As illustrated by the initial screening at 100 μM concentration of 18 pesticides, CYPs are more sensitive to organophosphates (OPs) than to other pesticide groups. Chlorpyrifos and fenitrothion were most effective in inhibiting CYP1A1/2, and CYP2B6. Profenofos was also inhibitory towards multiple CYPs. Pyrethroids, e.g. deltamethrin, fenvalerate and lambda-cyhalothrin, potently inhibited CYP2D6. CYP3A4 activity was moderately inhibited by fenvalerate and potently by alpha-cypermethrin. The correlations between IC50 values obtained from the N-in-one and single substrate approaches were highly significant for CYP2Cs (r(2)=0.94), CYP3A4, omeprazole-sulfoxidation, (r(2)=0.89), followed by CYP1A2 and CYP2B6 (r(2)=0.82), and CYP2D6 (r(2)=0.80). In contrast no correlation was observed with CYP2E1 and CYP3A4 (midazolam-1'-hydroxylation). The N-in-one screening assay seems useful and reliable for most CYP activities when a comprehensive and quick evaluation of potential interactions with CYPs is needed. However, at the present moment, it does not enable discrimination on the basis of mechanism of inhibition. A strict comparison between single and N-in-one assays is a prerequisite for more extensive routine use. PMID:22634058

  12. Cytochrome P450-mediated activation of the fragrance compound geraniol forms potent contact allergens

    SciTech Connect

    Hagvall, Lina; Baron, Jens Malte; Boerje, Anna; Weidolf, Lars; Merk, Hans; Karlberg, Ann-Therese

    2008-12-01

    Contact sensitization is caused by low molecular weight compounds which penetrate the skin and bind to protein. In many cases, these compounds are activated to reactive species, either by autoxidation on exposure to air or by metabolic activation in the skin. Geraniol, a widely used fragrance chemical, is considered to be a weak allergen, although its chemical structure does not indicate it to be a contact sensitizer. We have shown that geraniol autoxidizes and forms allergenic oxidation products. In the literature, it is suggested but not shown that geraniol could be metabolically activated to geranial. Previously, a skin-like CYP cocktail consisting of cutaneous CYP isoenzymes, was developed as a model system to study cutaneous metabolism. In the present study, we used this system to investigate CYP-mediated activation of geraniol. In incubations with the skin-like CYP cocktail, geranial, neral, 2,3-epoxygeraniol, 6,7-epoxygeraniol and 6,7-epoxygeranial were identified. Geranial was the main metabolite formed followed by 6,7-epoxygeraniol. The allergenic activities of the identified metabolites were determined in the murine local lymph node assay (LLNA). Geranial, neral and 6,7-epoxygeraniol were shown to be moderate sensitizers, and 6,7-epoxygeranial a strong sensitizer. Of the isoenzymes studied, CYP2B6, CYP1A1 and CYP3A5 showed high activities. It is likely that CYP1A1 and CYP3A5 are mainly responsible for the metabolic activation of geraniol in the skin, as they are expressed constitutively at significantly higher levels than CYP2B6. Thus, geraniol is activated through both autoxidation and metabolism. The allergens geranial and neral are formed via both oxidation mechanisms, thereby playing a large role in the sensitization to geraniol.

  13. Pharmacologic Evidence to Support Clinical Decision Making for Peripartum Methadone Treatment

    PubMed Central

    Bogen, D. L.; Perel, J. M.; Helsel, J. C.; Hanusa, B. H.; Romkes, M.; Nukui, T.; Friedman, C. R.; Wisner, K. L.

    2012-01-01

    Rationale Limited pharmacological data are available to guide methadone treatment during pregnancy and postpartum. Objectives Study goals were to: 1) Characterize changes in methadone dose across childbearing, 2) Determine enantiomer-specific methadone withdrawal kinetics from steady-state during late pregnancy, 3) Assess enantiomer-specific changes in methadone level/dose (L/D) ratios across childbearing, and 4) Explore relationships between CYP2B6, CYP2C19 and CYP3A4 single nucleotide polymorphisms and maternal dose, plasma concentration and L/D. Methods Methadone dose changes and timed plasma samples were obtained for women on methadone (n=25) followed prospectively from third trimester of pregnancy to three months postpartum. Results Participants were primarily white, Medicaid insured and multiparous. All women increased their dose from first to end of second trimester (mean peak increase=23 mg/day); 71% of women increased from second trimester to delivery (mean peak increase=19 mg/day). Half took a higher dose 3 months postpartum than at delivery despite significantly larger clearance during late pregnancy. Third trimester enantiomer-specific methadone half-lives (range R-methadone 14.7-24.9 hours; S-methadone 8.02-18.9 hours) were about half of those reported in non-pregnant populations. In 3 women with weekly 24-hour methadone levels after delivery, L/D increased within 1-2 weeks after delivery. Women with the CYP2B6 Q172 variant GT genotype have consistently higher L/D values for S-methadone across both pregnancy and postpartum. Conclusions Most women require increases in methadone dose across pregnancy. Given the shorter half-life and larger clearances during pregnancy, many pregnant women may benefit from split methadone dosing. L/D increases quickly after delivery and doses should be lowered rapidly after delivery. PMID:22926004

  14. Differences in Gene Regulation by Dual Ligands of Nuclear Receptors Constitutive Androstane Receptor (CAR) and Pregnane X Receptor (PXR) in HepG2 Cells Stably Expressing CAR/PXR.

    PubMed

    Kanno, Yuichiro; Tanuma, Nobuaki; Yazawa, Saki; Zhao, Shuai; Inaba, Miki; Nakamura, Satoshi; Nemoto, Kiyomitsu; Inouye, Yoshio

    2016-08-01

    The constitutive androstane receptor (CAR) and pregnane X receptor (PXR) regulate various genes involved in xenobiotics and drug metabolism. In many cases, CAR/PXR share ligands termed dual ligands of CAR/PXR. It is difficult to investigate the effect of CAR/PXR dual ligands in cell lines because CAR and PXR expression is scarcely detected in cultured cell lines. Here, we established a tetracycline-inducible human CAR and stably human PXR-overexpressing HepG2 cell line (HepTR/hCAR/hPXR) to examine CAR/PXR dual ligands. In the present study, we investigated the regulation of CYP2B6, CYP2C9, CYP3A4, and UDP-glucuronosyl transferase, which are target genes of CAR/PXR, by dual ligands of CAR/PXR in two transfectants. Activation of CAR and PXR in cells treated with a high dose of CITCO [6-(4-chlorophenyl)-imidazo(2,1-b)thiazole-5-carbaldehyde] or cotreated with rifampicin and tetracycline resulted in synergistic enhancement of CYP3A4, but not CYP2B6, CYP2C9, or UGT1A1, mRNA expression in HepTR/hCAR/hPXR cells. In contrast, this synergistic effect was not observed in HepTR/hCAR cells. These observations were also demonstrated in human primary hepatocytes. Taken together, our results suggest that dual ligands of CAR/PXR show distinct gene regulation patterns by cross-talk between CAR and PXR. Furthermore, the two newly established cell lines are useful tools to investigate dual ligands of CAR/PXR. PMID:27197997

  15. Plasma Efavirenz Concentrations Are Associated With Lipid and Glucose Concentrations.

    PubMed

    Sinxadi, Phumla Zuleika; McIlleron, Helen Margaret; Dave, Joel Alex; Smith, Peter John; Levitt, Naomi Sharlene; Haas, David William; Maartens, Gary

    2016-01-01

    Efavirenz-based antiretroviral therapy (ART) has been associated with dyslipidemia and dysglycemia, risk factors for cardiovascular disease. However, the pathogenesis is not well understood. We characterized relationships between plasma efavirenz concentrations and lipid and glucose concentrations in HIV-infected South Africans.Participants on efavirenz-based ART were enrolled into a cross-sectional study. The oral glucose tolerance test was performed after an overnight fast, and plasma drawn for mid-dosing interval efavirenz, fasting total cholesterol, low-density lipoprotein (LDL) and high-density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol, and triglycerides concentrations.Among 106 participants (77 women), median age was 38 years, median CD4 + T-cell count was 322 cells/μL, median duration on ART was 18 months, and median (interquartile range) efavirenz concentration was 2.23 (1.66 to 4.10) μg/mL. On multivariable analyses (adjusting for age, sex, body mass index, and ART duration) doubling of efavirenz concentrations resulted in mean changes in mmol/L (95%CI) of: total cholesterol (0.40 [0.22 to 0.59]), LDL cholesterol (0.19 [0.04 to 0.30]), HDL cholesterol (0.14 [0.07 to 0.20]), triglycerides (0.17 [0.03 to 0.33]), fasting glucose (0.18 [0.03 to 0.33]), and 2-h glucose concentrations (0.33 [0.08 to 0.60]). Among 57 participants with CYP2B6 genotype data, associations between slow metabolizer genotypes and metabolic profiles were generally consistent with those for measured efavirenz concentrations.Higher plasma efavirenz concentrations are associated with higher plasma lipid and glucose concentrations. This may have implications for long-term cardiovascular complications of efavirenz-based ART, particularly among populations with high prevalence of CYP2B6 slow metabolizer genotypes. PMID:26765416

  16. Differential activation of human constitutive androstane receptor and its SV23 and SV24 splice variants by rilpivirine and etravirine

    PubMed Central

    Sharma, Devinder; Lau, Aik Jiang; Sherman, Matthew A; Chang, Thomas K H

    2015-01-01

    Background and Purpose Rilpivirine and etravirine are second-generation non-nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors (NNRTIs) indicated for the treatment of HIV/AIDS. The constitutive androstane receptor (CAR) regulates the expression of genes involved in various biological processes, including the transport and biotransformation of drugs. We investigated the effect of rilpivirine and etravirine on the activity of the wild-type human CAR (hCAR-WT) and its hCAR-SV23 and hCAR-SV24 splice variants, and compared it with first-generation NNRTIs (efavirenz, nevirapine, and delavirdine). Experimental Approach Receptor activation, ligand-binding domain (LBD) transactivation, and co-activator recruitment were investigated in transiently transfected, NNRTI-treated HepG2 cells. Nuclear translocation of green fluorescent protein-tagged hCAR-WT and CYP2B6 gene expression were assessed in NNRTI-treated human hepatocytes. Key Results Rilpivirine and etravirine activated hCAR-WT, but not hCAR-SV23 or hCAR-SV24, and without transactivating the LBD or recruiting steroid receptor coactivators SRC-1, SRC-2, or SRC-3. Among the first-generation NNRTIs investigated, only efavirenz activated hCAR-WT, hCAR-SV23, and hCAR-SV24, but none of them transactivated the LBD of these receptors or substantively recruited SRC-1, SRC-2, or SRC-3. Rilpivirine, etravirine, and efavirenz triggered nuclear translocation of hCAR-WT and increased hCAR target gene (CYP2B6) expression. Conclusion and Implications NNRTIs activate hCAR-WT, hCAR-SV23, and hCAR-SV24 in a drug-specific and isoform-selective manner. The activation occurs by a mechanism that does not appear to involve binding to the LBD or recruitment of SRC-1, SRC-2, or SRC-3. PMID:25363652

  17. Cytochrome P{sub 450}-dependent toxic effects of primaquine on human erythrocytes

    SciTech Connect

    Ganesan, Shobana; Tekwani, Babu L.; Sahu, Rajnish; Tripathi, Lalit M.; Walker, Larry A.

    2009-11-15

    Primaquine, an 8-aminoquinoline, is the drug of choice for radical cure of relapsing malaria. Use of primaquine is limited due to its hemotoxicity, particularly in populations with glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase deficiency [G6PD(-)]. Biotransformation appears to be central to the anti-infective and hematological toxicities of primaquine, but the mechanisms are still not well understood. Metabolic studies with primaquine have been hampered due to the reactive nature of potential hemotoxic metabolites. An in vitro metabolism-linked hemotoxicity assay has been developed. Co-incubation of the drug with normal or G6PD(-) erythrocytes, microsomes or recombinant cytochrome P{sub 450} (CYP) isoforms has allowed in situ generation of potential hemotoxic metabolite(s), which interact with the erythrocytes to generate hemotoxicity. Methemoglobin formation, real-time generation of reactive oxygen intermediates (ROIs) and depletion of reactive thiols were monitored as multiple biochemical end points for hemotoxicity. Primaquine alone did not produce any hemotoxicity, while a robust increase was observed in methemoglobin formation and generation of ROIs by primaquine in the presence of human or mouse liver microsomes. Multiple CYP isoforms (CYP2E1, CYP2B6, CYP1A2, CYP2D6 and CYP3A4) variably contributed to the hemotoxicity of primaquine. This was further confirmed by significant inhibition of primaquine hemotoxicity by the selective CYP inhibitors, namely thiotepa (CYP2B6), fluoxetine (CYP2D6) and troleandomycin (CYP3A4). Primaquine caused similar methemoglobin formation in G6PD(-) and normal human erythrocytes. However, G6PD(-) erythrocytes suffered higher oxidative stress and depletion of thiols than normal erythrocytes due to primaquine toxicity. The results provide significant insights regarding CYP isoforms contributing to hemotoxicity and may be useful in controlling toxicity of primaquine to increase its therapeutic utility.

  18. Abnormal difference between the mobilities of left- and right-twisted conformations of C6H12N2 roto-symmetrical molecules at very low temperatures.

    PubMed

    Gabuda, S P; Kozlova, S G

    2015-06-21

    We report an abnormal difference of low-temperature mobility of left-twisted and right-twisted conformations of roto symmetric molecules C6H12N2 (dabco) located in the same positions in crystal Zn2(C8H4O4)2⋅C6H12N2. The difference between (1)H NMR (Nuclear Magnetic Resonance) spin-relaxation data for left-twisted and right-twisted molecules reaches ∼3 × 10(3) times at 8 K and tends to grow at lower temperatures. We argue that taking into account four-component relativistic Dirac wave functions in the vicinity of the nodal plane of dabco molecules and vacuum fluctuations due to virtual particle-antiparticle pairs can explain the changes which C6H12N2 conformations undergo at low temperatures. PMID:26093554

  19. Poly[[penta­aqua­(μ4-pyridine-2,4,6-tri­carboxyl­ato)(μ3-pyridine-2,4,6-tri­carboxyl­ato)disamarium(III)] mono­hydrate

    PubMed Central

    Jin, Yong-Wei; Zhu, Hong-lin

    2012-01-01

    The asymmetric unit of the title compound, {[Sm2(C8H2NO6)2(H2O)5]·H2O}n, contains two independent SmIII ions, two pyridine-2,4,6-tricarboxyl­ate (ptc) ligands, five aqua ligands and one lattice water mol­ecule. One SmIII ion is nine-coordinated by one N and five O atoms from the three ptc ligands and three aqua ligands in a distorted monocapped square antiprismatic geometry, and the other is eight-coordinated by one N and five O atoms from three ptc ligands and two aqua ligands in a 4,4′-bicapped trigonal anti­prismatic geometry. The ptc ligands brigde the SmIII ions into a three-dimensional polymeric framework. Extensive O—H⋯O hydrogen bonding is observed in the crystal structure. PMID:22412433

  20. Human metabolites of brevetoxin PbTx-2: Identification and confirmation of structure

    PubMed Central

    Guo, Fujiang; An, Tianying; Rein, Kathleen S.

    2010-01-01

    Four metabolites were identified upon incubation of brevetoxin (PbTx-2) with human liver microsomes. Chemical transformation of PbTx-2 confirmed the structures of three known metabolites BTX-B5, PbTx-9 and 41, 43-dihydro-BTX-B5 and a previously unknown metabolite, 41, 43-dihydro-PbTx-2. These metabolites were also observed upon incubation of PbTx-2 with nine human recombinant cytochrome P450s (1A1, 1A2, 2C8, 2C9, 2C19, 2D6, 2E1, 3A4 and 3A5). Cytochrome P450 3A4 produced oxidized metabolites while other CYPs generated the reduced products. PMID:20600229

  1. [μ-2-(4-Hy-droxy-phen-yl)acetato]-κO:O,O';κO,O':O'-bis-{aqua-(4,4'-bi-pyridine-κN)bis-[2-(4-hy-droxy-phen-yl)acetato-κO,O']holmium(III)} mono-hydrate.

    PubMed

    Liu, Jia-Lu; Liu, Jian-Feng; Zhao, Guo-Liang

    2011-01-01

    In the title dinuclear complex, [Ho(2)(C(8)H(7)O(3))(6)(C(10)H(8)N(2))(2)(H(2)O)(2)]·H(2)O, each of the two independent Ho(III) ions is coordinated by eight O atoms from four 4-hy-droxy-phenyl-acetate (HPAA) ligands and a water mol-ecule, and one N atom from a 4,4'-bipyridine (bipy) ligand in a distorted tricapped trigonal-prismatic geometry. The HPAA ligands are coordinated in bis-chelate, bridging and bridging tridentate modes. In the crystal, O-H⋯O and O-H⋯N hydrogen bonds link the mol-ecules into a three-dimensional network. PMID:21522861

  2. Bis[μ-4-(2-oxidobenzyl­idene)thio­semi­carbazidato-κ4 S,N 1,O:O]bis­[(pyridine-κN)zinc

    PubMed Central

    Takjoo, Reza; Dutkiewicz, Grzegorz; Ahmadi, Mehdi; Kubicki, Maciej

    2012-01-01

    In the title compound, [Zn2(C8H7N3OS)2(C5H5N)2], the Zn2O2 ring has a flattened roof shape, with the roof angle equal to 10.10 (6)°. The thio­semicarbazones act as tridentate ligands to one ZnII atom, with the O atoms additionally in bridging positions to the second ZnII atom. Both ZnII atoms are five-coordinated; the coordination polyhedra are close to square pyramids, with the pyridine N atoms at apical positions. Two inter­molecular N—H⋯N and one relatively weak N—H⋯S hydrogen bond, together with C—H⋯S weak inter­actions, connect the mol­ecules into a three-dimensional network. PMID:22346799

  3. In vitro inhibition of multiple cytochrome P450 isoforms by xanthone derivatives from mangosteen extract.

    PubMed

    Foti, Robert S; Pearson, Josh T; Rock, Dan A; Wahlstrom, Jan L; Wienkers, Larry C

    2009-09-01

    Mangosteen is a xanthone-containing fruit found in Southeast Asia for which health claims include maintaining healthy immune and gastrointestinal systems to slowing the progression of tumor growth and neurodegenerative diseases. Previous studies have identified multiple xanthones in the pericarp of the mangosteen fruit. The aim of the current study was to assess the drug inhibition potential of mangosteen in vitro as well as the cytochrome P450 (P450) enzymes responsible for the metabolism of its individual components. The various xanthone derivatives were found to be both substrates and inhibitors for multiple P450 isoforms. Aqueous extracts of the mangosteen pericarp were analyzed for xanthone content as well as inhibition potency. Finally, in vivo plasma concentrations of alpha-mangostin, the most abundant xanthone derivative found in mangosteen, were predicted using Simcyp and found to be well above their respective in vitro K(i) values for CYP2C8 and CYP2C9. PMID:19541824

  4. Origin of human chromosome 2: An ancestral telomere-telomere fusion

    SciTech Connect

    Ijdo, J.W.; Baldini, A.; Ward, D.C.; Reeders, S.T.; Wells, R.A. )

    1991-10-15

    The authors identified two allelic genomic cosmids from human chromosome 2, c8.1 and c29B, each containing two inverted arrays of the vertebrate telomeric repeat in a head-to-head arrangement, 5{prime}(TTAGGG){sub n}-(CCCTAA){sub m}3{prime}. Sequences flanking this telomeric repeat are characteristic of present-day human pretelomeres. BAL-31 nuclease experiments with yeast artificial chromosome clones of human telomeres and fluorescence in situ hybridization reveal that sequences flanking these inverted repeats hybridize both to band 2q13 and to different, but overlapping, subsets of human chromosome ends. They conclude that the locus cloned in cosmids c8.1 and c29B is the relic of an ancient telomere-telomere fusion and marks the point at which two ancestral ape chromosomes fused to give rise to human chromosome 2.

  5. New Energetic Derivatives of 1-Amino-3-Nitroguanidine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Bo; Yang, Hongwei; Tang, Yongxing; Wang, Zhixin; Lu, Chunxu; Cheng, Guangbin

    2015-07-01

    Two new energetic derivatives of 1-amino-3-nitroguanidine were synthesized. The furoxan moiety and 2,4,6-trinitrophenyl moiety were introduced to the nitroguanidine frame. The resulting compounds 3-methyl-4-((2-(N‧-nitrocarbamimidoyl)hydrazono)methyl)-1,2,5-oxadiazole-2-oxide (1, C5H7N7O4) and N‧-nitro-2-(2,4,6-trinitrobenzylidene)hydrazinecarboximidamide (2, C8H6N8O8) were characterized by infrared (IR) spectroscopy, multinuclear nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy, differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), thermogravimetry (TG), as well as elemental analysis. The structure of 1 was confirmed by X-ray diffraction. Both compounds possess good thermal stability with the decomposition onset temperature above 180°C. Their sensitivity and explosive properties were investigated by experimental and theoretical methods.

  6. Bis(ethyl­enediamine-κ2 N,N′)bis­(methanol-κO)copper(II) benzene-1,4-dicarboxyl­ate methanol disolvate

    PubMed Central

    Abbaszadeh, Abolfazl; Safari, Nasser; Amani, Vahid; Notash, Behrouz

    2012-01-01

    In the cation of the title compound, [Cu(C2H8N2)2(CH3OH)2](C8H4O4)·2CH3OH, the CuII atom lies on an inversion centre. The four N atoms of two ethyl­enediamine ligands around the CuII atom form the equatorial plane, while two methanol O atoms in the axial positions complete a Jahn–Teller distorted octa­hedral coordination. The benzene-1,4-dicarboxyl­ate anion is centrosymmetric. In the crystal, C—H⋯O, N—H⋯O and O—H⋯O hydrogen bonds link the cations, the anions and the methanol solvent mol­ecules. PMID:22807708

  7. Twenty years of continuous high time resolution volatile organic compound monitoring in the United Kingdom from 1993 to 2012

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Derwent, R. G.; Dernie, J. I. R.; Dollard, G. J.; Dumitrean, P.; Mitchell, R. F.; Murrells, T. P.; Telling, S. P.; Field, R. A.

    2014-12-01

    Continuous, high frequency observations of C2 - C8 hydrocarbons began in the United Kingdom in 1993 and have continued through to the present day at a range of kerbside, urban background and rural locations. Most of the monitored hydrocarbons have shown dramatic declines in concentrations over the study period, with present levels close to an order of magnitude below their levels in the 1990s. The concentrations of 23 selected hydrocarbons have been aggregated up to give an estimate of the total VOC concentrations. These annual values have shown an exponential decline of -18% yr-1 at the London Marylebone Road kerbside site, -11% yr-1 at the London Eltham urban background site and -22% yr-1 at the rural Harwell site. Similar declines have been reported in UK road transport VOC emissions, demonstrating how the VOC emission inventories have apparently captured the salient features influencing real-world VOC emissions over the 1994-2012 period.

  8. The ultraviolet photochemistry of diacetylene - Direct detection of primary products of the metastable C4H2* + C4H2 reaction

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bandy, Ralph E.; Lakshminarayan, Chitra; Frost, Rex K.; Zwier, Timothy S.

    1993-01-01

    The products of diacetylene's ultraviolet photochemistry over the 245-220 nm region were directly determined in experiments where C4H2 was excited within a small reaction tube attached to a pulsed nozzle. The products formed in the collisions of C4H2* with C4H2 were subsequently ionized by vacuum UV radiation (at 118 nm) in the ion source of a time-of-flight mass spectrometer. It was found that the reaction of C4H2* with C4H2 produces C6H2 (+C2H2), C8H2 (+2H,H2), and C8H3 (+H), confirming the results of Glicker and Okabe (1987). Under certain conditions, secondary products were observed. Mechanisms for the observed reactions are proposed.

  9. Bis(tetra­ethyl­ammonium) oxalate dihydrate

    PubMed Central

    McNeese, Timothy J.; Pike, Robert D.

    2012-01-01

    The title compound, 2C8H20N+·C2O4 2−·2H2O, synthesized by neutralizing H2C2O4·2H2O with (C2H5)4NOH in a 1:2 molar ratio, is a deliquescent solid. The oxalate ion is nonplanar, with a dihedral angle between carboxyl­ate groups of 64.37 (2)°. O—H⋯O hydrogen bonds of moderate strength link the O atoms of the water mol­ecules and the oxalate ions into rings parallel to the c axis. The rings exhibit the graph-set motif R 4 4(12). In addition, there are weak C—H⋯O inter­actions in the crystal structure. PMID:22904842

  10. Bis[μ-2-(4-hy­droxy­phen­yl)acetato]-κ3 O,O′:O;κ3 O:O,O′-bis­{aqua­(4,4′-bipyridine-κN)bis­[2-(4-hy­droxy­phen­yl)acetato-κ2 O,O′]thulium(III)} mono­hydrate

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Jia-Lu; Liu, Jian-Feng; Zhao, Guo-Liang

    2010-01-01

    In the title dinuclear complex, [Tm2(C8H7O3)6(C10H8N2)2(H2O)2]·H2O, the TmIII atoms are coordinated by eight O atoms from four 2-(4-hy­droxy­phen­yl)acetate (HPAA) ligands and a water mol­ecule, and one N atom from a 4,4′-bipyridine ligand in a distorted tricapped trigonal–prismatic geometry. While four of the HPAA ligands coordinate to just one Tm atom, the remaining two HPAA ligands bridge the two Tm atoms. In the crystal, O—H⋯O and O—H⋯N hydrogen bonds link the mol­ecules into a three-dimensional network. PMID:21588910

  11. Structural properties of a holmium iron carbide interstitial compound, Ho[sub 2]Fe[sub 17]C[sub 3-x

    SciTech Connect

    Bocelli, G.; Calestani, G. ); Leccabue, F.; Watts, B.E. ); Sanchez, J.L. )

    1993-01-01

    X-ray diffractometric studies were performed on a single-crystalline specimen of the Ho[sub 2]Fe[sub 17]C[sub 3-x] intermetallic alloy. Its crystal data (for x > 2) are a = 8.521 (2), c = 8.309 (2) [angstrom], V = 522.5 [angstrom][sup 3], hexagonal space group P6[sub 3]/mmc. The crystal structure, solved by direct methods, was refined to a final agreement factor R of 0.045. The atoms are distributed in two layers perpendicular to the z axis: while one is composed only of iron atoms forming regular hexagonal nets, the insertion of carbons in the second layer deforms the hexagonal nets which contain holmium atoms in their centers. 19 refs., 3 figs., 2 tabs.

  12. Epoxyeicosatrienoic acids attenuate cigarette smoke extract-induced interleukin-8 production in bronchial epithelial cells.

    PubMed

    Ma, Wen-Jiang; Sun, Yan-Hong; Jiang, Jun-Xia; Dong, Xin-Wei; Zhou, Jian-Ying; Xie, Qiang-Min

    2015-03-01

    In response to endothelial cell activation, arachidonic acid can be converted by cytochrome P450 (CYP) epoxygenases to epoxyeicosatrienoic acids (EETs), which have potent vasodilator and anti-inflammatory properties. In this study, we investigated the effects of exogenous EETs on cigarette smoke extract (CSE)-induced inflammation in human bronchial epithelial cells (NCI-H292). We found that CSE inhibited the expression of CYP2C8 and mildly stimulated the expression of epoxide hydrolase 2 (EPHX2) but did not change the expression of CYP2J2. Treatment with 11,12-EET or 14,15-EET attenuated the CSE-induced release of interleukin (IL)-8 by inhibiting the phosphorylation of p38 mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPKs). Our results demonstrated that CSE may reduce the anti-inflammatory ability of epithelial cells themselves by lowering the EET level. EETs from pulmonary epithelial cells may play a critical protective role on epithelial cell injury. PMID:25467970

  13. Poly[[di-μ-aqua-(μ-4-formyl-2-meth­oxy­phenol­ato)disodium] 4-formyl-2-meth­oxy­phenolate

    PubMed Central

    Asghar, Muhammad Nadeem; Şahin, Onur; Arshad, Muhammad Nadeem; Mazhar, Uzma; Khan, Islam Ullah; Büyükgüngör, Orhan

    2010-01-01

    In the title coordination polymer, {[Na2(C8H7O3)(H2O)4](C8H7O3)}n, all the non-H atoms except the water O atoms lie on a crystallographic mirror plane. One sodium cation is bonded to four water O atoms and one vanillinate O atom in a distorted square-based pyramidal arrangement; the other Na+ ion is six-coordinated by four water O atoms and two vanillinate O atoms in an irregular geometry. One of the vanillinate anions is directly bonded to two sodium ions, whilst the other only inter­acts with the polymeric network by way of hydrogen bonds. In the crystal, a two-dimensional polymeric array is formed; this is reinforced by O—H⋯O hydrogen bonds, which generate R 2 1(6) and R 2 2(20) loops. PMID:21579628

  14. Oxidative desulfurization of fuels catalyzed by Fenton-like ionic liquids at room temperature.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Yunqing; Zhu, Wenshuai; Li, Huaming; Yin, Sheng; Liu, Hua; Xie, Qingjie

    2011-03-21

    Oxidation of the sulfur-containing compounds benzothiophene (BT), dibenzothiophene (DBT), and 4,6-dimethyldibenzothiophene (4,6-DMDBT) has been studied in a desulfurization system composed of model oil, hydrogen peroxide, and different types of ionic liquids [(C(8)H(17))(3)CH(3)N]Cl/FeCl(3), [(C(8)H(17))(3)CH(3)N]Cl/CuCl(2), [(C(8)H(17))(3)CH(3)N]Cl/ZnCl(2), [(C(8)H(17))(3)CH(3)N]Cl/SnCl(2), [(C(4)H(9))(3)CH(3)N]Cl/FeCl(3), [C(10)H(21)(CH(3))(3)N]Cl/FeCl(3), [(C(10)H(21))(2)(CH(3))(2)N]Cl/FeCl(3). Deep desulfurization is achieved in the Fenton-like ionic liquid [(C(8)H(17))(3)CH(3)N]Cl/FeCl(3) at 25 °C for 1 h. The desulfurization of DBT reaches 97.9%, in consuming very low amount of [(C(8)H(17))(3)CH(3)N]Cl/FeCl(3) (only 0.702 mmol). The reaction conditions, for example, the amount of [(C(8)H(17))(3)CH(3)N]Cl/FeCl(3) or H(2)O(2), the temperature, and the molar ratio of FeCl(3) to [(C(8)H(17))(3)CH(3)N]Cl, are investigated for this system. The oxidation reactivity of the different sulfur-containing compounds is found to decrease in the order of DBT>BT>4,6-DMDBT. The desulfurization system can be recycled six times without significant decrease in activity. The sulfur level of FCC gasoline could be reduced from 360 ppm to 110 ppm. PMID:21394927

  15. Molecular dynamics investigations of regioselectivity of anionic/aromatic substrates by a family of enzymes: a case study of diclofenac binding in CYP2C isoforms.

    PubMed

    Cui, Ying-Lu; Xu, Fang; Wu, Rongling

    2016-06-29

    The CYP2C subfamily is of particular importance in the metabolism of drugs, food toxins, and procarcinogens. Like other P450 subfamilies, 2C enzymes share a high sequence identity, but significantly contribute in different ways to hepatic capacity to metabolize drugs. They often metabolize the same substrate to more than one product with different catalytic sites. Because it is challenging to characterize experimentally, much still remains unknown about the reason for why the substrate regioselectivity of these closely related subfamily members is different. Here, we have investigated the structural features of CYP2C8, CYP2C9, and CYP2C19 bound with their shared substrate diclofenac to elucidate the underlying molecular mechanism for the substrate regioselectivity of CYP2C subfamily enzymes. The obtained results demonstrate how a sequence divergence for the active site residues causes heterogeneous variations in the secondary structures and in major tunnel selections, and further affects the shape and chemical properties of the substrate-binding site. Structural analysis and free energy calculations showed that the most important determinants of regioselectivity among the CYP2C isoforms are the geometrical features of the active sites, as well as the hydrogen bonds and the hydrophobic interactions, mainly presenting as the various locations of Arg108 and substitutions of Phe205 for Ile205 in CYP2C8. The MM-GB/SA calculations combined with PMF results accord well with the experimental KM values, bridging the gap between the theory and the experimentally observed results of binding affinity differences. The present study provides important insights into the structure-function relationships of CYP2C subfamily enzymes, the knowledge of ligand binding characteristics and key residue contributions could guide future experimental and computational work on the synthesis of drugs with better pharmacokinetic properties so that CYP interactions could be avoided. PMID:27302079

  16. Preparation and characterization of a stable BHK-21 cell line constitutively expressing the Schmallenberg virus nucleocapsid protein.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yongning; Wu, Shaoqiang; Song, Shanshan; Lv, Jizhou; Feng, Chunyan; Lin, Xiangmei

    2015-08-01

    Schmallenberg virus (SBV) is a newly emerged orthobunyavirus that predominantly infects livestock such as cattle, sheep, and goats. Its nucleocapsid (N) protein is an ideal target antigen for SBV diagnosis. In this study, a stable BHK-21 cell line, BHK-21-EGFP-SBV-N, constitutively expressing the SBV N protein was obtained using a lentivector-mediated gene transfer system combined with puromycin selection. To facilitate the purification of recombinant SBV N protein, the coding sequence for a hexa-histidine tag was introduced into the C-terminus of the SBV N gene during construction of the recombinant lentivirus vector pLV-EGFP-SBV-N. The BHK-21-EGFP-SBV-N cell line was demonstrated to spontaneously emit strong enhanced green fluorescent protein (EGFP) signals that exhibited a discrete punctate distribution throughout the cytoplasm. SBV N mRNA and protein expression in this cell line were detected by real-time RT-PCR and western blot, respectively. The expressed recombinant SBV N protein carried an N-terminal EGFP tag, and was successfully purified using Ni-NTA agarose by means of its C-terminal His tag. The purified SBV N protein could be recognized by SBV antisera and an anti-SBV monoclonal antibody (mAb) 2C8 in an indirect enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay and western blot analyses. Indirect immunofluorescence assays further demonstrated that the stable cell line reacts with SBV antisera and mAb 2C8. These results suggest that the generated cell line has the potential to be used in the serological diagnosis of SBV. PMID:26013296

  17. Phase I Study of Pazopanib in Combination with Weekly Paclitaxel in Patients with Advanced Solid Tumors

    PubMed Central

    Dowlati, Afshin; Jones, Suzanne F.; Infante, Jeffrey R.; Nishioka, Jennifer; Fang, Lei; Hodge, Jeffrey P.; Gainer, Shelby D.; Arumugham, Thangam; Suttle, A. Benjamin; Dar, Mohammed M.; Lager, Joanne J.; Burris, Howard A.

    2010-01-01

    Purpose. To evaluate the maximum tolerated regimen (MTR), dose-limiting toxicities, and pharmacokinetics of pazopanib, an oral small-molecule tyrosine kinase inhibitor of vascular endothelial growth factor receptor, platelet-derived growth factor receptor, and c-Kit, in combination with paclitaxel. Patients and Methods. Pazopanib was given daily with weekly paclitaxel on days 1, 8, and 15 every 28 days. Dose levels of pazopanib (mg/day)/paclitaxel (mg/m2) were 400/15, 800/15, 800/50, and 800/80. An expanded cohort was enrolled at the MTR. Plasma samples were collected to evaluate the effect of pazopanib, an inhibitor of cytochrome P450 (CYP)3A4, on the pharmacokinetics of paclitaxel, a CYP3A4 and CYP2C8 substrate. Results. Of 26 enrolled patients, 17 were treated at the MTR of 800 mg pazopanib and 80 mg/m2 paclitaxel. Dose-limiting toxicities included a grade 3 abscess and grade 2 hyperbilirubinemia. Other toxicities included elevated liver transaminases and diarrhea. Six patients (23%) had partial responses and 15 patients (58%) had stable disease. Administration of 800 mg pazopanib resulted in a 14% lower paclitaxel clearance and a 31% higher paclitaxel maximal concentration than with administration of paclitaxel alone at 15, 50, and 80 mg/m2. At the MTR, coadministration of 800 mg pazopanib and 80 mg/m2 paclitaxel resulted in a 26% higher geometric mean paclitaxel area under the curve. Conclusion. Pazopanib, at a dose of 800 mg daily, can be safely combined with a therapeutic dose of paclitaxel at 80 mg/m2 when administered on days 1, 8, and 15, every 28 days. The observed greater plasma concentrations of paclitaxel given concurrently with pazopanib suggest that pazopanib is a weak inhibitor of CYP3A4 and CYP2C8. PMID:21147873

  18. Urinary F2-isoprostanes and metabolic markers of fat oxidation.

    PubMed

    Il'yasova, Dora; Wagenknecht, Lynne E; Spasojevic, Ivan; Watkins, Steven; Bowden, Donald; Wang, Frances; D'Agostino, Ralph B

    2015-01-01

    Metabolomic studies of increased fat oxidation showed increase in circulating acylcarnitines C2, C8, C10, and C12 and decrease in C3, C4, and C5. We hypothesize that urinary F2-isoprostanes reflect intensity of fatty acid oxidation and are associated with circulating C2, C8, C10, and C12 directly and with C3, C4, and C5 inversely. Four urinary F2-isoprostane isomers and serum acylcarnitines are quantified using LC-MS/MS within the Insulin Resistance Atherosclerosis Study nondiabetic cohort (n = 682). Cross-sectional associations between fasting urinary F2-isoprostanes (summarized as a composite index) and the selected acylcarnitines are examined using generalized linear models. F2-isoprostane index is associated with C2 and C12 directly and with C5 inversely: the adjusted beta coefficients are 0.109, 0.072, and -0.094, respectively (P < 0.05). For these acylcarnitines and for F2-isoprostanes, the adjusted odds ratios (ORs) of incident diabetes are calculated from logistic regression models: the ORs (95% CI) are 0.77 (0.60-0.97), 0.79 (0.62-1.01), 1.18 (0.92-1.53), and 0.51 (0.35-0.76) for C2, C12, C5, and F2-isoprostanes, respectively. The direction of the associations between urinary F2-isoprostanes and three acylcarnitines (C2, C5, and C12) supports our hypothesis. The inverse associations of C2 and C12 and with incident diabetes are consistent with the suggested protective role of efficient fat oxidation. PMID:25802683

  19. Crystal structures of the potassium and rubidium salts of (3,5-di­chloro­phen­oxy)acetic acid: two isotypic coordination polymers

    PubMed Central

    Smith, Graham

    2015-01-01

    The two-dimensional coordination polymeric structures of the hydrated potassium and rubidium salts of (3,5-di­chloro­phen­oxy)acetic acid (3,5-D), namely, poly[μ-aqua-bis­[μ3-2-(3,5-di­chloro­phen­oxy)acetato]­dipotassium], [K2(C8H5Cl2O3)2(H2O)]n, and poly[μ-aqua-bis­[μ3-2-(3,5-di­chloro­phen­oxy)acetato]­dirubidium], [Rb2(C8H5Cl2O3)2(H2O)]n, respectively, have been determined and are described. The two compounds are isotypic and the polymeric structure is based on centrosymmetric dinuclear bridged complex units. The irregular six-coordination about the alkali cations comprises a bridging water mol­ecule lying on a twofold rotation axis, the phen­oxy O-atom donor and a triple bridging carboxyl­ate O atom of the oxo­acetate side chain of the 3,5-D ligand, and the second carb­oxy­ate O-atom donor also bridging. The K—O and Rb—O bond-length ranges are 2.7238 (15)–2.9459 (14) and 2.832 (2)–3.050 (2) Å, respectively, and the K⋯K and Rb⋯Rb separations in the dinuclear units are 4.0214 (7) and 4.1289 (6) Å, respectively. Within the layers which lie parallel to (100), the coordinating water mol­ecule forms an O—H⋯O hydrogen bond to the single bridging carboxyl­ate O atom. PMID:26594400

  20. Inhibition of human cytochrome P450 enzymes by hops (Humulus lupulus) and hop prenylphenols

    PubMed Central

    Nikolić, Dejan; Chen, Shao-Nong; Huang, Ke; Li, Guannan; Pauli, Guido F.; van Breemen, Richard B.

    2014-01-01

    As hops (Humulus lupulus L.) are used in the brewing of beer and by menopausal women as estrogenic dietary supplements, the potential for hop extracts and hop constituents to cause drug-botanical interactions by inhibiting human cytochrome P450 enzymes was investigated. Inhibition of major human cytochrome P450 enzymes by a standardized hop extract and isolated hop prenylated phenols was evaluated using a fast and efficient assay based on ultrahigh pressure liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry. The hop extract at 5 μg/mL inhibited CYP2C8 (93%), CYP2C9 (88%), CYP2C19 (70%), and CYP1A2 (27%) with IC50 values of 0.8, 0.9, 3.3, and 9.4 μg/mL, respectively, but time-dependent inactivation was observed only for CYP1A2. Isoxanthohumol from hops was the most potent inhibitor of CYP2C8 with an IC50 of 0.2 μM, whereas 8-prenylnaringenin was the most potent inhibitor of CYP1A2, CYP2C9 and CYP2C19 with IC50 values of 1.1 μM, 1.1 μM and 0.4 μM, respectively. Extracts of hops contain prenylated compounds such as the flavanones isoxanthohumol and 8-prenylnaringenin and the chalcone xanthohumol that can inhibit CYP450s, especially the CYP2C family, which may affect the efficacy and safety of some CYP2C substrate drugs when co-administered. PMID:24342125

  1. Inhibition of human cytochrome P450 enzymes by hops (Humulus lupulus) and hop prenylphenols.

    PubMed

    Yuan, Yang; Qiu, Xi; Nikolić, Dejan; Chen, Shao-Nong; Huang, Ke; Li, Guannan; Pauli, Guido F; van Breemen, Richard B

    2014-03-12

    As hops (Humulus lupulus L.) are used in the brewing of beer and by menopausal women as estrogenic dietary supplements, the potential for hop extracts and hop constituents to cause drug-botanical interactions by inhibiting human cytochrome P450 enzymes was investigated. Inhibition of major human cytochrome P450 enzymes by a standardized hop extract and isolated hop prenylated phenols was evaluated using a fast and efficient assay based on ultrahigh pressure liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry. The hop extract at 5 μg/mL inhibited CYP2C8 (93%), CYP2C9 (88%), CYP2C19 (70%), and CYP1A2 (27%) with IC50 values of 0.8, 0.9, 3.3, and 9.4 μg/mL, respectively, but time-dependent inactivation was observed only for CYP1A2. Isoxanthohumol from hops was the most potent inhibitor of CYP2C8 with an IC50 of 0.2 μM, whereas 8-prenylnaringenin was the most potent inhibitor of CYP1A2, CYP2C9 and CYP2C19 with IC50 values of 1.1 μM, 1.1 μM and 0.4 μM, respectively. Extracts of hops contain prenylated compounds such as the flavanones isoxanthohumol and 8-prenylnaringenin and the chalcone xanthohumol that can inhibit CYP450s, especially the CYP2C family, which may affect the efficacy and safety of some CYP2C substrate drugs when co-administered. PMID:24342125

  2. Crystal structures of the potassium and rubidium salts of (3,5-di-chloro-phen-oxy)acetic acid: two isotypic coordination polymers.

    PubMed

    Smith, Graham

    2015-10-01

    The two-dimensional coordination polymeric structures of the hydrated potassium and rubidium salts of (3,5-di-chloro-phen-oxy)acetic acid (3,5-D), namely, poly[μ-aqua-bis-[μ3-2-(3,5-di-chloro-phen-oxy)acetato]-dipotassium], [K2(C8H5Cl2O3)2(H2O)] n , and poly[μ-aqua-bis-[μ3-2-(3,5-di-chloro-phen-oxy)acetato]-dirubidium], [Rb2(C8H5Cl2O3)2(H2O)] n , respectively, have been determined and are described. The two compounds are isotypic and the polymeric structure is based on centrosymmetric dinuclear bridged complex units. The irregular six-coordination about the alkali cations comprises a bridging water mol-ecule lying on a twofold rotation axis, the phen-oxy O-atom donor and a triple bridging carboxyl-ate O atom of the oxo-acetate side chain of the 3,5-D ligand, and the second carb-oxy-ate O-atom donor also bridging. The K-O and Rb-O bond-length ranges are 2.7238 (15)-2.9459 (14) and 2.832 (2)-3.050 (2) Å, respectively, and the K⋯K and Rb⋯Rb separations in the dinuclear units are 4.0214 (7) and 4.1289 (6) Å, respectively. Within the layers which lie parallel to (100), the coordinating water mol-ecule forms an O-H⋯O hydrogen bond to the single bridging carboxyl-ate O atom. PMID:26594400

  3. Oxidation of Acenaphthene and Acenaphthylene by Human Cytochrome P450 Enzymes

    PubMed Central

    Shimada, Tsutomu; Takenaka, Shigeo; Murayama, Norie; Yamazaki, Hiroshi; Kim, Joo-Hwan; Kim, Donghak; Yoshimoto, Francis K.; Guengerich, F. Peter; Komori, Masayuki

    2016-01-01

    Acenaphthene and acenaphthylene, two known environmental polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) pollutants, were incubated at 50 µM concentrations in a standard reaction mixture with human P450s 2A6, 2A13, 1B1, 1A2, 2C9, and 3A4 and the oxidation products were determined using HPLC and LC-MS. HPLC analysis showed that P450 2A6 converted acenaphthene and acenaphthylene to several mono- and di-oxygenated products. LC-MS analysis of acenaphthene oxidation by P450s indicated the formation of 1-acenaphthenol as a major product, with turnover rates of 6.7, 4.5, and 3.6 nmol product formed/min/nmol P450 for P450 2A6, 2A13, and 1B1, respectively. Acenaphthylene oxidation by P450 2A6 showed the formation of 1,2-epoxyacenaphthene as a major product (4.4 nmol epoxide formed/min/nmol P450) and also several mono- and di-oxygenated products. P450 2A13, 1B1, 1A2, 2C9, and 3A4 formed 1,2-epoxyacenaphthene at rates of 0.18, 5.3 2.4, 0.16, and 3.8 nmol/min nmol P450, respectively. 1-Acenaphthenol, which induced Type I binding spectra with P450 2A13, was further oxidized by P450 2A13 but not P450 2A6. 1,2-Epoxyacenaphthene induced Type I binding spectra with P450 2A6 and 2A13 (Ks 1.8 and 0.16 µM, respectively) and was also oxidized to several oxidation products by these P450s. Molecular docking analysis suggested different orientations of acenaphthene, acenaphthylene, 1-acenaphthenol, and 1,2-epoxyacenaphthene in their interactions with P450 2A6 and 2A13. Neither these four PAHs induced umu gene expression in a Salmonella typhimurium NM tester strain. These results suggest, for the first time, that acenaphthene and acenaphthylene are oxidized by human P450s 2A6 and 2A13 and other P450s to form several mono- and di-oxygenated products. The results are of use in considering the biological and toxicological significance of these environmental PAHs in humans. PMID:25642975

  4. 24 CFR 700.120 - Eligible supportive services.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... be utilized. (2) Hot meals. At least one meal a day must be hot. A hot meal for the purpose of this... requirements of conditions such as diabetes and hypertension. Grantees should attempt to meet the dietary needs... agricultural commodities as set forth in section 802(d)(2)(A). (6) Preference for nutrition providers:...

  5. 7 CFR 1944.255 - Eligible supportive services.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... utilized. (2) Hot meals. At least one meal a day must be hot. A hot meal for the purpose of this program is... conditions such as diabetes and hypertension. Grantees should attempt to meet the dietary needs of varying... commodities as set forth in section 802(d)(2)(A). (6) Preference for nutrition providers: In contracting...

  6. 7 CFR 1944.255 - Eligible supportive services.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... utilized. (2) Hot meals. At least one meal a day must be hot. A hot meal for the purpose of this program is... conditions such as diabetes and hypertension. Grantees should attempt to meet the dietary needs of varying... commodities as set forth in section 802(d)(2)(A). (6) Preference for nutrition providers: In contracting...

  7. 7 CFR 1944.255 - Eligible supportive services.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... utilized. (2) Hot meals. At least one meal a day must be hot. A hot meal for the purpose of this program is... conditions such as diabetes and hypertension. Grantees should attempt to meet the dietary needs of varying... commodities as set forth in section 802(d)(2)(A). (6) Preference for nutrition providers: In contracting...

  8. 7 CFR 1944.255 - Eligible supportive services.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... utilized. (2) Hot meals. At least one meal a day must be hot. A hot meal for the purpose of this program is... conditions such as diabetes and hypertension. Grantees should attempt to meet the dietary needs of varying... commodities as set forth in section 802(d)(2)(A). (6) Preference for nutrition providers: In contracting...

  9. Simultaneous Communication: An Alternative to Speech Training with Autistic Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Konstantareas, M. Mary

    1977-01-01

    A similtaneous verbal and gestural approach to communication was used with 11 autistic children (5 to 10 years old). Available from: Journal of Practical Approaches to Developmental Handicap, 3304-33rd Street N.W., Calgary, Alberta, Canada T2L 2A6. (SBH)

  10. 5 CFR 1651.9 - Participant's next of kin.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... Participant's next of kin. If the account is to be paid to the participant's next of kin under § 1651.2(a)(6), the next of kin of the participant will be determined in accordance with the state law of the... 5 Administrative Personnel 3 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Participant's next of kin. 1651.9...

  11. 77 FR 26604 - Progressive Rail, Incorporated-Lease and Operation Exemption-Rail Line of Union Pacific Railroad...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-05-04

    ... containing a significant interchange commitment to be processed under the Board's class exemption procedures... commitment and, if it did not, why such a provision became necessary eight years later. The Board needs to... importance. 49 CFR 1011.2(a)(6). Accordingly, the Board revokes the delegation to the Director with...

  12. 5 CFR 1651.9 - Participant's next of kin.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Participant's next of kin. 1651.9 Section... Participant's next of kin. If the account is to be paid to the participant's next of kin under § 1651.2(a)(6... participant's domicile at the time of death....

  13. Key Residues Controlling Phenacetin Metabolism By Human Cytochrome P450 2A Enzymes

    SciTech Connect

    DeVore, N.M.; Smith, B.D.; Urban, M.J.; Scott, E.E.

    2009-05-14

    Although the human lung cytochrome P450 2A13 (CYP2A13) and its liver counterpart cytochrome P450 2A6 (CYP2A6) are 94% identical in amino acid sequence, they metabolize a number of substrates with substantially different efficiencies. To determine differences in binding for a diverse set of cytochrome P450 2A ligands, we have measured the spectral binding affinities (K{sub D}) for nicotine, phenethyl isothiocyanate (PEITC), coumarin, 2{prime}-methoxyacetophenone (MAP), and 8-methoxypsoralen. The differences in the K{sub D} values for CYP2A6 versus CYP2A13 ranged from 74-fold for 2{prime}-methoxyacetophenone to 1.1-fold for coumarin, with CYP2A13 demonstrating the higher affinity. To identify active site amino acids responsible for the differences in binding of MAP, PEITC, and coumarin, 10 CYP2A13 mutant proteins were generated in which individual amino acids from the CYP2A6 active site were substituted into CYP2A13 at the corresponding position. Titrations revealed that substitutions at positions 208, 300, and 301 individually had the largest effects on ligand binding. The collective relevance of these amino acids to differential ligand selectivity was verified by evaluating binding to CYP2A6 mutant enzymes that incorporate several of the CYP2A13 amino acids at these positions. Inclusion of four CYP2A13 amino acids resulted in a CYP2A6 mutant protein (I208S/I300F/G301A/S369G) with binding affinities for MAP and PEITC much more similar to those observed for CYP2A13 than to those for CYP2A6 without altering coumarin binding. The structure-based quantitative structure-activity relationship analysis using COMBINE successfully modeled the observed mutant-ligand trends and emphasized steric roles for active site residues including four substituted amino acids and an adjacent conserved Leu{sup 370}.

  14. Pharmacogenetic & Pharmacokinetic Biomarker for Efavirenz Based ARV and Rifampicin Based Anti-TB Drug Induced Liver Injury in TB-HIV Infected Patients

    PubMed Central

    Yimer, Getnet; Ueda, Nobuhisa; Habtewold, Abiy; Amogne, Wondwossen; Suda, Akira; Riedel, Klaus-Dieter; Burhenne, Jürgen; Aderaye, Getachew; Lindquist, Lars; Makonnen, Eyasu; Aklillu, Eleni

    2011-01-01

    Background Implication of pharmacogenetic variations and efavirenz pharmacokinetics in concomitant efavirenz based antiviral therapy and anti-tubercular drug induced liver injury (DILI) has not been yet studied. We performed a prospective case-control association study to identify the incidence, pharmacogenetic, pharmacokinetic and biochemical predictors for anti-tubercular and antiretroviral drugs induced liver injury (DILI) in HIV and tuberculosis (TB) co-infected patients. Methods and Findings Newly diagnosed treatment naïve TB-HIV co-infected patients (n = 353) were enrolled to receive efavirenz based ART and rifampicin based anti-TB therapy, and assessed clinically and biochemically for DILI up to 56 weeks. Quantification of plasma efavirenz and 8-hydroxyefaviernz levels and genotyping for NAT2, CYP2B6, CYP3A5, ABCB1, UGT2B7 and SLCO1B1 genes were done. The incidence of DILI and identification of predictors was evaluated using survival analysis and the Cox Proportional Hazards Model. The incidence of DILI was 30.0%, or 14.5 per 1000 person-week, and that of severe was 18.4%, or 7.49 per 1000 person-week. A statistically significant association of DILI with being of the female sex (p = 0.001), higher plasma efavirenz level (p = 0.009), efavirenz/8-hydroxyefavirenz ratio (p = 0.036), baseline AST (p = 0.022), ALT (p = 0.014), lower hemoglobin (p = 0.008), and serum albumin (p = 0.007), NAT2 slow-acetylator genotype (p = 0.039) and ABCB1 3435TT genotype (p = 0.001). Conclusion We report high incidence of anti-tubercular and antiretroviral DILI in Ethiopian patients. Between patient variability in systemic efavirenz exposure and pharmacogenetic variations in NAT2, CYP2B6 and ABCB1 genes determines susceptibility to DILI in TB-HIV co-infected patients. Close monitoring of plasma efavirenz level and liver enzymes during early therapy and/or genotyping practice in HIV clinics is recommended for early identification of patients

  15. Hepatic Differentiation of Human Induced Pluripotent Stem Cells in a Perfused Three-Dimensional Multicompartment Bioreactor

    PubMed Central

    Freyer, Nora; Knöspel, Fanny; Strahl, Nadja; Amini, Leila; Schrade, Petra; Bachmann, Sebastian; Damm, Georg; Seehofer, Daniel; Jacobs, Frank; Monshouwer, Mario; Zeilinger, Katrin

    2016-01-01

    Abstract The hepatic differentiation of human induced pluripotent stem cells (hiPSC) holds great potential for application in regenerative medicine, pharmacological drug screening, and toxicity testing. However, full maturation of hiPSC into functional hepatocytes has not yet been achieved. In this study, we investigated the potential of a dynamic three-dimensional (3D) hollow fiber membrane bioreactor technology to improve the hepatic differentiation of hiPSC in comparison to static two-dimensional (2D) cultures. A total of 100 × 106 hiPSC were seeded into each 3D bioreactor (n = 3). Differentiation into definitive endoderm (DE) was induced by adding activin A, Wnt3a, and sodium butyrate to the culture medium. For further maturation, hepatocyte growth factor and oncostatin M were added. The same differentiation protocol was applied to hiPSC maintained in 2D cultures. Secretion of alpha-fetoprotein (AFP), a marker for DE, was significantly (p < 0.05) higher in 2D cultures, while secretion of albumin, a typical characteristic for mature hepatocytes, was higher after hepatic differentiation of hiPSC in 3D bioreactors. Functional analysis of multiple cytochrome P450 (CYP) isoenzymes showed activity of CYP1A2, CYP2B6, and CYP3A4 in both groups, although at a lower level compared to primary human hepatocytes (PHH). CYP2B6 activities were significantly (p < 0.05) higher in 3D bioreactors compared with 2D cultures, which is in line with results from gene expression. Immunofluorescence staining showed that the majority of cells was positive for albumin, cytokeratin 18 (CK18), and hepatocyte nuclear factor 4-alpha (HNF4A) at the end of the differentiation process. In addition, cytokeratin 19 (CK19) staining revealed the formation of bile duct-like structures in 3D bioreactors similar to native liver tissue. The results indicate a better maturation of hiPSC in the 3D bioreactor system compared to 2D cultures and emphasize the potential of dynamic 3D culture

  16. Hepatic Differentiation of Human Induced Pluripotent Stem Cells in a Perfused Three-Dimensional Multicompartment Bioreactor.

    PubMed

    Freyer, Nora; Knöspel, Fanny; Strahl, Nadja; Amini, Leila; Schrade, Petra; Bachmann, Sebastian; Damm, Georg; Seehofer, Daniel; Jacobs, Frank; Monshouwer, Mario; Zeilinger, Katrin

    2016-01-01

    The hepatic differentiation of human induced pluripotent stem cells (hiPSC) holds great potential for application in regenerative medicine, pharmacological drug screening, and toxicity testing. However, full maturation of hiPSC into functional hepatocytes has not yet been achieved. In this study, we investigated the potential of a dynamic three-dimensional (3D) hollow fiber membrane bioreactor technology to improve the hepatic differentiation of hiPSC in comparison to static two-dimensional (2D) cultures. A total of 100 × 10(6) hiPSC were seeded into each 3D bioreactor (n = 3). Differentiation into definitive endoderm (DE) was induced by adding activin A, Wnt3a, and sodium butyrate to the culture medium. For further maturation, hepatocyte growth factor and oncostatin M were added. The same differentiation protocol was applied to hiPSC maintained in 2D cultures. Secretion of alpha-fetoprotein (AFP), a marker for DE, was significantly (p < 0.05) higher in 2D cultures, while secretion of albumin, a typical characteristic for mature hepatocytes, was higher after hepatic differentiation of hiPSC in 3D bioreactors. Functional analysis of multiple cytochrome P450 (CYP) isoenzymes showed activity of CYP1A2, CYP2B6, and CYP3A4 in both groups, although at a lower level compared to primary human hepatocytes (PHH). CYP2B6 activities were significantly (p < 0.05) higher in 3D bioreactors compared with 2D cultures, which is in line with results from gene expression. Immunofluorescence staining showed that the majority of cells was positive for albumin, cytokeratin 18 (CK18), and hepatocyte nuclear factor 4-alpha (HNF4A) at the end of the differentiation process. In addition, cytokeratin 19 (CK19) staining revealed the formation of bile duct-like structures in 3D bioreactors similar to native liver tissue. The results indicate a better maturation of hiPSC in the 3D bioreactor system compared to 2D cultures and emphasize the potential of dynamic 3D culture systems

  17. Comparison of xenobiotic metabolizing enzyme activities in ex vivo human skin and reconstructed human skin models from SkinEthic.

    PubMed

    Eilstein, Joan; Léreaux, Guillaume; Budimir, Natali; Hussler, Georges; Wilkinson, Simon; Duché, Daniel

    2014-09-01

    Skin function is not limited to a physical barrier. According to its total surface area, it is also considered as an extra-hepatic metabolizing organ. In vitro engineered human skins have been developed to replace limited ex vivo normal human skin samples (NHS). Thus, assessing and comparing skin models from SkinEthic [Episkin™, RHE™ and the full thickness model (FTM)] with NHS in terms of metabolic capability are essential. The apparent activities of main cutaneous isoforms of cytochrome P450-dependent monooxygenases (CYP1A1/1B1, 2B6/2C18/2E1, 3A5/3A7), esterase, glutathione-S-[(GST), A, M, P, T], N-acetyl-(NAT1), uridinyl-diphosphate glucuronyl-(UDPGT 1A family) and sulfo-(SULT1A1) transferases were determined using probe substrates. Mean activities indicative of CYP1A1/1B1 (expressed as pmol/mg protein/6 h) in RHE™ (2.8) and FTM (2.6) were very similar to NHS (3.0) while Episkin™ showed a higher activity (9.1). Activities of CYP3A5/3A7 in FTM (3.3) and Episkin™ (3.6) were similar to NHS (3.8) while activity in RHE™ (13.3) was higher. CYP2B6/2C18/2E1 activity was below LOQ (0.5) in all skin models and NHS. Comparable intrinsic metabolic clearances were measured between NHS and skin models for esterase, UDPGT, GST and NAT1 activities. SULT1A1 activity toward probe substrates was not detected in skin models and observed at the limit of detection in NHS. Weak cytochrome P450-dependent monooxygenases, high esterase and transferase activities suggested that NHS and skin models exhibited limited functionalization and much greater detoxification (hydrolytic and conjugating) capacities. These results demonstrate that skin models are similar to NHS in terms of metabolic functionality toward xenobiotics investigated and useful tools to assess both the local efficiency and safety of cosmetics. PMID:24658324

  18. Protein/ionic liquid/glassy carbon sensors following analyte focusing by ionic liquid micelle collapse for simultaneous determination of water soluble vitamins in plasma matrices.

    PubMed

    Abd El-Hady, D; Albishri, H M

    2015-07-01

    Two novel sensors based on human serum albumin (HSA)-ionic liquid (IL) and bovine serum albumin (BSA)-ionic liquid (IL) composites modified glassy carbon electrode (GCE) were produced for simultaneous determination of water soluble vitamins B2, B6 and C in human plasma following analytes focusing by IL micelles collapse (AFILMC). For selective and efficient extraction, vitamins were dissolved in 3.0molL(-1) micellar solution of 1-octyl-3-methyl imidazolium bromide IL. The extracted vitamins were hydrodynamically injected by 25mbar for 20s into a running buffer of 12.5mmolL(-1) phosphate at pH 6.0 followed by electrochemical detection (ECD) on protein/1-octyl-3-methyl imidazolium hexafluorophosphate IL/GC sensors. The chemical stability of proposed sensors was achieved up to 7 days without any decomposition of PF6-based IL/protein and adsorption of interfering ions. In the current work, the sensitivity enhancement factor (SEF) up to 5000-fold was achieved using the AFILMC/ECD setup compared to conventional CE/UV. Under optimal conditions, linear calibration graphs were obtained from 0.5, 0.5 and 1.0 to 1500.0µgmL(-1) of vitamins B2, B6 and C, respectively. Detection limits of analytes were ranged from 180.0 to 520.0ngmL(-1). The proposed AFILMC/ECD setup was successfully applied to the assay of trace level quantification of vitamins in human plasma samples and also their binding constants with HSA and BSA were determined. The concurrent use of IL micelles for the proposed separation and detection processes exhibited some advantages, such as, a reduction of use toxic solvents, an efficient extraction and a direct injection of samples with a short-single run. Furthermore, IL micelles, having variable possibility of interactions, facilitated the successful achievements of AFILMC/ECD setup for the quantification of vitamins in plasma matrices. PMID:25882421

  19. T lymphocytes in the murine vaginal mucosa are phenotypically distinct from those in the periphery.

    PubMed Central

    Fidel, P L; Wolf, N A; KuKuruga, M A

    1996-01-01

    The results from both clinical studies of women with recurrent vulvovaginal candidiasis and a murine model of experimental vaginitis indicate that systemic cell-mediated immunity may not represent a dominant host defense mechanism against vaginal infections by Candida albicans. Recent experimental evidence indicates the presence of local vaginal immune reactivity against C. albicans. The present study was designed to examine T-lymphocyte subpopulations in the vaginal mucosae of naive CBA/J mice. Vaginal lymphocytes (VL) were isolated by collagenase digestion of whole vaginal tissues. Cell populations were identified by flow cytometry, and the results were compared with those for both lymph node cells (LNC) and peripheral blood lymphocytes (PBL). The results of flow cytometry showed that 45% +/- 10% of lymphocytes in the vaginal mucosa are CD3+ compared with 75% +/- 5% in LNC and 50% +/- 5% in PBL. The majority (85%) of CD3+ VL are CD4+ and express the alpha/beta T-cell receptor (TCR), similar to the results for LNC and PBL. In contrast to LNC and PBL, VL contain a significantly higher percentage (15 to 20%) of gamma/delta TCR+ cells, 80% or more of which appear to express CD4. In addition, while CD4-CD8 cell ratios in LNC and PBL were 3:1 and 6:1, respectively, only 1% of VL expressed CD8, resulting in a CD4-CD8 cell ratio of > 100:1. Finally, while LNC and PBL recognized two epitope-distinct (GK 1.5 and 2B6) anti-CD4 antibodies, VL recognized only 2B6 anti-CD4 antibodies. Further analysis of VL showed that Thy-1 cells, but not CD4 cells, were reduced after intravaginal injection of complement-fixing anti-Thy-1.2 and GK 1.5 anti-CD4 antibodies, respectively. Taken together, these data suggest that T lymphocytes in the vaginal mucosae of mice are phenotypically distinct from those in the periphery and that CD4+ VL have an uncharacteristic or atypical expression of the CD4 receptor. PMID:8751931

  20. Explanted Diseased Livers – A Possible Source of Metabolic Competent Primary Human Hepatocytes

    PubMed Central

    Krech, Till; DeTemple, Daphne; Jäger, Mark D.; Lehner, Frank; Manns, Michael P.; Klempnauer, Jürgen; Borlak, Jürgen; Bektas, Hueseyin; Vondran, Florian W. R.

    2014-01-01

    Being an integral part of basic, translational and clinical research, the demand for primary human hepatocytes (PHH) is continuously growing while the availability of tissue resection material for the isolation of metabolically competent PHH remains limited. To overcome current shortcomings, this study evaluated the use of explanted diseased organs from liver transplantation patients as a potential source of PHH. Therefore, PHH were isolated from resected surgical specimens (Rx-group; n = 60) and explanted diseased livers obtained from graft recipients with low labMELD-score (Ex-group; n = 5). Using established protocols PHH were subsequently cultured for a period of 7 days. The viability and metabolic competence of cultured PHH was assessed by the following parameters: morphology and cell count (CyQuant assay), albumin synthesis, urea production, AST-leakage, and phase I and II metabolism. Both groups were compared in terms of cell yield and metabolic function, and results were correlated with clinical parameters of tissue donors. Notably, cellular yields and viabilities were comparable between the Rx- and Ex-group and were 5.3±0.5 and 2.9±0.7×106 cells/g liver tissue with 84.3±1.3 and 76.0±8.6% viability, respectively. Moreover, PHH isolated from the Rx- or Ex-group did not differ in regards to loss of cell number in culture, albumin synthesis, urea production, AST-leakage, and phase I and II metabolism (measured by the 7-ethoxycoumarin-O-deethylase and uracil-5′-diphosphate-glucuronyltransferase activity). Likewise, basal transcript expressions of the CYP monooxygenases 1A1, 2C8 and 3A4 were comparable as was their induction when treated with a cocktail that consisted of 3-methylcholantren, rifampicin and phenobarbital, with increased expression of CYP 1A1 and 3A4 mRNA while transcript expression of CYP 2C8 was only marginally changed. In conclusion, the use of explanted diseased livers obtained from recipients with low labMELD-score might

  1. Human hepatocarcinoma functional liver cell-4 cell line exhibits high expression of drug-metabolizing enzymes in three-dimensional culture.

    PubMed

    Kato, Ryuji; Shigemoto, Kota; Akiyama, Hiromasa; Ieda, Asaka; Ijiri, Yoshio; Hayashi, Tetsuya

    2014-01-01

    The expression levels of CYP and uridine diphosphate-glucuronosyl transferase (UGT) are lower in hepatocellular carcinoma cell lines than in human primary hepatocytes. However, a functional liver cell (FLC)-4 cell line that has a greater capacity to secrete liver-specific proteins than other hepatocellular carcinoma cells has recently been established. A three-dimensional culture using Engelbreth-Holm-Swan (EHS) gel induces the secretion of liver-specific proteins via the induction of hepatocyte nuclear factor-4α (HNF-4α). The aim of this study was to evaluate the mRNA expression of the enzymes CYP and UGT in FLC-4 and HepG2 cells in monolayer and three-dimensional cultures using EHS gel. The mRNA levels of HNF-4α, albumin, pregnane X receptor (PXR), constitutive androstane receptor (CAR), CYPs (1A2, 2E1, 2C8, 2C9, 2C19, 2D6, and 3A4) and UGTs (1A1, 1A6, 1A9, and 2B7) were determined using real-time reverse transcription (RT) PCR. In a monolayer culture, the mRNA expression levels of HNF-4α, albumin, PXR, CAR, CYPs (2E1, 2C9, 2C19, 2D6, and 3A4) and UGTs (1A1, 1A6, and 1A9) were higher in FLC-4 cells than in HepG2 cells. In FLC-4 cells, the mRNA expression levels of HNF-4α, albumin, PXR, CAR, CYPs (2E1, 2C8, 2C19, and 3A4) and UGTs (1A1, 1A6, 1A9, and 2B7) significantly increased in three-dimensional culture. FLC-4 cells cultured in EHS gel showed significantly increased expression levels of CYPs and UGTs. The results of this study suggest that human hepatocellular carcinoma FLC-4 cells cultured in EHS gel show potential for use in studying in vitro drug metabolism. PMID:25366484

  2. Metal-catalyzed C-C bond cleavage in alkanes: effects of methyl substitution on transition-state structures and stability.

    PubMed

    Flaherty, David W; Hibbitts, David D; Iglesia, Enrique

    2014-07-01

    Methyl substituents at C-C bonds influence hydrogenolysis rates and selectivities of acyclic and cyclic C2-C8 alkanes on Ir, Rh, Ru, and Pt catalysts. C-C cleavage transition states form via equilibrated dehydrogenation steps that replace several C-H bonds with C-metal bonds, desorb H atoms (H*) from saturated surfaces, and form λ H2(g) molecules. Activation enthalpies (ΔH(‡)) and entropies (ΔS(‡)) and λ values for (3)C-(x)C cleavage are larger than for (2)C-(2)C or (2)C-(1)C bonds, irrespective of the composition of metal clusters or the cyclic/acyclic structure of the reactants. (3)C-(x)C bonds cleave through α,β,γ- or α,β,γ,δ-bound transition states, as indicated by the agreement between measured activation entropies and those estimated for such structures using statistical mechanics. In contrast, less substituted C-C bonds involve α,β-bound species with each C atom bound to several surface atoms. These α,β configurations weaken C-C bonds through back-donation to antibonding orbitals, but such configurations cannot form with (3)C atoms, which have one C-H bond and thus can form only one C-M bond. (3)C-(x)C cleavage involves attachment of other C atoms, which requires endothermic C-H activation and H* desorption steps that lead to larger ΔH(‡) values but also larger ΔS(‡) values (by forming more H2(g)) than for (2)C-(2)C and (2)C-(1)C bonds, irrespective of alkane size (C2-C8) or cyclic/acyclic structure. These data and their mechanistic interpretation indicate that low temperatures and high H2 pressures favor cleavage of less substituted C-C bonds and form more highly branched products from cyclic and acyclic alkanes. Such interpretations and catalytic consequences of substitution seem also relevant to C-X cleavage (X = S, N, O) in desulfurization, denitrogenation, and deoxygenation reactions. PMID:24961991

  3. Effect of c-ski overexpression on the development of cachexia in mice bearing the Lewis lung carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Carbó, Neus; Costelli, Paola; Busquets, Sílvia; López-Soriano, Joaquín; López-Soriano, Francisco J; Baccino, Francesco M; Argilés, Josep M

    2004-10-01

    Overexpression of the proto-oncogene c-ski in mice results in the development of a hypertrophic phenotype, characterized by increases in body and muscle weights. It has been previously shown in our laboratories that down-regulation of muscle protein breakdown associated with reduced expression of genes pertaining to different proteolytic systems likely account for this hypertrophic pattern. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the resistance of c-ski transgenic mice to catabolic stimuli such as those induced by the growth of the Lewis lung carcinoma. The tumor elicited a loss of body weight either in transgenic or in non-transgenic animals, although it was less pronounced in the former. The mass of gastrocnemius, tibialis and extensor digitorum longus (EDL) muscles were significantly reduced in non-transgenic tumor-bearing mice. Despite the anabolic setting displayed by the transgenic animals, the EDL only is completely protected against wasting. Indeed, gastrocnemius, tibialis and soleus show a reduction in weight, the latter two being significantly more depleted when compared to the non-transgenic tumor bearers. Similarly, the perigenital white adipose tissue presented a reduced mass which was more marked in the transgenic group. The quantitation of gene expression for ubiquitin, E2, C8 and calpain in the EDL showed marked differences between the transgenic and the non-transgenic groups of tumor hosts. As expected from previous results, in the latter group most of the transcripts examined increased with respect to controls as a consequence of tumor growth; by contrast, in the transgenic tumor hosts there was a significant reduction of ubiquitin, E2, C8 subunit, and calpain mRNA levels in comparison with the transgenic tumor-free animals. These results show that c-ski hyperexpression prevents tumor-induced muscle wasting in the EDL muscle, likely by impairing the state of activation of different proteolytic systems. However, the lack of effectiveness in

  4. Evaluation of Oxidative Stress Response Related Genetic Variants, Pro-oxidants, Antioxidants and Prostate Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Lavender, Nicole; Hein, David W.; Brock, Guy; Kidd, La Creis R.

    2015-01-01

    Background Oxidative stress and detoxification mechanisms have been commonly studied in Prostate Cancer (PCa) due to their function in the detoxification of potentially damaging reactive oxygen species (ROS) and carcinogens. However, findings have been either inconsistent or inconclusive. These mixed findings may, in part, relate to failure to consider interactions among oxidative stress response related genetic variants along with pro- and antioxidant factors. Methods We examined the effects of 33 genetic and 26 environmental oxidative stress and defense factors on PCa risk and disease aggressiveness among 2,286 men from the Cancer Genetic Markers of Susceptibility project (1,175 cases, 1,111 controls). Single and joint effects were analyzed using a comprehensive statistical approach involving logistic regression, multi-dimensionality reduction, and entropy graphs. Results Inheritance of one CYP2C8 rs7909236 T or two SOD2 rs2758331 A alleles was linked to a 1.3- and 1.4-fold increase in risk of developing PCa, respectively (p-value = 0.006–0.013). Carriers of CYP1B1 rs1800440GG, CYP2C8 rs1058932TC and, NAT2 (rs1208GG, rs1390358CC, rs7832071TT) genotypes were associated with a 1.3 to 2.2-fold increase in aggressive PCa [p-value = 0.04–0.001, FDR 0.088–0.939]. We observed a 23% reduction in aggressive disease linked to inheritance of one or more NAT2 rs4646247 A alleles (p = 0.04, FDR = 0.405). Only three NAT2 sequence variants remained significant after adjusting for multiple hypotheses testing, namely NAT2 rs1208, rs1390358, and rs7832071. Lastly, there were no significant gene-environment or gene-gene interactions associated with PCa outcomes. Conclusions Variations in genes involved in oxidative stress and defense pathways may modify PCa. Our findings do not firmly support the role of oxidative stress genetic variants combined with lifestyle/environmental factors as modifiers of PCa and disease progression. However, additional multi-center studies poised

  5. Understanding the molecular properties and metabolism of top prescribed drugs.

    PubMed

    Zhong, Haizhen A; Mashinson, Victoria; Woolman, Theodor A; Zha, Mengyi

    2013-01-01

    Molecular properties such as the molecular weight, hydrophobicity parameter logP, and the total polar surface area (TPSA) have been used extensively in modern drug discovery. We investigated these properties and ADMET scores of the top 200 therapeutic drugs by the U.S. retail sales (2010) and classified them according to the clinical indications and/or routes of administration. This list of drugs provides ample information of these molecular descriptors for successfully approved drugs. The mean logP for oral drugs is 2.5 while the logP for injectable drugs seems to be smaller. Among different types of clinical indications, drugs used for anti-HIV, and antibiotics tend to have lower logP. The molecular weights of anti-HIV drugs, antihypertensives and antibiotics appear to be larger. The ADMET scores, derived from a combination of molecular weights and logP, are consistent for oral drugs, with a mean score of 1.5 and a standard deviation of 1.0. Many clinical drugs that violate Lipinski's rule of five criteria can still exhibit ADMET scores that are very close to the mean value for oral drugs (1.5) and lie within the acceptable standard deviation. The molecular properties of MW, logP, and TPSA appear to vary according to their clinical indications. Many drugs form salts or cocrystals with acids or solvents that increase their solubility. Our data show that addition of hydrochloride is the most common method to increase solubility of drug ingredients. Cytochrome P450 isozymes 3A4, 2D6, 2C9, 2C8 and 3C5 are the top five proteins that metabolize the 200 most prescribed drugs. Drugs metabolized by 3A4 appear to have larger molecular weights and those metabolized by 2D6 have lower molecular weights. CYP2C8-metabolized drugs appear to be most hydrophilic, with the smallest logP and the largest polar surface areas. PMID:23675936

  6. Genome-Wide Association of the Laboratory-Based Nicotine Metabolite Ratio in Three Ancestries

    PubMed Central

    Baurley, James W.; Edlund, Christopher K.; Pardamean, Carissa I.; Conti, David V.; Krasnow, Ruth; Javitz, Harold S.; Hops, Hyman; Swan, Gary E.; Benowitz, Neal L.

    2016-01-01

    Introduction: Metabolic enzyme variation and other patient and environmental characteristics influence smoking behaviors, treatment success, and risk of related disease. Population-specific variation in metabolic genes contributes to challenges in developing and optimizing pharmacogenetic interventions. We applied a custom genome-wide genotyping array for addiction research (Smokescreen), to three laboratory-based studies of nicotine metabolism with oral or venous administration of labeled nicotine and cotinine, to model nicotine metabolism in multiple populations. The trans-3′-hydroxycotinine/cotinine ratio, the nicotine metabolite ratio (NMR), was the nicotine metabolism measure analyzed. Methods: Three hundred twelve individuals of self-identified European, African, and Asian American ancestry were genotyped and included in ancestry-specific genome-wide association scans (GWAS) and a meta-GWAS analysis of the NMR. We modeled natural-log transformed NMR with covariates: principal components of genetic ancestry, age, sex, body mass index, and smoking status. Results: African and Asian American NMRs were statistically significantly (P values ≤ 5E-5) lower than European American NMRs. Meta-GWAS analysis identified 36 genome-wide significant variants over a 43 kilobase pair region at CYP2A6 with minimum P = 2.46E-18 at rs12459249, proximal to CYP2A6. Additional minima were located in intron 4 (rs56113850, P = 6.61E-18) and in the CYP2A6-CYP2A7 intergenic region (rs34226463, P = 1.45E-12). Most (34/36) genome-wide significant variants suggested reduced CYP2A6 activity; functional mechanisms were identified and tested in knowledge-bases. Conditional analysis resulted in intergenic variants of possible interest (P values < 5E-5). Conclusions: This meta-GWAS of the NMR identifies CYP2A6 variants, replicates the top-ranked single nucleotide polymorphism from a recent Finnish meta-GWAS of the NMR, identifies functional mechanisms, and provides pan

  7. Meox2 haploinsufficiency increases neuronal cell loss in a mouse model of Alzheimer's disease.

    PubMed

    Soto, Ileana; Grabowska, Weronika A; Onos, Kristen D; Graham, Leah C; Jackson, Harriet M; Simeone, Stephen N; Howell, Gareth R

    2016-06-01

    Evidence suggests that multiple genetic and environmental factors conspire together to increase susceptibility to Alzheimer's disease (AD). The amyloid cascade hypothesis states that deposition of the amyloid-β (Aβ) peptide is central to AD; however, evidence in humans and animals suggests that Aβ buildup alone is not sufficient to cause neuronal cell loss and cognitive decline. Mouse models that express high levels of mutant forms of amyloid precursor protein and/or cleaving enzymes deposit amyloid but do not show neuron loss. Therefore, a double-hit hypothesis for AD has been proposed whereby vascular dysfunction precedes and promotes Aβ toxicity. In support of this, copy number variations in mesenchyme homeobox 2 (MEOX2), a gene involved in vascular development, are associated with severe forms of AD. However, the role of MEOX2 in AD has not been studied. Here, we tested Meox2 haploinsufficiency in B6.APP/PS1 (B6.APB(Tg)) mice, a mouse model of AD. Despite no overt differences in plaque deposition or glial activation, B6.APB(Tg) mice that carry only one copy of Meox2 (B6.APB(Tg).Mx(-/+)) show increased neuronal cell loss, particularly in regions containing plaques, compared with B6.APB(Tg) mice. Neuronal cell loss corresponds with a significant decrease in plaque-associated microvessels, further supporting a synergistic effect of vascular compromise and amyloid deposition on neuronal cell dysfunction in AD. PMID:27143421

  8. Enantiomers of Naringenin as Pleiotropic, Stereoselective Inhibitors of Cytochrome P450 Isoforms

    PubMed Central

    Lu, Wenjie Jessie; Ferlito, Valentina; Xu, Cong; Flockhart, David A; Caccamese, Salvatore

    2011-01-01

    Interactions between naringenin and the cytochrome P450 (CYP) system have been of interest since the first demonstration that grapefruit juice reduced CYP3A activity. The effects of naringenin on other CYP isoforms have been less investigated. In addition, it is well known that interactions with enzymes are often stereospecific, but due to the lack of readily available, chirally pure naringenin enantiomers, the enantioselectivity of its effects has not been characterized. We isolated pure naringenin enantiomers by chiral HPLC and tested the ability of (R)-, (S)-and rac-naringenin to inhibit several important drug-metabolizing CYP isoforms using recombinant enzymes and pooled human liver microsomes. Naringenin was able to inhibit CYP19, CYP2C9 and CYP2C19 with IC50 values below 5 μM. No appreciable inhibition of CYP2B6 or CYP2D6 was observed at concentrations up to 10 μM. While (S)-naringenin was 2-fold more potent as an inhibitor of CYP19 and CYP2C19 than (R)-naringenin, (R)-naringenin was 2-fold more potent for CYP2C9 and CYP3A. Chiral flavanones like naringenin are difficult to separate into their enantiomeric forms, but enantioselective effects may be observed that ultimately impact clinical effects. Inhibition of specific drug metabolizing enzymes by naringenin observed in vitro may be exploited to understand pharmacokinetic changes seen in vivo. PMID:21953762

  9. Hypoxia-mediated tumour targeting.

    PubMed

    Binley, K; Askham, Z; Martin, L; Spearman, H; Day, D; Kingsman, S; Naylor, S

    2003-04-01

    Hypoxia is a common physiological feature of tumours. It activates a signalling cascade that culminates in the stabilization of the HIF-1 transcription factor and activation of genes that possess a hypoxia response element (HRE). We have used an optimized hypoxia responsive promoter (OBHRE) to investigate hypoxia-targeted gene expression in vivo in the context of an adenovirus vector. The OBHRE promoter showed limited activity in the liver or spleen such that expression was 1000-fold lower than that driven by the strong CMV/IE promoter. However, in the context of the tumour microenvironment, the OBHRE promoter achieved expression levels comparable to that of the CMV/IE promoter. Next, we showed that an adenovirus expressing the human cytochrome P450 (CYP2B6) regulated by the OBHRE promoter delays tumour growth in response to the prodrug cyclophosphamide (CPA). Finally, we exploited the hepatotropism of adenovirus to investigate whether the OBHRE promoter could mitigate the hepatotoxicity of a recombinant adenovirus expressing thymidine kinase (TK) in the context of the prodrug ganciclovir (GCV). High-dose Ad.CMVTK/GCV treatment caused significant liver necrosis whereas the same dose of Ad.HRETK was well tolerated. These in vivo data demonstrate that hypoxia-targeted gene expression via the OBHRE promoter can be used to increase the therapeutic window of cytotoxic cancer gene therapy. PMID:12646859

  10. Cytochrome P450 induction response in tethered spheroids as a three-dimensional human hepatocyte in vitro model.

    PubMed

    Xia, Lei; Hong, Xin; Sakban, Rashidah Binte; Qu, Yinghua; Singh, Nisha Hari; McMillian, Michael; Dallas, Shannon; Silva, Jose; Sensenhauser, Carlo; Zhao, Sylvia; Lim, Heng Keang; Yu, Hanry

    2016-02-01

    Cytochrome P450 (CYP) induction is a key risk factor of clinical drug-drug interactions that has to be mitigated in the early phases of drug discovery. Three-dimensional (3D) cultures of hepatocytes in vitro have recently emerged as a potentially better platform to recapitulate the in vivo liver structure and to maintain long-term hepatic functions as compared with conventional two-dimensional (2D) monolayer cultures. However, the majority of published studies on 3D hepatocyte models use rat hepatocytes and the response to CYP inducers between rodents and humans is distinct. In the present study, we constructed tethered spheroids on RGD/galactose-conjugated membranes as an in vitro 3D model using cryopreserved human hepatocytes. CYP3A4 mRNA expression in the tethered spheroids was induced to a significantly greater extent than those in the collagen sandwich cultures, indicating the transcriptional regulation was more sensitive to the CYP inducers in the 3D model. Induction of CYP1A2, CYP2B6 and CYP3A4 activities in the tethered spheroids were comparable to, if not higher than that observed in the collagen sandwich cultures. The membrane-based model is readily integrated into multi-well plates for higher-throughput drug testing applications, which might be an alternative model to screen the CYP induction potential in vitro with more physiological relevance. PMID:26201057

  11. Plant-based Paste Fermented by Lactic Acid Bacteria and Yeast: Functional Analysis and Possibility of Application to Functional Foods.

    PubMed

    Kuwaki, Shinsuke; Nakajima, Nobuyoshi; Tanaka, Hidehiko; Ishihara, Kohji

    2012-01-01

    A plant-based paste fermented by lactic acid bacteria and yeast (fermented paste) was made from various plant materials. The paste was made of fermented food by applying traditional food-preservation techniques, that is, fermentation and sugaring. The fermented paste contained major nutrients (carbohydrates, proteins, and lipids), 18 kinds of amino acids, and vitamins (vitamin A, B1, B2, B6, B12, E, K, niacin, biotin, pantothenic acid, and folic acid). It contained five kinds of organic acids, and a large amount of dietary fiber and plant phytochemicals. Sucrose from brown sugar, used as a material, was completely resolved into glucose and fructose. Some physiological functions of the fermented paste were examined in vitro. It was demonstrated that the paste possessed antioxidant, antihypertensive, antibacterial, anti-inflammatory, anti-allergy and anti-tyrosinase activities in vitro. It was thought that the fermented paste would be a helpful functional food with various nutrients to help prevent lifestyle diseases. PMID:25114554

  12. dADAR, a Drosophila double-stranded RNA-specific adenosine deaminase is highly developmentally regulated and is itself a target for RNA editing.

    PubMed Central

    Palladino, M J; Keegan, L P; O'Connell, M A; Reenan, R A

    2000-01-01

    We have identified a homolog of the ADAR (adenosine deaminases that act on RNA) class of RNA editases from Drosophila, dADAR. The dADAR locus has been localized to the 2B6-7 region of the X chromosome and the complete genomic sequence organization is reported here. dADAR is most homologous to the mammalian RNA editing enzyme ADAR2, the enzyme that specifically edits the Q/R site in the pre-mRNA encoding the glutamate receptor subunit GluR-B. Partially purified dADAR expressed in Pichia pastoris has robust nonspecific A-to-I deaminase activity on synthetic dsRNA substrates. Transcripts of the dADAR locus originate from two regulated promoters. In addition, alternative splicing generates at least four major dADAR isoforms that differ at their amino-termini as well as altering the spacing between their dsRNA binding motifs. dADAR is expressed in the developing nervous system, making it a candidate for the editase that acts on para voltage-gated Na+ channel transcripts in the central nervous system. Surprisingly, dADAR itself undergoes developmentally regulated RNA editing that changes a conserved residue in the catalytic domain. Taken together, these findings show that both transcription and processing of dADAR transcripts are under strict developmental control and suggest that the process of RNA editing in Drosophila is dynamically regulated. PMID:10917596

  13. Folate and nutrients involved in the 1-carbon cycle in the pretreatment of patients for colorectal cancer.

    PubMed

    Ferrari, Ariana; de Carvalho, Aline Martins; Steluti, Josiane; Teixeira, Juliana; Marchioni, Dirce Maria Lobo; Aguiar, Samuel

    2015-06-01

    To assess the ingestion of folate and nutrients involved in the 1-carbon cycle in non-treated patients with colorectal adenocarcinoma in a reference center for oncology in southeastern Brazil. In total, 195 new cases with colorectal adenocarcinoma completed a clinical evaluation questionnaire and a Food Frequency Questionnaire (FFQ). Blood samples from 161 patients were drawn for the assessment of serum folate. A moderate correlation was found between serum concentrations of folate, folate intake and the dietary folate equivalent (DFE) of synthetic supplements. Mulatto or black male patients with a primary educational level had a higher intake of dietary folate. Of patients obtaining folate from the diet alone or from dietary supplements, 11.00% and 0.10%, respectively, had intake below the recommended level. Of the patients using dietary supplements, 35% to 50% showed high levels of folic acid intake. There was a prevalence of inadequacy for vitamins B2, B6 and B12, ranging from 12.10% to 20.18%, while 13.76% to 22.55% of patients were likely to have adequate choline intake. The considerable percentage of patients with folate intake above the recommended levels deserves attention because of the harmful effects that this nutrient may have in the presence of established neoplastic lesions. PMID:26043032

  14. Future Trends in the Pharmacogenomics of Brain Disorders and Dementia: Influence of APOE and CYP2D6 Variants

    PubMed Central

    Cacabelos, Ramón; Fernández-Novoa, Lucía; Martínez-Bouza, Rocío; McKay, Adam; Carril, Juan C.; Lombardi, Valter; Corzo, Lola; Carrera, Iván; Tellado, Iván; Nebril, Laura; Alcaraz, Margarita; Rodríguez, Susana; Casas, Ángela; Couceiro, Verónica; Álvarez, Antón

    2010-01-01

    About 80% of functional genes in the human genome are expressed in the brain and over 1,200 different genes have been associated with the pathogenesis of CNS disorders and dementia. Pharmacogenetic studies of psychotropic drug response have focused on determining the relationship between variations in specific candidate genes and the positive and adverse effects of drug treatment. Approximately, 18% of neuroleptics are substrates of CYP1A2 enzymes, 40% of CYP2D6, and 23% of CYP3A4; 24% of antidepressants are substrates of CYP1A2 enzymes, 5% of CYP2B6, 38% of CYP2C19, 85% of CYP2D6, and 38% of CYP3A4; 7% of benzodiazepines are substrates of CYP2C19 enzymes, 20% of CYP2D6, and 95% of CYP3A4. 10-20% of Western populations are defective in genes of the CYP superfamily; and the pharmacogenomic response of psychotropic drugs also depends on genetic variants associated with dementia. Prospective studies with anti-dementia drugs or with multifactorial strategies have revealed that the therapeutic response to conventional drugs in Alzheimer’s disease is genotype-specific. The disease-modifying effects (cognitive performance, biomarker modification) of therapeutic intervention are APOE-dependent, with APOE-4 carriers acting as the worst responders (APOE-3/3 > APOE-3/4 > APOE-4/4). APOE-CYP2D6 interactions also influence the therapeutic outcome in patients with dementia.

  15. Phenobarbital and Insulin Reciprocate Activation of the Nuclear Receptor Constitutive Androstane Receptor through the Insulin Receptor.

    PubMed

    Yasujima, Tomoya; Saito, Kosuke; Moore, Rick; Negishi, Masahiko

    2016-05-01

    Phenobarbital (PB) antagonized insulin to inactivate the insulin receptor and attenuated the insulin receptor downstream protein kinase B (AKT)-forkhead box protein O1 and extracellular signal-regulated kinase 1/2 signals in mouse primary hepatocytes and HepG2 cells. Hepatic AKT began dephosphorylation in an early stage of PB treatment, and blood glucose levels transiently increased in both wild-type and constitutive androstane receptor (CAR) knockout (KO) mice. On the other hand, blood glucose levels increased in wild-type mice, but not KO mice, in later stages of PB treatment. As a result, PB, acting as an insulin receptor antagonist, elicited CAR-independent increases and CAR-dependent decreases of blood glucose levels at these different stages of treatment, respectively. Reciprocally, insulin activation of the insulin receptor repressed CAR activation and induction of its target CYP2B6 gene in HepG2 cells. Thus, PB and insulin cross-talk through the insulin receptor to regulate glucose and drug metabolism reciprocally. PMID:26994072

  16. Contribution of Cytochrome P450 and ABCB1 Genetic Variability on Methadone Pharmacokinetics, Dose Requirements, and Response

    PubMed Central

    Fonseca, Francina; de la Torre, Rafael; Díaz, Laura; Pastor, Antonio; Cuyàs, Elisabet; Pizarro, Nieves; Khymenets, Olha; Farré, Magí; Torrens, Marta

    2011-01-01

    Although the efficacy of methadone maintenance treatment (MMT) in opioid dependence disorder has been well established, the influence of methadone pharmacokinetics in dose requirement and clinical outcome remains controversial. The aim of this study is to analyze methadone dosage in responder and nonresponder patients considering pharmacogenetic and pharmacokinetic factors that may contribute to dosage adequacy. Opioid dependence patients (meeting Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, [4th Edition] criteria) from a MMT community program were recruited. Patients were clinically assessed and blood samples were obtained to determine plasma concentrations of (R,S)-, (R) and (S)- methadone and to study allelic variants of genes encoding CYP3A5, CYP2D6, CYP2B6, CYP2C9, CYP2C19, and P-glycoprotein. Responders and nonresponders were defined by illicit opioid consumption detected in random urinalysis. The final sample consisted in 105 opioid dependent patients of Caucasian origin. Responder patients received higher doses of methadone and have been included into treatment for a longer period. No differences were found in terms of genotype frequencies between groups. Only CYP2D6 metabolizing phenotype differences were found in outcome status, methadone dose requirements, and plasma concentrations, being higher in the ultrarapid metabolizers. No other differences were found between phenotype and responder status, methadone dose requirements, neither in methadone plasma concentrations. Pharmacokinetic factors could explain some but not all differences in MMT outcome and methadone dose requirements. PMID:21589866

  17. Metabolism and Disposition of Prescription Opioids: A Review.

    PubMed

    DePriest, A Z; Puet, B L; Holt, A C; Roberts, A; Cone, E J

    2015-07-01

    Opioid analgesics are commonly prescribed for acute and chronic pain, but are subject to abuse. Consequently, toxicology testing programs are frequently implemented for both forensic and clinical applications. Understanding opioid metabolism and disposition is essential for assessing risk of toxicity and, in some cases, providing additional information regarding risk of therapeutic failure. Opioids significantly metabolized by the cytochromeP450 (CYP450) enzyme system maybe subjectto drug-drug interactions, including codeine, hydrocodone, oxycodone, fentanyl, meperidine, methadone, buprenorphine, and tramadol. CYP2D6 metabolism is polymorphic, and pharmacogenetic testing has been investigated for codeine, tramadol, oxycodone, and hydrocodone. CYP2B6 pharmacogenetic testing of methadone may reduce the risk of cardiac toxicity associated with the S-enantiomer. Opioids metabolized primarily by uridine 5'-diphospho-glucuronsyltransferase (UGT) enzymes include morphine, hydromorphone, dihydrocodeine, oxymorphone, levorphanol, and tapentadol. Parent and metabolite disposition is described for blood, oral fluid, and urine. Parent drug is most commonly detected in blood and oral fluid, whereas metabolites typically predominate in urine. Oral fluid/blood ratios exceed 1 for most opioids, making this an excellent alternative matrix for testing of this drug class. Metabolites of codeine, hydrocodone, and oxycodone are commercially available, and knowledge of metabolism is necessary for correct interpretation. PMID:26227254

  18. In vitro and in vivo characterisation of the metabolism and disposition of suvorexant in humans.

    PubMed

    Cui, Donghui; Cabalu, Tamara; Yee, Ka Lai; Small, James; Li, Xiaodong; Liu, Bo; Maciolek, Cheri; Smith, Sheri; Liu, Wen; McCrea, Jacqueline B; Prueksaritanont, Thomayant

    2016-10-01

    1. Suvorexant (MK-4305, Belsomra®) is a first-in-class dual orexin receptor antagonist approved in the USA and Japan for the treatment of insomnia. The current studies describe suvorexant's absorption, disposition and potential for CYP-mediated drug interactions in humans. 2. Following single oral administration of [(14)C]suvorexant to healthy human subjects, 90% of the radioactivity was recovered (66% in faeces, 23% in urine), primarily as oxidative metabolites. 3. In plasma, suvorexant and M9 were predominant, accounting for 30 and 37% of the total radioactivity, respectively. Metabolite M17 became more prominent (approaching 10%) following multiple daily doses of unlabelled suvorexant. M9 and M17 are not expected to contribute to the pharmacological activity of suvorexant due to reduced orexin receptor binding affinity and limited brain penetration. 4. CYP3A was determined to be the predominant enzyme mediating suvorexant oxidation. In vitro, suvorexant demonstrated reversible inhibition of CYP3A4 and 2C19 (IC50 ∼ 4-5 μM), and weak time-dependent inhibition of CYP3A4 (KI = 12 μM, kinact = 0.14 min(-1)). Suvorexant was also a weak inducer of CYP3A4, 1A2 and 2B6. Given the low plasma concentrations at clinical doses, suvorexant was not anticipated to cause significant drug interactions via inhibition and/or induction of major CYPs in vivo. PMID:26864332

  19. Thermochromism in nickel(II) complexes: thermal, IR spectroscopic, solid-state 1H NMR and single crystal X-ray analysis of diaqua-bis(2,2-dimethyl-1,3-propanediamine) nickel(II) nitrate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Koner, Subratanath; Ghosh, Ashutosh; Pariya, Chandi; Das, Debasis; Kikuchi, Hikomitsu; Okamoto, Ken-Ichi; Ikeda, Ryuichi

    1995-02-01

    The newly synthesized complex [Ni(dmtn) 2(H 2O) 2](NO 3) 2 (dmtn = 2,2-dimethyl-1,3-propanediamine) undergoes a reversible thermochromic phase transition in the range of 180-202°C ( ΔH = 10.4kJ mol -1) on heating after dehydration (dehydration temperature range 43-102°C). The complex has been characterized by X-ray crystallography at room temperature. The crystals are monoclinic, space group {C2}/{m}, a = 20.385(2), b = 6.9004(4), c = 6.9552(3) Å, β = 102.60(5)°, V = 954.8(1) Å3, Z = 2 and R = 0.046. The geometry of the nickel atom in the complex is tetragonally distorted octahedral with two H 2O molecules coordinated at the trans position. The diamine chelate rings are in the trans chair-chair conformations. The broad-line 1H NMR of partially deuterated [Ni(dmtn- d4) 2(NO 3) 2] (deuterated amine protons) indicates the onset of dynamic disorder of the diamine chelate rings at the phase transition temperature. The high temperature IR spectral measurement shows the complex retains its trans configuration after dehydration and phase transition with NO -3 ions coordinated as a monodentate ligand.

  20. DP97, a DEAD box DNA/RNA helicase, is a target gene-selective co-regulator of the constitutive androstane receptor

    SciTech Connect

    Kanno, Yuichiro; Serikawa, Takafumi; Inajima, Jun; Inouye, Yoshio

    2012-09-14

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer DP97 interacts with nuclear receptor CAR. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer DP97 enhances CAR-mediated transcriptional activation. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer DP97 synergistically enhances transactivity of CAR by the co-expression of SRC-1 or PGC1{alpha}. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer DP97 is a gene-selective co-activator for hCAR. -- Abstract: The constitutive androstane receptor (CAR) plays a key role in the expression of xenobiotic/steroid and drug metabolizing enzymes and their transporters. In this study, we demonstrated that DP97, a member of the DEAD box DNA/RNA helicase protein family, is a novel CAR-interacting protein. Using HepG2 cells expressing human CAR in the presence of tetracycline, we showed that knockdown of DP97 with small interfering RNAs suppressed tetracycline-inducible mRNA expression of CYP2B6 and UGT1A1 but not CYP3A4. Thus, DP97 was found to be a gene (or promoter)-selective co-activator for hCAR. DP97-mediated CAR transactivation was synergistically enhanced by the co-expression of SRC-1 or PGC1{alpha}, therefore it might act as mediator between hCAR and appropriate co-activators.

  1. Anticlastogenic effects of a polyvitamin product, 'Pharmavit', on gamma-ray induction of somatic and germ cell chromosome aberrations in the mouse.

    PubMed

    Benova, D K

    1992-10-01

    The polyvitamin product 'Pharmavit' (Pv), comprising vitamins A, D2, B1, B2, B6, C, E, nicotinamide, and calcium pantothene, was tested for anticlastogenic properties against gamma-rays in mice. Pretreatment with Pv consisted of daily administration by gavage for 30 days at dose levels corresponding to clinical recommendations for an adult human, as recalculated in terms of mg/kg. Findings indicated a reduction of chromosome aberrations in bone marrow cells from mice exposed to 3.0 Gy 137Cs gamma-rays; the reduction concerned predominantly fragments of the chromatid type. Furthermore, a reduction factor of 1.6 was obtained for the frequency of reciprocal translocations induced by spermatogonial irradiation in mice exposed to 4.0 Gy gamma-rays. Pretreatment with vitamin C alone, at the dose present in Pv, proved nearly ineffective in protecting from chromosome aberrations in bone marrow cells. Pharmavit is believed to be a promising agent for application to human populations exposed to the carcinogenic and genetic hazards of ionizing radiation. PMID:1383709

  2. Electrochemical Detection of Anti-Breast-Cancer Agents in Human Serum by Cytochrome P450-Coated Carbon Nanotubes

    PubMed Central

    Baj-Rossi, Camilla; De Micheli, Giovanni; Carrara, Sandro

    2012-01-01

    We report on the electrochemical detection of anti-cancer drugs in human serum with sensitivity values in the range of 8–925 nA/μM. Multi-walled carbon nanotubes were functionalized with three different cytochrome P450 isoforms (CYP1A2, CYP2B6, and CYP3A4). A model used to effectively describe the cytochrome P450 deposition onto carbon nanotubes was confirmed by Monte Carlo simulations. Voltammetric measurements were performed in phosphate buffer saline (PBS) as well as in human serum, giving well-defined current responses upon addition of increasing concentrations of anti-cancer drugs. The results assert the capability to measure concentration of drugs in the pharmacological ranges in human serum. Another important result is the possibility to detect pairs of drugs present in the same sample, which is highly required in case of therapies with high side-effects risk and in anti-cancer pharmacological treatments based on mixtures of different drugs. Our technology holds potentials for inexpensive multi-panel drug-monitoring in personalized therapy. PMID:22778656

  3. Long-term association of food and nutrient intakes with cognitive and functional decline: a 13-year follow-up study of elderly French women.

    PubMed

    Vercambre, Marie-Noël; Boutron-Ruault, Marie-Christine; Ritchie, Karen; Clavel-Chapelon, Françoise; Berr, Claudine

    2009-08-01

    The objective of the present study was to determine the potential long-term impact of dietary habits on age-related decline among 4809 elderly women (born between 1925 and 1930) in the 'Etude Epidémiologique de Femmes de la Mutuelle Générale de l'Education Nationale' (E3N) study, a French epidemiological cohort. In 1993, an extensive diet history self-administered questionnaire was sent to all participants, and in 2006 another questionnaire on instrumental activities of daily living (IADL) and recent cognitive change was sent to a close relative or friend of each woman. Logistic models adjusted for socio-demographic, lifestyle and health factors were performed to evaluate associations between habitual dietary intakes and two outcomes of interest based on the informant response: recent cognitive decline and IADL impairment. Recent cognitive decline was associated with lower intakes of poultry, fish, and animal fats, as well as higher intakes of dairy desserts and ice-cream. IADL impairment was associated with a lower intake of vegetables. The odds of recent cognitive decline increased significantly with decreasing intake of soluble dietary fibre and n-3 fatty acids but with increasing intake of retinol. The odds of IADL impairment increased significantly with decreasing intakes of vitamins B2, B6 and B12. These results are consistent with a possible long-term neuroprotective effect of dietary fibre, n-3 polyunsaturated fats and B-group vitamins, and support dietary intervention to prevent cognitive decline. PMID:19203415

  4. B-Vitamins and Bone Health–A Review of the Current Evidence

    PubMed Central

    Dai, Zhaoli; Koh, Woon-Puay

    2015-01-01

    Because of ongoing global ageing, there is a rapid worldwide increase in incidence of osteoporotic fractures and the resultant morbidity and mortality associated with these fractures are expected to create a substantial economic burden. Dietary modification is one effective approach for prevention of osteoporosis in the general population. Recently, B vitamins have been investigated for their possible roles in bone health in human studies. In this review, we provide different lines of evidence and potential mechanisms of individual B vitamin in influencing bone structure, bone quality, bone mass and fracture risk from published peer-reviewed articles. These data support a possible protective role of B vitamins, particularly, B2, B6, folate and B12, in bone health. However, results from the clinical trials have not been promising in supporting the efficacy of B vitamin supplementation in fracture reduction. Future research should continue to investigate the underlying mechanistic pathways and consider interventional studies using dietary regimens with vitamin B enriched foods to avoid potential adverse effects of high-dose vitamin B supplementation. In addition, observational and interventional studies conducted in Asia are limited and thus require more attention due to a steep rise of osteoporosis and hip fracture incidence projected in this part of the world. PMID:25961321

  5. Hepatic expression patterns of aryl hydrocarbon receptor, pregnane X receptor, two cytochrome P450s and five phase II metabolism genes responsive to 17alpha-methyltestosterone in rare minnow Gobiocypris rarus.

    PubMed

    Gao, Jiancao; Liu, Shaozhen; Zhang, Yingying; Yuan, Cong; Yang, Yanping; Wang, Zaizhao

    2014-05-01

    17Alpha-methyltestosterone (MT), a synthetic androgen, is widely used in aquaculture. Aquatic organisms can receive continuous exposure to residual MT throughout their lives. Aiming to evaluate the effects of MT on genes involved in biotransformation pathway, meanwhile attempting to unravel the MT metabolic pathway at the transcriptional level in fish, here we isolated the cDNAs of previously unreported AHR2, Sult1 st1, Ugt2a1 and Ugt2b6 in rare minnow, and predominantly investigated the hepatic transcriptional patterns of AHR2, PXR and five biotransformation genes after MT exposure in both genders adult rare minnow Gobiocypris rarus. The present findings suggest that AHR2 and PXR should play important roles in regulating biotransformation enzymes related to MT catabolism, moreover, CYP1A, CYP3A, SULT1 ST4, SULT1 ST6 and UGT2A1 may play certain roles in catabolism of MT in adult G. rarus. Additionally, UGT2A1 may make greater contribution than SULT1 ST4 and SULT1 ST6 in MT catabolism in males. PMID:24814259

  6. Direct induction of hepatocyte-like cells from immortalized human bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells by overexpression of HNF4α.

    PubMed

    Hu, Xiaojun; Xie, Peiyi; Li, Weiqiang; Li, Zhengran; Shan, Hong

    2016-09-16

    Hepatocytes from human bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells (hBM-MSCs) are expected to be a useful source for cell transplantation. However, relatively low efficiency and repeatability of hepatic differentiation of human BM-MSCs remains an obstacle for clinical translation. Hepatocyte nuclear factor 4 alpha (HNF4α), a critical transcription factor, plays an essential role in the entire process of liver development. In this study, immortalized hBM-MSCs, UE7T-13 cells were transduced with a lentiviral vector containing HNF4α. The typical fibroblast-like morphology of the MSCs changed, and polygonal, epithelioid cells grew out after HNF4α transduction. In hepatocyte culture medium, HNF4α-transduced MSCs (E7-hHNF4α cells) strongly expressed the albumin (ALB), CYP2B6, alpha-1 antitrypsin (AAT), and FOXA2 mRNA and exhibited morphology markedly similar to that of mature hepatocytes. The E7-hHNF4α cells showed hepatic functions such as Indocyanine green (ICG) uptake and release, glycogen storage, urea production and ALB secretion. Approximately 28% of E7-hHNF4α cells expressed both ALB and AAT. Furthermore, these E7-hHNF4α cells via superior mesenteric vein (SMV) injection expressed human ALB in mouse chronic injured liver. In conclusion, this study represents a novel strategy by directly inducing hepatocyte-like cells from MSCs. PMID:27501760

  7. Protein arginine methyltransferase 5 (PRMT5) is a novel coactivator of constitutive androstane receptor (CAR).

    PubMed

    Kanno, Yuichiro; Inajima, Jun; Kato, Sayaka; Matsumoto, Maika; Tokumoto, Chikako; Kure, Yuki; Inouye, Yoshio

    2015-03-27

    The constitutive androstane receptor (CAR) plays a key role in the expression of xenobiotic/steroid and drug metabolizing enzymes and their transporters. In this study, we demonstrated that protein arginine methyltransferase 5 (PRMT5) is a novel CAR-interacting protein. Furthermore, the PRMT-dependent induction of a CAR reporter gene, which was independent of methyltransferase activity, was enhanced in the presence of steroid receptor coactivator 1 (SRC1), peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-gamma coactivator 1 alpha (PGC-1α) or DEAD box DNA/RNA helicase DP97. Using tetracycline inducible-hCAR system in HepG2 cells, we showed that knockdown of PRMT5 with small interfering RNA suppressed tetracycline -induced mRNA expression of CYP2B6 but not of CYP2C9 or CYP3A4. PRMT5 enhanced phenobarbital-mediated transactivation of a phenobarbital-responsive enhancer module (PBREM)-driven reporter gene in co-operation with PGC-1α in rat primary hepatocytes. Based on these findings, we suggest PRMT5 to be a gene (or promoter)-selective coactivator of CAR by mediating the formation of complexes between hCAR and appropriate coactivators. PMID:25721668

  8. Burning mouth syndrome – a common dental problem in perimenopausal women

    PubMed Central

    Szponar, Elżbieta

    2014-01-01

    Burning mouth syndrome (BMS) is characterized by the presence of burning, paresthesia or pain of the oral mucosa in the absence of pathologic lesions revealed during the clinical examination. Moreover, the pain may be accompanied by oral dryness, hypersensitivity to some food compounds and taste disorders. Etiopathogenesis of this condition remains unclear. Potential local causative factors include among the others mechanical irritation, parafunctions and dysfunctions of the stomatognathic system, contact allergy to dental materials and electro-galvanic phenomena. Potential systemic causes include diabetes mellitus, B group vitamin deficiency (vitamins B1, B2, B6 and B12), folic acid and iron deficiency, hormonal imbalance, gastrointestinal diseases, psychiatric and neurological disorders and drug-induced side effects. The hypothesis concerning the role of hormonal changes in the development of BMS seems to be confirmed by a high incidence of this condition in perimenopausal women. Up to now, due to an unclear etiology of the disease, the treatment is very often ineffective and mainly symptomatic, which may exacerbate patient's anxiety and discomfort. In this paper we present the main etiologic factors of the burning mouth syndrome. We discuss the basic diagnostic and therapeutic methods and the influence of hormonal replacement therapy on the course of BMS based on the current medical reports. PMID:26327855

  9. Vitamin K3 (menadione) redox cycling inhibits cytochrome P450-mediated metabolism and inhibits parathion intoxication.

    PubMed

    Jan, Yi-Hua; Richardson, Jason R; Baker, Angela A; Mishin, Vladimir; Heck, Diane E; Laskin, Debra L; Laskin, Jeffrey D

    2015-10-01

    Parathion, a widely used organophosphate insecticide, is considered a high priority chemical threat. Parathion toxicity is dependent on its metabolism by the cytochrome P450 system to paraoxon (diethyl 4-nitrophenyl phosphate), a cytotoxic metabolite. As an effective inhibitor of cholinesterases, paraoxon causes the accumulation of acetylcholine in synapses and overstimulation of nicotinic and muscarinic cholinergic receptors, leading to characteristic signs of organophosphate poisoning. Inhibition of parathion metabolism to paraoxon represents a potential approach to counter parathion toxicity. Herein, we demonstrate that menadione (methyl-1,4-naphthoquinone, vitamin K3) is a potent inhibitor of cytochrome P450-mediated metabolism of parathion. Menadione is active in redox cycling, a reaction mediated by NADPH-cytochrome P450 reductase that preferentially uses electrons from NADPH at the expense of their supply to the P450s. Using human recombinant CYP 1A2, 2B6, 3A4 and human liver microsomes, menadione was found to inhibit the formation of paraoxon from parathion. Administration of menadione bisulfite (40mg/kg, ip) to rats also reduced parathion-induced inhibition of brain cholinesterase activity, as well as parathion-induced tremors and the progression of other signs and symptoms of parathion poisoning. These data suggest that redox cycling compounds, such as menadione, have the potential to effectively mitigate the toxicity of organophosphorus pesticides including parathion which require cytochrome P450-mediated activation. PMID:26212258

  10. Successful use of reduced-dose efavirenz in a patient with human immunodeficiency virus infection: case report and review of the literature.

    PubMed

    Torno, Mauro S; Witt, Mallory D; Saitoh, Akihiko; Fletcher, Courtney V

    2008-06-01

    Efavirenz, a nonnucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitor, is a highly effective and widely prescribed antiretroviral agent. It is recommended as first-line treatment of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection. The standard dose of efavirenz is 600 mg/day; however, adverse central nervous system effects limit its use. Few data citing use of efavirenz at lower doses have been published. We describe a 35-year-old man with HIV infection whose virologic suppression was maintained after 18 months of treatment with efavirenz 400 mg/day. Genetic testing for cytochrome P450 (CYP) 2B6 showed that the patient was a heterozygous variant; patients with this polymorphism tend to have higher plasma efavirenz concentrations and slower plasma efavirenz clearance (prolonged elimination half-lives). Therapeutic drug monitoring also supported the dose reduction in this patient. Even with the 400-mg dose, the patient's plasma trough concentrations exceeded the upper limit of the therapeutic range. However, as he remained completely asymptomatic with this dose, no further dose reduction was necessary. This case report provides evidence that reduced efavirenz doses may be effective in the treatment of HIV infection. In addition, this case demonstrates that pharmacogenetic and pharmacokinetic testing combined with therapeutic drug monitoring may be used to guide reduced-dose, efavirenz-based therapy. PMID:18503405

  11. New Approaches for the Synthesis, Cytotoxicity and Toxicity of Heterocyclic Compounds Derived from 2-Cyanomethylbenzo[c]imidazole.

    PubMed

    Mohareb, Rafat M; Mohamed, Abeer A; Abdallah, Amira E M

    2016-01-01

    The reaction of ethyl cyanoacetate with o-phenylenediamine gave the 2-cyanomethylbenzo[c]imidazole (1). The latter compound was used as the key starting material to synthesise biologically active heterocyclic derivatives. Thus, the reaction of 1 with cyclohexanone and either of benzaldehyde, 4-methoxybenzaldehyde or 4-chlorobenzaldehyde gave the annulated derivatives 2a-c, respectively. The antitumor evaluations of the newly synthesized products against the three cancer cell lines MCF-7 (breast adeno-carcinoma), NCI-H460 (non-small cell lung cancer) and SF-268 (CNS cancer) showed that compounds 2b, 6, 11b, 11c, 12b, 16a, 16b and 18a exhibited optimal cytotoxic effect against cancer cell lines, with IC50 values in the nM range. Bioactive compounds are often toxic to shrimp larvae. Thus, in order to monitor these chemicals in vivo lethality to shrimp larvae (Artemia salina), Brine-Shrimp Lethality Assay was used. Compounds 11b, 12b and 16b showed no toxicity against the tested organisms. PMID:27333544

  12. Comparative xenobiotic metabolism capacities and pesticide sensitivity in adults of Solea solea and Solea senegalensis.

    PubMed

    Koenig, Samuel; Guillén, Kevin; Solé, Montserrat

    2013-05-01

    The measurement of enzymatic activities involved in xenobiotic biotransformation was carried out in adults of Solea solea and Solea senegalensis. The hepatic enzymes analysed were cytochrome P450 (CYP) related activities using eight fluorometric substrates and carboxylesterases (CbE). The conjugating activities of glutathione S-transferase (GST) and UPD-glucuronosyltransferase (UDPGT) were also assessed. Specific mammalian inhibitors were used as diagnostic tools for related activities of CYP1A (α-naphthoflavone; αNF), CYP2B6 and CYP2C19 (ticlopidine) and CYP3A4 (ketoconazole). The in vitro sensitivity to organophosphorous pesticides (OP) was tested in the S10 homogenate of brain (acetylcholinesterase-AChE) and liver (CbE). Furthermore, the pesticide chlorpyrifos oxon (CLPO) was used to explore the OP sensitivity of CbE of both species in two subcellular fractions (microsomes and cytosol), using two substrates. Overall, only two parameters confirmed species differences: EROD and cytosolic CbE being significantly elevated (p < 0.05) in the common sole, S. solea. A high inhibition of CYP1A related activities using several fluorometric substrates (ER, MR and CEC) after in vitro incubation with αNF confirmed all measure CYP1A1-related activities whereas ketoconazole was more specific for BFCOD (CYP3A4). Pesticide sensitivity was similar for brain AChE but hepatic CbE had a protective role that was species and pesticide dependent. PMID:23474500

  13. Identification of in vitro and in vivo human metabolites of the new psychoactive substance nitracaine by liquid chromatography coupled to quadrupole time-of-flight mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Negreira, Noelia; Kinyua, Juliet; De Brabanter, Nik; Maudens, Kristof; van Nuijs, Alexander L N

    2016-07-01

    The purpose of this work was to investigate the in vitro metabolism of nitracaine, a new psychoactive substance, using human liver microsome incubations, to evaluate the cytochrome P450 (CYP) enzyme isoforms responsible for the phase-I metabolism and to compare the information from the in vitro experiments with data resulting from an authentic user's urine sample. Accurate mass spectra of metabolites were obtained using liquid chromatography-quadrupole time-of-flight mass spectrometry (LC-QTOF-MS) and were used in the structural identification of metabolites. Two major and three minor phase-I metabolites were identified from the in vitro experiments. The observed phase-I metabolites were formed through N-deethylation, N,N-deethylation, N-hydroxylation, and de-esterification, with CYP2B6 and CYP2C19 being the main enzymes catalyzing their formation. One glucuronidated product was identified in the phase-II metabolism experiments. All of these metabolites are reported for the first time in this study except the N-deethylation product. All the in vitro metabolites except the minor N,N-deethylation product were also present in the human urine sample, thus demonstrating the reliability of the in vitro experiments in the prediction of the in vivo metabolism of nitracaine. In addition to the metabolites, three transformation products (p-nitrobenzoic acid, p-aminobenzoic acid, and 3-(diethylamino)-2,2-dimethylpropan-1-ol) were identified, as well as several glucuronides and glutamine derived of them. PMID:27185541

  14. [Effects of biologically active food additives with different contents of vitamins on the vitamin status in humans].

    PubMed

    Vrzhesinskaia, O A; Beketova, N A; Nikitina, V A; Pereverzeva, O G; Kharitonchik, L A; Isaeva, V A; Kodentsova, V M; Durnev, A D; Spirichev, V B

    2000-01-01

    The comparative study of influence of two biologically active food additives with the different contents of vitamins is carried out: a drink "Zolotoi Shar", the dose of vitamins in which makes 50-90% from recommended daily consumption, and "Vitabalance 2000", the contents of vitamins in which at 2-17 of time exceeds need of organism. The use of both additives within 3 weeks resulted in increase of levels of vitamins C, A, E, B2, B6 and carotenoids in blood serum. However if in case of consumption of a drink an authentic level was reached only for vitamin C and beta-carotene, in a case "Vitabalance 2000" for all investigated vitamins except vitamin A. Thus, if the consumption of a drink has lowered frequency of deficiency of 3-4 vitamins, but has not allowed to liquidate it completely, in case of "Vitabalance 2000" consumption the simultaneous deficiency 3-4 vitamins. The received data allow to believe the biologically active food additives containing vitamins in amounts exceeding recommended consumption, are convenient for fast liquidation of hypovitaminoses, and the preparations containing vitamins in doses making 30-50% from need of organism, are acceptable for daily filling of insufficient consumption of vitamins with a usual diet for a long time. PMID:10943001

  15. Development of a HPLC method for the simultaneous determination of several B-vitamins and ascorbic acid.

    PubMed

    Khor, S; Tee, E S

    1996-03-01

    In cognizance of the difficulties involved in the colorimetric and titrimetric methods for the determination of individual vitamins, this laboratory has been carrying out a series of studies into the use of HPLC for improved analysis of these nutrients. Preliminary studies have been carried out for the determination of four B-vitamins. The present paper reports on further improvements made to enable the simultaneous determination of eight vitamins i.e. B1, B2, B6, B12, C, niacin, niacinamide and folic acid. Trials were carried out to determine the most suitable chromatographic system include changing the proportion of methanol in the mobile phase, the use of different ion-pairing reagents and other additives such as triethylamine and ammonia. Three sets of HPLC mobile phase systems are proposed to enable successful separation of all eight vitamins in less than 20 minutes, varying slightly with the type of ion-pairing reagent and mobile phase additive. This laboratory is currently carrying out trials to determine if the developed methods could be used for the determination of pharmaceutical products and food samples. PMID:22692099

  16. Polymorphic genetic control of tumor invasion in a mouse model of pancreatic neuroendocrine carcinogenesis.

    PubMed

    Chun, Matthew G H; Mao, Jian-Hua; Chiu, Christopher W; Balmain, Allan; Hanahan, Douglas

    2010-10-01

    Cancer is a disease subject to both genetic and environmental influences. In this study, we used the RIP1-Tag2 (RT2) mouse model of islet cell carcinogenesis to identify a genetic locus that influences tumor progression to an invasive growth state. RT2 mice inbred into the C57BL/6 (B6) background develop both noninvasive pancreatic neuroendocrine tumors (PNET) and invasive carcinomas with varying degrees of aggressiveness. In contrast, RT2 mice inbred into the C3HeB/Fe (C3H) background are comparatively resistant to the development of invasive tumors, as are RT2 C3HB6(F1) hybrid mice. Using linkage analysis, we identified a 13-Mb locus on mouse chromosome 17 with significant linkage to the development of highly invasive PNETs. A gene residing in this locus, the anaplastic lymphoma kinase (Alk), was expressed at significantly lower levels in PNETs from invasion-resistant C3H mice compared with invasion-susceptible B6 mice, and pharmacological inhibition of Alk led to reduced tumor invasiveness in RT2 B6 mice. Collectively, our results demonstrate that tumor invasion is subject to polymorphic genetic control and identify Alk as a genetic modifier of invasive tumor growth. PMID:20855625

  17. The effects of antiepileptic inducers in neuropsychopharmacology, a neglected issue. Part II: Pharmacological issues and further understanding.

    PubMed

    de Leon, Jose

    2015-01-01

    The literature on inducers in epilepsy and bipolar disorder is seriously contaminated by false negative findings. Part II of this comprehensive review on antiepileptic drug (AED) inducers provides clinicians with further educational material about the complexity of interpreting AED drug-drug interactions. The basic pharmacology of induction is reviewed including the cytochrome P450 (CYP) isoenzymes, the Uridine Diphosphate Glucuronosyltransferases (UGTs), and P-glycoprotein (P-gp). CYP2B6 and CYP3A4 are very sensitive to induction. CYP1A2 is moderately sensitive while CYP2C9 and CYP2C19 are only mildly sensitive. CYP2D6 cannot be induced by medications. Induction of UGT and P-gp are poorly understood. The induction of metabolic enzymes such as CYPs and UGTs, and transporters such as P-gp, implies that the amount of these proteins increases when they are induced; this is almost always explained by increasing synthesis mediated by the so-called nuclear receptors (constitutive androstane, estrogen, glucocorticoid receptors and pregnaneX receptors). Although parti provides correction factors for AEDs, extrapolation from an average to an individual patient may be influenced by administration route, absence of metabolic enzyme for genetic reasons, and presence of inhibitors or other inducers. AED pharmacodynamic DDIs may also be important. Six patients with extreme sensitivity to AED inductive effects are described. PMID:26111722

  18. Acne and systemic disease.

    PubMed

    Lolis, Margarita S; Bowe, Whitney P; Shalita, Alan R

    2009-11-01

    Acne is the most common disease of the skin. It affects 85% of teenagers, 42.5% of men, and 50.9% of women between the ages of 20 and 30 years.96,97 The role of hormones, particularly as a trigger of sebum production and sebaceous growth and differentiation, is well known. Excess production of hormones, specifically androgens, GH, IGF-1, insulin, CRH, and glucocorticoids, is associated with increased rates of acne development. Acne may be a feature in many endocrine disorders, including polycystic ovary disease, Cushing syndrome, CAH, androgen-secreting tumors, and acromegaly. Other nonendocrine diseases associated with acne include Apert syndrome, SAPHO syndrome, Behçet syndrome and PAPA syndrome. Acne medicamentosa is the development of acne vulgaris or an acneiform eruption with the use of certain medications. These medications include testosterone, progesterone,steroids, lithium, phenytoin, isoniazid, vitamins B2, B6, and B12, halogens, and epidermal growth factor inhibitors. Management of acne medicamentosa includes standard acne therapy. Discontinuation of the offending drug may be necessary in recalcitrant cases. Basic therapeutic interventions for acne include topical therapy, systemic antibiotics,hormonal agents, isotretinoin, and physical treatments. Generally, the severity of acne lesions determines the type of acne regimen necessary. The emergence of drug-resistant P acnes and adverse side effects are current limitations to effective acne management. PMID:19932324

  19. Plant-based Paste Fermented by Lactic Acid Bacteria and Yeast: Functional Analysis and Possibility of Application to Functional Foods

    PubMed Central

    Kuwaki, Shinsuke; Nakajima, Nobuyoshi; Tanaka, Hidehiko; Ishihara, Kohji

    2012-01-01

    A plant-based paste fermented by lactic acid bacteria and yeast (fermented paste) was made from various plant materials. The paste was made of fermented food by applying traditional food-preservation techniques, that is, fermentation and sugaring. The fermented paste contained major nutrients (carbohydrates, proteins, and lipids), 18 kinds of amino acids, and vitamins (vitamin A, B1, B2, B6, B12, E, K, niacin, biotin, pantothenic acid, and folic acid). It contained five kinds of organic acids, and a large amount of dietary fiber and plant phytochemicals. Sucrose from brown sugar, used as a material, was completely resolved into glucose and fructose. Some physiological functions of the fermented paste were examined in vitro. It was demonstrated that the paste possessed antioxidant, antihypertensive, antibacterial, anti-inflammatory, anti-allergy and anti-tyrosinase activities in vitro. It was thought that the fermented paste would be a helpful functional food with various nutrients to help prevent lifestyle diseases. PMID:25114554

  20. Quantitative high-throughput identification of drugs as modulators of human constitutive androstane receptor.

    PubMed

    Lynch, Caitlin; Zhao, Jinghua; Huang, Ruili; Xiao, Jingwei; Li, Linhao; Heyward, Scott; Xia, Menghang; Wang, Hongbing

    2015-01-01

    The constitutive androstane receptor (CAR, NR1I3) plays a key role in governing the transcription of numerous hepatic genes that involve xenobiotic metabolism/clearance, energy homeostasis, and cell proliferation. Thus, identification of novel human CAR (hCAR) modulators may not only enhance early prediction of drug-drug interactions but also offer potentially novel therapeutics for diseases such as metabolic disorders and cancer. In this study, we have generated a double stable cell line expressing both hCAR and a CYP2B6-driven luciferase reporter for quantitative high-throughput screening (qHTS) of hCAR modulators. Approximately 2800 compounds from the NIH Chemical Genomics Center Pharmaceutical Collection were screened employing both the activation and deactivation modes of the qHTS. Activators (115) and deactivators (152) of hCAR were identified from the primary qHTS, among which 10 agonists and 10 antagonists were further validated in the physiologically relevant human primary hepatocytes for compound-mediated hCAR nuclear translocation and target gene expression. Collectively, our results reveal that hCAR modulators can be efficiently identified through this newly established qHTS assay. Profiling drug collections for hCAR activity would facilitate the prediction of metabolism-based drug-drug interactions, and may lead to the identification of potential novel therapeutics. PMID:25993555

  1. Molecular mapping of interactions between a Mycobacterium leprae-specific T cell epitope, the restricting HLA-DR2 molecule, and two specific T cell receptors.

    PubMed

    Anderson, D C; van Schooten, W C; Janson, A; Barry, M E; de Vries, R R

    1990-04-01

    A systematic series of 89 single residue substitution analogs of the Mycobacterium leprae 65-kDa protein-derived peptide LQAAPALDKL were tested for stimulation of two HLA-DR2 restricted 65 kDa-reactive T cell clones from a tuberculoid leprosy patient. Some analogs with substitutions outside a "core" region showed enhanced stimulation of the T cell clones. This core region of seven or eight residues was essential for recognition, whereas substitution of amino acids outside this region did not affect T cell recognition although these residues could not be omitted. Thus these core residues interact directly with the presenting HLA-DR2 molecule and/or the TCR. Except for analogs of position 419 for clone 2B6, the majority of the nonstimulatory substitution analogs did not inhibit the presentation of LQAAPALDKL and thus probably failed to bind to the HLA-DR2 molecule. Unless all of the core residues are physically involved in binding to DR2, substitution at a position not directly involved in binding appears to have an influence on other residues that do bind to the DR2 molecule. Active peptide analogs with two or more internal prolines suggest that not all analogs need be helical for activity with clone 2F10. PMID:1690768

  2. Contribution of human hepatic cytochrome p450 isoforms to the metabolism of psychotropic drugs.

    PubMed

    Niwa, Toshiro; Shiraga, Toshifumi; Ishii, Ikuko; Kagayama, Akira; Takagi, Akira

    2005-09-01

    The metabolic activities of six psychotropic drugs, diazepam, clotiazepam, tofisopam, etizolam, tandospirone, and imipramine, were determined for 14 isoforms of recombinant human hepatic cytochrome P450s (CYPs) and human liver microsomes by measuring the disappearance rate of parent compounds. In vitro kinetic studies revealed that Vmax/Km values in human liver microsomes were the highest for tofisopam, followed by tandospirone>clotiazepam>imipramine, diazepam, and etizolam. Among the recombinant CYPs, CYP3A4 exhibited the highest metabolic activities of all compounds except for clotiazepam and imipramine. The metabolism of clotiazepam was catalyzed by CYP2B6, CYP3A4, CYP2C18, and CYP2C19, and imipramine was metabolized by CYP2D6 most efficiently. In addition, the metabolic activities of diazepam, clotiazepam, and etizolam in human liver microsomes were inhibited by 2.5 microM ketoconazole, a CYP3A4 inhibitor, by 97.5%, 65.1%, and 83.5%, respectively, and the imipramine metabolism was not detected after the addition of 1 or 10 microM quinidine, a CYP2D6 inhibitor. These results suggest that the psychotropic drugs investigated are metabolized predominantly by CYP3A4, except that CYP2D6 catalyzes the metabolism of imipramine. In addition, this approach based on the disappearance rate appears to be useful for the identification of the responsible CYP isoform(s) of older drugs, for which metabolic profiles have not been reported. PMID:16141545

  3. CYP450 Enzyme-Mediated Metabolism of TCAS and Its Inhibitory and Induced Effects on Metabolized Enzymes in Vitro

    PubMed Central

    Shen, Guolin; Wang, Cheng; Zhou, Lili; Li, Lei; Chen, Huiming; Yu, Wenlian; Li, Haishan

    2015-01-01

    In this study, we investigated the enzymes catalyzing the phaseⅠmetabolism of thiacalixarene (TCAS) based on in vitro system including cDNA-expressed P450 enzymes, human liver microsomes plus inhibitors and monoclonal antibodies. In addition, the inhibitory potential of TCAS on major CYP450 drug metabolizing enzymes (CYP1A2, CYP2C9, CYP2B6, CYP2D6 and CYP3A4) was assessed. The results showed that CYP1A2 and CYP2C9 mediated TCAS hydroxylation. IC50 values for TCAS in rat and human liver microsomes were greater than 50 µM, and it demonstrated a weak inhibition of rat and human CYP450 enzymes. Finally, sandwiched hepatocytes were used to evaluate the induction of CYP1A and CYP3A to define the function of TCAS in vivo. The results showed that incubation of TCAS at different concentrations for 72 h failed to induce CYP1A and CYP3A. However, incubation of the cells with 50 and 100 µM TCAS caused a profound decrease in the activities of CYP1A and CYP3A, which was probably due to cytotoxic effects, suggesting that exposure to TCAS might be a health concern. PMID:26404338

  4. SCY-635, a Novel Nonimmunosuppressive Analog of Cyclosporine That Exhibits Potent Inhibition of Hepatitis C Virus RNA Replication In Vitro ▿ †

    PubMed Central

    Hopkins, Sam; Scorneaux, Bernard; Huang, Zhuhui; Murray, Michael G.; Wring, Stephen; Smitley, Craig; Harris, Richard; Erdmann, Frank; Fischer, Gunter; Ribeill, Yves

    2010-01-01

    SCY-635 is a novel nonimmunosuppressive cyclosporine-based analog that exhibits potent suppression of hepatitis C virus (HCV) replication in vitro. SCY-635 inhibited the peptidyl prolyl isomerase activity of cyclophilin A at nanomolar concentrations but showed no detectable inhibition of calcineurin phosphatase activity at concentrations up to 2 μM. Metabolic studies indicated that SCY-635 did not induce the major cytochrome P450 enzymes 1A2, 2B6, and 3A4. SCY-635 was a weak inhibitor and a poor substrate for P-glycoprotein. Functional assays with stimulated Jurkat cells and stimulated human peripheral blood mononuclear cells indicated that SCY-635 is a weaker inhibitor of interleukin-2 secretion than cyclosporine. A series of two-drug combination studies was performed in vitro. SCY-635 exhibited synergistic antiviral activity with alpha interferon 2b and additive antiviral activity with ribavirin. SCY-635 was shown to be orally bioavailable in multiple animal species and produced blood and liver concentrations of parent drug that exceeded the 50% effective dose determined in the bicistronic con1b-derived replicon assay. These results suggest that SCY-635 warrants further investigation as a novel therapeutic agent for the treatment of individuals who are chronically infected with HCV. PMID:19933795

  5. Effect of Radix Sophorae Flavescentis on activity of CYP450 isoforms in rats

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Lianguo; Cai, Jinzhang; Wang, Shuanghu; Hu, Lufeng; Yang, Xuezhi

    2015-01-01

    Kushen (Radix Sophorae Flavescentis) is the dried roots of Sophora Flavescens Ait, alkaloids and flavonoids are the main active constituents of Radix Sophorae Flavescentis. The influence of Radix Sophorae Flavescentis on the activities of CYP450 isoforms CYP2B6, CYP2C19, CYP1A2, CYP2C9, CYP3A4 and CYP2D6 were evaluated by cocktail method. The rats were randomly divided into Radix Sophorae Flavescentis group and control group. The Radix Sophorae Flavescentis group rats were given 5 g/kg Radix Sophorae Flavescentis decoction by intragastric administration. The six probe drugs (bupropion, omeprazole, phenacetin, tolbutamide, midazolam and metroprolol) were given to rats through intragastric administration, and the plasma concentration were determined by UPLC-MS/MS. The result of Radix Sophorae Flavescentis group compared to control group, there were statistical pharmacokinetics difference for omeprazole, phenacetin, tolbutamide and metroprolol. It indicated that the Radix Sophorae Flavescentis may induce the activities of CYP2D6, and inhibit of CYP2C19, CYP1A2 and CYP2C9 of rats. As other drugs are always used after Radix Sophorae Flavescentis, interactions between other drugs and Radix Sophorae Flavescentis undertake the risk of either diminished efficacy or adverse effects. This may give advising for reasonable drug use after Radix Sophorae Flavescentis. PMID:26885078

  6. A mechanistic hypothesis for the cytochrome P450-catalyzed cis-trans isomerization of 4-hydroxytamoxifen: an unusual redox reaction.

    PubMed

    Gao, Li; Tu, Yaoquan; Wegman, Pia; Wingren, Sten; Eriksson, Leif A

    2011-09-26

    We provide a detailed description of the cis-trans isomerization of 4-hydroxytamoxifen/endoxifen catalyzed by several isoforms from the cytochrome P450 (CYP) superfamily, including CYP1B1, CYP2B6, and CYP2C19. We show that the reactions mainly involve redox processes catalyzed by CYP. DFT calculation results strongly suggest that the isomerization occurs via a cationic intermediate. The cationic cis-isomer is more than 3 kcal/mol more stable than the trans form, resulting in an easier conversion from trans-to-cis than cis-to-trans. The cis-trans isomerization is a rarely reported CYP reaction and is ascribed to the lack of a second abstractable proton on the ethenyl group of the triarylvinyl class of substrates. The cationic intermediates thus formed instead of the stable dehydrogenation products allow for isomerization to occur. As a comparison, the reactions for the tamoxifen derivatives are compared to those of other substrates, 4-hydroxyacetanilide and raloxifene, for which the stable dehydrogenation products are formed. PMID:21870861

  7. Geneva cocktail for cytochrome p450 and P-glycoprotein activity assessment using dried blood spots.

    PubMed

    Bosilkovska, M; Samer, C F; Déglon, J; Rebsamen, M; Staub, C; Dayer, P; Walder, B; Desmeules, J A; Daali, Y

    2014-09-01

    The suitability of the capillary dried blood spot (DBS) sampling method was assessed for simultaneous phenotyping of cytochrome P450 (CYP) enzymes and P-glycoprotein (P-gp) using a cocktail approach. Ten volunteers received an oral cocktail capsule containing low doses of the probes bupropion (CYP2B6), flurbiprofen (CYP2C9), omeprazole (CYP2C19), dextromethorphan (CYP2D6), midazolam (CYP3A), and fexofenadine (P-gp) with coffee/Coke (CYP1A2) on four occasions. They received the cocktail alone (session 1), and with the CYP inhibitors fluvoxamine and voriconazole (session 2) and quinidine (session 3). In session 4, subjects received the cocktail after a 7-day pretreatment with the inducer rifampicin. The concentrations of probes/metabolites were determined in DBS and plasma using a single liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry method. The pharmacokinetic profiles of the drugs were comparable in DBS and plasma. Important modulation of CYP and P-gp activities was observed in the presence of inhibitors and the inducer. Minimally invasive one- and three-point (at 2, 3, and 6 h) DBS-sampling methods were found to reliably reflect CYP and P-gp activities at each session. PMID:24722393

  8. Chrysin, baicalein and galangin are indirect activators of the human constitutive androstane receptor (CAR).

    PubMed

    Carazo Fernández, Alejandro; Smutny, Tomas; Hyrsová, Lucie; Berka, Karel; Pavek, Petr

    2015-03-01

    The constitutive androstane receptor (CAR) is a crucial transcriptional regulator of key xenobiotic-metabolizing enzymes such as cytochrome P450 CYP3A4, CYP2C9 and CYP2B6. The flavonoids chrysin, baicalein and galangin have been reported to activate CAR and interfere with EGFR signaling. Nevertheless, it is not known if these flavonoids are direct CAR ligands or indirect phenobarbital-like CAR activators via the inhibition of epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) signaling. We analyze the interactions of chrysin, galangin and baicalein and its glycoside baicalin with human CAR. We have employed and validated methods that can study direct interaction with the CAR ligand binding pocket. Secondly, we determined if the compounds affect human EGFR signaling and interact with EGFR. Employing a TR-FRET coactivator assay with recombinant CAR or CAR assembly assay, a consistent activation of CAR with flavonoids and phenobarbital was not observed. It was determined, however, that galangin, chrysin, and baicalein may slightly repress EGFR-Tyr1068 autophosphorylation after EGF treatment, phosphorylation of downstream transcription factor ELK1 and stimulate EGFP-CAR nuclear translocation in primary human hepatocytes. These data suggest that flavonoids chrysin, galangin and baicalein are indirect human CAR activators. This study also demonstrates new approach how to test the direct CAR interaction with its ligands. PMID:25625231

  9. Synthesis and characterization of an isoindigo-dithienocarbazole-isoindigo oligomer for organic solar cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lyu, Fuzhen; Park, Hanok; Lee, Soo-Hyoung; Lee, Sang Hee; Lee, Youn-Sik

    2014-08-01

    An isoindigo-dithienocarbazole-isoindigo oligomer (II-DTC-II) was synthesized by a Stille coupling reaction between N-hexadecyl-2,8-bis(trimethylstannyl)dithieno[3,2-b:6,7-b]carbazole and 6-bromo-N,N‧-dioctylisoindigo. The oligomer exhibited a broad absorption with an optical band gap of 1.75 eV and a highest occupied molecular orbital energy level of -5.46 eV. Photovoltaic devices were fabricated using the II-DTC-II oligomer and [6,6]-phenyl C71 butyric acid methyl ester (PC71BM), to obtain the configuration ITO/PEDOT:PSS/II-DTC-II:PC71BM/LiF/Al. The best power conversion efficiency of the II-DTC-II-based devices was 1.13% when 0.8 wt% diiodooctane was mixed into the active layer of II-DTC-II/PC71BM (1:1). The low conversion efficiency was attributed to the oligomer's poor solubility and miscibility with PC71BM.

  10. Cytochrome P450 2J2, a new key enzyme in cyclophosphamide bioactivation and a potential biomarker for hematological malignancies.

    PubMed

    El-Serafi, I; Fares, M; Abedi-Valugerdi, M; Afsharian, P; Moshfegh, A; Terelius, Y; Potácová, Z; Hassan, M

    2015-10-01

    The role of cytochrome P450 2J2 (CYP2J2) in cyclophosphamide (Cy) bioactivation was investigated in patients, cells and microsomes. Gene expression analysis showed that CYP2J2 mRNA expression was significantly (P<0.01) higher in 20 patients with hematological malignancies compared with healthy controls. CYP2J2 expression showed significant upregulation (P<0.05) during Cy treatment before stem cell transplantation. Cy bioactivation was significantly correlated to CYP2J2 expression. Studies in HL-60 cells expressing CYP2J2 showed reduced cell viability when incubated with Cy (half maximal inhibitory concentration=3.6 mM). Inhibition of CYP2J2 using telmisartan reduced Cy bioactivation by 50% and improved cell survival. Cy incubated with recombinant CYP2J2 microsomes has resulted in apparent Km and Vmax values of 3.7-6.6 mM and 2.9-10.3 pmol/(min·pmol) CYP, respectively. This is the first study demonstrating that CYP2J2 is equally important to CYP2B6 in Cy metabolism. The heart, intestine and urinary bladder express high levels of CYP2J2; local Cy bioactivation may explain Cy-treatment-related toxicities in these organs. PMID:25601761

  11. A 30-years Review on Pharmacokinetics of Antibiotics: Is the Right Time for Pharmacogenetics?

    PubMed Central

    Baietto, Lorena; Corcione, Silvia; Pacini, Giovanni; Di Perri, Giovanni; D’Avolio#†, Antonio; Giuseppe De Rosa†, Francesco

    2014-01-01

    Drug bioavailability may vary greatly amongst individuals, affecting both efficacy and toxicity: in humans, genetic variations account for a relevant proportion of such variability. In the last decade the use of pharmacogenetics in clinical practice, as a tool to individualize treatment, has shown a different degree of diffusion in various clinical fields. In the field of infectious diseases, several studies identified a great number of associations between host genetic polymor-phisms and responses to antiretroviral therapy. For example, in patients treated with abacavir the screening for HLA-B*5701 before starting treatment is routine clinical practice and standard of care for all patients; efavirenz plasma levels are influenced by single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) CYP2B6-516G> T (rs3745274). Regarding antibiotics, many studies investigated drug transporters involved in antibiotic bioavailability, especially for fluoroquinolones, cephalosporins, and antituberculars. To date, few data are available about pharmacogenetics of recently developed antibiotics such as tigecycline, daptomycin or linezolid. Considering the effect of SNPs in gene coding for proteins involved in antibiotics bioavailability, few data have been published. Increasing knowledge in the field of antibiotic pharmacogenetics could be useful to explain the high drug inter-patients variability and to individualize therapy. In this paper we reported an overview of pharmacokinetics, pharmacodynamics, and pharmacogenetics of antibiotics to underline the importance of an integrated approach in choosing the right dosage in clinical practice. PMID:24909419

  12. Quantitative High-Throughput Identification of Drugs as Modulators of Human Constitutive Androstane Receptor

    PubMed Central

    Lynch, Caitlin; Zhao, Jinghua; Huang, Ruili; Xiao, Jingwei; Li, Linhao; Heyward, Scott; Xia, Menghang; Wang, Hongbing

    2015-01-01

    The constitutive androstane receptor (CAR, NR1I3) plays a key role in governing the transcription of numerous hepatic genes that involve xenobiotic metabolism/clearance, energy homeostasis, and cell proliferation. Thus, identification of novel human CAR (hCAR) modulators may not only enhance early prediction of drug-drug interactions but also offer potentially novel therapeutics for diseases such as metabolic disorders and cancer. In this study, we have generated a double stable cell line expressing both hCAR and a CYP2B6-driven luciferase reporter for quantitative high-throughput screening (qHTS) of hCAR modulators. Approximately 2800 compounds from the NIH Chemical Genomics Center Pharmaceutical Collection were screened employing both the activation and deactivation modes of the qHTS. Activators (115) and deactivators (152) of hCAR were identified from the primary qHTS, among which 10 agonists and 10 antagonists were further validated in the physiologically relevant human primary hepatocytes for compound-mediated hCAR nuclear translocation and target gene expression. Collectively, our results reveal that hCAR modulators can be efficiently identified through this newly established qHTS assay. Profiling drug collections for hCAR activity would facilitate the prediction of metabolism-based drug-drug interactions, and may lead to the identification of potential novel therapeutics. PMID:25993555

  13. Phenobarbital and Insulin Reciprocate Activation of the Nuclear Receptor Constitutive Androstane Receptor through the Insulin Receptor

    PubMed Central

    Yasujima, Tomoya; Saito, Kosuke; Moore, Rick

    2016-01-01

    Phenobarbital (PB) antagonized insulin to inactivate the insulin receptor and attenuated the insulin receptor downstream protein kinase B (AKT)–forkhead box protein O1 and extracellular signal-regulated kinase 1/2 signals in mouse primary hepatocytes and HepG2 cells. Hepatic AKT began dephosphorylation in an early stage of PB treatment, and blood glucose levels transiently increased in both wild-type and constitutive androstane receptor (CAR) knockout (KO) mice. On the other hand, blood glucose levels increased in wild-type mice, but not KO mice, in later stages of PB treatment. As a result, PB, acting as an insulin receptor antagonist, elicited CAR-independent increases and CAR-dependent decreases of blood glucose levels at these different stages of treatment, respectively. Reciprocally, insulin activation of the insulin receptor repressed CAR activation and induction of its target CYP2B6 gene in HepG2 cells. Thus, PB and insulin cross-talk through the insulin receptor to regulate glucose and drug metabolism reciprocally. PMID:26994072

  14. Can antiretroviral therapy be tailored to each human immunodeficiency virus-infected individual? Role of pharmacogenomics

    PubMed Central

    Asensi, Victor; Collazos, Julio; Valle-Garay, Eulalia

    2015-01-01

    Pharmacogenetics refers to the effect of single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) within human genes on drug therapy outcome. Its study might help clinicians to increase the efficacy of antiretroviral drugs by improving their pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics and by decreasing their side effects. HLAB*5701 genotyping to avoid the abacavir-associated hypersensitivity reaction (HSR) is a cost-effective diagnostic tool, with a 100% of negative predictive value, and, therefore, it has been included in the guidelines for treatment of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection. HALDRB*0101 associates with nevirapine-induced HSR. CYP2B6 SNPs modify efavirenz plasma levels and their genotyping help decreasing its central nervous system, hepatic and HSR toxicities. Cytokines SNPs might influence the development of drug-associated lipodystrophy. APOA5, APOB, APOC3 and APOE SNPs modify lipids plasma levels and might influence the coronary artery disease risk of HIV-infected individuals receiving antiretroviral therapy. UGT1A1*28 and ABCB1 (MDR1) 3435C > T SNPs modify atazanavir plasma levels and enhance hyperbilirubinemia. Much more effort needs to be still devoted to complete large prospective studies with multiple SNPs genotyping in order to reveal more clues about the role played by host genetics in antiretroviral drug efficacy and toxicity. PMID:26279978

  15. [Nutrition of children and adolescents engaged in high-level sports activities].

    PubMed

    Jobin, C; Duhamel, J F; Sesboue, B; Bureau, F; Guincestre, J Y; Duhamel, A; de Schrevel, G; Brouard, J; Fabre, J

    1993-01-01

    Young high-level athletes are frequently exposed to deficiencies, the most frequent origin of which is dietary. Supervision must be clinical, biological and dietary. Recommendations should be made individually, based on the nature and intensity of the exercise, and are calculated from the recommended supplements for the paediatric population. Protein, glucid and lipid supplements must represent approximately 12, 60 and 28% of the daily energetic intake respectively, the glucid ratio reaching 70% under certain conditions of prolonged exercise. Liquids must be controlled when exercise takes place in a warm atmosphere because young athletes are rapidly exposed to dehydration, the osmolarity of the selected drink being below 250 mosm/l. Mineral and vitamin supplementations are recommended. For minerals, perspiration losses may be associated with dietary deficiency. Possible vitamin deficiencies concern B1, B2, B6, B9, B12, C and D vitamins. The daily mineral supplements are estimated at 10 mg for iron, 5 mg for zinc and 1 mg for copper, and have to be prescribed in regular treatment after biological control. PMID:8393175

  16. Low serum concentrations of vitamin B6 and iron are related to panic attack and hyperventilation attack.

    PubMed

    Mikawa, Yasuhito; Mizobuchi, Satoshi; Egi, Moritoki; Morita, Kiyoshi

    2013-01-01

    Patients undergoing a panic attack (PA) or a hyperventilation attack (HVA) are sometimes admitted to emergency departments (EDs). Reduced serotonin level is known as one of the causes of PA and HVA. Serotonin is synthesized from tryptophan. For the synthesis of serotonin, vitamin B6 (Vit B6) and iron play important roles as cofactors. To clarify the pathophysiology of PA and HVA, we investigated the serum levels of vitamins B2, B6, and B12 and iron in patients with PA or HVA attending an ED. We measured each parameter in 21 PA or HVA patients and compared the values with those from 20 volunteers. We found that both Vit B6 and iron levels were significantly lower in the PA/HVA group than in the volunteer group. There was no significant difference in the serum levels of vitamins B2 or B12. These results suggest that low serum concentrations of Vit B6 and iron are involved in PA and HVA. Further studies are needed to clarify the mechanisms involved in such differences. PMID:23603926

  17. Dynamics of the phagocytic cell response within the lungs of parabiotic mice infected with mycobacteria with decreasing virulence for mice

    SciTech Connect

    Collins, F.M. )

    1990-07-01

    Alveolar macrophages constitute the first line of defense against an aerogenic mycobacterial challenge. The kinetics of the alveolar macrophage response to an infectious stimulus was studied in parabiotic C57BL/6 x DBA/2 (B6D2)F1 hybrid mice pulse-labeled with tritiated thymidine given to one (donor) animal while the other (recipient) received an equivalent amount of cold thymidine. Lavage fluid collected from uninfected recipients yielded few labeled monocytes. However, after introduction of 10(5) viable Mycobacterium bovis BCG into the lung, an immediate influx of heavily labeled mononuclear cells was observed, peaking around day 3. This cellular response was compared with that induced by several members of the Mycobacterium avium complex of different virulence to mice. The strains M. avium 724 and M. intracellulare 1405, virulent to mice, induced moderate mononuclear cell responses, whereas the avirulent M. intracellulare 1411 induced a predominantly polymorphonuclear rather than mononuclear cell influx, analogous to that seen when heat-killed mycobacteria were introduced into the lung. These results suggest that the mycobacteria within the lung must remain in a metabolically active state in order to induce the maximum mononuclear cell response of the type associated with acquired antituberculous immunity.

  18. Generation of proliferating human hepatocytes using Upcyte® technology: characterisation and applications in induction and cytotoxicity assays.

    PubMed

    Burkard, Alexandra; Dähn, Caroline; Heinz, Stefan; Zutavern, Anne; Sonntag-Buck, Vera; Maltman, Daniel; Przyborski, Stefan; Hewitt, Nicola J; Braspenning, Joris

    2012-10-01

    1. We have developed a novel technique which causes primary human hepatocytes to proliferate by transducing them with genes that upregulate their proliferation. 2. Upcyte(®) hepatocytes did not form colonies in soft agar and are not immortalised anchorage-independent cells. Confluent cultures expressed liver-specific proteins, produced urea and stored glycogen. 3. CYP activities were low but similar to that in 5-day cultures of primary human hepatocytes. CYP1A2 and CYP3A4 were inducible; moreover, upcyte(®) hepatocytes predicted the in vivo induction potencies of known CYP3A4 inducers using the "relative induction score" prediction model. Placing cells into 3D culture increased their basal CYP2B6 and CYP3A4 basal activities and induction responses. 4. Phase 2 activities (UGTs, SULTs and GSTs) were comparable to activities in freshly isolated hepatocytes. 5. Upcyte(®) hepatocytes were markedly more sensitive to the hepatotoxin, α-amanitin, than HepG2 cells, indicating functional OATP1B3 uptake. The cytotoxicity of aflatoxin B(1), was decreased in upcyte(®) hepatocytes by co-incubation with the CYP3A4 inhibitor, ketoconazole. Upcyte(®) hepatocytes also differentiated between ten hepatotoxic and eight non-hepatotoxic compounds. 6. In conclusion, upcyte(®) hepatocyte cultures have a differentiated phenotype and exhibit functional phase 1 and 2 activities. These data support the use of upcyte(®) hepatocytes for CYP induction and cytotoxicity screening. PMID:22524704

  19. Bone Morphology in 46 BXD Recombinant Inbred Strains and Femur-Tibia Correlation

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Yueying; Lu, Lu; Hasty, Karen A.

    2015-01-01

    We examined the bone properties of BXD recombinant inbred (RI) mice by analyzing femur and tibia and compared their phenotypes of different compartments. 46 BXD RI mouse strains were analyzed including progenitor C57BL/6J (n = 16) and DBA/2J (n = 15) and two first filial generations (D2B6F1 and B6D2F1). Strain differences were observed in bone quality and structural properties (P < 0.05) in each bone profile (whole bone, cortical bone, or trabecular bone). It is well known that skeletal phenotypes are largely affected by genetic determinants and genders, such as bone mineral density (BMD). While genetics and gender appear expectedly as the major determinants of bone mass and structure, significant correlations were also observed between femur and tibia. More importantly, positive and negative femur-tibia associations indicated that genetic makeup had an influence on skeletal integrity. We conclude that (a) femur-tibia association in bone morphological properties significantly varies from strain to strain, which may be caused by genetic differences among strains, and (b) strainwise variations were seen in bone mass, bone morphology, and bone microarchitecture along with bone structural property. PMID:25811045

  20. Chain length affects pancreatic lipase activity and the extent and pH-time profile of triglyceride lipolysis.

    PubMed

    Benito-Gallo, Paloma; Franceschetto, Alessandro; Wong, Jonathan C M; Marlow, Maria; Zann, Vanessa; Scholes, Peter; Gershkovich, Pavel

    2015-06-01

    Triglycerides (TG) are one of the most common excipients used in oral lipid-based formulations. The chain length of the TG plays an important role in the oral bioavailability of the co-administered drug. Fatty acid (FA) chain-length specificity of porcine pancreatic lipase was studied by means of an in vitro lipolysis model under bio-relevant conditions at pH 6.80. In order to determine the total extent of lipolysis, back-titration experiments at pH 11.50 were performed. Results suggest that there is a specific chain length range (C2-C8) for which pancreatic lipase shows higher activity. This specificity could result from a combination of physicochemical properties of TGs, 2-monoglycerides (2-MGs) and FAs, namely the droplet size of the TGs, the solubility of 2-MGs within mixed micelles, and the relative stability of the FAs as leaving groups in the hydrolysis reaction. During experimentation, it was evident that an optimisation of lipolysis conditions was needed for tighter control over pH levels so as to better mimic in vivo conditions. 1M NaOH, 3.5 mL/min maximum dosing rate, and 3 μL/min minimum dosing rate were the optimised set of conditions that allowed better pH control, as well as the differentiation of the lipolysis of different lipid loads. PMID:25936853