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Sample records for 2b subunit gene

  1. Regulation of the human MAT2B gene encoding the regulatory beta subunit of methionine adenosyltransferase, MAT II.

    PubMed

    LeGros, L; Halim, A B; Chamberlin, M E; Geller, A; Kotb, M

    2001-07-06

    Methionine adenosyltransferase (MAT) catalyzes the biosynthesis of S-adenosylmethionine (AdoMet), a key molecule in transmethylation reactions and polyamine biosynthesis. The MAT II isozyme consists of a catalytic alpha2 and a regulatory beta subunit. Down-regulation of the MAT II beta subunit expression causes a 6-10-fold increase in intracellular AdoMet levels. To understand the mechanism by which the beta subunit expression is regulated, we cloned the MAT2B gene, determined its organization, characterized its 5'-flanking sequences, and elucidated the in vitro and in vivo regulation of its promoter. Transcription of the MAT2B gene initiates at position -203 relative to the translation start site. Promoter deletion analysis defined a minimal promoter between positions +52 and +93 base pairs, a GC-rich region. Inclusion of the sequences between -4 and +52 enhanced promoter activity; this was primarily because of an Sp1 recognition site at +9/+15. The inclusion of sequences up to position -115 provided full activity; this was attributed to a TATA at -32. The Sp1 site at position +9 was key for the formation of protein.DNA complexes. Mutation of both the Sp1 site at +9 and the TATA at -32 reduced promoter activity to its minimal level. Supershift assays showed no effect of the anti-Sp1 antibody on complex formation, whereas the anti-Sp3 antibody had a strong effect on protein.DNA complex formation, suggesting that Sp3 is one of the main factors binding to this Sp1 site. Chromatin immunoprecipitation assays supported the involvement of both Sp1 and Sp3 in complexes formed on the MAT2B promoter. The data show that the 5'-untranslated sequences play an important role in regulating the MAT2B gene and identifies the Sp1 site at +9 as a potential target for modulating MAT2B expression, a process that can have a major effect on intracellular AdoMet levels.

  2. ANKS1B Gene Product AIDA-1 Controls Hippocampal Synaptic Transmission by Regulating GluN2B Subunit Localization.

    PubMed

    Tindi, Jaafar O; Chávez, Andrés E; Cvejic, Svetlana; Calvo-Ochoa, Erika; Castillo, Pablo E; Jordan, Bryen A

    2015-06-17

    NMDA receptors (NMDARs) are key mediators of glutamatergic transmission and synaptic plasticity, and their dysregulation has been linked to diverse neuropsychiatric and neurodegenerative disorders. While normal NMDAR function requires regulated expression and trafficking of its different subunits, the molecular mechanisms underlying these processes are not fully understood. Here we report that the amyloid precursor protein intracellular domain associated-1 protein (AIDA-1), which associates with NMDARs and is encoded by ANKS1B, a gene recently linked to schizophrenia, regulates synaptic NMDAR subunit composition. Forebrain-specific AIDA-1 conditional knock-out (cKO) mice exhibit reduced GluN2B-mediated and increased GluN2A-mediated synaptic transmission, and biochemical analyses show AIDA-1 cKO mice have low GluN2B and high GluN2A protein levels at isolated hippocampal synaptic junctions compared with controls. These results are corroborated by immunocytochemical and electrophysiological analyses in primary neuronal cultures following acute lentiviral shRNA-mediated knockdown of AIDA-1. Moreover, hippocampal NMDAR-dependent but not metabotropic glutamate receptor-dependent plasticity is impaired in AIDA-1 cKO mice, further supporting a role for AIDA-1 in synaptic NMDAR function. We also demonstrate that AIDA-1 preferentially associates with GluN2B and with the adaptor protein Ca(2+)/calmodulin-dependent serine protein kinase and kinesin KIF17, which regulate the transport of GluN2B-containing NMDARs from the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) to synapses. Consistent with this function, GluN2B accumulates in ER-enriched fractions in AIDA-1 cKO mice. These findings suggest that AIDA-1 regulates NMDAR subunit composition at synapses by facilitating transport of GluN2B from the ER to synapses, which is critical for NMDAR plasticity. Our work provides an explanation for how AIDA-1 dysfunction might contribute to neuropsychiatric conditions, such as schizophrenia. Copyright

  3. Localization of eight additional genes in the human major histocompatibility complex, including the gene encoding the casein kinase II {beta} subunit (CSNK2B)

    SciTech Connect

    Albertella, M.R.; Jones, H.; Thomson, W.

    1996-09-01

    A wide range of autoimmune and other diseases are known to be associated with the major histocompatibility complex. Many of these diseases are linked to the genes encoding the polymorphic histocompatibility complex. Many of these diseases are linked to the genes encoding the polymorphic histocompatibility antigens in the class I and class II regions, but some appear to be more strongly associated with genes in the central 1100-kb class III region, making it important to characterize this region fully for the presence of novel genes. An {approximately}220-kb segment of DNA in the class III region separating the Hsp70 (HSPA1L) and BAT1 (D6S8IE) genes, which was previously known to contain 14 genes. Genomic DNA fragments spanning the gaps between the known genes were used as probes to isolate cDNAs corresponding to five new genes within this region. Evidence from Northern blot analysis and exon trapping experiments that suggested the presence of at least two more new genes was also obtained. Partial cDNA and complete exonic genomic sequencing of one of the new genes has identified it as the casein kinase II{beta} subunit (CSNK2B). Two of the other novel genes lie within a region syntenic to that implicated in susceptibility to experimental allergic orchitis in the mouse, an autoimmune disease of the testis, and represent additional candidates for the Orch-1 locus associated with this disease. In addition, characterization of the 13-kb intergenic gap separating the RD (D6545) and G11 (D6S60E) genes has revealed the presence of a gene encoding a 1246-amino-acid polypeptide that shows significant sequence similarity to the yeast anti-viral Ski2p gene product. 49 refs., 8 figs.

  4. A missense mutation in the sodium channel β2 subunit reveals SCN2B as a new candidate gene for Brugada syndrome.

    PubMed

    Riuró, Helena; Beltran-Alvarez, Pedro; Tarradas, Anna; Selga, Elisabet; Campuzano, Oscar; Vergés, Marcel; Pagans, Sara; Iglesias, Anna; Brugada, Josep; Brugada, Pedro; Vázquez, Francisco M; Pérez, Guillermo J; Scornik, Fabiana S; Brugada, Ramon

    2013-07-01

    Brugada Syndrome (BrS) is a familial disease associated with sudden cardiac death. A 20%-25% of BrS patients carry genetic defects that cause loss-of-function of the voltage-gated cardiac sodium channel. Thus, 70%-75% of patients remain without a genetic diagnosis. In this work, we identified a novel missense mutation (p.Asp211Gly) in the sodium β2 subunit encoded by SCN2B, in a woman diagnosed with BrS. We studied the sodium current (INa ) from cells coexpressing Nav 1.5 and wild-type (β2WT) or mutant (β2D211G) β2 subunits. Our electrophysiological analysis showed a 39.4% reduction in INa density when Nav 1.5 was coexpressed with the β2D211G. Single channel analysis showed that the mutation did not affect the Nav 1.5 unitary channel conductance. Instead, protein membrane detection experiments suggested that β2D211G decreases Nav 1.5 cell surface expression. The effect of the mutant β2 subunit on the INa strongly suggests that SCN2B is a new candidate gene associated with BrS.

  5. The Site Specific Demethylation in the 5′-Regulatory Area of NMDA Receptor 2B Subunit Gene Associated with CIE-Induced Up-Regulation of Transcription

    PubMed Central

    Qiang, Mei; Denny, Ashley; Chen, Jiguo; Ticku, Maharaj K.; Yan, Bo; Henderson, George

    2010-01-01

    Background The NMDA receptor represents a particularly important site of ethanol action in the CNS. We recently reported that NMDA receptor 2B (NR2B) gene expression was persistently up-regulated following chronic intermittent ethanol (CIE) treatment. Increasing evidence that epigenetic mechanisms are involved in dynamic and long-lasting regulation of gene expression in multiple neuroadaptive processes prompted us to investigate the role of DNA methylation in mediating CIE-induced up-regulation of NR2B gene transcription. To dissect the changes of DNA methylation in the NR2B gene, we have screened a large number of CpG sites within its 5′-regulatory area following CIE treatment. Methods Primary cortical cultured neurons were subjected to ethanol treatment in a CIE paradigm. Bisulfite conversion followed by pyrosequencing was used for quantitative measurement and analysis of CpG methylation status within the 5′-regulatory area of the NR2B gene; chromatin immunoprecipitation (ChIP) assay was used to examine DNA levels associated with methylation and transcription factor binding. Electrophoretic mobility shift assay (EMSA) and in vitro DNA methylation assays were performed to determine the direct impact of DNA methylation on the interaction between DNA and transcription factor and promoter activity. Results Analysis of individual CpG methylation sites within the NR2B 5′regulatory area revealed three regions with clusters of site-specific CpG demethylation following CIE treatment and withdrawal. This was confirmed by ChIP showing similar decreases of methylated DNA in the same regions. The CIE-induced demethylation is characterized by being located near certain transcription factor binding sequences, AP-1 and CRE, and occurred during treatment as well as after ethanol withdrawal. Furthermore, the increase in vitro of methylated DNA decreased transcription factor binding activity and promoter activity. An additional ChIP assay indicated that the CIE-induced DNA

  6. The site specific demethylation in the 5'-regulatory area of NMDA receptor 2B subunit gene associated with CIE-induced up-regulation of transcription.

    PubMed

    Qiang, Mei; Denny, Ashley; Chen, Jiguo; Ticku, Maharaj K; Yan, Bo; Henderson, George

    2010-01-20

    The NMDA receptor represents a particularly important site of ethanol action in the CNS. We recently reported that NMDA receptor 2B (NR2B) gene expression was persistently up-regulated following chronic intermittent ethanol (CIE) treatment. Increasing evidence that epigenetic mechanisms are involved in dynamic and long-lasting regulation of gene expression in multiple neuroadaptive processes prompted us to investigate the role of DNA methylation in mediating CIE-induced up-regulation of NR2B gene transcription. To dissect the changes of DNA methylation in the NR2B gene, we have screened a large number of CpG sites within its 5'-regulatory area following CIE treatment. Primary cortical cultured neurons were subjected to ethanol treatment in a CIE paradigm. Bisulfite conversion followed by pyrosequencing was used for quantitative measurement and analysis of CpG methylation status within the 5'-regulatory area of the NR2B gene; chromatin immunoprecipitation (ChIP) assay was used to examine DNA levels associated with methylation and transcription factor binding. Electrophoretic mobility shift assay (EMSA) and in vitro DNA methylation assays were performed to determine the direct impact of DNA methylation on the interaction between DNA and transcription factor and promoter activity. Analysis of individual CpG methylation sites within the NR2B 5'regulatory area revealed three regions with clusters of site-specific CpG demethylation following CIE treatment and withdrawal. This was confirmed by ChIP showing similar decreases of methylated DNA in the same regions. The CIE-induced demethylation is characterized by being located near certain transcription factor binding sequences, AP-1 and CRE, and occurred during treatment as well as after ethanol withdrawal. Furthermore, the increase in vitro of methylated DNA decreased transcription factor binding activity and promoter activity. An additional ChIP assay indicated that the CIE-induced DNA demethylation is accompanied by

  7. The NMDA Receptor Subunit NR2b: Effects on LH Release and GnRH Gene Expression in Young and Middle-aged Female Rats, with Modulation by Estradiol

    PubMed Central

    Maffucci, Jacqueline A.; Walker, Deena M.; Ikegami, Aiko; Woller, Michael J.; Gore, Andrea C.

    2008-01-01

    The loss of reproductive capacity during aging involves changes in the neural regulation of the hypothalamic gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) neurons controlling reproduction. This neuronal circuitry includes glutamate receptors on GnRH neurons. Previously, we reported an increase in the expression of the NR2b subunit protein of the NMDA receptor on GnRH neurons in middle-aged compared to young female rats. Here, we examined the functional implications of the NR2b subunit on the onset of reproductive aging, using an NR2b-specific antagonist ifenprodil. Young (3–5 mos.) and middle-aged (10–13 mos.) female rats were ovariectomized (OVX), 17β-estradiol (E2) or vehicle (cholesterol) treated, and implanted with a jugular catheter. Serial blood sampling was undertaken every 10 minutes for 4 hours, with ifenprodil (10mg/kg) or vehicle injected (i.p.) after one hour of baseline sampling. The pulsatile release of pituitary LH and levels of GnRH mRNA in hypothalamus were quantified as indices of the reproductive axis. Our results showed effects of ifenprodil on both endpoints. In OVX rats given cholesterol, neither age nor ifenprodil had any effects on LH release. In E2-treated rats, aging was associated with significant decreases in pulsatile LH release. Additionally, ifenprodil stimulated parameters of pulsatile LH release in both young and middle-aged animals. Ifenprodil had few effects on GnRH mRNA; the only significant effect of ifenprodil was found in the middle-aged, cholesterol group. Together, these findings support a role for the NR2b subunit of the NMDAR in GnRH/LH regulation. Because most of these effects were exhibited on pituitary LH release in the absence of a concomitant change in GnRH gene expression, it is likely that NMDA receptors containing the NR2b subunit plays a role in GnRH-induced LH release, independent of de novo GnRH gene expression. PMID:18025808

  8. Identification of a Novel Rat NR2B Subunit Gene Promoter Region Variant and Its Association with Microwave-Induced Neuron Impairment.

    PubMed

    Wang, Li-Feng; Tian, Da-Wei; Li, Hai-Juan; Gao, Ya-Bing; Wang, Chang-Zhen; Zhao, Li; Zuo, Hong-Yan; Dong, Ji; Qiao, Si-Mo; Zou, Yong; Xiong, Lu; Zhou, Hong-Mei; Yang, Yue-Feng; Peng, Rui-Yun; Hu, Xiang-Jun

    2016-05-01

    Microwave radiation has been implicated in cognitive dysfunction and neuronal injury in animal models and in human investigations; however, the mechanism of these effects is unclear. In this study, single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) sites in the rat GRIN2B promoter region were screened. The associations of these SNPs with microwave-induced rat brain dysfunction and with rat pheochromocytoma-12 (PC12) cell function were investigated. Wistar rats (n = 160) were exposed to microwave radiation (30 mW/cm(2) for 5 min/day, 5 days/week, over a period of 2 months). Screening of the GRIN2B promoter region revealed a stable C-to-T variant at nucleotide position -217 that was not induced by microwave exposure. The learning and memory ability, amino acid contents in the hippocampus and cerebrospinal fluid, and NR2B expression were then investigated in the different genotypes. Following microwave exposure, NR2B protein expression decreased, while the Glu contents in the hippocampus and CSF increased, and memory impairment was observed in the TT genotype but not the CC and CT genotypes. In PC12 cells, the effects of the T allele were more pronounced than those of the C allele on transcription factor binding ability, transcriptional activity, NR2B mRNA, and protein expression. These effects may be related to the detrimental role of the T allele and the protective role of the C allele in rat brain function and PC12 cells exposed to microwave radiation.

  9. Antibody-mediated targeted gene transfer of helper virus-free HSV-1 vectors to rat neocortical neurons that contain either NMDA receptor 2B or 2A subunits.

    PubMed

    Cao, Haiyan; Zhang, Guo-rong; Geller, Alfred I

    2011-09-30

    Because of the numerous types of neurons in the brain, and particularly the forebrain, neuron type-specific expression will benefit many potential applications of direct gene transfer. The two most promising approaches for achieving neuron type-specific expression are targeted gene transfer to a specific type of neuron and using a neuron type-specific promoter. We previously developed antibody-mediated targeted gene transfer with Herpes Simplex Virus (HSV-1) vectors by modifying glycoprotein C (gC) to replace the heparin binding domain, which mediates the initial binding of HSV-1 particles to many cell types, with the Staphylococcus A protein ZZ domain, which binds immunoglobulin (Ig) G. We showed that a chimeric gC-ZZ protein is incorporated into vector particles and binds IgG. As a proof-of-principle for antibody-mediated targeted gene transfer, we isolated complexes of these vector particles and an anti-NMDA NR1 subunit antibody, and demonstrated targeted gene transfer to neocortical cells that contain NR1 subunits. However, because most forebrain neurons contain NR1, we obtained only a modest increase in the specificity of gene transfer, and this targeting specificity is of limited utility for physiological experiments. Here, we report efficient antibody-mediated targeted gene transfer to NMDA NR2B- or NR2A-containing cells in rat postrhinal cortex, and a neuron-specific promoter further restricted recombinant expression to neurons. Of note, because NR2A-containing neurons are relatively rare, these results show that antibody-mediated targeted gene transfer with HSV-1 vectors containing neuron type-specific promoters can restrict recombinant expression to specific types of forebrain neurons of physiological significance.

  10. Cloned Shiga Toxin 2 B Subunit Induces Apoptosis in Ramos Burkitt's Lymphoma B Cells

    PubMed Central

    Marcato, Paola; Mulvey, George; Armstrong, Glen D.

    2002-01-01

    The Shiga toxins (Stx1 and Stx2), produced by Shigella dysenteriae type 1 and enterohemorrhagic Escherichia coli, consist of one A subunit and five B subunits. The Stx1 and Stx2 B subunits form a pentameric structure that binds to globotriaosylceramide (Gb3-Cer) receptors on eukaryotic cells and promotes endocytosis. The A subunit then inhibits protein biosynthesis, which triggers apoptosis in the affected cell. In addition to its Gb3-Cer binding activity, the data in the following report demonstrate that the Stx2 B pentamer induces apoptosis in Ramos Burkitt's lymphoma B cells independently of A subunit activity. Apoptosis was not observed in A subunit-free preparations of the Stx1 B pentamer which competitively inhibited Stx2 B pentamer-mediated apoptosis. The pancaspase inhibitor, Z-VAD-fmk, prevented apoptosis in Ramos cells exposed to the Stx2 B subunit, Stx1 or Stx2. Brefeldin A, an inhibitor of the Golgi transport system, also prevented Stx2 B subunit-mediated apoptosis. These observations suggest that the Stx2 B subunit must be internalized, via Gb3-Cer receptors, to induce Ramos cell apoptosis. Moreover, unlike the two holotoxins, Stx2 B subunit-mediated apoptosis does not involve inhibition of protein biosynthesis. This study provides further insight into the pathogenic potential of this family of potent bacterial exotoxins. PMID:11854211

  11. NMDA receptor surface mobility depends on NR2A-2B subunits

    PubMed Central

    Groc, Laurent; Heine, Martin; Cousins, Sarah L.; Stephenson, F. Anne; Lounis, Brahim; Cognet, Laurent; Choquet, Daniel

    2006-01-01

    The NR2 subunit composition of NMDA receptors (NMDARs) varies during development, and this change is important in NMDAR-dependent signaling. In particular, synaptic NMDAR switch from containing mostly NR2B subunit to a mixture of NR2B and NR2A subunits. The pathways by which neurons differentially traffic NR2A- and NR2B-containing NMDARs are poorly understood. Using single-particle and -molecule approaches and specific antibodies directed against NR2A and NR2B extracellular epitopes, we investigated the surface mobility of native NR2A and NR2B subunits at the surface of cultured neurons. The surface mobility of NMDARs depends on the NR2 subunit subtype, with NR2A-containing NMDARs being more stable than NR2B-containing ones, and NR2A subunit overexpression stabilizes surface NR2B-containing NMDARs. The developmental change in the synaptic surface content of NR2A and NR2B subunits was correlated with a developmental change in the time spent by the subunits within synapses. This suggests that the switch in synaptic NMDAR subtypes depends on the regulation of the receptor surface trafficking. PMID:17124177

  12. SETDB1 HISTONE METHYLTRANSFERASE REGULATES MOOD-RELATED BEHAVIORS AND EXPRESSION OF THE NMDA RECEPTOR SUBUNIT NR2B

    PubMed Central

    Jiang, Yan; Jakovcevski, Mira; Bharadwaj, Rahul; Connor, Caroline; Schroeder, Frederick A.; Lin, Cong L.; Straubhaar, Juerg; Martin, Gilles; Akbarian, Schahram

    2010-01-01

    Histone methyltransferases specific for the histone H3-lysine 9 (H3K9) residue, including Setdb1 (Set domain, bifurcated 1)/Eset/Kmt1e are associated with repressive chromatin remodeling and expressed in adult brain, but potential effects on neuronal function and behavior remain unexplored. Here, we report that transgenic mice with increased Setdb1 expression in adult forebrain neurons show antidepressant-like phenotypes in behavioral paradigms for anhedonia, despair and learned helplessness. Chromatin immunoprecipitation in conjunction with DNA tiling arrays (ChIP-chip) revealed that genomic occupancies of neuronal Setdb1 are limited to less than 1% of annotated genes, which include the NMDA receptor subunit NR2B/Grin2B and other ionotropic glutamate receptor genes. Chromatin conformation capture (“3C”) and Setdb1-ChIP revealed a loop formation tethering the NR2B/Grin2b promoter to the Setdb1 target site positioned 30Kb downstream of the transcription start site. In hippocampus and ventral striatum, two key structures in the neuronal circuitry regulating mood-related behaviors, Setdb1-mediated repressive histone methylation at NR2B/Grin2b was associated with decreased NR2B expression and EPSP insensitivity to pharmacological blockade of NR2B, and accelerated NMDA receptor desensitization consistent with a shift in NR2A/B subunit ratios. In wildtype mice, systemic treatment with the NR2B antagonist, Ro-256981, and hippocampal siRNA-mediated NR2B/Grin2b knockdown, resulted in behavioral changes similar to those elicited by the Setdb1 transgene. Together, these findings point to a role for neuronal Setdb1 in the regulation of affective and motivational behaviors through repressive chromatin remodeling at a select set of target genes, resulting in altered NMDA receptor subunit composition and other molecular adaptations. PMID:20505083

  13. Immunopositivity for ESCRT-III subunit CHMP2B in granulovacuolar degeneration of neurons in the Alzheimer's disease hippocampus.

    PubMed

    Yamazaki, Yuu; Takahashi, Tetsuya; Hiji, Masanori; Kurashige, Takashi; Izumi, Yuishin; Yamawaki, Takemori; Matsumoto, Masayasu

    2010-06-21

    Endosomal sorting complex required for transport (ESCRT)-III subunit charged multivesicular body protein 2B (CHMP2B) is involved in the degradation of proteins in the endocytic and autophagic pathways. Mutations in the CHMP2B gene are reportedly associated with frontotemporal dementia (FTD) and amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) characterised by accumulation of ubiquitinated protein aggregates in affected neurons, suggesting a relationship between protein accumulation and efficient autophagic degradation. This study investigated CHMP2B immunoreactivity in the hippocampus of patients with Alzheimer's disease (AD), revealing intense labeling of intraneuronal dot-like structures by antibody to CHMP2B. Since the morphological characteristics of these granular structures were compatible with those of granulovacuolar degeneration (GVD), a hallmark of AD pathology, immunohistochemical study using anti-CHMP2B antibody was performed using AD and control brain sections to investigate whether this antibody can be used as a GVD label. The number and percentage of hippocampal neurons with CHMP2B-positive granules were higher in AD cases and CHMP2B-positive granules corresponded to GVD. Anti-CHMP2B antibody detected a single 28-kDa band on Western blotting using control and AD specimens. This antibody clearly and intensely detected GVD over the hippocampus and entorhinal and transentorhinal cortices. These findings suggest that researchers will be able to use CHMP2B as a molecular label for studying GVD. Copyright 2010 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Estradiol modulates visceral hyperalgesia by increasing thoracolumbar spinal GluN2B subunit activity in female rats

    PubMed Central

    Ji, Yaping; Bai, Guang; Cao, Dong-Yuan; Traub, Richard J

    2015-01-01

    Background We previously reported estrogen modulates spinal NMDA receptor processing of colorectal pain through changes in spinal GluN1 subunit phosphorylation/expression. The purpose of the present study was to investigate whether spinal GluN2B containing NMDA receptors are involved in estrogen modulation of visceral pain processing. Methods Behavioral, molecular and immunocytochemical techniques were used to determine spinal GluN2B expression/phosphorylation and function 48 hrs following subcutaneous injection of estradiol (E2) or vehicle (safflower oil, Saff oil) in ovariectomized rats in the absence or presence of colonic inflammation induced by mustard oil. Key results E2 increased the magnitude of the visceromotor response (VMR) to colorectal distention compared to Saff oil in non-inflamed rats. Intrathecal injection of the GluN2B subunit antagonist, Ro 25-6981, had no effect on the VMR in non-inflamed E2 or Saff oil rats. Colonic inflammation induced visceral hyperalgesia in E2, but not Saff oil rats. Visceral hyperalgesia in E2 rats was blocked by intrathecal GluN2B subunit selective antagonists. In inflamed rats, E2 increased GluN2B protein and gene expression in the thoracolumbar (TL), but not lumbosacral (LS), dorsal spinal cord. Immunocytochemical labeling showed a significant increase of GluN2B subunit in the superficial dorsal horn of E2 rats compared to Saff oil rats. Conclusions and inferences These data support the hypothesis that estrogen increases spinal processing of colonic inflammation-induced visceral hyperalgesia by increasing NMDA receptor activity. Specifically, an increase in the activity of GluN2B containing NMDA receptors in the TL spinal cord by estrogen underlies visceral hypersensitivity in the presence of colonic inflammation. PMID:25810326

  15. Analysis of the subunit organization of the eIF2B complex reveals new insights into its structure and regulation.

    PubMed

    Wortham, Noel C; Martinez, Magdalena; Gordiyenko, Yuliya; Robinson, Carol V; Proud, Christopher G

    2014-05-01

    Eukaryotic initiation factor 2B (eIF2B) is the guanine nucleotide exchange factor for eIF2 and a critical regulator of protein synthesis, (e.g., as part of the integrated stress response). Certain mutations in the EIF2B genes cause leukoencephalopathy with vanishing white matter (VWM), an often serious neurological disorder. Comprising 5 subunits, α-ε (eIF2Bε being the catalytic one), eIF2B has always been considered an αβγδε heteropentamer. We have analyzed the subunit interactions within mammalian eIF2B by using a combination of mass spectrometry and in vivo studies of overexpressed complexes to gain further insight into the subunit arrangement of the complex. Our data reveal that eIF2B is actually decameric, a dimer of eIF2B(βγδε) tetramers stabilized by 2 copies of eIF2Bα. We also demonstrate a pivotal role for eIF2Bδ in the formation of eIF2B(βγδε) tetramers. eIF2B(αβγδε)2 decamers show greater binding to eIF2 than to eIF2B(βγδε) tetramers, which may underlie the increased activity of the former. We examined the levels of eIF2B subunits in a panel of different mouse tissues and identified different levels of eIF2B subunits, particularly eIF2Bα, which implies heterogeneity in the cellular proportions of eIF2B(αβγδε) and eIF2B(βγδε) complexes, with important implications for the regulation of translation in individual cell types.

  16. Sensory Activity Differentially Modulates NR2A and NR2B subunits in Cortical Layers

    PubMed Central

    CORSON, James; NAHMANI, Marc; LUBARSKY, Katherine; BADR, Nadia; WRIGHT, Carinne; ERISIR, Alev

    2009-01-01

    Activity-dependent modulation of NMDA receptors containing selective NR2 subunits has been implicated in plastic processes in developing and adult sensory cortex. Aiming to reveal differential sensitivity of NR2 subunits to sustained changes in sensory activity, we utilized four paradigms that blocked, reinstated, or initiated sensory visual activity. Laminar prevalence of NR2A- and NR2B-containing synapses in visual cortex of postnatal and adult ferrets was assessed using quantitative electron microscopy. Light-deprivation at all ages resulted in a downregulation of NR2A, while recovery from deprivation resulted in an upregulation. Furthermore, premature eyelid opening caused a precocious increase of NR2A. Thus, transitions between periods of dark and light rapidly and bidirectionally regulate NR2A, regardless of cortical layer or age. In contrast, NR2B regulation is layer- and age-dependent. Only in layer IV, NR2B prevalence displays a one-time decline about three weeks after the initiation of sensory activity upon normal or premature eyelid opening, or upon termination of dark-rearing. Incongruity in patterns of NR2A and NR2B modulation by activity is consistent with involvement of these subunits in two distinct, yet partially co-occurring processes: developmental plasticity with a critical period, and life-long plasticity that is established in early developmental ages. PMID:19596055

  17. Gene expression studies of mRNAs encoding the NMDA receptor subunits NMDAR1, NMDAR2A, NMDAR2B, NMDAR2C, and NMDAR2D following long-term treatment with cis-and trans-flupenthixol as a model for understanding the mode of action of schizophrenia drug treatment.

    PubMed

    Chen, A C; McDonald, B; Moss, S J; Gurling, H M

    1998-02-01

    It has been hypothesized that glutamate receptor function is important in both the aetiology and treatment of schizophrenia. In order to understand how specific glutamate receptor genes are involved in the treatment of schizophrenia we have used a multiprobe oligonucleotide solution hybridization (MOSH) technique to examine the regulation of gene express of the NMDAR1, 2A, 2B, 2C, 2D receptor subunits in the left rat brain following treatment with the optical isomers of flupenthixol. cis- and trans-flupenthixol are both present in the commonly used oral and depot treatments for schizophrenia and a controlled trial showed that cis-flupenthixol had a significantly superior ability to ameliorate the positive symptoms of schizophrenia compared to its trans-isomer. At a dose of 0.2 mg/kg/day over a period of 1, 2, 4, 8, 12 and 24 weeks, we found that both isomers down regulated the expression of NMDAR1 mRNA in most regions of the brain. NMDAR2A, 2B and 2C receptor subunits showed a significantly decreased expression from 12 to 24 weeks but after 2 weeks NMDAR2B, 2C, 2D expression was increased in several brain regions. The NMDAR1 receptor subunit immunoreactivity in the right brain following 4 and 24 weeks of drug treatment was also examined by Western blotting. Both trans- and cis-flupenthixol significantly decreased the NR1 immunoreactivity in the right cerebellum after 24 weeks of treatment. These results suggest that NMDA receptor subunits may have a role in the action of antipsychotic drugs. If we assume that the NMDA receptor expression changes reflect a beneficial and significant mechanism in the treatment of schizophrenia, it could be argued that NMDA receptor changes are more related to the negative or non-specific symptoms of schizophrenia.

  18. The NMDAR subunit NR2B expression is modified in hippocampus after repetitive seizures.

    PubMed

    Auzmendi, J; González, N; Girardi, Elena

    2009-05-01

    NMDA receptor is involved in synaptic plasticity, learning, memory and neurological diseases like epilepsia and it is the major mediator of excitotoxicity. NR2B-containing NMDA receptors may be playing a crucial role in epileptic disorders. In the present study the effect of the convulsant drug 3-mercaptopropionic acid (MP) repetitive administration (4-7 days) on the hippocampal NR2B subunit was studied. A significant decrease in NR2B in the whole hippocampus was observed after MP4 with a tendency to recover to normal values in MP7 by western blot assay. Immunohistochemical studies showed a decrease in several CA1 and CA2/3 strata (21-73%). MP7 showed a reversion of the drop observed at 4 days in stratum oriens, pyramidal cell layer in CA1, CA2/3 and CA1 stratum radiatum. A significant fall in the lacunosum molecular layer of both areas and stratum radiatum of CA2/3 was observed. The immunostaining in MP4 showed a decrease in the granulare layer from dentate gyrus (20%), in hillus (71%) and subicullum (63%) as compared with control and these decreases were similar at MP7 values. Results showed decreases in NR2B subunit expression in different areas following repeated MP-induce seizures, suggesting that NR2B expression is altered depending on the diverse hippocampal input and output signals of each region that could be differently involved in modulating MP-induced hyperactivity.

  19. NR2B subunit of the NMDA glutamate receptor regulates appetite in the parabrachial nucleus.

    PubMed

    Wu, Qi; Zheng, Ruimao; Srisai, Dollada; McKnight, G Stanley; Palmiter, Richard D

    2013-09-03

    Diphtheria toxin-mediated, acute ablation of hypothalamic neurons expressing agouti-related protein (AgRP) in adult mice leads to anorexia and starvation within 7 d that is caused by hyperactivity of neurons within the parabrachial nucleus (PBN). Because NMDA glutamate receptors are involved in various synaptic plasticity-based behavioral modifications, we hypothesized that modulation of the NR2A and NR2B subunits of the NMDA receptor in PBN neurons could contribute to the anorexia phenotype. We observed by Western blot analyses that ablation of AgRP neurons results in enhanced expression of NR2B along with a modest suppression of NR2A. Interestingly, systemic administration of LiCl in a critical time window before AgRP neuron ablation abolished the anorectic response. LiCl treatment suppressed NR2B levels in the PBN and ameliorated the local Fos induction that is associated with anorexia. This protective role of LiCl on feeding was blunted in vagotomized mice. Chronic infusion of RO25-6981, a selective NR2B inhibitor, into the PBN recapitulated the role of LiCl in maintaining feeding after AgRP neuron ablation. We suggest that the accumulation of NR2B subunits in the PBN contributes to aphagia in response to AgRP neuron ablation and may be involved in other forms of anorexia.

  20. Archaeal translation initiation revisited: the initiation factor 2 and eukaryotic initiation factor 2B alpha-beta-delta subunit families

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kyrpides, N. C.; Woese, C. R.

    1998-01-01

    As the amount of available sequence data increases, it becomes apparent that our understanding of translation initiation is far from comprehensive and that prior conclusions concerning the origin of the process are wrong. Contrary to earlier conclusions, key elements of translation initiation originated at the Universal Ancestor stage, for homologous counterparts exist in all three primary taxa. Herein, we explore the evolutionary relationships among the components of bacterial initiation factor 2 (IF-2) and eukaryotic IF-2 (eIF-2)/eIF-2B, i.e., the initiation factors involved in introducing the initiator tRNA into the translation mechanism and performing the first step in the peptide chain elongation cycle. All Archaea appear to posses a fully functional eIF-2 molecule, but they lack the associated GTP recycling function, eIF-2B (a five-subunit molecule). Yet, the Archaea do posses members of the gene family defined by the (related) eIF-2B subunits alpha, beta, and delta, although these are not specifically related to any of the three eukaryotic subunits. Additional members of this family also occur in some (but by no means all) Bacteria and even in some eukaryotes. The functional significance of the other members of this family is unclear and requires experimental resolution. Similarly, the occurrence of bacterial IF-2-like molecules in all Archaea and in some eukaryotes further complicates the picture of translation initiation. Overall, these data lend further support to the suggestion that the rudiments of translation initiation were present at the Universal Ancestor stage.

  1. Archaeal translation initiation revisited: the initiation factor 2 and eukaryotic initiation factor 2B alpha-beta-delta subunit families

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kyrpides, N. C.; Woese, C. R.

    1998-01-01

    As the amount of available sequence data increases, it becomes apparent that our understanding of translation initiation is far from comprehensive and that prior conclusions concerning the origin of the process are wrong. Contrary to earlier conclusions, key elements of translation initiation originated at the Universal Ancestor stage, for homologous counterparts exist in all three primary taxa. Herein, we explore the evolutionary relationships among the components of bacterial initiation factor 2 (IF-2) and eukaryotic IF-2 (eIF-2)/eIF-2B, i.e., the initiation factors involved in introducing the initiator tRNA into the translation mechanism and performing the first step in the peptide chain elongation cycle. All Archaea appear to posses a fully functional eIF-2 molecule, but they lack the associated GTP recycling function, eIF-2B (a five-subunit molecule). Yet, the Archaea do posses members of the gene family defined by the (related) eIF-2B subunits alpha, beta, and delta, although these are not specifically related to any of the three eukaryotic subunits. Additional members of this family also occur in some (but by no means all) Bacteria and even in some eukaryotes. The functional significance of the other members of this family is unclear and requires experimental resolution. Similarly, the occurrence of bacterial IF-2-like molecules in all Archaea and in some eukaryotes further complicates the picture of translation initiation. Overall, these data lend further support to the suggestion that the rudiments of translation initiation were present at the Universal Ancestor stage.

  2. Archaeal translation initiation revisited: the initiation factor 2 and eukaryotic initiation factor 2B alpha-beta-delta subunit families.

    PubMed

    Kyrpides, N C; Woese, C R

    1998-03-31

    As the amount of available sequence data increases, it becomes apparent that our understanding of translation initiation is far from comprehensive and that prior conclusions concerning the origin of the process are wrong. Contrary to earlier conclusions, key elements of translation initiation originated at the Universal Ancestor stage, for homologous counterparts exist in all three primary taxa. Herein, we explore the evolutionary relationships among the components of bacterial initiation factor 2 (IF-2) and eukaryotic IF-2 (eIF-2)/eIF-2B, i.e., the initiation factors involved in introducing the initiator tRNA into the translation mechanism and performing the first step in the peptide chain elongation cycle. All Archaea appear to posses a fully functional eIF-2 molecule, but they lack the associated GTP recycling function, eIF-2B (a five-subunit molecule). Yet, the Archaea do posses members of the gene family defined by the (related) eIF-2B subunits alpha, beta, and delta, although these are not specifically related to any of the three eukaryotic subunits. Additional members of this family also occur in some (but by no means all) Bacteria and even in some eukaryotes. The functional significance of the other members of this family is unclear and requires experimental resolution. Similarly, the occurrence of bacterial IF-2-like molecules in all Archaea and in some eukaryotes further complicates the picture of translation initiation. Overall, these data lend further support to the suggestion that the rudiments of translation initiation were present at the Universal Ancestor stage.

  3. Cortical NR2B NMDA subunit antagonism reduces inflammatory pain in male and female rats

    PubMed Central

    Quintero, Gabriel C; Herrera, Jairo; Bethancourt, José

    2011-01-01

    Background Studies have shown that N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) receptors play a critical role in pain processing at different levels of the central nervous system. Methods In this study, we used adult Wistar rats to examine gender differences in the effects of NR2B NMDA antagonism at the level of the anterior cingulate cortex in phasic pain, and in the first and second phases of a formalin test. Rats underwent stereotactic surgery for cannula implantation in the anterior cingulate cortex. After recovery, paw withdrawal latency to a noxious thermal stimulus was assessed. Rats were also subjected to a formalin pain test whereby 60 μL of 5% formalin was injected into the right hind paw. Results Female and male rats that received Ro 25-6981, an NR2B antagonist, before formalin injection showed significantly reduced pain responses to the formalin test compared with saline-injected control rats (P < 0.05). No gender differences in phasic pain responses were found in rats treated with Ro 25-6981. Conclusion These results suggest that cortical antagonism of the NR2B subunit reduces inflammatory pain levels in both genders of rat. PMID:22003303

  4. Early chronic blockade of NR2B subunits and transient activation of NMDA receptors modulate LTP in mouse auditory cortex.

    PubMed

    Mao, Yuting; Zang, Shaoyun; Zhang, Jiping; Sun, Xinde

    2006-02-16

    In the auditory cortex, the properties of NMDA receptors depend primarily on the ratio of NR2A and NR2B subunits. NR2B subunit expression is high at the beginning of critical period and lower in adulthood. Because NMDA receptors are crucial in triggering long-term potentiation (LTP) and long-term depression, developmental or experience-dependent modification of NMDAR subunit composition is likely to influence synaptic plasticity. To examine how NMDA subunit change during postnatal development affect the adult synaptic plasticity, we employed chronic ifenprodil blockade of NR2B subunits and analyzed evoked field potentials in adult C57BL/6 mice auditory cortex (AC). We found that chronic loss of NR2B activity led to a decline in LTP magnitude in the AC of adult mice. Adding NMDA to the artificial cerebrospinal fluid (ACSF) in blocked mice had the opposite effect, producing LTP magnitudes at or exceeding those found in treated or untreated animals. These results suggest that, even in adulthood when NR2B expression is downregulated, these receptor subunits play an important role in experience-dependent plasticity of mouse auditory cortex. Blockade from P60 did not result in any decrease of LTP amplitude, suggesting that chronic block in postnatal period may permanently affect cortical circuits so that they cannot produce significant LTP in adulthood.

  5. Role for the NR2B Subunit of the NMDA Receptor in Mediating Light Input to the Circadian System

    PubMed Central

    Wang, LM; Schroeder, A; Loh, D; Smith, D; Lin, K; Han, JH; Michel, S; Hummer, DL; Ehlen, JC; Albers, HE; Colwell, CS

    2008-01-01

    Light information reaches the suprachiasmatic nucleus (SCN) through a subpopulation of retinal ganglion cells that utilize glutamate as a neurotransmitter. A variety of evidence suggests that the release of glutamate then activates N-methyl-Daspartate (NMDA) receptors within the SCN and triggers a signaling cascade that ultimately leads to phase shifts in the circadian system. In this study, we first sought to explore the role of the NR2B subunit in mediating the effects of light on the circadian system. We found that localized microinjection of the NR2B subunit antagonist ifenprodil into the SCN region inhibits the magnitude of light-induced phase shifts of the circadian rhythm in wheel-running activity. Next, we found that the NR2B message and levels of phospho-NR2B levels vary with time of day in SCN tissue using semi-quantitative real-time PCR and Western blot analysis, respectively. Functionally, we found that blocking the NR2B subunit with ifenprodil significantly reduced the magnitude of NMDA currents recorded in SCN neurons. Ifenprodil also significantly reduced the magnitude of NMDA-induced calcium changes in SCN cells. Together, these results demonstrate that the NR2B subunit is an important component of NMDA receptor mediated responses within SCN neurons and that this subunit contributes to light-induced phase shifts of the mammalian circadian system. PMID:18380671

  6. The effect of NR2B subunit palmitoylation at the spinal level after chronic dorsal root ganglia compression in rats.

    PubMed

    Xia, Tianjiao; Cui, Yin; Shi, Han; Ma, Zhengliang; Gu, Xiaoping

    2014-11-01

    The NR2B subunit (N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor 2B subunit) regulates the source of pain, and it participates in the formation of central sensitization. Palmitoylation was shown to be involved in the regulation of N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor internalization. In the present study, we investigated the effects of NR2B subunit palmitoylation in a chronic dorsal root ganglia compression (CCD) rat model. Paw mechanical withdrawal threshold and paw withdrawal thermal latency were used to assess mechanical allodynia and thermal hyperalgesia after a CCD operation and an intrathecal injection of the inhibitor of palmitoylation (2-bromopalmitate [2-BP]). The acyl-biotinyl exchange method, Western blotting, and coimmunoprecipitation were used to investigate the effects of pain processing and the expression of levels of NR2B palmitoylation and phosphorylation at the spinal level. CCD rats had long-lasting thermal hyperalgesia and mechanical allodynia, leading to upregulation of the level of NR2B palmitoylation and phosphorylation at the spinal level. An intrathecal treatment with 2-BP on day 14 after CCD surgery markedly improved pain behaviors and downregulated the expression of NR2B palmitoylation and phosphorylation. These data suggest that upregulated NR2B palmitoylation in CCD-induced neuropathic pain and intrathecal injection of 2-BP could reduce pain behaviors and NR2B phosphorylation. Our findings indicate that spinal NR2B palmitoylation is an important component of CCD-induced neuropathic pain, and it might be a potential target for chronic pain therapy.

  7. The A-Current Modulates Learning via NMDA Receptors Containing the NR2B Subunit

    PubMed Central

    Fontán-Lozano, Ángela; Suárez-Pereira, Irene; González-Forero, David; Carrión, Ángel Manuel

    2011-01-01

    Synaptic plasticity involves short- and long-term events, although the molecular mechanisms that underlie these processes are not fully understood. The transient A-type K+ current (IA) controls the excitability of the dendrites from CA1 pyramidal neurons by regulating the back-propagation of action potentials and shaping synaptic input. Here, we have studied how decreases in IA affect cognitive processes and synaptic plasticity. Using wild-type mice treated with 4-AP, an IA inhibitor, and mice lacking the DREAM protein, a transcriptional repressor and modulator of the IA, we demonstrate that impairment of IA decreases the stimulation threshold for learning and the induction of early-LTP. Hippocampal electrical recordings in both models revealed alterations in basal electrical oscillatory properties toward low-theta frequencies. In addition, we demonstrated that the facilitated learning induced by decreased IA requires the activation of NMDA receptors containing the NR2B subunit. Together, these findings point to a balance between the IA and the activity of NR2B-containing NMDA receptors in the regulation of learning. PMID:21966384

  8. Targeting the NMDA receptor subunit NR2B for treating or preventing age-related memory decline.

    PubMed

    Wang, Deheng; Jacobs, Stephanie A; Tsien, Joe Z

    2014-10-01

    Age-related memory loss is believed to be a result of reduced synaptic plasticity, including changes in the NR2 subunit composition of the NMDA receptor. It is known that endogenous NR2B subunits decrease as the brain ages, whereas transgenic upregulation of NR2B enhances synaptic plasticity and learning and memory in several animal species. Accumulating evidence suggests that elevated brain magnesium levels, via dietary supplementation, can boost NR2B in the brain, consequently reversing memory deficits and enhancing cognitive abilities. This review highlights the convergent molecular mechanisms via the NR2B pathway as a useful strategy for treating age-related memory loss. A dietary approach, via oral intake of a novel compound, magnesium L-threonate (MgT), to boost NR2B expression in the brain is highlighted. Direct upregulation of the NR2B subunit expression can enhance synaptic plasticity and memory functions in a broad range of behavioral tasks in rodents. Other upregulation approaches, such as targeting the NR2B transporter or surface recycling pathway via cyclin-dependent kinase 5, are highly effective in improving memory functions. A dietary supplemental approach by optimally elevating the [Mg²⁺] in the brain is surprisingly effective in upregulating NR2B expression and improving memories in preclinical studies. MgT is currently under clinical trials.

  9. NMDA receptor NR2B subunits contribute to PTZ-kindling-induced hippocampal astrocytosis and oxidative stress.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Xinjian; Dong, Jingde; Shen, Kai; Bai, Ying; Zhang, Yuan; Lv, Xuan; Chao, Jie; Yao, Honghong

    2015-05-01

    The N-methyl-d-aspartate (NMDA) receptor plays an important role in the pathophysiology of several neurological diseases, including epilepsy. The present study investigated the effect of NMDA receptor NR2B subunits on pentylenetetrazole (PTZ)-kindling-induced pathological and biochemical events in mice. Our results showed that PTZ-kindling up-regulates the expression of NMDA receptor NR2B subunits in the hippocampus and that kindled mice were characterized by significant astrocytosis and neuron loss in the hippocampus. Oxidative stress, including excessive malondialdehyde (MDA) production and decreased enzymatic activities of superoxide dismutase (SOD) and glutathione peroxidase (GSH-PX), were detected in the hippocampus after the mice were fully kindled. Additionally, expression of brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) in the hippocampus was found to be up-regulated in PTZ-kindled mice. However, selectively blocking NMDA receptor NR2B subunits by ifenprodil significantly suppressed PTZ-kindling-induced hippocampal astrocytosis, oxidative stress and neuron loss. Furthermore, blocking NMDA receptor NR2B subunits also abolished PTZ-kindling-induced BDNF expression. These results indicate that NMDA receptor NR2B subunits contribute to epilepsy-associated pathological and biochemical events, including hippocampal astrocytosis, oxidative stress and neuron loss, and these events might be correlated with up-regulation of BDNF expression.

  10. Arcuate Src activation-induced phosphorylation of NR2B NMDA subunit contributes to inflammatory pain in rats.

    PubMed

    Xu, Longsheng; Pan, Yanyan; Zhu, Qi; Gong, Shan; Tao, Jin; Xu, Guang-Yin; Jiang, Xinghong

    2012-12-01

    The tyrosine kinases of Src family play an important role in the central sensitization following peripheral inflammation. However, whether the Src family in the arcuate nucleus (ARC) of mediobasal hypothalamus is involved in central sensitization remains unknown. The aim of this study was to investigate the role and mechanisms of tyrosine kinases of Src family in N-methyl-d-aspartate (NMDA) receptor activity in the ARC following peripheral inflammation. Peripheral inflammation was induced by unilateral injection of complete Freund's adjuvant (CFA) into rat hindpaw. The neuronal activities of the ARC were recorded using electrophysiological field recording from the in vitro mediobasal hypothalamic slices from control and CFA rats. Expression of total and phosphorylated Src and NR2B subunit protein was analyzed by Western blot and immuoprecipitation. Our results showed that CFA injection resulted in an increase in mechanical and thermal sensitivity, which was partially blocked by neonatal monosodium glutamate treatment. CFA injection also enhanced spontaneous firings of ARC neurons, which were reversed by the NMDA receptor NR2B subunit specific antagonist Ro25-6981 and by PP2, an Src family tyrosine kinase inhibitor. In addition, peripheral inflammation enhanced Src phosphorylation and NMDA receptor NR2B subunit phosphorylation without alteration of total NR2B subunit expression in the ARC. Peripheral inflammation also increased the association of NR2B protein with p-Src protein in the ARC. Administration of PP2 blocked the upregulation of NR2B phosphorylation induced by CFA injection. Taken together, our present results suggest that the arcuate Src activation-induced tyrosine phosphorylation of NR2B NMDA subunit may contribute to inflammatory pain.

  11. Co-activation of NR2A and NR2B subunits induces resistance to fear extinction.

    PubMed

    Leaderbrand, Katherine; Corcoran, Kevin A; Radulovic, Jelena

    2014-09-01

    Unpredictable stress is known to profoundly enhance susceptibility to fear and anxiety while reducing the ability to extinguish fear when threat is no longer present. Accordingly, partial aversive reinforcement, via random exposure to footshocks, induces fear that is resistant to extinction. Here we sought to determine the hippocampal mechanisms underlying susceptibility versus resistance to context fear extinction as a result of continuous (CR) and partial (PR) reinforcement, respectively. We focused on N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor (NMDAR) subunits 2A and B (NR2A and NR2B) as well as their downstream signaling effector, extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK), based on their critical role in the acquisition and extinction of fear. Pharmacological inactivation of NR2A, but not NR2B, blocked extinction after CR, whereas inactivation of NR2A, NR2B, or both subunits facilitated extinction after PR. The latter finding suggests that co-activation of NR2A and NR2B contributes to persistent fear following PR. In contrast to CR, PR increased membrane levels of ERK and NR2 subunits after the conditioning and extinction sessions, respectively. In parallel, nuclear activation of ERK was significantly reduced after the extinction session. Thus, co-activation and increased surface expression of NR2A and NR2B, possibly mediated by ERK, may cause persistent fear. These findings suggest that patients with post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) may benefit from antagonism of specific NR2 subunits.

  12. GluN2A and GluN2B subunit-containing NMDA receptors in hippocampal plasticity

    PubMed Central

    Shipton, Olivia A.; Paulsen, Ole

    2014-01-01

    N-Methyl-d-aspartate receptor (NMDAR)-dependent synaptic plasticity is a strong candidate to mediate learning and memory processes that require the hippocampus. This plasticity is bidirectional, and how the same receptor can mediate opposite changes in synaptic weights remains a conundrum. It has been suggested that the NMDAR subunit composition could be involved. Specifically, one subunit composition of NMDARs would be responsible for the induction of long-term potentiation (LTP), whereas NMDARs with a different subunit composition would be engaged in the induction of long-term depression (LTD). Unfortunately, the results from studies that have investigated this hypothesis are contradictory, particularly in relation to LTD. Nevertheless, current evidence does suggest that the GluN2B subunit might be particularly important for plasticity and may make a synapse bidirectionally malleable. In particular, we conclude that the presence of GluN2B subunit-containing NMDARs at the postsynaptic density might be a necessary, though not a sufficient, condition for the strengthening of individual synapses. This is owing to the interaction of GluN2B with calcium/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase II (CaMKII) and is distinct from its contribution as an ion channel. PMID:24298164

  13. Genetic variations in UGT2B28, UGT2B17, UGT2B15 genes and the risk of prostate cancer: A case-control study.

    PubMed

    Habibi, Mohsen; Mirfakhraie, Reza; Khani, Maryam; Rakhshan, Azadeh; Azargashb, Eznollah; Pouresmaeili, Farkhondeh

    2017-11-15

    Glucuronidation is a major pathway for elimination of exogenous and endogenous compounds such as environmental carcinogens and androgens from the body. This biochemical pathway is mediated by enzymes called uridine diphosphoglucuronosyltransferases (UGTs). Null (del/del) genes polymorphisms in UGT2B17, and UGT2B28 and D85Y single-nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) of UGT2B15 have been reported to increase the risk of prostate cancer. The goal of this study was to determine the association of mentioned genetic variants with the risk of prostate cancer. We investigated the copy number variations (CNVs) of UGT2B17 and UGT2B28 loci and the association between rs1902023 polymorphism of UGT2B15 gene in 360 subjects consisted of 120 healthy controls, 120 prostate cancer (PC) patients and 120 benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH) patients. No association was detected for the mentioned polymorphisms and the risk of PC. However, a significant association was detected between UGT2B17 copy number variation and BPH risk (OR=2.189; 95% CI, 1.303-3.675; p=0.003). Furthermore, we observed that the D85Y polymorphism increases the risk of BPH when analyzed in combination with the copy number variation of UGT2B17 gene (OR=0.135; 95% CI, 0.036-0.512; p=0.003). Our findings suggest that the D85Y polymorphism of UGT2B15 and CNVs in UGT2B28 and UGT2B17 genes is not associated with prostate cancer risk in Iranian patients. To our knowledge, this is the first report that implicates the role of CNV of UGT2B17 gene in BPH. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Diminution of the NMDA receptor NR2B subunit in cortical and subcortical areas of WAG/Rij rats.

    PubMed

    Karimzadeh, Fariba; Soleimani, Mansoureh; Mehdizadeh, Mehdi; Jafarian, Maryam; Mohamadpour, Maliheh; Kazemi, Hadi; Joghataei, Mohammad-Taghi; Gorji, Ali

    2013-12-01

    Modulation of glutamatergic NMDA receptors affects the synchronization of spike discharges in in WAG/Rij rats, a valid genetic animal model of absence epilepsy. In this study, we describe the alteration of NR2B subunit of NMDA receptors expression in WAG/Rij rats in different somatosensory cortical layers and in hippocampal CA1 area. Experimental groups were divided into four groups of six rats of both WAG/Rij and Wistar strains with 2 and 6 months of age. The distribution of NR2B receptors was assessed by immunohistochemical staining in WAG/Rij and compared with age-matched Wistar rats. The expression of NR2B subunit was significantly decreased in different somatosensory cortical layers in 2- and 6-month-old WAG/Rij rats. In addition, the distribution of NR2B in hippocampal CA1 area was lower in 6-month-old WAG/Rij compared with age-matched Wistar rats. The reduction of NR2B receptors in different brain areas points to disturbance of glutamate receptors expression in cortical and subcortical areas in WAG/Rij rats. An altered subunit assembly of NMDA receptors may underlie cortical hyperexcitability in absence epilepsy.

  15. Effects of diazoxide on Aβ1-42-induced expression of the NR2B subunit in cultured cholinergic neurons.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Jin; Fu, Qingxi; Xia, Chunfeng; Ma, Guozhao

    2015-12-01

    The accumulation of amyloid-β protein (Aβ) is significant in the pathogenesis of Alzheimer's disease. Several previous studies indicate that the NR2B‑containing N‑methyl‑D‑aspartate receptors are critically involved in the Aβ mediated disruption of neuronal function. Diazoxide (DZ), a highly selective drug capable of opening mitochondrial ATP‑sensitive potassium channels, has neuroprotective effects against neuronal cell death. However, the mechanism by which DZ protects cholinergic neurons against Aβ‑induced cytotoxicity remains to be elucidated. The present study was designed to investigate the effects of DZ pretreatment against Aβ1‑42‑induced expression of NR2B in order to gain novel insights into the neuroprotective mechanisms. Following exposure to Aβ1‑42 for 24 h, the expression of the NR2B subunit remained unchanged compared with the control group. However, a significant increase in the expression of the NR2B subunit was observed following treatment with Aβ1‑42 for 72 h (P<0.05); and the upregulation of the expression of the NR2B subunit was reversed by pretreatment with DZ (P<0.05). These results suggested that DZ may counteract Aβ1‑42‑mediated cytotoxicity by alleviating the expression of NR2B.

  16. NR2B subunit in the prefrontal cortex: A double-edged sword for working memory function and psychiatric disorders

    PubMed Central

    Monaco, Sarah A.; Gulchina, Yelena; Gao, Wen-Jun

    2015-01-01

    The prefrontal cortex (PFC) is a brain region featured with working memory function. The exact mechanism of how working memory operates within the PFC circuitry is unknown, but persistent neuronal firing recorded from prefrontal neurons during a working memory task is proposed to be the neural correlate of this mnemonic encoding. The PFC appears to be specialized for sustaining persistent firing, with N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) receptors, especially slow-decay NR2B subunits, playing an essential role in the maintenance of sustained activity and normal working memory function. However, the NR2B subunit serves as a double-edged sword for PFC function. Because of its slow kinetics, NR2B endows the PFC with not only “neural psychic” properties, but also susceptibilities for neuroexcitotoxicity and psychiatric disorders. This review aims to clarify the interplay among working memory, the PFC, and NMDA receptors; demonstrate the importance of the NR2B subunit in the maintenance of persistent activity; understand the risks and vulnerabilities of how NR2B is related to the development of neuropsychiatric disorders; identify gaps that currently exist in our understanding of these processes; and provide insights regarding future directions that may clarify these issues. We conclude that the PFC is a specialized brain region with distinct delayed maturation, unique neuronal circuitry, and characteristic NMDA receptor function. The unique properties and development of NMDA receptors, especially enrichment of NR2B subunits, endows the PFC with not only the capability to generate sustained activity for working memory, but also serves as a major vulnerability to environmental insults and risk factors for psychiatric disorders. PMID:26143512

  17. The Nucleosome Assembly Protein TSPYL2 Regulates the Expression of NMDA Receptor Subunits GluN2A and GluN2B

    PubMed Central

    Tsang, Ka Hing; Lai, Suk King; Li, Qi; Yung, Wing Ho; Liu, Hang; Mak, Priscilla Hoi Shan; Ng, Cypress Chun Pong; McAlonan, Grainne; Chan, Ying Shing; Chan, Siu Yuen

    2014-01-01

    TSPYL2 is an X-linked gene encoding a nucleosome assembly protein. TSPYL2 interacts with calmodulin-associated serine/threonine kinase, which is implicated in X-linked mental retardation. As nucleosome assembly and chromatin remodeling are important in transcriptional regulation and neuronal function, we addressed the importance of TSPYL2 through analyzing Tspyl2 loss-of-function mice. We detected down-regulation of N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor subunits 2A and 2B (GluN2A and GluN2B) in the mutant hippocampus. Evidence from luciferase reporter assays and chromatin immunoprecipitation supported that TSPYL2 regulated the expression of Grin2a and Grin2b, the genes encoding GluN2A and GluN2B. We also detected an interaction between TSPYL2 and CBP, indicating that TSPYL2 may activate gene expression through binding CBP. In terms of functional outcome, Tspyl2 loss-of-function impaired long-term potentiation at hippocampal Schaffer collateral-CA1 synapses. Moreover, mutant mice showed a deficit in fear learning and memory. We conclude that TSPYL2 contributes to cognitive variability through regulating the expression of Grin2a and Grin2b. PMID:24413569

  18. NR2B subunit in the prefrontal cortex: A double-edged sword for working memory function and psychiatric disorders.

    PubMed

    Monaco, Sarah A; Gulchina, Yelena; Gao, Wen-Jun

    2015-09-01

    The prefrontal cortex (PFC) is a brain region featured with working memory function. The exact mechanism of how working memory operates within the PFC circuitry is unknown, but persistent neuronal firing recorded from prefrontal neurons during a working memory task is proposed to be the neural correlate of this mnemonic encoding. The PFC appears to be specialized for sustaining persistent firing, with N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) receptors, especially slow-decay NR2B subunits, playing an essential role in the maintenance of sustained activity and normal working memory function. However, the NR2B subunit serves as a double-edged sword for PFC function. Because of its slow kinetics, NR2B endows the PFC with not only "neural psychic" properties, but also susceptibilities for neuroexcitotoxicity and psychiatric disorders. This review aims to clarify the interplay among working memory, the PFC, and NMDA receptors; demonstrate the importance of NR2B in the maintenance of persistent activity; understand the risks and vulnerabilities of how NR2B is related to the development of neuropsychiatric disorders; identify gaps that currently exist in our understanding of these processes; and provide insights regarding future directions that may clarify these issues. We conclude that the PFC is a specialized brain region with distinct delayed maturation, unique neuronal circuitry, and characteristic NMDA receptor function. The unique properties and development of NMDA receptors, especially enrichment of NR2B subunits, endow the PFC with not only the capability to generate sustained activity for working memory, but also serves as a major vulnerability to environmental insults and risk factors for psychiatric disorders. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Kalirin binds the NR2B subunit of the NMDA receptor, altering its synaptic localization and function.

    PubMed

    Kiraly, Drew D; Lemtiri-Chlieh, Fouad; Levine, Eric S; Mains, Richard E; Eipper, Betty A

    2011-08-31

    The ability of dendritic spines to change size and shape rapidly is critical in modulating synaptic strength; these morphological changes are dependent upon rearrangements of the actin cytoskeleton. Kalirin-7 (Kal7), a Rho guanine nucleotide exchange factor localized to the postsynaptic density (PSD), modulates dendritic spine morphology in vitro and in vivo. Kal7 activates Rac and interacts with several PSD proteins, including PSD-95, DISC-1, AF-6, and Arf6. Mice genetically lacking Kal7 (Kal7(KO)) exhibit deficient hippocampal long-term potentiation (LTP) as well as behavioral abnormalities in models of addiction and learning. Purified PSDs from Kal7(KO) mice contain diminished levels of NR2B, an NMDA receptor subunit that plays a critical role in LTP induction. Here we demonstrate that Kal7(KO) animals have decreased levels of NR2B-dependent NMDA receptor currents in cortical pyramidal neurons as well as a specific deficit in cell surface expression of NR2B. Additionally, we demonstrate that the genotypic differences in conditioned place preference and passive avoidance learning seen in Kal7(KO) mice are abrogated when animals are treated with an NR2B-specific antagonist during conditioning. Finally, we identify a stable interaction between the pleckstrin homology domain of Kal7 and the juxtamembrane region of NR2B preceding its cytosolic C-terminal domain. Binding of NR2B to a protein that modulates the actin cytoskeleton is important, as NMDA receptors require actin integrity for synaptic localization and function. These studies demonstrate a novel and functionally important interaction between the NR2B subunit of the NMDA receptor and Kalirin, proteins known to be essential for normal synaptic plasticity.

  20. Kalirin binds the NR2B subunit of the NMDA receptor, altering its synaptic localization and function

    PubMed Central

    Kiraly, Drew D.; Lemtiri-Chlieh, Fouad; Levine, Eric S.; Mains, Richard E.; Eipper, Betty A.

    2011-01-01

    The ability of dendritic spines to change size and shape rapidly is critical in modulating synaptic strength; these morphological changes are dependent upon rearrangements of the actin cytoskeleton. Kalirin-7 (Kal7), a Rho guanine nucleotide exchange factor (GEF) localized to the postsynaptic density (PSD), modulates dendritic spine morphology in vitro and in vivo. Kal7 activates Rac and interacts with several PSD proteins including PSD-95, DISC-1, AF-6 and Arf6. Mice genetically lacking Kal7 (Kal7KO) exhibit deficient hippocampal LTP as well as behavioral abnormalities in models of addiction and learning. Purified PSDs from Kal7KO mice contain diminished levels of NR2B, an NMDA receptor subunit that plays a critical role in LTP induction. Here we demonstrate that Kal7KO animals have decreased levels of NR2B-dependent NMDA receptor currents in cortical pyramidal neurons as well as a specific deficit in cell-surface expression of NR2B. Additionally, we demonstrate that the genotypic differences in conditioned place preference and passive avoidance learning seen in Kal7KO mice are abrogated when animals are treated with an NR2B-specific antagonist during conditioning. Finally, we identify a stable interaction between the pleckstrin homology domain of Kal7 and the juxtamembrane region of NR2B preceding its cytosolic C-terminal domain. Binding of NR2B to a protein that modulates the actin cytoskeleton is important, as NMDA receptors require actin integrity for synaptic localization and function. These studies demonstrate a novel and functionally important interaction between the NR2B subunit of the NMDA receptor and Kalirin, proteins known to be essential for normal synaptic plasticity. PMID:21880917

  1. The protein phosphatase 2A catalytic subunit StPP2Ac2b acts as a positive regulator of tuberization induction in Solanum tuberosum L.

    PubMed

    Muñiz García, María Noelia; Muro, María Catalina; Mazzocchi, Luciana Carla; País, Silvia Marina; Stritzler, Margarita; Schlesinger, Mariana; Capiati, Daniela Andrea

    2017-02-01

    This study provides the first genetic evidence for the role of PP2A in tuberization, demonstrating that the catalytic subunit StPP2Ac2b positively modulates tuber induction, and that its function is related to the regulation of gibberellic acid metabolism. The results contribute to a better understanding of the molecular mechanism controlling tuberization induction, which remains largely unknown. The serine/threonine protein phosphatases type 2A (PP2A) are implicated in several physiological processes in plants, playing important roles in hormone responses. In cultivated potato (Solanum tuberosum), six PP2A catalytic subunits (StPP2Ac) were identified. The PP2Ac of the subfamily I (StPP2Ac1, 2a and 2b) were suggested to be involved in the tuberization signaling in leaves, where the environmental and hormonal signals are perceived and integrated. The aim of this study was to investigate the role of PP2A in the tuberization induction in stolons. We selected one of the catalytic subunits of the subfamily I, StPP2Ac2b, to develop transgenic plants overexpressing this gene (StPP2Ac2b-OE). Stolons from StPP2Ac2b-OE plants show higher tuber induction rates in vitro, as compared to wild type stolons, with no differences in the number of tubers obtained at the end of the process. This effect is accompanied by higher expression levels of the gibberellic acid (GA) catabolic enzyme StGA2ox1. GA up-regulates StPP2Ac2b expression in stolons, possibly as part of the feedback system by which the hormone regulates its own level. Sucrose, a tuber-promoting factor in vitro, increases StPP2Ac2b expression. We conclude that StPP2Ac2b acts in stolons as a positive regulator tuber induction, integrating different tuberization-related signals mainly though the modulation of GA metabolism.

  2. Regulation of postsynaptic function by the dementia-related ESCRT-III subunit CHMP2B.

    PubMed

    Chassefeyre, Romain; Martínez-Hernández, José; Bertaso, Federica; Bouquier, Nathalie; Blot, Béatrice; Laporte, Marine; Fraboulet, Sandrine; Couté, Yohann; Devoy, Anny; Isaacs, Adrian M; Pernet-Gallay, Karin; Sadoul, Rémy; Fagni, Laurent; Goldberg, Yves

    2015-02-18

    The charged multivesicular body proteins (Chmp1-7) are an evolutionarily conserved family of cytosolic proteins that transiently assembles into helical polymers that change the curvature of cellular membrane domains. Mutations in human CHMP2B cause frontotemporal dementia, suggesting that this protein may normally control some neuron-specific process. Here, we examined the function, localization, and interactions of neuronal Chmp2b. The protein was highly expressed in mouse brain and could be readily detected in neuronal dendrites and spines. Depletion of endogenous Chmp2b reduced dendritic branching of cultured hippocampal neurons, decreased excitatory synapse density in vitro and in vivo, and abolished activity-induced spine enlargement and synaptic potentiation. To understand the synaptic effects of Chmp2b, we determined its ultrastructural distribution by quantitative immuno-electron microscopy and its biochemical interactions by coimmunoprecipitation and mass spectrometry. In the hippocampus in situ, a subset of neuronal Chmp2b was shown to concentrate beneath the perisynaptic membrane of dendritic spines. In synaptoneurosome lysates, Chmp2b was stably bound to a large complex containing other members of the Chmp family, as well as postsynaptic scaffolds. The supramolecular Chmp assembly detected here corresponds to a stable form of the endosomal sorting complex required for transport-III (ESCRT-III), a ubiquitous cytoplasmic protein complex known to play a central role in remodeling of lipid membranes. We conclude that Chmp2b-containing ESCRT-III complexes are also present at dendritic spines, where they regulate synaptic plasticity. We propose that synaptic ESCRT-III filaments may function as a novel element of the submembrane cytoskeleton of spines.

  3. Regulation of Postsynaptic Function by the Dementia-Related ESCRT-III Subunit CHMP2B

    PubMed Central

    Chassefeyre, Romain; Martínez-Hernández, José; Bertaso, Federica; Bouquier, Nathalie; Blot, Béatrice; Laporte, Marine; Fraboulet, Sandrine; Couté, Yohann; Devoy, Anny; Isaacs, Adrian M.; Pernet-Gallay, Karin; Fagni, Laurent

    2015-01-01

    The charged multivesicular body proteins (Chmp1–7) are an evolutionarily conserved family of cytosolic proteins that transiently assembles into helical polymers that change the curvature of cellular membrane domains. Mutations in human CHMP2B cause frontotemporal dementia, suggesting that this protein may normally control some neuron-specific process. Here, we examined the function, localization, and interactions of neuronal Chmp2b. The protein was highly expressed in mouse brain and could be readily detected in neuronal dendrites and spines. Depletion of endogenous Chmp2b reduced dendritic branching of cultured hippocampal neurons, decreased excitatory synapse density in vitro and in vivo, and abolished activity-induced spine enlargement and synaptic potentiation. To understand the synaptic effects of Chmp2b, we determined its ultrastructural distribution by quantitative immuno-electron microscopy and its biochemical interactions by coimmunoprecipitation and mass spectrometry. In the hippocampus in situ, a subset of neuronal Chmp2b was shown to concentrate beneath the perisynaptic membrane of dendritic spines. In synaptoneurosome lysates, Chmp2b was stably bound to a large complex containing other members of the Chmp family, as well as postsynaptic scaffolds. The supramolecular Chmp assembly detected here corresponds to a stable form of the endosomal sorting complex required for transport-III (ESCRT-III), a ubiquitous cytoplasmic protein complex known to play a central role in remodeling of lipid membranes. We conclude that Chmp2b-containing ESCRT-III complexes are also present at dendritic spines, where they regulate synaptic plasticity. We propose that synaptic ESCRT-III filaments may function as a novel element of the submembrane cytoskeleton of spines. PMID:25698751

  4. NMDA receptor subunits and associated signaling molecules mediating antidepressant-related effects of NMDA-GluN2B antagonism

    PubMed Central

    Kiselycznyk, Carly; Jury, Nicholas; Halladay, Lindsay; Nakazawa, Kazu; Mishina, Masayoshi; Sprengel, Rolf; Grant, Seth G.N.; Svenningsson, Per; Holmes, Andrew

    2015-01-01

    Drugs targeting the glutamate N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor (NMDAR) may be efficacious for treating mood disorders, as exemplified by the rapid antidepressant effects produced by single administration of the NMDAR antagonist ketamine. Though the precise mechanisms underlying the antidepressant-related effects of NMDAR antagonism remain unclear, recent studies implicate specific NMDAR subunits, including GluN2A and GluN2B, as well as the alpha-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methylisoxazole-4-propionic acid receptor (AMPAR) subunit glutamate receptor interacting molecule, PSD-95. Here, integrating mutant and pharmacological in mice, we investigated the contribution of these subunits and molecules to antidepressant-related behaviors and the antidepressant-related effects of the GluN2B blocker, Ro 25-6981. We found that global deletion of GluA1 or PSD-95 reduced forced swim test (FST) immobility, mimicking the antidepressant-related effect produced by systemically administered Ro 25-6981 in C57BL/6J mice. Moreover, the FST antidepressant-like effects of systemic Ro 25-6981 were intact in mutants with global GluA1 deletion or GluN1 deletion in forebrain interneurons, but were absent in mutants constitutively lacking GluN2A or PSD-95. Next, we found that microinfusing Ro 25-6981 into the medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC), but not basolateral amygdala, of C57BL/6J mice was sufficient to produce an antidepressant-like effect. Together, these findings extend and refine current understanding of the mechanisms mediating antidepressant-like effects produced by NMDAR-GluN2B antagonists, and may inform the development of a novel class of medications for treating depression that target the GluN2B subtype of NMDAR. PMID:25800971

  5. Reduced Eukaryotic Initiation Factor 2B ε-Subunit Expression Suppresses the Transformed Phenotype of Cells Overexpressing the Protein

    PubMed Central

    Gallagher, James W.; Kubica, Neil; Kimball, Scot R.; Jefferson, Leonard S.

    2009-01-01

    Eukaryotic initiation factor 2B (eIF2B), a five subunit guanine nucleotide exchange factor (GEF), plays a key role in the regulation of mRNA translation. Expression of its ε-subunit is specifically upregulated in certain conditions associated with increased cell growth. Therefore, the purpose of the present study was to examine the effect of repressing eIF2Bε expression on growth rate, protein synthesis, and other characteristics of two tumorigenic cell lines that display upregulated expression of the ε-subunit. Experiments were designed to compare spontaneously transformed fibroblasts (TMEF’s) to TMEFs infected with a lentivirus containing a short hairpin (sh)RNA directed against eIF2Bε. Cells expressing the shRNA displayed a reduction in eIF2Bε abundance to 30% of the value observed in uninfected TMEF’s with no change in the expression of any of the other four subunits. The repression of eIF2Bε expression was accompanied by reductions in GEF activity and global rates of protein synthesis. Moreover, repressed eIF2Bε expression led to marked reductions in cell growth rate in culture, colony formation in soft agar, and tumor progression in nude mice. Similar results were obtained in MCF-7 human breast cancer cells in which eIF2Bε expression was repressed through transient transfection with a siRNA directed against the ε-subunit. Overall, the results support a role for eIF2Bε in the regulation of cell growth and suggest that it might represent a therapeutic target for the treatment of human cancer. PMID:18974117

  6. Trafficking of the NMDAR2B Receptor Subunit Distal Cytoplasmic Tail from Endoplasmic Reticulum to the Synapse

    PubMed Central

    Standley, Steve; Petralia, Ronald S.; Hamilton, Rebecca; Wang, Ya-Xian; Schubert, Manfred

    2012-01-01

    NMDA receptor NR2A/B subunits have PDZ-binding domains on their extreme C-termini that are known to interact with the PSD-95 family and other PDZ proteins. We explore the interactions between PSD-95 family proteins and the NR2A/B cytoplasmic tails, and the consequences of these interactions, from the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) through delivery to the synapse in primary rat hippocampal and cortical cultured neurons. We find that the NR2A/B cytoplasmic tails cluster very early in the secretory pathway and interact serially with SAP102 beginning at the intermediate compartment, and then PSD-95. We further establish that colocalization of the distal C-terminus of NR2B and PSD-95 begins at the trans-Golgi Network (TGN). Formation of NR2B/PSD-95/SAP102 complexes is dependent on the PDZ binding domain of NR2B subunits, but association with SAP102 and PSD-95 plays no distinguishable role in cluster pre-formation or initial targeting to the vicinity of the synapse. Instead the PDZ binding domain plays a role in restricting cell-surface clusters to postsynaptic targets. PMID:22761831

  7. Mutations in the endosomal ESCRTIII-complex subunit CHMP2B in frontotemporal dementia.

    PubMed

    Skibinski, Gaia; Parkinson, Nicholas J; Brown, Jeremy M; Chakrabarti, Lisa; Lloyd, Sarah L; Hummerich, Holger; Nielsen, Jørgen E; Hodges, John R; Spillantini, Maria Grazia; Thusgaard, Tove; Brandner, Sebastian; Brun, Arne; Rossor, Martin N; Gade, Anders; Johannsen, Peter; Sørensen, Sven Asger; Gydesen, Susanne; Fisher, Elizabeth M C; Collinge, John

    2005-08-01

    We have previously reported a large Danish pedigree with autosomal dominant frontotemporal dementia (FTD) linked to chromosome 3 (FTD3). Here we identify a mutation in CHMP2B, encoding a component of the endosomal ESCRTIII complex, and show that it results in aberrant mRNA splicing in tissue samples from affected members of this family. We also describe an additional missense mutation in an unrelated individual with FTD. Aberration in the endosomal ESCRTIII complex may result in FTD and neurodegenerative disease.

  8. Mutations of the human interferon alpha-2b (hIFNα-2b) gene in cancer patients receiving radiotherapy

    PubMed Central

    Shahid, Saman; Chaudhry, Muhammad Nawaz; Mahmood, Nasir

    2015-01-01

    This research aimed to find out the impact of ionizing radiations on the hIFNα-2b gene of radiotherapy treated cancer patients. The gene hIFNα-2b synthesizes a protein which is an important anticancerous and antiviral protein. The cancer patients (breast, lung, thyroid, oral and prostate) who were undergoing a radiotherapy treatment were selected. A molecular analysis was performed for DNA isolation and gene amplification through PCR, to identify gene mutations. Further, by bioinformatics tools we concluded that how mutations identified in gene sequences have led to the alterations in the hINFα-2b protein in radiotherapy receiving cancer patients. The 32% mutations in the hINFα-2b gene were identified and all were frameshift mutations. Radiotherapy can impact the immune system and cancer patients may modulate their immunity. Understaning the mechanisms of radiotherapy-elicited immune response may be helpful in the development of those therapeutic interventions that can enhance the efficacy of radiotherapy. PMID:26396921

  9. NMDA receptor subunit expression in the supraoptic nucleus of adult rats: Dominance of NR2B and NR2D

    PubMed Central

    Doherty, Faye C; Sladek, Celia D

    2011-01-01

    The supraoptic nucleus (SON) of the hypothalamus contains magnocellular neurosecretory neurons (MNC) which synthesize and release the peptide hormones vasopressin and oxytocin. Glutamate is a prominent excitatory neurotransmitter in the SON and regulates MNC excitability. NMDA receptors (NMDAR), a type of ionotropic glutamate receptor, mediate synaptic plasticity of MNCs and are necessary for characteristic burst firing patterns which serve to maximize hormone release. NMDARs are di- or tri-heteromeric complexes of NR1 and NR2 subunits. Receptor properties depend on NR2 subunit composition and variable splicing of NR1. We investigated the expression profile of NR1 and NR2 subunits in the SON at the mRNA and protein levels, plus protein expression of NR1 splice variants in control and salt-loaded adult rats. There was robust mRNA expression of all subunits, with NR2D levels being the highest. At the protein level, NR1, NR2B and NR2D were robustly expressed, while NR2A was weakly expressed. NR2C protein was not detected with either of two antibodies. All four NR1 splice variant cassettes (N1, C1, C2, C2’) were detected in the SON, though NR1 N1 expression was too low for accurate analysis. Three days of salt-loading did not alter mRNA, protein or splice variant expression of NMDAR subunits in the SON. Robust NR2D protein expression has not been previously shown in MNCs, and is uncommon in the adult brain. Though the functional significance of this unusual expression profile is unknown, it may contribute to important physiological characteristics of SON neurons, such as burst firing and resistance to excitotoxicity. PMID:21397592

  10. Mutations in the genes encoding eukaryotic translation initiation factor 2B in Japanese patients with vanishing white matter disease.

    PubMed

    Shimada, Shino; Shimojima, Keiko; Sangu, Noriko; Hoshino, Ai; Hachiya, Yasuo; Ohto, Tatsuyuki; Hashi, Yuichiro; Nishida, Katsuya; Mitani, Maki; Kinjo, Saori; Tsurusaki, Yoshinori; Matsumoto, Naomichi; Morimoto, Masafumi; Yamamoto, Toshiyuki

    2015-11-01

    Vanishing white matter disease (VWM) is a chronic, progressive leukoencephalopathy associated with episodes of rapid deterioration following minor stress events such as head traumas or infectious disorders. The white matter of the patients with VWM exhibits characteristic radiological findings. The genes encoding all five subunits of eukaryotic translation initiation factor 2B (EIF2B) were analyzed in patients, who were tentatively diagnosed with VWM, by Sanger sequencing. Seven mutations were identified in the genes encoding the subunits 1, 2, 4, and 5 of EIF2B. Among them, one mutation (p.V83E) in the subunit 2 (EIF2B2) was recurrently identified in three alleles, indicating the most common mutation in Japanese patients with VWM. Two patients were homozygous, and the other four patients were compound heterozygous. All patients showed white matter abnormalities with various degrees. One patient showed manifestations of end-stage VWM disease. Some patients showed late onset and slow progression associated with brain magnetic resonance imaging displaying T2 high intensity only in the deep white matter. There was clinical heterogeneity among patients with VWM. Copyright © 2015 The Japanese Society of Child Neurology. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Downregulation of the spinal NMDA receptor NR2B subunit during electro-acupuncture relief of chronic visceral hyperalgesia.

    PubMed

    Liu, Hongping; Zhang, Yuhua; Qi, Debo; Li, Weimin

    2017-01-01

    The involvement of spinal NR2B, a N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) receptor subunit, in the therapeutic effect of electro-acupuncture (EA) on chronic visceral hyperalgesia was investigated. Chronic visceral hyperalgesia was induced using an irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) model in rats. Graded colorectal distention (CRD) stimuli at strengths of 20, 40, 60 and 80 mmHg were applied, and behavioral tests were performed to measure the abdominal withdrawal reflex (AWR) in response to the CRD stimuli and assess the severity of the visceral hyperalgesia. Rats were randomly divided into four groups: normal intact (control) group, IBS model (model) group, EA-treated IBS rats (EA) group and sham EA-treated IBS rats (sham EA) group. For the EA treatment, electric stimuli were applied through needles inserted into two acupoints [Zu-san-li (ST-36) and Shang-ju-xu (ST-37)] in both hind limbs, while the sham EA treatment consisted of only the insertion of needles into these same acupoints without an application of electric stimuli. Our results showed that AWR scores of the model group responding to CRD stimuli of 20, 40, 60 and 80 mmHg were significantly increased. These increased scores subsequently decreased following EA treatment (P < 0.05) compared with those for the other groups. The expression of NR2B in the superficial laminae (SDH, laminae I and II), nucleus proprius (NP, laminae III and IV), neck of the dorsal horn (NECK, laminae V and VI) and central canal region (lamina X) at thoracolumbar (T13-L2) and lumbosacral (L6-S2) segmental level significantly increased in the model group versus the control group (P < 0.05) and significantly decreased after EA treatment (P < 0.05). There were no significant changes in neither AWR scores nor expression of the NR2B subunit in these spinal regions after the sham EA treatment. These results confirm that EA can relieve chronic visceral hyperalgesia in IBS model rats and suggest that such an effect is possibly mediated through the

  12. Memory in aged mice is rescued by enhanced expression of the GluN2B subunit of the NMDA receptor

    PubMed Central

    Brim, B. L.; Haskell, R.; Awedikian, R.; Ellinwood, N.M.; Jin, L.; Kumar, A.; Foster, T.C.; Magnusson, K.

    2012-01-01

    The GluN2B subunit of the N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) receptor shows age-related declines in expression across the frontal cortex and hippocampus. This decline is strongly correlated to age-related memory declines. This study was designed to determine if increasing GluN2B subunit expression in the frontal lobe or hippocampus would improve memory in aged mice. Mice were injected bilaterally with either the GluN2B vector, containing cDNA specific for the GluN2B subunit and enhanced Green Fluorescent Protein (eGFP); a control vector or vehicle. Spatial memory, cognitive flexibility, and associative memory were assessed using the Morris water maze. Aged mice, with increased GluN2B subunit expression, exhibited improved long-term spatial memory, comparable to young mice. However, memory was rescued on different days in the Morris water maze; early for hippocampal GluN2B subunit enrichment and later for the frontal lobe. A higher concentration of the GluN2B antagonist, Ro 25-6981, was required to impair long-term spatial memory in aged mice with enhanced GluN2B expression, as compared to aged controls, suggesting there was an increase in the number of GluN2B-containing NMDA receptors. In addition, hippocampal slices from aged mice with increased GluN2B subunit expression exhibited enhanced NMDA receptor-mediated excitatory post-synaptic potentials (EPSP). Treatment with Ro 25-6981 showed that a greater proportion of the NMDA receptor-mediated EPSP was due to the GluN2B subunit in these animals, as compared to aged controls. These results suggest that increasing the production of the GluN2B subunit in aged animals enhances memory and synaptic transmission. Therapies that enhance GluN2B subunit expression within the aged brain may be useful for ameliorating age-related memory declines. PMID:23103326

  13. Tyrosine phosphorylation of the NR2B subunit of the NMDA receptor in the spinal cord contributes to chronic visceral pain in rats.

    PubMed

    Luo, Xiao-Qing; Cai, Qin-Yan; Chen, Yu; Guo, Li-Xia; Chen, Ai-Qin; Wu, Zhen-Quan; Lin, Chun

    2014-01-13

    The roles of spinal N-methyl-d-aspartic acid receptor 2B (NR2B) subunit in central sensitization of chronic visceral pain were investigated. A rat model with irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) was established by colorectal distention (CRD) on post-natal days 8-14. Responses of the external oblique muscle of the abdomen to CRD were measured to evaluate the sensitivity of visceral pain in rats. The sensitivity of visceral pain significantly increased in IBS-like rats. Expressions of spinal NR2B subunit and phosphorylated NR2B subunit significantly increased by 50-55% in IBS-like rats when compared with those in control rats. Ro 25-6981, a selective antagonist of NR2B subunit, has a dose-dependent anti-allodynic and anti-hyperalgesic effect without causing motor dysfunction in IBS-like rats. Furthermore, the activation mechanism of the spinal NR2B subunit in chronic visceral pain was also investigated. Spinal administration of genistein, a specific inhibitor of tyrosine kinases, also decreased the visceral pain hypersensitivity of IBS-like rats in a dose-dependent manner. In addition, the expression of phosphorylated NR2B subunit was decreased after spinal administration of Ro 25-6981 or genistein in IBS-like rats. In conclusion, tyrosine kinase activation-induced phosphorylation of NR2B subunit may play a crucial role in central sensitization of chronic visceral pain. © 2013 The Authors. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. The effects of walnut supplementation on hippocampal NMDA receptor subunits NR2A and NR2B of rats.

    PubMed

    Hicyilmaz, Hicran; Vural, Huseyin; Delibas, Namik; Sutcu, Recep; Gultekin, Fatih; Yilmaz, Nigar

    2017-04-01

    Walnuts contain numerous selected dietary factors that have an impact on brain functions, especially learning and memory formation in the hippocampus. Hippocampal N-methyl d-aspartate receptors (NMDARs) are involved in the formation of cognitive functions. In this study, we aimed to investigate the molecular effects of walnut supplementation on the hippocampal expressions of NMDARs involved in cognitive functions and lipid peroxidation levels in rats. The male Sprague-Dawley rats (6 months old, n = 24) were fed with a walnut-supplemented diet (6% walnut diet, n = 12) and a control diet (rat food, n = 12) as ad libitum for 8 weeks. At the end of this period, NMDAR subunits NR2A and NR2B in the hippocampi were assayed by western blotting. Lipid peroxidation levels were measured using the thiobarbituric acid. The expression of NR2A and NR2B was elevated in the walnut-supplemented rats compared with the control group (P < 0.05). In addition, the levels of lipid peroxidation in the walnut-supplemented group were significantly decreased compared with the control group. We suggested that walnut supplementation may have protective effects against the decline of cognitive functions by regulating NMDAR and lipid peroxidation levels in the hippocampus. The study provides evidence that selected dietary factors (polyunsaturated fatty acids, melatonin, vitamin E, and flavonoids) within walnut may help to trigger hippocampal neuronal signal transduction for the formation of learning and memory.

  15. The effects of walnut supplementation on hippocampal NMDA receptor subunits NR2A and NR2B of rats.

    PubMed

    Hicyilmaz, Hicran; Vural, Huseyin; Delibas, Namik; Sutcu, Recep; Gultekin, Fatih; Yilmaz, Nigar

    2015-12-28

    Walnuts contain numerous selected dietary factors that have an impact on brain functions, especially learning and memory formation in the hippocampus. Hippocampal N-methyl d-aspartate receptors (NMDARs) are involved in the formation of cognitive functions. In this study, we aimed to investigate the molecular effects of walnut supplementation on the hippocampal expressions of NMDARs involved in cognitive functions and lipid peroxidation levels in rats. The male Sprague-Dawley rats (6 months old, n = 24) were fed with a walnut-supplemented diet (6% walnut diet, n = 12) and a control diet (rat food, n = 12) as ad libitum for 8 weeks. At the end of this period, NMDAR subunits NR2A and NR2B in the hippocampi were assayed by western blotting. Lipid peroxidation levels were measured using the thiobarbituric acid. The expression of NR2A and NR2B was elevated in the walnut-supplemented rats compared with the control group (P < 0.05). In addition, the levels of lipid peroxidation in the walnut-supplemented group were significantly decreased compared with the control group. We suggested that walnut supplementation may have protective effects against the decline of cognitive functions by regulating NMDAR and lipid peroxidation levels in the hippocampus. The study provides evidence that selected dietary factors (polyunsaturated fatty acids, melatonin, vitamin E, and flavonoids) within walnut may help to trigger hippocampal neuronal signal transduction for the formation of learning and memory.

  16. UGT2B gene expression analysis in multiple tobacco carcinogen-targeted tissues.

    PubMed

    Jones, Nathan R; Lazarus, Philip

    2014-04-01

    The UDP-glucuronosyltransferase (UGT) 2B subfamily of enzymes plays an important role in the metabolism of numerous endogenous and exogenous compounds, including various carcinogens present in tobacco smoke. The goal of the present study was to examine the levels of expression of individual UGT2B genes in various tissues that are targets for tobacco carcinogenesis. Using MT-ATP6 as the experimentally validated housekeeping gene, the highest extrahepatic expression of UGT2B genes was observed in human tonsil, with UGT2B expression levels similar to that observed in human liver. UGT2B17 exhibited high relative expression in most tissues examined, including lung, most tissues of the aerodigestive tract, and pancreas. UGT2B7 expression was highest in pancreas but low or undetectable in most other tissues examined. UGT2B10 expression was high in both tonsil and tongue. There was wide variability between individuals in the magnitude of expression in each tissue site, and there were strong correlations between UGT2B expression levels in different individuals within many of the tissue sites, suggesting coordinated regulation of UGT2B gene expression in extrahepatic tissues. In the liver, UGTs 2B4, 2B7, 2B10, and 2B15 were significantly correlated with each other (all r(2) > 0.70, P < 0.0001). In all examined tissues of the aerodigestive tract, UGTs 2B10, 2B11, and 2B17 exhibited a strong correlation with each other (all r(2) > 0.75, P < 0.05). UGTs 2B7 and 2B10 exhibited a strong inverse correlation in the pancreas (r(2) = -0.95, P < 0.01). These data suggest that specific UGT2B enzymes important in tobacco carcinogen metabolism are expressed and coordinately regulated in various target sites for tobacco-related cancers.

  17. Rubisco small subunit gene family in cassava.

    PubMed

    Yeo, T W; Mak, Y M; Ho, K K

    1999-01-01

    Cassava leaves of two different cultivars, Brazil and Buloh, were used to isolate mRNA. The mRNA isolated was successfully used in the construction of cDNA libraries for each of the cultivars. The cDNA libraries were screened for members of ribulose-1,5-bisphosphate carboxylase/oxygenase small subunit gene family and positive clones were sequenced. A total of seven different SSU genes, of which five were from cultivar Brazil and two were from cultivar Buloh, were isolated. Comparison results show that even though all the sequences are highly similar, they can be classified into three subfamilies. Homology between members of the same subfamily is higher than homology between members from the same cultivar.

  18. Primary structure of the histone 2B gene in the white root rot fungus, Rosellinia necatrix.

    PubMed

    Aimi, Tadanori; Taguchi, Hiroyuki; Morinaga, Tsutomu

    2002-12-01

    The nucleotide sequence of the histone 2B (H2B) gene in the white root rot fungus, Rosellinia necatrix, was determined. The gene has two introns in the coding region at positions conserved in the Neurospora crassa and Aspergillus nidulans H2B genes, but the third intron present in the H2B gene from N. crassa and A. nidulans is absent in the R. necatrix H2B gene. The amino acid sequence of the coding region of the R. necatrix gene resembled that of N. crassa and A. nidulans. Therefore, the third intron in the H2B gene of N. crassa and A. nidulans may have been inserted into the present position after species diversification.

  19. Investigation of the association between ATP2B4 and ATP5B genes with colorectal cancer.

    PubMed

    Geyik, Esra; Igci, Yusuf Ziya; Pala, Elif; Suner, Ali; Borazan, Ersin; Bozgeyik, Ibrahim; Bayraktar, Emine; Bayraktar, Recep; Ergun, Sercan; Cakmak, Ecir Ali; Gokalp, Avni; Arslan, Ahmet

    2014-05-01

    Colorectal cancer (CRC) develops as a multi-step process which results from gradual accumulation of mutations in proto-oncogenes, tumor suppressor, and DNA repair genes. Mortality rate of CRC is very high. Therefore, development of alternative diagnostic methods which can be used in the early diagnosis is crucial. ATP2B4 gene encodes one of the four isoforms of p-type ATPase PMCA enzyme and bears critical importance in maintaining the balance of intracellular calcium homeostasis by providing the export of calcium ions out of the cell. ATP5B encodes a subunit of the mitochondrial ATP synthase which is an f-type ATPase. In this study, the relationship between ATP2B4 and ATP5B genes and CRC regarding gene expression was investigated. Study groups were constructed from a number of 50 patients (25 males, 25 females) with the mean age of 55.68 ± 9.4 and the gene expression levels in the healthy and cancerous tissues of the patients were compared by using semi-quantitative PCR and Real-Time PCR methods. As a result, in patients with rectum tumors, there was a significant relationship between ATP2B4 gene expression and the tumor location and in patients younger than 45 years, ATP5B gene expressions were detected significantly higher in tumor tissues by using RT-PCR. However, no significant relationship was detected in terms of expression differences of ATP2B4 and ATP5B genes between cancerous and healthy tissues of the CRC patients. ATP2B4 and ATP5B genes might have indirect associations in CRC pathogenesis and the investigation of their interactions with DNA repair and other related genes may help in understanding of CRC formation. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Silencing the NR2B gene in rat ACC neurons by lentivirus-delivered shRNA alleviates pain-related aversion.

    PubMed

    Guo, Shou-Gang; Lv, Xiu-Hua; Guan, Shan-Hui; Li, Hui-Lu; Qiao, Yong; Feng, Hao; Cong, Lin; Wang, Gong-Ming

    2015-01-01

    The N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) receptor NR2B subunit on neurons in the anterior cingulate cortex (ACC) is implicated in the affective response to noxious stimuli. Selectively silencing this NR2B subunit in ACC neurons could therefore alleviate pain-related aversion. However, to date, there is no optimal approach to selectively silence the NR2B gene in ACC neurons. In the present study, we constructed lentiviral vectors and delivered shRNA (NR2B-RNAi-LV) to effectively silence the NR2B gene in ACC neurons. The use of lentivirus resulted in 95% transfection efficiency and 83% silencing of the NR2B gene in ACC neurons. Electrophysiological experiments showed that the total INMDA was similarly reduced by 48% in lentivirus-transfected ACC neurons. The biochemical and functional data demonstrated that lentiviral shRNA delivery produced a high transfection and silencing efficiency in the ACC neurons. SNI rats weighting 220-250 g were randomly divided into three groups: normal saline group (NS), lenti-siRNA/NC (LV-NC) group, and lenti-siRNA/NR2B (LV-NR2B) group, and conditioned place avoidance was conducted. The results indicated that NR2B-RNAi-LV decreased greatly the conditioning scores of F-CPA while NC-GFP-LV has no effects. NR2B mRNA expression in the NR2B-RNAi-LV group was significantly lower than that in the control group and NC-GFP-LV group. This novel approach of silencing the NR2B gene in ACC neuron could potentially be used to alleviate pain-related aversion.

  1. N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor NR2B subunit involved in depression-like behaviours in lithium chloride-pilocarpine chronic rat epilepsy model.

    PubMed

    Peng, Wei-Feng; Ding, Jing; Li, Xin; Fan, Fan; Zhang, Qian-Qian; Wang, Xin

    2016-01-01

    Depression is a common comorbidity in patients with epilepsy with unclear mechanisms. This study is to explore the role of glutamate N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) receptor NR1, NR2A and NR2B subunits in epilepsy-associated depression. Lithium chloride (Licl)-pilocarpine chronic rat epilepsy model was established and rats were divided into epilepsy with depression (EWD) and epilepsy without depression (EWND) subgroups based on forced swim test. Expression of NMDA receptor NR1, NR2A and NR2B subunits was measured by western blot and immunofluorescence methods. The immobility time (IMT) was significantly greater in Licl-pilocarpine model group than in Control group, which was also greater in EWD group than in EWND group. No differences of spontaneous recurrent seizure (SRS) counts over two weeks and latency were found between EWD and EWND groups. The number of NeuN positive cells was significantly less in Licl-pilocarpine model group than in Control group, but had no difference between EWD and EWND groups. The ratios of phosphorylated NR1 (p-NR1)/NR1 and p-NR2B/NR2B were significantly greater in the hippocampus in EWD group than in EWND group. Moreover, the expression of p-NR1 and p-NR2B in the CA1 subfield of hippocampus were both greater in Licl-pilocarpine model group than Control group. Selective blockage of NR2B subunit with ifenprodil could alleviate depression-like behaviours of Licl-pilocarpine rat epilepsy model. In conclusion, glutamate NMDA receptor NR2B subunit was involved in promoting depression-like behaviours in the Licl-pilocarpine chronic rat epilepsy model and might be a target for treating epilepsy-associated depression. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Two Binges of Ethanol a Day Keep the Memory Away in Adolescent Rats: Key Role for GLUN2B Subunit

    PubMed Central

    Silvestre de Ferron, Benoit; Bennouar, Khaled-Ezaheir; Kervern, Myriam; Alaux-Cantin, Stéphanie; Robert, Alexandre; Rabiant, Kevin; Antol, Johann; Naassila, Mickaël

    2016-01-01

    Background: Binge drinking is common in adolescents, but the impact of only a few binges on learning and memory appears underestimated. Many studies have tested the effects of long and intermittent ethanol exposure on long-term synaptic potentiation, and whether long-term synaptic depression is affected remains unknown. Methods: We studied the effects of one (3g/kg, i.p.; blood ethanol content of 197.5±19mg/dL) or 2 alcohol intoxications (given 9 hours apart) on adolescent rat’s memory and synaptic plasticity in hippocampus slice after different delay. Results: Animals treated with 2 ethanol intoxications 48 hours before training phase in the novel object recognition task failed during test phase. As learning is related to NMDA-dependent mechanisms, we tested ketamine and found the same effect as ethanol, whereas D-serine prevented learning deficit. In hippocampus slice, NMDA-dependent long-term synaptic depression was abolished 48 hours after ethanol or ketamine but prevented after D-serine or in a low-Mg2+ recording medium. Long-term synaptic depression abolition was not observed 8 days after treatment. An i.p. treatment with MK-801, tetrahydroisoxazolopyridine, or muscimol was ineffective, and long-term synaptic potentiation, intrinsic excitability, and glutamate release remained unaffected. The input/ouput curve for NMDA-fEPSPs was shifted to the left 48 hours after the binges with a stronger contribution of GluN2B subunit, leading to a leftward shift of the Bienenstock-Cooper-Munro relationship. Interestingly, there were no cellular effects after only one ethanol injection. Conclusion: Two ethanol “binges” in adolescent rats are sufficient to reversibly abolish long-term synaptic depression and to evoke cognitive deficits via a short-lasting, repeated blockade of NMDA receptors only, inducing a change in the receptor subunit composition. Furthermore, ethanol effects developed over a 48-hour period of abstinence, indicating an important role of

  3. Two Binges of Ethanol a Day Keep the Memory Away in Adolescent Rats: Key Role for GLUN2B Subunit.

    PubMed

    Silvestre de Ferron, Benoit; Bennouar, Khaled-Ezaheir; Kervern, Myriam; Alaux-Cantin, Stéphanie; Robert, Alexandre; Rabiant, Kevin; Antol, Johann; Naassila, Mickaël; Pierrefiche, Olivier

    2015-08-06

    Binge drinking is common in adolescents, but the impact of only a few binges on learning and memory appears underestimated. Many studies have tested the effects of long and intermittent ethanol exposure on long-term synaptic potentiation, and whether long-term synaptic depression is affected remains unknown. We studied the effects of one (3 g/kg, i.p.; blood ethanol content of 197.5±19 mg/dL) or 2 alcohol intoxications (given 9 hours apart) on adolescent rat's memory and synaptic plasticity in hippocampus slice after different delay. Animals treated with 2 ethanol intoxications 48 hours before training phase in the novel object recognition task failed during test phase. As learning is related to NMDA-dependent mechanisms, we tested ketamine and found the same effect as ethanol, whereas D-serine prevented learning deficit. In hippocampus slice, NMDA-dependent long-term synaptic depression was abolished 48 hours after ethanol or ketamine but prevented after D-serine or in a low-Mg(2+) recording medium. Long-term synaptic depression abolition was not observed 8 days after treatment. An i.p. treatment with MK-801, tetrahydroisoxazolopyridine, or muscimol was ineffective, and long-term synaptic potentiation, intrinsic excitability, and glutamate release remained unaffected. The input/ouput curve for NMDA-fEPSPs was shifted to the left 48 hours after the binges with a stronger contribution of GluN2B subunit, leading to a leftward shift of the Bienenstock-Cooper-Munro relationship. Interestingly, there were no cellular effects after only one ethanol injection. Two ethanol "binges" in adolescent rats are sufficient to reversibly abolish long-term synaptic depression and to evoke cognitive deficits via a short-lasting, repeated blockade of NMDA receptors only, inducing a change in the receptor subunit composition. Furthermore, ethanol effects developed over a 48-hour period of abstinence, indicating an important role of intermittence during a repeated long-duration binge

  4. Association between the NMDA glutamate receptor GRIN2B gene and obsessive–compulsive disorder

    PubMed Central

    Alonso, Pino; Gratacós, Mónica; Segalàs, Cinto; Escaramís, Georgia; Real, Eva; Bayés, Mónica; Labad, Javier; López-Solà, Clara; Estivill, Xavier; Menchón, José M.

    2012-01-01

    Background Recent data from neuroimaging, genetic and clinical trials and animal models suggest a role for altered glutamatergic neurotransmission in the pathogenesis of obsessive–compulsive disorder (OCD). The aim of this study was to investigate whether variants in the GRIN2B gene, the gene encoding the NR2 subunit of the N-methyl-d-aspartate (NMDA) glutamate receptor, may contribute to genetic susceptibility to OCD or to different OCD subphenotypes. Methods Between 2003 and 2008, we performed a case–control association study in which we genotyped 10 tag single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in the 3′ untranslated region (3′ UTR) of GRIN2B. We performed SNP association and haplotype analysis considering the OCD diagnosis and different OCD subphenotypes: early-onset OCD, comorbid tic disorders and OCD clinical symptom dimensions. Results We enrolled 225 patients with OCD and 279 controls recruited from the OCD Clinic at Bellvitge Hospital (Barcelona, Spain). No significant difference in the distribution of alleles or genotypes was detected between patients with OCD and controls. Nonetheless, on analyzing OCD subphenotypes, the rs1805476 SNP in male patients (95% confidence interval [CI] 1.37–4.22, p = 0.002) and a 4-SNP haplotype in the whole sample (rs1805476, rs1805501, rs1805502 and rs1805477; odds ratio 1.92, 95% CI 1.22–3.01; permutation p = 0.023) were significantly associated with the presence of contamination obsessions and cleaning compulsions. Limitations Study limitations included the risk of population stratification associated with the case–control design, use of psychiatrically unscreened blood donors as the control group, reduced sample size of participants with certain OCD subphenotypes and tested polymorphisms limited to 3′ UTR and exon 13 of GRIN2B. Conclusion Our results converge with recent data suggesting a possible contribution of glutamatergic variants to the genetic vulnerability to OCD or at least to certain OCD

  5. Association of N-Methyl-D-Aspartate receptor 2B Subunit (GRIN2B) polymorphism with earlier age at onset of withdrawal symptoms in Indian alcohol dependent subjects.

    PubMed

    Paul, Pradip; Dahale, Ajit; Kishore, Brij; Chand, Prabhat; Benegal, Vivek; Jain, Sanjeev; Murthy, Pratima; Purushottam, Meera

    2017-01-01

    The associations of GRIN2B polymorphism (rs1806201) with alcohol withdrawal and related clinical parameters in alcohol dependent subjects were investigated. Cases were assessed using a semi-structured clinical pro forma for alcohol abuse and a questionnaire for family history of alcohol dependence and psychiatric disorders after obtaining informed consent. The study included alcohol dependent male cases (n = 220, age at onset of alcohol withdrawal symptoms = 32.4 ± 8.8 y) recruited at the Center for Addiction Medicine, National Institute of Mental Health and Neurosciences, Bangalore, India. The controls comprised of healthy unrelated males (n = 183) who were ethnically matched and selected randomly. The polymorphism rs1806201 was analyzed by polymerase chain reaction and restriction fragment length polymorphism. The presence of T allele at this locus was significantly associated with lower age at onset of alcohol withdrawal symptoms (p = .005) among the cases. Mean age at onset of alcohol withdrawal symptoms in subjects who were T carriers was 31.4 ± 8.5 y (n = 160) and non-T carriers was 35.2 ± 9.0 y (n = 60). The SNP rs1806201 in GRIN2B may play an important role in genetic susceptibility to earlier age of withdrawal in alcohol dependent patients.

  6. Leptin reverses corticosterone-induced inhibition of neural stem cell proliferation through activating the NR2B subunits of NMDA receptors

    SciTech Connect

    Shi, Wen-Zhu; Miao, Yu-Liang; Guo, Wen-Zhi; Wu, Wei; Li, Bao-Wei; An, Li-Na; Fang, Wei-Wu; Mi, Wei-Dong

    2014-04-25

    Highlights: • Leptin promotes the proliferation of neural stem cells isolated from embryonic mouse hippocampus. • Leptin reverses corticosterone-induced inhibition of neural stem cell proliferation. • The effects of leptin are partially mediated by upregulating NR2B subunits. - Abstract: Corticosterone inhibits the proliferation of hippocampal neural stem cells (NSCs). The removal of corticosterone-induced inhibition of NSCs proliferation has been reported to contribute to neural regeneration. Leptin has been shown to regulate brain development, improve angiogenesis, and promote neural regeneration; however, its effects on corticosterone-induced inhibition of NSCs proliferation remain unclear. Here we reported that leptin significantly promoted the proliferation of hippocampal NSCs in a concentration-dependent pattern. Also, leptin efficiently reversed the inhibition of NSCs proliferation induced by corticosterone. Interestingly, pre-treatment with non-specific NMDA antagonist MK-801, specific NR2B antagonist Ro 25-6981, or small interfering RNA (siRNA) targeting NR2B, significantly blocked the effect of leptin on corticosterone-induced inhibition of NSCs proliferation. Furthermore, corticosterone significantly reduced the protein expression of NR2B, whereas pre-treatment with leptin greatly reversed the attenuation of NR2B expression caused by corticosterone in cultured hippocampal NSCs. Our findings demonstrate that leptin reverses the corticosterone-induced inhibition of NSCs proliferation. This process is, at least partially mediated by increased expression of NR2B subunits of NMDA receptors.

  7. Propofol effectively inhibits lithium-pilocarpine- induced status epilepticus in rats via downregulation of N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor 2B subunit expression

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Henglin; Wang, Zhuoqiang; Mi, Weidong; Zhao, Cong; Liu, Yanqin; Wang, Yongan; Sun, Haipeng

    2012-01-01

    Status epilepticus was induced via intraperitoneal injection of lithium-pilocarpine. The inhibitory effects of propofol on status epilepticus in rats were judged based on observation of behavior, electroencephalography and 24-hour survival rate. Propofol (12.5–100 mg/kg) improved status epilepticus in a dose-dependent manner, and significantly reduced the number of deaths within 24 hours of lithium-pilocarpine injection. Western blot results showed that, 24 hours after induction of status epilepticus, the levels of N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor 2A and 2B subunits were significantly increased in rat cerebral cortex and hippocampus. Propofol at 50 mg/kg significantly suppressed the increase in N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor 2B subunit levels, but not the increase in N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor 2A subunit levels. The results suggest that propofol can effectively inhibit status epilepticus induced by lithium-pilocarpine. This effect may be associated with downregulation of N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor 2B subunit expression after seizures. PMID:25737709

  8. Gene targeting of CK2 catalytic subunits

    PubMed Central

    Lou, David Y.; Toselli, Paul; Landesman-Bollag, Esther; Dominguez, Isabel

    2013-01-01

    Protein kinase CK2 is a highly conserved and ubiquitous serine–threonine kinase. It is a tetrameric enzyme that is made up of two regulatory CK2β subunits and two catalytic subunits, either CK2α/CK2α, CK2α/ CK2α′, or CK2α′/CK2α′. Although the two catalytic subunits diverge in their C termini, their enzymatic activities are similar. To identify the specific function of the two catalytic subunits in development, we have deleted them individually from the mouse genome by homologous recombination. We have previously reported that CK2α′is essential for male germ cell development, and we now demonstrate that CK2α has an essential role in embryogenesis, as mice lacking CK2α die in mid-embryogenesis, with cardiac and neural tube defects. PMID:18594950

  9. Expression of NMDA receptor NR1, NR2A and NR2B subunit mRNAs during development of the human hippocampal formation.

    PubMed

    Law, Amanda J; Weickert, Cynthia Shannon; Webster, Maree J; Herman, Mary M; Kleinman, Joel E; Harrison, Paul J

    2003-09-01

    The N-methyl-d-aspartate receptor plays a critical role in the formation and maintenance of synapses during brain development. In the rodent, changes in subunit expression and assembly of the heteromeric receptor complex accompany these maturational processes. However, little is known about N-methyl-d-aspartate receptor subunit expression during human brain development. We used in situ hybridization to examine the distribution and relative abundance of NR1, NR2A and NR2B subunit messenger ribonucleic acids in the hippocampal formation and adjacent cortex of 34 human subjects at five stages of life (neonate, infant, adolescent, young adult and adult). At all ages, the three messenger ribonucleic acids were expressed in all subfields, predominantly by pyramidal neurons, granule cells and polymorphic hilar cells. However, their abundance varied across ontogeny. Levels of NR1 messenger ribonucleic acid in CA4, CA3 and CA2 subfields were significantly lower in the neonate than all other age groups. In the dentate gyrus, subiculum and parahippocampal gyrus, NR2B messenger ribonucleic acid levels were higher in the neonate than in older age groups. NR2A messenger ribonucleic acid levels remained constant, leading to an age-related increase in NR2A/2B transcript ratio. We conclude that N-methyl-d-aspartate receptor subunit messenger ribonucleic acids are differentially expressed during postnatal development of the human hippocampus, with a pattern similar but not identical to that seen in the rodent. Changes in subunit composition may thus contribute to maturational differences in human hippocampal N-methyl-d-aspartate receptor function, and to their role in the pathophysiology of schizophrenia and other neurodevelopmental disorders.

  10. Phosphorylated CaMKII post-synaptic binding to NR2B subunits in the anterior cingulate cortex mediates visceral pain in visceral hypersensitive rats.

    PubMed

    Li, Ying; Zhang, Xu; Liu, Haiyan; Cao, Zhijun; Chen, Shengliang; Cao, Bing; Liu, Jin

    2012-05-01

    The NR2B subunit of NMDA receptor in the anterior cingulate cortex (ACC) is up-regulated in viscerally hypersensitive (VH) rats induced by colonic anaphylaxis. It plays a critical role in modulation of ACC sensitization and visceral pain responses. Given the key role of calcium/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase II (CaMKII) in synaptic plasticity and behavior learning and memory, we hypothesize that phosphorylation of CaMKII binding to NR2B mediates visceral pain in VH states. We performed in vivo electroporation of CaMKII siRNA produced inhibition of colorectal distension-induced visceromotor response in the VH rats. The NR2B, CaMKII and P-CaMKII-Thr²⁸⁶ protein levels were increased in 180%, 220% and 304% fold in the post-synaptic density (PSD) fraction in VH rats separately. Western blotting following co-immunoprecipitation showed that P-CaMKII-Thr²⁸⁶ bound to NR2B in the PSD, which was increased to 267% of control in VH rats. Administration of CaMKII antagonist Antennapedia-CaMKIINtide suppressed visceromotor response in VH rats in parallel with decrease of NR2B levels and reduction of the NR2B-P-CaMKII-Thr²⁸⁶ protein complex in PSD. In conclusion, CaMKII is a critical signaling molecule in the ACC glutamatergic synaptic transmission and phosphorylation of CaMKII at Thr286, which binds to NR2B subunit at post-synaptic site, modulates visceral pain in viscerally hypersensitive state.

  11. Taste novelty induces intracellular redistribution of NR2A and NR2B subunits of NMDA receptor in the insular cortex.

    PubMed

    Núñez-Jaramillo, Luis; Jimenez, Beatriz; Ramirez-Munguía, Nadia; Delint-Ramírez, Ilse; Luna-Illades, Claudio; Tapia, Ricardo; Bermúdez-Rattoni, Federico

    2008-06-18

    Taste recognition memory is a process by which animals associate a taste previously experienced with its gastric consequences. Novel taste presentation induces in the insular cortex biochemical modifications that decrease after the taste becomes familiar. Here we show that, in this cortex, consumption of a novel taste produces an increase of the NR2A and NR2B subunits of the NMDA receptor in the detergent resistant membrane (DRM) fraction. This increase did not occur in the adjacent parietal cortex, was not due to a change in the total amount of protein, and is related with the novelty of the stimulus since it was reduced after the taste became familiar. Furthermore, NR2A and NR2B subunits increase in the DRM was blocked by the injection of a muscarinic acetylcholine receptor antagonist. These results suggest that modulation of NMDA receptors in the insular cortex through the increase of its NR2A and NR2B subunits in the DRM is involved in the taste memory formation via a cholinergic process.

  12. Cleavage of the NR2B Subunit Amino Terminus of N-Methyl-d-aspartate (NMDA) Receptor by Tissue Plasminogen Activator

    PubMed Central

    Ng, Kay-Siong; Leung, How-Wing; Wong, Peter T.-H.; Low, Chian-Ming

    2012-01-01

    Thrombolysis using tissue plasminogen activator (tPA) has been the key treatment for patients with acute ischemic stroke for the past decade. Recent studies, however, suggest that this clot-busting protease also plays various roles in brain physiological and pathophysiological glutamatergic-dependent processes, such as synaptic plasticity and neurodegeneration. In addition, increasing evidence implicates tPA as an important neuromodulator of the N-methyl-d-aspartate (NMDA) receptors. Here, we demonstrate that recombinant human tPA cleaves the NR2B subunit of NMDA receptor. Analysis of NR2B in rat brain lysates and cortical neurons treated with tPA revealed concentration- and time-dependent degradation of NR2B proteins. Peptide sequencing studies performed on the cleaved-off products obtained from the tPA treatment on a recombinant fusion protein of the amino-terminal domain of NR2B revealed that tPA-mediated cleavage occurred at arginine 67 (Arg67). This cleavage is tPA-specific, plasmin-independent, and removes a predicted ∼4-kDa fragment (Arg27-Arg67) from the amino-terminal domain of the NR2B protein. Site-directed mutagenesis of putative cleavage site Arg67 to Ala67 impeded tPA-mediated degradation of recombinant protein. This analysis revealed that NR2B is a novel substrate of tPA and suggested that an Arg27–Arg67-truncated NR2B-containing NMDA receptor could be formed. Heterologous expression of NR2B with Gln29–Arg67 deleted is functional but exhibits reduced ifenprodil inhibition and increased glycine EC50 with no change in glutamate EC50. Our results confirmed NR2B as a novel proteolytic substrate of tPA, where tPA may directly interact with NR2B subunits leading to a change in pharmacological properties of NR2B-containing NMDA receptors. PMID:22610100

  13. Differential expression of hoxa2a and hoxa2b genes during striped bass embryonic development.

    PubMed

    Scemama, Jean-Luc; Vernon, Jamie L; Stellwag, Edmund J

    2006-10-01

    Here, we report the cloning and expression analysis of two previously uncharacterized paralogs group 2 Hox genes, striped bass hoxa2a and hoxa2b, and the developmental regulatory gene egr2. We demonstrate that both Hox genes are expressed in the rhombomeres of the developing hindbrain and the pharyngeal arches albeit with different spatio-temporal distributions relative to one another. While both hoxa2a and hoxa2b share the r1/r2 anterior boundary of expression characteristic of the hoxa2 paralog genes of other species, hoxa2a gene expression extends throughout the hindbrain, whereas hoxa2b gene expression is restricted to the r2-r5 region. Egr2, which is used in this study as an early developmental marker of rhombomeres 3 and 5, is expressed in two distinct bands with a location and spacing typical for these two rhombomeres in other species. Within the pharyngeal arches, hoxa2a is expressed at higher levels in the second pharyngeal arch, while hoxa2b is more strongly expressed in the posterior arches. Further, hoxa2b expression within the arches becomes undetectable at 60hpf, while hoxa2a expression is maintained at least up until the beginning of chondrogenesis. Comparison of the striped bass HoxA cluster paralog group 2 (PG2) genes to their orthologs and trans-orthologs shows that the striped bass hoxa2a gene expression pattern is similar to the overall expression pattern described for the hoxa2 genes in the lobe-finned fish lineage and for the hoxa2b gene from zebrafish. It is notable that the pharyngeal arch expression pattern of the striped bass hoxa2a gene is more divergent from its sister paralog, hoxa2b, than from the zebrafish hoxa2b gene. Overall, our results suggest that differences in the Hox PG2 gene complement of striped bass and zebrafish affects both their rhombomeric and pharyngeal arch expression patterns and may account for the similarities in pharyngeal arch expression between striped bass hoxa2a and zebrafish hoxa2b.

  14. IGF-1-Involved Negative Feedback of NR2B NMDA Subunits Protects Cultured Hippocampal Neurons Against NMDA-Induced Excitotoxicity.

    PubMed

    Li, Yun; Sun, Wei; Han, Song; Li, Jianing; Ding, Shu; Wang, Wei; Yin, Yanling

    2017-01-01

    Insulin-like growth factor 1 (IGF-1) is a multifunctional protein involved in neuronal polarity and axonal guidance. In our previous study, it was discovered that IGF-1 alleviated 50-μM NMDA-induced excitotoxicity against neuronal autophagy via depression of NR2B p-Ser1303 activation. However, it was found that NMDA at a higher dose did not cause neuronal autophagy. And, the performance of IGF-1 under severe excitotoxicity still needs to be clarified. In this study, we observed that IGF-1 can salvage the hippocampal neurons in an autophagy-independent manner after 150-μM NMDA exposure using thiazolyl blue tetrazolium bromide (MTT), lactate dehydrogenase (LDH), Western blot assay, and transmission electron microscopy. In addition, over-activation of post-synaptic NMDARs was found with the whole-cell patch clamp recording method. In order to explore whether there is a positive feedback way for post-synaptic NMDARs and the different pathway caused by 150 μM NMDA, the phosphorylation level of Fyn and the phosphorylation site of NR2B were investigated. It was observed that NR2B p-Tyr1472 was increased by the activation of Fyn after 150-μM NMDA exposure. When the neutralizing antibody against NR2B p-Ser1303 was added into the medium, both the activations of Fyn and NR2B p-Tyr1472 were blocked, suggesting NR2B p-Ser1303 may be the initial step of NMDA-induced excitotoxicity. In addition, since IGF-1 can block the initial step of NR2B activation, its effect is concluded to continue with the development of excitotoxicity. Overall, this study strongly indicates that the relationship between different phosphorylation sites of NR2B should be laid more emphasis on, which may be a vital target for the NR2B-involved excitotoxicity.

  15. Evidence that the dephosphorylation of Ser(535) in the epsilon-subunit of eukaryotic initiation factor (eIF) 2B is insufficient for the activation of eIF2B by insulin.

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Xuemin; Janmaat, Maarten; Beugnet, Anne; Paulin, Fiona E M; Proud, Christopher G

    2002-01-01

    Eukaryotic initiation factor (eIF) 2B is a guanine-nucleotide exchange factor that plays a key role in the regulation of protein synthesis. It is activated by insulin, serum and other agents that stimulate general protein synthesis. The largest (epsilon) subunit of eIF2B is a substrate for glycogen synthase kinase (GSK)-3 in vitro, and phosphorylation by GSK3 inhibits the activity of eIF2B. The site of phosphorylation has previously been identified as Ser(535). GSK3 is inactivated by phosphorylation in response to insulin or serum. In Chinese-hamster ovary cells, insulin and serum bring about the dephosphorylation of Ser(535) in vivo, concomitantly with the phosphorylation of GSK3, and these effects are mediated through signalling via phosphoinositide 3-kinase. We have made use of inhibitors of GSK3 to determine whether GSK3 is responsible for phosphorylation of Ser(535) in vivo and to explore the role of phosphorylation of Ser(535) in the regulation of eIF2B. Treatment of cells with LiCl or with either of two recently developed GSK3 inhibitors, SB-415286 and SB-216763, brought about the dephosphorylation of Ser(535), which strongly indicates that this site is indeed a target for GSK3 in vivo. However, these compounds did not elicit significant activation of eIF2B, indicating, consistent with conclusions from one of our previous studies, that additional inputs are required for the activation of eIF2B. Our results also show that each of the inhibitors used affects overall protein synthesis and have additional effects on translation factors or signalling pathways apparently unrelated to their effects on GSK3, indicating that caution must be exercised when interpreting data obtained using these compounds. PMID:12133000

  16. Antibody responses elicited in mice immunized with Bacillus subtilis vaccine strains expressing Stx2B subunit of enterohaemorragic Escherichia coli O157:H7

    PubMed Central

    Gomes, P.A.D.P.; Bentancor, L.V.; Paccez, J.D.; Sbrogio-Almeida, M.E.; Palermo, M.S.; Ferreira, R.C.C.; Ferreira, L.C.S.

    2009-01-01

    No effective vaccine or immunotherapy is presently available for patients with the hemolytic uremic syndrome (HUS) induced by Shiga-like toxin (Stx) produced by enterohaemorragic Escherichia coli (EHEC) strains, such as those belonging to the O157:H7 serotype. In this work we evaluated the performance of Bacillus subtilis strains, a harmless spore former gram-positive bacterium species, as a vaccine vehicle for the expression of Stx2B subunit (Stx2B). A recombinant B. subtilis vaccine strain expressing Stx2B under the control of a stress inducible promoter was delivered to BALB/c mice via oral, nasal or subcutaneous routes using both vegetative cells and spores. Mice immunized with vegetative cells by the oral route developed low but specific anti-Stx2B serum IgG and fecal IgA responses while mice immunized with recombinant spores developed anti-Stx2B responses only after administration via the parenteral route. Nonetheless, serum anti-Stx2B antibodies raised in mice immunized with the recombinant B. subtilis strain did not inhibit the toxic effects of the native toxin, both under in vitro and in vivo conditions, suggesting that either the quantity or the quality of the induced immune response did not support an effective neutralization of Stx2 produced by EHEC strains. PMID:24031368

  17. Gene silencing of NR2B-containing NMDA receptor by intrathecal injection of short hairpin RNA reduces formalin-induced nociception in C57BL/6 mouse.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Rao-Xiang; Yan, Xue-Bin; Gu, Yong-Hong; Huang, Dong; Gan, Li; Han, Rui; Huang, Li-Hua

    2013-09-01

    Spinal NR2B-containing N-methyl-D-aspartate receptors (NR2B) play a critical role in the formation of central sensitization and persistent pain. Previous studies show that gene silencing of the spinal NR2B subunit by small interfering RNA (siRNA) could alleviate nociception in animals. The siRNA is a 19- to 23-nt RNA duplex, which can be synthesized in vitro or derived from short hairpin RNAs (shRNAs). In the present study, we investigated whether intrathecal injection of shRNAs targeting NR2B (GRIN2B shRNA) could affect nociception on formalin-induced pain in mice. Our results showed that intrathecal injection of GRIN2B shRNA could decrease NR2B mRNA and protein expression levels and hence effectively relieve formalin-induced nociception in mice, suggesting that intrathecal delivery of GRIN2B shRNA can be an efficient way to silence the target gene and provide new insights into the treatment of chronic pain.

  18. Bisphenol-A rapidly promotes dynamic changes in hippocampal dendritic morphology through estrogen receptor-mediated pathway by concomitant phosphorylation of NMDA receptor subunit NR2B

    SciTech Connect

    Xu Xiaohong Ye Yinping; Li Tao; Chen Lei; Tian Dong; Luo Qingqing; Lu Mei

    2010-12-01

    Bisphenol-A (BPA) is known to be a potent endocrine disrupter. Evidence is emerging that estrogen exerts a rapid influence on hippocampal synaptic plasticity and the dendritic spine density, which requires activation of NMDA receptors. In the present study, we investigated the effects of BPA (ranging from 1 to 1000 nM), focusing on the rapid dynamic changes in dendritic filopodia and the expressions of estrogen receptor (ER) {beta} and NMDA receptor, as well as the phosphorylation of NMDA receptor subunit NR2B in the cultured hippocampal neurons. A specific ER antagonist ICI 182,780 was used to examine the potential involvement of ERs. The results demonstrated that exposure to BPA (ranging from 10 to 1000 nM) for 30 min rapidly enhanced the motility and the density of dendritic filopodia in the cultured hippocampal neurons, as well as the phosphorylation of NR2B (pNR2B), though the expressions of NMDA receptor subunits NR1, NR2B, and ER{beta} were not changed. The antagonist of ERs completely inhibited the BPA-induced increases in the filopodial motility and the number of filopodia extending from dendrites. The increased pNR2B induced by BPA (100 nM) was also completely eliminated. Furthermore, BPA attenuated the effects of 17{beta}-estradiol (17{beta}-E{sub 2}) on the dendritic filopodia outgrowth and the expression of pNR2B when BPA was co-treated with 17{beta}-E{sub 2}. The present results suggest that BPA, like 17{beta}-E{sub 2}, rapidly results in the enhanced motility and density of dendritic filopodia in the cultured hippocampal neurons with the concomitant activation of NMDA receptor subunit NR2B via an ER-mediated signaling pathway. Meanwhile, BPA suppressed the enhancement effects of 17{beta}-E{sub 2} when it coexists with 17{beta}-E{sub 2}. These results provided important evidence suggesting the neurotoxicity of the low levels of BPA during the early postnatal development of the brain.

  19. Intrathecal administration of roscovitine attenuates cancer pain and inhibits the expression of NMDA receptor 2B subunit mRNA.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Rui; Liu, Yue; Zhang, Juan; Zheng, Yaguo; Gu, Xiaoping; Ma, Zhengliang

    2012-07-01

    Cancer pain is one of the most severe chronic pains. The mechanisms underlying cancer pain are still unclear. Because of the pain-relieving effects of Cdk5 (Cyclin-dependent kinase 5) antagonist roscovitine in inflammation pain models, we tested whether roscovitine would induce antihyperalgesia in cancer pain. Our previous study showed that the NR2B (N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor 2B) in the spinal cord participates in bone cancer pain in mice. In this study, we used a mouse model of bone cancer pain to investigate whether roscovitine could attenuate bone cancer pain by regulating the expression level of NR2B mRNA in spinal cord. C3H/HeJ mice were inoculated into the intramedullary space of the right femur with Osteosarcoma cells to induce ongoing bone cancer pain behaviors. At day 14 after operation, inoculation of Osteosarcoma cells significantly enhanced mechanical allodynia and thermal hyperalgesia, which was attenuated by intrathecal administration of different doses of roscovitine. Correlated with the pain behaviors changes, RT-PCR experiments in our study revealed that there was a marked increase in the expression of NR2B mRNA in spinal cord after operation, which was attenuated by intrathecal administration of roscovitine. These results suggest that roscovitine may be a useful adjunct therapy for bone cancer pain, and NR2B in spinal cord may participate in this effect. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Leptin reverses corticosterone-induced inhibition of neural stem cell proliferation through activating the NR2B subunits of NMDA receptors.

    PubMed

    Shi, Wen-Zhu; Miao, Yu-Liang; Guo, Wen-Zhi; Wu, Wei; Li, Bao-Wei; An, Li-Na; Fang, Wei-Wu; Mi, Wei-Dong

    2014-04-25

    Corticosterone inhibits the proliferation of hippocampal neural stem cells (NSCs). The removal of corticosterone-induced inhibition of NSCs proliferation has been reported to contribute to neural regeneration. Leptin has been shown to regulate brain development, improve angiogenesis, and promote neural regeneration; however, its effects on corticosterone-induced inhibition of NSCs proliferation remain unclear. Here we reported that leptin significantly promoted the proliferation of hippocampal NSCs in a concentration-dependent pattern. Also, leptin efficiently reversed the inhibition of NSCs proliferation induced by corticosterone. Interestingly, pre-treatment with non-specific NMDA antagonist MK-801, specific NR2B antagonist Ro 25-6981, or small interfering RNA (siRNA) targeting NR2B, significantly blocked the effect of leptin on corticosterone-induced inhibition of NSCs proliferation. Furthermore, corticosterone significantly reduced the protein expression of NR2B, whereas pre-treatment with leptin greatly reversed the attenuation of NR2B expression caused by corticosterone in cultured hippocampal NSCs. Our findings demonstrate that leptin reverses the corticosterone-induced inhibition of NSCs proliferation. This process is, at least partially mediated by increased expression of NR2B subunits of NMDA receptors.

  1. NADH dehydrogenase subunit genes in the mitochondrial DNA of yeasts.

    PubMed Central

    Nosek, J; Fukuhara, H

    1994-01-01

    The genes encoding the NADH dehydrogenase subunits of respiratory complex I have not been identified so far in the mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) of yeasts. In the linear mtDNA of Candida parapsilosis, we found six new open reading frames whose sequences were unambiguously homologous to those of the genes known to code for NADH dehydrogenase subunit proteins of different organisms, i.e., ND1, ND2, ND3, ND4L, ND5, and ND6. The gene for ND4 also appears to be present, as judged from hybridization experiments with a Podospora gene probe. Specific transcripts from these open reading frames (ND genes) could be detected in the mitochondria. Hybridization experiments using C. parapsilosis genes as probes suggested that ND genes are present in the mtDNAs of a wide range of yeast species including Candida catenulata, Pichia guilliermondii, Clavispora lusitaniae, Debaryomyces hansenii, Hansenula polymorpha, and others. Images PMID:7521869

  2. NMDA receptor GluN2B (GluR epsilon 2/NR2B) subunit is crucial for channel function, postsynaptic macromolecular organization, and actin cytoskeleton at hippocampal CA3 synapses.

    PubMed

    Akashi, Kaori; Kakizaki, Toshikazu; Kamiya, Haruyuki; Fukaya, Masahiro; Yamasaki, Miwako; Abe, Manabu; Natsume, Rie; Watanabe, Masahiko; Sakimura, Kenji

    2009-09-02

    GluN2B (GluRepsilon2/NR2B) subunit is involved in synapse development, synaptic plasticity, and cognitive function. However, its roles in synaptic expression and function of NMDA receptors (NMDARs) in the brain remain mostly unknown because of the neonatal lethality of global knock-out mice. To address this, we generated conditional knock-out mice, in which GluN2B was ablated exclusively in hippocampal CA3 pyramidal cells. By immunohistochemistry, GluN2B disappeared and GluN1 (GluRzeta1/NR1) was moderately reduced, whereas GluN2A (GluRepsilon1/NR2A) and postsynaptic density-95 (PSD-95) were unaltered in the mutant CA3. This was consistent with protein contents in the CA3 crude fraction: 9.6% of control level for GluN2B, 47.7% for GluN1, 90.6% for GluN2A, and 98.0% for PSD-95. Despite the remaining NMDARs, NMDAR-mediated currents and long-term potentiation were virtually lost at various CA3 synapses. Then, we compared synaptic NMDARs by postembedding immunogold electron microscopy and immunoblot using the PSD fraction. In the mutant CA3, GluN1 was severely reduced in both immunogold (20.6-23.6%) and immunoblot (24.6%), whereas GluN2A and PSD-95 were unchanged in immunogold but markedly reduced in the PSD fraction (51.4 and 36.5%, respectively), indicating increased detergent solubility of PSD molecules. No such increased solubility was observed for GluN2B in the CA3 of GluN2A-knock-out mice. Furthermore, significant decreases were found in the ratio of filamentous to globular actin (49.5%) and in the density of dendritic spines (76.2%). These findings suggest that GluN2B is critically involved in NMDAR channel function, organization of postsynaptic macromolecular complexes, formation or maintenance of dendritic spines, and regulation of the actin cytoskeleton.

  3. Protection of Mice against Shiga Toxin 2 (Stx2)-Associated Damage by Maternal Immunization with a Brucella Lumazine Synthase-Stx2 B Subunit Chimera

    PubMed Central

    Mejias, María Pilar; Cabrera, Gabriel; Fernández-Brando, Romina Jimena; Baschkier, Ariela; Ghersi, Giselle; Abrey-Recalde, Maria Jimena; Miliwebsky, Elizabeth; Meiss, Roberto; Goldbaum, Fernando; Zylberman, Vanesa; Rivas, Marta

    2014-01-01

    Hemolytic-uremic syndrome (HUS) is defined as the triad of anemia, thrombocytopenia, and acute kidney injury. Enterohemorrhagic Shiga toxin (Stx)-producing Escherichia coli (EHEC), which causes a prodromal hemorrhagic enteritis, remains the most common etiology of the typical or epidemic form of HUS. Because no licensed vaccine or effective therapy is presently available for human use, we recently developed a novel immunogen based on the B subunit of Shiga toxin 2 (Stx2B) and the enzyme lumazine synthase from Brucella spp. (BLS) (BLS-Stx2B). The aim of this study was to analyze maternal immunization with BLS-Stx2B as a possible approach for transferring anti-Stx2 protection to the offspring. BALB/c female mice were immunized with BLS-Stx2B before mating. Both dams and pups presented comparable titers of anti-Stx2B antibodies in sera and fecal extracts. Moreover, pups were totally protected against a lethal dose of systemic Stx2 injection up to 2 to 3 months postpartum. In addition, pups were resistant to an oral challenge with an Stx2-producing EHEC strain at weaning and did not develop any symptomatology associated with Stx2 toxicity. Fostering experiments demonstrated that anti-Stx2B neutralizing IgG antibodies were transmitted through breast-feeding. Pups that survived the EHEC infection due to maternally transferred immunity prolonged an active and specific immune response that protected them against a subsequent challenge with intravenous Stx2. Our study shows that maternal immunization with BLS-Stx2B was very effective at promoting the transfer of specific antibodies, and suggests that preexposure of adult females to this immunogen could protect their offspring during the early phase of life. PMID:24421050

  4. Protection of mice against Shiga toxin 2 (Stx2)-associated damage by maternal immunization with a Brucella lumazine synthase-Stx2 B subunit chimera.

    PubMed

    Mejias, María Pilar; Cabrera, Gabriel; Fernández-Brando, Romina Jimena; Baschkier, Ariela; Ghersi, Giselle; Abrey-Recalde, Maria Jimena; Miliwebsky, Elizabeth; Meiss, Roberto; Goldbaum, Fernando; Zylberman, Vanesa; Rivas, Marta; Palermo, Marina Sandra

    2014-04-01

    Hemolytic-uremic syndrome (HUS) is defined as the triad of anemia, thrombocytopenia, and acute kidney injury. Enterohemorrhagic Shiga toxin (Stx)-producing Escherichia coli (EHEC), which causes a prodromal hemorrhagic enteritis, remains the most common etiology of the typical or epidemic form of HUS. Because no licensed vaccine or effective therapy is presently available for human use, we recently developed a novel immunogen based on the B subunit of Shiga toxin 2 (Stx2B) and the enzyme lumazine synthase from Brucella spp. (BLS) (BLS-Stx2B). The aim of this study was to analyze maternal immunization with BLS-Stx2B as a possible approach for transferring anti-Stx2 protection to the offspring. BALB/c female mice were immunized with BLS-Stx2B before mating. Both dams and pups presented comparable titers of anti-Stx2B antibodies in sera and fecal extracts. Moreover, pups were totally protected against a lethal dose of systemic Stx2 injection up to 2 to 3 months postpartum. In addition, pups were resistant to an oral challenge with an Stx2-producing EHEC strain at weaning and did not develop any symptomatology associated with Stx2 toxicity. Fostering experiments demonstrated that anti-Stx2B neutralizing IgG antibodies were transmitted through breast-feeding. Pups that survived the EHEC infection due to maternally transferred immunity prolonged an active and specific immune response that protected them against a subsequent challenge with intravenous Stx2. Our study shows that maternal immunization with BLS-Stx2B was very effective at promoting the transfer of specific antibodies, and suggests that preexposure of adult females to this immunogen could protect their offspring during the early phase of life.

  5. Mutations of the human interferon alpha-2b (hIFN-α2b) gene in occupationally protracted low dose radiation exposed personnel.

    PubMed

    Shahid, Saman; Mahmood, Nasir; Chaudhry, Muhammad Nawaz; Sheikh, Shaharyar; Ahmad, Nauman

    2015-05-01

    Ionizing radiations impact human tissues by affecting the DNA bases which constitute genes. Human interferon alpha 2b gene synthesizes a protein which is an important anticancerous, immunomodulatory, anti-proliferative and antiviral protein. This study was aimed to identify interferon alpha-2b mutations as a consequence of the use of occupational chronic low dose radiation by hospital radiation exposed workers. A molecular analysis was done in which DNAs were extracted from blood samples from radiology, radiotherapy and nuclear medicine workers. The gene was amplified through polymerase chain reaction and further genetic data from sequencing results analyzed by bioinformatics tools in order to determine as to how mutations in interferon alpha 2b sequences will lead to changes in human interferon alpha-2b protein. A total of 41% gene mutations was detected among all radiation exposed workers in which higher percentage (5.4%) of base insertion mutations and 14% frameshift mutations were found in radiology workers. The chronic use of low dose of radiations by occupational workers has a significant correlation with mutational effects on interferon alpha 2b gene, further evident by depressed interferon alpha levels in serum. This can lead to depressed immunity in radiation exposed workers. Hematological profiling of this group also showed hyperimmune response in the form of lymphocytosis.

  6. A functional variant in the UBE2B gene promoter is associated with idiopathic azoospermia.

    PubMed

    Mou, Lisha; Zhang, Qiang; Diao, Ruiying; Cai, Zhiming; Gui, Yaoting

    2015-07-30

    A variety of genetic variants lead to abnormal human spermatogenesis. The ubiquitin-conjugating enzyme E2B (UBE2B) plays a significant role in spermatogenesis as Ube2b-knockout male mice are infertile. In this study, we sequenced the exon and promoter region of UBE2B in 776 patients diagnosed with idiopathic azoospermia (IA) and 709 proven fertile men to examine whether UBE2B is involved in the pathogenesis of IA. In the exon region, two novel synonymous variants were detected in the patient group. In the promoter region, four known variants and four novel variants were identified in the patient group. Of the novel variants in the promoter region, three were located at the binding site of specificity protein 1 (SP1) transcription factor analyzed by TRANSFAC software. Luciferase assays demonstrated that one heterozygous variant (Chr5.133706925 A > G) inhibited the transcriptional regulation activity of SP1. A novel variant (Chr5.133706925 A > G) residing in the UBE2B gene promoter region confers a high risk for IA in a Chinese population. These results support a role for UBE2B in the pathogenesis of IA.

  7. DjhnRNPA2/B1-like gene is required for planarian regeneration and tissue homeostasis.

    PubMed

    Dong, Zimei; Yang, Tong; Yang, Yibo; Dou, He; Chen, Guangwen

    2017-10-30

    The hnRNPs play important roles in physiological processes in eukaryotic organisms by regulation of pre-mRNA after transcription, including pre-mRNA splicing, mRNA stability, DNA replication and repair and telomere maintenance and so on. However, it remains unclear about the specific functions of these genes. In this study, the full-length cDNA sequence of hnRNPA2/B1-like was first cloned from Dugesia japonica, and its roles were investigated by WISH and RNAi. The results showed that: (1) DjhnRNPA2/B1-like was highly conserved during animal evolution; (2) DjhnRNPA2/B1-like mRNA was mainly distributed each side of the body in intact worms and regenerative blastemas, and its expression levels were up-regulated on days 0 and 5 after amputation; (3) the intact and regenerating worms gradually lysed or lost regeneration capacity after DjhnRNPA2/B1-like RNAi; and (4) DjhnRNPA2/B1-like expression is induced by temperature and heavy metal ion stress. The data suggests that DjhnRNPA2/B1-like is a multiple functional gene, it plays important roles in regeneration and homeostatic maintenance and it is also involved in stress responses in planarians. Our work provides basic data for the study of regenerative mechanism and stress responses in freshwater planarians. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  8. State-dependent increase of cortical gamma activity during REM sleep after selective blockade of NR2B subunit containing NMDA receptors.

    PubMed

    Kocsis, Bernat

    2012-07-01

    Sub-anesthetic doses of NMDA receptor antagonists suppress sleep and elicit continuous high-power gamma oscillations lasting for hours. This effect is subunit-specific, as it was also seen after preferential blockade of the NR2A but not of the NR2B subunit-containing receptors. The objective of this study was to test whether NR2B receptor antagonists that do not induce lasting aberrant gamma elevation affect gamma activity during specific behaviors and states, including REM sleep, when gamma normally occurs. Gamma oscillations in cortical EEG were assessed in different vigilance states in rats and were compared before and after injection of nonselective (ketamine, 10 mg/kg, and MK801, 0.2 mg/kg), as well as NR2A-preferring (NVP-AAM077, 20 mg/kg), and NR2B-selective NMDA receptor antagonists (Ro25-6985, 10 mg), and vehicle. In contrast to nonselective and NR2A-preferring antagonists, Ro25-6985 did not disrupt sleep and had no effect on gamma activity during waking and slow wave sleep. It significantly increased, however, gamma power in the frontal (but not in occipital) cortex during REM sleep (by 37% ± 10%, average in the first 4 h). The effect had a short onset; enhanced gamma activity appeared as early as in the first REM sleep episode post-injection and lasted over 8 hours. Increased gamma power induced by MK-801 (46% ± 5%) and NVP-AAM077 (100% ± 8%) during REM sleep could also be detected several hours after injection when periodic alternation of sleep-wake states returned. By acting on gamma oscillations in a state-dependent manner, NMDA receptors might have subunit-specific role in REM sleep-associated cognitive processes.

  9. Differential role of NR2A and NR2B subunits in N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor antagonist-induced aberrant cortical gamma oscillations.

    PubMed

    Kocsis, Bernat

    2012-06-01

    N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor (NMDA-R) hypofunction plays an important role in cognitive impairment in schizophrenia. NMDA-R antagonists elicit psychotic symptoms in humans and schizophrenia-relevant signs in rodents, including a strong increase in cortical gamma activity. NMDA-Rs are composed of different subunits, and accumulating evidence indicates that neuronal damage due to NMDA-R antagonists depends on their action on a specific type of the receptor containing the NR2A subunit. In human schizophrenics, NR2A is selectively reduced in fast-firing interneurons. These neurons are critical for gamma oscillations, indicating that pathological changes in gamma activity may depend on subunit-specific NMDA-R deficit. The present study tested this hypothesis. Cortical electroencephalograms were recorded in freely moving rats and the changes in gamma power were measured after administration of NMDA-R antagonists with different subunit selectivity, including NR2A-preferring (PEAQX, n = 5; NVP-AAM077, n = 18), NR2B-selective (ifenprodil, n = 6; threo-ifenprodil, n = 4; Ro25-6985, n = 13), and NR2C/D-selective (n = 8) antagonists, along with vehicle and nonselective NMDA-R antagonists (ketamine, n = 10; MK801, n = 12). Changes in prepulse inhibition of startle was tested after MK-801 (n = 6), NVP-AAM077, and Ro-6891 (n = 5) injection. Strong increase in gamma power was induced by nonselective NMDA-R antagonists and by blockade of NMDA-Rs containing the NR2A subunit, with co-occurring gating deficits and diminished low-frequency modulation of gamma oscillations. In contrast, selective blockade of NR2B, C, or D subunit-containing receptors had minor effects. Major subtype-specific differences in the role of NMDA-Rs in cortical gamma oscillation may have implications for the pathomechanism and treatment of cognitive impairment in schizophrenia. Copyright © 2012 Society of Biological Psychiatry. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Tyrosine phosphorylation of the N-Methyl-D-Aspartate receptor 2B subunit in spinal cord contributes to remifentanil-induced postoperative hyperalgesia: the preventive effect of ketamine

    PubMed Central

    2009-01-01

    Background Experimental and clinical studies showed that intraoperative infusionof remifentanil has been associated with postoperative hyperalgesia. Previous reports suggested that spinal N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) receptors may contribute to the development and maintenance of opioid-induced hyperalgesia. In the present study, we used a rat model of postoperative pain to investigate the role of tyrosine phosphorylation of NMDA receptor 2B (NR2B) subunit in spinal cord in the postoperative hyperalgesia induced by remifentanil and the intervention of pretreatment with ketamine. Results Intraoperative infusion of remifentanil (0.04 mg/kg, subcutaneous) significantly enhanced mechanical allodynia and thermal hyperalgesia induced by the plantar incision during the postoperative period (each lasting between 2 h and 48 h), which was attenuated by pretreatment with ketamine (10 mg/kg, subcutaneous). Correlated with the pain behavior changes, immunocytochemical and western blotting experiments in our study revealed that there was a marked increase in NR2B phosphorylation at Tyr1472 in the superficial dorsal horn after intraoperative infusion of remifentanil, which was attenuated by pretreatment with ketamine. Conclusions This study provides direct evidence that tyrosine phosphorylation of the NR2B at Tyr1472 in spinal dosal horn contributes to postoperative hyperalgesia induced by remifentanil and supports the potential therapeutic value of ketamine for improving postoperative hyperalgesia induced by remifentanil. PMID:20042082

  11. Loss of Drosophila Ataxin-7, a SAGA subunit, reduces H2B ubiquitination and leads to neural and retinal degeneration

    PubMed Central

    Mohan, Ryan D.; Dialynas, George; Weake, Vikki M.; Liu, Jianqi; Martin-Brown, Skylar; Florens, Laurence; Washburn, Michael P.; Workman, Jerry L.; Abmayr, Susan M.

    2014-01-01

    The Spt–Ada–Gcn5–acetyltransferase (SAGA) chromatin-modifying complex possesses acetyltransferase and deubiquitinase activities. Within this modular complex, Ataxin-7 anchors the deubiquitinase activity to the larger complex. Here we identified and characterized Drosophila Ataxin-7 and found that reduction of Ataxin-7 protein results in loss of components from the SAGA complex. In contrast to yeast, where loss of Ataxin-7 inactivates the deubiquitinase and results in increased H2B ubiquitination, loss of Ataxin-7 results in decreased H2B ubiquitination and H3K9 acetylation without affecting other histone marks. Interestingly, the effect on ubiquitination was conserved in human cells, suggesting a novel mechanism regulating histone deubiquitination in higher organisms. Consistent with this mechanism in vivo, we found that a recombinant deubiquitinase module is active in the absence of Ataxin-7 in vitro. When we examined the consequences of reduced Ataxin-7 in vivo, we found that flies exhibited pronounced neural and retinal degeneration, impaired movement, and early lethality. PMID:24493646

  12. CDKN2B gene rs1063192 polymorphism decreases the risk of glaucoma.

    PubMed

    Hu, Zhenxian; He, Chenliang

    2017-03-28

    The aim of this meta-analysis was to evaluate the association between cyclin-dependent kinase Inhibitor-2B (CDKN2B) gene rs1063192 polymorphism and glaucoma risk. We searched the databases of PubMed, and Embase. Pooled odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were calculated by using fixed-effect or random-effect models. A total of 14 case-control studies involving 11,316 cases and 24,055 controls were included. Meta-analysis showed that CDKN2B gene rs1063192 polymorphism was associated with a decreased risk of glaucoma. Stratification analysis of ethnicity indicated that rs1063192 polymorphism decreased the risk of glaucoma among Caucasians and Asians. Stratification analysis by type of glaucoma revealed that rs1063192 polymorphism conferred a protective factor of primary open-angle glaucoma (POAG) and non-POAG. Stratification by source of controls uncovered an association between rs1063192 polymorphism and glaucoma in groups of population-based controls. In conclusion, this meta-analysis indicates that CDKN2B gene rs1063192 polymorphism is significantly associated with a decreased risk of glaucoma.

  13. Symmetric polymicrogyria and pachygyria associated with TUBB2B gene mutations

    PubMed Central

    Guerrini, Renzo; Mei, Davide; Cordelli, Duccio Maria; Pucatti, Daniela; Franzoni, Emilio; Parrini, Elena

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of the study is to explore the causative role of TUBB2B gene mutations in patients with different malformations of cortical development. We collected and evaluated clinical and MRI data of a cohort of 128 consecutive patients (61 females and 67 males) in whom brain MRI had detected a spectrum of malformations of cortical development including polymicrogyria or pachygyria, who were mutation-negative to other possible causative genes. Mutation analysis of the TUBB2B gene was performed. We identified three new TUBB2B mutations in three unrelated patients (3 out of 128; 2.3%) with a diffuse and rather symmetrical cortical abnormality, including diffuse polymicrogyria in two and bilateral regional pachygyria in one. One patient harbored a p.Asp417Asn amino-acid substitution in the C-terminal domain of the protein; one patient a p.Asn256Ser amino-acid substitution in the intermediate domain and one patient a p.Leu117Pro amino-acid substitution in the N-terminal domain. The localization of each mutation within the secondary structure of the β2-tubulin polypeptide suggests that these mutations might alter the proper functions of microtubules. The phenotypic spectrum associated with TUBB2B mutations is wider than previously reported and includes diffuse, symmetric malformations of cortical development. PMID:22333901

  14. Glutamate Binding to the GluN2B Subunit Controls Surface Trafficking of N-Methyl-d-aspartate (NMDA) Receptors*♦

    PubMed Central

    She, Kevin; Ferreira, Joana S.; Carvalho, Ana Luisa; Craig, Ann Marie

    2012-01-01

    Trafficking of NMDA receptors to the surface of neurons and to synapses is critical for proper brain function and activity-dependent plasticity. Recent evidence suggests that surface trafficking of other ionotropic glutamate receptors requires ligand binding for exit from the endoplasmic reticulum. Here, we show that glutamate binding to GluN2 is required for trafficking of NMDA receptors to the cell surface. We expressed a panel of GluN2B ligand binding mutants in heterologous cells with GluN1 or in rat cultured neurons and found that surface expression correlates with glutamate efficacy. Such a correlation was found even in the presence of dominant negative dynamin to inhibit endocytosis and surface expression correlated with Golgi localization, indicating differences in forward trafficking. Co-expression of wild type GluN2B did not enhance surface expression of the mutants, suggesting that glutamate must bind to both GluN2 subunits in a tetramer and that surface expression is limited by the least avid of the two glutamate binding sites. Surface trafficking of a constitutively closed cleft GluN2B was indistinguishable from that of wild type, suggesting that glutamate concentrations are typically not limiting for forward trafficking. YFP-GluN2B expressed in hippocampal neurons from GluN2B−/− mice rescued synaptic accumulation at similar levels to wild type. Under these conditions, surface synaptic accumulation of YFP-GluN2B mutants also correlated with apparent glutamate affinity. Altogether, these results indicate that glutamate controls forward trafficking of NMDA receptors to the cell surface and to synapses and raise the intriguing idea that NMDA receptors may be functional at intracellular sites. PMID:22740692

  15. Multiplex pcr assay for detection of human interferon alpha2b gene in transgenic plants.

    PubMed

    Gerasymenko, I M; Sakhno, L O; Mazur, M G; Sheludko, Y V

    2012-01-01

    During the last decade interferons are regarded as potent candidates for generation of plant-based edible vaccines because of broad spectrum of antiviral activities and adjuvant properties. Establishment and certification of numerous interferon producing plant systems requests development of fast and efficient multiplex PCR protocol for the transgene detection in GM plants. Here we represent a protocol for simultaneous amplification in one assay of fragments of hIFN alpha 2b gene and two control genes, namely virD1 of Agrobacterium tumefaciens and conservative region of plant actin gene.

  16. Increased efficacy of an adenovirus-vectored foot-and-mouth disease capsid subunit vaccine expressing nonstructural protein 2B is associated with a specific T cell response.

    PubMed

    Moraes, Mauro Pires; Segundo, Fayna Diaz-San; Dias, Camila C; Pena, Lindomar; Grubman, Marvin J

    2011-11-28

    We previously demonstrated that an adenovirus-based foot-and-mouth disease virus (FMDV) serotype A24 capsid subunit vaccine, Ad5-A24, expressed under the control of a cytomegalovirus promoter (CMV) can protect swine and bovines against homologous challenge, but in a similar approach using swine vaccinated with an Ad5-vectored FMDV O1 Campos vaccine, Ad5-O1C, the animals were only partially protected when challenged at 21 days post-vaccination (dpv). Recently, we demonstrated that inclusion of the complete coding region of nonstructural protein 2B in the Ad5-A24 vector resulted in improved immune responses in pigs. We also found that inclusion of a modified CMV promoter (pCI), Ad5-CI-A24-2B, enhanced the efficacy of the vector. To address the limited immunogenicity of Ad5-O1C, we have produced a new set of Ad5 vectors with the complete 2B coding region under the control of either the original or the modified version of the CMV promoter, Ad5-O1C-2B, or Ad5-CI-O1C-2B, respectively. To evaluate the potency and efficacy of the new vectors we performed 2 sets of experiments in cattle. In the first experiment we compared the original vector with vectors containing the pCI promoter and partial or full-length 2B. All groups were challenged, intradermally in the tongue, at 21 dpv with FMDV O1C. We found that in all vaccinated groups 2 of 4 animals were protected from clinical disease. In the second experiment we directly compared the efficacy of vectors with a partial or full-length 2B under the control of the original CMV promoter. While all animals in the control group developed clinical disease, 2 of 4 animals in the group receiving Ad5-O1C vaccine and 3 of 4 animals in the group receiving Ad5-O1C-2B vaccine were completely protected after challenge. We also observed a 100-fold reduction of virus shedding in Ad5-O1C vaccinated animals and the group receiving Ad5-O1C-2B had an additional 10-fold reduction compared with the Ad5-O1C vaccinated group. There was no difference

  17. Nampt is required for long-term depression and the function of GluN2B subunit-containing NMDA receptors.

    PubMed

    Stein, Liana Roberts; Zorumski, Charles F; Imai, Shin-Ichiro; Izumi, Yukitoshi

    2015-10-01

    Nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NAD(+)) is an essential coenzyme/cosubstrate for many biological processes in cellular metabolism. The rate-limiting step in the major pathway of mammalian NAD(+) biosynthesis is mediated by nicotinamide phosphoribosyltransferase (Nampt). Previously, we showed that mice lacking Nampt in forebrain excitatory neurons (CamKIIαNampt(-/-) mice) exhibited hyperactivity, impaired learning and memory, and reduced anxiety-like behaviors. However, it remained unclear if these functional effects were accompanied by synaptic changes. Here, we show that CamKIIαNampt(-/-) mice have impaired induction of long-term depression (LTD) in the Schaffer collateral pathway, but normal induction of long-term potentiation (LTP), at postnatal day 30. Pharmacological assessments demonstrated that CamKIIαNampt(-/-) mice also display dysfunction of synaptic GluN2B (NR2B)-containing N-methyl-d-aspartate receptors (NMDARs) prior to changes in NMDAR subunit expression. These results support a novel, important role for Nampt-mediated NAD(+) biosynthesis in LTD and in the function of GluN2B-containing NMDARs. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Effects of lisinopril on NMDA receptor subunits 2A and 2B levels in the hippocampus of rats with L-NAME-induced hypertension.

    PubMed

    Sutcu, Recep; Kirbas, Aynur; Kirbas, Serkan; Kutluhan, Suleyman; Delibas, Namik

    2012-10-01

    Hypertension is major risk factor leading to cerebrovascular pathologies. N-methyl D-aspartate receptors (NMDARs) and renin-angiotensin system are involved in neuronal plasticity, as well as cognitive functions in the hippocampus. In this study, we examined the effects of lisinopril, an ACE inhibitor, on the levels of hippocampal NMDAR subunits; NR2A and NR2B in L-NAME (N(ε)-nitro-L-arginine Methyl Ester)-induced hypertensive rats. In addition, malondialdehyde (MDA) levels were measured as a marker for lipid peroxidation. Compared with the control group, the MDA level was significantly increased after 8 weeks in the L-NAME-treated group. Rats treated with lisinopril and L-NAME plus lisinopril were found to have significantly decreased hippocampal MDA levels. Regarding the hippocampal concentrations of NR2A and NR2B, there were no statistically significant differences between groups. We demonstrated that lisinopril treatment has no direct regulatory effect on the levels of NR2A and NR2B in the rat hippocampus. Our results showed that Lisinopril could act as an antioxidant agent against hypertension-induced oxidative stress in rat hippocampus. The findings support that the use of lisinopril may offer a good alternative in the treatment of hypertension by reducing not only blood pressure but also prevent hypertensive complications in the brain.

  19. Disruption of Th2a and Th2b genes causes defects in spermatogenesis.

    PubMed

    Shinagawa, Toshie; Huynh, Linh My; Takagi, Tsuyoshi; Tsukamoto, Daisuke; Tomaru, Chinatsu; Kwak, Ho-Geun; Dohmae, Naoshi; Noguchi, Junko; Ishii, Shunsuke

    2015-04-01

    The variant histones TH2A and TH2B are abundant in the testis, but their roles in spermatogenesis remain elusive. Here, we show that male mutant mice lacking both Th2a and Th2b genes were sterile, with few sperm in the epididymis. In the mutant testis, the lack of TH2B was compensated for by overexpression of H2B, whereas overexpression of H2A was not observed, indicating a decrease in the total histone level. Mutant mice exhibited two defects: incomplete release of cohesin at interkinesis after meiosis I and histone replacement during spermiogenesis. In the mutant testis, secondary spermatocytes at interkinesis accumulated and cohesin was not released normally, suggesting that the retained cohesion of sister chromatids delayed the subsequent entry into meiosis II. In addition, impaired chromatin incorporation of TNP2 and degenerated spermatids were observed in the mutant testis. These results suggest that a loss of TH2A and TH2B function in chromatin dynamics or a decrease in the total histone levels causes defects in both cohesin release and histone replacement during spermatogenesis. © 2015. Published by The Company of Biologists Ltd.

  20. Closely linked H2B genes in the marine copepod, Tigriopus californicus indicate a recent gene duplication or gene conversion event.

    PubMed

    Brown, D; Cook, A; Wagner, M; Wells, D

    1992-01-01

    Two nonallelic histone gene clusters were characterized in the marine copepod, Tigriopus californicus. The DNA sequence of one of the clusters reveals six genes in the contiguous arrangement of H2B, H1, H3, H4, H2B and H2A. The order of genes within the second cluster is H3, H4, H2B and H2A. There is no evidence for the presence of an H1 gene in this cluster. Comparison of the three copepod H2B genes reveals a high degree of similarity between the 5' upstream regions and between the amino terminal halves of the two H2B genes found within the same cluster. From these data we infer that gene duplication and/or gene conversion events occurred within this cluster in the recent past.

  1. [A promoter responsible for over-expression of cholera toxin B subunit in cholera toxin A subunit structure gene].

    PubMed

    Cao, C; Shi, C; Li, P; Ma, Q

    1997-01-01

    A promoter sequence, which promotes the transcription of cholera toxin B subunit gene, was found in cholera toxin A subunit structure gene. The transcription starts at the adenine Located at +833, that is 456bp upstream to the A of the initiation codon ATG of cholera toxin B gene. Under the control of the promoter, cholera toxin B subunit was over-expressed as high as 200 mg/L at an optimized culture condition. The chloramphenicol acetyl transferase gene and beta-galactosidase could also be efficiently expressed under the direction of the promoter. This promoter may be responsible for the 6 fold and 7 fold higher expression level of cholera toxin B subunit than cholera toxin A subunit in V. cholerae and Escheria coli respectively. The over-expression of CTB may be useful in preparing vaccine against cholera and facilitating the construction of peptide-bearing immunogenic hybrid proteins.

  2. Mutations in the histone methyltransferase gene KMT2B cause complex early-onset dystonia.

    PubMed

    Meyer, Esther; Carss, Keren J; Rankin, Julia; Nichols, John M E; Grozeva, Detelina; Joseph, Agnel P; Mencacci, Niccolo E; Papandreou, Apostolos; Ng, Joanne; Barral, Serena; Ngoh, Adeline; Ben-Pazi, Hilla; Willemsen, Michel A; Arkadir, David; Barnicoat, Angela; Bergman, Hagai; Bhate, Sanjay; Boys, Amber; Darin, Niklas; Foulds, Nicola; Gutowski, Nicholas; Hills, Alison; Houlden, Henry; Hurst, Jane A; Israel, Zvi; Kaminska, Margaret; Limousin, Patricia; Lumsden, Daniel; McKee, Shane; Misra, Shibalik; Mohammed, Shekeeb S; Nakou, Vasiliki; Nicolai, Joost; Nilsson, Magnus; Pall, Hardev; Peall, Kathryn J; Peters, Gregory B; Prabhakar, Prab; Reuter, Miriam S; Rump, Patrick; Segel, Reeval; Sinnema, Margje; Smith, Martin; Turnpenny, Peter; White, Susan M; Wieczorek, Dagmar; Wiethoff, Sarah; Wilson, Brian T; Winter, Gidon; Wragg, Christopher; Pope, Simon; Heales, Simon J H; Morrogh, Deborah; Pittman, Alan; Carr, Lucinda J; Perez-Dueñas, Belen; Lin, Jean-Pierre; Reis, Andre; Gahl, William A; Toro, Camilo; Bhatia, Kailash P; Wood, Nicholas W; Kamsteeg, Erik-Jan; Chong, Wui K; Gissen, Paul; Topf, Maya; Dale, Russell C; Chubb, Jonathan R; Raymond, F Lucy; Kurian, Manju A

    2017-02-01

    Histone lysine methylation, mediated by mixed-lineage leukemia (MLL) proteins, is now known to be critical in the regulation of gene expression, genomic stability, cell cycle and nuclear architecture. Despite MLL proteins being postulated as essential for normal development, little is known about the specific functions of the different MLL lysine methyltransferases. Here we report heterozygous variants in the gene KMT2B (also known as MLL4) in 27 unrelated individuals with a complex progressive childhood-onset dystonia, often associated with a typical facial appearance and characteristic brain magnetic resonance imaging findings. Over time, the majority of affected individuals developed prominent cervical, cranial and laryngeal dystonia. Marked clinical benefit, including the restoration of independent ambulation in some cases, was observed following deep brain stimulation (DBS). These findings highlight a clinically recognizable and potentially treatable form of genetic dystonia, demonstrating the crucial role of KMT2B in the physiological control of voluntary movement.

  3. The transcriptional repressor GATAD2B mediates progesterone receptor suppression of myometrial contractile gene expression.

    PubMed

    Chen, Chien-Cheng; Montalbano, Alina P; Hussain, Imran; Lee, Wan-Ru; Mendelson, Carole R

    2017-07-28

    The mechanisms whereby progesterone (P4), acting via the progesterone receptor (PR), inhibits proinflammatory/contractile gene expression during pregnancy are incompletely defined. Using immortalized human myometrial (hTERT-HM) cells stably expressing wild-type PR-A or PR-B (PRWT), we found that P4 significantly inhibited IL-1β induction of the NF-κB target genes, COX-2 and IL-8 P4-PRWT transrepression occurred at the level of transcription initiation and was mediated by decreased recruitment of NF-κB p65 and RNA polymerase II to COX-2 and IL-8 promoters. However, in cells stably expressing a PR-A or PR-B DNA-binding domain mutant (PRmDBD), P4-mediated transrepression was significantly reduced, suggesting a critical role of the PR DBD. ChIP analysis of hTERT-HM cells stably expressing PRWT or PRmDBD revealed that P4 treatment caused equivalent recruitment of PRWT and PRmDBD to COX-2 and IL-8 promoters, suggesting that PR inhibitory effects were not mediated by its direct DNA binding. Using immunoprecipitation, followed by MS, we identified a transcriptional repressor, GATA zinc finger domain-containing 2B (GATAD2B), that interacted strongly with PRWT but poorly with PRmDBD P4 treatment of PRWT hTERT-HM cells caused enhanced recruitment of endogenous GATAD2B to COX-2 and IL-8 promoters. Further, siRNA knockdown of endogenous GATAD2B significantly reduced P4-PRWT transrepression of COX-2 and IL-8 Notably, GATAD2B expression was significantly decreased in pregnant mouse and human myometrium during labor. Our findings suggest that GATAD2B serves as an important mediator of P4-PR suppression of proinflammatory and contractile genes during pregnancy. Decreased GATAD2B expression near term may contribute to the decline in PR function, leading to labor. © 2017 by The American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.

  4. Common PHOX2B poly-alanine contractions impair RET gene transcription, predisposing to Hirschsprung disease.

    PubMed

    Di Zanni, Eleonora; Adamo, Annalisa; Belligni, Elga; Lerone, Margherita; Martucciello, Giuseppe; Mattioli, Girolamo; Pini Prato, Alessio; Ravazzolo, Roberto; Silengo, Margherita; Bachetti, Tiziana; Ceccherini, Isabella

    2017-07-01

    HSCR is a congenital disorder of the enteric nervous system, characterized by the absence of neurons along a variable length of the gut resulting from loss-of-function RET mutations. Congenital Central Hypoventilation Syndrome (CCHS) is a rare neurocristopathy characterized by impaired response to hypercapnia and hypoxemia caused by heterozygous mutations of the PHOX2B gene, mostly polyalanine (polyA) expansions but also missense, nonsense, and frameshift mutations, while polyA contractions are common in the population and believed neutral. HSCR associated CCHS can present in patients carrying PHOX2B mutations. Indeed, RET expression is orchestrated by different transcriptional factors among which PHOX2B, thus suggesting its possible role in HSCR pathogenesis. Following the observation of HSCR patients carrying in frame trinucleotide deletions within the polyalanine stretch in exon 3 (polyA contractions), we have verified the hypothesis that these PHOX2B variants do reduce its transcriptional activity, likely resulting in a down-regulation of RET expression and, consequently, favouring the development of the HSCR phenotype. Using proper reporter constructs, we show here that the in vitro transactivation of the RET promoter by different HSCR-associated PHOX2B polyA variants has resulted significantly lower compared to the effect of PHOX2B wild type protein. In particular, polyA contractions do induce a reduced transactivation of the RET promoter, milder compared to the severe polyA expansions associated with CCHS+HSCR, and correlated with the length of the deleted trait, with a more pronounced effect when contractions are larger. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Immune Response in Calves Vaccinated with Type Three Secretion System Antigens and Shiga Toxin 2B Subunit of Escherichia coli O157:H7

    PubMed Central

    Martorelli, Luisina; Garbaccio, Sergio; Vilte, Daniel A.; Albanese, Adriana A.; Mejías, María P.; Palermo, Marina S.; Mercado, Elsa C.; Ibarra, Cristina E.; Cataldi, Angel A.

    2017-01-01

    Ruminants are the primary reservoir of Shiga-toxin producing Escherichia coli (STEC) O157:H7 and the main source of infection for humans. The aim of this study was to assess the immunogenic properties of a candidate vaccine consisting on the recombinant proteins of E. coli O157:H7 IntiminC280, the carboxy-terminal fraction of Intimin γ, EspB and the fusion protein between the B subunit of Stx2 and Brucella Lumazine Synthase (BLS)(BLS-Stx2B), in Holstein Fresian calves.To accomplish this goal we vaccinated calves with two doses of different vaccine formulations: 2 antigens (IntiminC280, EspB), 3 antigens (IntiminC280, EspB, BLS-Stx2B), BLS-Stx2B alone and a control non-vaccinated group. All antigens were expressed as recombinant proteins in E. coli. Specific IgG titres increased in vaccinated calves and the inclusion of BLS-Stx2B in the formulation seems to have a stimulatory effect on the humoral response to IntiminC280 and EspB after the booster. The neutralizing activity of antibodies against these two antigens was assessed in Red Blood Cell lysis assays and adherence to Hep-2 cells as a correlate of T3SS activity. Both sera from animals vaccinated with 2 or 3 antigens inhibited both virulence properties. Serological response to Stx2 was observed in animals vaccinated only with BLS-Stx2B and with 3 antigens and neutralization of Stx2 cytotoxicity was also observed in both groups. In conclusion, immunization of calves with BLS-Stx2B, IntiminC280 and EspB elicited a potent humoral response able to neutralize Shiga toxin 2 cytotoxity and the T3SS virulence properties in vitro. These results suggest that this formulation is a good candidate vaccine to reduce STEC shedding in cattle and needs to be further assessed in vivo. PMID:28046078

  6. Immune Response in Calves Vaccinated with Type Three Secretion System Antigens and Shiga Toxin 2B Subunit of Escherichia coli O157:H7.

    PubMed

    Martorelli, Luisina; Garbaccio, Sergio; Vilte, Daniel A; Albanese, Adriana A; Mejías, María P; Palermo, Marina S; Mercado, Elsa C; Ibarra, Cristina E; Cataldi, Angel A

    2017-01-01

    Ruminants are the primary reservoir of Shiga-toxin producing Escherichia coli (STEC) O157:H7 and the main source of infection for humans. The aim of this study was to assess the immunogenic properties of a candidate vaccine consisting on the recombinant proteins of E. coli O157:H7 IntiminC280, the carboxy-terminal fraction of Intimin γ, EspB and the fusion protein between the B subunit of Stx2 and Brucella Lumazine Synthase (BLS)(BLS-Stx2B), in Holstein Fresian calves.To accomplish this goal we vaccinated calves with two doses of different vaccine formulations: 2 antigens (IntiminC280, EspB), 3 antigens (IntiminC280, EspB, BLS-Stx2B), BLS-Stx2B alone and a control non-vaccinated group. All antigens were expressed as recombinant proteins in E. coli. Specific IgG titres increased in vaccinated calves and the inclusion of BLS-Stx2B in the formulation seems to have a stimulatory effect on the humoral response to IntiminC280 and EspB after the booster. The neutralizing activity of antibodies against these two antigens was assessed in Red Blood Cell lysis assays and adherence to Hep-2 cells as a correlate of T3SS activity. Both sera from animals vaccinated with 2 or 3 antigens inhibited both virulence properties. Serological response to Stx2 was observed in animals vaccinated only with BLS-Stx2B and with 3 antigens and neutralization of Stx2 cytotoxicity was also observed in both groups. In conclusion, immunization of calves with BLS-Stx2B, IntiminC280 and EspB elicited a potent humoral response able to neutralize Shiga toxin 2 cytotoxity and the T3SS virulence properties in vitro. These results suggest that this formulation is a good candidate vaccine to reduce STEC shedding in cattle and needs to be further assessed in vivo.

  7. Protein phosphatase 2B (PP2B, calcineurin) in Paramecium: partial characterization reveals that two members of the unusually large catalytic subunit family have distinct roles in calcium-dependent processes.

    PubMed

    Fraga, D; Sehring, I M; Kissmehl, R; Reiss, M; Gaines, R; Hinrichsen, R; Plattner, H

    2010-07-01

    We characterized the calcineurin (CaN) gene family, including the subunits CaNA and CaNB, based upon sequence information obtained from the Paramecium genome project. Paramecium tetraurelia has seven subfamilies of the catalytic CaNA subunit and one subfamily of the regulatory CaNB subunit, with each subfamily having two members of considerable identity on the amino acid level (>or=55% between subfamilies, >or=94% within CaNA subfamilies, and full identity in the CaNB subfamily). Within CaNA subfamily members, the catalytic domain and the CaNB binding region are highly conserved and molecular modeling revealed a three-dimensional structure almost identical to a human ortholog. At 14 members, the size of the CaNA family is unprecedented, and we hypothesized that the different CaNA subfamily members were not strictly redundant and that at least some fulfill different roles in the cell. This was tested by selecting two phylogenetically distinct members of this large family for posttranscriptional silencing by RNA interference. The two targets resulted in differing effects in exocytosis, calcium dynamics, and backward swimming behavior that supported our hypothesis that the large, highly conserved CaNA family members are not strictly redundant and that at least two members have evolved diverse but overlapping functions. In sum, the occurrence of CaN in Paramecium spp., although disputed in the past, has been established on a molecular level. Its role in exocytosis and ciliary beat regulation in a protozoan, as well as in more complex organisms, suggests that these roles for CaN were acquired early in the evolution of this protein family.

  8. Protein Phosphatase 2B (PP2B, Calcineurin) in Paramecium: Partial Characterization Reveals That Two Members of the Unusually Large Catalytic Subunit Family Have Distinct Roles in Calcium-Dependent Processes▿‡

    PubMed Central

    Fraga, D.; Sehring, I. M.; Kissmehl, R.; Reiss, M.; Gaines, R.; Hinrichsen, R.; Plattner, H.

    2010-01-01

    We characterized the calcineurin (CaN) gene family, including the subunits CaNA and CaNB, based upon sequence information obtained from the Paramecium genome project. Paramecium tetraurelia has seven subfamilies of the catalytic CaNA subunit and one subfamily of the regulatory CaNB subunit, with each subfamily having two members of considerable identity on the amino acid level (≥55% between subfamilies, ≥94% within CaNA subfamilies, and full identity in the CaNB subfamily). Within CaNA subfamily members, the catalytic domain and the CaNB binding region are highly conserved and molecular modeling revealed a three-dimensional structure almost identical to a human ortholog. At 14 members, the size of the CaNA family is unprecedented, and we hypothesized that the different CaNA subfamily members were not strictly redundant and that at least some fulfill different roles in the cell. This was tested by selecting two phylogenetically distinct members of this large family for posttranscriptional silencing by RNA interference. The two targets resulted in differing effects in exocytosis, calcium dynamics, and backward swimming behavior that supported our hypothesis that the large, highly conserved CaNA family members are not strictly redundant and that at least two members have evolved diverse but overlapping functions. In sum, the occurrence of CaN in Paramecium spp., although disputed in the past, has been established on a molecular level. Its role in exocytosis and ciliary beat regulation in a protozoan, as well as in more complex organisms, suggests that these roles for CaN were acquired early in the evolution of this protein family. PMID:20435698

  9. The Histone Modification Domain of Paf1 Complex Subunit Rtf1 Directly Stimulates H2B Ubiquitylation through an Interaction with Rad6

    DOE PAGES

    Van Oss, S. Branden; Shirra, Margaret K.; Bataille, Alain R.; ...

    2016-11-10

    The five-subunit yeast Paf1 Complex (Paf1C) regulates all stages of transcription and is critical for the monoubiquitylation of histone H2B (H2Bub), a modification that broadly influences chromatin structure and eukaryotic transcription. Here we show that the histone modification domain (HMD) of Paf1C subunit Rtf1 directly interacts with the ubiquitin conjugase Rad6 and stimulates H2Bub independently of transcription. We present the crystal structure of the Rtf1 HMD and use site-specific, in vivo crosslinking to identify a conserved Rad6 interaction surface. Utilizing ChIP-exo analysis, we define the localization patterns of the H2Bub machinery at high resolution and demonstrate the importance of Paf1Cmore » in targeting the Rtf1 HMD, and thereby H2Bub, to its appropriate genomic locations. Finally, we observe HMD-dependent stimulation of H2Bub in a transcription-free, reconstituted in vitro system. Taken together, our results argue for an active role for Paf1C in promoting H2Bub and ensuring its proper localization in vivo.« less

  10. The Histone Modification Domain of Paf1 Complex Subunit Rtf1 Directly Stimulates H2B Ubiquitylation through an Interaction with Rad6.

    PubMed

    Van Oss, S Branden; Shirra, Margaret K; Bataille, Alain R; Wier, Adam D; Yen, Kuangyu; Vinayachandran, Vinesh; Byeon, In-Ja L; Cucinotta, Christine E; Héroux, Annie; Jeon, Jongcheol; Kim, Jaehoon; VanDemark, Andrew P; Pugh, B Franklin; Arndt, Karen M

    2016-11-17

    The five-subunit yeast Paf1 complex (Paf1C) regulates all stages of transcription and is critical for the monoubiquitylation of histone H2B (H2Bub), a modification that broadly influences chromatin structure and eukaryotic transcription. Here, we show that the histone modification domain (HMD) of Paf1C subunit Rtf1 directly interacts with the ubiquitin conjugase Rad6 and stimulates H2Bub independently of transcription. We present the crystal structure of the Rtf1 HMD and use site-specific, in vivo crosslinking to identify a conserved Rad6 interaction surface. Utilizing ChIP-exo analysis, we define the localization patterns of the H2Bub machinery at high resolution and demonstrate the importance of Paf1C in targeting the Rtf1 HMD, and thereby H2Bub, to its appropriate genomic locations. Finally, we observe HMD-dependent stimulation of H2Bub in a transcription-free, reconstituted in vitro system. Taken together, our results argue for an active role for Paf1C in promoting H2Bub and ensuring its proper localization in vivo. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. The Histone Modification Domain of Paf1 Complex Subunit Rtf1 Directly Stimulates H2B Ubiquitylation through an Interaction with Rad6

    SciTech Connect

    Van Oss, S. Branden; Shirra, Margaret K.; Bataille, Alain R.; Wier, Adam D.; Yen, Kuangyu; Vinayachandran, Vinesh; Byeon, In-Ja L.; Cucinotta, Christine E.; Héroux, Annie; Jeon, Jongcheol; Kim, Jaehoon; VanDemark, Andrew P.; Pugh, B. Franklin; Arndt, Karen M.

    2016-11-10

    The five-subunit yeast Paf1 Complex (Paf1C) regulates all stages of transcription and is critical for the monoubiquitylation of histone H2B (H2Bub), a modification that broadly influences chromatin structure and eukaryotic transcription. Here we show that the histone modification domain (HMD) of Paf1C subunit Rtf1 directly interacts with the ubiquitin conjugase Rad6 and stimulates H2Bub independently of transcription. We present the crystal structure of the Rtf1 HMD and use site-specific, in vivo crosslinking to identify a conserved Rad6 interaction surface. Utilizing ChIP-exo analysis, we define the localization patterns of the H2Bub machinery at high resolution and demonstrate the importance of Paf1C in targeting the Rtf1 HMD, and thereby H2Bub, to its appropriate genomic locations. Finally, we observe HMD-dependent stimulation of H2Bub in a transcription-free, reconstituted in vitro system. Taken together, our results argue for an active role for Paf1C in promoting H2Bub and ensuring its proper localization in vivo.

  12. Catalysis-dependent stabilization of Bre1 fine-tunes histone H2B ubiquitylation to regulate gene transcription.

    PubMed

    Wozniak, Glenn G; Strahl, Brian D

    2014-08-01

    Monoubiquitylation of histone H2B on Lys123 (H2BK123ub1) plays a multifaceted role in diverse DNA-templated processes, yet the mechanistic details by which this modification is regulated are not fully elucidated. Here we show in yeast that H2BK123ub1 is regulated in part through the protein stability of the E3 ubiquitin ligase Bre1. We found that Bre1 stability is controlled by the Rtf1 subunit of the polymerase-associated factor (PAF) complex and through the ability of Bre1 to catalyze H2BK123ub1. Using a domain in Rtf1 that stabilizes Bre1, we show that inappropriate Bre1 levels lead to defects in gene regulation. Collectively, these data uncover a novel quality control mechanism used by the cell to maintain proper Bre1 and H2BK123ub1 levels, thereby ensuring proper control of gene expression. © 2014 Wozniak and Strahl; Published by Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory Press.

  13. Nampt is required for long-term depression and the function of GluN2B subunit-containing NMDA receptors

    PubMed Central

    Stein, Liana Roberts; Zorumski, Charles F.; Imai, Shin-ichiro; Izumi, Yukitoshi

    2015-01-01

    Nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NAD+) is an essential coenzyme/cosubstrate for many biological processes in cellular metabolism. The rate-limiting step in the major pathway of mammalian NAD+ biosynthesis is mediated by nicotinamide phosphoribosyltransferase (Nampt). Previously, we showed that mice lacking Nampt in forebrain excitatory neurons (CamKIIαNampt−/− mice) exhibited hyperactivity, impaired learning and memory, and reduced anxiety-like behaviors. However, it remained unclear if these functional effects were accompanied by synaptic changes. Here, we show that CamKIIαNampt−/− mice have impaired induction of long-term depression (LTD) in the Schaffer collateral pathway, but normal induction of long-term potentiation (LTP), at postnatal day 30. Pharmacological assessments demonstrated that CamKIIαNampt−/− mice also display dysfunction of synaptic GluN2B (NR2B)-containing N-methyl-D-aspartate receptors (NMDARs) prior to changes in NMDAR subunit expression. These results support a novel, important role for Nampt-mediated NAD+ biosynthesis in LTD and in the function of GluN2B–containing NMDARs. PMID:26481044

  14. Mutations in the beta-tubulin gene TUBB2B result in asymmetrical polymicrogyria

    PubMed Central

    Jaglin, Xavier Hubert; Poirier, Karine; Saillour, Yoann; Buhler, Emmanuelle; Tian, Guoling; Bahi-Buisson, Nadia; Fallet-Bianco, Catherine; Phan-Dinh-Tuy, Françoise; Kong, Xiang Peng; Bomont, Pascale; Castelnau-Ptakhine, Laëtitia; Odent, Sylvie; Loget, Philippe; Kossorotoff, Manoelle; Snoeck, Irina; Plessis, Ghislaine; Parent, Philippe; Beldjord, Cherif; Cardoso, Carlos; Represa, Alfonso; Flint, Jonathan; Keays, David Anthony; Cowan, Nicholas Justin; Chelly, Jamel

    2009-01-01

    Polymicrogyria is a relatively common but poorly understood defect of cortical development characterized by numerous small gyri and a thick disorganized cortical plate lacking normal lamination. We show an association between bilateral asymmetrical polymicrogyria and de novo mutations in a β-tubulin gene, TUBB2B, in four patients and a 27 GW (gestational week) fetus. Neuropathological examination of the fetus revealed an absence of cortical lamination associated with the presence of ectopic neuronal cells in the white matter, and in the leptomeningeal spaces due to breaches in the pial basement membrane. In utero RNAi-based inactivation demonstrates that TUBB2B is required for neuronal migration. We also show that two disease-associated mutations lead to an impaired formation of tubulin heterodimers. These observations, together with previous data, demonstrate that disruption of microtubule-based processes underlies a large spectrum of neuronal migration disorders that includes not only lissencephaly/pachygyria, but also polymicrogyria malformations. PMID:19465910

  15. Seed coat pigmentation in transgenic soybean expressing the silencing suppressor 2b gene of Cucumber mosaic virus.

    PubMed

    Takagi, Kyoko; Nishizawa, Keito; Hirose, Aya; Kurauchi, Tasuku; Senda, Mineo; Masuta, Chikara; Ishimoto, Masao

    2013-12-01

    Soybean expressing the Cucumber mosaic virus 2b gene manifests seed coat pigmentation due to suppression of endogenous RNA silencing but no other morphological abnormality. This gene may help prevent transgene silencing. RNA silencing is an important mechanism for gene regulation and antiviral defense in plants. It is also responsible for transgene silencing, however, and thus hinders the establishment of transgenic plants. The 2b protein of Cucumber mosaic virus (CMV) functions as a suppressor of RNA silencing and therefore might prove beneficial for stabilization of transgene expression. We have now generated transgenic soybean that harbors the 2b gene of a CMV-soybean strain under the control of a constitutive promoter to investigate the effects of 2b expression. No growth abnormality was apparent in 2b transgenic plants, although the seed coat was pigmented in several of the transgenic lines. Genes for chalcone synthase (CHS), a key enzyme of the flavonoid pathway, are posttranscriptionally silenced by the inhibitor (I) locus in nonpigmented (yellow) soybean seeds. The levels of CHS mRNA and CHS small interfering RNA in strongly pigmented 2b transgenic seed coats were higher and lower, respectively, than those in the seed coat of a control transgenic line. The expression level of 2b also correlated with the extent of seed coat pigmentation. On the other hand, introduction of the 2b gene together with the DsRed2 gene into somatic embryos prevented the time-dependent decrease in transient DsRed2 expression. Our results indicate that the 2b gene alone is able to suppress RNA silencing of endogenous CHS genes regulated by the I locus, and that 2b is of potential utility for stabilization of transgene expression in soybean without detrimental effects other than seed coat pigmentation.

  16. Monoubiquitinated H2B is associated with the transcribed region of highly expressed genes in human cells.

    PubMed

    Minsky, Neri; Shema, Efrat; Field, Yair; Schuster, Meromit; Segal, Eran; Oren, Moshe

    2008-04-01

    Histone modifications have emerged as important regulators of transcription. Histone H2B monoubiquitination has also been implicated in transcription; however, better understanding of the biological significance of this modification in mammalian cells has been hindered by the lack of suitable reagents, particularly antibodies capable of specifically recognizing ubiquitinated H2B (ubH2B). Here, we report the generation of anti-ubH2B monoclonal antibodies using a branched peptide as immunogen. These antibodies provide a powerful tool for exploring the biochemical functions of H2B monoubiquitination at both a genome-wide and gene-specific level. Application of these antibodies in high resolution chromatin immunoprecipitation (ChIP)-chip experiments in human cells, using tiling arrays, revealed preferential association of ubiquitinated H2B with the transcribed regions of highly expressed genes. Unlike dimethylated H3K4, ubH2B was not associated with distal promoter regions. Furthermore, experimental modulation of the transcriptional activity of the tumour suppressor p53 was accompanied by rapid changes in the H2B ubiquitination status of its p21 target gene, attesting to the dynamic nature of this process. It has recently been demonstrated that the apparent extent of gene expression often reflects elongation rather than initiation rates; thus, our findings suggest that H2B ubiquitination is intimately linked with global transcriptional elongation in mammalian cells.

  17. [Roles and expressions of the NMDA receptor subunits (NR2A and NR2B) in visual cortex area of kittens with the normal visual development and anisometropic amblyopia].

    PubMed

    Li, Haiwei; Liu, Longqian; Liu, Xuyang

    2011-04-01

    In order to understand the roles of the other subunits, we investigated expression of the NMDA receptor subunits (NR2A and NR2B) in visual cortex of normal and anisometropic amblyopia kittens with different ages in the present study. We examined the expressions of NR2A and NR2B in the visual cortex of the kittens by immunohistochemistry with polyclonal anti-NR2A antibody and anti-NR2B antibody, respectively. Using immunohisto-chemical Streptavidin Perosidase (SP) method, we observed the dynamic changes of NR2A and NR2B with microscope and computer-assisted image analyses. We found that NR2A and NR2B remained low expression after the peak of the critical period of kitten visual development; compared with normal group of the same age, NR2A expresses low. However, the difference is not significant for NR2B before maturation period of visual development. NR2B rises after the maturation period of visual development. According to this, the component of NR2A and NR2B can be affected by anisometropia. This research suggests that the difference of NR2A and NR2B expressions may affect the formation of amblyopia.

  18. Impact of UGT2B17 Gene Deletion on the Pharmacokinetics of 17-Hydroexemestane in Healthy Volunteers.

    PubMed

    Chen, Shanly M; Atchley, Daniel H; Murphy, Michael A; Gurley, Bill J; Kamdem, Landry K

    2016-07-01

    Exemestane is an aromatase inhibitor drug used for the treatment of hormone-dependent breast cancer. 17-Hydroexemestane, the major and biologically active metabolite of exemestane in humans, is eliminated via glucuronidation by the polymorphic UGT2B17 phase II drug-metabolizing enzyme. Previous microsomal studies have shown that UGT2B17 gene deletion affects the intrinsic hepatic clearances of 17-hydroexemestane in vitro. In this open-label study we set out to assess the effect of UGT2B17 gene deletion on the pharmacokinetics of 17-hydroexemestane in healthy female volunteers with and without UGT2B17. To achieve this goal, 14 healthy postmenopausal women (8 carriers of the homozygous UGT2B17 wild-type allele and 6 carriers of the homozygous UGT2B17 gene-deletion allele) were enrolled and invited to receive a single 25-mg oral dose of exemestane. Pharmacokinetics was assessed over 72 hours postdosing. Our results showed that there were statistically significant differences in plasma 17-hydroexemestane AUC0-∞ (P = .0007) and urine 17-hydroexemestane C24h (P = .001) between UGT2B17 genotype groups. Our data suggest that UGT2B17 gene deletion influences 17-hydroexemestane pharmacokinetics in humans. © 2015, The American College of Clinical Pharmacology.

  19. Fyn Kinase regulates GluN2B subunit-dominant NMDA receptors in human induced pluripotent stem cell-derived neurons.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Wen-Bo; Ross, P Joel; Tu, YuShan; Wang, Yongqian; Beggs, Simon; Sengar, Ameet S; Ellis, James; Salter, Michael W

    2016-04-04

    NMDA receptor (NMDAR)-mediated fast excitatory neurotransmission is implicated in a broad range of physiological and pathological processes in the mammalian central nervous system. The function and regulation of NMDARs have been extensively studied in neurons from rodents and other non-human species, and in recombinant expression systems. Here, we investigated human NMDARs in situ by using neurons produced by directed differentiation of human induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs). The resultant cells showed electrophysiological characteristics demonstrating that they are bona fide neurons. In particular, human iPSC-derived neurons expressed functional ligand-gated ion channels, including NMDARs, AMPA receptors, GABAA receptors, as well as glycine receptors. Pharmacological and electrophysiological properties of NMDAR-mediated currents indicated that these were dominated by receptors containing GluN2B subunits. The NMDAR currents were suppressed by genistein, a broad-spectrum tyrosine kinase inhibitor. The NMDAR currents were also inhibited by a Fyn-interfering peptide, Fyn(39-57), but not a Src-interfering peptide, Src(40-58). Together, these findings are the first evidence that tyrosine phosphorylation regulates the function of NMDARs in human iPSC-derived neurons. Our findings provide a basis for utilizing human iPSC-derived neurons in screening for drugs targeting NMDARs in neurological disorders.

  20. Fyn Kinase regulates GluN2B subunit-dominant NMDA receptors in human induced pluripotent stem cell-derived neurons

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Wen-Bo; Ross, P. Joel; Tu, YuShan; Wang, Yongqian; Beggs, Simon; Sengar, Ameet S.; Ellis, James; Salter, Michael W.

    2016-01-01

    NMDA receptor (NMDAR)-mediated fast excitatory neurotransmission is implicated in a broad range of physiological and pathological processes in the mammalian central nervous system. The function and regulation of NMDARs have been extensively studied in neurons from rodents and other non-human species, and in recombinant expression systems. Here, we investigated human NMDARs in situ by using neurons produced by directed differentiation of human induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs). The resultant cells showed electrophysiological characteristics demonstrating that they are bona fide neurons. In particular, human iPSC-derived neurons expressed functional ligand-gated ion channels, including NMDARs, AMPA receptors, GABAA receptors, as well as glycine receptors. Pharmacological and electrophysiological properties of NMDAR-mediated currents indicated that these were dominated by receptors containing GluN2B subunits. The NMDAR currents were suppressed by genistein, a broad-spectrum tyrosine kinase inhibitor. The NMDAR currents were also inhibited by a Fyn-interfering peptide, Fyn(39–57), but not a Src-interfering peptide, Src(40–58). Together, these findings are the first evidence that tyrosine phosphorylation regulates the function of NMDARs in human iPSC-derived neurons. Our findings provide a basis for utilizing human iPSC-derived neurons in screening for drugs targeting NMDARs in neurological disorders. PMID:27040756

  1. The ITM2B (BRI2) gene is a target of BCL6 repression: Implications for lymphomas and neurodegenerative diseases.

    PubMed

    Baron, Beverly W; Baron, Rebecca M; Baron, Joseph M

    2015-05-01

    The human BCL6 gene encodes a transcriptional repressor that is crucial for germinal center B cell development and T follicular helper cell differentiation. It is involved in the pathogenesis of certain human lymphomas. In an effort to identify targets of BCL6 repression, we used a previously described cell system in which BCL6 repressive effects are inhibited, followed by subtractive hybridization, and identified the integral membrane 2B gene (ITM2B, formerly BRI2) as a potential target. Here we show that BCL6 can bind to its preferential consensus binding site within the first intron of ITM2B and represses its transcription. Knockdown of endogenous BCL6 in a human B cell lymphoma line increases ITM2B expression. Further, there is an inverse relationship between the expression levels of BCL6 and ITM2B proteins in 16 human B- and T-cell lymphomas studied by immunohistochemistry. Both the BCL6 and ITM2B proteins are expressed ubiquitously. Similar to some other targets of BCL6, a short form of the ITM2B protein generated by alternative splicing induces apoptosis in hematopoietic cell lines. Molecular alterations in the ITM2B gene are associated with two neurodegenerative diseases, Familial British and Familial Danish dementia. ITM2B dysfunction also may be relevant for the development of Alzheimer's disease. Our data confirm ITM2B as a target of BCL6 repression in lymphoma. A further understanding of the genes that function as regulators of the ITM2B protein may provide insights for the development of new molecular tools not only for targeted lymphoma therapy but also for the treatment of these dementias.

  2. The promoter regions of the Myb-regulated Adora2B and Mcm4 genes co-localize with origins of DNA replication

    PubMed Central

    Gundelach, Holger; Braas, Daniel; Klempnauer, Karl-Heinz

    2007-01-01

    Background The retroviral oncogene v-myb encodes a transcription factor (v-Myb) which is responsible for the transformation of myelomonocytic cells by avian myeloblastosis virus (AMV). v-Myb is thought to exert its biological effects by deregulating the expression of specific target genes. We have recently demonstrated that the chicken Gas41 gene, whose promoter co-localizes with an origin of DNA replication, is a bona fide Myb target gene. Because of this finding we have asked whether other Myb-regulated genes are also associated with DNA replication origins. Results We show that the promoter region of the chicken adenosine receptor 2B gene (Adora2B), a known Myb-target gene, acts as a DNA replication origin. Furthermore, we have examined known replication origins for the presence of Myb binding sites. We found that the intergenic region between the genes for the minichromosome maintenance 4 protein (Mcm4) and the catalytic subunit of DNA-dependent protein kinase (Prkdc), whose human counterpart has been identified as a replication origin, contains a number of Myb binding sites. Our data show that this region also acts as an origin of replication in chicken cells. Interestingly, we found that the chicken Mcm4 gene is also Myb-regulated. Conclusion Our work identifies the chicken Mcm4 gene as a novel Myb target gene and presents evidence for the co-localization of two novel origins of DNA replication with Myb-regulated genes. Our work raises the possibility that a fraction of Myb target gene promoters is associated with DNA replication origins. PMID:17822556

  3. Common Variants in the ATP2B1 Gene Are Associated With Susceptibility to Hypertension

    PubMed Central

    Tabara, Yasuharu; Kohara, Katsuhiko; Kita, Yoshikuni; Hirawa, Nobuhito; Katsuya, Tomohiro; Ohkubo, Takayoshi; Hiura, Yumiko; Tajima, Atsushi; Morisaki, Takayuki; Miyata, Toshiyuki; Nakayama, Tomohiro; Takashima, Naoyuki; Nakura, Jun; Kawamoto, Ryuichi; Takahashi, Norio; Hata, Akira; Soma, Masayoshi; Imai, Yutaka; Kokubo, Yoshihiro; Okamura, Tomonori; Tomoike, Hitonobu; Iwai, Naoharu; Ogihara, Toshio; Inoue, Itsuro; Tokunaga, Katsushi; Johnson, Toby; Caulfield, Mark; Munroe, Patricia; Umemura, Satoshi; Ueshima, Hirotsugu; Miki, Tetsuro

    2016-01-01

    Hypertension is one of the most common complex genetic disorders. We have described previously 38 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) with suggestive association with hypertension in Japanese individuals. In this study we extend our previous findings by analyzing a large sample of Japanese individuals (n=14 105) for the most associated SNPs. We also conducted replication analyses in Japanese of susceptibility loci for hypertension identified recently from genome-wide association studies of European ancestries. Association analysis revealed significant association of the ATP2B1 rs2070759 polymorphism with hypertension (P=5.3×10−5; allelic odds ratio: 1.17 [95% CI: 1.09 to 1.26]). Additional SNPs in ATP2B1 were subsequently genotyped, and the most significant association was with rs11105378 (odds ratio: 1.31 [95% CI: 1.21 to 1.42]; P=4.1×10−11). Association of rs11105378 with hypertension was cross-validated by replication analysis with the Global Blood Pressure Genetics consortium data set (odds ratio: 1.13 [95% CI: 1.05 to 1.21]; P=5.9×10−4). Mean adjusted systolic blood pressure was highly significantly associated with the same SNP in a meta-analysis with individuals of European descent (P=1.4×10−18). ATP2B1 mRNA expression levels in umbilical artery smooth muscle cells were found to be significantly different among rs11105378 genotypes. Seven SNPs discovered in published genome-wide association studies were also genotyped in the Japanese population. In the combined analysis with replicated 3 genes, FGF5 rs1458038, CYP17A1, rs1004467, and CSK rs1378942, odds ratio of the highest risk group was 2.27 (95% CI: 1.65 to 3.12; P=4.6×10−7) compared with the lower risk group. In summary, this study confirmed common genetic variation in ATP2B1, as well as FGF5, CYP17A1, and CSK, to be associated with blood pressure levels and risk of hypertension. PMID:20921432

  4. Cleavage of the NR2B subunit amino terminus of N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) receptor by tissue plasminogen activator: identification of the cleavage site and characterization of ifenprodil and glycine affinities on truncated NMDA receptor.

    PubMed

    Ng, Kay-Siong; Leung, How-Wing; Wong, Peter T-H; Low, Chian-Ming

    2012-07-20

    Thrombolysis using tissue plasminogen activator (tPA) has been the key treatment for patients with acute ischemic stroke for the past decade. Recent studies, however, suggest that this clot-busting protease also plays various roles in brain physiological and pathophysiological glutamatergic-dependent processes, such as synaptic plasticity and neurodegeneration. In addition, increasing evidence implicates tPA as an important neuromodulator of the N-methyl-d-aspartate (NMDA) receptors. Here, we demonstrate that recombinant human tPA cleaves the NR2B subunit of NMDA receptor. Analysis of NR2B in rat brain lysates and cortical neurons treated with tPA revealed concentration- and time-dependent degradation of NR2B proteins. Peptide sequencing studies performed on the cleaved-off products obtained from the tPA treatment on a recombinant fusion protein of the amino-terminal domain of NR2B revealed that tPA-mediated cleavage occurred at arginine 67 (Arg(67)). This cleavage is tPA-specific, plasmin-independent, and removes a predicted ~4-kDa fragment (Arg(27)-Arg(67)) from the amino-terminal domain of the NR2B protein. Site-directed mutagenesis of putative cleavage site Arg(67) to Ala(67) impeded tPA-mediated degradation of recombinant protein. This analysis revealed that NR2B is a novel substrate of tPA and suggested that an Arg(27)-Arg(67)-truncated NR2B-containing NMDA receptor could be formed. Heterologous expression of NR2B with Gln(29)-Arg(67) deleted is functional but exhibits reduced ifenprodil inhibition and increased glycine EC(50) with no change in glutamate EC(50). Our results confirmed NR2B as a novel proteolytic substrate of tPA, where tPA may directly interact with NR2B subunits leading to a change in pharmacological properties of NR2B-containing NMDA receptors.

  5. Expansion of transducin subunit gene families in early vertebrate tetraploidizations.

    PubMed

    Lagman, David; Sundström, Görel; Ocampo Daza, Daniel; Abalo, Xesús M; Larhammar, Dan

    2012-10-01

    Hundreds of gene families expanded in the early vertebrate tetraploidizations including many gene families in the phototransduction cascade. We have investigated the evolution of the heterotrimeric G-proteins of photoreceptors, the transducins, in relation to these events using both phylogenetic analyses and synteny comparisons. Three alpha subunit genes were identified in amniotes and the coelacanth, GNAT1-3; two of these were identified in amphibians and teleost fish, GNAT1 and GNAT2. Most tetrapods have four beta genes, GNB1-4, and teleosts have additional duplicates. Finally, three gamma genes were identified in mammals, GNGT1, GNG11 and GNGT2. Of these, GNGT1 and GNGT2 were found in the other vertebrates. In frog and zebrafish additional duplicates of GNGT2 were identified. Our analyses show all three transducin families expanded during the early vertebrate tetraploidizations and the beta and gamma families gained additional copies in the teleost-specific genome duplication. This suggests that the tetraploidizations contributed to visual specialisations.

  6. On immunoglobulin heavy chain gene switching: two gamma 2b genes are rearranged via switch sequences in MPC-11 cells but only one is expressed.

    PubMed

    Lang, R B; Stanton, L W; Marcu, K B

    1982-01-22

    During B lymphocytes differentiation, switches in the expression of heavy chain immunoglobulin constant region (CH) genes occur by a novel DNA recombination mechanism. We have investigated the requirements of the CH gene switch by characterizing two rearranged gamma 2b genes from a gamma 2b producing mouse myeloma (MPC-11). One of the two gamma 2b genes is present in 2-3 copies per cell (gamma 2b strong hybridizer) while the other is present in approximately 1 copy per cell (gamma 2b weak hybridizer). Genomic clones of the gamma 2b strongly hybridizing gene indicate that this is an abortive switch event between the S gamma 3 and S gamma 2b regions. However, clones of the gamma 2b weakly hybridizing gene suggest a functional rearrangement due to the presence of VH, JH and S mu sequences. The switch-recombination sites of these rearranged gamma 2b genes and those of other CH genes show a high degree of preference for the sequence AGGTTG 5' of either the S mu donor site or the appropriate CH S acceptor site. AGGTTG and its analogs are rare in the S mu region, are somewhat prevalent in s alpha and in the case of S mu are found 5' of a tandemly repeated DNA sequence (GAGCT, GGGGT) comprising most of S mu.

  7. Enhancement of GluN2B Subunit-Containing NMDA Receptor Underlies Serotonergic Regulation of Long-Term Potentiation after Critical Period in the Rat Visual Cortex

    PubMed Central

    Joo, Kayoung; Rhie, Duck-Joo

    2015-01-01

    Serotonin [5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT)] regulates synaptic plasticity in the visual cortex. Although the effects of 5-HT on plasticity showed huge diversity depending on the ages of animals and species, it has been unclear how 5-HT can show such diverse effects. In the rat visual cortex, 5-HT suppressed long-term potentiation (LTP) at 5 weeks but enhanced LTP at 8 weeks. We speculated that this difference may originate from differential regulation of neurotransmission by 5-HT between the age groups. Thus, we investigated the effects of 5-HT on apha-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methyl-4-isoxazolepropionic acid receptor (AMPAR)-, γ-aminobutyric acid receptor type A (GABAAR)-, and N-methyl-D-aspartic acid receptor (NMDAR)-mediated neurotransmissions and their involvement in the differential regulation of plasticity between 5 and 8 weeks. AMPAR-mediated currents were not affected by 5-HT at both 5 and 8 weeks. GABAAR-mediated currents were enhanced by 5-HT at both age groups. However, 5-HT enhanced NMDAR-mediated currents only at 8 weeks. The enhancement of NMDAR-mediated currents appeared to be mediated by the enhanced function of GluN2B subunit-containing NMDAR. The enhanced GABAAR- and NMDAR-mediated neurotransmissions were responsible for the suppression of LTP at 5 weeks and the facilitation of LTP at 8 weeks, respectively. These results indicate that the effects of 5-HT on neurotransmission change with development, and the changes may underlie the differential regulation of synaptic plasticity between different age groups. Thus, the developmental changes in 5-HT function should be carefully considered while investigating the 5-HT-mediated metaplastic control of the cortical network. PMID:26557019

  8. Dopamine receptor D5 deficiency results in a selective reduction of hippocampal NMDA receptor subunit NR2B expression and impaired memory.

    PubMed

    Moraga-Amaro, Rodrigo; González, Hugo; Ugalde, Valentina; Donoso-Ramos, Juan Pablo; Quintana-Donoso, Daisy; Lara, Marcelo; Morales, Bernardo; Rojas, Patricio; Pacheco, Rodrigo; Stehberg, Jimmy

    2016-04-01

    Pharmacological evidence associates type I dopamine receptors, including subtypes D1 and D5, with learning and memory. Analyses using genetic approaches have determined the relative contribution of dopamine receptor D1 (D1R) in cognitive tasks. However, the lack of drugs that can discriminate between D1R and D5R has made the pharmacological distinction between the two receptors difficult. Here, we aimed to determine the role of D5R in learning and memory. In this study we tested D5R knockout mice and wild-type littermates in a battery of behavioral tests, including memory, attention, locomotion, anxiety and motivational evaluations. Our results show that genetic deficiency of D5R significantly impairs performance in the Morris water maze paradigm, object location and object recognition memory, indicating a relevant role for D5R in spatial memory and recognition memory. Moreover, the lack of D5R resulted in decreased exploration and locomotion. In contrast, D5R deficiency had no impact on working memory, anxiety and depressive-like behavior, measured using the spontaneous alternation, open-field, tail suspension test, and forced swimming test. Electrophysiological analyses performed on hippocampal slices showed impairment in long-term-potentiation in mice lacking D5R. Further analyses at the molecular level showed that genetic deficiency of D5R results in a strong and selective reduction in the expression of the NMDA receptor subunit NR2B in the hippocampus. These findings demonstrate the relevant contribution of D5R in memory and suggest a functional interaction of D5R with hippocampal glutamatergic pathways.

  9. High-resolution melt analysis to detect sequence variations in highly homologous gene regions: application to CYP2B6.

    PubMed

    Twist, Greyson P; Gaedigk, Roger; Leeder, J Steven; Gaedigk, Andrea

    2013-06-01

    High-resolution melt (HRM) analysis using 'release-on-demand' dyes, such as EvaGreen(®) has the potential to resolve complex genotypes in situations where genotype interpretation is complicated by the presence of pseudogenes or allelic variants in close proximity to the locus of interest. We explored the utility of HRM to genotype a SNP (785A>G, K262R, rs2279343) that is located within exon 5 of the CYP2B6 gene, which contributes to the metabolism of a number of clinically used drugs. Testing of 785A>G is challenging, but crucial for accurate genotype determination. This SNP is part of multiple known CYP2B6 haplotypes and located in a region that is identical to CYP2B7, a nonfunctional pseudogene. Because small CYP2B6-specific PCR amplicons bracketing 785A>G cannot be generated, we simultaneously amplified both genes. A panel of 235 liver tissue DNAs and five Coriell samples were assessed. Eight CYP2B6/CYP2B7 diplotype combinations were found and a novel variant 769G>A (D257N) was discovered. The frequency of 785G corresponded to those reported for Caucasians and African-Americans. Assay performance was confirmed by CYP2B6 and/or CYP2B7 sequence analysis in a subset of samples, using a preamplified CYP2B6-specific long-range-PCR amplicon as HRM template. Inclusion rather than exclusion of a homologous pseudogene allowed us to devise a sensitive, reliable and affordable assay to test this CYP2B6 SNP. This assay design may be utilized to overcome the challenges and limitations of other methods. Owing to the flexibility of HRM, this assay design can easily be adapted to other gene loci of interest.

  10. Nuclear receptor CAR requires early growth response 1 to activate the human cytochrome P450 2B6 gene.

    PubMed

    Inoue, Kaoru; Negishi, Masahiko

    2008-04-18

    The nuclear receptor CAR (constitutive active/androstane receptor) is a drug-sensing transcription factor, regulating the hepatic genes that encode various drug-metabolizing enzymes. We have now characterized the novel regulatory mechanism by which the signal molecule EGR1 (early growth response 1) determines CAR-mediated activation of the human CYP2B6 (cytochrome P450 2B6) gene. The CYP2B6 enzyme metabolizes commonly used therapeutics and also activates pro-drugs. The CAR directly binds to the distal enhancer element of the CYP2B6 promoter, which is essential in converging to its drug-sensing function onto promoter activity. However, this binding alone is not sufficient to activate the CYP2B6 promoter; the promoter requires EGR1 to enable CAR to activate the CYP2B6 promoter. Upon stimulation by protein kinase C, EGR1 directly binds to the proximal promoter and coordinates the nearby HNF4alpha (hepatocyte-enriched nuclear factor 4alpha) with CAR at the distal enhancer element to activate the promoter. Thus, synergy of drug activation and the stimulation of cellular signal are necessary for CAR to activate the CYP2B6 gene.

  11. A GmAOX2b antisense gene compromises vegetative growth and seed production in soybean.

    PubMed

    Chai, Tsun-Thai; Simmonds, Daina; Day, David A; Colmer, Timothy D; Finnegan, Patrick M

    2012-07-01

    The alternative oxidase mediates the cyanide-resistant respiratory pathway in plant mitochondria. In non-thermogenic plants, the role of alternative oxidase in plant growth and development is not well understood. Soybean (Glycine max) lines carrying a GmAOX2b antisense gene had compromised vegetative growth and reproductive performance under typical glasshouse growth conditions. The reduction in vegetative growth was demonstrated by reduction in shoot height, the number of leaves per plant and the green leaf area. Antisense plants also had decreased pod formation and seed to pod ratios, which together led to a reduction in the number and total mass of seed produced. The negative effects of the antisense gene on pod set, seed set, ovule availability and total seed mass were primarily confined to the branches, rather than the main stem. The preferential effect of alternative oxidase suppression in the branches is discussed in relation to the reproductive potential of soybean under stress. Taken together, these results demonstrate that alternative oxidase provides the benefit of sustaining plant vegetative growth and reproductive capacity in soybean.

  12. Regulation of expression of a soybean storage protein subunit gene. Progress report

    SciTech Connect

    Thompson, J.F.; Madison, J.T.

    1984-04-23

    We have found that the methionine repression of the ..beta..-subunit gene expression is not due to degradation of the ..beta..-subunit but is due to an effect on synthesis of the ..beta..-subunit. The effect of methionine on the synthesis of the ..beta..-is due to an inhibition of ..beta..-subunit mRNA synthesis. 3 references, 1 figure.

  13. SH2B1 modulates chromatin state and MyoD occupancy to enhance expressions of myogenic genes.

    PubMed

    Chen, Kuan-Wei; Chang, Yu-Jung; Yeh, Chia-Ming; Lian, Yen-Ling; Chan, Michael W Y; Kao, Cheng-Fu; Chen, Linyi

    2017-02-01

    As mesoderm-derived cell lineage commits to myogenesis, a spectrum of signaling molecules, including insulin growth factor (IGF), activate signaling pathways and ultimately instruct chromatin remodeling and the transcription of myogenic genes. MyoD is a key transcription factor during myogenesis. In this study, we have identified and characterized a novel myogenic regulator, SH2B1. Knocking down SH2B1 delays global chromatin condensation and decreases the formation of myotubes. SH2B1 interacts with histone H1 and is required for the removal of histone H1 from active transcription sites, allowing for the expressions of myogenic genes, IGF2 and MYOG. Chromatin immunoprecipitation assays suggest the requirement of SH2B1 for the induction of histone H3 lysine 4 trimethylation as well as the reduction of histone H3 lysine 9 trimethylation at the promoters and/or enhancers of IGF2 and MYOG genes during myogenesis. Furthermore, SH2B1 is required for the transcriptional activity of MyoD and MyoD occupancy at the enhancer/promoter regions of IGF2 and MYOG during myogenesis. Together, this study demonstrates that SH2B1 fine-tunes global-local chromatin states, expressions of myogenic genes and ultimately promotes myogenesis.

  14. Glutamate receptor gene (GRIN2B) associated with reduced anterior cingulate glutamatergic concentration in pediatric obsessive-compulsive disorder

    PubMed Central

    Arnold, Paul Daniel; MacMaster, Frank P.; Richter, Margaret A.; Hanna, Gregory L.; Sicard, Tricia; Burroughs, Eliza; Mirza, Yousha; Easter, Phillip C.; Rose, Michelle; Kennedy, James L; Rosenberg, David R

    2009-01-01

    In this preliminary study, 16 psychotropic-naïve pediatric OCD patients were studied using magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS) and genotyped for six candidate polymorphisms in two glutamate system genes. A significant association was identified between the rs1019385 polymorphism of glutamate receptor, ionotropic, N-methyl-d-aspartate 2B (GRIN2B) and decreased anterior cingulate cortex (ACC) glutamatergic concentration (Glx, p=0.02) but not with occipital Glx. These results suggest that GRIN2B may be associated with Glx in ACC, a region consistently implicated in OCD. PMID:19324536

  15. The polycomb group gene EMF2B is essential for maintenance of floral meristem determinacy in rice.

    PubMed

    Conrad, Liza J; Khanday, Imtiyaz; Johnson, Cameron; Guiderdoni, Emmanuel; An, Gynheung; Vijayraghavan, Usha; Sundaresan, Venkatesan

    2014-12-01

    Polycomb Repressive Complex 2 (PRC2) represses the transcriptional activity of target genes through trimethylation of lysine 27 of histone H3. The functions of plant PRC2 have been chiefly described in Arabidopsis, but specific functions in other plant species, especially cereals, are still largely unknown. Here we characterize mutants in the rice EMF2B gene, an ortholog of the Arabidopsis EMBRYONIC FLOWER2 (EMF2) gene. Loss of EMF2B in rice results in complete sterility, and mutant flowers have severe floral organ defects and indeterminacy that resemble loss-of-function mutants in E-function floral organ specification genes. Transcriptome analysis identified the E-function genes OsMADS1, OsMADS6 and OsMADS34 as differentially expressed in the emf2b mutant compared with wild type. OsMADS1 and OsMADS6, known to be required for meristem determinacy in rice, have reduced expression in the emf2b mutant, whereas OsMADS34 which interacts genetically with OsMADS1 was ectopically expressed. Chromatin immunoprecipitation for H3K27me3 followed by quantitative (q)RT-PCR showed that all three genes are presumptive targets of PRC2 in the meristem. Therefore, in rice, and possibly other cereals, PRC2 appears to play a major role in floral meristem determinacy through modulation of the expression of E-function genes. © 2014 The Authors The Plant Journal © 2014 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  16. Localization of two genes encoding plasma membrane Ca2+ ATPases isoforms 2 (ATP2B2) and 3 (ATP2B3) to human chromosomes 3p26-->p25 and Xq28, respectively.

    PubMed

    Wang, M G; Yi, H; Hilfiker, H; Carafoli, E; Strehler, E E; McBride, O W

    1994-01-01

    The plasma membrane Ca2+ ATPases (PMCA) represent a highly conserved, widely dispersed, multigene family in eukaryotes consisting of at least four functional genes. The genes for PMCA isoforms 1 and 4 (ATP2B1 and ATP2B4) have been previously localized to human chromosomes 12q21-->q23 and 1q25-->q32, respectively. Based upon results of fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH), analysis of somatic cell hybrids, and genetic linkage analyses, we now report localization of ATP2B3 (PMCA isoform 3) to human chromosome Xq28, and confirm the recent localization of ATP2B2 (PMCA isoform 2) to chromosome 3p26-->p25. In contrast to ATP2B1 and ATP2B4, recent studies have suggested tissue specific regulation of expression of both ATP2B2 and ATP2B3 particularly in the nervous system. The genes for several neurological and neuromuscular diseases have been assigned to the distal portion of Xq, and ATP2B3 is a candidate gene for these diseases.

  17. Mice lacking hypertension candidate gene ATP2B1 in vascular smooth muscle cells show significant blood pressure elevation.

    PubMed

    Kobayashi, Yusuke; Hirawa, Nobuhito; Tabara, Yasuharu; Muraoka, Hidenori; Fujita, Megumi; Miyazaki, Nobuko; Fujiwara, Akira; Ichikawa, Yasuhiro; Yamamoto, Yuichiro; Ichihara, Naoaki; Saka, Sanae; Wakui, Hiromichi; Yoshida, Shin-ichiro; Yatsu, Keisuke; Toya, Yoshiyuki; Yasuda, Gen; Kohara, Katsuhiko; Kita, Yoshikuni; Takei, Kohtaro; Goshima, Yoshio; Ishikawa, Yoshihiro; Ueshima, Hirotsugu; Miki, Tetsuro; Umemura, Satoshi

    2012-04-01

    We reported previously that ATP2B1 was one of the genes for hypertension receptivity in a large-scale Japanese population, which has been replicated recently in Europeans and Koreans. ATP2B1 encodes the plasma membrane calcium ATPase isoform 1, which plays a critical role in intracellular calcium homeostasis. In addition, it is suggested that ATP2B1 plays a major role in vascular smooth muscle contraction. Because the ATP2B1 knockout (KO) mouse is embryo-lethal, we generated mice with vascular smooth muscle cell-specific KO of ATP2B1 using the Cre-loxP system to clarify the relationship between ATP2B1 and hypertension. The KO mice expressed significantly lower levels of ATP2B1 mRNA and protein in the aorta compared with control mice. KO mice showed significantly higher systolic blood pressure as measured by tail-cuff method and radiotelemetric method. Similar to ATP2B1, the expression of the Na(+)-Ca(2+) exchanger isoform 1 mRNA was decreased in vascular smooth muscle cells of KO mice. However, ATP2B4 expression was increased in KO mice. The cultured vascular smooth muscle cells of KO mice showed increased intracellular calcium concentration not only in basal condition but also in phenylephrine-stimulated condition. Furthermore, phenylephrine-induced vasoconstriction was significantly increased in vascular rings of the femoral artery of KO mice. These results suggest that ATP2B1 plays important roles in the regulation of blood pressure through alteration of calcium handling and vasoconstriction in vascular smooth muscle cells.

  18. Higher levels of phosphorylated Y1472 on GluN2B subunits in the frontal cortex of aged mice are associated with good spatial reference memory, but not cognitive flexibility.

    PubMed

    Zamzow, Daniel R; Elias, Val; Acosta, Varinia A; Escobedo, Emily; Magnusson, Kathy R

    2016-06-01

    The N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor (NMDAr) is particularly vulnerable to aging. The GluN2B subunit of the NMDAr, compared to other NMDAr subunits, suffers the greatest losses of expression in the aging brain, especially in the frontal cortex. While expression levels of GluN2B mRNA and protein in the aged brain are well documented, there has been little investigation into age-related posttranslational modifications of the subunit. In this study, we explored some of the mechanisms that may promote differences in the NMDAr complex in the frontal cortex of aged animals. Two ages of mice, 3 and 24 months, were behaviorally tested in the Morris water maze. The frontal cortex and hippocampus from each mouse were subjected to differential centrifugation followed by solubilization in Triton X-100. Proteins from Triton-insoluble membranes, Triton-soluble membranes, and intracellular membranes/cytosol were examined by Western blot. Higher levels of GluN2B tyrosine 1472 phosphorylation in frontal cortex synaptic fractions of old mice were associated with better reference learning but poorer cognitive flexibility. Levels of GluN2B phosphotyrosine 1336 remained steady, but there were greater levels of the calpain-induced 115 kDa GluN2B cleavage product on extrasynaptic membranes in these old good learners. There was an age-related increase in calpain activity, but it was not associated with better learning. These data highlight a unique aging change for aged mice with good spatial learning that might be detrimental to cognitive flexibility. This study also suggests that higher levels of truncated GluN2B on extrasynaptic membranes are not deleterious to spatial memory in aged mice.

  19. [Nucleotide sequence of genes for alpha- and beta-subunits of luciferase from Photobacterium leiognathi].

    PubMed

    Illarionov, B A; Protopopova, M V; Karginov, V A; Mertvetsov, N P; Gitel'zon, I I

    1988-03-01

    Nucleotide sequence of the Photobacterium leiognathi DNA containing genes of alpha and beta subunits of luciferase has been determined. We also deduced amino acid sequence and molecular mass of luciferase and localized luciferase genes in the sequenced DNA fragment.

  20. CYP2B6 gene single-nucleotide polymorphisms in an Italian population sample and relationship with nicotine dependence.

    PubMed

    Riccardi, Laura Natalia; Carano, Francesco; Bini, Carla; Ceccardi, Stefania; Ferri, Gianmarco; Pelotti, Susi

    2015-02-01

    The extensively polymorphic CYP2B6 gene metabolizes endogenous and exogenous compounds, among which are nicotine and bupropion, although its contribution to the systemic metabolism of nicotine still remains controversial. In the present study, the distribution of the CYP2B6 variant and genotype frequencies were analyzed in a sample of 202 Italian individuals who were also invited to answer the Fagerström test for nicotine dependence (FTND), in an effort to assess the involvement of CYP2B6 polymorphisms in nicotine dependence. Eight single-nucleotide polymorphisms of CYP2B6 were tested and seven different variants were identified showing frequencies similar to the European population. The reduced activity of the CYP2B6*6 variant was significantly (p=0.025) distributed among the nicotine-dependent individuals compared to non-nicotine dependents. Also, the CYP2B6*1/*6 genotype achieved statistical significance (p=0.016) within the nicotine-dependent individuals. The high occurrence of CYP2B6*6 carriers among nicotine-dependent individuals may suggest a possible involvement in nicotine dependence, with a potential impact on smoking cessation treatments tailored to the individual smoker's genotype.

  1. Subunits of the Schizosaccharomyces pombe RNA polymerase II: enzyme purification and structure of the subunit 3 gene.

    PubMed Central

    Azuma, Y; Yamagishi, M; Ishihama, A

    1993-01-01

    To improve our understanding of the structure and function of eukaryotic RNA polymerase II, we purified the enzyme from the fission yeast Schizosaccharomyces pombe. The highly purified RNA polymerase II contained more than eleven polypeptides. The sizes of the largest the second-, and the third-largest polypeptides as measured by SDS-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis were about 210, 150, and 40 kilodaltons (kDa), respectively, and are similar to those of RPB1, 2, and 3 subunits of Saccharomyces cerevisiae RNA polymerase II. Using the degenerated primers designed after amino acid micro-sequencing of the 40 kDa third-largest polypeptide (subunit 3), we cloned the subunit 3 gene (rpb3) and determined its DNA sequence. Taken together with the sequence of parts of PCR-amplified cDNA, the predicted coding sequence of rpb3, interrupted by two introns, was found to encode a polypeptide of 297 amino acid residues in length with a molecular weight of 34 kDa. The S. pombe subunit 3 contains four structural domains conserved for the alpha-subunit family of RNA polymerase from both eukaryotes and prokaryotes. A putative leucine zipper motif was found to exist in the C-terminal proximal conserved region (domain D). Possible functions of the conserved domains are discussed. Images PMID:8367291

  2. PA28 subunits of the mouse proteasome: primary structures and chromosomal localization of the genes.

    PubMed

    Kandil, E; Kohda, K; Ishibashi, T; Tanaka, K; Kasahara, M

    1997-01-01

    The 20S proteasome is a multi-subunit protease responsible for the production of peptides presented by major histocompatibility complex (MHC) class I molecules. Recent evidence indicates that an interferon-gamma (IFN-gamma)-inducible PA28 activator complex enhances the generation of class I binding peptides by altering the cleavage pattern of the proteasome. In the present study, we determined the primary structures of the mouse PA28 alpha- and beta-subunits. The deduced amino acid sequences of the alpha- and beta-subunits were 49% identical. We also determined the primary structure of the mouse PA28 gamma-subunit (Ki antigen), a protein of unknown function structurally related to the alpha- and beta-subunits. The amino acid sequence identity of the gamma-subunit to the alpha- and beta-subunits was 40% and 32%, respectively. Interspecific backcross mapping showed that the mouse genes coding for the alpha- and beta-subunits (designated Psme1 and Psme2, respectively) are tightly linked and map close to the Atp5g1 locus on chromosome 14. Thus, unlike the LMP2 and LMP7 subunits, the IFN-gamma-inducible subunits of PA28 are encoded outside the MHC. The gene coding for the gamma-subunit (designated Psme3) was mapped to the vicinity of the Brca1 locus on chromosome 11. A computer search of the DNA databases identified a gamma-subunit-like protein in ticks and Caenorhabditis elegans, the organisms with no adaptive immune system. It appears that the IFN-gamma-inducible alpha- and beta-subunits emerged by gene duplication from a gamma-subunit-like precursor.

  3. Relationship between Human Evolution and Neurally Mediated Syncope Disclosed by the Polymorphic Sites of the Adrenergic Receptor Gene α2B-AR

    PubMed Central

    Komiyama, Tomoyoshi; Oka, Akira; Kamiguchi, Hiroshi; Nagata, Eiichiro; Sakura, Hiroshi; Otsuka, Kuniaki; Kobayashi, Hiroyuki

    2015-01-01

    The objective of this study was to clarify the effects of disease on neurally mediated syncope (NMS) during an acute stress reaction. We analyzed the mechanism of the molecular interaction and the polymorphisms of the alpha-2 adrenoreceptor (α2B-AR) gene as the potential psychiatric cause of incentive stress. We focused on the following three genotypes of the repeat polymorphism site at Glu 301–303 in the α2B-AR gene: Glu12/12, Glu12/9, and Glu9/9. On the basis of our clinical research, NMS is likely to occur in people with the Glu12/9 heterotype. To verify this, we assessed this relationship with the interaction of Gi protein and adenylate cyclase by in silico analysis of the Glu12/9 heterotype. By measuring the difference in the dissociation time of the Gi-α subunit twice, we found that the Glu12/9 heterotype suppressed the action of adenylate cyclase longer than the Glu homotypes. As this difference in the Glu repeat number effect is thought to be one of the causes of NMS, we investigated the evolutionary significance of the Glu repeat number. Glu8 was originally repeated in simians, while the Glu12 repeats occurred over time during the evolution of bipedalism in humans. Taken with the Glu12 numbers, NMS would likely become a defensive measure to prevent significant blood flow to the human brain. PMID:25860977

  4. Self-Subunit Swapping Occurs in Another Gene Type of Cobalt Nitrile Hydratase

    PubMed Central

    Xia, Yuanyuan; Cui, Youtian; Kobayashi, Michihiko; Zhou, Zhemin

    2012-01-01

    Self-subunit swapping is one of the post-translational maturation of the cobalt-containing nitrile hydratase (Co-NHase) family of enzymes. All of these NHases possess a gene organization of <β-subunit> <α-subunit> , which allows the activator protein to easily form a mediatory complex with the α-subunit of the NHase after translation. Here, we discovered that the incorporation of cobalt into another type of Co-NHase, with a gene organization of <α-subunit> <β-subunit> , was also dependent on self-subunit swapping. We successfully isolated a recombinant NHase activator protein (P14K) of Pseudomonas putida NRRL-18668 by adding a Strep-tag N-terminal to the P14K gene. P14K was found to form a complex [α(StrepP14K)2] with the α-subunit of the NHase. The incorporation of cobalt into the NHase of P. putida was confirmed to be dependent on the α-subunit substitution between the cobalt-containing α(StrepP14K)2 and the cobalt-free NHase. Cobalt was inserted into cobalt-free α(StrepP14K)2 but not into cobalt-free NHase, suggesting that P14K functions not only as a self-subunit swapping chaperone but also as a metallochaperone. In addition, NHase from P. putida was also expressed by a mutant gene that was designed with a <β-subunit> <α-subunit> order. Our findings expand the general features of self-subunit swapping maturation. PMID:23226397

  5. Slice orientation and muscarinic acetylcholine receptor activation determine the involvement of N-methyl D-aspartate receptor subunit GluN2B in hippocampal area CA1 long-term depression

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background The contribution of different GluN2 subunits of the N-methyl D-aspartate (NMDA) receptor to the induction of bidirectional hippocampal synaptic plasticity is a controversial topic. As both supporting and refuting evidence for the hypothesis of subunit specialization in opposing directions of plasticity has accumulated since it was first proposed a few years ago, we hypothesize that differences in experimental conditions may have in part contributed to some of the inconsistent results from these studies. Here we investigate the controversial hypothesis that long-term depression (LTD) is preferentially induced by GluN2B-containing NMDA receptors in area CA1 of hippocampal slices. Results We find that brain slices from 2-3 week old rats prepared in the sagittal orientation have GluN2B-independent LTD whereas slices prepared in the coronal orientation have GluN2B-dependent LTD. There was no difference between the orientations in the fraction of the NMDAR EPSC sensitive to a GluN2B-selective antagonist, leading us to believe that the intracellular signaling properties of the NMDARs were different in the two preparations. Coronal slices had greater association of LTD-related intracellular signaling protein RasGRF1 with GluN2B relative to sagittal slices. Antagonism of muscarinic acetylcholine receptors (mAChRs) in the sagittal slices returned LTD to a GluN2B-dependent form and increased the association of GluN2B with RasGRF1. Conclusions These results suggest a novel form of NMDAR modulation by mAChRs and clarify some disagreement in the literature. PMID:22082088

  6. A Special Extract of Bacopa monnieri (CDRI-08) Restores Learning and Memory by Upregulating Expression of the NMDA Receptor Subunit GluN2B in the Brain of Scopolamine-Induced Amnesic Mice

    PubMed Central

    Rai, Rakesh; Singh, Hemant K.; Prasad, S.

    2015-01-01

    In the present communication, we have investigated effects of the CDRI-08, a well characterized extract of Bacopa monnieri, on expression of the GluN2B subunit of NMDAR in various brain regions of the scopolamine-induced amnesic mice. Our behavioral data reveal that scopolamine-treated amnesic mice exhibit significant decline in the spatial memory compared to the normal control mice. Our RT-PCR and immunoblotting data revealed that the scopolamine treatment resulted in a significant downregulation of the NMDAR GluN2B subunit expression in prefrontal cortex and hippocampus. Our enzyme assay data revealed that scopolamine caused a significant increase in the acetylcholinesterase activity in both the brain regions. Further, oral administration of the CDRI-08 to scopolamine-treated amnesic mice restored the spatial memory which was found to be associated with significant upregulation of the GluN2B subunit expression and decline in the acetylcholinesterase activity in prefrontal cortex as well as hippocampus towards their levels in the normal control mice. Our study provides the evidence for the mechanism underlying role of the Bacopa monnieri extract (CDRI-08) in restoring spatial memory in amnesic mice, which may have therapeutic implications. PMID:26413117

  7. Infantile peripheral neuropathy, deafness, and proximal tubulopathy associated with a novel mutation of the RRM2B gene: case study.

    PubMed

    Stojanovic, Vesna; Mayr, Johannes A; Sperl, Wolfgang; Barišić, Nenad; Doronjski, Aleksandra; Milak, Gordana

    2013-12-01

    Mitochondrial DNA depletion syndromes are a group of autosomal recessive hereditary disorders characterized by reduction of the amount of mitochondrial DNA in the affected tissue (muscle, liver, brain, or kidneys). We report a case of an infant with myopathy, deafness, peripheral neuropathy, nephrocalcinosis, proximal renal tubulopathy, moderate lactic acidosis, and a novel mutation of the RRM2B gene.

  8. Infantile peripheral neuropathy, deafness, and proximal tubulopathy associated with a novel mutation of the RRM2B gene

    PubMed Central

    Stojanović, Vesna; Mayr, Johannes A.; Sperl, Wolfgang; Barišić, Nenad; Doronjski, Aleksandra; Milak, Gordana

    2013-01-01

    Mitochondrial DNA depletion syndromes are a group of autosomal recessive hereditary disorders characterized by reduction of the amount of mitochondrial DNA in the affected tissue (muscle, liver, brain, or kidneys). We report a case of an infant with myopathy, deafness, peripheral neuropathy, nephrocalcinosis, proximal renal tubulopathy, moderate lactic acidosis, and a novel mutation of the RRM2B gene. PMID:24382854

  9. The L2b real-time PCR targeting the pmpH gene of Chlamydia trachomatis used for the diagnosis of lymphogranuloma venereum is not specific to L2b strains.

    PubMed

    Touati, A; Peuchant, O; Hénin, N; Bébéar, C; de Barbeyrac, B

    2016-06-01

    The French Reference Centre for chlamydiae uses two real-time PCRs targeting the pmpH gene of Chlamydia trachomatis to differentiate between L strains and variant L2b, responsible for a lymphogranuloma venereum outbreak in Europe. We compared the results obtained for 122 L2b C. trachomatis-positive specimens, using the two real-time PCRs, with the sequencing of the ompA gene. Only 91 specimens were confirmed as L2b. Our results demonstrate that the lymphogranuloma venereum outbreak is no longer dominated by the variant L2b, and that many L-positive specimens were misidentified as L2b with the method used, which raises the question of its specificity.

  10. Ascorbic acid deficiency decreases hepatic cytochrome P-450, especially CYP2B1/2B2, and simultaneously induces heme oxygenase-1 gene expression in scurvy-prone ODS rats.

    PubMed

    Kobayashi, Misato; Hoshinaga, Yukiko; Miura, Natsuko; Tokuda, Yuki; Shigeoka, Shigeru; Murai, Atsushi; Horio, Fumihiko

    2014-01-01

    The mechanisms underlying the decrease in hepatic cytochrome P-450 (CYP) content in ascorbic acid deficiency was investigated in scurvy-prone ODS rats. First, male ODS rats were fed a diet containing sufficient ascorbic acid (control) or a diet without ascorbic acid (deficient) for 18 days, with or without the intraperitoneal injection of phenobarbital. Ascorbic acid deficiency decreased hepatic microsomal total CYP content, CYP2B1/2B2 protein, and mitochondrial cytochrome oxidase (COX) complex IV subunit I protein, and simultaneously increased heme oxygenase-1 protein in microsomes and mitochondria. Next, heme oxygenase-1 inducers, that is lipopolysaccharide and hemin, were administered to phenobaribital-treated ODS rats fed sufficient ascorbic acid. The administration of these inducers decreased hepatic microsomal total CYP content, CYP2B1/2B2 protein, and mitochondrial COX complex IV subunit I protein. These results suggested that the stimulation of hepatic heme oxygenase-1 expression by ascorbic acid deficiency caused the decrease in CYP content in liver.

  11. Involvement of the GluN2A and GluN2B subunits in synaptic and extrasynaptic N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor function and neuronal excitotoxicity.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Xianju; Ding, Qi; Chen, Zhuoyou; Yun, Huifang; Wang, Hongbing

    2013-08-16

    GluN2A and GluN2B are the major subunits of functional NMDA receptors (NMDAR). Previous studies have suggested that GluN2A and GluN2B may differentially mediate NMDAR function at synaptic and extrasynaptic locations and play opposing roles in excitotoxicity, such as neurodegeneration triggered by ischemic stroke and brain injury. By using pharmacological and molecular approaches to suppress or enhance the function of GluN2A and GluN2B in cultured cortical neurons, we examined NMDAR-mediated, bidirectional regulation of prosurvival signaling (i.e. the cAMP response element-binding protein (CREB)-Bdnf cascade) and cell death. Inhibition of GluN2A or GluN2B attenuated the up-regulation of prosurvival signaling triggered by the activation of either synaptic or extrasynaptic NMDAR. Inhibition of GluN2A or GluN2B also attenuated the down-regulation of prosurvival signaling triggered by the coactivation of synaptic and extrasynaptic receptors. The effects of GluN2B on CREB-Bdnf signaling were larger than those of GluN2A. Consistently, compared with suppression of GluN2A, suppression of GluN2B resulted in more reduction of NMDA- and oxygen glucose deprivation-induced excitotoxicity as well as NMDAR-mediated elevation of intracellular calcium. Moreover, excitotoxicity and down-regulation of CREB were exaggerated in neurons overexpressing GluN2A or GluN2B. Together, we found that GluN2A and GluN2B are involved in the function of both synaptic and extrasynaptic NMDAR, demonstrating that they play similar rather than opposing roles in NMDAR-mediated bidirectional regulation of prosurvival signaling and neuronal death.

  12. Protection of α-CaMKII from Dephosphorylation by GluN2B Subunit of NMDA Receptor Is Abolished by Mutation of Glu96 or His282 of α-CaMKII

    PubMed Central

    Suma Priya, Sudarsana Devi; John, Sebastian; Omkumar, Ramakrishnapillai V.

    2016-01-01

    Interaction of CaMKII and the GluN2B subunit of NMDA receptor is essential for synaptic plasticity events such as LTP. Synaptic targeting of CaMKII and regulation of its biochemical functions result from this interaction. GluN2B binding to the T-site of CaMKII leads to changes in substrate binding and catalytic parameters and inhibition of its own dephosphorylation. We find that CaMKIINα, a natural inhibitor that binds to the T-site of CaMKII, also causes inhibition of dephosphorylation of CaMKII similar to GluN2B. Two residues on α-CaMKII, Glu96 and His282, are involved in the inhibition of CaMKII dephosphorylation exerted by binding of GluN2B. E96A-α-CaMKII is known to be defective in GluN2B-induced catalytic modulation. Data presented here show that, in both E96A and H282A mutants of α-CaMKII, GluN2B-induced inhibition of dephosphorylation is impaired. PMID:27610621

  13. Protection of α-CaMKII from Dephosphorylation by GluN2B Subunit of NMDA Receptor Is Abolished by Mutation of Glu96 or His282 of α-CaMKII.

    PubMed

    Mayadevi, Madhavan; Lakshmi, Kesavan; Suma Priya, Sudarsana Devi; John, Sebastian; Omkumar, Ramakrishnapillai V

    2016-01-01

    Interaction of CaMKII and the GluN2B subunit of NMDA receptor is essential for synaptic plasticity events such as LTP. Synaptic targeting of CaMKII and regulation of its biochemical functions result from this interaction. GluN2B binding to the T-site of CaMKII leads to changes in substrate binding and catalytic parameters and inhibition of its own dephosphorylation. We find that CaMKIINα, a natural inhibitor that binds to the T-site of CaMKII, also causes inhibition of dephosphorylation of CaMKII similar to GluN2B. Two residues on α-CaMKII, Glu96 and His282, are involved in the inhibition of CaMKII dephosphorylation exerted by binding of GluN2B. E96A-α-CaMKII is known to be defective in GluN2B-induced catalytic modulation. Data presented here show that, in both E96A and H282A mutants of α-CaMKII, GluN2B-induced inhibition of dephosphorylation is impaired.

  14. Blocking GluN2B subunits reverses the enhanced seizure susceptibility after prolonged febrile seizures with a wide therapeutic time-window.

    PubMed

    Chen, Bin; Feng, Bo; Tang, Yangshun; You, Yi; Wang, Yi; Hou, Weiwei; Hu, Weiwei; Chen, Zhong

    2016-09-01

    Febrile seizures (FSs), the most common type of convulsive events in infants, are closely associated with temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE) in adulthood. It is urgent to investigate how FSs promote epileptogenesis and find the potential therapeutic targets. In the present study, we showed that the phosphorylation of GluN2B Tyr1472 gradually reached peak level at 24h after prolonged FSs and remained elevated during 7days thereafter. IL-1β treatment alone, which in previous study mimicked the effect of prolonged FSs on adult seizure susceptibility, increased GluN2B Tyr1472 phosphorylation. Both IL-1 receptor antagonist (IL-1Ra) and IL-1R1 deletion were sufficient to reverse the prolonged FSs induced hyper-phosphorylation of GluN2B Tyr1472. GluN2B antagonist ifenprodil showed a wide therapeutic time-window (3days) to reverse the enhanced seizure susceptibility after prolonged FSs or IL-1β treatment. Our study demonstrated that GluN2B phosphorylation at Tyr1472 site mediated by the transient increase of IL-1β was involved in the enhanced adult seizure susceptibility after prolonged FSs, implicating GluN2B-containing NMDAR is a new potential drug target with a wide therapeutic time window to prevent epileptogenesis in patients with infantile FSs. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Cytochrome oxidase subunit V gene of Neurospora crassa: DNA sequences, chromosomal mapping, and evidence that the cya-4 locus specifies the structural gene for subunit V.

    PubMed Central

    Sachs, M S; Bertrand, H; Metzenberg, R L; RajBhandary, U L

    1989-01-01

    The sequences of cDNA and genomic DNA clones for Neurospora cytochrome oxidase subunit V show that the protein is synthesized as a 171-amino-acid precursor containing a 27-amino-acid N-terminal extension. The subunit V protein sequence is 34% identical to that of Saccharomyces cerevisiae subunit V; these proteins, as well as the corresponding bovine subunit, subunit IV, contain a single hydrophobic domain which most likely spans the inner mitochondrial membrane. The Neurospora crassa subunit V gene (cox5) contains two introns, 398 and 68 nucleotides long, which share the conserved intron boundaries 5'GTRNGT...CAG3' and the internal consensus sequence ACTRACA. Two short sequences, YGCCAG and YCCGTTY, are repeated four times each in the cox5 gene upstream of the mRNA 5' termini. The cox5 mRNA 5' ends are heterogeneous, with the major mRNA 5' end located 144 to 147 nucleotides upstream from the translational start site. The mRNA contains a 3'-untranslated region of 186 to 187 nucleotides. Using restriction-fragment-length polymorphism, we mapped the cox5 gene to linkage group IIR, close to the arg-5 locus. Since one of the mutations causing cytochrome oxidase deficiency in N. crassa, cya-4-23, also maps there, we transformed the cya-4-23 strain with the wild-type cox5 gene. In contrast to cya-4-23 cells, which grow slowly, cox5 transformants grew quickly, contained cytochrome oxidase, and had 8- to 11-fold-higher levels of subunit V in their mitochondria. These data suggest (i) that the cya-4 locus in N. crassa specifies structural information for cytochrome oxidase subunit V and (ii) that, in N. crassa, as in S. cerevisiae, deficiencies in the production of nuclearly encoded cytochrome oxidase subunits result in deficiency in cytochrome oxidase activity. Finally, we show that the lower levels of subunit V in cya-4-23 cells are most likely due to substantially reduced levels of translatable subunit V mRNA. Images PMID:2540423

  16. NR2B subunit-dependent long-term potentiation enhancement in the rat cortical auditory system in vivo following masking of patterned auditory input by white noise exposure during early postnatal life.

    PubMed

    Hogsden, Jennifer L; Dringenberg, Hans C

    2009-08-01

    The composition of N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) receptor subunits influences the degree of synaptic plasticity expressed during development and into adulthood. Here, we show that theta-burst stimulation of the medial geniculate nucleus reliably induced NMDA receptor-dependent long-term potentiation (LTP) of field postsynaptic potentials recorded in the primary auditory cortex (A1) of urethane-anesthetized rats. Furthermore, substantially greater levels of LTP were elicited in juvenile animals (30-37 days old; approximately 55% maximal potentiation) than in adult animals (approximately 30% potentiation). Masking patterned sound via continuous white noise exposure during early postnatal life (from postnatal day 5 to postnatal day 50-60) resulted in enhanced, juvenile-like levels of LTP (approximately 70% maximal potentiation) relative to age-matched controls reared in unaltered acoustic environments (approximately 30%). Rats reared in white noise and then placed in unaltered acoustic environments for 40-50 days showed levels of LTP comparable to those of adult controls, indicating that white noise rearing results in a form of developmental arrest that can be overcome by subsequent patterned sound exposure. We explored the mechanisms mediating white noise-induced plasticity enhancements by local NR2B subunit antagonist application in A1. NR2B subunit antagonists (Ro 25-6981 or ifenprodil) completely reversed white noise-induced LTP enhancement at concentrations that did not affect LTP in adult or age-matched controls. We conclude that white noise exposure during early postnatal life results in the maintenance of juvenile-like, higher levels of plasticity in A1, an effect that appears to be critically dependent on NR2B subunit activation.

  17. USP44 Is an Integral Component of N-CoR that Contributes to Gene Repression by Deubiquitinating Histone H2B.

    PubMed

    Lan, Xianjiang; Atanassov, Boyko S; Li, Wenqian; Zhang, Ying; Florens, Laurence; Mohan, Ryan D; Galardy, Paul J; Washburn, Michael P; Workman, Jerry L; Dent, Sharon Y R

    2016-11-22

    Decreased expression of the USP44 deubiquitinase has been associated with global increases in H2Bub1 levels during mouse embryonic stem cell (mESC) differentiation. However, whether USP44 directly deubiquitinates histone H2B or how its activity is targeted to chromatin is not known. We identified USP44 as an integral subunit of the nuclear receptor co-repressor (N-CoR) complex. USP44 within N-CoR deubiquitinates H2B in vitro and in vivo, and ablation of USP44 impairs the repressive activity of the N-CoR complex. Chromatin immunoprecipitation (ChIP) experiments confirmed that USP44 recruitment reduces H2Bub1 levels at N-CoR target loci. Furthermore, high expression of USP44 correlates with reduced levels of H2Bub1 in the breast cancer cell line MDA-MB-231. Depletion of either USP44 or TBL1XR1 impairs the invasiveness of MDA-MB-231 cells in vitro and causes an increase of global H2Bub1 levels. Our findings indicate that USP44 contributes to N-CoR functions in regulating gene expression and is required for efficient invasiveness of triple-negative breast cancer cells.

  18. The Role of GluN2A and GluN2B Subunits on the Effects of NMDA Receptor Antagonists in Modeling Schizophrenia and Treating Refractory Depression

    PubMed Central

    Jiménez-Sánchez, Laura; Campa, Leticia; Auberson, Yves P; Adell, Albert

    2014-01-01

    Paradoxically, N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) receptor antagonists are used to model certain aspects of schizophrenia as well as to treat refractory depression. However, the role of different subunits of the NMDA receptor in both conditions is poorly understood. Here we used biochemical and behavioral readouts to examine the in vivo prefrontal efflux of serotonin and glutamate as well as the stereotypical behavior and the antidepressant-like activity in the forced swim test elicited by antagonists selective for the GluN2A (NVP-AAM077) and GluN2B (Ro 25-6981) subunits. The effects of the non-subunit selective antagonist, MK-801; were also studied for comparison. The administration of MK-801 dose dependently increased the prefrontal efflux of serotonin and glutamate and markedly increased the stereotypy scores. NVP-AAM077 also increased the efflux of serotonin and glutamate, but without the induction of stereotypies. In contrast, Ro 25-6981 did not change any of the biochemical and behavioral parameters tested. Interestingly, the administration of NVP-AAM077 and Ro 25-6981 alone elicited antidepressant-like activity in the forced swim test, in contrast to the combination of both compounds that evoked marked stereotypies. Our interpretation of the results is that both GluN2A and GluN2B subunits are needed to induce stereotypies, which might be suggestive of potential psychotomimetic effects in humans, but the antagonism of only one of these subunits is sufficient to evoke an antidepressant response. We also propose that GluN2A receptor antagonists could have potential antidepressant activity in the absence of potential psychotomimetic effects. PMID:24871546

  19. A novel subunit vaccine co-expressing GM-CSF and PCV2b Cap protein enhances protective immunity against porcine circovirus type 2 in piglets.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Huawei; Qian, Ping; Peng, Bo; Shi, Lin; Chen, Huanchun; Li, Xiangmin

    2015-05-15

    Porcine circovirus type 2 (PCV2) causes porcine circovirus-associated disease. Capsid (Cap) protein of PCV2 is the principal immunogenic protein that induces neutralizing antibodies and protective immunity. GM-CSF is an immune adjuvant that enhances responses to vaccines. In this study, recombinant baculoviruses Ac-Cap and Ac-Cap-GM-CSF expressing the Cap protein alone and co-expressing the Cap protein and porcine GM-CSF, respectively, were constructed successfully. The target proteins were analyzed by western blotting and IFA. Further, these proteins were confirmed by electron microscopy, which showed that Cap proteins could self-assemble into virus-like particles having diameters of 17-25nm. Animal experiments showed that pigs immunized with Cap-GM-CSF subunit vaccine showed significantly higher levels of PCV2-specific antibodies and neutralizing antibodies than pigs immunized with the Cap subunit vaccine and a commercial vaccine (Ingelvac CircoFLEX; P<0.05). After PCV2 wild strain challenged, Pigs receiving the Cap-GM-CSF subunit vaccine showed significantly higher average daily weight gain after wild-type PCV2 challenge than pigs receiving the other three vaccines (P<0.05). None of PCV2 DNA was detected in all immunized animals, except control animals immunized with phosphate-buffered saline. These results indicated that GM-CSF was a powerful immunoadjuvant for PCV2 subunit vaccines because it enhanced humoral immune response and improved immune protection against PCV2 infection in pigs. Thus, the novel Cap-GM-CSF subunit vaccine has the potential to be used as an effective and safe vaccine candidate against PCV2 infection. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Implication of SH2B1 gene polymorphism studies in gestational diabetes mellitus in Saudi pregnant women.

    PubMed

    Al-Hakeem, Malak Mohammed

    2014-12-01

    Genome-wide association studies have identified loci that are firmly associated with obesity. The Src-homology-2 B adaptor protein 1 (SH2B1) loci is abundantly expressed in the brain, liver, heart, muscle, and fat tissues. Gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) is a growing health concern that usually appears during the latter half of pregnancy, and it is characterized by carbohydrate intolerance of variable severity. The SH2B1 gene polymorphism has been linked with an increased risk of weight gain in several but not all population studies. This study aimed to investigate the genetic association of rs4788102 variants in the SH2B1 gene with GDM in Saudi pregnant women. Genomic DNA samples from 200 women with GDM and 300 women without GDM were genotyped using the TaqMan method. The distribution of the GG, GA, and AA genotypes was significantly different between GDM and non-GDM women (p < 0.05). Thus, we identified rs4788102 variants as additional risk factors for GDM in Saudi women, and we suggest that these variants may have a prognostic value.

  1. Role of the NR2A/2B subunits of the N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor in glutamate-induced glutamic acid decarboxylase alteration in cortical GABAergic neurons in vitro.

    PubMed

    Monnerie, H; Hsu, F-C; Coulter, D A; Le Roux, P D

    2010-12-29

    The vulnerability of brain neuronal cell subpopulations to neurologic insults varies greatly. Among cells that survive a pathological insult, for example ischemia or brain trauma, some may undergo morphological and/or biochemical changes that may compromise brain function. The present study is a follow-up of our previous studies that investigated the effect of glutamate-induced excitotoxicity on the GABA synthesizing enzyme glutamic acid decarboxylase (GAD65/67)'s expression in surviving DIV 11 cortical GABAergic neurons in vitro [Monnerie and Le Roux, (2007) Exp Neurol 205:367-382, (2008) Exp Neurol 213:145-153]. An N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor (NMDAR)-mediated decrease in GAD expression was found following glutamate exposure. Here we examined which NMDAR subtype(s) mediated the glutamate-induced change in GAD protein levels. Western blotting techniques on cortical neuron cultures showed that glutamate's effect on GAD proteins was not altered by NR2B-containing diheteromeric (NR1/NR2B) receptor blockade. By contrast, blockade of triheteromeric (NR1/NR2A/NR2B) receptors fully protected against a decrease in GAD protein levels following glutamate exposure. When receptor location on the postsynaptic membrane was examined, extrasynaptic NMDAR stimulation was observed to be sufficient to decrease GAD protein levels similar to that observed after glutamate bath application. Blocking diheteromeric receptors prevented glutamate's effect on GAD proteins after extrasynaptic NMDAR stimulation. Finally, NR2B subunit examination with site-specific antibodies demonstrated a glutamate-induced, calpain-mediated alteration in NR2B expression. These results suggest that glutamate-induced excitotoxic NMDAR stimulation in cultured GABAergic cortical neurons depends upon subunit composition and receptor location (synaptic vs. extrasynaptic) on the neuronal membrane. Biochemical alterations in surviving cortical GABAergic neurons in various disease states may contribute to the altered

  2. Sequence and expression of the CAPA/CAP2b gene in the tobacco hawkmoth, Manduca sexta.

    PubMed

    Loi, Poh Kheng; Tublitz, Nathan J

    2004-10-01

    The gene coding for cardioacceleratory peptide 2b (CAP2b; pELYAFPRV) has been isolated and sequenced from the moth Manduca sexta (GenBank accession #AY649544). Because of its significant homology to the CAPA gene in Drosophila melanogaster, this gene is called the Manduca CAPA gene. The Manduca CAPA gene is 958 nucleotides long with 29 untranslated nucleotides from the beginning of the sequence to the putative start initiation site. The CAPA gene has a single open reading frame, 441 nucleotides long, that codes for a predicted precursor protein of 147 amino acids. The predicted prepropeptide encodes a single copy of each of three deduced propeptides, a CAP2b propeptide, with a Q substituted for an E at the N-terminus (QLYAFPRVa), and two novel CAP2b-related propeptides (DGVLNLYPFPRVa and TEGPGMWFGPRLa). To reduce confusion and to adopt a more standardized nomenclature, we rename pELYAFPRVa as Mas-CAPA-1 and assign the names of Mas-CAPA-2 to DGVLNLYPFPRVa and Mas-PK-1 (Pyrokinin-1) to TEGPGMWFGPRLa. The spatial and temporal expression pattern of the CAPA gene in the Manduca central nervous system (CNS) was determined in all major post-embryonic stages using in situ hybridization techniques. The CAPA gene is expressed in a total of 27 pairs of neurons in the post-embryonic Manduca CNS. A total of 16 pairs of cells is observed in the brain, two pairs in the sub-esophageal ganglion (SEG), one pair in the third thoracic ganglion (T3), one pair in each unfused abdominal ganglion (A1-A6) and two pairs in the fused terminal ganglion. The mRNA from the CAPA gene is present in nearly every ganglion in each post-embryonic stage. The number of cells expressing the CAPA gene varies during post-embryonic life, starting at 54 cells in first-instar larvae and declining to a minimum of 14 cells midway through adult development.

  3. The Ad5 [E1-, E2b-]-based vector: a new and versatile gene delivery platform

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jones, Frank R.; Gabitzsch, Elizabeth S.; Balint, Joseph P.

    2015-05-01

    Based upon advances in gene sequencing and construction, it is now possible to identify specific genes or sequences thereof for gene delivery applications. Recombinant adenovirus serotype-5 (Ad5) viral vectors have been utilized in the settings of gene therapy, vaccination, and immunotherapy but have encountered clinical challenges because they are recognized as foreign entities to the host. This recognition leads to an immunologic clearance of the vector that contains the inserted gene of interest and prevents effective immunization(s). We have reported on a new Ad5-based viral vector technology that can be utilized as an immunization modality to induce immune responses even in the presence of Ad5 vector immunity. We have reported successful immunization and immunotherapy results to infectious diseases and cancers. This improved recombinant viral platform (Ad5 [E1-, E2b-]) can now be utilized in the development of multiple vaccines and immunotherapies.

  4. Chronic Monoarthritis Pain Accelerates the Processes of Cognitive Impairment and Increases the NMDAR Subunits NR2B in CA3 of Hippocampus from 5-month-old Transgenic APP/PS1 Mice.

    PubMed

    Gong, Wei-Yi; Wang, Rong; Liu, Yuan; Jin, He; Zhao, Zhi-Wei; Wang, Yu-Lan; Li, Hong-Yan; Zhang, Xu; Ni, Jia-Xiang

    2017-01-01

    Many factors impact cognitive impairment; however, the effects of chronic pain and the mechanisms underlying these effects on cognitive impairment are currently unknown. Here we tested the hypothesis that chronic pain accelerates the transition from normal cognition to mild cognitive impairment (MCI) in 5-month-old transgenic APP/PS1 mice, an animal model of Alzheimer's disease (AD), and that neurotoxicity induced by N-methyl-D-aspartic acid receptor (NMDAR) subunits may be involved in this process. Chronic monoarthritis pain was induced in transgenic APP/PS1 mice and 5-month-old wild-type (WT) mice by intra- and pre-articular injections of Freund's complete adjuvant (FCA) into one knee joint. Pain behavior, learning and memory function, and the distribution and quantity of NMDAR subunits (NR1, NR2A and NR2B) in hippocampal CA1 and CA3 regions were assessed. Our results showed that although persistent and robust monoarthritis pain was induced by the FCA injections, only the transgenic APP/PS1 mice with chronic monoarthritis pain exhibited marked learning and memory impairments. This result suggested that chronic monoarthritis pain accelerated the cognitive impairment process. Furthermore, only transgenic APP/PS1 mice with chronic monoarthritis pain exhibited an overexpression of NR2B and an increased NR2B/NR2A ratio in the hippocampus CA3. These findings suggest that chronic pain is a risk factor for cognitive impairment and that increased neurotoxicity associated with NMDAR subunit activation may underpin the impairment. Thus, NMDARs may be a therapeutic target for the prevention of chronic pain-induced cognitive impairment.

  5. Identification and isolation of three proteasome subunits and their encoding genes from Trypanosoma brucei.

    PubMed

    Huang, L; Shen, M; Chernushevich, I; Burlingame, A L; Wang, C C; Robertson, C D

    1999-08-20

    We have determined peptide sequences of three Trypanosoma brucei proteasome subunit proteins by mass spectrometry of tryptic digests of the proteins purified by two-dimensional (2-D) polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis. Three genes identified by the sequence of their cDNA encode the peptides identified in these three proteins. The three proteins predicted from the gene sequences have significant similarity to other known proteasome subunits and represent an alpha6 type subunit (TbPSA6), and two beta-type subunits belonging to the beta1-type (TbPSB1) and beta2 type (TbPSB2). The sequences of both beta-subunits predict formation of catalytically active subunits through proteolytic processing. The prediction is supported by the presence in each of the two beta-subunits of a tryptic peptide that has the correctly processed N-terminus that creates the threonine nucleophile of the mature protein. This peptide cannot be generated by trypsin because of the required cleavage of a glycine-threonine bond. It is thus likely that there are at least two catalytically active beta-subunits, TbPSB1 and TbPSB2, present in the mature 20S proteasome from T. brucei.

  6. KDM4B/JMJD2B is a p53 target gene that modulates the amplitude of p53 response after DNA damage

    PubMed Central

    Moon, Eui Jung; Razorenova, Olga V.; Krieg, Adam J.; von Eyben, Rie

    2017-01-01

    Abstract The p53 tumor suppressor protein plays a critical role in orchestrating the genomic response to various stress signals by acting as a master transcriptional regulator. Differential gene activity is controlled by transcription factors but also dependent on the underlying chromatin structure, especially on covalent histone modifications. After screening different histone lysine methyltransferases and demethylases, we identified JMJD2B/KDM4B as a p53-inducible gene in response to DNA damage. p53 directly regulates JMJD2B gene expression by binding to a canonical p53-consensus motif in the JMJD2B promoter. JMJD2B induction attenuates the transcription of key p53 transcriptional targets including p21, PIG3 and PUMA, and this modulation is dependent on the catalytic capacity of JMJD2B. Conversely, JMJD2B silencing led to an enhancement of the DNA-damage driven induction of p21 and PIG3. These findings indicate that JMJD2B acts in an auto-regulatory loop by which p53, through JMJD2B activation, is able to influence its own transcriptional program. Functionally, exogenous expression of JMJD2B enhanced subcutaneous tumor growth of colon cancer cells in a p53-dependent manner, and genetic inhibition of JMJD2B impaired tumor growth in vivo. These studies provide new insights into the regulatory effect exerted by JMJD2B on tumor growth through the modulation of p53 target genes. PMID:28073943

  7. Association between PPAP2B gene polymorphisms and coronary heart disease susceptibility in Chinese Han males and females.

    PubMed

    Sun, Yu-Xiao; Gao, Chuan-Yu; Lu, Yang; Fu, Xin; Jia, Jun-Ge; Zhao, Yu-Jie; Li, Lian-Dong; Dui, Hong-Zhi; Zhang, Xing-Yu; Li, Zhi-Ying; Lei, Lei; Zhang, Wei-Feng; Yuan, Yi-Qiang

    2017-02-21

    Little is known about gender-related differences in the association between PPAP2B single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) and coronary heart disease (CHD) in Chinese Han males and females. We therefore conducted a case-control study with 456 cases and 685 healthy controls divided into male and female subgroups. Five PPAP2B polymorphisms (SNPs) were selected and genotyped using Sequenom Mass-ARRAY technology. Odds ratios (OR) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were calculated using unconditional logistic regression adjusting for age and gender. Allelic model analysis revealed that for PPAP2B rs1759752, allele frequency distributions differed between cases and controls in the male subgroup (p = 0.015, OR: 1.401, 95%CI: 1.066-1.481). Genetic model analysis revealed that in the male subgroup, rs1759752 was associated with increased CHD risk in the dominant model (p = 0.035) and overdominant model (p = 0.045). In the female subgroup, rs12566304 was associated with a decreased CHD risk in the codominant model (p = 0.038) and overdominant model (p = 0.031). Additionally, the "GC" haplotypes of rs1759752 and rs1930760 were protective against CHD in males. These observations shed new light on gender-related differences in the association between PPAP2B gene polymorphisms and CHD susceptibility in the Chinese Han population.

  8. The SHORT-ROOT-like gene PtSHR2B is involved in Populus phellogen activity.

    PubMed

    Miguel, Andreia; Milhinhos, Ana; Novák, Ondřej; Jones, Brian; Miguel, Célia M

    2016-03-01

    SHORT-ROOT (SHR) is a GRAS transcription factor first characterized for its role in the specification of the stem cell niche and radial patterning in Arabidopsis thaliana (At) roots. Three SHR-like genes have been identified in Populus trichocarpa (Pt). PtSHR1 shares high similarity with AtSHR over the entire length of the coding sequence. The two other Populus SHR-like genes, PtSHR2A and PtSHR2B, are shorter in their 5' ends when compared with AtSHR. Unlike PtSHR1, that is expressed throughout the cambial zone of greenhouse-grown Populus trees, PtSHR2Bprom:uidA expression was detected in the phellogen. Additionally, PtSHR1 and PtSHR2B expression patterns markedly differ in the shoot apex and roots of in vitro plants. Transgenic hybrid aspen expressing PtSHR2B under the 35S constitutive promoter showed overall reduced tree growth while the proportion of bark increased relative to the wood. Reverse transcription-quantitative PCR (RT-qPCR) revealed increased transcript levels of cytokinin metabolism and response-related genes in the transgenic plants consistent with an increase of total cytokinin levels. This was confirmed by cytokinin quantification by LC-MS/MS. Our results indicate that PtSHR2B appears to function in the phellogen and therefore in the regulation of phellem and periderm formation, possibly acting through modulation of cytokinin homeostasis. Furthermore, this work points to a functional diversification of SHR after the divergence of the Populus and Arabidopsis lineages. This finding may contribute to selection and breeding strategies of cork oak in which, unlike Populus, the phellogen is active throughout the entire tree lifespan, being at the basis of a highly profitable cork industry.

  9. Characterization and mutagenesis of the gene encoding the A49 subunit of RNA polymerase A in Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

    PubMed Central

    Liljelund, P; Mariotte, S; Buhler, J M; Sentenac, A

    1992-01-01

    The gene encoding the 49-kDa subunit of RNA polymerase A in Saccharomyces cerevisiae has been identified by formation of a hybrid enzyme between the S. cerevisiae A49 subunit and Saccharomyces douglasii subunits based on a polymorphism existing between the subunits of RNA polymerase A in these two species. The sequence of the gene reveals a basic protein with an unusually high lysine content, which may account for the affinity for DNA shown by the subunit. No appreciable homology with any polymerase subunits, enzymes, or transcription factors is found. Complete deletion of the single-copy RPA49 gene leads to viable but slowly growing colonies. Insertion of the HIS3 gene halfway into the RPA49 coding region results in synthesis of a truncated A49 subunit that is incorporated into the polymerase. The truncated and wild-type subunits compete equally for assembly in the heterozygous diploid, although the wild type is phenotypically dominant. Images PMID:1409638

  10. The expression of human H2A-H2B histone gene pairs is regulated by multiple sequence elements in their joint promoters.

    PubMed

    Trappe, R; Doenecke, D; Albig, W

    1999-09-03

    The majority of human H2A and H2B histone genes are organized as gene pairs: 14 H2A-H2B gene pairs, one solitary H2A gene and three solitary H2B genes have been described. Two of the H2A genes and two of the H2B genes arranged within gene pairs are pseudogenes. The gene pairs are organized with divergent transcriptional orientation, and the coding regions of the respective H2A and H2B genes are separated by about 320 nucleotide pairs that form overlapping promoter regions. Comparison of promoters of H2A-H2B gene pairs has previously shown that these belong to two different groups (groups I and II) which are characterized by specific patterns of conserved sequence elements. We have constructed a reporter gene vector that allows the simultaneous analysis of both genes regulated by the divergent promoters belonging to group I or II, respectively. Firefly-luciferase and beta-galactosidase genes were taken as reporter genes. Site directed mutagenesis performed at individual promoter elements revealed that individual sequence elements within both groups of promoters functionally depend on each other and may contribute to a coordinate expression of paired H2A and H2B genes through assembly of their joint promoter into a mutually dependent promoter complex. Group II promoters are characterized by the presence of an E2F binding site upstream of the H2A gene-proximal TATA box. Immediately upstream of the E2F element, we have identified a highly conserved octanucleotide CACAGCTT (RT-1) that exists in all human group II H2A-H2B gene promoters. Protein binding studies at the RT-1 element indicate factor binding to this sequence. Site directed mutagenesis indicates that both the E2F element and the RT-1 motif are essential for full promoter activity.

  11. Chromosomal localization of genes encoding guanine nucleotide-binding protein subunits in mouse and human

    SciTech Connect

    Blatt, C.; Eversole-Cire, P.; Cohn, V.H.; Zollman, S.; Fournier, R.E.K.; Mohandas, L.T.; Nesbitt, M.; Lugo, T.; Jones, D.T.; Reed, R.R.; Weiner, L.P.; Sparkes, R.S.; Simon, M.I. )

    1988-10-01

    A variety of genes have been identified that specify the synthesis of the components of guanine nucleotide-binding proteins (G proteins). Eight different guanine nucleotide-binding {alpha}-subunit proteins, two different {beta} subunits, and one {gamma} subunit have been described. Hybridization of cDNA clones with DNA from human-mouse somatic cell hybrids was used to assign many of these genes to human chromosomes. The retinal-specific transducin subunit genes GNAT1 and GNAT2 were on chromosomes 3 and 1; GNAI1, GNAI2, and GNAI3 were assigned to chromosomes 7, 3, and 1, respectively; GNAZ and GNAS were found on chromosomes 22 and 20. The {beta} subunits were also assigned-GNB1 to chromosome 1 and GNB2 to chromosome 7. Restriction fragment length polymorphisms were used to map the homologues of some of these genes in the mouse. GNAT1 and GNAI2 were found to map adjacent to each other on mouse chromosome 9 and GNAT2 was mapped on chromosome 17. The mouse GNB1 gene was assigned to chromosome 19. These mapping assignments will be useful in defining the extend of the G{alpha} gene family and may help in attempts to correlate specific genetic diseases and with genes corresponding to G proteins.

  12. Congenital Central Hypoventilation Syndrome and the PHOX2B Gene: A Model of Respiratory and Autonomic Dysregulation

    PubMed Central

    Patwari, Pallavi P.; Carroll, Michael S.; Rand, Casey M.; Kumar, Rajesh; Harper, Ronald M.; Weese-Mayer, Debra E.

    2010-01-01

    The paired-like homeobox 2B gene (PHOX2B) is the disease-defining gene for congenital central hypoventilation syndrome (CCHS). Individuals with CCHS typically present in the newborn period with alveolar hypoventilation during sleep and often during wakefulness, altered respiratory control including reduced or absent ventilatory responses to hypercarbia and hypoxemia, and autonomic nervous system (ANS) dysregulation; however, a subset of individuals present well into adulthood. Thermoregulation is altered and perception of shortness of breath is absent, but voluntary breathing is retained. Structural and functional magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and limited post-mortem studies in subjects with CCHS reveal abnormalities in both forebrain and brainstem. MRI changes appear in the hypothalamus (responsible for thermal drive to breathing), posterior thalamus and midbrain (mediating O2 and oscillatory motor patterns), caudal raphé and locus coeruleus (regulating serotonergic and noradrenergic systems), the lateral medulla, parabrachial pons, and cerebellum (coordinating chemoreceptor and somatic afferent activity with breathing), and insular and cingulate cortices (mediating shortness of breath perception). Structural and functional alterations in these sites may result from PHOX2B mutations or be secondary to hypoxia/perfusion alterations from suboptimal management/compliance. The study of CCHS, with collaboration between physician-scientists and basic scientists, offers a rare opportunity to investigate control of breathing within the complex physiological network of the ANS. PMID:20601214

  13. The ADRA2B gene in the production of false memories for affective information in healthy female volunteers.

    PubMed

    Fairfield, Beth; Mammarella, Nicola; Di Domenico, Alberto; D'Aurora, Marco; Stuppia, Liborio; Gatta, Valentina

    2017-08-30

    False memories are common memory distortions in everyday life and seem to increase with affectively connoted complex information. In line with recent studies showing a significant interaction between the noradrenergic system and emotional memory, we investigated whether healthy volunteer carriers of the deletion variant of the ADRA2B gene that codes for the α2b-adrenergic receptor are more prone to false memories than non-carriers. In this study, we collected genotype data from 212 healthy female volunteers; 91 ADRA2B carriers and 121 non-carriers. To assess gene effects on false memories for affective information, factorial mixed model analysis of variances (ANOVAs) were conducted with genotype as the between-subjects factor and type of memory error as the within-subjects factor. We found that although carriers and non-carriers made comparable numbers of false memory errors, they showed differences in the direction of valence biases, especially for inferential causal errors. Specifically, carriers produced fewer causal false memory errors for scripts with a negative outcome, whereas non-carriers showed a more general emotional effect and made fewer causal errors with both positive and negative outcomes. These findings suggest that putatively higher levels of noradrenaline in deletion carriers may enhance short-term consolidation of negative information and lead to fewer memory distortions when facing negative events. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Nuclear omnipotent suppressors of premature termination codons in mitochondrial genes affect the 37S mitoribosomal subunit.

    PubMed

    Boguta, M; Mieszczak, M; Zagórski, W

    1988-02-01

    nam3 and R705, yeast nuclear omnipotent suppressors of mitochondrial mit- mutations, reverse the superimposed spectrum of trans-recessive splicing defects by affecting the protein composition of the small mitoribosomal subunit. Analysis of the suppressor's interaction suggests that suppression results from mutations in the mitoribosomal polypeptides. These data indicate an obligatory connection between mitoribosome function and splicing of introns bI2, bI4 and aI1 in yeast mitochondria.

  15. Mas-Related Gene (Mrg) C Activation Attenuates Bone Cancer Pain via Modulating Gi and NR2B.

    PubMed

    Sun, Yu'e; Jiang, Ming; Hou, Bailing; Lu, Cui'e; Lei, Yishan; Ma, Zhengliang; Gu, Xiaoping

    2016-01-01

    This study is to investigate the role of Mas-related gene (Mrg) C in the pathogenesis and treatment of bone cancer pain (BCP). BCP mouse model was established by osteosarcoma cell inoculation. Pain-related behaviors were assessed with the spontaneous lifting behavior test and mechanical allodynia test. Expression levels of MrgC, Gi, and NR2B in the spinal cord were detected with Western blot analysis and immunohistochemistry. Pain-related behavior tests showed significantly increased spontaneous flinches (NSF) and decreased paw withdrawal mechanical threshold (PWMT) in mouse models of BCP. Western blot analysis showed that, compared with the control group and before modeling, all the expression levels of MrgC, Gi, and NR2B in the spinal cord of BCP mice were dramatically elevated, which were especially increased at day 7 after operation and thereafter, in a time-dependent manner. Moreover, the treatment of MrgC agonist BAM8-22 significantly up-regulated Gi and down-regulated NR2B expression levels, in the spinal cord of BCP mice, in a time-dependent manner. On the other hand, anti-MrgC significantly down-regulated Gi expression, while dramatically up-regulated NR2B expression, in the BCP mice. Similar results were obtained from the immunohistochemical detection. Importantly, BAM8-22 significantly attenuated the nociceptive behaviors in the BCP mice. Our results indicated the MrgC-mediated Gi and NR2B expression alterations in the BCP mice, which might contribute to the pain hypersensitivity. These findings may provide a novel strategy for the treatment of BCP in clinic.

  16. Mas-Related Gene (Mrg) C Activation Attenuates Bone Cancer Pain via Modulating Gi and NR2B

    PubMed Central

    Lu, Cui’e; Lei, Yishan; Ma, Zhengliang; Gu, Xiaoping

    2016-01-01

    Objective This study is to investigate the role of Mas-related gene (Mrg) C in the pathogenesis and treatment of bone cancer pain (BCP). Methods BCP mouse model was established by osteosarcoma cell inoculation. Pain-related behaviors were assessed with the spontaneous lifting behavior test and mechanical allodynia test. Expression levels of MrgC, Gi, and NR2B in the spinal cord were detected with Western blot analysis and immunohistochemistry. Results Pain-related behavior tests showed significantly increased spontaneous flinches (NSF) and decreased paw withdrawal mechanical threshold (PWMT) in mouse models of BCP. Western blot analysis showed that, compared with the control group and before modeling, all the expression levels of MrgC, Gi, and NR2B in the spinal cord of BCP mice were dramatically elevated, which were especially increased at day 7 after operation and thereafter, in a time-dependent manner. Moreover, the treatment of MrgC agonist BAM8-22 significantly up-regulated Gi and down-regulated NR2B expression levels, in the spinal cord of BCP mice, in a time-dependent manner. On the other hand, anti-MrgC significantly down-regulated Gi expression, while dramatically up-regulated NR2B expression, in the BCP mice. Similar results were obtained from the immunohistochemical detection. Importantly, BAM8-22 significantly attenuated the nociceptive behaviors in the BCP mice. Conclusion Our results indicated the MrgC-mediated Gi and NR2B expression alterations in the BCP mice, which might contribute to the pain hypersensitivity. These findings may provide a novel strategy for the treatment of BCP in clinic. PMID:27152740

  17. Targeted mutagenesis of aryl hydrocarbon receptor 2a and 2b genes in Atlantic killifish (Fundulus heteroclitus).

    PubMed

    Aluru, Neelakanteswar; Karchner, Sibel I; Franks, Diana G; Nacci, Diane; Champlin, Denise; Hahn, Mark E

    2015-01-01

    Understanding molecular mechanisms of toxicity is facilitated by experimental manipulations, such as disruption of function by gene targeting, that are especially challenging in non-standard model species with limited genomic resources. While loss-of-function approaches have included gene knock-down using morpholino-modified oligonucleotides and random mutagenesis using mutagens or retroviruses, more recent approaches include targeted mutagenesis using zinc finger nuclease (ZFN), transcription activator-like effector nuclease (TALENs) and clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats (CRISPR)-Cas9 technology. These latter methods provide more accessible opportunities to explore gene function in non-traditional model species. To facilitate evaluation of toxic mechanisms for important categories of aryl hydrocarbon pollutants, whose actions are known to be receptor mediated, we used ZFN and CRISPR-Cas9 approaches to generate aryl hydrocarbon receptor 2a (AHR2a) and AHR2b gene mutations in Atlantic killifish (Fundulus heteroclitus) embryos. This killifish is a particularly valuable non-traditional model, with multiple paralogs of AHR whose functions are not well characterized. In addition, some populations of this species have evolved resistance to toxicants such as halogenated aromatic hydrocarbons. AHR-null killifish will be valuable for characterizing the role of the individual AHR paralogs in evolved resistance, as well as in normal development. We first used five-finger ZFNs targeting exons 1 and 3 of AHR2a. Subsequently, CRISPR-Cas9 guide RNAs were designed to target regions in exon 2 and 3 of AHR2a and AHR2b. We successfully induced frameshift mutations in AHR2a exon 3 with ZFN and CRISPR-Cas9 guide RNAs, with mutation frequencies of 10% and 16%, respectively. In AHR2b, mutations were induced using CRISPR-Cas9 guide RNAs targeting sites in both exon 2 (17%) and exon 3 (63%). We screened AHR2b exon 2 CRISPR-Cas9-injected embryos for off

  18. Targeted mutagenesis of aryl hydrocarbon receptor 2a and 2b genes in Atlantic killifish (Fundulus heteroclitus)

    PubMed Central

    Aluru, Neelakanteswar; Karchner, Sibel I.; Franks, Diana G.; Nacci, Diane; Champlin, Denise; Hahn, Mark E.

    2014-01-01

    Understanding molecular mechanisms of toxicity is facilitated by experimental manipulations, such as disruption of function by gene targeting, that are especially challenging in non-standard model species with limited genomic resources. While loss-of-function approaches have included gene knock-down using morpholino-modified oligonucleotides and random mutagenesis using mutagens or retroviruses, more recent approaches include targeted mutagenesis using zinc finger nuclease (ZFN), transcription activator-like effector nuclease (TALENs) and clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats (CRISPR)-Cas9 technology. These latter methods provide more accessible opportunities to explore gene function in non-traditional model species. To facilitate evaluations of toxic mechanisms for important categories of aryl hydrocarbon pollutants, whose actions are known to be receptor mediated, we used ZFN and CRISPR-Cas9 approaches to generate aryl hydrocarbon receptor 2a (AHR2a) and AHR2b gene mutations in Atlantic killifish (Fundulus heteroclitus) embryos. This killifish is a particularly valuble non-traditional model for this study, with multiple paralogs of AHR whose functions are not well characterized. In addition, some populations of this species have evolved resistance to toxicants such as halogenated aromatic hydrocarbons. AHR-null killifish will be valuable for characterizing the role of the individual AHR paralogs in evolved resistance, as well as in normal development. We first used five-finger ZFNs targeting exons 1 and 3 of AHR2a. Subsequently, CRISPR-Cas9 guide RNAs were designed to target regions in exon 2 and 3 of AHR2a and AHR2b. We successfully induced frameshift mutations in AHR2a exon 3 with ZFN and CRISPR-Cas9 guide RNAs, with mutation frequencies of 10% and 16%, respectively. In AHR2b, mutations were induced using CRISPR-Cas9 guide RNAs targeting sites in both exon 2 (17%) and exon 3 (63%). We screened AHR2b exon 2 CRISPR-Cas9-injected embryos for

  19. Overexpression of a CYP94 family gene CYP94C2b increases internode length and plant height in rice

    PubMed Central

    Kurotani, Ken-Ich; Hattori, Tsukaho; Takeda, Shin

    2015-01-01

    Plant growth is controlled by intrinsic developmental programmes and environmental cues. Jasmonate (JA) has important roles in both processes, by regulating cell division and differentiation, as well as in defense responses and senescence. We report an increase in rice plant height caused by overexpression of a gene encoding a cytochrome P450 enzyme, CYP94C2b, which promoted deactivation of JA-Ile. The height increase occurred through enhanced elongation of internodes in the absence of concomitant cell elongation, unlike previous findings with coi1 knock-down plants. Thus, modulating JA metabolism can increase the number of elongated cells in an internode. Based on these and previous findings, we discuss the difference in the effects of CYP94C2b overexpression vs. coi1 knock-down. PMID:26251886

  20. Methionine adenosyltransferase II beta subunit gene expression provides a proliferative advantage in human hepatoma.

    PubMed

    Martínez-Chantar, Maria L; García-Trevijano, Elena R; Latasa, M Ujue; Martín-Duce, Antonio; Fortes, Puri; Caballería, Juan; Avila, Matías A; Mato, José M

    2003-04-01

    Of the 2 genes (MAT1A, MAT2A) encoding methionine adenosyltransferase, the enzyme that synthesizes S-adenosylmethionine, MAT1A, is expressed in liver, whereas MAT2A is expressed in extrahepatic tissues. In liver, MAT2A expression associates with growth, dedifferentiation, and cancer. Here, we identified the beta subunit as a regulator of proliferation in human hepatoma cell lines. The beta subunit has been cloned and shown to lower the K(m) of methionine adenosyltransferase II alpha2 (the MAT2A product) for methionine and to render the enzyme more susceptible to S-adenosylmethionine inhibition. Methionine adenosyltransferase II alpha2 and beta subunit expression was analyzed in human and rat liver and hepatoma cell lines and their interaction studied in HuH7 cells. beta Subunit expression was up- and down-regulated in human hepatoma cell lines and the effect on DNA synthesis determined. We found that beta subunit is expressed in rat extrahepatic tissues but not in normal liver. In human liver, beta subunit expression associates with cirrhosis and hepatoma. beta Subunit is expressed in most (HepG2, PLC, and Hep3B) but not all (HuH7) hepatoma cell lines. Transfection of beta subunit reduced S-adenosylmethionine content and stimulated DNA synthesis in HuH7 cells, whereas down-regulation of beta subunit expression diminished DNA synthesis in HepG2. The interaction between methionine adenosyltransferase II alpha2 and beta subunit was demonstrated in HuH7 cells. Our findings indicate that beta subunit associates with cirrhosis and cancer providing a proliferative advantage in hepatoma cells through its interaction with methionine adenosyltransferase II alpha2 and down-regulation of S-adenosylmethionine levels.

  1. The human ATP synthase beta subunit gene: sequence analysis, chromosome assignment, and differential expression.

    PubMed

    Neckelmann, N; Warner, C K; Chung, A; Kudoh, J; Minoshima, S; Fukuyama, R; Maekawa, M; Shimizu, Y; Shimizu, N; Liu, J D

    1989-11-01

    In humans, the functional F0F1-ATP synthase beta subunit gene is located on chromosome 12 in the p13----qter region. Other partially homologous sequences have been detected on chromosomes 2 and 17. The bona fide beta subunit gene has 10 exons encoding a leader peptide of 49 amino acids and a mature protein of 480 amino acids. Thirteen Alu family DNA repeats are found upstream from the gene and in four introns. The gene has four "CCAAT" sequences upstream and in close proximity to the transcriptional initiation site. A 13-bp motif is found in the 5' nontranscribed region of both the beta subunit gene and an ADP/ATP translocator gene that is expressed in high levels in cardiac and skeletal muscle. Analysis of the beta subunit mRNA levels reveals marked differences among tissues. The highest levels are found in heart, lower levels in skeletal muscle, and the lowest levels in liver and kidney. These findings suggest that the tissue-specific levels of ATP synthase beta subunit mRNA may be generated through transcriptional control.

  2. MULTIPLEX PCR ASSAY FOR DETECTION OF HUMAN SOMATOTROPIN AND INTERFERON ALPHA2b GENES IN PLANT MATERIAL.

    PubMed

    Gerasymenko, I M; Mazur, M G; Sheludko, Y V; Kuchuk, N V

    2015-01-01

    Using transgenic plants as factories for production of physiologically active human proteins arouses special concern because occasional escape of such transgenes into environment may cause health problems. Creation of plant varieties producing pharmaceutically valuable proteins should be accompanied by development of detection methods suitable for controlling the transgene behavior. Here we describe a multiplex PCR protocol for revealing of two human genes (encoding growth hormone and interferon alpha2b) that have been successfully introduced into plant genomes. The primer pair designed for detection of human growth hormone coding sequence amplifies fragments of different size from the full-length gene in the human genome and the intronless coding sequence usually used for plant transformation. Application of this primer pair may be recommended for ruling out false positive results due to sample contamination with human DNA. Such a control may be useful also in PCR analysis during establishing of transgenic plants carrying genes of human origin.

  3. Nuclear respiratory factor 2 regulates the expression of the same NMDA receptor subunit genes as NRF-1: both factors act by a concurrent and parallel mechanism to couple energy metabolism and synaptic transmission.

    PubMed

    Priya, Anusha; Johar, Kaid; Wong-Riley, Margaret T T

    2013-01-01

    Neuronal activity and energy metabolism are tightly coupled processes. Previously, we found that nuclear respiratory factor 1 (NRF-1) transcriptionally co-regulates energy metabolism and neuronal activity by regulating all 13 subunits of the critical energy generating enzyme, cytochrome c oxidase (COX), as well as N-methyl-d-aspartate (NMDA) receptor subunits 1 and 2B, GluN1 (Grin1) and GluN2B (Grin2b). We also found that another transcription factor, nuclear respiratory factor 2 (NRF-2 or GA-binding protein) regulates all subunits of COX as well. The goal of the present study was to test our hypothesis that NRF-2 also regulates specific subunits of NMDA receptors, and that it functions with NRF-1 via one of three mechanisms: complementary, concurrent and parallel, or a combination of complementary and concurrent/parallel. By means of multiple approaches, including in silico analysis, electrophoretic mobility shift and supershift assays, in vivo chromatin immunoprecipitation of mouse neuroblastoma cells and rat visual cortical tissue, promoter mutations, real-time quantitative PCR, and western blot analysis, NRF-2 was found to functionally regulate Grin1 and Grin2b genes, but not any other NMDA subunit genes. Grin1 and Grin2b transcripts were up-regulated by depolarizing KCl, but silencing of NRF-2 prevented this up-regulation. On the other hand, over-expression of NRF-2 rescued the down-regulation of these subunits by the impulse blocker TTX. NRF-2 binding sites on Grin1 and Grin2b are conserved among species. Our data indicate that NRF-2 and NRF-1 operate in a concurrent and parallel manner in mediating the tight coupling between energy metabolism and neuronal activity at the molecular level.

  4. Structure-guided design of new indoles as negative allosteric modulators (NAMs) of N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor (NMDAR) containing GluN2B subunit.

    PubMed

    Buemi, Maria Rosa; De Luca, Laura; Ferro, Stefania; Russo, Emilio; De Sarro, Giovambattista; Gitto, Rosaria

    2016-04-01

    Negative allosteric modulators (NAMs) of GluN2B-containing NMDARs provide pharmacological tools for the treatment of chronic neurodegenerative diseases. Novel NAMs have been designed on the basis of computational studies focused on the 'hit compound' 3. This series of indoles has been tested in competition assay. Compounds 16 and 17 were the most active ligands (IC50 values of 83 nM and 71 nM, respectively) and they showed a potency close to that of reference compounds ifenprodil (1, IC50=47 nM) and 3 (IC50=25 nM). Furthermore, docking studies have been performed for active ligand 16 and the results were in a good agreement with biological data.

  5. Recognition of chimeric small-subunit ribosomal DNAs composed of genes from uncultivated microorganisms

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kopczynski, E. D.; Bateson, M. M.; Ward, D. M.

    1994-01-01

    When PCR was used to recover small-subunit (SSU) rRNA genes from a hot spring cyanobacterial mat community, chimeric SSU rRNA sequences which exhibited little or no secondary structural abnormality were recovered. They were revealed as chimeras of SSU rRNA genes of uncultivated species through separate phylogenetic analysis of short sequence domains.

  6. Recognition of chimeric small-subunit ribosomal DNAs composed of genes from uncultivated microorganisms

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kopczynski, E. D.; Bateson, M. M.; Ward, D. M.

    1994-01-01

    When PCR was used to recover small-subunit (SSU) rRNA genes from a hot spring cyanobacterial mat community, chimeric SSU rRNA sequences which exhibited little or no secondary structural abnormality were recovered. They were revealed as chimeras of SSU rRNA genes of uncultivated species through separate phylogenetic analysis of short sequence domains.

  7. Cloning, Transformation and Expression of Human Interferon α2b Gene in Tobacco Plant (Nicotiana tabacum cv. xanthi)

    PubMed Central

    Ahangarzadeh, Shahrzad; Daneshvar, Mohammad Hosein; Rajabi-Memari, Hamid; Galehdari, Hamid; Alamisaied, Khalil

    2012-01-01

    Background Molecular farming is the production of important recombinant proteins in transgenic organisms on an agricultural scale. Interferons are proteins with antiviral and antitumor activities and can be used for viral infections and cancers treatments. Objectives This study reports the transformation of INF α2b gene in tobacco plant for the first time in Iran. Materials and Methods Interferon α2b gene was amplified by PCR using specific primers containing appropriate restriction enzymes, plant highly expression sequence and Histidine tag sequence. Target sequence was cloned in plant expression vector pCAMBIA1304 and the construct named pCAMINFα. pCAMINFα was transferred to E. coli strain DH5α and plated on LB agar medium containing kanamycin 50 mgl-1. The colonies were confirmed by colony PCR and sequencing. The construct was transferred into Agrobacterium tumefaciens by freeze-thaw method and transformed colonies were confirmed by colony PCR. Tobacco plants (cultivar xanthi) were inoculated with A. tumefaciens strain LBA4404 by leaf disc method. Inoculated explants were cultured on MSII (MS + BAP 1mgl-1 + NAA 0.1 mgl-1) at 28°C and darkness for 48 hours. Then explants were transferred to selection medium containing cephotaxime (250 mgl-1) and hygromycin (15 mgl-1) in a 16/8 (day/night) h photoperiod in growth room with an irradiance of 5000 lux. Transgenic plants were regenerated and transferred to perlite. Genomic DNA was extracted from regenerated plants by Dellaporta method at 5-leaf step and transgenic lines were confirmed by PCR with specific primers. Expression of Interferon α2b gene was confirmed by dot blotting. Conclusions Since no report of interferon alpha production in plants in Iran has been expressed yet, this research could create a field of producing this drug in tobacco, in Iran. PMID:24624166

  8. A nonverbal learning disability in a case of central hypoventilation syndrome without a PHOX2B gene mutation.

    PubMed

    Trobliger, Robert; Zaroff, Charles M; Grayson, Richard H; Higgins, Joseph J

    2010-01-01

    This study examines the neuropsychological profile of a boy with congenital central hypoventilation syndrome (CCHS) without a paired-like homeobox gene (PHOX2B) mutation. CCHS is a rare disorder of autonomic nervous system development characterized by an impaired ventilatory response to hypercarbia and hypoxemia. Mild intellectual deficits are common but a specific cognitive profile is not established in CCHS. We describe a nonverbal learning disorder as a CCHS endophenotype and recommend that detailed neuropsychological testing be performed on all individuals with CCHS. Defining the psycho-educational needs in CCHS may avert compounding the emotional and medical stresses of this already debilitating disorder.

  9. Expanding the Mutation Spectrum Affecting αIIbβ3 Integrin in Glanzmann Thrombasthenia: Screening of the ITGA2B and ITGB3 Genes in a Large International Cohort.

    PubMed

    Nurden, Alan T; Pillois, Xavier; Fiore, Mathieu; Alessi, Marie-Christine; Bonduel, Mariana; Dreyfus, Marie; Goudemand, Jenny; Gruel, Yves; Benabdallah-Guerida, Schéhérazade; Latger-Cannard, Véronique; Négrier, Claude; Nugent, Diane; Oiron, Roseline D; Rand, Margaret L; Sié, Pierre; Trossaert, Marc; Alberio, Lorenzo; Martins, Nathalie; Sirvain-Trukniewicz, Peggy; Couloux, Arnaud; Canault, Mathias; Fronthroth, Juan Pablo; Fretigny, Mathilde; Nurden, Paquita; Heilig, Roland; Vinciguerra, Christine

    2015-05-01

    We report the largest international study on Glanzmann thrombasthenia (GT), an inherited bleeding disorder where defects of the ITGA2B and ITGB3 genes cause quantitative or qualitative defects of the αIIbβ3 integrin, a key mediator of platelet aggregation. Sequencing of the coding regions and splice sites of both genes in members of 76 affected families identified 78 genetic variants (55 novel) suspected to cause GT. Four large deletions or duplications were found by quantitative real-time PCR. Families with mutations in either gene were indistinguishable in terms of bleeding severity that varied even among siblings. Families were grouped into type I and the rarer type II or variant forms with residual αIIbβ3 expression. Variant forms helped identify genes encoding proteins mediating integrin activation. Splicing defects and stop codons were common for both ITGA2B and ITGB3 and essentially led to a reduced or absent αIIbβ3 expression; included was a heterozygous c.1440-13_c.1440-1del in intron 14 of ITGA2B causing exon skipping in seven unrelated families. Molecular modeling revealed how many missense mutations induced subtle changes in αIIb and β3 domain structure across both subunits, thereby interfering with integrin maturation and/or function. Our study extends knowledge of GT and the pathophysiology of an integrin. © 2015 WILEY PERIODICALS, INC.

  10. Mammalian mitochondrial ribosomal small subunit (MRPS) genes: A putative role in human disease.

    PubMed

    Gopisetty, Gopal; Thangarajan, Rajkumar

    2016-09-01

    Mitochondria are prominently understood as power houses producing ATP the primary energy currency of the cell. However, mitochondria are also known to play an important role in apoptosis and autophagy, and mitochondrial dysregulation can lead to pathological outcomes. Mitochondria are known to contain 1500 proteins of which only 13 are coded by mitochondrial DNA and the rest are coded by nuclear genes. Protein synthesis in mitochondria involves mitochondrial ribosomes which are 55-60S particles and are composed of small 28S and large 39S subunits. A feature of mammalian mitoribosome which differentiate it from bacterial ribosomes is the increased protein content. The human mitochondrial ribosomal protein (MRP) gene family comprises of 30 genes which code for mitochondrial ribosomal small subunit and 50 genes for the large subunit. The present review focuses on the mitochondrial ribosomal small subunit genes (MRPS), presents an overview of the literature and data gleaned from publicly available gene and protein expression databases. The survey revealed aberrations in MRPS gene expression patterns in varied human diseases indicating a putative role in their etiology.

  11. Genetic disruption of the autism spectrum disorder risk gene PLAUR induces GABAA receptor subunit changes

    PubMed Central

    Eagleson, Kathie L.; Gravielle, Maria C.; SchlueterMcFadyen-Ketchum, Lisa J.; Russek, Shelley J.; Farb, David H.; Levitt, Pat

    2010-01-01

    Disruption of the GABAergic system has been implicated in multiple developmental disorders, including epilepsy, autism spectrum disorder and schizophrenia. The human gene encoding uPAR (PLAUR) has been shown recently to be associated with the risk of autism. The uPAR-/- mouse exhibits a regionally selective reduction in GABAergic interneurons in frontal and parietal regions of the cerebral cortex as well as in the CA1 and dentate gyrus subfields of the hippocampus. Behaviorally, these mice exhibit increased sensitivity to pharmacologically-induced seizures, heightened anxiety, and atypical social behavior. Here, we explore potential alterations in GABAergic circuitry that may occur in the context of altered interneuron development. Analysis of gene expression for 13 GABAA receptor subunits using quantitative real-time PCR indicates seven subunit mRNAs (α1, α2, α3, β2, β3, γ2S and γ2L) of interest. Semi-quantitative in situ hybridization analysis focusing on these subunit mRNAs reveals a complex pattern of potential gene regulatory adaptations. The levels of α2 subunit mRNAs increase in frontal cortex, CA1 and CA3, while those of α3 decrease in frontal cortex and CA1. In contrast, α1 subunit mRNAs are unaltered in any region examined. β2 subunit mRNAs are increased in frontal cortex whereas β3 subunit mRNAs are decreased in parietal cortex. Finally, γ2S subunit mRNAs are increased in parietal cortex while γ2L subunit mRNAs are increased in the dentate gyrus, potentially altering the γ2S:γ2L ratio in these two regions. For all subunits, no changes were observed in forebrain regions where GABAergic interneuron numbers are normal. We propose that disrupted differentiation of GABAergic neurons specifically in frontal and parietal cortices leads to regionally-selective alterations in local circuitry and subsequent adaptive changes in receptor subunit composition. Future electrophysiological studies will be useful in determining how alterations in network

  12. Identification of novel pathways and molecules able to down-regulate PHOX2B gene expression by in vitro drug screening approaches in neuroblastoma cells.

    PubMed

    Di Zanni, Eleonora; Fornasari, Diego; Ravazzolo, Roberto; Ceccherini, Isabella; Bachetti, Tiziana

    2015-08-01

    PHOX2B is a transcription factor involved in the regulation of neurogenesis and in the correct differentiation of the autonomic nervous system. The pathogenetic role of PHOX2B in neuroblastoma (NB) is supported by mutations in familial, sporadic and syndromic cases of NB and overexpression of PHOX2B and its target ALK in tumor samples and NB cell lines. Starting from these observations, we have performed in vitro drug screening approaches targeting PHOX2B overexpression as a potential pharmacological means in NB. In particular, in order to identify molecules able to decrease PHOX2B expression, we have evaluated the effects of 70 compounds in IMR-32 cell line stably expressing the luciferase gene under the control of the PHOX2B promoter. Curcumin, SAHA and trichostatin A showed to down-regulate the PHOX2B promoter activity which resulted in a decrease of both protein and mRNA expressions. In addition, we have observed that curcumin acts by interfering with PBX-1/MEIS-1, NF-κB and AP-1 complexes, in this work demonstrated for the first time to regulate the transcription of the PHOX2B gene. Finally, combined drug treatments showed successful effects in down-regulating the expression of both PHOX2B and its target ALK genes, thus supporting the notion of the effectiveness of molecule combination in tumor therapy.

  13. Localization of the human genes encoding the two subunits of general transcription factor TFIIE.

    PubMed

    Purrello, M; Di Pietro, C; Rapisarda, A; Motta, S; Pavone, L; Grzeschik, K H; Sichel, G

    1994-09-01

    TFIIE is a general transcription factor for class II genes composed of two types of subunits, a large one of 56 kDa and a small of 34 kDa. By Southern analysis at high and at low stringency of a panel of mouse/human hybrid cell lines and by in situ chromosomal hybridization, we have demonstrated that both polypeptides are encoded by genes that are single copy in the human genome and are localized at 3q13-q21 and at 8p12, respectively. A TaqI RFLP (heterozygosity index of 0.07) was detected at the locus for the 56-kDa subunit.

  14. Identification of co-expressed gene signatures in mouse B1, marginal zone and B2 B-cell populations

    PubMed Central

    Mabbott, Neil A; Gray, David

    2014-01-01

    In mice, three major B-cell subsets have been identified with distinct functionalities: B1 B cells, marginal zone B cells and follicular B2 B cells. Here, we used the growing body of publicly available transcriptomics data to create an expression atlas of 84 gene expression microarray data sets of distinct mouse B-cell subsets. These data were subjected to network-based cluster analysis using BioLayout Express3D. Using this analysis tool, genes with related functions clustered together in discrete regions of the network graph and enabled the identification of transcriptional networks that underpinned the functional activity of distinct cell populations. Some gene clusters were expressed highly by most of the cell populations included in this analysis (such as those with activity related to house-keeping functions). Others contained genes with expression patterns specific to distinct B-cell subsets. While these clusters contained many genes typically associated with the activity of the cells they were specifically expressed in, many novel B-cell-subset-specific candidate genes were identified. A large number of uncharacterized genes were also represented in these B-cell lineage-specific clusters. Further analysis of the activities of these uncharacterized candidate genes will lead to the identification of novel B-cell lineage-specific transcription factors and regulators of B-cell function. We also analysed 36 microarray data sets from distinct human B-cell populations. These data showed that mouse and human germinal centre B cells shared similar transcriptional features, whereas mouse B1 B cells were distinct from proposed human B1 B cells. PMID:24032749

  15. Structural analysis of the α subunit of Na(+)/K(+) ATPase genes in invertebrates.

    PubMed

    Thabet, Rahma; Rouault, J-D; Ayadi, Habib; Leignel, Vincent

    2016-01-01

    The Na(+)/K(+) ATPase is a ubiquitous pump coordinating the transport of Na(+) and K(+) across the membrane of cells and its role is fundamental to cellular functions. It is heteromer in eukaryotes including two or three subunits (α, β and γ which is specific to the vertebrates). The catalytic functions of the enzyme have been attributed to the α subunit. Several complete α protein sequences are available, but only few gene structures were characterized. We identified the genomic sequences coding the α-subunit of the Na(+)/K(+) ATPase, from the whole-genome shotgun contigs (WGS), NCBI Genomes (chromosome), Genomic Survey Sequences (GSS) and High Throughput Genomic Sequences (HTGS) databases across distinct phyla. One copy of the α subunit gene was found in Annelida, Arthropoda, Cnidaria, Echinodermata, Hemichordata, Mollusca, Placozoa, Porifera, Platyhelminthes, Urochordata, but the nematodes seem to possess 2 to 4 copies. The number of introns varied from 0 (Platyhelminthes) to 26 (Porifera); and their localization and length are also highly variable. Molecular phylogenies (Maximum Likelihood and Maximum Parsimony methods) showed some clusters constituted by (Chordata/(Echinodermata/Hemichordata)) or (Plathelminthes/(Annelida/Mollusca)) and a basal position for Porifera. These structural analyses increase our knowledge about the evolutionary events of the α subunit genes in the invertebrates. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. The neuronal nicotinic acetylcholine receptor {alpha}7 subunit gene: Cloning, mapping, structure, and targeting in mouse

    SciTech Connect

    Orr-Urtreger, A.; Baldini, A.; Beaudet, A.L.

    1994-09-01

    The neuronal nicotinic acetylcholine receptor {alpha}7 subunit is a member of a family of ligand-gated ion channels, and is the only subunit know to bind {alpha}-bungarotoxin in mammalian brain. {alpha}-Bungarotoxin binding sites are known to be more abundant in the hippocampus of mouse strains that are particularly sensitive to nicotine-induced seizures. The {alpha}7 receptor is highly permeable to calcium, which could suggest a role in synaptic plasticity in the nervous system. Auditory gating deficiency, an abnormal response to a second auditory stimulus, is characteristic of schizophrenia. Mouse strains that exhibit a similar gating deficit have reduced hippocampal expression of the {alpha}7 subunit. We have cloned and sequenced the full length cDNA for the mouse {alpha}7 gene (Acra-7) and characterized its gene structure. The murine {alpha}7 shares amino acid identity of 99% and 93% with the rat and human {alpha}7 subunits, respectively. Using an interspecies backcross panel, the murine gene was mapped to chromosome 7 near the p locus, a region syntenic with human chromosome 15; the human gene (CHRNA7) was confirmed to map to 15q13-q14 by FISH. To generate a mouse {alpha}7 mutant by homologous recombination, we have constructed a replacement vector which will delete transmembrane domains II-IV and the cytoplasmic domain from the gene product. Recombinant embryonic stem (ES) cell clones were selected and used to develop mouse chimeras that are currently being bred to obtain germline transmission.

  17. The D-isoAsp-25 variant of histone H2B is highly enriched in active chromatin: potential role in the regulation of gene expression?

    PubMed

    Qin, Zhenxia; Zhu, Jeff X; Aswad, Dana W

    2016-02-01

    Approximately 12 % of histone H2B in mammalian brain contains an unusual D-aspartate residue in its N-terminal tail. Most of this D-aspartate is linked to the C-flanking glycine via an isopeptide bond. To explore the possible significance of these modifications, we generated an antibody to the D-isoaspartyl form of H2B, and used it to assess its levels in H2B associated with "active" vs. "silent" chromatin. We found that the D-isoaspartyl form of H2B appears to be highly enriched in the former. This irreversible modification could serve a novel regulatory function in gene expression.

  18. Novel Functional Residues in the Core Domain of Histone H2B Regulate Yeast Gene Expression and Silencing and Affect the Response to DNA Damage ▿

    PubMed Central

    Kyriss, McKenna N. M.; Jin, Yi; Gallegos, Isaura J.; Sanford, James A.; Wyrick, John J.

    2010-01-01

    Previous studies have identified novel modifications in the core fold domain of histone H2B, but relatively little is known about the function of these putative histone modification sites. We have mutated core modifiable residues that are conserved in Saccharomyces cerevisiae histone H2B and characterized the effects of the mutants on yeast silencing, gene expression, and the DNA damage response. We identified three histone H2B core modifiable residues as functionally important. We find that mutating H2B K49 in yeast confers a UV sensitivity phenotype, and we confirm that the homologous residue in human histone H2B is acetylated and methylated in human cells. Our results also indicate that mutating H2B K111 impairs the response to methyl methanesulfonate (MMS)-induced DNA lesions and disrupts telomeric silencing and Sir4 binding. In contrast, mutating H2B R102 enhances silencing at yeast telomeres and the HML silent mating loci and increases Sir4 binding to these regions. The H2B R102A mutant also represses the expression of endogenous genes adjacent to yeast telomeres, which is likely due to the ectopic spreading of the Sir complex in this mutant strain. We propose a structural model by which H2B R102 and K111 regulate the binding of the Sir complex to the nucleosome. PMID:20479120

  19. Decreased calcium pump expression in human erythrocytes is connected to a minor haplotype in the ATP2B4 gene.

    PubMed

    Zámbó, Boglárka; Várady, György; Padányi, Rita; Szabó, Edit; Németh, Adrienn; Langó, Tamás; Enyedi, Ágnes; Sarkadi, Balázs

    2017-02-03

    Plasma membrane Ca(2+)-ATPases are key calcium exporter proteins in most tissues, and PMCA4b is the main calcium transporter in the human red blood cells (RBCs). In order to assess the expression level of PMCA4b, we have developed a flow cytometry and specific antibody binding method to quantitatively detect this protein in the erythrocyte membrane. Interestingly, we found several healthy volunteers showing significantly reduced expression of RBC-PMCA4b. Western blot analysis of isolated RBC membranes confirmed this observation, and indicated that there are no compensatory alterations in other PMCA isoforms. In addition, reduced PMCA4b levels correlated with a lower calcium extrusion capacity in these erythrocytes. When exploring the potential genetic background of the reduced PMCA4b levels, we found no missense mutations in the ATP2B4 coding regions, while a formerly unrecognized minor haplotype in the predicted second promoter region closely correlated with lower erythrocyte PMCA4b protein levels. In recent GWA studies, SNPs in this ATP2B4 haplotype have been linked to reduced mean corpuscular hemoglobin concentrations (MCHC), and to protection against malaria infection. Our data suggest that an altered regulation of gene expression is responsible for the reduced RBC-PMCA4b levels that is probably linked to the development of human disease-related phenotypes.

  20. The molecular prevalence and MSA-2b gene-based genetic diversity of Babesia bovis in dairy cattle in Thailand.

    PubMed

    Simking, Pacharathon; Saengow, Sinsamuth; Bangphoomi, Kunan; Sarataphan, Nachai; Wongnarkpet, Sirichai; Inpankaew, Tawin; Jittapalapong, Sathaporn; Munkhjargal, Tserendorj; Sivakumar, Thillaiampalam; Yokoyama, Naoaki; Igarashi, Ikuo

    2013-11-08

    Bovine babesiosis is an economically significant disease that affects dairy farming operations in Thailand. In the present study, 1824 blood-DNA samples prepared from cattle bred in 4 different regions of the country (North, Northeast, Central, and South) were screened using a nested PCR for the specific detection of Babesia bovis. While the overall prevalence of B. bovis was 8.8%, the Central region of Thailand was found to be a high-risk area of the country, as the prevalence of the parasite was 15.0%. The positive rate was relatively higher among the animals of 1-5 years of age. The genetic diversity among the B. bovis parasites was also studied based on their MSA-2b gene, and the findings showed that the Thai sequences were dispersed across 8 of 13 total clades observed in the phylogram. Three of these clades were formed only of Thai sequences. Similarity among the deduced MSA-2b amino acid sequences determined in the present study was 68.3-100%. In conclusion, the present study found that all the locations surveyed were infected with B. bovis and that the parasite populations in Thailand were genetically diverse. Our findings highlight the need for further studies in Thailand to generate more information before a sound control strategy could be implemented against B. bovis.

  1. [Phenotypic variations in Aicardi-Goutieres syndrome caused by RNASEH2B gene mutations: report of two new cases].

    PubMed

    Ortiz-Madinaveitia, Saturnino; Conejo-Moreno, David; López-Pisón, Javier; Peña-Segura, José Luis; Serrano-Madrid, M Luisa; Durán-Palacios, Ingrid C; Peláez-Cabo, Pilar

    2016-02-16

    Introduccion. El sindrome de Aicardi-Goutieres es un trastorno inmunitario raro debido a mutaciones en siete genes que codifican proteinas llamadas TREX1, el complejo ribonucleasa H2, SAMHD1, ADAR e IFIH1 (MAD5), las cuales estan implicadas en el metabolismo de los acidos nucleicos. A continuacion se presentan dos nuevos casos por mutacion en el gen RNASEH2B, uno de los cuales presenta una mutacion no descrita hasta la fecha. Casos clinicos. Caso 1: varon que consulto porque desde los 5 meses, coincidiendo con cuadros febriles de repeticion, presentaba perdida de los items madurativos adquiridos hasta la fecha. Caso 2: niño de 4 meses que desde los 2 meses mostraba gran irritabilidad con dificultades en la alimentacion, asociado a un grave retraso psicomotor. En ambos casos se constato un aumento de las pterinas en el liquido cefalorraquideo, principalmente de la neopterina, con calcificaciones en los ganglios basales. El diagnostico se confirmo mediante secuenciacion del gen RNASEH2B; el caso 2 presentaba una mutacion no descrita en la literatura medica. Conclusiones. Los casos corresponden a la descripcion clasica realizada por Aicardi-Goutieres. Debe tenerse en cuenta este sindrome ante un paciente con un cuadro de encefalopatia subaguda de comienzo en el primer año de vida, distonia/espasticidad en grado variable e importante afectacion/regresion del desarrollo psicomotor, especialmente si asocia aumento de las pterinas (neopterina) en el liquido cefalorraquideo y calcificaciones en los ganglios basales.

  2. Missense mutation in the Chlamydomonas chloroplast gene that encodes the Rubisco large subunit

    SciTech Connect

    Spreitzer, R.J.; Brown, T.; Chen, Zhixiang; Zhang, Donghong; Al-Abed, S.R. )

    1988-04-01

    The 69-12Q mutant of Chlamydomonas reinhardtii lacks ribulose-1,5-bisphosphate carboxylase activity, but retains holoenzyme protein. It results from a mutation in the chloroplast large-subunit gene that causes an isoleucine-for-threonine substitution at amino-acid residue 173. Considering that lysine-175 is involved in catalysis, it appears that mutations cluster at the active site.

  3. Candidate gene study of eight GABAA receptor subunits in panic disorder.

    PubMed

    Crowe, R R; Wang, Z; Noyes, R; Albrecht, B E; Darlison, M G; Bailey, M E; Johnson, K J; Zoëga, T

    1997-08-01

    gamma-Aminobutyric acid type A (GABAA) receptor subunit genes are candidate genes for panic disorder. Benzodiazepine agonists acting at this receptor can suppress panic attacks, and both inverse agonists and antagonists can precipitate them. The human GABAA receptor subtypes are composed of various combinations of 13 subunits, each encoded by a unique gene. The authors tested eight of these subunits in a candidate gene linkage study of panic disorder. In 21 U.S. and five Icelandic multiplex pedigrees of panic disorder, 104 individuals had DSM-III-R panic disorder (the narrowly defined affected phenotype) and 134 had either this diagnosis or subsyndromal panic disorder characterized by panic attacks that failed to meet either the criterion of attack frequency or the number of criterion symptoms necessary for a definite diagnosis (the broadly defined affected phenotype). The authors conducted lod score linkage analyses with both phenotypes using both a dominant and a recessive model of inheritance for the following loci: GABRA1-GABRA5 (alpha 1-alpha 5), GABRB1 (beta 1), GABRB3 (beta 3), and GABRG2 (gamma 2). The results failed to support the hypothesis that any of these genes cause panic disorder in a majority of the pedigrees. Within the limitations of the candidate gene linkage method, panic disorder does not appear to be caused by mutation in any of the eight GABAA receptor genes tested.

  4. Molecular cloning and expression of heteromeric ACCase subunit genes from Jatropha curcas.

    PubMed

    Gu, Keyu; Chiam, Huihui; Tian, Dongsheng; Yin, Zhongchao

    2011-04-01

    Acetyl-CoA carboxylase (ACCase) catalyzes the biotin-dependent carboxylation of acetyl-CoA to produce malonyl-CoA, which is the essential first step in the biosynthesis of long-chain fatty acids. ACCase exists as a multi-subunit enzyme in most prokaryotes and the chloroplasts of most plants and algae, while it is present as a multi-domain enzyme in the endoplasmic reticulum of most eukaryotes. The heteromeric ACCase of higher plants consists of four subunits: an α-subunit of carboxyltransferase (α-CT, encoded by accA gene), a biotin carboxyl carrier protein (BCCP, encoded by accB gene), a biotin carboxylase (BC, encoded by accC gene) and a β-subunit of carboxyltransferase (β-CT, encoded by accD gene). In this study, we cloned and characterized the genes accA, accB1, accC and accD that encode the subunits of heteromeric ACCase in Jatropha (Jatropha curcas), a potential biofuel plant. The full-length cDNAs of the four subunit genes were isolated from a Jatropha cDNA library and by using 5' RACE, whereas the genomic clones were obtained from a Jatropha BAC library. They encode a 771 amino acid (aa) α-CT, a 286-aa BCCP1, a 537-aa BC and a 494-aa β-CT, respectively. The single-copy accA, accB1 and accC genes are nuclear genes, while the accD gene is located in chloroplast genome. Jatropha α-CT, BCCP1, BC and β-CT show high identity to their homologues in other higher plants at amino acid level and contain all conserved domains for ACCase activity. The accA, accB1, accC and accD genes are temporally and spatially expressed in the leaves and endosperm of Jatropha plants, which are regulated by plant development and environmental factors. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. The bacteriophage T4 gene for the small subunit of ribonucleotide reductase contains an intron.

    PubMed Central

    Sjöberg, B M; Hahne, S; Mathews, C Z; Mathews, C K; Rand, K N; Gait, M J

    1986-01-01

    The bacteriophage T4 gene nrdB codes for the small subunit of the enzyme ribonucleotide reductase. The T4 nrdB gene was localized between 136.1 kb and 137.8 kb in the T4 genetic map according to the deduced structural homology of the protein to the amino acid sequence of its bacterial counterpart, the B2 subunit of Escherichia coli. This positions the C-terminal end of the T4 nrdB gene approximately 2 kb closer to the T4 gene 63 than earlier anticipated from genetic recombinational analyses. The most surprising feature of the T4 nrdB gene is the presence of an approximately 625 bp intron which divides the structural gene into two parts. This is the second example of a prokaryotic structural gene with an intron. The first prokaryotic intron was reported in the nearby td gene, coding for the bacteriophage T4-specific thymidylate synthase enzyme. The nucleotide sequence at the exon-intron junctions of the T4 nrdB gene is similar to that of the junctions of the T4 td gene: the anticipated exon-intron boundary at the donor site ends with a TAA stop codon and there is an ATG start codon at the putative downstream intron-exon boundary of the acceptor site. In the course of this work the denA gene of T4 (endonuclease II) was also located. PMID:3530746

  6. Differential modulation of Ca2+/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase II activity by regulated interactions with N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor NR2B subunits and alpha-actinin.

    PubMed

    Robison, A J; Bartlett, Ryan K; Bass, Martha A; Colbran, Roger J

    2005-11-25

    Neuronal Ca(2+)/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase II (CaMKII) interacts with several prominent dendritic spine proteins, which have been termed CaMKII-associated proteins. The NR2B subunit of N-methyl-d-aspartate (NMDA)-type glutamate receptor, densin-180, and alpha-actinin bind comparable, approximately stoichiometric amounts of Thr(286)-autophosphorylated CaMKIIalpha, forming a ternary complex (Robison, A. J., Bass, M. A., Jiao, Y., Macmillan, L. B., Carmody, L. C., Bartlett, R. K., and Colbran, R. J. (2005) J. Biol. Chem. 280, 35329-35336), but their impacts on CaMKII function are poorly understood. Here we show that these interactions are differentially regulated and exert distinct effects on CaMKII activity. Nonphosphorylated and Thr(286)-autophosphorylated CaMKII bind to alpha-actinin with similar efficacy, but autophosphorylation at Thr(305/306) or Ca(2+)/calmodulin binding significantly reduce this binding. Moreover, alpha-actinin antagonizes CaMKII activation by Ca(2+)/calmodulin, as assessed by autophosphorylation and phosphorylation of a peptide substrate. CaMKII binding to densin (1247-1542) is partially independent of Thr(286) autophosphorylation and is unaffected by Ca(2+)-independent autophosphorylation or Ca(2+)/calmodulin. In addition, the CaMKII binding domain of densin-180 has little effect on CaMKII activity. In contrast, the interaction of CaMKIIalpha with NR2B requires either Thr(286) autophosphorylation or the binding of both Ca(2+)/calmodulin and adenine nucleotides. NR2B inhibits both the Ca(2+)/calmodulin-dependent and autonomous activities of CaMKII by a mechanism that is competitive with autocamtide-2 substrate, non-competitive with syntide-2 substrate, and uncompetitive with respect to ATP. In combination, these data suggest that dynamically regulated interactions with CaMKII-associated proteins could play pleiotropic roles in finetuning CaMKII signaling in defined subcellular compartments.

  7. Stress-induced co-expression of two alternative oxidase (VuAox1 and 2b) genes in Vigna unguiculata.

    PubMed

    Costa, José Hélio; Mota, Erika Freitas; Cambursano, Mariana Virginia; Lauxmann, Martin Alexander; de Oliveira, Luciana Maia Nogueira; Silva Lima, Maria da Guia; Orellano, Elena Graciela; Fernandes de Melo, Dirce

    2010-05-01

    Cowpea (Vigna unguiculata) alternative oxidase is encoded by a small multigene family (Aox1, 2a and 2b) that is orthologous to the soybean Aox family. Like most of the identified Aox genes in plants, VuAox1 and VuAox2 consist of 4 exons interrupted by 3 introns. Alignment of the orthologous Aox genes revealed high identity of exons and intron variability, which is more prevalent in Aox1. In order to determine Aox gene expression in V. unguiculata, a steady-state analysis of transcripts involved in seed development (flowers, pods and dry seeds) and germination (soaked seeds) was performed and systemic co-expression of VuAox1 and VuAox2b was observed during germination. The analysis of Aox transcripts in leaves from seedlings under different stress conditions (cold, PEG, salicylate and H2O2 revealed stress-induced co-expression of both VuAox genes. Transcripts of VuAox2a and 2b were detected in all control seedlings, which was not the case for VuAox1 mRNA. Estimation of the primary transcript lengths of V. unguiculata and soybean Aox genes showed an intron length reduction for VuAox1 and 2b, suggesting that the two genes have converged in transcribed sequence length. Indeed, a bioinformatics analysis of VuAox1 and 2b promoters revealed a conserved region related to a cis-element that is responsive to oxidative stress. Taken together, the data provide evidence for co-expression of Aox1 and Aox2b in response to stress and also during the early phase of seed germination. The dual nature of VuAox2b expression (constitutive and induced) suggests that the constitutive Aox2b gene of V. unguiculata has acquired inducible regulatory elements.

  8. Intracellular gene transfer: Reduced hydrophobicity facilitates gene transfer for subunit 2 of cytochrome c oxidase

    PubMed Central

    Daley, Daniel O.; Clifton, Rachel; Whelan, James

    2002-01-01

    Subunit 2 of cytochrome c oxidase (Cox2) in legumes offers a rare opportunity to investigate factors necessary for successful gene transfer of a hydrophobic protein that is usually mitochondrial-encoded. We found that changes in local hydrophobicity were necessary to allow import of this nuclear-encoded protein into mitochondria. All legume species containing both a mitochondrial and nuclear encoded Cox2 displayed a similar pattern, with a large decrease in hydrophobicity evident in the first transmembrane region of the nuclear encoded protein compared with the organelle-encoded protein. Mitochondrial-encoded Cox2 could not be imported into mitochondria under the direction of the mitochondrial targeting sequence that readily supports the import of nuclear encoded Cox2. Removal of the first transmembrane region promotes import ability of the mitochondrial-encoded Cox2. Changing just two amino acids in the first transmembrane region of mitochondrial-encoded Cox2 to the corresponding amino acids in the nuclear encoded Cox2 also promotes import ability, whereas changing the same two amino acids in the nuclear encoded Cox2 to what they are in the mitochondrial-encoded copy prevents import. Therefore, changes in amino acids in the mature protein were necessary and sufficient for gene transfer to allow import under the direction of an appropriate signal to achieve the functional topology of Cox2. PMID:12142462

  9. CCAAT/Enhancer-binding Protein α (C/EBPα) and Hepatocyte Nuclear Factor 4α (HNF4α) Synergistically Cooperate with Constitutive Androstane Receptor to Transactivate the Human Cytochrome P450 2B6 (CYP2B6) Gene

    PubMed Central

    Benet, Marta; Lahoz, Agustín; Guzmán, Carla; Castell, José V.; Jover, Ramiro

    2010-01-01

    The transcription of tissue-specific and inducible genes is usually subject to the dynamic control of multiple activators. Dedifferentiated hepatic cell lines lose the expression of tissue-specific activators and many characteristic hepatic genes, such as drug-metabolizing cytochrome P450. Here we demonstrate that by combining adenoviral vectors for CCAAT/enhancer-binding protein α (C/EBPα), hepatocyte nuclear factor 4α (HNF4α), and constitutive androstane receptor, the CYP2B6 expression and inducibility by CITCO are restored in human hepatoma HepG2 cells at levels similar to those in cultured human hepatocytes. Moreover, several other phase I and II genes are simultaneously activated, which suggests that this is an effective approach to endow dedifferentiated human hepatoma cells with a particular metabolic competence and response to inducers. In order to gain insight into the molecular mechanism, we examined the cooperation of these three transcription factors on the CYP2B6 5′-flanking region. We show new CYP2B6-responsive sequences for C/EBPα and HNF4α and a novel synergistic regulatory mechanism whereby C/EBPα, HNF4α, and constitutive androstane receptor bind and cooperate through proximal and distal response elements to confer a maximal level of expression. The results obtained from human liver also suggest that important differences in the expression and binding of C/EBPα and HNF4α could account for the large interindividual variability of the hepatic CYP2B6 enzyme, which metabolizes commonly used drugs. PMID:20622021

  10. A Heart-Hand Syndrome Gene: Tfap2b Plays a Critical Role in the Development and Remodeling of Mouse Ductus Arteriosus and Limb Patterning

    PubMed Central

    Zhao, Feng; Bosserhoff, Anja-Katrin; Buettner, Reinhard; Moser, Markus

    2011-01-01

    Background Patent ductus arteriosus (PDA) is one of the most common forms of congenital heart disease. Mutations in transcription factor TFAP2B cause Char syndrome, a human disorder characterized by PDA, facial dysmorphysm and hand anomalies. Animal research data are needed to understand the mechanisms. The aim of our study was to elucidate the pathogenesis of Char syndrome at the molecular level. Methodology/Principal Findings Gene expression of Tfap2b during mouse development was studied, and newborns of Tfap2b-deficient mice were examined to identify phenotypes. Gel shift assays had been carried out to search for Tfap2 downstream genes. Promoters of candidate genes were cloned into a reporter construct and used to demonstrate their regulation by Tfap2b in cell transfection. In situ hybridizations showed that the murine transcription factor Tfap2b was expressed during the entire development of mouse ductus arteriosus. Histological examination of ductus arteriosus from Tfap2b knockout mice 6 hours after birth revealed that they were not closed. Consequently, the lungs of Tfap2b−/− mice demonstrated progressive congestion of the pulmonary capillaries, which was postulated to result secondarily from PDA. In addition, Tfap2b was expressed in the limb buds, particularly in the posterior limb field during development. Lack of Tfap2b resulted in bilateral postaxial accessory digits. Further study indicated that expressions of bone morphogenetic protein (Bmp) genes, which are reported to be involved in the limb patterning and ductal development, were altered in limb buds of Tfap2b-deficient embryos, due to direct control of Bmp2 and Bmp4 promoter activity by Tfap2b. Conclusions/Significance Tfap2b plays important roles in the development of mouse ductus arteriosus and limb patterning. Loss of Tfap2b results in altered Bmp expression that may cause the heart-limb defects observed in Tfap2b mouse mutants and Char syndrome patients. The Tfap2b knockout mouse may add to

  11. Histone H3K9 modifications are a local chromatin event involved in ethanol-induced neuroadaptation of the NR2B gene.

    PubMed

    Qiang, Mei; Denny, Ashley; Lieu, Mai; Carreon, Stephanie; Li, Ji

    2011-09-01

    Expression of the NMDA receptor 2B (NR2B) gene is upregulated following chronic intermittent ethanol (CIE) treatment and withdrawal, which underlies behavioral alterations in addiction. The goal of this study was to characterize the changes of histone modifications induced by CIE treatment and its subsequent removal associated to the upregulation of NR2B gene transcription. To investigate the involvement of histone acetylation in the effect of ethanol on the NR2B gene, we examined the influence of CIE on histone acetylation in the 5' regulatory region of NR2B using a qChIP assay. CIE treatment and its subsequent removal produced a remarkable and selected increase in histone H3K9 acetylation. Interestingly, the majority of the increased H3K9 acetylation occurred after ethanol removal, which was coincident with a decrease in H3K9 methylation in the same time duration. Further examination of the mechanisms of ethanol-induced alterations on the histone modifications revealed that CIE-induced acetylation of H3K9 was not due to the changes in global enzyme activities or the expression of histone acetyltransferases (HATs) and deacetylase (HDACs). Instead, we found a significant downregulation in some histone methyltransferases (HMTs) at both the global level and the local chromatin of the NR2B gene following CIE treatment. Moreover, our experiments also indicated a decrease of G9a, Suv39 h1 and HDAC1-3 in the chromatin of the NR2B gene promoter, which may be responsible for the altered H3K9 modifications. Taken together, the findings suggest a mechanism where the changes in H3K9 modifications in the local chromatin of the NR2B gene underlie alcohol-induced neuroadaptation.

  12. Cloning and characterization of the 2B4 gene encoding a molecule associated with non-MHC-restricted killing mediated by activated natural killer cells and T cells

    SciTech Connect

    Mathew, P.A.; Garni-Wagner, B.A.; Land, K.; Takashima, A.; Stoneman, E.; Bennett, M.; Kumar, V. )

    1993-11-15

    The authors have recently described a signal transducing molecule, 2B4, expressed on all NK and T cells that mediate non-MHC-restricted killing. The gene encoding this molecule was cloned and its nucleotide sequence determined. The encoded protein of 398 amino acids has a leader peptide of 18 amino acids and a transmembrane region of 24 amino acids. The predicted protein has eight N-linked glycosylation sites, suggesting that it is highly glycosylated. Comparison of 2B4 with sequences in the databanks indicates that 2B4 is a member of the Ig supergene family, and it shows homology to murine and rat CD48 and human LFA-3. Northern blot analysis has shown at least three transcripts for 2B4 in adherent lymphokine-activated killer cells of several mouse strains and TCR-[gamma]/[delta] dendritic epidermal T cell lines but not in allospecific T cell clones. These three mRNA are the products of differential splicing of heterogeneous nuclear RNA. Southern blot analysis of genomic DNA from several mouse strains revealed that 2B4 belongs to a family of closely related genes. The 2B4 gene has been mapped to mouse chromosome 1 by analysis of 2B4 expression in recombinant inbred mouse strains. 48 refs., 6 figs., 2 tabs.

  13. Identification and linkage of the proteasome activator complex PA28 subunit genes in zebrafish.

    PubMed

    Murray, B W; Sültmann, H; Klein, J

    2000-06-01

    PA28 is an activator of the latent 20S proteasome, a large multisubunit complex involved in intracellular proteolysis. Two forms of hexameric PA28 have been identified, PA28-(alphabeta)3 and PA28-(gamma)6, of which the former is of immunological importance. Both the PA28-alpha and PA28-beta subunits are inducible by interferon-gamma (IFN-gamma) and the PA28-(alphabeta)3 complex enhances the ability of the 20S proteasome to produce peptides suited for binding to major histocompatibility complex (Mhc) class I molecules. To identify the homologues of the PA28 subunits in zebrafish we screened a cDNA library and obtained full-length cDNA sequences of the genes PSME1, PSME2 and PSME3 coding for the PA28-alpha, PA28-beta and PA28-gamma subunits, respectively. Phylogenetic analysis indicates the existence of the ancestors of all three genes prior to the divergence of tetrapods and bony fishes. The IFN-gamma-inducible subunits, PA28-alpha and PA28-beta, evolve faster than the presumably older PA28-gamma subunit. Using zebrafish radiation hybrid panels, the genes PSME2 and PSME3 were mapped to linkage group 12 and shown to be separated by a distance of less than 2.4 cM. This observation suggests that an intrachromosomal duplication event created the precursor of the IFN-gamma-inducible genes from a PA28-gamma-like ancestor prior to their recruitment into the Mhc class I peptide presentation pathway.

  14. Glutamatergic GRIN2B and polyaminergic ODC1 genes in suicide attempts: associations and gene-environment interactions with childhood/adolescent physical assault.

    PubMed

    Sokolowski, M; Ben-Efraim, Y J; Wasserman, J; Wasserman, D

    2013-09-01

    The complex etiology of suicidal behavior has frequently been investigated in relation to monoaminergic neurotransmission, but other neurosystems have shown alterations as well, involving excitatory glutamatergic and inhibitory γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA) molecular components, together with the modulating polyamines. Sufficiently powered and family-based association studies of glutamatergic and GABAergic genes with suicidal behavior are nonexistent, but several studies have been reported for polyamines. We therefore conducted, for the first time ever, an extensive family-based study of 113 candidate single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) located in 24 glutamatergic and GABA genes, in addition to interrelated polyaminergic genes, on the outcome of severe suicide attempts (SAs). The family-based analysis (n=660 trios) was supplemented with gene-environment interaction (G × E), case-control (n=519 controls) and subgroup analyses. The main observations were the previously unreported association and linkage of SNPs rs2268115 and rs220557 in GRIN2B, as well as of SNPs rs1049500 and rs2302614 in ODC1 (P<10(-2)). Furthermore, GRIN2B haplotypic associations were observed, in particular with a four-SNP AGGC haplotype (rs1805247-rs1806201-rs1805482-rs2268115; P<10(-5)), and a third SNP rs7559979 in ODC1 showed G × E with serious childhood/adolescent physical assault (P<10(-4)). SA subjects were characterized by transdiagnostic trait anger and past year alcohol-drug use disorders, but not by alcohol-drug use at SA, depression, anxiety or psychosis diagnoses. We also discuss a first ever confirmatory observation of SNP rs6526342 (polyaminergic SAT1) in SA, originally identified in completed suicides. The results suggest that specific genetic variants in a subset of glutamatergic (GRIN2B) and polyaminergic (ODC1) neurosystem genes may be of importance in certain suicidal subjects.

  15. Gene structure of murine Gna11 and Gna15: tandemly duplicated Gq class G protein alpha subunit genes.

    PubMed

    Davignon, I; Barnard, M; Gavrilova, O; Sweet, K; Wilkie, T M

    1996-02-01

    G protein alpha subunits are encoded by a multigene family of 16 genes that can be grouped into four classes, Gq, Gs, Gi, and G12. The Gq class is composed of four genes in mouse and human, and two of these genes, Gna11 and Gna15, cosegregate on mouse chromosome 10. We have characterized the gene structures of murine Gna11 and Gna15. The two genes are tandemly duplicated in a head-to-tail array. The upstream gene, Gna11, is ubiquitously expressed, whereas expression of the downstream gene, Gna15, is restricted to hematopoietic cells. The coding sequence of each gene is contained within seven exons, and the two genes together span 43 kb, separated by 6 kb of intergenic region. We have found no evidence for alternative splicing within the coding sequence of either gene. Sequence alignments show that the positions of the six intervening sequences are conserved in the two genes, consistent with Gna11 and Gna15 arising by tandem duplication from a common progenitor gene in vertebrates. Phylogenetic trees reveal unequal evolutionary rates among alpha subunits of the Gq class. The rate of change is approximately six fold higher in Gna15 than in Gna11.

  16. Gene structure of murine Gna11 and Gna15: Tandemly duplicated Gq class G protein {alpha} subunit genes

    SciTech Connect

    Davignon, I.; Barnard, M.; Sweet, K.

    1996-02-01

    G protein {alpha} subunits are encoded by a multigene family of 16 genes that can be grouped into four classes, Gq, Gs, Gi, and G12. The Gq class is composed of four genes in mouse and human, and two of these genes, Gna11 and Gna15, cosegregate on mouse chromosome 10. We have characterized the gene structures of murine Gna11 and Gna15. The two genes are tandemly duplicated in a head-to-tail array. The upstream gene, Gna11, is ubiquitously expressed, whereas expression of the downstream gene, Gna15, is restricted to hematopoietic cells. The coding sequence of each gene is contained within seven exons, and the two genes together span 43 kb, separated by 6 kb of intergenic region. We have found no evidence for alternative splicing within the coding sequence of either gene. Sequence alignments show that the positions of the six intervening sequences are conserved in the two genes, consistent with Gna11 and Gna15 arising by tandem duplication from a common progenitor gene in vertebrates. Phylogenetic trees reveal unequal evolutionary rates among {alpha} subunits of the Gq class. The rate of change is approximately six fold higher in Gna15 than in Gna11. 43 refs., 3 figs., 2 tabs.

  17. A putative fourth Na+,K(+)-ATPase alpha-subunit gene is expressed in testis.

    PubMed Central

    Shamraj, O I; Lingrel, J B

    1994-01-01

    The Na+,K(+)-ATPase alpha subunit has three known isoforms, alpha 1, alpha 2 and alpha 3, each encoded by a separate gene. This study was undertaken to determine the functional status of a fourth human alpha-like gene, ATP1AL2. Partial genomic sequence analysis revealed regions exhibiting sequence similarity with exons 3-6 of the Na+,K(+)-ATPase alpha isoform genes. ATP1AL2 cDNAs spanning the coding sequence of a novel P-type ATPase alpha subunit were isolated from a rat testis library. The predicted polypeptide is 1028 amino acids long and exhibits 76-78% identity with the rat Na+,K(+)-ATPase alpha 1, alpha 2 and alpha 3 isoforms, indicating that ATP1AL2 may encode a fourth Na+,K(+)-ATPase alpha isoform. A 3.9-kb mRNA is expressed abundantly in human and rat testis. Images Fig. 2 Fig. 5 PMID:7809153

  18. Molecular cloning and sequencing of the gene encoding the fimbrial subunit protein of Bacteroides gingivalis.

    PubMed Central

    Dickinson, D P; Kubiniec, M A; Yoshimura, F; Genco, R J

    1988-01-01

    The gene encoding the fimbrial subunit protein of Bacteroides gingivalis 381, fimbrilin, has been cloned and sequenced. The gene was present as a single copy on the bacterial chromosome, and the codon usage in the gene conformed closely to that expected for an abundant protein. The predicted size of the mature protein was 35,924 daltons, and the secretory form may have had a 10-amino-acid, hydrophilic leader sequence similar to the leader sequences of the MePhe fimbriae family. The protein sequence had no marked similarity to known fimbrial sequences, and no homologous sequences could be found in other black-pigmented Bacteroides species, suggesting that fimbrillin represents a class of fimbrial subunit protein of limited distribution. Images PMID:2895100

  19. Molecular characterization of the gene encoding the DNA gyrase A subunit of Streptococcus pneumoniae.

    PubMed

    Balas, D; Fernández-Moreira, E; De La Campa, A G

    1998-06-01

    The gene encoding the DNA gyrase A subunit of Streptococcus pneumoniae was cloned and sequenced. The gyrA gene codes for a protein of 822 amino acids homologous to the gyrase A subunit of eubacteria. Translation of the gene in an Escherichia coli expression system revealed a 92-kDa polypeptide. A sequence-directed DNA curvature was identified in the promoter region of gyrA. The bend center was mapped and located between the -35 and -10 regions of the promoter. Primer extension analysis showed that gyrA transcription initiates 6 bp downstream of an extended -10 promoter. The possible implications of the bent DNA region as a regulatory element in the transcription of gyrA are discussed.

  20. Molecular Characterization of the Gene Encoding the DNA Gyrase A Subunit of Streptococcus pneumoniae

    PubMed Central

    Balas, Delia; Fernández-Moreira, Esteban; De La Campa, Adela G.

    1998-01-01

    The gene encoding the DNA gyrase A subunit of Streptococcus pneumoniae was cloned and sequenced. The gyrA gene codes for a protein of 822 amino acids homologous to the gyrase A subunit of eubacteria. Translation of the gene in an Escherichia coli expression system revealed a 92-kDa polypeptide. A sequence-directed DNA curvature was identified in the promoter region of gyrA. The bend center was mapped and located between the −35 and −10 regions of the promoter. Primer extension analysis showed that gyrA transcription initiates 6 bp downstream of an extended −10 promoter. The possible implications of the bent DNA region as a regulatory element in the transcription of gyrA are discussed. PMID:9603872

  1. Conservation of the Nrf2-Mediated Gene Regulation of Proteasome Subunits and Glucose Metabolism in Zebrafish

    PubMed Central

    Fuse, Yuji; Tamaoki, Junya; Akiyama, Shin-ichi; Muratani, Masafumi

    2016-01-01

    The Keap1-Nrf2 system is an evolutionarily conserved defense mechanism against oxidative and xenobiotic stress. Besides the exogenous stress response, Nrf2 has been found to regulate numerous cellular functions, including protein turnover and glucose metabolism; however, the evolutionary origins of these functions remain unknown. In the present study, we searched for novel target genes associated with the zebrafish Nrf2 to answer this question. A microarray analysis of zebrafish embryos that overexpressed Nrf2 revealed that 115 candidate genes were targets of Nrf2, including genes encoding proteasome subunits and enzymes involved in glucose metabolism. A real-time quantitative PCR suggested that the expression of 3 proteasome subunits (psma3, psma5, and psmb7) and 2 enzymes involved in glucose metabolism (pgd and fbp1a) were regulated by zebrafish Nrf2. We thus next examined the upregulation of these genes by an Nrf2 activator, diethyl maleate, using Nrf2 mutant zebrafish larvae. The results of real-time quantitative PCR and whole-mount in situ hybridization showed that all of these 5 genes were upregulated by diethyl maleate treatment in an Nrf2-dependent manner, especially in the liver. These findings implied that the Nrf2-mediated regulation of the proteasome subunits and glucose metabolism is evolutionarily conserved among vertebrates. PMID:28116036

  2. Activation of spinal MrgC-Gi-NR2B-nNOS signaling pathway by Mas oncogene-related gene C receptor agonist bovine adrenal medulla 8-22 attenuates bone cancer pain in mice.

    PubMed

    Sun, Yu'e; Zhang, Juan; Lei, Yishan; Lu, Cui'e; Hou, Bailing; Ma, Zhengliang; Gu, Xiaoping

    2016-01-01

    In the present study, we investigate the effects of Mas oncogene-related gene (Mrg) C receptors (MrgC) on the expression and activation of spinal Gi protein, N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor subunit 2B (NR2B), and neuronal nitric oxide synthase (nNOS) in mouse model of bone cancer pain. The number of spontaneous foot lift (NSF) and paw withdrawal mechanical threshold (PWMT) were measured after inoculation of tumor cells and intrathecal injection of MrgC agonist bovine adrenal medulla 8-22 (BAM8-22) or MrgC antagonist anti-MrgC for 14 days after operation. Expression of spinal MrgC, Gi protein, NR2B and nNOS and their phosphorylated forms after inoculation was examined by immunohistochemistry and Western blotting. Double labeling was used to identify the co-localization of NR2B or nNOS with MrgC in spinal cord dorsal horn (SCDH) neurons. The effects of intrathecal injection of BAM8-22 or anti-MrgC on nociceptive behaviors and the corresponding expression of spinal MrgC, Gi protein, NR2B and nNOS were also investigated. The expression of spinal MrgC, Gi protein, NR2B, and nNOS was higher in tumor-bearing mice in comparison to sham mice or normal mice. Intrathecal injection of MrgC agonist BAM8-22 significantly alleviated bone cancer pain, up-regulated MrgC and Gi protein expression, and down-regulated the expression of spinal p-NR2B, t-nNOS and p-nNOS in SCDH on day 14 after operation, whereas administration of anti-MrgC produced the opposite effect. Meanwhile, MrgC-like immunoreactivity (IR) co-localizes with NR2B-IR or nNOS-IR in SCDH neurons. The present study demonstrates that MrgC-activated spinal Gi-NR2B-nNOS signaling pathway plays important roles in the development of bone cancer pain. These findings may provide a novel strategy for the treatment of bone cancer pain.

  3. Activation of spinal MrgC-Gi-NR2B-nNOS signaling pathway by Mas oncogene-related gene C receptor agonist bovine adrenal medulla 8-22 attenuates bone cancer pain in mice

    PubMed Central

    Sun, Yu’e; Zhang, Juan; Lei, Yishan; Lu, Cui’e; Hou, Bailing; Ma, Zhengliang; Gu, Xiaoping

    2016-01-01

    Objectives: In the present study, we investigate the effects of Mas oncogene-related gene (Mrg) C receptors (MrgC) on the expression and activation of spinal Gi protein, N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor subunit 2B (NR2B), and neuronal nitric oxide synthase (nNOS) in mouse model of bone cancer pain. Methods: The number of spontaneous foot lift (NSF) and paw withdrawal mechanical threshold (PWMT) were measured after inoculation of tumor cells and intrathecal injection of MrgC agonist bovine adrenal medulla 8-22 (BAM8-22) or MrgC antagonist anti-MrgC for 14 days after operation. Expression of spinal MrgC, Gi protein, NR2B and nNOS and their phosphorylated forms after inoculation was examined by immunohistochemistry and Western blotting. Double labeling was used to identify the co-localization of NR2B or nNOS with MrgC in spinal cord dorsal horn (SCDH) neurons. The effects of intrathecal injection of BAM8-22 or anti-MrgC on nociceptive behaviors and the corresponding expression of spinal MrgC, Gi protein, NR2B and nNOS were also investigated. Results: The expression of spinal MrgC, Gi protein, NR2B, and nNOS was higher in tumor-bearing mice in comparison to sham mice or normal mice. Intrathecal injection of MrgC agonist BAM8-22 significantly alleviated bone cancer pain, up-regulated MrgC and Gi protein expression, and down-regulated the expression of spinal p-NR2B, t-nNOS and p-nNOS in SCDH on day 14 after operation, whereas administration of anti-MrgC produced the opposite effect. Meanwhile, MrgC-like immunoreactivity (IR) co-localizes with NR2B-IR or nNOS-IR in SCDH neurons. Conclusions: The present study demonstrates that MrgC-activated spinal Gi-NR2B-nNOS signaling pathway plays important roles in the development of bone cancer pain. These findings may provide a novel strategy for the treatment of bone cancer pain. PMID:27158400

  4. DNA promoter methylation-dependent transcription of the double C2-like domain β (DOC2B) gene regulates tumor growth in human cervical cancer.

    PubMed

    Kabekkodu, Shama Prasada; Bhat, Samatha; Radhakrishnan, Raghu; Aithal, Abhijit; Mascarenhas, Roshan; Pandey, Deeksha; Rai, Lavanya; Kushtagi, Pralhad; Mundyat, Gopinath Puthiya; Satyamoorthy, Kapaettu

    2014-04-11

    Double C2-like domain β (DOC2B) gene encodes for a calcium-binding protein, which is involved in neurotransmitter release, sorting, and exocytosis. We have identified the promoter region of the DOC2B gene as hypermethylated in pre-malignant, malignant cervical tissues, and cervical cancer cell lines by methylation-sensitive dimethyl sulfoxide-polymerase chain reaction and bisulfite genome sequencing; whereas, it was unmethylated in normal cervical tissues (p < 0.05). The promoter hypermethylation was inversely associated with mRNA expression in SiHa, CaSki, and HeLa cells and treatment with demethylating agent 5-aza-2-deoxycytidine restored DOC2B expression. The region -630 to +25 bp of the DOC2B gene showed robust promoter activity by a luciferase reporter assay and was inhibited by in vitro artificial methylation with Sss1 methylase prior to transient transfections. Overexpression of the DOC2B gene in SiHa cells when compared with controls showed significantly reduced colony formation, cell proliferation, induced cell cycle arrest, and repressed cell migration and invasion (p < 0.05). Ectopic expression of DOC2B resulted in anoikis-mediated cell death and repressed tumor growth in a nude mice xenograft model (p < 0.05). DOC2B expressing cells showed a significant increase in intracellular calcium level (p < 0.05), impaired AKT1 and ERK1/2 signaling, and induced actin cytoskeleton remodeling. Our results show that promoter hypermethylation and silencing of the DOC2B gene is an early and frequent event during cervical carcinogenesis and whose reduced expression due to DNA promoter methylation may lead to selective cervical tumor growth.

  5. Mice Lacking the Serotonin Htr2B Receptor Gene Present an Antipsychotic-Sensitive Schizophrenic-Like Phenotype.

    PubMed

    Pitychoutis, Pothitos M; Belmer, Arnauld; Moutkine, Imane; Adrien, Joëlle; Maroteaux, Luc

    2015-11-01

    Impulsivity and hyperactivity share common ground with numerous mental disorders, including schizophrenia. Recently, a population-specific serotonin 2B (5-HT2B) receptor stop codon (ie, HTR2B Q20*) was reported to segregate with severely impulsive individuals, whereas 5-HT2B mutant (Htr2B(-/-)) mice also showed high impulsivity. Interestingly, in the same cohort, early-onset schizophrenia was more prevalent in HTR2B Q*20 carriers. However, the putative role of 5-HT2B receptor in the neurobiology of schizophrenia has never been investigated. We assessed the effects of the genetic and the pharmacological ablation of 5-HT2B receptors in mice subjected to a comprehensive series of behavioral test screenings for schizophrenic-like symptoms and investigated relevant dopaminergic and glutamatergic neurochemical alterations in the cortex and the striatum. Domains related to the positive, negative, and cognitive symptom clusters of schizophrenia were affected in Htr2B(-/-) mice, as shown by deficits in sensorimotor gating, in selective attention, in social interactions, and in learning and memory processes. In addition, Htr2B(-/-) mice presented with enhanced locomotor response to the psychostimulants dizocilpine and amphetamine, and with robust alterations in sleep architecture. Moreover, ablation of 5-HT2B receptors induced a region-selective decrease of dopamine and glutamate concentrations in the dorsal striatum. Importantly, selected schizophrenic-like phenotypes and endophenotypes were rescued by chronic haloperidol treatment. We report herein that 5-HT2B receptor deficiency confers a wide spectrum of antipsychotic-sensitive schizophrenic-like behavioral and psychopharmacological phenotypes in mice and provide first evidence for a role of 5-HT2B receptors in the neurobiology of psychotic disorders.

  6. Polymorphisms and haplotypes of the CYP2B6 detoxification gene in the predisposition of Acute Myeloid Leukemia (AML) and induction of its cytogenetic abnormalities.

    PubMed

    Daraki, Aggeliki; Kakosaiou, Katerina; Zachaki, Sophia; Sambani, Constantina; Aleporou-Marinou, Vassiliki; Kollia, Panagoula; Manola, Kalliopi N

    2016-11-01

    CYP2B6 is a polymorphic detoxification gene which plays a vital role in the degradation of genotoxic compounds. In this study we hypothesized that inadequate detoxification due to CYP2B6 polymorphisms may contribute to AML. To evaluate the potential impact of CYP2B6 polymorphisms on AML development and induction of its specific chromosomal abnormalities we studied C(777)A and A(785)G polymorphisms for the first time in AML. Furthermore, we investigated the co-existence of the above polymorphisms with G(516)T polymorphism to determine the CYP2B6 high-risk haplotypes in AML susceptibility. Our study included 619 AML patients and 430 healthy donors. Concerning C(777)A CYP2B6 polymorphism, no significant difference was found between patients and controls. However, A(785)G CYP2B6 polymorphism showed a statistically higher frequency of the variant genotypes in patients (48.2%), mainly in secondary AML patients (49.1%) than in controls (26.1%). Moreover, an increased frequency of the variant genotypes was found in those with abnormal karyotypes, especially with -7/del(7q), -5/del(5q), +8, inv(16) and t(8;21). The combination of the three CYP2B6 polymorphisms (G(516)T, C(777)A & A(785)G) revealed seven haplotypes. Four out of six haplotypes with at least one mutant allele were significantly associated with an increased risk for AML. Interestingly, T516A777G785 haplotype, where the three mutant alleles co-existed, had ~3-fold increased risk to be found in patients than controls. The association between haplotypes and cytogenetic aberrations revealed a positive correlation between specific CYP2B6 haplotypes and AML cytogenetic abnormalities. Our data suggest that A(785)G CYP2B6 gene polymorphism and specific CYP2B6 haplotypes may contribute to AML and its specific chromosomal aberrations.

  7. GABAA receptor subunit gene expression in human prefrontal cortex: comparison of schizophrenics and controls

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Akbarian, S.; Huntsman, M. M.; Kim, J. J.; Tafazzoli, A.; Potkin, S. G.; Bunney, W. E. Jr; Jones, E. G.; Bloom, F. E. (Principal Investigator)

    1995-01-01

    The prefrontal cortex of schizophrenics is hypoactive and displays changes related to inhibitory, GABAergic neurons, and GABAergic synapses. These changes include decreased levels of glutamic acid decarboxylase (GAD), the enzyme for GABA synthesis, upregulation of muscimol binding, and downregulation of benzodiazepine binding to GABAA receptors. Studies in the visual cortex of nonhuman primates have demonstrated that gene expression for GAD and for several GABAA receptor subunit polypeptides is under control of neuronal activity, raising the possibility that similar mechanisms in the hypoactive prefrontal cortex of schizophrenics may explain the abnormalities in GAD and in GABAA receptor regulation. In the present study, which is the first of its type on human cerebral cortex, levels of mRNAs for six GABAA receptor subunits (alpha 1, alpha 2, alpha 5, beta 1, beta 2, gamma 2) and their laminar expression patterns were analyzed in the prefrontal cortex of schizophrenics and matched controls, using in situ hybridization histochemistry and densitometry. Three types of laminar expression pattern were observed: mRNAs for the alpha 1, beta 2, and gamma 2 subunits, which are the predominant receptor subunits expressed in the mature cortex, were expressed at comparatively high levels by cells of all six cortical layers, but most intensely by cells in lower layer III and layer IV. mRNAs for the alpha 2, alpha 5, and beta 1 subunits were expressed at lower levels; alpha 2 and beta 1 were expressed predominantly by cells in layers II, III, and IV; alpha 5 was expressed predominantly in layers IV, V, and VI. There were no significant changes in overall mRNA levels for any of the receptor subunits in the prefrontal cortex of schizophrenics, and the laminar expression pattern of all six receptor subunit mRNAs did not differ between schizophrenics and controls. Because gene expression for GABAA receptor subunits is not consistently altered in the prefrontal cortex of

  8. GABAA receptor subunit gene expression in human prefrontal cortex: comparison of schizophrenics and controls

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Akbarian, S.; Huntsman, M. M.; Kim, J. J.; Tafazzoli, A.; Potkin, S. G.; Bunney, W. E. Jr; Jones, E. G.; Bloom, F. E. (Principal Investigator)

    1995-01-01

    The prefrontal cortex of schizophrenics is hypoactive and displays changes related to inhibitory, GABAergic neurons, and GABAergic synapses. These changes include decreased levels of glutamic acid decarboxylase (GAD), the enzyme for GABA synthesis, upregulation of muscimol binding, and downregulation of benzodiazepine binding to GABAA receptors. Studies in the visual cortex of nonhuman primates have demonstrated that gene expression for GAD and for several GABAA receptor subunit polypeptides is under control of neuronal activity, raising the possibility that similar mechanisms in the hypoactive prefrontal cortex of schizophrenics may explain the abnormalities in GAD and in GABAA receptor regulation. In the present study, which is the first of its type on human cerebral cortex, levels of mRNAs for six GABAA receptor subunits (alpha 1, alpha 2, alpha 5, beta 1, beta 2, gamma 2) and their laminar expression patterns were analyzed in the prefrontal cortex of schizophrenics and matched controls, using in situ hybridization histochemistry and densitometry. Three types of laminar expression pattern were observed: mRNAs for the alpha 1, beta 2, and gamma 2 subunits, which are the predominant receptor subunits expressed in the mature cortex, were expressed at comparatively high levels by cells of all six cortical layers, but most intensely by cells in lower layer III and layer IV. mRNAs for the alpha 2, alpha 5, and beta 1 subunits were expressed at lower levels; alpha 2 and beta 1 were expressed predominantly by cells in layers II, III, and IV; alpha 5 was expressed predominantly in layers IV, V, and VI. There were no significant changes in overall mRNA levels for any of the receptor subunits in the prefrontal cortex of schizophrenics, and the laminar expression pattern of all six receptor subunit mRNAs did not differ between schizophrenics and controls. Because gene expression for GABAA receptor subunits is not consistently altered in the prefrontal cortex of

  9. Neural regulation of muscle acetylcholine receptor epsilon- and alpha- subunit gene promoters in transgenic mice

    PubMed Central

    1993-01-01

    The effects of denervation were investigated in mice with transgenes containing promoter elements from the muscle acetylcholine receptor epsilon- and alpha-subunit genes. The promoter sequences were coupled to a nuclear localization signal-beta-galactosidase fusion gene (nlacZ) as a reporter. While many postsynaptic specializations form in the embryo, expression of the epsilon subunit is induced during the first two postnatal weeks. When muscles were denervated at birth, before the onset of epsilon expression, epsilon nlacZ still appeared at the former synaptic sites on schedule. This result suggests that the nerve leaves a localized "trace" in the muscle that can continue to regulate transcription. An additional finding was that epsilon nlacZ expression was much stronger in denervated than in intact muscles. This suggests that the epsilon promoter is similar to the other subunits in containing elements that are activated on cessation of neural activity. However, even after denervation, epsilon nlacZ expression was always confined to the synaptic region whereas alpha nlacZ expression increased in nuclei along the entire length of the fiber. This suggests that while the epsilon gene is similar in its activity dependence to other subunit genes, it is unique in that local nerve-derived signals are essential for its expression. Consequently, inactivity enhances epsilon expression only in synaptic nuclei where such signals are present, but enhances expression throughout the muscle fiber. Truncations and an internal deletion of the epsilon promoter indicate that cis-elements essential for the response to synaptic signals are contained within 280 bp of the transcription start site. In contrast to these results in young animals, denervation in older animals leads to an unexpected reduction in nlacZ activity. However, mRNA measurements indicated that transgene expression was increased in these animals. This discordance between nlacZ mRNA and enzyme activity, demonstrates a

  10. Semi-quantitative analyses of antibodies to N-methyl-d-aspartate type glutamate receptor subunits (GluN2B & GluN1) in the clinical course of Rasmussen syndrome.

    PubMed

    Fukuyama, Tetsuhiro; Takahashi, Yukitoshi; Kubota, Yuko; Mogami, Yukiko; Imai, Katsumi; Kondo, Yoshiyuki; Sakuma, Hiroshi; Tominaga, Koji; Oguni, Hirokazu; Nishimura, Shigeko

    2015-07-01

    In Rasmussen syndrome (RS), in addition to the predominant involvement of cytotoxic T cells, heterogeneous autoantibodies against neural molecules are also found, but their function has not been elucidated. We examined antibodies to N-methyl-d-aspartate (NMDA) type glutamate receptor (GluR) subunits (GluN2B & GluN1) semi-quantitatively in cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) samples from RS patients, and evaluated their changes over time and their roles in immunopathogenesis. Autoantibodies against N-terminal and C-terminal of GluN2B and GluN1 were examined in 40 CSF samples collected from 18 RS patients 5 to 180 months after the onset of RS. Epileptic patients without infectious etiology or progressive clinical course served as disease controls (n=23). Synthesized peptides encoding the extracellular and intracellular domains of human GluN2B and GluN1 subunits were used as antigens in ELISA. We defined the cut-off for these antibodies as mean +2 standard deviations (optimal density) of the disease controls. MRI were evaluated according to the MRI staging proposed by Bien et al. (2002b, Neurology 58, 250). CSF levels of antibodies against N-terminal and C-terminal of GluN2B were higher in RS patients than in disease controls (p<0.01). Likewise, CSF levels of antibodies against N-terminal and C-terminal of GluN1 were also higher in RS patients than in disease controls (p<0.01). All four antibodies tested were below cut-off levels in almost all CSF samples collected within one year from epilepsy onset. The proportions of CSF samples with these antibodies above cut-off levels were highest from 12 to 23 months after epilepsy onset, and declined after 24 months. CSF levels of these antibodies were higher when seizure occurred daily than when seizure occurred less frequently (p<0.01), and were higher at MRI stage 3 than at MRI stages 0, 2 and 4 (p<0.05), except for anti-GluN1-CT antibody at stage 2. Broad epitope recognition spectrum and delayed production of autoantibodies to NMDA

  11. Excess adenosine A2B receptor signaling contributes to priapism through HIF-1α mediated reduction of PDE5 gene expression

    PubMed Central

    Ning, Chen; Wen, Jiaming; Zhang, Yujin; Dai, Yingbo; Wang, Wei; Zhang, Weiru; Qi, Lin; Grenz, Almut; Eltzschig, Holger K.; Blackburn, Michael R.; Kellems, Rodney E.; Xia, Yang

    2014-01-01

    Priapism is featured with prolonged and painful penile erection and is prevalent among males with sickle cell disease (SCD). The disorder is a dangerous urological and hematological emergency since it is associated with ischemic tissue damage and erectile disability. Here we report that phosphodiesterase-5 (PDE5) gene expression and PDE activity is significantly reduced in penile tissues of two independent priapic models: SCD mice and adenosine deaminase (ADA)-deficient mice. Moreover, using ADA enzyme therapy to reduce adenosine or a specific antagonist to block A2B adenosine receptor (ADORA2B) signaling, we successfully attenuated priapism in both ADA−/− and SCD mice by restoring penile PDE5 gene expression to normal levels. This finding led us to further discover that excess adenosine signaling via ADORA2B activation directly reduces PDE5 gene expression in a hypoxia-inducible factor-1α (HIF-1α)-dependent manner. Overall, we reveal that excess adenosine-mediated ADORA2B signaling underlies reduced penile PDE activity by decreasing PDE5 gene expression in a HIF-1α-dependent manner and provide new insight for the pathogenesis of priapism and novel therapies for the disease.—Ning, C., Wen, J., Zhang, Y., Dai, Y., Wang, W., Zhang, W., Qi, L., Grenz, A., Eltzschig, H. K., Blackburn, M. R., Kellems, R. E., Xia, Y. Excess adenosine A2B receptor signaling contributes to priapism through HIF-1α mediated reduction of PDE5 gene expression. PMID:24614760

  12. Sequence, organization, transcription and evolution of RNA polymerase subunit genes from the archaebacterial extreme halophiles Halobacterium halobium and Halococcus morrhuae.

    PubMed

    Leffers, H; Gropp, F; Lottspeich, F; Zillig, W; Garrett, R A

    1989-03-05

    The genes for the four largest subunits, A, B', B" and C, of the DNA-dependent RNA polymerase were cloned from the extreme halophile Halobacterium halobium and sequenced and their transcription was analyzed. The downstream half of this gene cluster from another extreme halophile Halococcus morrhuae was also cloned, sequenced and its transcription products characterized. The H. halobium genes were transcribed into a common transcript from an upstream promoter in the order B", B', A and C. They are flanked by, and co-transcribed with, two smaller genes coding for 75 and 139 amino acid residues, respectively. Immediately downstream from these genes were two open reading frames that are homologous to ribosomal proteins S12 and S7 from Escherichia coli. In both extreme halophiles these genes were transcribed from their own promoter, but in Hc. morrhuae there was also considerable read-through from the RNA polymerase genes. Sequence alignment studies showed that the combined B" + B' subunits are equivalent to the B subunits of the eukaryotic polymerases I and II and to the eubacterial beta subunit, while the combined A + C subunits correspond to the A subunits of eukaryotic RNA polymerases I, II and III and to the eubacterial beta' subunit. The sequence similarity to the eukaryotic subunits was always much higher than to the eubacterial subunits. Conserved sequence regions within the individual subunits were located which are likely to constitute functionally important domains; they include sites associated with rifampicin and alpha-amanitin binding and two possible zinc binding fingers. Phylogenetic analyses based on sequence alignments confirmed that the extreme halophiles belong to the archaebacterial kingdom.

  13. Regulation of expression of a soybean storage protein subunit gene. Progress report

    SciTech Connect

    Thompson, J.F.; Madison, J.T.

    1984-07-16

    We have found that soybean cotyledons could be cultured in vitro and that the storage proteins were formed essentially as on a plant. When methionine was added to the medium, the cotyledons grew faster, and the methionine content of the protein fraction was increased by over 20 percent. The high methionine content of the protein fraction was found to be due to a shift in the relative amounts of the two major storage proteins. The later effect was the result of methionine treatment suppressing the expression of one storage protein subunit gene. The goal was to determine the mechanism by which methionine is able to regulate the expression of the ..beta..-subunit gene.

  14. Association of Uridine Diphosphate-Glucuronosyltransferase 2B Gene Variants with Serum Glucuronide Levels and Prostate Cancer Risk

    PubMed Central

    Hoyo, Cathrine; Oliver, Shannon D.; Gerber, Leah; Shuler, Katie; Calloway, Elizabeth; Gaines, Alexis R.; McPhail, Megan; Livingston, Jonathan N.; Richardson, Ricardo M.; Schildkraut, Joellen M.; Freedland, Stephen J.

    2013-01-01

    Aims: Uridine diphosphate-glucuronosyltransferase 2B (UGT2B) enzymes conjugate testosterone metabolites to enable their excretion in humans. The functional significance of the UGT2B genetic variants has never been described in humans. We evaluated UGT2B variants in relation to plasma androstane-3α,17β-diol-glucuronide (AAG) levels and the prostate cancer risk. Results: AAG levels were measured in sera from 150 controls and compared to the polymorphisms of UGT2B17, UGT2B15, and UGT2B7. Genomic DNA from controls (301) and cases (148) was genotyped for the polymorphisms, and odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (95% CIs) were calculated using unconditional logistic regression analyses. Having two copies of UGT2B17 was associated with higher AAG levels in controls among Whites (p=0.02), but not Blacks (p=0.82). Logistic regression models adjusting for age and race revealed that homozygosity for the G allele of the UGT2B15D85Y polymorphism was directly associated with the prostate cancer risk (OR=2.70, 95% CI=1.28, 5.55). Conclusions: While the small sample size limits inference, our findings suggest that an association between the UGT2B17 copy number variant (CNV) and serum AAG levels in Whites, but unexpectedly not in Blacks. This novel observation suggests that genetic determinants of AAG levels in Blacks are unrelated to the UGT2B17 CNV. This study replicates the results that show an association of UGT215D85Y with an increased prostate cancer risk. PMID:23098242

  15. Association of polymorphic markers of genes FTO, KCNJ11, CDKAL1, SLC30A8, and CDKN2B with type 2 diabetes mellitus in the Russian population.

    PubMed

    Nikitin, Aleksey G; Potapov, Viktor Y; Brovkina, Olga I; Koksharova, Ekaterina O; Khodyrev, Dmitry S; Philippov, Yury I; Michurova, Marina S; Shamkhalova, Minara S; Vikulova, Olga K; Smetanina, Svetlana A; Suplotova, Lyudmila A; Kononenko, Irina V; Kalashnikov, Viktor Y; Smirnova, Olga M; Mayorov, Alexander Y; Nosikov, Valery V; Averyanov, Alexander V; Shestakova, Marina V

    2017-01-01

    The association of type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) with the KCNJ11, CDKAL1, SLC30A8, CDKN2B, and FTO genes in the Russian population has not been well studied. In this study, we analysed the population frequencies of polymorphic markers of these genes. The study included 862 patients with T2DM and 443 control subjects of Russian origin. All subjects were genotyped for 10 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) of the genes using real-time PCR (TaqMan assays). HOMA-IR and HOMA-β were used to measure insulin resistance and β-cell secretory function, respectively. The analysis of the frequency distribution of polymorphic markers for genes KCNJ11, CDKAL1, SLC30A8 and CDKN2B showed statistically significant associations with T2DM in the Russian population. The association between the FTO gene and T2DM was not statistically significant. The polymorphic markers rs5219 of the KCNJ11 gene, rs13266634 of the SLC30A8 gene, rs10811661 of the CDKN2B gene and rs9465871, rs7756992 and rs10946398 of the CDKAL1 gene showed a significant association with impaired glucose metabolism or impaired β-cell function. In the Russian population, genes, which affect insulin synthesis and secretion in the β-cells of the pancreas, play a central role in the development of T2DM.

  16. The human thyrotropin beta-subunit gene differs in 5' structure from murine TSH-beta genes.

    PubMed

    Guidon, P T; Whitfield, G K; Porti, D; Kourides, I A

    1988-12-01

    The gene encoding the beta-subunit of human thyrotropin (hTSH-beta) was isolated, and its nucleotide sequence was determined. The gene is 4.3 kb in length, consists of three exons and two introns, and is present as a single copy as determined by Southern blot analysis of total genomic DNA. The protein coding portion of the gene, which includes exons 2 and 3, was isolated from a human genomic phage library, while exon 1, which encodes only 5' untranslated mRNA sequence, was isolated from a plasmid library of size-selected genomic DNA fragments. Here we describe the isolation of the 5' untranslated exon of the hTSH-beta subunit and 5'-flanking region. The structure of the hTSH-beta gene is very similar to the previously characterized TSH-beta genes from mouse and rat. The genes from all three species have two distinct promoter regions, but while both promoters are utilized by the murine TSH-beta genes, the human TSH-beta gene apparently utilizes only the proximal promoter for transcription initiation. A striking difference in hTSH-beta gene structure compared to the murine genes is that exon 1 of the human gene is 36 nucleotides. An analysis of the mouse, rat, and human exon 1 and 5'-flanking region shows a high percentage of sequence homology, with the exception of a 9-nucleotide insertion 13 bases 3' from the proximal TATA box found in the human gene but not found in the other two species. We propose that this insertion results in the additional length of human exon 1 compared to the mouse and rat genes. By isolating the promoter region of the hTSH-beta gene, we can begin to identify specific sequences involved in the regulation of hTSH gene expression.

  17. The Gβ-Subunit-Encoding Gene bpp1 Controls Cyclic-AMP Signaling in Ustilago maydis

    PubMed Central

    Müller, Philip; Leibbrandt, Andreas; Teunissen, Hedwich; Cubasch, Stephanie; Aichinger, Christian; Kahmann, Regine

    2004-01-01

    In the phytopathogenic fungus Ustilago maydis, fusion of haploid cells is a prerequisite for infection. This process is controlled by a pheromone-receptor system. The receptors belong to the seven-transmembrane class that are coupled to heterotrimeric G proteins. Of four Gα subunits in U. maydis, only gpa3 has a function during mating and cyclic AMP (cAMP) signaling. Activation of the cAMP cascade induces pheromone gene expression; however, it does not lead to the induction of conjugation tubes seen after pheromone stimulation. To investigate the possibility that a Gβ subunit participates in pheromone signaling, we isolated the single β subunit gene, bpp1, from U. maydis. bpp1 deletion mutants grew filamentously and showed attenuated pheromone gene expression, phenotypes associated with Δgpa3 strains. In addition, a constitutively active allele of gpa3 suppressed the phenotype of the bpp1 deletion strains. We suggest that Bpp1 and Gpa3 are components of the same heterotrimeric G protein acting on adenylyl cyclase. Interestingly, while Δgpa3 strains are impaired in pathogenicity, Δbpp1 mutants are able to induce plant tumors. This could indicate that Gpa3 operates independently of Bpp1 during pathogenic development. PMID:15190001

  18. Possible involvement of nuclear factor erythroid 2-related factor 2 in the gene expression of Cyp2b10 and Cyp2a5.

    PubMed

    Ashino, Takashi; Ohkubo-Morita, Haruyo; Yamamoto, Masayuki; Yoshida, Takemi; Numazawa, Satoshi

    2014-01-01

    Cytochrome P450 gene expression is altered by various chemical compounds. In this study, we used nuclear factor erythroid 2-related factor 2 (Nrf2)-deficient (Nrf2(-⧸-)) mice to investigate the involvement of Nrf2 in Cyp2b10 and Cyp2a5 gene expression. Phorone, an Nrf2 activator, strongly increased Cyp2b10 and Cyp2a5 mRNA as well as Nrf2 target genes, including NAD(P)H-quinone oxidoreductase-1 and heme oxygenase-1, in wild-type mouse livers 8 h after treatment. The phorone-induced mRNA levels in Nrf2(-⧸-) mouse livers were lower than that in wild-type mouse livers. Nrf2(-⧸-) mice showed attenuated Cyp2b10 and Cyp2a5 induction by phenobarbital, a classical Cyp2b inducer. These findings suggest that the Nrf2 pathway is involved in Cyp2b10 and Cyp2a5 gene expression.

  19. Characterization of rainbow trout myostatin-2 genes (rtMSTN-2a and -2b): genomic organization, differential expression, and pseudogenization.

    PubMed

    Garikipati, Dilip K; Gahr, Scott A; Roalson, Eric H; Rodgers, Buel D

    2007-05-01

    Myostatin is an extremely potent negative regulator of vertebrate skeletal muscle development. A phylogenetic analysis suggests that salmonids should possess four distinct genes, although only MSTN-1 orthologs have been characterized. Described herein are the rainbow trout (rt) MSTN-2a and -2b genes and subsequence analysis of their promoters and their quantitative expression profiles. Both genes are similarly organized, contain several putative myogenic response elements, and are legitimate MSTN-2 orthologs based on Bayesian analyses. However, rtMSTN-2b contains two in-frame stop codons within the first exon and unspliced variants of both transcripts were expressed in a tissue-specific manner. Complete splicing of rtMSTN-2a occurred only in brain, where expression is highest, whereas rtMSTN-2b transcripts were mostly present in unspliced forms. The presence of stop codons in the rtMSTN-2b open reading frame and the expression of mostly unspliced transcripts indicate that this particular homolog is a pseudogene. These results confirm our previous phylogenetic analysis and suggest that all salmonids likely possess four distinct myostatin genes. The tissue-specific expression and differential processing of both rtMSTN-2 transcripts as well the pseudogenization of rtMSTN-2b may reflect compensatory and adaptive responses to tetraploidization and may help limit rtMSTN-2a's influences primarily to neural tissue.

  20. Expression of five acetylcholine receptor subunit genes in Brugia malayi adult worms

    PubMed Central

    Li, Ben-Wen; Rush, Amy C.; Weil, Gary J.

    2015-01-01

    Acetylcholine receptors (AChRs) are required for body movement in parasitic nematodes and are targets of “classical” anthelmintic drugs such as levamisole and pyrantel and of newer drugs such as tribendimidine and derquantel. While neurotransmission explains the effects of these drugs on nematode movement, their effects on parasite reproduction are unexplained. The levamisole AChR type (L-AChRs) in Caenorhabditis elegans is comprised of five subunits: Cel-UNC-29, Cel-UNC-38, Cel-UNC-63, Cel-LEV-1 and Cel-LEV-8. The genome of the filarial parasite Brugia malayi contains nine AChRs subunits including orthologues of Cel-unc-29, Cel-unc-38, and Cel-unc-63. We performed in situ hybridization with RNA probes to localize the expression of five AChR genes (Bm1_35890-Bma-unc-29, Bm1_20330-Bma-unc-38, Bm1_38195-Bma-unc-63, Bm1_48815-Bma-acr-26 and Bm1_40515-Bma-acr-12) in B. malayi adult worms. Four of these genes had similar expression patterns with signals in body muscle, developing embryos, spermatogonia, uterine wall adjacent to stretched microfilariae, wall of Vas deferens, and lateral cord. Three L-AChR subunit genes (Bma-unc-29, Bma-unc-38 and Bma-unc-63) were expressed in body muscle, which is a known target of levamisole. Bma-acr-12 was co-expressed with these levamisole subunit genes in muscle, and this suggests that its protein product may form receptors with other alpha subunits. Bma-acr-26 was expressed in male muscle but not in female muscle. Strong expression signals of these genes in early embryos and gametes in uterus and testis suggest that AChRs may have a role in nervous system development of embryogenesis and spermatogenesis. This would be consistent with embryotoxic effects of drugs that target these receptors in filarial worms. Our data show that the expression of these receptor genes is tightly regulated with regard to localization in adult worms and developmental stage in embryos and gametes. These results may help to explain the broad effects

  1. Differential regulation of hepatic CYP2B6 and CYP3A4 genes by constitutive androstane receptor but not pregnane X receptor.

    PubMed

    Faucette, Stephanie R; Sueyoshi, Tatsuya; Smith, Cornelia M; Negishi, Masahiko; Lecluyse, Edward L; Wang, Hongbing

    2006-06-01

    Accumulated evidence suggests that cross-talk between the pregnane X receptor (PXR) and the constitutive androstane receptor (CAR) results in shared transcriptional activation of CYP2B and CYP3A genes. Although most data imply symmetrical cross-regulation of these genes by rodent PXR and CAR, the actual selectivities of the corresponding human receptors are unknown. The objective of this study was to evaluate the symmetry of human (h) PXR and hCAR cross-talk by comparing the selectivities of these receptors for CYP2B6 and CYP3A4. Human hepatocyte studies revealed nonselective induction of both CYP2B6 and CYP3A4 by hPXR activation but marked preferential induction of CYP2B6 by selective hCAR activation. Gel shift assays demonstrated that hPXR exhibited strong and relatively equal binding to all functional response elements in both CYP2B6 and CYP3A4 genes, whereas hCAR displayed significantly weak binding to the CYP3A4 proximal ER6 motif. In cell-based transfection assays, hCAR displayed greater activation of CYP2B6 reporter gene expression compared with CYP3A4 with constructs containing both proximal and distal regulatory elements. Furthermore, in agreement with binding observations, transfection assays using promoter constructs containing repeats of CYP2B6 DR4 and CYP3A4 ER6 motifs revealed an even greater difference in reporter activation by hCAR. In contrast, hPXR activation resulted in less discernible differences between CYP2B6 and CYP3A4 reporter gene expression. These results suggest asymmetrical cross-regulation of CYP2B6 and CYP3A4 by hCAR but not hPXR in that hCAR exhibits preferential induction of CYP2B6 relative to CYP3A4 because of its weak binding and functional activation of the CYP3A4 ER6.

  2. Functional dominant-negative mutation of sodium channel subunit gene SCN3B associated with atrial fibrillation in a Chinese GeneID population

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Pengyun; Yang, Qinbo; Wu, Xiaofen; Yang, Yanzong; Shi, Lisong; Wang, Chuchu; Wu, Gang; Xia, Yunlong; Yang, Bo; Zhang, Rongfeng; Xu, Chengqi; Cheng, Xiang; Li, Sisi; Zhao, Yuanyuan; Fu, Fenfen; Liao, Yuhua; Fang, Fang; Chen, Qiuyun; Tu, Xin; Wang, Qing K.

    2010-01-01

    Atrial fibrillation (AF) is the most common cardiac arrhythmia in the clinic, and accounts for more than 15% of strokes. Mutations in cardiac sodium channel α, β1 and β2 subunit genes (SCN5A, SCN1B, and SCN2B) have been identified in AF patients. We hypothesize that mutations in the sodium channel β3 subunit gene SCN3B are also associated with AF. To test this hypothesis, we carried out a large scale sequencing analysis of all coding exons and exon-intron boundaries of SCN3B in 477 AF patients (28.5% lone AF) from the GeneID Chinese Han population. A novel A130V mutation was identified in a 46 year-old patient with lone AF, and the mutation was absent in 500 controls. Mutation A130V dramatically decreased the cardiac sodium current density when expressed in HEK293/Nav1.5 stable cell line, but did not have significant effect on kinetics of activation, inactivation, and channel recovery from inactivation. When co-expressed with wild type SCN3B, the A130V mutant SCN3B negated the function of wild type SCN3B, suggesting that A130V acts by a dominant negative mechanism. Western blot analysis with biotinylated plasma membrane protein extracts revealed that A130V did not affect cell surface expression of Nav1.5 or SCN3B, suggesting that mutant A130V SCN3B may not inhibit sodium channel trafficking, instead may affect conduction of sodium ions due to its malfunction as an integral component of the channel complex. This study identifies the first AF-associated mutation in SCN3B, and suggests that mutations in SCN3B may be a new pathogenic cause of AF. PMID:20558140

  3. Uridine diphosphate-glucuronosyltransferase 2B15 D85Y gene polymorphism is associated with lower prostate cancer risk: a systematic review and meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    Zhong, Xiao; Feng, Jiayu; Xiao, Ya; Wang, Pingxian; Fan, Qiming; Wu, Ronghua; Hu, Wengang; Huang, Chibing

    2017-08-08

    UGT2B15 (uridine diphosphate-glucuronosyltransferase 2B15) catalyzes the conversion of lipophilic C19 steroid androgens such as dihydrotestosterone (DHT) into water-soluble metabolites that can be excreted. Studies of the association between the UGT2B15 gene D85Y polymorphism and prostate cancer have yielded contradictory results. We therefore systematically searched in the PubMed, EMBASE, Science Direct/Elsevier, CNKI, and Cochrane Library databases, and identified six relevant studies with which to perform a meta-analysis of the relation between UGT2B15 D85Y polymorphism and prostate cancer risk. Our meta-analysis revealed a significant association between UGT2B15 D85Y gene polymorphism and prostate cancer in all genetic models (P<0.05). The combined odds ratios and 95% confidence intervals were as follows: additive model, 0.53 and 0.32-0.88; dominant model, 0.51 and 0.33-0.79; recessive model, 0.76 and 0.60-0.96; co-dominant model, 0.55 and 0.35-0.86; and allele model, 0.70 and 0.55-0.89. These results are consistent with the idea that the UGT2B15 D85Y enzyme variant reduces the risk of prostate cancer by efficiently metabolizing dihydrotestosterone (DHT), which is associated with prostate cancer progression.

  4. Voluntary wheel running modulates glutamate receptor subunit gene expression and stress hormone release in Lewis rats.

    PubMed

    Makatsori, A; Duncko, R; Schwendt, M; Moncek, F; Johansson, B B; Jezova, D

    2003-07-01

    Lewis rats that are known to be addiction-prone, develop compulsive running if they have access to running wheels. The present experiments were aimed 1) to evaluate the activation of stress systems following chronic and acute voluntary wheel running in Lewis rats by measurement of hormone release and gene expression of neuropeptides related to hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenocortical (HPA) axis activity and 2) to test the hypothesis that wheel running as a combined model of addictive behavior and stress exposure is associated with modulation of ionotropic glutamate receptor subunits in the ventral tegmental area. Voluntary running for three weeks but not for one night resulted in a rise in plasma corticosterone and adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) levels (p<0.05) compared to those in control rats. Principal component analysis revealed the relation between POMC gene expression in the intermediate pituitary and running rate. Acute exposure of animals to voluntary wheel running induced a significant decrease in alpha-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methyl-4-isoxazole propionate (AMPA) receptor GluR1 subunit mRNA levels (p<0.01), while repeated voluntary physical activity increased levels of GluR1 mRNA in the ventral tegmentum (p<0.05). Neither acute nor chronic wheel running influenced N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) receptor subunit NR1 mRNA levels in the ventral tegmental area. Thus, the present study revealed changes in AMPA receptor subunit gene expression in a reward-related brain structure as well as an activation of HPA axis in response to compulsive wheel running in Lewis rats. It may be suggested that hormones of HPA axis and glutamate receptors belong to the factors that substantiate higher vulnerability to addictive behavior.

  5. Rice Ribosomal Protein Large Subunit Genes and Their Spatio-temporal and Stress Regulation

    PubMed Central

    Moin, Mazahar; Bakshi, Achala; Saha, Anusree; Dutta, Mouboni; Madhav, Sheshu M.; Kirti, P. B.

    2016-01-01

    Ribosomal proteins (RPs) are well-known for their role in mediating protein synthesis and maintaining the stability of the ribosomal complex, which includes small and large subunits. In the present investigation, in a genome-wide survey, we predicted that the large subunit of rice ribosomes is encoded by at least 123 genes including individual gene copies, distributed throughout the 12 chromosomes. We selected 34 candidate genes, each having 2–3 identical copies, for a detailed characterization of their gene structures, protein properties, cis-regulatory elements and comprehensive expression analysis. RPL proteins appear to be involved in interactions with other RP and non-RP proteins and their encoded RNAs have a higher content of alpha-helices in their predicted secondary structures. The majority of RPs have binding sites for metal and non-metal ligands. Native expression profiling of 34 ribosomal protein large (RPL) subunit genes in tissues covering the major stages of rice growth shows that they are predominantly expressed in vegetative tissues and seedlings followed by meiotically active tissues like flowers. The putative promoter regions of these genes also carry cis-elements that respond specifically to stress and signaling molecules. All the 34 genes responded differentially to the abiotic stress treatments. Phytohormone and cold treatments induced significant up-regulation of several RPL genes, while heat and H2O2 treatments down-regulated a majority of them. Furthermore, infection with a bacterial pathogen, Xanthomonas oryzae, which causes leaf blight also induced the expression of 80% of the RPL genes in leaves. Although the expression of RPL genes was detected in all the tissues studied, they are highly responsive to stress and signaling molecules indicating that their encoded proteins appear to have roles in stress amelioration besides house-keeping. This shows that the RPL gene family is a valuable resource for manipulation of stress tolerance in

  6. Cloning and expression of the gene encoding catalytic subunit of thermostable glucose dehydrogenase from Burkholderia cepacia in Escherichia coli.

    PubMed

    Inose, Ken; Fujikawa, Masako; Yamazaki, Tomohiko; Kojima, Katsuhiro; Sode, Koji

    2003-02-21

    We have cloned a 1620-nucleotide gene encoding the catalytic subunit (alpha subunit) of a thermostable glucose dehydrogenase (GDH) from Burkholderia cepacia. The FAD binding motif was found in the N-terminal region of the alpha subunit. The deduced primary structure of the alpha subunit showed about 48% identity to the catalytic subunits of sorbitol dehydrogenase (SDH) from Gluconobacter oxydans and 2-keto-D-gluconate dehydrogenases (2KGDH) from Erwinia herbicola and Pantoea citrea. The alpha subunit of B. cepacia was expressed in Escherichia coli in its active water-soluble form, showing maximum dye-mediated GDH activity at 70 degrees C, retaining high thermal stability. A putative open reading frame (ORF) of 507 nucleotides was also found upstream of the alpha subunit encoding an 18-kDa peptide, designated as gamma subunit. The deduced primary structure of gamma subunit showed about 30% identity to the small subunits of the SDH from G. oxydans and 2KGDHs from E. herbicola and P. citrea.

  7. Pituitary transcription factor Prop-1 stimulates porcine follicle-stimulating hormone beta subunit gene expression.

    PubMed

    Aikawa, Satoko; Kato, Takako; Susa, Takao; Tomizawa, Kyoko; Ogawa, Satoshi; Kato, Yukio

    2004-11-12

    Molecular cloning of the transcription factor that modulates the expression of porcine follicle-stimulating hormone beta subunit (FSHbeta) gene was performed by the yeast one-hybrid cloning system using the -852/-746 upstream region (Fd2) as a bait sequence. We eventually cloned a pituitary transcription factor, Prop-1, which has been identified as an upstream transcription factor of Pit-1 gene. Binding ability of Prop-1 to the bait sequence was confirmed using recombinant Prop-1, and the binding property was investigated by DNase I footprinting, revealing that Prop-1 certainly bound to the large AT-rich region throughout the Fd2. Co-transfection of Prop-1 expression vector together with a reporter gene fused with Fd2 in CHO cells demonstrated an attractive stimulation of reporter gene expression. Immunohistochemistry of adult porcine pituitary confirmed the colocalization of the Prop-1 and FSHbeta subunit. This study is the first to report that Prop-1 participates in the regulation of FSHbeta gene. The present finding will provide new insights into the development of pituitary cell lineage and combined pituitary hormone deficiency (CPHD), since why the defect of Prop-1 causes CPHD including gonadotropins (FSH and LH) has yet to be clarified.

  8. Developmental and Stress Regulation of RCI2A and RCI2B, Two Cold-Inducible Genes of Arabidopsis Encoding Highly Conserved Hydrophobic Proteins1

    PubMed Central

    Medina, Joaquín; Catalá, Rafael; Salinas, Julio

    2001-01-01

    The capability of most higher plants to tolerate environmental conditions strongly depends on their developmental stage. In addition, environmental factors have pleiotropic effects on many developmental processes. The interaction between plant development and environmental conditions implies that some genes must be regulated by both environmental factors and developmental cues. To understand their developmental regulation and obtain possible clues on their functions, we have isolated genomic clones for RCI2A and RCI2B, two genes from Arabidopsis ecotype Columbia (Col), whose expression is induced in response to low temperature, dehydration, salt stress, and abscisic acid. The promoters of RCI2A and RCI2B were fused to the uidA (GUS)-coding sequence and the resulting constructs used to transform Arabidopsis. GUS activity was analyzed in transgenic plants during development under both stressed and unstressed conditions. Transgenic plants with either the RCI2A or RCI2B promoter showed strong GUS expression during the first stages of seed development and germination, in vascular bundles, pollen, and most interestingly in guard cells. When transgenic plants were exposed to low temperature, dehydration, salt stress, or abscisic acid, reporter gene expression was induced in most tissues. These results indicate that RCI2A and RCI2B are regulated at transcriptional level during plant development and in response to different environmental stimuli and treatments. The potential role of RCI2A and RCI2B in plant development and stress response is discussed. PMID:11299347

  9. Involvement of CAR and PXR in the transcriptional regulation of CYP2B6 gene expression by ingredients from herbal medicines.

    PubMed

    Xu, Cong; Luo, Mengyue; Jiang, Huidi; Yu, Lushan; Zeng, Su

    2015-01-01

    1. Induction of hepatic drug-metabolizing enzymes can affect drug efficacy and cause toxicity. However, so far, limited information is available regarding the molecular mechanism how herbal medicines induce human CYP2B6, which metabolizes many of the clinically used therapeutics and activates several pro-carcinogens or toxicants. Accumulated evidence suggests that the human constitutive androstane receptor (hCAR) and the human pregnane X receptor (hPXR) play important roles in trans-activation of CYP2B6. In this study, we investigated the effects of 68 Chinese herbal ingredients on the receptor specificity of hPXR/hCAR-mediated CYP2B6 induction by luciferase reporter gene assays in transiently transfected HepG2 cells and on the expression of CYP2B6 in LS174T cells. 2. The HepG2 cells were transiently transfected with human CYP2B6 luciferase promoter reporter plasmids along with hPXR or hCAR3. The results indicated that apigenin (Api), curcumol (Cur) and praeruptorin A (Pra A) were identified as potent activators of hPXR, and Pra A was also a ligand of hCAR. 3. Furthermore, CYP2B6 mRNA expression in LS174T cells treated with the three herbal ingredients was determined by real-time polymerase chain reaction. By combining western blot and LC-MS/MS, CYP2B6 protein expression and catalytic activity induced by the three herbal ingredients were measured. 4. Our observation showed Api and Cur up-regulated CYP2B6 expression by transactivation of hPXR, and Pra A acted as the ligand of both hPXR and hCAR to induce CYP2B6 expression.

  10. Induction of UDP-glucuronosyltransferase 2B15 gene expression by the major active metabolites of tamoxifen, 4-hydroxytamoxifen and endoxifen, in breast cancer cells.

    PubMed

    Chanawong, Apichaya; Hu, Dong Gui; Meech, Robyn; Mackenzie, Peter I; McKinnon, Ross A

    2015-06-01

    We previously reported upregulation of UGT2B15 by 17β-estradiol in breast cancer MCF7 cells via binding of the estrogen receptor α (ERα) to an estrogen response unit (ERU) in the proximal UGT2B15 promoter. In the present study, we show that this ERα-mediated upregulation was significantly reduced by two ER antagonists (fulvestrant and raloxifene) but was not affected by a third ER antagonist, 4-hydroxytamoxifen (4-OHTAM), a major active tamoxifen (TAM) metabolite. Furthermore, we found that, similar to 17β-estradiol, 4-OHTAM and endoxifen (another major active TAM metabolite) elevated UGT2B15 mRNA levels, and that this stimulation was significantly abrogated by fulvestrant. Further experiments using 4-OHTAM revealed a critical role for ERα in this regulation. Specifically; knockdown of ERα expression by anti-ERα small interfering RNA reduced the 4-OHTAM-mediated induction of UGT2B15 expression; 4-OHTAM activated the wild-type but not the ERU-mutated UGT2B15 promoter; and chromatin immunoprecipitation assays showed increased ERα occupancy at the UGT2B15 ERU in MCF7 cells upon exposure to 4-OHTAM. Together, these data indicate that both 17β-estradiol and the antiestrogen 4-OHTAM upregulate UGT2B15 in MCF7 cells via the same ERα-signaling pathway. This is consistent with previous observations that both 17β-estradiol and TAM upregulate a common set of genes in MCF7 cells via the ER-signaling pathway. As 4-OHTAM is a UGT2B15 substrate, the upregulation of UGT2B15 by 4-OHTAM in target breast cancer cells is likely to enhance local metabolism and inactivation of 4-OHTAM within the tumor. This represents a potential mechanism that may reduce TAM therapeutic efficacy or even contribute to the development of acquired TAM resistance.

  11. Allele-specific interactions between the yeast RFC1 and RFC5 genes suggest a basis for RFC subunit-subunit interactions.

    PubMed

    Beckwith, W; McAlear, M A

    2000-11-01

    Replication factor C (RFC) is an essential, multi-subunit ATPase that functions in DNA replication, DNA repair, and DNA metabolism-related checkpoints. In order to investigate how the individual RFC subunits contribute to these functions in vivo, we undertook a genetic analysis of RFC genes from budding yeast. We isolated and characterized mutations in the RFC5 gene that could suppress the cold-sensitive phenotype of rfc1-1 mutants. Analysis of the RFC5 suppressors revealed that they could not suppress the elongated telomere phenotype, the sensitivity to DNA damaging agents, or the mutator phenotype of rfc1-1 mutants. Unlike the checkpoint-defective rfc5-1 mutation, the RFC5 suppressor mutations did not interfere with the methylmethane sulfonate- or hydroxyurea-induced phosphorylation of Rad53p. The Rfc5p suppressor substitutions mapped to amino acid positions in the conserved RFC box motifs IV-VII. Comparisons of the structures of related RFC box-containing proteins suggest that these RFC motifs may function to coordinate interactions between neighboring subunits of multi-subunit ATPases.

  12. Genetic differentiation of the mitochondrial cytochrome oxidase C subunit I gene in genus Paramecium (Protista, Ciliophora).

    PubMed

    Zhao, Yan; Gentekaki, Eleni; Yi, Zhenzhen; Lin, Xiaofeng

    2013-01-01

    The mitochondrial cytochrome c oxidase subunit I (COI) gene is being used increasingly for evaluating inter- and intra-specific genetic diversity of ciliated protists. However, very few studies focus on assessing genetic divergence of the COI gene within individuals and how its presence might affect species identification and population structure analyses. We evaluated the genetic variation of the COI gene in five Paramecium species for a total of 147 clones derived from 21 individuals and 7 populations. We identified a total of 90 haplotypes with several individuals carrying more than one haplotype. Parsimony network and phylogenetic tree analyses revealed that intra-individual diversity had no effect in species identification and only a minor effect on population structure. Our results suggest that the COI gene is a suitable marker for resolving inter- and intra-specific relationships of Paramecium spp.

  13. Genetic Differentiation of the Mitochondrial Cytochrome Oxidase c Subunit I Gene in Genus Paramecium (Protista, Ciliophora)

    PubMed Central

    Zhao, Yan; Gentekaki, Eleni; Yi, Zhenzhen; Lin, Xiaofeng

    2013-01-01

    Background The mitochondrial cytochrome c oxidase subunit I (COI) gene is being used increasingly for evaluating inter- and intra-specific genetic diversity of ciliated protists. However, very few studies focus on assessing genetic divergence of the COI gene within individuals and how its presence might affect species identification and population structure analyses. Methodology/Principal findings We evaluated the genetic variation of the COI gene in five Paramecium species for a total of 147 clones derived from 21 individuals and 7 populations. We identified a total of 90 haplotypes with several individuals carrying more than one haplotype. Parsimony network and phylogenetic tree analyses revealed that intra-individual diversity had no effect in species identification and only a minor effect on population structure. Conclusions Our results suggest that the COI gene is a suitable marker for resolving inter- and intra-specific relationships of Paramecium spp. PMID:24204730

  14. Effects of sex and DTNBP1 (dysbindin) null gene mutation on the developmental GluN2B-GluN2A switch in the mouse cortex and hippocampus.

    PubMed

    Sinclair, Duncan; Cesare, Joseph; McMullen, Mary; Carlson, Greg C; Hahn, Chang-Gyu; Borgmann-Winter, Karin E

    2016-01-01

    Neurodevelopmental disorders such as autism spectrum disorders and schizophrenia differentially impact males and females and are highly heritable. The ways in which sex and genetic vulnerability influence the pathogenesis of these disorders are not clearly understood. The n-methyl-d-aspartate (NMDA) receptor pathway has been implicated in schizophrenia and autism spectrum disorders and changes dramatically across postnatal development at the level of the GluN2B-GluN2A subunit "switch" (a shift from reliance on GluN2B-containing receptors to reliance on GluN2A-containing receptors). We investigated whether sex and genetic vulnerability (specifically, null mutation of DTNBP1 [dysbindin; a possible susceptibility gene for schizophrenia]) influence the developmental GluN2B-GluN2A switch. Subcellular fractionation to enrich for postsynaptic density (PSD), together with Western blotting and kinase assay, were used to investigate the GluN2B-GluN2A switch in the cortex and hippocampus of male and female DTNBP1 null mutant mice and their wild-type littermates. Main effects of sex and DTNBP1 genotype, and interactions with age, were assessed using factorial ANOVA. Sex differences in the GluN2B-GluN2A switch emerged across development at the frontal cortical synapse, in parameters related to GluN2B. Males across genotypes displayed higher GluN2B:GluN2A and GluN2B:GluN1 ratios (p < 0.05 and p < 0.01, respectively), higher GluN2B phosphorylation at Y1472 (p < 0.01), and greater abundance of PLCγ (p < 0.01) and Fyn (p = 0.055) relative to females. In contrast, effects of DTNBP1 were evident exclusively in the hippocampus. The developmental trajectory of GluN2B was disrupted in DTNBP1 null mice (genotype × age interaction p < 0.05), which also displayed an increased synaptic GluN2A:GluN1 ratio (p < 0.05) and decreased PLCγ (p < 0.05) and Fyn (only in females; p < 0.0005) compared to wild-types. Sex and DTNBP1 mutation influence the GluN2

  15. Cloning of the elk TSH beta-subunit cDNA and seasonal expression of the pituitary glycoprotein hormone genes.

    PubMed

    Clark, Rena J; Furlan, Michael A; Chedrese, P Jorge

    2005-06-01

    We report the elk (Cervus elaphus) thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH) beta-subunit cDNA cloning, nucleotide and deduced amino acid sequences. The TSH beta-subunit cDNA was obtained by RT-PCR of polyadenylated pituitary RNA. The deduced elk TSH beta-subunit peptide chain shares between 93 to 99% sequence similarities with the reported TSH beta-subunit of a sub-set of related species. The TSH beta-subunit gene is expressed in the elk pituitary gland as a mature transcript of approximately 600 bases, which corresponds to the size of the mRNA expressed in the sheep pituitary gland. Seasonal expression of the pituitary gonadotropin genes was investigated by Northern blot analyses. Samples of elk pituitary glands collected during the breeding season showed elevated steady state levels of common alpha-subunit and FSH and LH beta-subunit gene expression, consistent with the seasonal reproductive cycling of this species. Samples collected before the breeding season demonstrated decreased expression of the gonadotropin genes. TSH, which is not directly tied to reproduction, had similar levels of expression, regardless of the animal's reproductive status.

  16. Fibrinogen {alpha} genes: Conservation of bipartite transcripts and carboxy-terminal-extended {alpha} subunits in vertebrates

    SciTech Connect

    Fu, Y.; Cao, Y.; Hertzberg, K.M.; Grieninger, G.

    1995-11-01

    All three well-studied subunits of the clotting protein fibrinogen ({alpha}, {beta}, {gamma}) share N-terminal structural homologies, but until recently only the {beta} and {gamma} chains were recognized as having similar globular C-termini. With the discovery of an extra exon in the human fibrinogen {alpha} gene (exon VI), a minor form of the {alpha} subunit ({alpha}{sub E}) with an extended {beta}- and {gamma}-like C-terminus has been identified. In the present study, the polymerase chain reaction has been used to identify sequences that encode counterparts to {alpha}{sub E} in chicken, rabbit, rat, and baboon. The basic six-exon structure of the fibrinogen {alpha} genes is shown to be conserved among mammals and birds, as are the intron positions. Bipartite transcripts - still bearing an intron prior to the last exon - are found among the products of the various vertebrate fibrinogen {alpha} genes. The last exon represents the largest conserved segment of the gene and, in each species examined, encodes exactly 236 amino acids. The C-termini of these {alpha}{sub E} chains align without a single gap and are between 76 and 99% identical. Since the exon VI-encoded domain of {alpha}{sub E} is as well conserved as the corresponding regions of the {beta} and {gamma} chains, it follows that it is equally important and that {alpha}{sub E}-fibrinogen plays a vital, if as-yet unrecognized physiological role. 21 refs., 7 figs., 1 tab.

  17. Diverse gene-silencing mechanisms with distinct requirements for RNA polymerase subunits in Zea mays.

    PubMed

    Sloan, Amy E; Sidorenko, Lyudmila; McGinnis, Karen M

    2014-11-01

    In Zea mays, transcriptional regulation of the b1 (booster1) gene requires a distal enhancer and MEDIATOR OF PARAMUTATION1 (MOP1), MOP2, and MOP3 proteins orthologous to Arabidopsis components of the RNA-dependent DNA methylation pathway. We compared the genetic requirements for MOP1, MOP2, and MOP3 for endogenous gene silencing by two hairpin transgenes with inverted repeats of the a1 (anthocyaninless1) gene promoter (a1pIR) and the b1 gene enhancer (b1IR), respectively. The a1pIR transgene induced silencing of endogenous A1 in mop1-1 and mop3-1, but not in Mop2-1 homozygous plants. This finding suggests that transgene-derived small interfering RNAs (siRNAs) circumvented the requirement for MOP1, a predicted RNA-dependent RNA polymerase, and MOP3, the predicted largest subunit of RNA polymerase IV (Pol IV). Because the Arabidopsis protein orthologous to MOP2 is the second largest subunit of Pol IV and V, our results may indicate that hairpin-induced siRNAs cannot bypass the requirement for the predicted scaffolding activity of Pol V. In contrast to a1pIR, the b1IR transgene silenced endogenous B1 in all three homozygous mutant genotypes--mop1-1, Mop2-1, and mop3-1--suggesting that transgene mediated b1 silencing did not involve MOP2-containing Pol V complexes. Based on the combined results for a1, b1, and three previously described loci, we propose a speculative hypothesis of locus-specific deployment of Pol II, MOP2-containing Pol V, or alternative versions of Pol V with second largest subunits other than MOP2 to explain the mechanistic differences in silencing at specific loci, including one example associated with paramutation. Copyright © 2014 by the Genetics Society of America.

  18. Diverse Gene-Silencing Mechanisms with Distinct Requirements for RNA Polymerase Subunits in Zea mays

    PubMed Central

    Sloan, Amy E.; Sidorenko, Lyudmila; McGinnis, Karen M.

    2014-01-01

    In Zea mays, transcriptional regulation of the b1 (booster1) gene requires a distal enhancer and MEDIATOR OF PARAMUTATION1 (MOP1), MOP2, and MOP3 proteins orthologous to Arabidopsis components of the RNA-dependent DNA methylation pathway. We compared the genetic requirements for MOP1, MOP2, and MOP3 for endogenous gene silencing by two hairpin transgenes with inverted repeats of the a1 (anthocyaninless1) gene promoter (a1pIR) and the b1 gene enhancer (b1IR), respectively. The a1pIR transgene induced silencing of endogenous A1 in mop1-1 and mop3-1, but not in Mop2-1 homozygous plants. This finding suggests that transgene-derived small interfering RNAs (siRNAs) circumvented the requirement for MOP1, a predicted RNA-dependent RNA polymerase, and MOP3, the predicted largest subunit of RNA polymerase IV (Pol IV). Because the Arabidopsis protein orthologous to MOP2 is the second largest subunit of Pol IV and V, our results may indicate that hairpin-induced siRNAs cannot bypass the requirement for the predicted scaffolding activity of Pol V. In contrast to a1pIR, the b1IR transgene silenced endogenous B1 in all three homozygous mutant genotypes—mop1-1, Mop2-1, and mop3-1—suggesting that transgene mediated b1 silencing did not involve MOP2-containing Pol V complexes. Based on the combined results for a1, b1, and three previously described loci, we propose a speculative hypothesis of locus-specific deployment of Pol II, MOP2-containing Pol V, or alternative versions of Pol V with second largest subunits other than MOP2 to explain the mechanistic differences in silencing at specific loci, including one example associated with paramutation. PMID:25164883

  19. The structures of the human calcium channel {alpha}{sub 1} subunit (CACNL1A2) and {beta} subunit (CACNLB3) genes

    SciTech Connect

    Yamada, Yuichiro; Masuda, Kazuhiro; Li, Qing

    1995-05-20

    Calcium influx in pancreatic {beta}-cells is regulated mainly by L-type voltage-dependent calcium channels (VDCCs) and triggers insulin secretion. The {alpha}{sub 1} subunit (CACN4) and the {beta} subunit ({beta}{sub 3}) of VDCCs, both of which are expressed in pancreatic islets, are major components for the VDCC activity, and so they may play a critical role in the regulation of insulin secretion. The authors have determined the structures of the human CACN4 (CACNL1A2) and the human {beta}{sub 3} (CACNLB3) genes. The CACNL1A2 gene spans more than 155 kb and has 49 exons. Most of the positions interrupted by introns are well conserved between the CACNL1A2 gene and the previously reported L-type VDCC {alpha}{sub 1} subunit, CACNL1A1, gene. On the other hand, the CACNLB3 gene distributes in {approximately} 8 kb and comprises 13 exons, most of which are located together within {approximately} 5 kb. Comparisons of the genomic sequences of CACNL1A2 with the previously reported cDNA sequences indicate that there are a number of polymorphisms in the human CACNL1A2 gene. In addition, the PCR-SSCP procedure of exon 1 of CACNL1A2 revealed a change from 7 to 8 ATG trinucleotide repeats in a patient with noninsulin-dependent diabetes mellitus (NIDDM), resulting in an addition of methionine at the amino-terminus of CACN4. The determination of the structures of the human CACNL1A2 and CACNLB3 genes should facilitate study of the role of these genes in the development of NIDDM and also other genetic diseases such as long QT syndrome. 39 refs., 3 figs., 3 tabs.

  20. Excess adenosine A2B receptor signaling contributes to priapism through HIF-1α mediated reduction of PDE5 gene expression.

    PubMed

    Ning, Chen; Wen, Jiaming; Zhang, Yujin; Dai, Yingbo; Wang, Wei; Zhang, Weiru; Qi, Lin; Grenz, Almut; Eltzschig, Holger K; Blackburn, Michael R; Kellems, Rodney E; Xia, Yang

    2014-06-01

    Priapism is featured with prolonged and painful penile erection and is prevalent among males with sickle cell disease (SCD). The disorder is a dangerous urological and hematological emergency since it is associated with ischemic tissue damage and erectile disability. Here we report that phosphodiesterase-5 (PDE5) gene expression and PDE activity is significantly reduced in penile tissues of two independent priapic models: SCD mice and adenosine deaminase (ADA)-deficient mice. Moreover, using ADA enzyme therapy to reduce adenosine or a specific antagonist to block A(2B) adenosine receptor (ADORA2B) signaling, we successfully attenuated priapism in both ADA(-/-) and SCD mice by restoring penile PDE5 gene expression to normal levels. This finding led us to further discover that excess adenosine signaling via ADORA2B activation directly reduces PDE5 gene expression in a hypoxia-inducible factor-1α (HIF-1α)-dependent manner. Overall, we reveal that excess adenosine-mediated ADORA2B signaling underlies reduced penile PDE activity by decreasing PDE5 gene expression in a HIF-1α-dependent manner and provide new insight for the pathogenesis of priapism and novel therapies for the disease.

  1. Heavy transcription of yeast genes correlates with differential loss of histone H2B relative to H4 and queued RNA polymerases

    PubMed Central

    Cole, Hope A.; Ocampo, Josefina; Iben, James R.; Chereji, Răzvan V.; Clark, David J.

    2014-01-01

    Eukaryotic chromatin is composed of nucleosomes, which contain nearly two coils of DNA wrapped around a central histone octamer. The octamer contains an H3-H4 tetramer and two H2A-H2B dimers. Gene activation is associated with chromatin disruption: a wider nucleosome-depleted region (NDR) at the promoter and reduced nucleosome occupancy over the coding region. Here, we examine the nature of disrupted chromatin after induction, using MNase-seq to map nucleosomes and subnucleosomes, and a refined high-resolution ChIP-seq method to map H4, H2B and RNA polymerase II (Pol II) genome-wide. Over coding regions, induced genes show a differential loss of H2B relative to H4, which correlates with Pol II density and the appearance of subnucleosomes. After induction, Pol II is surprisingly low at the promoter, but accumulates on the gene and downstream of the termination site, implying that dissociation is very slow. Thus, induction-dependent chromatin disruption reflects both eviction of H2A-H2B dimers and the presence of queued Pol II elongation complexes. We propose that slow Pol II dissociation after transcription is a major factor in chromatin disruption and that it may be of critical importance in gene regulation. PMID:25348398

  2. Traxoprodil, a selective antagonist of the NR2B subunit of the NMDA receptor, potentiates the antidepressant-like effects of certain antidepressant drugs in the forced swim test in mice.

    PubMed

    Poleszak, Ewa; Stasiuk, Weronika; Szopa, Aleksandra; Wyska, Elżbieta; Serefko, Anna; Oniszczuk, Anna; Wośko, Sylwia; Świąder, Katarzyna; Wlaź, Piotr

    2016-08-01

    One of the newest substances, whose antidepressant activity was shown is traxoprodil, which is a selective antagonist of the NR2B subunit of the NMDA receptor. The main goal of the present study was to evaluate the effect of traxoprodil on animals' behavior using the forced swim test (FST), as well as the effect of traxoprodil (10 mg/kg) on the activity of antidepressants, such as imipramine (15 mg/kg), fluoxetine (5 mg/kg), escitalopram (2 mg/kg) and reboxetine (2.5 mg/kg). Serotonergic lesion and experiment using the selective agonists of serotonin receptors 5-HT1A and 5-HT2 was conducted to evaluate the role of the serotonergic system in the antidepressant action of traxoprodil. Brain concentrations of tested agents were determined using HPLC. The results showed that traxoprodil at a dose of 20 and 40 mg/kg exhibited antidepressant activity in the FST and it was not related to changes in animals' locomotor activity. Co-administration of traxoprodil with imipramine, fluoxetine or escitalopram, each in subtherapeutic doses, significantly affected the animals' behavior in the FST and, what is important, these changes were not due to the severity of locomotor activity. The observed effect of traxoprodil is only partially associated with serotonergic system and is independent of the effect on the 5-HT1A and 5-HT2 serotonin receptors. The results of an attempt to assess the nature of the interaction between traxoprodil and the tested drugs show that in the case of joint administration of traxoprodil and fluoxetine, imipramine or escitalopram, there were interactions in the pharmacokinetic phase.

  3. Structural genes for Mg-chelatase subunits in barley: Xantha-f, -g and -h.

    PubMed

    Jensen, P E; Willows, R D; Petersen, B L; Vothknecht, U C; Stummann, B M; Kannangara, C G; von Wettstein, D; Henningsen, K W

    1996-03-07

    Barley mutants in the loci Xantha-f, Xantha-g and Xantha-h, when fed with 5-aminolevulinate in the dark, accumulate protoporphyrin IX. Mutant alleles at these loci that are completely blocked in protochlorophyllide synthesis are also blocked in development of prolamellar bodies in etioplasts. In contrast to wild type, the xan-f, -g and -h mutants had no detectable Mg-chelatase activity, whereas they all had methyltransferase activity for synthesis of Mg-protoporphyrin monomethyl ester. Antibodies recognising the CH42 protein of Arabidopsis thaliana and the OLIVE (OLI) protein of Antirrhinum majus immunoreacted in wild-type barley with 42 and 150 kDa proteins, respectively. The xan-h mutants lacked the protein reacting with antibodies raised against the CH42 protein. Two xan-f mutants lacked the 150 kDa protein recognised by the anti-OLI antibody. Barley genes homologous to the A. majus olive and the A. thaliana Ch-42 genes were cloned using PCR and screening of cDNA and genomic libraries. Probes for these genes were applied to Northern blots of RNA from the xantha mutants and confirmed the results of the Western analysis. The mutants xan-f27, -f40, -h56 and -h57 are defective in transcript accumulation while -h38 is defective in translation. Southern blot analysis established that h38 has a deletion of part of the gene. Mutants xan-f10 and -f41 produce both transcript and protein and it is suggested that these mutations are in the catalytic sites of the protein. It is concluded that X an-f -h genes encode two subunits of the barley Mg-chelatase and that X an-g is likely to encode a third subunit. The XAN-F protein displays 82% amino acid sequence identity to the OLI protein of Antirrhinum, 66% to the Synechocystis homologue and 34% identity to the Rhodobacter BchH subunit of Mg-chelatase. The XAN-H protein has 85% amino acid sequence identity to the Arabidopsis CH42 protein, 69% identity to the Euglena CCS protein, 70% identity to the Cryptomonas BchA and

  4. Multiple Thyrotropin β-Subunit and Thyrotropin Receptor-Related Genes Arose during Vertebrate Evolution

    PubMed Central

    Maugars, Gersende; Dufour, Sylvie; Cohen-Tannoudji, Joëlle; Quérat, Bruno

    2014-01-01

    Thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH) is composed of a specific β subunit and an α subunit that is shared with the two pituitary gonadotropins. The three β subunits derive from a common ancestral gene through two genome duplications (1R and 2R) that took place before the radiation of vertebrates. Analysis of genomic data from phylogenetically relevant species allowed us to identify an additional Tshβ subunit-related gene that was generated through 2R. This gene, named Tshβ2, present in cartilaginous fish, little skate and elephant shark, and in early lobe-finned fish, coelacanth and lungfish, was lost in ray-finned fish and tetrapods. The absence of a second type of TSH receptor (Tshr) gene in these species suggests that both TSHs act through the same receptor. A novel Tshβ sister gene, named Tshβ3, was generated through the third genomic duplication (3R) that occurred early in the teleost lineage. Tshβ3 is present in most teleost groups but was lostin tedraodontiforms. The 3R also generated a second Tshr, named Tshrb. Interestingly, the new Tshrb was translocated from its original chromosomic position after the emergence of eels and was then maintained in its new position. Tshrb was lost in tetraodontiforms and in ostariophysians including zebrafish although the latter species have two TSHs, suggesting that TSHRb may be dispensable. The tissue distribution of duplicated Tshβs and Tshrs was studied in the European eel. The endocrine thyrotropic function in the eel would be essentially mediated by the classical Tshβ and Tshra, which are mainly expressed in the pituitary and thyroid, respectively. Tshβ3 and Tshrb showed a similar distribution pattern in the brain, pituitary, ovary and adipose tissue, suggesting a possible paracrine/autocrine mode of action in these non-thyroidal tissues. Further studies will be needed to determine the binding specificity of the two receptors and how these two TSH systems are interrelated. PMID:25386660

  5. Evolutionary Analysis of the B56 Gene Family of PP2A Regulatory Subunits

    PubMed Central

    Sommer, Lauren M.; Cho, Hyuk; Choudhary, Madhusudan; Seeling, Joni M.

    2015-01-01

    Protein phosphatase 2A (PP2A) is an abundant serine/threonine phosphatase that functions as a tumor suppressor in numerous cell-cell signaling pathways, including Wnt, myc, and ras. The B56 subunit of PP2A regulates its activity, and is encoded by five genes in humans. B56 proteins share a central core domain, but have divergent amino- and carboxy-termini, which are thought to provide isoform specificity. We performed phylogenetic analyses to better understand the evolution of the B56 gene family. We found that B56 was present as a single gene in eukaryotes prior to the divergence of animals, fungi, protists, and plants, and that B56 gene duplication prior to the divergence of protostomes and deuterostomes led to the origin of two B56 subfamilies, B56αβε and B56γδ. Further duplications led to three B56αβε genes and two B56γδ in vertebrates. Several nonvertebrate B56 gene names are based on distinct vertebrate isoform names, and would best be renamed. B56 subfamily genes lack significant divergence within primitive chordates, but each became distinct in complex vertebrates. Two vertebrate lineages have undergone B56 gene loss, Xenopus and Aves. In Xenopus, B56δ function may be compensated for by an alternatively spliced transcript, B56δ/γ, encoding a B56δ-like amino-terminal region and a B56γ core. PMID:25950761

  6. SH2B1beta (SH2-Bbeta) enhances expression of a subset of nerve growth factor-regulated genes important for neuronal differentiation including genes encoding urokinase plasminogen activator receptor and matrix metalloproteinase 3/10.

    PubMed

    Chen, Linyi; Maures, Travis J; Jin, Hui; Huo, Jeffrey S; Rabbani, Shafaat A; Schwartz, Jessica; Carter-Su, Christin

    2008-02-01

    Previous work showed that the adapter protein SH2B adapter protein 1beta (SH2B1) (SH2-B) binds to the activated form of the nerve growth factor (NGF) receptor TrkA and is critical for both NGF-dependent neurite outgrowth and maintenance. To identify SH2B1beta-regulated genes critical for neurite outgrowth, we performed microarray analysis of control PC12 cells and PC12 cells stably overexpressing SH2B1beta (PC12-SH2B1beta) or the dominant-negative SH2B1beta(R555E) [PC12-SH2B1beta(R555E)]. NGF-induced microarray expression of Plaur and Mmp10 genes was greatly enhanced in PC12-SH2B1beta cells, whereas NGF-induced Plaur and Mmp3 expression was substantially depressed in PC12-SH2B1beta(R555E) cells. Plaur, Mmp3, and Mmp10 are among the 12 genes most highly up-regulated after 6 h of NGF. Their protein products [urokinase plasminogen activator receptor (uPAR), matrix metalloproteinase 3 (MMP3), and MMP10] lie in the same pathway of extracellular matrix degradation; uPAR has been shown previously to be critical for NGF-induced neurite outgrowth. Quantitative real-time PCR analysis revealed SH2B1beta enhancement of NGF induction of all three genes and the suppression of NGF induction of all three when endogenous SH2B1 was reduced using short hairpin RNA against SH2B1 and in PC12-SH2B1beta(R555E) cells. NGF-induced levels of uPAR and MMP3/10 and neurite outgrowth through Matrigel (MMP3-dependent) were also increased in PC12-SH2B1beta cells. These results suggest that SH2B1beta stimulates NGF-induced neuronal differentiation at least in part by enhancing expression of a specific subset of NGF-sensitive genes, including Plaur, Mmp3, and/or Mmp10, required for neurite outgrowth.

  7. Isolation and characterization of rubisco small subunit gene promoter from common wheat (Triticum aestivum L.).

    PubMed

    Mukherjee, Shalini; Stasolla, Claudio; Brûlé-Babel, Anita; Ayele, Belay T

    2015-01-01

    Choice of an appropriate promoter is critical to express target genes in intended tissues and developmental stages. However, promoters capable of directing gene expression in specific tissues and stages are not well characterized in monocot species. To identify such a promoter in wheat, this study isolated a partial sequence of the wheat small subunit of RuBisCO (TarbcS) promoter. In silico analysis revealed the presence of elements that are characteristic to rbcS promoters of other, mainly dicot, species. Transient expression of the TarbcS:GUS in immature wheat embryos and tobacco leaves but not in the wheat roots indicate the functionality of the TarbcS promoter fragment in directing the expression of target genes in green plant tissues.

  8. [Relation of pbp2B, ermB, ermA/B, mefA genes with resistance to penicillin and erythromycin among Streptococcus pneumoniae isolates from children].

    PubMed

    Ding, Yun-fang; Zhang, Jian-hua; Mi, Zu-huang; Tao, Yun-zhen; Qin, Ling

    2005-05-01

    To investigate the relation of pbp2B, ermB, ermA/B and mefA genes to penicillin and erythromycin resistance among isolated Streptococcus pneumoniae (Sp) in children. Twenty-six strains of Sp were collected from September 2002 to April 2003 at the Children Hospital of Suzhou University. (1) Twenty-six pneumococcal isolates were obtained from respiratory tract secretions of children with respiratory diseases. (2) Susceptibility of the isolates to penicillin, cefuroxime, ceftriaxone, cefotaxime and erythromycin was determined by E-test. (3) The genes pbp2B, ermB, ermA/B and mefA of the isolates were detected with PCR. (4) The PCR product of pbp2B gene was sequenced. (5) DNA sequences of pbp2B of pneumococcal isolates were compared with those of SpR6 [penicillin sensitive (www.ncbi.nlm.gov/nucleotide, NC-003098)]. Among the 26 isolates studied, pbp2B gene mutation was found in 15(58%) isolates, all were point mutation of A, B, C and D genotypes which were seen in 11(73%), 2(13%), 1(7%) and 1(7%), respectively. The numbers of isolates susceptible to penicillin, cefuroxime, ceftriaxone and cefotaxime were 9(82%), 10(91%), 11(100%) and 11(100%), of 11 non-mutation isolates;numbers of isolates resistant to penicillin, cefuroxime, ceftriaxone, and cefotaxime were 13(87%), 11(73%), 1(7%) and 1(7%) out of 15 isolates with mutation.ErmB, ermA/B, mefA and erm/mef genes were positive in 9(35%), 16(62%), 7(27%) and 21(81%)isolates. MIC of erythromycin was 2 to > 256 mg/L among pneumococcal isolates with erm/mef genes. Among antibiotic resistant pneumococcal isolates in the area, the main basis of penicillin resistance was the mutation of pbp2B genes. Genotype A mutation had the highest rate among the isolates with mutation and manifested as resistance to penicillin and cefuroxime. Expression of either all or any of the ermA, ermB and mef genes led to erythromycin resistance. Antibiotics resistant Sp strains in this area are forming a challenge to efficacy of penicillin and

  9. Activity, Expression and Function of a Second Drosophila Protein Kinase a Catalytic Subunit Gene

    PubMed Central

    Melendez, A.; Li, W.; Kalderon, D.

    1995-01-01

    The DC2 gene was isolated previously on the basis of sequence similarity to DCO, the major Drosophila protein kinase A (PKA) catalytic subunit gene. We show here that the 67-kD Drosophila DC2 protein behaves as a PKA catalytic subunit in vitro. DC2 is transcribed in mesodermal anlagen of early embryos. This expression depends on dorsal but on neither twist nor snail activity. DC2 transcriptional fusions mimic this embryonic expression and are also expressed in subsets of cells in the optic lamina, wing disc and leg discs of third instar larvae. A saturation screen of a small deficiency interval containing DC2 for recessive lethal mutations yielded no DC2 alleles. We therefore isolated new deficiencies to generate deficiency trans-heterozygotes that lacked DC2 activity. These animals were viable and fertile. The absence of DC2 did not affect the viability or phenotype of imaginal disc cells lacking DC0 activity or embryonic hatching of animals with reduced DC0 activity. Furthermore, transgenes expressing DC2 from a DC0 promoter did not efficiently rescue a variety of DC0 mutant phenotypes. These observations indicate that DC2 is not an essential gene and is unlikely to be functionally redundant with DC0, which has multiple unique functions during development. PMID:8601490

  10. Gyrase activity and number of copies of the gyrase B subunit gene in Haemophilus influenzae.

    PubMed Central

    Cabrera-Juárez, E; Setlow, J K

    1985-01-01

    Gyrase activities in extracts of various strains of Haemophilus influenzae can differ by more than an order of magnitude (J. K. Setlow, E. Cabrera-Juárez, W. L. Albritton, D. Spikes, and A. Mutschler, J. Bacteriol. 164:525-534, 1985). Measurements of in vitro activity and copy number indicated that most of these differences arose from variations in the number of copies of the gene for the gyrase B subunit, with some strains containing multicopy plasmids coding for that subunit. The quantitative relationship between gyrase and copy number depended on the mutations in the plasmids and in the host. The gyrase and copy number were considerably lower in plasmid-bearing strains carrying the prophage HP1c1. Two mutations affecting gyrase that are apparently regulatory caused an increase in gyrase without a concomitant increase in copy number. The possibility that the in vivo gyrase activity did not reflect the in vitro data was explored by measurement of alkaline phosphatase and ATPase activity in the extracts. Alkaline phosphatase activity increased with increasing gyrase activity measured in vitro, but ATPase activity did not. We conclude that extra supercoiling enhanced transcription of the alkaline phosphatase gene but not the ATPase gene and that it is unlikely that there is much discrepancy between gyrase activity assayed in vitro and the activity in the cell. PMID:2997116

  11. Sucrose regulation of ADP-glucose pyrophosphorylase subunit genes transcript levels in leaves and fruits

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Li, Xiangyang; Xing, Jinpeng; Gianfagna, Thomas J.; Janes, Harry W.

    2002-01-01

    ADP-glucose pyrophosphorylase (AGPase, EC2.7.7.27) is a key regulatory enzyme in starch biosynthesis. The enzyme is a heterotetramer with two S and two B subunits. In tomato, there are three multiple forms of the S subunit gene. Agp S1, S2 and B are highly expressed in fruit from 10 to 25 days after anthesis. Agp S3 is only weakly expressed in fruit. Sucrose significantly elevates expression of Agp S1, S2 and B in both leaves and fruits. Agp S1 exhibits the highest degree of regulation by sucrose. In fact, sucrose may be required for Agp S1 expression. For excised leaves incubated in water, no transcripts for Agp S1 could be detected in the absence of sucrose, whereas it took up to 16 h in water before transcripts were no longer detectable for Agp S2 and B. Neither Agp S3 nor the tubulin gene is affected by sucrose, demonstrating that this response is specifically regulated by a carbohydrate metabolic signal, and is not due to a general increase in metabolism caused by sucrose treatment. Truncated versions of the promoter for Agp S1 indicate that a specific region 1.3-3.0 kb upstream from the transcription site is responsible for sucrose sensitivity. This region of the S1 promoter contains several cis-acting elements present in the promoters of other genes that are also regulated by sucrose. c2002 Elsevier Science Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Sucrose regulation of ADP-glucose pyrophosphorylase subunit genes transcript levels in leaves and fruits

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Li, Xiangyang; Xing, Jinpeng; Gianfagna, Thomas J.; Janes, Harry W.

    2002-01-01

    ADP-glucose pyrophosphorylase (AGPase, EC2.7.7.27) is a key regulatory enzyme in starch biosynthesis. The enzyme is a heterotetramer with two S and two B subunits. In tomato, there are three multiple forms of the S subunit gene. Agp S1, S2 and B are highly expressed in fruit from 10 to 25 days after anthesis. Agp S3 is only weakly expressed in fruit. Sucrose significantly elevates expression of Agp S1, S2 and B in both leaves and fruits. Agp S1 exhibits the highest degree of regulation by sucrose. In fact, sucrose may be required for Agp S1 expression. For excised leaves incubated in water, no transcripts for Agp S1 could be detected in the absence of sucrose, whereas it took up to 16 h in water before transcripts were no longer detectable for Agp S2 and B. Neither Agp S3 nor the tubulin gene is affected by sucrose, demonstrating that this response is specifically regulated by a carbohydrate metabolic signal, and is not due to a general increase in metabolism caused by sucrose treatment. Truncated versions of the promoter for Agp S1 indicate that a specific region 1.3-3.0 kb upstream from the transcription site is responsible for sucrose sensitivity. This region of the S1 promoter contains several cis-acting elements present in the promoters of other genes that are also regulated by sucrose. c2002 Elsevier Science Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Abnormal epigenetic regulation of the gene expression levels of Wnt2b and Wnt7b: Implications for neural tube defects.

    PubMed

    Bai, Baoling; Chen, Shuyuan; Zhang, Qin; Jiang, Qian; Li, Huili

    2016-01-01

    The association between Wnt genes and neural tube defects (NTDs) is recognized, however, it remains to be fully elucidated. Our previous study demonstrated that epigenetic mechanisms are affected in human NTDs. Therefore, the present study aimed to evaluate whether Wnt2b and Wnt7b are susceptible to abnormal epigenetic modification in NTDs, using chromatin immunoprecipitation assays to evaluate histone enrichments and the MassARRAY platform to detect the methylation levels of target regions within Wnt genes. The results demonstrated that the transcriptional activities of Wnt2b and Wnt7b were abnormally upregulated in mouse fetuses with NTDs and, in the GC‑rich promoters of these genes, histone 3 lysine 4 (H3K4) acetylation was enriched, whereas H3K27 trimethylation was reduced. Furthermore, several CpG sites in the altered histone modification of target regions were significantly hypomethylated. The present study also detected abnormal epigenetic modifications of these Wnt genes in human NTDs. In conclusion, the present study detected abnormal upregulation in the levels of Wnt2b and Wnt7b, and hypothesized that the alterations may be due to the ectopic opening of chromatin structure. These results improve understanding of the dysregulation of epigenetic modification of Wnt genes in NTDs.

  14. [The glutamate-cysteine ligase catalytic subunit gene C-129T and modifier subunit gene G-23T polymorphisms and risk for coronary diseases].

    PubMed

    Zuo, Hong-peng; Xu, Wen-jun; Luo, Ming; Zhu, Zhong-zheng; Zhu, Guan-shan

    2007-07-01

    To investigate the possible association between the glutamate-cysteine ligase catalytic subunit gene (GCLC) C-129T and modifier subunit gene (GCLM) G-23T polymorphisms with coronary heart disease (CHD) in Chinese population. GCLC C-129T and GCLM G-23T genotypes were determined in 212 CHD patients and 218 healthy individuals using a PCR-based restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) method. Odds ratio (OR) for CHD and 95% confidence interval (CI) from unconditional logistic regression models were used to evaluate relative risks. The T allele of the GCLC C-129T polymorphism was more frequently found in CHD cases than in controls (P < 0.01) and individuals with GCLC-129T allele had a significantly higher risk for CHD (OR = 2.38, 95% CI: 1.25 - 4.54) as compared to individuals with the -129C allele. When compared with CC homozygote, CT heterozygote had a 2.14-fold higher risk for CHD (95% CI: 1.08 - 4.24, P < 0.05) and carriers of the-129T allele (CT or TT genotype) also had a similarly 2.28-fold higher risk for CHD (95% CI: 1.16 - 4.49, P < 0.05). In contrast, the frequency of T allele of the GCLM G-23T polymorphism was lower in CHD patients than that of controls (0.174 vs. 0.264) and individuals with the GCLM-23T allele had a significantly lower risk for CHD (OR = 0.59, 95% CI: 0.42 - 0.82, P < 0.01) as compared to the -23G allele. When compared with GG homozygote, the OR of CHD for GT heterozygote was 0.71 (95% CI: 0.47 - 1.08, P > 0.05), for TT homozygote was 0.18 (95% CI: 0.06 - 0.55, P < 0.01), and for carriers of the -23T allele (GT or TT genotype) was 0.61 (95% CI: 0.42 - 0.92, P < 0.05). The GCLC C-129T polymorphism may be one of the genetic risk factor while the GCLM G-23T polymorphism may be one of the genetic protective factors for CHD in this Chinese population.

  15. Sequence analysis of dolphin ferritin H and L subunits and possible iron-dependent translational control of dolphin ferritin gene

    PubMed Central

    Takaesu, Azusa; Watanabe, Kiyotaka; Takai, Shinji; Sasaki, Yukako; Orino, Koichi

    2008-01-01

    Background Iron-storage protein, ferritin plays a central role in iron metabolism. Ferritin has dual function to store iron and segregate iron for protection of iron-catalyzed reactive oxygen species. Tissue ferritin is composed of two kinds of subunits (H: heavy chain or heart-type subunit; L: light chain or liver-type subunit). Ferritin gene expression is controlled at translational level in iron-dependent manner or at transcriptional level in iron-independent manner. However, sequencing analysis of marine mammalian ferritin subunits has not yet been performed fully. The purpose of this study is to reveal cDNA-derived amino acid sequences of cetacean ferritin H and L subunits, and demonstrate the possibility of expression of these subunits, especially H subunit, by iron. Methods Sequence analyses of cetacean ferritin H and L subunits were performed by direct sequencing of polymerase chain reaction (PCR) fragments from cDNAs generated via reverse transcription-PCR of leukocyte total RNA prepared from blood samples of six different dolphin species (Pseudorca crassidens, Lagenorhynchus obliquidens, Grampus griseus, Globicephala macrorhynchus, Tursiops truncatus, and Delphinapterus leucas). The putative iron-responsive element sequence in the 5'-untranslated region of the six different dolphin species was revealed by direct sequencing of PCR fragments obtained using leukocyte genomic DNA. Results Dolphin H and L subunits consist of 182 and 174 amino acids, respectively, and amino acid sequence identities of ferritin subunits among these dolphins are highly conserved (H: 99–100%, (99→98) ; L: 98–100%). The conserved 28 bp IRE sequence was located -144 bp upstream from the initiation codon in the six different dolphin species. Conclusion These results indicate that six different dolphin species have conserved ferritin sequences, and suggest that these genes are iron-dependently expressed. PMID:18954429

  16. The dnaN gene codes for the beta subunit of DNA polymerase III holoenzyme of escherichia coli.

    PubMed

    Burgers, P M; Kornberg, A; Sakakibara, Y

    1981-09-01

    An Escherichia coli mutant, dnaN59, stops DNA synthesis promptly upon a shift to a high temperature; the wild-type dnaN gene carried in a transducing phage encodes a polypeptide of about 41,000 daltons [Sakakibara, Y. & Mizukami, T. (1980) Mol. Gen. Genet. 178, 541-553; Yuasa, S. & Sakakibara, Y. (1980) Mol. Gen. Genet. 180, 267-273]. We now find that the product of dnaN gene is the beta subunit of DNA polymerase III holoenzyme, the principal DNA synthetic multipolypeptide complex in E. coli. The conclusion is based on the following observations: (i) Extracts from dnaN59 cells were defective in phage phi X174 and G4 DNA synthesis after the mutant cells had been exposed to the increased temperature. (ii) The enzymatic defect was overcome by addition of purified beta subunit but not by other subunits of DNA polymerase III holoenzyme or by other replication proteins required for phi X174 DNA synthesis. (iii) Partially purified beta subunit from the dnaN mutant, unlike that from the wild type, was inactive in reconstituting the holoenzyme when mixed with the other purified subunits. (iv) Increased dosage of the dnaN gene provided by a plasmid carrying the gene raised cellular levels of the beta subunit 5- to 6-fold.

  17. The dnaN gene codes for the beta subunit of DNA polymerase III holoenzyme of escherichia coli.

    PubMed Central

    Burgers, P M; Kornberg, A; Sakakibara, Y

    1981-01-01

    An Escherichia coli mutant, dnaN59, stops DNA synthesis promptly upon a shift to a high temperature; the wild-type dnaN gene carried in a transducing phage encodes a polypeptide of about 41,000 daltons [Sakakibara, Y. & Mizukami, T. (1980) Mol. Gen. Genet. 178, 541-553; Yuasa, S. & Sakakibara, Y. (1980) Mol. Gen. Genet. 180, 267-273]. We now find that the product of dnaN gene is the beta subunit of DNA polymerase III holoenzyme, the principal DNA synthetic multipolypeptide complex in E. coli. The conclusion is based on the following observations: (i) Extracts from dnaN59 cells were defective in phage phi X174 and G4 DNA synthesis after the mutant cells had been exposed to the increased temperature. (ii) The enzymatic defect was overcome by addition of purified beta subunit but not by other subunits of DNA polymerase III holoenzyme or by other replication proteins required for phi X174 DNA synthesis. (iii) Partially purified beta subunit from the dnaN mutant, unlike that from the wild type, was inactive in reconstituting the holoenzyme when mixed with the other purified subunits. (iv) Increased dosage of the dnaN gene provided by a plasmid carrying the gene raised cellular levels of the beta subunit 5- to 6-fold. PMID:6458041

  18. The murine DUB-1 gene is specifically induced by the betac subunit of interleukin-3 receptor.

    PubMed Central

    Zhu, Y; Pless, M; Inhorn, R; Mathey-Prevot, B; D'Andrea, A D

    1996-01-01

    Cytokines regulate cell growth and differentiation by inducing the expression of specific target genes. We have recently isolated a cytokine-inducible, immediate-early cDNA, DUB-1, that encodes a deubiquitinating enzyme. The DUB-1 mRNA was specifically induced by the receptors for interleukin-3, granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor, and interleukin-5, suggesting a role for the beta common (betac subunit known to be shared by these receptors. In order to identify the mechanism of cytokine induction, we isolated a murine genomic clone for DUB-1 containing a functional promoter region. The DUB-1 gene contains two exons, and the nucleotide sequence of its coding region is identical to the sequence of DUB-1 cDNA. Various regions of the 5' flanking region of the DUB-1 gene were assayed for cytokine-inducible activity. An enhancer region that retains the beta c-specific inducible activity of the DUB-1 gene was identified. Enhancer activity was localized to a 112-bp fragment located 1.4 kb upstream from the ATG start codon. Gel mobility shift assays revealed two specific protein complexes that bound to this minimal enhancer region. One complex was induced by betac signaling, while the other was noninducible. Finally, the membrane-proximal region of human betac was required for DUB-1 induction. In conclusion, DUB-1 is the first example of an immediate-early gene that is induced by a specific subunit of a cytokine receptor. Further analysis of the DUB-1 enhancer element may reveal specific determinants of a betac-specific signaling pathway. PMID:8756639

  19. Potential pathways for regulation of NK and T cell responses: differential X-linked lymphoproliferative syndrome gene product SAP interactions with SLAM and 2B4.

    PubMed

    Sayós, J; Nguyen, K B; Wu, C; Stepp, S E; Howie, D; Schatzle, J D; Kumar, V; Biron, C A; Terhorst, C

    2000-12-01

    SAP, the gene that is altered or absent in the X-linked lymphoproliferative syndrome (XLP), encodes a small protein that comprises a single SH2 domain and binds to the cell-surface protein SLAM which is present on activated or memory T and B cells. Because defective NK cell activity also has been reported in XLP patients, we studied the SAP gene in NK cells. SAP was induced upon viral infection of SCID mice and shown to be expressed in NK cells by in vitro culturing in the presence of IL-2. Moreover, SAP was expressed in the NK cell lines YT and RNK 16. Because SLAM, the cell-surface protein with which SAP interacts, and 2B4, a membrane protein having sequence homologies with SLAM, also were found to be expressed on the surfaces of activated NK and T cell populations, they may access SAP functions in these populations. Whereas we found that 2B4 also binds SAP, 2B4-SAP interactions occurred only upon tyrosine phosphorylation of 2B4. By contrast, SLAM-SAP interactions were independent of phosphorylation of Y281 and Y327 on SLAM. As CD48, the ligand for 2B4, is expressed on the surface of Epstein-Barr virus (EBV)-infected B cells, it is likely that SAP regulates signal transduction through this pair of cell-surface molecules. These data support the hypothesis that XLP is a result of both defective NK and T lymphocyte responses to EBV. The altered responses may be due to aberrant control of the signaling cascades which are initiated by the SLAM-SLAM and 2B4-CD48 interactions.

  20. Adenoviral mediated interferon-alpha 2b gene therapy suppresses the pro-angiogenic effect of vascular endothelial growth factor in superficial bladder cancer.

    PubMed

    Adam, Liana; Black, Peter C; Kassouf, Wassim; Eve, Beryl; McConkey, David; Munsell, Mark F; Benedict, William F; Dinney, Colin P N

    2007-05-01

    Intravesical adenovirus mediated interferon-alpha gene transfer has a potent therapeutic effect against superficial human bladder carcinoma xenografts growing in the bladder of athymic nude mice. We determined whether the inhibition of angiogenesis might contribute to the antitumor effect. We treated several human urothelial carcinoma cells with adenovirus mediated interferon-alpha 2b and monitored its effects on the production of angiogenic factors using real-time reverse-transcription polymerase chain reaction, Western blotting, and immunohistochemical analysis and a gel shift based transcription factor array. To assess the role of adenovirus mediated interferon 2b in angiogenic activity we used in vitro invasion assays and evaluated the anti-angiogenic effects of adenovirus mediated interferon gene therapy in an orthotopic murine model of human superficial bladder cancer. In adenovirus mediated interferon-alpha infected 253J B-V cells vascular endothelial growth factor was decreased and anti-angiogenic interferon-gamma inducible protein 10 was up-regulated. In contrast, the addition of as much as 100,000 IU recombinant interferon had no apparent effect on vascular endothelial growth factor production. Conditioned medium derived from adenovirus mediated interferon 2b infected 253J B-V cells greatly decreased the invasive potential of human endothelial cells and down-regulated their matrix metalloproteinase 2 expression compared to controls. Furthermore, adenovirus mediated interferon 2b blocked pro-angiogenic nuclear signals, such as the transcription factors activating protein-1 and 2, stimulating protein-1, nuclear factor kappaB and c-myb. In vivo experiments revealed significant vascular endothelial growth factor down-regulation and decreased tumor vessel density in the adenovirus mediated interferon 2b treated group compared to controls. Treatment with adenovirus mediated interferon 2b increases the angiostatic activity of the bladder cancer microenvironment

  1. Expression profile of G-protein βγ subunit gene transcripts in the mouse olfactory sensory epithelia

    PubMed Central

    Sathyanesan, Aaron; Feijoo, Adrian A.; Mehta, Saloni T.; Nimarko, Akua F.; Lin, Weihong

    2013-01-01

    Heterotrimeric G-proteins mediate a variety of cellular functions, including signal transduction in sensory neurons of the olfactory system. Whereas the Gα subunits in these neurons are well characterized, the gene transcript expression profile of Gβγ subunits is largely missing. Here we report our comprehensive expression analysis to identify Gβ and Gγ subunit gene transcripts in the mouse main olfactory epithelium (MOE) and the vomeronasal organ (VNO). Our reverse transcriptase PCR (RT-PCR) and realtime qPCR analyses of all known Gβ (β1,2,3,4,5) and Gγ (γ1,2,2t,3,4,5,7,8,10,11,12,13) subunits indicate presence of multiple Gβ and Gγ subunit gene transcripts in the MOE and the VNO at various expression levels. These results are supported by our RNA in situ hybridization (RISH) experiments, which reveal the expression patterns of two Gβ subunits and four Gγ subunits in the MOE as well as one Gβ and four Gγ subunits in the VNO. Using double-probe fluorescence RISH and line intensity scan analysis of the RISH signals of two dominant Gβγ subunits, we show that Gγ13 is expressed in mature olfactory sensory neurons (OSNs), while Gβ1 is present in both mature and immature OSNs. Interestingly, we also found Gβ1 to be the dominant Gβ subunit in the VNO and present throughout the sensory epithelium. In contrast, we found diverse expression of Gγ subunit gene transcripts with Gγ2, Gγ3, and Gγ13 in the Gαi2-expressing neuronal population, while Gγ8 is expressed in both layers. Further, we determined the expression of these Gβγ gene transcripts in three post-natal developmental stages (p0, 7, and 14) and found their cell-type specific expression remains largely unchanged, except the transient expression of Gγ2 in a single basal layer of cells in the MOE during P7 and P14. Taken together, our comprehensive expression analyses reveal cell-type specific gene expression of multiple Gβ and Gγ in sensory neurons of the olfactory system. PMID:23759900

  2. Deletion variant in the ADRA2B gene increases coupling between emotional responses at encoding and later retrieval of emotional memories.

    PubMed

    Todd, R M; Müller, D J; Palombo, D J; Robertson, A; Eaton, T; Freeman, N; Levine, B; Anderson, A K

    2014-07-01

    A deletion variant of the ADRA2B gene that codes for the α2b adrenoceptor has been linked to greater susceptibility to traumatic memory as well as attentional biases in perceptual encoding of negatively valenced stimuli. The goal of the present study was to examine whether emotional enhancements of memory associated with the ADRA2B deletion variant were predicted by encoding, as indexed by the subjectively perceived emotional salience (i.e., arousal) of events at the time of encoding. Genotyping was performed on 186 healthy young adults who rated positive, negative, and neutral scenes for level of emotional arousal and subsequently performed a surprise recognition memory task 1 week later. Experience of childhood trauma was also measured, as well as additional genetic variations associated with emotional biases and episodic memory. Results showed that subjective arousal was linked to memory accuracy and confidence for ADRA2B deletion carriers but not for non-carriers. Our results suggest that carrying the ADRA2B deletion variant enhances the relationship between arousal at encoding and subsequent memory for moderately arousing events. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Novel CAR-mediated mechanism for synergistic activation of two distinct elements within the human cytochrome P450 2B6 gene in HepG2 cells.

    PubMed

    Swales, Karen; Kakizaki, Satoru; Yamamoto, Yukio; Inoue, Kaoru; Kobayashi, Kaoru; Negishi, Masahiko

    2005-02-04

    The constitutive active receptor (CAR) regulates the induction of the cytochrome P450 2B6 (CYP2B6) gene by phenobarbital-type inducers, such as 1,4 bis[2-(3,5-dichloropyridyloxy)]benzene (TCPOBOP) via the distal phenobarbital-responsive enhancer module (PBREM, at -1732/-1685 bp). Activation of the PBREM by TCPOBOP generated a 10-fold induction of CYP2B6 mRNA in HepG2 cells stably expressing mouse CAR (Ym17). Co-treatment with the protein phosphatase inhibitor okadaic acid (OA) synergistically increased this induction over 100-fold without directly activating CAR or the PBREM. Although OA synergy required the presence of PBREM, deletion assays delineated the OA-responsive activity to a proximal 24-bp (-256/-233) sequence (OARE) in the CYP2B6 promoter. CAR did not directly bind to the OARE in electrophoretic mobility shift assays. However, both DNA affinity and chromatin immunoprecipitation assays showed a significant increase in CAR association with the OARE after co-treatment with TCPOBOP and OA, indicating the indirect binding of CAR to the OARE. The two cis-acting elements, the distal PBREM and the proximal OARE, within the chromatin structure are both regulated by CAR in response to TCPOBOP and OA, respectively, to maximally induce the CYP2B6 promoter. This functional interaction between the two sites expands the current understanding of the mechanism of CAR-mediated inducible transcription.

  4. The `heavy' subunit of the photosynthetic reaction centre from Rhodopseudomonas viridis: isolation of the gene, nucleotide and amino acid sequence

    PubMed Central

    Michel, H.; Weyer, K. A.; Gruenberg, H.; Lottspeich, F.

    1985-01-01

    The gene coding for the `heavy' subunit of the photosynthetic reaction centre from Rhodopseudomonas viridis was isolated in an expression vector. Expression of the heavy subunit in Escherichia coli was detected with antibodies raised against crystalline reaction centres. The entire subunit, and not a fusion protein, was expressed in E. coli. The protein coding region of the gene was sequenced and the amino acid sequence derived. Part of the amino acid sequence was confirmed by chemical sequence analysis of the protein. The heavy subunit consists of 258 amino acids and its mol. wt. is 28 345. It possesses one membrane-spanning α-helical segment, as was revealed by the concomitant X-ray structure analysis. ImagesFig. 1.Fig. 2. PMID:16453623

  5. Expression of nicotinic acetylcholine receptor subunit genes in non-small-cell lung cancer reveals differences between smokers and nonsmokers.

    PubMed

    Lam, David Chi-Leung; Girard, Luc; Ramirez, Ruben; Chau, Wing-Shun; Suen, Wai-sing; Sheridan, Shelley; Tin, Vicky P C; Chung, Lap-ping; Wong, Maria P; Shay, Jerry W; Gazdar, Adi F; Lam, Wah-kit; Minna, John D

    2007-05-15

    Nicotine and its derivatives, by binding to nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChR) on bronchial epithelial cells, can regulate cellular proliferation and apoptosis via activating the Akt pathway. Delineation of nAChR subtypes in non-small-cell lung cancers (NSCLC) may provide information for prevention or therapeutic targeting. Expression of nAChR subunit genes in 66 resected primary NSCLCs, 7 histologically non-involved lung tissues, 13 NSCLC cell lines, and 6 human bronchial epithelial cell lines (HBEC) was analyzed with quantitative PCR and microarray analysis. Five nonmalignant HBECs were exposed to nicotine in vitro to study the variation of nAChR subunit gene expression with nicotine exposure and removal. NSCLCs from nonsmokers showed higher expression of nAChR alpha6 (P < 0.001) and beta3 (P = 0.007) subunit genes than those from smokers, adjusted for gender. In addition, nAChR alpha4 (P < 0.001) and beta4 (P = 0.029) subunit gene expression showed significant difference between NSCLCs and normal lung. Using Affymetrix GeneChip U133 Sets, 65 differentially expressed genes associated with NSCLC nonsmoking nAChR alpha6beta3 phenotype were identified, which gave high sensitivity and specificity of prediction. nAChR alpha1, alpha5, and alpha7 showed significant reversible changes in expression levels in HBECs upon nicotine exposure. We conclude that between NSCLCs from smokers and nonsmokers, different nAChR subunit gene expression patterns were found, and a 65-gene expression signature was associated with nonsmoking nAChR alpha6beta3 expression. Finally, nicotine exposure in HBECs resulted in reversible differences in nAChR subunit gene expression. These results further implicate nicotine in bronchial carcinogenesis and suggest targeting nAChRs for prevention and therapy in lung cancer.

  6. Activity, expression and function of a second Drosophila protein kinase a catalytic subunit gene

    SciTech Connect

    Melendez, A.; Li, W.; Kalderon, D.

    1995-12-01

    The DC2 was isolated previously on the basis of sequence similarity to DC0, the major Drosophila protein kinase A (PKA) catalytic subunit gene. We show here that the 67-kD Drosophila DC2 protein behaves as a PKA catalytic subunit in vitro. DC2 is transcribed in mesodermal anlagen of early embryos. This expression depends on dorsal but on neither twist nor snail activity. DC2 transcriptional fusions mimic this embryonic expression and are also expressed in subsets of cells in the optic lamina, wing disc and leg discs of third instar larvae. A saturation screen of a small deficiency interval containing DC2 for recessive lethal mutations yielded no DC2 alleles. We therefore isolated new deficiencies to generate deficiency trans-heterozygotes that lacked DC2 activity. These animals were viable and fertile. The absence of DC2 promoter did not efficiently rescue a variety of DC0 mutant phenotypes. These observations indicate that DC2 is not an essential gene and is unlikely to be functionally redundant with DC0, which has multiple unique functions during development. 62 refs., 10 figs., 2 tabs.

  7. A case-control association study and family-based expression analysis of the bipolar disorder candidate gene PI4K2B.

    PubMed

    Houlihan, Lorna M; Christoforou, Andrea; Arbuckle, Margaret I; Torrance, Helen S; Anderson, Susan M; Muir, Walter J; Porteous, David J; Blackwood, Douglas H; Evans, Kathryn L

    2009-12-01

    Bipolar disorder, schizophrenia and recurrent major depression are complex psychiatric illnesses with a substantial, yet unknown genetic component. Linkage of bipolar disorder and recurrent major depression with markers on chromosome 4p15-p16 has been identified in a large Scottish family and three smaller families. Analysis of haplotypes in the four chromosome 4p-linked families, identified two regions, each shared by three of the four families, which are also supported by a case-control association study. The candidate gene phosphatidylinositol 4-kinase type-II beta (PI4K2B) lies within one of these regions. PI4K2B is a strong functional candidate as it is a member of the phosphatidylinositol pathway, which is targeted by lithium for therapeutic effect in bipolar disorder. Two approaches were undertaken to test the PI4K2B candidate gene as a susceptibility factor for psychiatric illness. First, a case-control association study, using tagging SNPs from the PI4K2B genomic region, in bipolar disorder (n=368), schizophrenia (n=386) and controls (n=458) showed association with a two-marker haplotype in schizophrenia but not bipolar disorder (rs10939038 and rs17408391, global P=0.005, permuted global P=0.039). Second, expression studies at the allele-specific mRNA and protein level using lymphoblastoid cell lines from members of the large Scottish family, which showed linkage to 4p15-p16 in bipolar disorder and recurrent major depression, showed no difference in expression differences between affected and non-affected family members. There is no evidence to suggest that PI4K2B is contributing to bipolar disorder in this family but a role for this gene in schizophrenia has not been excluded.

  8. Vorinostat, a histone deacetylase inhibitor, facilitates fear extinction and enhances expression of the hippocampal NR2B-containing NMDA receptor gene.

    PubMed

    Fujita, Yosuke; Morinobu, Shigeru; Takei, Shiro; Fuchikami, Manabu; Matsumoto, Tomoya; Yamamoto, Shigeto; Yamawaki, Shigeto

    2012-05-01

    Histone acetylation, which alters the compact chromatin structure and changes the accessibility of DNA to regulatory proteins, is emerging as a fundamental mechanism for regulating gene expression. Histone deacetylase (HDAC) inhibitors increase histone acetylation and enhance fear extinction. In this study, we examined whether vorinostat, an HDAC inhibitor, facilitates fear extinction, using a contextual fear conditioning (FC) paradigm, in Sprague-Dawley rats. We found that vorinostat facilitated fear extinction. Next, the levels of global acetylated histone H3 and H4 were measured by Western blotting. We also assessed the effect of vorinostat on the hippocampal levels of NMDA receptor mRNA by real-time quantitative PCR (RT-PCR) and protein by Western blotting. 2 h after vorinostat administration, the levels acetylated histones and NR2B mRNA, but not NR1 or NR2A mRNA, were elevated in the hippocampus. The NR2B protein level was elevated 4 h after vorinostat administration. Last, we investigated the levels of acetylated histones and phospho-CREB (p-CREB) binding at the promoter of the NR2B gene using the chromatin immunoprecipitation (ChIP) assay followed by RT-PCR. The ChIP assay revealed increases in the levels of acetylated histones and they were accompanied by enhanced binding of p-CREB to its binding site at the promoter of the NR2B gene 2 h after vorinostat administration. These findings suggest that vorinostat increases the expression of NR2B in the hippocampus by enhancing histone acetylation, and this process may be implicated in fear extinction.

  9. Homozygous microdeletion of the POU1F1, CHMP2B, and VGLL3 genes in chromosome 3--a novel syndrome.

    PubMed

    Gat-Yablonski, Galia; Frumkin-Ben David, Rachel; Bar, Meytal; Potievsky, Olga; Phillip, Moshe; Lazar, Liora

    2011-09-01

    Microdeletion syndromes include numerous syndromic phenotypes associated with intellectual disability and dysmorphic features. We report on a patient with a novel microdeletion of chromosomal region 3p11.2-p12.1 containing POU1F1, chromatin-modifying protein 2B (CHMP2B), and vestigial-like 3 (VGLL3) genes. Our patient was diagnosed as having a neonatal multiple pituitary hormone [growth hormone (GH), thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH), and prolactin] deficiency. In addition to the typical findings associated with these hormonal deficiencies, she exhibited clinical features resembling those of Laron syndrome (frontal bossing, saddle nose, small chin, blue sclera, and acromicria), with moderate intellectual disability. She also displayed an unusual growth pattern characterized by unresponsiveness to high doses of GH replacement therapy during infancy and early childhood and an accelerated growth rate beginning at the age of 4.5 years. Insulin-like growth factor (IGF)-1 levels were consistently extremely low or undetectable. Extensive medical and genetic analysis ruled out primary and secondary GH insensitivity. The distinct phenotype and the peculiar growth pattern observed in this affected patient, not reported to have been observed in other cases with POU1F1 gene inactivity, suggest that the other two deleted genes play a possible role in the development of this syndrome. This hypothesis may be supported by the fact that both the CHMP2B and VGLL3 genes are expressed in the liver and the growth plate, the two main target organs of the GH/IGF-1 axis. The homozygous deletion of the CHMP2B gene, previously associated with frontotemporal dementia, may contribute to the intellectual disability observed in this patient. Copyright © 2011 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  10. Gene regulation, alternative splicing, and posttranslational modification of troponin subunits in cardiac development and adaptation: a focused review.

    PubMed

    Sheng, Juan-Juan; Jin, Jian-Ping

    2014-01-01

    Troponin plays a central role in regulating the contraction and relaxation of vertebrate striated muscles. This review focuses on the isoform gene regulation, alternative RNA splicing, and posttranslational modifications of troponin subunits in cardiac development and adaptation. Transcriptional and posttranscriptional regulations such as phosphorylation and proteolysis modifications, and structure-function relationships of troponin subunit proteins are summarized. The physiological and pathophysiological significances are discussed for impacts on cardiac muscle contractility, heart function, and adaptations in health and diseases.

  11. Human GRIN2B variants in neurodevelopmental disorders

    PubMed Central

    Hu, Chun; Chen, Wenjuan; Myers, Scott J.; Yuan, Hongjie; Traynelis, Stephen F.

    2016-01-01

    The development of whole exome/genome sequencing technologies has given rise to an unprecedented volume of data linking patient genomic variability to brain disorder phenotypes. A surprising number of variants have been found in the N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor (NMDAR) gene family, with the GRIN2B gene encoding the GluN2B subunit being implicated in many cases of neurodevelopmental disorders, which are psychiatric conditions originating in childhood and include language, motor, and learning disorders, autism spectrum disorder (ASD), attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), developmental delay, epilepsy, and schizophrenia. The GRIN2B gene plays a crucial role in normal neuronal development and is important for learning and memory. Mutations in human GRIN2B were distributed throughout the entire gene in a number of patients with various neuropsychiatric and developmental disorders. Studies that provide functional analysis of variants are still lacking, however current analysis of de novo variants that segregate with disease cases such as intellectual disability, developmental delay, ASD or epileptic encephalopathies reveal altered NMDAR function. Here, we summarize the current reports of disease-associated variants in GRIN2B from patients with multiple neurodevelopmental disorders, and discuss implications, highlighting the importance of functional analysis and precision medicine therapies. PMID:27818011

  12. Cloning and sequencing of the genes encoding the large and small subunits of the periplasmic (NiFeSe) hydrogenase of Desulfovibrio baculatus

    SciTech Connect

    Menon, N.K.; Peck, H.D. Jr.; Le Gall, J.; Przybyla, A.E.

    1987-12-01

    The genes coding for the large and small subunits of the periplasmic hydrogenase from Desulfovibrio baculatus have been cloned and sequenced. The genes are arranged in an operon with the small subunit gene preceding the large subunit gene. The small subunit gene codes for a 32 amino acid leader sequence supporting the periplasmic localization of the protein, however no ferredoxin-like or other characteristic iron-sulfur coordination sites were observed. The periplasmic hydrogenases from D. baculatus (an NiFeSe protein) and D. vulgaris (an Fe protein) exhibit no homology suggesting that they are structurally different, unrelated entities.

  13. Cloning and sequencing of the genes encoding the large and small subunits of the periplasmic (NiFeSe) hydrogenase of Desulfovibrio baculatus.

    PubMed Central

    Menon, N K; Peck, H D; Gall, J L; Przybyla, A E

    1987-01-01

    The genes coding for the large and small subunits of the periplasmic hydrogenase from Desulfovibrio baculatus have been cloned and sequenced. The genes are arranged in an operon with the small subunit gene preceding the large subunit gene. The small subunit gene codes for a 32 amino acid leader sequence supporting the periplasmic localization of the protein, however no ferredoxin-like or other characteristic iron-sulfur coordination sites were observed. The periplasmic hydrogenases from D. baculatus (an NiFeSe protein) and D. vulgaris (an Fe protein) exhibit no homology suggesting that they are structurally different, unrelated entities. Images PMID:3316183

  14. Virus-induced gene silencing of RPC5-like subunit of RNA polymerase III caused pleiotropic effects in Nicotiana benthamiana

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    In eukaryotic cells, RNA polymerase III is highly conserved, contains 17 subunits and transcribes housekeeping genes such as ribosomal 50S rRNA, tRNA and other small RNAs. Functional roles of the RPC5 are poorly characterized in the literature. In this work, we report that virus-induced gene silenci...

  15. The joint effect of cigarette smoking and polymorphisms on LRP5, LEPR, near MC4R and SH2B1 genes on metabolic syndrome susceptibility in Taiwan.

    PubMed

    Yang, Chuan-Wei; Li, Chia-Ing; Liu, Chiu-Shong; Bau, Da-Tian; Lin, Chih-Hsueh; Lin, Wen-Yuan; Li, Tsai-Chung; Lin, Cheng-Chieh

    2013-01-01

    Metabolic syndrome (MetS) is a combination of medical disorders, consisting of multiple, interrelated risk factors of metabolic origin. To investigate the associations of MetS with appetite-related genes (LEPR, near MC4R and SH2B1) and cholesterol metabolism-related gene (LRP5) polymorphism variants and the joint effect of cigarette smoking and these polymorphism variants on MetS in a community-based case-control study. Metabolic syndrome was defined according to the American Heart Association and National Heart Lung Blood Institute (AHA/NHLBI) criteria. A total of 237 MetS cases and 202 subjects without MetS aged 40 or over in Taiwan were analyzed. The genotypes of LRP5-rs3736228, LEPR-rs1137100, near MC4R-rs17782313 and SH2B1-rs4788102 were analyzed by the PCR-restriction fragment length polymorphism method. A strong association of the SNP rs17782313 near MC4R gene with MetS susceptibility was found. The data indicated that the C allele of near MC4R-rs17782313 is an obvious risk factor for MetS susceptibility. The joint effects of cigarette smoking and susceptible genotypes of LRP5, LEPR, near MC4R or SH2B1 genes led to a relatively higher risk of having MetS. Using subjects with the wild-type of LRP5, LEPR, near MC4R or SH2B1 genes and without a smoking habit as a reference group, those with cigarette smoking (current and former) and more than one variant type had a 4.1-fold (95 % CI = 1.6-10.2) risk of having MetS. The genotypes of the appetite-related genes (LEPR, near MC4R and SH2B1) and cholesterol metabolism-related gene (LRP5), together with a cigarette smoking habit, are important risk factors for MetS.

  16. DHA down-regulates phenobarbital-induced cytochrome P450 2B1 gene expression in rat primary hepatocytes by attenuating CAR translocation

    SciTech Connect

    Li, C.-C.; Lii, C.-K.; Liu, K.-L.; Yang, J.-J.; Chen, H.-W.

    2007-12-15

    The constitutive androstane receptor (CAR) plays an important role in regulating the expression of detoxifying enzymes, including cytochrome P450 2B (CYP 2B). Phenobarbital (PB) induction of human CYP 2B6 and mouse CYP 2b10 has been shown to be mediated by CAR. Our previous study showed that PB-induced CYP 2B1 expression in rat primary hepatocytes is down-regulated by both n-6 and n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs), especially docosahexaenoic acid (DHA); however, the mechanism for this down-regulation by DHA was previously unknown. The objective of the present study was to determine whether change in CAR translocation is involved in the down-regulation by n-6 and n-3 PUFAs of PB-induced CYP 2B1 expression in rat primary hepatocytes. We used 100 {mu}M arachidonic acid, linoleic acid, eicosapentaenoic acid, and DHA to test this hypothesis. PB triggered the translocation of CAR from the cytosol into the nucleus in a dose-dependent and time-dependent manner in our hepatocyte system, and the CAR distribution in rat primary hepatocytes was significantly affected by DHA. DHA treatment decreased PB-inducible accumulation of CAR in the nuclear fraction and increased it in the cytosolic fraction in a dose-dependent manner. The down-regulation of CYP 2B1 expression by DHA occurred in a dose-dependent manner, and a similar pattern was found for the nuclear accumulation of CAR. The results of immunoprecipitation showed a CAR/RXR heterodimer bound to nuclear receptor binding site 1 (NR-1) of the PB-responsive enhancer module (PBREM) of the CYP 2B1gene. The EMSA results showed that PB-induced CAR binding to NR-1 was attenuated by DHA. Taken together, these results suggest that attenuation of CAR translocation and decreased subsequent binding to NR-1 are involved in DHA's down-regulation of PB-induced CYP 2B1 expression.

  17. DC-SCRIPT is a novel regulator of the tumor suppressor gene CDKN2B and induces cell cycle arrest in ERα-positive breast cancer cells.

    PubMed

    Ansems, Marleen; Søndergaard, Jonas Nørskov; Sieuwerts, Anieta M; Looman, Maaike W G; Smid, Marcel; de Graaf, Annemarie M A; de Weerd, Vanja; Zuidscherwoude, Malou; Foekens, John A; Martens, John W M; Adema, Gosse J

    2015-02-01

    Breast cancer is one of the most common causes of cancer-related deaths in women. The estrogen receptor (ERα) is well known for having growth promoting effects in breast cancer. Recently, we have identified DC-SCRIPT (ZNF366) as a co-suppressor of ERα and as a strong and independent prognostic marker in ESR1 (ERα gene)-positive breast cancer patients. In this study, we further investigated the molecular mechanism on how DC-SCRIPT inhibits breast cancer cell growth. DC-SCRIPT mRNA levels from 190 primary ESR1-positive breast tumors were related to global gene expression, followed by gene ontology and pathway analysis. The effect of DC-SCRIPT on breast cancer cell growth and cell cycle arrest was investigated using novel DC-SCRIPT-inducible MCF7 breast cancer cell lines. Genome-wide expression profiling of DC-SCRIPT-expressing MCF7 cells was performed to investigate the effect of DC-SCRIPT on cell cycle-related gene expression. Findings were validated by real-time PCR in a cohort of 1,132 ESR1-positive breast cancer patients. In the primary ESR1-positive breast tumors, DC-SCRIPT expression negatively correlated with several cell cycle gene ontologies and pathways. DC-SCRIPT expression strongly reduced breast cancer cell growth in vitro, breast tumor growth in vivo, and induced cell cycle arrest. In addition, in the presence of DC-SCRIPT, multiple cell cycles related genes were differentially expressed including the tumor suppressor gene CDKN2B. Moreover, in 1,132 primary ESR1-positive breast tumors, DC-SCRIPT expression also correlated with CDKN2B expression. Collectively, these data show that DC-SCRIPT acts as a novel regulator of CDKN2B and induces cell cycle arrest in ESR1-positive breast cancer cells.

  18. Assignment of the human casein kinase II [alpha][prime] subunit gene (CSNK2A1) to chromosome 16p13. 2-p13. 3

    SciTech Connect

    Yang-Feng, T.L. ); Naiman, T.; Kopatz, I.; Eli, D.; Dafni, N.; Canaani, D. )

    1994-01-01

    The authors have previously mapped the CK II-[beta] gene (CSNK2B) to chromosome 6p12-p21 and the CK II-[alpha] sequence to two sites, chromosomes 11p15.5-p15.4 and 20p13, the latter having been verified by other investigators. The sequencing of a genomic human DNA fragment has shown that the CK II-[alpha] gene (CSNK2A) localized to chromosome 11 is a processed (pseudo) gene and therefore the active gene is presumably on chromosome 20. The other catalytic subunit gene CK II-[alpha][prime] was localized to chromosome 16 by somatic cell hybrid analysis. The authors now report the regional mapping of the CK II-[alpha][prime] gene (CSNK2A1) to chromosome 16p13.2-p13.3. The probe used was a 414-bp fragment from the 3[prime] nontranslated region of the human CK II-[alpha][prime] cDNA. Chromosomal localization was carried out by in situ hybridization as previously described. Of 128 grains scored in 75 cells, 13 (10.2%) were located on the distal short arm of chromosome 16, bands p13.2-p13.3. No other sites were labeled above background. 7 refs., 1 fig.

  19. Assignment of the gene for the. beta. subunit of thyroid-stimulating hormone to the short arm of human chromosome 1

    SciTech Connect

    Dracopoli, N.C.; Rettig, W.J.; Whitfield, G.K.; Darlington, G.J.; Spengler, B.A.; Biedler, J.L.; Old, L.J.; Kourides, I.A.

    1986-03-01

    The chromosomal locations of the genes for the ..beta.. subunit of human thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH) and the glycoprotein hormone ..cap alpha.. subunit have been determined by restriction enzyme analysis of DNA extracted from rodent-human somatic cell hybrids. Human chorionic gonadotropin (CG) ..cap alpha..-subunit cDNA and a cloned 0.9-kilobase (kb) fragment of the human TSH ..beta..-subunit gene were used as hybridization probes in the analysis of Southern blots of DNA extracted from rodent-human hybrid clones. Analysis of the segregation of 5- and 10-kb EcoRI fragments hybridizing to CG ..cap alpha..-subunit cDNA confirmed the previous assignment of this gene to chromosome 6. Analysis of the patterns of segregation of a 2.3-kb EcoRI fragment containing human TSH ..beta..-subunit sequences permitted the assignment of the TSH ..beta..-subunit gene to human chromosome 1. The subregional assignment of TSH ..beta.. subunit to chromosome 1p22 was made possible by the additional analysis of a set of hybrids containing partially overlapping segments of this chromosome. Human TSH ..beta.. subunit is not syntenic with genes encoding the ..beta.. subunits of CG, luteinizing hormone, or follicle-stimulating hormone and is assigned to a conserved linkage group that also contains the structural genes for the ..beta.. subunit of nerve growth factor (NGFB) and the proto-oncogene N-ras (NRAS).

  20. Comparative genomics of canine hemoglobin genes reveals primacy of beta subunit delta in adult carnivores.

    PubMed

    Zaldívar-López, Sara; Rowell, Jennie L; Fiala, Elise M; Zapata, Isain; Couto, C Guillermo; Alvarez, Carlos E

    2017-02-08

    The main function of hemoglobin (Hb) is to transport oxygen in the circulation. It is among the most highly studied proteins due to its roles in physiology and disease, and most of our understanding derives from comparative research. There is great diversity in Hb gene evolution in placental mammals, mostly in the repertoire and regulation of the β-globin subunits. Dogs are an ideal model in which to study Hb genes because: 1) they are members of Laurasiatheria, our closest relatives outside of Euarchontoglires (including primates, rodents and rabbits), 2) dog breeds are isolated populations with their own Hb-associated genetics and diseases, and 3) their high level of health care allows for development of biomedical investigation and translation. We established that dogs have a complement of five α and five β-globin genes, all of which can be detected as spliced mRNA in adults. Strikingly, HBD, the allegedly-unnecessary adult β-globin protein in humans, is the primary adult β-globin in dogs and other carnivores; moreover, dogs have two active copies of the HBD gene. In contrast, the dominant adult β-globin of humans, HBB, has high sequence divergence and is expressed at markedly lower levels in dogs. We also showed that canine HBD and HBB genes are complex chimeras that resulted from multiple gene conversion events between them. Lastly, we showed that the strongest signal of evolutionary selection in a high-altitude breed, the Bernese Mountain Dog, lies in a haplotype block that spans the β-globin locus. We report the first molecular genetic characterization of Hb genes in dogs. We found important distinctions between adult β-globin expression in carnivores compared to other members of Laurasiatheria. Our findings are also likely to raise new questions about the significance of human HBD. The comparative genomics of dog hemoglobin genes sets the stage for diverse research and translation.

  1. Upregulation of N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor subunits and c-Fos expressing genes in PC12D cells by nobiletin.

    PubMed

    Kimura, Junko; Nemoto, Kiyomitsu; Degawa, Masakuni; Yokosuka, Akihito; Mimaki, Yoshihiro; Shimizu, Kosuke; Oku, Naoto; Ohizumi, Yasushi

    2014-01-01

    The N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) receptor plays a key role in learning and memory. Our recent studies have shown that nobiletin from citrus peels activates the cAMP response element-binding protein (CREB) signaling pathway and ameliorates NMDA receptor antagonist-induced learning impairment by activating extracellular signal-regulated kinase. For the first time, we have shown that nobiletin significantly upregulated mRNA expression of the NMDA receptor subunits NR1, NR2A, and NR2B in PC12D cells. Furthermore, c-Fos mRNA expression also increased due to the action of nobiletin. Our results indicate that nobiletin modulates the expression of essential genes for learning and memory by activating the CREB signaling pathway, and suggest that this action mechanism of nobiletin plays a crucial role in improving NMDA receptor antagonist-induced learning impairment in model animals with dementia.

  2. The gene coding for small ribosomal subunit RNA in the basidiomycete Ustilago maydis contains a group I intron.

    PubMed Central

    De Wachter, R; Neefs, J M; Goris, A; Van de Peer, Y

    1992-01-01

    The nucleotide sequence of the gene coding for small ribosomal subunit RNA in the basidiomycete Ustilago maydis was determined. It revealed the presence of a group I intron with a length of 411 nucleotides. This is the third occurrence of such an intron discovered in a small subunit rRNA gene encoded by a eukaryotic nuclear genome. The other two occurrences are in Pneumocystis carinii, a fungus of uncertain taxonomic status, and Ankistrodesmus stipitatus, a green alga. The nucleotides of the conserved core structure of 101 group I intron sequences present in different genes and genome types were aligned and their evolutionary relatedness was examined. This revealed a cluster including all group I introns hitherto found in eukaryotic nuclear genes coding for small and large subunit rRNAs. A secondary structure model was designed for the area of the Ustilago maydis small ribosomal subunit RNA precursor where the intron is situated. It shows that the internal guide sequence pairing with the intron boundaries fits between two helices of the small subunit rRNA, and that minimal rearrangement of base pairs suffices to achieve the definitive secondary structure of the 18S rRNA upon splicing. PMID:1561081

  3. Exon junction complex subunits are required to splice Drosophila MAP kinase, a large heterochromatic gene

    PubMed Central

    Roignant, Jean-Yves; Treisman, Jessica E.

    2010-01-01

    Summary The exon junction complex (EJC) is assembled on spliced mRNAs upstream of exon-exon junctions, and can regulate their subsequent translation, localization, or degradation. We isolated mutations in Drosophila mago nashi (mago), which encodes a core EJC subunit, based on their unexpectedly specific effects on photoreceptor differentiation. Loss of Mago prevents Epidermal growth factor receptor signaling, due to a large reduction in MAPK mRNA levels. MAPK expression also requires the EJC subunits Y14 and eIF4AIII, and EJC-associated splicing factors. Mago depletion does not affect the transcription or stability of MAPK mRNA, but alters its splicing pattern. MAPK expression from an exogenous promoter requires Mago only when the template includes introns. MAPK is the primary functional target of mago in eye development; in cultured cells, Mago knockdown disproportionately affects other large genes located in heterochromatin. These data support a nuclear role for EJC components in splicing a specific subset of introns. PMID:20946982

  4. Molecular characterisation and evolution of HMW glutenin subunit genes in Brachypodium distachyon L.

    PubMed

    Subburaj, Saminathan; Chen, Guanxing; Han, Caixia; Lv, Dongwen; Li, Xiaohui; Zeller, Friedrich J; Hsam, Sai L K; Yan, Yueming

    2014-02-01

    Brachypodium distachyon, a small wild grass within the Pooideae family, is a new model organism for exploring the functional genomics of cereal crops. It was shown to have close relationships to wheat, barley and rice. Here, we describe the molecular characterisation and evolutionary relationships of high molecular weight glutenin subunits (HMW-GS) genes from B. distachyon. Sodium dodecyl sulphate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE), high performance capillary electrophoresis (HPCE) and liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) analyses demonstrated that there was no HMW-GS expression in the Brachypodium grains due to the silencing of their encoding genes. Through allele-specific polymerase chain reaction (AS-PCR) amplification and cloning, a total of 13 HMW-GS encoding genes from diploid, tetraploid and hexaploid Brachypodium species were obtained, and all of them had typical structural features of y-type HMW-GS genes from common wheat and related species, particularly more similar to the 1Dy12 gene. However, the presence of an in-frame premature stop codon (TAG) at position 1521 in the coding region resulted in the conversion of all the genes to pseudogenes. Further, quantitative real-time PCR (qRT-PCR) analysis revealed that HMW-GS genes in B. distachyon displayed a similar trend, but with a low transcriptional expression profile during grain development due to the occurrence of the stop codon. Phylogenetic analysis showed that the highly conserved Glu-1-2 loci were presented in B. distachyon, which displayed close phylogenetic evolutionary relationships with Triticum and related species.

  5. Molecular Evolution of the Small Subunit of Ribulose Bisphosphate Carboxylase: Nucleotide Substitution and Gene Conversion

    PubMed Central

    Meagher, R. B.; Berry-Lowe, S.; Rice, K.

    1989-01-01

    The nucleotide sequences encoding the mature portion of 31 ribulose 1,5-bisphosphate carboxylase small subunit (SSU) genes from 17 genera of plants, green algae and cyanobacteria were examined. Among the 465 pairwise sequence comparisons, SSU multigene family members within the same species were more similar to each other in nonsynonymous or replacement nucleotide substitutions (RNS) than they were to SSU sequences in any other organism. The concerted evolution of independent SSU gene lineages within closely related plant species suggests that homogenization of RNS positions has occurred at least once in the life of each genus. The rate of expected RNS among mature SSU sequences was calculated to be 1.25 X 10(-9)/site/yr for the first 70 million years (MY) of divergence with a significant slowing to 0.13 X 10(-9)/site/yr for the next 1,400 MY. The data suggest that mature SSU sequences do not accumulate more than 20% differences in the RNS positions without compensatory changes in other components of this enzyme system. During the first 70 MY of divergence between species, the rate of expected synonymous or silent nucleotide substitutions (SNS) is ~6.6 X 10(-9)/site/yr. This is five times the RNS rate and is similar to the silent rate observed in animals. In striking contrast, SNS and RNS do not show this correlation among SSU gene family members within a species. A mechanism involving gene conversion within the exons followed by selection for biased gene conversion products with conservation of RNS positions and divergence of SNS positions is discussed. A SSU gene tree based on corrected RNS for 31 SSU sequences is presented and agrees well with a species tree based on morphological and cytogenetic traits for the 17 genera examined. SSU gene comparisons may be useful in predicting phylogenetic relationships and in some cases divergence times of various plant, algal and cyanobacterial species. PMID:2515110

  6. Analysis of the cytochrome c oxidase subunit II (COX2) gene in giant panda, Ailuropoda melanoleuca.

    PubMed

    Ling, S S; Zhu, Y; Lan, D; Li, D S; Pang, H Z; Wang, Y; Li, D Y; Wei, R P; Zhang, H M; Wang, C D; Hu, Y D

    2017-01-23

    The giant panda, Ailuropoda melanoleuca (Ursidae), has a unique bamboo-based diet; however, this low-energy intake has been sufficient to maintain the metabolic processes of this species since the fourth ice age. As mitochondria are the main sites for energy metabolism in animals, the protein-coding genes involved in mitochondrial respiratory chains, particularly cytochrome c oxidase subunit II (COX2), which is the rate-limiting enzyme in electron transfer, could play an important role in giant panda metabolism. Therefore, the present study aimed to isolate, sequence, and analyze the COX2 DNA from individuals kept at the Giant Panda Protection and Research Center, China, and compare these sequences with those of the other Ursidae family members. Multiple sequence alignment showed that the COX2 gene had three point mutations that defined three haplotypes, with 60% of the sequences corresponding to haplotype I. The neutrality tests revealed that the COX2 gene was conserved throughout evolution, and the maximum likelihood phylogenetic analysis, using homologous sequences from other Ursidae species, showed clustering of the COX2 sequences of giant pandas, suggesting that this gene evolved differently in them.

  7. Identification of single nucleotide polymorphism in protein phosphatase 1 regulatory subunit 11 gene in Murrah bulls.

    PubMed

    Jain, Varsha; Patel, Brijesh; Umar, Farhat Paul; Ajithakumar, H M; Gurjar, Suraj K; Gupta, I D; Verma, Archana

    2017-02-01

    This study was conducted with the objective to identify single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) in protein phosphatase 1 regulatory subunit 11 (PPP1R11) gene in Murrah bulls. Genomic DNA was isolated by phenol-chloroform extraction method from the frozen semen samples of 65 Murrah bulls maintained at Artificial Breeding Research Centre, ICAR-National Dairy Research Institute, Karnal. The quality and concentration of DNA was checked by spectrophotometer reading and agarose gel electrophoresis. The target region of PPP1R11 gene was amplified using four sets of primer designed based on Bos taurus reference sequence. The amplified products were sequenced and aligned using Clustal Omega for identification of SNPs. Animals were genotyped by polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism (PCR-RFLP) using EcoNI restriction enzyme. The sequences in the NCBI accession number NW_005785016.1 for Bubalus bubalis were compared and aligned with the edited sequences of Murrah bulls with Clustal Omega software. A total of 10 SNPs were found, out of which 1 at 5'UTR, 3 at intron 1, and 6 at intron 2 region. PCR-RFLP using restriction enzyme EcoNI revealed only AA genotype indicating monomorphism in PPP1R11 gene of all Murrah animals included in the study. A total of 10 SNPs were found. PCR-RFLP revealed only AA genotype indicating monomorphism in PPP1R11 gene of all Murrah animals included in the study, due to which association analysis with conception rate was not feasible.

  8. The β-conglycinin deficiency in wild soybean is associated with the tail-to-tail inverted repeat of the α-subunit genes.

    PubMed

    Tsubokura, Yasutaka; Hajika, Makita; Kanamori, Hiroyuki; Xia, Zhengjun; Watanabe, Satoshi; Kaga, Akito; Katayose, Yuichi; Ishimoto, Masao; Harada, Kyuya

    2012-02-01

    β-conglycinin, a major seed protein in soybean, is composed of α, α', and β subunits sharing a high homology among them. Despite its many health benefits, β-conglycinin has a lower amino acid score and lower functional gelling properties compared to glycinin, another major soybean seed protein. In addition, the α, α', and β subunits also contain major allergens. A wild soybean (Glycine soja Sieb et Zucc.) line, 'QT2', lacks all of the β-conglycinin subunits, and the deficiency is controlled by a single dominant gene, Scg-1 (Suppressor of β-conglycinin). This gene was characterized using a soybean cultivar 'Fukuyutaka', 'QY7-25', (its near-isogenic line carrying the Scg-1 gene), and the F₂ population derived from them. The physical map of the Scg-1 region covered by lambda phage genomic clones revealed that the two α-subunit genes, a β-subunit gene, and a pseudo α-subunit gene were closely organized. The two α-subunit genes were arranged in a tail-to-tail orientation, and the genes were separated by 197 bp in Scg-1 compared to 3.3 kb in the normal allele (scg-1). In addition, small RNA was detected in immature seeds of the mutants by northern blot analysis using an RNA probe of the α subunit. These results strongly suggest that β-conglycinin deficiency in QT2 is controlled by post-transcriptional gene silencing through the inverted repeat of the α subunits.

  9. 180-Nucleotide Duplication in the G Gene of Human metapneumovirus A2b Subgroup Strains Circulating in Yokohama City, Japan, since 2014

    PubMed Central

    Saikusa, Miwako; Kawakami, Chiharu; Nao, Naganori; Takeda, Makoto; Usuku, Shuzo; Sasao, Tadayoshi; Nishimoto, Kimiko; Toyozawa, Takahiro

    2017-01-01

    Human metapneumovirus (HMPV), a member of the family Paramyxoviridae, was first isolated in 2001. Seroepidemiological studies have shown that HMPV has been a major etiological agent of acute respiratory infections in humans for more than 50 years. Molecular epidemiological, genetic, and antigenetic evolutionary studies of HMPV will strengthen our understanding of the epidemic behavior of the virus and provide valuable insight for the control of HMPV and the development of vaccines and antiviral drugs against HMPV infection. In this study, the nucleotide sequence of and genetic variations in the G gene were analyzed in HMPV strains prevalent in Yokohama City, in the Kanto area, Japan, between January 2013 and June 2016. As a part of the National Epidemiological Surveillance of Infectious Diseases, Japan, 1308 clinical specimens (throat swabs, nasal swabs, nasal secretions, and nasal aspirate fluids) collected at 24 hospitals or clinics in Yokohama City were screened for 15 major respiratory viruses with a multiplex reverse transcription–PCR assay. HMPV was detected in 91 specimens, accounting for 7.0% of the total specimens, and the nucleotide sequences of the G genes of 84 HMPV strains were determined. Among these 84 strains, 6, 43, 10, and 25 strains were classified into subgroups A2a, A2b, B1, and B2, respectively. Approximately half the HMPV A2b subgroup strains detected since 2014 had a 180-nucleotide duplication (180nt-dup) in the G gene and clustered on a phylogenic tree with four classical 180nt-dup-lacking HMPV A2b strains prevalent between 2014 and 2015. The 180nt-dup causes a 60-amino-acid duplication (60aa-dup) in the G protein, creating 23–25 additional potential acceptor sites for O-linked sugars. Our data suggest that 180nt-dup occurred between 2011 and 2013 and that HMPV A2b strains with 180nt-dup (A2b180nt-dup HMPV) became major epidemic strains within 3 years. The detailed mechanism by which the A2b180nt-dup HMPV strains gained an advantage

  10. The Euglena gracilis chloroplast rpoB gene. Novel gene organization and transcription of the RNA polymerase subunit operon.

    PubMed Central

    Yepiz-Plascencia, G M; Radebaugh, C A; Hallick, R B

    1990-01-01

    The rpoB gene coding for a beta-like subunit of the chloroplast DNA-dependent RNA polymerase has been located on the chloroplast genome of Euglena gracilis distal to the rrnC ribosomal RNA operon. We have determined 5760 base-pairs of DNA sequence, including 97 bp of the 5S rRNA gene, an intergenic spacer of 1264 bp, the rpoB gene of 4249 bp, 84 bp spacer and 67 bp of the rpoC1 gene. The rpoB gene is of the same polarity as the rRNA operons. The organization of the rpoB and rpoC genes resembles the E. coli rpoB-rpoC and higher plant chloroplast rpoB-rpoC1-rpoC2 operons. The Euglena rpoB gene (1082 codons) encodes a polypeptide with a predicted molecular weight of 124,288. The rpoB gene is interrupted by seven Group III introns of 93, 95, 94, 99, 101, 110 and 99 bp respectively and a Group II intron of 309 bp. All other known rpoB genes lack introns. All the exon-exon junctions were experimentally determined by cDNA cloning and sequencing or direct primer extension RNA sequencing. Transcripts from the rpoB locus were characterized by Northern hybridization. Fully-spliced, monocistronic rpoB mRNA, as well as rpoB-rpoC1 and rpoB1-rpoC1-rpoC2 mRNAs were identified. Images PMID:2110656

  11. The Euglena gracilis chloroplast rpoB gene. Novel gene organization and transcription of the RNA polymerase subunit operon.

    PubMed

    Yepiz-Plascencia, G M; Radebaugh, C A; Hallick, R B

    1990-04-11

    The rpoB gene coding for a beta-like subunit of the chloroplast DNA-dependent RNA polymerase has been located on the chloroplast genome of Euglena gracilis distal to the rrnC ribosomal RNA operon. We have determined 5760 base-pairs of DNA sequence, including 97 bp of the 5S rRNA gene, an intergenic spacer of 1264 bp, the rpoB gene of 4249 bp, 84 bp spacer and 67 bp of the rpoC1 gene. The rpoB gene is of the same polarity as the rRNA operons. The organization of the rpoB and rpoC genes resembles the E. coli rpoB-rpoC and higher plant chloroplast rpoB-rpoC1-rpoC2 operons. The Euglena rpoB gene (1082 codons) encodes a polypeptide with a predicted molecular weight of 124,288. The rpoB gene is interrupted by seven Group III introns of 93, 95, 94, 99, 101, 110 and 99 bp respectively and a Group II intron of 309 bp. All other known rpoB genes lack introns. All the exon-exon junctions were experimentally determined by cDNA cloning and sequencing or direct primer extension RNA sequencing. Transcripts from the rpoB locus were characterized by Northern hybridization. Fully-spliced, monocistronic rpoB mRNA, as well as rpoB-rpoC1 and rpoB1-rpoC1-rpoC2 mRNAs were identified.

  12. Identification of genes bordering breakpoints of the pericentric inversions on 2B, 4B, and 5A in bread wheat (Triticum aestivum L.).

    PubMed

    Ma, Jian; Gao, Shang; Stiller, Jiri; Jiang, Qian-Tao; Lan, Xiu-Jin; Liu, Ya-Xi; Pu, Zhi-En; Wang, Jirui; Wei, Yuming; Zheng, You-Liang

    2015-08-01

    Chromosome translocation is an important driving force in shaping genomes during evolution. Detailed knowledge of chromosome translocations in a given species and its close relatives should increase the efficiency and precision of chromosome engineering in crop improvement. To identify genes flanking the breakpoints of translocations and inversions as a step toward identifying breakpoints in bread wheat, we systematically analysed genes in the Brachypodium genome against wheat survey sequences and bin-mapped ESTs (expressed sequence tags) derived from the hexaploid wheat genotype 'Chinese Spring'. In addition to those well-known translocations between group 4, 5, and 7 chromosomes, this analysis identified genes flanking the three pericentric inversions on chromosomes 2B, 4B, and 5A. However, numerous chromosomal rearrangements reported in early studies could not be confirmed. The genes flanking the breakpoints reported in this study are valuable for isolating these breakpoints.

  13. Small-subunit ribosomal RNA gene sequences of Phaeodarea challenge the monophyly of Haeckel's Radiolaria.

    PubMed

    Polet, Stephane; Berney, Cédric; Fahrni, José; Pawlowski, Jan

    2004-03-01

    In his grand monograph of Radiolaria, Ernst Haeckel originally included Phaeodarea together with Acantharea and Polycystinea, all three taxa characterized by the presence of a central capsule and the possession of axopodia. Cytological and ultrastructural studies, however, questioned the monophyly of Radiolaria, suggesting an independent evolutionary origin of the three taxa, and the first molecular data on Acantharea and Polycystinea brought controversial results. To test further the monophyly of Radiolaria, we sequenced the complete small subunit ribosomal RNA gene of three phaeodarians and three polycystines. Our analyses reveal that phaeodarians clearly branch among the recently described phylum Cercozoa, separately from Acantharea and Polycystinea. This result enhances the morphological variability within the phylum Cercozoa, which already contains very heterogeneous groups of protists. Our study also confirms the common origin of Acantharea and Polycystinea, which form a sister-group to the Cercozoa, and allows a phylogenetic reinterpretation of the morphological features of the three radiolarian groups.

  14. Phylogenetic relationships among onychophora from Australasia inferred from the mitochondrial cytochrome oxidase subunit I gene.

    PubMed

    Gleeson, D M; Rowell, D M; Tait, N N; Briscoe, D A; Higgins, A V

    1998-10-01

    Nucleotide sequence variation in a region of the mitochondrial cytochrome oxidase subunit I (COI) gene (456 bp) was examined for 26 onychophorans representing 15 genera of the family Peripatopsidae from Australasia. Sequence analysis revealed high intergeneric COI sequence divergence (up to 20.6% corrected) but low amino acid substitution rates, with high levels of transitional saturation evident. Among unambiguously alignable sequences, parsimony and distance analyses revealed a broadly congruent tree topology, robust to various algorithms and statistical analysis. There are two major groupings. One, largely unresolved, consists entirely of Australian mainland taxa. The other, for which there is convincing support, includes all of the New Zealand and Tasmanian taxa together with one mainland Australian species. In respect of the two major groupings, this topology is consistent with previous morphologically based phylogenies and provides further evidence for an ancient radiation within the mainland Australian Onychophora. The biogeographic implications of the close affinities revealed between the Tasmanian and New Zealand taxa are discussed.

  15. Promoter Structure of the RNA Polymerase II Large Subunit Gene in Caenorhabditis elegans and C. briggsae.

    PubMed

    Bird, D M; Kaloshian, I; Molinari, S

    1997-06-01

    The 5'-end of the Caenorhabditis elegans ama-1 gene transcript, which encodes the largest subunit of RNA polymerase II, was cloned. Sequencing revealed that the message is trans-spliced. To characterize the Ce-ama-1 promoter, DNA sequence spanning 3 kb upstream from the initiation codon was determined. Typical elements, such as TATA and Spl sites, were absent. The homologue of ama-1 in C. briggsae, Cb-ama-1, was isolated and its 5' flanking sequence compared with that of Ce-ama-1, revealing only limited similarity, although both sequences included a potential initiator-class transcriptional regulator and phased repeats of an ATC motif. The latter elements are postulated to facilitate DNA bending and may play a role in transcription regulation.

  16. Protein phosphatase 2A subunit gene haplotypes and proliferative breast disease modify breast cancer risk

    PubMed Central

    Dupont, William D.; Breyer, Joan P.; Bradley, Kevin M.; Schuyler, Peggy A.; Plummer, W. Dale; Sanders, Melinda E.; Page, David L.; Smith, Jeffrey R.

    2009-01-01

    BACKGROUND Protein phosphatase 2A (PP2A) is a major cellular phosphatase and plays key regulatory roles in growth, differentiation, and apoptosis. Women diagnosed with benign proliferative breast disease are at increased risk for the subsequent development of breast cancer. METHODS We evaluated genetic variation of PP2A holoenzyme subunits for potential contribution to breast cancer risk. We performed a nested case-control investigation of a cohort of women with a history of benign breast disease. Subjects were followed for an average of 18 years; DNA prepared from the original archival benign breast biopsy (1954 – 1995) was available for 450 women diagnosed with breast cancer on follow-up, and for 890 of their 900 controls who were matched on race, age, and year of entry biopsy. RESULTS Single allele- and haplotype-based tests of association were conducted, with assessment of significance by permutation testing. We identified significant risk and protective haplotypes of PPP2R1A, giving odds ratios of 1.63 (95% CI 1.3 – 2.1) and 0.55 (95% CI 0.41 – 0.76), respectively. These odds ratios remained significant upon adjustment for multiple comparisons. Women with both the risk PPP2R1A haplotype and a history of proliferative breast disease had an odds ratio of 2.44 (95% CI 1.7 – 3.5) for the subsequent development of breast cancer. The effects of haplotypes for two regulatory subunit genes, PPP2R2A and PPP2R5E on breast cancer risk were nominally significant, but did not remain significant upon adjustment for multiple comparisons. CONCLUSION This evidence supports the previously hypothesized role of PP2A as a tumor suppressor gene in breast cancer. PMID:19890961

  17. Gene structure, chromosomal localization, and expression pattern of Capn12, a new member of the calpain large subunit gene family.

    PubMed

    Dear, T N; Meier, N T; Hunn, M; Boehm, T

    2000-09-01

    We report the identification of mouse Capn12, a new member of the calpain large subunit gene family. It possesses potential protease and calcium-binding domains, features typical of the classical calpains. In situ hybridization and Northern blot analysis demonstrate that during the anagen phase of the hair cycle the cortex of the hair follicle is the major expression site of Capn12. The gene was sequenced in its entirety and consists of 21 exons spanning 13 kb with an exon-intron structure typical of the calpain gene family. The last exon of the mouse Actn4 gene overlaps the 3' end of Capn12 but in the opposite orientation. This overlap between the two genes is conserved in the human genome. Three versions of the Capn12 mRNA transcript were identified. They occur as a result of alternative splicing, and two of these encode a protein lacking the C-terminal calmodulin-like domain. Radiation hybrid mapping localized Capn12 to mouse chromosome 7, closely linked to a marker positioned at 10.4 cM. Refined mapping of Capn5, also previously localized to chromosome 7, indicated that it was not closely linked to Capn12, mapping tightly linked to a marker positioned at 48.5 cM.

  18. OBTAINING OF THE TRANSGENIC HELIANTHUS TUBEROSUS L. PLANTS, CALLUS AND "HAIRY" ROOT CULTURES ABLE TO EXPRESS THE RECOMBINANT HUMAN INTERFERON ALPHA-2b GENE.

    PubMed

    Maistrenko, O M; Luchakivska, Yu S; Zholobak, N M; Spivak, M Ya; Kuchuk, M V

    2015-01-01

    This work is the first to our knowledge to describe the successful attempt of Agrobacterium rhizogenes-mediated transformation of topinambour in order to obtain the transgenic H. tuberosus plants, callus and "hairy" root cultures. The plasmid vectors contained the sequence of interferon gene fused with Nicotiana plumbagenifolia L. calreticulin apoplast targeting signal driven by 35S CaMV promoter or root-specific Mll promoter. Nearly 75% isolated Ri-root lines and callus cultures were proved (by PCR analysis) to contain HuINFa-2b transgene. We also managed to obtain H. tuberosus transgenic plants through somatic embryogenesis on the transgenic "hairy" root culture. The obtained transgenic H. tuberosus cultures exhibited high-level antiviral activity that ranged from 2000 to 54500 IU/g FW that makes this crop considered a promising source of recombinant interferon alpha 2b protein.

  19. Targeting Activation of Specific NF-κB Subunits Prevents Stress-Dependent Atherothrombotic Gene Expression

    PubMed Central

    Djuric, Zdenka; Kashif, Muhammed; Fleming, Thomas; Muhammad, Sajjad; Piel, David; von Bauer, Rüdiger; Bea, Florian; Herzig, Stephan; Zeier, Martin; Pizzi, Marina; Isermann, Berend; Hecker, Markus; Schwaninger, Markus; Bierhaus, Angelika; Nawroth, Peter P

    2012-01-01

    Psychosocial stress has been shown to be a contributing factor in the development of atherosclerosis. Although the underlying mechanisms have not been elucidated entirely, it has been shown previously that the transcription factor nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB) is an important component of stress-activated signaling pathway. In this study, we aimed to decipher the mechanisms of stress-induced NF-κB-mediated gene expression, using an in vitro and in vivo model of psychosocial stress. Induction of stress led to NF-κB-dependent expression of proinflammatory (tissue factor, intracellular adhesive molecule 1 [ICAM-1]) and protective genes (manganese superoxide dismutase [MnSOD]) via p50, p65 or cRel. Selective inhibition of the different subunits and the respective kinases showed that inhibition of cRel leads to the reduction of atherosclerotic lesions in apolipoprotein−/− (ApoE−/−) mice via suppression of proinflammatory gene expression. This observation may therefore provide a possible explanation for ineffectiveness of antioxidant therapies and suggests that selective targeting of cRel activation may provide a novel approach for the treatment of stress-related inflammatory vascular disease. PMID:23114885

  20. Utility of the cytochrome c oxidase subunit I gene for the diagnosis of toxoplasmosis using PCR.

    PubMed

    Feng, Xue; Norose, Kazumi; Li, Kexin; Hikosaka, Kenji

    2017-10-01

    Toxoplasmosis is caused by the protozoan parasite Toxoplasma gondii, which belongs to the phylum Apicomplexa. Since this parasite causes severe clinical symptoms in immunocompromised patients, early diagnosis of toxoplasmosis is essential. PCR is currently used for early diagnosis, but there is no consensus regarding the most effective method for amplifying Toxoplasma DNA. In this study, we considered the utility of the cytochrome c subunit I (cox1) gene, which is encoded in the mitochondrial DNA of this parasite, as a novel target of PCR for the diagnosis of toxoplasmosis. To do this, we compared its copy number per haploid nuclear genome and the detection sensitivity of cox1-PCR with the previously reported target genes B1 and 18S rRNA and the AF146527 repeat element. We found that the copy number of cox1 was high and that the PCR using cox1 primers was more efficient at amplifying Toxoplasma DNA than the other PCR targets examined. In addition, PCR using clinical samples indicated that the cox1 gene would be useful for the diagnosis of toxoplasmosis. These findings suggest that use of cox1-PCR would facilitate the diagnosis of toxoplasmosis in clinical laboratories. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Identification of Sphaeroma terebrans via morphology and the mitochondrial cytochrome c oxidase subunit I (COI) gene

    PubMed Central

    LI, Xiu-Feng; HAN, Chong; ZHONG, Cai-Rong; XU, Jun-Qiu; HUANG, Jian-Rong

    2016-01-01

    Sphaeroma terebrans, a wood-boring isopoda, is distributed worldwide in tropical and subtropical mangroves. The taxonomy of S. terebrans is usually based on morphological characteristics, with its molecular identification still poorly understood. The number of teeth on the uropodal exopod and the length of the propodus of the seventh pereopod are considered as the major morphological characteristics in S. terebrans, which can cause difficulty in regards to accurate identification. In this study, we identified S. terebrans via molecular and morphological data. Furthermore, the validity of the mitochondrial cytochrome c oxidase subunit I (COI) gene as a DNA barcode for the identification of genus Sphaeroma, including species S. terebrans, S. retrolaeve, and S. serratum, was examined. The mitochondrial COI gene sequences of all specimens were sequenced and analysed. The interspecific Kimura 2-parameter distances were higher than intraspecific distances and no intraspecific-interspecific distance overlaps were observed. In addition, genetic distance and nucleotide diversity (π) exhibited no differences within S. terebrans. Our results revealed that the mitochondrial COI gene can serve as a valid DNA barcode for the identification of S. terebrans. Furthermore, the number of teeth on the uropodal exopod and the length of the propodus of the seventh pereopod were found to be unreliable taxonomic characteristics for S. terebrans. PMID:27686791

  2. Molecular cloning and expression analysis of a novel BCCP subunit gene from Aleurites moluccana.

    PubMed

    Xuan, W Y; Zhang, Y; Liu, Z Q; Feng, D; Luo, M Y

    2015-08-19

    Aleurites moluccana L. is grown as a roadside tree in southern China and the oil content of its seed is higher than other oil plants, such as Jatropha curcas and Camellia oleifera. A. moluccana is considered a promising energy plant because its seed oil could be used to produce biodiesel and bio-jet fuel. In addition, the bark, leaves, and kernels of A. moluccana have various medical and commercial uses. Here, a novel gene coding the biotin carboxyl carrier protein subunit (BCCP) was cloned from A. moluccana L. using the homology cloning method combined with rapid amplification of cDNA end (RACE) technology. The isolated full-length cDNA sequence (designated AM-accB) was 1188 bp, containing a 795-bp open reading frame coding for 265 amino acids. The deduced amino acid sequence of AM-accB contained a biotinylated domain located between amino acids 190 and 263. A. moluccana BCCP shows high identity at the amino acid level to its homologues in other higher plants, such as Vernicia fordii, J. curcas, and Ricinus communis (86, 77, and 70%, respectively), which all contain conserved domains for ACCase activity. The expression of the AM-accB gene during the middle stage of development and maturation in A. moluccana seeds was higher than that in early and later stages. The expression pattern of the AM-accB gene is very similar to that of the oil accumulation rate.

  3. Identification of Leptospira serovars by RFLP of the RNA polymerase beta subunit gene (rpoB)

    PubMed Central

    Jung, Lenice Roteia Cardoso; Bomfim, Maria Rosa Quaresma; Kroon, Erna Geessien; Nunes, Álvaro Cantini

    2015-01-01

    Leptospires are usually classified by methods based on DNA-DNA hybridization and the conventional cross-agglutination absorption test, which uses polyclonal antibodies against lipopolysaccharides. In this study, the amplification of the rpoB gene, which encodes the beta-subunit of RNA polymerase, was used as an alternative tool to identify Leptospira. DNA extracts from sixty-eight serovars were obtained, and the hypervariable region located between 1990 and 2500-bp in the rpoB gene was amplified by polymerase chain reaction (PCR). The 600-bp amplicons of the rpoB gene were digested with the restriction endonucleases TaqI, Tru1I, Sau3AI and MslI, and the restriction fragments were separated by 6% polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis. Thirty-five fragment patters were obtained from the combined data of restriction fragment length polymorphism (PCR-RFLP) analysis and used to infer the phylogenetic relationships among the Leptospira species and serovars. The species assignments obtained were in full agreement with the established taxonomic classifications. Twenty-two serovars were effectively identified based on differences in their molecular profiles. However, the other 46 serovars remained clustered in groups that included more than one serovar of different species. This study demonstrates the value of RFLP analysis of PCR-amplified rpoB as an initial method for identifying Leptospira species and serovars. PMID:26273261

  4. The glucose-6-phosphatase catalytic subunit gene promoter contains both positive and negative glucocorticoid response elements.

    PubMed

    Vander Kooi, Beth T; Onuma, Hiroshi; Oeser, James K; Svitek, Christina A; Allen, Shelley R; Vander Kooi, Craig W; Chazin, Walter J; O'Brien, Richard M

    2005-12-01

    Glucose-6-phosphatase catalyzes the final step in the gluconeogenic and glycogenolytic pathways. Glucocorticoids stimulate glucose-6-phosphatase catalytic subunit (G6Pase) gene transcription and studies performed in H4IIE hepatoma cells demonstrate the presence of a glucocorticoid response unit (GRU) in the proximal G6Pase promoter. In vitro deoxyribonuclease I footprinting analyses show that the glucocorticoid receptor binds to three glucocorticoid response elements (GREs) in the -231 to -129 promoter region and transfection results indicate all three contribute to glucocorticoid induction of G6Pase gene transcription. Furthermore, binding sites for hepatocyte nuclear factor-1 and -4, CRE binding factors, and FKHR (FOXO1a) are required for the full glucocorticoid response. Chromatin immunoprecipitation assays show that dexamethasone treatment stimulates glucocorticoid receptor and FKHR binding to the endogenous G6Pase promoter. Surprisingly, although glucocorticoids stimulate G6Pase gene transcription, deoxyribonuclease I footprinting and transfection analyses demonstrate the presence of a negative GRE and an associated negative accessory factor element in the -271 to -225 promoter region, which inhibit the glucocorticoid response. This appears to be the first report of a promoter that contains both positive and negative GREs, which function within the same cellular environment. We hypothesize that targeted signaling to the negative accessory element within the GRU may provide tight regulation of the glucocorticoid stimulation.

  5. Heteropolymorphism of mitochondrial NADH dehydrogenase subunit 3 gene for the population analysis of chum salmon, Oncorhynchus keta.

    PubMed

    Yoon, M; Choi, Y S; Jin, H J; Sohn, Y C; Lee, S K; Jin, D H

    2008-07-01

    Mitochondrial DNAs (mtDNAs) has been frequently used as genetic markers for the population genetic studies. In this study we used chum salmon (Oncorhynchus keta) from Korea, Japan andAmerica, and compared their mitochondrial NADH dehydrogenase subunit 3 (ND3) genes by DNA sequence analysis. Sequence variation was studied in the ND3 among total 11 individuals from three populations. The ND3 gene was amplified by PCR targeting parts of cytochrome oxidase III gene (COIII) and NADH dehydrogenase subunit 4L gene (ND4L). ND3 gene sequence, encoded 752 bps, presented some genetic variation in the chum salmon populations. The observed nucleotide variations inferred the distinct genetic differentiation of American salmons from Korean and Japanese chum salmons. Six sites of single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) were explored in the ND3 locus. Denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis analysis also showed a clear heterogenous band in American salmons compared to Asian salmons.

  6. Further evidence for clustering of human GABA[sub A] receptor subunit genes: Localization of the [alpha][sub 6]-subunit gene (GABRA6) to distal chromosome 5q by linkage analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Hicks, A.A.; Kamphuis, W.; Darlison, M.G. ); Bailey, M.E.S.; Johnson, K.J. ); Riley, B.P. ); Siciliano, M.J. )

    1994-03-15

    GABA[sub A] receptors are hetero-oligomeric ion-channel complexes that are composed of combinations of [alpha], [beta], [gamma], and [delta] subunits and play a major role in inhibitory neurotransmission in the mammalian brain. The authors report here a microsatellite polymorphism within the human [alpha][sub 6]-subunit gene (GABRA6). Mapping of this marker in a human-hamster hybrid cell-line panel and typing of the repeat in the Centre d'Etude du Polymorphisme Humain (CEPH) reference families enabled the localization of this gene to chromosome 5q and established its linkage to the GABA[sub A] receptor [alpha][sub 1]-subunit gene (GA-BRA1) with a maximum lod score (Z[sub max]) of 39.87 at a [theta] of 0.069 (males) and 0.100 (females). These results reveal the clustering of GABRA6, GABRA1, and the GABA[sub A] receptor [gamma][sub 2]-subunit gene (GABRG2) on distal chromosome 5q. 17 refs., 1 fig., 1 tab.

  7. The {gamma}-aminobutyric acid receptor {gamma}3 subunit gene (GABRG3) is tightly linked to the {alpha}5 subunit gene (GABRA5) on human chromosome 15q11-q13 and is transcribed in the same orientation

    SciTech Connect

    Greger, V. |; Knoll, J.H.M.; Woolf, E. |

    1995-03-20

    GABA{sub A} receptors are heterooligomeric ligand-gated ion channels that mediate the effect of the inhibitory neurotransmitter {gamma}-aminobutyric acid. The GABA{sub A} receptors consist of at least 15 different receptor subunits that can be classified into 5 subfamilies ({alpha},{beta},{gamma},{delta},{rho}) on the basis of sequence similarity. Chromosomal mapping studies have revealed that several of the GABA{sub A} receptor subunit genes appear to be organized as clusters. One such cluster, which consists of the GABA{sub A} receptor {beta}3 (GABRB3) and {alpha}5 (GABRA5) sub-unit genes, is located in chromosome 15q11-q13. It is shown here that the GABA{sub A} receptor {gamma}3 subunit gene (GABRG3) also maps to this region. Lambda and P1 phage clones surrounding both ends of GABRG3 were isolated; the clones derived from the 5{prime} end of GABRG3 were linked to an existing phage contig spanning the 3{prime} end of GABRA5. The two genes are located within 35 kb of each other and are transcribed in the same orientation. 39 refs., 4 figs.

  8. Nucleocytoplasmic shuttling of the adapter protein SH2B1beta (SH2-Bbeta) is required for nerve growth factor (NGF)-dependent neurite outgrowth and enhancement of expression of a subset of NGF-responsive genes.

    PubMed

    Maures, Travis J; Chen, Linyi; Carter-Su, Christin

    2009-07-01

    The adapter protein SH2B1 (SH2-B, PSM) is recruited to multiple ligand-activated receptor tyrosine kinases, including the receptors for nerve growth factor (NGF), insulin, and IGF-I as well as the cytokine receptor-associated Janus kinase family kinases. In this study, we examine SH2B1's function in NGF signaling. We show that depleting endogenous SH2B1 using short hairpin RNA against SH2B1 inhibits NGF-dependent neurite outgrowth, but not NGF-mediated phosphorylation of Akt or ERKs 1/2. SH2B1 has been hypothesized to localize and function at the plasma membrane. We identify a nuclear localization signal within SH2B1 and show that it is required for nuclear translocation of SH2B1beta. Mutation of the nuclear localization signal has no effect on NGF-induced activation of TrkA and ERKs 1/2 but prevents SH2B1beta from enhancing NGF-induced neurite outgrowth. Disruption of SH2B1beta nuclear import also prevents SH2B1beta from enhancing NGF-induced transcription of genes important for neuronal differentiation, including those encoding urokinase plasminogen activator receptor, and matrix metalloproteinases 3 and 10. Disruption of SH2B1beta nuclear export by mutation of its nuclear export sequence similarly prevents SH2B1beta enhancement of NGF-induced transcription of those genes. Nuclear translocation of the highly homologous family member SH2B2(APS) was not observed. Together, these data suggest that rather than simply acting as an adapter protein linking signaling proteins to the activated TrkA receptor at the plasma membrane, SH2B1beta must shuttle between the plasma membrane and nucleus to function as a critical component of NGF-induced gene expression and neuronal differentiation.

  9. Meta-analysis of six genes (BDNF, DRD1, DRD3, DRD4, GRIN2B and MAOA) involved in neuroplasticity and the risk for alcohol dependence.

    PubMed

    Forero, Diego A; López-León, Sandra; Shin, Hyoung Doo; Park, Byung Lae; Kim, Dai-Jin

    2015-04-01

    Alcohol-related problems have a large impact on human health, accounting for around 4% of deaths and 4.5% of disability-adjusted life-years around the world. Genetic factors could explain a significant fraction of the risk for alcohol dependence (AD). Recent meta-analyses have found significant pooled odds ratios (ORs) for variants in the ADH1B, ADH1C, DRD2 and HTR2A genes. In the present study, we carried out a meta-analysis of common variants in 6 candidate genes involved in neurotransmission and neuroplasticity: BDNF, DRD1, DRD3, DRD4, GRIN2B and MAOA. We carried out a systematic search for published association studies that analyzed the genes of interest. Relevant articles were retrieved and demographic and genetic data were extracted. Pooled ORs were calculated using a random-effects model using the Meta-Analyst program. Dominant, recessive and allelic models were tested and analyses were also stratified by ethnicity. Forty two published studies were included in the current meta-analysis: BDNF-rs6265 (nine studies), DRD1-rs4532 (four studies), DRD3-rs6280 (eleven studies), DRD4-VNTR (seven studies), GRIN2B-rs1806201 (three studies) and MAOA-uVNTR (eight studies). We did not find significant pooled ORs for any of the six genes, under different models and stratifying for ethnicity. In terms of the number of candidate genes included, this is one of the most comprehensive meta-analyses for genetics of AD. Pooled ORs did not support consistent associations with any of the six candidate genes tested. Future studies of novel genes of functional relevance and meta-analyses of quantitative endophenotypes could identify further susceptibility molecular factors for AD. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Paired-like homeodomain proteins Phox2a/Arix and Phox2b/NBPhox have similar genetic organization and independently regulate dopamine beta-hydroxylase gene transcription.

    PubMed

    Adachi, M; Browne, D; Lewis, E J

    2000-09-01

    The homeodomain transcription factors Arix/Phox2a and NBPhox/Phox2b play a role in the specification of the noradrenergic phenotype of central and peripheral neurons. To better understand the functions of these two factors, we have compared the genetic organization, chromosomal location, and transcriptional regulatory properties of Arix and NBPhox. The gene structure is very similar, with each gene containing three exons and two introns, extending a total of approximately 5 kb. Arix and NBPhox are unlinked in human and mouse genomes. NBPhox is located on human Chromosome 4p12 and mouse Chromosome 5, while Arix is located on human Chromosome 11q13 and mouse Chromosome 7. Both proteins bind to three sites in the promoter proximal region of the rat dopamine beta-hydroxylase gene (DBH). In vitro, Arix and NBPhox form DNA-independent multimers and exhibit cooperative binding to the DB1 regulatory element, which contains two homeodomain recognition sites. Both proteins regulate transcription from the rat DBH promoter, and transcription is synergistically increased in the presence of the protein kinase A catalytic subunit (PKA) plus either Arix or NBPhox. The transcription factors exhibit similar concentration-dependent efficacies, and when they are coexpressed, transcription is stimulated to a value approximately equal to that seen with either factor alone. The N-terminal segment of Arix is essential for transcriptional regulatory activity, and this region bears 50% identity with NBPhox, suggesting a similar mechanism of transcriptional activation of the DBH gene. We conclude from this study that Arix and NBPhox exhibit indistinguishable and independent transcriptional regulatory properties on the DBH promoter.

  11. Nuclear life of the voltage-gated Cacnb4 subunit and its role in gene transcription regulation.

    PubMed

    Ronjat, Michel; Kiyonaka, Shigeki; Barbado, Maud; De Waard, Michel; Mori, Yasuo

    2013-01-01

    The pore-forming subunit of voltage-gated calcium channels is associated to auxiliary subunits among which the cytoplasmic β subunit. The different isoforms of this subunit control both the plasma membrane targeting and the biophysical properties of the channel moiety. In a recent study, we demonstrated that the Cacnb4 (β 4) isoform is at the center of a new signaling pathway that connects neuronal excitability and gene transcription. This mechanism relies on nuclear targeting of β 4 triggered by neuronal electrical stimulation. This re-localization of β 4 is promoted by its interaction with Ppp2r5d a regulatory subunit of PP2A in complex with PP2A itself. The formation, as well as the nuclear translocation, of the β 4/ Ppp2r5d/ PP2A complex is totally impaired by the premature R482X stops mutation of β 4 that has been previously associated with juvenile epilepsy. Taking as a case study the tyrosine hydroxylase gene that is strongly upregulated in brain of lethargic mice, deficient for β 4 expression, we deciphered the molecular steps presiding to this signaling pathway. Here we show that expression of wild-type β 4 in HEK293 cells results in the regulation of several genes, while expression of the mutated β 4 (β 1-481) produces a different set of gene regulation. Several genes regulated by β 4 in HEK293 cells were also regulated upon neuronal differentiation of NG108-15 cells that induces nuclear translocation of β 4 suggesting a link between β 4 nuclear targeting and gene regulation.

  12. A glutamate to lysine mutation at the end of 2B rod domain of keratin 2e gene in ichthyosis bullosa of Siemens.

    PubMed

    Yang, J M; Lee, E S; Kang, H J; Choi, G S; Yoneda, K; Jung, S Y; Park, K B; Steinert, P M; Lee, E S

    1998-11-01

    Ichthyosis bullosa of Siemens is a rare autosomal dominant skin disorder whose clinical findings are quite similar to those of epidermolytic hyperkeratosis. The differences between those two diseases include absence of erythroderma and different distributions in the skin in ichthyosis bullosa of Siemens. Recent studies have confirmed that ichthyosis bullosa of Siemens is caused by the mutation in the keratin 2e (K2e) gene, which is expressed in the upper spinous and granular layers. We have identified a sporadic case of ichthyosis bullosa of Siemens; based on diagnosis by histopathological findings, the K2e gene of the patient was analysed. Direct sequencing of PCR products revealed a single base change in sequences encoding the highly conserved end of the 2B rod domain segment of the K2e gene. This mutation results in substitution of the codon for glutamic acid by a codon for lysine in position 493 in K2e (E493K). Mutations of the K2e gene involving five different residue positions (Q187P, T485P, L490P, E493D, E493K and E494K) are known to cause ichthyosis bullosa of Siemens. Of these sites, E493, which is conserved in type I and type II keratin genes, is the most frequently altered amino acid in the K2e gene. These data together suggest that this codon constitutes a hot spot for mutations in the K2e gene.

  13. The Cavβ1a subunit regulates gene expression and suppresses myogenin in muscle progenitor cells

    PubMed Central

    Taylor, Jackson; Pereyra, Andrea; Zhang, Tan; Messi, Maria Laura; Wang, Zhong-Min; Hereñú, Claudia; Kuan, Pei-Fen

    2014-01-01

    Voltage-gated calcium channel (Cav) β subunits are auxiliary subunits to Cavs. Recent reports show Cavβ subunits may enter the nucleus and suggest a role in transcriptional regulation, but the physiological relevance of this localization remains unclear. We sought to define the nuclear function of Cavβ in muscle progenitor cells (MPCs). We found that Cavβ1a is expressed in proliferating MPCs, before expression of the calcium conducting subunit Cav1.1, and enters the nucleus. Loss of Cavβ1a expression impaired MPC expansion in vitro and in vivo and caused widespread changes in global gene expression, including up-regulation of myogenin. Additionally, we found that Cavβ1a localizes to the promoter region of a number of genes, preferentially at noncanonical (NC) E-box sites. Cavβ1a binds to a region of the Myog promoter containing an NC E-box, suggesting a mechanism for inhibition of myogenin gene expression. This work indicates that Cavβ1a acts as a Cav-independent regulator of gene expression in MPCs, and is required for their normal expansion during myogenic development. PMID:24934157

  14. Molecular characterization and gene expression of the channel catfish Ferritin H subunit after bacterial infection and iron treatment

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Ferritins are the major iron storage protein in the cytoplasm of cells, responsible for regulating levels of intracellular iron. Ferritin genes are widely distributed in both prokaryotes and eukaryotes. In mammals, ferritin molecules are composed of heavy- (H) and light- (L) chain subunits; amphibia...

  15. The Cavβ1a subunit regulates gene expression and suppresses myogenin in muscle progenitor cells.

    PubMed

    Taylor, Jackson; Pereyra, Andrea; Zhang, Tan; Messi, Maria Laura; Wang, Zhong-Min; Hereñú, Claudia; Kuan, Pei-Fen; Delbono, Osvaldo

    2014-06-23

    Voltage-gated calcium channel (Cav) β subunits are auxiliary subunits to Cavs. Recent reports show Cavβ subunits may enter the nucleus and suggest a role in transcriptional regulation, but the physiological relevance of this localization remains unclear. We sought to define the nuclear function of Cavβ in muscle progenitor cells (MPCs). We found that Cavβ1a is expressed in proliferating MPCs, before expression of the calcium conducting subunit Cav1.1, and enters the nucleus. Loss of Cavβ1a expression impaired MPC expansion in vitro and in vivo and caused widespread changes in global gene expression, including up-regulation of myogenin. Additionally, we found that Cavβ1a localizes to the promoter region of a number of genes, preferentially at noncanonical (NC) E-box sites. Cavβ1a binds to a region of the Myog promoter containing an NC E-box, suggesting a mechanism for inhibition of myogenin gene expression. This work indicates that Cavβ1a acts as a Cav-independent regulator of gene expression in MPCs, and is required for their normal expansion during myogenic development.

  16. Characterization of the low-molecular-weight glutenin subunit gene family members using a PCR-based marker approach

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Low-molecular-weight glutenin subunits (LMW-GS) are a class of seed storage proteins that play a major role in the determination of the processing quality of wheat flour. The LMW-GS are encoded by multi-gene families located on the short arms of the homoeologous group 1 chromosomes, at the Glu-A3, G...

  17. The effects of GRIN2B and DRD4 gene variants on local functional connectivity in attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder.

    PubMed

    Kim, Johanna Inhyang; Yoo, Jae Hyun; Kim, Dohyun; Jeong, Bumseok; Kim, Bung-Nyun

    2017-03-03

    Based on the interplay between dopaminergic and glutamatergic systems, N-Methyl-D-Asparate (NMDA) receptor genes are thought to be involved in the pathophysiology of ADHD. However, the phenotypical correlates of brain functions associated with NMDA receptor genes and dopamine receptor genes in ADHD are yet to be investigated. We examined the diagnosis, genotype and the diagnosis-genotype interaction effects of GRIN2B and DRD4 variants on the local functional connectivity (by using the mean of static regional homogeneity (ReHo) and the mean and standard deviation (SD) of dynamic ReHo) in 67 ADHD subjects and 44 controls (aged 6-17 years). GRIN2B genotypes were divided into the C/C group and T allele carrier group; DRD4 genotypes were divided into the 2R group and non-2R group. The correlation between the ReHo values showing significant diagnosis-genotype interaction and Children's Color Trails Test (CCTT) scores were examined. CCTT measures processing speed, sustained and divided attention. There were significant diagnosis (p < 0.001) and interaction (p = 0.02) effects of the GRIN2B variant on the static ReHo mean in the left superior parietal cluster, and the ReHo value was positively correlated with the CCTT interference score in the ADHD with T allele carrier subgroup (p = 0.012). There were significant diagnosis (p < 0.001) and interaction (p = 0.03) effects of the DRD4 variant on the dynamic ReHo SD in the right superior parietal cluster. These results suggest that alterations in the glutamate and dopamine system in ADHD may contribute to abnormalities in local functional connectivity and its dynamic repertoire in the superior parietal area, and these abnormalities would be related to dysfunction in sustained and divided attention.

  18. Germline and somatic mutations in cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor genes CDKN1A, CDKN2B, and CDKN2C in sporadic parathyroid adenomas.

    PubMed

    Costa-Guda, Jessica; Soong, Chen-Pang; Parekh, Vaishali I; Agarwal, Sunita K; Arnold, Andrew

    2013-10-01

    The molecular pathogenesis of sporadic parathyroid adenomas is incompletely understood. The possible role of cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor (CDKI) genes was raised by recognition of cyclin D1 as a parathyroid oncogene, identification of rare germline mutations in CDKI genes in patients with multiple endocrine neoplasia type 1; that in rodents, mutation in Cdkn1b caused parathyroid tumors; and subsequently through identification of rare predisposing germline sequence variants and somatic mutation of CDKN1B, encoding p27(kip1), in sporadic human parathyroid adenoma. We therefore sought to determine whether mutations/variants in the other six CDKI genes CDKN1A, CDKN1C, CDKN2A, CDKN2B, CDKN2C, and CDKN2D, encoding p21, p57, p14(ARF)/p16, p15, p18, and p19, respectively, contribute to the development of typical parathyroid adenomas. In a series of 85 sporadic parathyroid adenomas, direct DNA sequencing identified alterations in five adenomas (6 %): Two contained distinct heterozygous changes in CDKN1A, one germline and one of undetermined germline status; one had a CDKN2B germline alteration, accompanied by loss of the normal allele in the tumor (LOH); two had variants of CDKN2C, one somatic and one germline with LOH. Abnormalities of three of the mutant proteins were readily demonstrable in vitro. Thus, germline mutations/rare variants in CDKN1A, CDKN2B, and CDKN2C likely contribute to the development of a significant subgroup of common sporadic parathyroid adenomas, and somatic mutation in CDKN2C further suggests a direct role for CDKI alteration in conferring a selective growth advantage to parathyroid cells, providing novel support for the concept that multiple CDKIs can play primary roles in human neoplasia.

  19. Phylogenetic relationships of Mongolian Babesia bovis isolates based on the merozoite surface antigen (MSA)-1, MSA-2b, and MSA-2c genes.

    PubMed

    Altangerel, Khukhuu; Sivakumar, Thillaiampalam; Battsetseg, Badgar; Battur, Banzragch; Ueno, Akio; Igarashi, Ikuo; Yokoyama, Naoaki

    2012-03-23

    We conducted a molecular epidemiological study on Babesia bovis in Mongolia. Three hundred blood samples collected from cattle grazed in seven different districts were initially screened using a previously established diagnostic polymerase chain reaction (PCR) assay for the detection of B. bovis-specific DNA. Positive samples were then used to amplify and sequence the hyper-variable regions of three B. bovis genes encoding the merozoite surface antigen (MSA)-1, MSA-2b, and MSA-2c. The diagnostic PCR assay detected B. bovis among cattle populations of all districts surveyed (4.4-26.0%). Sequences of each of the three genes were highly homologous among the Mongolian isolates, and found in a single phylogenetic cluster. In particular, a separate branch was formed only by the Mongolian isolates in the MSA-2b gene-based phylogenetic tree. Our findings indicate that effective preventative and control strategies are essential to control B. bovis infection in Mongolian cattle populations, and suggest that a careful approach must be adopted when using immunization techniques.

  20. Accurate, Rapid Taxonomic Classification of Fungal Large-Subunit rRNA Genes

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Kuan-Liang; Porras-Alfaro, Andrea; Eichorst, Stephanie A.

    2012-01-01

    Taxonomic and phylogenetic fingerprinting based on sequence analysis of gene fragments from the large-subunit rRNA (LSU) gene or the internal transcribed spacer (ITS) region is becoming an integral part of fungal classification. The lack of an accurate and robust classification tool trained by a validated sequence database for taxonomic placement of fungal LSU genes is a severe limitation in taxonomic analysis of fungal isolates or large data sets obtained from environmental surveys. Using a hand-curated set of 8,506 fungal LSU gene fragments, we determined the performance characteristics of a naïve Bayesian classifier across multiple taxonomic levels and compared the classifier performance to that of a sequence similarity-based (BLASTN) approach. The naïve Bayesian classifier was computationally more rapid (>460-fold with our system) than the BLASTN approach, and it provided equal or superior classification accuracy. Classifier accuracies were compared using sequence fragments of 100 bp and 400 bp and two different PCR primer anchor points to mimic sequence read lengths commonly obtained using current high-throughput sequencing technologies. Accuracy was higher with 400-bp sequence reads than with 100-bp reads. It was also significantly affected by sequence location across the 1,400-bp test region. The highest accuracy was obtained across either the D1 or D2 variable region. The naïve Bayesian classifier provides an effective and rapid means to classify fungal LSU sequences from large environmental surveys. The training set and tool are publicly available through the Ribosomal Database Project (http://rdp.cme.msu.edu/classifier/classifier.jsp). PMID:22194300

  1. Molecular evolution of the cytochrome c oxidase subunit 5A gene in primates

    PubMed Central

    2008-01-01

    Background Many electron transport chain (ETC) genes show accelerated rates of nonsynonymous nucleotide substitutions in anthropoid primate lineages, yet in non-anthropoid lineages the ETC proteins are typically highly conserved. Here, we test the hypothesis that COX5A, the ETC gene that encodes cytochrome c oxidase subunit 5A, shows a pattern of anthropoid-specific adaptive evolution, and investigate the distribution of this protein in catarrhine brains. Results In a dataset comprising 29 vertebrate taxa, including representatives from all major groups of primates, there is nearly 100% conservation of the COX5A amino acid sequence among extant, non-anthropoid placental mammals. The most recent common ancestor of these species lived about 100 million years (MY) ago. In contrast, anthropoid primates show markedly elevated rates of nonsynonymous evolution. In particular, branch site tests identify five positively selected codons in anthropoids, and ancestral reconstructions infer that substitutions in these codons occurred predominantly on stem lineages (anthropoid, ape and New World monkey) and on the human terminal branch. Examination of catarrhine brain samples by immunohistochemistry characterizes for the first time COX5A protein distribution in the primate neocortex, and suggests that the protein is most abundant in the mitochondria of large-size projection neurons. Real time quantitative PCR supports previous microarray results showing COX5A is expressed in cerebral cortical tissue at a higher level in human than in chimpanzee or gorilla. Conclusion Taken together, these results suggest that both protein structural and gene regulatory changes contributed to COX5A evolution during humankind's ancestry. Furthermore, these findings are consistent with the hypothesis that adaptations in ETC genes contributed to the emergence of the energetically expensive anthropoid neocortex. PMID:18197981

  2. Accurate, rapid taxonomic classification of fungal large-subunit rRNA genes.

    PubMed

    Liu, Kuan-Liang; Porras-Alfaro, Andrea; Kuske, Cheryl R; Eichorst, Stephanie A; Xie, Gary

    2012-03-01

    Taxonomic and phylogenetic fingerprinting based on sequence analysis of gene fragments from the large-subunit rRNA (LSU) gene or the internal transcribed spacer (ITS) region is becoming an integral part of fungal classification. The lack of an accurate and robust classification tool trained by a validated sequence database for taxonomic placement of fungal LSU genes is a severe limitation in taxonomic analysis of fungal isolates or large data sets obtained from environmental surveys. Using a hand-curated set of 8,506 fungal LSU gene fragments, we determined the performance characteristics of a naïve Bayesian classifier across multiple taxonomic levels and compared the classifier performance to that of a sequence similarity-based (BLASTN) approach. The naïve Bayesian classifier was computationally more rapid (>460-fold with our system) than the BLASTN approach, and it provided equal or superior classification accuracy. Classifier accuracies were compared using sequence fragments of 100 bp and 400 bp and two different PCR primer anchor points to mimic sequence read lengths commonly obtained using current high-throughput sequencing technologies. Accuracy was higher with 400-bp sequence reads than with 100-bp reads. It was also significantly affected by sequence location across the 1,400-bp test region. The highest accuracy was obtained across either the D1 or D2 variable region. The naïve Bayesian classifier provides an effective and rapid means to classify fungal LSU sequences from large environmental surveys. The training set and tool are publicly available through the Ribosomal Database Project.

  3. Cloning and Expression of Beta Subunit Gene of Phycocyanin From Spirulina platensis in Escherichia coli

    PubMed Central

    Shoja, Zahra; Rajabi Memari, Hamid; Roayaei Ardakani, Mohammd

    2015-01-01

    Background: C-Phycocyanin (C-PC) from blue-green algae such as Spirulina has been reported to have various pharmacological characteristics, including anti-inflammatory and anti-tumor activities. Recombinant β-subunit of C-PC (C-PC/β) is an inhibitor of cell proliferation and an inducer of cancer cell apoptosis. Objectives: Since C-PC/β has a big potential to be used as a promising cancer prevention or therapy agent, the purpose of this study was to clone and express Spirulina platensis cpcB gene in a bacterial expression system. This is a significant step for the production of this compound. Materials and Methods: The cpcB gene was amplified using specific primers and cloned in a bacterial expression vector, namely pET43.1a+. Gene expression of cpcB was analyzed by sodium dodecyl sulfate polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE) and the dot blotting technique. Results: The SDS-PAGE analysis and dot blotting confirmed the production of recombinant C-PC/β in the bacterial expression system. Over-expression of cpcB gene was optimized in induction by 1 mM Isopropyl-β-D-Thiogalactoside (IPTG), after four hours of inoculation at 30°C. Conclusions: Over-expression of the synthetic CPC/β protein in the bacterial system (Escherichia coli BL-21) showed that E. coli can be used as a basis for further research to produce this desired protein in large quantities. PMID:26464761

  4. Identification of single nucleotide polymorphism in protein phosphatase 1 regulatory subunit 11 gene in Murrah bulls

    PubMed Central

    Jain, Varsha; Patel, Brijesh; Umar, Farhat Paul; Ajithakumar, H. M.; Gurjar, Suraj K.; Gupta, I. D.; Verma, Archana

    2017-01-01

    Aim: This study was conducted with the objective to identify single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) in protein phosphatase 1 regulatory subunit 11 (PPP1R11) gene in Murrah bulls. Materials and Methods: Genomic DNA was isolated by phenol–chloroform extraction method from the frozen semen samples of 65 Murrah bulls maintained at Artificial Breeding Research Centre, ICAR-National Dairy Research Institute, Karnal. The quality and concentration of DNA was checked by spectrophotometer reading and agarose gel electrophoresis. The target region of PPP1R11 gene was amplified using four sets of primer designed based on Bos taurus reference sequence. The amplified products were sequenced and aligned using Clustal Omega for identification of SNPs. Animals were genotyped by polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism (PCR-RFLP) using EcoNI restriction enzyme. Results: The sequences in the NCBI accession number NW_005785016.1 for Bubalus bubalis were compared and aligned with the edited sequences of Murrah bulls with Clustal Omega software. A total of 10 SNPs were found, out of which 1 at 5’UTR, 3 at intron 1, and 6 at intron 2 region. PCR-RFLP using restriction enzyme EcoNI revealed only AA genotype indicating monomorphism in PPP1R11 gene of all Murrah animals included in the study. Conclusion: A total of 10 SNPs were found. PCR-RFLP revealed only AA genotype indicating monomorphism in PPP1R11 gene of all Murrah animals included in the study, due to which association analysis with conception rate was not feasible. PMID:28344410

  5. [The association between the GRIN2B gene and verbal fluency and impairment of abstract thinking in schizophrenia].

    PubMed

    Alfimova, M V; Golimbet, V E; Korovaitseva, G I; Abramova, L I; Lezheiko, T V; Aksenova, E V

    2016-01-01

    Цель исследования. Исследование было направлено на поиск ассоциаций между геном GRIN2B и признаками нарушения мышления и речи при шизофрении, в основе которых может лежать снижение доступа к ментальному лексикону. Материал и методы. В группе из 552 пациентов с расстройствами шизофренического спектра определяли связи между полиморфизмом rs7301328 в гене GRIN2B и семантической вербальной беглостью и пятью симптомами нарушений мышления и речи, входящими в шкалу позитивных и негативных симптомов (PANSS). Результаты и обсуждение. Обнаружена ассоциация гена GRIN2B как с вербальной беглостью (p=0,013), так и нарушением абстрактного мышления (p=0,012). При этом не выявлено опосредующей роли вербальной беглости в ассоциации между геном и нарушением мышления. Результаты позволяют предположить, что ген GRIN2B оказывает модифицирующее действие на лингвистические процессы, обеспечивающие извлечение информации из ментального лексикона на основе семантических признаков, и, кроме того, вносит вклад в вариативность клинически выраженных нарушений абстрактного мышления у больных шизофренией. При этом гете

  6. Characterization of the nicotinic acetylcholine receptor subunit gene Mdalpha2 from the house fly, Musca domestica.

    PubMed

    Gao, Jian-Rong; Deacutis, Juliane M; Scott, Jeffrey G

    2007-01-01

    A nicotinic acetylcholine receptor (nAChR) subunit gene, Mdalpha2, was isolated and characterized from the house fly, Musca domestica. This is the first nAChR family member cloned from house flies. Mdalpha2 had a cDNA of 2,607 bp, which included a 696 bp 5'-untranslated region (UTR), an open reading frame of 1,692 bp, and a 219 bp 3'-UTR. Its deduced amino acid sequence possesses the typical characteristics of nAChRs. Mdalpha2 genomic sequence was 11.2 kb in length in the aabys strain and 10.9 kb in the OCR strain, including eight exons and seven introns. Based on the deduced amino acid sequence, Mdalpha2 had the closest phylogenetic relationship to the Drosophila melanogaster Dalpha2 and Anopheles gambiae Agamalpha2, and a similar genomic structure to Dalpha2. Quantitative real-time PCR analysis showed that Mdalpha2 is expressed in the head and the thorax at 150- and 8.5-fold higher levels than in the abdomen. Linkage analysis of a Mdalpha2 polymorphism indicates this gene is on autosome 2. The importance of these results in understanding the diversity and phylogenetic relationships of insect nAChRs, the physiology of nAChRs in the house fly, and the utility of nAChR sequences in resistance detection/monitoring is discussed.

  7. Localization of a gene for a glutamate binding subunit of a NMDA receptor (GRINA) to 8q24

    SciTech Connect

    Lewis, T.B.; DuPont, B.R.; Leach, R.

    1996-02-15

    This article reports on the localization of a gene for a glutamate binding subunit of an N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) receptor, called GRINA, to human chromosome 8q24 using fluorescence in situ hybridization and radiation hybridization mapping. This gene mapped outside the critical region for benign familial neonatal convulsions (BFNC), a rare form of epilepsy; however, GRINA could be the causative genetic factor inducing idiopathic generalized epilepsy. Further studies need to be conducted. 15 refs., 2 figs.

  8. Functional Properties of a New Voltage-dependent Calcium Channel α2δ Auxiliary Subunit Gene (CACNA2D2)*

    PubMed Central

    Gao, Boning; Sekido, Yoshitaka; Maximov, Anton; Saad, Mohamad; Forgacs, Eva; Latif, Farida; Wei, Ming H.; Lerman, Michael; Lee, Jung-Ha; Perez-Reyes, Edward; Bezprozvanny, Ilya; Minna, John D.

    2012-01-01

    We have positionally cloned and characterized a new calcium channel auxiliary subunit, α2δ-2 (CACNA2D2), which shares 56% amino acid identity with the known α2δ-1 subunit. The gene maps to the critical human tumor suppressor gene region in chromosome 3p21.3, showing very frequent allele loss and occasional homozygous deletions in lung, breast, and other cancers. The tissue distribution of α2δ-2 expression is different from α2δ-1, and α2δ-2 mRNA is most abundantly expressed in lung and testis and well expressed in brain, heart, and pancreas. In contrast, α2δ-1 is expressed predominantly in brain, heart, and skeletal muscle. When co-expressed (via cRNA injections) with α1B and β3 subunits in Xenopus oocytes, α2δ-2 increased peak size of the N-type Ca2+ currents 9-fold, and when co-expressed with α1C or α1G subunits in Xenopus oocytes increased peak size of L-type channels 2-fold and T-type channels 1.8-fold, respectively. Anti-peptide antibodies detect the expression of a 129-kDa α2δ-2 polypeptide in some but not all lung tumor cells. We conclude that the α2δ-2 gene encodes a functional auxiliary subunit of voltage-gated Ca2+ channels. Because of its chromosomal location and expression patterns, CACNA2D2 needs to be explored as a potential tumor suppressor gene linking Ca2+ signaling and lung, breast, and other cancer pathogenesis. The homologous location on mouse chromosome 9 is also the site of the mouse neurologic mutant ducky (du), and thus, CACNA2D2 is also a candidate gene for this inherited idiopathic generalized epilepsy syndrome. PMID:10766861

  9. The gene for the ribulose-1,5-bisphosphate carboxylase/oxygenase (Rubisco) small subunit relocated to the plastid genome of tobacco directs the synthesis of small subunits that assemble into Rubisco.

    PubMed

    Whitney, S M; Andrews, T J

    2001-01-01

    To assess the extent to which a nuclear gene for a chloroplast protein retained the ability to be expressed in its presumed preendosymbiotic location, we relocated the RbcS gene for the small subunit of ribulose-1,5-bisphosphate carboxylase/oxygenase (Rubisco) to the tobacco plastid genome. Plastid RbcS transgenes, both with and without the transit presequence, were equipped with 3' hepta-histidine-encoding sequences and psbA promoter and terminator elements. Both transgenes were transcribed abundantly, and their products were translated into small subunit polypeptides that folded correctly and assembled into the Rubisco hexadecamer. When present, either the transit presequence was not translated or the transit peptide was cleaved completely. After assembly into Rubisco, transplastomic small subunits were relatively stable. The hepta-histidine sequence fused to the C terminus of a single small subunit was sufficient for isolation of the whole Rubisco hexadecamer by Ni(2)+ chelation. Small subunits produced by the plastid transgenes were not abundant, never exceeding approximately 1% of the total small subunits, and they differed from cytoplasmically synthesized small subunits in their N-terminal modifications. The scarcity of transplastomic small subunits might be caused by inefficient translation or assembly.

  10. The maize chloroplast genes for the beta and epsilon subunits of the photosynthetic coupling factor CF1 are fused.

    PubMed Central

    Krebbers, E T; Larrinua, I M; McIntosh, L; Bogorad, L

    1982-01-01

    We have cloned and sequenced the maize chloroplast genome fragment Eco RI e which contains the 2.2 kb transcript previously reported (Link, G. and Bogorad, L. (1980) Proc. Nat. Acad. Sci. 77 6821-6825) to lie next to the maize gene for the large subunit of ribulose bisphosphate carboxylase (LS) and to be transcribed divergently. Immunochemical and sequencing data show that the gene codes for the beta subunit of the maize chloroplast coupling factor complex (CF1). The derived amino acid sequence is highly homologous to that of the corresponding E. coli protein (Saraste et al. (1981) Nucleic Acids Res. 9 5287-5296). The last base of the codon for the terminal lysine residue of the beta subunit of CF1 is the first base of the codon for the initiating methionine of an open reading frame whose derived amino acid composition and size closely match that reported for the epsilon subunit (Binder et al. (1978) J. Biol. Chem. 253 3094-3100). The close coupling of the two genes may serve to in sure their stoichiometric production. Images PMID:6290998

  11. Molecular evolution at the cytochrome oxidase subunit 2 gene among divergent populations of the intertidal copepod, Tigriopus californicus.

    PubMed

    Rawson, Paul D; Burton, Ronald S

    2006-06-01

    The cytochrome c oxidase subunit 2 gene (COII) encodes a highly conserved protein that is directly responsible for the initial transfer of electrons from cytochrome c to cytochrome c oxidase (COX) crucial to the production of ATP during cellular respiration. Despite its integral role in electron transport, we have observed extensive intraspecific nucleotide and amino acid variation among 26 full-length COII sequences sampled from seven populations of the marine copepod, Tigriopus californicus. Although intrapopulation divergence was virtually nonexistent, interpopulation divergence at the COII locus was nearly 20% at the nucleotide level, including 38 nonsynonymous substitutions. Given the high degree of interaction between the cytochrome c oxidase subunit 2 protein (COX2) and the nuclear-encoded subunits of COX and cytochrome c (CYC), we hypothesized that some codons in the COII gene are likely to be under positive selection in order to compensate for amino acid substitutions in other subunits. Estimates of the ratio of nonsynonymous to synonymous substitution (omega), obtained using a series of maximum likelihood models of codon substitution, indicated that the majority of codons in T. californicus COII are under strong purifying selection (omega < 1), while approximately 4% of the sites in this gene appear to evolve under relaxed selective constraint (omega = 1). A branch-site maximum likelihood model identified three sites that may have experienced positive selection within the central California sequence clade in our COII phylogeny; these results are consistent with previous studies showing functional and fitness consequences among interpopulation hybrids between central and northern California populations.

  12. The gene encoding cytochrome-c oxidase subunit I from Synechocystis PCC6803.

    PubMed

    Alge, D; Schmetterer, G; Peschek, G A

    1994-01-28

    The gene (coxI or CoxA) encoding subunit I (COI) of cytochrome-c oxidase (cytochrome aa3) of Synechocystis PCC6803, Synechococcus PCC7942 (Anacystis nidulans R2) and Nostoc PCC8002 (Nostoc Mac), was identified by heterologous hybridization of chromosomal digests with a 17-bp oligodeoxyribonucleotide (probe C) derived from the coxI of Paracoccus denitrificans. A single genomic fragment was found to bind to probe C in all chromosomal digests. Due to its favorable signal-to-noise ratio, the genome of Synechocystis was chosen for the isolation and sequencing of this gene. A genomic DNA library in pUC18 was screened with probe C. The two probe C-positive plasmids, pDAUV1 and pDAUV2, contained a 1-kb overlapping region, with the conserved 17-bp sequence encoding the CuB-binding region of the COI polypeptide. These plasmids were subcloned into competent Escherichia coli DH5 alpha cells, and the nucleotide sequences were determined. The deduced amino acid (aa) sequences of Synechocystis COI and homologous proteins from a variety of prokaryotic and eukaryotic organisms showed an overall similarity of between 38.6 and 45.8%. Hydropathy plots revealed 12 potential transmembrane helices. All of the six histidines needed for the binding of heme a and the heme a3/CuB bimetallic center are present in the expected positions of the Synechocystis COI protein (533 aa, M(r) 59,390). A monospecific antibody raised against P. denitrificans COI gave an unequivocal immunological cross-reaction on Western blots of membrane preparations from Synechocystis, Anacystis and Nostoc, showing that the product of gene coxI is indeed synthesized and incorporated into cyanobacterial membranes.

  13. Phenobarbital Mediates an Epigenetic Switch at the Constitutive Androstane Receptor (CAR) Target Gene Cyp2b10 in the Liver of B6C3F1 Mice

    PubMed Central

    Brasa, Sarah; Teo, Soon-Siong; Roloff, Tim-Christoph; Morawiec, Laurent; Zamurovic, Natasa; Vicart, Axel; Funhoff, Enrico; Couttet, Philippe; Schübeler, Dirk; Grenet, Olivier; Marlowe, Jennifer; Moggs, Jonathan; Terranova, Rémi

    2011-01-01

    Evidence suggests that epigenetic perturbations are involved in the adverse effects associated with some drugs and toxicants, including certain classes of non-genotoxic carcinogens. Such epigenetic changes (altered DNA methylation and covalent histone modifications) may take place at the earliest stages of carcinogenesis and their identification holds great promise for biomedical research. Here, we evaluate the sensitivity and specificity of genome-wide epigenomic and transcriptomic profiling in phenobarbital (PB)-treated B6C3F1 mice, a well-characterized rodent model of non-genotoxic liver carcinogenesis. Methylated DNA Immunoprecipitation (MeDIP)-coupled microarray profiling of 17,967 promoter regions and 4,566 intergenic CpG islands was combined with genome-wide mRNA expression profiling to identify liver tissue-specific PB-mediated DNA methylation and transcriptional alterations. Only a limited number of significant anti-correlations were observed between PB-induced transcriptional and promoter-based DNA methylation perturbations. However, the constitutive androstane receptor (CAR) target gene Cyp2b10 was found to be concomitantly hypomethylated and transcriptionally activated in a liver tissue-specific manner following PB treatment. Furthermore, analysis of active and repressive histone modifications using chromatin immunoprecipitation revealed a strong PB-mediated epigenetic switch at the Cyp2b10 promoter. Our data reveal that PB-induced transcriptional perturbations are not generally associated with broad changes in the DNA methylation status at proximal promoters and suggest that the drug-inducible CAR pathway regulates an epigenetic switch from repressive to active chromatin at the target gene Cyp2b10. This study demonstrates the utility of integrated epigenomic and transcriptomic profiling for elucidating early mechanisms and biomarkers of non-genotoxic carcinogenesis. PMID:21455306

  14. Comparison of genetic variations of the SLCO1B1, SLCO1B3, and SLCO2B1 genes among five ethnic groups.

    PubMed

    Namgoong, Suhg; Cheong, Hyun Sub; Kim, Ji On; Kim, Lyoung Hyo; Na, Han Sung; Koh, In Song; Chung, Myeon Woo; Shin, Hyoung Doo

    2015-11-01

    Organic anion-transporting polypeptide (OATP; gene symbol, SLCO) transporters are generally involved in the uptake of multiple drugs and their metabolites at most epithelial barriers. The pattern of single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in these transporters may be determinants of interindividual variability in drug disposition and response. The objective of this study was to define the distribution of SNPs of three SLCO genes, SLCO1B1, SLCO1B3, and SLCO2B1, in a Korean population and other ethnic groups. The study was screened using the Illumina GoldenGate assay for genomic DNA from 450 interethnic subjects, including 11 pharmacogenetic core variants and 76 HapMap tagging SNPs. The genotype distribution of the Korean population was similar to East Asian populations, but significantly different from African American and European American cohorts. These interethnic differences will be useful information for prospective studies, including genetic association and pharmacogenetic studies of drug metabolism by SLCO families.

  15. K restriction inhibits protein phosphatase 2B (PP2B) and suppression of PP2B decreases ROMK channel activity in the CCD

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Yan; Lin, Dao-Hong; Wang, Zhi-Jian; Jin, Yan; Yang, Baofeng; Wang, Wen-Hui

    2009-01-01

    We used Western blot analysis to examine the effect of dietary K intake on the expression of serine/threonine protein phosphatase in the kidney. K restriction significantly decreased the expression of catalytic subunit of protein phosphatase (PP)2B but increased the expression of PP2B regulatory subunit in both rat and mouse kidney. However, K depletion did not affect the expression of PP1 and PP2A. Treatment of M-1 cells, mouse cortical collecting duct (CCD) cells, or 293T cells with glucose oxidase (GO), which generates superoxide anions through glucose metabolism, mimicked the effect of K restriction on PP2B expression and significantly decreased expression of PP2B catalytic subunits. However, GO treatment increased expression of regulatory subunit of PP2B and had no effect on expression of PP1, PP2A, and protein tyrosine phosphatase 1D. Moreover, deletion of gp91-containing NADPH oxidase abolished the effect of K depletion on PP2B. Thus superoxide anions or related products may mediate the inhibitory effect of K restriction on the expression of PP2B catalytic subunit. We also used patch-clamp technique to study the effect of inhibiting PP2B on renal outer medullary K (ROMK) channels in the CCD. Application of cyclosporin A or FK506, inhibitors of PP2B, significantly decreased ROMK channels, and the effect of PP2B inhibitors was abolished by blocking p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) and ERK. Furthermore, Western blot demonstrated that inhibition of PP2B with cyclosporin A or small interfering RNA increased the phosphorylation of ERK and p38 MAPK. We conclude that K restriction suppresses the expression of PP2B catalytic subunits and that inhibition of PP2B decreases ROMK channel activity through stimulation of MAPK in the CCD. PMID:18184875

  16. Both NR2A and NR2B Subunits of the NMDA Receptor Are Critical for Long-Term Potentiation and Long-Term Depression in the Lateral Amygdala of Horizontal Slices of Adult Mice

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Muller, Tobias; Albrecht, Doris; Gebhardt, Christine

    2009-01-01

    The lateral nucleus of the amygdala (LA) is implicated in emotional and social behaviors. We recently showed that in horizontal brain slices, activation of NMDA receptors (NMDARs) is a requirement for persistent synaptic alterations in the LA, such as long-term potentiation (LTP) and long-term depression (LTD). In the LA, NR2A- and NR2B-type NMDRs…

  17. Forelimb dyskinesia mediated by high-frequency stimulation of the subthalamic nucleus is linked to rapid activation of the NR2B subunit of N-methyl-D-aspartate receptors.

    PubMed

    Quintana, Adrien; Melon, Christophe; Kerkerian-Le Goff, Lydia; Salin, Pascal; Savasta, Marc; Sgambato-Faure, Véronique

    2010-08-01

    Dyskinesia is a major side-effect of chronic l-DOPA administration, the reference treatment for Parkinson's disease. High-frequency stimulation of the subthalamic nucleus (STN-HFS) alleviates parkinsonian motor symptoms and indirectly improves dyskinesia by decreasing the L-DOPA requirement. However, inappropriate stimulation can also trigger dyskinetic movements, in both human and rodents. We investigated whether STN-HFS-evoked forelimb dyskinesia involved changes in glutamatergic neurotransmission as previously reported for L-DOPA-induced dyskinesias, focusing on the role of NR2B-containing N-methyl-D-aspartate receptors (NR2B/NMDARs). We applied STN-HFS in normal rats at intensities above and below the threshold for triggering forelimb dyskinesia. Dyskinesiogenic STN-HFS induced the activation of NR2B (as assessed by immunodetection of the phosphorylated residue Tyr(1472)) in neurons of the subthalamic nucleus, entopeduncular nucleus, motor thalamus and forelimb motor cortex. The severity of STN-HFS-induced forelimb dyskinesia was decreased in a dose-dependent manner by systemic injections of CP-101,606, a selective blocker of NR2B/NMDARs, but was either unaffected or increased by the non-selective N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor antagonist, MK-801.

  18. Both NR2A and NR2B Subunits of the NMDA Receptor Are Critical for Long-Term Potentiation and Long-Term Depression in the Lateral Amygdala of Horizontal Slices of Adult Mice

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Muller, Tobias; Albrecht, Doris; Gebhardt, Christine

    2009-01-01

    The lateral nucleus of the amygdala (LA) is implicated in emotional and social behaviors. We recently showed that in horizontal brain slices, activation of NMDA receptors (NMDARs) is a requirement for persistent synaptic alterations in the LA, such as long-term potentiation (LTP) and long-term depression (LTD). In the LA, NR2A- and NR2B-type NMDRs…

  19. Regulation of genes encoding steroidogenic factor-1 (SF-1) and gonadotropin subunits in the ovine pituitary gland.

    PubMed

    Baratta, M; Turzillo, A M; Arreguin-Arevalo, A; Clay, C M; Nett, T M

    2003-07-01

    Steroidogenic factor-1 (SF-1) is a transcription factor originally characterized as a mediator of gene expression in steroidogenic tissues. Studies in SF-1 knockout mice revealed that SF-1 has additional roles at multiple levels of the hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal axis, including regulation of gene expression in pituitary gonadotropes. Specific binding sites for SF-1 have been demonstrated in several pituitary genes with essential roles in gonadotropin synthesis, including alpha subunit, LHbeta subunit, and GnRH receptor. In studies aimed at identifying physiological factors controlling pituitary expression of SF-1, GnRH has been implicated as a co-regulator of SF-1 and gonadotropin subunit genes. In both rats and ewes, elevated endogenous secretion of GnRH following ovariectomy was associated with increased amounts of SF-1 mRNA in the anterior pituitary gland. Conversely, removal of GnRH input to the pituitary gland by hypothalamic-pituitary disconnection (HPD) in ovariectomized (OVX) ewes reduced SF-1 expression. Despite these changes, however, treatment of OVX ewes with GnRH following HPD only partially restored levels of SF-1 mRNA in the pituitary gland. Therefore, it is possible that regulation of SF-1 gene expression by GnRH during the estrous cycle may involve ovarian hormones or other hypothalamic factors. Additional studies are required to further define the physiological roles of SF-1 in regulation of the hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal axis in domestic ruminants.

  20. Differential expression of genes encoding neuronal ion-channel subunits in major depression, bipolar disorder and schizophrenia: implications for pathophysiology.

    PubMed

    Smolin, Bella; Karry, Rachel; Gal-Ben-Ari, Shunit; Ben-Shachar, Dorit

    2012-08-01

    Evidence concerning ion-channel abnormalities in the pathophysiology of common psychiatric disorders is still limited. Given the significance of ion channels in neuronal activity, neurotransmission and neuronal plasticity we hypothesized that the expression patterns of genes encoding different ion channels may be altered in schizophrenia, bipolar and unipolar disorders. Frozen samples of striatum including the nucleus accumbens (Str-NAc) and the lateral cerebellar hemisphere of 60 brains from depressed (MDD), bipolar (BD), schizophrenic and normal subjects, obtained from the Stanley Foundation Brain Collection, were assayed. mRNA of 72 different ion-channel subunits were determined by qRT-PCR and alteration in four genes were verified by immunoblotting. In the Str-NAc the prominent change was observed in the MDD group, in which there was a significant up-regulation in genes encoding voltage-gated potassium-channel subunits. However, in the lateral cerebellar hemisphere (cerebellum), the main change was observed in schizophrenia specimens, as multiple genes encoding various ion-channel subunits were significantly down-regulated. The impaired expression of genes encoding ion channels demonstrates a disease-related neuroanatomical pattern. The alterations observed in Str-NAc of MDD may imply electrical hypo-activity of this region that could be of relevance to MDD symptoms and treatment. The robust unidirectional alteration of both excitatory and inhibitory ion channels in the cerebellum may suggests cerebellar general hypo-transcriptional activity in schizophrenia.

  1. PHYLOGENY OF ANGIOSTRONGYLUS CANTONENSIS IN THAILAND BASED ON CYTOCHROME C OXIDASE SUBUNIT I GENE SEQUENCE.

    PubMed

    Apichat, Vitta; Narongrit, Srisongcram; Jittranuch, Thiproaj; Anucha, Wongma; Wilaiwan, Polsut; Chamaiporn, Fukruksa; Thatcha, Yimthin; Bandid, Mangkit; Aunchalee, Thanwisai; Paron, Dekumyoy

    2016-05-01

    Angiostrongylus cantonensis is an emerging infectious agent causing eosinophilic meningitis or meningoencephalitis in humans with clinical manifestation of severe headache. Molecular genetic studies on classification and phylogeny of A. cantonensis in Thailand are limited. This study surveyed A. cantonensis larvae prevalence in natural intermediate hosts across Thailand and analyzed their phylogenetic relationships. A total of 14,032 freshwater and land snails were collected from 19 provinces of Thailand. None of Filopaludina sp, Pomacea sp, and Cyclophorus sp were infected with Angiostrongylus larvae, whereas Achatina fulica, Cryptozona siamensis, and Megaustenia siamensis collected from Kalasin, Kamphaeng Phet, Phetchabun, Phitsanulok, and Tak Provinces were infected, with C. siamensis being the common intermediate host. Based on morphology, larvae isolated from 11 samples of these naturally infected snails preliminarily were identified as A. cantonensis. Comparison of partial nucleotide sequences of cytochrome c oxidase subunit I gene revealed that four sequences are identical to A. cantonensis haplotype ac4 from Bangkok and the other seven to that of A. cantonensis isolate AC Thai, indicating two independent lineages of A. cantonensis in Thailand.

  2. Phylogenetic Analysis of Cryptosporidium Parasites Based on the Small-Subunit rRNA Gene Locus

    PubMed Central

    Xiao, Lihua; Escalante, Lillian; Yang, Chunfu; Sulaiman, Irshad; Escalante, Anannias A.; Montali, Richard J.; Fayer, Ronald; Lal, Altaf A.

    1999-01-01

    Biological data support the hypothesis that there are multiple species in the genus Cryptosporidium, but a recent analysis of the available genetic data suggested that there is insufficient evidence for species differentiation. In order to resolve the controversy in the taxonomy of this parasite genus, we characterized the small-subunit rRNA genes of Cryptosporidium parvum, Cryptosporidium baileyi, Cryptosporidium muris, and Cryptosporidium serpentis and performed a phylogenetic analysis of the genus Cryptosporidium. Our study revealed that the genus Cryptosporidium contains the phylogenetically distinct species C. parvum, C. muris, C. baileyi, and C. serpentis, which is consistent with the biological characteristics and host specificity data. The Cryptosporidium species formed two clades, with C. parvum and C. baileyi belonging to one clade and C. muris and C. serpentis belonging to the other clade. Within C. parvum, human genotype isolates and guinea pig isolates (known as Cryptosporidium wrairi) each differed from bovine genotype isolates by the nucleotide sequence in four regions. A C. muris isolate from cattle was also different from parasites isolated from a rock hyrax and a Bactrian camel. Minor differences were also detected between C. serpentis isolates from snakes and lizards. Based on the genetic information, a species- and strain-specific PCR-restriction fragment length polymorphism diagnostic tool was developed. PMID:10103253

  3. Cloning and nucleotide sequences of the genes for the subunits of NAD-reducing hydrogenase of Alcaligenes eutrophus H16.

    PubMed Central

    Tran-Betcke, A; Warnecke, U; Böcker, C; Zaborosch, C; Friedrich, B

    1990-01-01

    The genes hoxF, -U, -Y, and -H which encode the four subunit polypeptides alpha, gamma, delta, and beta of the NAD-reducing hydrogenase (HoxS) of Alcaligenes eutrophus H16, were cloned, expressed in Pseudomonas facilis, and sequenced. On the basis of the nucleotide sequence, the predicted amino acid sequences, and the N-terminal amino acid sequences, it was concluded that the structural genes are tightly linked and presumably organized as an operon, denoted hoxS. Two pairs of -24 and -12 consensus sequences resembling RpoN-activatable promoters lie upstream of hoxF, the first of the four genes. Primer extension experiments indicate that the second promoter is responsible for hoxS transcription. hoxF and hoxU code for the flavin-containing dimer (alpha and gamma subunits) of HoxS which exhibits NADH:oxidoreductase activity. A putative flavin-binding region is discussed. The 26.0-kilodalton (kDa) gamma subunit contains two cysteine clusters which may participate in the coordination of two [4F3-4S]centers. The genes hoxY and hoxH code for the small 22.9-kDa delta subunit and the nickel-containing 54.8-kDa beta subunit, respectively, of the hydrogenase dimer of HoxS. The latter dimer exhibits several conserved regions found in all nickel-containing hydrogenases. The roles of these regions in coordinating iron and nickel are discussed. Although the deduced amino acid sequences of the delta and beta subunits share some conserved regions with the corresponding polypeptides of other [NiFe] hydrogenases, the overall amino acid homology is marginal. Nevertheless, significant sequence homology (35%) to the corresponding polypeptides of the soluble methylviologen-reducing hydrogenase of Methanobacterium thermoautotrophicum was found. Unlike the small subunits of the membrane-bound and soluble periplasmic hydrogenases, the HoxS protein does not appear to be synthesized with an N-terminal leader peptide. Images PMID:2188945

  4. Complex I Subunit Gene Therapy With NDUFA6 Ameliorates Neurodegeneration in EAE

    PubMed Central

    Talla, Venu; Koilkonda, Rajeshwari; Porciatti, Vittorio; Chiodo, Vince; Boye, Sanford L.; Hauswirth, William W.; Guy, John

    2015-01-01

    Purpose. To address the permanent disability induced by mitochondrial dysfunction in experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE). Methods. Mice sensitized for EAE were rescued by intravitreal injection of adeno-associated viral vector serotype 2 with the complex I subunit gene scAAV-NDUFA6Flag. Controls were injected with a mitochondrially targeted red fluorescent protein (scAAV-COX8-cherry). Another group received scAAV-COX8-cherry, but was not sensitized for EAE. Serial pattern electroretinograms (PERGs) and optical coherent tomography (OCT) evaluated visual function and structure of the retina at 1, 3, and 6 months post injection (MPI). Treated mice were killed 6 MPI for histopathology. Immunodetection of cleaved caspase 3 gauged apoptosis. Complex I activity was assessed spectrophotometrically. Expression of NDUFA6Flag in the retina and optic nerve were evaluated between 1 week to 1 month post injection by RT-PCR, immunofluorescence and immunoblotting. Results. Reverse transcription-PCR and immunoblotting confirmed NDUFA6Flag overexpression with immunoprecipitation and blue native PAGE showing integration into murine complex I. Overexpression of NDUFA6Flag in the visual system of EAE mice rescued retinal complex I activity completely, axonal loss by 73%, and retinal ganglion cell (RGC) loss by 88%, RGC apoptosis by 66%, and restored the 33% loss of complex I activity in EAE to normal levels; thereby, preventing loss of vision indicated by the 43% reduction in the PERG amplitudes of EAE mice. Conclusions. NDUFA6 gene therapy provided long-term suppression of neurodegeneration in the EAE animal model suggesting that it may also ameliorate the mitochondrial dysfunction associated with permanent disability in optic neuritis and MS patients. PMID:25613946

  5. Investigation of autism and GABA receptor subunit genes in multiple ethnic groups

    PubMed Central

    Collins, Ann L.; Ma, Deqiong; Whitehead, Patrice L.; Martin, Eden R.; Wright, Harry H.; Abramson, Ruth K.; Hussman, John P.; Haines, Jonathan L.; Cuccaro, Michael L.; Gilbert, John R.

    2006-01-01

    Autism is a neurodevelopmental disorder of complex genetics, characterized by impairment in social interaction and communication, as well as repetitive behavior. Multiple lines of evidence, including alterations in levels of GABA and GABA receptors in autistic patients, indicate that the GABAergic system, which is responsible for synaptic inhibition in the adult brain, may be involved in autism. Previous studies in our lab indicated association of noncoding single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) within a GABA receptor subunit gene on chromosome 4, GABRA4, and interaction between SNPs in GABRA4 and GABRB1 (also on chromosome 4), within Caucasian autism patients. Studies of genetic variation in African-American autism families are rare. Analysis of 557 Caucasian and an independent population of 54 African-American families with 35 SNPs within GABRB1 and GABRA4 strengthened the evidence for involvement of GABRA4 in autism risk in Caucasians (rs17599165, p=0.0015; rs1912960, p=0.0073; and rs17599416, p=0.0040) and gave evidence of significant association in African-Americans (rs2280073, p=0.0287 and rs16859788, p=0.0253). The GABRA4 and GABRB1 interaction was also confirmed in the Caucasian dataset (most significant pair, rs1912960 and rs2351299; p=0.004). Analysis of the subset of families with a positive history of seizure activity in at least one autism patient revealed no association to GABRA4; however, three SNPs within GABRB1 showed significant allelic association; rs2351299 (p=0.0163), rs4482737 (p=0.0339), and rs3832300 (p=0.0253). These results confirmed our earlier findings, indicating GABRA4 and GABRB1 as genes contributing to autism susceptibility, extending the effect to multiple ethnic groups and suggesting seizures as a stratifying phenotype. PMID:16770606

  6. Amplification of TLO Mediator Subunit Genes Facilitate Filamentous Growth in Candida Spp.

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Zhongle; Moran, Gary P.; Myers, Lawrence C.

    2016-01-01

    Filamentous growth is a hallmark of C. albicans pathogenicity compared to less-virulent ascomycetes. A multitude of transcription factors regulate filamentous growth in response to specific environmental cues. Our work, however, suggests the evolutionary history of C. albicans that resulted in its filamentous growth plasticity may be tied to a change in the general transcription machinery rather than transcription factors and their specific targets. A key genomic difference between C. albicans and its less-virulent relatives, including its closest relative C. dubliniensis, is the unique expansion of the TLO (TeLOmere-associated) gene family in C. albicans. Individual Tlo proteins are fungal-specific subunits of Mediator, a large multi-subunit eukaryotic transcriptional co-activator complex. This amplification results in a large pool of ‘free,’ non-Mediator associated, Tlo protein present in C. albicans, but not in C. dubliniensis or other ascomycetes with attenuated virulence. We show that engineering a large ‘free’ pool of the C. dubliniensis Tlo2 (CdTlo2) protein in C. dubliniensis, through overexpression, results in a number of filamentation phenotypes typically associated only with C. albicans. The amplitude of these phenotypes is proportional to the amount of overexpressed CdTlo2 protein. Overexpression of other C. dubliniensis and C. albicans Tlo proteins do result in these phenotypes. Tlo proteins and their orthologs contain a Mediator interaction domain, and a potent transcriptional activation domain. Nuclear localization of the CdTlo2 activation domain, facilitated naturally by the Tlo Mediator binding domain or artificially through an appended nuclear localization signal, is sufficient for the CdTlo2 overexpression phenotypes. A C. albicans med3 null mutant causes multiple defects including the inability to localize Tlo proteins to the nucleus and reduced virulence in a murine systemic infection model. Our data supports a model in which the

  7. A single gene codes for the nicotinic acetylcholine receptor alpha-subunit in Torpedo marmorata: structural and developmental implications.

    PubMed Central

    Klarsfeld, A; Devillers-Thiéry, A; Giraudat, J; Changeux, J P

    1984-01-01

    We have used Southern blot hybridization to analyze the genomic structure encoding the alpha-subunit of the acetylcholine receptor (AChR) in Torpedo marmorata, with cDNA probes isolated from the electric organ. Four different radiolabelled probes, corresponding to various parts of the alpha-subunit mRNA, hybridized to several genomic fragments of T. marmorata DNA generated by digestion with the restriction enzymes SstI, PvuII and PstI. The same hybridization pattern was observed after washing the blots under low- or high-stringency conditions. As a check for detection sensitivity of heterologous sequences, the same probes were hybridized to PvuII-digested chicken DNA, revealing bands at low stringency which disappeared at higher stringencies. Unambiguously, two of our probes (one of them entirely within the coding region) hybridized to a single genomic fragment from T. marmorata DNA. This feature, as well as the results of an extensive study of the whole hybridization pattern, points towards the uniqueness of alpha-subunit-specific sequences in the genome of T. marmorata. Since overall more bands were found than expected from the cDNA sequence, this alpha-subunit gene must be split by several introns (at least four, possibly more). The length of this gene is at least 20 kb. The existence of a single alpha-subunit gene is consistent with the absence of chemical heterogeneity in the NH2-terminal sequence of the purified alpha-chain, and supports the view that the two alpha-chains belonging to one AChR oligomer have an identical primary structure. It also suggests that localization and stabilization of the AChR in well-defined post-synaptic areas of T. marmorata electric organ basically relies, during development, on 'epigenetic' mechanisms. Images Fig. 2. Fig. 3. Fig. 4. PMID:6323168

  8. Sequential mutations in the interleukin-3 (IL3)/granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor/IL5 receptor beta-subunit genes are necessary for the complete conversion to growth autonomy mediated by a truncated beta C subunit.

    PubMed

    Hannemann, J; Hara, T; Kawai, M; Miyajima, A; Ostertag, W; Stocking, C

    1995-05-01

    An amino-terminally truncated beta C receptor (beta C-R) subunit of the interleukin-3 (IL3)/granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor/IL5 receptor complex mediates factor-independent and tumorigenic growth in two spontaneous mutants of a promyelocytic cell line. The constitutive activation of the JAK2 protein kinase in these mutants confirms that signaling occurs through the truncated receptor protein. Noteworthily, in addition to a 10-kb deletion in the beta C-R subunit gene encoding the truncated receptor, several secondary and independent mutations that result in the deletion or functional inactivation of the allelic beta C-R subunit and the closely related beta IL3-R subunit genes were observed in both mutants, suggesting that such mutations are necessary for the full oncogenic penetrance of the truncated beta C-R subunit. Reversion of these mutations by the expression of the wild-type beta C-R in the two mutants resulted in a fivefold decrease in cloning efficiency of the mutants in the absence of IL3, confirming a functional interaction between the wild-type and truncated proteins. Furthermore, expression of the truncated beta C-R subunit in factor-dependent myeloid cells did not immediately render the cells autonomous but increased the spontaneous frequency to factor-independent growth by 4 orders of magnitude. Implications for both leukemogenic progression and receptor-subunit interaction and signaling are discussed.

  9. Dynamic expression of genes encoding subunits of inward rectifier potassium (Kir) channels in the yellow fever mosquito Aedes aegypti.

    PubMed

    Yang, Zhongxia; Statler, Bethanie-Michelle; Calkins, Travis L; Alfaro, Edna; Esquivel, Carlos J; Rouhier, Matthew F; Denton, Jerod S; Piermarini, Peter M

    2017-02-01

    Inward rectifier potassium (Kir) channels play fundamental roles in neuromuscular, epithelial, and endocrine function in mammals. Recent research in insects suggests that Kir channels play critical roles in the development, immune function, and excretory physiology of fruit flies and/or mosquitoes. Moreover, our group has demonstrated that mosquito Kir channels may serve as valuable targets for the development of novel insecticides. Here we characterize the molecular expression of 5 mRNAs encoding Kir channel subunits in the yellow fever mosquito, Aedes aegypti: Kir1, Kir2A-c, Kir2B, Kir2B', and Kir3. We demonstrate that 1) Kir mRNA expression is dynamic in whole mosquitoes, Malpighian tubules, and the midgut during development from 4th instar larvae to adult females, 2) Kir2B and Kir3 mRNA levels are reduced in 4th instar larvae when reared in water containing an elevated concentration (50mM) of KCl, but not NaCl, and 3) Kir mRNAs are differentially expressed in the Malpighian tubules, midgut, and ovaries within 24h after blood feeding. Furthermore, we provide the first characterization of Kir mRNA expression in the anal papillae of 4th instar larval mosquitoes, which indicates that Kir2A-c is the most abundant. Altogether, the data provide the first comprehensive characterization of Kir mRNA expression in Ae. aegypti and offer insights into the putative physiological roles of Kir subunits in this important disease vector. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. A single gene encodes two different transcripts for the ADP-glucose pyrophosphorylase small subunit from barley (Hordeum vulgare).

    PubMed Central

    Thorbjørnsen, T; Villand, P; Kleczkowski, L A; Olsen, O A

    1996-01-01

    ADP-glucose pyrophosphorylase (AGPase), a heterotetrameric enzyme composed of two small and two large subunits, catalyses the first committed step of starch synthesis in plant tissues. In an attempt to learn more about the organization and expression of the small-subunit gene of AGPase, we have studied the small-subunit transcripts as well as the structure of the gene encoding these transcripts in barley (Hordeum vulgare L. cv. Bomi). Two different transcripts (bepsF1 and blps14) were identified: bepF1 was abundantly expressed in the starchy endosperm but not in leaves, whereas blps14 was isolated from leaves but was also found to be present at a moderate level in the starchy endosperm. The sequences for the two transcripts are identical over approx. 90% of the length, with differences being confined solely to their 5' ends. In blps14, the unique 5' end is 259 nt long and encodes a putative plastid transit peptide sequence. For the 178-nt 5' end of bepsF1, on the other hand, no transit peptide sequence could be recognized. A lambda clone that hybridized to the AGPase transcripts was isolated from a barley genomic library and characterized. The restriction map has suggested a complex organization of the gene, with alternative exons encoding the different 5' ends of the two transcripts followed by nine exons coding for the common part of the transcripts. The sequence of a portion of the genomic clone, covering the alternative 5'-end exons as well as upstream regions, has verified that both transcripts are encoded by the gene. The results suggest that the small-subunit gene of barley AGPase transcribes two different mRNAs by a mechanism classified as alternative splicing. PMID:8546676

  11. Effects of Ghrelin on Sexual Behavior and Luteinizing Hormone Beta-subunit Gene Expression in Male Rats

    PubMed Central

    Babaei-Balderlou, Farrin; Khazali, Homayoun

    2016-01-01

    Background: The hormones of hypothalamo-pituitary-gonadal (HPG) axis have facilitative effects on reproductive behavior in mammals. Ghrelin as a starvation hormone has an inhibitory effect on HPG axis’ function. Hence, it is postulated that ghrelin may reduce the sexual behavior through inhibiting of HPG axis. The aim of this study was to examine the effects of ghrelin and its antagonist, [D-Lys3 ]-GHRP-6, on sexual behavior and LH beta-subunit gene expression in male rats. Methods: In this experimental study, 128 male Wistar rats were divided into two groups. Each group was further subdivided into eight subgroups (n=8 rats/subgroup) including the animals that received saline, ghrelin (2, 4 or 8 nmol), [D-Lys3 ]-GHRP-6 (5 or 10 nmol) or co-administration of ghrelin (4 nmol) and [D-Lys3 ]-GHRP-6 (5 or 10 nmol) through the stereotaxically implanted cannula into the third cerebral ventricle. The sexual behavior of male rats encountering with females and the hypo-physeal LH beta-subunit gene expression were evaluated at two different groups. Data were analyzed by ANOVA and p<0.05 was considered statistically significant. Results: Ghrelin injection (4 and 8 nmol) significantly (p<0.01) increased the latencies to the first mount, intromission and ejaculation as well as the post-ejaculatory interval. Also, 4 and 8 nmol ghrelin significantly (p<0.05) increased the number of mount and decreased the number of ejaculation. In co-administrated groups, [D-Lys3 ]-GHRP-6 antagonized the effects of ghrelin. Ghrelin injection (4 and 8 nmol) reduced the LH beta-subunit gene expression while pretreatment with [D-Lys3 ]-GHRP-6 improved the gene expression. Conclusion: Ghrelin decreased the sexual behavior and LH beta-subunit gene expression in male rats, whereas [D-Lys3 ]-GHRP-6 antagonizes these effects. PMID:27141463

  12. Exonic Sp1 sites are required for neural-specific expression of the glycine receptor beta subunit gene.

    PubMed Central

    Tintrup, H; Fischer, M; Betz, H; Kuhse, J

    2001-01-01

    The gene encoding the beta subunit of the inhibitory glycine receptor (GlyR) is widely expressed throughout the mammalian central nervous system. To unravel the elements regulating its transcription, we isolated its 5' non-coding and upstream flanking regions from mouse. Sequence analysis revealed significant differences between the 5' region of the beta subunit gene and the corresponding regions of the homologous GlyR alpha subunit genes; it also identified a novel exon (exon 0) that encodes most of the 5'-untranslated portion of the GlyR beta mRNA. Primer extension experiments disclosed multiple transcriptional start sites. Transfection experiments with luciferase reporter gene constructs showed that sequences encompassing 1.58 kb of upstream flanking region and 180 bp of exon 0 displayed high promoter activity in two neuroblastoma cell lines but not in non-neural cells. Analysis of various deletion constructs showed that the 5' flanking region preceding the transcriptional start sites silences expression in non-neural cells but is not essential for general promoter activity. In contrast, the deletion of sequences within exon 0 drastically decreased or abolished transcription; the removal of sequences harbouring Sp1 consensus sequences within exon 0 decreased expression specifically in a neuroblastoma cell line. Band-shift assays confirmed the binding of Sp1 to sites within the deleted sequence. Our results indicate that neural-specific expression of the GlyR beta subunit gene might depend on a direct interaction of Sp1 transcription factors with cis elements located downstream from transcription initiation sites. PMID:11256962

  13. Association of deletion allele of insertion/deletion polymorphism in α2B adrenoceptor gene and hypertension with or without type 2 diabetes mellitus

    PubMed Central

    Tayel, Safaa I; Khader, Heba F; El-Helbawy, Nesreen G; Ibrahim, Waleed A

    2012-01-01

    Background Vascular α2B-adrenoreceptors have the potential to increase blood pressure by mediating vasoconstriction. A nine-nucleotide deletion in the receptor enhances vasoconstriction and exacerbates hypertension. The aim of this study was to determine the association between insertion/deletion (I/D) polymorphism of the α2B-adrenoceptor and hypertension with and without diabetes. Methods The study was carried out in 35 hypertensive patients with diabetes, 35 hypertensive patients without diabetes, and 30 healthy controls. Clinical data, blood lipid profiles, and I/D polymorphism were assessed. Results Hypertensive patients were significantly older, with significantly higher systolic/diastolic blood pressures and worse plasma lipid profiles than controls. The frequency of the DD genotype was significantly higher in both hypertensive patients with (77.14%, P < 0.01) and without (71.43%, P < 0.05) diabetes versus controls (40%). Also, the D allele was significantly more common in both hypertensive patients with (84.29%, P < 0.01) and without (80%, P < 0.05) diabetes versus controls (58.33%). Hypertensive patients were more likely to have the D allele with (3.83-fold) and without (2.85-fold) diabetes. The frequencies of the DD genotype and the D allele were not significantly (P > 0.05) different between the patient groups. The DD genotype was associated with significantly lower high-density lipoprotein (P = 0.001) and significantly higher low-density lipoprotein (P = 0.017) levels versus the II and ID genotypes in the hypertensive group without diabetes. Conclusion A marked and statistically significant association between DD genotype and D allele of I/D polymorphism in the α2B-adrenoceptor gene may be a risk factor for hypertension ± diabetes. The association between the DD genotype and dyslipidemia may partially explain its role in precipitating hypertension. PMID:23776387

  14. NR2B-deficient mice are more sensitive to the locomotor stimulant and depressant effects of ethanol.

    PubMed

    Badanich, K A; Doremus-Fitzwater, T L; Mulholland, P J; Randall, P K; Delpire, E; Becker, H C

    2011-10-01

    The NR2B subunit of N-methyl d-aspartate glutamate receptors influences pharmacological properties and confers greater sensitivity to the modulatory effects of ethanol. This study examined behavioral responses to acute ethanol in a conditional knockout mouse model that allowed for a delayed genetic deletion of the NR2B subunit to avoid mouse lethality. Mice lacking the NR2B gene (knockout) were produced by mating NR2B[f/f] mice with CAMKIIa-driven tTA transgenic mice and the tetO-CRE transgenic mice. Adult male and female offspring representing each of the resultant genotypes (knockout, CAM, CRE and wildtype mice) were tested for open-field locomotor activity following acute low- and high-dose ethanol challenge as well as loss of righting reflex. Findings indicate that male and female mice lacking the NR2B subunit exhibited greater overall activity in comparison to other genotypes during the baseline locomotor activity test. NR2B knockout mice exhibited an exaggerated stimulant response to 1.5 g/kg (i.p.) and an exaggerated depressant response to 3.0 g/kg (i.p.) ethanol challenge. In addition, NR2B knockout mice slept longer following a high dose of ethanol (4.0 g/kg, i.p.). To evaluate pharmacokinetics, clearance rates of ethanol (1.5, 4.0 g/kg, i.p.) were measured and showed that female NR2B knockouts had a faster rate of metabolism only at the higher ethanol dose. Western blot analyses confirmed significant reduction in NR2B expression in the forebrain of knockout mice. Collectively, these data indicate that the NR2B subunit of the N-methyl d-aspartate glutamate receptor is involved in regulating low-dose stimulant effects of ethanol and the depressant/hypnotic effects of ethanol.

  15. NR2B-Deficient Mice are More Sensitive to the Locomotor Stimulant and Depressant Effects of Ethanol

    PubMed Central

    Mulholland, Patrick J.; Randall, Patrick K.; Delpire, Eric; Becker, Howard C.

    2014-01-01

    The NR2B subunit of N-methyl D-aspartate glutamate receptors influences pharmacological properties and confers greater sensitivity to the modulatory effects of ethanol. This study examined behavioral responses to acute ethanol in a conditional knockout mouse model that allowed for a delayed genetic deletion of the NR2B subunit to avoid mouse lethality. Mice lacking the NR2B gene (knockout) were produced by mating NR2B[f/f] mice with CAMKIIa-drive tTA transgenic mice and the tetO-CRE transgenic mice. Adult male and female offspring representing each of the resultant genotypes (knockout, CAM, CRE, and wild-type mice) were tested for open field locomotor activity following acute low and high dose ethanol challenge as well as loss of righting reflex. Findings indicate that male and female mice lacking the NR2B subunit exhibited greater overall activity in comparison to other genotypes during the baseline locomotor activity test. NR2B knockout mice exhibited an exaggerated stimulant response to 1.5 g/kg (ip) and an exaggerated depressant response to 3.0 g/kg (ip) ethanol challenge. Additionally, NR2B knockout mice slept longer following a high dose of ethanol (4.0 g/kg, ip). To evaluate pharmacokinetics, clearance rates of ethanol (1.5, 4.0 g/kg, ip) were measured and showed female NR2B knockouts had a faster rate of metabolism only at the higher ethanol dose. Western blot analyses confirmed significant reduction in NR2B expression in the forebrain of knockout mice. Collectively, these data indicate the NR2B subunit of the N-methyl D-aspartate glutamate receptor is involved in regulating low-dose stimulant effects of ethanol and the depressant/hypnotic effects of ethanol. PMID:21762461

  16. Biased expression, under the control of single promoter, of human interferon α-2b and Escherichia coli methionine amino peptidase genes in E. coli, irrespective of their distance from the promoter.

    PubMed

    Arif, Amina; Rashid, Naeem; Aslam, Farheen; Mahmood, Nasir; Akhtar, Muhammad

    2016-03-01

    Human interferon α-2b and Escherichia coli methionine amino peptidase genes were cloned independently as well as bicistronically in expression plasmid pET-21a (+). Production of human interferon α-2b was comparable to that of E. coli methionine amino peptidase when these genes were expressed independently in E. coli BL21-CodonPlus (DE3)-RIL. However, human interferon α-2b was produced in a much less amount whereas there was no difference in the production of methionine amino peptidase when the encoding genes were expressed bicistronically. It is important to note that human interferon α-2b was the first gene in order, after the promoter and E. coli methionine amino peptidase was the next with a linker sequence of 27 nucleotides between them.

  17. Transgenic Over Expression of Nicotinic Receptor Alpha 5, Alpha 3, and Beta 4 Subunit Genes Reduces Ethanol Intake in Mice

    PubMed Central

    Gallego, Xavier; Ruiz, Jessica; Valverde, Olga; Molas, Susanna; Robles, Noemí; Sabrià, Josefa; Crabbe, John C.; Dierssen, Mara

    2012-01-01

    Abuse of alcohol and smoking are extensively co-morbid. Some studies suggest partial commonality of action of alcohol and nicotine mediated through nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChRs). We tested mice with transgenic over expression of the alpha 5, alpha 3, beta 4 receptor subunit genes, which lie in a cluster on human chromosome 15, that were previously shown to have increased nicotine self-administration, for several responses to ethanol. Transgenic and wild-type mice did not differ in sensitivity to several acute behavioral responses to ethanol. However, transgenic mice drank less ethanol than wild-type in a two-bottle (ethanol vs. water) preference test. These results suggest a complex role for this receptor subunit gene cluster in the modulation of ethanol’s as well as nicotine’s effects. PMID:22459873

  18. Functional identification of the promoter for the gene encoding the alpha subunit of calcium/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase II.

    PubMed Central

    Olson, N J; Massé, T; Suzuki, T; Chen, J; Alam, D; Kelly, P T

    1995-01-01

    To examine the expression of the alpha subunit of calcium/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase II, various 5' flanking genomic sequences were inserted into a chloramphenicol acetyltransferase (CAT) reporter plasmid and CAT enzyme activities were analyzed in transfected NB2a neuroblastoma cells and mRNA transcription was analyzed by nuclease protection assays. A core promoter was identified which contained an essential TATA element located 162 nt 5' to the transcription start site. Sequences 3' to the transcription start site, as well as 5' to the TATA element, increased levels of CAT activity in transfected cells. The alpha-subunit gene promoter displayed higher CAT activities, relative to a simian virus 40 promoter, in transfected neuronal cell lines than in nonneuronal cell lines. Results also suggested that sequence surrounding the natural alpha-gene transcription initiation site may be important for targeting transcription initiation 162 nt downstream of its TATA element. Images Fig. 1 Fig. 3 PMID:7878035

  19. Evolution, Expression Differentiation and Interaction Specificity of Heterotrimeric G-Protein Subunit Gene Family in the Mesohexaploid Brassica rapa

    PubMed Central

    Arya, Gulab C.; Kumar, Roshan; Bisht, Naveen C.

    2014-01-01

    Heterotrimeric G-proteins, comprising of Gα, Gβ, and Gγ subunits, are important signal transducers which regulate many aspects of fundamental growth and developmental processes in all eukaryotes. Initial studies in model plants Arabidopsis and rice suggest that the repertoire of plant G-protein is much simpler than that observed in metazoans. In order to assess the consequence of whole genome triplication events within Brassicaceae family, we investigated the multiplicity of G-protein subunit genes in mesohexaploid Brassica rapa, a globally important vegetable and oilseed crop. We identified one Gα (BraA.Gα1), three Gβ (BraA.Gβ1, BraA.Gβ2, and BraA.Gβ3), and five Gγ (BraA.Gγ1, BraA.Gγ2, BraA.Gγ3, BraA.Gγ4, and BraA.Gγ5) genes from B. rapa, with a possibility of 15 Gαβγ heterotrimer combinations. Our analysis suggested that the process of genome triplication coupled with gene-loss (gene-fractionation) phenomenon have shaped the quantitative and sequence diversity of G-protein subunit genes in the extant B. rapa genome. Detailed expression analysis using qRT-PCR assays revealed that the G-protein genes have retained ubiquitous but distinct expression profiles across plant development. The expression of multiple G-protein genes was differentially regulated during seed-maturation and germination stages, and in response to various phytohormone treatments and stress conditions. Yeast-based interaction analysis showed that G-protein subunits interacted in most of the possible combinations, with some degree of subunit-specific interaction specificity, to control the functional selectivity of G-protein heterotrimer in different cell and tissue-types or in response to different environmental conditions. Taken together, this research identifies a highly diverse G-protein signaling network known to date from B. rapa, and provides a clue about the possible complexity of G-protein signaling networks present across globally important Brassica species. PMID

  20. Evolution, expression differentiation and interaction specificity of heterotrimeric G-protein subunit gene family in the mesohexaploid Brassica rapa.

    PubMed

    Arya, Gulab C; Kumar, Roshan; Bisht, Naveen C

    2014-01-01

    Heterotrimeric G-proteins, comprising of Gα, Gβ, and Gγ subunits, are important signal transducers which regulate many aspects of fundamental growth and developmental processes in all eukaryotes. Initial studies in model plants Arabidopsis and rice suggest that the repertoire of plant G-protein is much simpler than that observed in metazoans. In order to assess the consequence of whole genome triplication events within Brassicaceae family, we investigated the multiplicity of G-protein subunit genes in mesohexaploid Brassica rapa, a globally important vegetable and oilseed crop. We identified one Gα (BraA.Gα1), three Gβ (BraA.Gβ1, BraA.Gβ2, and BraA.Gβ3), and five Gγ (BraA.Gγ1, BraA.Gγ2, BraA.Gγ3, BraA.Gγ4, and BraA.Gγ5) genes from B. rapa, with a possibility of 15 Gαβγ heterotrimer combinations. Our analysis suggested that the process of genome triplication coupled with gene-loss (gene-fractionation) phenomenon have shaped the quantitative and sequence diversity of G-protein subunit genes in the extant B. rapa genome. Detailed expression analysis using qRT-PCR assays revealed that the G-protein genes have retained ubiquitous but distinct expression profiles across plant development. The expression of multiple G-protein genes was differentially regulated during seed-maturation and germination stages, and in response to various phytohormone treatments and stress conditions. Yeast-based interaction analysis showed that G-protein subunits interacted in most of the possible combinations, with some degree of subunit-specific interaction specificity, to control the functional selectivity of G-protein heterotrimer in different cell and tissue-types or in response to different environmental conditions. Taken together, this research identifies a highly diverse G-protein signaling network known to date from B. rapa, and provides a clue about the possible complexity of G-protein signaling networks present across globally important Brassica species.

  1. Essential role of GluD1 in dendritic spine development and GluN2B to GluN2A NMDAR subunit switch in the cortex and hippocampus reveals ability of GluN2B inhibition in correcting hyperconnectivity.

    PubMed

    Gupta, Subhash C; Yadav, Roopali; Pavuluri, Ratnamala; Morley, Barbara J; Stairs, Dustin J; Dravid, Shashank M

    2015-06-01

    The glutamate delta-1 (GluD1) receptor is highly expressed in the forebrain. We have previously shown that loss of GluD1 leads to social and cognitive deficits in mice, however, its role in synaptic development and neurotransmission remains poorly understood. Here we report that GluD1 is enriched in the medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC) and GluD1 knockout mice exhibit a higher dendritic spine number, greater excitatory neurotransmission as well as higher number of synapses in mPFC. In addition abnormalities in the LIMK1-cofilin signaling, which regulates spine dynamics, and a lower ratio of GluN2A/GluN2B expression was observed in the mPFC in GluD1 knockout mice. Analysis of the GluD1 knockout CA1 hippocampus similarly indicated the presence of higher spine number and synapses and altered LIMK1-cofilin signaling. We found that systemic administration of an N-methyl-d-aspartate (NMDA) receptor partial agonist d-cycloserine (DCS) at a high-dose, but not at a low-dose, and a GluN2B-selective inhibitor Ro-25-6981 partially normalized the abnormalities in LIMK1-cofilin signaling and reduced excess spine number in mPFC and hippocampus. The molecular effects of high-dose DCS and GluN2B inhibitor correlated with their ability to reduce the higher stereotyped behavior and depression-like behavior in GluD1 knockout mice. Together these findings demonstrate a critical requirement for GluD1 in normal spine development in the cortex and hippocampus. Moreover, these results identify inhibition of GluN2B-containing receptors as a mechanism for reducing excess dendritic spines and stereotyped behavior which may have therapeutic value in certain neurodevelopmental disorders such as autism. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Nucleotide sequence of the Klebsiella pneumoniae nifD gene and predicted amino acid sequence of the alpha-subunit of nitrogenase MoFe protein.

    PubMed Central

    Ioannidis, I; Buck, M

    1987-01-01

    The nucleotide sequence of the Klebsiella pneumoniae nifD gene is presented and together with the accompanying paper [Holland, Zilberstein, Zamir & Sussman (1987) Biochem. J. 247, 277-285] completes the sequence of the nifHDK genes encoding the nitrogenase polypeptides. The K. pneumoniae nifD gene encodes the 483-amino acid-residue nitrogenase alpha-subunit polypeptide of Mr 54156. The alpha-subunit has five strongly conserved cysteine residues at positions 63, 89, 155, 184 and 275, some occurring in a region showing both primary sequence and potential structural homology to the K. pneumoniae nitrogenase beta-subunit. A comparison with six other alpha-subunit amino acid sequences has been made, which indicates a number of potentially important domains within alpha-subunits. PMID:3322262

  3. Differentially expressed three non-coding alternate exons at 5' UTR of regulatory type I beta subunit gene of mouse.

    PubMed

    Banday, Abdul Rouf; Azim, Shafquat; Tabish, Mohammad

    2012-04-01

    Prkar1b gene encodes regulatory type I, beta subunit (RIβ) of cAMP dependent protein kinase A in mouse. Among the various isoforms of regulatory and catalytic subunits that comprise mammalian PKA, RIβ subunit is considered to be one of the important subunits for neuronal functions. This is involved in multiple forms of synaptic plasticity, and influences memory and learning by maintaining hippocampal long-term potentiation (LTP). Deficient expression of this gene has been implicated in autoimmune disease systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE). We have identified two novel non-coding exons of the Prkar1b gene (designated as exon 1A and exon 1B), which are spliced to the canonical exon 2 and constitute the 5' untranslated region giving rise to three alternative transcript isoforms. We have also confirmed the expression of the previously known first exon (designated as exon 1C) with known transcript published earlier. The transcripts containing exons 1A, 1B and 1C are differentially regulated during the development and tissue types. In silico study of more than 20 kb nucleotide sequence upstream of known translational initiation codon revealed three distinct promoter regions named as PA, PB, and PC upstream of the exon 1A, exon 1B and exon 1C respectively. PB is non-CpG related promoter but PA and PC are CpG related promoters, however all three promoters are TATA less. Further analysis showed that these promoters possess potential signature sequences for common as well as different transcription factors suggesting complex regulation of Prkar1b gene.

  4. Eukaryotic translation initiation factor 2B-beta (eIF2Bβ), a new class of plant virus resistance gene.

    PubMed

    Jannat, Shopan; Mou, Haipeng; Zhang, Lili; Zhang, Changtong; Ma, Weiwei; Walsh, John A; Hu, Zhongyuan; Yang, Jinghua; Zhang, Mingfang

    2017-02-28

    Recessive resistances to plant viruses in the Potyvirus genus have been found to be based on mutations in the plant eukaryotic translation initiation factors, eIF4E and eIF4G or their isoforms. Here we report that natural, monogenic recessive resistance to the potyvirus Turnip mosaic virus (TuMV) has been found in a number of mustard (Brassica juncea) accessions. Bulked segregant analysis and sequencing of resistant and susceptible plant lines indicated the resistance is controlled by a single recessive gene, recessive TuMV resistance 03 (retr03), an allele of the eukaryotic translation initiation factor 2B-beta (eIF2Bβ). Silencing of eIF2Bβ in a TuMV-susceptible mustard plant line and expression of eIF2Bβ from a TuMV-susceptible line in a TuMV-resistant mustard plant line confirmed the new resistance mechanism. A functional copy of a specific allele of eIF2Bβ is required for efficient TuMV infection. eIF2Bβ represents a new class of virus resistance gene conferring resistance to any pathogen. eIF2B acts as a guanine nucleotide exchange factor (GEF) for its GTP-binding protein partner eIF2 via interaction with eIF2·GTP at an early step in translation initiation. Further genotyping indicated that a single non-synonymous substitution (A120G) in the N-terminal region of eIF2Bβ was responsible for the TuMV resistance. A reproducible marker has been developed, facilitating marker-assisted selection for TuMV resistance in B. juncea. Our findings provide a new target for seeking natural resistance to potyviruses and new opportunities for the control of potyviruses using genome editing techniques targeted on eIF2Bβ. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

  5. Genetic variations of CYP2B6 gene were associated with plasma BPDE-Alb adducts and DNA damage levels in coke oven workers.

    PubMed

    Huang, Guoxiang; Guo, Huan; Wu, Tangchun

    2012-06-20

    Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), the main components of coke oven emissions, can induce activation of cytochrome P450 (CYP) enzymes, which metabolize PAHs and result in DNA damage by forming adducts. This study was designed to know whether genetic variants of CYP genes are associated with plasma benzo[a]pyrene-7,8-diol-9,10-epoxide-albumin (BPDE-Alb) adducts and DNA damage in coke oven workers. In this study, 298 workers were divided into four groups according to the environmental PAHs exposure levels. The concentrations of plasma BPDE-Alb adducts were detected by reverse-phase high-performance liquid chromatography and the DNA damage levels were measured using comet assay. Twelve tag single nucleotide polymorphisms (tagSNPs) of 4 CYP genes were selected and genotyped by matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry. In the top group, workers with CYP2B6 rs3760657GA genotype have lower BPDE-Alb adducts and DNA damage levels than those with rs3760657GG genotype (P<0.05). In the control group, the DNA damage levels of subjects with CYP1A1 rs4646421AA or GA+AA genotypes were lower than those with GG genotype (P<0.05). However, no such effects were shown for the other tagSNPs. These results suggested that genetic variations of CYP2B6 might be associated with low BPDE-Alb adducts and DNA damage levels in worker with high exposure to PAHs.

  6. Biochemically Silent Abdominal Paragangliomas in Patients with Mutations in the Succinate Dehydrogenase Subunit B Gene

    PubMed Central

    Timmers, Henri J. L. M.; Pacak, Karel; Huynh, Thanh T.; Abu-Asab, Mones; Tsokos, Maria; Merino, Maria J.; Baysal, Bora E.; Adams, Karen T.; Eisenhofer, Graeme

    2008-01-01

    Context: Patients with adrenal and extra-adrenal abdominal paraganglioma (PGL) almost invariably have increased plasma and urine concentrations of metanephrines, the O-methylated metabolites of catecholamines. We report four cases of biochemically silent abdominal PGL, in which metanephrines were normal despite extensive disease. Objective: Our objective was to identify the mechanism underlying the lack of catecholamine hypersecretion and metabolism to metanephrines in biochemically silent PGL. Design: This is a descriptive study. Setting: The study was performed at a referral center. Patients: One index case and three additional patients with large abdominal PGL and metastases but with the lack of evidence of catecholamine production, six patients with metastatic catecholamine-producing PGL and a mutation of the succinate dehydrogenase subunit B (SDHB) gene, and 136 random patients with catecholamine-producing PGL were included in the study. Main Outcome Measures: Plasma, urine, and tumor tissue concentrations of catecholamines and metabolites were calculated with electron microscopy and tyrosine hydroxylase immunohistochemistry. Results: All four patients with biochemically silent PGL had an underlying SDHB mutation. In the index case, the tumor tissue concentration of catecholamines (1.8 nmol/g) was less than 0.01% that of the median (20,410 nmol/g) for the 136 patients with catecholamine-producing tumors. Electron microscopy showed the presence of normal secretory granules in all four biochemically silent PGLs. Tyrosine hydroxylase immunoreactivity was negligible in the four biochemically silent PGLs but abundant in catecholamine-producing PGLs. Conclusions: Patients with SDHB mutations may present with biochemically silent abdominal PGLs due to defective catecholamine synthesis resulting from the absence of tyrosine hydroxylase. Screening for tumors in patients with SDHB mutations should not be limited to biochemical tests of catecholamine excess. PMID

  7. Genetic interaction of an origin recognition complex subunit and the Polycomb group gene MEDEA during seed development.

    PubMed

    Collinge, Margaret A; Spillane, Charles; Köhler, Claudia; Gheyselinck, Jacqueline; Grossniklaus, Ueli

    2004-04-01

    The eukaryotic origin recognition complex (ORC) is made up of six subunits and functions in nuclear DNA replication, chromatin structure, and gene silencing in both fungi and metazoans. We demonstrate that disruption of a plant ORC subunit homolog, AtORC2 of Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana), causes a zygotic lethal mutant phenotype (orc2). Seeds of orc2 abort early, typically producing embryos with up to eight cells. Nuclear division in the endosperm is arrested at an earlier developmental stage: only approximately four nuclei are detected in orc2 endosperm. The endosperm nuclei in orc2 are dramatically enlarged, a phenotype that is most similar to class B titan mutants, which include mutants in structural maintenance of chromosomes (SMC) cohesins. The highest levels of ORC2 gene expression were found in preglobular embryos, coinciding with the stage at which homozygous orc2 mutant seeds arrest. The homologs of the other five Arabidopsis ORC subunits are also expressed at this developmental stage. The orc2 mutant phenotype is partly suppressed by a mutation in the Polycomb group gene MEDEA. In double mutants between orc2 and medea (mea), orc2 homozygotes arrest later with a phenotype intermediate between those of mea and orc2 single mutants. Either alterations in chromatin structure or the release of cell cycle checkpoints by the mea mutation may allow more cell and nuclear divisions to occur in orc2 homozygous seeds.

  8. [C825T polymorphism of the GNB3 gene codifying the G-protein beta3-subunit and cardiovascular risk].

    PubMed

    Sartori, Michelangelo; Parotto, Emanuela; Ceolotto, Giulio; Papparella, Italia; Lenzini, Livia; Calò, Lorenzo A; Semplicini, Andrea

    2004-01-01

    Hypertension is a common disorder of multifactorial origin that constitutes a major risk factor for cardiovascular events such as stroke and myocardial infarction. The subunits of the heterotrimeric G proteins are attractive candidate gene products for both susceptibility to essential hypertension and interindividual variation in blood pressure. A polymorphism (825C/T) in exon 10 of the GNB3 gene, that encodes for the beta3 subunit, has recently been described. The 825T allele is associated with alternative splicing of the gene and formation of a truncated but functionally active beta3 subunit. Carriers of the 825T allele appear to have an increased risk for hypertension, obesity, insulin-resistance and left ventricular hypertrophy. Moreover, 825T allele carriers respond with a stronger decrease in blood pressure to therapy with a thiazide diuretic and with clonidine. GNB3 825T allele may be regarded as a potential genetic marker for a better definition of the risk profile of hypertensive subjects, but further studies are needed to precisely define the impact of T allele on the prognosis of such patients.

  9. Cloning and functional analysis of adhS gene encoding quinoprotein alcohol dehydrogenase subunit III from Acetobacter pasteurianus SKU1108.

    PubMed

    Masud, Uraiwan; Matsushita, Kazunobu; Theeragool, Gunjana

    2010-03-31

    The adhS gene which encodes the smallest subunit, subunit III, of quinoprotein alcohol dehydrogenase (PQQ-ADH) from Acetobacter pasteurianus SKU1108 has been cloned and characterized. The role of this subunit on the function of PQQ-ADH was investigated by construction of adhS gene disruptant and mutants. The adhS gene disruptant completely lost its PQQ-ADH activity and acetate-producing ability but retained acetic acid toleration. In contrast, this disruptant grew well, even better than the wild type, in the ethanol containing medium even though its PQQ-ADH activity and ethanol oxidizing ability was completely lost, while NAD(+)-dependent ADH (NAD(+)-ADH) was induced. Heme staining and immunoblot analysis of both membrane and soluble fractions with anti-ADH subunit III suggested that ethanol did not affect the adhS gene expression but induced PQQ-ADH activity. Over-expressed adhS did not enhance acetic acid production in both the wild type and the adhS disruptant. In addition, deletion analysis of upstream region of adhS gene suggested that its tentative promoter(s) might be located at around 118-268 bp upstream from an initiation codon. Random mutagenesis of adhS gene revealed that complete loss of PQQ-ADH activity and ethanol oxidizing ability were observed in the mutants' lack of the 140 and 73 amino acid residues at the C-terminal, whereas the lack of 22 amino acid residues at the C-terminal affected neither the PQQ-ADH activity nor ethanol oxidizing ability. In addition, some amino acid substitutions such as Leu18Gln, Ala26Val, Val36Ile, Val54Ile, Gly55Asp, Val70Ala and Val107Ala did not show any affect on PQQ-ADH activity and ethanol oxidizing ability. Interestingly, alteration of Thr104Lys led to a complete loss of ethanol oxidizing ability. However, point mutation at the possible promoter region also exhibited low PQQ-ADH activity and ethanol oxidizing ability. This result suggests that 104Thr might be involved in molecular coupling with subunit I in order

  10. Cloning and molecular characterization of three novel LMW-i glutenin subunit genes from cultivated einkorn (Triticum monococcum L.).

    PubMed

    An, X; Zhang, Q; Yan, Y; Li, Q; Zhang, Y; Wang, A; Pei, Y; Tian, J; Wang, H; Hsam, S L K; Zeller, F J

    2006-08-01

    Three novel low molecular weight (LMW) glutenin subunits from cultivated einkorn (Triticum monococcum L., A(m)A(m), 2n = 2x = 14) were characterized by SDS-PAGE and molecular weights determined by MALDI-TOF-MS. Their coding genes were amplified and cloned with designed AS-PCR primers, revealing three complete gene sequences. All comprised upstream, open reading frame (ORF), downstream and no introns were present. The deduced amino acid sequences showed that all three genes, named as LMW-M1, LMW-M3 and LMW-M5, respectively, belonged to the LMW-i type subunits with the predicted molecular weight between 38.5206 and 38.7028 kDa. They showed high similarity with other LMW-i type genes from hexaploid bread wheats, but also displayed unique features. Particularly, LMW-M5 subunit contained an extra cysteine residue in the C-terminus except for eight conserved cysteines, which resulted from a single-nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) of the T-C transition, namely arginine --> cysteine substitution at position 242 from the N-terminal end. This is the first report that the LMW-i subunit contained nine cysteines residues that could result in a more highly cross-linked and more elastic glutenin suggesting that LMW-M5 gene may associates with good quality properties. In addition, a total of 25 SNPs and one insertions/deletions (InDels) were detected among three LMW-i genes, which could result in significant functional changes in polymer formation of gluten. It is anticipated that these SNPs could be used as reliable genetic markers during wheat quality improvement. The phylogenetic analysis indicated that LMW-i type genes apparently differed from LMW-m and LMW-s type genes and diverged early from the primitive LMW-GS gene family, at about 12.92 million years ago (MYA) while the differentiation of A(m) and A genomes was estimated at 3.98 MYA.

  11. The carB Gene Encoding the Large Subunit of Carbamoylphosphate Synthetase from Lactococcus lactis Is Transcribed Monocistronically

    PubMed Central

    Martinussen, Jan; Hammer, Karin

    1998-01-01

    The biosynthesis of carbamoylphosphate is catalyzed by the heterodimeric enzyme carbamoylphosphate synthetase. The genes encoding the two subunits of this enzyme in procaryotes are normally transcribed as an operon, but the gene encoding the large subunit (carB) in Lactococcus lactis is shown to be transcribed as an isolated unit. Carbamoylphosphate is a precursor in the biosynthesis of both pyrimidine nucleotides and arginine. By mutant analysis, L. lactis is shown to possess only one carB gene; the same gene product is thus required for both biosynthetic pathways. Furthermore, arginine may satisfy the requirement for carbamoylphosphate in pyrimidine biosynthesis through degradation by means of the arginine deiminase pathway. The expression of the carB gene is subject to regulation at the level of transcription by pyrimidines, most probably by an attenuator mechanism. Upstream of the carB gene, an open reading frame showing a high degree of similarity to those of glutathione peroxidases from other organisms was identified. PMID:9721272

  12. Prodynorphin gene deletion increased anxiety-like behaviours, impaired the anxiolytic effect of bromazepam and altered GABAA receptor subunits gene expression in the amygdala.

    PubMed

    Femenía, Teresa; Pérez-Rial, Sandra; Urigüen, Leyre; Manzanares, Jorge

    2011-01-01

    This study evaluated the role of prodynorphin gene in the regulation of anxiety and associated molecular mechanisms. Emotional responses were assessed using the light-dark test, elevated plus maze and social interaction tests in prodynorphin knockout and wild-type mice. Corticotrophin releasing factor and proopiomelanocortin gene expressions in the hypothalamus were evaluated after restraint stress using in situ hybridization. The anxiolytic efficacy of bromazepam and GABA(A) receptor subunits gene expression in the amygdala were also assessed in both genotypes. The deletion of prodynorphin increased anxiety-like behaviours and proopiomelanocortin gene expression in the arcuate nucleus (two-fold). Moreover, the anxiolytic action of bromazepam was significantly attenuated in the mutant mice. Decreased GABA(A)γ(2) and increased GABA(A)β(2) gene expression receptor subunits were found in the amygdala of prodynorphin knockout mice. These results indicate that deletion of prodynorphin gene is associated with increased anxiety-like behaviours, enhanced sensibility response to stress stimuli, reduced anxiolytic efficacy of bromazepam and altered expression of the GABA(A) receptor subunits.

  13. The Mitochondrial Genome Integrity Gene, Mgi1, of Kluyveromyces Lactis Encodes the β-Subunit of F(1)-Atpase

    PubMed Central

    Chen, X. J.; Clark-Walker, G. D.

    1996-01-01

    In a previous report, we found that mutations at the mitochondrial genome integrity locus, MGI1, can convert Kluyveromyces lactis into a petite-positive yeast. In this report, we describe the isolation of the MGI1 gene and show that it encodes the β-subunit of the mitochondrial F(1)-ATPase. The site of mutation in four independently isolated mgi1 alleles is at Arg435, which has changed to Gly in three cases and Ile in the fourth isolate. Disruption of MGI1 does not lead to the production of mitochondrial genome deletion mutants, indicating that an assembled F(1) complex is needed for the ``gain-of-function'' phenotype found in mgi1 point mutants. The location of Arg435 in the β-subunit, as deduced from the three-dimensional structure of the bovine F(1)-ATPase, together with mutational sites in the previously identified mgi2 and mgi5 alleles, suggests that interaction of the β- and α- (MGI2) subunits with the γ-subunit (MGI5) is likely to be affected by the mutations. PMID:8978033

  14. Cloning and functional characterization of a putative sodium channel auxiliary subunit gene from the house fly (Musca domestica).

    PubMed

    Lee, S H; Smith, T J; Ingles, P J; Soderlund, D M

    2000-06-01

    The functional expression of cloned Drosophila melanogaster and house fly (Musca domestica) voltage-sensitive sodium channels in Xenopus oocytes is enhanced, and the inactivation kinetics of the expressed channels are accelerated, by coexpression with the tipE protein, a putative sodium channel auxiliary subunit encoded by the tipE gene of D. melanogaster. These results predict the existence of a tipE ortholog in the house fly. Using a PCR-based homology probing approach, we isolated cDNA clones encoding an ortholog of tipE (designated Vssc beta) from adult house fly heads. Clones comprising 3444 bp of cDNA sequence contained a 1317 bp open-reading frame encoding a 438 amino acid protein. The predicted Vssc beta protein exhibited 72% amino acid sequence identity to the entire D. melanogaster tipE protein sequence and 97% identity within the two hydrophobic segments identified as probable transmembrane domains. Coexpression of Vssc beta with the house fly sodium channel alpha subunit (Vssc1) in oocytes enhanced the level of sodium current expression five-fold and accelerated the rate of sodium current inactivation 2.2-fold. Both of these effects were significantly larger in magnitude than the corresponding effects of the D. melanogaster tipE protein on the expression and kinetics of Vssc1 sodium channels. These results identify a second example of a putative sodium channel auxiliary subunit from an insect having functional but not structural homology to vertebrate sodium channel beta subunits.

  15. Mitotic Arrest-Deficient Protein 2B Overexpressed in Lung Cancer Promotes Proliferation, EMT, and Metastasis.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Hua; He, Xiuquan; Yu, Wenfei; Yue, Bingqing; Yu, Ziting; Qin, Ying

    2017-09-11

    As the non-catalytic subunit of mammalian DNA polymerase, mitotic arrest-deficient protein 2B (MAD2B) has been reportedto play a role in cell-cycle regulation, DNA damage tolerance, gene expression and carcinogenesis. Although its expression is known to be associated with poor prognosis in several types of human cancers, the significance of MAD2B expression in lung malignancies is still unclear. Our study showed that MAD2B expression significantly increased in lung cancer, especially in the metastatic tissues. We also found that knockdown of MAD2B inhibited the migration, invasion and epithelialmesenchymal transitions of lung cancer cells in vitro and the metastasis in vivo, while over-expression of MAD2B had the opposite effect. Microarray and western blotting data indicated that slug might be its downstream target since knockdown of MAD2B inhibited the expression while over-expression increased the expression of slug. Moreover, the expression of MAD2B was found positively correlated with slug in lung cancer tissues, as well. Collectively, these findings indicate an oncogenic role of MAD2B in lung cancer, and slug might be involved in the process.

  16. Essential role of GluD1 in dendritic spine development and GluN2B to GluN2A NMDAR subunit switch in the cortex and hippocampus reveals ability of GluN2B inhibition in correcting hyperconnectivity

    PubMed Central

    Gupta, Subhash C.; Yadav, Roopali; Pavuluri, Ratnamala; Morley, Barbara J.; Stairs, Dustin J.; Dravid, Shashank M.

    2015-01-01

    The glutamate delta-1 (GluD1) receptor is highly expressed in the forebrain. We have previously shown that loss of GluD1 leads to social and cognitive deficits in mice, however, its role in synaptic development and neurotransmission remains poorly understood. Here we report that GluD1 is enriched in the medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC) and GluD1 knockout mice exhibit a higher dendritic spine number, greater excitatory neurotransmission as well as higher number of synapses in mPFC. In addition abnormalities in the LIMK1-cofilin signaling, which regulates spine dynamics, and a lower ratio of GluN2A/GluN2B expression was observed in the mPFC in GluD1 knockout mice. Analysis of the GluD1 knockout CA1 hippocampus similarly indicated the presence of higher spine number and synapses and altered LIMK1-cofilin signaling. We found that systemic administration of an N-methyl-d-aspartate (NMDA) receptor partial agonist d-cycloserine (DCS) at a high-dose, but not at a low-dose, and a GluN2B-selective inhibitor Ro-25-6981 partially normalized the abnormalities in LIMK1-cofilin signaling and reduced excess spine number in mPFC. The molecular effects of high-dose DCS and GluN2B inhibitor correlated with their ability to reduce the higher stereotyped behavior and depression-like behavior in GluD1 knockout mice. Together these findings demonstrate a critical requirement for GluD1 in normal spine development in the cortex and hippocampus. Moreover, these results identify inhibition of GluN2Bcontaining receptors as a mechanism for reducing excess dendritic spines and stereotyped behavior which may have therapeutic value in certain neurodevelopmental disorders. PMID:25721396

  17. A human homolog of the Saccharomyces cerevisiae REV3 gene, which encodes the catalytic subunit of DNA polymerase ζ

    PubMed Central

    Gibbs, Peter E. M.; McGregor, W. Glenn; Maher, Veronica M.; Nisson, Paul; Lawrence, Christopher W.

    1998-01-01

    To get a better understanding of mutagenic mechanisms in humans, we have cloned and sequenced the human homolog of the Saccharomyces cerevisiae REV3 gene. The yeast gene encodes the catalytic subunit of DNA polymerase ζ, a nonessential enzyme that is thought to carry out translesion replication and is responsible for virtually all DNA damage-induced mutagenesis and the majority of spontaneous mutagenesis. The human gene encodes an expected protein of 3,130 residues, about twice the size of the yeast protein (1,504 aa). The two proteins are 29% identical in an amino-terminal region of ≈340 residues, 39% identical in a carboxyl-terminal region of ≈850 residues, and 29% identical in a 55-residue region in the middle of the two genes. The sequence of the expected protein strongly predicts that it is the catalytic subunit of a DNA polymerase of the pol ζ type; the carboxyl-terminal domain possesses, in the right order, the six motifs characteristic of eukaryotic DNA polymerases, most closely resembles yeast pol ζ among all polymerases in the GenBank database, and is different from the human α, δ, and ɛ enzymes. Human cells expressing high levels of an hsREV3 antisense RNA fragment grow normally, but show little or no UV-induced mutagenesis and are slightly more sensitive to killing by UV. The human gene therefore appears to carry out a function similar to that of its yeast counterpart. PMID:9618506

  18. NODULE INCEPTION Directly Targets NF-Y Subunit Genes to Regulate Essential Processes of Root Nodule Development in Lotus japonicus

    PubMed Central

    Soyano, Takashi; Kouchi, Hiroshi; Hirota, Atsuko; Hayashi, Makoto

    2013-01-01

    The interactions of legumes with symbiotic nitrogen-fixing bacteria cause the formation of specialized lateral root organs called root nodules. It has been postulated that this root nodule symbiosis system has recruited factors that act in early signaling pathways (common SYM genes) partly from the ancestral mycorrhizal symbiosis. However, the origins of factors needed for root nodule organogenesis are largely unknown. NODULE INCEPTION (NIN) is a nodulation-specific gene that encodes a putative transcription factor and acts downstream of the common SYM genes. Here, we identified two Nuclear Factor-Y (NF-Y) subunit genes, LjNF-YA1 and LjNF-YB1, as transcriptional targets of NIN in Lotus japonicus. These genes are expressed in root nodule primordia and their translational products interact in plant cells, indicating that they form an NF-Y complex in root nodule primordia. The knockdown of LjNF-YA1 inhibited root nodule organogenesis, as did the loss of function of NIN. Furthermore, we found that NIN overexpression induced root nodule primordium-like structures that originated from cortical cells in the absence of bacterial symbionts. Thus, NIN is a crucial factor responsible for initiating nodulation-specific symbiotic processes. In addition, ectopic expression of either NIN or the NF-Y subunit genes caused abnormal cell division during lateral root development. This indicated that the Lotus NF-Y subunits can function to stimulate cell division. Thus, transcriptional regulation by NIN, including the activation of the NF-Y subunit genes, induces cortical cell division, which is an initial step in root nodule organogenesis. Unlike the legume-specific NIN protein, NF-Y is a major CCAAT box binding protein complex that is widespread among eukaryotes. We propose that the evolution of root nodules in legume plants was associated with changes in the function of NIN. NIN has acquired functions that allow it to divert pathways involved in the regulation of cell division to

  19. Parafascicular thalamic nucleus deep brain stimulation decreases NMDA receptor GluN1 subunit gene expression in the prefrontal cortex.

    PubMed

    Fernández-Cabrera, Mónica R; Selvas, Abraham; Miguéns, Miguel; Higuera-Matas, Alejandro; Vale-Martínez, Anna; Ambrosio, Emilio; Martí-Nicolovius, Margarita; Guillazo-Blanch, Gemma

    2017-04-21

    The rodent parafascicular nucleus (PFn) or the centromedian-parafascicular complex of primates is a posterior intralaminar nucleus of the thalamus related to cortical activation and maintenance of states of consciousness underlying attention, learning and memory. Deep brain stimulation (DBS) of the PFn has been proved to restore arousal and consciousness in humans and to enhance performance in learning and memory tasks in rats. The primary expected effect of PFn DBS is to induce plastic changes in target neurons of brain areas associated with cognitive function. In this study, Wistar rats were stimulated for 20mins in the PFn following a DBS protocol that had previously facilitated memory in rats. NMDA and GABAB receptor binding, and gene expression of the GluN1subunit of the NMDA receptor (NMDAR) were assessed in regions related to cognitive functions, such as the prefrontal cortex and hippocampus. The results showed that PFn DBS induced a decrease in NMDAR GluN1 subunit gene expression in the cingulate and prelimbic cortices, but no significant statistical differences were found in the density of NMDA or GABAB receptors in any of the analyzed regions. Taken together, our findings suggest a possible role for the NMDAR GluN1 subunit in the prefrontal cortex in the procognitive actions of the PFn DBS.

  20. Enhancement of lipid productivity in oleaginous Colletotrichum fungus through genetic transformation using the yeast CtDGAT2b gene under model-optimized growth condition.

    PubMed

    Dey, Prabuddha; Mall, Nikunj; Chattopadhyay, Atrayee; Chakraborty, Monami; Maiti, Mrinal K

    2014-01-01

    Oleaginous fungi are of special interest among microorganisms for the production of lipid feedstocks as they can be cultured on a variety of substrates, particularly waste lingocellulosic materials, and few fungal strains are reported to accumulate inherently higher neutral lipid than bacteria or microalgae. Previously, we have characterized an endophytic filamentous fungus Colletotrichum sp. DM06 that can produce total lipid ranging from 34% to 49% of its dry cell weight (DCW) upon growing with various carbon sources and nutrient-stress conditions. In the present study, we report on the genetic transformation of this fungal strain with the CtDGAT2b gene, which encodes for a catalytically efficient isozyme of type-2 diacylglycerol acyltransferase (DGAT) from oleaginous yeast Candida troplicalis SY005. Besides the increase in size of lipid bodies, total lipid titer by the transformed Colletotrichum (lipid content ∼73% DCW) was found to be ∼1.7-fold more than the wild type (lipid content ∼38% DCW) due to functional activity of the CtDGAT2b transgene when grown under standard condition of growth without imposition of any nutrient-stress. Analysis of lipid fractionation revealed that the neutral lipid titer in transformants increased up to 1.8-, 1.6- and 1.5-fold compared to the wild type when grown under standard, nitrogen stress and phosphorus stress conditions, respectively. Lipid titer of transformed cells was further increased to 1.7-fold following model-based optimization of culture conditions. Taken together, ∼2.9-fold higher lipid titer was achieved in Colletotrichum fungus due to overexpression of a rate-limiting crucial enzyme of lipid biosynthesis coupled with prediction-based bioprocess optimization.

  1. Enhancement of Lipid Productivity in Oleaginous Colletotrichum Fungus through Genetic Transformation Using the Yeast CtDGAT2b Gene under Model-Optimized Growth Condition

    PubMed Central

    Dey, Prabuddha; Mall, Nikunj; Chattopadhyay, Atrayee; Chakraborty, Monami; Maiti, Mrinal K.

    2014-01-01

    Oleaginous fungi are of special interest among microorganisms for the production of lipid feedstocks as they can be cultured on a variety of substrates, particularly waste lingocellulosic materials, and few fungal strains are reported to accumulate inherently higher neutral lipid than bacteria or microalgae. Previously, we have characterized an endophytic filamentous fungus Colletotrichum sp. DM06 that can produce total lipid ranging from 34% to 49% of its dry cell weight (DCW) upon growing with various carbon sources and nutrient-stress conditions. In the present study, we report on the genetic transformation of this fungal strain with the CtDGAT2b gene, which encodes for a catalytically efficient isozyme of type-2 diacylglycerol acyltransferase (DGAT) from oleaginous yeast Candida troplicalis SY005. Besides the increase in size of lipid bodies, total lipid titer by the transformed Colletotrichum (lipid content ∼73% DCW) was found to be ∼1.7-fold more than the wild type (lipid content ∼38% DCW) due to functional activity of the CtDGAT2b transgene when grown under standard condition of growth without imposition of any nutrient-stress. Analysis of lipid fractionation revealed that the neutral lipid titer in transformants increased up to 1.8-, 1.6- and 1.5-fold compared to the wild type when grown under standard, nitrogen stress and phosphorus stress conditions, respectively. Lipid titer of transformed cells was further increased to 1.7-fold following model-based optimization of culture conditions. Taken together, ∼2.9-fold higher lipid titer was achieved in Colletotrichum fungus due to overexpression of a rate-limiting crucial enzyme of lipid biosynthesis coupled with prediction-based bioprocess optimization. PMID:25375973