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Sample records for 2br holden green

  1. Holden Crater Dune Field

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2005-01-01

    [figure removed for brevity, see original site]

    Our topic for the weeks of April 4 and April 11 is dunes on Mars. We will look at the north polar sand sea and at isolated dune fields at lower latitudes. Sand seas on Earth are often called 'ergs,' an Arabic name for dune field. A sand sea differs from a dune field in two ways: 1) a sand sea has a large regional extent, and 2) the individual dunes are large in size and complex in form.

    A common location for dune fields on Mars is in the basin of large craters. This dune field is located in Holden Crater at 25 degrees South atitude.

    Image information: VIS instrument. Latitude -25.5, Longitude 326.8 East (33.2 West). 19 meter/pixel resolution.

    Note: this THEMIS visual image has not been radiometrically nor geometrically calibrated for this preliminary release. An empirical correction has been performed to remove instrumental effects. A linear shift has been applied in the cross-track and down-track direction to approximate spacecraft and planetary motion. Fully calibrated and geometrically projected images will be released through the Planetary Data System in accordance with Project policies at a later time.

    NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory manages the 2001 Mars Odyssey mission for NASA's Office of Space Science, Washington, D.C. The Thermal Emission Imaging System (THEMIS) was developed by Arizona State University, Tempe, in collaboration with Raytheon Santa Barbara Remote Sensing. The THEMIS investigation is led by Dr. Philip Christensen at Arizona State University. Lockheed Martin Astronautics, Denver, is the prime contractor for the Odyssey project, and developed and built the orbiter. Mission operations are conducted jointly from Lockheed Martin and from JPL, a division of the California Institute of Technology in Pasadena.

  2. Eastern Floor of Holden Crater

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    (Released 15 April 2002) The Science Today's THEMIS image covers territory on the eastern floor of Holden Crater, which is located in region of the southern hemisphere called Noachis Terra. Holden Crater is 154 km in diameter and named after American Astronomer Edward Holden (1846-1914). This image shows a mottled surface with channels, hills, ridges and impact craters. The largest crater seen in this image is 5 km in diameter. This crater has gullies and what appears to be horizontal layers in its walls. The Story With its beautiful symmetry and gullies radially streaming down to the floor, the dominant crater in this image is an impressive focal point. Yet, it is really just a small crater within a much larger one named Holden Crater. Take a look at the context image to the right to see just how much bigger Holden Crater is. Then come back to the image strip that shows the mottled surface of Holden Crater's eastern floor in greater detail, and count how many hills, ridges, channels, and small impact craters can be seen. No perfectly smooth terrain abounds there, that's for sure. The textured terrain of Holden Crater has been particularly intriguing ever since the Mars Orbital Camera on the Mars Global Surveyor spacecraft found evidence of sedimentary rock layers there that might have formed in lakes or shallow seas in Mars' ancient past. This finding suggests that Mars may have been more like Earth long ago, with water on its surface. Holden Crater might even have held a lake long ago. No one knows for sure, but it's an exciting possibility. Why? If water was once on the surface of Mars long enough to form sedimentary materials, maybe it was there long enough for microbial life to have developed too. (Life as we know it just isn't possible without the long-term presence of liquid water.) The question of life on the red planet is certainly tantalizing, but scientists will need to engage in a huge amount of further investigation to begin to know the answer. That

  3. Yes, Holden Should Read These Books.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lisman, C. David

    1989-01-01

    Counters Donald Barr's assertion that works such as J. D. Salinger's "Catcher in the Rye" and William Golding's "Lord of the Flies" are unfit reading material for adolescents ("Should Holden Caufield Read These Books?""New York Times Book Review," May 4, 1986). Shows how these works address adolescents'…

  4. Impact and Aqueous Strata in Holden Crater, Mars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grant, J. A.; Irwin, R. P.; Grotzinger, J. P.; Milliken, R. E.; Tornabene, L. L.; McEwen, A. S.

    2007-12-01

    Images from the High Resolution Imaging Science Experiment (HiRISE) on the Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter (MRO) at 26-52 cm/pixel scales reveal a sequence of exposed impact megabreccia and sedimentary units in the Noachian-aged Holden crater in Margaritifer Terra, Mars (26S, 326E, 154 km diameter). Formation of Holden crater interrupted the previously through-flowing Uzboi-Ladon-Margaritifer (ULM) outflow channel system and excavated sediments deposited by ULM within the pre-existing (Early Noachian) Holden impact basin. Crater walls display variably rounded, poorly sorted, chaotically arranged, and variably bright blocks up to 50 m across residing within a finer matrix. These characteristics suggest a possible origin for many blocks as sedimentary materials excavated from the pre-impact Holden basin and these materials are interpreted as coarse, impact- fragmented megabreccia. At least 150 m of sedimentary facies partially fill the crater and were emplaced during two wet phases during the Noachian. Early prolonged erosion of crater walls and basin deposition in a quiescent distal alluvial or lacustrine setting resulted in a lower light-toned unit displaying meter- to submeter-scale bedding traceable for up to kilometers and containing phyllosilicates, but with few resolvable blocks. The lower unit is topographically restricted and capped by a thin, dark-toned layer commonly exhibiting 4-5-m-diameter polygonal fractures that may record a terminal playa phase. Later-Noachian high-magnitude flooding of the crater occurred as an impounded Uzboi Vallis lake overtopped the crater rim and rapidly emplaced a topographically restricted darker- toned, more crudely bedded deposit that drapes unconformably over antecedent relief and envelops large blocks (up to 100 m across) of material eroded from the lower unit. The upper unit exhibits alluvial morphology near the crater rim breach, but grades distally an upwards into more continuously bedded, possible lacustrine facies that

  5. Oxidation mechanisms of CF2Br2 and CH2Br2 induced by air nonthermal plasma.

    PubMed

    Schiorlin, Milko; Marotta, Ester; Dal Molin, Marta; Paradisi, Cristina

    2013-01-02

    Oxidation mechanisms in air nonthermal plasma (NTP) at room temperature and atmospheric pressure were investigated in a corona reactor energized by +dc, -dc, or +pulsed high voltage.. The two bromomethanes CF(2)Br(2) and CH(2)Br(2) were chosen as model organic pollutants because of their very different reactivities with OH radicals. Thus, they served as useful mechanistic probes: they respond differently to the presence of humidity in the air and give different products. By FT-IR analysis of the postdischarge gas the following products were detected and quantified: CO(2) and CO in the case of CH(2)Br(2), CO(2) and F(2)C ═ O in the case of CF(2)Br(2). F(2)C ═ O is a long-lived oxidation intermediate due to its low reactivity with atmospheric radicals. It is however removed from the NTP processed gas by passage through a water scrubber resulting in hydrolysis to CO(2) and HF. Other noncarbon containing products of the discharge were also monitored by FT-IR analysis, including HNO(3) and N(2)O. Ozone, an important product of air NTP, was never detected in experiments with CF(2)Br(2) and CH(2)Br(2) because of the highly efficient ozone depleting cycles catalyzed by BrOx species formed from the bromomethanes. It is concluded that, regardless of the type of corona applied, CF(2)Br(2) reacts in air NTP via a common intermediate, the CF(2)Br radical. The possible reactions leading to this radical are discussed, including, for -dc activation, charge exchange with O(2)(-), a species detected by APCI mass spectrometry.

  6. Geology of Holden Crater and the Holden and Ladon Multi-Ring Impact Basins, Margaritifer Terra, Mars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Irwin, R. P., III; Grant, J. A.

    2008-01-01

    Geologic mapping at 1:500K scale of Mars quads 15s027, 20s027, 25s027, and 25s032 (Fig. 1) is in progress to constrain the geologic and geomorphic history of southwestern Margaritifer Terra. This work builds on earlier maps at 1:5M [1] and 1:15M scales [2], recent to concurrent 1:500Kscale mapping of adjacent areas to the east [3-5], and studies of drainage basin evolution along the Uzboi-Ladon-M (ULM; the third valley in the sequence has no formal name) Valles basin overflow system and nearby watersheds [6-9]. Two of the six landing sites under consideration for the Mars Science Laboratory rover are in this map area, targeting finely layered, phyllosilicate-rich strata and alluvial fans in Holden crater [10-12] (26degS, 34degW, 150 km diameter) or deposits southeast of a likely delta in Eberswalde crater [13-16] (24degS, 33degW, 50 km in diameter). Diverse processes including larger and smaller impacts, a wide range in fluvial activity, and local to regional structural influences have all affected the surface morphology.

  7. Slow Nonradiative Decay for Rare Earths in KPb2Br5 and RbPb2Br5

    SciTech Connect

    Rademaker, K; Petermann, K; Huber, G; Krupke, W; Page, R; Payne, S; Yelisseyev, A; Isaenko, L; Roy, U; Burger, A; Mandal, K; Nitsch, K

    2004-02-27

    We report on spectroscopic investigations of Nd{sup 3+}- and Tb{sup 3+}- doped low phonon energy, moisture-resistant host crystals, KPb{sub 2}Br{sub 5} and RbPb{sub 2}Br{sub 5}, and their potential to serve as new solid state laser materials at new wavelengths, especially in the long wavelength infrared region. This includes emission spectra, emission lifetime measurements, Raman scattering spectra as well as calculations of the multiphonon decay rate, radiative lifetimes and quantum efficiencies for relevant (laser) transitions in these crystals.

  8. Lifetime studies in H2/Br2 fuel cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barna, G. G.; Frank, S. N.; Teherani, T. H.; Weedon, L. D.

    1984-09-01

    A fully computerized system has been set up for the life testing of H2 electrodes in 48 percent HBr, and of H2/Br2 fuel cells. Given a fuel cell design with dry H2 and no anolyte loop, the prime parameters influencing the operating lifetime are the hydrophobicity of the anode and the electrolyte transport property of the membrane. A systematic optimization of all the parameters has generated fuel cells that have operated for 10,000h at 2 A/sq in., with no significant degradation.

  9. Edward Singleton Holden (1846-1914): His career at the U. S. Naval Observatory from 1873 to 1881

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Corbin, Brenda G.

    2010-01-01

    Edward Singleton Holden (1846-1914) held many positions during his career, including: astronomer at the U. S. Naval Observatory, Director of Washburn Observatory, President of the University of California, Director of Lick Observatory, and finally, Librarian at West Point. This presentation covers his tenure at the Naval Observatory. Educated at Washington University under Chauvenet, he went on to further study at West Point, graduating 3rd in his class in 1870. He resigned his commission in the Army in 1873 to become an astronomer at the Naval Observatory. He first assisted William Harkness on the transit circle and then Simon Newcomb took an interest in him and became an early mentor. When the 26-inch Clark refractor was completed in 1873, Holden was assigned to assist Newcomb. In 1875 Asaph Hall took over the 26-inch and Holden continued in this position. One of Holden's major accomplishments at the Observatory was the publication of the Monograph of the central parts of the nebula of Orion in 1882. He meticulously gathered all images of the central part of the nebula known at that time, beginning with a drawing by Huygens in 1656. These images, which were later used in the published volume, are mounted in a manuscript book held in the Observatory Library. Holden thought the relative brightness of certain parts of the nebula changed over time and tried to verify this theory. However, in 1882, his friend Henry Draper took a photographic image of the nebula with an exposure of 137 minutes which Holden readily accepted and included in the monograph. He immediately realized that photography was the tool of the future and would give a reliable, permanent record that later did indeed prove his theory was incorrect. Holden's work in the libraries of the Naval Observatory and West Point will also be discussed.

  10. Combined vacuum ultraviolet laser and synchrotron pulsed field ionization study of CH2BrCl.

    PubMed

    Li, Juan; Yang, Jie; Mo, Yuxiang; Lau, K C; Qian, X M; Song, Y; Liu, Jianbo; Ng, C Y

    2007-05-14

    The pulsed field ionization-photoelectron (PFI-PE) spectrum of bromochloromethane (CH2BrCl) in the region of 85,320-88,200 cm-1 has been measured using vacuum ultraviolet laser. The vibrational structure resolved in the PFI-PE spectrum was assigned based on ab initio quantum chemical calculations and Franck-Condon factor predictions. At energies 0-1400 cm-1 above the adiabatic ionization energy (IE) of CH2BrCl, the Br-C-Cl bending vibration progression (nu1+=0-8) of CH2BrCl+ is well resolved and constitutes the major structure in the PFI-PE spectrum, whereas the spectrum at energies 1400-2600 cm-1 above the IE(CH2BrCl) is found to exhibit complex vibrational features, suggesting perturbation by the low lying excited CH2BrCl+(A 2A") state. The assignment of the PFI-PE vibrational bands gives the IE(CH2BrCl)=85,612.4+/-2.0 cm-1 (10.6146+/-0.0003 eV) and the bending frequencies nu1+(a1')=209.7+/-2.0 cm-1 for CH2BrCl+(X2A'). We have also examined the dissociative photoionization process, CH2BrCl+hnu-->CH2Cl++Br+e-, in the energy range of 11.36-11.57 eV using the synchrotron based PFI-PE-photoion coincidence method, yielding the 0 K threshold or appearance energy AE(CH2Cl+)=11.509+/-0.002 eV. Combining the 0 K AE(CH2Cl+) and IE(CH2BrCl) values obtained in this study, together with the known IE(CH2Cl), we have determined the 0 K bond dissociation energies (D0) for CH2Cl+-Br (0.894+/-0.002 eV) and CH2Cl-Br (2.76+/-0.01 eV). We have also performed CCSD(T, full)/complete basis set (CBS) calculations with high-level corrections for the predictions of the IE(CH2BrCl), AE(CH2Cl+), IE(CH2Cl), D0(CH2Cl+-Br), and D0(CH2Cl-Br). The comparison between the theoretical predictions and experimental determinations indicates that the CCSD(T, full)/CBS calculations with high-level corrections are highly reliable with estimated error limits of <17 meV.

  11. A2BR Adenosine Receptor Modulates Sweet Taste in Circumvallate Taste Buds

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Dan; Shultz, Nicole; Vandenbeuch, Aurelie; Ravid, Katya; Kinnamon, Sue C.; Finger, Thomas E.

    2012-01-01

    In response to taste stimulation, taste buds release ATP, which activates ionotropic ATP receptors (P2X2/P2X3) on taste nerves as well as metabotropic (P2Y) purinergic receptors on taste bud cells. The action of the extracellular ATP is terminated by ectonucleotidases, ultimately generating adenosine, which itself can activate one or more G-protein coupled adenosine receptors: A1, A2A, A2B, and A3. Here we investigated the expression of adenosine receptors in mouse taste buds at both the nucleotide and protein expression levels. Of the adenosine receptors, only A2B receptor (A2BR) is expressed specifically in taste epithelia. Further, A2BR is expressed abundantly only in a subset of taste bud cells of posterior (circumvallate, foliate), but not anterior (fungiform, palate) taste fields in mice. Analysis of double-labeled tissue indicates that A2BR occurs on Type II taste bud cells that also express Gα14, which is present only in sweet-sensitive taste cells of the foliate and circumvallate papillae. Glossopharyngeal nerve recordings from A2BR knockout mice show significantly reduced responses to both sucrose and synthetic sweeteners, but normal responses to tastants representing other qualities. Thus, our study identified a novel regulator of sweet taste, the A2BR, which functions to potentiate sweet responses in posterior lingual taste fields. PMID:22253866

  12. Psychometric evaluation of the Holden Communication Scale (HCS) for persons with dementia

    PubMed Central

    Strøm, Benedicte Sørensen; Engedal, Knut; Šaltytė Benth, Jūratė; Grov, Ellen-Karine

    2016-01-01

    Objective To investigate the psychometric properties of the Holden Communication Scale (HCS) and the association between scores on HCS and cognitive function among persons with dementia. Method Internal consistency was assessed by the Cronbach's α coefficient and inter-item correlations. Test-retest was carried out to test the instrument's stability. An exploratory factor analysis with the principal components extraction method and oblimin rotation was performed to evaluate construct validity. Pearson's correlation coefficients were calculated to explore associations between the scores on the HCS and cognitive function. Results A total of 128 persons with moderate-to-severe cognitive impairment (mean Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE) score 8.9 (SD 7.0)) participated. The mean age was 85.2 (SD 7.2) and 101 of the participants were women. The Cronbach's α of the HCS was 0.94 and test-retest reliability was r=0.71. The corrected item-total correlation ranged from 0.63 to 0.79 and factor analysis showed a 1-factor structure of the HCS, which explained 63% of the variance. However, a forced 3-factor structure explained 76% of the variance. The correlation between cognitive function as measured by the MMSE and ability to communicate as measured with HCS was found to be moderate for those with an MMSE score of 0–10 (−0.61) and low for persons with an MMSE score of 11–20 (−0.06). Conclusions The HCS is a reliable and valid scale for assessing communication ability in persons with moderate and severe cognitive impairment, and might have a 1-factor or 3-factor structure. PMID:27965255

  13. Optical pump-probe processes in Nd 3+ doped KPb2Br5, RbPb2Br5, and KPb2CI5

    SciTech Connect

    Rademaker, K; Huber, G; Payne, S A; Osiac, E; Isaenko, L I

    2004-10-28

    Recently, laser activity has been achieved in the low phonon energy, moisture-resistant bromide host crystals, neodymium-doped potassium lead bromide (Nd{sup 3+}:KPb{sub 2}Br{sub 5}) and rubidium lead bromide (Nd{sup 3+}:RbPb{sub 2}Br{sub 5}). Laser activity at 1.07 {micro}m was observed for both crystalline materials. Laser operation at the new wavelengths 1.18 {micro}m and 0.97 {micro}m resulting from the {sup 4}F{sub 5/2}+{sup 2}H{sub 9/2} {yields} {sup 4}I{sub J} transitions (J=13/2 and 11/2) in Nd:RPB was achieved for the first time in a solid state laser material. In this paper we present cw pump-probe spectra in order to discuss excited state absorption, reabsorption processes due to the long lived lower laser levels as well as possible depopulation mechanisms feasible for more efficient laser operation in these crystals. The bromides will be compared with potassium lead chloride (Nd{sup 3+}:KPb{sub 2}Cl{sub 5}).

  14. A novel Bi-based oxybromide SrBiO{sub 2}Br: Synthesis, optical property and photocatalytic activity

    SciTech Connect

    He, Ying; Huang, Hongwei Zhang, Yihe Li, Xiaowei; Tian, Na; Guo, Yuxi; Luo, Yi

    2015-04-15

    Highlights: • SrBiO{sub 2}Br was first explored as a novel photocatalyst. • SrBiO{sub 2}Br has been successfully synthesized by a solid state reaction. • We systematically synthesized SrBiO{sub 2}Br in different temperature. • SrBiO{sub 2}Br calcinated at 700 °C exhibited the highest photocatalytic activity. - Abstract: A novel Bi-based photocatalyst SrBiO{sub 2}Br with layered structure was successfully synthesized via a solid state reaction method. The as-prepared samples were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and UV–vis diffuse reflectance spectra (DRS). SrBiO{sub 2}Br has an indirect-transition optical band-gap of 2.58 eV. Density functional calculations revealed that conduction band (CB) were composed of the Bi 6p and Br 4s orbitals, and valence band (VB) were occupied by Br 4p and O 2p. The photodecomposition of rhodamine-B (RhB) experiments demonstrated SrBiO{sub 2}Br can be used as photocatalysts under ultraviolet (UV) light and visible light irradiation (λ > 400 nm). The results revealed that SrBiO{sub 2}Br calcinated at 700 °C exhibited the highest photocatalytic activity among the obtained SrBiO{sub 2}Br samples.

  15. Molecular and electronic structure of Re2Br4(PMe3)4

    DOE PAGES

    Johnstone, Erik V.; Poineau, Frederic; Todorova, Tanya K.; ...

    2016-07-07

    The dinuclear rhenium(II) complex Re2Br4(PMe3)4 was prepared from the reduction of [Re2Br8]2– with (n-Bu4N)BH4 in the presence of PMe3 in propanol. The complex was characterized by single-crystal X-ray diffraction (SCXRD) and UV–visible spectroscopy. It crystallizes in the monoclinic C2/c space group and is isostructural with its molybdenum and technetium analogues. The Re–Re distance (2.2521(3) Å) is slightly longer than the one in Re2Cl4(PMe3)4 (2.247(1) Å). The molecular and electronic structure of Re2X4(PMe3)4 (X = Cl, Br) were studied by multiconfigurational quantum chemical methods. The computed ground-state geometry is in excellent agreement with the experimental structure determined by SCXRD. The calculatedmore » total bond order (2.75) is consistent with the presence of an electron-rich triple bond and is similar to the one found for Re2Cl4(PMe3)4. The electronic absorption spectrum of Re2Br4(PMe3)4 was recorded in benzene and shows a series of low-intensity bands in the range 10 000–26 000 cm–1. The absorption bands were assigned based on calculations of the excitation energies with the multireference wave functions followed by second-order perturbation theory using the CASSCF/CASPT2 method. As a result, calculations predict that the lowest energy band corresponds to the δ* → σ* transition, while the next higher energy bands were attributed to the δ* → π*, δ → σ*, and δ → π* transitions.« less

  16. Lifetime studies in H/sub 2//Br/sub 2/ fuel cells

    SciTech Connect

    Barna, G.G.; Frank, S.N.; Teherani, T.H.; Weedon, L.D.

    1984-09-01

    A fully computerized system has been set up for the life testing of H/sub 2/ electrodes in 48% HBr, and of H/sub 2//Br/sub 2/ fuel cells. Given a fuel cell design with dry H/sub 2/ and no anolyte loop, the prime parameters influencing the operating lifetime are the hydrophobicity of the anode and the electrolyte transport property of the membrane. A systematic optimization of all the parameters has generated fuel cells that have operated for 10,000h at 2 A/in./sup 2/, with no significant degradation.

  17. Crystal structure, electronic structure, temperature-dependent optical and scintillation properties of CsCe2Br7

    DOE PAGES

    Wu, Yuntao; Shi, Hongliang; Chakoumakos, Bryan C.; ...

    2015-10-05

    CsCe2Br7 is a self-activated inorganic scintillator that shows promising performance, but the understanding of the important structure-property relationships is lacking. In this work, we conduct a comprehensive study on CCsCe2Br7. The crystal structure of CsCe2Br7 is refined using single crystal X-ray study for the first time. It crystallizes into the orthorhombic crystal system with Pmnb space group. Its electronic structure is revealed by Density Functional Theory (DFT) calculations. Two cerium emission centers are identified and the energy barriers related to the thermal quenching to 4f ground states of Ce3+ for these two Ce centers are evaluated. CsCe2Br7 single crystal hasmore » better light yield and energy resolution than CsCe2Cl7, but with an additional slow decay component of 1.7 s. The existence of a deep trap with a depth of 0.9 eV in CsCe2Cl7 contributes to its higher afterglow level in comparison to that of CsCe2Br7. The most possible point defects in CsCe2Cl7 and CsCe2Br7 are proposed by considering the vapour pressure in the growth atmosphere upon melting point.« less

  18. [(Ph)3PBr][Br7], [(Bz)(Ph)3P]2[Br8], [(n-Bu)3MeN]2[Br20], [C4MPyr]2[Br20], and [(Ph)3PCl]2[Cl2I14]: extending the horizon of polyhalides via synthesis in ionic liquids.

    PubMed

    Wolff, Michael; Okrut, Alexander; Feldmann, Claus

    2011-11-21

    The five polyhalides [(Ph)(3)PBr][Br(7)], [(Bz)(Ph)(3)P](2)[Br(8)], [(n-Bu)(3)MeN](2)[Br(20)], [C(4)MPyr](2)[Br(20)] ([C(4)MPyr] = N-butyl-N-methylpyrrolidinium), and [(Ph)(3)PCl](2)[Cl(2)I(14)] were prepared by the reaction of dibromine and iodine monochloride in ionic liquids. The compounds [(Ph)(3)PBr][Br(7)] and [(Bz)(Ph)(3)P](2)[Br(8)] contain discrete pyramidal [Br(7)](-) and Z-shaped [Br(8)](2-) polybromide anions. [(n-Bu)(3)MeN](2)[Br(20)] and [C(4)MPyr](2)[Br(20)] exhibit new infinite two- and three-dimensional polybromide networks and contain the highest percentage of dibromine ever observed in a compound. [(Ph)(3)PCl](2)[Cl(2)I(14)] also consists of a three-dimensional network and is the first example of an infinite polyiodine chloride. All compounds were obtained from ionic liquids as the solvent that, on the one hand, guarantees for a high stability against strongly oxidizing Br(2) and ICl and that, on the other hand, reduces the high volatility of the molecular halogens.

  19. Density functional characterization of the potential energy surface of the NO 2 + Br reaction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kovačič, S.; Lesar, A.; Hodošček, M.

    2005-09-01

    The potential energy surface of the NO 2 + Br reaction has been investigated at the B3LYP/6-31+G(3df) level of theory. The relative energies have been refined using the CBS-QB3 method. Nitryl bromide, BrNO 2, is formed by N-Br association without an entrance barrier, whereas the both conformers of bromine nitrite, BrONO c and BrONO t, are formed in Br-O association processes possessing no transition state. Calculations based on the possible reaction pathways for the isomerization of BrONO to BrNO 2 showed that the activation energies are too high to account for appreciable nitryl formation from nitrite. A new equilibrium, hypervalent structure, OBrNO, has been characterized.

  20. Enhanced ionic conductivity with Li7O2Br3 phase in Li3OBr anti-perovskite solid electrolyte

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhu, Jinlong; Li, Shuai; Zhang, Yi; Howard, John W.; Lü, Xujie; Li, Yutao; Wang, Yonggang; Kumar, Ravhi S.; Wang, Liping; Zhao, Yusheng

    2016-09-01

    Cubic anti-perovskites with general formula Li3OX (X = Cl, Br, I) were recently reported as superionic conductors with the potential for use as solid electrolytes in all-solid-state lithium ion batteries. These electrolytes are nonflammable, low-cost, and suitable for thermoplastic processing. However, the primary obstacle of its practical implementation is the relatively low ionic conductivity at room temperature. In this work, we synthesized a composite material consisting of two anti-perovskite phases, namely, cubic Li3OBr and layered Li7O2Br3, by solid state reaction routes. The results indicate that with the phase fraction of Li7O2Br3 increasing to 44 wt. %, the ionic conductivity increased by more than one order of magnitude compared with pure phase Li3OBr. Formation energy calculations revealed the meta-stable nature of Li7O2Br3, which supports the great difficulty in producing phase-pure Li7O2Br3 at ambient pressure. Methods of obtaining phase-pure Li7O2Br3 will continue to be explored, including both high pressure and metathesis techniques.

  1. Enhanced ionic conductivity with Li7O2Br3 phase in Li3OBr anti-perovskite solid electrolyte

    DOE PAGES

    Zhu, Jinlong; Li, Shuai; Zhang, Yi; ...

    2016-09-07

    Cubic anti-perovskites with general formula Li3OX (X = Cl, Br, I) were recently reported as superionic conductors with the potential for use as solid electrolytes in all-solid-state lithium ion batteries. These electrolytes are nonflammable, low-cost, and suitable for thermoplastic processing. However, the primary obstacle of its practical implementation is the relatively low ionic conductivity at room temperature. In this work, we synthesized a composite material consisting of two anti-perovskite phases, namely, cubic Li3OBr and layered Li7O2Br3, by solid state reaction routes. The results indicate that with the phase fraction of Li7O2Br3 increasing to 44 wt. %, the ionic conductivity increasedmore » by more than one order of magnitude compared with pure phase Li3OBr. Formation energy calculations revealed the meta-stable nature of Li7O2Br3, which supports the great difficulty in producing phase-pure Li7O2Br3 at ambient pressure. Here, methods of obtaining phase-pure Li7O2Br3 will continue to be explored, including both high pressure and metathesis techniques.« less

  2. Photocatalytic degradation of organic dyes on visible-light responsive photocatalyst PbBiO 2Br

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shan, Zhichao; Wang, Wendeng; Lin, Xinping; Ding, Hanming; Huang, Fuqiang

    2008-06-01

    The layered compound of lead bismuth oxybromide PbBiO 2Br, prepared by conventional solid-state reaction method, has an optical band gap of 2.3 eV, and possesses a good visible-light-response ability. The references, PbBi 2Nb 2O 9, TiO 2-xN x, BiOBr and BiOI 0.8Cl 0.2, which are excellent visible-light-response photocatalysts, were applied to comparatively understand the activity of PbBiO 2Br. Degradation of methyl orange and methylene blue was used to evaluate photocatalytic activity. The results show that PbBiO 2Br is more photocatalytically active than PbBi 2Nb 2O 9, TiO 2-xN x and BiOBr under visible light.

  3. High temporal resolution Br2, BrCl and BrO observations in coastal Antarctica

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Buys, Z.; Brough, N.; Huey, L. G.; Tanner, D. J.; von Glasow, R.; Jones, A. E.

    2013-02-01

    There are few observations of speciated inorganic bromine in polar regions against which to test current theory. Here we report the first high temporal resolution measurements of Br2, BrCl and BrO in coastal Antarctica, made at Halley during spring 2007 using a Chemical Ionisation Mass Spectrometer (CIMS). We find indications for an artefact in daytime BrCl measurements arising from conversion of HOBr, similar to that already identified for observations of Br2 made using a similar CIMS method. Using the MISTRA model, we estimate that the artefact represents a conversion of HOBr to Br2 of the order of several tens of percent, while that for HOBr to BrCl is less but non-negligible. If the artefact is indeed due to HOBr conversion, then nighttime observations were unaffected. It also appears that all daytime BrO observations were artefact-free. Mixing ratios of BrO, Br2 and BrCl ranged from instrumental detection limits to 13 pptv (daytime), 45 pptv (nighttime), and 6 pptv (nighttime), respectively. We see considerable variability in the Br2 and BrCl observations over the measurement period which is strongly linked to the prevailing meteorology, and thus air mass origin. Higher mixing ratios of these species were generally observed when air had passed over the sea-ice zone prior to arrival at Halley, than from over the continent. Variation in the diurnal structure of BrO is linked to previous model work where differences in the photolysis spectra of Br2 and O3 is suggested to lead to a BrO maximum at sunrise and sunset, rather than a noon-time maxima. This suite of Antarctic data provides the first analogue to similar measurements made in the Arctic, and of note is that our maximum measured BrCl (nighttime) is less than half of the maximum measured during a similar period (spring-time) in the Arctic (also nighttime). This difference in maximum measured BrCl may also be the cause of a difference in the Br2 : BrCl ratio between the Arctic and Antarctic. An unusual event

  4. Spin-current injection and detection in κ-(BEDT-TTF){sub 2}Cu[N(CN){sub 2}]Br

    SciTech Connect

    Qiu, Z. Hou, D.; Uruichi, M.; Uchida, K.; Yamamoto, H. M.; Saitoh, E.

    2015-05-15

    Spin-current injection into an organic semiconductor κ-(BEDT-TTF){sub 2}Cu[N(CN){sub 2}]Br film induced by the spin pumping from an yttrium iron garnet (YIG) film. When magnetization dynamics in the YIG film is excited by ferromagnetic or spin-wave resonance, a voltage signal was found to appear in the κ-(BEDT-TTF){sub 2}Cu[N(CN){sub 2}]Br film. Magnetic-field-angle dependence measurements indicate that the voltage signal is governed by the inverse spin Hall effect in κ-(BEDT-TTF){sub 2}Cu[N(CN){sub 2}]Br. We found that the voltage signal in the κ-(BEDT-TTF){sub 2}Cu[N(CN){sub 2}]Br/YIG system is critically suppressed around 80 K, around which magnetic and/or glass transitions occur, implying that the efficiency of the spin-current injection is suppressed by fluctuations which critically enhanced near the transitions.

  5. Finding the missing stratospheric Bry: A global modeling study of CHBr3 and CH2Br2

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liang, Q.; Stolarski, R. S.; Kawa, S. R.; Nielsen, E.; Rodriguez, J. M.; Blake, D. R.; Atlas, E. L.

    2009-12-01

    Recent in situ and satellite measurements suggest a contribution of ~5 (3-8) pptv to the stratospheric inorganic bromine from short-lived bromocarbons. We perform a modeling study of two most important short-lived bromocarbons, bromoform (CHBr3) and dibromomethane (CH2Br2), with a global chemistry climate model, GEOS CCM, to account for this missing stratospheric bromine. We conduct a 10-year GEOS CCM bromine chemistry simulation that includes a detailed representation of oceanic emissions of CHBr3 and CH2Br2, their chemical losses through photolysis and reaction with OH, surface dry deposition of their degradation product, inorganic bromine (Bry), as well as wet scavenging of Bry in large-scale precipitation and convective updrafts. We derive a “top-down” emission estimate of CHBr3 and CH2Br2, using airborne measurements in the troposphere and lower stratosphere (LS) in the Pacific and North America region from nine NASA aircraft campaigns, including PEM-tropics, TRACE-P, INTEX-A, INTEX-B, TC4, STRAT, Pre-AVE, AVE, as well as the most recent mission, ARCTAS. The global oceanic emission of CHBr3 and CH2Br2 are 450 Gg/yr and 62 Gg/yr, respectively, with 60% from open ocean and 40% along coastlines. Our global emission estimate of CHBr3 is likely a low limit due to model’s inadequacy in reproducing the very high surface concentrations near coastlines. An accurate estimate of CH2Br2 emission is largely dependent on the model’s ability in reproducing the OH field. The model simulates well the observed horizontal distribution and vertical gradient of CHBr3 and CH2Br2 from the surface to the LS. Albeit a simple emission scheme assuming no seasonal variations, the model reproduces well the observed seasonal variations of the short-lived bromocarbons with high concentrations in winter and low concentrations in summer. This indicates that the seasonality of short-lived bromocarbons is largely due to seasonality in their chemical loss. At steady state, the inclusion

  6. Observations of Cl2, Br2, and I2 in Coastal Urban Air

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Finley, B. D.; Saltzman, E. S.

    2006-12-01

    Halogen radicals can both produce and destroy ozone in urban air, but there are few direct measurements of reactive halogens and their precursors. This study reports observations of the dihalogens Cl2, Br2, and I2 at a coastal urban site using negative ion atmospheric pressure chemical ionization tandem mass spectrometry. Measurements were made from the Scripps pier, 10 m above the sea surface, from January 1 to January 29, 2006. These are the first measurements of Br2 at a coastal urban site and the first measurements of I2 using triple quadrupole mass spectrometry. Fifteen minute average mixing ratios ranged from below the detection limit of 3 ppt to 28 ppt for Cl2, 20 ppt for Br2, and 11 ppt for I2. Cl2 exhibited a strong diurnal variability, with higher Cl2 levels during the day and lower Cl2 levels at night, suggesting a photochemical production mechanism. I2 also showed a consistent diurnal pattern, exceeding detection limits only during nighttime. I2 was associated with air flow over nearby coastal kelp beds. Br2 was detectable both day and night and did not exhibit a consistent diurnal pattern. The Cl2 levels observed in this study imply significant (> 10 ppb/day) ozone production due to oxidation of hydrocarbons by chlorine atoms. The Br2 levels observed suggest that catalytic destruction of ozone by bromine radicals may also be significant (> 8 ppb/day) in polluted coastal regions. The observed I2 levels imply that iodine radicals do not have a significant impact on ozone levels, accounting for < 1 ppb/day ozone destruction.

  7. Intrusive rocks of the Holden and Lucerne quadrangles, Washington; the relation of depth zones, composition, textures, and emplacement of plutons

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Cater, Fred W.

    1982-01-01

    The core of the northern Cascade Range in Washington consists of Precambrian and upper Paleozoic metamorphic rocks cut by numerous plutons, ranging in age from early Triassic to Miocene. The older plutons have been eroded to catazonal depths, whereas subvolcanic rocks are exposed in the youngest plutons. The Holden and Lucerne quadrangles span a -sizeable and representative part of this core. The oldest of the formations mapped in these quadrangles is the Swakane Biotite Gneiss, which was shown on the quadrangle maps as Cretaceous and older in age. The Swakane has yielded a middle Paleozoic metamorphic age, and also contains evidence of zircon inherited from some parent material more than 1,650 m.y. old. In this report, the Swakane is assigned an early Paleozoic or older age. It consists mostly of biotite gneiss, but interlayered with it are scattered layers and lenses of hornblende schist and gneiss, clinozoisite-epidote gneiss, and quartzite. Thickness of the Swakane is many thousands of meters, and the base is not exposed. The biotite gneiss is probably derived from a pile of siliceous volcanic rocks containing scattered sedimentary beds and basalt flows. Overlying the Swakane is a thick sequence of eugeosynclinal upper Paleozoic rocks metamorphosed to amphibolite grade. The sequence includes quartzite and thin layers of marble, hornblende schist and gneiss, graphitic schist, and smaller amounts of schist and gneiss of widely varying compositions. The layers have been tightly and complexly folded, and, in places, probably had been thrust over the overlying Swakane prior to metamorphism. Youngest of the supracrustal rocks in the area are shale, arkosic sandstone, and conglomerate of the Paleocene Swauk Formation. These rocks are preserved in the Chiwaukum graben, a major structural element of the region. Of uncertain age, but possibly as old as any of the intrusive rocks in the area, are small masses of ultramafic rocks, now almost completely altered to

  8. Efficient Difluoromethylation of Alcohols Using TMSCF2 Br as a Unique and Practical Difluorocarbene Reagent under Mild Conditions.

    PubMed

    Xie, Qiqiang; Ni, Chuanfa; Zhang, Rongyi; Li, Lingchun; Rong, Jian; Hu, Jinbo

    2017-02-09

    A general method for the efficient difluoromethylation of alcohols using commercially available TMSCF2 Br (TMS=trimethylsilyl) as a unique and practical difluorocarbene source is developed. This method allows primary, secondary, and even tertiary alkyl difluoromethyl ethers to be synthesized under weakly basic or acidic conditions. The reaction mainly proceeds through the direct interaction between a neutral alcohol and difluorocarbene, which is different from the difluoromethylation of phenols. Moreover, alcohols containing other moieties that are also reactive toward difluorocarbene can be transformed divergently by using TMSCF2 Br. This research not only solves the synthetic problem of difluorocarbene-mediated difluoromethylation of alcohols, it also provides new insights into the different reaction mechanisms of alcohol difluoromethylation and phenol difluoromethylation with difluorocarbene species.

  9. Ab initio calculations, potential representation and vibrational dynamics of He2Br2 van der Waals complex.

    PubMed

    Valdés, Alvaro; Prosmiti, Rita; Villarreal, Pablo; Delgado-Barrio, Gerardo

    2005-01-22

    An intermolecular potential energy surface for He(2)Br(2) complex in the ground state is calculated at the levels of fourth-order (MP4) Moller-Plesset and coupled-cluster [CCSD(T)] approximations, using large-core pseudopotential for Br atoms and the aug-cc-pV5Z basis set for He. The surface is characterized by three minima and the minimum energy pathways through them. The global minimum corresponds to a linear He-Br(2)-He configuration, while the two other ones to "police-nightstick" and tetrahedral structures. The corresponding well depths are -90.39/-89.18, -81.23/-80.78 and -74.40/-74.02 cm(-1), respectively, at MP4/CCSD(T) levels of theory. It is found that results obtained by summing three-body parametrized HeBr(2) interactions and the He-He interaction are in very good accord with the corresponding MP4/CSSD(T) configuration energies of the He(2)Br(2). Variational calculations using a sum of three-body interactions are presented to study the bound states of the vdW He(2)Br(2) complex. The binding energy D(0) and the corresponding vibrationally averaged structure are determined for different isomers of the cluster and their comparison with the available experimental data is discussed.

  10. Finding the Missing Stratospheric Br(sub y): A Global Modeling Study of CHBr3 and CH2Br2

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Liang, Q.; Stolarski, R. S.; Kawa, S. R.; Nielsen, J. E.; Douglass, A. R.; Rodriguez, J. M.; Blake, D. R.; Atlas, E. L.; Ott, L. E.

    2010-01-01

    Recent in situ and satellite measurements suggest a contribution of 5 pptv to stratospheric inorganic bromine from short-lived bromocarbons. We conduct a modeling study of the two most important short-lived bromocarbons, bromoform (CHBr3) and dibromomethane (CH2Br2), with the Goddard Earth Observing System Chemistry Climate Model (GEOS CCM) to account for this missing stratospheric bromine. We derive a "top-down" emission estimate of CHBr3 and CH2Br2 using airborne measurements in the Pacific and North American troposphere and lower stratosphere obtained during previous NASA aircraft campaigns. Our emission estimate suggests that to reproduce the observed concentrations in the free troposphere, a global oceanic emission of 425 Gg Br yr(exp -1) for CHBr3 and 57 Gg Br yr(exp -l) for CH2Br2 is needed, with 60% of emissions from open ocean and 40% from coastal regions. Although our simple emission scheme assumes no seasonal variations, the model reproduces the observed seasonal variations of the short-lived bromocarbons with high concentrations in winter and low concentrations in summer. This indicates that the seasonality of short-lived bromocarbons is largely due to seasonality in their chemical loss and transport. The inclusion of CHBr3 and CH2Br2 contributes 5 pptv bromine throughout the stratosphere. Both the source gases and inorganic bromine produced from source gas degradation (BrSLS) in the troposphere are transported into the stratosphere, and are equally important. Inorganic bromine accounts for half (2.5 pptv) of the bromine from the inclusion of CHBr3 and CHzBr2 near the tropical tropopause and its contribution rapidly increases to 100% as altitude increases. More than 85% of the wet scavenging of Br(sub y)(sup VSLS) occurs in large-scale precipitation below 500 hPa. Our sensitivity study with wet scavenging in convective updrafts switched off suggests that Br(sub y)(sup SLS) in the stratosphere is not sensitive to convection. Convective scavenging only

  11. Bi3+ Luminescence in ABiO2Cl (A = Sr, Ba) and BaBiO2Br

    SciTech Connect

    Porter-Chapman, Yetta D.; Bourret-Courchesne, Edith E.; Derenzo,Stephen E.

    2007-01-18

    Trivalent bismuth luminescence is reported in three Sillenbismuth oxyhalide phases, SrBiO2Cl, BaBiO2Cl, and BaBiO2Br. Thesecompounds exhibit Bi 6s6->6 s2 emission under UV and X-ray radiation.At room temperature, BaBiO2Cl shows the most intense light emission, withspectral and decay properties similar to those found in Bi4Ge3O12 (BGO).At low temperatures, each phase show an increase in the photoluminescenceintensities and a narrowing of the emission peaks. In contrast to thetemperature dependence of BGO, X-ray excited luminescence intensities ofall three phases remain relatively constant throughout the temperaturerange 10 - 295 K. This result indicates that the Sillen phases undergoless thermal quenching than BGO. The low temperature and room temperatureradio-luminescence decay times were determined from pulsed x-raymeasurements. At room temperature, SrBiO2Cl exhibits faster decays thanBGO, while, BaBiO2Cl and BaBiO2Br have decay times similar toBGO.

  12. Organic-inorganic halide perovskite solar cell with CH3NH3PbI2Br as hole conductor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Shufang; Zhang, Chenming; Bi, Enbing; Miao, Xiaoliang; Zeng, Haibo; Han, Liyuan

    2017-01-01

    Perovskite solar cells (PSCs) have attracted enormous interest as the most remarkably growing photovoltaic devices. With the power conversion efficiencies of PSCs excessing 20%, great challenges have been focused on the issues of cost and long-term stability which are majorly related to the hole transport materials. In contrast, the PSCs without special hole conductors show great potential for commercial applications due to their cost-effective and fairly stable features. However, the inferior charge separation at the CH3NH3PbI3 (MAPbI3) and back electrode interface limits the cells for high efficiency. Our strategy is to arrange suitable energy band alignment at the interface to enhance the charge separation. We herein report a MAPbI3/MAPbI2Br cascade structured PSC with MAPbI2Br majorly acting as a hole conductor. The conversion efficiency of the PSCs is greatly improved and a high efficiency of 15.83% is achieved. This new design of using organic-inorganic halide perovskites as hole conductors provides an efficient approach for improving the performance of low-cost PSCs.

  13. Shape and phase evolution from CsPbBr3 perovskite nanocubes to tetragonal CsPb2Br5 nanosheets with an indirect bandgap.

    PubMed

    Li, Guopeng; Wang, Hui; Zhu, Zhifeng; Chang, Yajing; Zhang, Ting; Song, Zihang; Jiang, Yang

    2016-09-13

    Tetragonal CsPb2Br5 nanosheets were obtained by an oriented attachment of orthorhombic CsPbBr3 nanocubes, involving a lateral shape evolution from octagonal to square. Meanwhile, the experimental results, together with DFT simulation results, indicated that the tetragonal CsPb2Br5 is an indirect bandgap semiconductor that is PL-inactive with a bandgap of 2.979 eV.

  14. Samuel Holden Parsons Lee (1772-1863): American physician, entrepreneur and selfless fighter of the 1798 Yellow Fever epidemic of New London, Connecticut.

    PubMed

    Mattie, James K; Desai, Sukumar P

    2015-02-01

    Samuel Holden Parsons Lee practised medicine at a time when the germ theory of disease had not yet been proposed and antibiotics remained undiscovered. In 1798 he served selflessly as the only physician in town who was willing to battle the Yellow Fever outbreak of New London, Connecticut. Because he practised at the dawn of the age of patent medicine, unfortunately his name also came to be associated with medical quackery. We argue that his contributions have been grossly underestimated. He compounded and vended medications - including bilious pills and bitters - that were gold standards of the day. Moreover, one preparation for treatment of kidney stones led to his sub-specialization in this field and was met with such success that its sale continued for nearly 100 years after his death. While a talented medical man, Lee also had a knack for business, finding success in trading, whaling and real estate.

  15. Ferroelectric properties of the [N(CH3)4]2CoCl2Br2 compound

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ben Rhaiem, Abdallah; Jomni, Fathi; Karoui, Karim; Guidara, Kamel

    2013-03-01

    Synthesis, X-ray powder and Raman description are reported for [N(CH3)4]2CoCl2Br2 compound. The calorimetric study shows three endothermic peaks at 289 K, 323 K and 408 K. The compound crystallizes in the orthorhombic system, space group Pnma with a = 12.384 Å, b = 9.058 Å and c = 15.647 Å. The dielectric spectra were measured in the frequency range 10-1-106 Hz and temperature interval from 200 to 305 K. The dielectric permittivity shows that this compound exhibits a ferroelectric-paraelectric phase transition at 290 K. The frequency dependent permittivity is interpreted in the non-Debye model. The temperature dependence of the low frequency limit of the bulk AC conductivity σdc is well described by the Arrhenius equation: σdc = σ0 exp(-Ea/kT).

  16. Br2, BrCl, BrO and surface ozone in coastal Antarctica: a meteorological and chemical analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Buys, Z.; Brough, N.; Huey, G.; Tanner, D.; von Glasow, R.; Jones, A. E.

    2012-04-01

    There is much debate over the source of bromine radicals in the atmosphere that drives polar boundary layer ozone depletion events (ODEs), but there is strong evidence to suggest a source associated with the sea ice zone. Here we report the first high temporal resolution measurements of Br2, BrCl and BrO in coastal Antarctica, made using a Chemical Ionisation Mass Spectrometer (CIMS). Mixing ratios ranged from instrumental detection limits to 13 pptv for BrO, 45 pptv for Br2, and 6 pptv for BrCl. We find evidence for blowing snow as a source of reactive bromine both directly during a storm and subsequently from recycling of bromide deposited on the continental snowpack. An unusual event of trans-continental air mass transport might have been responsible for severe surface ozone depletion observed at Halley. The halogen source region was the Bellingshausen Sea, to the west of the Antarctic Peninsula, the air mass having spent 3 1/2 days in complete darkness prior to arrival at Halley. We, further, identify an artefact in daytime BrCl measurements arising from conversion of HOBr, similar to that already identified for CIMS observations of Br2. Model calculations using the MISTRA 0-D model suggest a 50-60% conversion of HOBr to Br2, and 5-10% conversion to BrCl. Careful data filtering enabled us to use the halogen observations, in conjunction with the MISTRA model, to explore the temperature dependence of the Br2:BrCl ratio. We find evidence of a ratio shift towards Br2 at temperatures below ~-21 °C, suggesting a relationship with hydrohalite (NaCl.2H2O) precipitation. This suite of Antarctic data provides the first analogue to similar measurements made in the Arctic.

  17. Solvent dependent branching between C-I and C-Br bond cleavage following 266 nm excitation of CH{sub 2}BrI

    SciTech Connect

    Anderson, Christopher P.; Spears, Kenneth G.; Wilson, Kaitlynn R.; Sension, Roseanne J.

    2013-11-21

    It is well known that ultraviolet photoexcitation of halomethanes results in halogen-carbon bond cleavage. Each halogen-carbon bond has a dominant ultraviolet (UV) absorption that promotes an electron from a nonbonding halogen orbital (n{sub X}) to a carbon-halogen antibonding orbital (σ*{sub C-X}). UV absorption into specific transitions in the gas phase results primarily in selective cleavage of the corresponding carbon-halogen bond. In the present work, broadband ultrafast UV-visible transient absorption studies of CH{sub 2}BrI reveal a more complex photochemistry in solution. Transient absorption spectra are reported spanning the range from 275 nm to 750 nm and 300 fs to 3 ns following excitation of CH{sub 2}BrI at 266 nm in acetonitrile, 2-butanol, and cyclohexane. Channels involving formation of CH{sub 2}Br + I radical pairs, iso-CH{sub 2}Br-I, and iso-CH{sub 2}I-Br are identified. The solvent environment has a significant influence on the branching ratios, and on the formation and stability of iso-CH{sub 2}Br-I. Both iso-CH{sub 2}Br-I and iso-CH{sub 2}I-Br are observed in cyclohexane with a ratio of ∼2.8:1. In acetonitrile this ratio is 7:1 or larger. The observation of formation of iso-CH{sub 2}I-Br photoproduct as well as iso-CH{sub 2}Br-I following 266 nm excitation is a novel result that suggests complexity in the dissociation mechanism. We also report a solvent and concentration dependent lifetime of iso-CH{sub 2}Br-I. At low concentrations the lifetime is >4 ns in acetonitrile, 1.9 ns in 2-butanol and ∼1.4 ns in cyclohexane. These lifetimes decrease with higher initial concentrations of CH{sub 2}BrI. The concentration dependence highlights the role that intermolecular interactions can play in the quenching of unstable isomers of dihalomethanes.

  18. Ultrafast Dynamics of Strong-Field Dissociative Ionization of CH2Br2 Probed by Femtosecond Soft X-Ray Transient Absorption Spectroscopy

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2008-06-24

    ultrafast C–Br bond dissociation, producing both neutral Br (2P3/2) and Br* (2P1/2) atoms together with the CH2Br+ fragment ion . The measured rise...electronic symmetry of the resulting ion ; alignment of the Br—Br, H—H, and C2 axis of the molecule along the polarization axis results in the...production of the ion ( )22~ BX , ( )12~ BB and ( )12~ AC states, respectively. At higher peak intensities (6.2 × 1014 W/cm2), CH2Br2+ undergoes

  19. Quantum mechanical calculations of vibrational population inversion in chemical reactions - Numerically exact L-squared-amplitude-density study of the H2Br reactive system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zhang, Y. C.; Zhang, J. Z. H.; Kouri, D. J.; Haug, K.; Schwenke, D. W.

    1988-01-01

    Numerically exact, fully three-dimensional quantum mechanicl reactive scattering calculations are reported for the H2Br system. Both the exchange (H + H-prime Br to H-prime + HBr) and abstraction (H + HBR to H2 + Br) reaction channels are included in the calculations. The present results are the first completely converged three-dimensional quantum calculations for a system involving a highly exoergic reaction channel (the abstraction process). It is found that the production of vibrationally hot H2 in the abstraction reaction, and hence the extent of population inversion in the products, is a sensitive function of initial HBr rotational state and collision energy.

  20. Photoelectron imaging of atomic chlorine and bromine following photolysis of CH{sub 2}BrCl

    SciTech Connect

    Hua Linqiang; Shen Huan; Hu Changjin; Zhang Bing

    2008-12-28

    Photoionization of chlorine and bromine atoms following photodissociation of CH{sub 2}BrCl was studied in the wavelength range of 231-238 nm by photoelectron imaging technique. Final state-specific speed and angular distributions of the photoelectron were recorded. Analysis of relative branching ratios to different levels of Cl{sup +} and Br{sup +} revealed that the final ion level distributions are generally dominated by the preservation of the ion-core configuration of the intermediate resonant state. Some J{sub c} numbers of the intermediate states were newly assigned according to this regulation. The configuration interaction between resonant states and the autoionization in the continuum were also believed to play an important role in the ionization process since some ions that deviate from the regulation mentioned ahead were observed. The angular distributions of the electrons were found to be well characterized by {beta}{sub 2} and {beta}{sub 4}, although the ionization process of chlorine and bromine atoms involves three photons.

  1. Matrix isolation and computational study of isodifluorodibromomethane (F{sub 2}CBr-Br): A route to Br{sub 2} formation in CF{sub 2}Br{sub 2} photolysis

    SciTech Connect

    George, Lisa; Kalume, Aimable; Reid, Scott A.; El-Khoury, Patrick Z.; Tarnovsky, Alexander

    2010-02-28

    The photolysis products of dibromodifluoromethane (CF{sub 2}Br{sub 2}) were characterized by matrix isolation infrared and UV/Visible spectroscopy, supported by ab initio calculations. Photolysis at wavelengths of 240 and 266 nm of CF{sub 2}Br{sub 2}:Ar samples ({approx}1:5000) held at {approx}5 K yielded iso-CF{sub 2}Br{sub 2} (F{sub 2}CBrBr), a weakly bound isomer of CF{sub 2}Br{sub 2}, which is characterized here for the first time. The observed infrared and UV/Visible absorptions of iso-CF{sub 2}Br{sub 2} are in excellent agreement with computational predictions at the B3LYP/aug-cc-pVTZ level. Single point energy calculations at the CCSD(T)/aug-cc-pVDZ level on the B3LYP optimized geometries suggest that the isoform is a minimum on the CF{sub 2}Br{sub 2} potential energy surface, lying some 55 kcal/mol above the CF{sub 2}Br{sub 2} ground state. The energies of various stationary points on the CF{sub 2}Br{sub 2} potential energy surface were characterized computationally; taken with our experimental results, these show that iso-CF{sub 2}Br{sub 2} is an intermediate in the Br+CF{sub 2}Br{yields}CF{sub 2}+Br{sub 2} reaction. The photochemistry of the isoform was also investigated; excitation into the intense 359 nm absorption band resulted in isomerization to CF{sub 2}Br{sub 2}. Our results are discussed in view of the rich literature on the gas-phase photochemistry of CF{sub 2}Br{sub 2}, particularly with respect to the existence of a roaming atom pathway leading to molecular products.

  2. Kinetics of the reactions of HBr with O3 and HO2: The yield of HBr from HO2 + BrO

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mellouki, Abdelwahid; Talukdar, Ranajit K.; Howard, Carleton J.

    1994-01-01

    An upper limit on the yield of HBr from reaction (R1) (HO2 + BrO yields products) has been determined by measuring an upper limit for the rate coefficient of the reverse reaction (R1') (HBr + O3 yields HO2 + BrO). The limits measured at 300 and 441 K were extrapolated to low temperatures to determine that the yield of HBr from reaction (R1) is negligible throughout the stratosphere (less than 0.01% of k(sub 1)). An upper limit for the rate coefficient of the reaction of HO2 with HBr was also determined to be very low less than or equal to 3 x 10(exp -17) cu cm/molecule/sec at 300 K and less than or equal to 3 x 10(exp -16) cu cm/molecule/sec at 400 K. The implications of these results to stratospheric chemistry are discussed.

  3. The superacid HBr/AlBr(3) : protonation of benzene and ordered crystal structure of [C(6)H(7)](+)[Al(2)Br(7)](-).

    PubMed

    Scholz, Franziska; Himmel, Daniel; Eisele, Lea; Unkrig, Wiebke; Krossing, Ingo

    2014-02-03

    Crystalline and properly ordered protonated benzene as the [C6 H7 ](+) [Al2 Br7 ](-) ⋅(C6 H6 ) salt 1 are obtained by the combination of solid AlBr3 , benzene, and HBr gas. Compound 1 was characterized and verified by NMR, Raman and X-Ray spectroscopy. This unexpected simple and straight forward access shows that HBr/AlBr3 is an underestimated superacid that should be used more frequently.

  4. Nqrs Data for C10H10Br4Ga2N2 [Br4Ga2·2(C5H5N)] (Subst. No. 1230)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chihara, H.; Nakamura, N.

    This document is part of Subvolume A `Substances Containing Ag … C10H15' of Volume 48 `Nuclear Quadrupole Resonance Spectroscopy Data' of Landolt-Börnstein - Group III `Condensed Matter'. It contains an extract of Section `3.2 Data tables' of the Chapter `3 Nuclear quadrupole resonance data' providing the NQRS data for C10H10Br4Ga2N2 [Br4Ga2·2(C5H5N)] (Subst. No. 1230)

  5. A new potential energy surface for H[sub 2]Br and its use to calculate branching ratios and kinetic isotope effects for the H + HBr reaction

    SciTech Connect

    Lynch, G.C.; Truhlar, D.G. ); Brown, F.B.; Zhao, J.G. )

    1995-01-05

    We have carried out multireference configuration interaction calculations with a large basis set for the H[sub 2]Br system at 104 geometries preselected for convenient use in fitting an analytic potential energy surface for the reactions H + HBr [yields] H[sub 2]Br and H + H[prime]Br [yields] H[prime] + HBr. The external part of the correlation energy is scaled (SEC method) to yield a 101 geometry data set which is fitted using the extended London -Eyring-Polanyi-Sato method with bond-distance- and internal-angle-dependent Sato parameters plus a three-center term localized at the colinear H-Br-H saddle point. The unweighted root-mean-square error for 88 points corresponding to collinear and bent H-H-Br geometries and collinear H-Br-H geometries is 0.55 kcal/mol, with larger deviations for bent H-Br-H geometries. Rate constants were calculated by combining the new analytic potential energy surface with improved canonical variational transition state theory and the least-action semiclassical tunneling approximation. For the abstraction reaction, H + HBr [yields] H[sub 2] + Br, and four deuterium and muonium isotopic analogs, agreement with experiment is very good. 87 refs., 11 figs., 30 tabs.

  6. Organic Superconductor k-(BEDT-TTF)2Cu[N(CN)2]Br - A Tunable Electronic System across the Mott Transition -

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tokumoto, M.; Kinoshita, N.; Tanaka, Y.; Kinoshita, T.; Anzai, H.

    1998-03-01

    k-(BEDT-TTF)2Cu[N(CN)2]Br, is an organic superconductor with the highest Tc of 11.6K at ambient pressure (A. M. Kini et al., Inorg. Chem. 29, 2555 (1990)). We have reported a normal isotope effect,when all the hydrogen atoms of BEDT-TTF are replaced with deuterium, in other words, Tc was depressed by as much as 0.9 K (M. Tokumoto et al., J. Phys. Soc. Jpn. 60, 1426 (1991)), in contrast to the "inverse isotope effect" commonly observed in organic superconductors (K. Oshima, et al., Synth. Metals 27, A473 (1988)) . Recently, it was reported that the deuterated k-(BEDT-TTF)2Cu[N(CN)2]Br is of an insulating nature similar to k-(BEDT-TTF)2Cu[N(CN)2]Cl when cooled rapidly(Y. Nakazawa and K. Kanoda, Phys. Rev. B 53, R8875 (1996)). Here we report on the results of reexamination of the superconducting transition of deuterated k-(BEDT-TTF)2Cu[N(CN)2]Br by SQUID measurements with special attention to the cooling speed ranging from 10K/min to less than 0.01K/min. We observed a significant effect not only on the superconducting transition temperature Tc but also on the superconducting volume fraction.

  7. Ultrafast dynamics of strong-field dissociative ionization ofCH2Br2 probed by femtosecond soft x-ray transient absorptionspectroscopy

    SciTech Connect

    Loh, Zhi-Heng; Leone, Stephen R.

    2008-01-15

    Femtosecond time-resolved soft x-ray transient absorption spectroscopy based on a high-order harmonic generation source is used to investigate the dissociative ionization of CH{sub 2}Br{sub 2} induced by 800 nm strong-field irradiation. At moderate peak intensities (2.0 x 10{sup 14} W/cm{sup 2}), strong-field ionization is accompanied by ultrafast C-Br bond dissociation, producing both neutral Br ({sup 2}P{sub 3/2}) and Br* ({sup 2}P{sub 1/2}) atoms together with the CH{sub 2}Br{sup +} fragment ion. The measured rise times for Br and Br* are 130 {+-} 22 fs and 74 {+-} 10 fs, respectively. The atomic bromine quantum state distribution shows that the Br/Br* population ratio is 8.1 {+-} 3.8 and that the Br {sup 2}P{sub 3/2} state is not aligned. The observed product distribution and the timescales of the photofragment appearances suggest that multiple field-dressed potential energy surfaces are involved in the dissociative ionization process. In addition, the transient absorption spectrum of CH{sub 2}Br{sub 2}{sup +} suggests that the alignment of the molecule relative to the polarization axis of the strong-field ionizing pulse determines the electronic symmetry of the resulting ion; alignment of the Br-Br, H-H, and C{sub 2} axis of the molecule along the polarization axis results in the production of the ion {tilde X}({sup 2}B{sub 2}), {tilde B}({sup 2}B{sub 1}) and {tilde C}({sup 2}A{sub 1}) states, respectively. At higher peak intensities (6.2 x 10{sup 14} W/cm{sup 2}), CH{sub 2}Br{sub 2}{sup +} undergoes sequential ionization to form the metastable CH{sub 2}Br{sub 2}{sup 2+} dication. These results demonstrate the potential of core-level probing with high-order harmonic transient absorption spectroscopy for studying ultrafast molecular dynamics.

  8. Structural characterization and ferroelectric ordering in (C{sub 3}N{sub 2}H{sub 5}){sub 5}Sb{sub 2}Br{sub 11}

    SciTech Connect

    Piecha, A.; Pietraszko, A.; Bator, G.; Jakubas, R.

    2008-05-15

    A ferroelectric crystal (C{sub 3}N{sub 2}H{sub 5}){sub 5}Sb{sub 2}Br{sub 11} has been synthesized. The single crystal X-ray diffraction studies (at 300, 155, 138 and 121 K) show that it is built up of discrete corner-sharing bioctahedra Sb{sub 2}Br{sub 11}{sup 5-} and highly disordered imidazolium cations. The room temperature crystal structure has been determined as monoclinic, space group, P2{sub 1}/n with: a=9.139A, b=15.150A and c=13.969A and {beta}=96.19{sup 0}. The crystal undergoes three solid-solid phase transitions: (tetragonal?)<-{sup 354/352}P2{sub 1}/n(I{r_reversible}II) discontinuous, P2{sub 1}/n<-{sup 145}Pn(II{r_reversible}III) continuous and Pn<-{sup 120/135}Pn(III{r_reversible}IV) discontinuous. The dielectric and pyroelectric measurements allow us to characterize the low temperature phases III and IV as ferroelectric with the Curie point at 145 K and the saturated spontaneous polarization value of the order of 1.8x10{sup -3}Cm{sup -2} along the a-axis (135 K). The ferroelectric phase transition mechanism at 145 K is due to the dynamics of imidazolium cations. - Crystal packing down the a-axis in (C{sub 3}N{sub 2}H{sub 5}){sub 5}Sb{sub 2}Br{sub 11} in plane II at 155 K.

  9. Ambiphilic properties of SF5CF2CF2Br derived perfluorinated radical in addition reactions across carbon-carbon double bonds.

    PubMed

    Dudziński, Piotr; Matsnev, Andrej V; Thrasher, Joseph S; Haufe, Günter

    2015-03-06

    The extraordinary properties of the pentafluorosulfanyl (SF5) group attract attention of organic chemists. While numerous SF5-substituted compounds have been synthesized, the direct introduction of SF5(CF2)n moieties has remained almost unexplored. Our investigations revealed the ambiphilic character of the SF5CF2CF2 radical. Addition reactions to electron-rich or electron-deficient alkenes profit either from its electrophilic or nucleophilic properties. Thus, the readily available SF5CF2CF2Br proved to be a promising and versatile building block for the introduction of this perfluorinated moiety.

  10. Brooklyn Green, North Green, South Green, & West Green, parts ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Brooklyn Green, North Green, South Green, & West Green, parts of Brown Road, Canterbury Road (Route 169), Hartford Road (Route 6), Hyde Road, Pomfret Road (Route 169), Prince Hill Road, Providence Road (Route 6), Wauregan Road (Routes 169 & 205), & Wolf Den Road, Brooklyn, Windham County, CT

  11. Kinetics of the reactions of HBr with O{sub 3} and HO{sub 2}: The yield of HBr from HO{sub 2} + BrO

    SciTech Connect

    Mellouki, A.; Talukdar, R.K.; Howard, C.J.

    1994-11-20

    An upper limit on the yield of HBr from reaction (R1) (HO{sub 2} + BrO {yields} products) has been determined by measuring an upper limit for the rate coefficient of the reverse reaction (R1{prime}) (HBr + O{sub 3} {yields} HO{sub 2} + BrO). The limits measured at 300 and 441 K were extrapolated to low temperatures to determine that the yield of HBr from reaction (R1) is negligible throughout the stratosphere (<0.01% of k{sub 1}). An upper limit for the rate coefficient of the reaction of HO{sub 2} with HBr was also determined to be very low {le} 3 x 10{sup {minus}17}cm{sup 3}molecule{sup {minus}1}s{sup {minus}1} at 300 K and {le} 3 x 10{sup {minus}16}cm{sup 3}molecule{sup {minus}1}s{sup {minus}1} at 400 K. The implications of these results to stratospheric chemistry are discussed. 18 refs., 1 fig., 6 tabs.

  12. Inhomogeneous 1H NMR spin-lattice relaxation in the organic superconductor kappa-(BEDT-TTF)2Cu[N(CN)2]Br

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gezo, Joseph Christopher

    The two-dimensional superconductors based on the organic molecule "ET" have been an active area of research since their discovery over two decades ago. The member of this family with the highest critical temperature, kappa-(ET)2Cu[N(CN)2]Br ( Tc=11.7 K), has seen renewed interest since the observation of an anomalous Nernst signal by Nam et al in 2007 [51]. A similar effect was seen earlier by Ong's group in some of the high-temperature cuprate superconductors by [78,84]. This is interpreted to be evidence of a picture of superconductivity in which the resistive transition is driven by thermal fluctuations in the phase of the superconducting order parameter. Below Tc, these fluctuations take the form of bound vortex-antivortex pairs that have no long-range effect on the phase. At Tc, they undergo a Kosterlitz-Thouless unbinding transition; the unbound vortices destroy long-range phase coherence. Previously reported proton NMR measurements on this material have shown a high sensitivity to vortex motion, but reported no interesting behavior above the phase transition [15,25,42]. In this thesis, we revisit the 1H NMR properties of kappa-(ET)2Cu[N(CN)2]Br, paying specific attention to the spin-lattice relaxation, to look for some fingerprint of the phenomenon observed by Nam et al.

  13. Electronic structure and properties of Cd4As2Br3 and Cd4Sb2I3, analogues of CdSe and CdTe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roy, Anand; Suchitra; Manjunath, K.; Ahmad, Tokeer; Waghmare, Umesh V.; Rao, C. N. R.

    2017-04-01

    Substitution of aliovalent anions in metal oxides and chalcogenides significantly affects the electronic structure and properties of the materials. Thus, substitution of P3- and Cl- in CdS decreases the band gap and favorably influences the photocatalytic activity. Complete substitution of a trivalent (A3-) and a monovalent (B-) anions in a cadmium chalcogenides, CdX, should give rise to a material of the composition Cd A0.5B0.5 or Cd2AB, but a compound with the composition Cd4P2Cl3 (or Cd2PCl1.5) is obtained in the case of CdS. We have investigated the analogous compounds, Cd4As2Br3 and Cd4Sb2I3, wherein the anions in CdSe and CdTe are substituted by As, Br and Sb, I respectively. These compounds are direct band gap semiconductors with a band gap of 1.8-1.9 eV and a photoluminescence band in the visible region. First-principles calculations show both Cd4As2Br3 and Cd4Sb2I3 to be direct band gap semiconductors. The arsenic bromide is predicted to be photochemically more active for HER than the antimony iodide.

  14. Structure of the intermediate Zr/sub 2/Br/sub 2/H by neutron diffraction and its structural and bonding relationships to other phases

    SciTech Connect

    Wijeyesekera, S.D.; Corbett, J.D.

    1986-12-17

    The structures of the isomorphous Zr/sub 2/Br/sub 2/D and Zr/sub 2/Br/sub 2/H have been solved and refined by using Rietveld techniques on pulsed neutron diffraction data obtained from the powdered samples at 14 K (C2/m, a = 19.437 (3) A, b = 3.5253 (4) A, c = 5.9036 (6) A, ..beta.. = 100.98 (1)/sup 0/, R(profile)/R(expected) = 2.44 for the deuteride). The structure consists of layers sequenced Br-Zr-H-H-Zr-Br and arranged such that hydride lies in zigzag chains of distorted metal tetrahedra (or butterflies) (d(Zr-D) = 2.03-2.20 A; d(D-D) = 2.93 A). The structure is intermediate between ZrBr (ccp) and ZrBrH (hcp heavy atoms, double H in trigonal-antiprismatic interstices) and can be generated by concerted intraslab slippage from either. The hemihydride effectively retains most of the strong Zr-Zr bonding of the ZrBr parent while tetrahedral bonding of hydrogen to metal is gained that is absent in ZrBrH. The energetics associated with the contrasting structures of YClH/sub x/ (ZrBr type) and ZrBrH are considered in terms of the results of extended-Hueckel band calculations. 25 references, 7 figures, 3 tables.

  15. Low-energy dissociative electron attachment to CH2Br2, CHClBr2, and CCl3Br: Intermediate lifetimes and decay energetics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Parthasarathy, R.; Finch, C. D.; Wolfgang, J.; Nordlander, P.; Dunning, F. B.

    1998-11-01

    Dissociative electron attachment to the brominated methanes CH2Br2, CHClBr2, and CCl3Br is investigated by measuring the velocity and angular distributions of negative ions produced through electron transfer in collisions with velocity selected K(np) Rydberg atoms. The data are analyzed with the aid of a Monte Carlo collision code that models the detailed kinematics of the reactions. Measurements with CH2Br2 show that essentially all the excess energy of reaction appears in translation, indicating that the electron is captured directly into an antibonding orbital. Data for CHClBr2 show that reaction proceeds by two channels: in the first, essentially all the excess energy appears in translation; in the second, limited conversion of the excess energy to internal motions occurs, pointing to a CHClBr2-* intermediate lifetime of ˜0.1 to 1 ps. In the case of CCl3Br, electron transfer leads to the formation of both Br- and Cl- ions. Br- production is again associated with two channels: in one, essentially all the excess energy appears in translation; in the other, near statistical redistribution of the excess energy occurs prior to dissociation, pointing to a relatively long-lived (τ˜several ps) CCl3Br-* intermediate. Data for Cl- production suggest only limited energy transfer to internal motions. Possible reaction mechanisms for the various channels are discussed with the aid of ab initio calculations.

  16. Uniaxial Orientational Order-Disorder Transitions in Diammine Magnesium Halides, Mg(ND 3) 2Cl 2 and Mg (ND 3) 2Br 2, Investigated by Neutron Diffraction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leineweber, A.; Jacobs, H.; Fischer, P.; Böttger, G.

    2001-02-01

    Neutron powder diffraction on Mg(ND3)2Cl2 and Mg(ND3)2Br2 revealed as a function of temperature uniaxial orientational order-disorder behavior of the ND3 groups. The crystal structures of both compounds are built up from chains of octahedra 1∞[Mg(NH3)2X4/2] with X=Cl and Br arranged in different ways relative to each other. At ambient temperatures (X=Cl) and 270 K (X=Br) the ND3 groups are disordered with respect to a rotation about the bond Mg-N. The D atom density is well described by a fourfold split position, each D "site" connecting an N with an X atom: Mg(ND3)2Cl2, Cmmm, a=8.1828(6) Å, b=8.2007(6) Å, c=3.7543(2) Å, R(F2)Bragg=5.9%; Mg(ND3)2Br2, Pbam, a=5.9714(2) Å, b=11.9175(3) Å, c=3.98477(8) Å, R(F2)Bragg=7.9%. In both cases the c axis corresponds to the direction of the chains 1∞[Mg(NH3)2X4/2]. At low temperatures (8 K (X=Cl) and 1.5 K (X=Br)) both compounds are ordered with respect to the ND3 groups: They are arranged antiferroelectrically on either side of the chains 1∞[Mg(NH3)2X4/2]. The symmetry is lowered compared to the situation at ambient temperatures and 270 K respectively, which involves in both cases a doubling of the orthorhombic c axis: Mg(ND3)2Cl2, Ibmm, a=8.1319(3) Å, b=8.1338(3) Å, c=7.4410(2) Å, R(F2)Bragg=5.9%; Mg(ND3)2Br2, Pnam, a= 5.92837(8) Å, b=11.8448(2) Å, c=7.9117(1) Å, R(F2)Bragg=5.0%. Detailed evaluation of neutron diffraction data of Mg(ND3)2Cl2 as a function of temperature (50 K

  17. Aqueous Two-Phase System (ATPS) Containing Gemini (12-3-12,2Br-)and SDS 1: Phase Diagram and Properties of ATPS

    SciTech Connect

    Shang, Yazhuo; Liu, Honglai; Hu, Ying; Prausnitz, John M.

    2005-07-21

    Two phases coexist in an aqueous system that contains the two surfactants cationic gemini 12-3-12,2Br- and anionic SDS. An aqueous two-phase system (ATPS) is formed in a narrow region of the ternary phase diagram different from that of traditional aqueous cationic-anionic surfactant systems. In that region, the molar ratio of gemini to SDS varies with the total concentration of surfactants. ATPS not only has higher stability but also has longer phase separation time for the new systems than that of the traditional system. Furthermore, the optical properties of ATPS are different at different total concentrations. All of these experimental observations can be attributed to the unique properties of gemini surfactant and the synergy between the cationic gemini surfactant and the anionic surfactant SDS.

  18. New ab initio potential energy surface for BrH2 and rate constants for the H + HBr → H2 + Br abstraction reaction.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Bin; Xie, Changjian; Xie, Daiqian

    2011-03-21

    A global potential energy surface (PES) for the electronic ground state of the BrH(2) system was constructed based on the multireference configuration interaction (MRCI) method including the Davidson's correction using a large basis set. In addition, the spin-orbit correction were computed using the Breit-Pauli Hamiltonian and the unperturbed MRCI wavefunctions in the Br + H(2) channel and the transition state region. Adding the correction to the ground state potential, the lowest spin-orbit correlated adiabatic potential was obtained. The characters of the new potential are discussed. Accurate initial state specified rate constants for the H + HBr → H(2) + Br abstraction reaction were calculated using a time-dependent wave packet method. The predicted rate constants were found to be in excellent agreement with the available experimental values and much better than those obtained from a previous PES.

  19. Temperature dependence of Peierls-Hubbard phase transition in [Pd(cptn)2Br]Br2 studied by scanning tunneling microscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hosomi, Yuka; Yoshida, Shoji; Taninaka, Atsushi; Yoshida, Takefumi; Takaishi, Shinya; Takeuchi, Osamu; Yamashita, Masahiro; Shigekawa, Hidemi

    2016-08-01

    The temperature dependence of the Peierls-Hubbard phase transition in [Pd(cptn)2Br]Br2 (cptn: 1R,2R-diaminocyclopentane) was directly observed using a low-temperature scanning tunneling microscope. A short ligand without alkyl chains was used to form a rigid crystal lattice to reduce the effect of structural changes in the crystal with temperature. The hysteresis in the temperature dependence of the ratio between the areas of the charge density wave (CDW) state produced by the PdII-PdIV mixed-valence state and the Mott-Hubbard (MH) state with a PdIII-averaged valence state which is a characteristic of the first-order phase transition, was directly observed at the atomic scale. Pinning of the CDW phase by defects was observed below the critical temperature, suggesting the growth of the CDW phase with defects as nuclei.

  20. Pressure and temperature dependence kinetics study of the NO + BrO yielding NO2 + Br reaction - Implications for stratospheric bromine photochemistry

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Watson, R. T.; Sander, S. P.; Yung, Y. L.

    1979-01-01

    The reactivity of NO with BrO radicals over a wide range of pressure (100-700 torr) and temperature (224-398 K) is investigated using the flash photolysis-ultraviolet absorption technique. The flash photolysis system consists of a high-pressure xenon arc light source, a reaction cell/gas filter/flash lamp combination, and a 216.5 half-meter monochromator/polychromator/spectrography for wavelength selectivity. The details of the reaction and its corresponding Arrhenius expression are identified. The results are compared with previous measurements, and atmospheric implications of the reaction are discussed. The NO + BrO yielding NO2 + Br reaction is shown to be important in controlling the concentration ratios of BrO/Br and BrO/HBr in the stratosphere, but this reaction does not affect the catalytic efficiency of BrOx in ozone destruction.

  1. The Interaction of Complexes Mn(PPhMe2)Br2 and Mn(PEt3)Br2 with Sulfur Dioxide.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-09-26

    RD-Ai57 164 THE INTERACTION OF COMPLEXES NN(PPHNE2)BR2 AND i/I NN(PET3)BR2 WITH SULFUR DIOXIDE(U) AUBURN UNIV AL DEPT OF CHEMISTRY W E HILL ET AL. is...JUL 85 UNCLASSIFIED NS@i4-83-K-8637 F/G 7/4 NL EhEEEEEE J~ ( a A z Tge Interaction of Complexes ift(PWie2)Sr2 mud M(flt3)3r2 with Sulfur R. ill~ S. D...by block number) FIELD GROUP SUB. GR. Infrared Spectroscopy, Manganese Complexes, Sulfur Dioxide 13. ABSTRACT (Contiaue on reiwee itimR7 and ideatafy

  2. Core-to-valence spectroscopic detection of the CH{sub 2}Br radical and element-specific femtosecond photodissociation dynamics of CH{sub 2}IBr

    SciTech Connect

    Attar, Andrew R.; Piticco, Lorena; Leone, Stephen R.

    2014-10-28

    Element-specific single photon photodissociation dynamics of CH{sub 2}IBr and core-to-valence absorption spectroscopy of CH{sub 2}Br radicals are investigated using femtosecond high-harmonic extreme ultraviolet (XUV) transient absorption spectroscopy. Photodissociation of CH{sub 2}IBr along both the C–I or C–Br reaction coordinates is observed in real-time following excitation at 266 nm. At this wavelength, C–I dissociation is the dominant reaction channel and C–Br dissociation is observed as a minor pathway. Both photodissociation pathways are probed simultaneously through individual 4d(I) N{sub 4/5} and 3d(Br) M{sub 4/5} core-to-valence transitions. The 3d(Br) M{sub 4/5} pre-edge absorption spectrum of the CH{sub 2}Br radical photoproduct corresponding to the C–I dissociation channel is characterized for the first time. Although the radical's singly occupied molecular orbital (SOMO) is mostly localized on the central carbon atom, the 3d(Br) → π{sup *}(SOMO) resonances at 68.5 eV and 69.5 eV are detected 2 eV below the parent molecule 3d(Br) → σ{sup *}(LUMO) transitions. Core-to-valence XUV absorption spectroscopy provides a unique probe of the local electronic structure of the radical species in reference to the Br reporter atom. The measured times for C–I dissociation leading to I and I{sup *} atomic products are 48 ± 12 fs and 44 ± 4 fs, respectively, while the measured C–Br dissociation time leading to atomic Br is 114 ± 17 fs. The investigation performed here demonstrates the capability of femtosecond time-resolved core-level spectroscopy utilizing multiple reporter atoms simultaneously.

  3. Crystal structure, thermal, electric and magnetic study of [(CH2)7(NH3)2]CoCl2Br2

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mostafa, M. F.; Abd-elal, S.; Tammam, A. K.

    2014-01-01

    1,7-Heptanediammonium-dichlorodibromo-cobaltate (II), with molecular formula [(CH2)7(NH3)2]CoCl2Br2, has been synthesized. It is triclinic {{P}}bar{1} , a = 7.4042 (4) Å, b = 10.3484 (5) Å, c = 11.3554 (6) Å, α = 66.289 (3)° β = 78.425 (2)°, γ = 86.546 (3)°. Its crystal structure contains distorted tetrahedral [CoCl2Br2]2- anions and zigzag [(CH2)7(NH3)2]2+ cations which are connected via a network of hydrogen bonds. The largest difference in Co-Cl and Co-Br bond lengths are 0.081 Å and largest difference in Br-Co-Cl angles is 8.1°. The compound has been studied by thermal analysis, impedance spectroscopy and magnetic susceptibility. Thermal studies show three phase transitions at T 1 = 378 K, T 2 = 355 K, associated with solid-solid phase change and T 3 = 333.8 K ascribed to chain conformation and reorientation. Permittivity and ac conductivity as a function of temperature (300-395 K) and frequency (0.06 kHz < f < 100 kHz) is presented. AC conductivity is thermally activated in different phases. Conduction is mainly due to Cl- and Br- ion hopping in the high temperature range. Magnetic susceptibility yields an effective magnetic moment μ eff = 4.43 BM and Curie-Weiss temperature, Θ = -4.7 K which confirm tetragonal symmetry of [CoCl4]2- and weak antiferromagnetic interaction at low temperatures.

  4. Stable and low-cost mesoscopic CH3NH3PbI2 Br perovskite solar cells by using a thin poly(3-hexylthiophene) layer as a hole transporter.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Meng; Lyu, Miaoqiang; Yu, Hua; Yun, Jung-Ho; Wang, Qiong; Wang, Lianzhou

    2015-01-02

    Mesoscopic perovskite solar cells using stable CH3 NH3 PbI2 Br as a light absorber and low-cost poly(3-hexylthiophene) (P3HT) as hole-transporting layer were fabricated, and a power conversion efficiency of 6.64 % was achieved. The partial substitution of iodine with bromine in the perovskite led to remarkably prolonged charge carrier lifetime. Meanwhile, the replacement of conventional thick spiro-MeOTAD layer with a thin P3HT layer has significantly reduced the fabrication cost. The solar cells retained their photovoltaic performance well when they were exposed to air without any encapsulation, presenting a favorable stability. The combination of CH3 NH3 PbI2 Br and P3HT may render a practical and cost-effective solid-state photovoltaic system. The superior stability of CH3 NH3 PbI2 Br is also promising for other photoconversion applications.

  5. An examination of the reaction pathways for the HOOOBr and HOOBrO complexes formed from the HO{sub 2} + BrO reaction

    SciTech Connect

    Guha, S.; Francisco, J.S.

    1999-10-07

    The geometries, vibrational spectra, and relative energetics of the HBrO{sub 3} isomers (HOOOBr and HOOBrO) and their transition states have been examined by using the quadratic configuration interaction method in conjunction with various basis sets. From the dissociation energies of the HBrO{sub 3} isomers, it is found that the most energetically favorable process during the HO{sub 2} + BrO reaction pathway is the formation of HOOBrO as an intermediate, and its eventual dissociation into HOBr and O{sub 2}, due to the very low energy barrier (2.8 kcal mol{sup {minus}1}) involved. The HOOOBr species, if formed as an intermediate, will be more likely to dissociate into HBr + O{sub 3} rather than HOBr + O{sub 2}, as the energy barrier for the latter process is quite high (26.4 kcal mol{sup {minus}1}) relative to the energy barrier for the HOOOBr {r{underscore}arrow} HBr + O{sub 3} dissociation process.

  6. Electron spin resonance insight into broadband absorption of the Cu3Bi(SeO3)2O2Br metamagnet

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zorko, A.; Gomilšek, M.; Pregelj, M.; Ozerov, M.; Zvyagin, S. A.; Ozarowski, A.; Tsurkan, V.; Loidl, A.; Zaharko, O.

    2016-05-01

    Metamagnets, which exhibit a transition from a low-magnetization to a high-magnetization state induced by the applied magnetic field, have recently been highlighted as promising materials for controllable broadband absorption. Here we show results of a multifrequency electron spin resonance (ESR) investigation of the Cu3Bi(SeO3)2O2Br planar metamagnet on the kagome lattice. Its mixed antiferromagnetic/ferromagnetic phase is stabilized in a finite range of applied fields around 0.8 T at low temperatures and is characterized by enhanced microwave absorption. The absorption signal is non-resonant and its boundaries correspond to two critical fields that determine the mixed phase. With decreasing temperature these increase like the sublattice magnetization of the antiferromagnetic phase and show no frequency dependence between 100 and 480 GHz. On the contrary, we find that the critical fields depend on the magnetic-field sweeping direction. In particular, the higher critical field, which corresponds to the transition from the mixed to the ferromagnetic phase, shows a pronounced hysteresis effect, while such a hysteresis is absent for the lower critical field. The observed hysteresis is enhanced at lower temperatures, which suggests that thermal fluctuations play an important role in destabilizing the highly absorbing mixed phase.

  7. gem-Difluoroolefination of Diazo Compounds with TMSCF3 or TMSCF2Br: Transition-Metal-Free Cross-Coupling of Two Carbene Precursors.

    PubMed

    Hu, Mingyou; Ni, Chuanfa; Li, Lingchun; Han, Yongxin; Hu, Jinbo

    2015-11-18

    A new olefination protocol for transition-metal-free cross-coupling of two carbene fragments arising from two different sources, namely, a nonfluorinated carbene fragment resulting from a diazo compound and a difluorocarbene fragment derived from Ruppert-Prakash reagent (TMSCF3) or TMSCF2Br, has been developed. This gem-difluoroolefination proceeds through the direct nucleophilic addition of diazo compounds to difluorocarbene followed by elimination of N2. Compared to previously reported Cu-catalyzed gem-difluoroolefination of diazo compounds with TMSCF3, which possesses a narrow substrate scope due to a demanding requirement on the reactivity of diazo compounds and in-situ-generated CuCF3, this transition-metal-free protocol affords a general and efficient approach to various disubstituted 1,1-difluoroalkenes, including difluoroacrylates, diaryldifluoroolefins, as well as arylalkyldifluoroolefins. In view of the ready availability of diazo compounds and difluorocarbene reagents and versatile transformations of 1,1-difluoroalkenes, this new gem-difluoroolefination method is expected to find wide applications in organic synthesis.

  8. A study of the atmospherically important reactions between dimethyl selenide (DMSe) and molecular halogens (X2 = Cl2, Br2, and I2) with ab initio calculations.

    PubMed

    Rhyman, Lydia; Armata, Nerina; Ramasami, Ponnadurai; Dyke, John M

    2012-06-14

    The atmospherically relevant reactions between dimethyl selenide (DMSe) and the molecular halogens (X(2) = Cl(2), Br(2), and I(2)) have been studied with ab initio calculations at the MP2/aug-cc-pVDZ level of theory. Geometry optimization calculations showed that the reactions proceed from the reagents to the products (CH(3)SeCH(2)X + HX) via three minima, a van der Waals adduct (DMSe:X(2)), a covalently bound intermediate (DMSeX(2)), and a product-like complex (CH(3)SeCH(2)X:HX). The computed potential energy surfaces are used to predict what molecular species are likely to be observed in spectroscopic experiments such as gas-phase photoelectron spectroscopy and infrared matrix isolation spectroscopy. It is concluded that, for the reactions of DMSe with Cl(2) and Br(2), the covalent intermediate should be seen in spectroscopic experiments, whereas, in the DMSe + I(2) reaction, the van der Waals adduct DMSe:I(2) should be observed. Comparison is made with previous related calculations and experiments on dimethyl sulfide (DMS) with molecular halogens. The relevance of the results to atmospheric chemistry is discussed. The DMSeX(2) and DMSe:X(2) intermediates are likely to be reservoirs of molecular halogens in the atmosphere which will lead on photolysis to ozone depletion.

  9. Theory of coexisting CDW-SDW in (TMTTF)_2Br, (TMTSF)_2X and α-(BEDT-TTF)_2MHg(SCN)_4

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Campbell, D. K.; Clay, R. Torsten; Ramasesha, S.; Mazumdar, S.

    1998-03-01

    Within conventional theories of spatial broken symmetries, CDW and SDW with same periodicities do not coexist. Recent X-ray scattering experiments on (TMTTF)_2Br and (TMTSF)_2PF6 have, however, determined that the 2kF SDWs in these systems are accompanied by 2kF CDWs (J.P. Pouget and S. Ravy, Synth. Metals 85, 1523 (1997)). Similar CDW-SDW coexistence has also been claimed in the α-(BEDT-TTF)_2MHg(SCN)4 (K. Miyagawa et al., Phys. Rev. B (1997)). We present a microscopic theory of coexisting CDW-SDW in these materials. We show that a complete understanding of the unconventional natures of the insulating phases in these materials is obtained only upon explicit inclusion of the strong Coulomb interactions between the holes on the organic molecules, the proper band-filling, lattice discreteness, and the anisotropic two-dimensional nature of the lattice within the starting Hamiltonian. Detailed exact and quantum Monte Carlo results are presented.

  10. One-photon mass-analyzed threshold ionization spectroscopy of CH2BrI: Extensive bending progression, reduced steric effect, and spin-orbit effect in the cation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Mina; Kim, Hyoseok; Lee, Yoon Sup; Kim, Myung Soo

    2005-07-01

    One-photon mass-analyzed threshold ionization (MATI) spectrum of CH2BrI was obtained using coherent vacuum-ultraviolet radiation generated by four-wave difference-frequency mixing in Kr. Unlike CH2ClI investigated previously, a very extensive bending (Br-C-I) progression was observed. Vibrational frequencies of CH2BrI+ were measured from the spectra and the vibrational assignments were made by utilizing frequencies calculated by the density-functional-theory (DFT) method using relativistic effective core potentials with and without the spin-orbit terms. A noticeable spin-orbit effect on the vibrational frequencies was observed from the DFT calculations, even though its influence was not so dramatic as in CH2ClI+. A simple explanation based on the bonding characteristics of the molecular orbitals involved in the ionization is presented to account for the above differences between the MATI spectra of CH2BrI and CH2ClI. The 0-0 band of the CH2BrI spectrum could be identified through the use of combined data from calculations and experiments. The adiabatic ionization energy determined from the position of this band was 9.5944±0.0006eV, which was significantly smaller than the vertical ionization energy reported previously.

  11. Crystal structure, NMR study, dielectric relaxation and AC conductivity of a new compound [Cd3(SCN)2Br6(C2H9N2)2]n

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saidi, K.; Kamoun, S.; Ayedi, H. Ferid; Arous, M.

    2013-11-01

    The crystal structure, the 13C NMR spectroscopy and the complex impedance have been carried out on [Cd3(SCN)2Br6(C2H9N2)2]n. Crystal structure shows a 2D polymeric network built up of two crystallographically independent cadmium atoms with two different octahedral coordinations. This compound exhibits a phase transition at (T=355±2 K) which has been characterized by differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), X-rays powder diffraction, AC conductivity and dielectric measurements. Examination of 13C CP/MAS line shapes shows indirect spin-spin coupling (14N and 13C) with a dipolar coupling constant of 1339 Hz. The AC conductivity of this compound has been carried out in the temperature range 325-376 K and the frequency range from 10-2 Hz to 10 MHz. The impedance data were well fitted to two equivalent electrical circuits. The results of the modulus study reveal the presence of two distinct relaxation processes. One, at low frequency side, is thermally activated due to the ionic conduction of the crystal and the other, at higher frequency side, gradually disappears when temperature reaches 355 K which is attributed to the localized dipoles in the crystal. Moreover, the temperature dependence of DC-conductivity in both phases follows the Arrhenius law and the frequency dependence of σ(ω,T) follows Jonscher's universal law. The near values of activation energies obtained from the conductivity data and impedance confirm that the transport is through the ion hopping mechanism.

  12. Biochemical Characterization and Pharmacological Properties of New Basic PLA2 BrTX-I Isolated from Bothrops roedingeri (Roedinger's Lancehead) Mertens, 1942, Snake Venom

    PubMed Central

    Gomes Heleno, Mauricio Aurelio; Baldasso, Paulo Aparecido; Ponce-Soto, Luis Alberto; Marangoni, Sérgio

    2013-01-01

    BrTX-I, a PLA2, was purified from Bothrops roedingeri venom after only one chromatographic step using reverse-phase HPLC on μ-Bondapak C-18 column. A molecular mass of 14358.69 Da was determined by MALDI-TOF mass spectrometry. Amino acid analysis showed a high content of hydrophobic and basic amino acids as well as 14 half-cysteine residues. The total amino acid sequence was obtained using SwissProt database and showed high amino acid sequence identity with other PLA2 from snake venom. The amino acid composition showed that BrTX-I has a high content of Lys, Tyr, Gly, Pro, and 14 half-Cys residues, typical of a basic PLA2. BrTX-I presented PLA2 activity and showed a minimum sigmoidal behavior, reaching its maximal activity at pH 8.0, 35–45°C, and required Ca2+. In vitro, the whole venom and BrTX-I caused a neuromuscular blockade in biventer cervicis preparations in a similar way to other Bothrops species. BrTX-I induced myonecrosis and oedema-forming activity analyzed through injection of the purified BrTX-I in mice. Since BrTX-I exerts a strong proinflammatory effect, the enzymatic phospholipid hydrolysis might be relevant for these phenomena; incrementing levels of IL-1, IL-6, and TNFα were observed at 15 min, 30 min, one, two, and six hours postinjection, respectively. PMID:23509747

  13. Green Engineering

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Green Engineering is the design, commercialization and use of processes and products that are feasible and economical while reducing the generation of pollution at the source and minimizing the risk to human health and the environment.

  14. Green Roofs

    SciTech Connect

    2004-08-01

    A New Technology Demonstration Publication Green roofs can improve the energy performance of federal buildings, help manage stormwater, reduce airborne emissions, and mitigate the effects of urban heat islands.

  15. Green Giant.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Polo, Marco

    2003-01-01

    Details the design of the Bahen Centre for Information Technology at the University of Toronto, particularly its emphasis on "green," or sustainable, design. Includes floor plans and photographs. (EV)

  16. Code Green.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McMinn, John

    2002-01-01

    Assesses the integrated approach to green design in the new Computer Science Building at Toronto's York University. The building design fulfills the university's demand to combine an energy efficient design with sustainability. Floor and site plans are included. (GR)

  17. Green Infrastructure

    EPA Science Inventory

    Large paved surfaces keep rain from infiltrating the soil and recharging groundwater supplies. Alternatively, Green infrastructure uses natural processes to reduce and treat stormwater in place by soaking up and storing water. These systems provide many environmental, social, an...

  18. Optoelectronic Quality and Stability of Hybrid Perovskites from MAPbI 3 to MAPbI 2 Br Using Composition Spread Libraries

    DOE PAGES

    Braly, Ian L.; Hillhouse, Hugh W.

    2015-12-22

    The development of stable high-bandgap hybrid perovskites (HPs) with high optoelectronic quality may enable tandem solar cells with power conversion efficiencies approaching 30%. The halide composition of HPs has been observed to effect bandgap, carrier lifetime, and material stability. Here we report optoelectronic quality and stability under illumination of thousands of compositions ranging from the pure iodide (CH3NH3PbI3) to the diiodomonobromide (CH3NH3PbI2Br). Hyperspectral maps of steady-state absolute intensity photoluminescence (AIPL) are used to determine the quasi-Fermi level splitting (QFLS) at each point after synthesis. The QFLS upon first illumination increases with bandgap and reaches a maximum of 1.27 eV undermore » 1 sun illumination intensity for a bandgap of 1.75 eV. However, the optoelectronic quality (χ), defined as the ratio of the QFLS to the maximum theoretical QFLS for bandgap, decreases with bandgap from around 88% for 1.60 eV bandgap down to 82% for 1.84 eV bandgap. Further, we show that a reversible light induced defect forms that reduces the optoelectronic quality, particularly for high-bandgap materials. Composition analysis shows that the halide to lead ratio, (I + Br)/Pb, decreases from 3 for the pure iodide to 2.5 for the diiodomonobromide, suggesting a role of halide vacancies or halide substitution defects in the light-induced instability for this synthesis route. Even with the light-induced defect, a stable QFLS of about 1.17 eV is possible. Comparing our QFLS to Voc values from HP devices reported in the literature indicates that higher open circuit voltages are possible but may require optimization of band alignment. Further, the spectral shape of the PL emission is found to be more commensurate with Franz–Keldysh broadening from local electric fields or from a screened Thomas–Fermi density of states (as opposed to a joint density of states due to Urbach disorder).« less

  19. Green Power Partnership Videos

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    The Green Power Partnership develops videos on a regular basis that explore a variety of topics including, Green Power partnership, green power purchasing, Renewable energy certificates, among others.

  20. X-ray fluorescence measurements of organic superconductors {kappa}-(ET){sub 2}Cu[N(CN){sub 2}]Br and {kappa}-(ET){sub 2}Cu(NCS){sub 2}

    SciTech Connect

    Kurmaev, E.Z.; Shamin, S.N.; Xu, Y.; Ching, W.Y.; Moewes, A.; Ederer, D.L.; Yagubskii, E.B.; Kushch, N.D.

    1999-11-01

    The electronic structure of organic superconductors {kappa}-(ET){sub 2}Cu[N(CN){sub 2}]Br and {kappa}-(ET){sub 2}Cu(NCS){sub 2} has been studied in detail by means of soft x-ray fluorescence spectroscopy. Cu L{sub 3}, S L{sub 2,3}, C K{alpha}, and N K{alpha} x-ray emission spectra are measured near the corresponding thresholds with synchrotron radiation. The experimental information about site-selective and symmetry-restricted partial density of states in the valence band of both compounds is compared with first-principles band-structure calculations and ultraviolet photoemission spectra. It is found that copper is monovalent in both compounds indicating that the electron is transferred from (ET) dimer to Cu(NCS){sub 2} and Cu[N(CN){sub 2}]Br and is localized mainly on the Cu site. {copyright} {ital 1999} {ital The American Physical Society}

  1. Green pioneers.

    PubMed

    Trueland, Jennifer

    The government has set tough targets for the NHS in England to reduce its carbon footprint. In this article, nurses and managers at Nottinghamshire Healthcare NHS Trust explain how a programme of 'greening' initiatives - including a trial of electric cars for community staff - have slashed the trust's CO2 output.

  2. Going Green

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Witkowsky, Kathy

    2009-01-01

    Going green saves money and can even make money. Sustainable practices promote better health, less absenteeism, and more productivity. They also attract students, who are paying increasing attention to schools' environmental policies. Beyond being the smart thing to do, administrators at the University of Washington say repeatedly, it's the right…

  3. Green Leaders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kennedy, Mike

    2008-01-01

    More and more people are viewing the world through green-tinted glasses, and those ideas about making school and university facilities more environmentally friendly suddenly are appearing to be prudent and responsible. Among the groups that have been advocating for environmentally friendly school design for years are the Collaborative for High…

  4. Think green.

    PubMed

    Serb, Chris

    2008-08-01

    Hospitals typically don't come to mind when you think about cutting-edge environmental programs, but that's changing. Rising energy costs, the need to replace older facilities, and a growing environmental consciousness have spurred hospitals nationwide to embrace a green ideology. The executive suite is a vocal and active player in these efforts.

  5. Buying Green

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Layng, T. V. Joe

    2010-01-01

    In "Buying Green," Joe Layng recognizes that, like all choices we make, our decisions as consumers are more likely to be influenced by their short-term consequences for us as individuals (price, quality) than they are by their long-term consequences for society (environmental impact). He believes that the equation can be tilted in favor of greener…

  6. Green Power

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schaffhauser, Dian

    2009-01-01

    In the world of higher education, even the most ambitious sustainability plans often begin with tiny steps taken by individual departments. Michael Crowley, a program manager for Environmental Health & Engineering (EH&E) and former assistant director of the Harvard (Massachusetts) Green Campus Initiative, explains that going for small wins through…

  7. Green Manufacturing

    SciTech Connect

    Patten, John

    2013-12-31

    Green Manufacturing Initiative (GMI): The initiative provides a conduit between the university and industry to facilitate cooperative research programs of mutual interest to support green (sustainable) goals and efforts. In addition to the operational savings that greener practices can bring, emerging market demands and governmental regulations are making the move to sustainable manufacturing a necessity for success. The funding supports collaborative activities among universities such as the University of Michigan, Michigan State University and Purdue University and among 40 companies to enhance economic and workforce development and provide the potential of technology transfer. WMU participants in the GMI activities included 20 faculty, over 25 students and many staff from across the College of Engineering and Applied Sciences; the College of Arts and Sciences' departments of Chemistry, Physics, Biology and Geology; the College of Business; the Environmental Research Institute; and the Environmental Studies Program. Many outside organizations also contribute to the GMI's success, including Southwest Michigan First; The Right Place of Grand Rapids, MI; Michigan Department of Environmental Quality; the Michigan Department of Energy, Labor and Economic Growth; and the Michigan Manufacturers Technical Center.

  8. Green Power Partner Resources

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    EPA Green Power Partners can access tools and resources to help promote their green power commitments. Partners use these tools to communicate the benefits of their green power use to their customers, stakeholders, and the general public.

  9. Green Power Community News

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    This page features news about EPA's Green Power Communities. GPCs are a subset of the Green Power Partnership; municipalities or tribal governments where government, businesses, and residents collectively use enough green power to meet GPP requirements.

  10. Green Vehicle Guide

    MedlinePlus

    ... United States Environmental Protection Agency Search Search Green Vehicle Guide Share Facebook Twitter Google+ Pinterest Contact Us ... your needs. Search for a SmartWay Vehicle Green Vehicle Guide ​What is a green vehicle? Alternative fuels ...

  11. Green nanotechnology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smith, Geoff B.

    2011-10-01

    Nanotechnology, in particular nanophotonics, is proving essential to achieving green outcomes of sustainability and renewable energy at the scales needed. Coatings, composites and polymeric structures used in windows, roof and wall coatings, energy storage, insulation and other components in energy efficient buildings will increasingly involve nanostructure, as will solar cells. Nanostructures have the potential to revolutionize thermoelectric power and may one day provide efficient refrigerant free cooling. Nanomaterials enable optimization of optical, opto-electrical and thermal responses to this urgent task. Optical harmonization of material responses to environmental energy flows involves (i) large changes in spectral response over limited wavelength bands (ii) tailoring to environmental dynamics. The latter includes engineering angle of incidence dependencies and switchable (or chromogenic) responses. Nanomaterials can be made at sufficient scale and low enough cost to be both economic and to have a high impact on a short time scale. Issues to be addressed include human safety and property changes induced during manufacture, handling and outdoor use. Unexpected bonuses have arisen in this work, for example the savings and environmental benefits of cool roofs extend beyond the more obvious benefit of reduced heat flows from the roof into the building.

  12. Green chromatography.

    PubMed

    Płotka, Justyna; Tobiszewski, Marek; Sulej, Anna Maria; Kupska, Magdalena; Górecki, Tadeusz; Namieśnik, Jacek

    2013-09-13

    Analysis of organic compounds in samples characterized by different composition of the matrix is very important in many areas. A vast majority of organic compound determinations are performed using gas or liquid chromatographic methods. It is thus very important that these methods have negligible environmental impact. Chromatographic techniques have the potential to be greener at all steps of the analysis, from sample collection and preparation to separation and final determination. The paper summarizes the approaches used to accomplish the goals of green chromatography. While complete elimination of sample preparation would be an ideal approach, it is not always practical. Solventless extraction techniques offer a very good alternative. Where solvents must be used, the focus should be on the minimization of their consumption. The approaches used to make chromatographic separations greener differ depending on the type of chromatography. In gas chromatography it is advisable to move away from using helium as the carrier gas because it is a non-renewable resource. GC separations using low thermal mass technology can be greener because of energy savings offered by this technology. In liquid chromatography the focus should be on the reduction of solvent consumption and replacement of toxic and environmentally hazardous solvents with more benign alternatives. Multidimensional separation techniques have the potential to make the analysis greener in both GC and LC. The environmental impact of the method is often determined by the location of the instrument with respect to the sample collection point.

  13. Electronic structures and spin density distributions of BrO2 and (HO)2BrO radicals. Mechanisms for avoidance of hypervalency and for spin delocalization and spin polarization.

    PubMed

    Glaser, Rainer; Camasta, Cory

    2013-10-21

    The results are reported of an ab initio study of bromine dioxide BrO2, 1, and of the T-shaped trans- and cis-dihydroxides 2 and 3 of dihydrogen bromate (HO)2BrO. The thermochemistry has been explored of potential synthetic routes to (HO)2BrO involving water addition to BrO2, hydroxyl addition to bromous acid HOBrO, 4, protonation/reduction of bromic acid HOBrO2, 5, via tautomers 6-8 of protonated bromic acid, and by reduction/protonation of bromic acid via radical anion [HOBrO2](-), 9. The potential energy surface analyses were performed at the MP2(full)/6-311G* level (or better) and with the consideration of aqueous solvation at the SMD(MP2(full)/6-311G*) level (or better), and higher-level energies were computed at levels up to QCISD(full,T)/6-311++G(2df,2pd)//MP2. The addition of RO radical to bromous acid or bromite esters and the reduction of protonated bromic acid or protonated bromate esters are promising leads for possible synthetic exploration. Spin density distributions and molecular electrostatic potentials were computed at the QCISD(full)/6-311G*//MP2(full)/6-311G* level to characterize the electronic structures of 1-3. Both radicals employ maximally occupied (pseudo) π-systems to transfer electron density from bromine to the periphery. While the formation of the (3c-5e) π-system suffices to avoid hypervalency in 1, the formation of the (4c-7e) π-system in 2 or 3 still leaves the bromine formally hypervalent and (HO)2BrO requires delocalization of bromine density into σ*-SMOs over the trans O-Br-O moiety. Molecular orbital theory is employed to describe the mechanisms for the avoidance of hypervalency and for spin delocalization and spin polarization. The (4c-7e) π-system in 2 is truly remarkable in that it contains five π-symmetric spin molecular orbitals (SMO) with unique shapes.

  14. Specific heat measurements of the gap structure of the organic superconductors {kappa}-(ET){sub 2}Cu[N(CN){sub 2}]Br and {kappa}-(ET){sub 2}Cu(NCS){sub 2}.

    SciTech Connect

    Taylor, O. J.; Carrington, A.; Schlueter, J.; Univ. of Bristol

    2007-01-01

    We present high resolution heat capacity measurements of the organic superconductors {kappa}-(ET){sub 2}Cu[N(CN)2]Br and {kappa}-(ET)2Cu(NCS)2 in fields up to 14 T. We use the high field data to determine the normal state specific heat and hence extract the behavior of the electronic specific heat Cel in the superconducting state in zero and finite fields. We find that in both materials for T/T{sub c} {approx}< 0.3, Cel(H=0){approx}T{sup 2} indicating d-wave superconductivity. The data are well described by a strong coupling d-wave model from our base temperature (T/T{sub c}{approx}0.1) right up to T{sub c}. Our data help to resolve the controversy regarding the order parameter symmetry in these materials.

  15. Potential for RbGd 2Br 7:Ce, LaBr 3:Ce, LaBr 3:Ce, and LuI 3:Ce in nuclear medical imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moses, William W.; Shah, Kanai S.

    2005-01-01

    Several new scintillators (RbGd2Br7:Ce, LaCl3:Ce, LaBr3:Ce, and LuI3:Ce) have excellent energy resolution, high light output, short decay time, and moderate density and effective atomic number, making them attractive for nuclear medical imaging. We analyze how well these four materials meet the requirements for SPECT and PET. Because of their high light output and excellent energy resolution, LaBr3:Ce and LaCl3:Ce have the potential to replace NaI:Tl as the material of choice for SPECT. The light output and energy resolution make LaBr3:Ce and LuI3:Ce the most promising of these scintillators for PET, but their relatively low density and photoelectric fraction make them less attractive than BGO and LSO.

  16. Structural characterization, thermal and electric properties of imidazolium bromoantimonate(III): [C{sub 3}H{sub 5}N{sub 2}]{sub 3}[Sb{sub 2}Br{sub 9}

    SciTech Connect

    Piecha, A.; Kinzhybalo, V.; Slepokura, K.; Jakubas, R.

    2007-01-15

    Tris(imidazolium) nonabromodiantimonate(III), [C{sub 3}H{sub 5}N{sub 2}]{sub 3}[Sb{sub 2}Br{sub 9}], is trimorphic. Its crystal structure has been determined at 100K (form I) and 293K (form II) by X-ray single crystal diffraction in, respectively, the monoclinic space groups, P2{sub 1}/c (form I) and P2{sub 1}/n (form II). In both structures, the anionic sublattice forms corrugated two-dimensional layers in the bc plane. In forms I and II there are, respectively, three and two crystallographically independent imidazolium cations. Two types of cations are present in the structures: the one that occupies cavities within the polyanions layer appears to be ordered in the lowest temperature form I and disordered in form II. The second type of imidazolium cations placed between the layers is ordered over the studied temperature region. The temperature dependence of the lattice parameters has been determined between 100 and 280K. DSC studies indicate a presence of two reversible phase transitions: continuous at 237K (I->II) and discontinuous at 373/351K (heating-cooling) from form II to form III. The phase transition II->III is accompanied by a huge entropy transition ({delta}S{sub II-}>{sub III}) equal to ca. 28Jmol{sup -1}K{sup -1}, which suggests an order (form II)-disorder (form III) transition mechanism. The dielectric relaxation process was found to appear in a low frequency region over the form I with an activation energy ca. 16.5kJ/mol. A polydispersive character of the dielectric dispersion indicates a presence of complex molecular motions of dipolar groups in the title compound. The explanation of mechanism of the I->II phase transition in [C{sub 3}H{sub 5}N{sub 2}]{sub 3}[Sb{sub 2}Br{sub 9}] is proposed.

  17. Green Power Partnership 100 Green Power Users

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    EPA's Green Power Partnership is a voluntary program designed to reduce the environmental impact of electricity generation by promoting renewable energy. Partners on this list use green power to meet 100 of their U.S. organization-wide electricity use.

  18. Fertile green: green facilitates creative performance.

    PubMed

    Lichtenfeld, Stephanie; Elliot, Andrew J; Maier, Markus A; Pekrun, Reinhard

    2012-06-01

    The present research sought to extend the nascent literature on color and psychological functioning by examining whether perception of the color green facilitates creativity. In four experiments, we demonstrated that a brief glimpse of green prior to a creativity task enhances creative performance. This green effect was observed using both achromatic (white, gray) and chromatic (red, blue) contrast colors that were carefully matched on nonhue properties, and using both picture-based and word-based assessments of creativity. Participants were not aware of the purpose of the experiment, and null effects were obtained on participants' self-reported mood and positive activation. These findings indicate that green has implications beyond aesthetics and suggest the need for sustained empirical work on the functional meaning of green.

  19. Urban Greening Bay Area

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Information about the San Francisco Bay Water Quality Project (SFBWQP) Urban Greening Bay Area, a large-scale effort to re-envision urban landscapes to include green infrastructure (GI) making communities more livable and reducing stormwater runoff.

  20. Green Infrastructure Modeling Toolkit

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    EPA's Green Infrastructure Modeling Toolkit is a toolkit of 5 EPA green infrastructure models and tools, along with communication materials, that can be used as a teaching tool and a quick reference resource when making GI implementation decisions.

  1. What Is Green Power?

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    The U.S. EPA's Green Power Partnership defines Green power is a subset of renewable energy and represents those renewable energy resources and technologies that provide the highest environmental benefit.

  2. Green Infrastructure Modeling Tools

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Modeling tools support planning and design decisions on a range of scales from setting a green infrastructure target for an entire watershed to designing a green infrastructure practice for a particular site.

  3. Green Power Markets

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    The U.S. EPA's Green Power Partnership defines Green power is a subset of renewable energy and represents those renewable energy resources and technologies that provide the highest environmental benefit.

  4. Green Power Communities

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    GPCs are towns, villages, cities, counties, or tribal governments in which the local government, businesses, and residents collectively use green power in amounts that meet or exceed EPA's Green Power Community purchase requirements.

  5. Green Power Community Benefits

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    The U.S. EPA's Green Power Partnership is a voluntary program designed to reduce the environmental impact of electricity generation by promoting renewable energy. Learn more about becoming a Green Power Community, including recognition opportunities.

  6. Green Infrastructure Modeling Toolkit

    EPA Science Inventory

    Green infrastructure, such as rain gardens, green roofs, porous pavement, cisterns, and constructed wetlands, is becoming an increasingly attractive way to recharge aquifers and reduce the amount of stormwater runoff that flows into wastewater treatment plants or into waterbodies...

  7. Green Flight Challenge

    NASA Video Gallery

    The CAFE Green Flight Challenge sponsored by Google will be held at the CAFE Foundation Flight Test Center at Charles M. Schulz Sonoma County Airport in Santa Rosa, Calif. The Green Flight Challeng...

  8. Tribal Green Building Toolkit

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    This Tribal Green Building Toolkit (Toolkit) is designed to help tribal officials, community members, planners, developers, and architects develop and adopt building codes to support green building practices. Anyone can use this toolkit!

  9. Green Power Partner List

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    The U.S. EPA's Green Power Partnership is a voluntary program designed to reduce the environmental impact of electricity generation by promoting renewable energy. There are thousands of Green Power Partners, all listed on this page.

  10. Green Streets Help Baltimore, Others

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Fifteen Green Streets, Green Towns, Green Jobs (G3) grants for will support projects in three states, including the conversion of hard surfaces to green space at Sarah’s Hope, a homeless shelter in a troubled Baltimore neighborhood.

  11. Show Me the Green

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Norbury, Keith

    2013-01-01

    Gone are the days when green campus initiatives were a balm to the soul and a drain on the wallet. Today's environmental initiatives are all about saving lots of green--in every sense of the word. The environmental benefits of green campus projects--whether wind turbines or better insulation--are pretty clear. Unfortunately, in today's…

  12. EPA's Green Roof Research

    EPA Science Inventory

    This is a presentation on the basics of green roof technology. The presentation highlights some of the recent ORD research projects on green roofs and provices insight for the end user as to the benefits for green roof technology. It provides links to currently available EPA re...

  13. The Green Man

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Watson-Newlin, Karen

    2010-01-01

    The Jolly Green Giant. Robin Hood. The Bamberg Cathedral. Tales of King Arthur. Ecology. What do they have in common? What legends and ancient myths are shrouded in the tales of the Green Man? Most often perceived as an ancient Celtic symbol as the god of spring and summer, the Green Man disappears and returns year after year, century after…

  14. In the Green

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kennedy, Mike

    2011-01-01

    Education officials used to debate whether they could afford to pursue green design and construction. Now the green movement has gained a foothold not just in education, but in society at large, and the prevailing attitude seems to have shifted. Can schools afford "not" to go green? As budgets are slashed repeatedly, education administrators must…

  15. Green Power Communities Brochure

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    The Green Power Communities Brochure provides basic information about GPP's Green Power Communities (GPCs). The four-page brochure includes information about how to become a GPC, the benefits of procuring green power, and examples of how current GPCs are u

  16. Public Libraries Going Green

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miller, Kathryn

    2010-01-01

    Going green is now a national issue, and patrons expect their library to respond in the same way many corporations have. Libraries are going green with logos on their Web sites, programs for the public, and a host of other initiatives. This is the first book to focus strictly on the library's role in going green, helping you with: (1) Collection…

  17. What Is Green?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pokrandt, Rachel

    2010-01-01

    Green is a question with varying answers and sometimes no answer at all. It is a question of location, resources, people, environment, and money. As green really has no end point, a teacher's goal should be to teach students to question and consider green. In this article, the author provides several useful metrics to help technology teachers…

  18. Spectroscopic ellipsometry thin film and first-principles calculations of electronic and linear optical properties of [(C9H19NH3)2PbI2Br2] 2D perovskite

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abid, H.; Hlil, E. K.; Abid, Y.

    2017-03-01

    In this study we report results of first-principles density functional calculations using the full-potential linearized augmented plane wave (FP-LAPW) method as implemented in the WIEN2K code. We employed the generalized gradient approximation (GGA) for the exchange-correlation energy to calculate electronic and linear optical properties of the (C9H19NH3)2PbI2Br2 compound. The linear optical properties, namely, the real ε1 (ω) and imaginary ε2 (ω) parts of dielectric function, the refractive index n (ω) and the extinction coefficient k (ω) are calculated and compared with experimental spectroscopic ellipsometry spectra. The reflectivity R (ω) and electron energy loss function L (ω) are calculated too. Our calculations performed for band structure and density of states show that the valence band maximum and conduction band minimum are located at Γ point resulting in a direct band gap of about (Γv -Γc) of 2.42 eV in good agreement with the experimental data. The investigated compound has a large uniaxial anisotropy of the dielectric function of about 0.0739 and a negative birefringence at zero energy Δn (0) =-0.11.

  19. Indocyanine green video angiography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Frambach, Donald A.

    1994-06-01

    Over the last two years, ophthalmologists have begun to use indocyanine green angiography as a supplement to fluorescein angiography. Unlike fluorescein, indocyanine green absorbs near infrared and emits slightly longer infrared light. Therefore, indocyanine green angiography images structures deeper in the retina and through blood, pigment, and turbid serous fluid that accumulates in a number of diseases. In addition, indocyanine green shows very different properties of dye leakage than does fluorescein and this can be used to identify certain abnormal blood vessels that grow beneath the retinas of patients with macular degeneration. Finally, indocyanine green fluoresces only 4% as efficiently as fluorescein which has presented a major technical problem until highly amplified video systems have become available to ophthalmologists. We have used a scanning laser ophthalmoscope to perform video indocyanine green angiography at the Doheny Eye Institute since November, 1991. In this paper, I will present several clinical cases that demonstrate the clinical usefulness of indocyanine green angiography.

  20. Molecular elimination of Br{sub 2} in photodissociation of CH{sub 2}BrC(O)Br at 248 nm using cavity ring-down absorption spectroscopy

    SciTech Connect

    Fan He; Tsai, Po-Yu; Lin, King-Chuen; Lin, Cheng-Wei; Yan, Chi-Yu; Yang, Shu-Wei; Chang, A. H. H.

    2012-12-07

    The primary elimination channel of bromine molecule in one-photon dissociation of CH{sub 2}BrC(O)Br at 248 nm is investigated using cavity ring-down absorption spectroscopy. By means of spectral simulation, the ratio of nascent vibrational population in v = 0, 1, and 2 levels is evaluated to be 1:(0.5 {+-} 0.1):(0.2 {+-} 0.1), corresponding to a Boltzmann vibrational temperature of 581 {+-} 45 K. The quantum yield of the ground state Br{sub 2} elimination reaction is determined to be 0.24 {+-} 0.08. With the aid of ab initio potential energy calculations, the obtained Br{sub 2} fragments are anticipated to dissociate on the electronic ground state, yielding vibrationally hot Br{sub 2} products. The temperature-dependence measurements support the proposed pathway via internal conversion. For comparison, the Br{sub 2} yields are obtained analogously from CH{sub 3}CHBrC(O)Br and (CH{sub 3}){sub 2}CBrC(O)Br to be 0.03 and 0.06, respectively. The trend of Br{sub 2} yields among the three compounds is consistent with the branching ratio evaluation by Rice-Ramsperger-Kassel-Marcus method. However, the latter result for each molecule is smaller by an order of magnitude than the yield findings. A non-statistical pathway so-called roaming process might be an alternative to the Br{sub 2} production, and its contribution might account for the underestimate of the branching ratio calculations.

  1. An intercomparison campaign of ground-based UV-visible measurements of NO2, BrO, and OClO slant columns: Methods of analysis and results for NO2

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vandaele, A. C.; Fayt, C.; Hendrick, F.; Hermans, C.; Humbled, F.; van Roozendael, M.; Gil, M.; Navarro, M.; Puentedura, O.; Yela, M.; Braathen, G.; Stebel, K.; TøRnkvist, K.; Johnston, P.; Kreher, K.; Goutail, F.; Mieville, A.; Pommereau, J.-P.; Khaikine, S.; Richter, A.; Oetjen, H.; Wittrock, F.; Bugarski, S.; Frieß, U.; Pfeilsticker, K.; Sinreich, R.; Wagner, T.; Corlett, G.; Leigh, R.

    2005-04-01

    Within the framework of the Network for the Detection of Stratospheric Change (NDSC), an intercomparison campaign of ground-based zenith-sky viewing UV-visible spectrometers was held at the Andøya Rocket Range (69°N, 16°E) at Andenes, Norway, from February 12 to March 8, 2003. The chosen site is classified as a complementary NDSC site. Eight groups from seven countries participated in the campaign which focused on the measurements of slant columns of NO2, BrO, and OClO. This first campaign publication concentrates on measurements of the NO2 slant columns. Different analysis criteria were investigated during the campaign. These included the use of fitting parameters as chosen by each group to provide what they considered to be optimized retrievals. Additional sets of parameters, imposed for all the groups, were also used, including the wavelength interval, absorption cross sections, and species fitted. Each instrument's results were compared to the measurements of selected reference instruments, whose choice was based on a technique combining regression analysis and examination of the residuals with solar zenith angle. Considering the data obtained during the whole campaign for solar zenith angles between 75° and 95°, all instruments agreed within 5% in the case of NO2 with imposed analysis parameters in the 425-450 nm region. Measurements agree less well when retrieving the NO2 slant columns in the 400-418 nm region or when using parameters optimized by each investigator for their instrument.

  2. Greening America's Communities

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Technical assistance program to help cities and towns develop an implementable vision of distinctive, environmentally friendly neighborhoods using green infrastructure and other sustainable design strategies.

  3. Malachite green photosensitive plates.

    PubMed

    Solano, C

    1989-08-15

    An experimental study of the behavior of malachite green sensitized plates was carried out. The transmittance variation of the irradiated plates was taken as a parameter. It has been observed that photoreduction in the malachite green plates is present only when ammonium dichromate is added to the plates. The introduction of external electron donors does not improve the photochemical reaction. It has been determined that malachite green molecules form a weak complex with the dichromate molecules and this complex can only be destroyed photochemically. This effect can explain the limited response of the malachite green dichromated plates.

  4. Green Cleaning Label Power

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Balek, Bill

    2012-01-01

    Green cleaning plays a significant and supportive role in helping education institutions meet their sustainability goals. However, identifying cleaning products, supplies and equipment that truly are environmentally preferable can be daunting. The marketplace is inundated with products and services purporting to be "green" or environmentally…

  5. Greening the Future

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Williamson, Norma Velia

    2011-01-01

    Because educators vicariously touch the future through their students, the author believes that they sometimes have the uncanny ability to see the future. One common future forecast is the phenomenal growth of green jobs in the emerging green economy, leading to the creation of the "Reach of the Sun" Solar Energy Academy at La Mirada…

  6. Green Building Research Laboratory

    SciTech Connect

    Sailor, David Jean

    2013-12-29

    This project provided support to the Green Building Research Laboratory at Portland State University (PSU) so it could work with researchers and industry to solve technical problems for the benefit of the green building industry. It also helped to facilitate the development of PSU’s undergraduate and graduate-level training in building science across the curriculum.

  7. Greening the Curriculum

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kaye, Cathryn Berger

    2012-01-01

    The green concept has tremendous value in schools, especially when it reflects the central purpose and mission of schools: educating young people to participate and civically engage in society. School communities that keep greening the school on the periphery of their awareness will reap advantages, but those that align this idea with the…

  8. Green Chemistry and Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hjeresen, Dennis L.; Schutt, David L.; Boese, Janet M.

    2000-01-01

    Many students today are profoundly interested in the sustainability of their world. Introduces Green Chemistry and its principles with teaching materials. Green Chemistry is the use of chemistry for pollution prevention and the design of chemical products and processes that are environmentally benign. (ASK)

  9. Lighting: Green Light.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Maniccia, Dorine

    2003-01-01

    Explains that by using sustainable (green) building practices, schools and universities can make their lighting systems more efficient, noting that embracing green design principles can help schools attract students. Discusses lighting-control technologies (occupancy sensing technology, daylighting technology, and scheduling based technologies),…

  10. Green Buildings and Health.

    PubMed

    Allen, Joseph G; MacNaughton, Piers; Laurent, Jose Guillermo Cedeno; Flanigan, Skye S; Eitland, Erika Sita; Spengler, John D

    2015-09-01

    Green building design is becoming broadly adopted, with one green building standard reporting over 3.5 billion square feet certified to date. By definition, green buildings focus on minimizing impacts to the environment through reductions in energy usage, water usage, and minimizing environmental disturbances from the building site. Also by definition, but perhaps less widely recognized, green buildings aim to improve human health through design of healthy indoor environments. The benefits related to reduced energy and water consumption are well-documented, but the potential human health benefits of green buildings are only recently being investigated. The objective of our review was to examine the state of evidence on green building design as it specifically relates to indoor environmental quality and human health. Overall, the initial scientific evidence indicates better indoor environmental quality in green buildings versus non-green buildings, with direct benefits to human health for occupants of those buildings. A limitation of much of the research to date is the reliance on indirect, lagging and subjective measures of health. To address this, we propose a framework for identifying direct, objective and leading "Health Performance Indicators" for use in future studies of buildings and health.

  11. Sowing Green Seeds

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yingjun, Chen; Jianzhuang, Rong

    2004-01-01

    This article deals with the development of environmental education Hunan Yueyang Middle School Number One. Famous for its beautiful environment and lush green trees, the school has won titles such as "park" unit, "garden" school, "green school" and "National Advanced Unit for Environmental Education." In…

  12. Custodial Operations: Green & Sustainable

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Campbell, J. Kirk

    2008-01-01

    Custodial Operations can have a significant impact on institutional green and sustainable goals if given the proper support and challenge. This article describes the green and sustainable custodial operations in place at Carleton College in Northfield, Minnesota. The article reviews the college's sustainable efforts on biodegradables, packaging,…

  13. 10 Paths to Green

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kennedy, Mike

    2008-01-01

    Some institutions may feel comfortable with a few baby steps into the green world, while others may be ready to commit totally to environmental consciousness. Here, the author discusses 10 areas in which educators and administrators can beef up their green portfolio. These areas are in: alternative fuel, bikes/walking, water, education tools,…

  14. A Green Clean

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kravitz, Robert

    2006-01-01

    In the professional cleaning industry, green cleaning has been much discussed in the past few years. Usually, the information pertains to the many reasons why a green cleaning program should be started, the steps involved to get the program off the ground, and the potential benefits. However, although many facility managers and school…

  15. Green tea in dermatology.

    PubMed

    Pazyar, Nader; Feily, Amir; Kazerouni, Afshin

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this brief review is to summarize all in vitro, in vivo, and controlled clinical trials on green tea preparations and their uses in dermatology. An extensive literature search was carried out to identify in vivo and in vitro studies as well as clinical trials. Twenty studies were assessed and the results suggest that oral administration of green tea can be effective in the scavenging of free radicals, cancer prevention, hair loss, and skin aging plus protection against the adverse effects associated with psoralen-UV-A therapy. Topical application of green tea extract should be potentially effective for atopic dermatitis, acne vulgaris, rosacea, androgenetic alopecia, hirsutism, keloids, genital warts, cutaneous leishmaniasis, and candidiosis. There are promising results with the use of green tea for several dermatologic conditions; however, the efficacy of oral and topical green tea has not always been confirmed.

  16. Building the green way.

    PubMed

    Lockwood, Charles

    2006-06-01

    Just five or six years ago, the term "green building" evoked visions of barefoot, tie-dyed, granola-munching denizens. There's been a large shift in perception. Of course, green buildings are still known for conserving natural resources by, for example, minimizing on-site grading, using alternative materials, and recycling construction waste. But people now see the financial advantages as well. Well-designed green buildings yield lower utility costs, greater employee productivity, less absenteeism, and stronger attraction and retention of workers than standard buildings do. Green materials, mechanical systems, and furnishings have become more widely available and considerably less expensive than they used to be-often cheaper than their standard counterparts. So building green is no longer a pricey experiment; just about any company can do it on a standard budget by following the ten rules outlined by the author. Reliable building-rating systems like the U.S. Green Building Council's rigorous Leadership in Energy and Environmental Design (LEED) program have done much to underscore the benefits of green construction. LEED evaluates buildings and awards points in several areas, such as water efficiency and indoor environmental quality. Other rating programs include the UK's BREEAM (Building Research Establishment's Environmental Assessment Method) and Australia's Green Star. Green construction is not simply getting more respect; it is rapidly becoming a necessity as corporations push it fully into the mainstream over the next five to ten years. In fact, the author says, the owners of standard buildings face massive obsolescence. To avoid this problem, they should carry out green renovations. Corporations no longer have an excuse for eschewing environmental and economic sustainability. They have at their disposal tools proven to lower overhead costs, improve productivity, and strengthen the bottom line.

  17. Going Green: Greening Your Marketing Efforts

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Germain, Carol Anne

    2009-01-01

    There is no doubt that the "Going Green" movement is in full swing. With global warming and other ecological concerns, people are paying closer attention to environmental issues and striving to live in a more sustainable world. For libraries, this is a perfect opportunity to be active in a campus-wide program and simultaneously promote library…

  18. Collection Development "Green Business": The Green Capitalist

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eagan, Robert

    2009-01-01

    The "greening" of corporate behemoths like Wal-Mart, DuPont, and Toyota has received much media attention in recent years. But consider small businesses: according to the U.S. Small Business Administration, of the estimated 27 million firms in the United States, 99.7 percent have fewer than 500 employees, 97.5 percent have fewer than 20, and more…

  19. Clarkesville Green Infrastructure Implementation Strategy

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    The report outlines the 2012 technical assistance for Clarkesville, GA to develop a Green Infrastructure Implementation Strategy, which provides the basic building blocks for a green infrastructure plan:

  20. Green Light Pulse Oximeter

    DOEpatents

    Scharf, John Edward

    1998-11-03

    A reflectance pulse oximeter that determines oxygen saturation of hemoglobin using two sources of electromagnetic radiation in the green optical region, which provides the maximum reflectance pulsation spectrum. The use of green light allows placement of an oximetry probe at central body sites (e.g., wrist, thigh, abdomen, forehead, scalp, and back). Preferably, the two green light sources alternately emit light at 560 nm and 577 nm, respectively, which gives the biggest difference in hemoglobin extinction coefficients between deoxyhemoglobin, RHb, and oxyhemoglobin, HbO.sub.2.

  1. Superfund Green Remediation

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Green remediation is the practice of considering all environmental effects of site cleanup and incorporating options – like the use of renewable energy resources – to maximize the environmental benefits of cleanups.

  2. Green Ampt approximations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barry, D. A.; Parlange, J.-Y.; Li, L.; Jeng, D.-S.; Crapper, M.

    2005-10-01

    The solution to the Green and Ampt infiltration equation is expressible in terms of the Lambert W-1 function. Approximations for Green and Ampt infiltration are thus derivable from approximations for the W-1 function and vice versa. An infinite family of asymptotic expansions to W-1 is presented. Although these expansions do not converge near the branch point of the W function (corresponds to Green-Ampt infiltration with immediate ponding), a method is presented for approximating W-1 that is exact at the branch point and asymptotically, with interpolation between these limits. Some existing and several new simple and compact yet robust approximations applicable to Green-Ampt infiltration and flux are presented, the most accurate of which has a maximum relative error of 5 × 10 -5%. This error is orders of magnitude lower than any existing analytical approximations.

  3. Green Power Procurement Considerations

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Green power products are available from a variety of different vendors, including utilities, renewable energy certificate (REC) marketers, on-site system integrators, and non-profit organizations. This page lists considerations to evaluate during selection

  4. Green Building Standards

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Many organizations have developed model codes or rating systems that communities may use to develop green building programs or revise building ordinances. Some of the major options are listed on this page.

  5. No More Green Thumbs!

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bland, Judith A.

    1977-01-01

    An alternative method of bacterial spore staining using malachite green is described. This technique is designed to save time and expense by a less messy procedure. Advantages and adaptations of the technique are also given. (MR)

  6. Green Supercomputing at Argonne

    SciTech Connect

    Pete Beckman

    2009-11-18

    Pete Beckman, head of Argonne's Leadership Computing Facility (ALCF) talks about Argonne National Laboratory's green supercomputing—everything from designing algorithms to use fewer kilowatts per operation to using cold Chicago winter air to cool the machine more efficiently.

  7. Green Power Partnership Scope

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    The U.S. EPA's Green Power Partnership is a voluntary partnership program designed to reduce the environmental impact of electricity generation by promoting renewable energy. Organizations can elect to join organization-wide or at the facility level.

  8. Green Power Partnership Requirements

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    The U.S. EPA's Green Power Partnership is a voluntary partnership program designed to reduce the environmental impact of electricity generation by promoting renewable energy. To join, organizations must meet EPA's program requirements.

  9. Understanding Green Flashes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Young, Andrew T.

    1998-05-01

    Most astronomers learn about green flashes from either Minnaert's old book (Dover, 1954) or O'Connell's ``The Green Flash....'' Both have defects. Minnaert's account mostly represents what was known in the 1920s; it repeats Mulder's 3-fold classification, which omits Joule's second type of flash --- the one most commonly seen from mountain observatories. O'Connell searched only the astronomical literature, missing Dietze's crucially important paper (Z.f.Met. 9, 169 (1955)) showing that the ``textbook'' mechanism cannot produce flashes visible to the naked eye. He also erred in thinking that distortions of the setting Sun arise in the upper atmosphere (they are due to the marine boundary layer), and copied an error from Feenstra Kuiper's thesis that misidentified a common mirage-like phenomenon as Wegener's ``blank strip'' (Young et al., Appl. Opt. 36, 2689 (1997).) Most phenomena shown in O'Connell's book are caused by inversion layers below eye level, not above as in Wegener's phenomenon. The two commonest forms of green flash are associated with the inferior mirage and the mock mirage, corresponding to Fisher's Type A and Type B sunsets, respectively. Superrefraction, advocated by Wood and by Rayleigh as the cause of large flashes, actually suppress them: the airmass is proportional to the refraction (by Laplace's extinction theorem), so no green is transmitted when refraction is much larger than average. Although there is a physical green flash that can be photographed, the colors seen at sunset are strongly modified by bleaching of the L cones. Most ``green'' sunset flashes are actually yellow. Writers should stop representing Jules Verne's ``ancient legend'' as fact, as it was invented by Verne as a plot device for his novel ``Le Rayon Vert.'' Green-flash photos and simulations will be shown. This material is based upon work supported by the NSF under Award No. ATM-9714357.

  10. Green Logistics Management

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chang, Yoon S.; Oh, Chang H.

    Nowadays, environmental management becomes a critical business consideration for companies to survive from many regulations and tough business requirements. Most of world-leading companies are now aware that environment friendly technology and management are critical to the sustainable growth of the company. The environment market has seen continuous growth marking 532B in 2000, and 590B in 2004. This growth rate is expected to grow to 700B in 2010. It is not hard to see the environment-friendly efforts in almost all aspects of business operations. Such trends can be easily found in logistics area. Green logistics aims to make environmental friendly decisions throughout a product lifecycle. Therefore for the success of green logistics, it is critical to have real time tracking capability on the product throughout the product lifecycle and smart solution service architecture. In this chapter, we introduce an RFID based green logistics solution and service.

  11. Green Chemistry Pedagogy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kolopajlo, Larry

    2017-02-01

    This chapter attempts to show how the practice of chemistry teaching and learning is enriched by the incorporation of green chemistry (GC) into lectures and labs. To support this viewpoint, evidence from a wide range of published papers serve as a cogent argument that GC attracts and engages both science and nonscience students, enhances chemistry content knowledge, and improves the image of the field, while preparing the world for a sustainable future. Published pedagogy associated with green and sustainable chemistry is critically reviewed and discussed.

  12. Green Supercomputing at Argonne

    ScienceCinema

    Beckman, Pete

    2016-07-12

    Pete Beckman, head of Argonne's Leadership Computing Facility (ALCF) talks about Argonne National Laboratory's green supercomputing—everything from designing algorithms to use fewer kilowatts per operation to using cold Chicago winter air to cool the machine more efficiently. Argonne was recognized for green computing in the 2009 HPCwire Readers Choice Awards. More at http://www.anl.gov/Media_Center/News/2009/news091117.html Read more about the Argonne Leadership Computing Facility at http://www.alcf.anl.gov/

  13. Apollo 15 green glasses.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ridley, W. I.; Reid, A. M.; Warner, J. L.; Brown, R. W.

    1973-01-01

    The samples analyzed include 28 spheres, portions of spheres, and angular fragments from soil 15101. Emerald green glasses from other soils are identical to those from 15101. The composition of the green glass is unlike that of any other major lunar glass group. The Fe content is comparable to that in mare basalts, but Ti is much lower. The Mg content is much higher than in most lunar materials analyzed to date, and the Cr content is also high. The low Al content is comparable to that of mare basalt glasses.

  14. Greening America's Capitals - Charleston, WV

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    This Greening America’s Capitals report outlines design concepts that could improve Slack Plaza in Charleston, WV, by creating more opportunities for local businesses, better managing stormwater runoff, and increasing green space.

  15. Green Building Tools for Tribes

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Tribal green building tools and funding information to support tribal building code adoption, healthy building, siting, energy efficiency, renewable energy, water conservation, green building materials, recycling and adaptation and resilience.

  16. Become a Green Power Partner

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    The U.S. EPA's Green Power Partnership is a voluntary program designed to reduce the environmental impact of electricity generation by promoting renewable energy. Learn more about becoming a Green Power Partner, including recognition opportunities.

  17. Benefits of Green Power Partnership

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    The U.S. EPA's Green Power Partnership is a voluntary partnership program designed to reduce the environmental impact of electricity generation by promoting renewable energy. Learn about the benefits of becoming a Green Power Partner.

  18. Green Power Partnership Program Initiatives

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    EPA's Green Power Partnership has a number of initiatives that focus on the collective green power efforts within specific sectors and renewable energy procurement strategies, which provide recognition opportunities for Partners and increase awareness.

  19. Green Power Partnership Resource Eligibility

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    The U.S. EPA's Green Power Partnership is a voluntary partnership program designed to reduce the environmental impact of electricity generation by promoting renewable energy. This page details the resources EPA considers eligible green power.

  20. Partnership Green Power Use Requirements

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    The U.S. EPA's Green Power Partnership is a voluntary partnership program designed to reduce the environmental impact of electricity generation by promoting renewable energy. This pages details green power use requirements for Partnership.

  1. The Green Obligation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Adams, Cameron

    2007-01-01

    As the green movement grows, studies provide conclusive evidence about the benefits of environmentally conscious practices indoors and outdoors. Schools are no exception. Many of these studies demonstrate how poor indoor air quality (IAQ) in schools adversely affects many of the nation's 55 million students with health problems such as asthma and…

  2. Green chemistry metrics

    EPA Science Inventory

    Synthetic chemists have always had an objective to achieve reliable and high-yielding routes to the syntheses of targeted molecules. The importance of minimal waste generation has emphasized the use of green chemistry principles and sustainable development. These directions lead ...

  3. Toward Green Challenge Courses.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnson, Karl E.

    1999-01-01

    Designing environmentally friendly challenge courses involves considering factors such as clearing, trees versus poles, soil erosion and compaction, toilet design, waste disposal, and carrying capacity. Strategies used in "green development" such as systems thinking, solution multipliers, and brainstorming with stakeholders could promote…

  4. Putting on the green

    EPA Science Inventory

    The green chemistry movement is scrutinized for marks of tangible success in this short perspective. Beginning with the easily identified harm of the Union Carbide Bhopal, India disaster and the concerns of Love Canal site in Niagara Falls, NY the public can begin to more easily ...

  5. Raising a "Green Generation"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Leger-Ferraro, Susan

    2010-01-01

    These days, "going green" is at the forefront of conversation in political, entertainment, and corporate circles. Yet to truly impact change, future generations must carry the torch of transformation. To ensure success, adults need to begin the practices with the fertile minds of young children in early education. Practicing sustainability is not…

  6. A Green Role Model

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hoffman, Paul J.

    2008-01-01

    Building a new green campus and adopting a philosophy of sustainability is exciting, but if not done properly, it is not always the wisest decision. As one considers the education, health, and safety of a campus community, along with its business objectives, one may discover that there are numerous ways to make the campus more sustainable without…

  7. Green Schools: Electric Youth

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Demski, Jennifer

    2008-01-01

    A student committee whose main duty is changing light bulbs may sound like the punch line to a bad joke, but as the students and faculty at Montgomery County Public Schools (MCPS) in Rockville, MD, know, changing a light bulb is no laughing matter. As part of the district's green initiative, all standard incandescent and fluorescent light bulbs…

  8. Green Supercomputing at Argonne

    ScienceCinema

    Pete Beckman

    2016-07-12

    Pete Beckman, head of Argonne's Leadership Computing Facility (ALCF) talks about Argonne National Laboratory's green supercomputing—everything from designing algorithms to use fewer kilowatts per operation to using cold Chicago winter air to cool the machine more efficiently.

  9. Elements of Green.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Turckes, Steven; Engelbrecht, Kathie

    2002-01-01

    Discusses incorporating green design into school construction, asserting that schools can improve their impact on the environment and reduce their operating costs while educating people about the value of sustainable design. Addresses energy reduction (including daylighting), site design for low environmental impact, flexible design, indoor air…

  10. News: Green Chemistry & Technology

    EPA Science Inventory

    A series of 21 articles focused on different features of green chemistry in a recent issue of Chemical Reviews. Topics extended over a wide range to include the design of sustainable synthetic processes to biocatalysis. A selection of perspectives follows as part of this colu

  11. The Green Hunter.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reid, Ed

    1991-01-01

    Environmentalists who oppose hunting have little understanding of the sport, its ethics and regulations, and its immense role in wildlife conservation. "Green" hunting involves not only the hunter's methods but also his perceptions of the hunt as a cultural or spiritual experience. (SV)

  12. The Green Team

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jahnigen, Charlie

    2006-01-01

    As interest in green building grows, much discussion has focused on aligning a project with the principles of Leadership in Energy and Environmental Design (LEED) certification: (1) cost savings through energy and water conservation; (2) improved worker productivity; (3) health, insurance and risk-management benefits; and (4) enhanced building…

  13. Lean Green Machines

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Villano, Matt

    2011-01-01

    Colleges and universities have been among the leaders nationwide in adopting green initiatives, partly due to their demographics, but also because they are facing their own budget pressures. Virtualization has become the poster child of many schools' efforts, because it provides significant bang for the buck. However, more and more higher…

  14. The green highway forum

    SciTech Connect

    2006-07-01

    In late 2004, as part of American Coal Ash Association's (ACAA) strategic planning process, a plan was approved by its Board of Directors implementing a 'green highways' concept which emphasized use of coal combustion products (CCPs) in highways in a variety of ways including being used alone, in combination with other forms of CCPs, and combined with non ash materials. The incentives behind the developed concept were the derived advantages from beneficial technical economic and environmental impacts. Although the primary use of fly ash is concrete, other forms of CCPs could be considered for more non-traditional highway applications. For example, these might include soils stabilization, binders for in-place pavement recycling, use in flowable fills, aggregates, source materials for structural fills and embankments, components in manufactured soils, and for granular base courses beneath pavements. At this same time, unknown to ACCA, EPA Region 3 in Philadelphia was working with the Wetlands and Watershed Work Group, a non-profit organization involved in wetlands policy and management along with the Federal Highway Administration (FHWA) on their own Green Highways initiative. These groups were planning a conference, the 'Green Highway Forum'. This was held in College Park, Maryland at the University of Maryland, Nov 8-10 2005. At the conference a draft 'roadmap' was presented as a guide to executive level participants bringing the diverse viewpoints of many agencies and interest groups together. Ten guiding principals were considered. The 'Green Highways' is a new effort to recognize the 'greenness' of many projects already completed and those to be initiated. 2 photos.

  15. Green Power Partnership Events and Webinars

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    EPA's Green Power Partnership hosts variety of events, such as webinars and presentations at conferences, on a regular basis. Topics include the Green Power Partnership, green power technologies and products, and information on procuring green power.

  16. Green Roofs for Stormwater Management

    EPA Science Inventory

    This project evaluated green roofs as a stormwater management tool. Results indicate that the green roofs are capable of removing 40% of the annual rainfall volume from a roof through retention and evapotranspiration. Rainfall not retained by green roofs is detained, effectively...

  17. Green Schools on Ordinary Budgets

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hanson, Mark E.

    2010-01-01

    Some in the green building industry have spoken for some time now of green buildings not needing to cost more. Jason McLennan in his 2004 book "The Philosophy of Sustainable Design" discusses not falling into the "green is always more" syndrome. He goes on to explain the concept of tunneling through the cost barrier. A 2007…

  18. Guide to Purchasing Green Power

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    The Guide for Purchasing Green Power is a comprehensive guide for current and potential buyers of green power with information about green power purchasing. The Guide is created cooperatively between the EPA, the U.S. Department of Energy, the World Resou

  19. "Green" School Programs. Research Brief

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnston, J. Howard

    2009-01-01

    What are "Green School" programs and how do they benefit students, teachers and the community? Green School programs seek to weave concepts of sustainability and environmental awareness into the social and academic culture of the school community. Green schools are high performance facilities that have been designed, built, renovated operated or…

  20. It's Not Easy Building Green.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Higgins, Joseph

    2003-01-01

    Discusses green buildings, facilities designed, constructed, and operated in an environmentally friendly and resource-efficient way. Discusses reasons for campuses to "go green," the "shades of green" or variations in environmental-friendliness, certification through the Leadership in Energy and Environmental Design (LEED) rating system, financial…

  1. Greening from the Top Down.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oberndorfer, Erica

    2002-01-01

    Green roofs, with their topsoil and plants, improve insulation, filter air, reduce water runoff, and provide habitat for urban wildlife. They are compatible with schools because they save energy; schools' flat roofs are conducive to greening; and green roofs can be outdoor classrooms for botany, ecology, and energy efficiency. Although scarce in…

  2. Unprecedented solid-state chemical reaction-from (C{sub 3}N{sub 2}H{sub 5}){sub 3}SbBr{sub 6}.H{sub 2}Oto(C{sub 3}N{sub 2}H{sub 5}){sub 5}Sb{sub 2}Br{sub 11}. From centrosymmetric to non-centrosymmetric crystal structure

    SciTech Connect

    Piecha, A.; Gagor, A.; Pietraszko, A.; Jakubas, R.

    2010-12-15

    Tris(imidazolium) hexabromoantimonate(III) hydrate, (C{sub 3}N{sub 2}H{sub 5}){sub 3}SbBr{sub 6}.H{sub 2}O, (abbreviated as TIBA) has been synthesized and characterized by X-ray (at 295, 225, 160, and 110 K), differential scanning calorimetry, dilatometry, and dielectric spectroscopy. At room temperature (phase I), the structure consists of discrete SbB{sub 6}{sup -} anions, disordered imidazolium cations, and water molecules forming a 3D array of hydrogen bonds. Below room temperature, TIBA was found to undergo isostructural discontinuous phase transition at 212/221 K (cooling-heating) (P2{sub 1}/c{r_reversible}P2{sub 1}/c). The phase transition mechanism is characterized by two contributions: an order-disorder (cationic substructure) and a displacive (water molecules) one. At high temperatures, the TIBA crystal was found to undergo an unprecedented in situ solid-state chemical reaction: (1)2(C{sub 3}N{sub 2}H{sub 5}){sub 3}SbBr{sub 6}.H{sub 2}O{sub (S)}{yields}(C{sub 3}N{sub 2}H{sub 5}){sub 5}Sb{sub 2}Br{sub 11(S)}+(C{sub 3}N{sub 2}H{sub 5})Br{sub (S)}+2H{sub 2}O This chemical transformation leads to multiphase crystallites dominated by an amorphous phase of (C{sub 3}N{sub 2}H{sub 5}){sub 5}Sb{sub 2}Br{sub 11}. The creation of ferroelectric crystallites - (C{sub 3}N{sub 2}H{sub 5}){sub 5}Sb{sub 2}Br{sub 11} - in an 'annealed' sample of (C{sub 3}N{sub 2}H{sub 5}){sub 3}SbBr{sub 6}.H{sub 2}O was confirmed by X-ray diffraction phase analysis, dielectric spectroscopy, and pyroelectric measurements. The dielectric response of the electric permittivity and the critical slowing down of the process observed near 140 K in the 'annealed' sample of TIBA are treated as a 'fingerprint' of a neat (C{sub 3}N{sub 2}H{sub 5}){sub 5}Sb{sub 2}Br{sub 11} ferroelectric. -- Graphical Abstract: Chemical reaction taking place in (C{sub 3}N{sub 2}H{sub 5}){sub 3}SbBr{sub 6}.H{sub 2}O at 328 K. Display Omitted

  3. Green tea and cancer prevention.

    PubMed

    Yang, Chung S; Wang, Xin

    2010-01-01

    Extracts of green tea and green tea polyphenols have exhibited inhibitory effects against the formation and development of tumors at different organ sites in animals. These include animal models for skin, lung, oral cavity, esophagus, stomach, intestine, colon, liver, pancreas, bladder, mammary gland, and prostate cancers. In addition to suppressing cell proliferation, promoting apoptosis, and modulating signaling transduction, green tea polyphenols, especially (-)-epigallocatechin-3-gallate, also inhibit cell invasion, angiogenesis, and metastasis. This article reviews data on the cancer preventive activities of green tea polyphenols, possible mechanisms involved, and the relationship between green tea consumption and human cancer risk.

  4. Green Luminescent Copper Nanoparticles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Suresh, Y.; Annapurna, S.; Bhikshamaiah, G.; Singh, A. K.

    2016-09-01

    Copper nanoparticles are synthesized by a green chemical reduction method using Gum Kondagogu extract as stabilizer. The as-prepared powder samples are characterized by Transmission Electron Microscopy (TEM), Small Angle X-Ray Scattering (SAXS), UV-Visible Spectroscopy, X-Ray Diffraction (XRD) and Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (FTIR) techniques. The as-prepared copper nanoparticles are found to be FCC crystalline and nearly monodispersed with particles size 19 nm. Photoluminescence (PL) measurement showed strong green visible emission and PL intensity was found enhanced with the presence of natural extract on copper nanoparticle surface. The increase in the PL intensity was mainly due to copper nanoparticles. Photoluminescence spectra of copper nanoparticles show an emission peak at 430 nm when illuminated at 325 nm.

  5. Green biorefinery - Industrial implementation.

    PubMed

    Kamm, B; Schönicke, P; Hille, Ch

    2016-04-15

    Oil refineries currently generate a multitude of products for almost every sphere of life at very high efficiency. However, fossil raw materials are just available in limited quantities. The development of comparable BIOREFINERIES is necessary to make a variety of competitive biological products regarding their equivalent products based on fossil raw materials. The product range of a biorefinery comprises products that can be manufactured on the basis of crude oil, as well as such products that cannot be produced on the basis of crude oil (Kamm, Gruber, & Kamm, 2011). GREEN BIOREFINERIES [GBR's] are complex systems of sustainable, environment- and resource-friendly technologies for a comprehensive material and energy use or recovery of renewable raw materials in form of green and waste biomasses from a sustainable land use as target (Kamm et al., 2009; Digman, Runge, Shinners, & Hatfield, 2013).

  6. Magnetic fields of green.

    PubMed

    Branton, Scott; Lile, Lawrence

    2011-01-01

    By incorporating even the basic elements of a more environmentally friendly, "green"construction and design in an MRI setting can create a safer, more pleasant space for the patients and staff, better images, and operational cost savings. Using building systems that have reduced amounts of steel can decrease construction time, increase thermal insulation, and reduce the weight of the structure meaning less energy required to transport and install. HVAC systems and lighting design can also play a major role in creating a "green"MRI suite. LEED certification places a focus on quality of the built environment, life cycle cost, and a productive indoor environment, as well as impact on the exterior environment. An LEED certified building considers costs and benefits for the lifetime of the building.

  7. Green Arctic Patrol Vessel

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-10-01

    design with a full load displacement of 6,480 long tons. The vessel was outfitted with a towed sonary array, surface and air radar, and a small...and system complexity. 15. SUBJECT TERMS Arctic patrol, green technology, environment, polution , ship design, CISD, fuel cell 16. SECURITY...was outfitted with a towed sonary array, surface and air radar, and a small interdiction and rescue craft. In anticipation of more stringent

  8. Green chemistry: development trajectory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moiseev, I. I.

    2013-07-01

    Examples of applications of green chemistry methods in heavy organic synthesis are analyzed. Compounds, which can be produced by the processing of the biomass, and the criteria for the selection of the most promising products are summarized. The current status of the ethanol production and processing is considered. The possibilities of the use of high fatty acid triglycerides, glycerol, succinic acid, and isoprene are briefly discussed. The bibliography includes 67 references.

  9. The Green`s function method for critical heterogeneous slabs

    SciTech Connect

    Kornreich, D.E.

    1996-10-01

    Recently, the Green`s Function Method (GFM) has been employed to obtain benchmark-quality results for nuclear engineering and radiative transfer calculations. This was possible because of fast and accurate calculations of the Green`s function and the associated Fourier and Laplace transform inversions. Calculations have been provided in one-dimensional slab geometries for both homogeneous and heterogeneous media. A heterogeneous medium is analyzed as a series of homogeneous slabs, and Placzek`s lemma is used to extend each slab to infinity. This allows use of the infinite medium Green`s function (the anisotropic plane source in an infinite homogeneous medium) in the solution. To this point, a drawback of the GFM has been the limitation to media with c < 1, where c is the number of secondary particles produced in a collision. Clearly, no physical steady-state solution exists for an infinite medium that contains an infinite source and is described by c >1; however, mathematical solutions exist which result in oscillating Green`s functions. Such calculations are briefly discussing. The limitation to media with c < 1 has been relaxed so that the Green`s function may also be calculated for media with c {ge} 1. Thus, materials that contain fissionable isotopes may be modeled.

  10. A green process to prepare chromic oxide green pigment.

    PubMed

    Li, Ping; Xu, Hong-Bin; Zheng, Shi-Li; Zhang, Yi; Li, Zuo-Hu; Bai, Yu-Lan

    2008-10-01

    A hydrogen reduction and activated sintering process was proposed to prepare chromic oxide green pigment. Through ICP, XRD, SEM, FT-IR, UV, and CIE-L*a*b* colorimetric analysis, key factors and mechanism that influenced preparation of chromic oxide green pigment were studied. The results revealed that lower hydrogen reduction temperature, suitable addition of Al and Ba, were beneficial to obtaining the high quality chromic oxide green pigment. Typically, when the hydrogen reduction temperature was kept at 450-500 degrees C, physicochemical properties and color performance of the prepared chromic oxide green pigment doped with about 0.1-0.2 wt % Al and 0.2-0.5 wt % Ba conformed to commercial pigment standards. Additionally, characteristics of the green process were discussed. About 90 wt % KOH was reused directly and about 90 wt % Cr(VI) was conversed to Cr(III) directly from potassium chromate to chromic oxide green pigment. Integrating the proprietary green metallurgical process from chromite ore to potassium chromate of this laboratory, more than 99 wt % Cr(VI) could be conversed to Cr(III) compounds and about 99 wt % KOH could be recycled to use. The whole green process, ranging from chromite ore to chromic oxide green pigment, eventually not only provided the possibility for producing the high quality chromic oxide green pigment, but could reach comprehensive utilization of resources, inner recycle of KOH, and zero emission of Cr(VI).

  11. Protecting Holden Caulfield and His Friends from the Censors.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jenkinson, Edward B.

    1985-01-01

    Surveys the textbook censorship picture over the past decade with particular attention to the activities of Tim LaHaye and Norma and Mel Gabler. Suggests 10 steps teachers can take to try and protect controversial texts from censorship. (RBW)

  12. Beach Changes at Holden Beach, North Carolina, 1970-74.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1983-03-01

    DeWall, and Czerniak , 1980). These data, which were later converted to the LEO format, assigned *sectors 2, 3, and 4 corresponding to 720, 900, and...inter- cept and above MSL sand volume have been shown on east coast beaches (Goldsmith, Farrell, and Goldsmith, 1974; Everts and Czerniak , 1977; DeWall...Pritchett, and Galvin, 1977; DeWall, 1979; Everts, DeWall, and Czerniak , 1980). The seasonal cycle is evident in the above MSL sand volume change

  13. INL Green Building Strategy

    SciTech Connect

    Jennifer Dalton

    2005-05-01

    Green buildings, also known as sustainable buildings, resource efficient buildings, and high performance buildings, are structures that minimize the impact on the environment by using less energy and water, reducing solid waste and pollutants, and limiting the depletion of natural resources. As Idaho National Laboratory (INL) becomes the nation’s premier nuclear energy research laboratory, the physical infrastructure will be established to help accomplish the mission. This infrastructure, particularly the buildings, should incorporate green design features in order to be environmentally responsible and reflect an image of progressiveness and innovation to the public and prospective employees. With this in mind, the recommendations described in this strategy are intended to form the INL foundation for green building standards. The recommendations in this strategy are broken down into three levels: Baseline Minimum, Leadership in Energy and Environmental Design (LEED)Certification, and Innovative. Baseline Minimum features should be included in all new occupied buildings no matter what the purpose or size. These features do not require significant research, design, or capital costs and yet they can reduce Operation and Maintenance (O&M) costs and produce more environmentally friendly buildings. LEED Certification features are more aggressive than the Baseline Minimums in that they require documentation, studies, and/or additional funding. Combined with the Baseline Minimums, many of the features in this level will need to be implemented to achieve the goal of LEED certification. LEED Silver certification should be the minimum goal for all new buildings (including office buildings, laboratories, cafeterias, and visitor centers) greater than 25,000 square feet or a total cost of $10 million. Innovative features can also contribute to LEED certification, but are less mainstream than those listed in the previous two levels. These features are identified as areas where

  14. Green Chemistry Metrics with Special Reference to Green Analytical Chemistry.

    PubMed

    Tobiszewski, Marek; Marć, Mariusz; Gałuszka, Agnieszka; Namieśnik, Jacek

    2015-06-12

    The concept of green chemistry is widely recognized in chemical laboratories. To properly measure an environmental impact of chemical processes, dedicated assessment tools are required. This paper summarizes the current state of knowledge in the field of development of green chemistry and green analytical chemistry metrics. The diverse methods used for evaluation of the greenness of organic synthesis, such as eco-footprint, E-Factor, EATOS, and Eco-Scale are described. Both the well-established and recently developed green analytical chemistry metrics, including NEMI labeling and analytical Eco-scale, are presented. Additionally, this paper focuses on the possibility of the use of multivariate statistics in evaluation of environmental impact of analytical procedures. All the above metrics are compared and discussed in terms of their advantages and disadvantages. The current needs and future perspectives in green chemistry metrics are also discussed.

  15. GreenSCOR: Developing a Green Supply Chain Analytical Tool

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2003-03-01

    An emerging area in supply chain practice is green supply chain management, which integrates environmental management with traditional supply chain management...GreenSCOR is the solution to closing this gap. GreenSCOR is a modification of version 5.0 of the Supply Chain Operations Reference (SCOR...model developed by the Supply - Chain Council (SCC). LMI used SCOR as a foundation because it has been proven over several years of continual development

  16. Greening critical care

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Climate change and environmental stewardship are phrases that have been defining the past few decades and promoting change in our societies. The sensitivities of intensive care as a specialty make the process of greening an intensive care unit a challenge, but not one that is insurmountable. This paper discusses opportunities for critical care to reduce its environmental impact and provide a framework change. The article includes suggestions of what can be done as an individual, as a unit and as a hospital. Generally, practices in critical care are accepted without questioning the environmental consequences. We believe it is time for change, and critical care should give environmental stewardship a higher priority. PMID:21635700

  17. Green chemistry: principles and practice.

    PubMed

    Anastas, Paul; Eghbali, Nicolas

    2010-01-01

    Green Chemistry is a relatively new emerging field that strives to work at the molecular level to achieve sustainability. The field has received widespread interest in the past decade due to its ability to harness chemical innovation to meet environmental and economic goals simultaneously. Green Chemistry has a framework of a cohesive set of Twelve Principles, which have been systematically surveyed in this critical review. This article covers the concepts of design and the scientific philosophy of Green Chemistry with a set of illustrative examples. Future trends in Green Chemistry are discussed with the challenge of using the Principles as a cohesive design system (93 references).

  18. Green light in photomorphogenic development

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maruhnich, Stefanie Anne

    Light quality, quantity, and duration provide essential environmental cues that shape plant growth and development. Over the last century, researchers have worked to discover how plants sense, integrate, and respond to red, blue, and far-red light. Green light is often considered a “benign” wavelength with little to no effect in plant development. However, sparse experiments in the literature demonstrate that green effects are often counterintuitive to normal light responses and oppose red- and blue-light-induced responses. Green light effects on plant growth and development are described here through the use of custom, tunable LED, light-emitting diode, chambers. These light sources allow for specific light qualities and quantities to be administered. The effects of green wavebands were assessed when red and blue photomorphogenic systems were active to answer the question: Are the effects of an inhibitor (green light) more evident in the presence of inducers (red and blue light)? In seedlings, supplemental green light increased hypocotyl elongation opposite to classical inhibition of hypocotyl elongation associated with growth in light and induced by red and blue wavebands. Results indicate that added green light induced a reversion of light-grown phenotypes. In mature plants, supplemental green light induced phenotypes typical of the shade-avoidance syndrome, including elongated petioles, smaller leaf areas, and leaf hyponasty. These responses are typical of lower-light conditions or far-red enriched environments. Contrary to far-red-light-induced shade-avoidance, data indicate green delays flowering. In Arabidopsis and strawberry plants, anthocyanin levels also decreased when green light was added to red and blue light treatments, which is again opposite to normal light-induced phenotypes. Photoreceptor mutants were tested and indicate green light effects in early development are cryptochromedependent. However, green-light-induced shade-avoidance responses

  19. Can Growth Be Green?

    PubMed

    Gough, Ian

    2015-01-01

    This short article, based on a presentation at the London School of Economics, criticizes the common opinion that "green growth" offers a relatively painless - some even say pain-free - transition path for capitalist economies. After a brief summary of the daunting arithmetic entailed in combining fast decarbonization with continuing growth, the article advances 3 propositions. First, market-based carbon mitigation programs, such as carbon trading, cannot be sufficient and must be coupled with other policy pillars that foster transformative investment and widespread regulation. Second, a political economy of climate policy needs to draw on the lessons of comparative social policy research, which emphasizes the role of international pressures, interests, institutions, and ideas. Taking these into account gives a more realistic perspective on climate policy making in today's neoliberal world. Third, more radical policies on both consumption and production are called for, to ensure that carbon mitigation is not pursued at the expense of equity and social welfare. These include policies to restrain high-carbon luxury consumption and a transition toward shorter paid working time. The conclusion is that a realistic program of green growth will be immensely difficult and entail radical political change.

  20. The Green Bank Telescope

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jewell, P. R.

    1999-12-01

    The Green Bank Telescope The 100-m NRAO Green Bank Telescope will be completed in early 2000. The GBT has a large number of unique design and performance features that will give it unprecedented scientific capability. This poster display will review those features, which include an offset feed (clear aperture) design, an active surface, a closed-loop laser metrology system for surface figure and pointing control, broad frequency coverage from 100 MHz to 115 GHz, a versatile receiver selection mechanism, and a new multi-input, 256k-channel autocorrelation spectrometer. The status of the project, the commissioning schedule, plans for early operations, the initial instrumentation suite, and plans for future instrumentation will be reviewed. Scientific areas for which the GBT will have a large impact will be discussed, including observations of young galaxies at extreme redshifts, pulsars, HI and molecular spectroscopy, VLBI work, and millimeter-wave spectroscopy and continuum studies. The National Radio Astronomy Observatory is a facility of the National Science Foundation, operated under cooperative agreement by Associated Universities, Inc.

  1. Greening of orthopedic surgery.

    PubMed

    Lee, Rushyuan J; Mears, Simon C

    2012-06-01

    Every year, 4 billion pounds of waste are produced by health care facilities, and the amount continues to increase annually. In response, a movement toward greening health care has been building, with a particular focus on the operating room. Between 20% and 70% of health care waste originates from a hospital's operating room, and up to 90% of operating room waste is improperly sorted and sent for costly and unneeded hazardous waste processing. Recent successful changes include segregation of hospital waste, substitution of the ubiquitous polypropylene plastic wrap used for the sterilization and handling of surgical equipment with metal cases, and the reintroduction of reusable surgical gowns. Orthopedic-related changes include the successful reprocessing and reuse of external fixators, shavers, blades, burs, and tourniquets. These changes have been shown to be environmentally and economically beneficial. Early review indicates that these changes are feasible, but a need exists for further evaluation of the effect on the operating room and flow of the surgical procedure and of the risks to the surgeons and operating room staff. Other key considerations are the effects of reprocessed and reused equipment on patient care and outcome and the role of surgeons in helping patients make informed decisions regarding surgical care. The goals of this study were to summarize the amount and types of waste produced in hospitals and operating rooms, highlight the methods of disposal used, review disposal methods that have been developed to reduce waste and improve recycling, and explore future developments in greening health care.

  2. 77 FR 2296 - Office of Federal High-Performance Green Buildings; the Green Building Advisory Committee...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-01-17

    ... ADMINISTRATION Office of Federal High-Performance Green Buildings; the Green Building Advisory Committee... provides the schedule for three teleconference meetings of the Green Building Advisory Committee (the..., Designated Federal Officer, Office of Federal High Performance Green Buildings, Office of...

  3. Investigating Green: Creating Surveys to Answer Questions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Farenga, Stephen; Joyce, Beverly A.; Ness, Daniel

    2010-01-01

    Being green means different things to different people. Some suggest that being green means saving energy, not wasting paper towels, going solar, harnessing wind, using less fertilizer, or buying products that are organically grown. Given that being green can mean a lot of things, what does "being green" or "going green" mean to both you and your…

  4. Green(ing) English: Voices Howling in the Wilderness?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bruce, Heather E.

    2011-01-01

    The relatively new fields of ecocriticism in literary studies and ecocomposition in rhetoric and composition studies provide a usable foundation for those interested in green(ing) English. Nevertheless, even suggesting that interest in the environment within English studies is a relatively new concern is somewhat misleading. Contemplation of…

  5. Savvy Schools Are Going Green

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    St. Gerard, Vanessa

    2008-01-01

    This article describes how the green phenomenon is spreading, especially among schools, which have found that not only are they being environmentally friendly, they are also saving big money. Green buildings focus on efficiency and renewable energy, water stewardship, environmentally preferable building materials and specifications, waste…

  6. Holographic Twyman-Green Interferometer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chen, C. W.; Wyant, J. C.; Breckinridge, J. B.

    1984-01-01

    Off-axis Fresnel zone plate used to obtain fringe visibility close to unity. Holographic Twyman-Green Interferometer (HTG) employs off-axis Fresnel zone plate (OFZP) as beam splitter and beam diverger in place of two separate elements that perform those functions in conventional TwymanGreen interferometer.

  7. Virtual Rewards for Driving Green

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pritchard, Josh

    2010-01-01

    Carbon dioxide from automobiles is a major contributor to global climate change. In "Virtual Rewards for Driving Green," Josh Pritchard proposes a computer application that will enable fuel-efficient drivers to earn "green" dollars with which to buy digital merchandise on the Web. Can getting items that exist only in cyberspace actually change a…

  8. Green as the New Norm

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kennedy, Mike

    2009-01-01

    Lured by the recognition that comes with a Leadership in Energy and Environmental Design (LEED) rating from the U.S. Green Building Council, many schools and universities have become aware of that certification process. But for years, the involvement was limited to a few trendsetters; according to the Green Building Council's database, only about…

  9. The "Green" Root Beer Laboratory

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clary, Renee; Wandersee, James

    2010-01-01

    No, your students will not be drinking green root beer for St. Patrick's Day--this "green" root beer laboratory promotes environmental awareness in the science classroom, and provides a venue for some very sound science content! While many science classrooms incorporate root beer-brewing activities, the root beer lab presented in this article has…

  10. Lighting Demands in Green Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Danis, Jim; Thurnquist, Annmarie

    2011-01-01

    Growing up in a more eco-conscious world, incoming students are more savvy about "greening" the world around them. A decade ago, green college campuses were those that offered recycling bins in residence halls. Now education institutions are integrating sustainability efforts into as many aspects of their campus operations as possible. And that…

  11. News from Online: Green Chemistry

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Uffelman, Erich S.

    2004-01-01

    Green chemistry closely relates to energy and environmental problems, and includes the promotion of environmental friendly products and systems within the framework of renewable resources. Various websites on green chemistry are reviewed, one of which lists the 12 commandments of this particular subject.

  12. "Green" Classes Flourish in Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cavanagh, Sean

    2009-01-01

    Courses focused on renewable and alternative energy are taking hold across the country as educators seek to channel students' concerns about the environment and conservation into classroom lessons. This article talks about the rising interest in "green" curriculum. Here, the author describes the Green Tech class that introduces students to the…

  13. Green from the inside out

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Seydel, Jennifer

    2011-01-01

    "Green school" is an umbrella term that covers a number of educational approaches, such as environment-based curricula, environment-integrated curricula, education for sustainability, and education for sustainable development. Green schools enrich the traditional secondary curriculum by relating it to practical issues of environmental…

  14. Recent developments of green tribology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Si-Wei

    2016-06-01

    Green tribology is a new field of great interest to a large number of tribologists. This article reviews the latest advances in this area including energy conservation, emission reduction, super-low friction and super-low wear, wind turbines, smart coatings, and fundamentals. Moreover, an overview of the future development of green tribology is also presented.

  15. Green tea and bone health

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Osteoporosis is a major health problem in the elderly, particularly women. Epidemiological evidence has shown an association between tea consumption and the prevention of age-related bone loss in elderly women and men. Ingestion of green tea and green tea bioactive compounds may be beneficial in mit...

  16. Green Roofs for Stormwater Runoff Control - Abstract

    EPA Science Inventory

    This project evaluated green roofs as a stormwater management tool. Specifically, runoff quantity and quality from green and flat asphalt roofs were compared. Evapotranspiration from planted green roofs and evaporation from unplanted media roofs were also compared. The influence...

  17. Steps to Become a Green Power Community

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Green Power Communities are a subset of the Green Power Partnership; municipalities or tribal governments where the local government, businesses, and residents collectively use enough green power to meet GPP requirements. Learn the steps to become a GPC.

  18. Green Power Partnership Top Partner Rankings

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    EPA's Green Power Partnership is a voluntary program designed to reduce the environmental impact of electricity generation by promoting renewable energy. Top Partner Rankings highlight the annual green power use of leading Green Power Partners.

  19. Green Power Partnership National Top 100

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    The U.S. EPA's Green Power Partnership is a voluntary program designed to reduce the environmental impact of electricity generation by promoting renewable energy. The National Top 100 lists the largest green power users within the Green Power Partnership.

  20. USING GREEN CHEMISTRY TO INFLUENCE PROCESS DEVELOPMENT

    EPA Science Inventory

    The twelve principles of green chemistry by Anastas and Warner provide the researcher with a foundation or pathway which allows opportunities to incorporate greenness into an existing reaction or when developing alternative technologies. The twelve additional principles of green ...

  1. Green chemistry at work

    SciTech Connect

    Frost, J.

    1994-12-31

    The 1.7 billion pounds of benzene produced each year in the US provide one measure of its utility. At the same time, there are a number of environmental reasons for avoiding the use of benzene in chemical manufacture. Perhaps most compelling: benzene is a potent carcinogen. Scrutiny of many of the chemicals derived from benzene reveals that each molecule contains at least one oxygen atom while benzene completely lacks oxygen atoms. Introduction of oxygen to make up for this lack can require processes that are environmentally problematic. One of the steps used to introduce oxygen atoms during manufacture of adipic acid, a component of Nylon 66, is responsible for 10% of the annual global increase in atmospheric nitrous oxide. This by-product is a causative agent of atmospheric ozone depletion and has been implicated in global warming. With support from EPA and the National Science Foundation, alternative manufacturing processes are being explored. By these new methods, chemicals usually created from benzene are made instead from nontoxic glucose, a component of table sugar. Unlike benzene, glucose is obtained from such renewable resources as plant starch and cellulose. ``Green`` manufacturing routes ideally should lead to chemicals that are economically competitive with chemicals produced by traditional methods. For two chemicals of roughly comparable cost, the consumer or producer can then be realistically expected to choose in favor of the chemical produced by a ``green`` process. Projections indicate that catechol and hydroquinone can be biocatalytically produced from glucose at a cost competitive with current market prices. Synthesis of chemicals from glucose using biocatalysis offers the premise of achieving fundamental environmental improvement while increasing the demand for agricultural products. In the final analysis, what is good for the environment can also be good for American agriculture.

  2. Stormwater Attenuation by Green Roofs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sims, A.; O'Carroll, D. M.; Robinson, C. E.; Smart, C. C.

    2014-12-01

    Innovative municipal stormwater management technologies are urgently required in urban centers. Inadequate stormwater management can lead to excessive flooding, channel erosion, decreased stream baseflows, and degraded water quality. A major source of urban stormwater is unused roof space. Green roofs can be used as a stormwater management tool to reduce roof generated stormwater and generally improve the quality of runoff. With recent legislation in some North American cities, including Toronto, requiring the installation of green roofs on large buildings, research on the effectiveness of green roofs for stormwater management is important. This study aims to assess the hydrologic response of an extensive sedum green roof in London, Ontario, with emphasis on the response to large precipitation events that stress municipal stormwater infrastructure. A green roof rapidly reaches field capacity during large storm events and can show significantly different behavior before and after field capacity. At field capacity a green roof has no capillary storage left for retention of stormwater, but may still be an effective tool to attenuate peak runoff rates by transport through the green roof substrate. The attenuation of green roofs after field capacity is linked to gravity storage, where gravity storage is the water that is temporarily stored and can drain freely over time after field capacity has been established. Stormwater attenuation of a modular experimental green roof is determined from water balance calculations at 1-minute intervals. Data is used to evaluate green roof attenuation and the impact of field capacity on peak flow rates and gravity storage. In addition, a numerical model is used to simulate event based stormwater attenuation. This model is based off of the Richards equation and supporting theory of multiphase flow through porous media.

  3. Closed-form solutions to surface Green`s functions

    SciTech Connect

    Umerski, A.

    1997-02-01

    We obtain closed-form analytic solutions for surface Green`s functions within arbitrary multiorbital models. The formulation is completely general, and is equally valid for empirical tight binding, linear-muffin-tin-orbital tight binding, screened Korringa-Kohn-Rostoker and other Green`s-function equivalent formalisms, where the Hamiltonian can be put into a localized (i.e., block-band) form. The solutions are applicable to finite or semi-infinite surface systems, with quite general substrate and overlayers, or even to superlattices. This is achieved by solving Dyson`s equations by means of a matrix-valued extension of the Moebius transformation. The analytical properties of the solutions are discussed, and by considering their asymptotic limit, a simple closed form for the exact (semi-infinite) surface Green`s function is obtained. The numerical calculation of the surface Green`s function (or of observable quantities such as the density of states) using this closed form is compared with previously known iterative procedures. We find that it is far faster, far more stable, and more accurate than the best iterative method. {copyright} {ital 1997} {ital The American Physical Society}

  4. Antioxidant effects of green tea

    PubMed Central

    FORESTER, SARAH C.; LAMBERT, JOSHUA D.

    2013-01-01

    Consumption of green tea (Camellia sinensis) may provide protection against chronic diseases, including cancer. Green tea polyphenols are believed to be responsible for this cancer preventive effect, and the antioxidant activity of the green tea polyphenols has been implicated as a potential mechanism. This hypothesis has been difficult to study in vivo due to metabolism of these compounds and poor understanding of the redox environment in vivo. Green tea polyphenols can be direct antioxidants by scavenging reactive oxygen species or chelating transition metals as has been demonstrated in vitro. Alternatively, they may act indirectly by up-regulating phase II antioxidant enzymes. Evidence of this latter effect has been observed in vivo, yet more work is required to determine under which conditions these mechanisms occur. Green tea polyphenols can also be potent pro-oxidants, both in vitro and in vivo, leading to the formation of hydrogen peroxide, the hydroxyl radical, and superoxide anion. The potential role of these pro-oxidant effects in the cancer preventive activity of green tea is not well understood. The evidence for not only the antioxidant, but also pro-oxidant, properties of green tea are discussed in the present review. PMID:21538850

  5. [Development of green hospitals home and abroad].

    PubMed

    Yang, Yiju; Zeng, Na; Shen, Minxue; Sun, Zhenqiu

    2013-09-01

    Green hospital construction is a new challenge for medical industry after global sustainable development strategy was put forward. The core connotation of green hospital includes green building, green healthcare, patient safety, and doctor-patient harmony. Many countries have established green building evaluation system to deal with energy crisis. Leadership in Energy and Environmental Design (LEED), Green Guide for Health Care (GGHC) in the U.S., and Evaluation System for Green Hospital Building (CSUS/GBC 2-2011) in China have guiding significance for the development of green hospitals in China. The evaluation system of green hospitals home and abroad still focuses on green building, and establishment of suitable synthesis evaluation system of green hospitals in China needs further research.

  6. It's hard to be green: Reverse green value chain.

    PubMed

    Couto, João; Tiago, Teresa; Gil, Artur; Tiago, Flávio; Faria, Sandra

    2016-08-01

    Firms have recently discovered that it is not enough to optimize internal processes and relationships with partners along the value chain to create a sustainable competitive market position. A clear customer orientation, which acknowledges that consumer buying behavior is complex and includes many elements implied in the value chain, is required. As companies offering green products are no exception to this rule, this study analyzes consumer behavior in Europe from a reserve green supply chain management perspective, using descriptive analyses and a structural equation model, with data collected by Flash Barometer comprising 26,573 responses from 28 European countries. The results suggest that European consumers are conscious of the green concept, but are not willing to buy or pay more for these products since the value is unclear. Companies offering green products must therefore rethink their strategies, especially in terms of value proposition, communication strategies, and eco-labeling.

  7. Cecil Green receives Smith Medal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Press, Frank; Green, Cecil

    The Waldo E. Smith Medal, which is awarded for extraordinary service to geophysics, was presented to Cecil H. Green at the 1994 AGU Fall Meeting Honors Ceremony on December 7, 1994 in San Francisco. The award citation and Green's response are given here.“It would take a book to do justice to Cecil Green's extraordinary contributions to the geophysics and electronics industries, to the training of scientists, physicians, and engineers, and to strengthening education and research institutions. In fact, such a book has been written about Cecil's multiple lives as engineer, geophysicist, cofounder of Texas Instruments, and partner with his wife, Ida, in international philanthropy.

  8. Green roofs: potential at LANL

    SciTech Connect

    Pacheco, Elena M

    2009-01-01

    Green roofs, roof systems that support vegetation, are rapidly becoming one of the most popular sustainable methods to combat urban environmental problems in North America. An extensive list of literature has been published in the past three decades recording the ecological benefits of green roofs; and now those benefits have been measured in enumerated data as a means to analyze the costs and returns of green roof technology. Most recently several studies have made substantial progress quantifying the monetary savings associated with storm water mitigation, the lessoning of the Urban Heat Island, and reduction of building cooling demands due to the implementation of green roof systems. Like any natural vegetation, a green roof is capable of absorbing the precipitation that falls on it. This capability has shown to significantly decrease the amount of storm water runoff produced by buildings as well as slow the rate at which runoff is dispensed. As a result of this reduction in volume and velocity, storm drains and sewage systems are relieved of any excess stress they might experience in a storm. For many municipalities and private building owners, any increase in storm water mitigation can result in major tax incentives and revenue that does not have to be spent on extra water treatments. Along with absorption of water, vegetation on green roofs is also capable of transpiration, the process by which moisture is evaporated into the air to cool ambient temperatures. This natural process aims to minimize the Urban Heat Island Effect, a phenomenon brought on by the dark and paved surfaces that increases air temperatures in urban cores. As the sun distributes solar radiation over a city's area, dark surfaces such as bitumen rooftops absorb solar rays and their heat. That heat is later released during the evening hours and the ambient temperatures do not cool as they normally would, creating an island of constant heat. Such excessively high temperatures induce heat

  9. Green Care Farms

    PubMed Central

    de Bruin, Simone R.; Stoop, Annerieke; Molema, Claudia C. M.; Vaandrager, Lenneke; Hop, Peter J. W. M.; Baan, Caroline A.

    2015-01-01

    Objective: To explore the value of day services at green care farms (GCFs) in terms of social participation for people with dementia. Method: Semi-structured interviews were conducted with people with dementia who attended day services at a GCF (GCF group, n = 21), were on a waiting list (WL) for day services at a GCF (WL group, n = 12), or attended day services in a regular day care facility (RDCF group, n = 17) and with their family caregivers. Results: People with dementia in the GCF and WL group were primarily males, with an average age of 71 and 76 years, respectively, who almost all had a spousal caregiver. People with dementia in the RDCF group were mostly females with an average age of 85 years, most of whom had a non-spousal caregiver. For both the GCF and RDCF groups, it was indicated that day services made people with dementia feel part of society. The most important domains of social participation addressed by RDCFs were social interactions and recreational activities. GCFs additionally addressed the domains “paid employment” and “volunteer work.” Conclusion: GCFs are valuable in terms of social participation for a particular group of people with dementia. Matching characteristics of adult day services (ADS) centers to the preferences and capacities of people with dementia is of importance. Diversity in ADS centers is therefore desirable. PMID:28138469

  10. Greening America's Capitals - Hartford, CT

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    This Greening America's Capitals report gives Hartford, CT, a new vision for Capitol Avenue that highlights existing assets and fills in gaps along the mile-long area of focus and into the surrounding neighborhoods.

  11. Green Construction in Building Renovation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ksit, Barbara; Majcherek, Michał

    2016-06-01

    Modern materials and construction solutions draw more and more attention to ecology and building certification. Among the criteria appearing in revitalization, an important element is bringing plants back into heavily urbanized areas. In its natural form, this is not possible to carry out everywhere, often requiring large amounts of space. Nowadays, however, there are a number of green roofs and green wall systems, allowing "greener" construction without making significant changes in the urban environment. The article includes a presentation and analysis of selected solutions of biological surfaces known as green roofs and green walls, specifying various solutions and their most important features. The case study focuses primarily on material and design solutions, as well as the potential benefits, risks and limitations in their use. Plants structures on the surfaces of vertical and horizontal partitions continue to be a very interesting alternative to take into account when applying for grants, such as LEED or BREEAM certificates.

  12. USPS – Lean Green Teams

    SciTech Connect

    2012-08-01

    Institutional change case study details the U.S. Postal Service's Lean Green Teams, which collaborate across functions to identify and implement low- and no-cost ways to conserve natural resources, purchase fewer consumable products, and reduce waste.

  13. Movie Trailer: 'Romancing the Green'

    NASA Video Gallery

    The research and development by NASA Aeronautics of next generation "green" technologies and systems are highlighted in this parody of a "coming attraction" trailer produced by NASA Television. The...

  14. Green Infrastructure for Arid Communities

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    how green infrastructure practices and the many associated benefits can be effective not only in wetter climates, but also for those communities in arid and semi-arid regions around the nation that have different precipitation patterns

  15. Greening America's Capitals - Phoenix, AZ

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    This report shows design concepts to make pedestrians and bicyclists safer while maintaining on-street parking and providing space for a future streetcar or trolley in Phoenix, AZ. It also shows green infrastructure strategies for arid places.

  16. Remote sensing: A green illusion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Soudani, Kamel; François, Christophe

    2014-02-01

    An analysis reveals that satellite-observed increases in canopy greenness during dry seasons, which were previously interpreted as positive responses of Amazon forests to more sunlight, are in fact an optical artefact. See Letter p.221

  17. Greening America's Capitals - Richmond, VA

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Report from the Greening America's Capitals project in Richmond, VA, to help the city develop design options to protect pedestrians, bicyclists, transit users, and drivers; improve stormwater management; and spur revitalization.

  18. Greening America's Capitals - Frankfort, KY

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Report on the Greening America's Capitals project to help Frankfort, KY, improve the Second Street corridor to make pedestrians and bicyclists safer, improve water quality, and make the street more attractive.

  19. Green Building and School Construction.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    DiNola, Ralph; Guerra, Jerry

    2002-01-01

    Discusses the benefits of green, or high-performance, buildings, such as health and comfort, cost effectiveness, and sustainability. Explores the barriers to their use by schools--most notably cost. Offers suggestions on overcoming these barriers. (EV)

  20. Incorporating Green Infrastructure into TMDLs

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    The fact sheet provides examples of how some states describe green infrastructure and low impact development activities in their TMDL implementation sections to address stormwater-source impaired waters.

  1. Green Power Partnership Program Overview

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    The U.S. EPA's Green Power Partnership is a voluntary program designed to reduce the environmental impact of electricity generation by promoting renewable energy. This page provides a brief program overview, including vision and accomplishments.

  2. Green Chemistry: Progress and Barriers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Green, Sarah A.

    2016-10-01

    Green chemistry can advance both the health of the environment and the primary objectives of the chemical enterprise: to understand the behavior of chemical substances and to use that knowledge to make useful substances. We expect chemical research and manufacturing to be done in a manner that preserves the health and safety of workers; green chemistry extends that expectation to encompass the health and safety of the planet. While green chemistry may currently be treated as an independent branch of research, it should, like safety, eventually become integral to all chemistry activities. While enormous progress has been made in shifting from "brown" to green chemistry, much more effort is needed to effect a sustainable economy. Implementation of new, greener paradigms in chemistry is slow because of lack of knowledge, ends-justify-the-means thinking, systems inertia, and lack of financial or policy incentives.

  3. Greening America's Capitals - Washington, DC

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    This Greening America's Capitals report describes design options for the Anacostia Metro station in Washington, DC, that could help people feel safer and more comfortable walking to and from the station.

  4. Greening America's Capitals - Austin, TX

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Report on the technical assistance project to help Austin, TX, develop a vision for the South Central Waterfront that incorporates green infrastructure to manage stormwater runoff, makes streets safer, and spurs investment.

  5. Advances in Green Organic Sonochemistry.

    PubMed

    Draye, Micheline; Kardos, Nathalie

    2016-10-01

    Over the past 15 years, sustainable chemistry has emerged as a new paradigm in the development of chemistry. In the field of organic synthesis, green chemistry rhymes with relevant choice of starting materials, atom economy, methodologies that minimize the number of chemical steps, appropriate use of benign solvents and reagents, efficient strategies for product isolation and purification and energy minimization. In that context, unconventional methods, and especially ultrasound, can be a fine addition towards achieving these green requirements. Undoubtedly, sonochemistry is considered as being one of the most promising green chemical methods (Cravotto et al. Catal Commun 63: 2-9, 2015). This review is devoted to the most striking results obtained in green organic sonochemistry between 2006 and 2016. Furthermore, among catalytic transformations, oxidation reactions are the most polluting reactions in the chemical industry; thus, we have focused a part of our review on the very promising catalytic activity of ultrasound for oxidative purposes.

  6. Village Green Project Fact Sheet

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    EPA has developed an innovative, solar-powered air-monitoring system designed and incorporated into a park bench. The Village Green Project is being conducted in partnership with Durham County to advance air quality measurement capabilities.

  7. Green Power Partnership Eligible Organizations

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    The U.S. EPA's Green Power Partnership is a voluntary partnership program designed to reduce the environmental impact of electricity generation by promoting renewable energy. Many different types of organizations are eligible to become Partners.

  8. Meet Our Green Power Partners

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    EPA's Green Power Partnership is a voluntary program designed to reduce the environmental impact of electricity generation by promoting renewable energy. Partners support the development of new renewable generation capacity nationwide.

  9. Balancing green and grain trade

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Yiping; Wang, Kaibo; Lin, Yishan; Shi, Weiyu; Song, Yi; He, Xinhua

    2015-10-01

    Since 1999, China's Grain for Green project has greatly increased the vegetation cover on the Loess Plateau. Now that erosion levels have returned to historic values, vegetation should be maintained but not expanded further as planned.

  10. The Road to a Green District

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gutter, Rachel; Knupp, Emily

    2011-01-01

    Green design, green construction, and green operations for new buildings are rapidly becoming the norm for school districts throughout the country. Today, increased availability of green products and technology coupled with cost savings that are realized through an integrated design process mean that schools like Arabia Mountain High School in…

  11. The Road to a Green District

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gutter, Rachel; Knupp, Emily

    2010-01-01

    Green design, green construction and green operations for new buildings are rapidly becoming the norm for school districts throughout the country. Today, increased availability of green products and technology coupled with cost savings that are realized through an integrated design process mean that schools like Arabia Mountain High School can be…

  12. Five ways to stay green.

    PubMed

    Thomas, H; Howarth, C J

    2000-02-01

    The relationship between carbon income and expenditure over the life of a leaf is described and related to the productivity benefits of altering the timing of senescence initiation. In genetic variants with delayed leaf senescence ('stay-greens') deconstruction of the photosynthetic apparatus during leaf senescence is partially or completely prevented. Although the staygreen phenotype is superficially similar in all species and genotypes, the genetic and physiological routes to the trait are diverse. In one type of stay-green, chlorophyll catabolism is disabled. Legumes and monocots with pigment breakdown lesions are discussed. Sorghum is presented as an example of another kind of stay-green in which perennial tendencies have been bred into a monocarpic annual crop species. Transgenic approaches are briefly discussed (enhanced endogenous cytokinins, reduced ethylene production or perception). An alternative route towards making a stay-green phenotype is through quantitative trait mapping and marker-assisted selection. Loci for greenness in pearl millet have been identified, some of which are associated with drought responses or flowering time. Finally the question of the limits on stay-green as a productivity-enhancing character is addressed.

  13. How to define green adjuvants.

    PubMed

    Beck, Bert; Steurbaut, Walter; Spanoghe, Pieter

    2012-08-01

    The concept 'green adjuvants' is difficult to define. This paper formulates an answer based on two approaches. Starting from the Organisation for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD) definition for green chemistry, production-based and environmental-impact-based definitions for green adjuvants are proposed. According to the production-based approach, adjuvants are defined as green if they are manufactured using renewable raw materials as much as possible while making efficient use of energy, preferably renewable energy. According to the environmental impact approach, adjuvants are defined as green (1) if they have a low human and environmental impact, (2) if they do not increase active ingredient environmental mobility and/or toxicity to humans and non-target organisms, (3) if they do not increase the exposure to these active substances and (4) if they lower the impact of formulated pesticides by enhancing the performance of active ingredients, thus potentially lowering the required dosage of active ingredients. Based on both approaches, a tentative definition for 'green adjuvants' is given, and future research and legislation directions are set out.

  14. Brief Discussion on Green Building Materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cai, Jia-wei; Sun, Jian

    2014-08-01

    With more and more emphasizes on the environment and resources, the concept of green buildings has been widely accepted. Building materials are vectors of architectures, only if green building materials and related technical means are used, can we construct green buildings to achieve the purpose of energy conservation and environmental protection. This paper introduces the relationship between green building materials and green buildings, the current situation of green building materials in China, as well as the measures to accelerate the development of green building materials.

  15. 75 FR 32743 - Action Affecting Export Privileges; Green Supply, Inc.; Robert Leland Green and William Robert...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-06-09

    ... Bureau of Industry and Security Action Affecting Export Privileges; Green Supply, Inc.; Robert Leland Green and William Robert Green; Order Denying Export Privileges In the Matter of: Green Supply, Inc., 3059 Audrian Road 581,) Vandalia, Missouri 63382, Respondent; Robert Leland Green, 3059 Audrian...

  16. Green Power Initiative

    SciTech Connect

    Butler, Patrick Barry

    2013-01-28

    National energy policy supports the gathering of more detailed and authoritative data on the introduction of renewable bio-based fuels into new and existing district energy systems via the application of biomass gasification. The University of Iowa developed a biomass-fueled, university-scale steam generation system based on biomass gasification technologies. The system serves as a state-of-the-art research and educational facility in the emerging application of gasification in steam generation. The facility, which includes a smaller down-draft gasifier and a larger multi-stage biomass boiler, was designed to operate primarily on wood-based fuels, but has provisions for testing other biomass fuel sources produced within a 100-mile radius, providing enough flexibility to meet the fluctuating local supply of biomass from industry and Midwest agriculture. The equipment was installed in an existing, staffed facility. The down-draft gasifier unit is operated by College of Engineering staff and students, under the direct technical supervision of qualified Utilities plant staff. The Green Power Initiative also includes a substantial, innovative educational component. In addition to an onsite, graduate-level research program in biomass fuels, the investigators have integrated undergraduate and graduate level teaching – through classroom studies and experiential learning – and applied research into a biomass-based, university-scale, functioning power plant. University of Iowa is unique in that it currently has multiple renewable energy technologies deployed, including significant biomass combustion (oat hulls) at its Main Power Plant and a new reciprocating engine based renewable district energy system. This project complements and supports the national energy policy and State of Iowa initiatives in ethanol and biodiesel. Byproducts of ethanol and biodiesel processes (distiller grains) as well as industry residues (oat hulls, wood chips, construction and demolition

  17. Green Streets, Green Jobs, Green Towns (G3) Guides and Publications

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    This page provides links to guides and resources for: policy, regulations, and incentives; planning and design; construction, operation, and maintenance; financing and economic benefits; and, green jobs and training.

  18. Making green infrastructure healthier infrastructure.

    PubMed

    Lõhmus, Mare; Balbus, John

    2015-01-01

    Increasing urban green and blue structure is often pointed out to be critical for sustainable development and climate change adaptation, which has led to the rapid expansion of greening activities in cities throughout the world. This process is likely to have a direct impact on the citizens' quality of life and public health. However, alongside numerous benefits, green and blue infrastructure also has the potential to create unexpected, undesirable, side-effects for health. This paper considers several potential harmful public health effects that might result from increased urban biodiversity, urban bodies of water, and urban tree cover projects. It does so with the intent of improving awareness and motivating preventive measures when designing and initiating such projects. Although biodiversity has been found to be associated with physiological benefits for humans in several studies, efforts to increase the biodiversity of urban environments may also promote the introduction and survival of vector or host organisms for infectious pathogens with resulting spread of a variety of diseases. In addition, more green connectivity in urban areas may potentiate the role of rats and ticks in the spread of infectious diseases. Bodies of water and wetlands play a crucial role in the urban climate adaptation and mitigation process. However, they also provide habitats for mosquitoes and toxic algal blooms. Finally, increasing urban green space may also adversely affect citizens allergic to pollen. Increased awareness of the potential hazards of urban green and blue infrastructure should not be a reason to stop or scale back projects. Instead, incorporating public health awareness and interventions into urban planning at the earliest stages can help insure that green and blue infrastructure achieves full potential for health promotion.

  19. Making green infrastructure healthier infrastructure

    PubMed Central

    Lõhmus, Mare; Balbus, John

    2015-01-01

    Increasing urban green and blue structure is often pointed out to be critical for sustainable development and climate change adaptation, which has led to the rapid expansion of greening activities in cities throughout the world. This process is likely to have a direct impact on the citizens’ quality of life and public health. However, alongside numerous benefits, green and blue infrastructure also has the potential to create unexpected, undesirable, side-effects for health. This paper considers several potential harmful public health effects that might result from increased urban biodiversity, urban bodies of water, and urban tree cover projects. It does so with the intent of improving awareness and motivating preventive measures when designing and initiating such projects. Although biodiversity has been found to be associated with physiological benefits for humans in several studies, efforts to increase the biodiversity of urban environments may also promote the introduction and survival of vector or host organisms for infectious pathogens with resulting spread of a variety of diseases. In addition, more green connectivity in urban areas may potentiate the role of rats and ticks in the spread of infectious diseases. Bodies of water and wetlands play a crucial role in the urban climate adaptation and mitigation process. However, they also provide habitats for mosquitoes and toxic algal blooms. Finally, increasing urban green space may also adversely affect citizens allergic to pollen. Increased awareness of the potential hazards of urban green and blue infrastructure should not be a reason to stop or scale back projects. Instead, incorporating public health awareness and interventions into urban planning at the earliest stages can help insure that green and blue infrastructure achieves full potential for health promotion. PMID:26615823

  20. Green functions of vortex operators

    SciTech Connect

    Polchinski, Joseph

    1981-03-16

    In this paper, we study the euclidean Green functions of the 't Hooft vortex operator, primarily for abelian gauge theories. The operator is written in terms of elementary fields, with emphasis on a form in which it appears as the exponential of a surface integral. We explore the requirement that the Green functions depend only on the boundary of this surface. The Dirac veto problem appears in a new guise. We present a two-dimensional “solvable model” of a Dirac string, which suggests a new solution of the veto problem. The renormalization of the Green functions of the abelian Wilson loop and abelian vortex operator is studied with the aid of the operator product expansion. In each case, an overall multiplication of the operator makes all Green functions finite; a surprising cancellation of divergences occurs with the vortex operator. We present a brief discussion of the relation between the nature of the vacuum and the cluster properties of the Green functions of the Wilson and vortex operators, for a general gauge theory. Finally, the surface-like cluster property of the vortex operator in an abelian Higgs theory is explored in more detail.

  1. Green commercial building insurance in Malaysia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Yu Xin Ou; Chew, Boon Cheong; Loo, Heoy Shin; Tan, Lay Hong

    2017-03-01

    Green building construction is growing tremendously globally even in Malaysia. Currently, there are approximate 636 buildings have registered and to be certified with Green Building Index. Among these buildings, 45 buildings have already fulfilled the requirements and fully certified. The other buildings still under provisional certification stage. Malaysia had adopted Green Building Index in 2009 to support a move to promote green building concept. Malaysia starts to move towards green building because Malaysian construction and building industry realizes that both energy consumed and waste produced are reduced without irreversible impacts to ecosystems. Consequently, insurance companies such as Fireman's Fund from America has started the green building insurance policies for their green building in the year of 2006, while Malaysia still remain the coverage for green buildings using conventional property insurance. There are lacks of efforts to be seen from insurance companies to propose green building insurance for these green buildings. There are a few factors which can take into consideration for insurance companies to start the very first green building insurance in Malaysia. Although there are challenges, some efficient strategies have been identified to overcome the problems. The methods used in this research topic is qualitative research. The results obtained shows that green commercial building insurance has a huge business opportunity in Malaysia because the number of green commercial buildings are increasing tremendously in Malaysia. It is a favor to implement green building insurance in Malaysia. Furthermore, insurance companies can consider to add in extra coverage in standard building policy to provide extra protection for non-certified green buildings which have the intention to rebuilt in green when damage happens. Generally, it is very important to introduce green commercial buildings insurance into Malaysia so that all of the green commercial

  2. Green chemistry, biofuels, and biorefinery.

    PubMed

    Clark, James H; Luque, Rafael; Matharu, Avtar S

    2012-01-01

    In the current climate of several interrelated impending global crises, namely, climate change, chemicals, energy, and oil, the impact of green chemistry with respect to chemicals and biofuels generated from within a holistic concept of a biorefinery is discussed. Green chemistry provides unique opportunities for innovation via product substitution, new feedstock generation, catalysis in aqueous media, utilization of microwaves, and scope for alternative or natural solvents. The potential of utilizing waste as a new resource and the development of integrated facilities producing multiple products from biomass is discussed under the guise of biorefineries. Biofuels are discussed in depth, as they not only provide fuel (energy) but are also a source of feedstock chemicals. In the future, the commercial success of biofuels commensurate with consumer demand will depend on the availability of new green (bio)chemical technologies capable of converting waste biomass to fuel in a context of a biorefinery.

  3. Modeling the Schwarzschild Green's function

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mark, Zachary; Zimmerman, Aaron; Chen, Yanbei

    2017-01-01

    At sufficiently late times, gravitational waveforms from extreme mass ratio inspirals consist of a sum of quasinormal modes, power law tails, and modes related to the matter source, such as the horizon mode (Zimmerman and Chen 2011). Due to the complexity of the exact curved spacetime Green function, making precise predictions about each component is difficult. We discuss the validity of a simple model for the scalar Schwarzschild Green's function. For observers at future null infinity, we model the Green's function as a simple function describing the direct radiation that matches to a single quasinormal mode at a retarded time related to the light ring location. As applications of the model, we describe the excitation process of the single quasinormal mode and the horizon mode, showing that waveform from the inspiralling object is in precise correspondence to the response of driven, damped harmonic oscillator.

  4. Blue-green upconversion laser

    SciTech Connect

    Nguyen, Dinh C.; Faulkner, George E.

    1990-01-01

    A blue-green laser (450-550 nm) uses a host crystal doped with Tm.sup.3+. The Tm.sup.+ is excited through upconversion by a red pumping laser and an IR pumping laser to a state which transitions to a relatively lower energy level through emissions in the blue-green band, e.g., 450.20 nm at 75 K. The exciting laser may be tunable dye lasers or may be solid-state semiconductor laser, e.g., GaAlAs and InGaAlP.

  5. Blue-green upconversion laser

    DOEpatents

    Nguyen, D.C.; Faulkner, G.E.

    1990-08-14

    A blue-green laser (450--550 nm) uses a host crystal doped with Tm[sup 3+]. The Tm[sup 3+] is excited through upconversion by a red pumping laser and an IR pumping laser to a state which transitions to a relatively lower energy level through emissions in the blue-green band, e.g., 450.20 nm at 75 K. The exciting laser may be tunable dye lasers or may be solid-state semiconductor laser, e.g., GaAlAs and InGaAlP. 3 figs.

  6. Reports From Greening America's Capitals Projects

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Reports from projects conducted under the Greening America's Capitals Program, which helped capital cities explore green infrastructure and sustainable design strategies to revitalize neighborhoods, improve public health, and protect the environment.

  7. Green Supplier Network Manufacturer Commitment Form

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Online form expressing interest in committing to be a Green Supplier; this form expresses your intent to participate in a confidential Green Suppliers Network assessment, implement recommended environmental improvements and complete a NIST MEP follow-up.

  8. Green Engineering Textbook and Training Modules

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    EPA's Green Engineering textbook, Green Engineering: Environmentally Conscious Design of Chemical Processes, is a college senior-to-graduate-level engineering textbook. The primary authors are Dr. David Allen and Dr. David Shonnard.

  9. Potato poisoning - green tubers and sprouts

    MedlinePlus

    ... gov/ency/article/002875.htm Potato plant poisoning - green tubers and sprouts To use the sharing features ... Potato plant poisoning occurs when someone eats the green tubers or new sprouts of the potato plant. ...

  10. Buy Certified-Verified Green Power

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Green power products eligible to be certified by an independent third party against national standards. As a matter of best practice and consumer protection, EPA strongly encourages organizations to purchase these types of certified green power products.

  11. Green Power Community Tools and Resources

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    GPP supplies GPCs will tools to promote their status. GPCs are a subset of the Green Power Partnership; municipalities or tribal governments where government, businesses, and residents collectively use enough green power to meet GPP requirements.

  12. Green Power Partnership Basic Program Information

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    EPA's Green Power Partnership is a voluntary program designed to reduce the environmental impact of electricity generation by promoting renewable energy. Partners commit to procuring green power that meets EPA's requirements and receive recognition.

  13. Some Exercises Reflecting Green Chemistry Concepts

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Song, Yu-Min; Wang, Yong-Cheng; Geng, Zhi-Yuan

    2004-01-01

    Some exercises to introduce students to the concept of green chemistry are given. By doing these exercises, students develop an appreciation for the role of green chemistry on feedstock substitution, milder reaction conditions, reduced environmental exposure, and resource conservation.

  14. Green jobs and a strong middle class.

    PubMed

    Podesta, John D

    2009-01-01

    Green jobs are critical to building a strong middle class, and millions of green jobs can be created through energy efficiency. The models already exist for this work, but we need sustained investment to bring them to scale.

  15. Greening America's Capitals - Des Moines, IA

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Report from Greening America's Capitals project in Des Moines, IA, to help the city enhance the 6th Avenue Corridor with pedestrian and bike improvements and green infrastructure to manage stormwater.

  16. Green Power Partnership Top 10 Federal Government

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    The U.S. EPA's Green Power Partnership is a voluntary program designed to reduce the environmental impact of electricity generation by promoting renewable energy. This page highlights federal agency efforts in procuring green power.

  17. Green Power Partnership Top 30 Local Government

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    The U.S. EPA's Green Power Partnership is a voluntary program designed to reduce the environmental impact of electricity generation by promoting renewable energy. This page lists the largest green power users among local government partners within the GPP.

  18. Green Power Partnership Annual Reporting Requirements

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    The U.S. EPA's Green Power Partnership is a voluntary partnership program designed to reduce the environmental impact of electricity generation by promoting renewable energy. Partners commit to submitting a report on their green power use annually.

  19. Green Power Partnership Top 30 Retail

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    EPA's Green Power Partnership is a voluntary program designed to reduce the environmental impact of electricity generation by promoting renewable energy. This list represents the largest green power users among retail partners within the GPP.

  20. Green tribology: principles, research areas and challenges.

    PubMed

    Nosonovsky, Michael; Bhushan, Bharat

    2010-10-28

    In this introductory paper for the Theme Issue on green tribology, we discuss the concept of green tribology and its relation to other areas of tribology as well as other 'green' disciplines, namely, green engineering and green chemistry. We formulate the 12 principles of green tribology: the minimization of (i) friction and (ii) wear, (iii) the reduction or complete elimination of lubrication, including self-lubrication, (iv) natural and (v) biodegradable lubrication, (vi) using sustainable chemistry and engineering principles, (vii) biomimetic approaches, (viii) surface texturing, (ix) environmental implications of coatings, (x) real-time monitoring, (xi) design for degradation, and (xii) sustainable energy applications. We further define three areas of green tribology: (i) biomimetics for tribological applications, (ii) environment-friendly lubrication, and (iii) the tribology of renewable-energy application. The integration of these areas remains a primary challenge for this novel area of research. We also discuss the challenges of green tribology and future directions of research.

  1. What Makes Green Schools Better?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schimmel, Barry

    2011-01-01

    Green energy represents a way to empower students by demonstrating creative problem-solving with an eye on protecting precious resources, both capital and natural. Many school districts have already taken the initiative during the past five years to implement energy projects, whether for the educational or economic opportunities, or both.…

  2. Energy Perspective: Is Hydroelectricity Green?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Childress, Vincent W.

    2009-01-01

    The current worldwide concern over energy is primarily related to imported oil, oil drilling and refining capacity, and transportation capacity. However, this concern has bolstered interest in a broader range of "green" energy technologies. In this article, the author discusses the use of hydroelectricity as an alternative energy source…

  3. Green Tea and Bone Metabolism

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Osteoporosis is a major health problem in elderly men and women. Epidemiological evidence has shown association between tea consumption and age-related bone loss in elderly men and women. The aim of this review is to provide a systemic review of green tea and bone health to cover the following topi...

  4. Green chemistry for chemical synthesis

    PubMed Central

    Li, Chao-Jun; Trost, Barry M.

    2008-01-01

    Green chemistry for chemical synthesis addresses our future challenges in working with chemical processes and products by inventing novel reactions that can maximize the desired products and minimize by-products, designing new synthetic schemes and apparati that can simplify operations in chemical productions, and seeking greener solvents that are inherently environmentally and ecologically benign. PMID:18768813

  5. Harvesting "Green-Collar" Jobs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roach, Ronald

    2009-01-01

    Emerging in recent years from the need for increased energy efficiency and conservation, greater reduction of greenhouse gas emissions, and stepped-up action to clean the environment, green jobs have arisen as a distinct employment sector within the U.S. and around the world. While social and political activists have taken the lead to make sure…

  6. EPA's Ongoing Green Infrastructure Research

    EPA Science Inventory

    Green Infrastructure is a concept originating in the United States in the mid-1990's that highlights the importance of the natural environment in decisions about land use planning. In particular there is an emphasis on the “life support” functions provided by the natural environm...

  7. Green Team to the Rescue

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Neeper, Lance S.; Dymond, Stacy K.

    2012-01-01

    Teachers created an after-school club called The Green Team and implemented an instructional strategy know as service-learning to teach environmental science. This article describes the transformation that occurred over a three-year period and illustrates how service-learning can provide a framework for environmental education. (Contains 1 figure,…

  8. Grow Your Green Campus Organically!

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schaffhauser, Dian

    2009-01-01

    When it comes to environmental savvy, Delta College (Michigan) is like a lot of small institutions of higher education: It has a passel of green efforts underway, which could fall under all sorts of headings. The IT organization at the 11,000-student community college campus has virtualized its server operations and is on track to roll out a…

  9. "Greening up" the Suzuki Reaction

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Aktoudianakis, Evangelos; Chan, Elton; Edward, Amanda R.; Jarosz, Isabel; Lee, Vicki; Mui, Leo; Thatipamala, Sonya S.; Dicks, Andrew P.

    2008-01-01

    This article describes the rapid, green synthesis of a biaryl compound (4-phenylphenol) via a Pd(0)-catalyzed Suzuki cross-coupling reaction in water. Mild reaction conditions and operational simplicity makes this experiment especially amenable to both mid- and upper-level undergraduates. The methodology exposes students to purely aqueous…

  10. Overcoming Obstacles to Going Green

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kennedy, Mike

    2010-01-01

    In recent years, green design has evolved from a cutting-edge idea embraced by ecology-obsessed activists to an idea embraced as a badge of honor by schools and universities across the nation. A consensus has formed among architects, school facility managers and educators that sustainably designed projects are desirable and make sense for the…

  11. A Deeper Shade of Green

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schachter, Ron

    2009-01-01

    For many schools, "Going Green" once meant turning out the lights after leaving the classroom, filling the recycle bins, and celebrating Earth Day. Not anymore. Although such activities remain staples of environmentally conscious school systems, that consciousness has exploded in an era of high energy prices, global warming threats, and…

  12. Green Chemistry with Microwave Energy

    EPA Science Inventory

    Green chemistry utilizes a set of 12 principles that reduces or eliminates the use or generation of hazardous substances in the design, manufacture, and applications of chemical products (1). This newer chemical approach protects the environment by inventing safer and eco-friendl...

  13. Green Infrastructure Models and Tools

    EPA Science Inventory

    The objective of this project is to modify and refine existing models and develop new tools to support decision making for the complete green infrastructure (GI) project lifecycle, including the planning and implementation of stormwater control in urban and agricultural settings,...

  14. 77 FR 66616 - Office of Federal High-Performance Green Buildings; Green Building Advisory Committee...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-11-06

    ... ADMINISTRATION Office of Federal High-Performance Green Buildings; Green Building Advisory Committee... provides the schedule and agenda for the November 27, 2012, meeting of the Green Building Advisory... High-Performance Green Buildings, Office of Government-wide Policy, General Services...

  15. 78 FR 56703 - Office of Federal High-Performance Green Buildings; Green Building Advisory Committee...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-09-13

    ... ADMINISTRATION Office of Federal High-Performance Green Buildings; Green Building Advisory Committee..., 2013, meeting of the Green Building Advisory Committee Meeting (the Committee) and the schedule for a... CONTACT: Ken Sandler, Designated Federal Officer, ] Office of Federal High-Performance Green...

  16. 78 FR 21368 - Office of Federal High-Performance Green Buildings; Green Building Advisory Committee...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-04-10

    ... ADMINISTRATION Office of Federal High-Performance Green Buildings; Green Building Advisory Committee... provides the schedule and agenda for the May 1, 2013, meeting of the Green Building Advisory Committee... Green Buildings, Office of Government-wide Policy, General Services Administration, 1275 First Street...

  17. 77 FR 24494 - Office of Federal High-Performance Green Buildings; Green Building Advisory Committee...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-04-24

    ... ADMINISTRATION Office of Federal High-Performance Green Buildings; Green Building Advisory Committee... and agenda for the May 9, 2012, meeting of the Green Building Advisory Committee Meeting (the... Sandler, Designated Federal Officer, Office of Federal High-Performance Green Buildings, Office...

  18. 19 CFR 351.522 - Green light and green box subsidies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 3 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Green light and green box subsidies. 351.522... COUNTERVAILING DUTIES Identification and Measurement of Countervailable Subsidies § 351.522 Green light and green box subsidies. (a) Certain agricultural subsidies. The Secretary will treat as...

  19. 19 CFR 351.522 - Green light and green box subsidies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 3 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Green light and green box subsidies. 351.522... COUNTERVAILING DUTIES Identification and Measurement of Countervailable Subsidies § 351.522 Green light and green box subsidies. (a) Certain agricultural subsidies. The Secretary will treat as...

  20. 19 CFR 351.522 - Green light and green box subsidies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 3 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Green light and green box subsidies. 351.522... COUNTERVAILING DUTIES Identification and Measurement of Countervailable Subsidies § 351.522 Green light and green box subsidies. (a) Certain agricultural subsidies. The Secretary will treat as...

  1. 19 CFR 351.522 - Green light and green box subsidies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 3 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Green light and green box subsidies. 351.522... COUNTERVAILING DUTIES Identification and Measurement of Countervailable Subsidies § 351.522 Green light and green box subsidies. (a) Certain agricultural subsidies. The Secretary will treat as...

  2. 74. SACRED HEART CATHOLIC CHURCH, NORTHWEST CORNER OF GREENE AND ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    74. SACRED HEART CATHOLIC CHURCH, NORTHWEST CORNER OF GREENE AND THIRTEENTH STREETS, SOUTH (FRONT) ELEVATION ON GREENE STREET 56/61 - Greene Street Historic District, Greene Street, Gordon Highway to Augusta Canal Bridge, Augusta, Richmond County, GA

  3. Magnetic field, frequency and temperature dependence of complex conductance of ultrathin La1.65Sr0.45CuO4/La2CuO4 films and the organic superconductors κ-(BEDT-TTF)2Cu[N(CN)2]Br

    DOE PAGES

    V. A. Gasparov; Bozovic, I.; He, Xi; ...

    2015-09-01

    In this study, we used atomic-layer molecular beam epitaxy (ALL-MBE) to synthesize bilayer films of a cuprate metal (La1.65Sr0.45CuO4) and a cuprate insulator (La2CuO4), in which interface superconductivity occurs in a layer that is just one-half unit cell thick. We have studied the magnetic field and temperature dependence of the complex sheet conductance, σ(ω), of these films, and compared them to κκ-(BEDT-TTF)2Cu[N(CN)2]Br single crystals. The magnetic field H was applied both parallel and perpendicular to the 2D conducting layers. Experiments have been carried out at frequencies between 23 kHz and 50 MHz using either two-coil mutual inductance technique, or themore » LC resonators with spiral or rectangular coils. The real and the imaginary parts of the mutual-inductance M(T,ω) between the coil and the sample were measured and converted to complex conductivity. For H perpendicular to the conducting layers, we observed almost identical behavior in both films and κ-Br single crystals: (i) the transition onset in the inductive response, Lk–1(T) occurs at a temperature lower by 2 K than in Re σ(T), (ii) this shift is almost constant with magnetic field up to 8 T; (iii) the vortex diffusion constant D(T) is exponential due to pinning of vortex cores. These results can be described by the extended dynamic theory of the Berezinski–Kosterlitz–Thouless (BKT) transition and dynamics of bound vortex–antivortex pairs with short separation lengths.« less

  4. Magnetic field, frequency and temperature dependence of complex conductance of ultrathin La1.65Sr0.45CuO4/La2CuO4 films and the organic superconductors κ-(BEDT-TTF)2Cu[N(CN)2]Br

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gasparov, V. A.; He, Xi; Dubuis, G.; Pavuna, D.; Kushch, N. D.; Yagubskii, E. B.; Schlueter, J. A.; Bozovic, I.

    2015-09-01

    We used atomic-layer molecular beam epitaxy (ALL-MBE) to synthesize bilayer films of a cuprate metal (La1.65Sr0.45CuO4, LSCO) and a cuprate insulator (La2CuO4, LCO), in which interface superconductivity occurs in a layer that is just one-half unit cell thick. We have studied the magnetic field and temperature dependence of the complex sheet conductance, σ(ω), of these films, and compared them to κ-(BEDT-TTF)2Cu[N(CN)2]Br single crystals. The magnetic field H was applied both parallel and perpendicular to the 2D conducting layers. Experiments have been carried out at frequencies between 23 kHz and 50 MHz using either two-coil mutual inductance technique, or the LC resonators with spiral or rectangular coils. The real and the imaginary parts of the mutual-inductance M(T,ω) between the coil and the sample were measured and converted to complex conductivity. For H perpendicular to the conducting layers, we observed almost identical behavior in both films and κ-Br single crystals: (i) the transition onset in the inductive response, Lk-1(T) occurs at a temperature lower by 2 K than in Reσ(T), (ii) this shift is almost constant with magnetic field up to 8 T; (iii) the vortex diffusion constant D(T) is exponential due to pinning of vortex cores. These results can be described by the extended dynamic theory of the Berezinski-Kosterlitz-Thouless (BKT) transition and dynamics of bound vortex-antivortex pairs with short separation lengths.

  5. An Approach towards Teaching Green Chemistry Fundamentals

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    van Arnum, Susan D.

    2005-01-01

    A useful metrics system for the assessment of the environmental impact of chemical processes is utilized to illustrate several of the principles of green chemistry. The use of this metrics system in conjunction with laboratory experiments in green chemistry would provide for reinforcement in both the theory and practice of green chemistry.

  6. Green Roofs for Stormwater Runoff Control

    EPA Science Inventory

    This project evaluated green roofs as a stormwater management tool. Specifically, runoff quantity and quality from green and flat asphalt roofs were compared. Evapotranspiration from planted green roofs and evaporation from unplanted media roofs were also compared. The influence...

  7. Greening a K-12 School System

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Frantz, Steve

    2010-01-01

    The author, who has retired as Scarsdale elementary principal, was asked by the superintendent Michael McGill if he was interested in leading Scarsdale's green initiative. Early on in Scarsdale, they referred to their work as the "green initiative." After agreeing to lead the initiative, he set out to learn more about greening at K-12…

  8. On Seeing Reddish Green and Yellowish Blue.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Crane, Hewitt D.; Piantanida, Thomas P.

    1983-01-01

    Stabilization of the retinal image of the boundary between a pair of red/green or yellow/blue stripes, but not their outer edges, results in the entire region being perceived simultaneously as both red/green or yellow/blue. This suggests that the percepts of reddish-green/yellowish-blue apparently are possible in corticocortical color vision…

  9. Trends in Utility Green Pricing Programs (2005)

    SciTech Connect

    Bird, L.; Brown, E.

    2006-10-01

    This report presents year-end 2005 data on utility green pricing programs, and examines trends in consumer response and program implementation over time. The data in this report, which were obtained via a questionnaire distributed to utility green pricing program managers, can be used by utilities to benchmark the success of their green power programs.

  10. 7 CFR 29.3522 - Green (G).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Green (G). 29.3522 Section 29.3522 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards, Inspections, Marketing... Type 95) § 29.3522 Green (G). A term applied to green-colored, immature, or crude tobacco. Any...

  11. 7 CFR 29.3522 - Green (G).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Green (G). 29.3522 Section 29.3522 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards, Inspections, Marketing... Type 95) § 29.3522 Green (G). A term applied to green-colored, immature, or crude tobacco. Any...

  12. 7 CFR 29.3029 - Green (G).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Green (G). 29.3029 Section 29.3029 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards, Inspections, Marketing... Green (G). A color term applied to immature or crude tobacco. Any leaf which has a green color...

  13. 7 CFR 29.3029 - Green (G).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Green (G). 29.3029 Section 29.3029 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards, Inspections, Marketing... Green (G). A color term applied to immature or crude tobacco. Any leaf which has a green color...

  14. 7 CFR 29.3522 - Green (G).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Green (G). 29.3522 Section 29.3522 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards, Inspections, Marketing... Type 95) § 29.3522 Green (G). A term applied to green-colored, immature, or crude tobacco. Any...

  15. 7 CFR 29.3029 - Green (G).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Green (G). 29.3029 Section 29.3029 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards, Inspections, Marketing... Green (G). A color term applied to immature or crude tobacco. Any leaf which has a green color...

  16. 7 CFR 29.3029 - Green (G).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Green (G). 29.3029 Section 29.3029 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards, Inspections, Marketing... Green (G). A color term applied to immature or crude tobacco. Any leaf which has a green color...

  17. 7 CFR 29.3522 - Green (G).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Green (G). 29.3522 Section 29.3522 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards, Inspections, Marketing... Type 95) § 29.3522 Green (G). A term applied to green-colored, immature, or crude tobacco. Any...

  18. 7 CFR 29.3029 - Green (G).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Green (G). 29.3029 Section 29.3029 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards, Inspections, Marketing... Green (G). A color term applied to immature or crude tobacco. Any leaf which has a green color...

  19. 7 CFR 29.3522 - Green (G).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Green (G). 29.3522 Section 29.3522 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards, Inspections, Marketing... Type 95) § 29.3522 Green (G). A term applied to green-colored, immature, or crude tobacco. Any...

  20. 75 FR 1591 - Green Technology Pilot Program

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-01-12

    ... Patent and Trademark Office Green Technology Pilot Program ACTION: Proposed collection; comment request...@uspto.gov . Include A0651-0062 Green Technology Pilot Program comment@ in the subject line of the... examination pilot program for patent applications pertaining to green technologies, including greenhouse...

  1. Teaching Teachers to Teach Green Engineering

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Flynn, Ann Marie; Naraghi, Mohammad H.; Austin, Nicole; Helak, Sean; Manzer, Jarrod

    2006-01-01

    The work provides guidelines for instructors who wish to incorporate green engineering concepts into a typical non-green engineering course without diluting course content or modifying the course syllabus by identifying 5 critical elements necessary to the successful integration of green engineering concepts into any traditional, design-oriented,…

  2. 21 CFR 73.3124 - Phthalocyanine green.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Phthalocyanine green. 73.3124 Section 73.3124 Food... COLOR ADDITIVES EXEMPT FROM CERTIFICATION Medical Devices § 73.3124 Phthalocyanine green. (a) Identity. The color additive is phthalocyanine green (CAS Reg. No. 1328-53-6), Colour Index No. 74260. (b)...

  3. 21 CFR 73.3124 - Phthalocyanine green.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Phthalocyanine green. 73.3124 Section 73.3124 Food... COLOR ADDITIVES EXEMPT FROM CERTIFICATION Medical Devices § 73.3124 Phthalocyanine green. (a) Identity. The color additive is phthalocyanine green (CAS Reg. No. 1328-53-6), Colour Index No. 74260. (b)...

  4. Plant mediated green synthesis: modified approaches.

    PubMed

    Das, Ratul Kumar; Brar, Satinder Kaur

    2013-11-07

    Plant mediated green synthesis of different metallic nanoparticles has emerged as one of the options for implementation of green chemistry principles, and successfully made an important contribution towards green nanotechnology. However, beyond the synthesis and application aspects, the science of green synthesis has carried some wrong perceptions in an unforeseen fashion. In this review, some of the key issues related to the green synthesis of metallic nanoparticles employing plants as reducing/capping agents have been addressed. Random selection of plants and its overall impact on the different aspects of green synthesis have been discussed. Emphasis is given to the setting of some standard selection criteria to be adopted for selecting a plant for use in green synthesis. How selection of a plant can positively or negatively influence both procedure and products of a green synthesis process is the prime concern of this article. In addition to selection, the key issue of biocompatibility associated with green synthesized metallic nanoparticles has been considered. Both selection of plant and biocompatibility were reconsidered for their minute details in terms of synthesis, analysis and data interpretation in the green synthesis approach. The key factors capable of fine tuning the core meaning of "green" in the synthesis of any metallic nanoparticles were taken into consideration. This article is an effort towards keeping the core meaning of green synthesis.

  5. 75 FR 64692 - Green Technology Pilot Program

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-10-20

    ... Patent and Trademark Office Green Technology Pilot Program ACTION: Proposed collection; comment request...: ] E-mail: InformationCollection@uspto.gov . Include ``0651- 0062 Green Technology Pilot Program... pertaining to green technologies, including greenhouse gas reduction, to be advanced out of turn...

  6. Green pigments of the Pompeian artists' palette

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aliatis, Irene; Bersani, Danilo; Campani, Elisa; Casoli, Antonella; Lottici, Pier Paolo; Mantovan, Silvia; Marino, Iari-Gabriel; Ospitali, Francesca

    2009-08-01

    Green colored samples on wall paintings and green powder from a pigment pot found in Pompeii area are investigated by micro-Raman, FT-IR and, for one sample, SEM-EDX. To obtain the green color, green earths and malachite were used, together with mixture of Egyptian blue and yellow ochre. The mineralogical identification of the green earths has been attempted through the comparison of the vibrational features, discriminating between celadonite and glauconite spectra. Traces of a modern synthetic pigment containing copper phthalocyanine were found in a fresco fragment.

  7. Green chemistry for nanoparticle synthesis.

    PubMed

    Duan, Haohong; Wang, Dingsheng; Li, Yadong

    2015-08-21

    The application of the twelve principles of green chemistry in nanoparticle synthesis is a relatively new emerging issue concerning the sustainability. This field has received great attention in recent years due to its capability to design alternative, safer, energy efficient, and less toxic routes towards synthesis. These routes have been associated with the rational utilization of various substances in the nanoparticle preparations and synthetic methods, which have been broadly discussed in this tutorial review. This article is not meant to provide an exhaustive overview of green synthesis of nanoparticles, but to present several pivotal aspects of synthesis with environmental concerns, involving the selection and evaluation of nontoxic capping and reducing agents, the choice of innocuous solvents and the development of energy-efficient synthetic methods.

  8. Color us (or somebody) green

    SciTech Connect

    Hill, L.W.

    1993-04-01

    Customers are turning green with environmental awareness in the marketplace. This movement is quickly gaining momentum with increasing demand for natural ingredients, recyclable materials, and low pollution technology. Although foresters have practiced environmental awareness for a long time and have become pretty good at it, the green consumerism needs their attention. Products from the world's forests circulate in world trade. Consumer attitudes about what these products are, where they come from and how they are produced and transported affect our profession. The international Forest Stewardship Council (FSC) was formed in 1992 to set a worldwide standard for good forest management by promoting widely recognized and respected principles of good forest management. The ten principles are listed.

  9. The green beards of language

    PubMed Central

    Lindenfors, Patrik

    2013-01-01

    Language transfers information on at least three levels; (1) what is said, (2) how it is said (what language is used), and, (3) that it is said (that speaker and listener both possess the ability to use language). The use of language is a form of honest cooperation on two of these levels; not necessarily on what is said, which can be deceitful, but always on how it is said and that it is said. This means that the language encoding and decoding systems had to evolve simultaneously, through mutual fitness benefits. Theoretical problems surrounding the evolution of cooperation disappear if a recognition system is present enabling cooperating individuals to identify each other – if they are equipped with “green beards”. Here, I outline how both the biological and cultural aspects of language are bestowed with such recognition systems. The biological capacities required for language signal their presence through speech and understanding. This signaling cannot be invaded by “false green beards” because the traits and the signal of their presence are one and the same. However, the real usefulness of language comes from its potential to convey an infinite number of meanings through the dynamic handling of symbols – through language itself. But any specific language also signals its presence to others through usage and understanding. Thus, languages themselves cannot be invaded by “false green beards” because, again, the trait and the signal of its presence are one and the same. These twin green beards, in both the biological and cultural realms, are unique to language. PMID:23610647

  10. Applied biotransformations in green solvents.

    PubMed

    Hernáiz, María J; Alcántara, Andrés R; García, José I; Sinisterra, José V

    2010-08-16

    The definite interest in implementing sustainable industrial technologies has impelled the use of biocatalysts (enzymes or cells), leading to high chemo-, regio- and stereoselectivities under mild conditions. As usual substrates are not soluble in water, the employ of organic solvents is mandatory. We will focus on different attempts to combine the valuable properties of green solvents with the advantages of using biocatalysts for developing cleaner synthetic processes.

  11. Green buildings: Implications for acousticians

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Noble, Michael R.

    2005-04-01

    This presentation will deal with the practical implications of green design protocols of the US Green Building Council on interior acoustics of buildings. Three areas of particular consequence to acousticians will be discussed. Ventilation Systems: reduced energy consumption goals dictate reliance on natural cooling and ventilation using ambient air when possible. The consequent large openings in the building envelope to bring fresh air into rooms, and similar sized openings to transfer the mixed air out, can severely compromise the noise isolation of the rooms concerned. Radiant Cooling: the heavy concrete floors of buildings can be used as a thermal flywheel to lessen the cooling load, which forces the concrete ceilings to be exposed to the occupied rooms for heat transfer, and strictly limits the application of acoustical absorption on the ceilings. This challenges the room acoustics design. Green Materials: the LEED protocols require the elimination of potentially harmful finishes, including fibrous materials which may impact air quality or contribute to health problems. Since the backbone of sound absorption is glass and mineral fibres, this further challenges provision of superior room acoustics. Examples and commentary will be provided based on current and recent projects.

  12. Probing green algal hydrogen production.

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Liping; Melis, Anastasios

    2002-01-01

    The recently developed two-stage photosynthesis and H(2)-production protocol with green algae is further investigated in this work. The method employs S deprivation as a tool for the metabolic regulation of photosynthesis. In the presence of S, green algae perform normal photosynthesis, carbohydrate accumulation and oxygen production. In the absence of S, normal photosynthesis stops and the algae slip into the H(2)-production mode. For the first time, to our knowledge, significant amounts of H(2) gas were generated, essentially from sunlight and water. Rates of H(2) production could be sustained continuously for ca. 80 h in the light, but gradually declined thereafter. This work examines biochemical and physiological aspects of this process in the absence or presence of limiting amounts of S nutrients. Moreover, the effects of salinity and of uncouplers of phosphorylation are investigated. It is shown that limiting levels of S can sustain intermediate levels of oxygenic photosynthesis, in essence raising the prospect of a calibration of the rate of photosynthesis by the S content in the growth medium of the algae. It is concluded that careful titration of the supply of S nutrients in the green alga medium might permit the development of a continuous H(2)-production process. PMID:12437889

  13. Correlation dynamics of Green functions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shun-Jin, Wang; Wei, Zuo; Wolfgang, Cassing

    1994-06-01

    We generalize the methods used in the theory of correlation dynamics and establish a set of equations of motion for many-body correlation Green functions in the nonrelativistic case. These nonlinear and coupled equations of motion describe the dynamical evolution of correlation Green functions of different order and transparently show how many-body correlations are generated by the different interaction terms in a genuine nonperturbative framework. The nonperturbative results of the conventional Green function theory are included in the present formalism as two limiting cases (the so-called ladder-diagram summation and ring-diagram summation) as well as the familiar correlation dynamics of density matrices in the equal-time limit. We present explicit expressions for three- and four-body correlation functions that can be used to dynamically restore the trace relations for spin-symmetric Fermi systems and study numerically the relative importance of two-, three- and four-body correlations for nuclear configurations close to the ground state.

  14. Green lights program in China

    SciTech Connect

    Dadi, Zhuo; Hong, Liu

    1996-12-31

    In China`s 9th 5-year plan (1996-2000), the Chinese government has placed high priority on energy conservation. The China Green Lights Program (CGLP) is listed as one of the key projects of energy conservation. The basic strategy of the CGLP is to mobilise all of the potential contributors to participate in the program, and to use market signals and supplementary non-market instruments to facilitate its implementation. Governmental funds and loans will be used as seed money to attract private participation in the program. The program contains the following elements: (1) Information dissemination to educate the public on the economic and other values of the program and to provide CGLP information to increase consumer awareness and, as a result, increase the demand for energy-efficient lighting systems. (2) Development of standards and codes for lighting systems, establishment of product specifications, and enforcement of product standards. (3) Development of quality certification and labelling system to provide assurances to consumers that the products they are purchasing will meet their performance and cost saving expectations. (4) Highlighted support and financing for production technology development and production capacity expansion. (5) Demonstration and pilot projects to boost consumer confidence in green lighting systems and to demonstrate new production technologies and processes. (6) International co-operation to expand the international exchange and absorb advanced technology and experience for implementation of the China Green Lights Program.

  15. Green tea and theanine: health benefits.

    PubMed

    Cooper, Raymond

    2012-03-01

    Historically, the medicinal use of green tea dates back to China 4700 years ago and drinking tea continues to be regarded traditionally in Asia as a general healthful practice. Numerous scientific publications now attest to the health benefits of both black and green teas, including clinical and epidemiological studies. Although all tea contains beneficial antioxidants, high-quality green and white teas have them in greater concentrations than black tea. Today, scientists believe that the main active ingredients of green tea include the polyphenols, in particular the catechins and the amino acid, theanine. Studies on the health benefits of drinking tea, particularly green tea, are finding exciting results, particularly in cancer research. Modern studies in both Asia and the West have provided encouraging results indicating that drinking green tea contributes to fighting many different kinds of cancers including stomach, oesophageal, ovarian and colon. Recent studies describing the health benefits of these compounds will be reviewed.

  16. Blue-green and green phosphors for lighting applications

    DOEpatents

    Setlur, Anant Achyut; Chandran, Ramachandran Gopi; Henderson, Claire Susan; Nammalwar, Pransanth Kumar; Radkov, Emil

    2012-12-11

    Embodiments of the present techniques provide a related family of phosphors that may be used in lighting systems to generate blue or blue-green light. The phosphors include systems having a general formula of: ((Sr.sub.1-zM.sub.z).sub.1-(x+w)A.sub.wCe.sub.x).sub.3(Al.sub.1-ySi.s- ub.y)O.sub.4+y+3(x-w)F.sub.1-y-3(x-w) (I), wherein 0green light. Further, the phosphors may be used in blends with other phosphors, or in combined lighting systems, to produce white light suitable for illumination.

  17. YCF1: A Green TIC?

    PubMed Central

    de Vries, Jan; Sousa, Filipa L.; Bölter, Bettina; Soll, Jürgen; Gould, Sven B.

    2015-01-01

    A pivotal step in the transformation of an endosymbiotic cyanobacterium to a plastid some 1.5 billion years ago was the evolution of a protein import apparatus, the TOC/TIC machinery, in the common ancestor of Archaeplastida. Recently, a putative new TIC member was identified in Arabidopsis thaliana: TIC214. This finding is remarkable for a number of reasons: (1) TIC214 is encoded by ycf1, so it would be the first plastid-encoded protein of this apparatus; (2) ycf1 is unique to the green lineage (Chloroplastida) but entirely lacking in glaucophytes (Glaucophyta) and the red lineage (Rhodophyta) of the Archaeplastida; (3) ycf1 has been shown to be one of the few indispensable plastid genes (aside from the ribosomal machinery), yet it is missing in the grasses; and (4) 30 years of previous TOC/TIC research missed it. These observations prompted us to survey the evolution of ycf1. We found that ycf1 is not only lacking in grasses and some parasitic plants, but also for instance in cranberry (Ericaceae). The encoded YCF proteins are highly variable, both in sequence length and in the predicted number of N-terminal transmembrane domains. The evolution of the TOC/TIC machinery in the green lineage experienced specific modifications, but our analysis does not support YCF1 to be a general green TIC. It remains to be explained how the apparent complete loss of YCF1 can be tolerated by some embryophytes and whether what is observed for YCF1 function in a member of the Brassicaceae is also true for, e.g., algal and noncanonical YCF1 homologs. PMID:25818624

  18. Green waxes, adhesives and lubricants.

    PubMed

    Li, W; Kong, X H; Ruan, M; Ma, F M; Jiang, Y F; Liu, M Z; Chen, Y; Zuo, X H

    2010-10-28

    General characteristics of waxes, adhesives and lubricants as well as the recent fundamental investigations on their physical and mechanical behaviour are introduced. The current R&D status for new type/generation of waxes, adhesives and lubricants from natural products is reviewed, with an emphasis on their tribological applications. In particular, some crucial issues and challenges relating to technological improvement and materials development are discussed. Based on the current predicted shortage of energy resources and environmental concerns, prospective research on the development of green waxes, adhesives and lubricants is suggested.

  19. Green fluorescent protein: A perspective

    PubMed Central

    Remington, S James

    2011-01-01

    A brief personal perspective is provided for green fluorescent protein (GFP), covering the period 1994–2011. The topics discussed are primarily those in which my research group has made a contribution and include structure and function of the GFP polypeptide, the mechanism of fluorescence emission, excited state protein transfer, the design of ratiometric fluorescent protein biosensors and an overview of the fluorescent proteins derived from coral reef animals. Structure-function relationships in photoswitchable fluorescent proteins and nonfluorescent chromoproteins are also briefly covered. PMID:21714025

  20. Green fluorescent protein: a perspective.

    PubMed

    Remington, S James

    2011-09-01

    A brief personal perspective is provided for green fluorescent protein (GFP), covering the period 1994-2011. The topics discussed are primarily those in which my research group has made a contribution and include structure and function of the GFP polypeptide, the mechanism of fluorescence emission, excited state protein transfer, the design of ratiometric fluorescent protein biosensors and an overview of the fluorescent proteins derived from coral reef animals. Structure-function relationships in photoswitchable fluorescent proteins and nonfluorescent chromoproteins are also briefly covered.

  1. National Green Building Standard Analysis

    SciTech Connect

    NAHB Research Center, Upper Marlboro, Maryland

    2012-07-01

    DOE's Building America Program is a research and development program to improve the energy performance of new and existing homes. The ultimate goal of the Building America Program is to achieve examples of cost-effective, energy efficient solutions for all U.S. climate zones. Periodic maintenance of an ANSI standard by review of the entire document and action to revise or reaffirm it on a schedule not to exceed five years is required by ANSI. In compliance, a consensus group has once again been formed and the National Green Building Standard is currently being reviewed to comply with the periodic maintenance requirement of an ANSI standard.

  2. Solvent replacement for green processing.

    PubMed Central

    Sherman, J; Chin, B; Huibers, P D; Garcia-Valls, R; Hatton, T A

    1998-01-01

    The implementation of the Montreal Protocol, the Clean Air Act, and the Pollution Prevention Act of 1990 has resulted in increased awareness of organic solvent use in chemical processing. The advances made in the search to find "green" replacements for traditional solvents are reviewed, with reference to solvent alternatives for cleaning, coatings, and chemical reaction and separation processes. The development of solvent databases and computational methods that aid in the selection and/or design of feasible or optimal environmentally benign solvent alternatives for specific applications is also discussed. Images Figure 2 Figure 3 PMID:9539018

  3. Imaging individual green fluorescent proteins

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pierce, Daniel W.; Hom-Booher, Nora; Vale, Ronald D.

    1997-07-01

    Recent advances in fluorescence microscopy techniques have allowed the video-time imaging of single molecules of fluorescent dyes covalently bound to proteins in aqueous environments. However, the techniques have not been exploited fully because proteins can be difficult to label, and dye modification may cause partial or complete loss of activity. These difficulties could be circumvented by fusing proteins to green fluorescent protein (GFP) of the jellyfish Aequorea victoria. Here we report that single S65T mutant GFP molecules can be imaged using total internal reflection microscopy, and that ATP-driven movement of an individual kinesin molecule (a microtubule motor protein) fused to GFP can be readily observed.

  4. Microscale Chemistry and Green Chemistry: Complementary Pedagogies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Singh, Mono M.; Szafran, Zvi; Pike, R. M.

    1999-12-01

    This paper describes the complementary nature of microscale chemistry and green chemistry. Green chemistry emphasizes the concepts of atom economy, source reduction, pathway modification, solvent substitution, and pollution prevention as means of improving the environmental impact of industrial chemistry. Microscale chemistry serves as a tool for incorporating green chemistry ideas across the curriculum in educational institutions. Examples are drawn from microscale laboratory experiments to illustrate the pedagogic connection between the two areas.

  5. Chlorella: 125 years of the green survivalist.

    PubMed

    Krienitz, Lothar; Huss, Volker A R; Bock, Christina

    2015-02-01

    Chlorella, the archetype of unicellular green algae, is a high-performance primary producer in aquatic and terrestrial ecosystems. Under the simple spherical morphology of Chlorella, many other 'green balls' unfolded as independent phylogenetic lineages as a result of convergent evolution. By contrast, green algae with strikingly different phenotypes were unmasked as close relatives of Chlorella by modern molecular techniques. Here, we point to the increasing impact of these diverse protists on ecology, evolution, and biotechnology in the light of integrative taxonomy.

  6. Customer Aggregation: An Opportunity for Green Power?

    SciTech Connect

    Holt, E.; Bird, L.

    2001-02-26

    We undertook research into the experience of aggregation groups to determine whether customer aggregation offers an opportunity to bring green power choices to more customers. The objectives of this report, therefore, are to (1) identify the different types of aggregation that are occurring today, (2) learn whether aggregation offers an opportunity to advance sales of green power, and (3) share these concepts and approaches with potential aggregators and green power advocates.

  7. City Green: Innovative Green Infrastructure Solutions for Downtowns and Infill Locations

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    City Green uses case studies to illustrate how green infrastructure techniques can be used in downtowns and infill locations, where space is limited, to protect water quality and bring other environmental and community benefits.

  8. Enhancing Sustainable Communities With Green Infrastructure

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    This publication aims to help local governments, water utilities, nonprofit organizations, neighborhood groups, and other stakeholders integrate green infrastructure strategies into plans that can transform their communities.

  9. Distribution of green infrastructure along walkable roads ...

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Low-income and minority neighborhoods frequently lack healthful resources to which wealthier communities have access. Though important, the addition of facilities such as recreation centers can be costly and take time to implement. Urban green infrastructure, such as street trees and other green space, can be a low-cost alternative to promote frequency and duration of outdoor physical activity. Street trees and other green space may increase outdoor physical activity levels by providing shade, improving aesthetics, and promoting social engagement. Though street trees and green space provide many benefits and are publicly accessible at all times, these resources are not evenly distributed between neighborhoods. An objective analysis of street tree cover and green space in 6,407 block groups across 10 urban areas was conducted using fine-scale land cover data. Distribution of green infrastructure was then analyzed by minority status, income, car ownership, housing density, and employment density. The objective measure of street tree cover and green space is based on 1-meter resolution land cover data from the U.S. EPA-led EnviroAtlas. Tree cover was analyzed along each side of walkable road centerlines in the areas where sidewalks are estimated to be. Green space was calculated within 25 meters of road centerlines. Percent tree cover and green space per city block were then summarized to census block group (CBG). CBG demographics from the U.S. Census and built env

  10. Green analytical chemistry--theory and practice.

    PubMed

    Tobiszewski, Marek; Mechlińska, Agata; Namieśnik, Jacek

    2010-08-01

    This tutorial review summarises the current state of green analytical chemistry with special emphasis on environmentally friendly sample preparation techniques. Green analytical chemistry is a part of the sustainable development concept; its history and origins are described. Miniaturisation of analytical devices and shortening the time elapsing between performing analysis and obtaining reliable analytical results are important aspects of green analytical chemistry. Solventless extraction techniques, the application of alternative solvents and assisted extractions are considered to be the main approaches complying with green analytical chemistry principles.

  11. Elementary introduction to the Green's function

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Whitten, R. C.; Mccormick, P. T.

    1975-01-01

    A technique, using the method of variation of parameters for solving differential equations, is developed for introducing Green's functions early in an undergraduate curriculum. Various examples are presented.

  12. Presidential Green Chemistry Challenge: 2009 Academic Award

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Presidential Green Chemistry Challenge 2009 award winner, Professor Krzysztof Matyjaszewski, developed Atom Transfer Radical Polymerization to make polymers with copper catalysts and environmentally friendly reducing agents.

  13. Reflectance and transmittance characteristics of several selected green and blue-green unialgae.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gramms, L. C.; Boyle, W. C.

    1971-01-01

    Obtained reflectance properties of green and blue-green unialgae are evaluated for determining the feasibility of using selected wavelengths in differentiating between green and blue-green algae. The attempt is made to establish selected wavelengths and ratios that would delineate relative concentrations of the algal suspensions. The results should prove helpful in the selection of spectral bands usable in conjunction with multispectrum scanners for qualitative and quantitative studies of algae in bodies of water.

  14. Green-Kubo Modal Analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Henry, Asegun

    A new method for direct calculation of the modal contributions to thermal conductivity, which is termed Green-Kubo modal analysis (GKMA) will be presented. The GKMA method combines the lattice dynamics formalism with the Green-Kubo formula for thermal conductivity, such that the thermal conductivity becomes a direct summation of modal contributions, where one need not define the phonon velocity. As a result, the GKMA method can be applied to any material/group of atoms, where the atoms vibrate around stable equilibrium positions, which includes crystalline line compounds, non-stoichiometric compounds, random alloys, amorphous materials and even rigid molecules. By using molecular dynamics simulations to obtain the time history of each mode's contribution to the heat current, one naturally includes anharmonicity to full order and can obtain insight into the interactions between different modes through the cross-correlations. Several example materials will be discussed and the specific attention will be devoted to new fundamental questions that arise from the changes in mode character that occur in disordered systems. The GKMA method provides new insight into the nature of phonon transport, as it casts the problem in terms of mode-mode correlation instead of scattering, and provides a general unified formalism that can be used to understand phonon-phonon interactions in essentially any class of materials or structures where the atoms vibrate around stable equilibrium sites.

  15. Notes on the geology of Green River Valley between Green River, Wyoming, and Green River, Utah

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Reeside, J.B.

    1925-01-01

    During July, August, and part of September, 1922, I had the privilege of accompanying a party sent out jointly by the Utah Power & Light Co. and the United States Geological Survey to gather such data as were still needed to complete a study of the power resources of Green River between Green River, Wyo., and Green River, Utah. The chief deficiency to be supplied was a continuous topographic map of the valley in sufficient detail to permit calculation of the storage capacity of any reservoir site that might be used, the stream gradient, and similar features. Maps on a satisfactory scale of a number of isolated stretches of the river had already been made by public or private agencies, and it was necessary to verify them and connect them on a uniform datum. Inasmuch as it was deemed unlikely that a dam higher than 300 feet would be constructed anywhere on the part of the river to be examined, a plane 300 feet above the water surface was made the upper limit of mapping. Over such parts of the valley as had been mapped already the progress of the party was naturally very rapid, and even where no mapping had previously been done, the 300-foot limit set upon the work and the usual narrowness of the valley combined to reduce the extent of the area to be mapped, so that the speed maintained was relatively high. Under this condition of rapid movement it was seldom possible to make more than the most cursory examination of the rocks, though occasionally circumstances permitted more or less detailed observation. The notes here recorded are therefore mostly of a rather generalized character, but as they pertain in part to localities that are difficult of access and not often visited by geologists, and that are at the same time classic in the history of American geology, I venture to to record them for whatever value they may have to other geologists.

  16. Green Roofs: A Part of Green Infrastructure Strategy for Urban Areas

    EPA Science Inventory

    This is a presentation on the basics of green roof technology. The presentation highlights some of the recent ORD research projects on green roofs and provides insight for the end user as to the benefits for green roof technology. It provides links to currently available EPA rep...

  17. The Red Road to Green: Tribal Peoples' Worldviews Preceded "Green" Trend

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pember, Mary Annette

    2008-01-01

    Green is definitely "in." Green refers not to fashion but the philosophy of environmental protection, stewardship, and social justice. There is nothing new about the green philosophy for tribal colleges and universities (TCUs) and the Native communities they serve. Responsible stewardship of Mother Earth is a natural outgrowth of TCU's missions…

  18. How Green Is Green? Developing a Process for Determining Sustainability When Planning Campuses and Academic Buildings.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bernheim, Anthony

    2003-01-01

    Proposes structured workshops as the method to integrate green planning seamlessly into campus building planning. Explains that green rating systems, such as Leadership in Energy and Environmental Design (LEED), offer specific ways to gauge the environmental effectiveness of green measures. (EV)

  19. Green Skills for Green Economy: Case of the Environmental Education Role in Kazakhstan's Economy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dlimbetova, Gaini; Zhylbaev, Zhanbol; Syrymbetova, Lyailya; ?liyeva, Aiman

    2016-01-01

    The research on situation with developing "green skills" in conditions of transition to "green economy" is analysed in this article. Kazakhstan like many other states has been going through transition to "green economy" since 2013. Economic reforms have made an impact on the system of environmental education. The…

  20. Greening Steel Work: Varieties of Capitalism and the "Greening" of Skills

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Evans, Claire; Stroud, Dean

    2016-01-01

    An important driver of change in work, employment and skills is European Union policy aims of sustainable economic growth and the cultivation of a green economy. Part of the latter--which is supported by increasing environmental regulation--focuses on the development of a "green skills agenda," which involves the "greening" of…

  1. Adult Learning Meets the Green Economy: Lessons from a Green Jobs Education Project

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wagner, Cecelia

    2013-01-01

    The new "green economy" affects adult education and workforce development as adult workers seek skills and knowledge that will help them find success in work and life. Recent years have brought about increased interest in and discussion of training for green jobs. Since the introduction of the Green Jobs Act in 2007, questions about how exactly to…

  2. To Green or Not to Green? Evaluation of Green Stormwater Infrastructure in Kansas City Middle Blue River Project

    EPA Science Inventory

    The City of Kansas City, Mo., Water Services Department is implementing a pilot project to measure and evaluate the performance of green infrastructure. Information obtained through this pilot project will be used to guide the design of green solutions throughout Kansas City und...

  3. Association between Greenness, Urbanicity, and Birth Weight

    PubMed Central

    Ebisu, Keita; Holford, Theodore R.; Bell, Michelle L.

    2015-01-01

    Background More than half of the world's population lives in urban environments. Due to urban related factors (e.g. higher air pollution), urban residents may face higher risk of adverse health outcomes, while access to green space could benefit health. Purpose We explored associations between urban and green land-use and birth weight. Methods Connecticut, U.S., birth certificate data (2000-2006) were acquired (n=239,811), and land-use data were obtained from the National Land Cover Database. We focused on three land-uses; urban space, urban open space, and green space (i.e. forest, shrub, herbaceous, and cultivated land). We estimated fractions of greenness and urbanicity within 250 m from residence. A linear mixed effects model was conducted for birth weight and a logistic mixed effects model for low birth weight (LBW) and small for gestational age (SGA). Results An interquartile range (IQR) increment in the fraction of green space within 250 m of residence was associated with 3.2g (95% Confidence Interval [0.4, 6.0]) higher birth weight. Similarly, an IQR increase in green space was associated with 7.6% [2.6, 12.4] decreased risk of LBW. Exposure to urban space was negatively correlated with green space (Pearson correlation = −0.88), and it showed negative association with birth outcomes. Results were generally robust with different buffer sizes and controlling for fine particles (PM2.5) and traffic. Conclusions We found protective associations by green space on birth outcomes. Increasing green space and/or reducing urban space (e.g. the greening of city environments) may reduce the risk of adverse birth outcomes such as LBW and SGA. Populations living in urban environments will grow in the next half century, and allocation of green space among urban areas may play a critical role for public health in urban planning. PMID:26546769

  4. Green light induces shade avoidance symptoms.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Tingting; Maruhnich, Stefanie A; Folta, Kevin M

    2011-11-01

    Light quality and quantity affect plant adaptation to changing light conditions. Certain wavelengths in the visible and near-visible spectrum are known to have discrete effects on plant growth and development, and the effects of red, far-red, blue, and ultraviolet light have been well described. In this report, an effect of green light on Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) rosette architecture is demonstrated using a narrow-bandwidth light-emitting diode-based lighting system. When green light was added to a background of constant red and blue light, plants exhibited elongation of petioles and upward leaf reorientation, symptoms consistent with those observed in a shaded light environment. The same green light-induced phenotypes were also observed in phytochrome (phy) and cryptochrome (cry) mutant backgrounds. To explore the molecular mechanism underlying the green light-induced response, the accumulation of shade-induced transcripts was measured in response to enriched green light environments. Transcripts that have been demonstrated to increase in abundance under far-red-induced shade avoidance conditions either decrease or exhibit no change when green light is added. However, normal far-red light-associated transcript accumulation patterns are observed in cryptochrome mutants grown with supplemental green light, indicating that the green-absorbing form of cryptochrome is the photoreceptor active in limiting the green light induction of shade-associated transcripts. These results indicate that shade symptoms can be induced by the addition of green light and that cryptochrome receptors and an unknown light sensor participate in acclimation to the enriched green environment.

  5. GREEN ROOFS — A GROWING TREND

    EPA Science Inventory

    One of the most interesting stormwater control systems under evaluation by EPA are “green roofs”. Green roofs are vegetative covers applied to building roofs to slow, or totally absorb, rainfall runoff during storms. While the concept of over-planted roofs is very ancient, the go...

  6. MICROWAVES IN GREEN AND SUSTAINABLE CHEMISTRY

    EPA Science Inventory

    In this chapter, we have outlined roles of microwave chemistry in the establishment of green and sustainable chemistry. Many examples, mostly from the authors' laboratories, have been presented of green microwave processes under solvent-free conditions or with solvents, including...

  7. 33 CFR 117.415 - Green River.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Green River. 117.415 Section 117.415 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY BRIDGES DRAWBRIDGE OPERATION REGULATIONS Specific Requirements Kentucky § 117.415 Green River. (a) The draw of the...

  8. 33 CFR 117.415 - Green River.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Green River. 117.415 Section 117.415 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY BRIDGES DRAWBRIDGE OPERATION REGULATIONS Specific Requirements Kentucky § 117.415 Green River. (a) The draw of the...

  9. Green Power Partnership Top 30 College & University

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    The U.S. EPA's Green Power Partnership is a voluntary program designed to reduce the environmental impact of electricity generation by promoting renewable energy. The Top 30 College & University list details the largest higher ed green power users in GPP.

  10. Green Team News and Upcoming Events | Poster

    Cancer.gov

    By Melissa Porter, Staff Writer Spring Plant Swap 2013 This past October, you may have seen several members of the Green Team standing in front of Building 549 giving out free plants or offering to take extra plants off your hands—this was the first Green Team Fall Plant Swap.

  11. Careers: Going Green while Doing Good

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Arnett, Sally E.; Kozlowski, Patti; Peach, Peggy

    2011-01-01

    Career and technical education (CTE) is starting to turn green. Due to a host of reports, research, workforce initiatives, and scholarly speaking engagements, it is evident that higher education and workforce consultants recognize the need for today's students to gain exposure to sustainability or green career pathways. But for secondary and…

  12. 7 CFR 29.1024 - Green (G).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Green (G). 29.1024 Section 29.1024 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards, Inspections, Marketing... Type 92) § 29.1024 Green (G). A color term applied to immature or crude tobacco. Any leaf which has...

  13. 7 CFR 29.1024 - Green (G).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Green (G). 29.1024 Section 29.1024 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards, Inspections, Marketing... Type 92) § 29.1024 Green (G). A color term applied to immature or crude tobacco. Any leaf which has...

  14. 7 CFR 29.2524 - Green (G).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Green (G). 29.2524 Section 29.2524 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards, Inspections, Marketing...-Cured Tobacco (u.s. Types 22, 23, and Foreign Type 96) § 29.2524 Green (G). A term applied to...

  15. 7 CFR 29.2524 - Green (G).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Green (G). 29.2524 Section 29.2524 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards, Inspections, Marketing...-Cured Tobacco (u.s. Types 22, 23, and Foreign Type 96) § 29.2524 Green (G). A term applied to...

  16. 7 CFR 29.2524 - Green (G).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Green (G). 29.2524 Section 29.2524 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards, Inspections, Marketing...-Cured Tobacco (u.s. Types 22, 23, and Foreign Type 96) § 29.2524 Green (G). A term applied to...

  17. 7 CFR 29.2524 - Green (G).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Green (G). 29.2524 Section 29.2524 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards, Inspections, Marketing...-Cured Tobacco (u.s. Types 22, 23, and Foreign Type 96) § 29.2524 Green (G). A term applied to...

  18. 7 CFR 29.1024 - Green (G).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Green (G). 29.1024 Section 29.1024 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards, Inspections, Marketing... Type 92) § 29.1024 Green (G). A color term applied to immature or crude tobacco. Any leaf which has...

  19. 7 CFR 29.1024 - Green (G).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Green (G). 29.1024 Section 29.1024 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards, Inspections, Marketing... Type 92) § 29.1024 Green (G). A color term applied to immature or crude tobacco. Any leaf which has...

  20. 7 CFR 29.2524 - Green (G).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Green (G). 29.2524 Section 29.2524 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards, Inspections, Marketing...-Cured Tobacco (u.s. Types 22, 23, and Foreign Type 96) § 29.2524 Green (G). A term applied to...

  1. 7 CFR 29.1024 - Green (G).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Green (G). 29.1024 Section 29.1024 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards, Inspections, Marketing... Type 92) § 29.1024 Green (G). A color term applied to immature or crude tobacco. Any leaf which has...

  2. 33 CFR 117.415 - Green River.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Green River. 117.415 Section 117... OPERATION REGULATIONS Specific Requirements Kentucky § 117.415 Green River. (a) The draw of the CSX... vicinity. (b) The draw of the CSX Transportation Railroad bridge, Mile 79.6 at Small-house, is...

  3. 33 CFR 117.415 - Green River.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Green River. 117.415 Section 117... OPERATION REGULATIONS Specific Requirements Kentucky § 117.415 Green River. (a) The draw of the CSX... vicinity. (b) The draw of the CSX Transportation Railroad bridge, Mile 79.6 at Small-house, is...

  4. Green's function methods in heavy ion shielding

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wilson, John W.; Costen, Robert C.; Shinn, Judy L.; Badavi, Francis F.

    1993-01-01

    An analytic solution to the heavy ion transport in terms of Green's function is used to generate a highly efficient computer code for space applications. The efficiency of the computer code is accomplished by a nonperturbative technique extending Green's function over the solution domain. The computer code can also be applied to accelerator boundary conditions to allow code validation in laboratory experiments.

  5. Introducing Green Chemistry in Teaching and Research.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Collins, Terrence J.

    1995-01-01

    Describes key elements for the research and teaching components of green chemistry, an environmentally friendly approach to chemistry. Presents an outline of an introductory course to green chemistry and other efforts at Carnegie Mellon University to incorporate the environment in a fertile manner into teaching. (JRH)

  6. A Green Marketing Course for Business Undergraduates

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rudell, Fredrica

    2011-01-01

    Since the 1970s, periodic calls have been made for incorporation of sustainability issues into marketing and other business courses. Now more than ever, we need to prepare students for careers in the green economy. This article will describe the author's experience teaching a Green Marketing course to business undergraduates. A review of content,…

  7. Green Schools for Everyone within This Generation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Van Mourik, Jaime

    2011-01-01

    At the U.S. Green Building Council (USGBC), people see the profound, positive impact that green buildings have on people's lives and the innovation they have poured into the marketplace--from office and retail buildings to government facilities and individual homes. However, none of these markets speaks more powerfully to the benefits and…

  8. Green Power Partnership Top 30 Tech & Telecom

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    The U.S. EPA's Green Power Partnership is a voluntary program designed to reduce the environmental impact of electricity generation by promoting renewable energy. On this list are the largest green power users among tech and telecom partners within the GPP

  9. How sonochemistry contributes to green chemistry?

    PubMed

    Chatel, Gregory

    2017-03-15

    Based on the analyses of papers from the literature, and especially those published in Ultrasonics Sonochemistry journal, the contribution of sonochemistry to green chemistry area has been discussed here. Important reminders and insights on the good practices and considerations have been made to understand and demonstrate how sonochemistry can continue to efficiently contribute to green chemistry area in the further studies.

  10. Investment Primer for Green Revolving Funds

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weisbord, Dano

    2012-01-01

    Developing return-oriented green revolving funds (GRFs) is a rapidly growing trend at colleges and universities. A green revolving fund (GRF) is a special account designated for investment in on-campus projects that improve energy efficiency or decrease material use. GRFs invest in a variety of cost-saving initiatives, resulting in significant…

  11. Greening School Grounds: Creating Habitats for Learning.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Grant, Tim, Ed.; Littlejohn, Gail, Ed.

    Schoolyard greening is an excellent way to promote hands-on, interdisciplinary learning about the environment through projects that benefit schools and increase green space and biodiversity in communities. This book features step-by-step instructions for numerous schoolyard projects from tree nurseries to school composting to native plant gardens,…

  12. Three Case Studies in Green Cleaning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    State Education Standard, 2012

    2012-01-01

    This article presents case studies from three districts implementing green cleaning. In 2008, Missouri passed legislation requiring state education officials to convene a committee of stakeholders with the purpose of developing green cleaning guidelines and specifications for schools. The guide, published by the Department of Elementary and…

  13. Green Power Partnership Long-term Contracts

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    The U.S. EPA's Green Power Partnership is a voluntary program designed to reduce the environmental impact of electricity generation by promoting renewable energy. This page lists Partners that signed a contract to purchase green power for 5 years or more.

  14. 33 CFR 117.967 - Greens Bayou.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Greens Bayou. 117.967 Section 117.967 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY BRIDGES DRAWBRIDGE OPERATION REGULATIONS Specific Requirements Texas § 117.967 Greens Bayou. The draw of the Port...

  15. 33 CFR 117.967 - Greens Bayou.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Greens Bayou. 117.967 Section 117.967 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY BRIDGES DRAWBRIDGE OPERATION REGULATIONS Specific Requirements Texas § 117.967 Greens Bayou. The draw of the Port...

  16. 33 CFR 117.967 - Greens Bayou.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Greens Bayou. 117.967 Section 117.967 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY BRIDGES DRAWBRIDGE OPERATION REGULATIONS Specific Requirements Texas § 117.967 Greens Bayou. The draw of the Port...

  17. 33 CFR 117.967 - Greens Bayou.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Greens Bayou. 117.967 Section 117.967 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY BRIDGES DRAWBRIDGE OPERATION REGULATIONS Specific Requirements Texas § 117.967 Greens Bayou. The draw of the Port...

  18. 33 CFR 117.967 - Greens Bayou.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Greens Bayou. 117.967 Section 117.967 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY BRIDGES DRAWBRIDGE OPERATION REGULATIONS Specific Requirements Texas § 117.967 Greens Bayou. The draw of the Port...

  19. EVOLVING FROM GREEN CHEMISTRY TO SUSTAINABLE CHEMISTRY

    EPA Science Inventory

    The twelve principles of green chemistry provide a foundation and pathway which allows researchers to incorporate greenness into existing reactions or when developing new technologies. Research from our laboratory has adopted many of these principles and utlizes them as a major c...

  20. 78 FR 29366 - Green Mountain Power Corporation

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-05-20

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission Green Mountain Power Corporation Notice of Filing Take notice that on May 2, 2013, Green Mountain Power Corporation filed additional information in support of its request...

  1. Green-fleshed watermelon contains chlorophyll

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Many popular and technical reports on watermelon ignore an uncommon color, green, even though mention of this color has been in the literature since 1901. However, what causes the green hue has not been reported. Since some cucurbits have chloroplasts, and chlorophyll in the flesh tissue, we surmi...

  2. Green Team Recognized with HHS Green Champion Award Honorable Mention | Poster

    Cancer.gov

    Courtesy of the NCI at Frederick Green Team The NCI at Frederick Green Team received a Department of Health and Human Services (HHS) Green Champion Award honorable mention in June for the team’s plant swap initiative, begun in October 2012.  “The Green Team has been doing a great job this past year, and it is wonderful that their efforts have been recognized by the HHS through the Green Champion Awards,” said Craig Reynolds, Ph.D., director of the NCI Office of Scientific Operations (OSO). 

  3. 78. VIEW OF NORTH SIDE OF GREENE STREET LOOKING WEST ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    78. VIEW OF NORTH SIDE OF GREENE STREET LOOKING WEST FROM SIDEWALK IN FRONT OF SACRED HEART CHURCH - Greene Street Historic District, Greene Street, Gordon Highway to Augusta Canal Bridge, Augusta, Richmond County, GA

  4. 79. VIEW OF NORTH SIDE OF GREENE STREET LOOKING EAST ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    79. VIEW OF NORTH SIDE OF GREENE STREET LOOKING EAST FROM SIDEWALK IN FRONT OF SACRED HEART CHURCH - Greene Street Historic District, Greene Street, Gordon Highway to Augusta Canal Bridge, Augusta, Richmond County, GA

  5. The Greening Role of Tour Operators.

    PubMed

    Lozano, Javier; Arbulú, Italo; Rey-Maquieira, Javier

    2016-01-01

    This paper shows that the tour operators (TOs) can play a coordinating role in the adoption of environmental management upstream the tourism supply chain. This is done using a dynamic model to analyze the environmental management adoption by hotels in a tourism destination induced by a TO. The TO can create incentives to greening hotels' management through the sharing of an environmental price premium. We show that the extent of green management adoption depends on interest rate, the willingness to pay for environmental quality, and hotels' organizational inertia. We also show how the financial yields from green management are shared between TOs and hotels. Finally, we consider a destination manager that subsidizes hotels' green management. If the destination manager does not take the greening role of TOs into account, she could mistake the true trade-off that she faces between the destination's economic and environmental outcomes for the win-win setting that characterizes the general problem.

  6. Green Packaging Management of Logistics Enterprises

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Guirong; Zhao, Zongjian

    From the connotation of green logistics management, we discuss the principles of green packaging, and from the two levels of government and enterprises, we put forward a specific management strategy. The management of green packaging can be directly and indirectly promoted by laws, regulations, taxation, institutional and other measures. The government can also promote new investment to the development of green packaging materials, and establish specialized institutions to identify new packaging materials, standardization of packaging must also be accomplished through the power of the government. Business units of large scale through the packaging and container-based to reduce the use of packaging materials, develop and use green packaging materials and easy recycling packaging materials for proper packaging.

  7. The Greening Role of Tour Operators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lozano, Javier; Arbulú, Italo; Rey-Maquieira, Javier

    2016-01-01

    This paper shows that the tour operators (TOs) can play a coordinating role in the adoption of environmental management upstream the tourism supply chain. This is done using a dynamic model to analyze the environmental management adoption by hotels in a tourism destination induced by a TO. The TO can create incentives to greening hotels' management through the sharing of an environmental price premium. We show that the extent of green management adoption depends on interest rate, the willingness to pay for environmental quality, and hotels' organizational inertia. We also show how the financial yields from green management are shared between TOs and hotels. Finally, we consider a destination manager that subsidizes hotels' green management. If the destination manager does not take the greening role of TOs into account, she could mistake the true trade-off that she faces between the destination's economic and environmental outcomes for the win-win setting that characterizes the general problem.

  8. PPR proteins of green algae

    PubMed Central

    Tourasse, Nicolas J; Choquet, Yves; Vallon, Olivier

    2013-01-01

    Using the repeat finding algorithm FT-Rep, we have identified 154 pentatricopeptide repeat (PPR) proteins in nine fully sequenced genomes from green algae (with a total of 1201 repeats) and grouped them in 47 orthologous groups. All data are available in a database, PPRdb, accessible online at http://giavap-genomes.ibpc.fr/ppr. Based on phylogenetic trees generated from the repeats, we propose evolutionary scenarios for PPR proteins. Two PPRs are clearly conserved in the entire green lineage: MRL1 is a stabilization factor for the rbcL mRNA, while HCF152 binds in plants to the psbH-petB intergenic region. MCA1 (the stabilization factor for petA) and PPR7 (a short PPR also acting on chloroplast mRNAs) are conserved across the entire Chlorophyta. The other PPRs are clade-specific, with evidence for gene losses, duplications, and horizontal transfer. In some PPR proteins, an additional domain found at the C terminus provides clues as to possible functions. PPR19 and PPR26 possess a methyltransferase_4 domain suggesting involvement in RNA guanosine methylation. PPR18 contains a C-terminal CBS domain, similar to the CBSPPR1 protein found in nucleoids. PPR16, PPR29, PPR37, and PPR38 harbor a SmR (MutS-related) domain similar to that found in land plants pTAC2, GUN1, and SVR7. The PPR-cyclins PPR3, PPR4, and PPR6, in addition, contain a cyclin domain C-terminal to their SmR domain. PPR31 is an unusual PPR-cyclin containing at its N terminus an OctotricoPeptide Repeat (OPR) and a RAP domain. We consider the possibility that PPR proteins with a SmR domain can introduce single-stranded nicks in the plastid chromosome. PMID:24021981

  9. Green chemistry of carbon nanomaterials.

    PubMed

    Basiuk, Elena V; Basiuk, Vladimir A

    2014-01-01

    The global trend of looking for more ecologically friendly, "green" techniques manifested itself in the chemistry of carbon nanomaterials. The main principles of green chemistry emphasize how important it is to avoid the use, or at least to reduce the consumption, of organic solvents for a chemical process. And it is precisely this aspect that was systematically addressed and emphasized by our research group since the very beginning of our work on the chemistry of carbon nanomaterials in early 2000s. The present review focuses on the results obtained to date on solvent-free techniques for (mainly covalent) functionalization of fullerene C60, single-walled and multi-walled carbon nanotubes (SWNTs and MWNTs, respectively), as well as nanodiamonds (NDs). We designed a series of simple and fast functionalization protocols based on thermally activated reactions with chemical compounds stable and volatile at 150-200 degrees C under reduced pressure, when not only the reactions take place at a high rate, but also excess reagents are spontaneously removed from the functionalized material, thus making its purification unnecessary. The main two classes of reagents are organic amines and thiols, including bifunctional ones, which can be used in conjunction with different forms of nanocarbons. The resulting chemical processes comprise nucleophilic addition of amines and thiols to fullerene C60 and to defect sites of pristine MWNTs, as well as direct amidation of carboxylic groups of oxidized nanotubes (mainly SWNTs) and ND. In the case of bifunctional amines and thiols, reactions of the second functional group can give rise to cross-linking effects, or be employed for further derivatization steps.

  10. GREEN GALAXIES IN THE COSMOS FIELD

    SciTech Connect

    Pan, Zhizheng; Kong, Xu; Fan, Lulu E-mail: xkong@ustc.edu.cn

    2013-10-10

    We present research on the morphologies, spectra, and environments of ≈2350 'green valley' galaxies at 0.2 < z < 1.0 in the COSMOS field. The bimodality of dust-corrected NUV–r {sup +} color is used to define 'green valley'; it removes dusty star-forming galaxies from galaxies that are truly transitioning between the blue cloud and the red sequence. Morphological parameters of green galaxies are intermediate between those of blue and red galaxy populations, both on the Gini-asymmetry and the Gini-M{sub 20} planes. Approximately 60%-70% of green disk galaxies have intermediate or big bulges, and only 5%-10% are pure disk systems, based on morphological classification using the Zurich Estimator of Structural Types. The obtained average spectra of green galaxies are intermediate between blue and red ones in terms of [O II], Hα, and Hβ emission lines. Stellar population synthesis on the average spectra shows that green galaxies are on average older than blue galaxies but younger than red galaxies. Green galaxies and blue galaxies have similar projected galaxy density (Σ{sub 10}) distributions at z > 0.7. At z < 0.7, the fractions of M{sub *} < 10{sup 10.0} M{sub ☉} green galaxies located in a dense environment are found to be significantly larger than those of blue galaxies. The morphological and spectral properties of green galaxies are consistent with the transitioning population between the blue cloud and the red sequence. The possible mechanisms for quenching star formation activities in green galaxies are discussed. The importance of active galactic nucleus feedback cannot be well constrained in our study. Finally, our findings suggest that environmental conditions, most likely starvation and harassment, significantly affect the transformation of M{sub *} < 10{sup 10.0} M{sub ☉} blue galaxies into red galaxies, especially at z < 0.5.

  11. View northwest across town green showing residential and commercial buildings ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    View northwest across town green showing residential and commercial buildings on the north side of North Green Road adjacent to the Town Hall (to the east) - Brooklyn Green, North Green, South Green, & West Green, parts of Brown Road, Canterbury Road (Route 169), Hartford Road (Route 6), Hyde Road, Pomfret Road (Route 169), Prince Hill Road, Providence Road (Route 6), Wauregan Road (Routes 169 & 205), & Wolf Den Road, Brooklyn, Windham County, CT

  12. Analytical Methods for Malachite Green : Completion Report : Malachite Green Analysis in Water.

    SciTech Connect

    Allen, John L.; Gofus, Jane E.; Meinertz, Jeffery R.

    1991-06-01

    Malachite green is a known teratogen and therefore its use is limited to nonfood fish under an Investigational New Animal Drug permit (INAD), number 2573. Although a charcoal adsorption column was developed to remove malachite green from hatchery water, INAD compliance requires that the malachite green residue concentrations in any effluent from hatcheries using the chemical be quantified. Therefore, we developed a method for the analysis of malachite green residues in water. Enrichment of the residues of malachite green in water on a diol column followed by High Performance Liquid Chromatographic (HPLC) analysis gives a minimum sensitivity of less than 10 ppb for the chemical. When combined with post-column oxidation using a lead oxide post-column reactor, the procedure can be used for the simultaneous analysis of malachite green in its leuco form, a decomposition product of the dye, as well as its chromatic form. Recovery of the leuco form is pH dependent and water samples should be adjusted to pH 6 to optimize recovery of this form. Water samples spiked with malachite green were concentrated on a diol column followed by elution with 0.05 M p-toluene sulfonic acid in methanol. The methanol elutes were analyzed by HPLC. Pond water samples spiked with malachite green and leuco malachite green yielded average recoveries of 95.4% for malachite green and 57.3% for leuco malachite green. Tap water samples spiked with the carbinol form of malachite green gave average recoveries of 98.6%. The method is very sensitive and is capable of detecting malachite green residues in water at less than 10 ppb. Fish culturists, who cannot find an effective replacement for malachite green, can utilize the method to ensure that their effluents comply with INAD regulations. 13 refs., 2 figs., 7 tabs.

  13. Using Metrics to Drive Innovations in Green Chemistry and Engineering

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Presentation examines selected green chemistry breakthroughs by industrial leaders, and discusses tools and metrics companies are using to assess their sustainable and green chemistry and engineering efforts.

  14. Targeting DNA methylation with green tea catechins.

    PubMed

    Yiannakopoulou, Eugenia C

    2015-01-01

    Aberrant epigenetic alterations in the genome such as DNA methylation play a significant role in cancer development. Green tea catechins have been reported to modulate epigenetic processes. This review aims to synthesize evidence on the modulation of DNA methylation by green tea catechins. Green tea catechins have been reported to reverse DNA methylation of tumor suppressor genes and increase transcription of these genes. Green tea catechins and especially epigallocatechin gallate modulate DNA methylation by attenuating the effect of DNA methyltransferase 1 (DNMT1). However, the exact mechanism of DNMT1 inhibition is not delineated. Suggested mechanisms include direct enzymatic inhibition, indirect enzymatic inhibition, reduced DNMT1 expression and translation. The possible effect of green tea catechins on other pathways of DNA methylation, i.e. methyl-CpG binding domain proteins, has not been investigated. Furthermore, the link between redox properties and epigenetic modulation by green tea catechins has not been defined either. Since green tea catechins are natural compounds with a rather acceptable safety profile, further research on their action as inhibitors of DNA methylation seems worthwhile.

  15. Special Issue: "Organic Reactions in Green Solvents".

    PubMed

    Sperry, Jonathan; García-Álvarez, Joaquín

    2016-11-15

    To overcome the well-established drawbacks of conventional organic solvents (toxicity, non-biodegradability, flammability, accumulation in the atmosphere) remarkable research efforts have been recently devoted to the replacement of traditional organic reaction media by the so-called Green Solvents. In this sense, the choice of a safe, non-toxic, biorenewable and cheap reaction media is a crucial goal in organic synthesis. Thus, this Special Issue on "Organic Reactions in Green Solvents" has been aimed to showcase a series of stimulating contributions from international experts within different sub-areas of organic synthesis in Green Solvents (ranging from metal- to organo-catalyzed organic reactions).

  16. Green Campus initiative and its impacts on quality of life of stakeholders in Green and Non-Green Campus universities.

    PubMed

    Tiyarattanachai, Ronnachai; Hollmann, Nicholas M

    2016-01-01

    In 2010, Universitas Indonesia (UI) developed the UI GreenMetric World University Ranking for universities to share information about their sustainability practices. This ranking system was well aligned with the basis of Sustainability for Higher Education. The scoring system can also be used as a guideline for universities to achieve sustainability in their campuses. Since its first launch, more universities around the world have increasingly participated in the ranking system including many universities in Thailand. This study compared perception of stakeholders in Green Campus and Non-Green Campus universities in Thailand regarding stakeholders' satisfaction on sustainability practices and perceived quality of life at their campuses. The results showed that stakeholders at the studied Green Campus University were more satisfied and had significantly better perceived quality of life compared to stakeholders from the studied Non-Green Campus university. The results suggested that universities should adopt the criteria set in the UI GreenMetric World University Ranking to achieve better sustainability in their campuses and improve quality of life of their stakeholders.

  17. Dynamic indocyanine green angiography measurements

    PubMed Central

    Invernizzi, Alessandro; Larkin, Sean; Staurenghi, Giovanni

    2012-01-01

    Abstract. Dynamic indocyanine green imaging uses a scanning laser ophthalmoscope and a fluorescent dye to produce movies of the dye-filling pattern in the retina and choroid of the eye. It is used for evaluating choroidal neovascularization. Movies are examined to identify the anatomy of the pathology for planning treatment and to evaluate progression or response to treatment. The popularity of this approach is affected by the complexity and difficulty in interpreting the movies. Software algorithms were developed to produce images from the movies that are easy to interpret. A mathematical model is formulated of the flow dynamics, and a fitting algorithm is designed that solves for the flow parameters. The images provide information about flow and perfusion, including regions of change between examinations. Imaged measures include the dye fill-time, temporal dispersion, and magnitude of the dye dilution temporal curves associated with image pixels. Cases show how the software can help to identify clinically relevant anatomy such as feeder vessels, drain vessels, capillary networks, and normal choroidal draining vessels. As a potential tool for research into the character of neovascular conditions and treatments, it reveals the flow dynamics and character of the lesion. Future varieties of this methodology may be used for evaluating the success of engineered tissue transplants, surgical flaps, reconstructive surgery, breast surgery, and many other surgical applications where flow, perfusion, and vascularity of tissue are important. PMID:23192382

  18. Brownian dynamics without Green's functions

    SciTech Connect

    Delong, Steven; Donev, Aleksandar; Usabiaga, Florencio Balboa; Delgado-Buscalioni, Rafael; Griffith, Boyce E.

    2014-04-07

    We develop a Fluctuating Immersed Boundary (FIB) method for performing Brownian dynamics simulations of confined particle suspensions. Unlike traditional methods which employ analytical Green's functions for Stokes flow in the confined geometry, the FIB method uses a fluctuating finite-volume Stokes solver to generate the action of the response functions “on the fly.” Importantly, we demonstrate that both the deterministic terms necessary to capture the hydrodynamic interactions among the suspended particles, as well as the stochastic terms necessary to generate the hydrodynamically correlated Brownian motion, can be generated by solving the steady Stokes equations numerically only once per time step. This is accomplished by including a stochastic contribution to the stress tensor in the fluid equations consistent with fluctuating hydrodynamics. We develop novel temporal integrators that account for the multiplicative nature of the noise in the equations of Brownian dynamics and the strong dependence of the mobility on the configuration for confined systems. Notably, we propose a random finite difference approach to approximating the stochastic drift proportional to the divergence of the configuration-dependent mobility matrix. Through comparisons with analytical and existing computational results, we numerically demonstrate the ability of the FIB method to accurately capture both the static (equilibrium) and dynamic properties of interacting particles in flow.

  19. Dynamic indocyanine green angiography measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Holmes, Timothy; Invernizzi, Alessandro; Larkin, Sean; Staurenghi, Giovanni

    2012-11-01

    Dynamic indocyanine green imaging uses a scanning laser ophthalmoscope and a fluorescent dye to produce movies of the dye-filling pattern in the retina and choroid of the eye. It is used for evaluating choroidal neovascularization. Movies are examined to identify the anatomy of the pathology for planning treatment and to evaluate progression or response to treatment. The popularity of this approach is affected by the complexity and difficulty in interpreting the movies. Software algorithms were developed to produce images from the movies that are easy to interpret. A mathematical model is formulated of the flow dynamics, and a fitting algorithm is designed that solves for the flow parameters. The images provide information about flow and perfusion, including regions of change between examinations. Imaged measures include the dye fill-time, temporal dispersion, and magnitude of the dye dilution temporal curves associated with image pixels. Cases show how the software can help to identify clinically relevant anatomy such as feeder vessels, drain vessels, capillary networks, and normal choroidal draining vessels. As a potential tool for research into the character of neovascular conditions and treatments, it reveals the flow dynamics and character of the lesion. Future varieties of this methodology may be used for evaluating the success of engineered tissue transplants, surgical flaps, reconstructive surgery, breast surgery, and many other surgical applications where flow, perfusion, and vascularity of tissue are important.

  20. Subsonic Ultra Green Aircraft Research

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bradley, Marty K.; Droney, Christopher K.

    2011-01-01

    This Final Report summarizes the work accomplished by the Boeing Subsonic Ultra Green Aircraft Research (SUGAR) team in Phase 1, which includes the time period of October 2008 through March 2010. The team consisted of Boeing Research and Technology, Boeing Commercial Airplanes, General Electric, and Georgia Tech. The team completed the development of a comprehensive future scenario for world-wide commercial aviation, selected baseline and advanced configurations for detailed study, generated technology suites for each configuration, conducted detailed performance analysis, calculated noise and emissions, assessed technology risks, and developed technology roadmaps. Five concepts were evaluated in detail: 2008 baseline, N+3 reference, N+3 high span strut braced wing, N+3 gas turbine battery electric concept, and N+3 hybrid wing body. A wide portfolio of technologies was identified to address the NASA N+3 goals. Significant improvements in air traffic management, aerodynamics, materials and structures, aircraft systems, propulsion, and acoustics are needed. Recommendations for Phase 2 concept and technology projects have been identified.

  1. Green Nanoparticles for Mosquito Control

    PubMed Central

    Soni, Namita; Prakash, Soam

    2014-01-01

    Here, we have used the green method for synthesis of silver and gold nanoparticles. In the present study the silver (Ag) and gold (Au) nanoparticles (NPs) were synthesized by using the aqueous bark extract of Indian spice dalchini (Cinnamomum zeylanicum) (C. zyelanicum or C. verum J. Presl). Additionally, we have used these synthesized nanoparticles for mosquito control. The larvicidal activity has been tested against the malaria vector Anopheles stephensi and filariasis vector Culex quinquefasciatus. The results were obtained using UV-visible spectrophotometer and the images were recorded with a transmission electron microscope (TEM). The efficacy tests were then performed at different concentrations and varying numbers of hours by probit analysis. The synthesized AgNPs were in spherical shape and average sizes (11.77 nm AgNPs and 46.48 nm AuNPs). The larvae of An. stephensi were found highly susceptible to the synthesized AgNPs and AuNPs than the Cx. quinquefasciatus. These results suggest that the C. zeylanicum synthesized silver and gold nanoparticles have the potential to be used as an ideal ecofriendly approach for the control of mosquito. PMID:25243210

  2. Presidential Green Chemistry Challenge: 2002 Academic Award

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Presidential Green Chemistry Challenge 2002 award winner, Professor Eric J. Beckman, developed fluorine-free detergents that help supercritical carbon dioxide (CO2) dissolve many chemicals, so it can be a solvent for industrial processes.

  3. Brownfields Tabor Commons Green Jobs Training Program

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    This training curriculum is designed to inform entry level tradeswomen about the green job opportunities in areas such as deconstruction, weatherization, eco or solar roofing, stormwater systems and more.

  4. Rangefinder Metrology for the Green Bank Telescope

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goldman, M. A.; Creager, R. E.; Parker, D. H.; Payne, J. A.

    A scanning laser rangefinder metrology system for the 100 meter Green Bank Telescope is described. Use of this system for correction of the primary reflector's shape and pointing of the telescope is described.

  5. Tell EPA About Your Green Infrastructure Project

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    DALLAS - (Aug. 13, 2015) The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) has announced a poster contest to highlight green infrastructure and low-impact development projects in Arkansas, Louisiana, Oklahoma, New Mexico and Texas. Did your business bu

  6. NASCAR and EPA Green Initiatives MOU

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    To raise awareness of green products and solutions that can benefit NASCAR partners and fans, the EPA and the National Association for Stock Car Auto Racing (NASCAR) have signed a memorandum of understanding to work together.

  7. Green technology approach towards herbal extraction method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mutalib, Tengku Nur Atiqah Tengku Ab; Hamzah, Zainab; Hashim, Othman; Mat, Hishamudin Che

    2015-05-01

    The aim of present study was to compare maceration method of selected herbs using green and non-green solvents. Water and d-limonene are a type of green solvents while non-green solvents are chloroform and ethanol. The selected herbs were Clinacanthus nutans leaf and stem, Orthosiphon stamineus leaf and stem, Sesbania grandiflora leaf, Pluchea indica leaf, Morinda citrifolia leaf and Citrus hystrix leaf. The extracts were compared with the determination of total phenolic content. Total phenols were analyzed using a spectrophotometric technique, based on Follin-ciocalteau reagent. Gallic acid was used as standard compound and the total phenols were expressed as mg/g gallic acid equivalent (GAE). The most suitable and effective solvent is water which produced highest total phenol contents compared to other solvents. Among the selected herbs, Orthosiphon stamineus leaves contain high total phenols at 9.087mg/g.

  8. Presidential Green Chemistry Challenge: 2013 Academic Award

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Presidential Green Chemistry Challenge 2013 award winner, Prof Richard P. Wool of the University of Delaware, created high-performance materials using vegetable oils, feathers, and flax. Can be used as adhesives, composites, foams, and circuit boards.

  9. Green channel guiding denoising on bayer image.

    PubMed

    Tan, Xin; Lai, Shiming; Liu, Yu; Zhang, Maojun

    2014-01-01

    Denoising is an indispensable function for digital cameras. In respect that noise is diffused during the demosaicking, the denoising ought to work directly on bayer data. The difficulty of denoising on bayer image is the interlaced mosaic pattern of red, green, and blue. Guided filter is a novel time efficient explicit filter kernel which can incorporate additional information from the guidance image, but it is still not applied for bayer image. In this work, we observe that the green channel of bayer mode is higher in both sampling rate and Signal-to-Noise Ratio (SNR) than the red and blue ones. Therefore the green channel can be used to guide denoising. This kind of guidance integrates the different color channels together. Experiments on both actual and simulated bayer images indicate that green channel acts well as the guidance signal, and the proposed method is competitive with other popular filter kernel denoising methods.

  10. Green light signaling and adaptive response.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Tingting; Folta, Kevin M

    2012-01-01

    To a plant, the sun's light is not exclusively energy for photosynthesis, it also provides information about time and prevailing conditions. The plant's surroundings may dampen or filter solar energies, presenting plants with different spectral profiles of their light environment. Plants use this information to adjust form and physiology, tailoring gene expression to best match ambient conditions. Extensive literature exists on how blue, red and far-red light contribute to plant adaptive responses. A growing body of work identifies effects of green light (500-565 nm) that also shape plant biology. Green light responses are known to be either mediated through, or independent of, the cryptochrome blue light receptors. Responses to green light share a general tendency to oppose blue- or red-light-induced responses, including stem growth rate inhibition, anthocyanin accumulation and chloroplast gene expression. Recent evidence demonstrates a role for green light in sensing a shaded environment, independent from far-red shade responses.

  11. Developing a Global Green Freight Action Plan

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    This Climate and Clean Air Coalition (CCAC) presentation gives an overview of the Global Green Freight Action Plan to improve the energy efficiency and environmental performance of freight operations worldwide along with developing an action plan.

  12. Greening America's Capitals - Baton Rouge, LA

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    The design options from this Greening America's Capitals project provide strategies that can improve environmental performance in Baton Rouge by increasing tree canopy, capturing and holding stormwater, and improving natural habitat.

  13. Going green: Metro Health starts health commune.

    PubMed

    2007-01-01

    Taking on a total rebranding and environmentally friendly overhaul, Metro Health looks forward as it moves into a new facility. Incorporating green building details, Metro is managing environmental impact to improve its future in its Grand Rapids, MI, community.

  14. Presidential Green Chemistry Challenge: 2001 Academic Award

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Presidential Green Chemistry Challenge 2001 award winner, Professor Chao-Jun Li, uses metal catalysts in water to carry out chemical reactions that used to need both an oxygen-free atmosphere and hazardous organic solvents.

  15. Presidential Green Chemistry Challenge: 2003 Academic Award

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Presidential Green Chemistry Challenge 2003 award winner, Professor Richard A. Gross, developed a transesterification to make polyol-containing polyesters using lipase, replacing heavy metal catalysts and hazardous solvents.

  16. NASA Now: Biology: Extreme Green Biofuels

    NASA Video Gallery

    Learn what makes something a “green” technology, how scientists are using climactic adaptation in their research and what aspects of plants NASA is most interested in for generating biofuel.

  17. Presidential Green Chemistry Challenge: 2008 Academic Award

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Presidential Green Chemistry Challenge 2008 award winners, Professors Robert E. Maleczka, Jr. and Milton R. Smith, III, developed halogen-free, catalytic C-H activation/borylation to make aryl and heteroaryl boronic esters.

  18. Presidential Green Chemistry Challenge: 2004 Academic Award

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Presidential Green Chemistry Challenge 2004 award winners, Professors Charles A. Eckert and Charles L. Liotta, use supercritical CO2 as a solvent to combine reactions and separations, improve efficiency, and reduce waste.

  19. Tribal Green Building Administrative Code Example

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    This Tribal Green Building Administrative Code Example can be used as a template for technical code selection (i.e., building, electrical, plumbing, etc.) to be adopted as a comprehensive building code.

  20. Green infrastructure monitoring in Camden, NJ

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Camden County Municipal Utilities Authority (CCMUA) installed green infrastructure Stormwater Control Measures (SCMs) at multiple locations around the city of Camden, NJ. The SCMs include raised downspout planter boxes, rain gardens, and cisterns. The cisterns capture water ...

  1. Green Buildings in Use: Post Occupancy Evaluations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Watson, Chris

    2007-01-01

    This article briefly describes users' experiences of two "green" education buildings. It goes on to conclude that stakeholders' negotiation of building performance is necessary to minimise environmental impact, just as it is necessary to achieve other aspects of building performance.

  2. Presidential Green Chemistry Challenge: 2000 Academic Award

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Presidential Green Chemistry Challenge 2000 award winner, Professor Chi-Huey Wong, developed reactions with enzymes and safer solvents that can replace traditional reactions done with toxic metals and hazardous solvents.

  3. Eikonal Green function of the Kerr spacetime

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zimmerman, Aaron; Yang, Huan; Zhang, Fan; Chen, Yanbei

    2014-03-01

    The Green function of a black hole spacetime determines its response to small perturbations. The Green function can be used to calculate the self-force correction to the motion of a small mass about the black hole. We have constructed the part of the Green function arising from perturbations which are partially trapped at the light ring, in the eikonal (high-frequency) limit. This ``quasinormal mode'' part of the Green function is important at early and intermediate response times. In the eikonal limit, it diverges where null geodesics connect a response point to the source point, and it exhibits a four-fold singularity structure. I will discuss our results, future applications of our work, and open questions.

  4. Presidential Green Chemistry Challenge: 1996 Academic Award

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Presidential Green Chemistry Challenge 1996 award winner, Professor Mark Holtzapple, developed methods to convert waste biomass (e.g., sewage sludge, agricultural wastes), into animal feed, industrial chemicals, or fuels.

  5. San Pablo Avenue Green Stormwater Spine

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Information about the SFBWQP San Pablo Avenue Green Stormwater Spine Project project, part of an EPA competitive grant program to improve SF Bay water quality focused on restoring impaired waters and enhancing aquatic resources.

  6. Trends in Utility Green Pricing Programs (2006)

    SciTech Connect

    Bird, Lori; Kaiser, Marshall

    2007-10-01

    In the early 1990s, only a handful of utilities offered their customers a choice of purchasing electricity generated from renewable energy sources. Today, more than 750 utilities—or about 25% of all utilities nationally—provide their customers a “green power” option. Through these programs, more than 70 million customers have the ability to purchase renewable energy to meet some portion or all of their electricity needs—or make contributions to support the development of renewable energy resources. Typically, customers pay a premium above standard electricity rates for this service. This report presents year-end 2006 data on utility green pricing programs, and examines trends in consumer response and program implementation over time. The data in this report, which were obtained via a questionnaire distributed to utility green pricing program managers, can be used by utilities to benchmark the success of their green power programs.

  7. Trends in Utility Green Pricing Programs (2006)

    SciTech Connect

    Bird, L.; Kaiser, M.

    2007-10-01

    In the early 1990s, only a handful of utilities offered their customers a choice of purchasing electricity generated from renewable energy sources. Today, more than 750 utilities--or about 25% of all utilities nationally--provide their customers a "green power" option. Through these programs, more than 70 million customers have the ability to purchase renewable energy to meet some portion or all of their electricity needs--or make contributions to support the development of renewable energy resources. Typically, customers pay a premium above standard electricity rates for this service. This report presents year-end 2006 data on utility green pricing programs, and examines trends in consumer response and program implementation over time. The data in this report, which were obtained via a questionnaire distributed to utility green pricing program managers, can be used by utilities to benchmark the success of their green power programs.

  8. Presidential Green Chemistry Challenge: 1999 Academic Award

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Presidential Green Chemistry Challenge 1999 award winner, Professor Terry Collins, developed a series of TAML oxidant activators that work with hydrogen peroxide to replace chlorine bleaches for paper making and laundry.

  9. Green Suppliers Network Supply Chain Commitment Form

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Online form to show your company desires to be a Green Suppliers Network supply chain. Expresses an intent to: commit to engage at least five suppliers to complete an assessment process within a 12-month period and more.

  10. Green Power Partnership Resource Library: Solicitations

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Green Power Partnership Resource Library includes documents meant to aid organizations and individuals in navigating the renewable energy procurement and renewable energy project development processes. It includes guidance documents, templates and actual e

  11. Presidential Green Chemistry Challenge: 2005 Academic Award

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Presidential Green Chemistry Challenge 2005 award winner, Professor Robin D. Rogers, used ionic liquids to dissolve and process cellulose from wood, cloth, or paper to make new biorenewable or biocompatible materials.

  12. Presidential Green Chemistry Challenge: 2016 Academic Award

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Presidential Green Chemistry Challenge 2016 award winner, Professor Chirik, discovered a class of catalysts used to produce silicones for consumer goods without using hard-to-mine platinum (less mining, reduces costs, greenhouse gas emissions, and waste).

  13. Presidential Green Chemistry Challenge: 2007 Academic Award

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Presidential Green Chemistry Challenge 2007 award winner, Professor Michael J. Krische, developed selective C-C bond-forming hydrogenation without organometallic reagents, eliminating hazardous reagents and hazardous waste.

  14. Presidential Green Chemistry Challenge: 2011 Academic Award

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Presidential Green Chemistry Challenge 2011 award winner, Professor Bruce H. Lipshutz, designed a novel, second-generation surfactant called TPGS-750-M. It is a designer surfactant composed of safe, inexpensive ingredients.

  15. Presidential Green Chemistry Challenge: 2006 Academic Award

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Presidential Green Chemistry Challenge 2006 award winner, Professor Galen J. Suppes, developed a process to convert waste glycerin from biodiesel production into propylene glycol to replace ethylene glycol in antifreeze.

  16. Greening the Golden Gate National Recreation Area

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    The Golden Gate National Recreation Area was recognized a 2016 Federal Green Challenge Award for making significant strides to reduce its carbon footprint with the goal of becoming a carbon neutral park.

  17. Steps to Join Green Power Partnership

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    The U.S. EPA's Green Power Partnership is a voluntary partnership program designed to reduce the environmental impact of electricity generation by promoting renewable energy. This page details steps organizations should take to join the Partnership.

  18. Green Power Partnership Program Success Metrics

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    The U.S. EPA's Green Power Partnership is a voluntary program designed to reduce the environmental impact of electricity generation by promoting renewable energy. EPA evaluates partnership metrics annually to determine progress toward programmatic goals.

  19. Village Green Project and Air Sensor Kits

    EPA Science Inventory

    This is a presentation for the OAQPS Teachers Workshop. Will provide a background overview on the Village Green Project and our air sensor kit for outreach, then have the teachers try putting it together.

  20. Green Power Partnership Renewable Generation Vintage Requirements

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    The U.S. EPA's Green Power Partnership is a voluntary partnership program designed to reduce the environmental impact of electricity generation by promoting renewable energy. EPA requires that Partners meet GPP's vintage requirement.

  1. Green Power Partnership New Renewable Requirements

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    The U.S. EPA's Green Power Partnership is a voluntary partnership program designed to reduce the environmental impact of electricity generation by promoting renewable energy. All Partners must meet GPP's new renewables requirement to join.

  2. Green's Functions in Space and Time.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rowe, E. G. Peter

    1979-01-01

    Gives a sketch of some topics in distribution theory that is technically simple, yet provides techniques for handling the partial differential equations satisfied by the most important Green's functions in physics. (Author/GA)

  3. Applications of Green Walls in Urban Design

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Virtudes, Ana; Manso, Maria

    2016-10-01

    Green walls are a choice towards achieving sustainable urban rehabilitation, due to the lack of free space in the consolidated urban fabric. Nowadays, green walls are considered to be an innovation in the fields of ecology, horticulture or buildings. Nevertheless, in the domain of urban design, they are still surprising and unexpected ideas. Thus, this research aims to reflect on green walls as a feature in urban design and rehabilitation, identifying the advantages of their utilization as an enhancement of the quality of city's image, especially in dense urban areas. It aims to demonstrate some practical applications of green walls in urban design proposals, showing model solutions and their real application in several architectural examples.

  4. Green Energy: Advancing Bio-Hydrogen (Presentation)

    SciTech Connect

    Alber, D.

    2007-07-01

    Developing a model of metabolism linked to H2 production in green algae. Develop tools for parameter discovery and optimization at organism level and advance knowledge of hydrogen-producting photosynthetic organisms.

  5. Presidential Green Chemistry Challenge: 1997 Academic Award

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Presidential Green Chemistry Challenge 1997 award winner, Professor Joseph M. DeSimone, developed surfactants that allow carbon dioxide to be a solvent for chemical manufacturing, replacing hazardous chemical solvents.

  6. Turning Main Street into a Green Street

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    With EPA assistance, a small community near Pittsburgh is turning its main street into a green street to control stormwater runoff that has caused flooding, sewer backups and combined sewer overflows.

  7. There's a Green Glob in Your Classroom.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dugdale, Sharon

    1983-01-01

    Discusses computer games (called intrinsic models) focusing on mathematics rather than on unrelated motivations (flashing lights or sounds). Games include "Green Globs," (equations/linear functions), "Darts"/"Torpedo" (fractions), "Escape" (graphing), and "Make-a-Monster" (equivalent fractions and…

  8. Broadband, Achromatic Twyman-Green Interferometer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Steimle, Lawrence J.

    1991-01-01

    Improved Twyman-Green interferometer used in wave-front testing optical components at wavelengths from 200 to 1,100 nm, without having to readjust focus when changing wavelength. Built to measure aberrations of light passing through optical filters. Collimating and imaging lenses of classical Twyman-Green configuration replaced by single spherical mirror. Field lens replaced by field mirror. Mirrors exhibit no axial chromatic aberration and made to reflect light efficiently over desired broad range of wavelengths.

  9. Green's function calculations of light nuclei

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sun, ZhongHao; Wu, Qiang; Xu, FuRong

    2016-09-01

    The influence of short-range correlations in nuclei was investigated with realistic nuclear force. The nucleon-nucleon interaction was renormalized with V lowk technique and applied to the Green's function calculations. The Dyson equation was reformulated with algebraic diagrammatic constructions. We also analyzed the binding energy of 4He, calculated with chiral potential and CD-Bonn potential. The properties of Green's function with realistic nuclear forces are also discussed.

  10. Jackson Park Hospital Green Building Medical Center

    SciTech Connect

    Dorsey, William; Vasquez, Nelson

    2010-05-01

    Jackson Park Hospital completed the construction of a new Medical Office Building on its campus this spring. The new building construction has adopted the City of Chicago's recent focus on protecting the environment, and conserving energy and resources, with the introduction of green building codes. Located in a poor, inner city neighborhood on the South side of Chicago, Jackson Park Hospital has chosen green building strategies to help make the area a better place to live and work.

  11. Green pricing: A Colorado case study

    SciTech Connect

    Blank, E.; Udall, J.R.

    1996-12-31

    A model program for green pricing targeted primarily at large customers is proposed in this paper. The program would create a partnership between a local community group, a renewables advocacy group, and several Colorado utilities. The first part of the paper summarizes pertinent background issues, including utility experience with green pricing programs. The rest of the paper outlines the program proposal, focusing primarily on organizational structure.

  12. Green Computing: Need of the Hour

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jena, Rabindra Ku

    Environmental and energy conservation issues have taken center stage in the global business arena in recent years. The reality of rising energy costs and their impact on international affairs coupled with the increased concern over the global warming climate crisis and other environmental issues have shifted the social and economic consciousness of the business community. This paper discusses the green computing needs and also studies the participation of different stockholders for implementation of green computing concepts in India.

  13. Global Greening Is Firm, Drivers Are Mixed

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kauppi, P.; Meyfroidt, P.; Ausubel, J. H.; Graven, H. D.; Birdsey, R.; Posch, M.; Wernick, I.; Myneni, R. B.; Stenberg, P.

    2015-12-01

    Evidence for global greening is converging, asserting an increase in CO2 uptake and biomass of the terrestrial biosphere. Global greening refers to global net increases in the area of green canopy, stocks of carbon, and the duration of the growing season. The growing seasons in general have prolonged while the stock of biomass carbon has increased and the rate of deforestation has decelerated, although these trends are mixed in the Tropics. Evidence for these trends comes from firm empirical data obtained through atmospheric CO2 observations, remote sensing, forest inventories and land use statistics. The drivers of global greening cannot be assessed based only on unambiguous empirical measurements. They include spatially and temporally heterogeneous combinations of changing land use and management - including green revolution and increasing yields, afforestation, forest protection and management, and abandonment of agricultural land -, changes in the global environment (increased CO2, warmer temperatures and longer growing seasons in the northern latitudes, acceleration of the global nitrogen cycle), and shifts in demand for forest and farm products. The global trade of biomass-derived commodities affects the link between consumption patterns and the land cover impact. Global greening confirms the immediacy of global change and may be associated with more or less biodiversity and diverse environmental and human consequences depending on local circumstances. Understanding causes, mechanisms, and implications of global greening requires integrated analyses spanning land use and management, demand for products of the terrestrial biosphere, and the atmosphere and climate. Understanding the pace and drivers of global greening matters crucially for assessing the future of the terrestrial C sink; ecological, economic, social, and cultural assessments of the bio-economy; and the preservation of ecosystems.

  14. Health potential for functional green teas?

    PubMed

    Boon, Niels

    2008-12-01

    Obesity is a major health problem in the developed and developing world. Many "functional" foods and ingredients are advocated for their effects on body composition but few have consistent scientific support for their efficacy. However, an increasing amount of mechanistic and clinical evidence is building for green tea. The tea plant is naturally rich in a group of antioxidants known as catechins. Unlike black tea, green tea production involves little processing and fermentation and therefore, green tea brews are rich in catechins. Green tea has been suggested to have a number of potential health benefits in areas such as cardiovascular disease, cancer prevention, glucose homeostasis and dental health. Although there is some promising evidence in all of these areas, more data from human intervention trials are needed. A lot of attention has lately been focused on the beneficial effects of green tea on body composition and particularly visceral fat, which has been shown to have a strong link with different components of the metabolic syndrome such as cardiovascular disease and type 2 diabetes. Most, but not all, of the positive results come from a number Asian studies, in which overweight subjects (men and women) consumed green tea for approximately 12 weeks. Finally, green tea may also have measurable acute effects on energy metabolism and fat oxidation and in particular during physical activity, as evidenced by other studies specifically looking at these endpoints. Small cumulative effects on energy metabolism could also be responsible for the longer-tem effects of green tea on body composition, and these long-term effects may also be most apparent in the context of moderate physical activity. However, more research is needed to further clarify the exact mechanisms of action and to extrapolate these findings to non-Asian populations.

  15. Red and Green Fluorescence from Oral Biofilms

    PubMed Central

    Hoogenkamp, Michel A.; Krom, Bastiaan P.; Janus, Marleen M.; ten Cate, Jacob M.; de Soet, Johannes J.; Crielaard, Wim; van der Veen, Monique H.

    2016-01-01

    Red and green autofluorescence have been observed from dental plaque after excitation by blue light. It has been suggested that this red fluorescence is related to caries and the cariogenic potential of dental plaque. Recently, it was suggested that red fluorescence may be related to gingivitis. Little is known about green fluorescence from biofilms. Therefore, we assessed the dynamics of red and green fluorescence in real-time during biofilm formation. In addition, the fluorescence patterns of biofilm formed from saliva of eight different donors are described under simulated gingivitis and caries conditions. Biofilm formation was analysed for 12 hours under flow conditions in a microfluidic BioFlux flow system with high performance microscopy using a camera to allow live cell imaging. For fluorescence images dedicated excitation and emission filters were used. Both green and red fluorescence were linearly related with the total biomass of the biofilms. All biofilms displayed to some extent green and red fluorescence, with higher red and green fluorescence intensities from biofilms grown in the presence of serum (gingivitis simulation) as compared to the sucrose grown biofilms (cariogenic simulation). Remarkably, cocci with long chain lengths, presumably streptococci, were observed in the biofilms. Green and red fluorescence were not found homogeneously distributed within the biofilms: highly fluorescent spots (both green and red) were visible throughout the biomass. An increase in red fluorescence from the in vitro biofilms appeared to be related to the clinical inflammatory response of the respective saliva donors, which was previously assessed during an in vivo period of performing no-oral hygiene. The BioFlux model proved to be a reliable model to assess biofilm fluorescence. With this model, a prediction can be made whether a patient will be prone to the development of gingivitis or caries. PMID:27997567

  16. Familiarization and Detection of Green Monopropellants Image

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Coan, Mary R.

    2015-01-01

    Ammonium dinitramide (ADN) and hydroxyl ammonium nitrate (HAN) are green monopropellants which will be appearing at Kennedy Space Center (KSC) for processing in the next few years. These are relatively safe replacements for hydrazine as a monopropellant; however, little is known about methods of leak detection, vapor scrubbing, air emissions, or cleanup that will be required for safe and environmentally benign operations at KSC. The goal of this work is to develop leak detection and related technologies for the two new green monopropellants.

  17. Building green supply chains in eco-industrial parks towards a green economy: Barriers and strategies.

    PubMed

    Li, Jacqueline; Pan, Shu-Yuan; Kim, Hyunook; Linn, Jean H; Chiang, Pen-Chi

    2015-10-01

    As suggested by UNEP, the key to sustainable development is to create a "green economy" which should encapsulate all three sectors: the industry, the people, and the government. Therefore, there is an urgent need to develop and implement the green technologies into the existing facilities, especially in the developing countries. In this study, the role of green supply chains in eco-industrial parks (EIPs) towards a green economy was investigated. The strategies and effective evaluation procedures of the green economy were proposed by assessing the barriers from the perspective of institution, regulation, technology, and finance. In addition, three case studies from iron and steel-making, paper mill and pulping, and petrochemical industries were presented and illustrated for building the green supply chains. For example, in the case of Lin-Hai Industrial Park, a total of 15 efficient green supply chains using waste-to-resources technologies were established by 2012, resulting in an economic benefit of USD 100 million per year. It suggests that the green supply chains should be established to achieve both economic growth and environmental protection. With these successful experiences, building a green supply chain within industrial park should be extensively promoted to make traditional industries around the world being environmentally bearable, economic viable, and social equitable.

  18. 7 CFR 51.1011 - Good green color.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Good green color. 51.1011 Section 51.1011 Agriculture... Standards for Persian (Tahiti) Limes Definitions § 51.1011 Good green color. Good green color means that the skin of the lime is of a good green color characteristic of the Persian variety....

  19. 7 CFR 51.1011 - Good green color.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Good green color. 51.1011 Section 51.1011 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards, Inspections, Marketing... green color. Good green color means that the skin of the lime is of a good green color characteristic...

  20. 7 CFR 51.1011 - Good green color.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Good green color. 51.1011 Section 51.1011 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards, Inspections, Marketing... green color. Good green color means that the skin of the lime is of a good green color characteristic...

  1. 7 CFR 51.1011 - Good green color.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Good green color. 51.1011 Section 51.1011 Agriculture... Standards for Persian (Tahiti) Limes Definitions § 51.1011 Good green color. Good green color means that the skin of the lime is of a good green color characteristic of the Persian variety....

  2. 7 CFR 51.1011 - Good green color.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Good green color. 51.1011 Section 51.1011 Agriculture... Standards for Persian (Tahiti) Limes Definitions § 51.1011 Good green color. Good green color means that the skin of the lime is of a good green color characteristic of the Persian variety....

  3. Greening Community Colleges: An Environmental Path to Improving Educational Outcomes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rogers, Kimberly R.; Pleasants, Rachel

    2011-01-01

    The emerging and expanding green economy has the potential to create not just jobs, but career opportunities across the United States as green manufacturing, green products, and green services fuel demand for workers at all skill levels. Community colleges are leading the way in defining and addressing these opportunities. They are: developing…

  4. Information Brief on Green Power Marketing, 2nd Edition

    SciTech Connect

    Sweezey, B.; Houston, A.

    1998-02-01

    This document is the second in a series of information briefs on green power marketing activity in the United States. It includes descriptions of utility green pricing programs, green power marketing activity, retail access legislation and pilot programs, and other data and information supporting the development of green power markets.

  5. Toolkit of Available EPA Green Infrastructure Modeling ...

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    This webinar will present a toolkit consisting of five EPA green infrastructure models and tools, along with communication material. This toolkit can be used as a teaching and quick reference resource for use by planners and developers when making green infrastructure implementation decisions. It can also be used for low impact development design competitions. Models and tools included: Green Infrastructure Wizard (GIWiz), Watershed Management Optimization Support Tool (WMOST), Visualizing Ecosystem Land Management Assessments (VELMA) Model, Storm Water Management Model (SWMM), and the National Stormwater Calculator (SWC). This webinar will present a toolkit consisting of five EPA green infrastructure models and tools, along with communication material. This toolkit can be used as a teaching and quick reference resource for use by planners and developers when making green infrastructure implementation decisions. It can also be used for low impact development design competitions. Models and tools included: Green Infrastructure Wizard (GIWiz), Watershed Management Optimization Support Tool (WMOST), Visualizing Ecosystem Land Management Assessments (VELMA) Model, Storm Water Management Model (SWMM), and the National Stormwater Calculator (SWC).

  6. The antimicrobial possibilities of green tea

    PubMed Central

    Reygaert, Wanda C.

    2014-01-01

    Green tea is a popular drink, especially in Asian countries, although its popularity continues to spread across the globe. The health benefits of green tea, derived from the leaves of the Camellia sinensis plant, have been studied for many years. Fairly recently, researchers have begun to look at the possibility of using green tea in antimicrobial therapy, and the potential prevention of infections. The particular properties of catechins found in the tea have shown promise for having antimicrobial effects. There are four main catechins (polyphenols) found in green tea: (-)-epicatechin (EC), (-)-epicatechin-3-gallate (ECG), (-)-epigallocatechin (EGC), and (-)-epigallocatechin-3-gallate (EGCG). Three of these, ECG, EGC, and EGCG have been shown to have antimicrobial effects against a variety of organisms. These catechins have exhibited a variety of antimicrobial mechanisms. The results of studies on the antimicrobial effects of green tea have shown that the potential for preventive and therapeutic purposes is present. Further data collection on studies performed with human consumption during the course of infections, and studies on the occurrence of infections in populations that consume regular amounts of green tea will be necessary to complete the picture of its antimicrobial possibilities. PMID:25191312

  7. Green connector design for conservation campus

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Prihanto, Teguh

    2017-03-01

    Universitas Negeri Semarang (UNNES) as a green campus of conservation must be comfortable, safe and fit for the users. As the growth of several new campus buildings, the need for integration means building green connectors adjacent buildings. The design is in line with their internal transportation policies that encourage the academic community to walk in the campus area. This effort is also to make the walk as a cultural activity, not merely implement policies campus only. So that the future is expected to create a built environment conservation campus humane, environmentally friendly and an inspiration for the region around the campus environment in an effort to better environmental management. The connector provided is considered still can not fully meet the eligibility aspect and comfort. Based on the extent of the problem can be formulated green connector design of the building to meet the comfort of pedestrians on campus. This study has the objective to: (1) assess the development potential point green connectors; (2) develop alternative design green connectors. Alternative green connector design that is more convenient to replace the connector campus that are currently lacking to provide comfort for pedestrians.

  8. Green Solvents for Precision Cleaning

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Grandelli, Heather; Maloney, Phillip; DeVor, Robert; Surma, Jan; Hintze, Paul

    2013-01-01

    Aerospace machinery used in liquid oxygen (LOX) fuel systems must be precision cleaned to achieve a very low level of non-volatile residue (< 1 mg0.1 m2), especially flammable residue. Traditionally chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs) have been used in the precision cleaning of LOX systems, specifically CFC 113 (C2Cl3F3). CFCs have been known to cause the depletion of ozone and in 1987, were banned by the Montreal Protocol due to health, safety and environmental concerns. This has now led to the development of new processes in the precision cleaning of aerospace components. An ideal solvent-replacement is non-flammable, environmentally benign, non-corrosive, inexpensive, effective and evaporates completely, leaving no residue. Highlighted is a green precision cleaning process, which is contaminant removal using supercritical carbon dioxide as the environmentally benign solvent. In this process, the contaminant is dissolved in carbon dioxide, and the parts are recovered at the end of the cleaning process completely dry and ready for use. Typical contaminants of aerospace components include hydrocarbon greases, hydraulic fluids, silicone fluids and greases, fluorocarbon fluids and greases and fingerprint oil. Metallic aerospace components range from small nuts and bolts to much larger parts, such as butterfly valves 18 in diameter. A fluorinated grease, Krytox, is investigated as a model contaminant in these preliminary studies, and aluminum coupons are employed as a model aerospace component. Preliminary studies are presented in which the experimental parameters are optimized for removal of Krytox from aluminum coupons in a stirred-batch process. The experimental conditions investigated are temperature, pressure, exposure time and impeller speed. Temperatures of 308 - 423 K, pressures in the range of 8.3 - 41.4 MPa, exposure times between 5 - 60 min and impeller speeds of 0 - 1000 rpm were investigated. Preliminary results showed up to 86 cleaning efficiency with the

  9. 76 FR 35894 - Office of Federal High-Performance Green Buildings; Establishment of the Green Building Advisory...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-06-20

    ...] Office of Federal High-Performance Green Buildings; Establishment of the Green Building Advisory...: Notice. SUMMARY: GSA announces the establishment of the Green Building Advisory Committee (the Committee... strategic plans, products and activities of the Office of Federal High-Performance Green Buildings...

  10. 76 FR 65511 - Office of Governmentwide Policy; Office of Federal High-Performance Green Buildings; the Green...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-10-21

    ... ADMINISTRATION Office of Governmentwide Policy; Office of Federal High- Performance Green Buildings; the Green... provides the schedule and agenda for the first meeting of the Green Building Advisory Committee Meeting...: Ken Sandler, Designated Federal Official, Office of Federal High-Performance Green Buildings,...

  11. City of Austin: Green habitat learning project. A green builder model home project

    SciTech Connect

    1995-12-01

    The purpose of the Year 14 UCETF project was to design and construct a residential structure that could serve as a demonstration facility, training site, and testing and monitoring laboratory for issues related to the implementation of sustainable building practices and materials. The Model Home Project builds on the previous and existing efforts, partially funded by the UCETF, of the City of Austin Green Builder Program to incorporate sustainable building practices into mainstream building activities. The Green Builder Program uses the term {open_quotes}green{close_quotes} as a synonym for sustainability. In the research and analysis that was completed for our earlier reports in Years 12 and 13, we characterized specific elements that we associate with sustainability and, thus, green building. In general, we refer to a modified life cycle assessment to ascertain if {open_quotes}green{close_quotes} building options reflect similar positive cyclical patterns found in nature (i.e. recyclability, recycled content, renewable resources, etc.). We additionally consider economic, human health and synergistic ecological impacts associated with our building choices and characterize the best choices as {open_quotes}green.{close_quotes} Our ultimate goal is to identify and use those {open_quotes}green{close_quotes} materials and processes that provide well for us now and do not compromise similar benefits for future generations. The original partnership developed for this project shifted during the year from a project stressing advanced (many prototypical) {open_quotes}green{close_quotes} building materials and techniques in a research and demonstration context, to off-the-shelf but underutilized {open_quotes}green{close_quotes} materials in the practical social context of using {open_quotes}green{close_quotes} technologies for low income housing. That project, discussed in this report, is called the Green Habitat Learning Project.

  12. Green tea: nature's defense against malignancies.

    PubMed

    Butt, Masood Sadiq; Sultan, Muhammad Tauseef

    2009-05-01

    The current practice of introducing phytochemicals to support the immune system or fight against diseases is based on centuries old traditions. Nutritional support is a recent advancement in the domain of diet-based therapies; green tea and its constituents are one of the important components of these strategies to prevent and cure various malignancies. The anti-carcinogenic and anti-mutagenic activities of green tea were highlighted some years ago suggesting that it could reduce the prevalence of cancer and even provide protection. The pharmacological actions of green tea are mainly attributed to polyphenols that includes epigallocatechin-3-gallate (EGCG), epicatechin, epicatechin-3-gallate, epigallocatechin. Green tea and its components effectively mitigate cellular damage arising due to oxidative stress. Green tea is supposed to enhance humoral and cell-mediated immunity, decreasing the risk of certain cancers, and may have certain advantage in treating inflammatory disorders. Much of the cancer chemopreventive properties of green tea are mediated by EGCG that induces apoptosis and promotes cell growth arrest, by altering the expression of cell cycle regulatory proteins, activating killer caspases, and suppressing nuclear factor kappa-B activation. Besides, it regulates and promotes IL-23 dependent DNA repair and stimulates cytotoxic T cells activities in a tumor microenvironment. It also blocks carcinogenesis by modulating the signal transduction pathways involved in cell proliferation, transformation, inflammation and metastasis. The review is intended to highlight the chemistry of green tea, its antioxidant potential, its immunopotentiating properties and mode of action against various cancer cell lines that showed its potential as a chemopreventive agent against colon, skin, lung, prostate, and breast cancer.

  13. 19 CFR 351.522 - Green light and green box subsidies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 3 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Green light and green box subsidies. 351.522 Section 351.522 Customs Duties INTERNATIONAL TRADE ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE ANTIDUMPING AND... box subsidies. (a) Certain agricultural subsidies. The Secretary will treat as...

  14. STRATEGIES FOR GREEN REACTION CHEMISTRIES: APPLICATION OF GREEN CATALYSIS AND PROCESS INTENSIFICATION

    EPA Science Inventory

    An intramural research effort within the Sustainable Technology Division (STD) is focused on the development of novel technologies for the synthesis of chemicals in a green and sustainable manner. To extend on the scope of green chemistry, this research also incorporates enginee...

  15. Using Green Star Metrics to Optimize the Greenness of Literature Protocols for Syntheses

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Duarte, Rita C. C.; Ribeiro, M. Gabriela T. C.; Machado, Adélio A. S. C.

    2015-01-01

    A procedure to improve the greenness of a synthesis, without performing laboratory work, using alternative protocols available in the literature is presented. The greenness evaluation involves the separate assessment of the different steps described in the available protocols--reaction, isolation, and purification--as well as the global process,…

  16. Harvard University: Green Loan Fund. Green Revolving Funds in Action: Case Study Series

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Foley, Robert

    2011-01-01

    The Green Loan Fund at Harvard University has been an active source of capital for energy efficiency and waste reduction projects for almost a decade. This case study examines the revolving fund's history from its inception as a pilot project in the 1990s to its regeneration in the early 2000s to its current operations today. The green revolving…

  17. EVALUATING THE GREENNESS OF GREEN CHEMISTRY VIA TRADITIONAL AND THERMODYNAMIC LIFE CYCLE ASSESSMENT

    EPA Science Inventory

    Developments in Green Chemistry are expected to result in novel approaches that are more environmentally benign than traditional methods. Much of the research in green chemistry focuses on replacing toxic and hazardous substances such as solvents, catalysts and reaction media by...

  18. Machinability of Green Powder Metallurgy Components: Part II. Sintered Properties of Components Machined in Green State

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Robert-Perron, Etienne; Blais, Carl; Pelletier, Sylvain; Thomas, Yannig

    2007-06-01

    The green machining process is virtually a must if the powder metallurgy (PM) industries are to solve the lower machining performances associated with PM components. This process is known for lowering the rate of tool wear. Recent improvements in binder/lubricant technologies have led to high-green-strength systems that enable green machining. Combined with the optimized cutting parameters determined in Part I of the study, the green machining of PM components seems to be a viable process for fabricating high performance parts on large scale and complete other shaping processes. This second part of our study presents a comparison between the machining behaviors and the sintered properties of components machined prior to or after sintering. The results show that the radial crush strength measured on rings machined in their green state is equal to that of parts machined after sintering.

  19. Greening of the Earth and its drivers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhu, Zaichun; Piao, Shilong; Myneni, Ranga B.; Huang, Mengtian; Zeng, Zhenzhong; Canadell, Josep G.; Ciais, Philippe; Sitch, Stephen; Friedlingstein, Pierre; Arneth, Almut; Cao, Chunxiang; Cheng, Lei; Kato, Etsushi; Koven, Charles; Li, Yue; Lian, Xu; Liu, Yongwen; Liu, Ronggao; Mao, Jiafu; Pan, Yaozhong; Peng, Shushi; Peñuelas, Josep; Poulter, Benjamin; Pugh, Thomas A. M.; Stocker, Benjamin D.; Viovy, Nicolas; Wang, Xuhui; Wang, Yingping; Xiao, Zhiqiang; Yang, Hui; Zaehle, Sönke; Zeng, Ning

    2016-08-01

    Global environmental change is rapidly altering the dynamics of terrestrial vegetation, with consequences for the functioning of the Earth system and provision of ecosystem services. Yet how global vegetation is responding to the changing environment is not well established. Here we use three long-term satellite leaf area index (LAI) records and ten global ecosystem models to investigate four key drivers of LAI trends during 1982-2009. We show a persistent and widespread increase of growing season integrated LAI (greening) over 25% to 50% of the global vegetated area, whereas less than 4% of the globe shows decreasing LAI (browning). Factorial simulations with multiple global ecosystem models suggest that CO2 fertilization effects explain 70% of the observed greening trend, followed by nitrogen deposition (9%), climate change (8%) and land cover change (LCC) (4%). CO2 fertilization effects explain most of the greening trends in the tropics, whereas climate change resulted in greening of the high latitudes and the Tibetan Plateau. LCC contributed most to the regional greening observed in southeast China and the eastern United States. The regional effects of unexplained factors suggest that the next generation of ecosystem models will need to explore the impacts of forest demography, differences in regional management intensities for cropland and pastures, and other emerging productivity constraints such as phosphorus availability.

  20. Green surgical practices for health care.

    PubMed

    Kwakye, Gifty; Brat, Gabriel A; Makary, Martin A

    2011-02-01

    The objective of this study was to identify leading practices to promote environmentally friendly and efficient efforts in the provision of surgical health care. Health care is the second leading contributor to waste in the United States. Despite widespread enthusiasm for "going green" in the US economy, little substantive information is available to the medical community, to our knowledge. We explore safe and efficient strategies for hospitals and providers to protect the environment while delivering high-quality care. We performed a systematic review of the literature using relevant PubMed search terms and surveyed a panel of hospital managers and chief executive officers of health care organizations pursuing green initiatives. Recommendations were itemized and reviewed by a 7-member panel to generate a consensus agreement. We identified 43 published articles and used interview data from the panel. The following 5 green recommendations for surgical practices were identified: operating room waste reduction and segregation, reprocessing of single-use medical devices, environmentally preferable purchasing, energy consumption management, and pharmaceutical waste management. The medical community has a large opportunity to implement green practices in surgical units. These practices can provide significant benefits to the health care community and to the environment. Additional research and advocacy are needed to further explore green practices in health care.