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Sample records for 2d anisotropy function

  1. Evaluation of TG-43 recommended 2D-anisotropy function for elongated brachytherapy sources

    SciTech Connect

    Awan, Shahid B.; Meigooni, Ali S.; Mokhberiosgouei, Ramin; Hussain, Manzoor

    2006-11-15

    The original and updated protocols recommended by Task Group 43 from the American Association of Physicists in Medicine (i.e., TG-43 and TG-43U1, respectively), have been introduced to unify brachytherapy source dosimetry around the world. Both of these protocols are based on experiences with sources less than 1.0 cm in length. TG-43U1 recommends that for {sup 103}Pd sources, 2D anisotropy function F(r,{theta}), should be tabulated at a minimum for radial distances of 0.5, 1.0, 2.0, 3.0, and 5.0 cm. Anisotropy functions defined in these protocols are only valid when the point of calculation does not fall on the active length of the source. However, for elongated brachytherapy sources (active length >1 cm), some of the calculation points with r<(1/2) active length and small {theta} may fall on the source itself and there is no clear recommendation to handle this situation. In addition, the linear interpolation technique recommended by TG-43U1 is found to be valid for seed types of sources as the difference between F(r,{theta}) for two consecutive radii is <10%. However, in the present investigations it has been found that values of F(r,5 deg. ) for a 5 cm long RadioCoil trade mark sign {sup 103}Pd source at radial distances of 2.5, 3.0, and 4.0 cm were 2.95, 1.74, and 1.19, respectively, with differences up to about a factor of 3. Therefore, the validity of the linear interpolation technique for an elongated brachytherapy source with such a large variation in F(r,{theta}) needs to be investigated. In this project, application of the TG-43U1 formalism for dose calculation around an elongated RadioCoil trade mark sign {sup 103}Pd brachytherapy source has been investigated. In addition, the linear interpolation techniques as described in TG-43U1 for seed type sources have been evaluated for a 5.0 cm long RadioCoil trade mark sign {sup 103}Pd brachytherapy source. Application of a polynomial fit to F(r,{theta}) has also been investigated as an alternate approach to the

  2. Sensitivity of 2-D complex resistivity measurements to subsurface anisotropy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kenkel, J.; Kemna, A.

    2016-11-01

    In general, the complex electrical resistivity in the subsurface is anisotropic. Despite this, algorithms for the tomographic inversion of complex resistivity data commonly assume isotropy, mainly due to the lack of anisotropic modelling and inversion schemes, potentially leading to artifacts in the inversion results in the presence of anisotropy. The development of an effective anisotropic complex resistivity inversion algorithm which utilizes the gradient information of some cost function benefits from understanding the characteristics of the problem's sensitivities, i.e., the partial derivative of impedance data with respect to the complex conductivities in the different spatial directions, as well as with respect to the different ratios of complex conductivities, i.e., the different anisotropy ratios. We here derive expressions for these sensitivities and, based on a 2.5-D finite-element modelling algorithm, we compute and discuss sensitivity distributions as well as measurement response curves of typical surface and cross-borehole measurement configurations for 2-D subsurface anisotropic complex resistivity distributions. Depending on the electrode layout and measurement configuration, the sensitivity with respect to the conductivity in a particular direction shows a unique pattern, while for other directions sensitivity patterns are qualitatively similar. These sensitivity characteristics translate into important equivalences between impedance responses of local anisotropic and isotropic anomalies, for both magnitude and phase. Accordingly, with collinear surface arrays only the complex conductivity in the direction of the electrode layout can be unambiguously resolved, and with cross-borehole arrays only the conductivity in the vertical direction, provided an in-hole current injection is used. Nevertheless, anisotropy ratios involving these resolvable conductivity components are likewise detectable. The distinct shape of the measurement response curves

  3. Sensitivity of 2-D complex resistivity measurements to subsurface anisotropy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kenkel, J.; Kemna, A.

    2017-02-01

    In general, the complex electrical resistivity in the subsurface is anisotropic. Despite this, algorithms for the tomographic inversion of complex resistivity data commonly assume isotropy, mainly due to the lack of anisotropic modelling and inversion schemes, potentially leading to artefacts in the inversion results in the presence of anisotropy. The development of an effective anisotropic complex resistivity inversion algorithm which utilizes the gradient information of some cost function benefits from understanding the characteristics of the problem's sensitivities, that is, the partial derivative of the impedance forward response with respect to the complex conductivities in the different spatial directions, as well as with respect to the different ratios of complex conductivities, that is, the different anisotropy ratios. We here derive expressions for these sensitivities and, based on a 2.5-D finite-element modelling algorithm, we compute and discuss sensitivity distributions as well as measurement response curves of typical surface and cross-borehole measurement configurations for 2-D subsurface anisotropic complex resistivity distributions. Depending on the electrode layout and measurement configuration, the sensitivity with respect to the conductivity in a particular direction shows a unique pattern, while for other directions sensitivity patterns are qualitatively similar. These sensitivity characteristics translate into important equivalences between impedance responses of local anisotropic and isotropic anomalies, for both magnitude and phase. Accordingly, with collinear surface arrays only the complex conductivity in the direction of the electrode layout can be unambiguously resolved, and with cross-borehole arrays only the conductivity in the vertical direction, provided an in-hole current injection is used. Nevertheless, anisotropy ratios involving these resolvable conductivity components are likewise detectable. The distinct shape of the measurement

  4. Phase states of a 2D easy-plane ferromagnet with strong inclined anisotropy

    SciTech Connect

    Fridman, Yu. A. Klevets, F. N.; Gorelikov, G. A.; Meleshko, A. G.

    2012-12-15

    We investigate the spin states of a 2D film exhibiting easy-axis anisotropy and a strong single-ion inclined anisotropy whose axis forms a certain angle with the normal to the film surface. Such a system may have an angular ferromagnetic phase, a spatially inhomogeneous state, and a quadrupole phase, whose realization depends substantially on the inclined anisotropy and the orientation of the wavevector in the film plane.

  5. Strain-induced Fermi contour anisotropy of GaAs (311)A 2D holes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shabani, Javad; Shayegan, Mansour; Winkler, Roland

    2008-03-01

    There is considerable current interest in electronic properties of two-dimensional (2D) carriers whose energy bands are spin-split at finite values of in-plane wave vector, thanks to the spin-orbit interaction and the lack of inversion symmetry. We report experimental and theoretical results revealing that the spin-subband Fermi contours of the heavy and light heavy-holes (HHh and HHl) can be tuned in high mobility GaAs (311)A 2D hole systems via the application of symmetry-breaking in-plane strain. Our calculations show that the HHl spin-subband Fermi contour is circular but the HHh spin-subband Fermi contour is distorted. Experimentally, we probe the Fermi contour anisotropy by measuring the magneto-resistance commensurability peaks induced by square arrays of antidots. When the spin splitting is sufficiently large, the magneto-resistance trace exhibits two peaks, providing clear evidence for spin-resolved ballistic transport. The experimental results are in good agreement with the calculations, and confirm that the majority spin-subband (HHh) has a severely distorted Fermi contour whose anisotropy can be tuned with strain while Fermi contour of the minority spin-subband (HHl) remains nearly isotropic.

  6. Magnetic phase diagram of quasi-2D quantum Heisenberg antiferromagnets with XY anisotropy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xiao, Fan; Landee, Christopher; Turnbull, Mark; Fortune, Nathanael; Hannahs, Scott

    2012-02-01

    The magnetic phase diagram of a quasi-2D quantum Heisenberg antiferromagnetic compound Cu(pz)2(ClO4)2 [1] has been determined by experimental measurements; TN shows a strong field dependence. The data reveal the presence of a small (0.5%) amount of XY anisotropy. QMC simulations have been performed to examine the role of the anisotropy and the interlayer exchange (') upon the phase diagram [2,3]. Comparison of the QMC results with the experimental phase diagram will be presented. [4pt] [1] F. Xiao, F. M. Woodward, C. P. Landee, M. M. Turnbull, C. Mielke, N. Harrison, T. Lancaster, S. J. Blundell, P. J. Baker, P. Babkevich, and F. L. Pratt. Phys. Rev. B, 79(13): 134412 (2009) [0pt] [2] A. Cuccoli, T. Roscilde, R. Vaia, and P. Verrucchi. Phys. Rev. B, 68(6):060402 (2003). [0pt] [3] A. Cuccoli, T. Roscilde, R. Vaia, and P. Verrucchi. Phys. Rev. Lett., 90(16): 167205 (2003).

  7. Monte Carlo simulations of intragrain spin effects in a quasi-2D Heisenberg model with uniaxial anisotropy.

    PubMed

    Leblanc, M D; Whitehead, J P; Plumer, M L

    2013-05-15

    A combination of Metropolis and modified Wolff cluster algorithms is used to examine the impact of uniaxial single-ion anisotropy on the phase transition to ferromagnetic order of Heisenberg macrospins on a 2D square lattice. This forms the basis of a model for granular perpendicular recording media where macrospins represent the magnetic moment of grains. The focus of this work is on the interplay between anisotropy D, intragrain exchange J' and intergrain exchange J on the ordering temperature T(C) and extends our previous reported analysis of the granular Ising model. The role of intragrain degrees of freedom in heat assisted magnetic recording is discussed.

  8. Monte Carlo simulations of intragrain spin effects in a quasi-2D Heisenberg model with uniaxial anisotropy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leblanc, M. D.; Whitehead, J. P.; Plumer, M. L.

    2013-05-01

    A combination of Metropolis and modified Wolff cluster algorithms is used to examine the impact of uniaxial single-ion anisotropy on the phase transition to ferromagnetic order of Heisenberg macrospins on a 2D square lattice. This forms the basis of a model for granular perpendicular recording media where macrospins represent the magnetic moment of grains. The focus of this work is on the interplay between anisotropy D, intragrain exchange J‧ and intergrain exchange J on the ordering temperature TC and extends our previous reported analysis of the granular Ising model. The role of intragrain degrees of freedom in heat assisted magnetic recording is discussed.

  9. Towards functional assembly of 3D and 2D nanomaterials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jacobs, Christopher B.; Wang, Kai; Ievlev, Anton V.; Muckley, Eric S.; Ivanov, Ilia N.

    2016-09-01

    Functional assemblies of materials can be realized by tuning the work function and band gap of nanomaterials by rational material selection and design. Here we demonstrate the structural assembly of 2D and 3D nanomaterials and show that layering a 2D material monolayer on a 3D metal oxide leads to substantial alteration of both the surface potential and optical properties of the 3D material. A 40 nm thick film of polycrystalline NiO was produced by room temperature rf-sputtering, resulting in a 3D nanoparticle assembly. Chemical vapor deposition (CVD) grown 10-30 μm WS2 flakes (2D material) were placed on the NiO surface using a PDMS stamp transfer technique. The 2D/3D WS2/NiO assembly was characterized using confocal micro Raman spectroscopy to evaluate the vibrational properties and using Kelvin probe force microscopy (KPFM) to evaluate the surface potential. Raman maps of the 2D/3D assembly show spatial non-uniformity of the A1g mode ( 418 cm-1) and the disorder-enhanced longitudinal acoustic mode, 2LA(M) ( 350 cm-1), suggesting that the WS2 exists in a strained condition on when transferred onto 3D polycrystalline NiO. KPFM measurements show that single layer WS2 on SiO2 has a surface potential 75 mV lower than that of SiO2, whereas the surface potential of WS2 on NiO is 15 mV higher than NiO, indicating that WS2 could act as electron donor or acceptor depending on the 3D material it is interfaced with. Thus 2D and 3D materials can be organized into functional assemblies with electron flow controlled by the WS2 either as the electron donor or acceptor.

  10. Engineering functional anisotropy in fibrocartilage neotissues.

    PubMed

    MacBarb, Regina F; Chen, Alison L; Hu, Jerry C; Athanasiou, Kyriacos A

    2013-12-01

    The knee meniscus, intervertebral disc, and temporomandibular joint (TMJ) disc all possess complex geometric shapes and anisotropic matrix organization. While these characteristics are imperative for proper tissue function, they are seldom recapitulated following injury or disease. Thus, this study's objective was to engineer fibrocartilages that capture both gross and molecular structural features of native tissues. Self-assembled TMJ discs were selected as the model system, as the disc exhibits a unique biconcave shape and functional anisotropy. To drive anisotropy, 50:50 co-cultures of meniscus cells and articular chondrocytes were grown in biconcave, TMJ-shaped molds and treated with two exogenous stimuli: biomechanical (BM) stimulation via passive axial compression and bioactive agent (BA) stimulation via chondroitinase-ABC and transforming growth factor-β1. BM + BA synergistically increased Col/WW, Young's modulus, and ultimate tensile strength 5.8-fold, 14.7-fold, and 13.8-fold that of controls, respectively; it also promoted collagen fibril alignment akin to native tissue. Finite element analysis found BM stimulation to create direction-dependent strains within the neotissue, suggesting shape plays an essential role toward driving in vitro anisotropic neotissue development. Methods used in this study offer insight on the ability to achieve physiologic anisotropy in biomaterials through the strategic application of spatial, biomechanical, and biochemical cues.

  11. Model dielectric function for 2D semiconductors including substrate screening

    PubMed Central

    Trolle, Mads L.; Pedersen, Thomas G.; Véniard, Valerie

    2017-01-01

    Dielectric screening of excitons in 2D semiconductors is known to be a highly non-local effect, which in reciprocal space translates to a strong dependence on momentum transfer q. We present an analytical model dielectric function, including the full non-linear q-dependency, which may be used as an alternative to more numerically taxing ab initio screening functions. By verifying the good agreement between excitonic optical properties calculated using our model dielectric function, and those derived from ab initio methods, we demonstrate the versatility of this approach. Our test systems include: Monolayer hBN, monolayer MoS2, and the surface exciton of a 2 × 1 reconstructed Si(111) surface. Additionally, using our model, we easily take substrate screening effects into account. Hence, we include also a systematic study of the effects of substrate media on the excitonic optical properties of MoS2 and hBN. PMID:28117326

  12. 2D Potential theory using complex functions and conformal mapping

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Le Maire, Pauline; Munschy, Marc

    2016-04-01

    For infinitely horizontally extended bodies, functions that describe potential and field equations (gravity and magnetics) outside bodies are 2D and harmonic. The consequence of this property is that potential and field equations can be written as complex analytic functions. We define these complex functions whose real part is the commonly used real function and imaginary part is its Hilbert transform. Using data or synthetic cases the transformation is easily performed in the Fourier domain by setting to zero all values for negative frequencies. Written as complex functions of the complex variable, equations of potential and field in gravity and magnetics for different kinds of geometries are simple and correspond to powers of the inverse of the distance. For example, it is easily shown that for a tilted dyke, the dip and the apparent inclination have the same effect on the function and consequently that it is not possible, with data, to compute one of both values without knowing the other. Conformal mapping is an original way to display potential field functions. Considering that the complex variable corresponds to the real axis, complex potential field functions resume to a limaçon, a curve formed by the path of the point fixed to a circle when that circle rolls around the outside of another circle. For example, the point corresponding to the maximum distance to the origin of the complex magnetic field due to a cylinder, corresponds to the maximum of the analytic signal as defined by Nabighan in 1972 and its phase corresponds to the apparent inclination. Several applications are shown in different geological contexts using aeromagnetic data.

  13. 13C and 15N—Chemical Shift Anisotropy of Ampicillin and Penicillin-V Studied by 2D-PASS and CP/MAS NMR

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Antzutkin, Oleg N.; Lee, Young K.; Levitt, Malcolm H.

    1998-11-01

    The principal values of the chemical shift tensors of all13C and15N sites in two antibiotics, ampicillin and penicillin-V, were determined by 2-dimensionalphaseadjustedspinningsideband (2D-PASS) and conventional CP/MAS experiments. The13C and15N chemical shift anisotropies (CSA), and their confidence limits, were evaluated using a Mathematica program. The CSA values suggest a revised assignment of the 2-methyl13C sites in the case of ampicillin. We speculate on a relationship between the chemical shift principal values of many of the13C and15N sites and the β-lactam ring conformation.

  14. Postretinal Structure and Function in Severe Congenital Photoreceptor Blindness Caused by Mutations in the GUCY2D Gene

    PubMed Central

    Aguirre, Geoffrey K.; Butt, Omar H.; Datta, Ritobrato; Roman, Alejandro J.; Sumaroka, Alexander; Schwartz, Sharon B.; Cideciyan, Artur V.; Jacobson, Samuel G.

    2017-01-01

    Purpose To examine how severe congenital blindness resulting from mutations of the GUCY2D gene alters brain structure and function, and to relate these findings to the notable preservation of retinal architecture in this form of Leber congenital amaurosis (LCA). Methods Six GUCY2D-LCA patients (ages 20–46) were studied with optical coherence tomography of the retina and multimodal magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) of the brain. Measurements from this group were compared to those obtained from populations of normally sighted controls and people with congenital blindness of a variety of causes. Results Patients with GUCY2D-LCA had preservation of the photoreceptors, ganglion cells, and nerve fiber layer. Despite this, visual function in these patients ranged from 20/160 acuity to no light perception, and functional MRI responses to light stimulation were attenuated and restricted. This severe visual impairment was reflected in substantial thickening of the gray matter layer of area V1, accompanied by an alteration of resting-state correlations within the occipital lobe, similar to a comparison group of congenitally blind people with structural damage to the retina. In contrast to the comparison blind population, however, the GUCY2D-LCA group had preservation of the size of the optic chiasm, and the fractional anisotropy of the optic radiations as measured with diffusion tensor imaging was also normal. Conclusions These results identify dissociable effects of blindness upon the visual pathway. Further, the relatively intact postgeniculate white matter pathway in GUCY2D-LCA is encouraging for the prospect of recovery of visual function with gene augmentation therapy.

  15. Force Density Function Relationships in 2-D Granular Media

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Youngquist, Robert C.; Metzger, Philip T.; Kilts, Kelly N.

    2004-01-01

    An integral transform relationship is developed to convert between two important probability density functions (distributions) used in the study of contact forces in granular physics. Developing this transform has now made it possible to compare and relate various theoretical approaches with one another and with the experimental data despite the fact that one may predict the Cartesian probability density and another the force magnitude probability density. Also, the transforms identify which functional forms are relevant to describe the probability density observed in nature, and so the modified Bessel function of the second kind has been identified as the relevant form for the Cartesian probability density corresponding to exponential forms in the force magnitude distribution. Furthermore, it is shown that this transform pair supplies a sufficient mathematical framework to describe the evolution of the force magnitude distribution under shearing. Apart from the choice of several coefficients, whose evolution of values must be explained in the physics, this framework successfully reproduces the features of the distribution that are taken to be an indicator of jamming and unjamming in a granular packing. Key words. Granular Physics, Probability Density Functions, Fourier Transforms

  16. Density functional theory for polymeric systems in 2D.

    PubMed

    Słyk, Edyta; Roth, Roland; Bryk, Paweł

    2016-06-22

    We propose density functional theory for polymeric fluids in two dimensions. The approach is based on Wertheim's first order thermodynamic perturbation theory (TPT) and closely follows density functional theory for polymers proposed by Yu and Wu (2002 J. Chem. Phys. 117 2368). As a simple application we evaluate the density profiles of tangent hard-disk polymers at hard walls. The theoretical predictions are compared against the results of the Monte Carlo simulations. We find that for short chain lengths the theoretical density profiles are in an excellent agreement with the Monte Carlo data. The agreement is less satisfactory for longer chains. The performance of the theory can be improved by recasting the approach using the self-consistent field theory formalism. When the self-avoiding chain statistics is used, the theory yields a marked improvement in the low density limit. Further improvements for long chains could be reached by going beyond the first order of TPT.

  17. Crustal anisotropy along the North Anatolian Fault Zone from receiver functions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Licciardi, Andrea; Eken, Tuna; Taymaz, Tuncay; Piana Agostinetti, Nicola; Yolsal-Çevikbilen, Seda; Tilmann, Frederik

    2016-04-01

    The North Anatolian Fault Zone (NAFZ) that is considered to be one of the largest plate-bounding transform faults separates the Anatolian Plate to the south from the Eurasian Plate to the north. A proper estimation of the crustal anisotropy in the area is a key point to understand the present and past tectonic processes associated with the plate boundary as well as for assessing its strength and stability. In this work we used data from the North Anatolian Fault (NAF) passive seismic experiment in order to retrieve the anisotropic properties of the crust by means of the receiver function (RF) method. This approach provides robust constraints on the location at depth of anisotropic bodies compared to other seismological tools like S-waves splitting observations where anisotropic parameters are obtained through a path-integrated measurement process over depth. We computed RFs from teleseismic events, for 39 stations with a recording period of nearly 2 years, providing an excellent azimuthal coverage. The observed azimuthal variations in amplitudes and delay times on the Radial and Transverse RF indicate the presence of anisotropy in the crust. Isotropic and anisotropic effects on the RFs are analyzed separately after harmonic decomposition of the RF dataset (Bianchi et al. 2010). Pseudo 2D profiles are built to observe both the seismic isotropic structure and the depth-dependent lateral variations of crustal anisotropy in the area, including orientation of the symmetry axis. Preliminary results show that the isotropic structure is characterized by a complex crustal setting above a nearly flat Moho at a depth of ~40 km in the central portion of the studied area. Strong anisotropy is present in the upper crust along some portions of the NAFZ and the Ezinepazari-Sungurlu Fault (ESF), with a strong correlation between the orientation of the symmetry axis of anisotropy and the strike of the main geological structures. More complex patterns of anisotropy are present in the

  18. CMB anisotropy in compact hyperbolic universes. I. Computing correlation functions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bond, J. Richard; Pogosyan, Dmitry; Souradeep, Tarun

    2000-08-01

    Cosmic microwave background (CMB) anisotropy measurements have brought the issue of global topology of the universe from the realm of theoretical possibility to within the grasp of observations. The global topology of the universe modifies the correlation properties of cosmic fields. In particular, strong correlations are predicted in CMB anisotropy patterns on the largest observable scales if the size of the universe is comparable to the distance to the CMB last scattering surface. We describe in detail our completely general scheme using a regularized method of images for calculating such correlation functions in models with nontrivial topology, and apply it to the computationally challenging compact hyperbolic spaces. Our procedure directly sums over images within a specified radius, ideally many times the diameter of the space, effectively treats more distant images in a continuous approximation, and uses Cesaro resummation to further sharpen the results. At all levels of approximation the symmetries of the space are preserved in the correlation function. This new technique eliminates the need for the difficult task of spatial eigenmode decomposition on these spaces. Although the eigenspectrum can be obtained by this method if desired, at a given level of approximation the correlation functions are more accurately determined. We use the 3-torus example to demonstrate that the method works very well. We apply it to power spectrum as well as correlation function evaluations in a number of compact hyperbolic (CH) spaces. Application to the computation of CMB anisotropy correlations on CH spaces, and the observational constraints following from them, are given in a companion paper.

  19. Dynamical Analysis and Big Bang Bifurcations of 1D and 2D Gompertz's Growth Functions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rocha, J. Leonel; Taha, Abdel-Kaddous; Fournier-Prunaret, D.

    In this paper, we study the dynamics and bifurcation properties of a three-parameter family of 1D Gompertz's growth functions, which are defined by the population size functions of the Gompertz logistic growth equation. The dynamical behavior is complex leading to a diversified bifurcation structure, leading to the big bang bifurcations of the so-called “box-within-a-box” fractal type. We provide and discuss sufficient conditions for the existence of these bifurcation cascades for 1D Gompertz's growth functions. Moreover, this work concerns the description of some bifurcation properties of a Hénon's map type embedding: a “continuous” embedding of 1D Gompertz's growth functions into a 2D diffeomorphism. More particularly, properties that characterize the big bang bifurcations are considered in relation with this coupling of two population size functions, varying the embedding parameter. The existence of communication areas of crossroad area type or swallowtails are identified for this 2D diffeomorphism.

  20. Cervical cancer cell lines expressing NKG2D-ligands are able to down-modulate the NKG2D receptor on NKL cells with functional implications

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Cervical cancer represents the third most commonly diagnosed cancer and the fourth leading cause of cancer-related deaths in women worldwide. Natural killer (NK) cells play an important role in the defense against viruses, intracellular bacteria and tumors. NKG2D, an activating receptor on NK cells, recognizes MHC class I chain-related molecules, such as MICA/B and members of the ULBP/RAET1 family. Tumor-derived soluble NKG2D-ligands have been shown to down-modulate the expression of NKG2D on NK cells. In addition to the down-modulation induced by soluble NKG2D-ligands, it has recently been described that persistent cell-cell contact can also down-modulate NKG2D expression. The goal of this study was to determine whether the NKG2D receptor is down-modulated by cell-cell contact with cervical cancer cells and whether this down-modulation might be associated with changes in NK cell activity. Results We demonstrate that NKG2D expressed on NKL cells is down-modulated by direct cell contact with cervical cancer cell lines HeLa, SiHa, and C33A, but not with non-tumorigenic keratinocytes (HaCaT). Moreover, this down-modulation had functional implications. We found expression of NKG2D-ligands in all cervical cancer cell lines, but the patterns of ligand distribution were different in each cell line. Cervical cancer cell lines co-cultured with NKL cells or fresh NK cells induced a marked diminution of NKG2D expression on NKL cells. Additionally, the cytotoxic activity of NKL cells against K562 targets was compromised after co-culture with HeLa and SiHa cells, while co-culture with C33A increased the cytotoxic activity of the NKL cells. Conclusions Our results suggest that differential expression of NKG2D-ligands in cervical cancer cell lines might be associated with the down-modulation of NKG2D, as well as with changes in the cytotoxic activity of NKL cells after cell-cell contact with the tumor cells. PMID:22316211

  1. Holomorphy, triality, and nonperturbative beta function in 2D supersymmetric QCD

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gadde, Abhijit

    2016-07-01

    In this paper, we study the RG flow in the nonlinear sigma models obtained from a 2D N =(0 ,2 ) supersymmetric QCD. The sigma model is parametrized by a single Kahler modulus. We determine its exact nonperturbative beta function using holomorphy, triality and the knowledge of the infrared fixed point.

  2. The 2dF Galaxy Redshift Survey: spectral types and luminosity functions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Folkes, Simon; Ronen, Shai; Price, Ian; Lahav, Ofer; Colless, Matthew; Maddox, Steve; Deeley, Kathryn; Glazebrook, Karl; Bland-Hawthorn, Joss; Cannon, Russell; Cole, Shaun; Collins, Chris; Couch, Warrick; Driver, Simon P.; Dalton, Gavin; Efstathiou, George; Ellis, Richard S.; Frenk, Carlos S.; Kaiser, Nick; Lewis, Ian; Lumsden, Stuart; Peacock, John; Peterson, Bruce A.; Sutherland, Will; Taylor, Keith

    1999-09-01

    We describe the 2dF Galaxy Redshift Survey (2dFGRS) and the current status of the observations. In this exploratory paper, we apply a principal component analysis to a preliminary sample of 5869 galaxy spectra and use the two most significant components to split the sample into five spectral classes. These classes are defined by considering visual classifications of a subset of the 2dF spectra, and also by comparison with high-quality spectra of local galaxies. We calculate a luminosity function for each of the different classes and find that later-type galaxies have a fainter characteristic magnitude, and a steeper faint-end slope. For the whole sample we find M*=-19.7 (for Ω=1, H_0=100kms^-1Mpc^-1), α=-1.3, φ*=0.017. For class 1 (`early-type') we find M*=-19.6, α=-0.7, while for class 5 (`late-type') we find M*=-19.0, α=-1.7. The derived 2dF luminosity functions agree well with other recent luminosity function estimates.

  3. Interactive Boundary Detection for Automatic Definition of 2D Opacity Transfer Function

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rauberger, Martin; Overhoff, Heinrich Martin

    In computer assisted diagnostics nowadays, high-value 3-D visualization intake a supporting role to the traditional 2-D slice wise visualization. 3-D visualization may create intuitive visual appearances of the spatial relations of anatomical structures, based upon transfer functions mapping data values to visual parameters, e.g. color or opacity. Manual definition of these transfer functions however requires expert knowledge and can be tedious. In this paper an approach to automatizing 2-D opacity transfer function definition is presented. Upon few parameters characterizing the image volume and an user-depicted area of interest, the procedure detects organ surfaces automatically, upon which transfer functions may automatically be defined. Parameter setting still requires experience about the imaging properties of modalities, and improper setting can cause falsely detected organ surfaces. Procedure tests with CT and MRI image volumes show, that real time structure detection is even possible for noisy image volumes.

  4. The Ground Truth of Crustal Anisotropy from Receiver Functions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bianchi, I.; Apoloner, M. T.; Qorbani, E.; Lloyd, S. M.; Gribovski, K.; Gerner, A.; Arneitz, P.; Jordakiev, P.; Bokelmann, G.

    2014-12-01

    As one of the rare observational tools for studying deformation and stress within the Earth, seismic anisotropy has been one of the focuses of geophysical studies over the last decade. Recently, in order to unravel the anisotropic properties of the crust, the teleseismic receiver functions (RFs) methodology has been largely applied. Effects of anisotropy on the RFs dataset were illustrated in more than one theoretical study, showing the strong backazimuthal dependence of RFs on the 3D characteristics of the traversed media. The use of teleseismic RFs has the advantage of not being affected by heterogeneous depth distribution of local earthquakes, since teleseismic rays sample the entire crust beneath the stations. The application of this technique anyway, needs to be critically assessed using a suitable field test. To test this technique, we need a crustal block where the underground structure is reasonably well-known, e.g., where there is extensive knowledge from local seismic experiments and drilling. Therefore a field test around the KTB (Kontinental Tiefbohrung) site in the Oberpfalz in Southeastern Germany, has been carried out to test the technique, and to compare with previous results from deep drilling, and high-frequency seismic experiments around the drill site. The investigated region has been studied extensively by local geophysical experiments. The deep borehole was placed into gneiss rocks of the Zone Erbendorf-Vohenstrauss. Drilling activity lasted from 1987 to 1994, and descended down to a depth of 9101 meters, sampling an alternating sequence of paragneiss and amphibolite, with metamorphism of upper amphibolite facies conditions, and ductile deformation produced a strong foliation of the rocks. The application of the RFs reveals strong seismic anisotropy in the upper crust related to the so-called Erbendorf body.

  5. Anisotropy in finite continuum percolation: threshold estimation by Minkowski functionals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Klatt, Michael A.; Schröder-Turk, Gerd E.; Mecke, Klaus

    2017-02-01

    We examine the interplay between anisotropy and percolation, i.e. the spontaneous formation of a system spanning cluster in an anisotropic model. We simulate an extension of a benchmark model of continuum percolation, the Boolean model, which is formed by overlapping grains. Here we introduce an orientation bias of the grains that controls the degree of anisotropy of the generated patterns. We analyze in the Euclidean plane the percolation thresholds above which percolating clusters in x- and in y-direction emerge. Only in finite systems, distinct differences between effective percolation thresholds for different directions appear. If extrapolated to infinite system sizes, these differences vanish independent of the details of the model. In the infinite system, the uniqueness of the percolating cluster guarantees a unique percolation threshold. While percolation is isotropic even for anisotropic processes, the value of the percolation threshold depends on the model parameters, which we explore by simulating a score of models with varying degree of anisotropy. To which precision can we predict the percolation threshold without simulations? We discuss analytic formulas for approximations (based on the excluded area or the Euler characteristic) and compare them to our simulation results. Empirical parameters from similar systems allow for accurate predictions of the percolation thresholds (with deviations of  <5% in our examples), but even without any empirical parameters, the explicit approximations from integral geometry provide, at least for the systems studied here, lower bounds that capture well the qualitative dependence of the percolation threshold on the system parameters (with deviations of 5 % –30 % ). As an outlook, we suggest further candidates for explicit and geometric approximations based on second moments of the so-called Minkowski functionals.

  6. Rare Functional Variant in TM2D3 is Associated with Late-Onset Alzheimer's Disease

    PubMed Central

    Grove, Megan L.; Naj, Adam; Vronskaya, Maria; DeStefano, Anita L.; Brody, Jennifer A.; Smith, Albert V.; Amin, Najaf; Sims, Rebecca; Ibrahim-Verbaas, Carla A.; Choi, Seung-Hoan; Lopez, Oscar L.; Beiser, Alexa; Ikram, M. Arfan; Garcia, Melissa E.; Hayward, Caroline; Ripatti, Samuli; Franks, Paul W.; Hallmans, Göran; Rolandsson, Olov; Jansson, Jan-Håkon; Porteous, David J.; Salomaa, Veikko; Eiriksdottir, Gudny; Rice, Kenneth M.; Bellen, Hugo J.; Levy, Daniel; Uitterlinden, Andre G.; Emilsson, Valur; Rotter, Jerome I.; Aspelund, Thor; O’Donnell, Christopher J.; Fitzpatrick, Annette L.; Launer, Lenore J.; Hofman, Albert; Wang, Li-San; Williams, Julie; Schellenberg, Gerard D.; Boerwinkle, Eric; Psaty, Bruce M.; Seshadri, Sudha; Shulman, Joshua M.; Gudnason, Vilmundur; van Duijn, Cornelia M.

    2016-01-01

    We performed an exome-wide association analysis in 1393 late-onset Alzheimer’s disease (LOAD) cases and 8141 controls from the CHARGE consortium. We found that a rare variant (P155L) in TM2D3 was enriched in Icelanders (~0.5% versus <0.05% in other European populations). In 433 LOAD cases and 3903 controls from the Icelandic AGES sub-study, P155L was associated with increased risk and earlier onset of LOAD [odds ratio (95% CI) = 7.5 (3.5–15.9), p = 6.6x10-9]. Mutation in the Drosophila TM2D3 homolog, almondex, causes a phenotype similar to loss of Notch/Presenilin signaling. Human TM2D3 is capable of rescuing these phenotypes, but this activity is abolished by P155L, establishing it as a functionally damaging allele. Our results establish a rare TM2D3 variant in association with LOAD susceptibility, and together with prior work suggests possible links to the β-amyloid cascade. PMID:27764101

  7. Controlled Covalent Functionalization of Thermally Reduced Graphene Oxide To Generate Defined Bifunctional 2D Nanomaterials

    PubMed Central

    Faghani, Abbas; Donskyi, Ievgen S.; Fardin Gholami, Mohammad; Ziem, Benjamin; Lippitz, Andreas; Unger, Wolfgang E. S.; Böttcher, Christoph; Rabe, Jürgen P.

    2017-01-01

    Abstract A controlled, reproducible, gram‐scale method is reported for the covalent functionalization of graphene sheets by a one‐pot nitrene [2+1] cycloaddition reaction under mild conditions. The reaction between commercially available 2,4,6‐trichloro‐1,3,5‐triazine and sodium azide with thermally reduced graphene oxide (TRGO) results in defined dichlorotriazine‐functionalized sheets. The different reactivities of the chlorine substituents on the functionalized graphene allow stepwise post‐modification by manipulating the temperature. This new method provides unique access to defined bifunctional 2D nanomaterials, as exemplified by chiral surfaces and multifunctional hybrid architectures. PMID:28165179

  8. In vitro functional assessment of 22 newly identified CYP2D6 allelic variants in the Chinese population.

    PubMed

    Dai, Da-Peng; Geng, Pei-Wu; Wang, Shuang-Hu; Cai, Jie; Hu, Li-Ming; Nie, Jing-Jing; Hu, Ji-Hong; Hu, Guo-Xin; Cai, Jian-Ping

    2015-07-01

    Cytochrome P450 2D6 (CYP2D6) is one of the most widely investigated CYPs related to genetic polymorphisms and is responsible for one-quarter of the currently used clinical drugs. We previously detected 22 novel, non-synonymous, mutated sites in the Chinese population, but nothing is known about the functional effects of these mutations in terms of specific CYP2D6 substrates. In this study, wild-type CYP2D6, two common allelic variants and 22 newly reported CYP2D6 isoforms were transiently expressed in 293FT cells, and the enzymatic activities of these variants were systematically assessed using dextromethorphan and bufuralol as the probing substrates. Consequently, 19 and 21 allelic variants were found to exhibit significantly decreased enzymatic activities for dextromethorphan and bufuralol, respectively. Of 22 novel CYP2D6 variants, six allelic isoforms (CYP2D6.89, CYP2D6.92, CYP2D6.93, CYP2D6.96, E215K and R440C) exhibited absent or extremely reduced metabolic activities compared with those observed for the wild-type enzyme. Our in vitro functional data can be useful for CYP2D6 phenotype prediction and provide valuable information for the study of clinical impact of these newly found CYP2D6 variants in China.

  9. The intrinsic quasar luminosity function: Accounting for accretion disk anisotropy

    SciTech Connect

    DiPompeo, M. A.; Myers, A. D.; Brotherton, M. S.; Runnoe, J. C.; Green, R. F.

    2014-05-20

    Quasar luminosity functions are a fundamental probe of the growth and evolution of supermassive black holes. Measuring the intrinsic luminosity function is difficult in practice, due to a multitude of observational and systematic effects. As sample sizes increase and measurement errors drop, characterizing the systematic effects is becoming more important. It is well known that the continuum emission from the accretion disk of quasars is anisotropic—in part due to its disk-like structure—but current luminosity function calculations effectively assume isotropy over the range of unobscured lines of sight. Here, we provide the first steps in characterizing the effect of random quasar orientations and simple models of anisotropy on observed luminosity functions. We find that the effect of orientation is not insignificant and exceeds other potential corrections such as those from gravitational lensing of foreground structures. We argue that current observational constraints may overestimate the intrinsic luminosity function by as much as a factor of ∼2 on the bright end. This has implications for models of quasars and their role in the universe, such as quasars' contribution to cosmological backgrounds.

  10. Omega from the anisotropy of the redshift correlation function

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hamilton, A. J. S.

    1993-01-01

    Peculiar velocities distort the correlation function of galaxies observed in redshift space. In the large scale, linear regime, the distortion takes a characteristic quadrupole plus hexadecapole form, with the amplitude of the distortion depending on the cosmological density parameter omega. Preliminary measurements are reported here of the harmonics of the correlation function in the CfA, SSRS, and IRAS 2 Jansky redshift surveys. The observed behavior of the harmonics agrees qualitatively with the predictions of linear theory on large scales in every survey. However, real anisotropy in the galaxy distribution induces large fluctuations in samples which do not yet probe a sufficiently fair volume of the Universe. In the CfA 14.5 sample in particular, the Great Wall induces a large negative quadrupole, which taken at face value implies an unrealistically large omega 20. The IRAS 2 Jy survey, which covers a substantially larger volume than the optical surveys and is less affected by fingers-of-god, yields a more reliable and believable value, omega = 0.5 sup +.5 sub -.25.

  11. Enhanced durability of polymer electrolyte membrane fuel cells by functionalized 2D boron nitride nanoflakes.

    PubMed

    Oh, Keun-Hwan; Lee, Dongju; Choo, Min-Ju; Park, Kwang Hyun; Jeon, Seokwoo; Hong, Soon Hyung; Park, Jung-Ki; Choi, Jang Wook

    2014-05-28

    We report boron nitride nanoflakes (BNNFs), for the first time, as a nanofiller for polymer electrolyte membranes in fuel cells. Utilizing the intrinsic mechanical strength of two-dimensional (2D) BN, addition of BNNFs even at a marginal content (0.3 wt %) significantly improves mechanical stability of the most representative hydrocarbon-type (HC-type) polymer electrolyte membrane, namely sulfonated poly(ether ether ketone) (sPEEK), during substantial water uptake through repeated wet/dry cycles. For facile processing with BNNFs that frequently suffer from poor dispersion in most organic solvents, we non-covalently functionalized BNNFs with 1-pyrenesulfonic acid (PSA). Besides good dispersion, PSA supports efficient proton transport through its sulfonic functional groups. Compared to bare sPEEK, the composite membrane containing BNNF nanofiller exhibited far improved long-term durability originating from enhanced dimensional stability and diminished chronic edge failure. This study suggests that introduction of properly functionalized 2D BNNFs is an effective strategy in making various HC-type membranes sustainable without sacrificing their original adventurous properties in polymer electrolyte membrane fuel cells.

  12. Extending Ripley’s K-Function to Quantify Aggregation in 2-D Grayscale Images

    PubMed Central

    Amgad, Mohamed; Itoh, Anri; Tsui, Marco Man Kin

    2015-01-01

    In this work, we describe the extension of Ripley’s K-function to allow for overlapping events at very high event densities. We show that problematic edge effects introduce significant bias to the function at very high densities and small radii, and propose a simple correction method that successfully restores the function’s centralization. Using simulations of homogeneous Poisson distributions of events, as well as simulations of event clustering under different conditions, we investigate various aspects of the function, including its shape-dependence and correspondence between true cluster radius and radius at which the K-function is maximized. Furthermore, we validate the utility of the function in quantifying clustering in 2-D grayscale images using three modalities: (i) Simulations of particle clustering; (ii) Experimental co-expression of soluble and diffuse protein at varying ratios; (iii) Quantifying chromatin clustering in the nuclei of wt and crwn1 crwn2 mutant Arabidopsis plant cells, using a previously-published image dataset. Overall, our work shows that Ripley’s K-function is a valid abstract statistical measure whose utility extends beyond the quantification of clustering of non-overlapping events. Potential benefits of this work include the quantification of protein and chromatin aggregation in fluorescent microscopic images. Furthermore, this function has the potential to become one of various abstract texture descriptors that are utilized in computer-assisted diagnostics in anatomic pathology and diagnostic radiology. PMID:26636680

  13. 2-D Modeling of Nanoscale MOSFETs: Non-Equilibrium Green's Function Approach

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Svizhenko, Alexei; Anantram, M. P.; Govindan, T. R.; Biegel, Bryan

    2001-01-01

    We have developed physical approximations and computer code capable of realistically simulating 2-D nanoscale transistors, using the non-equilibrium Green's function (NEGF) method. This is the most accurate full quantum model yet applied to 2-D device simulation. Open boundary conditions and oxide tunneling are treated on an equal footing. Electrons in the ellipsoids of the conduction band are treated within the anisotropic effective mass approximation. Electron-electron interaction is treated within Hartree approximation by solving NEGF and Poisson equations self-consistently. For the calculations presented here, parallelization is performed by distributing the solution of NEGF equations to various processors, energy wise. We present simulation of the "benchmark" MIT 25nm and 90nm MOSFETs and compare our results to those from the drift-diffusion simulator and the quantum-corrected results available. In the 25nm MOSFET, the channel length is less than ten times the electron wavelength, and the electron scattering time is comparable to its transit time. Our main results are: (1) Simulated drain subthreshold current characteristics are shown, where the potential profiles are calculated self-consistently by the corresponding simulation methods. The current predicted by our quantum simulation has smaller subthreshold slope of the Vg dependence which results in higher threshold voltage. (2) When gate oxide thickness is less than 2 nm, gate oxide leakage is a primary factor which determines off-current of a MOSFET (3) Using our 2-D NEGF simulator, we found several ways to drastically decrease oxide leakage current without compromising drive current. (4) Quantum mechanically calculated electron density is much smaller than the background doping density in the poly silicon gate region near oxide interface. This creates an additional effective gate voltage. Different ways to. include this effect approximately will be discussed.

  14. A novel time dependent gamma evaluation function for dynamic 2D and 3D dose distributions.

    PubMed

    Podesta, Mark; Persoon, Lucas C G G; Verhaegen, Frank

    2014-10-21

    Modern external beam radiotherapy requires detailed verification and quality assurance so that confidence can be placed on both the delivery of a single treatment fraction and on the consistency of delivery throughout the treatment course. To verify dose distributions, a comparison between prediction and measurement must be made. Comparisons between two dose distributions are commonly performed using a Gamma evaluation which is a calculation of two quantities on a pixel by pixel basis; the dose difference, and the distance to agreement. By providing acceptance criteria (e.g. 3%, 3 mm), the function will find the most appropriate match within its two degrees of freedom. For complex dynamic treatments such as IMRT or VMAT it is important to verify the dose delivery in a time dependent manner and so a gamma evaluation that includes a degree of freedom in the time domain via a third parameter, time to agreement, is presented here. A C++ (mex) based gamma function was created that could be run on either CPU and GPU computing platforms that would allow a degree of freedom in the time domain. Simple test cases were created in both 2D and 3D comprising of simple geometrical shapes with well-defined boundaries varying over time. Changes of varying magnitude in either space or time were introduced and repeated gamma analyses were performed varying the criteria. A clinical VMAT case was also included, artificial air bubbles of varying size were introduced to a patient geometry, along with shifts of varying magnitude in treatment time. For all test cases where errors in distance, dose or time were introduced, the time dependent gamma evaluation could accurately highlight the errors.The time dependent gamma function presented here allows time to be included as a degree of freedom in gamma evaluations. The function allows for 2D and 3D data sets which are varying over time to be compared using appropriate criteria without penalising minor offsets of subsequent radiation fields

  15. An open canvas--2D materials with defects, disorder, and functionality.

    PubMed

    Zou, Xiaolong; Yakobson, Boris I

    2015-01-20

    CONSPECTUS: While some exceptional properties are unique to graphene only (its signature Dirac-cone gapless dispersion, carrier mobility, record strength), other features are common to other two-dimensional materials. The broader family "beyond graphene" offers greater choices to be explored and tailored for various applications. Transition metal dichalcogenides (TMDCs), hexagonal boron nitride (h-BN), and 2D layers of pure elements, like phosphorus or boron, can complement or even surpass graphene in many ways and uses, ranging from electronics and optoelectronics to catalysis and energy storage. Their availability greatly relies on chemical vapor deposition growth of large samples, which are highly polycrystalline and include interfaces such as edges, heterostructures, and grain boundaries, as well as dislocations and point defects. These imperfections do not always degrade the material properties, but they often bring new physics and even useful functionality. It turns particularly interesting in combination with the sheer openness of all 2D sheets, fully exposed to the environment, which, as we show herein, can change and tune the defect structures and consequently all their qualities, from electronic levels, conductivity, magnetism, and optics to structural mobility of dislocations and catalytic activities. In this Account, we review our progress in understanding of various defects. We begin by expressing the energy of an arbitrary graphene edge analytically, so that the environment is regarded by "chemical phase shift". This has profound implications for graphene and carbon nanotube growth. Generalization of this equation to heteroelemental BN gives a method to determine the energy for arbitrary edges of BN, depending on the partial chemical potentials. This facilitates the tuning of the morphology and electronic and magnetic properties of pure BN or hybrid BN|C systems. Applying a similar method to three-atomic-layer TMDCs reveals more diverse edge

  16. Neurovascular coupling to D2/D3 dopamine receptor occupancy using simultaneous PET/functional MRI

    PubMed Central

    Sander, Christin Y.; Hooker, Jacob M.; Catana, Ciprian; Normandin, Marc D.; Alpert, Nathaniel M.; Knudsen, Gitte M.; Vanduffel, Wim; Rosen, Bruce R.; Mandeville, Joseph B.

    2013-01-01

    This study employed simultaneous neuroimaging with positron emission tomography (PET) and functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) to demonstrate the relationship between changes in receptor occupancy measured by PET and changes in brain activity inferred by fMRI. By administering the D2/D3 dopamine receptor antagonist [11C]raclopride at varying specific activities to anesthetized nonhuman primates, we mapped associations between changes in receptor occupancy and hemodynamics [cerebral blood volume (CBV)] in the domains of space, time, and dose. Mass doses of raclopride above tracer levels caused increases in CBV and reductions in binding potential that were localized to the dopamine-rich striatum. Moreover, similar temporal profiles were observed for specific binding estimates and changes in CBV. Injection of graded raclopride mass doses revealed a monotonic coupling between neurovascular responses and receptor occupancies. The distinct CBV magnitudes between putamen and caudate at matched occupancies approximately matched literature differences in basal dopamine levels, suggesting that the relative fMRI measurements reflect basal D2/D3 dopamine receptor occupancy. These results can provide a basis for models that relate dopaminergic occupancies to hemodynamic changes in the basal ganglia. Overall, these data demonstrate the utility of simultaneous PET/fMRI for investigations of neurovascular coupling that correlate neurochemistry with hemodynamic changes in vivo for any receptor system with an available PET tracer. PMID:23723346

  17. Neurovascular coupling to D2/D3 dopamine receptor occupancy using simultaneous PET/functional MRI.

    PubMed

    Sander, Christin Y; Hooker, Jacob M; Catana, Ciprian; Normandin, Marc D; Alpert, Nathaniel M; Knudsen, Gitte M; Vanduffel, Wim; Rosen, Bruce R; Mandeville, Joseph B

    2013-07-02

    This study employed simultaneous neuroimaging with positron emission tomography (PET) and functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) to demonstrate the relationship between changes in receptor occupancy measured by PET and changes in brain activity inferred by fMRI. By administering the D2/D3 dopamine receptor antagonist [(11)C]raclopride at varying specific activities to anesthetized nonhuman primates, we mapped associations between changes in receptor occupancy and hemodynamics [cerebral blood volume (CBV)] in the domains of space, time, and dose. Mass doses of raclopride above tracer levels caused increases in CBV and reductions in binding potential that were localized to the dopamine-rich striatum. Moreover, similar temporal profiles were observed for specific binding estimates and changes in CBV. Injection of graded raclopride mass doses revealed a monotonic coupling between neurovascular responses and receptor occupancies. The distinct CBV magnitudes between putamen and caudate at matched occupancies approximately matched literature differences in basal dopamine levels, suggesting that the relative fMRI measurements reflect basal D2/D3 dopamine receptor occupancy. These results can provide a basis for models that relate dopaminergic occupancies to hemodynamic changes in the basal ganglia. Overall, these data demonstrate the utility of simultaneous PET/fMRI for investigations of neurovascular coupling that correlate neurochemistry with hemodynamic changes in vivo for any receptor system with an available PET tracer.

  18. Absorption and scattering 2-D volcano images from numerically calculated space-weighting functions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Del Pezzo, Edoardo; Ibañez, Jesus; Prudencio, Janire; Bianco, Francesca; De Siena, Luca

    2016-08-01

    Short-period small magnitude seismograms mainly comprise scattered waves in the form of coda waves (the tail part of the seismogram, starting after S waves and ending when the noise prevails), spanning more than 70 per cent of the whole seismogram duration. Corresponding coda envelopes provide important information about the earth inhomogeneity, which can be stochastically modeled in terms of distribution of scatterers in a random medium. In suitable experimental conditions (i.e. high earth heterogeneity), either the two parameters describing heterogeneity (scattering coefficient), intrinsic energy dissipation (coefficient of intrinsic attenuation) or a combination of them (extinction length and seismic albedo) can be used to image Earth structures. Once a set of such parameter couples has been measured in a given area and for a number of sources and receivers, imaging their space distribution with standard methods is straightforward. However, as for finite-frequency and full-waveform tomography, the essential problem for a correct imaging is the determination of the weighting function describing the spatial sensitivity of observable data to scattering and absorption anomalies. Due to the nature of coda waves, the measured parameter couple can be seen as a weighted space average of the real parameters characterizing the rock volumes illuminated by the scattered waves. This paper uses the Monte Carlo numerical solution of the Energy Transport Equation to find approximate but realistic 2-D space-weighting functions for coda waves. Separate images for scattering and absorption based on these sensitivity functions are then compared with those obtained with commonly used sensitivity functions in an application to data from an active seismic experiment carried out at Deception Island (Antarctica). Results show that these novel functions are based on a reliable and physically grounded method to image magnitude and shape of scattering and absorption anomalies. Their

  19. Length of psychiatric hospitalization is correlated with CYP2D6 functional status in inpatients with major depressive disorder

    PubMed Central

    Ruaño, Gualberto; Szarek, Bonnie L; Villagra, David; Gorowski, Krystyna; Kocherla, Mohan; Seip, Richard L; Goethe, John W; Schwartz, Harold I

    2016-01-01

    Aim This study aimed to determine the effect of the CYP2D6 genotype on the length of hospitalization stay for patients treated for major depressive disorder. Methods A total of 149 inpatients with a diagnosis of major depressive disorder at the Institute of Living, Hartford Hospital (CT, USA), were genotyped to detect altered alleles in the CYP2D6 gene. Prospectively defined drug metabolism indices (metabolic reserve, metabolic alteration and allele alteration) were determined quantitatively and assessed for their relationship to length of hospitalization stay. Results Hospital stay was significantly longer in deficient CYP2D6 metabolizers (metabolic reserve <2) compared with functional or suprafunctional metabolizers (metabolic reserve ≥2; 7.8 vs 5.7 days, respectively; p = 0.002). Conclusion CYP2D6 enzymatic functional status significantly affected length of hospital stay, perhaps due to reduced efficacy or increased side effects of the medications metabolized by the CYP2D6 isoenzyme. Functional scoring of CYP2D6 alleles may have a substantial impact on the quality of care, patient satisfaction and the economics of psychiatric treatment. PMID:23734807

  20. Prescribed intensity in 3D rotational geometry for extended sources by using a conversion function in 2D design.

    PubMed

    Li, Xiufeng; Ge, Peng; Wang, Hong

    2017-02-20

    To obtain a prescribed intensity in three-dimensional (3D) rotationally symmetric geometry for an extended source, a two-dimensional (2D) intensity design method is often used. The 3D entity of the lens can be gained by rotating the profile of the lens obtained by the 2D design method. However, the intensity we set in 2D design is quite different from the one we obtain through ray-tracing by the Monte Carlo method in the 3D rotational geometry. Noting the differences of intensity patterns between 2D and 3D, a 3D conversion function (3DCF) should be deduced to convert the prescribed 3D intensity into a 2D intensity in the 2D design process. The extended Lambertian source properties are taken into account during the derivation process. Using the 3DCF, we can quickly obtain the prescribed intensity in 3D rotationally symmetric geometry for an LED extended source without the fussy feedback strategy. The error is small enough for most general illumination. Three examples are presented to demonstrate the correction effectiveness of the proposed conversion function.

  1. NKG2D functions as an activating receptor on natural killer cells in the common marmoset (Callithrix jacchus).

    PubMed

    Watanabe, Masamichi; Kudo, Yohei; Kawano, Mitsuko; Nakayama, Masafumi; Nakamura, Kyohei; Kameda, Mai; Ebara, Masamune; Sato, Takeki; Nakamura, Marina; Omine, Kaito; Kametani, Yoshie; Suzuki, Ryuji; Ogasawara, Kouetsu

    2014-11-01

    The natural killer group 2 membrane D (NKG2D) receptor is an NK-activating receptor that plays an important role in host defense against tumors and viral infections. Although the marmoset is an important and reliable animal model, especially for the study of human-specific viral infections, functional characterization of NKG2D on marmoset NK cells has not previously been conducted. In the present study, we investigated a subpopulation of marmoset NK cells that express NKG2D and exhibit cytolytic potential. On the basis of their CD16 and CD56 expression patterns, marmoset NK cells can be classified into three subpopulations: CD16(+) CD56(-), CD16(-) CD56(+) and CD16(-) CD56(-) cells. NKG2D expression on marmoset CD16(+) CD56(-) and CD16(-) CD56(+) splenocytes was confirmed using an NKG2D ligand composed of an MHC class I chain-related molecule A (MICA)-Fc fusion protein. When marmoset splenocytes were cultured with IL-2 for 4 days, NKG2D expression was retained on CD16(+) CD56(-) and CD16(-) CD56(+). In addition, CD16(+) CD56(+) cells within the marmoset NK population appeared which expressed NKG2D after IL-2 stimulation. IL-2-activated marmoset NK cells showed strong cytolytic activity against K562 target cells and target cells stably expressing MICA. Further, the cytolytic activity of marmoset splenocytes was significantly reduced after addition of MICA-Fc fusion protein. Thus, NKG2D functions as an activating receptor on marmoset NK cells that possesses cytotoxic potential, and phenotypic profiles of marmoset NK cell subpopulations are similar to those seen in humans.

  2. Striatal Dopamine D2/D3 Receptor Availability Is Associated with Executive Function in Healthy Controls but Not Methamphetamine Users

    PubMed Central

    Ballard, Michael E.; Dean, Andy C.; Mandelkern, Mark A.; London, Edythe D.

    2015-01-01

    Background Dopamine D2/D3 receptor availability in the striatum has been linked with executive function in healthy individuals, and is below control levels among drug addicts, possibly contributing to diminished executive function in the latter group. This study tested for an association of striatal D2/D3 receptor availability with a measure of executive function among research participants who met DSM-IV criteria for methamphetamine dependence. Methods Methamphetamine users and non-user controls (n = 18 per group) completed the Wisconsin Card Sorting Test and positron emission tomography with [18F]fallypride. Results The methamphetamine users displayed significantly lower striatal D2/D3 receptor availability on average than controls after controlling for age and education (p = 0.008), but they did not register greater proportions of either perseverative or non-perseverative errors when controlling for education (both ps ≥ 0.622). The proportion of non-perseverative, but not perseverative, errors was negatively correlated with striatal D2/D3 receptor availability among controls (r = -0.588, p = 0.010), but not methamphetamine users (r = 0.281, p = 0.258), and the group-wise interaction was significant (p = 0.030). Conclusions These results suggest that cognitive flexibility, as measured by perseverative errors on the Wisconsin Card Sorting Test, is not determined by signaling through striatal D2/D3 receptors in healthy controls, and that in stimulant abusers, who have lower D2/D3 receptor availability, compensation can effectively maintain other executive functions, which are associated with D2/D3 receptor signaling in controls. PMID:26657223

  3. Functional Dichotomy between NKG2D and CD28-Mediated Co-Stimulation in Human CD8+ T Cells

    PubMed Central

    Rajasekaran, Kamalakannan; Xiong, Va; Fong, Lee; Gorski, Jack; Malarkannan, Subramaniam

    2010-01-01

    Both CD28 and NKG2D can function as co-stimulatory receptors in human CD8+ T cells. However, their independent functional contributions in distinct CD8+ T cell subsets are not well understood. In this study, CD8+ T cells in human peripheral blood- and lung-derived lymphocytes were analyzed for CD28 and NKG2D expression and function. We found a higher level of CD28 expression in PBMC-derived naïve (CD45RA+CD27+) and memory (CD45RA−CD27+) CD8+ T cells (CD28Hi), while its expression was significantly lower in effector (CD45RA+CD27−) CD8+ T cells (CD28Lo). Irrespective of the differences in the CD28 levels, NKG2D expression was comparable in all three CD8+ T cell subsets. CD28 and NKG2D expressions followed similar patterns in human lung-resident GILGFVFTL/HLA-A2-pentamer positive CD8+ T cells. Co-stimulation of CD28Lo effector T cells via NKG2D significantly increased IFN-γ and TNF-α levels. On the contrary, irrespective of its comparable levels, NKG2D-mediated co-stimulation failed to augment IFN-γ and TNF-α production in CD28Hi naïve/memory T cells. Additionally, CD28-mediated co-stimulation was obligatory for IL-2 generation and thereby its production was limited only to the CD28Hi naïve/memory subsets. MICA, a ligand for NKG2D was abundantly expressed in the tracheal epithelial cells, validating the use of NKG2D as the major co-stimulatory receptor by tissue-resident CD8+ effector T cells. Based on these findings, we conclude that NKG2D may provide an expanded level of co-stimulation to tissue-residing effector CD8+ T cells. Thus, incorporation of co-stimulation via NKG2D in addition to CD28 is essential to activate tumor or tissue-infiltrating effector CD8+ T cells. However, boosting a recall immune response via memory CD8+ T cells or vaccination to stimulate naïve CD8+ T cells would require CD28-mediated co-stimulation. PMID:20844584

  4. 2D-RNA-coupling numbers: a new computational chemistry approach to link secondary structure topology with biological function.

    PubMed

    González-Díaz, Humberto; Agüero-Chapin, Guillermín; Varona, Javier; Molina, Reinaldo; Delogu, Giovanna; Santana, Lourdes; Uriarte, Eugenio; Podda, Gianni

    2007-04-30

    Methods for prediction of proteins, DNA, or RNA function and mapping it onto sequence often rely on bioinformatics alignment approach instead of chemical structure. Consequently, it is interesting to develop computational chemistry approaches based on molecular descriptors. In this sense, many researchers used sequence-coupling numbers and our group extended them to 2D proteins representations. However, no coupling numbers have been reported for 2D-RNA topology graphs, which are highly branched and contain useful information. Here, we use a computational chemistry scheme: (a) transforming sequences into RNA secondary structures, (b) defining and calculating new 2D-RNA-coupling numbers, (c) seek a structure-function model, and (d) map biological function onto the folded RNA. We studied as example 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylic acid (ACC) oxidases known as ACO, which control fruit ripening having importance for biotechnology industry. First, we calculated tau(k)(2D-RNA) values to a set of 90-folded RNAs, including 28 transcripts of ACO and control sequences. Afterwards, we compared the classification performance of 10 different classifiers implemented in the software WEKA. In particular, the logistic equation ACO = 23.8 . tau(1)(2D-RNA) + 41.4 predicts ACOs with 98.9%, 98.0%, and 97.8% of accuracy in training, leave-one-out and 10-fold cross-validation, respectively. Afterwards, with this equation we predict ACO function to a sequence isolated in this work from Coffea arabica (GenBank accession DQ218452). The tau(1)(2D-RNA) also favorably compare with other descriptors. This equation allows us to map the codification of ACO activity on different mRNA topology features. The present computational-chemistry approach is general and could be extended to connect RNA secondary structure topology to other functions.

  5. Crustal Anisotropy in the Cascadia Subduction Zone - Evidence from Teleseismic Receiver Functions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Krueger, H. E.; Wirth, E. A.

    2015-12-01

    Crustal anisotropy in the overriding North American plate along the Cascadia subduction zone is poorly constrained, mainly due to low levels of seismicity in the subducting Juan de Fuca slab that limit shear wave splitting analysis. Therefore, to investigate along-strike variations in crustal anisotropy in the Cascadia subduction zone, we compute P-to-S receiver functions at 12 broadband seismic stations using the multiple-taper correlation receiver function estimator. We observe P-to-SV converted energy on radial component receiver functions that is consistent with conversions originating at the Moho of the overriding plate and the top of the subducting slab. At stations above the mantle wedge corner we see evidence of an "inverted Moho," supporting previous studies that suggest a highly serpentinized, low velocity mantle wedge in this region. We also observe P-to-SH conversions on transverse component receiver functions that are consistent with the presence of dipping and/or anisotropic structure in the crust and uppermost mantle. To further constrain the orientation of crustal anisotropy, we compute synthetic receiver functions using both (1) a trial-and-error forward modeling scheme and (2) a neighborhood algorithm inversion. Our results suggest that lower crustal anisotropy is highly complex and variable along-strike, but with orientations reflective of E-W oriented subduction. This work also serves as a comparison for studies that attempt to use shear wave splitting of non-volcanic tremor to constrain crustal anisotropy in Cascadia. Preliminary results for the orientation of crustal anisotropy beneath seismic station GNW on the Kitsap Peninsula, Washington show general agreement with shear wave splitting results.

  6. Assembly of one dimensional inorganic nanostructures into functional 2D and 3D architectures. Synthesis, arrangement and functionality.

    PubMed

    Joshi, Ravi K; Schneider, Jörg J

    2012-08-07

    This review will focus on the synthesis, arrangement, structural assembly, for current and future applications, of 1D nanomaterials (tubes, wires, rods) in 2D and 3D ordered arrangements. The ability to synthesize and arrange one dimensional nanomaterials into ordered 2D or 3D micro or macro sized structures is of utmost importance in developing new devices and applications of these materials. Micro and macro sized architectures based on such 1D nanomaterials (e.g. tubes, wires, rods) provide a platform to integrate nanostructures at a larger and thus manageable scale into high performance electronic devices like field effect transistors, as chemo- and biosensors, catalysts, or in energy material applications. Carbon based, metal oxide and metal based 1D arranged materials as well as hybrid or composite 1D materials of the latter provide a broad materials platform, offering a perspective for new entries into fascinating structures and future applications of such assembled architectures. These architectures allow bridging the gap between 1D nanostructures and the micro and macro world and are the basis for an assembly of 1D materials into higher hierarchy domains. This critical review is intended to provide an interesting starting point to view the current state of the art and show perspectives for future developments in this field. The emphasis is on selected nanomaterials and the possibilities for building three dimensional arrays starting from one dimensional building blocks. Carbon nanotubes, metal oxide nanotubes and nanowires (e.g. ZnO, TiO(2), V(2)O(5), Cu(2)O, NiO, Fe(2)O(3)), silicon and germanium nanowires, and group III-V or II-VI based 1D semiconductor nanostructures like GaS and GaN, pure metals as well as 1D hybrid materials and their higher organized architectures (foremost in 3D) will be focussed. These materials have been the most intensively studied within the last 5-10 years with respect to nano-micro integration aspects and their functional and

  7. Crustal Anisotropy beneath selected Pacific Ocean-Islands from Harmonic Decomposition of Receiver Functions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Olugboji, T. M.; Park, J. J.

    2014-12-01

    Crustal anisotropy beneath ocean islands can be attributed to preferentially aligned minerals cracks or dike structures. Stacked with harmonic weighting, receiver functions from permanent ocean-island stations display evidence of strong and distinct anisotropy parameters in the underlying crust and in an underplated layer. We conduct analysis for eleven IRIS-GSN stations in the Pacific Ocean, with 211 to 774 seismic events at each station. We observe the prevalence of two-lobed RF amplitude variations with back-azimuth, consistent with tilted-axis anisotropy. With the assumption of a slow-axis hexagonal symmetry, we observe anisotropies in the underlying crust and under-plated crust that are oppositely oriented. Synthetic modeling of representative stations indicate that the strength of anisotropy ~5-10%. The strike of the inferred symmetry axis tends to align with plate motion, with some scatter. At stations in the northwest Pacific i.e. KWAJ, TARA, and WAKE, the symmetry axis aligns with past plate motion. The anisotropy closest to the present-day Hawaiian hotspot, beneath station POHA, aligns almost orthogonal to plate spreading. We attribute the crustal anisotropy to the preferred alignment of dike structures that transported asthenospheric magma toward the seafloor volcanic edifice. Our results argue that the thermal-plume origin for ocean islands must be supplemented by tectonic-stress heterogeneities that allow magma to penetrate the lithosphere via fractures. Magma-transport fractures should align normal to the least-compressive direction, which models predict should align approximately coeval to plate motion.

  8. Interrogating Seismic Anisotropy using Receiver Functions - An Improved Understanding of Past Deformational Processes in Cratonic North America

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wirth, E. A.; Long, M. D.

    2015-12-01

    Knowledge regarding the dynamics of Earth's interior is critical to our understanding of both past and present tectonic processes. Unlike commonly used techniques such as shear wave splitting, anisotropic receiver function analysis yields both precise depth constraints on the source of anisotropy and can constrain non-horizontal axes of symmetry. Despite this, receiver functions are underutilized when it comes to examining sharp gradients in anisotropy. Here, we highlight recent methodological advances and results from using receiver functions to interrogate mantle anisotropy in different tectonic settings, with a specific focus on using anisotropic receiver function analysis to interrogate frozen-in anisotropy in the mantle lithosphere beneath continental North America. Previous receiver function results have revealed multiple mid-lithospheric discontinuities that correspond to sharp gradients in anisotropy, with a consistent N- to NW- orientation of anisotropy in the upper mantle lithosphere within the Granite-Rhyolite province. We expand upon this work by examining variations in frozen-in anisotropy across terrane boundaries, and utilizing a Markov chain Monte Carlo algorithm to model the orientation of anisotropy in the lithospheric mantle beneath long-running seismic stations. Ultimately, anisotropic receiver function analysis is an excellent tool for estimating the orientation of anisotropy at depth, and in this example, provides clues into the formation and evolution of cratonic North America.

  9. Depth localized azimuthal anisotropy from SKS and P receiver functions: The Tien Shan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vinnik, L. P.; Aleshin, I. M.; Kiselev, S. G.; Kosarev, G. L.; Makeyeva, L. I.

    2007-06-01

    Shear wave splitting in the seismic SKS phase provides a unique possibility to judge on deformations at depths inaccessible for direct observations. Fast S wave polarization direction in collisional belts is often parallel to the trend of the belt, although deformations of the mantle lithosphere in low-angle thrusts would lead to the fast polarization direction normal to the trend of the belt. These considerations suggested that the upper mantle in collisional belts is decoupled from the crust. However, SKS technique is notable by a poor depth resolution, and usually it assumes that the fast polarization direction is the same at any depth, which is hard to justify. Here, to investigate depth dependent azimuthal anisotropy in the mantle, we invert jointly P receiver functions and SKS particle motions at a number of seismograph stations. The technique involves azimuthal filtering of the receiver functions and provides a criterion to discriminate between the effects of azimuthal anisotropy and lateral heterogeneity of isotropic medium. A search for the optimum models is conducted with a technique similar to simulated annealing. Testing with synthetics demonstrates that this approach is robust. The results for 10 seismograph stations in the Tien Shan, the world's most active intracontinental collisional belt in Central Asia, reveal a pronounced change in the patterns of azimuthal anisotropy at a depth around 100 km. In the mantle lithosphere (at depths less than 100 km), anisotropy is relatively weak and fast wave polarization direction varies laterally in a broad range. This layer is not necessarily decoupled from the crust: its anisotropy can be a combined effect of present day thrusting and of deformations of the geologic past. In the lower layer (asthenosphere) the average azimuth of fast wave polarization is close to the trend of the belt, whereas magnitude of S wave anisotropy is stable and large (between 5 and 6 per cent). This anisotropy is a likely result of

  10. Crustal anisotropy beneath Pacific Ocean-Islands from harmonic decomposition of receiver functions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Olugboji, Tolulope Morayo; Park, Jeffrey

    2016-03-01

    Crustal anisotropy beneath ocean islands can be attributed to preferentially aligned minerals, cracks, or dike structures. Stacked with harmonic weighting, receiver functions from permanent ocean-island stations display evidence of strong and distinct anisotropy parameters in the underlying crust and underplated layer. We analyze data for 11 IRIS-GSN stations in the Pacific Ocean. We observe the prevalence of two-lobed receiver function (RF) amplitude variations with back-azimuth, consistent with "slow" tilted-axis anisotropy. In most cases the anisotropy is accommodated in the underplated crust. Synthetic modeling of a representative station indicates that the strength of anisotropy of Vp=10% and Vs=5% is possible. The strike direction of the inferred symmetry axis tends to align with plate motion, with some scatter. At stations in the northwest Pacific i.e., KWAJ, TARA, and WAKE, the strike direction of the symmetry axis aligns with plate motion at the time of volcano emplacement. Beneath station POHA and the closest stations to the present-day Hawaiian hotspot, alignment of the symmetry axis is almost orthogonal to the plate motion. We attribute the crustal anisotropy to the preferred alignment of dike structures that transported asthenospheric magma toward the seafloor volcanic edifice. Our results suggest that the thermal-plume origin for ocean islands must be supplemented by tectonic-stress heterogeneities that allow magma to penetrate the lithosphere via fractures. Magma-transport fractures should align normal to the least-compressive direction, which are predicted by theoretical models to align approximately with plate motion at the time of emplacement.

  11. Quantum-dot systems prepared by 2D organization of nanoclusters preformed in the gas phase on functionalized substrates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Perez, A.; Bardotti, L.; Prevel, B.; Jensen, P.; Treilleux, M.; Mélinon, P.; Gierak, J.; Faini, G.; Mailly, D.

    2002-10-01

    The low-energy cluster beam deposition (LECBD) technique is used to deposit gold nanoclusters preformed in the gas phase on functionalized graphite substrates (highly oriented pyrolitic graphite (HOPG)), to prepare 2D-organized arrays of cluster assembled dots. Functionalized HOPG substrates are obtained using the focused ion beam (FIB) nanoengraving technique to pattern 2D-organized arrays of defects (nanoholes, nanobumps) which act as traps for the diffusing clusters. Depending on the deposition conditions (nature, size and fluence of the deposited clusters) and the functionalized substrates (nature and size of the FIB-induced defects, geometry of the 2D array of defects and temperature during deposition) high-quality quantum-dot arrays can be obtained with well controlled and reproducible morphologies. Kinetic Monte Carlo simulations of the cluster deposition experiments on functionalized substrates allow us to obtain quite good fits of the experimental images performed by tapping mode atomic force microscopy (TMAFM), leading to systematic investigations of the best conditions to realize high-quality quantum dots systems. This combined top-down-bottom-up approach (LECBD-FIB) seems a promising method for preparing high-integration-density devices (~Tbit cm-2) well suited for future applications to data storage, nanoelectronics, nano-optics, nanomagnetic systems.

  12. Impact of the MICA-129Met/Val Dimorphism on NKG2D-Mediated Biological Functions and Disease Risks

    PubMed Central

    Isernhagen, Antje; Malzahn, Dörthe; Bickeböller, Heike; Dressel, Ralf

    2016-01-01

    The major histocompatibility complex (MHC) class I chain-related A (MICA) is the most polymorphic non-classical MHC class I gene in humans. It encodes a ligand for NKG2D (NK group 2, member D), an activating natural killer (NK) receptor that is expressed mainly on NK cells and CD8+ T cells. The single-nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) rs1051792 causing a valine (Val) to methionine (Met) exchange at position 129 of the MICA protein is of specific interest. It separates MICA into isoforms that bind NKG2D with high (Met) and low affinities (Val). Therefore, this SNP has been investigated for associations with infections, autoimmune diseases, and cancer. Here, we systematically review these studies and analyze them in view of new data on the functional consequences of this polymorphism. It has been shown recently that the MICA-129Met variant elicits a stronger NKG2D signaling, resulting in more degranulation and IFN-γ production in NK cells and in a faster costimulation of CD8+ T cells than the MICA-129Val variant. However, the MICA-129Met isoform also downregulates NKG2D more efficiently than the MICA-129Val isoform. This downregulation impairs NKG2D-mediated functions at high expression intensities of the MICA-Met variant. These features of the MICA-129Met/Val dimorphism need to be considered when interpreting disease association studies. Particularly, in the field of hematopoietic stem cell transplantation, they help to explain the associations of the SNP with outcome including graft-versus-host disease and relapse of malignancy. Implications for future disease association studies of the MICA-129Met/Val dimorphism are discussed. PMID:28018354

  13. Massively parallel patterning of complex 2D and 3D functional polymer brushes by polymer pen lithography.

    PubMed

    Xie, Zhuang; Chen, Chaojian; Zhou, Xuechang; Gao, Tingting; Liu, Danqing; Miao, Qian; Zheng, Zijian

    2014-08-13

    We report the first demonstration of centimeter-area serial patterning of complex 2D and 3D functional polymer brushes by high-throughput polymer pen lithography. Arbitrary 2D and 3D structures of poly(glycidyl methacrylate) (PGMA) brushes are fabricated over areas as large as 2 cm × 1 cm, with a remarkable throughput being 3 orders of magnitudes higher than the state-of-the-arts. Patterned PGMA brushes are further employed as resist for fabricating Au micro/nanostructures and hard molds for the subsequent replica molding of soft stamps. On the other hand, these 2D and 3D PGMA brushes are also utilized as robust and versatile platforms for the immobilization of bioactive molecules to form 2D and 3D patterned DNA oligonucleotide and protein chips. Therefore, this low-cost, yet high-throughput "bench-top" serial fabrication method can be readily applied to a wide range of fields including micro/nanofabrication, optics and electronics, smart surfaces, and biorelated studies.

  14. Omega from the anisotropy of the redshift correlation function in the IRAS 2 Jansky survey

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hamilton, A. J. S.

    1993-01-01

    Peculiar velocities distort the correlation function of galaxies in redshift space. In the linear regime, the distortion has a characteristic quadrupole plus hexadecapole form, with amplitude depending on the cosmological density parameter Omega. I report here measurements of the anisotropy of the correlation function in the IRAS 2 Jy redshift survey. The inferred value of Omega is Omega = 0.5 + 0.5 or - 0.25.

  15. Introducing anisotropic Minkowski functionals and quantitative anisotropy measures for local structure analysis in biomedical imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wismüller, Axel; De, Titas; Lochmüller, Eva; Eckstein, Felix; Nagarajan, Mahesh B.

    2013-03-01

    The ability of Minkowski Functionals to characterize local structure in different biological tissue types has been demonstrated in a variety of medical image processing tasks. We introduce anisotropic Minkowski Functionals (AMFs) as a novel variant that captures the inherent anisotropy of the underlying gray-level structures. To quantify the anisotropy characterized by our approach, we further introduce a method to compute a quantitative measure motivated by a technique utilized in MR diffusion tensor imaging, namely fractional anisotropy. We showcase the applicability of our method in the research context of characterizing the local structure properties of trabecular bone micro-architecture in the proximal femur as visualized on multi-detector CT. To this end, AMFs were computed locally for each pixel of ROIs extracted from the head, neck and trochanter regions. Fractional anisotropy was then used to quantify the local anisotropy of the trabecular structures found in these ROIs and to compare its distribution in different anatomical regions. Our results suggest a significantly greater concentration of anisotropic trabecular structures in the head and neck regions when compared to the trochanter region (p < 10-4). We also evaluated the ability of such AMFs to predict bone strength in the femoral head of proximal femur specimens obtained from 50 donors. Our results suggest that such AMFs, when used in conjunction with multi-regression models, can outperform more conventional features such as BMD in predicting failure load. We conclude that such anisotropic Minkowski Functionals can capture valuable information regarding directional attributes of local structure, which may be useful in a wide scope of biomedical imaging applications.

  16. Sources of variation in assessing left atrial functions by 2D speckle-tracking echocardiography.

    PubMed

    Rimbaş, Roxana Cristina; Mihăilă, Sorina; Vinereanu, Dragoş

    2016-03-01

    Left atrial (LA) strain and strain rate, determined by speckle-tracking echocardiography (STE), are reproducible indices to assess LA function. Different normal ranges for LA phasic functions have been reported. We investigated the role of the reference point (P- and R-wave), gain, and region of interest (ROI), as the major sources of variation when assessing LA function. 52 subjects were evaluated for LA conventional and STE analysis. 45 of them (46 ± 14 years, 26 men) were feasible for concomitant LA deformation, and LA phasic volumes and ejection fractions (LAEF) evaluation. First, we compared the P- and R-wave methods, for the evaluation of the LA functions. We used diastolic mitral profile to clearly delineate the time intervals for each LA function. For the P-wave method, active function was assessed from negative global strain as a difference between the strain at pre-atrial contraction and strain just before mitral valve closure (GSA-), and late diastolic strain rate (GSRL); passive function from positive strain at MVO (GSA+), and from early negative diastolic strain rate (GSRE); reservoir function from the sum of GSA- and GSA+ (TGSA), and positive strain rate at the beginning of LV systole (GSR+). For the R-wave method we used the same SR parameters. The active function was evaluated by late positive global strain (GSAC), the reservoir by positive peak before the opening of the mitral valve (TGSA), and conduit function by the difference between TGSA and GSAC (GSA+). Then, by using P-wave method, we measured all previously described parameters for different gains-minimum (G0), medium (G12), and maximum (G24), and for different ROIs-minimum (ROI0), step 1 (ROI1), and 2 (ROI2). Feasibility of the LA strain measurements was 87 %. Active LA function was similar in the absolute value (GSAC and GSA-), whereas passive and reservoir functions were significantly higher (GSA+, TGSA) with the R-wave method. Active LAEF correlated with GSA- measured by the P-wave (r

  17. Spherical Harmonic Analysis of Particle Velocity Distribution Function: Comparison of Moments and Anisotropies using Cluster Data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gurgiolo, Chris; Vinas, Adolfo F.

    2009-01-01

    This paper presents a spherical harmonic analysis of the plasma velocity distribution function using high-angular, energy, and time resolution Cluster data obtained from the PEACE spectrometer instrument to demonstrate how this analysis models the particle distribution function and its moments and anisotropies. The results show that spherical harmonic analysis produced a robust physical representation model of the velocity distribution function, resolving the main features of the measured distributions. From the spherical harmonic analysis, a minimum set of nine spectral coefficients was obtained from which the moment (up to the heat flux), anisotropy, and asymmetry calculations of the velocity distribution function were obtained. The spherical harmonic method provides a potentially effective "compression" technique that can be easily carried out onboard a spacecraft to determine the moments and anisotropies of the particle velocity distribution function for any species. These calculations were implemented using three different approaches, namely, the standard traditional integration, the spherical harmonic (SPH) spectral coefficients integration, and the singular value decomposition (SVD) on the spherical harmonic methods. A comparison among the various methods shows that both SPH and SVD approaches provide remarkable agreement with the standard moment integration method.

  18. 2D nearly orthogonal mesh generation with controls on distortion function

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Yaoxin; Jia, Yafei; Wang, Sam S. Y.

    2006-11-01

    A method to control the distortion function of the Ryskin and Leal (RL) orthogonal mesh generation system is presented. The proposed method considers the effects from not only the local orthogonal condition but also the local smoothness condition (the geometry and the mesh size) on the distortion function. The distortion function is determined by both the scale factors and the averaged scale factors of the constant mesh lines. Two adjustable parameters are used to control the local balance of the orthogonality and the smoothness. The proposed method is successfully applied to several benchmark examples and the natural river channels with complex geometries.

  19. Corneal elastic anisotropy and hysteresis as a function of IOP assessed by optical coherence elastography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Jiasong; Singh, Manmohan; Han, Zhaolong; Wu, Chen; Raghunathan, Raksha; Liu, Chih-Hao; Nair, Achuth; Noorani, Shezaan; Aglyamov, Salavat R.; Twa, Michael D.; Larin, Kirill V.

    2016-03-01

    The mechanical anisotropic properties of the cornea can be an important indicator for determining the onset and severity of different diseases and can be used to assess the efficacy of various therapeutic interventions, such as cross-linking and LASIK surgery. In this work, we introduce a noncontact method of assessing corneal mechanical anisotropy as a function of intraocular pressure (IOP) using optical coherence elastography (OCE). A focused air-pulse induced low amplitude (<10 μm) elastic waves in fresh porcine corneas in the whole eye-globe configuration in situ. A phase-stabilized swept source optical coherence elastography (PhS-SSOCE) system imaged the elastic wave propagation at stepped radial angles, and the OCE measurements were repeated as the IOP was cycled. The elastic wave velocity was then quantified to determine the mechanical anisotropy and hysteresis of the cornea. The results show that the elastic anisotropy at the corneal of the apex of the cornea becomes more pronounced at higher IOPs, and that there are distinct radial angles of higher and lower stiffness. Due to the noncontact nature and small amplitude of the elastic wave, this method may be useful for characterizing the elastic anisotropy of ocular and other tissues in vivo completely noninvasively.

  20. 2D nearly orthogonal mesh generation with controls on distortion functions

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A method to control the distortion function of the Ryskin and Leal (RL) orthogonal mesh generation system is presented. The proposed method considers the effects from not only the local orthogonal condition but also the local smoothness condition (the geometry and the mesh size) on the distortion fu...

  1. Directional 2D functions as models for fast layout pattern transfer verification

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Torres, J. Andres; Hofmann, Mark; Otto, Oberdan

    2009-03-01

    As advanced manufacturing processes become more stable, the need to adapt new designs to fully utilize the available manufacturing technology becomes a key technologic differentiator. However, many times such gains can only be realized and evaluated during full chip analysis. It has been demonstrated that the most accurate layout verification methods require application of the actual OPC recipes along with most of the mask data preparation that defines the pattern transfer characteristics of the process. Still, this method in many instances is not sufficiently fast to be used in a layout creation environment which undergoes constant updates. By doing an analysis of typical mask data processing, it is possible to determine that the most CPUintensive computations are the OPC and contour simulation steps needed to perform layout printability checks. Several researchers have tried to reduce the time it takes to compute the OPC mask by introducing matrix convolutions of the layout with empirically calibrated two-dimensional functions. However, most of these approaches do not provide a sufficient speed-up since they only replace the OPC computation and still require a full contour computation. Another alternative is to try to find effective ways of pattern matching those topologies that will exhibit transfer difficulties4, but such methods lack the ability to be predictive beyond their calibration data. In this paper we present a methodology that includes common resolution enhancement techniques, such as retargeting and sub-resolution assist feature insertion, and which replaces the OPC computation and subsequent contour calculation with an edge bias function based on an empirically-calibrated, directional, two-dimensional function. Because the edge bias function does not provide adequate control over the corner locations, a spline-based smoothing process is applied. The outcome is a piecewise-linear curve similar to those obtained by full lithographic simulations. Our

  2. Structural, electronic transport and optical properties of functionalized quasi-2D TiC2 from first-principles calculations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Berdiyorov, G. R.; Madjet, M. E.

    2016-12-01

    Using the first-principles density functional theory, we study the effect of surface functionalization on the structural and optoelectronic properties of recently proposed quasi-two-dimensional material TiC2 [T. Zhao, S. Zhang, Y. Guo, Q. Wang, Nanoscale 8 (2016) 233]. Hydrogenated, fluorinated, oxidized and hydroxylated surfaces are considered. Significant changes in the lattice parameters and partial charge distributions are found due to the surface termination. Direct contribution of the adatoms to the system density of states near the Fermi level is obtained, which has a major impact on the optoelectronic properties of the material. For example, surface termination results in larger absorption in the visible range of the spectrum. The electronic transport is also affected by the surface functionalization: the current in the system can be reduced by an order of magnitude. These findings indicate the importance of the effects of surface passivation on optoelectronic properties of this quasi-2D material.

  3. Collagen esterification enhances the function and survival of pancreatic β cells in 2D and 3D culture systems

    SciTech Connect

    Ko, Jae Hyung; Kim, Yang Hee; Jeong, Seong Hee; Lee, Song; Park, Si-Nae; Shim, In Kyong; Kim, Song Cheol

    2015-08-07

    Collagen, one of the most important components of the extracellular matrix (ECM), may play a role in the survival of pancreatic islet cells. In addition, chemical modifications that change the collagen charge profile to a net positive charge by esterification have been shown to increase the adhesion and proliferation of various cell types. The purpose of this study was to characterize and compare the effects of native collagen (NC) and esterified collagen (EC) on β cell function and survival. After isolation by the collagenase digestion technique, rat islets were cultured with NC and EC in 2 dimensional (2D) and 3 dimensional (3D) environments for a long-term duration in vitro. The cells were assessed for islet adhesion, morphology, viability, glucose-induced insulin secretion, and mRNA expression of glucose metabolism-related genes, and visualized by scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Islet cells attached tightly in the NC group, but islet cell viability was similar in both the NC and EC groups. Glucose-stimulated insulin secretion was higher in the EC group than in the NC group in both 2D and 3D culture. Furthermore, the mRNA expression levels of glucokinase in the EC group were higher than those in the NC group and were associated with glucose metabolism and insulin secretion. Finally, SEM observation confirmed that islets had more intact component cells on EC sponges than on NC sponges. These results indicate that modification of collagen may offer opportunities to improve function and viability of islet cells. - Highlights: • We changed the collagen charge profile to a net positive charge by esterification. • Islets cultured on esterified collagen improved survival in both 2D and 3D culture. • Islets cultured on esterified collagen enhanced glucose-stimulated insulin release. • High levels of glucokinase mRNA may be associated with increased insulin release.

  4. 2D crack problems in functionally graded magnet-electro-elastic materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stoynov, Yonko

    2016-12-01

    Magneto-electro-elastic composite materials have extensive application in modern smart structures, because they possess good coupling between mechanical, electrical and magnetic fields. This new effect was reported for the first time by Van Suchtelen [1] in 1972. Due to their ceramic structure cracks inevitably exists in these materials. In this study we consider functionally graded magneto-electro-elastic materials subjected to anti-plane time harmonic load. We use Boundary integral equation method (BIEM) to evaluate the dependence of stress concentration near the crack tip on the frequency of the applied external load. For complex crack configurations numerical calculations are tedious and need too much time. Here we present a new analytical approach that will significantly improve the numerical procedure for calculation of stress intensity factors (SIF).

  5. Radiochromic film measurement of anisotropy function for high-dose-rate Ir-192 brachytherapy source.

    PubMed

    Sharma, S D; Bianchi, C; Conte, L; Novario, R; Bhatt, B C

    2004-09-07

    The dose distribution produced by the high-dose-rate (HDR) 192Ir source is inherently anisotropic due to self-absorption by the high-density source core, oblique filtration by the source capsule and the asymmetric geometry of the source capsule. To account for the dose distribution anisotropy of brachytherapy sources, AAPM Task Group No 43 has included a two-dimensional anisotropy function, F(r, theta), in the recommended dose calculation formalism. Gafchromic HS radiochromic film (RCF) was used to measure anisotropy function for microSelectron HDR 192Ir source (classic/old design). Measurements were carried out in a water phantom using specially fabricated PMMA cylinders at radial distances 1, 2, 3, 4 and 5 cm. The data so generated are comparable to both experimental and Monte Carlo calculated values for this source reported earlier by other authors. The RCF method described in this paper is comparatively high resolution, simple to use and is a general method, which can be applied for other brachytherapy sources as well.

  6. Functional renormalization group and bosonization as a solver for 2D fermionic Hubbard models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schuetz, Florian; Marston, Brad

    2007-03-01

    The functional renormalization group (fRG) provides an unbiased framework to analyze competing instabilities in two-dimensional electron systems and has been used extensively over the past decade [1]. In order to obtain an equally unbiased tool to interprete the flow, we investigate the combination of a many-patch, one-loop calculation with higher dimensional bosonization [2] of the resulting low-energy action. Subsequently a semi-classical approximation [3] can be used to describe the resulting phases. The spinless Hubbard model on a square lattice with nearest neighbor repulsion is investigated as a test case. [1] M. Salmhofer and C. Honerkamp, Prog. Theor. Phys. 105, 1 (2001). [2] A. Houghton, H.-J. Kwon, J. B. Marston, Adv.Phys. 49, 141 (2000); P. Kopietz, Bosonization of interacting fermions in arbitrary dimensions, (Springer, Berlin, 1997). [3] H.-H. Lin, L. Balents, M. P. A. Fisher, Phys. Rev. B 56, 6569 6593 (1997); J. O. Fjaerestad, J. B. Marston, U. Schollwoeck, Ann. Phys. (N.Y.) 321, 894 (2006).

  7. Surface-enhanced Raman scattering for 2-D WSe2 hybridized with functionalized gold nanoparticles.

    PubMed

    Kim, Jun Young; Kim, Jeongyong; Joo, Jinsoo

    2016-11-28

    Two-dimensional (2-D) transition metal dichalcogenides, such as MoS2, WSe2, and WS2, are promising materials for application in field effect transistors, optoelectronics, and sensing devices. In this study, 2-D WSe2 samples with various numbers of layers were hybridized with functionalized gold nanoparticles (Au-NPs) to achieve surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS). The nanoscale Raman and photoluminescence spectra of the WSe2 layers and WSe2/Au-NP hybrids were measured using a high-resolution laser confocal microscope. The WSe2 exhibited distinct optical characteristics depending on the number of WSe2 layers. The intensities of the Raman characteristic modes of the WSe2 layers were significantly enhanced after hybridization with functionalized Au-NPs, indicating the SERS effect. The SERS effect weakened with increasing the number of WSe2 layers. The SERS effect was more pronounced for mono- and bi-layer WSe2 systems compared with the multi-layer WSe2 systems.

  8. 2D pair distribution function analysis of anisotropic small-angle scattering patterns from elongated nano-composite hydrogels.

    PubMed

    Nishi, Kengo; Shibayama, Mitsuhiro

    2017-03-01

    Small angle scattering (SAS) on polymer nanocomposites under elongation or shear flow is an important experimental method to investigate the reinforcement effects of the mechanical properties by fillers. However, the anisotropic scattering patterns that appear in SAS are very complicated and difficult to interpret. A representative example is a four-spot scattering pattern observed in the case of polymer materials containing silica nanoparticles, the origin of which is still in debate because of the lack of quantitative analysis. The difficulties in the interpretation of anisotropic scattering patterns mainly arise from the abstract nature of the reciprocal space. Here, we focus on the 2D pair distribution function (PDF) directly evaluated from anisotropic scattering patterns. We applied this method to elongated poly(N,N-dimethylacrylamide) gels containing silica nanoparticles (PDAM-NP gel), which show a four-spot scattering pattern under elongation. From 2D PDFs, we obtained detailed and concrete structural information about the elongated PDAM-NP gel, such as affine and non-affine displacements of directly attached and homogeneously dispersed silica nanoparticles, respectively. We proposed that nanoparticles homogeneously dispersed in the perpendicular direction are not displaced due to the collision of the adsorbed polymer layer during elongation, while those in the parallel direction are displaced in an affine way. We assumed that this suppression of the lateral compression is the origin of the four-spot pattern in this study. These results strongly indicate that our 2D PDF analysis will provide deep insight into the internal structure of polymer nanocomposites hidden in the anisotropic scattering patterns.

  9. A functional polymorphism in the NKG2D gene modulates NK-cell cytotoxicity and is associated with susceptibility to Human Papilloma Virus-related cancers

    PubMed Central

    Espinoza, J. Luis; Nguyen, Viet H.; Ichimura, Hiroshi; Pham, Trang T. T.; Nguyen, Cuong H.; Pham, Thuc V.; Elbadry, Mahmoud I.; Yoshioka, Katsuji; Tanaka, Junji; Trung, Ly Q.; Takami, Akiyoshi; Nakao, Shinji

    2016-01-01

    Human papillomavirus (HPV) is the most common sexually transmitted agent worldwide and is etiologically linked to several cancers, including cervical and genital cancers. NKG2D, an activating receptor expressed by NK cells, plays an important role in cancer immune-surveillance. We analyzed the impact of a NKG2D gene variant, rs1049174, on the incidence of HPV-related cancers in Vietnamese patients and utilized various molecular approaches to elucidate the mechanisms of NKG2D receptor regulation by rs1049174. In a group of 123 patients with HPV+ anogenital cancers, the low cytotoxicity allele LNK was significantly associated with increased cancer susceptibility (p = 0.016). Similar results were also observed in a group of 153 women with cervical cancer (p = 0.05). In functional studies, NK cells from individuals with LNK genotype showed a lower NKG2D expression and displayed less efficient NKG2D-mediated functions than NK cells with HNK genotype. Notably, the rs1049174 variant occurs within a targeting site for miR-1245, a negative regulator of NKG2D expression. Compared with the higher cytotoxicity allele HNK, the LNK allele was more efficiently targeted by miR-1245 and thus determined lower NKG2D expression in NK cells with the LNK genotype. The NKG2D variants may influence cancer immunosurveillance and thus determine susceptibility to various malignancies, including HPV-induced cancers. PMID:27995954

  10. A functional polymorphism in the NKG2D gene modulates NK-cell cytotoxicity and is associated with susceptibility to Human Papilloma Virus-related cancers.

    PubMed

    Espinoza, J Luis; Nguyen, Viet H; Ichimura, Hiroshi; Pham, Trang T T; Nguyen, Cuong H; Pham, Thuc V; Elbadry, Mahmoud I; Yoshioka, Katsuji; Tanaka, Junji; Trung, Ly Q; Takami, Akiyoshi; Nakao, Shinji

    2016-12-20

    Human papillomavirus (HPV) is the most common sexually transmitted agent worldwide and is etiologically linked to several cancers, including cervical and genital cancers. NKG2D, an activating receptor expressed by NK cells, plays an important role in cancer immune-surveillance. We analyzed the impact of a NKG2D gene variant, rs1049174, on the incidence of HPV-related cancers in Vietnamese patients and utilized various molecular approaches to elucidate the mechanisms of NKG2D receptor regulation by rs1049174. In a group of 123 patients with HPV+ anogenital cancers, the low cytotoxicity allele LNK was significantly associated with increased cancer susceptibility (p = 0.016). Similar results were also observed in a group of 153 women with cervical cancer (p = 0.05). In functional studies, NK cells from individuals with LNK genotype showed a lower NKG2D expression and displayed less efficient NKG2D-mediated functions than NK cells with HNK genotype. Notably, the rs1049174 variant occurs within a targeting site for miR-1245, a negative regulator of NKG2D expression. Compared with the higher cytotoxicity allele HNK, the LNK allele was more efficiently targeted by miR-1245 and thus determined lower NKG2D expression in NK cells with the LNK genotype. The NKG2D variants may influence cancer immunosurveillance and thus determine susceptibility to various malignancies, including HPV-induced cancers.

  11. Communication: Effect of accidental mode degeneracy on Raman intensity in 2D materials: Hybrid functional study of bilayer phosphorene.

    PubMed

    Sun, Yi-Yang; Zhang, Shengbai

    2016-07-14

    Bulk black phosphorus has two optical phonon modes labeled as Ag (2) and B2u, respectively, that are nearly degenerate in frequency. However, density functional theory calculations using local or semi-local functionals cannot reproduce this degeneracy. Here, we propose a hybrid functional approach aided by van der Waals (vdW) force fields, which can accurately describe the lattice dynamic and electronic properties of both bulk and few-layer black phosphorus (phosphorene). Using this approach we show that in bilayer phosphorene, the two Raman modes derived from the B2u and Ag (2) modes could exhibit strong resonance as a result of the accidental degeneracy so that both modes could be observed in Raman experiment. Without the mode degeneracy, however, the Raman intensity of the B2u-derived mode would be too weak to be observed. We further show that the accidental degeneracy is correlated to the applied strain, which enables Raman spectroscopy to be a powerful tool for characterizing built-in strains in 2D materials, e.g., due to the interaction with substrates, which has emerged as an important issue in vdW epitaxy.

  12. Communication: Effect of accidental mode degeneracy on Raman intensity in 2D materials: Hybrid functional study of bilayer phosphorene

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sun, Yi-Yang; Zhang, Shengbai

    2016-07-01

    Bulk black phosphorus has two optical phonon modes labeled as Ag2 and B2u, respectively, that are nearly degenerate in frequency. However, density functional theory calculations using local or semi-local functionals cannot reproduce this degeneracy. Here, we propose a hybrid functional approach aided by van der Waals (vdW) force fields, which can accurately describe the lattice dynamic and electronic properties of both bulk and few-layer black phosphorus (phosphorene). Using this approach we show that in bilayer phosphorene, the two Raman modes derived from the B2u and Ag2 modes could exhibit strong resonance as a result of the accidental degeneracy so that both modes could be observed in Raman experiment. Without the mode degeneracy, however, the Raman intensity of the B2u-derived mode would be too weak to be observed. We further show that the accidental degeneracy is correlated to the applied strain, which enables Raman spectroscopy to be a powerful tool for characterizing built-in strains in 2D materials, e.g., due to the interaction with substrates, which has emerged as an important issue in vdW epitaxy.

  13. Density Functional Theory Study of Bandgap Modulation of Si2N-h2D Crystal Nanoribbons and Nanotubes Under Elastic Strain

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ma, ShengQian; Li, Feng; Geng, JiGuo

    2017-04-01

    Since efficient synthesis of C2N holey two-dimensional (h2D) crystal has been possible, bandgap modulation through use of analogous nanoribbon and nanotube structures has attracted strong interest. In this study, bandgap modulation of Si2N-h2D nanoribbons and nanotubes under elastic strain has been deeply researched using density functional theory calculations. The results indicate that the bandgap of Si2N-h2D nanoribbons and nanotubes in zigzag and armchair configurations can be tuned in both directions, namely by stretching or compressing, in the range of ɛ = ( d - d 0)/ d 0 from -10% to 10%. It is also found that the bandgap of Si2N-h2D nanoribbons and nanotubes varies with their width. Therefore, it is predicted that Si2N-h2D nanoribbons and nanotubes have great potential for application in nanoscale strain sensors and optoelectronics.

  14. On the Anisotropy of the He+, C+, O+, and Ne+ Pickup Ion Velocity Distribution Function: STEREO PLASTIC Observations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Taut, A.; Drews, C.; Berger, L.; Peleikis, T.; Wimmer-Schweingruber, R. F.

    2015-12-01

    PickUp Ions (PUIs) are typically characterized by (1) their almost exclusively single charge state, (2) a highly non-thermal and anisotropic Velocity Distribution Function (VDF) [Drews et al., 2015], and (3) an extended source population of neutral atoms somewhere between the observer and the Sun. The origin of pickup ions ranges from sources only several solar radii away from the Sun, the so-called inner-source of pickup ions, up to a distance of several hundreds of astronomical units, the local interstellar medium. Their continuous production inside the heliosphere and complex interactions with the magnetized solar wind plasma leads to the development of non-thermal, anisotropic features of both the solar wind and pickup ion velocity distribution functions. In this study, we present observations of the VDF of He+, C+, N+, O+ and Ne+ pickup ions with PLASTIC on STEREO A. We have found a PUI flux increase during perpendicular configurations of the local magnetic field that is generally linked to the existence of a so-called torus-distribution [Drews et al., 2015] which is attributed to the production of PUIs close to the observer. A comparison of the PUI VDF between radial and perpendicular configurations of the local magnetic field vector is used to quantify the anisotropy of the PUI VDF and thereby enables us to estimate the mean free path for pitch-angle scattering of He, C, N, O and Ne pickup ions without the necessity of an over-simplified heliospheric model to describe the PUI phase space transport. Our results show a clear signature of a C+ torus signature at 1 AU as well as significant differences between the anisotropies of the He+ and O+ VDF. We will discuss our results in the light of recent studies about the nature of the inner-source of PUIs [Berger et al., 2015] and observations of the 2D VDF of He+[Drews et al., 2015]. Figure Caption: Velocity space diagrams of a pickup ion torus distribution as a (vx-vy)-projection (top left panel) and in the vz = 0

  15. Dual functions of 2D WS2 and MoS2-WS2 monolayers coupled with a Ag3PO4 photocatalyst

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wei, Zeng-Xi; Huang, Wei-Qing; Xu, Liang; Hu, Wangyu; Peng, P.; Huang, Gui-Fang

    2016-09-01

    The photocatalytic performance of semiconductors can be improved by coupling two-dimensional (2D) layered materials. Understanding the underlying mechanism of this phenomenon at the electronic level is important for the development of photocatalysts with a high efficiency. Here, we first present a theoretical elucidation of the dual functions of 2D layered material as a sensitizer and a co-catalyst by performing density functional theory calculations, taking WS2 and a lateral heterogeneous WS2-MoS2 monolayer as examples to couple with a promising photocatalyst Ag3PO4. The band alignment of a staggered type-II is formed between Ag3PO4 and the 2D monolayer with the latter possessing the higher electron affinity, resulting in the robust separation of photoexcited charge carriers between them, and indicating that the 2D monolayer is an effective sensitizer. Interestingly, the W (Mo) atoms, which are catalytically inert in the isolated 2D monolayer, turn into catalytic active sites, making the 2D monolayer a highly active co-catalyst in hybrids. A better photocatalytic performance in the coupled lateral heterogeneous WS2-MoS2 monolayer and Ag3PO4 can be expected. The calculated results can be rationalized by available experiments. These findings provide theoretical evidence supporting the experimental reports and may be used as a foundation for developing highly efficient 2D layered materials-based photocatalysts.

  16. Constraining Crustal Anisotropy by Receiver Functions at the Deep Continental Drilling Site KTB in Southern Germany

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bianchi, Irene; Qorbani, Ehsan; Bokelmann, Götz

    2016-04-01

    As one of the rare observational tools for studying deformation and stress within the Earth, seismic anisotropy has been one of the focuses of geophysical studies over the last decade. In order to unravel the anisotropic properties of the crust, the teleseismic receiver functions (RF) methodology has started to be widely applied recently. Such effects of anisotropy on RF were illustrated in theoretical studies, showing the strong backazimuthal dependence of RF on the 3D characteristics of the media sampled by the waves. The use of teleseismic RF has the advantage of not being affected by a heterogeneous depth distribution of local earthquakes, since teleseismic rays sample the entire crust beneath the stations. The application of this technique however, needs to be critically assessed using a suitable field test. To test the technique, we need a crustal block where the underground structure is reasonably well-known, e.g., where there is extensive knowledge from local seismic experiments and drilling. A field experiment has thus been carried out around the KTB (Kontinental Tiefbohrung) site in the Oberpfalz area in Southeastern Germany, in order to compare with previous results from deep drilling, and high-frequency seismic experiments around the drill site. The investigated region has been studied extensively by local geophysical experiments, and geological studies. The deep borehole was placed into gneiss rocks of the Zone Erbendorf-Vohenstrauss. The drilling activity lasted from 1987 to 1994, and descended down to a depth of 9101 meters, sampling an alternating sequence of paragneiss and amphibolite, with metamorphism of upper amphibolite facies conditions, and ductile deformation produced a strong foliation of the rocks. The application of the RFs reveals strong seismic anisotropy in the upper crust related to the so-called Erbendorf body. The SKS shear-wave splitting method has been applied as well, revealing coherent results for the whole region with exception

  17. Effect of anisotropy of electron velocity distribution function on dynamic characteristics of sheath in Hall thrusters

    SciTech Connect

    Zhang Fengkui; Wu Xiande; Ding Yongjie; Li Hong; Yu Daren

    2011-10-15

    In Hall thrusters, the electron velocity distribution function is not only depleted at high energies, but also strongly anisotropic. With these electrons interacting with the channel wall, the sheath will be changed in its dynamic characteristics. In the present letter, a two dimensional particle-in-cell code is used to simulate these effects in a collisionless plasma slab. The simulated results indicate that the sheath changes from steady regime to temporal oscillation regime when the electron velocity distribution function alters from isotropy to anisotropy. Moreover, the temporal oscillation sheath formed by the anisotropic electrons has a much greater oscillating amplitude and a much smaller average potential drop than that formed by the isotropic electrons has. The anisotropic electrons are also found to lower the critical value of electron temperature needed for the appearance of the spatial oscillation sheath.

  18. Functionalization and fragmentation during ambient organic aerosol aging: application of the 2-D volatility basis set to field studies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Murphy, B. N.; Donahue, N. M.; Fountoukis, C.; Dall'Osto, M.; O'Dowd, C.; Kiendler-Scharr, A.; Pandis, S. N.

    2012-04-01

    Multigenerational oxidation chemistry of atmospheric organic compounds and its effects on aerosol loadings and chemical composition is investigated by implementing the Two-Dimensional Volatility Basis Set (2-D-VBS) in a Lagrangian host chemical transport model. Three model formulations were chosen to explore the complex interactions between functionalization and fragmentation processes during gas-phase oxidation of organic compounds by the hydroxyl radical. The base case model employs a conservative transformation by assuming a reduction of one order of magnitude in effective saturation concentration and an increase of oxygen content by one or two oxygen atoms per oxidation generation. A second scheme simulates functionalization in more detail using group contribution theory to estimate the effects of oxygen addition to the carbon backbone on the compound volatility. Finally, a fragmentation scheme is added to the detailed functionalization scheme to create a functionalization-fragmentation parameterization. Two condensed-phase chemistry pathways are also implemented as additional sensitivity tests to simulate (1) heterogeneous oxidation via OH uptake to the particle-phase and (2) aqueous-phase chemistry of glyoxal and methylglyoxal. The model is applied to summer and winter periods at three sites where observations of organic aerosol (OA) mass and O:C were obtained during the European Integrated Project on Aerosol Cloud Climate and Air Quality Interactions (EUCAARI) campaigns. The base case model reproduces observed mass concentrations and O:C well, with fractional errors (FE) lower than 55% and 25%, respectively. The detailed functionalization scheme tends to overpredict OA concentrations, especially in the summertime, and also underpredicts O:C by approximately a factor of 2. The detailed functionalization model with fragmentation agrees well with the observations for OA concentration, but still underpredicts O:C. Both heterogeneous oxidation and aqueous

  19. Functionalization and fragmentation during ambient organic aerosol aging: application of the 2-D volatility basis set to field studies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Murphy, B. N.; Donahue, N. M.; Fountoukis, C.; Dall'Osto, M.; O'Dowd, C.; Kiendler-Scharr, A.; Pandis, S. N.

    2012-11-01

    Multigenerational oxidation chemistry of atmospheric organic compounds and its effects on aerosol loadings and chemical composition is investigated by implementing the Two-Dimensional Volatility Basis Set (2-D-VBS) in a Lagrangian host chemical transport model. Three model formulations were chosen to explore the complex interactions between functionalization and fragmentation processes during gas-phase oxidation of organic compounds by the hydroxyl radical. The base case model employs a conservative transformation by assuming a reduction of one order of magnitude in effective saturation concentration and an increase of oxygen content by one or two oxygen atoms per oxidation generation. A second scheme simulates functionalization in more detail using group contribution theory to estimate the effects of oxygen addition to the carbon backbone on the compound volatility. Finally, a fragmentation scheme is added to the detailed functionalization scheme to create a functionalization-fragmentation parameterization. Two condensed-phase chemistry pathways are also implemented as additional sensitivity tests to simulate (1) heterogeneous oxidation via OH uptake to the particle-phase and (2) aqueous-phase chemistry of glyoxal and methylglyoxal. The model is applied to summer and winter periods at three sites where observations of organic aerosol (OA) mass and O:C were obtained during the European Integrated Project on Aerosol Cloud Climate and Air Quality Interactions (EUCAARI) campaigns. The base case model reproduces observed mass concentrations and O:C well, with fractional errors (FE) lower than 55% and 25%, respectively. The detailed functionalization scheme tends to overpredict OA concentrations, especially in the summertime, and also underpredicts O:C by approximately a factor of 2. The detailed functionalization model with fragmentation agrees well with the observations for OA concentration, but still underpredicts O:C. Both heterogeneous oxidation and aqueous

  20. Integral equation analysis and optimization of 2D layered nanolithography masks by complex images Green's function technique in TM polarization.

    PubMed

    Haghtalab, Mohammad; Faraji-Dana, Reza

    2012-05-01

    Analysis and optimization of diffraction effects in nanolithography through multilayered media with a fast and accurate field-theoretical approach is presented. The scattered field through an arbitrary two-dimensional (2D) mask pattern in multilayered media illuminated by a TM-polarized incident wave is determined by using an electric field integral equation formulation. In this formulation the electric field is represented in terms of complex images Green's functions. The method of moments is then employed to solve the resulting integral equation. In this way an accurate and computationally efficient approximate method is achieved. The accuracy of the proposed method is vindicated through comparison with direct numerical integration results. Moreover, the comparison is made between the results obtained by the proposed method and those obtained by the full-wave finite-element method. The ray tracing method is combined with the proposed method to describe the imaging process in the lithography. The simulated annealing algorithm is then employed to solve the inverse problem, i.e., to design an optimized mask pattern to improve the resolution. Two binary mask patterns under normal incident coherent illumination are designed by this method, where it is shown that the subresolution features improve the critical dimension significantly.

  1. Complex Disease–, Gene–, and Drug–Drug Interactions: Impacts of Renal Function, CYP2D6 Phenotype, and OCT2 Activity on Veliparib Pharmacokinetics

    PubMed Central

    Li, Jing; Kim, Seongho; Sha, Xianyi; Wiegand, Richard; Wu, Jianmei; LoRusso, Patricia

    2014-01-01

    Purpose Veliparib, a poly (ADP-ribose) polymerase (PARP) inhibitor, undergoes renal excretion and liver metabolism. This study quantitatively assessed the interactions of veliparib with metabolizing enzyme (CYP2D6) and transporter (OCT2) in disease settings (renal impairment). Experimental Design Veliparib in vitro metabolism was examined in human liver microsomes and recombinant enzymes carrying wild-type CYP2D6 or functional defect variants (CYP2D6*10 and *4). Plasma pharmacokinetics were evaluated in 27 patients with cancer. A parent–metabolite joint population model was developed to characterize veliparib and metabolite (M8) pharmacokinetics and to identify patient factors influencing veliparib disposition. A physiologically based pharmacokinetic model integrated with a mechanistic kidney module was developed to quantitatively predict the individual and combined effects of renal function, CYP2D6 phenotype, and OCT2 activity on veliparib pharmacokinetics. Results In vitro intrinsic clearance of CYP2D6.1 and CYP2D6.10 for veliparib metabolism were 0.055 and 0.017 μL/min/pmol CYP, respectively. Population mean values for veliparib oral clearance and M8 clearance were 13.3 and 8.6 L/h, respectively. Creatinine clearance was identified as the significant covariate on veliparib oral clearance. Moderate renal impairment, CYP2D6 poor metabolizer, and co-administration of OCT2 inhibitor (cimetidine) increased veliparib steady-state exposure by 80%, 20%, and 30%, respectively. These factors collectively led to >2-fold increase in veliparib exposure. Conclusions Renal function (creatinine clearance) is a significant predictor for veliparib exposure in patients with cancer. Although a single factor (i.e., renal impairment, CYP2D6 deficiency, and reduced OCT2 activity) shows a moderate impact, they collectively could result in a significant and potentially clinically relevant increase in veliparib exposure. PMID:24947923

  2. Quantification of flash flood economic risk using ultra-detailed stage-damage functions and 2-D hydraulic models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Garrote, J.; Alvarenga, F. M.; Díez-Herrero, A.

    2016-10-01

    The village of Pajares de Pedraza (Segovia, Spain) is located in the floodplain of the Cega River, a left bank tributary of the Douro River. Repeated flash flood events occur in this small village because of its upstream catchment area, mountainous character and impermeable lithology, which reduce concentration time to just a few hours. River overbank flow has frequently caused flooding and property damage to homes and rural properties, most notably in 1927, 1991, 1996, 2001, 2013 and 2014. Consequently, a detailed analysis was carried out to quantify the economic risk of flash floods in peri-urban and rural areas. Magnitudes and exceedance probabilities were obtained from a flood frequency analysis of maximum discharges. To determine the extent and characteristics of the flooded area, we performed 2D hydraulic modeling (Iber 2.0 software) based on LIDAR (1 m) topography and considering three different scenarios associated with the initial construction (1997) and subsequent extension (2013) of a linear defense structure (rockfill dike or levee) to protect the population. Specific stage-damage functions were expressly developed using in situ data collection for exposed elements, with special emphasis on urban-type categories. The average number of elements and their unit value were established. The relationship between water depth and the height at which electric outlets, furniture, household goods, etc. were located was analyzed; due to its effect on the form of the function. Other nonspecific magnitude-damage functions were used in order to compare both economic estimates. The results indicate that the use of non-specific magnitude-damage functions leads to a significant overestimation of economic losses, partly linked to the use of general economic cost data. Furthermore, a detailed classification and financial assessment of exposed assets is the most important step to ensure a correct estimate of financial losses. In both cases, this should include a

  3. NMDA Receptors Containing the GluN2D Subunit Control Neuronal Function in the Subthalamic Nucleus

    PubMed Central

    Swanger, Sharon A.; Vance, Katie M.; Pare, Jean-François; Sotty, Florence; Fog, Karina; Smith, Yoland

    2015-01-01

    The GluN2D subunit of the NMDA receptor is prominently expressed in the basal ganglia and associated brainstem nuclei, including the subthalamic nucleus (STN), globus pallidus, striatum, and substantia nigra. However, little is known about how GluN2D-containing NMDA receptors contribute to synaptic activity in these regions. Using Western blotting of STN tissue punches, we demonstrated that GluN2D is expressed in the rat STN throughout development [age postnatal day 7 (P7)–P60] and in the adult (age P120). Immunoelectron microscopy of the adult rat brain showed that GluN2D is predominantly expressed in dendrites, unmyelinated axons, and axon terminals within the STN. Using subunit-selective allosteric modulators of NMDA receptors (TCN-201, ifenprodil, CIQ, and DQP-1105), we provide evidence that receptors containing the GluN2B and GluN2D subunits mediate responses to exogenously applied NMDA and glycine, as well as synaptic NMDA receptor activation in the STN of rat brain slices. EPSCs in the STN were mediated primarily by AMPA and NMDA receptors and GluN2D-containing NMDA receptors controlled the slow deactivation time course of EPSCs in the STN. In vivo recordings from the STN of anesthetized adult rats demonstrated that the spike firing rate was increased by the GluN2C/D potentiator CIQ and decreased by the GluN2C/D antagonist DQP-1105, suggesting that NMDA receptor activity can influence STN output. These data indicate that the GluN2B and GluN2D NMDA receptor subunits contribute to synaptic activity in the STN and may represent potential therapeutic targets for modulating subthalamic neuron activity in neurological disorders such as Parkinson's disease. SIGNIFICANCE STATEMENT The subthalamic nucleus (STN) is a key component of the basal ganglia, a group of subcortical nuclei that control movement and are dysregulated in movement disorders such as Parkinson's disease. Subthalamic neurons receive direct excitatory input, but the pharmacology of excitatory

  4. Reconfigurable anisotropy and functional transformations with VO2-based metamaterial electric circuits

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Savo, Salvatore; Zhou, You; Castaldi, Giuseppe; Moccia, Massimo; Galdi, Vincenzo; Ramanathan, Shriram; Sato, Yuki

    2015-04-01

    We demonstrate an innovative multifunctional artificial material that combines exotic metamaterial properties and the environmentally responsive nature of phase-change media. The tunable metamaterial is designed with the aid of two interwoven coordinate-transformation equations and implemented with a network of thin-film resistors and vanadium dioxide (VO2). The strong temperature dependence of VO2 electrical conductivity results in a significant modification of the resistor network behavior, and we provide experimental evidence for a reconfigurable metamaterial electric circuit that not only mimics a continuous medium, but is also capable of responding to thermal stimulation through dynamic variation of its spatial anisotropy. Upon external temperature change, the overall effective functionality of the material switches between a "truncated cloak" and a "concentrator" for electric currents. Possible applications may include adaptive matching resistor networks, multifunctional electronic devices, and equivalent artificial materials in the magnetic domain. Additionally, the proposed technology could also be relevant for thermal management of integrated circuits.

  5. Density functional theory calculations of magnetocrystalline anisotropy energies for (Fe1-xCox)2B

    DOE PAGES

    Daene, Markus; Kim, Soo Kyung; Surh, Michael P.; ...

    2015-06-15

    We present and discuss density functional theory calculations of magnetic properties of the family of ferromagnetic compounds, (Fe1-xCox)2B, focusing specifically on the magnetocrystalline anisotropy energy (MAE). Using periodic supercells of various sizes (up to 96 atoms), it is shown that the general qualitative features of the composition dependence of the MAE is in agreement with experimental findings, while our predicted magnitudes are larger than those of experiment. We find that the use of small supercells (6 and 12-atom) favors larger MAE values relative to a statistical sample of configurations constructed with 96-atom supercells. As a result, the effect of latticemore » relaxations is shown to be small. Calculations of the Curie temperature for this alloy are also presented.« less

  6. Band-filling effect on magnetic anisotropy using a Green's function method

    SciTech Connect

    Ke, Liqin; van Schilfgaarde, Mark

    2015-07-28

    We use an analytical model to describe the magnetocrystalline anisotropy energy (MAE) in solids as a function of band filling. The MAE is evaluated in second-order perturbation theory, which makes it possible to decompose the MAE into a sum of transitions between occupied and unoccupied pairs. The model enables us to characterize the MAE as a sum of contributions from different, often competing terms. The nitridometalates Li2[(Li1–xTx)N], with T= Mn, Fe, Co, Ni, provide a system where the model is very effective because atomiclike orbital characters are preserved and the decomposition is fairly clean. The model results are also compared against MAE evaluated directly from first-principles calculations for this system. Good qualitative agreement is found.

  7. Band-filling effect on magnetic anisotropy using a Green's function method

    DOE PAGES

    Ke, Liqin; van Schilfgaarde, Mark

    2015-07-28

    We use an analytical model to describe the magnetocrystalline anisotropy energy (MAE) in solids as a function of band filling. The MAE is evaluated in second-order perturbation theory, which makes it possible to decompose the MAE into a sum of transitions between occupied and unoccupied pairs. The model enables us to characterize the MAE as a sum of contributions from different, often competing terms. The nitridometalates Li2[(Li1–xTx)N], with T= Mn, Fe, Co, Ni, provide a system where the model is very effective because atomiclike orbital characters are preserved and the decomposition is fairly clean. The model results are also comparedmore » against MAE evaluated directly from first-principles calculations for this system. Good qualitative agreement is found.« less

  8. Mantle wedge anisotropy in Southern Tyrrhenian Subduction Zone (Italy), from receiver function analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Piana Agostinetti, Nicola; Park, Jeffrey; Lucente, Francesco Pio

    2008-12-01

    We constrain mantle wedge seismic structure in the Southern Tyrrhenian Subduction Zone (Italy) using teleseismic receiver functions (RF) recorded at station CUC of the Mednet seismographic network. Station CUC lies above the northern portion of the Calabrian slab segment, which is recognized from deep seismicity and tomographic imaging as a narrow, laterally high-arched slab fragment, extending from the surface below Calabria down to the transition zone. To better define the descending slab interface and possible shear-coupled flow in the mantle wedge above the slab, we computed receiver functions from the P-coda of 147 teleseismic events to analyze the back-azimuth dependence of Ps converted phases from interfaces beneath CUC. We stack the RF data-set with back azimuth to compute its harmonic expansion, which relates to the effects of interface dip and anisotropy at layer boundaries. The seismic structure constrained through the RF analysis is characterized in its upper part by a sub-horizontal Moho at about 25 km depth, overlying a thin isotropic layer at top of mantle. For the deeper part, back-azimuth variation suggests two alternative models, each with an anisotropic layer between two dipping interfaces near 70- and 90-km depth, with fast- and slow-symmetry axes, respectively, above the Apennines slab. Although independent evidence suggests a north-south strike for the slab beneath CUC, the trend of the inferred anisotropy is 45° clockwise from north, inconsistent with a simple downdip shear-coupled flow model in the supra-slab mantle wedge. However complexities of flow and induced rock fabric in the Tyrrhenian back arc may arise due to several concurring factors such as the arcuate shape of the Apennines slab, its retreating kinematics, or slab edge effects.

  9. Assessment of myocardial function in elite athlete's heart at rest - 2D speckle tracking echocardiography in Korean elite soccer players.

    PubMed

    Eun, Lucy Youngmin; Chae, Hyun Wook

    2016-12-22

    The purpose of this study was to investigate Korean elite soccer players' myocardial function using the conventional and advanced speckle tracking imaging to compare the difference with the normal controls. We used 2D echocardiography speckle tracking echocardiography (STE) to evaluate LV regional strain in 29 elite soccer players compared to 29 age-matched healthy controls. Conventional, tissue Doppler, and STI echocardiography was performed, for strain at base and apex, rotation and torsion. There is no difference in longitudinal strain (-17.6 ± 1.8 vs -17.3 ± 2.9, p = ns), and basal radial strain. However, the significant increases were noticed in basal circumferential strain (-17.5 ± 2.6 vs -15.5 ± 8.9, p = 0.05), apical radial strain (33.1 ± 20.5 vs 22.5 ± 19.4, p = 0.02), and apical circumferential strain in soccer players (-21.4 ± 4.8 vs -16.8 ± 7.6, p = 0.005). Soccer players showed the higher rotation at base (-3.9 ± 1.9 vs -2.6 ± 3.2, p = 0.03), and apex (6.98 ± 2.62 vs 6.21 ± 3.81, p = 0.05), higher torsion (10.9 ± 3.7 vs 8.8 ± 6.3, p = 0.05). In conclusion, the elite soccer players' heart demonstrated the unique ventricular adaptation. These alterations could benefit the cardiovascular adjustment to exercise without much loss of myocardial energy expenditure.

  10. Histamine-functionalized copolymer micelles as a drug delivery system in 2D and 3D models of breast cancer

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Yuning; Lundberg, Pontus; Diether, Maren; Porsch, Christian; Janson, Caroline; Lynd, Nathaniel A.; Ducani, Cosimo; Malkoch, Michael; Malmström, Eva; Hawker, Craig J.; Nyström, Andreas M.

    2015-01-01

    Histamine functionalized block copolymers based on poly(allyl glycidyl ether)-b-poly(ethylene oxide) (PAGE-b-PEO) were prepared with different ratios of histamine and octyl or benzyl groups using UV-initiated thiol-ene click chemistry. At neutral pH, the histamine units are uncharged and hydrophobic, while in acidic environments, such as in the endosome, lysosomes, or extracellular sites of tumours, the histamine groups are positively charged and hydrophilic. pH responsible polymer drug delivery systems is a promising route to site specific delivery of drugs and offers the potential to avoid side effects of systemic treatment. Our detailed in vitro experiments of the efficacy of drug delivery and the intracellular localization characteristics of this library of NPs in 2D and 3D cultures of breast cancer revealed that the 50% histamine-modified polymer loaded with DOX exhibited rapid accumulation in the nucleus of free DOX within 2 h. Confocal studies showed enhanced mitochondrial localization and lysosomal escape when compared to controls. From these combined studies, it was shown that by accurately tuning the structure of the initial block copolymers, the resulting self-assembled NPs can be designed to exploit histamine as an endosomal escape trigger and the octyl/benzyl units give rise to a hydrophobic core resulting in highly efficacious drug delivery systems (DDS) with control over intracellular localization. Optimization and rational control of the intracellular localization of both DDS and the parent drug can give nanomedicines a substantial increase in efficacy and should be explored in future studies. PMID:26257912

  11. Oscillatory behavior of perpendicular magnetic anisotropy in Pt/Co/Al(Ox) films as a function of Al thickness

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dahmane, Y.; Arm, C.; Auffret, S.; Ebels, U.; Rodmacq, B.; Dieny, B.

    2009-11-01

    The evolution of the perpendicular magnetic anisotropy of Pt/Co/AlOx structures has been followed by extraordinary Hall Effect measurements as a function of both Al thickness and annealing treatment. A nonmonotonous evolution of the magnetic anisotropy is observed with increasing aluminum thickness, with a maximum around 1.4 nm attributed to the formation of quantum well states in the remaining metallic Al layer. This maximum gradually disappears after annealing. High resolution electron microscopy images indicate that the vanishing of this maximum is associated with homogenization of oxygen throughout the whole Al layer.

  12. Structure and anisotropy of the crust in the Cyclades, Greece, using receiver functions constrained by in situ rock textural data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cossette, Élise; Audet, Pascal; Schneider, David; Grasemann, Bernhard

    2016-04-01

    Seismic anisotropy data are often used to resolve rock textures and deformation in the crust based on compilations of rock properties that may not be representative of the local geology. In this paper, we use teleseismic receiver functions jointly with in situ rock property data to constrain the seismic structure and anisotropy of the crust in the Cyclades, Greece, located in the back-arc region of the Hellenic subduction zone. The receiver function data indicate that the Moho is relatively flat at 25 km depth toward the south and deepens to 33 km in the north, consistent with previous studies, and reveal an intracrustal discontinuity at depths varying from 3 to 11 km, mostly observed in the south central Aegean. Harmonic decomposition of the receiver functions further indicates the presence of both shallow and deep crustal anisotropy related to crustal structures. We model synthetic receiver functions based on constraints from in situ rock properties that we measured using the electron backscatter diffraction technique. Our results indicate that the shallow upper crustal layer is characterized by metapelites with ~5% anisotropy, underlain by a 20 km thick and possibly anisotropic layer of high-pressure rocks comprising blueschist and eclogite and/or restitic crust resulting from magmatism. This study demonstrates the importance of rock textural data in the interpretation of seismic velocity profiles.

  13. [Chronic kidney insufficiency and respiratory muscle function. Changes induced by treatment with 1,25(OH)2D3].

    PubMed

    Gómez-Fernández, P; Sánchez Agudo, L; Calatrava, J M

    1990-02-17

    A myopathy basically involving proximal respiratory muscles can develop in uremia. To evaluate respiratory muscle force in uremia, maximal inspiratory pressure (MIP) was measured in 27 patients with renal failure. MIP was very limited in patients with a creatinine clearance (Crc) lower than 10/ml/min 1.73 m2 not treated with hemodialysis (HD) and in patients on HD who were not treated with 1.25 (OH)2D3 (45 +/- 9 and 43 +/- 5 cm H2O, respectively), moderately reduced in patients on HD treated with 1.25 (OH)2D3 (58 +/- 5 cmH2O) and normal in patients with Crc higher than 10 ml/min 1.73 m2 (86 +/- 6 cmH2O). The treatment with 1.25 (OH)2D3 during 3 months promoted a significant increase in MIP and serum calcium level and a reduction in parathyroid hormone in patients with Crc lower than 10 ml/min. It was concluded that, in uremia, a respiratory muscle weakness partially reversible with vitamin D therapy may be found.

  14. The Nature of the Cameroon Volcanic Line: Evidence from Seismic Anisotropy and Receiver Functions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bastow, I. D.; De Plaen, R. S. M.; Gallacher, R. J.

    2012-04-01

    The Cameroon geological record spans more than 3 billion years, from Congo Craton basement formation during the Archean, to Cenozoic volcanism along the Cameroon Volcanic Line (CVL). Intriguingly, the CVL, which straddles the continent-ocean boundary in central West Africa, displays no age-progression along its length. Analogies with other hotspot chains worldwide are thus not well established. To help address this issue, we present a receiver function study of bulk crustal structure, and an SKS shear wave splitting study of seismic anisotropy using data from a recent broadband seismic experiment in Cameroon. Within the cratonic Cameroon, crustal Vp/Vs ratios show little variation between Archean and Proterozoic domains, perhaps indicating similar mechanisms of crustal formation during more than 2 billion years of the Precambrian. The edge of the Congo Craton, however, is characterized by an abrupt change in crustal thickness of ~5 km, which constrains the northern and western edges of the craton to be ~4N and ~10E respectively. Along the CVL, Vp/Vs ratios are low (~1.74) compared to other hotspots worldwide, providing no evidence for either partial melt, or mafic crustal intrusion due to Cenozoic volcanism. The anisotropy study indicates that fast polarisation directions parallel the trend of the Central African Sear Zone (CASZ), which developed during the breakup of the Pangea supercontinent during Cretaceous times. Beneath much of the CVL, however, we observe only null SKS splitting observations. The lack of lithospheric fabric here may be the result of it being destroyed during Cenozoic hotspot tectonism. However, there is no evidence for anisotropic aligned melt within the lithosphere, unlike hotspots such as Ethiopia, with the implication that neither a CASZ-related lithospheric fabric nor horizontally oriented asthenospheric fabrics exist beneath the line. This finding is in agreement with the receiver function study, and petrological studies that suggest

  15. Combined delivery of Nogo-A antibody, neurotrophin-3 and the NMDA-NR2d subunit establishes a functional ‘detour’ in the hemisected spinal cord

    PubMed Central

    Schnell, Lisa; Hunanyan, Arsen S; Bowers, William J; Horner, Philip J; Federoff, Howard J; Gullo, Miriam; Schwab, Martin E; Mendell, Lorne M; Arvanian, Victor L

    2011-01-01

    To encourage re-establishment of functional innervation of ipsilateral lumbar motoneurons by descending fibers after an intervening lateral thoracic (T10) hemisection (Hx), we treated adult rats with the following agents: (i) anti-Nogo-A antibodies to neutralize the growth-inhibitor Nogo-A; (ii) neurotrophin-3 (NT-3) via engineered fibroblasts to promote neuron survival and plasticity; and (iii) the NMDA-receptor 2d (NR2d) subunit via an HSV-1 amplicon vector to elevate NMDA receptor function by reversing the Mg2+ block, thereby enhancing synaptic plasticity and promoting the effects of NT-3. Synaptic responses evoked by stimulation of the ventrolateral funiculus ipsilateral and rostral to the Hx were recorded intracellularly from ipsilateral lumbar motoneurons. In uninjured adult rats short-latency (1.7-ms) monosynaptic responses were observed. After Hx these monosynaptic responses were abolished. In the Nogo-Ab + NT-3 + NR2d group, long-latency (approximately 10 ms), probably polysynaptic, responses were recorded and these were not abolished by re-transection of the spinal cord through the Hx area. This suggests that these novel responses resulted from new connections established around the Hx. Anterograde anatomical tracing from the cervical grey matter ipsilateral to the Hx revealed increased numbers of axons re-crossing the midline below the lesion in the Nogo-Ab + NT-3 + NR2d group. The combined treatment resulted in slightly better motor function in the absence of adverse effects (e.g. pain). Together, these results suggest that the combination treatment with Nogo-Ab + NT-3 + NR2d can produce a functional ‘detour’ around the lesion in a laterally hemisected spinal cord. This novel combination treatment may help to improve function of the damaged spinal cord. PMID:21995852

  16. Modulation of NKG2D-mediated cytotoxic functions of natural killer cells by viral protein R from HIV-1 primary isolates.

    PubMed

    Pham, Tram N Q; Richard, Jonathan; Gerard, Francine C A; Power, Christopher; Cohen, Éric A

    2011-12-01

    HIV-1 viral protein R (Vpr) from laboratory-adapted virus strains activates the DNA damage/stress sensor ATR kinase and induces cell cycle arrest at the G(2)/M phase through a process that requires Vpr to engage the DDB1-CUL4A (VprBP/DCAF-1) E3 ligase complex. Activation of this DNA damage/stress checkpoint in G(2) by Vpr was shown to modulate NKG2D-dependent NK cell effector functions via enhancing expression of NKG2D ligands, notably ULBP2. However, it is unknown whether Vpr from HIV-1 primary isolates (groups M, N, O, and P) could modulate NKG2D-mediated cytotoxic functions of NK cells. Here, we report that Vpr from most HIV-1 primary isolates can upregulate ULBP2 expression and induce NKG2D-dependent NK cell killing. Importantly, these activities were always accompanied by an active G(2) cell cycle arrest function. Interestingly, Vpr variants from group P and a clade D isolate of group M were defective at enhancing NKG2D-mediated NK cell lysis owing to their inability to augment ULBP2 expression. However, distinct mechanisms were responsible for their failure to do so. While Vpr from group P was deficient in its ability to engage the DDB1-CUL4A (VprBP/DCAF-1) E3 ligase complex, the Vpr variant from group D was unable to properly localize to the nucleus, underlining the importance of these biological properties in Vpr function. In conclusion, the ability of Vpr from HIV-1 primary isolates to regulate NK cell effector function underscores the importance of this HIV-1 accessory protein in the modulation of the host's innate immune responses.

  17. An automated method for depth-dependent crustal anisotropy detection with receiver function

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Licciardi, Andrea; Piana Agostinetti, Nicola

    2015-04-01

    Crustal seismic anisotropy can be generated by a variety of geological factors (e.g. alignment of minerals/cracks, presence of fluids etc...). In the case of transversely isotropic media approximation, information about strength and orientation of the anisotropic symmetry axis (including dip) can be extracted from the analysis of P-to-S conversions by means of teleseismic receiver functions (RF). Classically this has been achieved through probabilistic inversion encoding a forward solver for anisotropic media. This approach strongly relies on apriori choices regarding Earth's crust parameterization and velocity structure, requires an extensive knowledge of the RF method and involves time consuming trial and error steps. We present an automated method for reducing the non-uniqueness in this kind of inversions and for retrieving depth-dependent seismic anisotropy parameters in the crust with a resolution of some hundreds of meters. The method involves a multi-frequency approach (for better absolute Vs determination) and the decomposition of the RF data-set in its azimuthal harmonics (to separate the effects of isotropic and anisotropic component). A first inversion of the isotropic component (Zero-order harmonics) by means of a Reversible jump Markov Chain Monte Carlo (RjMCMC) provides the posterior probability distribution for the position of the velocity jumps at depth, from which information on the number of layers and the S-wave velocity structure below a broadband seismic station can be extracted. This information together with that encoded in the first order harmonic is jointly used in an automated way to: (1) determine the number of anisotropic layers and their approximate position at depth, and (2) narrow the search boundaries for layer thickness and S-wave velocity. Finaly, an inversion is carried out with a Neighbourhood Algorithm (NA), where the free parameters are represented by the anisotropic structure beneath the seismic station. We tested the method

  18. The inhibitory effects of synthetic short peptides, mimicking MICA and targeting at NKG2D receptors, on function of NK cells.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Bin; Wei, Haiming; Zheng, Xiaodong; Zhang, Jian; Sun, Rui; Tian, Zhigang

    2005-03-01

    NKG2D is an activating receptor expressed on most of human NK cells, one of whose ligands is MICA. Based on the crystal structure of NKG2D-MICA complex, we synthesized three short peptides (P1, P2 and P3), mimicking functional alpha1 and alpha2 domain of MICA. The inhibitory effects of three peptides on NK-92 cells, a human NK cell line against Hela cells were observed and the inhibitory percentage was 38% at maximum for P1+P2+P3 in concentration of 1nM. The same peptides had no effect on NK-92 cell against target cells lacking MICA (K562 cells line). The unrelated peptides as controls had no effect on the system. Two peptides (P2 and P3) were prolonged at one or both ends, and the longer forms of peptides exerted stronger inhibitory effects than their shorter forms. Each combination of two peptides exerted a stronger function than single peptide (P1, P2, P3), indicating that shedding of longer amino acid sequence of alpha1 domain or more domain sites of MICA are better than shorter sequence and fewer sites. P1+P2+P3 revealed the almost same inhibitory rate as the soluble MICA (sMICA). P1+P2+P3 were also able to alleviate the concanavalin A-induced murine autoimmune hepatitis in vivo, conforming the similarity of NKG2D between human and mice. The results demonstrate that MICA-mimicking peptides will be useful to search the specific functional sites for NKG2D-MICA interaction, but also promising in explaining NKG2D-related autoimmunity.

  19. Crustal anisotropy in northeastern Tibetan Plateau inferred from receiver functions: Rock textures caused by metamorphic fluids and lower crust flow?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Zhen; Park, Jeffrey; Rye, Danny M.

    2015-10-01

    The crust of Tibetan Plateau may have formed via shortening/thickening or large-scale underthrusting, and subsequently modified via lower crust channel flows and volatile-mediated regional metamorphism. The amplitude and distribution of crustal anisotropy record the history of continental deformation, offering clues to its formation and later modification. In this study, we first investigate the back-azimuth dependence of Ps converted phases using multitaper receiver functions (RFs). We analyze teleseismic data for 35 temporary broadband stations in the ASCENT experiment located in northeastern Tibet. We stack receiver functions after a moving-window moveout correction. Major features of RFs include: 1) Ps arrivals at 8-10 s on the radial components, suggesting a 70-90-km crustal thickness in the study area; 2) two-lobed back-azimuth variation for intra-crustal Ps phases in the upper crust (< 20 km), consistent with tilted symmetry axis anisotropy or dipping interfaces; 3) significant Ps arrivals with four-lobed back-azimuth variation distributed in distinct layers in the middle and lower crust (up to 60 km), corresponding to (sub)horizontal-axis anisotropy; and 4) weak or no evidence of azimuthal anisotropy in the lowermost crust. To study the anisotropy, we compare the observed RF stacks with one-dimensional reflectivity synthetic seismograms in anisotropic media, and fit major features by "trial and error" forward modeling. Crustal anisotropy offers few clues on plateau formation, but strong evidence of ongoing deformation and metamorphism. We infer strong horizontal-axis anisotropy concentrated in the middle and lower crust, which could be explained by vertically aligned sheet silicates, open cracks filled with magma or other fluid, vertical vein structures or by 1-10-km-scale chimney structures that have focused metamorphic fluids. Simple dynamic models encounter difficulty in generating vertically aligned sheet silicates. Instead, we interpret our data to

  20. 2D semiconductor optoelectronics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Novoselov, Kostya

    The advent of graphene and related 2D materials has recently led to a new technology: heterostructures based on these atomically thin crystals. The paradigm proved itself extremely versatile and led to rapid demonstration of tunnelling diodes with negative differential resistance, tunnelling transistors, photovoltaic devices, etc. By taking the complexity and functionality of such van der Waals heterostructures to the next level we introduce quantum wells engineered with one atomic plane precision. Light emission from such quantum wells, quantum dots and polaritonic effects will be discussed.

  1. Broken symmetry approach to density functional calculation of magnetic anisotropy or zero field splittings for multinuclear complexes with antiferromagnetic coupling.

    PubMed

    van Wüllen, Christoph

    2009-10-29

    Antiferromagnetic coupling in multinuclear transition metal complexes usually leads to electronic ground states that cannot be described by a single Slater determinant and that are therefore difficult to describe by Kohn-Sham density functional methods. Density functional calculations in such cases are usually converged to broken symmetry solutions which break spin and, in many cases, also spatial symmetry. While a procedure exists to extract isotropic Heisenberg (exchange) coupling constants from such calculations, no such approach is yet established for the calculation of magnetic anisotropy energies or zero field splitting parameters. This work proposes such a procedure. The broken symmetry solutions are not only used to extract the exchange couplings but also single-ion D tensors which are then used to construct a (phenomenological) spin Hamiltonian, from which the magnetic anisotropy and the zero-field energy levels can be computed. The procedure is demonstrated for a bi- and a trinuclear Mn(III) model compound.

  2. Functional 2D nanoparticle/polymer array: Interfacial assembly, transfer, characterization, and coupling to photonic crystal cavities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xiong, Shisheng

    We developed a universal, facile and robust method to prepare free-standing, ordered and patternable nanoparticle/polymer monolayer arrays by evaporation-induced self-assembly at a fluid interface. The ultra-thin monolayer nanoparticle/polymer arrays are sufficiently robust that they can be transferred to arbitrary substrates, even with complex topographies. More importantly, the Poly (methyl methacrylate) (PMMA) in the system serves as a photoresist enabling two modes of electron beam (e-beam) nanoparticle patterning. These ultra-thin films of monolayer nanoparticle arrays are of fundamental interest as 2D artificial solids for electronic, magnetic and optical properties and are also of technological interest for a diverse range of applications in micro- and macro-scale devices including photovoltaics, sensors, catalysis, and magnetic storage. By co-assembly with block co-polymers, the nanoparticles were selectively positioned in one specific phase, representing a high throughput route for creating nanoparticle patterns. The self-assembly process was investigated by combined in-situ grazing incidence small angle x-ray scattering (GISAXS) and numerical simulation. By e-beam irradiation of free-standing 2D NP/polymer arrays, anisotropic nanowire arrays have been fabricated. Additionally, preliminary investigation on assembly of binary nanoparticle arrays has also been introduced, serving as promising future directions of interfacial assembly. Controlling the rate of spontaneous emission and thus promoting the photon generation efficiency is a key step toward fabrication of Quantum dot based single-photon sources, and harnessing of light energy from emitters with a broad emitting spectrum. Coupling of photo emitters to photonic cavities without perturbing the optical performance of cavities remains as a challenge in study of Purcell effect based on quantum electrodynamics. Taking advantage of interfacial assembly and transfer, we have achieved controlled deposition

  3. Magnetic anisotropy of heteronuclear dimers in the gas phase and supported on graphene: relativistic density-functional calculations.

    PubMed

    Błoński, Piotr; Hafner, Jürgen

    2014-04-09

    The structural and magnetic properties of mixed PtCo, PtFe, and IrCo dimers in the gas phase and supported on a free-standing graphene layer have been calculated using density-functional theory, both in the scalar-relativistic limit and self-consistently including spin-orbit coupling. The influence of the strong magnetic moments of the 3d atoms on the spin and orbital moments of the 5d atoms, and the influence of the strong spin-orbit coupling contributed by the 5d atom on the orbital moments of the 3d atoms have been studied in detail. The magnetic anisotropy energy is found to depend very sensitively on the nature of the eigenstates in the vicinity of the Fermi level, as determined by band filling, exchange splitting and spin-orbit coupling. The large magnetic anisotropy energy of free PtCo and IrCo dimers relative to the easy direction parallel to the dimer axis is coupled to a strong anisotropy of the orbital magnetic moments of the Co atom for both dimers, and also on the Ir atom in IrCo. In contrast the PtFe dimer shows a weak perpendicular anisotropy and only small spin and orbital anisotropies of opposite sign on the two atoms. For dimers supported on graphene, the strong binding within the dimer and the stronger interaction of the 3d atom with the substrate stabilizes an upright geometry. Spin and orbital moments on the 3d atom are strongly quenched, but due to the weaker binding within the dimer the properties of the 5d atom are more free-atom-like with increased spin and orbital moments. The changes in the magnetic moment are reflected in the structure of the electronic eigenstates near the Fermi level, for all three dimers the easy magnetic direction is now parallel to the dimer axis and perpendicular to the graphene layer. The already very large magnetic anisotropy energy (MAE) of IrCo is further enhanced by the interaction with the support, the MAE of PtFe changes sign, and that of the PtCo dimer is reduced. These changes are discussed in relation to

  4. Unraveling the dynamics and structure of functionalized self-assembled monolayers on gold using 2D IR spectroscopy and MD simulations

    PubMed Central

    Yan, Chang; Yuan, Rongfeng; Pfalzgraff, William C.; Nishida, Jun; Wang, Lu; Markland, Thomas E.; Fayer, Michael D.

    2016-01-01

    Functionalized self-assembled monolayers (SAMs) are the focus of ongoing investigations because they can be chemically tuned to control their structure and dynamics for a wide variety of applications, including electrochemistry, catalysis, and as models of biological interfaces. Here we combine reflection 2D infrared vibrational echo spectroscopy (R-2D IR) and molecular dynamics simulations to determine the relationship between the structures of functionalized alkanethiol SAMs on gold surfaces and their underlying molecular motions on timescales of tens to hundreds of picoseconds. We find that at higher head group density, the monolayers have more disorder in the alkyl chain packing and faster dynamics. The dynamics of alkanethiol SAMs on gold are much slower than the dynamics of alkylsiloxane SAMs on silica. Using the simulations, we assess how the different molecular motions of the alkyl chain monolayers give rise to the dynamics observed in the experiments. PMID:27044113

  5. Functional study of two biochemically unusual mutations in GUCY2D Leber congenital amaurosis expressed via adenoassociated virus vector in mouse retinas

    PubMed Central

    Boye, Sanford L.; Olshevskaya, Elena V.; Peshenko, Igor V.; McCullough, K. Tyler; Boye, Shannon E.

    2016-01-01

    -photoreceptor cell culture. This result suggests that the S248W mutation contributes to LCA1 by hampering the expression, processing, and/or cellular transport of GUCY2D, rather than its enzymatic properties. In contrast, the effective restoration of rod and cone function by R1091x GUCY2D is paradoxical and does not explain the severe loss of vision typical for LCA1 associated with that mutant allele. PMID:27881908

  6. Ribozyme knockdown functionally links a 1,25(OH)2D3 membrane binding protein (1,25D3-MARRS) and phosphate uptake in intestinal cells

    PubMed Central

    Nemere, I.; Farach-Carson, M. C.; Rohe, B.; Sterling, T. M.; Norman, A. W.; Boyan, B. D.; Safford, S. E.

    2004-01-01

    We used a ribozyme loss-of-function approach to demonstrate that the protein product of a cDNA encoding a multifunctional membrane-associated protein binds the seco-steroid 1,25(OH)2D3 and transduces its stimulatory effects on phosphate uptake. These results are paralleled by studies in which the ability of the hormone to stimulate phosphate uptake in isolated chick intestinal epithelial cells is abolished by preincubation with Ab099 directed against the amino terminus of the protein. We now report the complete sequence of the cloned chicken cDNA for the 1,25D3-MARRS (membrane-associated, rapid-response steroid-binding) protein and reveal it to be identical to the multifunctional protein ERp57. Functional studies showed that active ribozyme, but not a scrambled control, decreased specific membrane-associated 1,25(OH)2D3 binding, but did not affect binding to the nuclear receptor for 1,25(OH)2D3. Seco-steroid-dependent stimulation of protein kinase C activity was diminished as 1,25D3-MARRS protein levels were reduced in the presence of the ribozyme, as judged by Western blot analyses. Phosphate uptake in isolated cells is an index of intestinal phosphate transport that occurs during growth and maturation. Whereas cells and perfused duodena robustly responded to 1,25(OH)2D3 in preparations from young birds, older animals no longer responded with stimulated phosphate uptake or transport. The age-related decline was accompanied by a decrease in 1,25D3-MARRS mRNA that was apparent up to 1 year of age. Together, these studies functionally link phosphate transport in the chick duodenum with the 1,25D3-MARRS protein and point to a previously uncharacterized role for this multifunctional protein class. PMID:15123837

  7. The installation campaign of 9 seismic stations around the KTB site to test anisotropy detection by the Receiver Function Technique

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bianchi, I.; Anselmi, M.; Apoloner, M. T.; Qorbani, E.; Gribovski, K.; Bokelmann, G.

    2015-09-01

    The project at hand is a field test around the KTB (Kontinentale Tiefbohrung) site in the Oberpfalz, Southeastern Germany, at the northwestern edge of the Bohemian Massif. The region has been extensively studied through the analysis of several seismic reflection lines deployed around the drilling site. The deep borehole had been placed into gneiss rocks of the Zone Erbendorf-Vohenstrauss. Drilling activity lasted from 1987 to 1994, and it descended down to a depth of 9101 m. In our experiment, we aim to recover structural information as well as anisotropy of the upper crust using the receiver function technique. This retrieved information is the basis for comparing the out-coming anisotropy amount and orientation with information of rock samples from up to 9 km depth, and with high-frequency seismic experiments around the drill site. For that purpose, we installed 9 seismic stations, and recorded seismicity continuously for two years from June 2012 to July 2014.

  8. Detection of electron energy distribution function anisotropy in a magnetized electron cyclotron resonance plasma by using a directional Langmuir probe

    SciTech Connect

    Shikama, T. Hasuo, M.; Kitaoka, H.

    2014-07-15

    Anisotropy in the electron energy distribution function (EEDF) in an electron cyclotron resonance plasma with magnetized electrons and weakly magnetized ions is experimentally investigated using a directional Langmuir probe. Under an assumption of independent EEDFs in the directions parallel and perpendicular to the magnetic field, the directional variation of the EEDF is evaluated. In the measured EEDFs, a significantly large population density of electrons with energies larger than 30 eV is found in one of the cross-field directions depending on the magnetic field direction. With the aid of an electron trajectory calculation, it is suggested that the observed anisotropic electrons originate from the EEDF anisotropy and the cross-field electron drift.

  9. Calibration of Modulation Transfer Function of Surface Profilometers with 1D and 2D Binary Pseudo-random Array Standards

    SciTech Connect

    Yashchuk, Valeriy V.; McKinney, Wayne R.; Takacs, Peter Z.

    2008-05-19

    We suggest and describe the use of a binary pseudo-random grating as a standard test surface for calibration of the modulation transfer function of microscopes. Results from calibration of a MicromapTM-570 interferometric microscope are presented.

  10. Fine tuning a well-oiled machine: Influence of NK1.1 and NKG2D on NKT cell development and function

    PubMed Central

    Joshi, Sunil K.; Lang, Mark L.

    2013-01-01

    Natural Killer T cells (NKT) represent a group of CD1d-restricted T-lineage cells that that provide a functional interface between innate and adaptive immune responses in infectious disease, cancer, allergy and autoimmunity. There have been remarkable advances in understanding the molecular events that underpin NKT development in the thymus and in the complex array of functions in the periphery. Most functional studies have focused on activation of T cell antigen receptors expressed by NKT cells and their responses to CD1d presentation of glycolipid and related antigens. Receiving less attention has been several molecules that are hallmarks of Natural Killer (NK) cells, but nonetheless expressed by NKT cells. These include several activating and inhibitory receptors that may fine-tune NKT development and survival, as well as activation via antigen receptors. Herein, we review the possible roles of the NK1.1 and NKG2D receptors in regulating development and function of NKT cells in health and disease. We suggest that pharmacological alteration of NKT activity should consider the potential complexities commensurate with NK1.1 and NKG2D expression. PMID:23800654

  11. Free energies, vacancy concentrations, and density distribution anisotropies in hard-sphere crystals: A combined density functional and simulation study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oettel, M.; Görig, S.; Härtel, A.; Löwen, H.; Radu, M.; Schilling, T.

    2010-11-01

    We perform a comparative study of the free energies and the density distributions in hard-sphere crystals using Monte Carlo simulations and density functional theory (employing Fundamental Measure functionals). Using a recently introduced technique [T. Schilling and F. Schmid, J. Chem. Phys. 131, 231102 (2009)10.1063/1.3274951] we obtain crystal free energies to a high precision. The free energies from fundamental measure theory are in good agreement with the simulation results and demonstrate the applicability of these functionals to the treatment of other problems involving crystallization. The agreement between fundamental measure theory and simulations on the level of the free energies is also reflected in the density distributions around single lattice sites. Overall, the peak widths and anisotropy signs for different lattice directions agree, however, it is found that fundamental measure theory gives slightly narrower peaks with more anisotropy than seen in the simulations. Among the three types of fundamental measure functionals studied, only the White Bear II functional [H. Hansen-Goos and R. Roth, J. Phys.: Condens. Matter 18, 8413 (2006)10.1088/0953-8984/18/37/002] exhibits sensible results for the equilibrium vacancy concentration and a physical behavior of the chemical potential in crystals constrained by a fixed vacancy concentration.

  12. 2D ion velocity distribution function measurements by laser-induced fluorescence above a radio-frequency biased silicon wafer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moore, Nathaniel; Gekelman, Walter; Pribyl, Patrick; Zhang, Yiting; Kushner, Mark

    2012-10-01

    Ion dynamics have been measured in the sheath above a 30 cm diameter, 2.2 MHz-biased silicon wafer in a plasma processing etch tool using laser-induced fluorescence (LIF). The velocity distribution function of argon ions was measured at thousands of positions above and radially along the edge of the wafer by sending a planar laser sheet from a pulsed, tunable dye laser into the tool. The RF sheath is clearly resolved. The laser sheet entered the machine both parallel and perpendicular to the wafer in order to measure the distribution function for both parallel and perpendicular velocities/energies (0.4 eV < Emax<600 eV). The resulting fluorescence was recorded using a fast CCD camera, which provided spatial (0.4 mm) and temporal (30 ns) resolution. Data was taken at eight different phases of the 2.2 MHz cycle. The distribution functions were found to be spatially non-uniform near the edge of the wafer and the distribution of energies extremely phase-dependent. Several cm above the wafer the distribution is Maxwellian and independent of phase. Results are compared with simulations; for example, the experimental time-averaged ion energy distribution function compares favorably with a computer model carefully constructed to emulate the device.

  13. 2D ion velocity distribution function measurements by laser-induced fluorescence above a radio-frequency biased silicon wafer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moore, Nathaniel; Gekelman, Walter; Pribyl, Patrick; Zhang, Yiting; Kushner, Mark

    2012-10-01

    Ion dynamics have been measured in the sheath above a 30 cm diameter, 2.2 MHz-biased silicon wafer in a plasma processing etch tool using laser-induced fluorescence (LIF). The velocity distribution function of argon ions was measured at thousands of positions above and radially along the edge of the wafer by sending a planar laser sheet from a pulsed, tunable dye laser into the tool. The RF sheath is clearly resolved. The laser sheet entered the machine both parallel and perpendicular to the wafer in order to measure the distribution function for both parallel and perpendicular velocities/energies (0.4 eV < Emax< 600 eV). The resulting fluorescence was recorded using a fast CCD camera, which provided spatial (0.4 mm) and temporal (30 ns) resolution. Data was taken at eight different phases of the 2.2 MHz cycle. The distribution functions were found to be spatially non-uniform near the edge of the wafer and the distribution of energies extremely phase-dependent. Several cm above the wafer the distribution is Maxwellian and independent of phase. Results are compared with simulations; for example, the experimental time-averaged ion energy distribution function compares favorably with a computer model carefully constructed to emulate the device.

  14. 2D Ultrasound Sparse Arrays Multi-Depth Radiation Optimization Using Simulated Annealing and Spiral-Array Inspired Energy Functions.

    PubMed

    Roux, Emmanuel; Ramalli, Alessandro; Tortoli, Piero; Cachard, Christian; Robini, Marc; Liebgott, Herve

    2016-08-24

    Full matrix arrays are excellent tools for 3D ultrasound imaging, but the required number of active elements is too high to be individually controlled by an equal number of scanner channels. The number of active elements is significantly reduced by the sparse array techniques, but the position of the remaining elements must be carefully optimized. This issue is here faced by introducing novel energy functions in the simulated annealing algorithm. At each iteration step of the optimization process, one element is freely translated and the associated radiated pattern is simulated. To control the pressure field behavior at multiple depths, three energy functions inspired by the pressure field radiated by a Blackman-tapered spiral array are introduced. Such energy functions aim at limiting the main lobe width while lowering the side lobe and grating lobe levels at multiple depths. Numerical optimization results illustrate the influence of the number of iterations, pressure measurement points and depths as well as the influence of the energy function definition on the optimized layout. It is also shown that performance close to- or even better than the one provided by a spiral array, here assumed as reference, may be obtained. The finite-time convergence properties of simulated annealing allow the duration of the optimization process to be set in advance.

  15. 2-D Ultrasound Sparse Arrays Multidepth Radiation Optimization Using Simulated Annealing and Spiral-Array Inspired Energy Functions.

    PubMed

    Roux, Emmanuel; Ramalli, Alessandro; Tortoli, Piero; Cachard, Christian; Robini, Marc C; Liebgott, Herve

    2016-12-01

    Full matrix arrays are excellent tools for 3-D ultrasound imaging, but the required number of active elements is too high to be individually controlled by an equal number of scanner channels. The number of active elements is significantly reduced by the sparse array techniques, but the position of the remaining elements must be carefully optimized. This issue is faced here by introducing novel energy functions in the simulated annealing (SA) algorithm. At each iteration step of the optimization process, one element is freely translated and the associated radiated pattern is simulated. To control the pressure field behavior at multiple depths, three energy functions inspired by the pressure field radiated by a Blackman-tapered spiral array are introduced. Such energy functions aim at limiting the main lobe width while lowering the side lobe and grating lobe levels at multiple depths. Numerical optimization results illustrate the influence of the number of iterations, pressure measurement points, and depths, as well as the influence of the energy function definition on the optimized layout. It is also shown that performance close to or even better than the one provided by a spiral array, here assumed as reference, may be obtained. The finite-time convergence properties of SA allow the duration of the optimization process to be set in advance.

  16. Chondroitinase ABC Combined with Neurotrophin NT-3 Secretion and NR2D Expression Promotes Axonal Plasticity and Functional Recovery in Rats with Lateral Hemisection of the Spinal Cord

    PubMed Central

    García-Alías, Guillermo; Petrosyan, Hayk A.; Schnell, Lisa; Horner, Philip J.; Bowers, William J.; Mendell, Lorne M.; Fawcett, James W.

    2011-01-01

    Elevating spinal levels of neurotrophin NT-3 (NT3) while increasing expression of the NR2D subunit of the NMDA receptor using a HSV viral construct promotes formation of novel multisynaptic projections from lateral white matter (LWM) axons to motoneurons in neonates. However, this treatment is ineffective after postnatal day 10. Because chondroitinase ABC (ChABC) treatment restores plasticity in the adult CNS, we have added ChABC to this treatment and applied the combination to adult rats receiving a left lateral hemisection (Hx) at T8. All hemisected animals initially dragged the ipsilateral hindpaw and displayed abnormal gait. Rats treated with ChABC or NT3/HSV-NR2D recovered partial hindlimb locomotor function, but animals receiving combined therapy displayed the most improved body stability and interlimb coordination [Basso-Beattie-Bresnahan (BBB) locomotor scale and gait analysis]. Electrical stimulation of the left LWM at T6 did not evoke any synaptic response in ipsilateral L5 motoneurons of control hemisected animals, indicating interruption of the white matter. Only animals with the full combination treatment recovered consistent multisynaptic responses in these motoneurons indicating formation of a detour pathway around the Hx. These physiological findings were supported by the observation of increased branching of both cut and intact LWM axons into the gray matter near the injury. ChABC-treated animals displayed more sprouting than control animals and those receiving NT3/HSV-NR2D; animals receiving the combination of all three treatments showed the most sprouting. Our results indicate that therapies aimed at increasing plasticity, promoting axon growth and modulating synaptic function have synergistic effects and promote better functional recovery than if applied individually. PMID:22159095

  17. Chondroitinase ABC combined with neurotrophin NT-3 secretion and NR2D expression promotes axonal plasticity and functional recovery in rats with lateral hemisection of the spinal cord.

    PubMed

    García-Alías, Guillermo; Petrosyan, Hayk A; Schnell, Lisa; Horner, Philip J; Bowers, William J; Mendell, Lorne M; Fawcett, James W; Arvanian, Victor L

    2011-12-07

    Elevating spinal levels of neurotrophin NT-3 (NT3) while increasing expression of the NR2D subunit of the NMDA receptor using a HSV viral construct promotes formation of novel multisynaptic projections from lateral white matter (LWM) axons to motoneurons in neonates. However, this treatment is ineffective after postnatal day 10. Because chondroitinase ABC (ChABC) treatment restores plasticity in the adult CNS, we have added ChABC to this treatment and applied the combination to adult rats receiving a left lateral hemisection (Hx) at T8. All hemisected animals initially dragged the ipsilateral hindpaw and displayed abnormal gait. Rats treated with ChABC or NT3/HSV-NR2D recovered partial hindlimb locomotor function, but animals receiving combined therapy displayed the most improved body stability and interlimb coordination [Basso-Beattie-Bresnahan (BBB) locomotor scale and gait analysis]. Electrical stimulation of the left LWM at T6 did not evoke any synaptic response in ipsilateral L5 motoneurons of control hemisected animals, indicating interruption of the white matter. Only animals with the full combination treatment recovered consistent multisynaptic responses in these motoneurons indicating formation of a detour pathway around the Hx. These physiological findings were supported by the observation of increased branching of both cut and intact LWM axons into the gray matter near the injury. ChABC-treated animals displayed more sprouting than control animals and those receiving NT3/HSV-NR2D; animals receiving the combination of all three treatments showed the most sprouting. Our results indicate that therapies aimed at increasing plasticity, promoting axon growth and modulating synaptic function have synergistic effects and promote better functional recovery than if applied individually.

  18. Allelic variation of polyphenol oxidase (PPO) genes located on chromosomes 2A and 2D and development of functional markers for the PPO genes in common wheat.

    PubMed

    He, X Y; He, Z H; Zhang, L P; Sun, D J; Morris, C F; Fuerst, E P; Xia, X C

    2007-06-01

    Polyphenol oxidase (PPO) activity is highly related to the undesirable browning of wheat-based end products, especially Asian noodles. Characterization of PPO genes and the development of their functional markers are of great importance for marker-assisted selection in wheat breeding. In the present study, complete genomic DNA sequences of two PPO genes, one each located on chromosomes 2A and 2D and their allelic variants were characterized by means of in silico cloning and experimental validation. Sequences were aligned at both DNA and protein levels. Two haplotypes on chromosome 2D showed 95.2% sequence identity at the DNA level, indicating much more sequence diversity than those on chromosome 2A with 99.6% sequence identity. Both of the PPO genes on chromosomes 2A and 2D contain an open reading frame (ORF) of 1,731 bp, encoding a PPO precursor peptide of 577 amino acids with a predicted molecular mass of approximately 64 kD. Two complementary dominant STS markers, PPO16 and PPO29, were developed based on the PPO gene haplotypes located on chromosome 2D; they amplify a 713-bp fragment in cultivars with low PPO activity and a 490-bp fragment in those with high PPO activity, respectively. The two markers were mapped on chromosome 2DL using a doubled haploid population derived from the cross Zhongyou 9507/CA9632, and a set of nullisomic-tetrasomic lines and ditelosomic line 2DS of Chinese Spring. QTL analysis indicated that the PPO gene co-segregated with the two STS markers and was closely linked to SSR marker Xwmc41 on chromosome 2DL, explaining from 9.6 to 24.4% of the phenotypic variance for PPO activity across three environments. In order to simultaneously detect PPO loci on chromosomes 2A and 2D, a multiplexed marker combination PPO33/PPO16 was developed and yielded distinguishable DNA patterns in a number of cultivars. The STS marker PPO33 for the PPO gene on chromosome 2A was developed from the same gene sequences as PPO18 that we reported previously, and

  19. Nonaxisymmetric anisotropy of solar wind turbulence as a direct test for models of magnetohydrodynamic turbulence.

    PubMed

    Turner, A J; Gogoberidze, G; Chapman, S C

    2012-02-24

    Single point spacecraft observations of the turbulent solar wind flow exhibit a characteristic nonaxisymmetric anisotropy that depends sensitively on the perpendicular power spectral exponent. We use this nonaxisymmetric anisotropy as a function of wave vector direction to test models of MHD turbulence. Using Ulysses magnetic field observations in the fast, quiet polar solar wind we find that the Goldreich-Sridhar model of MHD turbulence is not consistent with the observed anisotropy, whereas the observations are well reproduced by the "slab+2D" model. The Goldreich-Sridhar model alone cannot account for the observations unless an additional component is also present.

  20. 2D quantum gravity on compact Riemann surfaces and two-loop partition function: A first principles approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bilal, Adel; Leduc, Laetitia

    2015-07-01

    We study two-dimensional quantum gravity on arbitrary genus Riemann surfaces in the Kähler formalism where the basic quantum field is the (Laplacian of the) Kähler potential. We do a careful first-principles computation of the fixed-area partition function Z [ A ] up to and including all two-loop contributions. This includes genuine two-loop diagrams as determined by the Liouville action, one-loop diagrams resulting from the non-trivial measure on the space of metrics, as well as one-loop diagrams involving various counterterm vertices. Contrary to what is often believed, several such counterterms, in addition to the usual cosmological constant, do and must occur. We consistently determine the relevant counterterms from a one-loop computation of the full two-point Green's function of the Kähler field. Throughout this paper we use the general spectral cutoff regularization developed recently and which is well-suited for multi-loop computations on curved manifolds. At two loops, while all "unwanted" contributions to ln ⁡ (Z [ A ] / Z [A0 ]) correctly cancel, it appears that the finite coefficient of ln ⁡ (A /A0) does depend on the finite part of a certain counterterm coefficient, i.e. on the finite renormalization conditions one has to impose. There exists a choice that reproduces the famous KPZ-scaling, but it seems to be only one consistent choice among others. Maybe, this hints at the possibility that other renormalization conditions could eventually provide a way to circumvent the famous c = 1 barrier.

  1. Hydrophobic cluster analysis: procedures to derive structural and functional information from 2-D-representation of protein sequences.

    PubMed

    Lemesle-Varloot, L; Henrissat, B; Gaboriaud, C; Bissery, V; Morgat, A; Mornon, J P

    1990-08-01

    Hydrophobic cluster analysis (HCA) [15] is a very efficient method to analyse and compare protein sequences. Despite its effectiveness, this method is not widely used because it relies in part on the experience and training of the user. In this article, detailed guidelines as to the use of HCA are presented and include discussions on: the definition of the hydrophobic clusters and their relationships with secondary and tertiary structures; the length of the clusters; the amino acid classification used for HCA; the HCA plot programs; and the working strategies. Various procedures for the analysis of a single sequence are presented: structural segmentation, structural domains and secondary structure evaluation. Like most sequence analysis methods, HCA is more efficient when several homologous sequences are compared. Procedures for the detection and alignment of distantly related proteins by HCA are described through several published examples along with 2 previously unreported cases: the beta-glucosidase from Ruminococcus albus is clearly related to the beta-glucosidases from Clostridum thermocellum and Hansenula anomala although they display a reverse organization of their constitutive domains; the alignment of the sequence of human GTPase activating protein with that of the Crk oncogene is presented. Finally, the pertinence of HCA in the identification of important residues for structure/function as well as in the preparation of homology modelling is discussed.

  2. Noninvasive monitoring of myocardial function after surgical and cytostatic therapy in a peritoneal metastasis rat model: assessment with tissue Doppler and non-Doppler 2D strain echocardiography

    PubMed Central

    Hartmann, Jens; Knebel, Fabian; Eddicks, Stephan; Beling, Mark; Grohmann, Andrea; Panda, Alexander; Jacobi, Christoph A; Müller, Joachim M; Wernecke, Klaus-Dieter; Baumann, Gert; Borges, Adrian C

    2007-01-01

    Objective We sought to evaluate the impact of different antineoplastic treatment methods on systolic and diastolic myocardial function, and the feasibility estimation of regional deformation parameters with non-Doppler 2D echocardiography in rats. Background The optimal method for quantitative assessment of global and regional ventricular function in rats and the impact of complex oncological multimodal therapy on left- and right-ventricular function in rats remains unclear. Methods 90 rats after subperitoneal implantation of syngenetic colonic carcinoma cells underwent different onclogical treatment methods and were diveded into one control group and five treatment groups (with 15 rats in each group): group 1 = control group (without operation and without medication), group 2 = operation group without additional therapy, group 3 = combination of operation and photodynamic therapy, group 4 = operation in combination with hyperthermic intraoperative peritoneal chemotherapy with mitomycine, and group 5 = operation in combination with hyperthermic intraoperative peritoneal chemotherapy with gemcitabine, group 6 = operation in combination with taurolidin i.p. instillation. Echocardiographic examination with estimation of wall thickness, diameters, left ventricular fractional shortening, ejection fraction, early and late diastolic transmitral and myocardial velocities, radial and circumferential strain were performed 3–4 days after therapy. Results There was an increase of LVEDD and LVESD in all groups after the follow-up period (P = 0.0037). Other LV dimensions, FS and EF as well as diastolic mitral filling parameters measured by echocardiography were not significantly affected by the different treatments. Values for right ventricular dimensions and function remained unchanged, whereas circumferential 2D strain of the inferior wall was slightly, but significantly reduced under the treatment (-18.1 ± 2.5 before and -16.2 ± 2.9 % after treatment; P = 0.001) without

  3. Increased sMICA and TGFβ1 levels in HNSCC patients impair NKG2D-dependent functionality of activated NK cells

    PubMed Central

    Klöß, Stephan; Chambron, Nicole; Gardlowski, Tanja; Arseniev, Lubomir; Koch, Joachim; Esser, Ruth; Glienke, Wolfgang; Seitz, Oliver; Köhl, Ulrike

    2015-01-01

    Disseminated head-and-neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC) escapes immune surveillance and thus frequently manifests as fatal disease. Here, we report on the distribution of distinct immune cell subpopulations, natural killer (NK) cell cytotoxicity and tumor immune escape mechanisms (TIEMs) in 55 HNSCC patients, either at initial diagnosis or present with tumor relapse. Compared to healthy controls, the regulatory NK cells and the ratio of pro/anti-inflammatory cytokines were decreased in HNSCC patients, while soluble major histocompatibility complex Class I chain-related peptide A (sMICA) and transforming growth factor β1 (TGFβ1) plasma levels were markedly elevated. Increased sMICA and TGFβ1 concentrations correlated with tumor progression and staging characteristics in 7 follow-up HNSCC patients, with significantly elevated levels of both soluble factors from the time of initial diagnosis to that of relapse. Patient plasma containing elevated sMICA and TGFβ1 markedly impaired NKG2D-dependent cytotoxicity against HNSCC cells upon incubation with patient-derived and IL-2 activated NK cells vs. those derived from healthy donors. Decreased antitumor recognition was accompanied by reduced NKG2D expression on the NK cell surface and an enhanced caspase-3 activity. In-vitro blocking and neutralization experiments demonstrated a synergistic negative impact of sMICA and TGFβ1 on NK cell functionality. Although we previously showed the feasibility and safety of transfer of allogeneic donor NK cells in a prior clinical study encompassing various leukemia and tumor patients, our present results suggest the need for caution regarding the sole use of adoptive NK cell transfer. The presence of soluble NKG2D ligands in the plasma of HNSCC patients and the decreased NK cell cytotoxicity due to several factors, especially TGFβ1, indicates timely depletion of these immunosuppressing molecules may promote NK cell-based immunotherapy. PMID:26451327

  4. CROSS-POWER SPECTRUM AND ITS APPLICATION ON WINDOW FUNCTIONS IN THE WILKINSON MICROWAVE ANISOTROPY PROBE DATA

    SciTech Connect

    Chiang, Lung-Yih; Chen, Fei-Fan

    2011-09-10

    The cross-power spectrum is a quadratic estimator between two maps that can provide unbiased estimate of the underlying power spectrum of the correlated signals, which is therefore used for extracting the power spectrum in the Wilkinson Microwave Anisotropy Probe (WMAP) data. In this paper, we discuss the limit of the cross-power spectrum and derive the residual from the uncorrelated signal, which is the source of error in power spectrum extraction. We employ the estimator to extract window functions by crossing pairs of extragalactic point sources. We demonstrate its usefulness in WMAP difference assembly maps where the window functions are measured via Jupiter and then extract the window functions of the five WMAP frequency band maps.

  5. Cerebral laterality for language is related to adult salivary testosterone levels but not digit ratio (2D:4D) in men: A functional transcranial Doppler ultrasound study.

    PubMed

    Papadatou-Pastou, Marietta; Martin, Maryanne

    2017-03-01

    The adequacy of three competing theories of hormonal effects on cerebral laterality are compared using functional transcranial Doppler sonography (fTCD). Thirty-three adult males participated in the study (21 left-handers). Cerebral lateralization was measured by fTCD using an extensively validated word generation task. Adult salivary testosterone (T) and cortisol (C) concentrations were measured by luminescence immunoassay and prenatal T exposure was indirectly estimated by the somatic marker of 2nd to 4th digit length ratio (2D:4D). A significant quadratic relationship between degree of cerebral laterality for language and adult T concentrations was observed, with enhanced T levels for strong left hemisphere dominance and strong right hemisphere dominance. No systematic effects on laterality were found for cortisol or 2D:4D. Findings suggest that higher levels of T are associated with a relatively attenuated degree of interhemispheric sharing of linguistic information, providing support for the callosal and the sexual differentiation hypotheses rather than the Geschwind, Behan and Galaburda (GBG) hypothesis.

  6. A single-stage functionalization and exfoliation method for the production of graphene in water: stepwise construction of 2D-nanostructured composites with iron oxide nanoparticles.

    PubMed

    Ihiawakrim, Dris; Ersen, Ovidiu; Melin, Frédéric; Hellwig, Petra; Janowska, Izabela; Begin, Dominique; Baaziz, Walid; Begin-Colin, Sylvie; Pham-Huu, Cuong; Baati, Rachid

    2013-10-07

    A practically simple top-down process for the exfoliation of graphene (GN) and few-layer graphene (FLG) from graphite is described. We have discovered that a biocompatible amphiphilic pyrene-based hexahistidine peptide is able to exfoliate, functionalize, and dissolve few layer graphene flakes in pure water under exceptionally mild, sustainable and virtually innocuous low intensity cavitation conditions. Large area functionalized graphene flakes with the hexahistidine oligopeptide (His₆-TagGN = His₆@GN) have been produced efficiently at room temperature and characterized by TEM, Raman, and UV spectroscopy. Conductivity experiments carried out on His₆-TagGN samples revealed superior electric performances as compared to reduced graphene oxide (rGO) and non-functionalized graphene, demonstrating the non-invasive features of our non-covalent functionalization process. We postulated a rational exfoliation mechanism based on the intercalation of the peptide amphiphile under cavitational chemistry. We also demonstrated the ability of His6-TagGN nanoassemblies to self-assemble spontaneously with inorganic iron oxide nanoparticles generating magnetic two-dimensional (2D) His₆-TagGN/Fe₃O₄ nanocomposites under mild and non-hydrothermal conditions. The set of original experiments described here open novel perspectives in the facile production of water dispersible high quality GN and FLG sheets that will improve and facilitate the interfacing, processing and manipulation of graphene for promising applications in catalysis, nanocomposite construction, integrated nanoelectronic devices and bionanotechnology.

  7. Autistic Traits in Neurotypical Adults: Correlates of Graph Theoretical Functional Network Topology and White Matter Anisotropy Patterns

    PubMed Central

    Spisak, Tamas; Szeman-Nagy, Anita; Beres, Monika; Kis, Sandor Attila; Molnar, Peter; Berenyi, Ervin

    2013-01-01

    Attempts to explicate the neural abnormalities behind autism spectrum disorders frequently revealed impaired brain connectivity, yet our knowledge is limited about the alterations linked with autistic traits in the non-clinical population. In our study, we aimed at exploring the neural correlates of dimensional autistic traits using a dual approach of diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) and graph theoretical analysis of resting state functional MRI data. Subjects were sampled from a public neuroimaging dataset of healthy volunteers. Inclusion criteria were adult age (age: 18–65), availability of DTI and resting state functional acquisitions and psychological evaluation including the Social Responsiveness Scale (SRS) and Autistic Spectrum Screening Questionnaire (ASSQ). The final subject cohort consisted of 127 neurotypicals. Global brain network structure was described by graph theoretical parameters: global and average local efficiency. Regional topology was characterized by degree and efficiency. We provided measurements for diffusion anisotropy. The association between autistic traits and the neuroimaging findings was studied using a general linear model analysis, controlling for the effects of age, gender and IQ profile. Significant negative correlation was found between the degree and efficiency of the right posterior cingulate cortex and autistic traits, measured by the combination of ASSQ and SRS scores. Autistic phenotype was associated with the decrease of whole-brain local efficiency. Reduction of diffusion anisotropy was found bilaterally in the temporal fusiform and parahippocampal gyri. Numerous models describe the autistic brain connectome to be dominated by reduced long-range connections and excessive short-range fibers. Our finding of decreased efficiency supports this hypothesis although the only prominent effect was seen in the posterior limbic lobe, which is known to act as a connector hub. The neural correlates of the autistic trait in

  8. Magnetic multilayer interface anisotropy

    SciTech Connect

    Pechan, M.J.

    1992-01-01

    Ni/Mo and Ni/V multilayer magnetic anisotropy has been investigated as a function of Ni layer thickness, frequency and temperature. Variable frequency ferromagnetic resonance (FMR) measurements show, for the first time, significant frequency dependence associated with the multilayer magnetic anisotropy. The thickness dependence allows one to extract the interface contribution from the total anisotropy. Temperature dependent FMR (9 GHz) and room temperature magnetization indicate that strain between Ni and the non-magnetic layers is contributing significantly to the source of the interface anisotropy and the state of the interfacial magnetization. In order to examine the interface properties of other transition metal multilayer systems, investigations on Fe/Cu are underway and CoCr/Ag is being proposed. ESR measurements have been reported on Gd substituted YBaCuO superconductors and a novel quasi-equilibrium method has been developed to determine quickly and precisely the ransition temperature.

  9. Large-area high-quality 2D ultrathin Mo2C superconducting crystals.

    PubMed

    Xu, Chuan; Wang, Libin; Liu, Zhibo; Chen, Long; Guo, Jingkun; Kang, Ning; Ma, Xiu-Liang; Cheng, Hui-Ming; Ren, Wencai

    2015-11-01

    Transition metal carbides (TMCs) are a large family of materials with many intriguing properties and applications, and high-quality 2D TMCs are essential for investigating new physics and properties in the 2D limit. However, the 2D TMCs obtained so far are chemically functionalized, defective nanosheets having maximum lateral dimensions of ∼10 μm. Here we report the fabrication of large-area high-quality 2D ultrathin α-Mo2C crystals by chemical vapour deposition (CVD). The crystals are a few nanometres thick, over 100 μm in size, and very stable under ambient conditions. They show 2D characteristics of superconducting transitions that are consistent with Berezinskii-Kosterlitz-Thouless behaviour and show strong anisotropy with magnetic field orientation; moreover, the superconductivity is also strongly dependent on the crystal thickness. Our versatile CVD process allows the fabrication of other high-quality 2D TMC crystals, such as ultrathin WC and TaC crystals, which further expand the large family of 2D materials.

  10. Large-area high-quality 2D ultrathin Mo2C superconducting crystals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Chuan; Wang, Libin; Liu, Zhibo; Chen, Long; Guo, Jingkun; Kang, Ning; Ma, Xiu-Liang; Cheng, Hui-Ming; Ren, Wencai

    2015-11-01

    Transition metal carbides (TMCs) are a large family of materials with many intriguing properties and applications, and high-quality 2D TMCs are essential for investigating new physics and properties in the 2D limit. However, the 2D TMCs obtained so far are chemically functionalized, defective nanosheets having maximum lateral dimensions of ~10 μm. Here we report the fabrication of large-area high-quality 2D ultrathin α-Mo2C crystals by chemical vapour deposition (CVD). The crystals are a few nanometres thick, over 100 μm in size, and very stable under ambient conditions. They show 2D characteristics of superconducting transitions that are consistent with Berezinskii-Kosterlitz-Thouless behaviour and show strong anisotropy with magnetic field orientation; moreover, the superconductivity is also strongly dependent on the crystal thickness. Our versatile CVD process allows the fabrication of other high-quality 2D TMC crystals, such as ultrathin WC and TaC crystals, which further expand the large family of 2D materials.

  11. Thickness effect on magnetocrystalline anisotropy of Co/Pd(111) films: A density functional study

    SciTech Connect

    Jekal, Soyoung; Rhim, S. H. E-mail: schong@ulsan.ac.kr; Kwon, Oryong; Hong, Soon Cheol E-mail: schong@ulsan.ac.kr

    2015-05-07

    In this study, we carried out first-principles calculations on magnetocrystalline anisotropy (MCA) of Co/Pd thin films by adopting two different systems of (i) n-Co/3-Pd and (ii) n-Pd/3-Co. In one system, we vary the thickness of Co layer, fixing the thickness of the Pd layer to 3-monolayers, and in the other system vice versa. MCA is mainly governed by the surface and interface Co atoms, while contributions from other Co atoms are smaller. MCA energy (E{sub MCA}) of the Co/Pd thin film shows oscillatory behavior with the thickness of the Co layer, but is insensitive to the thickness of the Pd layer. In particular, the n-Co/3-Pd films of n = 2, 4, and 6 exhibit strong perpendicular MCA of about 1 meV. Our results suggest that controlling the thickness of the Co layer in Co/Pd (111) is crucial in achieving strong perpendicular MCA.

  12. A semi-automated method for the detection of seismic anisotropy at depth via receiver function analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Licciardi, A.; Piana Agostinetti, N.

    2016-06-01

    Information about seismic anisotropy is embedded in the variation of the amplitude of the Ps pulses as a function of the azimuth, on both the Radial and the Transverse components of teleseismic receiver functions (RF). We develop a semi-automatic method to constrain the presence and the depth of anisotropic layers beneath a single seismic broad-band station. An algorithm is specifically designed to avoid trial and error methods and subjective crustal parametrizations in RF inversions, providing a suitable tool for large-size data set analysis. The algorithm couples together information extracted from a 1-D VS profile and from a harmonic decomposition analysis of the RF data set. This information is used to determine the number of anisotropic layers and their approximate position at depth, which, in turn, can be used to, for example, narrow the search boundaries for layer thickness and S-wave velocity in a subsequent parameter space search. Here, the output of the algorithm is used to invert an RF data set by means of the Neighbourhood Algorithm (NA). To test our methodology, we apply the algorithm to both synthetic and observed data. We make use of synthetic RF with correlated Gaussian noise to investigate the resolution power for multiple and thin (1-3 km) anisotropic layers in the crust. The algorithm successfully identifies the number and position of anisotropic layers at depth prior the NA inversion step. In the NA inversion, strength of anisotropy and orientation of the symmetry axis are correctly retrieved. Then, the method is applied to field measurement from station BUDO in the Tibetan Plateau. Two consecutive layers of anisotropy are automatically identified with our method in the first 25-30 km of the crust. The data are then inverted with the retrieved parametrization. The direction of the anisotropic axis in the uppermost layer correlates well with the orientation of the major planar structure in the area. The deeper anisotropic layer is associated with

  13. A single-stage functionalization and exfoliation method for the production of graphene in water: stepwise construction of 2D-nanostructured composites with iron oxide nanoparticles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ihiawakrim, Dris; Ersen, Ovidiu; Melin, Frédéric; Hellwig, Petra; Janowska, Izabela; Begin, Dominique; Baaziz, Walid; Begin-Colin, Sylvie; Pham-Huu, Cuong; Baati, Rachid

    2013-09-01

    A practically simple top-down process for the exfoliation of graphene (GN) and few-layer graphene (FLG) from graphite is described. We have discovered that a biocompatible amphiphilic pyrene-based hexahistidine peptide is able to exfoliate, functionalize, and dissolve few layer graphene flakes in pure water under exceptionally mild, sustainable and virtually innocuous low intensity cavitation conditions. Large area functionalized graphene flakes with the hexahistidine oligopeptide (His6-TagGN = His6@GN) have been produced efficiently at room temperature and characterized by TEM, Raman, and UV spectroscopy. Conductivity experiments carried out on His6-TagGN samples revealed superior electric performances as compared to reduced graphene oxide (rGO) and non-functionalized graphene, demonstrating the non-invasive features of our non-covalent functionalization process. We postulated a rational exfoliation mechanism based on the intercalation of the peptide amphiphile under cavitational chemistry. We also demonstrated the ability of His6-TagGN nanoassemblies to self-assemble spontaneously with inorganic iron oxide nanoparticles generating magnetic two-dimensional (2D) His6-TagGN/Fe3O4 nanocomposites under mild and non-hydrothermal conditions. The set of original experiments described here open novel perspectives in the facile production of water dispersible high quality GN and FLG sheets that will improve and facilitate the interfacing, processing and manipulation of graphene for promising applications in catalysis, nanocomposite construction, integrated nanoelectronic devices and bionanotechnology.A practically simple top-down process for the exfoliation of graphene (GN) and few-layer graphene (FLG) from graphite is described. We have discovered that a biocompatible amphiphilic pyrene-based hexahistidine peptide is able to exfoliate, functionalize, and dissolve few layer graphene flakes in pure water under exceptionally mild, sustainable and virtually innocuous low

  14. Validation for 2D/3D registration II: The comparison of intensity- and gradient-based merit functions using a new gold standard data set

    SciTech Connect

    Gendrin, Christelle; Markelj, Primoz; Pawiro, Supriyanto Ardjo; Spoerk, Jakob; Bloch, Christoph; Weber, Christoph; Figl, Michael; Bergmann, Helmar; Birkfellner, Wolfgang; Likar, Bostjan; Pernus, Franjo

    2011-03-15

    Purpose: A new gold standard data set for validation of 2D/3D registration based on a porcine cadaver head with attached fiducial markers was presented in the first part of this article. The advantage of this new phantom is the large amount of soft tissue, which simulates realistic conditions for registration. This article tests the performance of intensity- and gradient-based algorithms for 2D/3D registration using the new phantom data set. Methods: Intensity-based methods with four merit functions, namely, cross correlation, rank correlation, correlation ratio, and mutual information (MI), and two gradient-based algorithms, the backprojection gradient-based (BGB) registration method and the reconstruction gradient-based (RGB) registration method, were compared. Four volumes consisting of CBCT with two fields of view, 64 slice multidetector CT, and magnetic resonance-T1 weighted images were registered to a pair of kV x-ray images and a pair of MV images. A standardized evaluation methodology was employed. Targets were evenly spread over the volumes and 250 starting positions of the 3D volumes with initial displacements of up to 25 mm from the gold standard position were calculated. After the registration, the displacement from the gold standard was retrieved and the root mean square (RMS), mean, and standard deviation mean target registration errors (mTREs) over 250 registrations were derived. Additionally, the following merit properties were computed: Accuracy, capture range, number of minima, risk of nonconvergence, and distinctiveness of optimum for better comparison of the robustness of each merit. Results: Among the merit functions used for the intensity-based method, MI reached the best accuracy with an RMS mTRE down to 1.30 mm. Furthermore, it was the only merit function that could accurately register the CT to the kV x rays with the presence of tissue deformation. As for the gradient-based methods, BGB and RGB methods achieved subvoxel accuracy (RMS m

  15. Noise-driven diamagnetic susceptibility of impurity doped quantum dots: Role of anisotropy, position-dependent effective mass and position-dependent dielectric screening function

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bera, Aindrila; Saha, Surajit; Ganguly, Jayanta; Ghosh, Manas

    2016-08-01

    We explore Diamagnetic susceptibility (DMS) of impurity doped quantum dot (QD) in presence of Gaussian white noise introduced to the system additively and multiplicatively. In view of this profiles of DMS have been pursued with variations of geometrical anisotropy and dopant location. We have invoked position-dependent effective mass (PDEM) and position-dependent dielectric screening function (PDDSF) of the system. Presence of noise sometimes suppresses and sometimes amplifies DMS from that of noise-free condition and the extent of suppression/amplification depends on mode of application of noise. It is important to mention that the said suppression/amplification exhibits subtle dependence on use of PDEM, PDDSF and geometrical anisotropy. The study reveals that DMS, or more fundamentally, the effective confinement of LDSS, can be tuned by appropriate mingling of geometrical anisotropy/effective mass/dielectric constant of the system with noise and also on the pathway of application of latter.

  16. Polymorphism in CYP2D6 and CYP2C19, members of the cytochrome P450 mixed-function oxidase system, in the metabolism of psychotropic drugs.

    PubMed

    Stingl, J; Viviani, R

    2015-02-01

    Numerous studies in the field of psychopharmacological treatment have investigated the possible contribution of genetic variability between individuals to differences in drug efficacy and safety, motivated by the wide individual variation in treatment response. Genomewide analyses have been conducted in several large-scale studies on antidepressant drug response. However, no consistent findings have emerged from these studies. In a recent meta-analysis of genomewide data from the three studies capturing common variation for association with symptomatic improvement and remission revealed the absence of any strong genetic association and failed to replicate results of individual studies in the pooled data. However, there are good reasons to consider the possible importance of pharmacogenetic variants separately. These variants explain a large portion of the manifold variability in individual drug metabolism. More than 20 psychotropic drugs have now been relabelled by the FDA adding information on polymorphic drug metabolism and therapeutic recommendations. Furthermore, dose recommendations for polymorphisms in drug metabolizing enzymes, first and foremost CYP2D6 and CYP2C19, have been issued with the advice to reduce the dosage in poor metabolizers to 50% or less (in eight cases), or to choose an alternative treatment. Beside the well-described role in hepatic drug metabolism, these enzymes are also expressed in the brain and play a role in biotransformation of endogenous substrates. These polymorphisms may therefore modulate brain metabolism and affect the function of the neural substrates of cognition and emotion.

  17. Cellulose Structural Polymorphism in Plant Primary Cell Walls Investigated by High-Field 2D Solid-State NMR Spectroscopy and Density Functional Theory Calculations.

    PubMed

    Wang, Tuo; Yang, Hui; Kubicki, James D; Hong, Mei

    2016-06-13

    The native cellulose of bacterial, algal, and animal origins has been well studied structurally using X-ray and neutron diffraction and solid-state NMR spectroscopy, and is known to consist of varying proportions of two allomorphs, Iα and Iβ, which differ in hydrogen bonding, chain packing, and local conformation. In comparison, cellulose structure in plant primary cell walls is much less understood because plant cellulose has lower crystallinity and extensive interactions with matrix polysaccharides. Here we have combined two-dimensional magic-angle-spinning (MAS) solid-state nuclear magnetic resonance (solid-state NMR) spectroscopy at high magnetic fields with density functional theory (DFT) calculations to obtain detailed information about the structural polymorphism and spatial distributions of plant primary-wall cellulose. 2D (13)C-(13)C correlation spectra of uniformly (13)C-labeled cell walls of several model plants resolved seven sets of cellulose chemical shifts. Among these, five sets (denoted a-e) belong to cellulose in the interior of the microfibril while two sets (f and g) can be assigned to surface cellulose. Importantly, most of the interior cellulose (13)C chemical shifts differ significantly from the (13)C chemical shifts of the Iα and Iβ allomorphs, indicating that plant primary-wall cellulose has different conformations, packing, and hydrogen bonding from celluloses of other organisms. 2D (13)C-(13)C correlation experiments with long mixing times and with water polarization transfer revealed the spatial distributions and matrix-polysaccharide interactions of these cellulose structures. Celluloses f and g are well mixed chains on the microfibril surface, celluloses a and b are interior chains that are in molecular contact with the surface chains, while cellulose c resides in the core of the microfibril, outside spin diffusion contact with the surface. Interestingly, cellulose d, whose chemical shifts differ most significantly from those of

  18. Cellulose Structural Polymorphism in Plant Primary Cell Walls Investigated by High-Field 2D Solid-State NMR Spectroscopy and Density Functional Theory Calculations

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Tuo; Yang, Hui; Kubicki, James D.; Hong, Mei

    2017-01-01

    The native cellulose of bacterial, algal, and animal origins has been well studied structurally using X-ray and neutron diffraction and solid-state NMR spectroscopy, and is known to consist of varying proportions of two allomorphs, Iα and Iβ, which differ in hydrogen bonding, chain packing, and local conformation. In comparison, cellulose structure in plant primary cell walls is much less understood because plant cellulose has lower crystallinity and extensive interactions with matrix polysaccharides. Here we have combined two-dimensional magic-angle-spinning (MAS) solid-state nuclear magnetic resonance (solid-state NMR) spectroscopy at high magnetic fields with density functional theory (DFT) calculations to obtain detailed information about the structural polymorphism and spatial distributions of plant primary-wall cellulose. 2D 13C-13C correlation spectra of uniformly 13C-labeled cell walls of several model plants resolved seven sets of cellulose chemical shifts. Among these, five sets (denoted a-e) belong to cellulose in the interior of the microfibril while two sets (f and g) can be assigned to surface cellulose. Importantly, most of the interior cellulose 13C chemical shifts differ significantly from the 13C chemical shifts of the Iα and Iβ allomorphs, indicating that plant primary-wall cellulose has different conformations, packing and hydrogen bonding from celluloses of other organisms. 2D 13C-13C correlation experiments with long mixing times and with water polarization transfer revealed the spatial distributions and matrix-polysaccharide interactions of these cellulose structures. Cellulose f and g are well mixed chains on the microfibril surface, cellulose a and b are interior chains that are in molecular contact with the surface chains, while cellulose c resides in the core of the microfibril, outside spin diffusion contact with the surface. Interestingly, cellulose d, whose chemical shifts differ most significantly from those of bacterial, algal

  19. Vertical 2D Heterostructures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lotsch, Bettina V.

    2015-07-01

    Graphene's legacy has become an integral part of today's condensed matter science and has equipped a whole generation of scientists with an armory of concepts and techniques that open up new perspectives for the postgraphene area. In particular, the judicious combination of 2D building blocks into vertical heterostructures has recently been identified as a promising route to rationally engineer complex multilayer systems and artificial solids with intriguing properties. The present review highlights recent developments in the rapidly emerging field of 2D nanoarchitectonics from a materials chemistry perspective, with a focus on the types of heterostructures available, their assembly strategies, and their emerging properties. This overview is intended to bridge the gap between two major—yet largely disjunct—developments in 2D heterostructures, which are firmly rooted in solid-state chemistry or physics. Although the underlying types of heterostructures differ with respect to their dimensions, layer alignment, and interfacial quality, there is common ground, and future synergies between the various assembly strategies are to be expected.

  20. Effects of anisotropy on the two-dimensional inversion procedure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Heise, Wiebke; Pous, Jaume

    2001-12-01

    In this paper we show some of the effects that appear in magnetotelluric measurements over 2-D anisotropic structures, and propose a procedure to recover the anisotropy using 2-D inversion algorithms for isotropic models. First, we see how anisotropy affects the usual interpretation steps: dimensionality analysis and 2-D inversion. Two models containing general 2-D azimuthal anisotropic features were chosen to illustrate this approach: an anisotropic block and an anisotropic layer, both forming part of general 2-D models. In addition, a third model with dipping anisotropy was studied. For each model we examined the influence of various anisotropy strikes and resistivity contrasts on the dimensionality analysis and on the behaviour of the induction arrows. We found that, when the anisotropy ratio is higher than five, even if the strike is frequency-dependent it is possible to decide on a direction close to the direction of anisotropy. Then, if the data are rotated to this angle, a 2-D inversion reproduces the anisotropy reasonably well by means of macro-anisotropy. This strategy was tested on field data where anisotropy had been previously recognized.

  1. Periodically sheared 2D Yukawa systems

    SciTech Connect

    Kovács, Anikó Zsuzsa; Hartmann, Peter; Donkó, Zoltán

    2015-10-15

    We present non-equilibrium molecular dynamics simulation studies on the dynamic (complex) shear viscosity of a 2D Yukawa system. We have identified a non-monotonic frequency dependence of the viscosity at high frequencies and shear rates, an energy absorption maximum (local resonance) at the Einstein frequency of the system at medium shear rates, an enhanced collective wave activity, when the excitation is near the plateau frequency of the longitudinal wave dispersion, and the emergence of significant configurational anisotropy at small frequencies and high shear rates.

  2. Static & Dynamic Response of 2D Solids

    SciTech Connect

    Lin, Jerry

    1996-07-15

    NIKE2D is an implicit finite-element code for analyzing the finite deformation, static and dynamic response of two-dimensional, axisymmetric, plane strain, and plane stress solids. The code is fully vectorized and available on several computing platforms. A number of material models are incorporated to simulate a wide range of material behavior including elasto-placicity, anisotropy, creep, thermal effects, and rate dependence. Slideline algorithms model gaps and sliding along material interfaces, including interface friction, penetration and single surface contact. Interactive-graphics and rezoning is included for analyses with large mesh distortions. In addition to quasi-Newton and arc-length procedures, adaptive algorithms can be defined to solve the implicit equations using the solution language ISLAND. Each of these capabilities and more make NIKE2D a robust analysis tool.

  3. Loqs depends on R2D2 to localize in D2 body-like granules and functions in RNAi pathways in silkworm cells.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Li; Tatsuke, Tsuneyuki; Xu, Jian; Li, Zhiqing; Mon, Hiroaki; Lee, Jae Man; Kusakabe, Takahiro

    2015-09-01

    The phenomenon of RNA interference (RNAi) has been found in various organisms. However, the proteins implicated in RNAi pathway in different species show distinct roles. Knowledge on the underlying mechanism of lepidopteron RNAi is quite lacking such as the roles of Loquacious (Loqs) and R2D2, the dsRNA-binding proteins in silkworm RNAi pathway. Here, we report that Loqs and R2D2 protein depletion affected efficiency of dsRNA-mediated RNAi pathway. Besides, Loqs was found to co-localize with Dicer2 to some specific cytoplasmic foci, which were looked like D2-bodies marked by R2D2 and Dicer2 in Fly cells, thereby calling the foci as D2 body-like granules. Using RNAi methods, Loqs was found to be the key protein in these granules, although R2D2 determined the localization of Loqs in D2 body-like granules. Interestingly, in the R2D2-depeted silkworm cells, the formation of processing bodies, another cytoplasmic foci, was affected. These data indicated R2D2 regulated these two kinds of cytoplasmic foci. Domain deletion analysis demonstrated that dsRBD 1 and 2 were required for Loqs in D2 body-like granules and dsRBD 2 and 3 were required for Loqs to interact with R2D2 and Ago1, respectively. Altogether, our observations provide important information for further study on D2 body-like granules, the newly found cytoplasmic foci in silkworm cells.

  4. Magnetic multilayer interface anisotropy

    SciTech Connect

    Pechan, M.J.

    1990-01-01

    Ni/Mo and Ni/V multilayer magnetic anisotropy has been investigated as a function of Ni layer thickness, frequency and temperature. Variable frequency ferromagnetic resonance (FMR) measurements show, for the first time, significant frequency dependence associated with the multilayer magnetic anisotropy. The thickness dependence allows one to extract the interface contribution from the total anisotropy. Temperature dependent FMR (9 GHz) and room temperature magnetization indicate that strain between Ni and the non-magnetic layers is contributing significantly to the source of the interface anisotropy and the state of the interfacial magnetization. In order to examine the interface properties of other transition metal multilayer systems, investigations on Fe/Cu are underway and CoCr/Ag is being proposed. ESR measurements have been reported on Gd substituted YBaCuO superconductors and a novel quasi-equilibrium method has been developed to determine quickly and precisely the transition temperature. During the next project period the P.I. proposes to (1) extend the variable frequency FMR measurements to low temperature, where extremely large interface anisotropies are known to obtain in Ni/Mo and Ni/V and are proposed to exist in Ni/W; (2) obtain accurate dc anisotropies via a novel, variable temperature torque magnetometer currently under construction; (3) expand upon his initial findings in Fe/Cu multilayer investigations; (4) begin anisotropy investigations on Co/Ag and CoCr/Ag multilayers where the easy magnetization direction depends upon the Cr concentration; (4) make and characterize Bi based superconductors according to resistivity, thermal conductivity and thermoelectric power and construct YBaCuO based superconducting loop-gap'' resonators for use in his magnetic resonance work.

  5. Magnetic multilayer interface anisotropy

    SciTech Connect

    Pechan, M.J.

    1991-01-01

    Ni/Mo and Ni/V multilayer magnetic anisotropy has been investigated as a function of Ni layer thickness, frequency and temperature. Variable frequency ferromagnetic resonance (FMR) measurements show, for the first time, significant frequency dependence associated with the multilayer magnetic anisotropy. The thickness dependence allows one to extract the interface contribution from the total anisotropy. Temperature dependant FMR (9 GHz) and room temperature magnetization indicate that strain between Ni and the non-magnetic layers if contributing significantly to the source of the interface anisotropy and the state of the interfacial magnetization. In order to examine the interface properties of other transition metal multilayer systems, investigations on Fe/Cu are underway and CoCr/Ag is being proposed. ESR measurements have been reported on Gd substituted YBaCuO superconductors and a novel quasi-equilibrium method has been developed to determine quickly and precisely the transition temperature. During the next project the P.I. proposes to (1) extend the variable frequency FMR measurements to low temperature, where extremely large interface anisotropies are known to obtain in Ni/Mo and Ni/V and are proposed to exist in Ni/W; (2) obtain accurate dc anisotropies via a novel, variable temperature torque magnetometer currently under construction; (3) expand upon his initial findings in Fe/Cu multilayer investigations; (4) begin anisotropy investigations on Co/Ag and CoCr/Ag multilayers where the easy magnetization direction depends upon the Cr concentration; (4) make and characterize Bi based superconductors according to resistivity, thermal conductivity and thermoelectric power and construct YBaCuO based superconducting loop-gap'' resonators for use in his magnetic resonance work. 2 figs.

  6. Phase diagram of electronic systems with quadratic Fermi nodes in 2 <d <4 : 2 +ɛ expansion, 4 -ɛ expansion, and functional renormalization group

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Janssen, Lukas; Herbut, Igor F.

    2017-02-01

    Several materials in the regime of strong spin-orbit interaction such as HgTe, the pyrochlore iridate Pr2Ir2O7 , and the half-Heusler compound LaPtBi, as well as various systems related to these three prototype materials, are believed to host a quadratic band touching point at the Fermi level. Recently, it has been proposed that such a three-dimensional gapless state is unstable to a Mott-insulating ground state at low temperatures when the number of band touching points N at the Fermi level is smaller than a certain critical number Nc. We further substantiate and quantify this scenario by various approaches. Using ɛ expansion near two spatial dimensions, we show that Nc=64 /(25 ɛ2) +O (1 /ɛ ) and demonstrate that the instability for N functional renormalization group equations in the dynamical bosonization scheme which we show to agree to one-loop order with the results from ɛ expansion both near two as well as near four dimensions, and which smoothly interpolates between these two perturbatively accessible limits for general 2 <d <4 . Directly in d =3 we therewith find Nc=1.86 , and thus again above the physical N =1 . All these results are consistent with the prediction that the interacting ground state of pure, unstrained HgTe, and possibly also Pr2Ir2O7 , is a strong topological insulator with a dynamically generated gap—a topological Mott insulator.

  7. CYP2D6 function moderates the pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics of 3,4-methylene-dioxymethamphetamine in a controlled study in healthy individuals

    PubMed Central

    Schmid, Yasmin; Vizeli, Patrick; Hysek, Cédric M.; Prestin, Katharina; Meyer zu Schwabedissen, Henriette E.

    2016-01-01

    The role of genetic polymorphisms in cytochrome (CYP) 2D6 involved in the metabolism of 3,4-methylene-dioxymethamphetamine (MDMA, ecstasy) is unclear. Effects of genetic variants in CYP2D6 on the pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamic effects of MDMA were characterized in 139 healthy individuals (70 men, 69 women) in a pooled analysis of eight double-blind, placebo-controlled crossover studies. In CYP2D6 poor metabolizers, the maximum concentrations (Cmax) of MDMA and its active metabolite 3,4-methylene-dioxyamphetamine were +15 and +50% higher, respectively, compared with extensive metabolizers and the Cmax of the inactive metabolite 4-hydroxy-3-methoxymethamphetamine was 50–70% lower. Blood pressure and subjective drug effects increased more rapidly after MDMA administration in poor metabolizers than in extensive metabolizers. In conclusion, the disposition of MDMA and its effects in humans are altered by polymorphic CYP2D6 activity, but the effects are small because of the autoinhibition of CYP2D6. PMID:27253829

  8. Skyrmions in quasi-2D chiral magnets with broken bulk and surface inversion symmetry (Presentation Recording)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Randeria, Mohit; Banerjee, Sumilan; Rowland, James

    2015-09-01

    Most theoretical studies of chiral magnetism, and the resulting spin textures, have focused on 3D systems with broken bulk inversion symmetry, where skyrmions are stabilized by easy-axis anisotropy. In this talk I will describe our results on 2D and quasi-2D systems with broken surface inversion, where we find [1] that skyrmion crystals are much more stable than in 3D, especially for the case of easy-plane anisotropy. These results are of particular interest for thin films, surfaces, and oxide interfaces [2], where broken surface-inversion symmetry and Rashba spin-orbit coupling naturally lead to both the chiral Dzyaloshinskii-Moriya (DM) interaction and to easy-plane compass anisotropy. I will then turn to systems that break both bulk and surface inversion, resulting in two distinct DM terms arising from Dresselhaus and Rashba spin-orbit coupling. I will describe [3] the evolution of the skyrmion structure and of the phase diagram as a function of the ratio of Dresselhaus and Rashba terms, which can be tuned by varying film thickness and strain. [1] S. Banerjee, J. Rowland, O. Erten, and M. Randeria, PRX 4, 031045 (2014). [2] S. Banerjee, O. Erten, and M. Randeria, Nature Phys. 9, 626 (2013). [3] J. Rowland, S. Banerjee and M. Randeria, (unpublished).

  9. Individual differences in regional prefrontal gray matter morphometry and fractional anisotropy are associated with different constructs of executive function

    PubMed Central

    Smolker, H. R.; Reineberg, A. E.; Orr, J. M.; Banich, M. T.

    2015-01-01

    Although the relationship between structural differences within the prefrontal cortex (PFC) and executive function (EF) has been widely explored in cognitively impaired populations, little is known about this relationship in healthy young adults. Using optimized voxel-based morphometry (VBM), surface-based morphometry (SBM), and fractional anisotropy (FA) we determined the association between regional PFC grey matter (GM) morphometry and white matter tract diffusivity with performance on tasks that tap different aspects of EF as drawn from Miyake et al.’s three-factor model of EF. Reductions in both GM volume (VBM) and cortical folding (SBM) in the ventromedial PFC (vmPFC), ventrolateral PFC (vlPFC), and dorsolateral PFC (dlPFC) predicted better common EF, shifting-specific, and updating-specific performance, respectively. Despite capturing different components of GM morphometry, voxel- and surface-based findings were highly related, exhibiting regionally overlapping relationships with EF. Increased white matter FA in fiber tracts that connect the vmPFC and vlPFC with posterior regions of the brain also predicted better common EF and shifting-specific performance, respectively. These results suggest that the neural mechanisms supporting distinct aspects of EF may differentially rely on distinct regions of the PFC, and at least in healthy young adults, are influenced by regional morphometry of the PFC and the FA of major white matter tracts that connect the PFC with posterior cortical and subcortical regions. PMID:24562372

  10. Five-Year Wilkinson Microwave Anisotropy Probe (WMAP)Observations: Beam Maps and Window Functions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hill, R.S.; Weiland, J.L.; Odegard, N.; Wollack, E.; Hinshaw, G.; Larson, D.; Bennett, C.L.; Halpern, M.; Kogut, A.; Page, L.; Dunkley, J.; Gold, B.; Jarosik, N.; Spergel, D.N.; Limon, M.; Nolta, M.R.; Tucker, G.S.; Wright, E.L.

    2008-01-01

    Cosmology and other scientific results from the WMAP mission require an accurate knowledge of the beam patterns in flight. While the degree of beam knowledge for the WMAP one-year and three-year results was unprecedented for a CMB experiment, we have significantly improved the beam determination as part of the five-year data release. Physical optics fits are done on both the A and the B sides for the first time. The cutoff scale of the fitted distortions on the primary mirror is reduced by a factor of approximately 2 from previous analyses. These changes enable an improvement in the hybridization of Jupiter data with beam models, which is optimized with respect to error in the main beam solid angle. An increase in main-beam solid angle of approximately 1% is found for the V2 and W1-W4 differencing assemblies. Although the five-year results are statistically consistent with previous ones, the errors in the five-year beam transfer functions are reduced by a factor of approximately 2 as compared to the three-year analysis. We present radiometry of the planet Jupiter as a test of the beam consistency and as a calibration standard; for an individual differencing assembly. errors in the measured disk temperature are approximately 0.5%.

  11. Assessment of myocardial function in elite athlete’s heart at rest - 2D speckle tracking echocardiography in Korean elite soccer players

    PubMed Central

    Eun, Lucy Youngmin; Chae, Hyun Wook

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate Korean elite soccer players’ myocardial function using the conventional and advanced speckle tracking imaging to compare the difference with the normal controls. We used 2D echocardiography speckle tracking echocardiography (STE) to evaluate LV regional strain in 29 elite soccer players compared to 29 age-matched healthy controls. Conventional, tissue Doppler, and STI echocardiography was performed, for strain at base and apex, rotation and torsion. There is no difference in longitudinal strain (−17.6 ± 1.8 vs −17.3 ± 2.9, p = ns), and basal radial strain. However, the significant increases were noticed in basal circumferential strain (−17.5 ± 2.6 vs −15.5 ± 8.9, p = 0.05), apical radial strain (33.1 ± 20.5 vs 22.5 ± 19.4, p = 0.02), and apical circumferential strain in soccer players (−21.4 ± 4.8 vs −16.8 ± 7.6, p = 0.005). Soccer players showed the higher rotation at base (−3.9 ± 1.9 vs −2.6 ± 3.2, p = 0.03), and apex (6.98 ± 2.62 vs 6.21 ± 3.81, p = 0.05), higher torsion (10.9 ± 3.7 vs 8.8 ± 6.3, p = 0.05). In conclusion, the elite soccer players’ heart demonstrated the unique ventricular adaptation. These alterations could benefit the cardiovascular adjustment to exercise without much loss of myocardial energy expenditure. PMID:28004817

  12. Chemical Approaches to 2D Materials.

    PubMed

    Samorì, Paolo; Palermo, Vincenzo; Feng, Xinliang

    2016-08-01

    Chemistry plays an ever-increasing role in the production, functionalization, processing and applications of graphene and other 2D materials. This special issue highlights a selection of enlightening chemical approaches to 2D materials, which nicely reflect the breadth of the field and convey the excitement of the individuals involved in it, who are trying to translate graphene and related materials from the laboratory into a real, high-impact technology.

  13. Giant and Tunable Anisotropy of Nanoscale Friction in Graphene

    PubMed Central

    Almeida, Clara M.; Prioli, Rodrigo; Fragneaud, Benjamin; Cançado, Luiz Gustavo; Paupitz, Ricardo; Galvão, Douglas S.; De Cicco, Marcelo; Menezes, Marcos G.; Achete, Carlos A.; Capaz, Rodrigo B.

    2016-01-01

    The nanoscale friction between an atomic force microscopy tip and graphene is investigated using friction force microscopy (FFM). During the tip movement, friction forces are observed to increase and then saturate in a highly anisotropic manner. As a result, the friction forces in graphene are highly dependent on the scanning direction: under some conditions, the energy dissipated along the armchair direction can be 80% higher than along the zigzag direction. In comparison, for highly-oriented pyrolitic graphite (HOPG), the friction anisotropy between armchair and zigzag directions is only 15%. This giant friction anisotropy in graphene results from anisotropies in the amplitudes of flexural deformations of the graphene sheet driven by the tip movement, not present in HOPG. The effect can be seen as a novel manifestation of the classical phenomenon of Euler buckling at the nanoscale, which provides the non-linear ingredients that amplify friction anisotropy. Simulations based on a novel version of the 2D Tomlinson model (modified to include the effects of flexural deformations), as well as fully atomistic molecular dynamics simulations and first-principles density-functional theory (DFT) calculations, are able to reproduce and explain the experimental observations. PMID:27534691

  14. Giant and Tunable Anisotropy of Nanoscale Friction in Graphene.

    PubMed

    Almeida, Clara M; Prioli, Rodrigo; Fragneaud, Benjamin; Cançado, Luiz Gustavo; Paupitz, Ricardo; Galvão, Douglas S; De Cicco, Marcelo; Menezes, Marcos G; Achete, Carlos A; Capaz, Rodrigo B

    2016-08-18

    The nanoscale friction between an atomic force microscopy tip and graphene is investigated using friction force microscopy (FFM). During the tip movement, friction forces are observed to increase and then saturate in a highly anisotropic manner. As a result, the friction forces in graphene are highly dependent on the scanning direction: under some conditions, the energy dissipated along the armchair direction can be 80% higher than along the zigzag direction. In comparison, for highly-oriented pyrolitic graphite (HOPG), the friction anisotropy between armchair and zigzag directions is only 15%. This giant friction anisotropy in graphene results from anisotropies in the amplitudes of flexural deformations of the graphene sheet driven by the tip movement, not present in HOPG. The effect can be seen as a novel manifestation of the classical phenomenon of Euler buckling at the nanoscale, which provides the non-linear ingredients that amplify friction anisotropy. Simulations based on a novel version of the 2D Tomlinson model (modified to include the effects of flexural deformations), as well as fully atomistic molecular dynamics simulations and first-principles density-functional theory (DFT) calculations, are able to reproduce and explain the experimental observations.

  15. NIKE2D96. Static & Dynamic Response of 2D Solids

    SciTech Connect

    Raboin, P.; Engelmann, B.; Halquist, J.O.

    1992-01-24

    NIKE2D is an implicit finite-element code for analyzing the finite deformation, static and dynamic response of two-dimensional, axisymmetric, plane strain, and plane stress solids. The code is fully vectorized and available on several computing platforms. A number of material models are incorporated to simulate a wide range of material behavior including elasto-placicity, anisotropy, creep, thermal effects, and rate dependence. Slideline algorithms model gaps and sliding along material interfaces, including interface friction, penetration and single surface contact. Interactive-graphics and rezoning is included for analyses with large mesh distortions. In addition to quasi-Newton and arc-length procedures, adaptive algorithms can be defined to solve the implicit equations using the solution language ISLAND. Each of these capabilities and more make NIKE2D a robust analysis tool.

  16. Impact of Cytochrome P450 2D6 Function on the Chiral Blood Plasma Pharmacokinetics of 3,4-Methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA) and Its Phase I and II Metabolites in Humans.

    PubMed

    Steuer, Andrea E; Schmidhauser, Corina; Tingelhoff, Eva H; Schmid, Yasmin; Rickli, Anna; Kraemer, Thomas; Liechti, Matthias E

    2016-01-01

    3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA; ecstasy) metabolism is known to be stereoselective, with preference for S-stereoisomers. Its major metabolic step involves CYP2D6-catalyzed demethylenation to 3,4-dihydroxymethamphetamine (DHMA), followed by methylation and conjugation. Alterations in CYP2D6 genotype and/or phenotype have been associated with higher toxicity. Therefore, the impact of CYP2D6 function on the plasma pharmacokinetics of MDMA and its phase I and II metabolites was tested by comparing extensive metabolizers (EMs), intermediate metabolizers (IMs), and EMs that were pretreated with bupropion as a metabolic inhibitor in a controlled MDMA administration study. Blood plasma samples were collected from 16 healthy participants (13 EMs and three IMs) up to 24 h after MDMA administration in a double-blind, placebo-controlled, four-period, cross-over design, with subjects receiving 1 week placebo or bupropion pretreatment followed by a single placebo or MDMA (125 mg) dose. Bupropion pretreatment increased the maximum plasma concentration (Cmax) and area under the plasma concentration-time curve from 0 to 24 h (AUC24) of R-MDMA (9% and 25%, respectively) and S-MDMA (16% and 38%, respectively). Bupropion reduced the Cmax and AUC24 of the CYP2D6-dependently formed metabolite stereoisomers of DHMA 3-sulfate, DHMA 4-sulfate, and 4-hydroxy-3-methoxymethamphetamine (HMMA sulfate and HMMA glucuronide) by approximately 40%. The changes that were observed in IMs were generally comparable to bupropion-pretreated EMs. Although changes in stereoselectivity based on CYP2D6 activity were observed, these likely have low clinical relevance. Bupropion and hydroxybupropion stereoisomer pharmacokinetics were unaltered by MDMA co-administration. The present data might aid further interpretations of toxicity based on CYP2D6-dependent MDMA metabolism.

  17. Impact of Cytochrome P450 2D6 Function on the Chiral Blood Plasma Pharmacokinetics of 3,4-Methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA) and Its Phase I and II Metabolites in Humans

    PubMed Central

    Steuer, Andrea E.; Schmidhauser, Corina; Tingelhoff, Eva H.; Schmid, Yasmin; Rickli, Anna; Kraemer, Thomas; Liechti, Matthias E.

    2016-01-01

    3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA; ecstasy) metabolism is known to be stereoselective, with preference for S-stereoisomers. Its major metabolic step involves CYP2D6-catalyzed demethylenation to 3,4-dihydroxymethamphetamine (DHMA), followed by methylation and conjugation. Alterations in CYP2D6 genotype and/or phenotype have been associated with higher toxicity. Therefore, the impact of CYP2D6 function on the plasma pharmacokinetics of MDMA and its phase I and II metabolites was tested by comparing extensive metabolizers (EMs), intermediate metabolizers (IMs), and EMs that were pretreated with bupropion as a metabolic inhibitor in a controlled MDMA administration study. Blood plasma samples were collected from 16 healthy participants (13 EMs and three IMs) up to 24 h after MDMA administration in a double-blind, placebo-controlled, four-period, cross-over design, with subjects receiving 1 week placebo or bupropion pretreatment followed by a single placebo or MDMA (125 mg) dose. Bupropion pretreatment increased the maximum plasma concentration (Cmax) and area under the plasma concentration-time curve from 0 to 24 h (AUC24) of R-MDMA (9% and 25%, respectively) and S-MDMA (16% and 38%, respectively). Bupropion reduced the Cmax and AUC24 of the CYP2D6-dependently formed metabolite stereoisomers of DHMA 3-sulfate, DHMA 4-sulfate, and 4-hydroxy-3-methoxymethamphetamine (HMMA sulfate and HMMA glucuronide) by approximately 40%. The changes that were observed in IMs were generally comparable to bupropion-pretreated EMs. Although changes in stereoselectivity based on CYP2D6 activity were observed, these likely have low clinical relevance. Bupropion and hydroxybupropion stereoisomer pharmacokinetics were unaltered by MDMA co-administration. The present data might aid further interpretations of toxicity based on CYP2D6-dependent MDMA metabolism. PMID:26967321

  18. Transformation from a 2D stacked layer to 3D interpenetrated framework by changing the spacer functionality: synthesis, structure, adsorption, and magnetic properties.

    PubMed

    Maji, Tapas Kumar; Ohba, Masaaki; Kitagawa, Susumu

    2005-12-12

    Two novel coordination polymers of Cu(II), viz. [Cu(bipy)(1,4-napdc)(H2O)2]n and {[Cu(bpe)1.5(1,4-napdc)](H2O)}n (bipy=4,4'-bipyridine; bpe=1,2-bis(4-pyridyl)ethane; 1,4-napdc2-=1,4-naphthalenedicarboxylate), have been synthesized and structurally characterized by changing only the pillar motifs. Both the compounds crystallize by slow evaporation from the ammoniacal solution of the as-synthesized solid. Framework 1 crystallizes in monoclinic crystal system, space group P2/n (No. 13), with a=11.028(19) A, b=11.16(3) A, c=7.678(13) A, beta=103.30(5) degrees, and Z=2. Framework 2 crystallizes in triclinic system, space group, P (No. 2), a=10.613(4) A, b=10.828(10) A, c=13.333(9) A, alpha=85.25(9) degrees, beta=82.59(6) degrees, gamma=60.37(5) degrees, and Z=2. The structure determination reveals that has a 2D network based on rectangular grids, where each Cu(II) is in 4+2 coordination mode. The 2D networks stacked in a staggered manner through the pi-pi interaction to form a 3D supramolecular network. In the case of, a {Cu(bpe)1.5}n ladder connected by 1,4-napdc2- results a 2D cuboidal bilayer network and each bilayer network is interlocked by two adjacent identical network (upper and lower) forming 3-fold interpenetrated 3D framework with small channel along the c-axis, which accommodates two water molecules. The TGA and XRPD measurements reveal that both the frameworks are stable after dehydration. Adsorption measurements (N2, CO2, and different solvents, like H2O, MeOH, etc.) were carried out for both frameworks. Framework shows type-II sorption profile with N2 in contrast to H2O and MeOH, which are chemisorbed in the framework. In case of, only H2O molecules can diffuse into the micropore, whereas N2, CO2, and MeOH cannot be adsorbed, as corroborated by the smaller channel aperture. The low-temperature (300-2 K) magnetic measurement of and reveals that both are weakly antiferromagnetically coupled (J=-1.85 cm-1, g=2.02; J=-0.153 cm-1, g=2.07), which is correlated

  19. Novel drug metabolism indices for pharmacogenetic functional status based on combinatory genotyping of CYP2C9, CYP2C19 and CYP2D6 genes

    PubMed Central

    Villagra, David; Goethe, John; Schwartz, Harold I; Szarek, Bonnie; Kocherla, Mohan; Gorowski, Krystyna; Windemuth, Andreas; Ruaño, Gualberto

    2011-01-01

    Aims We aim to demonstrate clinical relevance and utility of four novel drug-metabolism indices derived from a combinatory (multigene) approach to CYP2C9, CYP2C19 and CYP2D6 allele scoring. Each index considers all three genes as complementary components of a liver enzyme drug metabolism system and uniquely benchmarks innate hepatic drug metabolism reserve or alteration through CYP450 combinatory genotype scores. Methods A total of 1199 psychiatric referrals were genotyped for polymorphisms in the CYP2C9, CYP2C19 and CYP2D6 gene loci and were scored on each of the four indices. The data were used to create distributions and rankings of innate drug metabolism capacity to which individuals can be compared. Drug-specific indices are a combination of the drug metabolism indices with substrate-specific coefficients. Results The combinatory drug metabolism indices proved useful in positioning individuals relative to a population with regard to innate drug metabolism capacity prior to pharmacotherapy. Drug-specific indices generate pharmacogenetic guidance of immediate clinical relevance, and can be further modified to incorporate covariates in particular clinical cases. Conclusions We believe that this combinatory approach represents an improvement over the current gene-by-gene reporting by providing greater scope while still allowing for the resolution of a single-gene index when needed. This method will result in novel clinical and research applications, facilitating the translation from pharmacogenomics to personalized medicine, particularly in psychiatry where many drugs are metabolized or activated by multiple CYP450 isoenzymes. PMID:21861665

  20. Prediction of {sup 2}D Rydberg energy levels of {sup 6}Li and {sup 7}Li based on very accurate quantum mechanical calculations performed with explicitly correlated Gaussian functions

    SciTech Connect

    Bubin, Sergiy; Sharkey, Keeper L.; Adamowicz, Ludwik

    2013-04-28

    Very accurate variational nonrelativistic finite-nuclear-mass calculations employing all-electron explicitly correlated Gaussian basis functions are carried out for six Rydberg {sup 2}D states (1s{sup 2}nd, n= 6, Horizontal-Ellipsis , 11) of the {sup 7}Li and {sup 6}Li isotopes. The exponential parameters of the Gaussian functions are optimized using the variational method with the aid of the analytical energy gradient determined with respect to these parameters. The experimental results for the lower states (n= 3, Horizontal-Ellipsis , 6) and the calculated results for the higher states (n= 7, Horizontal-Ellipsis , 11) fitted with quantum-defect-like formulas are used to predict the energies of {sup 2}D 1s{sup 2}nd states for {sup 7}Li and {sup 6}Li with n up to 30.

  1. Phonon thermal conduction in novel 2D materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Xiangfan; Chen, Jie; Li, Baowen

    2016-12-01

    Recently, there has been increasing interest in phonon thermal transport in low-dimensional materials, due to the crucial importance of dissipating and managing heat in micro- and nano-electronic devices. Significant progress has been achieved for one-dimensional (1D) systems, both theoretically and experimentally. However, the study of heat conduction in two-dimensional (2D) systems is still in its infancy due to the limited availability of 2D materials and the technical challenges of fabricating suspended samples that are suitable for thermal measurements. In this review, we outline different experimental techniques and theoretical approaches for phonon thermal transport in 2D materials, discuss the problems and challenges of phonon thermal transport measurements and provide a comparison between existing experimental data. Special attention will be given to the effects of size, dimensionality, anisotropy and mode contributions in novel 2D systems, including graphene, boron nitride, MoS2, black phosphorous and silicene.

  2. Phonon thermal conduction in novel 2D materials.

    PubMed

    Xu, Xiangfan; Chen, Jie; Li, Baowen

    2016-12-07

    Recently, there has been increasing interest in phonon thermal transport in low-dimensional materials, due to the crucial importance of dissipating and managing heat in micro- and nano-electronic devices. Significant progress has been achieved for one-dimensional (1D) systems, both theoretically and experimentally. However, the study of heat conduction in two-dimensional (2D) systems is still in its infancy due to the limited availability of 2D materials and the technical challenges of fabricating suspended samples that are suitable for thermal measurements. In this review, we outline different experimental techniques and theoretical approaches for phonon thermal transport in 2D materials, discuss the problems and challenges of phonon thermal transport measurements and provide a comparison between existing experimental data. Special attention will be given to the effects of size, dimensionality, anisotropy and mode contributions in novel 2D systems, including graphene, boron nitride, MoS2, black phosphorous and silicene.

  3. E-2D Advanced Hawkeye Aircraft (E-2D AHE)

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-12-01

    Selected Acquisition Report (SAR) RCS: DD-A&T(Q&A)823-364 E-2D Advanced Hawkeye Aircraft (E-2D AHE) As of FY 2017 President’s Budget Defense...Office Estimate RDT&E - Research, Development, Test, and Evaluation SAR - Selected Acquisition Report SCP - Service Cost Position TBD - To Be Determined

  4. A computer-controlled near-field electrospinning setup and its graphic user interface for precision patterning of functional nanofibers on 2D and 3D substrates.

    PubMed

    Bisht, Gobind; Nesterenko, Sergiy; Kulinsky, Lawrence; Madou, Marc

    2012-08-01

    Electrospinning is a versatile technique for production of nanofibers. However, it lacks the precision and control necessary for fabrication of nanofiber-based devices. The positional control of the nanofiber placement can be dramatically improved using low-voltage near-field electrospinning (LV-NFES). LV-NFES allows nanofibers to be patterned on 2D and 3D substrates. However, use of NFES requires low working distance between the electrospinning nozzle and substrate, manual jet initiation, and precise substrate movement to control fiber deposition. Environmental factors such as humidity also need to be controlled. We developed a computer-controlled automation strategy for LV-NFES to improve performance and reliability. With this setup, the user is able to control the relevant sensor and actuator parameters through a custom graphic user interface application programmed on the C#.NET platform. The stage movement can be programmed as to achieve any desired nanofiber pattern and thickness. The nanofiber generation step is initiated through a software-controlled linear actuator. Parameter setting files can be saved into an Excel sheet and can be used subsequently in running multiple experiments. Each experiment is automatically video recorded and stamped with the pertinent real-time parameters. Humidity is controlled with ±3% accuracy through a feedback loop. Further improvements, such as real-time droplet size control for feed rate regulation are in progress.

  5. Skyrmions in quasi-2D chiral magnets with broken bulk and surface inversion symmetry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rowland, James; Banerjee, Sumilan; Randeria, Mohit

    2015-03-01

    Most theoretical studies of skyrmions have focused on chiral magnets with broken bulk inversion symmetry, stabilized by easy-axis anisotropy. Recently, we considered 2D systems with broken surface inversion and showed that skyrmion crystals are more stable than in 3D, pointing out the importance of easy-plane anisotropy. In the present work we investigate quasi-2D systems which break both bulk and surface inversion symmetry. The Landau-Ginzburg free energy functional thus contains two Dzyloshinskii-Moriya terms of strength DD and DR arising from Dresselhaus and Rashba spin-orbit coupling respectively. We trace the evolution of the phase diagram as DD /DR is varied, and find that skyrmions are increasingly destabilized with respect to the cone phase as DD increases relative to DR. We find an evolution from vortex-like skyrmions in the pure Dresselhaus limit to hedgehog-like skyrmions in the pure Rashba limit. We discuss the relevance of these results to existing experiments and the prospects of tuning the ratio of Dresselhaus and Rashba spin-orbit coupling via film thickness and strain. Supported by NSF DMR-1410364 (J.R. and M.R.) and DOE-BES DE-SC0005035 (S.B.)

  6. Strong perpendicular magnetocrystalline anisotropy of bulk and the (001) surface of DO22Mn3Ga: a density functional study.

    PubMed

    Yun, Won Seok; Cha, Gi-Beom; Kim, In Gee; Rhim, S H; Hong, Soon Cheol

    2012-10-17

    Strong perpendicular magnetocrystalline anisotropy (MCA) and low saturation magnetization are found in DO22Mn(3)Ga using the full-potential linearized augmented plane wave (FLAPW) method. The ferrimagnetism in the bulk is well preserved in the surfaces of Mn(3)Ga for two possible terminations, where the perpendicular MCA in the (001) direction is greatly enhanced over the bulk, consistent with experiments. Furthermore, the robustness of MCA with respect to lattice strain and a good lattice match with popular substrates suggest that Mn(3)Ga can be a good candidate for strain-resistance spintronics applications.

  7. Resolution of anisotropic and shielded highly conductive layers using 2-D electromagnetic modelling in the Rhine Graben and Black Forest

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tezkan, Bülent; Červ, Václav; Pek, Josef

    1992-12-01

    Anisotropy in magnetotelluric (MT) data has been found very often and has been explained as the result of local structures of different conductivities. In this paper, an observed anisotropy in MT data is not interpreted qualitatively in terms of local structures but is modelled quantitatively by a quasi-anisotropic layer. Besides the MT transfer functions, measurements of the vertical magnetic component are required. The second goal of this paper is to describe a method which permits the resolution of mid-crustal conductive layers in the presence of an additional high-conductivity layer at the surface. This method is possible in a two-dimensional (2-D) situation that limits the spatial extension of the surface structure. Again, vertical magnetic field recordings are necessary, but the phase of the E-polarization with respect to the 2-D structure is the most sensitive parameter. Using two field sites in Southern Germany, it has been possible to give a quantitative explanation of anisotropy and an improved depth resolution, and to derive an integrated conductivity of the highly conductive mid-crustal layers using MT and geomagnetic depth sounding data. The anisotropic highly conductive layer is located 12 km beneath the poorly conductive Black Forest crystalline rocks, whereas it is at a depth of 6 km beneath the highly conductive Rhine Graben sediments.

  8. Assembly of 1D nanofibers into a 2D bi-layered composite nanofibrous film with different functionalities at the two layers via layer-by-layer electrospinning.

    PubMed

    Wang, Zijiao; Ma, Qianli; Dong, Xiangting; Li, Dan; Xi, Xue; Yu, Wensheng; Wang, Jinxian; Liu, Guixia

    2016-12-21

    A two-dimensional (2D) bi-layered composite nanofibrous film assembled by one-dimensional (1D) nanofibers with trifunctionality of electrical conduction, magnetism and photoluminescence has been successfully fabricated by layer-by-layer electrospinning. The composite film consists of a polyaniline (PANI)/Fe3O4 nanoparticle (NP)/polyacrylonitrile (PAN) tuned electrical-magnetic bifunctional layer on one side and a Tb(TTA)3(TPPO)2/polyvinylpyrrolidone (PVP) photoluminescent layer on the other side, and the two layers are tightly combined face-to-face together into the novel bi-layered composite film of trifunctionality. The brand-new film has totally different characteristics at the double layers. The electrical conductivity and magnetism of the electrical-magnetic bifunctional layer can be, respectively, tunable via modulating the PANI and Fe3O4 NP contents, and the highest electrical conductivity can reach up to the order of 10(-2) S cm(-1), and predominant intense green emission at 545 nm is obviously observed in the photoluminescent layer under the excitation of 357 nm single-wavelength ultraviolet light. More importantly, the luminescence intensity of the photoluminescent layer remains almost unaffected by the electrical-magnetic bifunctional layer because the photoluminescent materials have been successfully isolated from dark-colored PANI and Fe3O4 NPs. By comparing with the counterpart single-layered composite nanofibrous film, it is found that the bi-layered composite nanofibrous film has better performance. The novel bi-layered composite nanofibrous film with trifunctionality has potential in the fields of nanodevices, molecular electronics and biomedicine. Furthermore, the design conception and fabrication technique for the bi-layered multifunctional film provide a new and facile strategy towards other films of multifunctionality.

  9. Magnetism and magnetocrystalline anisotropy of 3dtransition metal monolayers on Pt(001): a density-functional study.

    PubMed

    Taivansaikhan, P; Odkhuu, D; Kwon, O R; Tsogbadrakh, N; Hong, S C

    2014-12-01

    We systematically investigate the effects of having Pt as a substrate and/or capping layer on the magnetism and magnetocrystalline anisotropy (MCA) of 3d transition metal (TMs; Cr, Mn, Fe, and Co) monolayers (MLs) by using a first-principles calculationl method. We found that Fe and Co MLs are ferromagnetic (FM) on a Pt(001) surface, but Mn and Cr MLs are antiferromagnetic (AFM). The magnetic moments are quite robust with additional Pt-capping. Furthermore, Pt-capping enhances the small perpendicular MCA (meV) of Fe/Pt(001) significantly to 4.44 meV. Our electronic structure analyses indicate that strong hybridization between Pt-5d and TM-3d orbitals plays a crucial role in determining magnetic ordering and MCA. For comparison we also calculated magnetism and MCA of 3d TM MLs on Ta(001) with and without Ta-capping.

  10. A new method to record and control for 2D-movement kinematics during functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI).

    PubMed

    Hauptmann, Bjoern; Sosnik, Ronen; Smikt, Oded; Okon, Eli; Manor, David; Kushnir, Tammar; Flash, Tamar; Karni, Avi

    2009-03-01

    The recording of movement kinematics during functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) experiments is complicated due to technical constraints of the imaging environment. Nevertheless, to study the functions of brain areas related to motor control, reliable and accurate records of movement trajectories and speed profiles are needed. We present a method designed to record and characterize the kinematic properties of drawing- and handwriting-like forearm movements during fMRI studies by recording pen stroke trajectories. The recording system consists of a translucent plastic board, a plastic pen containing fiber optics and a halogen light power source, a CCD camera, a video monitor and a PC with a video grabber card. Control experiments using a commercially available digitizer tablet have demonstrated the reliability of the data recorded during fMRI. Since the movement tracking signal is purely optical, there is no interaction with the MR (echoplanar) images. Thus, the method allows to obtain movement records with high spatial and temporal resolution which are suitable for the kinematic analysis of hand movements in fMRI studies.

  11. Optoelectronics with 2D semiconductors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mueller, Thomas

    2015-03-01

    Two-dimensional (2D) atomic crystals, such as graphene and layered transition-metal dichalcogenides, are currently receiving a lot of attention for applications in electronics and optoelectronics. In this talk, I will review our research activities on electrically driven light emission, photovoltaic energy conversion and photodetection in 2D semiconductors. In particular, WSe2 monolayer p-n junctions formed by electrostatic doping using a pair of split gate electrodes, type-II heterojunctions based on MoS2/WSe2 and MoS2/phosphorene van der Waals stacks, 2D multi-junction solar cells, and 3D/2D semiconductor interfaces will be presented. Upon optical illumination, conversion of light into electrical energy occurs in these devices. If an electrical current is driven, efficient electroluminescence is obtained. I will present measurements of the electrical characteristics, the optical properties, and the gate voltage dependence of the device response. In the second part of my talk, I will discuss photoconductivity studies of MoS2 field-effect transistors. We identify photovoltaic and photoconductive effects, which both show strong photoconductive gain. A model will be presented that reproduces our experimental findings, such as the dependence on optical power and gate voltage. We envision that the efficient photon conversion and light emission, combined with the advantages of 2D semiconductors, such as flexibility, high mechanical stability and low costs of production, could lead to new optoelectronic technologies.

  12. Nanoscale Graphene Disk: A Natural Functionally Graded Material–How is Fourier’s Law Violated along Radius Direction of 2D Disk

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Nuo; Hu, Shiqian; Ma, Dengke; Lu, Tingyu; Li, Baowen

    2015-01-01

    In this Paper, we investigate numerically and analytically the thermal conductivity of nanoscale graphene disks (NGDs), and discussed the possibility to realize functionally graded material (FGM) with only one material, NGDs. Different from previous studies on divergence/non-diffusive of thermal conductivity in nano-structures with different size, we found a novel non-homogeneous (graded) thermal conductivity along the radius direction in a single nano-disk structure. We found that, instead of a constant value, the NGD has a graded thermal conductivity along the radius direction. That is, Fourier’s law of heat conduction is not valid in two dimensional graphene disk structures Moreover, we show the dependent of NGDs’ thermal conductivity on radius and temperature. Our study might inspire experimentalists to develop NGD based versatile FGMs, improve understanding of the heat removal of hot spots on chips, and enhance thermoelectric energy conversion efficiency by two dimensional disk with a graded thermal conductivity. PMID:26443206

  13. Density functional theory calculations of magnetocrystalline anisotropy energies for (Fe1-xCox)2B

    SciTech Connect

    Daene, Markus; Kim, Soo Kyung; Surh, Michael P.; Aberg, Daniel; Benedict, Lorin X.

    2015-06-15

    We present and discuss density functional theory calculations of magnetic properties of the family of ferromagnetic compounds, (Fe1-xCox)2B, focusing specifically on the magnetocrystalline anisotropy energy (MAE). Using periodic supercells of various sizes (up to 96 atoms), it is shown that the general qualitative features of the composition dependence of the MAE is in agreement with experimental findings, while our predicted magnitudes are larger than those of experiment. We find that the use of small supercells (6 and 12-atom) favors larger MAE values relative to a statistical sample of configurations constructed with 96-atom supercells. As a result, the effect of lattice relaxations is shown to be small. Calculations of the Curie temperature for this alloy are also presented.

  14. A temperature dependent 2D-ACAR study of untwinned metallic YBa{sub 2}Cu{sub 3}O{sub 7{minus}x}

    SciTech Connect

    Smedskjaer, L.C.; Welp, U.; Fang, Y.; Bailey, K.G.; Bansil, A.

    1992-02-01

    The authors have carried out 2D-ACAR measurements in the c-axis projection on an untwinned single crystal of YBa{sub 2}Cu{sub 3}O{sub 7{minus}x} as a function of temperature, for five temperatures ranging from 30K to 300K. These temperature dependent 2D-ACAR spectra can be approximated by a superposition of two temperature independent spectra with temperature dependent weighting factors. The authors discuss how the temperature dependence of the data can be exploited to obtain a {open_quote}background corrected{close_quote} experimental spectrum, which is found to be in remarkable accord with the corresponding band theory based predictions, including for the first time the overall amplitude of the anisotropy in the 2D-ACAR. The corrected data also show clear signatures of the ridge Fermi surface and an indication of the pillbox surface.

  15. Highly crystalline 2D superconductors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saito, Yu; Nojima, Tsutomu; Iwasa, Yoshihiro

    2016-12-01

    Recent advances in materials fabrication have enabled the manufacturing of ordered 2D electron systems, such as heterogeneous interfaces, atomic layers grown by molecular beam epitaxy, exfoliated thin flakes and field-effect devices. These 2D electron systems are highly crystalline, and some of them, despite their single-layer thickness, exhibit a sheet resistance more than an order of magnitude lower than that of conventional amorphous or granular thin films. In this Review, we explore recent developments in the field of highly crystalline 2D superconductors and highlight the unprecedented physical properties of these systems. In particular, we explore the quantum metallic state (or possible metallic ground state), the quantum Griffiths phase observed in out-of-plane magnetic fields and the superconducting state maintained in anomalously large in-plane magnetic fields. These phenomena are examined in the context of weakened disorder and/or broken spatial inversion symmetry. We conclude with a discussion of how these unconventional properties make highly crystalline 2D systems promising platforms for the exploration of new quantum physics and high-temperature superconductors.

  16. Extensions of 2D gravity

    SciTech Connect

    Sevrin, A.

    1993-06-01

    After reviewing some aspects of gravity in two dimensions, I show that non-trivial embeddings of sl(2) in a semi-simple (super) Lie algebra give rise to a very large class of extensions of 2D gravity. The induced action is constructed as a gauged WZW model and an exact expression for the effective action is given.

  17. Effect of Evolutionary Anisotropy on Earing Prediction in Cylindrical Cup Drawing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Choi, H. J.; Lee, K. J.; Choi, Y.; Bae, G.; Ahn, D.-C.; Lee, M.-G.

    2017-01-01

    The formability of sheet metals is associated with their planar anisotropy, and finite element simulations have been applied to the sheet metal-forming process by describing the anisotropic behaviors using yield functions and hardening models. In this study, the evaluation of anisotropic constitutive models was performed based on the non-uniform height profile or earing in circular cylindrical cup drawing. Two yield functions, a quadratic Hill1948 and a non-quadratic Yld2000-2d model, were used under non-associated and associated flow rules, respectively, to simultaneously capture directional differences in yield stress and r value. The effect of the evolution of anisotropy on the earing prediction was also investigated by employing simplified equivalent plastic strain rate-dependent anisotropic coefficients. The computational results were in good agreement with experiments when the proper choice of the yield function and flow rule, which predicts the planar anisotropy, was made. Moreover, the accuracy of the earing profile could be significantly enhanced if the evolution of anisotropy between uniaxial and biaxial stress states was additionally considered.

  18. Inter-ethnic differences in genetic polymorphisms of xenobiotic-metabolizing enzymes (CYP1A1, CYP2D6, NAT1 and NAT2) in healthy populations: correlation with the functional in silico prediction.

    PubMed

    Khlifi, Rim; Ben Salah, Ghada; Chakroun, Amine; Hamza-Chaffai, Amel; Rebai, Ahmed

    2014-09-01

    Several studies have shown that many polymorphisms of the xenobiotic-metabolizing enzymes (XME) affect either enzymatic functions or are associated with various aspects of human health. Owing to the presence of these single nucleotide variants (SNVs), differences in detoxification capacity have been observed between many ethnicities. The aim of this investigation was to study the prevalence of four polymorphisms in XME among various ethnic groups. Attention was focused on polymorphisms of CYP2D6 (rs1058172, G>A, p.Arg365His), CYP1A1 (rs4646421, c.-26-728C>T), NAT1 (rs4921880, c.-85-1014T>A) and NAT2 (rs1208, A>G, p.Arg268Lys). These polymorphisms were analyzed in 261 healthy Tunisians individuals in comparison with different ethnic backgrounds from hapmap database. In addition, in silico functional prediction was also performed to determine the loss of function variants. Our results demonstrated that population's origins widely affect the genetic variability of XME enzymes and Tunisians show a characteristic pattern. In silico predictions showed a deleterious effect for p.Arg268Lys substitution on CYP2D6 function, findings confirmed its key role played in cancer susceptibility. These data show that detoxification genes structures depend on the studied population. This suggests that ethnic differences impact on disease risk or response to drugs and therefore should be taken into consideration in genetic association studies focusing on XME enzymes. Our results provide the first report on these SNV in Tunisian population and could be useful for further epidemiological investigations including targeted therapy.

  19. Step-induced magnetic anisotropy in Co/stepped Cu(001) as a function of step density and Cu step decoration

    SciTech Connect

    Kawakami, R.K.; Bowen, M.O.; Choi, H.J.; Escorcia-Aparicio, E.J.; Qiu, Z.Q.

    1999-04-01

    The step-induced in-plane uniaxial magnetic anisotropy of fcc Co/stepped Cu(001) was investigated using a curved substrate to provide a continuous range of vicinal angles from 0{degree} to 6{degree}. The anisotropy strength was found to depend linearly on the step density, indicating that the biaxial strain does not make a significant contribution to the step-induced anisotropy. Using a side growth geometry to decorate the Co step edges with Cu adsorbates, we observed that the step-induced anisotropy strength approaches zero at roughly 0.7 atomic rows of Cu, independent of step density. {copyright} {ital 1999 American Institute of Physics.}

  20. Correlated oscillations of the magnetic anisotropy energy and orbital moment anisotropy in thin films: The role of quantum well states

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sandratskii, L. M.

    2015-10-01

    We report the first-principles study of the correlated behavior of the magnetic anisotropy energy (MAE) and orbital moment anisotropy (OMA) as the functions of the thickness N of the Fe film. The work is motivated by recent experimental studies combining photoemission, x-ray magnetic circular dichroism, and magnetic anisotropy measurements. In agreement with experiment, the correlated oscillations of MAE (N ) and OMA (N ) are obtained that have their origin in the formation of the 3d quantum well states (QWS) confined in the films. The main contribution to the oscillation amplitude comes from the surface layer. This is an interesting feature of the phenomenon consisting in the peculiar dependence of the physical quantities on the thickness of the film. We demonstrate that the band structure of the bulk Fe does not reflect adequately the properties of the 3d QWS in thin films and, therefore, does not provide the basis for understanding the oscillations of MAE (N ) and OMA (N ) . A detailed point-by-point analysis in the two-dimensional (2D) Brillouin zone (BZ) of the film shows that the contribution of the Γ point, contrary to a rather common expectation, does not play an important role in the formation of the oscillations. Instead, the most important contributions come from a broad region of the 2D BZ distant from the center of the BZ. Combining symmetry arguments and direct calculations we show that orbital moments of the electronic states possess nonzero transverse components orthogonal to the direction of the spin magnetization. The account for this feature is crucial in the point-by-point analysis of the OMA. On the basis of the calculations for noncollinear spin configurations we suggest interpretations of two interesting experimental findings: fast temperature decay of the oscillation amplitude in MAE (N ) and unexpectedly strong spin mixing of the initial states of the photoemission process.

  1. CYP2D7 Sequence Variation Interferes with TaqMan CYP2D6*15 and *35 Genotyping

    PubMed Central

    Riffel, Amanda K.; Dehghani, Mehdi; Hartshorne, Toinette; Floyd, Kristen C.; Leeder, J. Steven; Rosenblatt, Kevin P.; Gaedigk, Andrea

    2016-01-01

    TaqMan™ genotyping assays are widely used to genotype CYP2D6, which encodes a major drug metabolizing enzyme. Assay design for CYP2D6 can be challenging owing to the presence of two pseudogenes, CYP2D7 and CYP2D8, structural and copy number variation and numerous single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) some of which reflect the wild-type sequence of the CYP2D7 pseudogene. The aim of this study was to identify the mechanism causing false-positive CYP2D6*15 calls and remediate those by redesigning and validating alternative TaqMan genotype assays. Among 13,866 DNA samples genotyped by the CompanionDx® lab on the OpenArray platform, 70 samples were identified as heterozygotes for 137Tins, the key SNP of CYP2D6*15. However, only 15 samples were confirmed when tested with the Luminex xTAG CYP2D6 Kit and sequencing of CYP2D6-specific long range (XL)-PCR products. Genotype and gene resequencing of CYP2D6 and CYP2D7-specific XL-PCR products revealed a CC>GT dinucleotide SNP in exon 1 of CYP2D7 that reverts the sequence to CYP2D6 and allows a TaqMan assay PCR primer to bind. Because CYP2D7 also carries a Tins, a false-positive mutation signal is generated. This CYP2D7 SNP was also responsible for generating false-positive signals for rs769258 (CYP2D6*35) which is also located in exon 1. Although alternative CYP2D6*15 and *35 assays resolved the issue, we discovered a novel CYP2D6*15 subvariant in one sample that carries additional SNPs preventing detection with the alternate assay. The frequency of CYP2D6*15 was 0.1% in this ethnically diverse U.S. population sample. In addition, we also discovered linkage between the CYP2D7 CC>GT dinucleotide SNP and the 77G>A (rs28371696) SNP of CYP2D6*43. The frequency of this tentatively functional allele was 0.2%. Taken together, these findings emphasize that regardless of how careful genotyping assays are designed and evaluated before being commercially marketed, rare or unknown SNPs underneath primer and/or probe regions can impact

  2. CYP2D7 Sequence Variation Interferes with TaqMan CYP2D6 (*) 15 and (*) 35 Genotyping.

    PubMed

    Riffel, Amanda K; Dehghani, Mehdi; Hartshorne, Toinette; Floyd, Kristen C; Leeder, J Steven; Rosenblatt, Kevin P; Gaedigk, Andrea

    2015-01-01

    TaqMan™ genotyping assays are widely used to genotype CYP2D6, which encodes a major drug metabolizing enzyme. Assay design for CYP2D6 can be challenging owing to the presence of two pseudogenes, CYP2D7 and CYP2D8, structural and copy number variation and numerous single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) some of which reflect the wild-type sequence of the CYP2D7 pseudogene. The aim of this study was to identify the mechanism causing false-positive CYP2D6 (*) 15 calls and remediate those by redesigning and validating alternative TaqMan genotype assays. Among 13,866 DNA samples genotyped by the CompanionDx® lab on the OpenArray platform, 70 samples were identified as heterozygotes for 137Tins, the key SNP of CYP2D6 (*) 15. However, only 15 samples were confirmed when tested with the Luminex xTAG CYP2D6 Kit and sequencing of CYP2D6-specific long range (XL)-PCR products. Genotype and gene resequencing of CYP2D6 and CYP2D7-specific XL-PCR products revealed a CC>GT dinucleotide SNP in exon 1 of CYP2D7 that reverts the sequence to CYP2D6 and allows a TaqMan assay PCR primer to bind. Because CYP2D7 also carries a Tins, a false-positive mutation signal is generated. This CYP2D7 SNP was also responsible for generating false-positive signals for rs769258 (CYP2D6 (*) 35) which is also located in exon 1. Although alternative CYP2D6 (*) 15 and (*) 35 assays resolved the issue, we discovered a novel CYP2D6 (*) 15 subvariant in one sample that carries additional SNPs preventing detection with the alternate assay. The frequency of CYP2D6 (*) 15 was 0.1% in this ethnically diverse U.S. population sample. In addition, we also discovered linkage between the CYP2D7 CC>GT dinucleotide SNP and the 77G>A (rs28371696) SNP of CYP2D6 (*) 43. The frequency of this tentatively functional allele was 0.2%. Taken together, these findings emphasize that regardless of how careful genotyping assays are designed and evaluated before being commercially marketed, rare or unknown SNPs underneath primer

  3. Step-induced in-plane orbital anisotropy in FeNi films on Cu(111) probed by magnetic circular x-ray dichroism

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cherifi, S.; Boeglin, C.; Stanescu, S.; Deville, J. P.; Mocuta, C.; Magnan, H.; Le Fèvre, P.; Ohresser, P.; Brookes, N. B.

    2001-11-01

    The effects of nanostructured magnetic Fe65Ni35 films deposited on a vicinal Cu(111) single-crystal surface on the magnetic anisotropy have been studied using magnetic circular x-ray dichroism (MCXD) at the Fe L2,3 edges. In the one-dimensional (1D) limit a large dipolar out-of-plane anisotropy is evidenced with in-plane isotropic magnetic moments. After the 1D coalescence the orbital moment shows a more complex behavior depending on the in-plane direction of saturation. We show that MCXD is strongly sensitive to in-plane orbital anisotropy for the 1D stripes. We demonstrate the importance of the step induced in-plane anisotropy by measuring the orbital magnetic moment dependence as a function of the in-plane azimuth angle. In the submonolayer regime an in-plane magnetic anisotropy is observed related to the step decoration growth mode. In the thickness range of 2-4 equivalent monolayers, 2D coalescence induces a strong in-plane magnetic anisotropy of the magnetic orbital moment. The microscopic origin of the strong in-plane variation of ML has been attributed to magnetocrystalline effects. Strained films give rise to an in-plane magnetic anisotropy energy up to 2 meV/at., which is larger than those measured out of the plane (0-1 meV/at.).

  4. Shale seismic anisotropy vs. compaction trend

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pervukhina, M.

    2015-12-01

    Shales comprise more than 60% of sedimentary rocks and form natural seals above hydrocarbon reservoirs. Their sealing capacity is also used for storage of nuclear wastes. Shales are notorious for their strong elastic anisotropy, so-called, vertical transverse isotropy or VTI. This VTI anisotropy is of practical importance as it is required for correct surface seismic data interpretation, seismic to well tie and azimuth versus offset analysis. A number of competing factors are responsible for VTI anisotropy in shales, namely, (1) micro-scale elastic anisotropy of clay particles, (2) anisotropic orientation distribution function of clay particles, (3) anisotropic orientation of pores and organic matter. On the contrary, silt (non-clay mineralogy grains with size between 0.06 -0.002 mm) is known to reduce elastic anisotropy of shales. Methods developed for calculations of anisotropy in polycrystalline materials can be used to estimate elastic anisotropy of shales from orientation distribution function (ODF) of clay platelets if elastic properties of individual clay platelets are known. Unfortunately, elastic properties of individual clay platelets cannot be directly measured. Recently, elastic properties of properties of individual clay platelets with different mineralogy were calculated from first principles based on density functional theory. In this work we use these elastic properties of individual platelets of muscovite, illite-smectite and kaolinite to obtain correlations between elastic anisotropy and Legendre coefficients W200 and W400 of different ODFs. Comparison of the Legendre coefficients calculated for more than 800 shales from depths 0 - 6 km (www.rockphysicists.org/data) with those of compaction ODFs shows that compaction has no first order effect on elastic anisotropy. Thus, elastic anisotropy is to large extent determined by factors other than compaction processes, such as depositional environment, chemical composition of fluid, silt fraction, etc.

  5. Computational Screening of 2D Materials for Photocatalysis.

    PubMed

    Singh, Arunima K; Mathew, Kiran; Zhuang, Houlong L; Hennig, Richard G

    2015-03-19

    Two-dimensional (2D) materials exhibit a range of extraordinary electronic, optical, and mechanical properties different from their bulk counterparts with potential applications for 2D materials emerging in energy storage and conversion technologies. In this Perspective, we summarize the recent developments in the field of solar water splitting using 2D materials and review a computational screening approach to rapidly and efficiently discover more 2D materials that possess properties suitable for solar water splitting. Computational tools based on density-functional theory can predict the intrinsic properties of potential photocatalyst such as their electronic properties, optical absorbance, and solubility in aqueous solutions. Computational tools enable the exploration of possible routes to enhance the photocatalytic activity of 2D materials by use of mechanical strain, bias potential, doping, and pH. We discuss future research directions and needed method developments for the computational design and optimization of 2D materials for photocatalysis.

  6. Crustal and mantle structure beneath the Terre Adélie Craton, East Antarctica: insights from receiver function and seismic anisotropy measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lamarque, Gaëlle; Barruol, Guilhem; Fontaine, Fabrice R.; Bascou, Jérôme; Ménot, René-Pierre

    2015-02-01

    The Terre Adélie and George V Land (East Antarctica) represent key areas for understanding tectonic relationships between terranes forming the Neoarchean-Palaeoproterozoic Terre Adélie Craton (TAC) and the neighbouring lithospheric blocks, together with the nature of its boundary. This region that represents the eastern border of the TAC is limited on its eastern side by the Mertz shear zone (MSZ) separating more recent Palaeozoic units from the craton. The MSZ, that recorded dextral strike-slip movement at 1.7 and 1.5 Ga, is likely correlated with the Kalinjala or Coorong shear zone in South Australia, east of the Gawler Craton and may therefore represent a frozen lithospheric-scale structure. In order to investigate the lithospheric structure of the TAC and the MSZ, we deployed from 2009 October to 2011 October four temporary seismic stations, which sampled the various lithospheric units of the TAC and of the neighbouring Palaeozoic block, together with the MSZ. We used receiver function method to deduce Moho depths and seismic anisotropy technique to infer the upper mantle deformation. Results from receiver functions analysis reveal Moho at 40-44 km depth beneath the TAC, at 36 km under the MSZ and at 28 km beneath the eastern Palaeozoic domain. The MSZ therefore delimits two crustal blocks of different thicknesses with a vertical offset of the Moho of 12 km. Seismic anisotropy deduced from SKS splitting at stations on the TAC shows fast polarisation directions (Φ) trending E-W, that is, parallel to the continental margin, and delay times (δt) ranging from 0.8 to 1.6 s. These results are similar to the splitting parameters observed at the permanent GEOSCOPE Dumont D'Urville station (DRV: Φ 95°N, δt 1.1 s) located in the Palaeoproterozoic domain of TAC. On the MSZ, the small number of good quality measurements limits the investigation of the deep signature of the shear zone. However, the station in the Palaeozoic domain shows Φ trending N60°E, which is

  7. Chaotic advection in 2D anisotropic porous media

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Varghese, Stephen; Speetjens, Michel; Trieling, Ruben; Toschi, Federico

    2015-11-01

    Traditional methods for heat recovery from underground geothermal reservoirs employ a static system of injector-producer wells. Recent studies in literature have shown that using a well-devised pumping scheme, through actuation of multiple injector-producer wells, can dramatically enhance production rates due to the increased scalar / heat transport by means of chaotic advection. However the effect of reservoir anisotropy on kinematic mixing and heat transport is unknown and has to be incorporated and studied for practical deployment in the field. As a first step, we numerically investigate the effect of anisotropy (both magnitude and direction) on (chaotic) advection of passive tracers in a time-periodic Darcy flow within a 2D circular domain driven by periodically reoriented diametrically opposite source-sink pairs. Preliminary results indicate that anisotropy has a significant impact on the location, shape and size of coherent structures in the Poincare sections. This implies that the optimal operating parameters (well spacing, time period of well actuation) may vary strongly and must be carefully chosen so as to enhance subsurface transport. This work is part of the research program of the Foundation for Fundamental Research on Matter (FOM), which is part of Netherlands Organisation for Scientific Research (NWO). This research program is co-financed by Shell Global Solutions International B.V.

  8. A perturbative DFT approach for magnetic anisotropy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khoo, Khoong Hong; Laskowski, Robert

    2017-04-01

    We develop a perturbative formalism for computing magnetocrystalline anisotropy within density functional theory and the magnetic force theorem. Instead of computing eigenvalues of the spin-orbit Hamiltonian for selected spin polarizations, as in the conventional ;force theorem; approach, we show that the effect can be cast into a redefined form of the spin-orbit operator. This allows to separate the large eigenvalue shift due to spin-orbit interaction common for both polarizations from the much smaller magnetic anisotropy splitting. As a consequence the anisotropy splitting may by considered as a perturbation.

  9. 2D quasiperiodic plasmonic crystals

    PubMed Central

    Bauer, Christina; Kobiela, Georg; Giessen, Harald

    2012-01-01

    Nanophotonic structures with irregular symmetry, such as quasiperiodic plasmonic crystals, have gained an increasing amount of attention, in particular as potential candidates to enhance the absorption of solar cells in an angular insensitive fashion. To examine the photonic bandstructure of such systems that determines their optical properties, it is necessary to measure and model normal and oblique light interaction with plasmonic crystals. We determine the different propagation vectors and consider the interaction of all possible waveguide modes and particle plasmons in a 2D metallic photonic quasicrystal, in conjunction with the dispersion relations of a slab waveguide. Using a Fano model, we calculate the optical properties for normal and inclined light incidence. Comparing measurements of a quasiperiodic lattice to the modelled spectra for angle of incidence variation in both azimuthal and polar direction of the sample gives excellent agreement and confirms the predictive power of our model. PMID:23209871

  10. Valleytronics in 2D materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schaibley, John R.; Yu, Hongyi; Clark, Genevieve; Rivera, Pasqual; Ross, Jason S.; Seyler, Kyle L.; Yao, Wang; Xu, Xiaodong

    2016-11-01

    Semiconductor technology is currently based on the manipulation of electronic charge; however, electrons have additional degrees of freedom, such as spin and valley, that can be used to encode and process information. Over the past several decades, there has been significant progress in manipulating electron spin for semiconductor spintronic devices, motivated by potential spin-based information processing and storage applications. However, experimental progress towards manipulating the valley degree of freedom for potential valleytronic devices has been limited until very recently. We review the latest advances in valleytronics, which have largely been enabled by the isolation of 2D materials (such as graphene and semiconducting transition metal dichalcogenides) that host an easily accessible electronic valley degree of freedom, allowing for dynamic control.

  11. Unparticle example in 2D.

    PubMed

    Georgi, Howard; Kats, Yevgeny

    2008-09-26

    We discuss what can be learned about unparticle physics by studying simple quantum field theories in one space and one time dimension. We argue that the exactly soluble 2D theory of a massless fermion coupled to a massive vector boson, the Sommerfield model, is an interesting analog of a Banks-Zaks model, approaching a free theory at high energies and a scale-invariant theory with nontrivial anomalous dimensions at low energies. We construct a toy standard model coupling to the fermions in the Sommerfield model and study how the transition from unparticle behavior at low energies to free particle behavior at high energies manifests itself in interactions with the toy standard model particles.

  12. Studying Zeolite Catalysts with a 2D Model System

    SciTech Connect

    Boscoboinik, Anibal

    2016-12-07

    Anibal Boscoboinik, a materials scientist at Brookhaven’s Center for Functional Nanomaterials, discusses the surface-science tools and 2D model system he uses to study catalysis in nanoporous zeolites, which catalyze reactions in many industrial processes.

  13. Probing Electronic Wave Functions of Sodium-Doped Clusters: Dyson Orbitals, Anisotropy Parameters, and Ionization Cross-Sections.

    PubMed

    Gunina, Anastasia O; Krylov, Anna I

    2016-12-15

    We apply high-level ab initio methods to describe the electronic structure of small clusters of ammonia and dimethyl ether (DME) doped with sodium, which provide a model for solvated electrons. We investigate the effect of the solvent and cluster size on the electronic states. We consider both energies and properties, with a focus on the shape of the electronic wave function and the related experimental observables such as photoelectron angular distributions. The central quantity in modeling photoionization experiments is the Dyson orbital, which describes the difference between the initial N-electron and final (N-1)-electron states of a system. Dyson orbitals enter the expression of the photoelectron matrix element, which determines total and partial photoionization cross-sections. We compute Dyson orbitals for the Na(NH3)n and Na(DME)m clusters using correlated wave functions (obtained with equation-of-motion coupled-cluster model for electron attachment with single and double substitutions) and compare them with more approximate Hartree-Fock and Kohn-Sham orbitals. We also analyze the effect of correlation and basis sets on the shapes of Dyson orbitals and the experimental observables.

  14. Probing electronic wave functions of sodium-doped clusters: Dyson orbitals, anisotropy parameters, and ionization cross-sections

    SciTech Connect

    Gunina, Anastasia O.; Krylov, Anna I.

    2016-11-14

    We apply high-level ab initio methods to describe the electronic structure of small clusters of ammonia and dimethylether (DME) doped with sodium, which provide a model for solvated electrons. We investigate the effect of the solvent and cluster size on the electronic states. We consider both energies and properties, with a focus on the shape of the electronic wave function and the related experimental observables such as photoelectron angular distributions. The central quantity in modeling photoionization experiments is the Dyson orbital, which describes the difference between the initial N-electron and final (N-1)-electron states of a system. Dyson orbitals enter the expression of the photoelectron matrix element, which determines total and partial photoionization cross-sections. We compute Dyson orbitals for the Na(NH3)n and Na(DME)m clusters using correlated wave functions (obtained with equation-of-motion coupled-cluster model for electron attachment with single and double substitutions) and compare them with more approximate Hartree-Fock and Kohn-Sham orbitals. As a result, we also analyze the effect of correlation and basis sets on the shapes of Dyson orbitals and the experimental observables.

  15. Probing electronic wave functions of sodium-doped clusters: Dyson orbitals, anisotropy parameters, and ionization cross-sections

    DOE PAGES

    Gunina, Anastasia O.; Krylov, Anna I.

    2016-11-14

    We apply high-level ab initio methods to describe the electronic structure of small clusters of ammonia and dimethylether (DME) doped with sodium, which provide a model for solvated electrons. We investigate the effect of the solvent and cluster size on the electronic states. We consider both energies and properties, with a focus on the shape of the electronic wave function and the related experimental observables such as photoelectron angular distributions. The central quantity in modeling photoionization experiments is the Dyson orbital, which describes the difference between the initial N-electron and final (N-1)-electron states of a system. Dyson orbitals enter themore » expression of the photoelectron matrix element, which determines total and partial photoionization cross-sections. We compute Dyson orbitals for the Na(NH3)n and Na(DME)m clusters using correlated wave functions (obtained with equation-of-motion coupled-cluster model for electron attachment with single and double substitutions) and compare them with more approximate Hartree-Fock and Kohn-Sham orbitals. As a result, we also analyze the effect of correlation and basis sets on the shapes of Dyson orbitals and the experimental observables.« less

  16. The Stereoscopic Anisotropy Develops During Childhood

    PubMed Central

    Serrano-Pedraza, Ignacio; Herbert, William; Villa-Laso, Laura; Widdall, Michael; Vancleef, Kathleen; Read, Jenny C. A.

    2016-01-01

    Purpose Human vision has a puzzling stereoscopic anisotropy: horizontal depth corrugations are easier to detect than vertical depth corrugations. To date, little is known about the function or the underlying mechanism responsible for this anisotropy. Here, we aim to find out whether this anisotropy is independent of age. To answer this, we compare detection thresholds for horizontal and vertical depth corrugations as a function of age. Methods The depth corrugations were defined solely by the horizontal disparity of random dot patterns. The disparities depicted a horizontal or vertical sinusoidal depth corrugation of spatial frequency 0.1 cyc/deg. Detection thresholds were obtained using Bayesian adaptive staircases from a total of 159 subjects aged from 3 to 73 years. For each participant we computed the anisotropy index, defined as the log10-ratio of the detection threshold for vertical corrugations divided by that for horizontal. Results Anisotropy index was highly variable between individuals but was positive in 87% of the participants. There was a significant correlation between anisotropy index and log-age (r = 0.21, P = 0.008) mainly driven by a significant difference between children and adults. In 67 children aged 3 to 13 years, the mean anisotropy index was 0.34 ± 0.38 (mean ± SD, meaning that vertical thresholds were on average 2.2 times the horizontal ones), compared with 0.59 ± 0.55 in 84 adults aged 18 to 73 years (vertical 3.9 times horizontal). This was mainly driven by a decline in the sensitivity to vertical corrugations. Children had poorer stereoacuity than adults, but had similar sensitivity to adults for horizontal corrugations and were actually more sensitive than adults to vertical corrugations. Conclusions The fact that adults show stronger stereo anisotropy than children raises the possibility that visual experience plays a critical role in developing and strengthening the stereo anisotropy. PMID:26962692

  17. Quantum coherence selective 2D Raman–2D electronic spectroscopy

    PubMed Central

    Spencer, Austin P.; Hutson, William O.; Harel, Elad

    2017-01-01

    Electronic and vibrational correlations report on the dynamics and structure of molecular species, yet revealing these correlations experimentally has proved extremely challenging. Here, we demonstrate a method that probes correlations between states within the vibrational and electronic manifold with quantum coherence selectivity. Specifically, we measure a fully coherent four-dimensional spectrum which simultaneously encodes vibrational–vibrational, electronic–vibrational and electronic–electronic interactions. By combining near-impulsive resonant and non-resonant excitation, the desired fifth-order signal of a complex organic molecule in solution is measured free of unwanted lower-order contamination. A critical feature of this method is electronic and vibrational frequency resolution, enabling isolation and assignment of individual quantum coherence pathways. The vibronic structure of the system is then revealed within an otherwise broad and featureless 2D electronic spectrum. This method is suited for studying elusive quantum effects in which electronic transitions strongly couple to phonons and vibrations, such as energy transfer in photosynthetic pigment–protein complexes. PMID:28281541

  18. Quantum coherence selective 2D Raman-2D electronic spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Spencer, Austin P.; Hutson, William O.; Harel, Elad

    2017-03-01

    Electronic and vibrational correlations report on the dynamics and structure of molecular species, yet revealing these correlations experimentally has proved extremely challenging. Here, we demonstrate a method that probes correlations between states within the vibrational and electronic manifold with quantum coherence selectivity. Specifically, we measure a fully coherent four-dimensional spectrum which simultaneously encodes vibrational-vibrational, electronic-vibrational and electronic-electronic interactions. By combining near-impulsive resonant and non-resonant excitation, the desired fifth-order signal of a complex organic molecule in solution is measured free of unwanted lower-order contamination. A critical feature of this method is electronic and vibrational frequency resolution, enabling isolation and assignment of individual quantum coherence pathways. The vibronic structure of the system is then revealed within an otherwise broad and featureless 2D electronic spectrum. This method is suited for studying elusive quantum effects in which electronic transitions strongly couple to phonons and vibrations, such as energy transfer in photosynthetic pigment-protein complexes.

  19. Quantum coherence selective 2D Raman-2D electronic spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Spencer, Austin P; Hutson, William O; Harel, Elad

    2017-03-10

    Electronic and vibrational correlations report on the dynamics and structure of molecular species, yet revealing these correlations experimentally has proved extremely challenging. Here, we demonstrate a method that probes correlations between states within the vibrational and electronic manifold with quantum coherence selectivity. Specifically, we measure a fully coherent four-dimensional spectrum which simultaneously encodes vibrational-vibrational, electronic-vibrational and electronic-electronic interactions. By combining near-impulsive resonant and non-resonant excitation, the desired fifth-order signal of a complex organic molecule in solution is measured free of unwanted lower-order contamination. A critical feature of this method is electronic and vibrational frequency resolution, enabling isolation and assignment of individual quantum coherence pathways. The vibronic structure of the system is then revealed within an otherwise broad and featureless 2D electronic spectrum. This method is suited for studying elusive quantum effects in which electronic transitions strongly couple to phonons and vibrations, such as energy transfer in photosynthetic pigment-protein complexes.

  20. The Kondo necklace model with planar anisotropy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mendoza-Arenas, J. J.; Franco, R.; Silva-Valencia, J.

    2009-10-01

    We study the one-dimensional anisotropic Kondo necklace model at zero temperature through White's density matrix renormalization group technique. The ground state energy and the spin gap were calculated as a function of the exchange parameter for two anisotropy values. We found a finite critical point separating a Kondo singlet from an antiferromagnetic phase. The transition is highly congruent with a Kosterlitz-Thouless form. We observed that the critical point increases with the anisotropy.

  1. 2D materials and van der Waals heterostructures.

    PubMed

    Novoselov, K S; Mishchenko, A; Carvalho, A; Castro Neto, A H

    2016-07-29

    The physics of two-dimensional (2D) materials and heterostructures based on such crystals has been developing extremely fast. With these new materials, truly 2D physics has begun to appear (for instance, the absence of long-range order, 2D excitons, commensurate-incommensurate transition, etc.). Novel heterostructure devices--such as tunneling transistors, resonant tunneling diodes, and light-emitting diodes--are also starting to emerge. Composed from individual 2D crystals, such devices use the properties of those materials to create functionalities that are not accessible in other heterostructures. Here we review the properties of novel 2D crystals and examine how their properties are used in new heterostructure devices.

  2. Detection of Mild Traumatic Brain Injury by Machine Learning Classification Using Resting State Functional Network Connectivity and Fractional Anisotropy.

    PubMed

    Vergara, Victor M; Mayer, Andrew R; Damaraju, Eswar; Kiehl, Kent A; Calhoun, Vince

    2017-03-01

    Traumatic brain injury (TBI) may adversely affect a person's thinking, memory, personality, and behavior. While mild TBI (mTBI) diagnosis is challenging, there is a risk for long-term psychiatric, neurologic, and psychosocial problems in some patients that motivates the search for new and better biomarkers. Recently, diffusion magnetic resonance imaging (dMRI) has shown promise in detecting mTBI, but its validity is still being investigated. Resting state functional network connectivity (rsFNC) is another approach that is emerging as a promising option for the diagnosis of mTBI. The present work investigated the use of rsFNC for mTBI detection compared with dMRI results on the same cohort. Fifty patients with mTBI (25 males) and age-sex matched healthy controls were recruited. Features from dMRI were obtained using all voxels, the enhanced Z-score microstructural assessment for pathology, and the distribution corrected Z-score. Features based on rsFNC were obtained through group independent component analysis and correlation between pairs of resting state networks. A linear support vector machine was used for classification and validated using leave-one-out cross validation. Classification achieved a maximum accuracy of 84.1% for rsFNC and 75.5% for dMRI and 74.5% for both combined. A t test analysis revealed significant increase in rsFNC between cerebellum versus sensorimotor networks and between left angular gyrus versus precuneus in subjects with mTBI. These outcomes suggest that inclusion of both common and unique information is important for classification of mTBI. Results also suggest that rsFNC can yield viable biomarkers that might outperform dMRI and points to connectivity to the cerebellum as an important region for the detection of mTBI.

  3. Strong anisotropy and magnetostriction in the two-dimensional Stoner ferromagnet Fe3GeTe2

    DOE PAGES

    Zhuang, Houlong L.; Kent, P. R. C.; Hennig, Richard G.

    2016-04-06

    Comore » mputationally characterizing magnetic properies of novel two-dimensional (2D) materials serves as an important first step of exploring possible applications. Using density-functional theory, we show that single-layer Fe3GeTe2 is a potential 2D material with sufficiently low formation energy to be synthesized by mechanical exfoliation from the bulk phase with a van der Waals layered structure. In addition, we calculated the phonon dispersion demonstrating that single-layer Fe3GeTe2is dynamically stable. Furthermore, we find that similar to the bulk phase, 2D Fe3GeTe2 exhibits amagnetic moment that originates from a Stoner instability. In contrast to other 2D materials, we find that single-layer Fe3GeTe2 exhibits a significant uniaxial magnetocrystalline anisotropy energy of 920μ eV per Fe atom originating from spin-orbit coupling. In conclusion, we show that applying biaxial tensile strains enhances the anisotropy energy, which reveals strong magnetostriction in single-layer Fe3GeTe2 with a sizable magneostrictive coefficient. Our results indicate that single-layer Fe3GeTe2 is potentially useful for magnetic storage applications.« less

  4. Charge-transport anisotropy in black phosphorus: critical dependence on the number of layers.

    PubMed

    Banerjee, Swastika; Pati, Swapan K

    2016-06-28

    Phosphorene is a promising candidate for modern electronics because of the anisotropy associated with high electron-hole mobility. Additionally, superior mechanical flexibility allows the strain-engineering of various properties including the transport of charge carriers in phosphorene. In this work, we have shown the criticality of the number of layers to dictate the transport properties of black phosphorus. Trilayer black phosphorus (TBP) has been proposed as an excellent anisotropic material, based on the transport parameters using Boltzmann transport formalisms coupled with density functional theory. The mobilities of both the electron and the hole are found to be higher along the zigzag direction (∼10(4) cm(2) V(-1) s(-1) at 300 K) compared to the armchair direction (∼10(2) cm(2) V(-1) s(-1)), resulting in the intrinsic directional anisotropy. Application of strain leads to additional electron-hole anisotropy with 10(3) fold higher mobility for the electron compared to the hole. Critical strain for maximum anisotropic response has also been determined. Whether the transport anisotropy is due to the spatial or charge-carrier has been determined through analyses of the scattering process of electrons and holes, and their recombination as well as relaxation dynamics. In this context, we have derived two descriptors (S and F(k)), which are general enough for any 2D or quasi-2D systems. Information on the scattering involving purely the carrier states also helps to understand the layer-dependent photoluminescence and electron (hole) relaxation in black phosphorus. Finally, we justify trilayer black phosphorus (TBP) as the material of interest with excellent transport properties.

  5. Numerical Evaluation of 2D Ground States

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kolkovska, Natalia

    2016-02-01

    A ground state is defined as the positive radial solution of the multidimensional nonlinear problem \\varepsilon propto k_ bot 1 - ξ with the function f being either f(u) =a|u|p-1u or f(u) =a|u|pu+b|u|2pu. The numerical evaluation of ground states is based on the shooting method applied to an equivalent dynamical system. A combination of fourth order Runge-Kutta method and Hermite extrapolation formula is applied to solving the resulting initial value problem. The efficiency of this procedure is demonstrated in the 1D case, where the maximal difference between the exact and numerical solution is ≈ 10-11 for a discretization step 0:00025. As a major application, we evaluate numerically the critical energy constant. This constant is defined as a functional of the ground state and is used in the study of the 2D Boussinesq equations.

  6. Designing electronic anisotropy of three-dimensional carbon allotropes for the all-carbon device

    SciTech Connect

    Xu, Li-Chun Song, Xian-Jiang; Yang, Zhi; Li, Xiu-Yan; Wang, Ru-Zhi; Yan, Hui

    2015-07-13

    Extending two-dimensional (2D) graphene nanosheets to a three-dimensional (3D) network can enhance the design of all-carbon electronic devices. Based on the great diversity of carbon atomic bonding, we have constructed four superlattice-type carbon allotrope candidates, containing sp{sup 2}-bonding transport channels and sp{sup 3}-bonding insulating layers, using density functional theory. It was demonstrated through systematic simulations that the ultra-thin insulating layer with only three-atom thickness can switch off the tunneling transport and isolate the electronic connection between the adjacent graphene strips, and these alternating perpendicular strips also extend the electron road from 2D to 3D. Designing electronic anisotropy originates from the mutually perpendicular π bonds and the rare partial charge density of the corresponding carriers in insulating layers. Our results indicate the possibility of producing custom-designed 3D all-carbon devices with building blocks of graphene and diamond.

  7. Anisotropy Studies in Central Greece

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kaviris, G.; Papadimitriou, P.; Makropoulos, K.

    2007-12-01

    The Gulf of Corinth, located in Central Greece, is a tectonic graben characterized by high seismicity level. GPS measurements indicate extension of the Gulf in an approximately N-S direction, with a rate of 10 to 15 mm/year. The southern part of the Gulf is dominated by the presence of large active normal faults in an almost E-W direction, dipping north, resulting to the subsidence of the central part of the graben. Analysis of data recorded by the Cornet network, which is the permanent network of the University of Athens, revealed the existence of an anisotropic upper crust at the eastern part of the Gulf of Corinth. Anisotropy was also observed at the western part of Corinth Gulf, using data recorded by a temporary seismological network installed in the area. Furthermore, shear wave splitting analysis was performed in the region of Attica (to the NE of the Gulf) that hosts Athens, the capital of Greece, using aftershocks of the 1999 Athens earthquake (Mw=6.0) that caused 143 fatalities. The methods used for the determination of the splitting parameters are the polarization vector as a function of time (polarigram) and the hodogram. For each selected event the direction of polarization of the fast shear wave, the delay between the two split shear waves and the polarization of the source were measured. Concerning both parts of the Gulf of Corinth, the obtained mean values of anisotropy vary between N90° and N142°. In the region of Attica the mean values of the anisotropy direction of all stations vary between N95° and N100°, almost parallel to the azimuth of the Parnitha fault. The time delay between the split shear waves vary between 0.020s and 0.130s. The obtained anisotropy measurements are in agreement with the extensive dilatancy anisotropy (EDA) model, since the direction of anisotropy is independent from the event-station azimuth and perpendicular to the direction of extension. ACKNOWLEDGMENTS The present study was co-funded by the European Social Fund

  8. In-plane optical anisotropy of layered gallium telluride

    DOE PAGES

    Huang, Shengxi; Tatsumi, Yuki; Ling, Xi; ...

    2016-08-16

    Layered gallium telluride (GaTe) has attracted much attention recently, due to its extremely high photoresponsivity, short response time, and promising thermoelectric performance. Different from most commonly studied two-dimensional (2D) materials, GaTe has in-plane anisotropy and a low symmetry with the C2h3 space group. Investigating the in-plane optical anisotropy, including the electron–photon and electron–phonon interactions of GaTe is essential in realizing its applications in optoelectronics and thermoelectrics. In this work, the anisotropic light-matter interactions in the low-symmetry material GaTe are studied using anisotropic optical extinction and Raman spectroscopies as probes. Our polarized optical extinction spectroscopy reveals the weak anisotropy in opticalmore » extinction spectra for visible light of multilayer GaTe. Polarized Raman spectroscopy proves to be sensitive to the crystalline orientation of GaTe, and shows the intricate dependences of Raman anisotropy on flake thickness, photon and phonon energies. Such intricate dependences can be explained by theoretical analyses employing first-principles calculations and group theory. Furthermore, these studies are a crucial step toward the applications of GaTe especially in optoelectronics and thermoelectrics, and provide a general methodology for the study of the anisotropy of light-matter interactions in 2D layered materials with in-plane anisotropy.« less

  9. In-plane optical anisotropy of layered gallium telluride

    SciTech Connect

    Huang, Shengxi; Tatsumi, Yuki; Ling, Xi; Guo, Huaihong; Wang, Ziqiang; Watson, Garrett; Puretzky, Alexander A.; Geohegan, David B.; Kong, Jing; Li, Ju; Yang, Teng; Saito, Riichiro; Dresselhaus, Mildred S.

    2016-08-16

    Layered gallium telluride (GaTe) has attracted much attention recently, due to its extremely high photoresponsivity, short response time, and promising thermoelectric performance. Different from most commonly studied two-dimensional (2D) materials, GaTe has in-plane anisotropy and a low symmetry with the C2h3 space group. Investigating the in-plane optical anisotropy, including the electron–photon and electron–phonon interactions of GaTe is essential in realizing its applications in optoelectronics and thermoelectrics. In this work, the anisotropic light-matter interactions in the low-symmetry material GaTe are studied using anisotropic optical extinction and Raman spectroscopies as probes. Our polarized optical extinction spectroscopy reveals the weak anisotropy in optical extinction spectra for visible light of multilayer GaTe. Polarized Raman spectroscopy proves to be sensitive to the crystalline orientation of GaTe, and shows the intricate dependences of Raman anisotropy on flake thickness, photon and phonon energies. Such intricate dependences can be explained by theoretical analyses employing first-principles calculations and group theory. Furthermore, these studies are a crucial step toward the applications of GaTe especially in optoelectronics and thermoelectrics, and provide a general methodology for the study of the anisotropy of light-matter interactions in 2D layered materials with in-plane anisotropy.

  10. In-Plane Optical Anisotropy of Layered Gallium Telluride.

    PubMed

    Huang, Shengxi; Tatsumi, Yuki; Ling, Xi; Guo, Huaihong; Wang, Ziqiang; Watson, Garrett; Puretzky, Alexander A; Geohegan, David B; Kong, Jing; Li, Ju; Yang, Teng; Saito, Riichiro; Dresselhaus, Mildred S

    2016-09-27

    Layered gallium telluride (GaTe) has attracted much attention recently, due to its extremely high photoresponsivity, short response time, and promising thermoelectric performance. Different from most commonly studied two-dimensional (2D) materials, GaTe has in-plane anisotropy and a low symmetry with the C2h(3) space group. Investigating the in-plane optical anisotropy, including the electron-photon and electron-phonon interactions of GaTe is essential in realizing its applications in optoelectronics and thermoelectrics. In this work, the anisotropic light-matter interactions in the low-symmetry material GaTe are studied using anisotropic optical extinction and Raman spectroscopies as probes. Our polarized optical extinction spectroscopy reveals the weak anisotropy in optical extinction spectra for visible light of multilayer GaTe. Polarized Raman spectroscopy proves to be sensitive to the crystalline orientation of GaTe, and shows the intricate dependences of Raman anisotropy on flake thickness, photon and phonon energies. Such intricate dependences can be explained by theoretical analyses employing first-principles calculations and group theory. These studies are a crucial step toward the applications of GaTe especially in optoelectronics and thermoelectrics, and provide a general methodology for the study of the anisotropy of light-matter interactions in 2D layered materials with in-plane anisotropy.

  11. Recent advances in 2D materials for photocatalysis.

    PubMed

    Luo, Bin; Liu, Gang; Wang, Lianzhou

    2016-04-07

    Two-dimensional (2D) materials have attracted increasing attention for photocatalytic applications because of their unique thickness dependent physical and chemical properties. This review gives a brief overview of the recent developments concerning the chemical synthesis and structural design of 2D materials at the nanoscale and their applications in photocatalytic areas. In particular, recent progress on the emerging strategies for tailoring 2D material-based photocatalysts to improve their photo-activity including elemental doping, heterostructure design and functional architecture assembly is discussed.

  12. Quantum criticality of a spin-1 XY model with easy-plane single-ion anisotropy via a two-time Green function approach avoiding the Anderson-Callen decoupling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mercaldo, M. T.; Rabuffo, I.; De Cesare, L.; Caramico D'Auria, A.

    2016-04-01

    In this work we study the quantum phase transition, the phase diagram and the quantum criticality induced by the easy-plane single-ion anisotropy in a d-dimensional quantum spin-1 XY model in absence of an external longitudinal magnetic field. We employ the two-time Green function method by avoiding the Anderson-Callen decoupling of spin operators at the same sites which is of doubtful accuracy. Following the original Devlin procedure we treat exactly the higher order single-site anisotropy Green functions and use Tyablikov-like decouplings for the exchange higher order ones. The related self-consistent equations appear suitable for an analysis of the thermodynamic properties at and around second order phase transition points. Remarkably, the equivalence between the microscopic spin model and the continuous O(2) -vector model with transverse-Ising model (TIM)-like dynamics, characterized by a dynamic critical exponent z=1, emerges at low temperatures close to the quantum critical point with the single-ion anisotropy parameter D as the non-thermal control parameter. The zero-temperature critic anisotropy parameter Dc is obtained for dimensionalities d > 1 as a function of the microscopic exchange coupling parameter and the related numerical data for different lattices are found to be in reasonable agreement with those obtained by means of alternative analytical and numerical methods. For d > 2, and in particular for d=3, we determine the finite-temperature critical line ending in the quantum critical point and the related TIM-like shift exponent, consistently with recent renormalization group predictions. The main crossover lines between different asymptotic regimes around the quantum critical point are also estimated providing a global phase diagram and a quantum criticality very similar to the conventional ones.

  13. Remarks on thermalization in 2D CFT

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Boer, Jan; Engelhardt, Dalit

    2016-12-01

    We revisit certain aspects of thermalization in 2D conformal field theory (CFT). In particular, we consider similarities and differences between the time dependence of correlation functions in various states in rational and non-rational CFTs. We also consider the distinction between global and local thermalization and explain how states obtained by acting with a diffeomorphism on the ground state can appear locally thermal, and we review why the time-dependent expectation value of the energy-momentum tensor is generally a poor diagnostic of global thermalization. Since all 2D CFTs have an infinite set of commuting conserved charges, generic initial states might be expected to give rise to a generalized Gibbs ensemble rather than a pure thermal ensemble at late times. We construct the holographic dual of the generalized Gibbs ensemble and show that, to leading order, it is still described by a Banados-Teitelboim-Zanelli black hole. The extra conserved charges, while rendering c <1 theories essentially integrable, therefore seem to have little effect on large-c conformal field theories.

  14. phase_space_cosmo_fisher: Fisher matrix 2D contours

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stark, Alejo

    2016-11-01

    phase_space_cosmo_fisher produces Fisher matrix 2D contours from which the constraints on cosmological parameters can be derived. Given a specified redshift array and cosmological case, 2D marginalized contours of cosmological parameters are generated; the code can also plot the derivatives used in the Fisher matrix. In addition, this package can generate 3D plots of qH^2 and other cosmological quantities as a function of redshift and cosmology.

  15. NKG2D ligands as therapeutic targets

    PubMed Central

    Spear, Paul; Wu, Ming-Ru; Sentman, Marie-Louise; Sentman, Charles L.

    2013-01-01

    The Natural Killer Group 2D (NKG2D) receptor plays an important role in protecting the host from infections and cancer. By recognizing ligands induced on infected or tumor cells, NKG2D modulates lymphocyte activation and promotes immunity to eliminate ligand-expressing cells. Because these ligands are not widely expressed on healthy adult tissue, NKG2D ligands may present a useful target for immunotherapeutic approaches in cancer. Novel therapies targeting NKG2D ligands for the treatment of cancer have shown preclinical success and are poised to enter into clinical trials. In this review, the NKG2D receptor and its ligands are discussed in the context of cancer, infection, and autoimmunity. In addition, therapies targeting NKG2D ligands in cancer are also reviewed. PMID:23833565

  16. Joint 2D and 3D phase processing for quantitative susceptibility mapping: application to 2D echo-planar imaging.

    PubMed

    Wei, Hongjiang; Zhang, Yuyao; Gibbs, Eric; Chen, Nan-Kuei; Wang, Nian; Liu, Chunlei

    2017-04-01

    Quantitative susceptibility mapping (QSM) measures tissue magnetic susceptibility and typically relies on time-consuming three-dimensional (3D) gradient-echo (GRE) MRI. Recent studies have shown that two-dimensional (2D) multi-slice gradient-echo echo-planar imaging (GRE-EPI), which is commonly used in functional MRI (fMRI) and other dynamic imaging techniques, can also be used to produce data suitable for QSM with much shorter scan times. However, the production of high-quality QSM maps is difficult because data obtained by 2D multi-slice scans often have phase inconsistencies across adjacent slices and strong susceptibility field gradients near air-tissue interfaces. To address these challenges in 2D EPI-based QSM studies, we present a new data processing procedure that integrates 2D and 3D phase processing. First, 2D Laplacian-based phase unwrapping and 2D background phase removal are performed to reduce phase inconsistencies between slices and remove in-plane harmonic components of the background phase. This is followed by 3D background phase removal for the through-plane harmonic components. The proposed phase processing was evaluated with 2D EPI data obtained from healthy volunteers, and compared against conventional 3D phase processing using the same 2D EPI datasets. Our QSM results were also compared with QSM values from time-consuming 3D GRE data, which were taken as ground truth. The experimental results show that this new 2D EPI-based QSM technique can produce quantitative susceptibility measures that are comparable with those of 3D GRE-based QSM across different brain regions (e.g. subcortical iron-rich gray matter, cortical gray and white matter). This new 2D EPI QSM reconstruction method is implemented within STI Suite, which is a comprehensive shareware for susceptibility imaging and quantification. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  17. 2D-3D transition of gold cluster anions resolved

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Johansson, Mikael P.; Lechtken, Anne; Schooss, Detlef; Kappes, Manfred M.; Furche, Filipp

    2008-05-01

    Small gold cluster anions Aun- are known for their unusual two-dimensional (2D) structures, giving rise to properties very different from those of bulk gold. Previous experiments and calculations disagree about the number of gold atoms nc where the transition to 3D structures occurs. We combine trapped ion electron diffraction and state of the art electronic structure calculations to resolve this puzzle and establish nc=12 . It is shown that theoretical studies using traditional generalized gradient functionals are heavily biased towards 2D structures. For a correct prediction of the 2D-3D crossover point it is crucial to use density functionals yielding accurate jellium surface energies, such as the Tao-Perdew-Staroverov-Scuseria (TPSS) functional or the Perdew-Burke-Ernzerhof functional modified for solids (PBEsol). Further, spin-orbit effects have to be included, and large, flexible basis sets employed. This combined theoretical-experimental approach is promising for larger gold and other metal clusters.

  18. Resistivity inversion in 2-D anisotropic media: numerical experiments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wiese, Timothy; Greenhalgh, Stewart; Zhou, Bing; Greenhalgh, Mark; Marescot, Laurent

    2015-04-01

    Many rocks and layered/fractured sequences have a clearly expressed electrical anisotropy although it is rare in practice to incorporate anisotropy into resistivity inversion. In this contribution, we present a series of 2.5-D synthetic inversion experiments for various electrode configurations and 2-D anisotropic models. We examine and compare the image reconstructions obtained using the correct anisotropic inversion code with those obtained using the false but widely used isotropic assumption. Superior reconstruction in terms of reduced data misfit, true anomaly shape and position, and anisotropic background parameters were obtained when the correct anisotropic assumption was employed for medium to high coefficients of anisotropy. However, for low coefficient values the isotropic assumption produced better-quality results. When an erroneous isotropic inversion is performed on medium to high level anisotropic data, the images are dominated by patterns of banded artefacts and high data misfits. Various pole-pole, pole-dipole and dipole-dipole data sets were investigated and evaluated for the accuracy of the inversion result. The eigenvalue spectra of the pseudo-Hessian matrix and the formal resolution matrix were also computed to determine the information content and goodness of the results. We also present a data selection strategy based on high sensitivity measurements which drastically reduces the number of data to be inverted but still produces comparable results to that of the comprehensive data set. Inversion was carried out using transversely isotropic model parameters described in two different co-ordinate frames for the conductivity tensor, namely Cartesian versus natural or eigenframe. The Cartesian frame provided a more stable inversion product. This can be simply explained from inspection of the eigenspectra of the pseudo-Hessian matrix for the two model descriptions.

  19. Quantitative 2D liquid-state NMR.

    PubMed

    Giraudeau, Patrick

    2014-06-01

    Two-dimensional (2D) liquid-state NMR has a very high potential to simultaneously determine the absolute concentration of small molecules in complex mixtures, thanks to its capacity to separate overlapping resonances. However, it suffers from two main drawbacks that probably explain its relatively late development. First, the 2D NMR signal is strongly molecule-dependent and site-dependent; second, the long duration of 2D NMR experiments prevents its general use for high-throughput quantitative applications and affects its quantitative performance. Fortunately, the last 10 years has witnessed an increasing number of contributions where quantitative approaches based on 2D NMR were developed and applied to solve real analytical issues. This review aims at presenting these recent efforts to reach a high trueness and precision in quantitative measurements by 2D NMR. After highlighting the interest of 2D NMR for quantitative analysis, the different strategies to determine the absolute concentrations from 2D NMR spectra are described and illustrated by recent applications. The last part of the manuscript concerns the recent development of fast quantitative 2D NMR approaches, aiming at reducing the experiment duration while preserving - or even increasing - the analytical performance. We hope that this comprehensive review will help readers to apprehend the current landscape of quantitative 2D NMR, as well as the perspectives that may arise from it.

  20. Anisotropy across Superplume Boundaries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cottaar, S.; Romanowicz, B. A.

    2011-12-01

    Sdiff data sets are presented for paths that run parallel to the African and the Pacific superplume boundaries. Objective clustering of waveforms illustrates sharp changes across these boundaries. The African plume shows a sharp offset in travel times in the SHdiff phase, while a more gradual offset towards slower arrivals is seen in the case of the Pacific superplume. Additionally, Pdiff phases display no offset around the African plume and a weak one around the Pacific plume. Here we focus mainly on another striking feature observed in both cases: outside of the superplume the Sdiff particle motion is strongly elliptical, but becomes linear within the superplume (first noticed by To et al. 2005 in the African superplume case). For the African plume we argue that these observations of delayed SV at large distances (~120 degrees) are indicative of the occurrence of azimuthal anisotropy. The SV arrivals have similar polarity as SH, opposite from what their radiation pattern predicts. Azimuthal anisotropy causes SH energy to be converted to SV (Maupin, 1994), explaining the travel time, polarity and amplitude. Forward modeling through different isotropic and anisotropic models supports this statement, although there are trade-offs between direction and magnitude of azimuthal anisotropy. The strong elliptical particle motions are also observed outside the Pacific plume, but at shorter distances (95-105 degrees). Elliptical motions can occur in the absence of anisotropy when strong velocity deviations or layering occurs close to the CMB, which, based on velocity profiles with depth in global tomographic models would be more likely within the superplume rather than on the fast side. The elliptical particle motions here can be modelled with a simple transverse isotropic model with VSH>VSV, but azimuthal anisotropy cannot be ruled out. The complexities within the Pacific superplume, including strong amplitude drop and existence of a post-cursor, are likely caused by an

  1. 2D microscopic model of graphene fracture properties

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hess, Peter

    2015-05-01

    An analytical two-dimensional (2D) microscopic fracture model based on Morse-type interaction is derived containing no adjustable parameter. From the 2D Young’s moduli and 2D intrinsic strengths of graphene measured by nanoindentation based on biaxial tension and calculated by density functional theory for uniaxial tension the widely unknown breaking force, line or edge energy, surface energy, fracture toughness, and strain energy release rate were determined. The simulated line energy agrees well with ab initio calculations and the fracture toughness of perfect graphene sheets is in good agreement with molecular dynamics simulations and the fracture toughness evaluated for defective graphene using the Griffith relation. Similarly, the estimated critical strain energy release rate agrees well with result of various theoretical approaches based on the J-integral and surface energy. The 2D microscopic model, connecting 2D and three-dimensional mechanical properties in a consistent way, provides a versatile relationship to easily access all relevant fracture properties of pristine 2D solids.

  2. Recovering the Fermi surface with 2D-ACAR spectroscopy in samples with defects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dugdale, S. B.; Laverock, J.

    2014-04-01

    When two-dimensional angular correlation of positron annihilation radiation (2D-ACAR) experiments are performed in metals containing defects, conventional analysis in which the measured momentum distribution is folded back into the first Brillouin zone is rendered ineffective due to the contribution from positrons annihilating from the defect. However, by working with the radial anisotropy of the spectrum, it is shown that an image of the Fermi surface can be recovered since the defect contribution is essentially isotropic.

  3. Four-Component Relativistic Density Functional Theory Calculations of EPR g- and Hyperfine-Coupling Tensors Using Hybrid Functionals: Validation on Transition-Metal Complexes with Large Tensor Anisotropies and Higher-Order Spin-Orbit Effects.

    PubMed

    Gohr, Sebastian; Hrobárik, Peter; Repiský, Michal; Komorovský, Stanislav; Ruud, Kenneth; Kaupp, Martin

    2015-12-24

    The four-component matrix Dirac-Kohn-Sham (mDKS) implementation of EPR g- and hyperfine A-tensor calculations within a restricted kinetic balance framework in the ReSpect code has been extended to hybrid functionals. The methodology is validated for an extended set of small 4d(1) and 5d(1) [MEXn](q) systems, and for a series of larger Ir(II) and Pt(III) d(7) complexes (S = 1/2) with particularly large g-tensor anisotropies. Different density functionals (PBE, BP86, B3LYP-xHF, PBE0-xHF) with variable exact-exchange admixture x (ranging from 0% to 50%) have been evaluated, and the influence of structure and basis set has been examined. Notably, hybrid functionals with an exact-exchange admixture of about 40% provide the best agreement with experiment and clearly outperform the generalized-gradient approximation (GGA) functionals, in particular for the hyperfine couplings. Comparison with computations at the one-component second-order perturbational level within the Douglas-Kroll-Hess framework (1c-DKH), and a scaling of the speed of light at the four-component mDKS level, provide insight into the importance of higher-order relativistic effects for both properties. In the more extreme cases of some iridium(II) and platinum(III) complexes, the widely used leading-order perturbational treatment of SO effects in EPR calculations fails to reproduce not only the magnitude but also the sign of certain g-shift components (with the contribution of higher-order SO effects amounting to several hundreds of ppt in 5d complexes). The four-component hybrid mDKS calculations perform very well, giving overall good agreement with the experimental data.

  4. Annotated Bibliography of EDGE2D Use

    SciTech Connect

    J.D. Strachan and G. Corrigan

    2005-06-24

    This annotated bibliography is intended to help EDGE2D users, and particularly new users, find existing published literature that has used EDGE2D. Our idea is that a person can find existing studies which may relate to his intended use, as well as gain ideas about other possible applications by scanning the attached tables.

  5. Staring 2-D hadamard transform spectral imager

    DOEpatents

    Gentry, Stephen M.; Wehlburg, Christine M.; Wehlburg, Joseph C.; Smith, Mark W.; Smith, Jody L.

    2006-02-07

    A staring imaging system inputs a 2D spatial image containing multi-frequency spectral information. This image is encoded in one dimension of the image with a cyclic Hadamarid S-matrix. The resulting image is detecting with a spatial 2D detector; and a computer applies a Hadamard transform to recover the encoded image.

  6. Structural anisotropy in metallic glasses induced by mechanical deformation

    SciTech Connect

    Dmowski, W.; Egami, T.

    2009-03-06

    We observed structural anisotropy in metallic glasses samples deformed by homogenous mechanical creep and by inhomogeneous compression using high energy X-ray diffraction. Pair distribution function analysis indicates bond anisotropy in the first atomic shell. This suggests that mechanical deformation involves rearrangements in a cluster of atoms by a bond reformation.

  7. Killing vectors and anisotropy

    SciTech Connect

    Krisch, J. P.; Glass, E. N.

    2009-08-15

    We consider an action that can generate fluids with three unequal stresses for metrics with a spacelike Killing vector. The parameters in the action are directly related to the stress anisotropies. The field equations following from the action are applied to an anisotropic cosmological expansion and an extension of the Gott-Hiscock cosmic string.

  8. Rapid-scan coherent 2D fluorescence spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Draeger, Simon; Roeding, Sebastian; Brixner, Tobias

    2017-02-20

    We developed pulse-shaper-assisted coherent two-dimensional (2D) electronic spectroscopy in liquids using fluorescence detection. A customized pulse shaper facilitates shot-to-shot modulation at 1 kHz and is employed for rapid scanning over all time delays. A full 2D spectrum with 15 × 15 pixels is obtained in approximately 6 s of measurement time (plus further averaging if needed). Coherent information is extracted from the incoherent fluorescence signal via 27-step phase cycling. We exemplify the technique on cresyl violet in ethanol and recover literature-known oscillations as a function of population time. Signal-to-noise behavior is analyzed as a function of the amount of averaging. Rapid scanning provides a 2D spectrum with a root-mean-square error of < 0.05 after 1 min of measurement time.

  9. The agreement between 3D, standard 2D and triplane 2D speckle tracking: effects of image quality and 3D volume rate.

    PubMed

    Trache, Tudor; Stöbe, Stephan; Tarr, Adrienn; Pfeiffer, Dietrich; Hagendorff, Andreas

    2014-12-01

    Comparison of 3D and 2D speckle tracking performed on standard 2D and triplane 2D datasets of normal and pathological left ventricular (LV) wall-motion patterns with a focus on the effect that 3D volume rate (3DVR), image quality and tracking artifacts have on the agreement between 2D and 3D speckle tracking. 37 patients with normal LV function and 18 patients with ischaemic wall-motion abnormalities underwent 2D and 3D echocardiography, followed by offline speckle tracking measurements. The values of 3D global, regional and segmental strain were compared with the standard 2D and triplane 2D strain values. Correlation analysis with the LV ejection fraction (LVEF) was also performed. The 3D and 2D global strain values correlated good in both normally and abnormally contracting hearts, though systematic differences between the two methods were observed. Of the 3D strain parameters, the area strain showed the best correlation with the LVEF. The numerical agreement of 3D and 2D analyses varied significantly with the volume rate and image quality of the 3D datasets. The highest correlation between 2D and 3D peak systolic strain values was found between 3D area and standard 2D longitudinal strain. Regional wall-motion abnormalities were similarly detected by 2D and 3D speckle tracking. 2DST of triplane datasets showed similar results to those of conventional 2D datasets. 2D and 3D speckle tracking similarly detect normal and pathological wall-motion patterns. Limited image quality has a significant impact on the agreement between 3D and 2D numerical strain values.

  10. Anisotropy and nonuniversality in scaling laws of the large-scale energy spectrum in rotating turbulence.

    PubMed

    Sen, Amrik; Mininni, Pablo D; Rosenberg, Duane; Pouquet, Annick

    2012-09-01

    Rapidly rotating turbulent flow is characterized by the emergence of columnar structures that are representative of quasi-two-dimensional behavior of the flow. It is known that when energy is injected into the fluid at an intermediate scale Lf, it cascades towards smaller as well as larger scales. In this paper we analyze the flow in the inverse cascade range at a small but fixed Rossby number, Rof≈0.05. Several numerical simulations with helical and nonhelical forcing functions are considered in periodic boxes with unit aspect ratio. In order to resolve the inverse cascade range with reasonably large Reynolds number, the analysis is based on large eddy simulations which include the effect of helicity on eddy viscosity and eddy noise. Thus, we model the small scales and resolve explicitly the large scales. We show that the large-scale energy spectrum has at least two solutions: one that is consistent with Kolmogorov-Kraichnan-Batchelor-Leith phenomenology for the inverse cascade of energy in two-dimensional (2D) turbulence with a ∼k⊥-5/3 scaling, and the other that corresponds to a steeper ∼k⊥-3 spectrum in which the three-dimensional (3D) modes release a substantial fraction of their energy per unit time to the 2D modes. The spectrum that emerges depends on the anisotropy of the forcing function, the former solution prevailing for forcings in which more energy is injected into the 2D modes while the latter prevails for isotropic forcing. In the case of anisotropic forcing, whence the energy goes from the 2D to the 3D modes at low wave numbers, large-scale shear is created, resulting in a time scale τsh, associated with shear, thereby producing a ∼k-1 spectrum for the total energy with the horizontal energy of the 2D modes still following a ∼k⊥-5/3 scaling.

  11. The 2dF Galaxy Redshift Survey: Preliminary Results

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maddox, Steve; 2DF Galaxy Redshift Survey Team; Bland-Hawthorn, Joss; Cannon, Russell; Cole, Shaun; Colless, Matthew; Collins, Chris; Couch, Warrick; Dalton, Gavin; Driver, Simon; Ellis, Richard; Efstathiou, George; Folkes, Simon; Frenk, Carlos; Glazebrook, Karl; Kaiser, Nick; Lahav, Ofer; Lumsden, Stuart; Peterson, Bruce; Peacock, John; Sutherland, Will; Taylor, Keith

    Spectroscopic observations for a new survey of 250 000 galaxy redshifts are underway, using the 2dF instrument at the AAT. The input galaxy catalogue and commissioning data are described. The first result from the preliminary data is a new estimate of the galaxy luminosity function at = 0.1.

  12. Studying Zeolite Catalysts with a 2D Model System

    ScienceCinema

    Boscoboinik, Anibal

    2016-12-14

    Anibal Boscoboinik, a materials scientist at Brookhaven’s Center for Functional Nanomaterials, discusses the surface-science tools and 2D model system he uses to study catalysis in nanoporous zeolites, which catalyze reactions in many industrial processes.

  13. Scale Invariance in 2D BCS-BEC Crossover

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sensarma, Rajdeep; Taylor, Edward; Randeria, Mohit

    2013-03-01

    In 2D BCS-BEC crossover, the frequency of the breathing mode in a harmonic trap, as well as the lower edge of the radio frequency spectroscopy response, show remarkable scale-invariance throughout the crossover regime, i.e. they are independent of the coupling constant. Using functional integral methods, we study the behaviour of these quantities in the 2D BCS-BEC crossover and comment on the possible reasons for this scale independence. RS was supported by DAE, Govt. of India. MR was supported by NSF Grant No. DMR-1006532. ET was supported by NSERC and the Canadian Institute for Advanced Research.

  14. 2D Log-Gabor Wavelet Based Action Recognition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Ning; Xu, De

    The frequency response of log-Gabor function matches well the frequency response of primate visual neurons. In this letter, motion-salient regions are extracted based on the 2D log-Gabor wavelet transform of the spatio-temporal form of actions. A supervised classification technique is then used to classify the actions. The proposed method is robust to the irregular segmentation of actors. Moreover, the 2D log-Gabor wavelet permits more compact representation of actions than the recent neurobiological models using Gabor wavelet.

  15. Matrix models of 2d gravity

    SciTech Connect

    Ginsparg, P.

    1991-01-01

    These are introductory lectures for a general audience that give an overview of the subject of matrix models and their application to random surfaces, 2d gravity, and string theory. They are intentionally 1.5 years out of date.

  16. Matrix models of 2d gravity

    SciTech Connect

    Ginsparg, P.

    1991-12-31

    These are introductory lectures for a general audience that give an overview of the subject of matrix models and their application to random surfaces, 2d gravity, and string theory. They are intentionally 1.5 years out of date.

  17. Brittle damage models in DYNA2D

    SciTech Connect

    Faux, D.R.

    1997-09-01

    DYNA2D is an explicit Lagrangian finite element code used to model dynamic events where stress wave interactions influence the overall response of the system. DYNA2D is often used to model penetration problems involving ductile-to-ductile impacts; however, with the advent of the use of ceramics in the armor-anti-armor community and the need to model damage to laser optics components, good brittle damage models are now needed in DYNA2D. This report will detail the implementation of four brittle damage models in DYNA2D, three scalar damage models and one tensor damage model. These new brittle damage models are then used to predict experimental results from three distinctly different glass damage problems.

  18. 2D/3D switchable displays

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dekker, T.; de Zwart, S. T.; Willemsen, O. H.; Hiddink, M. G. H.; IJzerman, W. L.

    2006-02-01

    A prerequisite for a wide market acceptance of 3D displays is the ability to switch between 3D and full resolution 2D. In this paper we present a robust and cost effective concept for an auto-stereoscopic switchable 2D/3D display. The display is based on an LCD panel, equipped with switchable LC-filled lenticular lenses. We will discuss 3D image quality, with the focus on display uniformity. We show that slanting the lenticulars in combination with a good lens design can minimize non-uniformities in our 20" 2D/3D monitors. Furthermore, we introduce fractional viewing systems as a very robust concept to further improve uniformity in the case slanting the lenticulars and optimizing the lens design are not sufficient. We will discuss measurements and numerical simulations of the key optical characteristics of this display. Finally, we discuss 2D image quality, the switching characteristics and the residual lens effect.

  19. 2-d Finite Element Code Postprocessor

    SciTech Connect

    Sanford, L. A.; Hallquist, J. O.

    1996-07-15

    ORION is an interactive program that serves as a postprocessor for the analysis programs NIKE2D, DYNA2D, TOPAZ2D, and CHEMICAL TOPAZ2D. ORION reads binary plot files generated by the two-dimensional finite element codes currently used by the Methods Development Group at LLNL. Contour and color fringe plots of a large number of quantities may be displayed on meshes consisting of triangular and quadrilateral elements. ORION can compute strain measures, interface pressures along slide lines, reaction forces along constrained boundaries, and momentum. ORION has been applied to study the response of two-dimensional solids and structures undergoing finite deformations under a wide variety of large deformation transient dynamic and static problems and heat transfer analyses.

  20. MAGNUM2D. Radionuclide Transport Porous Media

    SciTech Connect

    Langford, D.W.; Baca, R.G.

    1989-03-01

    MAGNUM2D was developed to analyze thermally driven fluid motion in the deep basalts below the Paco Basin at the Westinghouse Hanford Site. Has been used in the Basalt Waste Isolation Project to simulate nonisothermal groundwater flow in a heterogeneous anisotropic medium and heat transport in a water/rock system near a high level nuclear waste repository. Allows three representations of the hydrogeologic system: an equivalent porous continuum, a system of discrete, unfilled, and interconnecting fractures separated by impervious rock mass, and a low permeability porous continuum with several discrete, unfilled fractures traversing the medium. The calculations assume local thermodynamic equilibrium between the rock and groundwater, nonisothermal Darcian flow in the continuum portions of the rock, and nonisothermal Poiseuille flow in discrete unfilled fractures. In addition, the code accounts for thermal loading within the elements, zero normal gradient and fixed boundary conditions for both temperature and hydraulic head, and simulation of the temperature and flow independently. The Q2DGEOM preprocessor was developed to generate, modify, plot and verify quadratic two dimensional finite element geometries. The BCGEN preprocessor generates the boundary conditions for head and temperature and ICGEN generates the initial conditions. The GRIDDER postprocessor interpolates nonregularly spaced nodal flow and temperature data onto a regular rectangular grid. CONTOUR plots and labels contour lines for a function of two variables and PARAM plots cross sections and time histories for a function of time and one or two spatial variables. NPRINT generates data tables that display the data along horizontal or vertical cross sections. VELPLT differentiates the hydraulic head and buoyancy data and plots the velocity vectors. The PATH postprocessor plots flow paths and computes the corresponding travel times.

  1. MAGNUM2D. Radionuclide Transport Porous Media

    SciTech Connect

    Langford, D.W.; Baca, R.G.

    1988-08-01

    MAGNUM2D was developed to analyze thermally driven fluid motion in the deep basalts below the Paco Basin at the Westinghouse Hanford Site. Has been used in the Basalt Waste Isolation Project to simulate nonisothermal groundwater flow in a heterogeneous anisotropic medium and heat transport in a water/rock system near a high level nuclear waste repository. Allows three representations of the hydrogeologic system: an equivalent porous continuum, a system of discrete, unfilled, and interconnecting fractures separated by impervious rock mass, and a low permeability porous continuum with several discrete, unfilled fractures traversing the medium. The calculation assumes local thermodynamic equilibrium between the rock and groundwater, nonisothermal Darcian flow in the continuum portions of the rock, and nonisothermal Poiseuille flow in discrete unfilled fractures. In addition, the code accounts for thermal loading within the elements, zero normal gradient and fixed boundary conditions for both temperature and hydraulic head, and simulation of the temperature and flow independently. The Q2DGEOM preprocessor was developed to generate, modify, plot and verify quadratic two dimensional finite element geometries. The BCGEN preprocessor generates the boundary conditions for head and temperature and ICGEN generates the initial conditions. The GRIDDER postprocessor interpolates nonregularly spaced nodal flow and temperature data onto a regular rectangular grid. CONTOUR plots and labels contour lines for a function of two variables and PARAM plots cross sections and time histories for a function of time and one or two spatial variables. NPRINT generates data tables that display the data along horizontal or vertical cross sections. VELPLT differentiates the hydraulic head and buoyancy data and plots the velocity vectors. The PATH postprocessor plots flow paths and computes the corresponding travel times.

  2. Ab initio studies of magnetic anisotropy energy in highly Co-doped ZnO

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Łusakowski, A.; Szuszkiewicz, W.

    2017-03-01

    Density functional theory (DFT) calculations of the energy of magnetic anisotropy for diluted magnetic semiconductor (Zn,Co)O were performed using OpenMX package with fully relativistic pseudopotentials. The analysis of the band spin-orbit interaction and the magnetic ion's surrounding on magnetic anisotropy have been provided. As a result, the calculations show that the magnetic anisotropy in (Zn,Co)O solid solution, mainly of the single ion anisotropy type has been caused by Co ions.

  3. Introducing the concept of anisotropy at different scales for modeling optical turbulence.

    PubMed

    Toselli, Italo

    2014-08-01

    In this paper, the concept of anisotropy at different atmospheric turbulence scales is introduced. A power spectrum and its associated structure function with inner and outer scale effects and anisotropy are also shown. The power spectrum includes an effective anisotropic parameter ζ(eff) to describe anisotropy, which is useful for modeling optical turbulence when a non-Kolmogorov power law and anisotropy along the direction of propagation are present.

  4. Cosmic background anisotropy induced by isotropic, flat-spectrum gravitational-wave perturbations

    SciTech Connect

    Starobinskii, A.A.

    1985-05-01

    A calculation is made of the temperature anisotropy that would be produced in the cosmic microwave background by an isotropic, stochastic ensemble of primordial gravitational waves having a flat initial spectrum. On angular scales THETA > 2 the anisotropy autocorrelation function has practically the same multipole dependence as previously established for the case of flat-spectrum adiabatic perturbations, while on scales THETA < 1 the anisotropy becomes insignificant. Upper limits are placed on the gravitational-wave amplitude and on the expected quadrupole anisotropy.

  5. Weak Elastic Anisotropy in Global Seismology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thomsen, L.; Anderson, D. L.

    2014-12-01

    Most of the major features of the Earth's interior were discovered using the concepts of isotropic seismology; however, subtle features require more realistic concepts. Although the importance of anisotropy has been known for over 50 years, only in the last decade has the increasing quality and quantity of data forced the wide recognition that anisotropyis crucial for accurate descriptions of upper mantle structure. The persistence of the "plume hypothesis", in spite of abundant evidence to the contrary, is partly based on the neglect of anisotropy, sparse and biased ray coverage, and the misuse of Occam's razor. Whereas isotropic inversion of teleseismic near-vertical travel-time datasets suggests the presence of deep vertical zones of low velocity (interpreted as mantle plumes), anisotropic inversion of data having a range of polarizations and directions of approach suggests instead shallow zones of relatively high anisotropy. This raises the possibility that current understanding of manyof the subtle features of Earth structure could be erroneous, caused by over-simplified analysis. The simplest plausible anisotropic model is that of polar anisotropy ("VTI" [sic!]), with a radial symmetry axis. The essential idea which makes anisotropic seismology feasible is the recognition that, in the Earth, the anisotropy is almost invariably weak, and the anisotropic equations (linearized in appropriately chosen small parameters) are quite simple (see below). These equations show that, to first order, the anisotropic variation of velocity is not governed by the individual Cab , but rather by the combinations of parameters given above. Hence, inversions should seek these combinations, rather than the individual moduli. The Rayleigh velocity VR is a simple function of VS0 and the P- and SV- anisotropies. The Love velocity VL is a complicated function of VS0 and the SH anisotropy γ. The simplest plausible model of azimuthal anisotropy is orthorhombic (not ("HTI" [sic

  6. Anisotropy of radiation emitted from planar wire arrays

    SciTech Connect

    Kantsyrev, V. L.; Esaulov, A. A.; Safronova, A. S.; Williamson, K. M.; Osborne, G. C.; Shrestha, I. K.; Weller, M. E.; Shlyaptseva, V. V.; Chuvatin, A. S.; Rudakov, L. I.; Velikovich, A.

    2013-07-15

    The planar wire array (PWA) is a promising load for new multi-source inertial confinement fusion (ICF) hohlraums [B. Jones et al., Phys. Rev. Lett. 104, 125001 (2010)]. The hohlraum radiation symmetry is an important issue for ICF. It was found that extreme ultraviolet and sub-keV photon emission from PWAs may have considerable anisotropy in the load azimuthal plane. This experimental result is obtained on the UNR 1–1.7 MA Zebra generator. The time-dependent anisotropy effect is detected. This feature is studied in 2D numerical simulations and can be explained by initial anisotropy of implosion of those non-cylindrical loads radiating essentially as surface sources in sub-keV quanta and also by radiation absorption in cold magnetized plasma tails forming in the direction of magnetic compression.

  7. Reflectance Anisotropy Spectroscopy(RAS) of Si(111)-(3x1)-Ag and Si(111)-c(12x2): Comparison of hybrid density functional theory and experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jorgji, Sofia; McGilp, John; Patterson, Charles

    2013-03-01

    The atomic and electronic structures of the Si(111)-(3x1)-Ag surface have been investigated extensively by LEED, STM and electron spectroscopies. The atomic structure is believed to be a honeycomb chain plus channel (HCC) structure in which channels containing Ag atoms are separated by Si in honeycomb chains. Here we compare results of previous reflectance anisotropy spectroscopy (RAS) experiments with hybrid DFT simulations for the HCC structure. Results of RAS simulations are in very good agreement with RAS experiments and indicate that the HCC structure is likely to be correct. Surface state features responsible for the RAS signal are identified and the effect of dimerisation of Ag chains on the RAS spectrum is considered. This work was supported by the Irish HEA under PRTLI-V

  8. Tuning the Magnetic Anisotropy at a Molecule-Metal Interface.

    PubMed

    Bairagi, K; Bellec, A; Repain, V; Chacon, C; Girard, Y; Garreau, Y; Lagoute, J; Rousset, S; Breitwieser, R; Hu, Yu-Cheng; Chao, Yen Cheng; Pai, Woei Wu; Li, D; Smogunov, A; Barreteau, C

    2015-06-19

    We demonstrate that a C(60) overlayer enhances the perpendicular magnetic anisotropy of a Co thin film, inducing an inverse spin reorientation transition from in plane to out of plane. The driving force is the (60)/Co interfacial magnetic anisotropy that we have measured quantitatively in situ as a function of the (60) coverage. Comparison with state-of-the-art ab initio calculations show that this interfacial anisotropy mainly arises from the local hybridization between (60) p(z) and Co d(z(2)) orbitals. By generalizing these arguments, we also demonstrate that the hybridization of (60) with a Fe(110) surface decreases the perpendicular magnetic anisotropy. These results open the way to tailor the interfacial magnetic anisotropy in organic-material-ferromagnet systems.

  9. Tuning the Magnetic Anisotropy at a Molecule-Metal Interface

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bairagi, K.; Bellec, A.; Repain, V.; Chacon, C.; Girard, Y.; Garreau, Y.; Lagoute, J.; Rousset, S.; Breitwieser, R.; Hu, Yu-Cheng; Chao, Yen Cheng; Pai, Woei Wu; Li, D.; Smogunov, A.; Barreteau, C.

    2015-06-01

    We demonstrate that a C60 overlayer enhances the perpendicular magnetic anisotropy of a Co thin film, inducing an inverse spin reorientation transition from in plane to out of plane. The driving force is the C60/Co interfacial magnetic anisotropy that we have measured quantitatively in situ as a function of the C60 coverage. Comparison with state-of-the-art ab initio calculations show that this interfacial anisotropy mainly arises from the local hybridization between C60 pz and Co dz2 orbitals. By generalizing these arguments, we also demonstrate that the hybridization of C60 with a Fe(110) surface decreases the perpendicular magnetic anisotropy. These results open the way to tailor the interfacial magnetic anisotropy in organic-material-ferromagnet systems.

  10. Simultaneous Measurement of Elastic and Electrical Anisotropy of Shales under Elevated Pressure: A Preliminary Study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ou, L.; Niu, Q.; Prasad, M.

    2015-12-01

    Low-porosity shales are generally considered as transverse isotropic (TI) material, both elastically and electrically. We explore the correlation of elastic and electrical anisotropy of shales to mineralogy and organic richness. Both, elastic and electrical anisotropies in rocks are known to be functions of clay and kerogen contents. The elastic anisotropy in clay- and organic-rich shales is related to their laminated and lenticular texture that is enhanced with compaction and diagenesis leading. The correlation of complex resistivity and anisotropy in shales with clay content has theoretically modeled using cation exchange capacity of the clay minerals. Although, it is appear likely that elastic and electrical anisotropy might be controlled by similar petrophyiscal properties, very little research exists that explores the relationship between these two anisotropies and how petrophysical properties might influence them. We present an experimental data of elastic and electrical anisotropy in shales acquired with a new system that allows simultaneous measurements of acoustic velocities and complex resistivities under hydrostatic pressure in three directions: parallel, 45° and perpendicular to any orientation, such as bedding planes. Our results of five shale samples show: Elastic and electrical anisotropy are inversely related to pressure Electrical anisotropy is generally higher than elastic anisotropy Electrical anisotropy is more sensitive to pressure change Complex resistivity anisotropy for in-phase resistivity and phase is highly frequency dependent In future, we plan to measure shale samples with varying clay and organic contents and correlate anisotropy to petrophysical properties.

  11. Vibrational spectra, NBO analysis, first order hyperpolarizabilities, thermodynamic functions and NMR chemical shielding anisotropy (CSA) parameters of 5-nitro-2-furoic acid by ab initio HF and DFT calculations.

    PubMed

    Balachandran, V; Rajeswari, S; Lalitha, S

    2013-09-01

    In this work, FT-IR and FT-Raman spectra are recorded on the solid phase of 5-nitro-2-furoic acid (abbreviated as NFA) in the regions 4000-400 cm(-1) and 3500-100 cm(-1) respectively. The geometrical parameters, vibrational assignments, HOMO-LUMO energies and NBO calculations are obtained for the monomer and dimer of NFA from HF and DFT (B3LYP) with 6-311++G (d, p) basis set calculations. Second order perturbation energies and electron density (ED) transfer from filled lone pairs of Lewis base to unfilled Lewis acid sites of NFA are discussed on the basis of NBO analysis. Intermolecular hydrogen bonds exist through COOH groups; give the evidence for the formation of dimer entities in the title molecule. The theoretically calculated harmonic frequencies are scaled by common scale factor. The observed and the calculated frequencies are found to be in good agreement. The thermodynamic functions were obtained for the range of temperature 100-1000 K. The polarizability, first hyperpolarizability, anisotropy polarizability invariant has been computed using quantum chemical calculations. The chemical parameters were calculated from the HOMO and LUMO values. The NMR chemical shielding anisotropy (CSA) parameters were also computed for the title molecule.

  12. STUDYING THE INTERSTELLAR MAGNETIC FIELD FROM ANISOTROPIES IN VELOCITY CHANNELS

    SciTech Connect

    Esquivel, A.; Lazarian, A.; Pogosyan, D. E-mail: lazarian@astro.wisc.edu

    2015-11-20

    Turbulence in the interstellar medium is anisotropic due to the ubiquitous magnetic fields. This anisotropy depends on the strength of the magnetic field and leaves an imprint on observations of spectral line maps. We use a grid of ideal magnetohydrodynamic simulations of driven turbulence and produce synthetic position–position–velocity maps to study the turbulence anisotropy in velocity channels of various resolutions. We found that the average structure function of velocity channels is aligned with the projection of the magnetic field on the plane of the sky. We also found that the degree of such anisotropy increases with the magnitude of the magnetic field. For thick velocity channels (low velocity resolution), the anisotropy is dominated by density, and the degree of anisotropy in these maps allows one to distinguish sub-Alfvénic and super-Alfvénic turbulence regimes, but it also depends strongly on the sonic Mach number. For thin channels (high velocity resolution), we find that the anisotropy depends less on the sonic Mach number. An important limitation of this technique is that it only gives a lower limit on the magnetic field strength because the anisotropy is related only to the magnetic field component on the plane of the sky. It can, and should, be used in combination with other techniques to estimate the magnetic field, such as the Fermi-Chandrasekhar method, anisotropies in centroids, Faraday rotation measurements, or direct line-of-sight determinations of the field from Zeeman effect observations.

  13. Orthotropic Piezoelectricity in 2D Nanocellulose

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    García, Y.; Ruiz-Blanco, Yasser B.; Marrero-Ponce, Yovani; Sotomayor-Torres, C. M.

    2016-10-01

    The control of electromechanical responses within bonding regions is essential to face frontier challenges in nanotechnologies, such as molecular electronics and biotechnology. Here, we present Iβ-nanocellulose as a potentially new orthotropic 2D piezoelectric crystal. The predicted in-layer piezoelectricity is originated on a sui-generis hydrogen bonds pattern. Upon this fact and by using a combination of ab-initio and ad-hoc models, we introduce a description of electrical profiles along chemical bonds. Such developments lead to obtain a rationale for modelling the extended piezoelectric effect originated within bond scales. The order of magnitude estimated for the 2D Iβ-nanocellulose piezoelectric response, ~pm V‑1, ranks this material at the level of currently used piezoelectric energy generators and new artificial 2D designs. Such finding would be crucial for developing alternative materials to drive emerging nanotechnologies.

  14. Orthotropic Piezoelectricity in 2D Nanocellulose

    PubMed Central

    García, Y.; Ruiz-Blanco, Yasser B.; Marrero-Ponce, Yovani; Sotomayor-Torres, C. M.

    2016-01-01

    The control of electromechanical responses within bonding regions is essential to face frontier challenges in nanotechnologies, such as molecular electronics and biotechnology. Here, we present Iβ-nanocellulose as a potentially new orthotropic 2D piezoelectric crystal. The predicted in-layer piezoelectricity is originated on a sui-generis hydrogen bonds pattern. Upon this fact and by using a combination of ab-initio and ad-hoc models, we introduce a description of electrical profiles along chemical bonds. Such developments lead to obtain a rationale for modelling the extended piezoelectric effect originated within bond scales. The order of magnitude estimated for the 2D Iβ-nanocellulose piezoelectric response, ~pm V−1, ranks this material at the level of currently used piezoelectric energy generators and new artificial 2D designs. Such finding would be crucial for developing alternative materials to drive emerging nanotechnologies. PMID:27708364

  15. Orthotropic Piezoelectricity in 2D Nanocellulose.

    PubMed

    García, Y; Ruiz-Blanco, Yasser B; Marrero-Ponce, Yovani; Sotomayor-Torres, C M

    2016-10-06

    The control of electromechanical responses within bonding regions is essential to face frontier challenges in nanotechnologies, such as molecular electronics and biotechnology. Here, we present Iβ-nanocellulose as a potentially new orthotropic 2D piezoelectric crystal. The predicted in-layer piezoelectricity is originated on a sui-generis hydrogen bonds pattern. Upon this fact and by using a combination of ab-initio and ad-hoc models, we introduce a description of electrical profiles along chemical bonds. Such developments lead to obtain a rationale for modelling the extended piezoelectric effect originated within bond scales. The order of magnitude estimated for the 2D Iβ-nanocellulose piezoelectric response, ~pm V(-1), ranks this material at the level of currently used piezoelectric energy generators and new artificial 2D designs. Such finding would be crucial for developing alternative materials to drive emerging nanotechnologies.

  16. 2D microwave imaging reflectometer electronics

    SciTech Connect

    Spear, A. G.; Domier, C. W. Hu, X.; Muscatello, C. M.; Ren, X.; Luhmann, N. C.; Tobias, B. J.

    2014-11-15

    A 2D microwave imaging reflectometer system has been developed to visualize electron density fluctuations on the DIII-D tokamak. Simultaneously illuminated at four probe frequencies, large aperture optics image reflections from four density-dependent cutoff surfaces in the plasma over an extended region of the DIII-D plasma. Localized density fluctuations in the vicinity of the plasma cutoff surfaces modulate the plasma reflections, yielding a 2D image of electron density fluctuations. Details are presented of the receiver down conversion electronics that generate the in-phase (I) and quadrature (Q) reflectometer signals from which 2D density fluctuation data are obtained. Also presented are details on the control system and backplane used to manage the electronics as well as an introduction to the computer based control program.

  17. Large Area Synthesis of 2D Materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vogel, Eric

    Transition metal dichalcogenides (TMDs) have generated significant interest for numerous applications including sensors, flexible electronics, heterostructures and optoelectronics due to their interesting, thickness-dependent properties. Despite recent progress, the synthesis of high-quality and highly uniform TMDs on a large scale is still a challenge. In this talk, synthesis routes for WSe2 and MoS2 that achieve monolayer thickness uniformity across large area substrates with electrical properties equivalent to geological crystals will be described. Controlled doping of 2D semiconductors is also critically required. However, methods established for conventional semiconductors, such as ion implantation, are not easily applicable to 2D materials because of their atomically thin structure. Redox-active molecular dopants will be demonstrated which provide large changes in carrier density and workfunction through the choice of dopant, treatment time, and the solution concentration. Finally, several applications of these large-area, uniform 2D materials will be described including heterostructures, biosensors and strain sensors.

  18. 2D microwave imaging reflectometer electronics.

    PubMed

    Spear, A G; Domier, C W; Hu, X; Muscatello, C M; Ren, X; Tobias, B J; Luhmann, N C

    2014-11-01

    A 2D microwave imaging reflectometer system has been developed to visualize electron density fluctuations on the DIII-D tokamak. Simultaneously illuminated at four probe frequencies, large aperture optics image reflections from four density-dependent cutoff surfaces in the plasma over an extended region of the DIII-D plasma. Localized density fluctuations in the vicinity of the plasma cutoff surfaces modulate the plasma reflections, yielding a 2D image of electron density fluctuations. Details are presented of the receiver down conversion electronics that generate the in-phase (I) and quadrature (Q) reflectometer signals from which 2D density fluctuation data are obtained. Also presented are details on the control system and backplane used to manage the electronics as well as an introduction to the computer based control program.

  19. Assessing 2D electrophoretic mobility spectroscopy (2D MOSY) for analytical applications.

    PubMed

    Fang, Yuan; Yushmanov, Pavel V; Furó, István

    2016-12-08

    Electrophoretic displacement of charged entity phase modulates the spectrum acquired in electrophoretic NMR experiments, and this modulation can be presented via 2D FT as 2D mobility spectroscopy (MOSY) spectra. We compare in various mixed solutions the chemical selectivity provided by 2D MOSY spectra with that provided by 2D diffusion-ordered spectroscopy (DOSY) spectra and demonstrate, under the conditions explored, a superior performance of the former method. 2D MOSY compares also favourably with closely related LC-NMR methods. The shape of 2D MOSY spectra in complex mixtures is strongly modulated by the pH of the sample, a feature that has potential for areas such as in drug discovery and metabolomics. Copyright © 2016 The Authors. Magnetic Resonance in Chemistry published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd. StartCopTextCopyright © 2016 The Authors. Magnetic Resonance in Chemistry published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  20. COBE anisotropy from supercluster gas

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hogan, Craig J.

    1992-01-01

    It is suggested that the microwave background anisotropy detected by the COBE DMR might be dominated not by the direct gravitational effect of primordial fluctuations in the last scattering surface, but by scattering off of moving electrons in optically thin, nearby superclusters. Hot diffuse clouds of ionized gas created during supercluster collapse produce Sunyaev-Zel'dovich and Doppler background anisotropy whose properties may closely mimic those of primordial anisotropy in current data. Strategies for and difficulties in separating the effects are discussed, based on the anisotropy spectrum, autocorrelation, correlation with galaxy catalogs, X-ray emission, and integrated spectral distortions.

  1. 2D Distributed Sensing Via TDR

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-11-02

    plate VEGF CompositeSensor Experimental Setup Air 279 mm 61 78 VARTM profile: slope RTM profile: rectangle 22 1 Jul 2003© 2003 University of Delaware...2003 University of Delaware All rights reserved Vision: Non-contact 2D sensing ü VARTM setup constructed within TL can be sensed by its EM field: 2D...300.0 mm/ns. 1 2 1 Jul 2003© 2003 University of Delaware All rights reserved Model Validation “ RTM Flow” TDR Response to 139 mm VEGC

  2. Inkjet printing of 2D layered materials.

    PubMed

    Li, Jiantong; Lemme, Max C; Östling, Mikael

    2014-11-10

    Inkjet printing of 2D layered materials, such as graphene and MoS2, has attracted great interests for emerging electronics. However, incompatible rheology, low concentration, severe aggregation and toxicity of solvents constitute critical challenges which hamper the manufacturing efficiency and product quality. Here, we introduce a simple and general technology concept (distillation-assisted solvent exchange) to efficiently overcome these challenges. By implementing the concept, we have demonstrated excellent jetting performance, ideal printing patterns and a variety of promising applications for inkjet printing of 2D layered materials.

  3. Anisotropy of solar wind fluctuations: fast wind vs slow wind.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dasso, S.; Milano, L. J.; Matthaeus, W. H.; Smith, C. W.

    2004-12-01

    The fluctuations in the solar wind are often modeled in terms of two distinct populations: (a) a 'wave-like' population with quasi-parallel wavenumbers and (b) a quasi-two dimensional 'turbulent-like' fluctuations with perpendicular wavenumbers. Here the qualification "quasi-parallel" or "quasi-2D" means that nearby wavevectors are grouped together in an idealzed way, for simplicity. The relative abundance of these two populations is important in gaining insight on the dynamics of waves or turbulence in the solar wind, and also in understanding the transport of energetic particle populations, as turbulence geometry has a major impact on scattering. It has been established in the literature that turbulence is, generally speaking, more developed in the slow solar wind, with power spectra closer to the kolmogorov value at 1AU, while the fast solar wind is more "Alfvenic", typically with higher values of the cross helicity. It seems natural therefore to investigate the anisotropy structure of solar wind fluctuations as a function of wind speed. We present here our preliminary results in this regard, obtained from magnetic and plasma data from the ACE specraft, at 1AU, essentially in the ecliptic plane. We also discuss possible implications for the modeling the evolution of waves and turbulence in the solar wind.

  4. Quantum-confinement and Structural Anisotropy result in Electrically-Tunable Dirac Cone in Few-layer Black Phosphorous.

    PubMed

    Dolui, Kapildeb; Quek, Su Ying

    2015-07-01

    Two-dimensional (2D) materials are well-known to exhibit interesting phenomena due to quantum confinement. Here, we show that quantum confinement, together with structural anisotropy, result in an electric-field-tunable Dirac cone in 2D black phosphorus. Using density functional theory calculations, we find that an electric field, E ext, applied normal to a 2D black phosphorus thin film, can reduce the direct band gap of few-layer black phosphorus, resulting in an insulator-to-metal transition at a critical field, Ec. Increasing E ext beyond Ec can induce a Dirac cone in the system, provided the black phosphorus film is sufficiently thin. The electric field strength can tune the position of the Dirac cone and the Dirac-Fermi velocities, the latter being similar in magnitude to that in graphene. We show that the Dirac cone arises from an anisotropic interaction term between the frontier orbitals that are spatially separated due to the applied field, on different halves of the 2D slab. When this interaction term becomes vanishingly small for thicker films, the Dirac cone can no longer be induced. Spin-orbit coupling can gap out the Dirac cone at certain electric fields; however, a further increase in field strength reduces the spin-orbit-induced gap, eventually resulting in a topological-insulator-to-Dirac-semimetal transition.

  5. A Search for Cosmic-ray Proton Anisotropies with Fermi LAT

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meehan, Matthew; Vandenbroucke, Justin; Fermi-LAT Collaboration

    2017-01-01

    In eight years of operation, the Fermi Large Area Telescope (LAT) has detected a large sample of cosmic-ray protons. The LAT's wide field of view and full-sky coverage make it an excellent instrument for studying anisotropies in the arrival directions of protons at all angular scales. These capabilities enable the LAT to make a full-sky 2D measurement of cosmic-ray proton anisotropy complementary to many recent TeV measurements, which are performed by projecting onto right ascension. Any detected anisotropies probe the structure of the local interstellar magnetic field and could indicate the presence of a nearby source

  6. Parallel Stitching of 2D Materials.

    PubMed

    Ling, Xi; Lin, Yuxuan; Ma, Qiong; Wang, Ziqiang; Song, Yi; Yu, Lili; Huang, Shengxi; Fang, Wenjing; Zhang, Xu; Hsu, Allen L; Bie, Yaqing; Lee, Yi-Hsien; Zhu, Yimei; Wu, Lijun; Li, Ju; Jarillo-Herrero, Pablo; Dresselhaus, Mildred; Palacios, Tomás; Kong, Jing

    2016-03-23

    Diverse parallel stitched 2D heterostructures, including metal-semiconductor, semiconductor-semiconductor, and insulator-semiconductor, are synthesized directly through selective "sowing" of aromatic molecules as the seeds in the chemical vapor deposition (CVD) method. The methodology enables the large-scale fabrication of lateral heterostructures, which offers tremendous potential for its application in integrated circuits.

  7. The basics of 2D DIGE.

    PubMed

    Beckett, Phil

    2012-01-01

    The technique of two-dimensional (2D) gel electrophoresis is a powerful tool for separating complex mixtures of proteins, but since its inception in the mid 1970s, it acquired the stigma of being a very difficult application to master and was generally used to its best effect by experts. The introduction of commercially available immobilized pH gradients in the early 1990s provided enhanced reproducibility and easier protocols, leading to a pronounced increase in popularity of the technique. However gel-to-gel variation was still difficult to control without the use of technical replicates. In the mid 1990s (at the same time as the birth of "proteomics"), the concept of multiplexing fluorescently labeled proteins for 2D gel separation was realized by Jon Minden's group and has led to the ability to design experiments to virtually eliminate gel-to-gel variation, resulting in biological replicates being used for statistical analysis with the ability to detect very small changes in relative protein abundance. This technology is referred to as 2D difference gel electrophoresis (2D DIGE).

  8. Parallel stitching of 2D materials

    DOE PAGES

    Ling, Xi; Wu, Lijun; Lin, Yuxuan; ...

    2016-01-27

    Diverse parallel stitched 2D heterostructures, including metal–semiconductor, semiconductor–semiconductor, and insulator–semiconductor, are synthesized directly through selective “sowing” of aromatic molecules as the seeds in the chemical vapor deposition (CVD) method. Lastly, the methodology enables the large-scale fabrication of lateral heterostructures, which offers tremendous potential for its application in integrated circuits.

  9. Chemical trends of the magnetocrystalline anisotropy of magnetic monolayers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nie, X.; Wei, Su-Huai; Blügel, Stefan

    2001-03-01

    The in-plane and out-of-plane magnetocrystalline anisotropy energies of 3d, 4d, and 5d magnetic monolayers are calculated using the self-consistent density functional theory in the local spin density approximation (LSDA) and the generalized gradient approximation (GGA), as implemented by the film and bulk FLAPW code FLEUR. The spin-orbit interaction is included using a second variation method. The magnetic monolayers are treated as free-standing or strained coherently on various substrates [e.g., Cu(100), Ag(100)]. To monitor the chemical trend of the magnetocrystalline anisotropy, orbital and spin moment, the nuclear number Z of the atom was varied artificially in steps of Δ Z = 0.1. This approach is better than the simple band filling arguments since it includes the change of the electronic structure due to the change of the atomic potentials. We find that the magnetic anisotropy and the anisotropy of the orbital moment is a rapidly oscillating function between in-plane and out-of-plane easy axis across the transition-metal series. The anisotropy energy increases rapidly when the atomic number of the atom increases in a row. Monolayers grown on Cu(100) and Ag(100) substrate show a very similar trend. The trend of the anisotropy energy is explained in terms evolution of the band structures. The relation between the anisotropy energy and the orbital moment is discussed.

  10. ELLIPT2D: A Flexible Finite Element Code Written Python

    SciTech Connect

    Pletzer, A.; Mollis, J.C.

    2001-03-22

    The use of the Python scripting language for scientific applications and in particular to solve partial differential equations is explored. It is shown that Python's rich data structure and object-oriented features can be exploited to write programs that are not only significantly more concise than their counter parts written in Fortran, C or C++, but are also numerically efficient. To illustrate this, a two-dimensional finite element code (ELLIPT2D) has been written. ELLIPT2D provides a flexible and easy-to-use framework for solving a large class of second-order elliptic problems. The program allows for structured or unstructured meshes. All functions defining the elliptic operator are user supplied and so are the boundary conditions, which can be of Dirichlet, Neumann or Robbins type. ELLIPT2D makes extensive use of dictionaries (hash tables) as a way to represent sparse matrices.Other key features of the Python language that have been widely used include: operator over loading, error handling, array slicing, and the Tkinter module for building graphical use interfaces. As an example of the utility of ELLIPT2D, a nonlinear solution of the Grad-Shafranov equation is computed using a Newton iterative scheme. A second application focuses on a solution of the toroidal Laplace equation coupled to a magnetohydrodynamic stability code, a problem arising in the context of magnetic fusion research.

  11. 2D nanomaterials based electrochemical biosensors for cancer diagnosis.

    PubMed

    Wang, Lu; Xiong, Qirong; Xiao, Fei; Duan, Hongwei

    2017-03-15

    Cancer is a leading cause of death in the world. Increasing evidence has demonstrated that early diagnosis holds the key towards effective treatment outcome. Cancer biomarkers are extensively used in oncology for cancer diagnosis and prognosis. Electrochemical sensors play key roles in current laboratory and clinical analysis of diverse chemical and biological targets. Recent development of functional nanomaterials offers new possibilities of improving the performance of electrochemical sensors. In particular, 2D nanomaterials have stimulated intense research due to their unique array of structural and chemical properties. The 2D materials of interest cover broadly across graphene, graphene derivatives (i.e., graphene oxide and reduced graphene oxide), and graphene-like nanomaterials (i.e., 2D layered transition metal dichalcogenides, graphite carbon nitride and boron nitride nanomaterials). In this review, we summarize recent advances in the synthesis of 2D nanomaterials and their applications in electrochemical biosensing of cancer biomarkers (nucleic acids, proteins and some small molecules), and present a personal perspective on the future direction of this area.

  12. Oxidation of Survival Factor MEF2D in Neuronal Death and Parkinson's Disease

    PubMed Central

    Gao, Li; She, Hua; Li, Wenming; Zeng, Jin; Zhu, Jinqiu; Jones, Dean P.

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Aims: Dysfunction of myocyte enhancer factor 2D (MEF2D), a key survival protein and transcription factor, underlies the pathogenic loss of dopaminergic (DA) neurons in Parkinson's disease (PD). Both genetic factors and neurotoxins associated with PD impair MEF2D function in vitro and in animal models of PD. We investigated whether distinct stress conditions target MEF2D via converging mechanisms. Results: We showed that exposure of a DA neuronal cell line to 6-hyroxydopamine (6-OHDA), which causes PD in animals models, led to direct oxidative modifications of MEF2D. Oxidized MEF2D bound to heat-shock cognate protein 70 kDa, the key regulator for chaperone-mediated autophagy (CMA), at a higher affinity. Oxidative stress also increased the level of lysosomal-associated membrane protein 2A (LAMP2A), the rate-limiting receptor for CMA substrate flux, and stimulated CMA activity. These changes resulted in accelerated degradation of MEF2D. Importantly, 6-OHDA induced MEF2D oxidation and increased LAMP2A in the substantia nigra pars compacta region of the mouse brain. Consistently, the levels of oxidized MEF2D were much higher in postmortem PD brains compared with the controls. Functionally, reducing the levels of either MEF2D or LAMP2A exacerbated 6-OHDA-induced death of the DA neuronal cell line. Expression of an MEF2D mutant that is resistant to oxidative modification protected cells from 6-OHDA-induced death. Innovation: This study showed that oxidization of survival protein MEF2D is one of the pathogenic mechanisms involved in oxidative stress-induced DA neuronal death. Conclusion: Oxidation of survival factor MEF2D inhibits its function, underlies oxidative stress-induced neurotoxicity, and may be a part of the PD pathogenic process. Antioxid. Redox Signal. 20, 2936–2948. PMID:24219011

  13. Solitary structures with ion and electron thermal anisotropy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khusroo, Murchana; Bora, Madhurjya P.

    2015-11-01

    The formation of electrostatic solitary structures is analysed for a magnetised plasma with ion and electron thermal anisotropies. The ion thermal anisotropy is modelled with the help of the Chew-Goldberger-Low (CGL) double adiabatic equations of state while the electrons are treated as inertia-less species with an anisotropic bi-Maxwellian velocity distribution function. A negative electron thermal anisotropy ≤ft({{T}e\\bot}/{{T}e\\parallel}>1\\right) is found to help form large amplitude solitary structures which are in agreement with observational data.

  14. Application of 2D Non-Graphene Materials and 2D Oxide Nanostructures for Biosensing Technology

    PubMed Central

    Shavanova, Kateryna; Bakakina, Yulia; Burkova, Inna; Shtepliuk, Ivan; Viter, Roman; Ubelis, Arnolds; Beni, Valerio; Starodub, Nickolaj; Yakimova, Rositsa; Khranovskyy, Volodymyr

    2016-01-01

    The discovery of graphene and its unique properties has inspired researchers to try to invent other two-dimensional (2D) materials. After considerable research effort, a distinct “beyond graphene” domain has been established, comprising the library of non-graphene 2D materials. It is significant that some 2D non-graphene materials possess solid advantages over their predecessor, such as having a direct band gap, and therefore are highly promising for a number of applications. These applications are not limited to nano- and opto-electronics, but have a strong potential in biosensing technologies, as one example. However, since most of the 2D non-graphene materials have been newly discovered, most of the research efforts are concentrated on material synthesis and the investigation of the properties of the material. Applications of 2D non-graphene materials are still at the embryonic stage, and the integration of 2D non-graphene materials into devices is scarcely reported. However, in recent years, numerous reports have blossomed about 2D material-based biosensors, evidencing the growing potential of 2D non-graphene materials for biosensing applications. This review highlights the recent progress in research on the potential of using 2D non-graphene materials and similar oxide nanostructures for different types of biosensors (optical and electrochemical). A wide range of biological targets, such as glucose, dopamine, cortisol, DNA, IgG, bisphenol, ascorbic acid, cytochrome and estradiol, has been reported to be successfully detected by biosensors with transducers made of 2D non-graphene materials. PMID:26861346

  15. Application of 2D Non-Graphene Materials and 2D Oxide Nanostructures for Biosensing Technology.

    PubMed

    Shavanova, Kateryna; Bakakina, Yulia; Burkova, Inna; Shtepliuk, Ivan; Viter, Roman; Ubelis, Arnolds; Beni, Valerio; Starodub, Nickolaj; Yakimova, Rositsa; Khranovskyy, Volodymyr

    2016-02-06

    The discovery of graphene and its unique properties has inspired researchers to try to invent other two-dimensional (2D) materials. After considerable research effort, a distinct "beyond graphene" domain has been established, comprising the library of non-graphene 2D materials. It is significant that some 2D non-graphene materials possess solid advantages over their predecessor, such as having a direct band gap, and therefore are highly promising for a number of applications. These applications are not limited to nano- and opto-electronics, but have a strong potential in biosensing technologies, as one example. However, since most of the 2D non-graphene materials have been newly discovered, most of the research efforts are concentrated on material synthesis and the investigation of the properties of the material. Applications of 2D non-graphene materials are still at the embryonic stage, and the integration of 2D non-graphene materials into devices is scarcely reported. However, in recent years, numerous reports have blossomed about 2D material-based biosensors, evidencing the growing potential of 2D non-graphene materials for biosensing applications. This review highlights the recent progress in research on the potential of using 2D non-graphene materials and similar oxide nanostructures for different types of biosensors (optical and electrochemical). A wide range of biological targets, such as glucose, dopamine, cortisol, DNA, IgG, bisphenol, ascorbic acid, cytochrome and estradiol, has been reported to be successfully detected by biosensors with transducers made of 2D non-graphene materials.

  16. An unequal cross-over event within the CYP2D gene cluster generates a chimeric CYP2D7/CYP2D6 gene which is associated with the poor metabolizer phenotype.

    PubMed Central

    Panserat, S; Mura, C; Gérard, N; Vincent-Viry, M; Galteau, M M; Jacoz-Aigrain, E; Krishnamoorthy, R

    1995-01-01

    1. The study of the CYP2D genotype and phenotype of a Caucasian family revealed that a XbaI-9 kb allele was associated with the poor metabolizer phenotype. 2. A Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR)-based assay showed that the previously described mutations D6A and D6B are not associated with the XbaI-9 kb allele. 3. To explore the molecular basis of the poor metabolizer phenotype associated with the XbaI-9 kb allele, complete sequencing of the nine exons and intron-exon boundaries of the CYP2D6 gene was undertaken after amplification by PCR. 4. All the exons were successfully amplified using CYP2D6 gene-specific primers except exon 1 which required a combination of CYP2D7 gene-specific 5' primer and a CYP2D6 gene-specific 3' primer. 5. Sequence data derived from this amplified product revealed that the XbaI-9 kb allele corresponds to a novel rearrangement of the locus. This involved a deletion of an approximately 20 kilobase (kb) DNA segment generating a hybrid 5' CYP2D7/CYP2D6 3' gene. 6. The chimeric gene is non-functional presumably due to an insertion in exon 1 (characteristic of the exon 1 of the CYP2D7 gene) which causes a shift in the reading frame with premature termination of translation. Images Figure 1 Figure 2 Figure 4 PMID:8554938

  17. 2d-LCA - an alternative to x-wires

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Puczylowski, Jaroslaw; Hölling, Michael; Peinke, Joachim

    2014-11-01

    The 2d-Laser Cantilever Anemometer (2d-LCA) is an innovative sensor for two-dimensional velocity measurements in fluids. It uses a micostructured cantilever made of silicon and SU-8 as a sensing element and is capable of performing mesurements with extremly high temporal resolutions up to 150 kHz. The size of the cantilever defines its spatial resolution, which is in the order of 150 μm only. Another big feature is a large angular range of 180° in total. The 2d-LCA has been developed as an alternative measurement method to x-wires with the motivation to create a sensor that can operate in areas where the use of hot-wire anemometry is difficult. These areas include measurements in liquids and in near-wall or particle-laden flows. Unlike hot-wires, the resolution power of the 2d-LCA does not decrease with increasing flow velocity, making it particularly suitable for measurements in high speed flows. Comparative measurements with the 2d-LCA and hot-wires have been carried out in order to assess the performance of the new anemometer. The data of both measurement techniques were analyzed using the same stochastic methods including a spectral analysis as well as an inspection of increment statistics and structure functions. Furthermore, key parameters, such as mean values of both velocity components, angles of attack and the characteristic length scales were determined from both data sets. The analysis reveals a great agreement between both anemometers and thus confirms the new approach.

  18. Compatible embedding for 2D shape animation.

    PubMed

    Baxter, William V; Barla, Pascal; Anjyo, Ken-Ichi

    2009-01-01

    We present new algorithms for the compatible embedding of 2D shapes. Such embeddings offer a convenient way to interpolate shapes having complex, detailed features. Compared to existing techniques, our approach requires less user input, and is faster, more robust, and simpler to implement, making it ideal for interactive use in practical applications. Our new approach consists of three parts. First, our boundary matching algorithm locates salient features using the perceptually motivated principles of scale-space and uses these as automatic correspondences to guide an elastic curve matching algorithm. Second, we simplify boundaries while maintaining their parametric correspondence and the embedding of the original shapes. Finally, we extend the mapping to shapes' interiors via a new compatible triangulation algorithm. The combination of our algorithms allows us to demonstrate 2D shape interpolation with instant feedback. The proposed algorithms exhibit a combination of simplicity, speed, and accuracy that has not been achieved in previous work.

  19. Schottky diodes from 2D germanane

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sahoo, Nanda Gopal; Esteves, Richard J.; Punetha, Vinay Deep; Pestov, Dmitry; Arachchige, Indika U.; McLeskey, James T.

    2016-07-01

    We report on the fabrication and characterization of a Schottky diode made using 2D germanane (hydrogenated germanene). When compared to germanium, the 2D structure has higher electron mobility, an optimal band-gap, and exceptional stability making germanane an outstanding candidate for a variety of opto-electronic devices. One-atom-thick sheets of hydrogenated puckered germanium atoms have been synthesized from a CaGe2 framework via intercalation and characterized by XRD, Raman, and FTIR techniques. The material was then used to fabricate Schottky diodes by suspending the germanane in benzonitrile and drop-casting it onto interdigitated metal electrodes. The devices demonstrate significant rectifying behavior and the outstanding potential of this material.

  20. Extrinsic Cation Selectivity of 2D Membranes

    PubMed Central

    2017-01-01

    From a systematic study of the concentration driven diffusion of positive and negative ions across porous 2D membranes of graphene and hexagonal boron nitride (h-BN), we prove their cation selectivity. Using the current–voltage characteristics of graphene and h-BN monolayers separating reservoirs of different salt concentrations, we calculate the reversal potential as a measure of selectivity. We tune the Debye screening length by exchanging the salt concentrations and demonstrate that negative surface charge gives rise to cation selectivity. Surprisingly, h-BN and graphene membranes show similar characteristics, strongly suggesting a common origin of selectivity in aqueous solvents. For the first time, we demonstrate that the cation flux can be increased by using ozone to create additional pores in graphene while maintaining excellent selectivity. We discuss opportunities to exploit our scalable method to use 2D membranes for applications including osmotic power conversion. PMID:28157333

  1. Explicit 2-D Hydrodynamic FEM Program

    SciTech Connect

    Lin, Jerry

    1996-08-07

    DYNA2D* is a vectorized, explicit, two-dimensional, axisymmetric and plane strain finite element program for analyzing the large deformation dynamic and hydrodynamic response of inelastic solids. DYNA2D* contains 13 material models and 9 equations of state (EOS) to cover a wide range of material behavior. The material models implemented in all machine versions are: elastic, orthotropic elastic, kinematic/isotropic elastic plasticity, thermoelastoplastic, soil and crushable foam, linear viscoelastic, rubber, high explosive burn, isotropic elastic-plastic, temperature-dependent elastic-plastic. The isotropic and temperature-dependent elastic-plastic models determine only the deviatoric stresses. Pressure is determined by one of 9 equations of state including linear polynomial, JWL high explosive, Sack Tuesday high explosive, Gruneisen, ratio of polynomials, linear polynomial with energy deposition, ignition and growth of reaction in HE, tabulated compaction, and tabulated.

  2. Quasiparticle interference in unconventional 2D systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Lan; Cheng, Peng; Wu, Kehui

    2017-03-01

    At present, research of 2D systems mainly focuses on two kinds of materials: graphene-like materials and transition-metal dichalcogenides (TMDs). Both of them host unconventional 2D electronic properties: pseudospin and the associated chirality of electrons in graphene-like materials, and spin-valley-coupled electronic structures in the TMDs. These exotic electronic properties have attracted tremendous interest for possible applications in nanodevices in the future. Investigation on the quasiparticle interference (QPI) in 2D systems is an effective way to uncover these properties. In this review, we will begin with a brief introduction to 2D systems, including their atomic structures and electronic bands. Then, we will discuss the formation of Friedel oscillation due to QPI in constant energy contours of electron bands, and show the basic concept of Fourier-transform scanning tunneling microscopy/spectroscopy (FT-STM/STS), which can resolve Friedel oscillation patterns in real space and consequently obtain the QPI patterns in reciprocal space. In the next two parts, we will summarize some pivotal results in the investigation of QPI in graphene and silicene, in which systems the low-energy quasiparticles are described by the massless Dirac equation. The FT-STM experiments show there are two different interference channels (intervalley and intravalley scattering) and backscattering suppression, which associate with the Dirac cones and the chirality of quasiparticles. The monolayer and bilayer graphene on different substrates (SiC and metal surfaces), and the monolayer and multilayer silicene on a Ag(1 1 1) surface will be addressed. The fifth part will introduce the FT-STM research on QPI in TMDs (monolayer and bilayer of WSe2), which allow us to infer the spin texture of both conduction and valence bands, and present spin-valley coupling by tracking allowed and forbidden scattering channels.

  3. Compact 2-D graphical representation of DNA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Randić, Milan; Vračko, Marjan; Zupan, Jure; Novič, Marjana

    2003-05-01

    We present a novel 2-D graphical representation for DNA sequences which has an important advantage over the existing graphical representations of DNA in being very compact. It is based on: (1) use of binary labels for the four nucleic acid bases, and (2) use of the 'worm' curve as template on which binary codes are placed. The approach is illustrated on DNA sequences of the first exon of human β-globin and gorilla β-globin.

  4. 2D Metals by Repeated Size Reduction.

    PubMed

    Liu, Hanwen; Tang, Hao; Fang, Minghao; Si, Wenjie; Zhang, Qinghua; Huang, Zhaohui; Gu, Lin; Pan, Wei; Yao, Jie; Nan, Cewen; Wu, Hui

    2016-10-01

    A general and convenient strategy for manufacturing freestanding metal nanolayers is developed on large scale. By the simple process of repeatedly folding and calendering stacked metal sheets followed by chemical etching, free-standing 2D metal (e.g., Ag, Au, Fe, Cu, and Ni) nanosheets are obtained with thicknesses as small as 1 nm and with sizes of the order of several micrometers.

  5. Realistic and efficient 2D crack simulation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yadegar, Jacob; Liu, Xiaoqing; Singh, Abhishek

    2010-04-01

    Although numerical algorithms for 2D crack simulation have been studied in Modeling and Simulation (M&S) and computer graphics for decades, realism and computational efficiency are still major challenges. In this paper, we introduce a high-fidelity, scalable, adaptive and efficient/runtime 2D crack/fracture simulation system by applying the mathematically elegant Peano-Cesaro triangular meshing/remeshing technique to model the generation of shards/fragments. The recursive fractal sweep associated with the Peano-Cesaro triangulation provides efficient local multi-resolution refinement to any level-of-detail. The generated binary decomposition tree also provides efficient neighbor retrieval mechanism used for mesh element splitting and merging with minimal memory requirements essential for realistic 2D fragment formation. Upon load impact/contact/penetration, a number of factors including impact angle, impact energy, and material properties are all taken into account to produce the criteria of crack initialization, propagation, and termination leading to realistic fractal-like rubble/fragments formation. The aforementioned parameters are used as variables of probabilistic models of cracks/shards formation, making the proposed solution highly adaptive by allowing machine learning mechanisms learn the optimal values for the variables/parameters based on prior benchmark data generated by off-line physics based simulation solutions that produce accurate fractures/shards though at highly non-real time paste. Crack/fracture simulation has been conducted on various load impacts with different initial locations at various impulse scales. The simulation results demonstrate that the proposed system has the capability to realistically and efficiently simulate 2D crack phenomena (such as window shattering and shards generation) with diverse potentials in military and civil M&S applications such as training and mission planning.

  6. Engineering light outcoupling in 2D materials.

    PubMed

    Lien, Der-Hsien; Kang, Jeong Seuk; Amani, Matin; Chen, Kevin; Tosun, Mahmut; Wang, Hsin-Ping; Roy, Tania; Eggleston, Michael S; Wu, Ming C; Dubey, Madan; Lee, Si-Chen; He, Jr-Hau; Javey, Ali

    2015-02-11

    When light is incident on 2D transition metal dichalcogenides (TMDCs), it engages in multiple reflections within underlying substrates, producing interferences that lead to enhancement or attenuation of the incoming and outgoing strength of light. Here, we report a simple method to engineer the light outcoupling in semiconducting TMDCs by modulating their dielectric surroundings. We show that by modulating the thicknesses of underlying substrates and capping layers, the interference caused by substrate can significantly enhance the light absorption and emission of WSe2, resulting in a ∼11 times increase in Raman signal and a ∼30 times increase in the photoluminescence (PL) intensity of WSe2. On the basis of the interference model, we also propose a strategy to control the photonic and optoelectronic properties of thin-layer WSe2. This work demonstrates the utilization of outcoupling engineering in 2D materials and offers a new route toward the realization of novel optoelectronic devices, such as 2D LEDs and solar cells.

  7. Irreversibility-inversions in 2D turbulence

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bragg, Andrew; de Lillo, Filippo; Boffetta, Guido

    2016-11-01

    We consider a recent theoretical prediction that for inertial particles in 2D turbulence, the nature of the irreversibility of their pair dispersion inverts when the particle inertia exceeds a certain value. In particular, when the particle Stokes number, St , is below a certain value, the forward-in-time (FIT) dispersion should be faster than the backward-in-time (BIT) dispersion, but for St above this value, this should invert so that BIT becomes faster than FIT dispersion. This non-trivial behavior arises because of the competition between two physically distinct irreversibility mechanisms that operate in different regimes of St . In 3D turbulence, both mechanisms act to produce faster BIT than FIT dispersion, but in 2D, the two mechanisms have opposite effects because of the inverse energy cascade in the turbulent velocity field. We supplement the qualitative argument given by Bragg et al. by deriving quantitative predictions of this effect in the short-time dispersion limit. These predictions are then confirmed by results of inertial particle dispersion in a direct numerical simulation of 2D turbulence.

  8. Anisotropic multi-resolution analysis in 2D, application to long-range correlations in cloud mm-radar fields

    SciTech Connect

    Davis, A.B.; Clothiaux, E.

    1999-03-01

    Because of Earth`s gravitational field, its atmosphere is strongly anisotropic with respect to the vertical; the effect of the Earth`s rotation on synoptic wind patterns also causes a more subtle form of anisotropy in the horizontal plane. The authors survey various approaches to statistically robust anisotropy from a wavelet perspective and present a new one adapted to strongly non-isotropic fields that are sampled on a rectangular grid with a large aspect ratio. This novel technique uses an anisotropic version of Multi-Resolution Analysis (MRA) in image analysis; the authors form a tensor product of the standard dyadic Haar basis, where the dividing ratio is {lambda}{sub z} = 2, and a nonstandard triadic counterpart, where the dividing ratio is {lambda}{sub x} = 3. The natural support of the field is therefore 2{sup n} pixels (vertically) by 3{sup n} pixels (horizontally) where n is the number of levels in the MRA. The natural triadic basis includes the French top-hat wavelet which resonates with bumps in the field whereas the Haar wavelet responds to ramps or steps. The complete 2D basis has one scaling function and five wavelets. The resulting anisotropic MRA is designed for application to the liquid water content (LWC) field in boundary-layer clouds, as the prevailing wind advects them by a vertically pointing mm-radar system. Spatial correlations are notoriously long-range in cloud structure and the authors use the wavelet coefficients from the new MRA to characterize these correlations in a multifractal analysis scheme. In the present study, the MRA is used (in synthesis mode) to generate fields that mimic cloud structure quite realistically although only a few parameters are used to control the randomness of the LWC`s wavelet coefficients.

  9. Analytic signal extraction approach based on 2D Grating Interferometer and systematic comparison between 2D GI and 1D case

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ju, Z.; Wang, Y.; Li, P.; Zhu, Z.; Zhang, K.; Huang, W.; Yuan, Q.; Wu, Z.; Zhu, P.

    2016-03-01

    X-ray imaging method based on 2D grating interferometer was proposed and studied recently, to overcome the limitations in signal extraction and phase retrieval when using 1D grating interferometer. In this paper, the concept of angle-signal response function is proposed, and different surfaces of different 2D setups under the condition of parallel coherent light are calculated and depicted with Matlab. Based on this concept, performance of 2D grating interferometer is systematically analyzed and an analytic 2D signal extraction approach is theoretically proposed. Besides, signal extraction, phase retrieval and feasibility of using conventional source are also briefly discussed and compared between 2D grating interferometer and 1D case.

  10. Serum flecainide S/R ratio reflects the CYP2D6 genotype and changes in CYP2D6 activity.

    PubMed

    Doki, Kosuke; Sekiguchi, Yukio; Kuga, Keisuke; Aonuma, Kazutaka; Homma, Masato

    2015-08-01

    The aims of this study were to clarify whether the ratio of S- to R-flecainide (S/R ratio) in the serum flecainide concentration was associated with the stereoselectivity of flecainide metabolism, and to investigate the effects of the cytochrome P450 (CYP) 2D6 (CYP2D6) genotype and CYP2D6 inhibitor on the serum flecainide S/R ratio. In vitro studies using human liver microsomes and cDNA-expressed CYP isoforms suggested that variability in the serum flecainide S/R ratio was associated with the stereoselectivity of CYP2D6-mediated flecainide metabolism. We examined the serum flecainide S/R ratio in 143 patients with supraventricular tachyarrhythmia. The S/R ratio was significantly lower in intermediate metabolizers and poor metabolizers (IMs/PMs) than in extensive metabolizers (EMs) identified by the CYP2D6 genotype. The cut-off value for the S/R ratio to allow the discrimination between CYP2D6 EMs and IMs/PMs was 0.99. The S/R ratio in patients with co-administration of bepridil, a potent CYP2D6 inhibitor, was lower than 0.99, regardless of the CYP2D6 genotype status. Other factors, including age, sex, body weight, and renal function, did not affect the serum flecainide S/R ratio. This study suggests that the serum flecainide S/R ratio reflects the CYP2D6 genotype and changes in CYP2D6 activity on co-administration of a CYP2D6 inhibitor.

  11. Magnetic logic using nanowires with perpendicular anisotropy.

    PubMed

    Jaworowicz, J; Vernier, N; Ferré, J; Maziewski, A; Stanescu, D; Ravelosona, D; Jacqueline, A S; Chappert, C; Rodmacq, B; Diény, B

    2009-05-27

    In addition to a storage function through the magnetization of nanowires, domain wall propagation can be used to trigger magnetic logic functions. Here, we present a new way to realize a pure magnetic logic operation by using magnetic nanowires with perpendicular anisotropy. Emphasis is given on the generation of the logic function 'NOT' that is based on the dipolar interaction between two neighbouring magnetic wires, which favours the creation of a domain wall. This concept has been validated on several prototypes and the results fit well with the expectations.

  12. 2D superconductivity by ionic gating

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Iwasa, Yoshi

    2D superconductivity is attracting a renewed interest due to the discoveries of new highly crystalline 2D superconductors in the past decade. Superconductivity at the oxide interfaces triggered by LaAlO3/SrTiO3 has become one of the promising routes for creation of new 2D superconductors. Also, the MBE grown metallic monolayers including FeSe are also offering a new platform of 2D superconductors. In the last two years, there appear a variety of monolayer/bilayer superconductors fabricated by CVD or mechanical exfoliation. Among these, electric field induced superconductivity by electric double layer transistor (EDLT) is a unique platform of 2D superconductivity, because of its ability of high density charge accumulation, and also because of the versatility in terms of materials, stemming from oxides to organics and layered chalcogenides. In this presentation, the following issues of electric filed induced superconductivity will be addressed; (1) Tunable carrier density, (2) Weak pinning, (3) Absence of inversion symmetry. (1) Since the sheet carrier density is quasi-continuously tunable from 0 to the order of 1014 cm-2, one is able to establish an electronic phase diagram of superconductivity, which will be compared with that of bulk superconductors. (2) The thickness of superconductivity can be estimated as 2 - 10 nm, dependent on materials, and is much smaller than the in-plane coherence length. Such a thin but low resistance at normal state results in extremely weak pinning beyond the dirty Boson model in the amorphous metallic films. (3) Due to the electric filed, the inversion symmetry is inherently broken in EDLT. This feature appears in the enhancement of Pauli limit of the upper critical field for the in-plane magnetic fields. In transition metal dichalcogenide with a substantial spin-orbit interactions, we were able to confirm the stabilization of Cooper pair due to its spin-valley locking. This work has been supported by Grant-in-Aid for Specially

  13. Abfraction and anisotropy--effects of prism orientation on stress distribution.

    PubMed

    De Las Casas, Estevam B; Cornacchia, Tulimar P M; Gouvêa, Priscila H; Cimini, Carlos Alberto

    2003-02-01

    This work discusses the effect of enamel anisotropy in the stress concentration at the cement-enamel junction (CEJ), a probable cause of fracture in enamel leading to abfraction. Usual simplifications when developing computer models in dentistry are to consider enamel isotropic, or that the direction of the prisms is orthogonal to either the dentine-enamel interface or the tooth outer surface. In this paper, a more refined model for the material behavior is described, based on laboratory observation and on the work of Fernandes and Chevitarese. The material description is used in a two-dimensional (2D) finite element model of the first upper premolar, and the analysis is performed for two different situations: vertical loads, typical of normal mastication and horizontal loads, dominant in bruxism. The analyses were performed using a unit load, which under the hypothesis of linear response of the tooth, allows the combinations described in the text to simulate different functional and parafunctional loads. The results indicate that a realistic enamel description in terms of mechanical properties and spatial distribution of its prisms alters significantly the resulting stress distribution. For all cases included in this study, the detailed description of prism orientation and resulting anisotropy led to improved response in terms of stress distribution, even when loading was horizontal.

  14. One-dimensional spin-1 ferromagnetic Heisenberg model with exchange anisotropy and single-ion anisotropy under external magnetic field

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Song, Chuang-Chuang; Chen, Yuan; Liu, Ming-Wei

    2010-01-01

    The magnetic properties of the one-dimensional spin-1 ferromagnetic Heisenberg model are investigated by Green's function method. The magnetic properties of the system are treated by the random phase approximation for the exchange interaction term, and the Anderson-Callen approximation for the single-ion anisotropy term. The critical temperature, magnetization, and susceptibility are found to be dependent of the anisotropies. Our results are in agreement with the other theoretical results.

  15. D2-D1 phase transition of columnar liquid crystals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sun, Y. F.; Swift, J.

    1986-04-01

    The D2-D1 phase transition in columnar liquid crystals of the HAT series [e.g., HAT11 (triphenelene hexa-n-dodecanoate)] is discussed within the framework of Landau theory. The order parameters which describe the transition are abstracted from a tensor density function, and are associated with two irreducible representations of the symmetry group of the high-temperature D2 phase. A mechanism for a first-order transition is then suggested in accordance with both theoretical considerations and the experimental result for the D2-D1 transition. Two possible arrangements of the herringbone structure of the D1 phase are obtained, each of which gives six orientational states in the low-temperature D1 phase.

  16. 2D FEM Heat Transfer & E&M Field Code

    SciTech Connect

    1992-04-02

    TOPAZ and TOPAZ2D are two-dimensional implicit finite element computer codes for heat transfer analysis. TOPAZ2D can also be used to solve electrostatic and magnetostatic problems. The programs solve for the steady-state or transient temperature or electrostatic and magnetostatic potential field on two-dimensional planar or axisymmetric geometries. Material properties may be temperature or potential-dependent and either isotropic or orthotropic. A variety of time and temperature-dependent boundary conditions can be specified including temperature, flux, convection, and radiation. By implementing the user subroutine feature, users can model chemical reaction kinetics and allow for any type of functional representation of boundary conditions and internal heat generation. The programs can solve problems of diffuse and specular band radiation in an enclosure coupled with conduction in the material surrounding the enclosure. Additional features include thermal contact resistance across an interface, bulk fluids, phase change, and energy balances.

  17. 3D-2D ultrasound feature-based registration for navigated prostate biopsy: a feasibility study.

    PubMed

    Selmi, Sonia Y; Promayon, Emmanuel; Troccaz, Jocelyne

    2016-08-01

    The aim of this paper is to describe a 3D-2D ultrasound feature-based registration method for navigated prostate biopsy and its first results obtained on patient data. A system combining a low-cost tracking system and a 3D-2D registration algorithm was designed. The proposed 3D-2D registration method combines geometric and image-based distances. After extracting features from ultrasound images, 3D and 2D features within a defined distance are matched using an intensity-based function. The results are encouraging and show acceptable errors with simulated transforms applied on ultrasound volumes from real patients.

  18. Lithospheric deformation inferred from electrical anisotropy of magnetotelluric data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yin, Y.; Wei, W.; Jin, S.; Ye, G.; Unsworth, M. J.; Zhang, L.

    2013-12-01

    In our research, a comprehensive procedure of analyzing and modeling electrical anisotropy for MT data is suggested, based on the field examples of the Great Slave Lake shear zone (GSLsz) in western Canada, the North China Craton (NCC) and the Altyn Tagh fault in northern Tibet. Diverse dimensionality tools are used to distinguish heterogeneity and anisotropy from MT data. In addition to the phase splits and phase tensor polarizations, a combination of the phase tensor and induction arrows is applied to judge anisotropy. The skin depths of specific period band are considered to determine whether these features result from anisotropy or heterogeneity. Specific resistivity structures in the 2-D isotropic inversion models can indicate electrical anisotropy as well, like the dike-like media or a series of conductive ';blobs' can be observed in the 2-D isotropic inversion models of the GSLsz and NCC data. Anisotropic inversions can be undertaken using an improved inversion code based on isotropic code but incorporating a trade-off parameter for electrical anisotropy named anisotropic tau. A series of anisotropic tau have been applied to test its effect and to get a best trade-off between anisotropy and heterogeneity. Then, 2-D and 3-D forward modeling works are undertaken to test the robustness of the major anisotropic features. The anisotropic structures inferred from the inversion models are replaced by various alternating isotropic or anisotropic structures to see if they are required. The fitting of the response curves compared with the field data and corresponding r.m.s misfits can help us choose the best model that can generally illustrate the underground structure. Finally, the analysis and modeling result of the MT data from North China Craton is taken as an example to demonstrate how the electrical anisotropy can be linked with the lithospheric deformation. According to the reliable models we got, there may be an anisotropic layer at the mid-lower crustal to

  19. Cytochrome P-450 2D6 (CYP2D6) Genotype and Breast Cancer Recurrence in Tamoxifen-Treated Patients: Evaluating the Importance of Loss of Heterozygosity.

    PubMed

    Ahern, Thomas P; Hertz, Daniel L; Damkier, Per; Ejlertsen, Bent; Hamilton-Dutoit, Stephen J; Rae, James M; Regan, Meredith M; Thompson, Alastair M; Lash, Timothy L; Cronin-Fenton, Deirdre P

    2017-01-15

    Tamoxifen therapy for estrogen receptor-positive breast cancer reduces the risk of recurrence by approximately one-half. Cytochrome P-450 2D6, encoded by the polymorphic cytochrome P-450 2D6 gene (CYP2D6), oxidizes tamoxifen to its most active metabolites. Steady-state concentrations of endoxifen (4-hydroxy-N-desmethyltamoxifen), the most potent antiestrogenic metabolite, are reduced in women whose CYP2D6 genotypes confer poor enzyme function. Thirty-one studies of the association of CYP2D6 genotype with breast cancer survival have yielded heterogeneous results. Some influential studies genotyped DNA from tumor-infiltrated tissues, and their results may have been susceptible to germline genotype misclassification from loss of heterozygosity at the CYP2D6 locus. We systematically reviewed 6 studies of concordance between genotypes obtained from paired nonneoplastic and breast tumor-infiltrated tissues, all of which showed excellent CYP2D6 genotype agreement. We applied these concordance data to a quantitative bias analysis of the subset of the 31 studies that were based on genotypes from tumor-infiltrated tissue to examine whether genotyping errors substantially biased estimates of association. The bias analysis showed negligible bias by discordant genotypes. Summary estimates of association, with or without bias adjustment, indicated no clinically important association between CYP2D6 genotype and breast cancer survival in tamoxifen-treated women.

  20. Crustal radial anisotropy beneath Cameroon from ambient noise tomography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ojo, Adebayo Oluwaseun; Ni, Sidao; Li, Zhiwei

    2017-01-01

    To increase the understanding of crustal deformation and crustal flow patterns due to tectonic processes in Cameroon, we study the lateral variability of the crustal isotropic velocity and radial anisotropy estimated using Ambient Noise Tomography (ANT). Rayleigh and Love wave Noise Correlation Functions (NCFs) were retrieved from the cross-correlation of seismic ambient noise data recorded in Cameroon, and phase velocities at periods of 8 to 30 s were measured to perform surface wave tomography. Joint inversion of Rayleigh and Love wave data for isotropic velocity models could not fit the observed dispersions simultaneously. We attribute the Love-Rayleigh discrepancy to the presence of radial anisotropy in the crust and estimated its magnitude. Our 3-D radial anisotropic model reveals the spatial variation of strong to weak positive (Vsh > Vsv) and negative (Vsv > Vsh) radial anisotropy in the crust. We observe negative radial anisotropy in the upper crust that is associated mainly with the location of a previously reported mantle plume. The anisotropy could be attributed to the vertical alignment of fossil microcracks or metamorphic foliations due to the upwelling of plume material. A strong positive radial anisotropy is centered at the location of an inferred boundary between the Congo Craton and the Oubanguides Belt that might be related to the preferred orientation of crustal anisotropic minerals associated with shearing in this fault zone. The middle crust is characterized by a widespread negative radial anisotropy that is likely caused by the flow-induced alignment of anisotropic minerals that crystallized during magma intrusion. The magnitude of the radial anisotropy varies systematically from predominantly negative in the middle crust to positive in the lower crust. The imaged patterns of the isotropic velocity and radial anisotropy are consistent with previous studies and agree with regional tectonics.

  1. Analysis of image versus position, scale and direction reveals pattern texture anisotropy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lehoucq, Roland; Weiss, Jerome; Dubrulle, Berengere; Amon, Axelle; Le Bouil, Antoine; Crassous, Jerome; Amitrano, David; Graner, Francois

    2014-12-01

    Pattern heterogeneities and anisotropies often carry significant physical information. We provide a toolbox which: (i) cumulates analysis in terms of position, direction and scale; (ii) is as general as possible; (iii) is simple and fast to understand, implement, execute and exploit. It consists in dividing the image into analysis boxes at a chosen scale; in each box an ellipse (the inertia tensor) is fitted to the signal and thus determines the direction in which the signal is more present. This tensor can be averaged in position and/or be used to study the dependence with scale. This choice is formally linked with Leray transforms and anisotropic wavelet analysis. Such protocol is intutively interpreted and consistent with what the eye detects: relevant scales, local variations in space, priviledged directions. It is fast and parallelizable. Its several variants are adaptable to the user's data and needs. It is useful to statistically characterize anisotropies of 2D or 3D patterns in which individual objects are not easily distinguished, with only minimal pre-processing of the raw image, and more generally applies to data in higher dimensions. It is less sensitive to edge effects, and thus better adapted for a multiscale analysis down to small scale boxes, than pair correlation function or Fourier transform. Easy to understand and implement, it complements more sophisticated methods such as Hough transform or diffusion tensor imaging. We use it on various fracture patterns (sea ice cover, thin sections of granite, granular materials), to pinpoint the maximal anisotropy scales. The results are robust to noise and to user choices. This toolbox could turn also useful for granular materials, hard condensed matter, geophysics, thin films, statistical mechanics, characterisation of networks, fluctuating amorphous systems, inhomogeneous and disordered systems, or medical imaging, among others.

  2. Advancing the agent methodology to include the higher order of neutron anisotropy with accelerated solutions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Satvat, Nader

    With the development of new core designs for generation IV reactors with their complexity and newer fuel designs, the need for consideration of neutron anisotropic scattering is becoming important for enchasing the economy and reliability of these designs. The theory and accurate modeling of neutron anisotropy is one of the most important problems of the transport solution to neutron Boltzmann equation. A number of methods based on careful theoretical developments, were established to numerically determine the effect of anisotropy; some of these methods are: the spherical harmonics method, the so-called function method (FN), the discrete ordinate method, and the Monte Carlo method. The AGENT methodology, based on the method of characteristics, currently the most accurate neutron transport method, represents the state-of-the-art advanced neutronics simulation tool available for 2D, 3D, and full core modeling. The higher order of anisotropic scattering (with no limitation of the number of expansion) is introduced into the AGENT code. An extensive analysis is performed to verify and validate this new model. It is shown that anisotropic scattering is important to be considered for complex geometries due to high angular dependence of neutron flux. The first principle in physics were used to explain the effects of anisotropic scattering (at the level on particle interactions), importance in including the higher moments in flux development for the core designs of high heterogonous structure promoting biased scattering (at the level of heterogeneous reactor assemblies in 2D and 3D). This inclusion of higher order of anisotropic scattering as expected increased the complexity of the mathematical model which in turn increased the computational time. An analysis of the computational time dependence on anisotropic scattering and the method of characteristics resolution parameters are analyzed with accurate predictions of scaling to larger geometries. Finally, an accelerated

  3. THz quantum cascade lasers operating on the radiative modes of a 2D photonic crystal.

    PubMed

    Halioua, Y; Xu, G; Moumdji, S; Li, L H; Davies, A G; Linfield, E H; Colombelli, R

    2014-07-01

    Photonic-crystal lasers operating on Γ-point band-edge states of a photonic structure naturally exploit the so-called "nonradiative" modes. As the surface output coupling efficiency of these modes is low, they have relatively high Q factors, which favor lasing. We propose a new 2D photonic-crystal design that is capable of reversing this mode competition and achieving lasing on the radiative modes instead. Previously, this has only been shown in 1D structures, where the central idea is to introduce anisotropy into the system, both at unit-cell and resonator scales. By applying this concept to 2D photonic-crystal patterned terahertz frequency quantum cascade lasers, surface-emitting devices with diffraction-limited beams are demonstrated, with 17 mW peak output power.

  4. Exploring the promising properties of 2D exfoliated black phosphorus for optoelectronic applications under 1.55 μm optical excitation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Penillard, A.; Tripon-Canseliet, C.; Maksimovic, I.; Rosticher, M.; Servet, B.; Liu, Z.; Géron, E.

    2016-04-01

    A great interest has been lately initiated in the optoelectronics field for 2D materials with a tunable bandgap. Being able to choose the bandgap of a material is a huge progress in optoelectronics, since it would permit to overcome the limitation imposed by the graphene lack of energy bandgap, but also the restriction imposed by already used semiconductor whose bandgap are fixed and cannot apply for IR-NIR applications. From DFT simulations predictions, Black Phosphorus (bP) becomes a bidimensional semiconducting material with a direct tunable energy bandgap from 0.3 eV to 2 eV by controlling number of layers. This material also has a picosecond carrier response and exceptional mobilities under external excitation. Hence black phosphorus is a promising 2D material candidate for photoconductive switching under a NIR optical excitation as in telecommunication wavelength range of 1.55 μm. In this paper, material electromagnetic properties analysis is described in a large frequency band from optical to microwave measurements executed on different samples allowing energy bandgap and work function dependency to fabrication techniques, anisotropy and multiscale optoelectronic device realization by switch contact engineering and material passivation or encapsulation. Material implementation in microwave devices opens the route to new broadband electronic functionalities triggered by optics, thanks to light/matter extreme confinement degree. In this paper we present fabrication method of bP based microwave photoconductive switch, with a focus on black phosphorus Raman characterization, and obtained performances.

  5. Cooperative Jahn-Teller effect in a 2D mesoscopic C{60/n-} system with D5d symmetry adsorbed on buffer layers using Ising EFT model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abou Ghantous, M.; Moujaes, E. A.; Dunn, J. L.; Khater, A.

    2012-06-01

    Fullerene molecules adsorbed on surfaces often show macroscopic average distortions. As charged ions C60n- are known to be Jahn-Teller (JT) active, it is suggested that these distortions could be a manifestation of cooperative JT effects (CJTE) due to interactions between neighbouring fullerene ions. In order to understand the distortion properties it is necessary to take correlations between different distortions into account. However, this can't easily be done in the mean field approximation usually used to describe the CJTE. We therefore propose an alternative procedure to describe 2D mesoscopic islands of C60 ions in which a pseudo vector spin overrightarrow{S} is evoked to represent degenerate JT-distorted states when the quadratic JT coupling is considered. This approach is analogous to methods used for 2D magnetic systems. We then use the differential operator technique in effective field theory within the Ising approach. We include the effects of weak surface interactions and dynamic motion between equivalent distortions via terms equivalent to anisotropy and a transverse field in magnetism respectively. For distortions to D5d symmetry, we determine single site correlations as a function of temperature, the macroscopic average distortion describing a structural phase transition, and the isothermal response function. Phase diagrams are presented for relevant cases of the system parameters.

  6. The 2dF Galaxy Redshift Survey: power-spectrum analysis of the final data set and cosmological implications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cole, Shaun; Percival, Will J.; Peacock, John A.; Norberg, Peder; Baugh, Carlton M.; Frenk, Carlos S.; Baldry, Ivan; Bland-Hawthorn, Joss; Bridges, Terry; Cannon, Russell; Colless, Matthew; Collins, Chris; Couch, Warrick; Cross, Nicholas J. G.; Dalton, Gavin; Eke, Vincent R.; De Propris, Roberto; Driver, Simon P.; Efstathiou, George; Ellis, Richard S.; Glazebrook, Karl; Jackson, Carole; Jenkins, Adrian; Lahav, Ofer; Lewis, Ian; Lumsden, Stuart; Maddox, Steve; Madgwick, Darren; Peterson, Bruce A.; Sutherland, Will; Taylor, Keith

    2005-09-01

    We present a power-spectrum analysis of the final 2dF Galaxy Redshift Survey (2dFGRS), employing a direct Fourier method. The sample used comprises 221414 galaxies with measured redshifts. We investigate in detail the modelling of the sample selection, improving on previous treatments in a number of respects. A new angular mask is derived, based on revisions to the photometric calibration. The redshift selection function is determined by dividing the survey according to rest-frame colour, and deducing a self-consistent treatment of k-corrections and evolution for each population. The covariance matrix for the power-spectrum estimates is determined using two different approaches to the construction of mock surveys, which are used to demonstrate that the input cosmological model can be correctly recovered. We discuss in detail the possible differences between the galaxy and mass power spectra, and treat these using simulations, analytic models and a hybrid empirical approach. Based on these investigations, we are confident that the 2dFGRS power spectrum can be used to infer the matter content of the universe. On large scales, our estimated power spectrum shows evidence for the `baryon oscillations' that are predicted in cold dark matter (CDM) models. Fitting to a CDM model, assuming a primordial ns= 1 spectrum, h= 0.72 and negligible neutrino mass, the preferred parameters are Ωmh= 0.168 +/- 0.016 and a baryon fraction Ωb/Ωm= 0.185 +/- 0.046 (1σ errors). The value of Ωmh is 1σ lower than the 0.20 +/- 0.03 in our 2001 analysis of the partially complete 2dFGRS. This shift is largely due to the signal from the newly sampled regions of space, rather than the refinements in the treatment of observational selection. This analysis therefore implies a density significantly below the standard Ωm= 0.3: in combination with cosmic microwave background (CMB) data from the Wilkinson Microwave Anisotropy Probe (WMAP), we infer Ωm= 0.231 +/- 0.021.

  7. Orientational ordering of confined hard rods: The effect of shape anisotropy on surface ordering and capillary nematization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aliabadi, R.; Moradi, M.; Varga, S.

    2015-09-01

    We examine the ordering properties of rectangular hard rods with length L and diameter D at a single planar wall and between two parallel hard walls using the second virial density-functional theory. The theory is implemented in the three-state Zwanzig approximation, where only three mutually perpendicular directions are allowed for the orientations of hard rods. The effect of varying shape anisotropy is examined at L /D =10 ,15 ,and 20 . In contact with a single hard wall, the density profiles show planar ordering, damped oscillatory behavior, and a wall-induced surface ordering transition below the coexisting isotropic density of a bulk isotropic-nematic (I -N ) phase transition. Upon approaching the coexisting isotropic density, the thickness of the nematic film diverges logarithmically, i.e., the nematic wetting is complete for any shape anisotropy. In the case of confinement between two parallel hard walls, it is found that the continuous surface ordering transition depends strongly on the distance between confining walls H for H L . The minimal density at which a surface ordering transition can be realized is located at around H ˜2 D for all studied shape anisotropies due to the strong interference effect between the two hard walls. The first-order I -N phase transition of the bulk system becomes a surface ordered isotropic IB to capillary nematic NB phase transition in the slit pore. This first-order IB-NB transition weakens with decreasing pore width and terminates in a critical point for all studied shape anisotropies.

  8. Anisotropy in solid inflation

    SciTech Connect

    Bartolo, Nicola; Matarrese, Sabino; Ricciardone, Angelo; Peloso, Marco E-mail: sabino.matarrese@pd.infn.it E-mail: angelo.ricciardone@pd.infn.it

    2013-08-01

    In the model of solid / elastic inflation, inflation is driven by a source that has the field theoretical description of a solid. To allow for prolonged slow roll inflation, the solid needs to be extremely insensitive to the spatial expansion. We point out that, because of this property, the solid is also rather inefficient in erasing anisotropic deformations of the geometry. This allows for a prolonged inflationary anisotropic solution, providing the first example with standard gravity and scalar fields only which evades the conditions of the so called cosmic no-hair conjecture. We compute the curvature perturbations on the anisotropic solution, and the corresponding phenomenological bound on the anisotropy. Finally, we discuss the analogy between this model and the f(φ)F{sup 2} model, which also allows for anisotropic inflation thanks to a suitable coupling between the inflaton φ and a vector field. We remark that the bispectrum of the curvature perturbations in solid inflation is enhanced in the squeezed limit and presents a nontrivial angular dependence, as had previously been found for the f(φ)F{sup 2} model.

  9. Anisotropy in solid inflation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bartolo, Nicola; Matarrese, Sabino; Peloso, Marco; Ricciardone, Angelo

    2013-08-01

    In the model of solid / elastic inflation, inflation is driven by a source that has the field theoretical description of a solid. To allow for prolonged slow roll inflation, the solid needs to be extremely insensitive to the spatial expansion. We point out that, because of this property, the solid is also rather inefficient in erasing anisotropic deformations of the geometry. This allows for a prolonged inflationary anisotropic solution, providing the first example with standard gravity and scalar fields only which evades the conditions of the so called cosmic no-hair conjecture. We compute the curvature perturbations on the anisotropic solution, and the corresponding phenomenological bound on the anisotropy. Finally, we discuss the analogy between this model and the f(phi)F2 model, which also allows for anisotropic inflation thanks to a suitable coupling between the inflaton phi and a vector field. We remark that the bispectrum of the curvature perturbations in solid inflation is enhanced in the squeezed limit and presents a nontrivial angular dependence, as had previously been found for the f(phi)F2 model.

  10. Anisotropy in rotating drums

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Povall, Timothy; McBride, Andrew; Govender, Indresan

    2015-11-01

    An anisotropic relationship between the stress and the strain rate has been observed in two-dimensional simulations of rotating drums. The objective of this work is to investigate the structure of the constitutive relation using three-dimensional discrete-element-method simulations of a rotating drum containing identical rigid spheres for a range of rotational speeds. Anisotropy is quantified from the alignment of the stress and strain rate tensors, with the strain rate computed using a least-squares fit. It is shown that in certain regions there is a strong anisotropic relationship, regardless of the speed of rotation. The effective friction coefficient is examined in order to determine the phase space in which the μ (I) rheology is valid. Lastly, a depth-averaged approach through the flowing layer is employed to determine the relationship between the velocity tangential to the equilibrium surface and the height of the flowing layer. A power-law relationship that approaches linear at high speeds is observed. Supported by NRF/DST Scarce Skills (South Africa).

  11. ENERGY LANDSCAPE OF 2D FLUID FORMS

    SciTech Connect

    Y. JIANG; ET AL

    2000-04-01

    The equilibrium states of 2D non-coarsening fluid foams, which consist of bubbles with fixed areas, correspond to local minima of the total perimeter. (1) The authors find an approximate value of the global minimum, and determine directly from an image how far a foam is from its ground state. (2) For (small) area disorder, small bubbles tend to sort inwards and large bubbles outwards. (3) Topological charges of the same sign repel while charges of opposite sign attract. (4) They discuss boundary conditions and the uniqueness of the pattern for fixed topology.

  12. Codon Constraints on Closed 2D Shapes,

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-09-26

    19843$ CODON CONSTRAINTS ON CLOSED 2D SHAPES Go Whitman Richards "I Donald D. Hoffman’ D T 18 Abstract: Codons are simple primitives for describing plane...RSONAL AUT"ORtIS) Richards, Whitman & Hoffman, Donald D. 13&. TYPE OF REPORT 13b. TIME COVERED N/A P8 AT F RRrT t~r. Ago..D,) is, PlE COUNT Reprint...outlines, if figure and ground are ignored. Later, we will address the problem of indexing identical codon descriptors that have different figure

  13. Broadband THz Spectroscopy of 2D Nanoscale Materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Lu; Tripathi, Shivendra; Huang, Mengchen; Hsu, Jen-Feng; D'Urso, Brian; Lee, Hyungwoo; Eom, Chang-Beom; Irvin, Patrick; Levy, Jeremy

    Two-dimensional (2D) materials such as graphene and transition-metal dichalcogenides (TMDC) have attracted intense research interest in the past decade. Their unique electronic and optical properties offer the promise of novel optoelectronic applications in the terahertz regime. Recently, generation and detection of broadband terahertz (10 THz bandwidth) emission from 10-nm-scale LaAlO3/SrTiO3 nanostructures created by conductive atomic force microscope (c-AFM) lithography has been demonstrated . This unprecedented control of THz emission at 10 nm length scales creates a pathway toward hybrid THz functionality in 2D-material/LaAlO3/SrTiO3 heterostructures. Here we report initial efforts in THz spectroscopy of 2D nanoscale materials with resolution comparable to the dimensions of the nanowire (10 nm). Systems under investigation include graphene, single-layer molybdenum disulfide (MoS2), and tungsten diselenide (WSe2) nanoflakes. 1. Y. Ma, et al., Nano Lett. 13, 2884 (2013). We gratefully acknowledge financial support from the following agencies and grants: AFOSR (FA9550-12-1-0268 (JL, PRI), FA9550-12-1-0342 (CBE)), ONR (N00014-13-1-0806 (JL, CBE), N00014-15-1-2847 (JL)), NSF DMR-1124131 (JL, CBE) and DMR-1234096 (CBE).

  14. Microwave Assisted 2D Materials Exfoliation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Yanbin

    Two-dimensional materials have emerged as extremely important materials with applications ranging from energy and environmental science to electronics and biology. Here we report our discovery of a universal, ultrafast, green, solvo-thermal technology for producing excellent-quality, few-layered nanosheets in liquid phase from well-known 2D materials such as such hexagonal boron nitride (h-BN), graphite, and MoS2. We start by mixing the uniform bulk-layered material with a common organic solvent that matches its surface energy to reduce the van der Waals attractive interactions between the layers; next, the solutions are heated in a commercial microwave oven to overcome the energy barrier between bulk and few-layers states. We discovered the minutes-long rapid exfoliation process is highly temperature dependent, which requires precise thermal management to obtain high-quality inks. We hypothesize a possible mechanism of this proposed solvo-thermal process; our theory confirms the basis of this novel technique for exfoliation of high-quality, layered 2D materials by using an as yet unknown role of the solvent.

  15. Statistical analysis of quiet stance sway in 2-D.

    PubMed

    Bakshi, Avijit; DiZio, Paul; Lackner, James R

    2014-04-01

    Subjects exposed to a rotating environment that perturbs their postural sway show adaptive changes in their voluntary spatially directed postural motion to restore accurate movement paths but do not exhibit any obvious learning during passive stance. We have found, however, that a variable known to characterize the degree of stochasticity in quiet stance can also reveal subtle learning phenomena in passive stance. We extended Chow and Collins (Phys Rev E 52(1):909-912, 1995) one-dimensional pinned-polymer model (PPM) to two dimensions (2-D) and then evaluated the model's ability to make analytical predictions for 2-D quiet stance. To test the model, we tracked center of mass and centers of foot pressures, and compared and contrasted stance sway for the anterior-posterior versus medio-lateral directions before, during, and after exposure to rotation at 10 rpm. Sway of the body during rotation generated Coriolis forces that acted perpendicular to the direction of sway. We found significant adaptive changes for three characteristic features of the mean square displacement (MSD) function: the exponent of the power law defined at short time scales, the proportionality constant of the power law, and the saturation plateau value defined at longer time scales. The exponent of the power law of MSD at a short time scale lies within the bounds predicted by the 2-D PPM. The change in MSD during exposure to rotation also had a power-law exponent in the range predicted by the theoretical model. We discuss the Coriolis force paradigm for studying postural and movement control and the applicability of the PPM model in 2-D for studying postural adaptation.

  16. Bottom-up design of 2D organic photocatalysts for visible-light driven hydrogen evolution.

    PubMed

    Wang, Peng; Jiang, Xue; Zhao, Jijun

    2016-01-27

    To design two-dimensional (2D) organocatalysts, three series of covalent organic frameworks (COFs) are constructed using bottom-up strategies, i.e. molecular selection, tunable linkage, and functionalization. First-principles calculations are performed to confirm their photocatalytic activity under visible light. Two of our constructed 2D COF models (B1 and C3) are identified as a sufficiently efficient organocatalyst for visible light water splitting. The controllable construction of such COFs from suitable organic subunit, linkage, and functional groups paves the way for correlating band edge alignments and geometry parameters of 2D organic materials. Our theoretical prediction not only provides essential insights into designing 2D-COF photocatalysts for water splitting, but also sparks other technological applications for 2D organic materials.

  17. Completeness of the classical 2D Ising model and universal quantum computation.

    PubMed

    Van den Nest, M; Dür, W; Briegel, H J

    2008-03-21

    We prove that the 2D Ising model is complete in the sense that the partition function of any classical q-state spin model (on an arbitrary graph) can be expressed as a special instance of the partition function of a 2D Ising model with complex inhomogeneous couplings and external fields. In the case where the original model is an Ising or Potts-type model, we find that the corresponding 2D square lattice requires only polynomially more spins with respect to the original one, and we give a constructive method to map such models to the 2D Ising model. For more general models the overhead in system size may be exponential. The results are established by connecting classical spin models with measurement-based quantum computation and invoking the universality of the 2D cluster states.

  18. Bottom-up design of 2D organic photocatalysts for visible-light driven hydrogen evolution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Peng; Jiang, Xue; Zhao, Jijun

    2016-01-01

    To design two-dimensional (2D) organocatalysts, three series of covalent organic frameworks (COFs) are constructed using bottom-up strategies, i.e. molecular selection, tunable linkage, and functionalization. First-principles calculations are performed to confirm their photocatalytic activity under visible light. Two of our constructed 2D COF models (B1 and C3) are identified as a sufficiently efficient organocatalyst for visible light water splitting. The controllable construction of such COFs from suitable organic subunit, linkage, and functional groups paves the way for correlating band edge alignments and geometry parameters of 2D organic materials. Our theoretical prediction not only provides essential insights into designing 2D-COF photocatalysts for water splitting, but also sparks other technological applications for 2D organic materials.

  19. Molecular anisotropy effects in carbon K-edge scattering: depolarized diffuse scattering and optical anisotropy

    SciTech Connect

    Stone, Kevin H.

    2014-07-14

    Some polymer properties, such as conductivity, are very sensitive to short- and intermediate-range orientational and positional ordering of anisotropic molecular functional groups, and yet means to characterize orientational order in disordered systems are very limited. We demonstrate that resonant scattering at the carbon K-edge is uniquely sensitive to short-range orientation correlations in polymers through depolarized scattering at high momentum transfers, using atactic polystyrene as a well-characterized test system. Depolarized scattering is found to coexist with unpolarized fluorescence, and to exhibit pronounced anisotropy. We also quantify the spatially averaged optical anisotropy from low-angle reflectivity measurements, finding anisotropy consistent with prior visible, x-ray absorption, and theoretical studies. The average anisotropy is much smaller than that in the depolarized scattering and the two have different character. Both measurements exhibit clear spectral signatures from the phenyl rings and the polyethylene-like backbone. Discussion focuses on analysis considerations and prospects for using this depolarized scattering for studies of disorder in soft condensed matter.

  20. Polymorphism, crystal nucleation and growth in the phase-field crystal model in 2D and 3D

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tóth, Gyula I.; Tegze, György; Pusztai, Tamás; Tóth, Gergely; Gránásy, László

    2010-09-01

    We apply a simple dynamical density functional theory, the phase-field crystal (PFC) model of overdamped conservative dynamics, to address polymorphism, crystal nucleation, and crystal growth in the diffusion-controlled limit. We refine the phase diagram for 3D, and determine the line free energy in 2D and the height of the nucleation barrier in 2D and 3D for homogeneous and heterogeneous nucleation by solving the respective Euler-Lagrange (EL) equations. We demonstrate that, in the PFC model, the body-centered cubic (bcc), the face-centered cubic (fcc), and the hexagonal close-packed structures (hcp) compete, while the simple cubic structure is unstable, and that phase preference can be tuned by changing the model parameters: close to the critical point the bcc structure is stable, while far from the critical point the fcc prevails, with an hcp stability domain in between. We note that with increasing distance from the critical point the equilibrium shapes vary from the sphere to specific faceted shapes: rhombic dodecahedron (bcc), truncated octahedron (fcc), and hexagonal prism (hcp). Solving the equation of motion of the PFC model supplied with conserved noise, solidification starts with the nucleation of an amorphous precursor phase, into which the stable crystalline phase nucleates. The growth rate is found to be time dependent and anisotropic; this anisotropy depends on the driving force. We show that due to the diffusion-controlled growth mechanism, which is especially relevant for crystal aggregation in colloidal systems, dendritic growth structures evolve in large-scale isothermal single-component PFC simulations. An oscillatory effective pair potential resembling those for model glass formers has been evaluated from structural data of the amorphous phase obtained by instantaneous quenching. Finally, we present results for eutectic solidification in a binary PFC model.

  1. 2-D or not 2-D, that is the question: A Northern California test

    SciTech Connect

    Mayeda, K; Malagnini, L; Phillips, W S; Walter, W R; Dreger, D

    2005-06-06

    Reliable estimates of the seismic source spectrum are necessary for accurate magnitude, yield, and energy estimation. In particular, how seismic radiated energy scales with increasing earthquake size has been the focus of recent debate within the community and has direct implications on earthquake source physics studies as well as hazard mitigation. The 1-D coda methodology of Mayeda et al. has provided the lowest variance estimate of the source spectrum when compared against traditional approaches that use direct S-waves, thus making it ideal for networks that have sparse station distribution. The 1-D coda methodology has been mostly confined to regions of approximately uniform complexity. For larger, more geophysically complicated regions, 2-D path corrections may be required. The complicated tectonics of the northern California region coupled with high quality broadband seismic data provides for an ideal ''apples-to-apples'' test of 1-D and 2-D path assumptions on direct waves and their coda. Using the same station and event distribution, we compared 1-D and 2-D path corrections and observed the following results: (1) 1-D coda results reduced the amplitude variance relative to direct S-waves by roughly a factor of 8 (800%); (2) Applying a 2-D correction to the coda resulted in up to 40% variance reduction from the 1-D coda results; (3) 2-D direct S-wave results, though better than 1-D direct waves, were significantly worse than the 1-D coda. We found that coda-based moment-rate source spectra derived from the 2-D approach were essentially identical to those from the 1-D approach for frequencies less than {approx}0.7-Hz, however for the high frequencies (0.7{le} f {le} 8.0-Hz), the 2-D approach resulted in inter-station scatter that was generally 10-30% smaller. For complex regions where data are plentiful, a 2-D approach can significantly improve upon the simple 1-D assumption. In regions where only 1-D coda correction is available it is still preferable over 2

  2. Differential patterns of 2D location versus depth decoding along the visual hierarchy.

    PubMed

    Finlayson, Nonie J; Zhang, Xiaoli; Golomb, Julie D

    2017-02-15

    Visual information is initially represented as 2D images on the retina, but our brains are able to transform this input to perceive our rich 3D environment. While many studies have explored 2D spatial representations or depth perception in isolation, it remains unknown if or how these processes interact in human visual cortex. Here we used functional MRI and multi-voxel pattern analysis to investigate the relationship between 2D location and position-in-depth information. We stimulated different 3D locations in a blocked design: each location was defined by horizontal, vertical, and depth position. Participants remained fixated at the center of the screen while passively viewing the peripheral stimuli with red/green anaglyph glasses. Our results revealed a widespread, systematic transition throughout visual cortex. As expected, 2D location information (horizontal and vertical) could be strongly decoded in early visual areas, with reduced decoding higher along the visual hierarchy, consistent with known changes in receptive field sizes. Critically, we found that the decoding of position-in-depth information tracked inversely with the 2D location pattern, with the magnitude of depth decoding gradually increasing from intermediate to higher visual and category regions. Representations of 2D location information became increasingly location-tolerant in later areas, where depth information was also tolerant to changes in 2D location. We propose that spatial representations gradually transition from 2D-dominant to balanced 3D (2D and depth) along the visual hierarchy.

  3. Screening and transport in 2D semiconductor systems at low temperatures.

    PubMed

    Das Sarma, S; Hwang, E H

    2015-11-17

    Low temperature carrier transport properties in 2D semiconductor systems can be theoretically well-understood within RPA-Boltzmann theory as being limited by scattering from screened Coulomb disorder arising from random quenched charged impurities in the environment. In this work, we derive a number of analytical formula, supported by realistic numerical calculations, for the relevant density, mobility, and temperature range where 2D transport should manifest strong intrinsic (i.e., arising purely from electronic effects) metallic temperature dependence in different semiconductor materials arising entirely from the 2D screening properties, thus providing an explanation for why the strong temperature dependence of the 2D resistivity can only be observed in high-quality and low-disorder 2D samples and also why some high-quality 2D materials manifest much weaker metallicity than other materials. We also discuss effects of interaction and disorder on the 2D screening properties in this context as well as compare 2D and 3D screening functions to comment why such a strong intrinsic temperature dependence arising from screening cannot occur in 3D metallic carrier transport. Experimentally verifiable predictions are made about the quantitative magnitude of the maximum possible low-temperature metallicity in 2D systems and the scaling behavior of the temperature scale controlling the quantum to classical crossover.

  4. Screening and transport in 2D semiconductor systems at low temperatures

    PubMed Central

    Das Sarma, S.; Hwang, E. H.

    2015-01-01

    Low temperature carrier transport properties in 2D semiconductor systems can be theoretically well-understood within RPA-Boltzmann theory as being limited by scattering from screened Coulomb disorder arising from random quenched charged impurities in the environment. In this work, we derive a number of analytical formula, supported by realistic numerical calculations, for the relevant density, mobility, and temperature range where 2D transport should manifest strong intrinsic (i.e., arising purely from electronic effects) metallic temperature dependence in different semiconductor materials arising entirely from the 2D screening properties, thus providing an explanation for why the strong temperature dependence of the 2D resistivity can only be observed in high-quality and low-disorder 2D samples and also why some high-quality 2D materials manifest much weaker metallicity than other materials. We also discuss effects of interaction and disorder on the 2D screening properties in this context as well as compare 2D and 3D screening functions to comment why such a strong intrinsic temperature dependence arising from screening cannot occur in 3D metallic carrier transport. Experimentally verifiable predictions are made about the quantitative magnitude of the maximum possible low-temperature metallicity in 2D systems and the scaling behavior of the temperature scale controlling the quantum to classical crossover. PMID:26572738

  5. Quantifying Therapeutic and Diagnostic Efficacy in 2D Microvascular Images

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Parsons-Wingerter, Patricia; Vickerman, Mary B.; Keith, Patricia A.

    2009-01-01

    VESGEN is a newly automated, user-interactive program that maps and quantifies the effects of vascular therapeutics and regulators on microvascular form and function. VESGEN analyzes two-dimensional, black and white vascular images by measuring important vessel morphology parameters. This software guides the user through each required step of the analysis process via a concise graphical user interface (GUI). Primary applications of the VESGEN code are 2D vascular images acquired as clinical diagnostic images of the human retina and as experimental studies of the effects of vascular regulators and therapeutics on vessel remodeling.

  6. Transition to turbulence: 2D directed percolation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chantry, Matthew; Tuckerman, Laurette; Barkley, Dwight

    2016-11-01

    The transition to turbulence in simple shear flows has been studied for well over a century, yet in the last few years has seen major leaps forward. In pipe flow, this transition shows the hallmarks of (1 + 1) D directed percolation, a universality class of continuous phase transitions. In spanwisely confined Taylor-Couette flow the same class is found, suggesting the phenomenon is generic to shear flows. However in plane Couette flow the largest simulations and experiments to-date find evidence for a discrete transition. Here we study a planar shear flow, called Waleffe flow, devoid of walls yet showing the fundamentals of planar transition to turbulence. Working with a quasi-2D yet Navier-Stokes derived model of this flow we are able to attack the (2 + 1) D transition problem. Going beyond the system sizes previously possible we find all of the required scalings of directed percolation and thus establish planar shears flow in this class.

  7. 2D quantum gravity from quantum entanglement.

    PubMed

    Gliozzi, F

    2011-01-21

    In quantum systems with many degrees of freedom the replica method is a useful tool to study the entanglement of arbitrary spatial regions. We apply it in a way that allows them to backreact. As a consequence, they become dynamical subsystems whose position, form, and extension are determined by their interaction with the whole system. We analyze, in particular, quantum spin chains described at criticality by a conformal field theory. Its coupling to the Gibbs' ensemble of all possible subsystems is relevant and drives the system into a new fixed point which is argued to be that of the 2D quantum gravity coupled to this system. Numerical experiments on the critical Ising model show that the new critical exponents agree with those predicted by the formula of Knizhnik, Polyakov, and Zamolodchikov.

  8. Simulation of Yeast Cooperation in 2D.

    PubMed

    Wang, M; Huang, Y; Wu, Z

    2016-03-01

    Evolution of cooperation has been an active research area in evolutionary biology in decades. An important type of cooperation is developed from group selection, when individuals form spatial groups to prevent them from foreign invasions. In this paper, we study the evolution of cooperation in a mixed population of cooperating and cheating yeast strains in 2D with the interactions among the yeast cells restricted to their small neighborhoods. We conduct a computer simulation based on a game theoretic model and show that cooperation is increased when the interactions are spatially restricted, whether the game is of a prisoner's dilemma, snow drifting, or mutual benefit type. We study the evolution of homogeneous groups of cooperators or cheaters and describe the conditions for them to sustain or expand in an opponent population. We show that under certain spatial restrictions, cooperator groups are able to sustain and expand as group sizes become large, while cheater groups fail to expand and keep them from collapse.

  9. 2D Electrostatic Actuation of Microshutter Arrays

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Burns, Devin E.; Oh, Lance H.; Li, Mary J.; Jones, Justin S.; Kelly, Daniel P.; Zheng, Yun; Kutyrev, Alexander S.; Moseley, Samuel H.

    2015-01-01

    An electrostatically actuated microshutter array consisting of rotational microshutters (shutters that rotate about a torsion bar) were designed and fabricated through the use of models and experiments. Design iterations focused on minimizing the torsional stiffness of the microshutters, while maintaining their structural integrity. Mechanical and electromechanical test systems were constructed to measure the static and dynamic behavior of the microshutters. The torsional stiffness was reduced by a factor of four over initial designs without sacrificing durability. Analysis of the resonant behavior of the microshutter arrays demonstrates that the first resonant mode is a torsional mode occurring around 3000 Hz. At low vacuum pressures, this resonant mode can be used to significantly reduce the drive voltage necessary for actuation requiring as little as 25V. 2D electrostatic latching and addressing was demonstrated using both a resonant and pulsed addressing scheme.

  10. Graphene suspensions for 2D printing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Soots, R. A.; Yakimchuk, E. A.; Nebogatikova, N. A.; Kotin, I. A.; Antonova, I. V.

    2016-04-01

    It is shown that, by processing a graphite suspension in ethanol or water by ultrasound and centrifuging, it is possible to obtain particles with thicknesses within 1-6 nm and, in the most interesting cases, 1-1.5 nm. Analogous treatment of a graphite suspension in organic solvent yields eventually thicker particles (up to 6-10 nm thick) even upon long-term treatment. Using the proposed ink based on graphene and aqueous ethanol with ethylcellulose and terpineol additives for 2D printing, thin (~5 nm thick) films with sheet resistance upon annealing ~30 MΩ/□ were obtained. With the ink based on aqueous graphene suspension, the sheet resistance was ~5-12 kΩ/□ for 6- to 15-nm-thick layers with a carrier mobility of ~30-50 cm2/(V s).

  11. Canard configured aircraft with 2-D nozzle

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Child, R. D.; Henderson, W. P.

    1978-01-01

    A closely-coupled canard fighter with vectorable two-dimensional nozzle was designed for enhanced transonic maneuvering. The HiMAT maneuver goal of a sustained 8g turn at a free-stream Mach number of 0.9 and 30,000 feet was the primary design consideration. The aerodynamic design process was initiated with a linear theory optimization minimizing the zero percent suction drag including jet effects and refined with three-dimensional nonlinear potential flow techniques. Allowances were made for mutual interference and viscous effects. The design process to arrive at the resultant configuration is described, and the design of a powered 2-D nozzle model to be tested in the LRC 16-foot Propulsion Wind Tunnel is shown.

  12. Metrology for graphene and 2D materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pollard, Andrew J.

    2016-09-01

    The application of graphene, a one atom-thick honeycomb lattice of carbon atoms with superlative properties, such as electrical conductivity, thermal conductivity and strength, has already shown that it can be used to benefit metrology itself as a new quantum standard for resistance. However, there are many application areas where graphene and other 2D materials, such as molybdenum disulphide (MoS2) and hexagonal boron nitride (h-BN), may be disruptive, areas such as flexible electronics, nanocomposites, sensing and energy storage. Applying metrology to the area of graphene is now critical to enable the new, emerging global graphene commercial world and bridge the gap between academia and industry. Measurement capabilities and expertise in a wide range of scientific areas are required to address this challenge. The combined and complementary approach of varied characterisation methods for structural, chemical, electrical and other properties, will allow the real-world issues of commercialising graphene and other 2D materials to be addressed. Here, examples of metrology challenges that have been overcome through a multi-technique or new approach are discussed. Firstly, the structural characterisation of defects in both graphene and MoS2 via Raman spectroscopy is described, and how nanoscale mapping of vacancy defects in graphene is also possible using tip-enhanced Raman spectroscopy (TERS). Furthermore, the chemical characterisation and removal of polymer residue on chemical vapour deposition (CVD) grown graphene via secondary ion mass spectrometry (SIMS) is detailed, as well as the chemical characterisation of iron films used to grow large domain single-layer h-BN through CVD growth, revealing how contamination of the substrate itself plays a role in the resulting h-BN layer. In addition, the role of international standardisation in this area is described, outlining the current work ongoing in both the International Organization of Standardization (ISO) and the

  13. Energetic Electrons in Dipolarization Events: Spatial Properties and Anisotropy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Birn, J.; Runov, A.; Hesse, M.

    2014-01-01

    Using the electromagnetic fields of an MHD simulation of magnetotail reconnection, flow bursts, and dipolarization, we further investigate the acceleration of electrons to suprathermal energies. Particular emphasis is on spatial properties and anisotropies as functions of energy and time. The simulation results are compared with Time History of Events and Macroscale Interactions during Substorms observations. The test particle approach successfully reproduces several observed injection features and puts them into a context of spatial maps of the injection region(s): a dominance of perpendicular anisotropies farther down the tail and closer to the equatorial plane, an increasing importance of parallel anisotropy closer to Earth and at higher latitudes, a drop in energy fluxes at energies below approximately 10 keV, coinciding with the plasma density drop, together with increases at higher energy, a triple peak structure of flux increases near 0 deg, 90 deg, and 180 deg, and a tendency of flux increases to extend to higher energy closer to Earth and at lower latitudes. We identified the plasma sheet boundary layers and adjacent lobes as a main source region for both increased and decreased energetic electron fluxes, related to the different effects of adiabatic acceleration at high and low energies. The simulated anisotropies tend to exceed the observed ones, particularly for perpendicular fluxes at high energies. The most plausible reason is that the MHD simulation lacks the effects of anisotropy-driven microinstabilities and waves, which would reduce anisotropies.

  14. The immunoreceptor NKG2D promotes tumour growth in a model of hepatocellular carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Sheppard, Sam; Guedes, Joana; Mroz, Anna; Zavitsanou, Anastasia-Maria; Kudo, Hiromi; Rothery, Stephen M.; Angelopoulos, Panagiotis; Goldin, Robert; Guerra, Nadia

    2017-01-01

    Inflammation is recognized as one of the drivers of cancer. Yet, the individual immune components that possess pro- and anti-tumorigenic functions in individual cancers remain largely unknown. NKG2D is a potent activating immunoreceptor that has emerged as an important player in inflammatory disorders besides its well-established function as tumour suppressor. Here, we provide genetic evidence of an unexpected tumour-promoting effect of NKG2D in a model of inflammation-driven liver cancer. Compared to NKG2D-deficient mice, NKG2D-sufficient mice display accelerated tumour growth associated with, an increased recruitment of memory CD8+T cells to the liver and exacerbated pro-inflammatory milieu. In addition, we show that NKG2D contributes to liver damage and consequent hepatocyte proliferation known to favour tumorigenesis. Thus, the NKG2D/NKG2D-ligand pathway provides an additional mechanism linking chronic inflammation to tumour development in hepatocellular carcinoma. Our findings expose the need to selectively target the types of cancer that could benefit from NKG2D-based immunotherapy. PMID:28128200

  15. Heterogeneity and Disorder in Ti{1-x}Fe{y}O{2-d) Nanocrystal Rutile-based Flower Like Aggregates: Detection of Anatase

    SciTech Connect

    Bozin, E.S.; Kremenovic, A.; Antic, B.; Blanusa, J.; Comor, M.; Columban, P.; Mazerolles, L.

    2011-03-24

    Here we report results of systematic investigation of heterogeneity and disorder in Ti{sub 1-x}Fe{sub y}O{sub 2-d} nanorod rutile-based flowerlike aggregates. It was found that Ti{sub 1-x}Fe{sub y}O{sub 2-d} aggregates are composed of two crystalline phases: rutile as a dominant and anatase as a minor phase. Flowerlike aggregates were found to grow from an isometric core ca. 5-10 nm in diameter that was built from anatase and rutile nanorods ca. 5 x 100 nm that were grown on the anatase surface having base plane (001) intergrowth with an anatase plane. The direction of rutile nanorods growth, i.e., direction of the nanorod elongation, was [001]. Highly nonisometric rutile crystals produce anisotropic X-ray powder diffraction line broadening and doubling of vibrational bands in Raman spectra. Both these techniques confirmed nonisometric character of rutile crystals and gave a quantitative measure of crystal shape anisotropy in excellent agreement with high-resolution transmission electron microscopy measurements. In addition, from the atomic pair distribution function and Raman spectral analyses the level of vacancy concentration was determined in rutile and anatase phases of investigated samples.

  16. Stiffer double-stranded DNA in two-dimensional confinement due to bending anisotropy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Salari, H.; Eslami-Mossallam, B.; Ranjbar, H. F.; Ejtehadi, M. R.

    2016-12-01

    Using analytical approach and Monte Carlo (MC) simulations, we study the elastic behavior of the intrinsically twisted elastic ribbons with bending anisotropy, such as double-stranded DNA (dsDNA), in two-dimensional (2D) confinement. We show that, due to the bending anisotropy, the persistence length of dsDNA in 2D conformations is always greater than three-dimensional (3D) conformations. This result is in consistence with the measured values for DNA persistence length in 2D and 3D in equal biological conditions. We also show that in two dimensions, an anisotropic, intrinsically twisted polymer exhibits an implicit twist-bend coupling, which leads to the transient curvature increasing with a half helical turn periodicity along the bent polymer.

  17. Is 2-D turbulence relevant in the atmosphere?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lovejoy, Shaun; Schertzer, Daniel

    2010-05-01

    Starting with (Taylor, 1935), the paradigm of isotropic (and scaling!) turbulence was developed initially for laboratory applications, but following (Kolmogorov, 1941), three dimensional isotropic turbulence was progressively applied to the atmosphere. Since the atmosphere is strongly stratified, a single wide scale range model which is both isotropic and scaling is not possible so that theorists had to immediately choose between the two symmetries: isotropy or scale invariance. Following the development of models of two dimensional isotropic turbulence ((Fjortoft, 1953), but especially (Kraichnan, 1967) and (Charney, 1971)), the mainstream choice was to first make the convenient assumption of isotropy and to drop wide range scale invariance. Starting at the end of the 1970's this "isotropy primary" (IP) paradigm has lead to a series of increasingly complex isotropic 2D/isotropic 3D models of atmospheric dynamics which continue to dominate the theoretical landscape. Justifications for IP approaches have focused almost exclusively on the horizontal statistics of the horizontal wind in both numerical models and analyses and from aircraft campaigns, especially the highly cited GASP (Nastrom and Gage, 1983), (Gage and Nastrom, 1986; Nastrom and Gage, 1985) and MOZAIC (Cho and Lindborg, 2001) experiments. Since understanding the anisotropy clearly requires comparisons between horizontal and vertical statistics/structures this focus has been unfortunate. Over the same thirty year period that 2D/3D isotropic models were being elaborated, evidence slowly accumulated in favour of the opposite theoretical choice: to drop the isotropy assumption but to retain wide range scaling. The models in the alternative paradigm are scaling but strongly anisotropic with vertical sections of structures becoming increasingly stratified at larger and larger scales albeit in a power law manner; we collectively refer to these as "SP" for "scaling primary" approaches. Early authors explicitly

  18. Graphene: 2D-Building Block for Functional Nanocomposites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vallés, Cristina; Jiménez, P.; Muñoz, E.; Benito, A. M.; Maser, W. K.

    In this article we present a general introduction to the field of graphene and in particular of graphene-based composites. The opportunities for achieving novel high performance composite materials with enhanced properties are highlighted and the challenges to be overcome discussed. As the application of graphene as a nanofiller in composite materials is imminent, the availability of processable graphene sheets in large quantities seems essential to the success of exploiting composite and other applications of graphene. In addition, our work on the synthesis of electroactive graphene-polyaniline composites is presented.

  19. TMD 2D Materials: Defects, Passivation, Functionalization and Device Impact

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wallace, Robert

    Transition metal dichalcogenides (TMDs) such as MoS2 have become popular in ``beyond CMOS'' device concepts and research due to their band structure in two-dimensional layers - viz. a significant band gap. Various device demonstrations have been reported utilizing exfoliated and synthesized single/few layer TMDs for possible electronic and photonic applications. The performance of such devices will also necessarily depend upon the TMD layer quality. The impact of defects and impurities on device transport characteristics is of interest, as well as methods to passivate and minimize their effects. The interaction of the TMDs with component materials, such as dielectrics and contacts, is also an important aspect. This talk will present our recent work using in-situ and ex-situ methods to understand the physics and chemistry of TMDs and their associated interfaces. This work was supported in part by the LEAST Center, one of the six SRC STARnet Centers, sponsored by MARCO and DARPA; the SWAN Center sponsored by the SRC NRI and NIST, and the NSF under Award ECCS-1407765.

  20. NKG2D Ligands in Tumor Immunity: Two Sides of a Coin

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Jinyu; Basher, Fahmin; Wu, Jennifer D.

    2015-01-01

    The activating/co-stimulatory receptor NKG2D (natural-killer group 2, member D) is expressed on the surface of all human NK, NKT, CD8+ T, and subsets of γδ+ T cells. The significance of NKG2D function in tumor immunity has been well demonstrated in experimental animal models. However, the role of human NKG2D ligands in regulating tumor immunity and cancer prognosis had been controversial in the literature. In this review, we summarize the latest advancement, discuss the controversies, and present evidence that membrane-bound and soluble NKG2D ligands oppositely regulate tumor immunity. We also discuss new perspectives of targeting NKG2D ligands for cancer immunotherapy. PMID:25788898

  1. One-atom-thick 2D copper oxide clusters on graphene.

    PubMed

    Kano, Emi; Kvashnin, Dmitry G; Sakai, Seiji; Chernozatonskii, Leonid A; Sorokin, Pavel B; Hashimoto, Ayako; Takeguchi, Masaki

    2017-03-17

    The successful isolation and remarkable properties of graphene have recently triggered investigation of two-dimensional (2D) materials from layered compounds; however, one-atom-thick 2D materials without bulk layered counterparts are scarcely reported. Here we report the structure and properties of novel 2D copper oxide studied by experimental and theoretical methods. Electron microscopy observations reveal that copper oxide can form monoatomic layers with an unusual square lattice on graphene. Density functional theory calculations suggest that oxygen atoms at the centre of the square lattice stabilizes the 2D Cu structure, and that the 2D copper oxide sheets have unusual electronic and magnetic properties different from 3D bulk copper oxide.

  2. Persistence Measures for 2d Soap Froth

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Feng, Y.; Ruskin, H. J.; Zhu, B.

    Soap froths as typical disordered cellular structures, exhibiting spatial and temporal evolution, have been studied through their distributions and topological properties. Recently, persistence measures, which permit representation of the froth as a two-phase system, have been introduced to study froth dynamics at different length scales. Several aspects of the dynamics may be considered and cluster persistence has been observed through froth experiment. Using a direct simulation method, we have investigated persistent properties in 2D froth both by monitoring the persistence of survivor cells, a topologically independent measure, and in terms of cluster persistence. It appears that the area fraction behavior for both survivor and cluster persistence is similar for Voronoi froth and uniform froth (with defects). Survivor and cluster persistent fractions are also similar for a uniform froth, particularly when geometries are constrained, but differences observed for the Voronoi case appear to be attributable to the strong topological dependency inherent in cluster persistence. Survivor persistence, on the other hand, depends on the number rather than size and position of remaining bubbles and does not exhibit the characteristic decay to zero.

  3. SEM signal emulation for 2D patterns

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sukhov, Evgenii; Muelders, Thomas; Klostermann, Ulrich; Gao, Weimin; Braylovska, Mariya

    2016-03-01

    The application of accurate and predictive physical resist simulation is seen as one important use model for fast and efficient exploration of new patterning technology options, especially if fully qualified OPC models are not yet available at an early pre-production stage. The methodology of using a top-down CD-SEM metrology to extract the 3D resist profile information, such as the critical dimension (CD) at various resist heights, has to be associated with a series of presumptions which may introduce such small, but systematic CD errors. Ideally, the metrology effects should be carefully minimized during measurement process, or if possible be taken into account through proper metrology modeling. In this paper we discuss the application of a fast SEM signal emulation describing the SEM image formation. The algorithm is applied to simulated resist 3D profiles and produces emulated SEM image results for 1D and 2D patterns. It allows estimating resist simulation quality by comparing CDs which were extracted from the emulated and from the measured SEM images. Moreover, SEM emulation is applied for resist model calibration to capture subtle error signatures through dose and defocus. Finally, it should be noted that our SEM emulation methodology is based on the approximation of physical phenomena which are taking place in real SEM image formation. This approximation allows achieving better speed performance compared to a fully physical model.

  4. Competing coexisting phases in 2D water

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zanotti, Jean-Marc; Judeinstein, Patrick; Dalla-Bernardina, Simona; Creff, Gaëlle; Brubach, Jean-Blaise; Roy, Pascale; Bonetti, Marco; Ollivier, Jacques; Sakellariou, Dimitrios; Bellissent-Funel, Marie-Claire

    2016-05-01

    The properties of bulk water come from a delicate balance of interactions on length scales encompassing several orders of magnitudes: i) the Hydrogen Bond (HBond) at the molecular scale and ii) the extension of this HBond network up to the macroscopic level. Here, we address the physics of water when the three dimensional extension of the HBond network is frustrated, so that the water molecules are forced to organize in only two dimensions. We account for the large scale fluctuating HBond network by an analytical mean-field percolation model. This approach provides a coherent interpretation of the different events experimentally (calorimetry, neutron, NMR, near and far infra-red spectroscopies) detected in interfacial water at 160, 220 and 250 K. Starting from an amorphous state of water at low temperature, these transitions are respectively interpreted as the onset of creation of transient low density patches of 4-HBonded molecules at 160 K, the percolation of these domains at 220 K and finally the total invasion of the surface by them at 250 K. The source of this surprising behaviour in 2D is the frustration of the natural bulk tetrahedral local geometry and the underlying very significant increase in entropy of the interfacial water molecules.

  5. Competing coexisting phases in 2D water

    PubMed Central

    Zanotti, Jean-Marc; Judeinstein, Patrick; Dalla-Bernardina, Simona; Creff, Gaëlle; Brubach, Jean-Blaise; Roy, Pascale; Bonetti, Marco; Ollivier, Jacques; Sakellariou, Dimitrios; Bellissent-Funel, Marie-Claire

    2016-01-01

    The properties of bulk water come from a delicate balance of interactions on length scales encompassing several orders of magnitudes: i) the Hydrogen Bond (HBond) at the molecular scale and ii) the extension of this HBond network up to the macroscopic level. Here, we address the physics of water when the three dimensional extension of the HBond network is frustrated, so that the water molecules are forced to organize in only two dimensions. We account for the large scale fluctuating HBond network by an analytical mean-field percolation model. This approach provides a coherent interpretation of the different events experimentally (calorimetry, neutron, NMR, near and far infra-red spectroscopies) detected in interfacial water at 160, 220 and 250 K. Starting from an amorphous state of water at low temperature, these transitions are respectively interpreted as the onset of creation of transient low density patches of 4-HBonded molecules at 160 K, the percolation of these domains at 220 K and finally the total invasion of the surface by them at 250 K. The source of this surprising behaviour in 2D is the frustration of the natural bulk tetrahedral local geometry and the underlying very significant increase in entropy of the interfacial water molecules. PMID:27185018

  6. DFT calculations of magnetic anisotropy energy of Ge(1-x)Mn(x)Te ferromagnetic semiconductor.

    PubMed

    Łusakowski, A; Bogusławski, P; Story, T

    2015-06-10

    Density functional theory (DFT) calculations of the energy of magnetic anisotropy for diluted ferromagnetic semiconductor Ge(1-x)Mn(x)Te were performed using OpenMX package with fully relativistic pseudopotentials. The influence of hole concentration and magnetic ion neighbourhood on magnetic anisotropy energy is presented. Analysis of microscopic mechanism of magnetic anisotropy is provided, in particular the role of spin-orbit coupling, spin polarization and spatial changes of electron density are discussed. The calculations are in accordance with the experimental observation of perpendicular magnetic anisotropy in rhombohedral Ge(1-x)Mn(x)Te (1 1 1) thin layers.

  7. DFT calculations of magnetic anisotropy energy of Ge1-xMnxTe ferromagnetic semiconductor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Łusakowski, A.; Bogusławski, P.; Story, T.

    2015-06-01

    Density functional theory (DFT) calculations of the energy of magnetic anisotropy for diluted ferromagnetic semiconductor Ge1-xMnxTe were performed using OpenMX package with fully relativistic pseudopotentials. The influence of hole concentration and magnetic ion neighbourhood on magnetic anisotropy energy is presented. Analysis of microscopic mechanism of magnetic anisotropy is provided, in particular the role of spin-orbit coupling, spin polarization and spatial changes of electron density are discussed. The calculations are in accordance with the experimental observation of perpendicular magnetic anisotropy in rhombohedral Ge1-xMnxTe (1 1 1) thin layers.

  8. Radiofrequency Spectroscopy and Thermodynamics of Fermi Gases in the 2D to Quasi-2D Dimensional Crossover

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cheng, Chingyun; Kangara, Jayampathi; Arakelyan, Ilya; Thomas, John

    2016-05-01

    We tune the dimensionality of a strongly interacting degenerate 6 Li Fermi gas from 2D to quasi-2D, by adjusting the radial confinement of pancake-shaped clouds to control the radial chemical potential. In the 2D regime with weak radial confinement, the measured pair binding energies are in agreement with 2D-BCS mean field theory, which predicts dimer pairing energies in the many-body regime. In the qausi-2D regime obtained with increased radial confinement, the measured pairing energy deviates significantly from 2D-BCS theory. In contrast to the pairing energy, the measured radii of the cloud profiles are not fit by 2D-BCS theory in either the 2D or quasi-2D regimes, but are fit in both regimes by a beyond mean field polaron-model of the free energy. Supported by DOE, ARO, NSF, and AFOSR.

  9. Temperature dependence of the effective anisotropies in magnetic nanoparticles with Néel surface anisotropy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yanes, R.; Chubykalo-Fesenko, O.; Evans, R. F. L.; Chantrell, R. W.

    2010-12-01

    We discuss the physical concept of the effective anisotropy in magnetic nanoparticles with surface anisotropy. A recently developed constrained Monte Carlo method allows evaluation of the temperature dependence of the energy surface in the whole temperature range, from which the effective anisotropy is determined. We consider nanoparticles of different shapes with cubic or uniaxial core anisotropy and Néel surface anisotropy. We demonstrate that at low temperatures surface effects can be dominant, leading to an overall cubic effective anisotropy even in spherical nanoparticles with uniaxial core anisotropy. This cubic anisotropy contribution decreases more rapidly with increasing temperature than the uniaxial core anisotropy, leading to a temperature-induced reorientation transition. We discuss the scaling behaviour of the effective anisotropy with magnetization in nanoparticles with surface anisotropy contribution. The scaling exponent deviates from that expected from Callen-Callen theory due to increased fluctuations of the surface spins.

  10. 2D discrete Fourier transform on sliding windows.

    PubMed

    Park, Chun-Su

    2015-03-01

    Discrete Fourier transform (DFT) is the most widely used method for determining the frequency spectra of digital signals. In this paper, a 2D sliding DFT (2D SDFT) algorithm is proposed for fast implementation of the DFT on 2D sliding windows. The proposed 2D SDFT algorithm directly computes the DFT bins of the current window using the precalculated bins of the previous window. Since the proposed algorithm is designed to accelerate the sliding transform process of a 2D input signal, it can be directly applied to computer vision and image processing applications. The theoretical analysis shows that the computational requirement of the proposed 2D SDFT algorithm is the lowest among existing 2D DFT algorithms. Moreover, the output of the 2D SDFT is mathematically equivalent to that of the traditional DFT at all pixel positions.

  11. Generates 2D Input for DYNA NIKE & TOPAZ

    SciTech Connect

    Hallquist, J. O.; Sanford, Larry

    1996-07-15

    MAZE is an interactive program that serves as an input and two-dimensional mesh generator for DYNA2D, NIKE2D, TOPAZ2D, and CHEMICAL TOPAZ2D. MAZE also generates a basic template for ISLAND input. MAZE has been applied to the generation of input data to study the response of two-dimensional solids and structures undergoing finite deformations under a wide variety of large deformation transient dynamic and static problems and heat transfer analyses.

  12. MAZE96. Generates 2D Input for DYNA NIKE & TOPAZ

    SciTech Connect

    Sanford, L.; Hallquist, J.O.

    1992-02-24

    MAZE is an interactive program that serves as an input and two-dimensional mesh generator for DYNA2D, NIKE2D, TOPAZ2D, and CHEMICAL TOPAZ2D. MAZE also generates a basic template for ISLAND input. MAZE has been applied to the generation of input data to study the response of two-dimensional solids and structures undergoing finite deformations under a wide variety of large deformation transient dynamic and static problems and heat transfer analyses.

  13. CAST2D: A finite element computer code for casting process modeling

    SciTech Connect

    Shapiro, A.B.; Hallquist, J.O.

    1991-10-01

    CAST2D is a coupled thermal-stress finite element computer code for casting process modeling. This code can be used to predict the final shape and stress state of cast parts. CAST2D couples the heat transfer code TOPAZ2D and solid mechanics code NIKE2D. CAST2D has the following features in addition to all the features contained in the TOPAZ2D and NIKE2D codes: (1) a general purpose thermal-mechanical interface algorithm (i.e., slide line) that calculates the thermal contact resistance across the part-mold interface as a function of interface pressure and gap opening; (2) a new phase change algorithm, the delta function method, that is a robust method for materials undergoing isothermal phase change; (3) a constitutive model that transitions between fluid behavior and solid behavior, and accounts for material volume change on phase change; and (4) a modified plot file data base that allows plotting of thermal variables (e.g., temperature, heat flux) on the deformed geometry. Although the code is specialized for casting modeling, it can be used for other thermal stress problems (e.g., metal forming).

  14. NKG2D receptor regulates human effector T-cell cytokine production

    PubMed Central

    Barber, Amorette

    2011-01-01

    Although innate immune signals shape the activation of naive T cells, it is unclear how innate signals influence effector T-cell function. This study determined the effects of stimulating the NKG2D receptor in conjunction with the TCR on human effector CD8+ T cells. Stimulation of CD8+ T cells through CD3 and NKG2D simultaneously or through a chimeric NKG2D receptor, which consists of NKG2D fused to the intracellular region of CD3ζ, activated β-catenin and increased expression of β-catenin–induced genes, whereas T cells stimulated through the TCR or a combination of the TCR and CD28 did not. Activation by TCR and NKG2D prevented expression and production of anti-inflammatory cytokines IL-10, IL-9, IL-13, and VEGF-α in a β-catenin– and PPARγ- dependent manner. NKG2D stimulation also modulated the cytokine secretion of T cells activated simultaneously through CD3 and CD28. These data indicate that activating CD8+ T cells through the NKG2D receptor along with the TCR modulates signal transduction and the production of anti-inflammatory cytokines. Thus, human effector T cells alter their function depending on which innate receptors are engaged in conjunction with the TCR complex. PMID:21518928

  15. Multi-dimensional Magnetotelluric Modeling of General Anisotropy and Its Implication for Structural Interpretation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guo, Z.; Wei, W.; Egbert, G. D.

    2015-12-01

    Although electrical anisotropy is likely at various scales in the Earth, present 3D inversion codes only allow for isotropic models. In fact, any effects of anisotropy present in any real data can always be accommodated by (possibly fine scale) isotropic structures. This suggests that some complex structures found in 3D inverse solutions (e.g., alternating elongate conductive and resistive "streaks" of Meqbel et al. (2014)), may actually represent anisotropic layers. As a step towards better understanding how anisotropy is manifest in 3D inverse models, and to better incorporate anisotropy in 3D MT interpretations, we have implemented new 1D, 2D AND 3D forward modeling codes which allow for general anisotropy and are implemented in matlab using an object oriented (OO) approach. The 1D code is used primarily to provide boundary conditions (BCs). For the 2D case we have used the OO approach to quickly develop and compare several variants including different formulations (three coupled electric field components, one electric and one magnetic component coupled) and different discretizations (staggered and fixed grids). The 3D case is implemented in integral form on a staggered grid, using either 1D or 2D BC. Iterative solvers, including divergence correction, allow solution for large model grids. As an initial application of these codes we are conducting synthetic inversion tests. We construct test models by replacing streaky conductivity layers, as found at the top of the mantle in the EarthScope models of Meqbel et al. (2014), with simpler smoothly varying anisotropic layers. The modeling process is iterated to obtain a reasonable match to actual data. Synthetic data generated from these 3D anisotropic models can then be inverted with a 3D code (ModEM) and compared to the inversions obtained with actual data. Results will be assessed, taking into account the diffusive nature of EM imaging, to better understand how actual anisotropy is mapped to structure by 3D

  16. Anisotropy of machine building materials

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ashkenazi, Y. K.

    1981-01-01

    The results of experimental studies of the anisotropy of elastic and strength characteristics of various structural materials, including pressure worked metals and alloys, laminated fiberglass plastics, and laminated wood plastics, are correlated and classified. Strength criteria under simple and complex stresses are considered as applied to anisotropic materials. Practical application to determining the strength of machine parts and structural materials is discussed.

  17. 2D Larkin-Imry-Ma state of deformed ABM phase of superfluid 3He in ``ordered'' aerogel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dmitriev, Vladimir; Senin, Andrey; Yudin, Alexey

    2014-03-01

    We report NMR studies of high temperature superfluid phase of 3He in so called ``ordered'' aerogel1 which strands are almost parallel to each other. Previously, it was found that the NMR properties of this phase depend on whether it is obtained on cooling from the normal phase or on warming from the low temperature phase2. These two types of high temperature phase (called as ESP1 and ESP2) correspond to Anderson-Brinkman-Morel (ABM) phase with large polar distortion and with orbital vector being in 2D Larkin-Imry-Ma (LIM) state. Here we present results which show that the observed difference in NMR signatures of the ESP1 and the ESP2 states is due to that the corresponding 2D LIM states can be anisotropic. In the ESP1 phase the anisotropy is absent or small, while in the ESP2 phase the anisotropy is large. NMR data have allowed us to estimate values of these anisotropies.

  18. Meshfree natural vibration analysis of 2D structures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kosta, Tomislav; Tsukanov, Igor

    2014-02-01

    Determination of resonance frequencies and vibration modes of mechanical structures is one of the most important tasks in the product design procedure. The main goal of this paper is to describe a pioneering application of the solution structure method (SSM) to 2D structural natural vibration analysis problems and investigate the numerical properties of the method. SSM is a meshfree method which enables construction of the solutions to the engineering problems that satisfy exactly all prescribed boundary conditions. This method is capable of using spatial meshes that do not conform to the shape of a geometric model. Instead of using the grid nodes to enforce boundary conditions, it employs distance fields to the geometric boundaries and combines them with the basis functions and prescribed boundary conditions at run time. This defines unprecedented geometric flexibility of the SSM as well as the complete automation of the solution procedure. In the paper we will explain the key points of the SSM as well as investigate the accuracy and convergence of the proposed approach by comparing our results with the ones obtained using analytical methods or traditional finite element analysis. Despite in this paper we are dealing with 2D in-plane vibrations, the proposed approach has a straightforward generalization to model vibrations of 3D structures.

  19. Peak width issues with generalised 2D correlation NMR spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kirwan, Gemma M.; Adams, Michael J.

    2008-12-01

    Two-dimensional spectral correlation analysis is shown to be sensitive to fluctuations in spectral peak width as a function of perturbation variable. This is particularly significant where peak width fluctuations are of similar order of magnitude as the peak width values themselves and where changes in peak width are not random but are, for example, proportional to intensity. In such cases these trends appear in the asynchronous matrix as false peaks that serve to interfere with interpretation of the data. Complex, narrow band spectra such as provided by 1H NMR spectroscopy are demonstrated to be prone to such interference. 2D correlation analysis was applied to a series of NMR spectra corresponding to a commercial wine fermentation, in which the samples collected over a period of several days exhibit dramatic changes in concentration of minor and major components. The interference due to changing peak width effects is eliminated by synthesizing the recorded spectra using a constant peak width value prior to performing 2D correlation analysis.

  20. 2D Quantum Transport Modeling in Nanoscale MOSFETs

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Svizhenko, Alexei; Anantram, M. P.; Govindan, T. R.; Biegel, B.

    2001-01-01

    We have developed physical approximations and computer code capable of realistically simulating 2-D nanoscale transistors, using the non-equilibrium Green's function (NEGF) method. This is the most accurate full quantum model yet applied to 2-D device simulation. Open boundary conditions, oxide tunneling and phase-breaking scattering are treated on an equal footing. Electron bandstructure is treated within the anisotropic effective mass approximation. We present the results of our simulations of MIT 25 and 90 nm "well-tempered" MOSFETs and compare them to those of classical and quantum corrected models. The important feature of quantum model is smaller slope of Id-Vg curve and consequently higher threshold voltage. These results are consistent with 1D Schroedinger-Poisson calculations. The effect of gate length on gate-oxide leakage and subthreshold current has been studied. The shorter gate length device has an order of magnitude smaller leakage current than the longer gate length device without a significant trade-off in on-current.

  1. Mass loss in 2D rotating stellar models

    SciTech Connect

    Lovekin, Caterine; Deupree, Bob

    2010-10-05

    Radiatively driven mass loss is an important factor in the evolution of massive stars . The mass loss rates depend on a number of stellar parameters, including the effective temperature and luminosity. Massive stars are also often rapidly rotating, which affects their structure and evolution. In sufficiently rapidly rotating stars, both the effective temperature and radius vary significantly as a function of latitude, and hence mass loss rates can vary appreciably between the poles and the equator. In this work, we discuss the addition of mass loss to a 2D stellar evolution code (ROTORC) and compare evolution sequences with and without mass loss. Preliminary results indicate that a full 2D calculation of mass loss using the local effective temperature and luminosity can significantly affect the distribution of mass loss in rotating main sequence stars. More mass is lost from the pole than predicted by 1D models, while less mass is lost at the equator. This change in the distribution of mass loss will affect the angular momentum loss, the surface temperature and luminosity, and even the interior structure of the star. After a single mass loss event, these effects are small, but can be expected to accumulate over the course of the main sequence evolution.

  2. DNN-state identification of 2D distributed parameter systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chairez, I.; Fuentes, R.; Poznyak, A.; Poznyak, T.; Escudero, M.; Viana, L.

    2012-02-01

    There are many examples in science and engineering which are reduced to a set of partial differential equations (PDEs) through a process of mathematical modelling. Nevertheless there exist many sources of uncertainties around the aforementioned mathematical representation. Moreover, to find exact solutions of those PDEs is not a trivial task especially if the PDE is described in two or more dimensions. It is well known that neural networks can approximate a large set of continuous functions defined on a compact set to an arbitrary accuracy. In this article, a strategy based on the differential neural network (DNN) for the non-parametric identification of a mathematical model described by a class of two-dimensional (2D) PDEs is proposed. The adaptive laws for weights ensure the 'practical stability' of the DNN-trajectories to the parabolic 2D-PDE states. To verify the qualitative behaviour of the suggested methodology, here a non-parametric modelling problem for a distributed parameter plant is analysed.

  3. Asymmetric 2D spatial beam filtering by photonic crystals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gailevicius, D.; Purlys, V.; Maigyte, L.; Gaizauskas, E.; Peckus, M.; Gadonas, R.; Staliunas, K.

    2016-04-01

    Spatial filtering techniques are important for improving the spatial quality of light beams. Photonic crystals (PhCs) with a selective spatial (angular) transmittance can also provide spatial filtering with the added benefit transversal symmetries, submillimeter dimensions and monolithic integration in other devices, such as micro-lasers or semiconductor lasers. Workable bandgap PhC configurations require a modulated refractive index with period lengths that are approximately less than the wavelength of radiation. This imposes technical limitations, whereby the available direct laser write (DLW) fabrication techniques are limited in resolution and refractive index depth. If, however, a deflection mechanism is chosen instead, a functional filter PhC can be produced that is operational in the visible wavelength regime. For deflection based PhCs glass is an attractive choice as it is highly stable medium. 2D and 3D PhC filter variations have already been produced on soda-lime glass. However, little is known about how to control the scattering of PhCs when approaching the smallest period values. Here we look into the internal structure of the initially symmetric geometry 2D PhCs and associating it with the resulting transmittance spectra. By varying the DLW fabrication beam parameters and scanning algorithms, we show that such PhCs contain layers that are comprised of semi-tilted structure voxels. We show the appearance of asymmetry can be compensated in order to circumvent some negative effects at the cost of potentially maximum scattering efficiency.

  4. Application Perspective of 2D+SCALE Dimension

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Karim, H.; Rahman, A. Abdul

    2016-09-01

    Different applications or users need different abstraction of spatial models, dimensionalities and specification of their datasets due to variations of required analysis and output. Various approaches, data models and data structures are now available to support most current application models in Geographic Information System (GIS). One of the focuses trend in GIS multi-dimensional research community is the implementation of scale dimension with spatial datasets to suit various scale application needs. In this paper, 2D spatial datasets that been scaled up as the third dimension are addressed as 2D+scale (or 3D-scale) dimension. Nowadays, various data structures, data models, approaches, schemas, and formats have been proposed as the best approaches to support variety of applications and dimensionality in 3D topology. However, only a few of them considers the element of scale as their targeted dimension. As the scale dimension is concerned, the implementation approach can be either multi-scale or vario-scale (with any available data structures and formats) depending on application requirements (topology, semantic and function). This paper attempts to discuss on the current and new potential applications which positively could be integrated upon 3D-scale dimension approach. The previous and current works on scale dimension as well as the requirements to be preserved for any given applications, implementation issues and future potential applications forms the major discussion of this paper.

  5. GEO2D - Two-Dimensional Computer Model of a Ground Source Heat Pump System

    SciTech Connect

    James Menart

    2013-06-07

    This file contains a zipped file that contains many files required to run GEO2D. GEO2D is a computer code for simulating ground source heat pump (GSHP) systems in two-dimensions. GEO2D performs a detailed finite difference simulation of the heat transfer occurring within the working fluid, the tube wall, the grout, and the ground. Both horizontal and vertical wells can be simulated with this program, but it should be noted that the vertical wall is modeled as a single tube. This program also models the heat pump in conjunction with the heat transfer occurring. GEO2D simulates the heat pump and ground loop as a system. Many results are produced by GEO2D as a function of time and position, such as heat transfer rates, temperatures and heat pump performance. On top of this information from an economic comparison between the geothermal system simulated and a comparable air heat pump systems or a comparable gas, oil or propane heating systems with a vapor compression air conditioner. The version of GEO2D in the attached file has been coupled to the DOE heating and cooling load software called ENERGYPLUS. This is a great convenience for the user because heating and cooling loads are an input to GEO2D. GEO2D is a user friendly program that uses a graphical user interface for inputs and outputs. These make entering data simple and they produce many plotted results that are easy to understand. In order to run GEO2D access to MATLAB is required. If this program is not available on your computer you can download the program MCRInstaller.exe, the 64 bit version, from the MATLAB website or from this geothermal depository. This is a free download which will enable you to run GEO2D..

  6. Results from the Wilkinson Microwave Anisotropy Probe

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Komatsu, E.; Bennett, Charles L.; Komatsu, Eiichiro

    2015-01-01

    The Wilkinson Microwave Anisotropy Probe (WMAP) mapped the distribution of temperature and polarization over the entire sky in five microwave frequency bands. These full-sky maps were used to obtain measurements of temperature and polarization anisotropy of the cosmic microwave background with the unprecedented accuracy and precision. The analysis of two-point correlation functions of temperature and polarization data gives determinations of the fundamental cosmological parameters such as the age and composition of the universe, as well as the key parameters describing the physics of inflation, which is further constrained by three-point correlation functions. WMAP observations alone reduced the flat ? cold dark matter (Lambda Cold Dark Matter) cosmological model (six) parameter volume by a factor of > 68, 000 compared with pre-WMAP measurements. The WMAP observations (sometimes in combination with other astrophysical probes) convincingly show the existence of non-baryonic dark matter, the cosmic neutrino background, flatness of spatial geometry of the universe, a deviation from a scale-invariant spectrum of initial scalar fluctuations, and that the current universe is undergoing an accelerated expansion. The WMAP observations provide the strongest ever support for inflation; namely, the structures we see in the universe originate from quantum fluctuations generated during inflation.

  7. Constraining crustal anisotropy: The anisotropic H-κ stacking technique

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hammond, James

    2014-05-01

    Measuring anisotropy in the crust and mantle is commonly performed to make inferences on crust/upper mantle deformation, tectonic history or the presence of fluids. However, separating the contribution of the crust and mantle to the anisotropic signature remains a challenge. This is because common seismic techniques to determine anisotropy (e.g., SKS splitting, surface waves) lack the resolution to distinguish between the two, particular in regions where deep crustal earthquakes are lacking. Receiver functions offer the chance to determine anisotropy in the crust alone, offering both the depth resolution that shear-wave splitting lacks and the lateral resolution that surface waves are unable to provide. Here I present a new anisotropic H-κ stacking technique which constrains anisotropy in the crust. I show that in a medium with horizontally transverse isotropy a strong variation in κ (VP-to-VS ratio) with back azimuth is present which characterises the anisotropic medium. In a vertically transverse isotropic medium no variation in κ with back azimuth is observed, but κ is increased across all back azimuths. While, these results show that estimates of κ are more difficult to relate to composition than previously thought, they offer the opportunity to constrain anisotropy in the crust. Based on these observations I develop a new anisotropic H-κ stacking technique which inverts H-κ data for anisotropy. I apply these new techniques to data from the Afar Depression, Ethiopia and extend the technique to invert for melt induced anisotropy solving for melt fraction, aspect ratio and orientation of melt inclusions. I show that melt is stored in interconnected stacked sills in the lower crust, which likely supply the recent volcanic eruptions and dike intrusions. The crustal anisotropic signal can explain much of the SKS-splitting results, suggesting minimal influence from the mantle. This results show that it is essential to consider anisotropy when performing H

  8. Condensate fraction in a 2D Bose gas measured across the Mott-insulator transition.

    PubMed

    Spielman, I B; Phillips, W D; Porto, J V

    2008-03-28

    We realize a single-band 2D Bose-Hubbard system with Rb atoms in an optical lattice and measure the condensate fraction as a function of lattice depth, crossing from the superfluid to the Mott-insulating phase. We quantitatively identify the location of the superfluid to normal transition by observing when the condensed fraction vanishes. Our measurement agrees with recent quantum Monte Carlo calculations for a finite-sized 2D system to within experimental uncertainty.

  9. On the origin of perpendicular magnetic anisotropy in strained Fe-Co(-X) films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reichel, L.; Edström, A.; Pohl, D.; Rusz, J.; Eriksson, O.; Schultz, L.; Fähler, S.

    2017-02-01

    Very high magnetic anisotropies have been theoretically predicted for strained Fe-Co(-X) and indeed several experiments on epitaxial thin films seemed to confirm strain induced anisotropy enhancement. This study presents a critical analysis of the different contributions to perpendicular anisotropy: volume, interface and surface anisotropies. Tracing these contributions, thickness series of single layer films as well as multilayers with Au-Cu buffers/interlayers of different lattice parameters have been prepared. The analysis of their magnetic anisotropy reveals a negligible influence of the lattice parameter of the buffer. Electronic effects, originating from both, the Au-Cu interface and the film surface, outrange the elastic effects. Surface anisotropy, however, exceeds the interface anisotropy by more than a factor of three. A comparison with results from density functional theory suggests, that the experimentally observed strong perpendicular surface anisotropy originates from a deviation from an ideal oxide-free surface. Accordingly, tailored Fe-Co-X/oxide interfaces may open a route towards high anisotropy in rare-earth free materials.

  10. FIELD EVALUATION OF DIPOLE METHOD TO MEASURE AQUIFER ANISOTROPY

    EPA Science Inventory

    The ultimate size of a three-dimensional groundwater circulation cell surrounding a vertical circulation well (VCW) is a strong function of the aquifer hydraulic anisotropy, the ratio of the hydraulic conductivity in the horizontal direction to that in the vertical direction. In ...

  11. Effects of magnetic anisotropy and exchange in Tm{sub 2}Fe{sub 17}

    SciTech Connect

    Pirogov, A. N. Bogdanov, S. G.; Rosenfeld, E. V.; Park, J.-G.; Choi, Y. N.; Lee, Seongsu; Prokes, K.; Golosova, N. O.; Sashin, I. L.; Kudrevatykh, N. V.; Skryabin, Yu. N.; Vokhmyanin, A. P.

    2012-11-15

    Neutron diffraction experiments have been carried out to study the magnetocrystalline anisotropy of two (2b and 2d) Tm sublattices and four (4f, 6g, 12j, and 12k) Fe sublattices in ferrimagnetic compound Tm{sub 2}Fe{sub 17} (space group P6{sub 3}/mmc). We have determined the temperature dependence of the magnitude and orientation of magnetization for each of the thulium and iron sublattices in the range (10-300) K. A spontaneous rotation (at about 90 K) of the Tm and Fe sublattice magnetizations from the c-axis to the basal plane is accompanied by a drastic change in the magnetization magnitude, signifying a large magnetization anisotropy. Both Tm sublattices exhibit an easy-axis type of the magnetocrystalline anisotropy. The Fe sublattices manifest both the uniaxial and planar anisotropy types. The sublattice formed by Fe atoms at the 4f position reveals the largest planar anisotropy constant. The Fe atoms at the 12j position show a uniaxial anisotropy. We find that the inelastic neutron scattering spectra measured below and above the spin-reorientation transition are remarkably different.

  12. Deep Crustal Anisotropy and its Distortion Through the Seismological Lens

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schulte-Pelkum, V.; Mahan, K. H.

    2011-12-01

    Seismic interpretations of crustal anisotropy often appear to be at odds with expectations based on structural geology. We provide a solution to the apparent discrepancy based on petrological data and synthetic seismograms and present results across the continental US. Seismic investigations of crustal anisotropy offer one of the best chances to observe lower crustal flow in situ, and receiver function (converted wave) studies have good horizontal and depth resolution and are less expensive than active source studies, and suffer from less tradeoff than tomographic studies. A puzzling observation in receiver function studies of the continental crust has been a prevalence of observed plunging axis anisotropy in subhorizontal layers interpreted to have accommodated a significant component of simple shear. In contrast, geological field observations and deformation experiments suggest that shear zones develop a significant boundary-parallel foliation (C-planes in S-C mylonite) after only modest amounts of strain accumulation (~gamma <3). The solution may lie in a preferential sensitivity of seismic waves. Receiver functions have ~5 times higher signal amplitudes for plunging compared to horizontal symmetry axis anisotropy. Even a small plunge (10-20 deg off horizontal) leads to a roughly twofold increase of signal amplitude compared to the horizontal symmetry axis case. For an S-C fabric with horizontal C and dipping S planes, the S fabric is well detected even for relatively small and realistic (3% - 6%) amounts of anisotropy. Horizontally aligned mica does not appear anisotropic to body waves, although it can be detected via radial anisotropy with surface waves. Amphibole alignment with a fast symmetry axis parallel to horizontal shear also produces a much weaker signal than in the plunging case. The behavior with backazimuth is also distinct. General S anisotropy and horizontal axis P anisotropy generate two pairs of relatively small amplitude peaks and troughs over

  13. A Study of the Link Between Seismic Anisotropy and the G Discontinuity Based on LPO Modeling in Oceanic Basins

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hedjazian, N.; Garel, F.; Davies, R.; Kaminski, E. C.

    2015-12-01

    Seismic anisotropy in oceanic basin inferred from surface waves shows a controversial discontinuity near the lithosphere-asthenosphere boundary (LAB). Radial anisotropy displays an age independent positive gradient, that may correspond to a shallow discontinuity at ~70km depth. This is at odds with the view of a mechanical and age dependent LAB, expected to roughly follow the isotherms. To model the development of seismic anisotropy in oceanic basins, and its potential implications for the interpretation of the G discontinuity, we use the model of lattice preferred orientation (LPO) evolution D-Rex, coupled with a two dimensional model of a plate-driven flow in a fluid with a viscosity depending mainly on stress and temperature. We perform a systematic investigation of the influence on seismic anisotropy of the parameters controlling olivine LPO development. We find that the fraction of deformation accommodated by dislocation creep relative to diffusion creep, the strength of the slip systems involved in plastic deformation, and the efficiency of dynamic recrystallization are key parameters for the production of seismic anisotropy. For a wide range of parameters, the predicted radial anisotropy displays an age independent positive gradient near the depth of the G discontinuity. We thus conclude that this is an ubiquitus characteristic of the seismic anisotropy produced by the 2-D plate driven flow in oceanic basins. If not excluded, no additional ingredients such as partial melting, or change in water content are thus required to explain the radial anisotropy pattern near the LAB.

  14. Immune Activation Resulting from NKG2D/Ligand Interaction Promotes Atherosclerosis

    PubMed Central

    Xia, Mingcan; Guerra, Nadia; Sukhova, Galina K.; Yang, Kangkang; Miller, Carla K.; Shi, Guo-Ping; Raulet, David H.; Xiong, Na

    2012-01-01

    Background The interplay between the immune system and abnormal metabolic conditions sustains and propagates a vicious feedback cycle of chronic inflammation and metabolic dysfunction that is critical for atherosclerotic progression. It is well established that abnormal metabolic conditions, such as dyslipidemia and hyperglycemia, cause various cellular stress responses that induce tissue inflammation and immune cell activation, which in turn exacerbate the metabolic dysfunction. However, molecular events linking these processes are not well understood. Methods and Results Tissues and organs of humans and mice with hyperglycemia and hyperlipidemia were examined for expression of ligands for NKG2D, a potent immune activating receptor expressed by several types of immune cells, and the role of NKG2D in atherosclerosis and metabolic diseases was probed using mice lacking NKG2D or by blocking NKG2D with monoclonal antibodies. NKG2D ligands were upregulated in multiple organs, particularly atherosclerotic aortae and inflamed livers. Ligand upregulation was induced in vitro by abnormal metabolites associated with metabolic dysfunctions. Using ApoE-/- mouse models we demonstrated that preventing NKG2D functions resulted in a dramatic reduction in plaque formation, suppressed systemic and organ inflammation mediated by multiple immune cell types, and alleviated abnormal metabolic conditions. Conclusions The NKG2D/ligand interaction is a critical molecular link in the vicious cycle of chronic inflammation and metabolic dysfunction that promotes atherosclerosis and might be a useful target for therapeutic intervention in the disease. PMID:22104546

  15. The seismic analyzer: interpreting and illustrating 2D seismic data.

    PubMed

    Patel, Daniel; Giertsen, Christopher; Thurmond, John; Gjelberg, John; Gröller, M Eduard

    2008-01-01

    We present a toolbox for quickly interpreting and illustrating 2D slices of seismic volumetric reflection data. Searching for oil and gas involves creating a structural overview of seismic reflection data to identify hydrocarbon reservoirs. We improve the search of seismic structures by precalculating the horizon structures of the seismic data prior to interpretation. We improve the annotation of seismic structures by applying novel illustrative rendering algorithms tailored to seismic data, such as deformed texturing and line and texture transfer functions. The illustrative rendering results in multi-attribute and scale invariant visualizations where features are represented clearly in both highly zoomed in and zoomed out views. Thumbnail views in combination with interactive appearance control allows for a quick overview of the data before detailed interpretation takes place. These techniques help reduce the work of seismic illustrators and interpreters.

  16. Effective Hamiltonians of 2D Spin Glass Clusters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Clement, Colin; Liarte, Danilo; Middleton, Alan; Sethna, James

    2015-03-01

    We have a method for directly identifying the clusters which are thought to dominate the dynamics of spin glasses. We also have a method for generating an effective Hamiltonian treating each cluster as an individual spin. We used these methods on a 2D Ising spin glass with Gaussian bonds. We study these systems by generating samples and correlation functions using a combination of Monte Carlo and high-performance numerically exact Pfaffian methods. With effective cluster Hamiltonians we can calculate the free energy asymmetry of the original clusters and perform a scaling analysis. The scaling exponents found are consistent with Domain-Wall Renormalization Group methods, and probe all length scales. We can also study the flow of these effective Hamiltonians by clustering the clustered spins, and we find that our hard spin Hamiltonians at high temperature retain accurate low-temperature fluctuations when compared to their parent models.

  17. Bayesian 2D Current Reconstruction from Magnetic Images

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Clement, Colin B.; Bierbaum, Matthew K.; Nowack, Katja; Sethna, James P.

    We employ a Bayesian image reconstruction scheme to recover 2D currents from magnetic flux imaged with scanning SQUIDs (Superconducting Quantum Interferometric Devices). Magnetic flux imaging is a versatile tool to locally probe currents and magnetic moments, however present reconstruction methods sacrifice resolution due to numerical instability. Using state-of-the-art blind deconvolution techniques we recover the currents, point-spread function and height of the SQUID loop by optimizing the probability of measuring an image. We obtain uncertainties on these quantities by sampling reconstructions. This generative modeling technique could be used to develop calibration protocols for scanning SQUIDs, to diagnose systematic noise in the imaging process, and can be applied to many tools beyond scanning SQUIDs.

  18. TOPAZ2D validation status report, August 1990

    SciTech Connect

    Davis, B.

    1990-08-01

    Analytic solutions to two heat transfer problems were used to partially evaluate the performance TOPAZ, and LLNL finite element heat transfer code. The two benchmark analytic solutions were for: 2D steady state slab, with constant properties, constant uniform temperature boundary conditions on three sides, and constant temperature distribution according to a sine function on the fourth side; 1D transient non-linear, with temperature dependent conductivity and specific heat (varying such that the thermal diffusivity remained constant), constant heat flux on the front face and adiabatic conditions on the other face. The TOPAZ solution converged to the analytic solution in both the transient and the steady state problem. Consistent mass matrix type of analysis yielded best performance for the transient problem, in the late-time response; but notable unnatural anomalies were observed in the early-time temperature response at nodal locations near the front face. 5 refs., 22 figs.

  19. Silicene: silicon conquers the 2D world

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Le Lay, Guy; Salomon, Eric; Angot, Thierry

    2016-01-01

    We live in the digital age based on the silicon chip and driven by Moore's law. Last July, IBM created a surprise by announcing the fabrication of a 7 nm test chip with functional transistors using, instead of just silicon, a silicon-germanium alloy. Will silicon be dethroned?

  20. Rhenium-phthalocyanine molecular nanojunction with high magnetic anisotropy and high spin filtering efficiency

    SciTech Connect

    Li, J.; Hu, J.; Wang, H.; Wu, R. Q.

    2015-07-20

    Using the density functional and non-equilibrium Green's function approaches, we studied the magnetic anisotropy and spin-filtering properties of various transition metal-Phthalocyanine molecular junctions across two Au electrodes. Our important finding is that the Au-RePc-Au junction has both large spin filtering efficiency (>80%) and large magnetic anisotropy energy, which makes it suitable for device applications. To provide insights for the further experimental work, we discussed the correlation between the transport property, magnetic anisotropy, and wave function features of the RePc molecule, and we also illustrated the possibility of controlling its magnetic state.

  1. Radial Evolution of the Wavevector Anisotropy of Solar Wind Turbulence between 0.3 and 1 AU

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    He, Jiansen; Tu, Chuanyi; Marsch, Eckart; Bourouaine, Sofiane; Pei, Zhongtian

    2013-08-01

    We present observations of the power spectral anisotropy in the wavevector space of solar wind turbulence and study how it evolves in interplanetary space with increasing heliocentric distance. We use magnetic field measurements from the Helios 2 spacecraft within 1 AU. To derive the power spectral density (PSD) in the (k ∥, k ) space based on single-satellite measurements is a challenging task that had not been accomplished previously. Here, we derive the spectrum PSD2D(k ∥, k_\\bot) from the spatial correlation function CF2D(r ∥, r ) by a transformation according to the projection-slice theorem. We find the so-constructed PSDs to be distributed in k space mainly along a ridge that is more inclined toward the k_\\bot axis than the k_\\parallel axis. Furthermore, this ridge of the distribution is found to gradually get closer to the k_\\bot axis as the outer scale length of the turbulence becomes larger with increasing radial distance. In the vicinity of the k_\\parallel axis, a minor spectral component appears that probably corresponds to quasi-parallel Alfvénic fluctuations. Their relative contribution to the total spectral density tends to decrease with radial distance. These findings suggest that solar wind turbulence undergoes an anisotropic cascade transporting most of its magnetic energy toward larger k_\\bot and that the anisotropy in the inertial range is radially developing further at scales that are relatively far from the ever increasing outer scale. For the ion-scale fluctuations, we speculate, from the radial evolution of the extended oblique major component, a transition tendency from dominance by oblique Alfvén/ion-cyclotron waves (<1 AU) to dominance by kinetic Alfvén waves (>1 AU).

  2. Heliospheric influence on the anisotropy of TeV cosmic rays

    DOE PAGES

    Zhang, Ming; Zuo, Pingbing; Pogorelov, Nikolai

    2014-06-26

    This article provides a theory of using Liouville's theorem to map the anisotropy of TeV cosmic rays seen at Earth using the particle distribution function in the local interstellar medium (LISM). The ultimate source of cosmic ray anisotropy is the energy, pitch angle, and spatial dependence of the cosmic ray distribution function in the LISM. Because young nearby cosmic ray sources can make a special contribution to the cosmic ray anisotropy, the anisotropy depends on the source age, distance and magnetic connection, and particle diffusion of these cosmic rays, all of which make the anisotropy sensitive to the particle energy.more » When mapped through the magnetic and electric field of a magnetohydrodynamic model heliosphere, the large-scale dipolar and bidirectional interstellar anisotropy patterns become distorted if they are seen from Earth, resulting in many small structures in the observations. Best fits to cosmic ray anisotropy measurements have allowed us to estimate the particle density gradient and pitch angle anisotropies in the LISM. It is found that the heliotail, hydrogen deflection plane, and the plane perpendicular to the LISM magnetic field play a special role in distorting cosmic ray anisotropy. These features can lead to an accurate determination of the LISM magnetic field direction and polarity. The effects of solar cycle variation, the Sun's coronal magnetic field, and turbulence in the LISM and heliospheric magnetic fields are minor but clearly visible at a level roughly equal to a fraction of the overall anisotropy amplitude. Lastly, the heliospheric influence becomes stronger at lower energies. Below 1 TeV, the anisotropy is dominated by small-scale patterns produced by disturbances in the heliosphere.« less

  3. Heliospheric influence on the anisotropy of TeV cosmic rays

    SciTech Connect

    Zhang, Ming; Zuo, Pingbing; Pogorelov, Nikolai

    2014-06-26

    This article provides a theory of using Liouville's theorem to map the anisotropy of TeV cosmic rays seen at Earth using the particle distribution function in the local interstellar medium (LISM). The ultimate source of cosmic ray anisotropy is the energy, pitch angle, and spatial dependence of the cosmic ray distribution function in the LISM. Because young nearby cosmic ray sources can make a special contribution to the cosmic ray anisotropy, the anisotropy depends on the source age, distance and magnetic connection, and particle diffusion of these cosmic rays, all of which make the anisotropy sensitive to the particle energy. When mapped through the magnetic and electric field of a magnetohydrodynamic model heliosphere, the large-scale dipolar and bidirectional interstellar anisotropy patterns become distorted if they are seen from Earth, resulting in many small structures in the observations. Best fits to cosmic ray anisotropy measurements have allowed us to estimate the particle density gradient and pitch angle anisotropies in the LISM. It is found that the heliotail, hydrogen deflection plane, and the plane perpendicular to the LISM magnetic field play a special role in distorting cosmic ray anisotropy. These features can lead to an accurate determination of the LISM magnetic field direction and polarity. The effects of solar cycle variation, the Sun's coronal magnetic field, and turbulence in the LISM and heliospheric magnetic fields are minor but clearly visible at a level roughly equal to a fraction of the overall anisotropy amplitude. Lastly, the heliospheric influence becomes stronger at lower energies. Below 1 TeV, the anisotropy is dominated by small-scale patterns produced by disturbances in the heliosphere.

  4. Heliospheric influence on the anisotropy of TeV cosmic rays

    SciTech Connect

    Zhang, Ming; Zuo, Pingbing; Pogorelov, Nikolai

    2014-07-20

    This paper provides a theory of using Liouville's theorem to map the anisotropy of TeV cosmic rays seen at Earth using the particle distribution function in the local interstellar medium (LISM). The ultimate source of cosmic ray anisotropy is the energy, pitch angle, and spatial dependence of the cosmic ray distribution function in the LISM. Because young nearby cosmic ray sources can make a special contribution to the cosmic ray anisotropy, the anisotropy depends on the source age, distance and magnetic connection, and particle diffusion of these cosmic rays, all of which make the anisotropy sensitive to the particle energy. When mapped through the magnetic and electric field of a magnetohydrodynamic model heliosphere, the large-scale dipolar and bidirectional interstellar anisotropy patterns become distorted if they are seen from Earth, resulting in many small structures in the observations. Best fits to cosmic ray anisotropy measurements have allowed us to estimate the particle density gradient and pitch angle anisotropies in the LISM. It is found that the heliotail, hydrogen deflection plane, and the plane perpendicular to the LISM magnetic field play a special role in distorting cosmic ray anisotropy. These features can lead to an accurate determination of the LISM magnetic field direction and polarity. The effects of solar cycle variation, the Sun's coronal magnetic field, and turbulence in the LISM and heliospheric magnetic fields are minor but clearly visible at a level roughly equal to a fraction of the overall anisotropy amplitude. The heliospheric influence becomes stronger at lower energies. Below 1 TeV, the anisotropy is dominated by small-scale patterns produced by disturbances in the heliosphere.

  5. Residual lens effects in 2D mode of auto-stereoscopic lenticular-based switchable 2D/3D displays

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sluijter, M.; IJzerman, W. L.; de Boer, D. K. G.; de Zwart, S. T.

    2006-04-01

    We discuss residual lens effects in multi-view switchable auto-stereoscopic lenticular-based 2D/3D displays. With the introduction of a switchable lenticular, it is possible to switch between a 2D mode and a 3D mode. The 2D mode displays conventional content, whereas the 3D mode provides the sensation of depth to the viewer. The uniformity of a display in the 2D mode is quantified by the quality parameter modulation depth. In order to reduce the modulation depth in the 2D mode, birefringent lens plates are investigated analytically and numerically, by ray tracing. We can conclude that the modulation depth in the 2D mode can be substantially decreased by using birefringent lens plates with a perfect index match between lens material and lens plate. Birefringent lens plates do not disturb the 3D performance of a switchable 2D/3D display.

  6. Stress, strain rate and anisotropy in Kyushu, Japan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Savage, M. K.; Aoki, Y.; Unglert, K.; Ohkura, T.; Umakoshi, K.; Shimizu, H.; Iguchi, M.; Tameguri, T.; Ohminato, T.; Mori, J.

    2016-04-01

    Seismic anisotropy, the directional dependence of wave speeds, may be caused by stress-oriented cracks or by strain-oriented minerals, yet few studies have quantitatively compared anisotropy to stress and strain over large regions. Here we compare crustal stress and strain rates on the Island of Kyushu, Japan, as measured from inversions of focal mechanisms, GPS and shear wave splitting. Over 85,000 shear wave splitting measurements from local and regional earthquakes are obtained from the NIED network between 2004 and 2012, and on Aso, Sakurajima, Kirishima and Unzen volcano networks. Strain rate measurements are made from the Japanese Geonet stations. JMA-determined S arrival times processed with the MFAST shear wave splitting code measure fast polarisations (Φ), related to the orientation of the anisotropic medium and time delays (dt), related to the path length and the percent anisotropy. We apply the TESSA 2-D delay time tomography and spatial averaging code to the highest quality events, which have nearly vertical incidence angles, separating the 3455 shallow (depth < 40 km) from the 4957 deep (> = 40 km) earthquakes. Using square grids with 30 km sides for all the inversions, the best correlations are observed between splitting from shallow earthquakes and stress. Axes of maximum horizontal stress (SHmax) and Φ correlate with a coefficient c of 0.56, significant at the 99% confidence level. Their mean difference is 31.9°. Axes of maximum compressional strain rate and SHmax are also well aligned, with an average difference of 28°, but they do not correlate with each other, meaning that where they differ, the difference is not systematic. Anisotropy strength is negatively correlated with the stress ratio parameter determined from focal mechanism inversion (c = - 0.64; significant at the 99% confidence level). The anisotropy and stress results are consistent with stress-aligned microcracks in the crust in a dominantly strike-slip regime. Eigenvalues of

  7. Effects of repeated treatment with the dopamine D2/D3 receptor partial agonist aripiprazole on striatal D2/D3 receptor availability in monkeys

    PubMed Central

    Czoty, Paul W.; Gage, H. Donald; Garg, Pradeep K.; Garg, Sudha; Nader, Michael A.

    2013-01-01

    Rationale Chronic treatment with dopamine (DA) receptor agonists and antagonists can differentially affect measures of DA D2/D3 receptor number and function, but the effects of chronic treatment with a partial D2/D3 receptor agonist are not clear. Objective We used a within-subjects design in male cynomolgus monkeys to determine the effects of repeated (17-day) treatment with the D2/D3 receptor partial agonist aripiprazole (ARI; 0.03 mg/kg and 0.1 mg/kg i.m.) on food-reinforced behavior (n=5) and on D2/D3 receptor availability as measured with positron emission tomography (PET; n=9). Methods Five monkeys responded under a fixed-ratio 50 schedule of food reinforcement and D2/D3 receptor availability was measured before and four days after ARI treatment using PET and the D2/D3 receptor-selective radioligand [18F]fluoroclebopride (FCP). Four additional monkeys were studied using [11C]raclopride and treated sequentially with each dose of ARI for 17 days. Results ARI decreased food-maintained responding with minimal evidence of tolerance. Repeated ARI administration increased FCP and raclopride distribution volume ratios (DVRs) in the caudate nucleus and putamen in most monkeys, but decreases were observed in monkeys with the highest baseline DVRs. Conclusions The results indicate that repeated treatment with a low efficacy DA receptor partial agonist produces effects on brain D2/D3 receptor availability that are qualitatively different from those of both high-efficacy receptor agonists and antagonists, and suggest that the observed individual differences in response to ARI treatment may reflect its partial agonist activity. PMID:24077804

  8. Differential CYP 2D6 metabolism alters primaquine pharmacokinetics.

    PubMed

    Potter, Brittney M J; Xie, Lisa H; Vuong, Chau; Zhang, Jing; Zhang, Ping; Duan, Dehui; Luong, Thu-Lan T; Bandara Herath, H M T; Dhammika Nanayakkara, N P; Tekwani, Babu L; Walker, Larry A; Nolan, Christina K; Sciotti, Richard J; Zottig, Victor E; Smith, Philip L; Paris, Robert M; Read, Lisa T; Li, Qigui; Pybus, Brandon S; Sousa, Jason C; Reichard, Gregory A; Marcsisin, Sean R

    2015-04-01

    Primaquine (PQ) metabolism by the cytochrome P450 (CYP) 2D family of enzymes is required for antimalarial activity in both humans (2D6) and mice (2D). Human CYP 2D6 is highly polymorphic, and decreased CYP 2D6 enzyme activity has been linked to decreased PQ antimalarial activity. Despite the importance of CYP 2D metabolism in PQ efficacy, the exact role that these enzymes play in PQ metabolism and pharmacokinetics has not been extensively studied in vivo. In this study, a series of PQ pharmacokinetic experiments were conducted in mice with differential CYP 2D metabolism characteristics, including wild-type (WT), CYP 2D knockout (KO), and humanized CYP 2D6 (KO/knock-in [KO/KI]) mice. Plasma and liver pharmacokinetic profiles from a single PQ dose (20 mg/kg of body weight) differed significantly among the strains for PQ and carboxy-PQ. Additionally, due to the suspected role of phenolic metabolites in PQ efficacy, these were probed using reference standards. Levels of phenolic metabolites were highest in mice capable of metabolizing CYP 2D6 substrates (WT and KO/KI 2D6 mice). PQ phenolic metabolites were present in different quantities in the two strains, illustrating species-specific differences in PQ metabolism between the human and mouse enzymes. Taking the data together, this report furthers understanding of PQ pharmacokinetics in the context of differential CYP 2D metabolism and has important implications for PQ administration in humans with different levels of CYP 2D6 enzyme activity.

  9. Magnetic anisotropy in single clusters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jamet, Matthieu; Wernsdorfer, Wolfgang; Thirion, Christophe; Dupuis, Véronique; Mélinon, Patrice; Pérez, Alain; Mailly, Dominique

    2004-01-01

    The magnetic measurements on single cobalt and iron nanoclusters containing almost 1000 atoms are presented. Particles are directly buried within the superconducting film of a micro-SQUID (superconducting quantum interference device) which leads to the required sensitivity. The angular dependence of the switching field in three dimensions turns out to be in good agreement with a uniform rotation of cluster magnetization. The Stoner and Wohlfarth model yields therefore an estimation of magnetic anisotropy in a single cluster. In particular, uniaxial, biaxial, and cubic contributions can be separated. Results are interpreted on the basis of a simple atomic model in which clusters are assimilated to “giant spins.” We present an extension of the Néel model to clusters in order to estimate surface anisotropy. In the case of cobalt, this last contribution dominates and numerical simulations allow us to get the morphology of the investigated clusters.

  10. Mechanical characterization of 2D, 2D stitched, and 3D braided/RTM materials

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Deaton, Jerry W.; Kullerd, Susan M.; Portanova, Marc A.

    1993-01-01

    Braided composite materials have potential for application in aircraft structures. Fuselage frames, floor beams, wing spars, and stiffeners are examples where braided composites could find application if cost effective processing and damage tolerance requirements are met. Another important consideration for braided composites relates to their mechanical properties and how they compare to the properties of composites produced by other textile composite processes being proposed for these applications. Unfortunately, mechanical property data for braided composites do not appear extensively in the literature. Data are presented in this paper on the mechanical characterization of 2D triaxial braid, 2D triaxial braid plus stitching, and 3D (through-the-thickness) braid composite materials. The braided preforms all had the same graphite tow size and the same nominal braid architectures, (+/- 30 deg/0 deg), and were resin transfer molded (RTM) using the same mold for each of two different resin systems. Static data are presented for notched and unnotched tension, notched and unnotched compression, and compression after impact strengths at room temperature. In addition, some static results, after environmental conditioning, are included. Baseline tension and compression fatigue results are also presented, but only for the 3D braided composite material with one of the resin systems.

  11. MSAT: a New Matlab Toolbox for the Analysis and Modelling of Seismic Anisotropy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Walker, A. M.; Wookey, J.

    2011-12-01

    Studies of seismic anisotropy rarely end with measurements of shear-wave splitting - instead an explanation of the physical origin of the anisotropy is sought in order to yield useful geological or geophysical information. We describe a new Matlab toolbox designed to aid the modelling needed for this interpretative step of the analysis of seismic anisotropy. Provision of key building blocks for modelling in this modern integrated development environment allows the rapid development and prototyping of explanations for measured anisotropy. The Matlab graphical environment also permits plotting of key anisotropic parameters. Furthermore, this work complements the SplitLab toolbox used for measuring shear wave splitting and the MTEX toolbox used for the analysis of textures in rocks. MSAT (the Matlab Seismic Anisotropy Toolbox) includes a wide range of functions which can be used to rapidly build models of seismic anisotropy. Available functions include: the determination of phase velocities as a function of wave propagation direction, the analysis of multi-layer splitting, a novel interpolation scheme for elastic constants tensors, the estimation of the anisotropy caused by the presence of aligned inclusions and the measurement of the degree of anisotropy exhibited by an elastic material. We include a database of elastic properties of rocks and minerals and functions to plot seismic anisotropy as a function of wave propagation direction in the form of pole figures or as three-dimensional plots. The toolbox includes extensive documentation and example applications which integrate with the Matlab documentation system alongside automated test cases for all functions. All code is open source and available freely to all. We encourage users to feed back any changes they may need to make. Key examples of the use of this software include: (1) Calculation of the pattern of backazimuthal variation of shear wave splitting caused by the interaction of two dipping layers of

  12. Magnetic anisotropy of some phyllosilicates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Borradaile, Graham J.; Werner, Tomasz

    1994-08-01

    Magnetic susceptibility, anisotropy of susceptibility and hysteresis of single microcrystals of chlorite, biotite, phlogopite, muscovite, zinnwaldite and fuchsite were measured in low and high magnetic fields with an alternating gradient force magnetometer (Micromag). Their properties are sufficient to account for the low field susceptibility (AMS) of most micaceous rocks. Nearly all samples show some ferromagnetic contribution at low fields due to inclusions of pseudosingle domain and multidomain magnetite. The paramagnetic contribution isolated at high fields usually exceeds the ferromagnetic contribution. The paramagnetic susceptibility is intrinsic to the silicate lattice and agrees with values predicted from chemical composition within the limits of error. The minimum susceptibility is nearly parallel to c, another axis is parallel to b and the third susceptibility (usually the maximum) is close to a. The paramagnetic susceptibility has a disk-shaped magnitude ellipsoid with strong anisotropy ( P' < 2). The ferromagnetic contributions at low fields have more variably shaped ellipsoids with greater eccentricity ( P' < 5). The silicate lattice does not constrain their orientation. Our technique cannot determine the principal axes of the ferromagnetic component. However, its principal values usually correspond with the paramagnetic principal susceptibilities in order of magnitude. Thus, the combined paramagnetic-ferromagnetic anisotropy recognised in routine studies of AMS should faithfully represent the petrofabric of most micaceous rocks. Nevertheless, nearly 10% of our samples have incompatible anisotropy ellipsoids for the silicate host and magnetite inclusions. These yield a net inverse AMS that does not correctly represent the orientation of the silicate lattice. Therefore, some caution is necessary in petrofabric-AMS studies of micaceous rocks.

  13. ELRIS2D: A MATLAB Package for the 2D Inversion of DC Resistivity/IP Data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Akca, Irfan

    2016-04-01

    ELRIS2D is an open source code written in MATLAB for the two-dimensional inversion of direct current resistivity (DCR) and time domain induced polarization (IP) data. The user interface of the program is designed for functionality and ease of use. All available settings of the program can be reached from the main window. The subsurface is discre-tized using a hybrid mesh generated by the combination of structured and unstructured meshes, which reduces the computational cost of the whole inversion procedure. The inversion routine is based on the smoothness constrained least squares method. In order to verify the program, responses of two test models and field data sets were inverted. The models inverted from the synthetic data sets are consistent with the original test models in both DC resistivity and IP cases. A field data set acquired in an archaeological site is also used for the verification of outcomes of the program in comparison with the excavation results.

  14. Defragged Binary I Ching Genetic Code Chromosomes Compared to Nirenberg's and Transformed into Rotating 2D Circles and Squares and into a 3D 100% Symmetrical Tetrahedron Coupled to a Functional One to Discern Start From Non-Start Methionines through a Stella Octangula.

    PubMed

    Castro-Chavez, Fernando

    2012-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Three binary representations of the genetic code according to the ancient I Ching of Fu-Xi will be presented, depending on their defragging capabilities by pairing based on three biochemical properties of the nucleic acids: H-bonds, Purine/Pyrimidine rings, and the Keto-enol/Amino-imino tautomerism, yielding the last pair a 32/32 single-strand self-annealed genetic code and I Ching tables. METHODS: Our working tool is the ancient binary I Ching's resulting genetic code chromosomes defragged by vertical and by horizontal pairing, reverse engineered into non-binaries of 2D rotating 4×4×4 circles and 8×8 squares and into one 3D 100% symmetrical 16×4 tetrahedron coupled to a functional tetrahedron with apical signaling and central hydrophobicity (codon formula: 4[1(1)+1(3)+1(4)+4(2)]; 5:5, 6:6 in man) forming a stella octangula, and compared to Nirenberg's 16×4 codon table (1965) pairing the first two nucleotides of the 64 codons in axis y. RESULTS: One horizontal and one vertical defragging had the start Met at the center. Two, both horizontal and vertical pairings produced two pairs of 2×8×4 genetic code chromosomes naturally arranged (M and I), rearranged by semi-introversion of central purines or pyrimidines (M' and I') and by clustering hydrophobic amino acids; their quasi-identity was disrupted by amino acids with odd codons (Met and Tyr pairing to Ile and TGA Stop); in all instances, the 64-grid 90° rotational ability was restored. CONCLUSIONS: We defragged three I Ching representations of the genetic code while emphasizing Nirenberg's historical finding. The synthetic genetic code chromosomes obtained reflect the protective strategy of enzymes with a similar function, having both humans and mammals a biased G-C dominance of three H-bonds in the third nucleotide of their most used codons per amino acid, as seen in one chromosome of the i, M and M' genetic codes, while a two H-bond A-T dominance was found in their complementary chromosome, as

  15. Defragged Binary I Ching Genetic Code Chromosomes Compared to Nirenberg’s and Transformed into Rotating 2D Circles and Squares and into a 3D 100% Symmetrical Tetrahedron Coupled to a Functional One to Discern Start From Non-Start Methionines through a Stella Octangula

    PubMed Central

    Castro-Chavez, Fernando

    2012-01-01

    Background Three binary representations of the genetic code according to the ancient I Ching of Fu-Xi will be presented, depending on their defragging capabilities by pairing based on three biochemical properties of the nucleic acids: H-bonds, Purine/Pyrimidine rings, and the Keto-enol/Amino-imino tautomerism, yielding the last pair a 32/32 single-strand self-annealed genetic code and I Ching tables. Methods Our working tool is the ancient binary I Ching's resulting genetic code chromosomes defragged by vertical and by horizontal pairing, reverse engineered into non-binaries of 2D rotating 4×4×4 circles and 8×8 squares and into one 3D 100% symmetrical 16×4 tetrahedron coupled to a functional tetrahedron with apical signaling and central hydrophobicity (codon formula: 4[1(1)+1(3)+1(4)+4(2)]; 5:5, 6:6 in man) forming a stella octangula, and compared to Nirenberg's 16×4 codon table (1965) pairing the first two nucleotides of the 64 codons in axis y. Results One horizontal and one vertical defragging had the start Met at the center. Two, both horizontal and vertical pairings produced two pairs of 2×8×4 genetic code chromosomes naturally arranged (M and I), rearranged by semi-introversion of central purines or pyrimidines (M' and I') and by clustering hydrophobic amino acids; their quasi-identity was disrupted by amino acids with odd codons (Met and Tyr pairing to Ile and TGA Stop); in all instances, the 64-grid 90° rotational ability was restored. Conclusions We defragged three I Ching representations of the genetic code while emphasizing Nirenberg's historical finding. The synthetic genetic code chromosomes obtained reflect the protective strategy of enzymes with a similar function, having both humans and mammals a biased G-C dominance of three H-bonds in the third nucleotide of their most used codons per amino acid, as seen in one chromosome of the i, M and M' genetic codes, while a two H-bond A-T dominance was found in their complementary chromosome, as seen

  16. A design principle of polymers processable into 2D homeotropic order

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Zhen; Chan, Yi-Tsu; Miyajima, Daigo; Kajitani, Takashi; Kosaka, Atsuko; Fukushima, Takanori; Lobez, Jose M.; Aida, Takuzo

    2016-01-01

    How to orient polymers homeotropically in thin films has been a long-standing issue in polymer science because polymers intrinsically prefer to lie down. Here we provide a design principle for polymers that are processable into a 2D homeotropic order. The key to this achievement was a recognition that cylindrical polymers can be designed to possess oppositely directed local dipoles in their cross-section, which possibly force polymers to tightly connect bilaterally, affording a 2D rectangular assembly. With a physical assistance of the surface grooves on Teflon sheets that sandwich polymer samples, homeotropic ordering is likely nucleated and gradually propagates upon hot-pressing towards the interior of the film. Consequently, the 2D rectangular lattice is constructed such that its b axis (side chains) aligns along the surface grooves, while its c axis (polymer backbone) aligns homeotropically on a Teflon sheet. This finding paves the way to molecularly engineered 2D polymers with anomalous functions. PMID:27897189

  17. A design principle of polymers processable into 2D homeotropic order

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Zhen; Chan, Yi-Tsu; Miyajima, Daigo; Kajitani, Takashi; Kosaka, Atsuko; Fukushima, Takanori; Lobez, Jose M.; Aida, Takuzo

    2016-11-01

    How to orient polymers homeotropically in thin films has been a long-standing issue in polymer science because polymers intrinsically prefer to lie down. Here we provide a design principle for polymers that are processable into a 2D homeotropic order. The key to this achievement was a recognition that cylindrical polymers can be designed to possess oppositely directed local dipoles in their cross-section, which possibly force polymers to tightly connect bilaterally, affording a 2D rectangular assembly. With a physical assistance of the surface grooves on Teflon sheets that sandwich polymer samples, homeotropic ordering is likely nucleated and gradually propagates upon hot-pressing towards the interior of the film. Consequently, the 2D rectangular lattice is constructed such that its b axis (side chains) aligns along the surface grooves, while its c axis (polymer backbone) aligns homeotropically on a Teflon sheet. This finding paves the way to molecularly engineered 2D polymers with anomalous functions.

  18. CYP2D6 allele distribution in Macedonians, Albanians and Romanies in the Republic of Macedonia

    PubMed Central

    Kuzmanovska, M; Dimishkovska, M; Maleva Kostovska, I; Noveski, P; Sukarova Stefanovska, E

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Cytochrome P450 2D6 (CYP2D6) is an enzyme of great importance for the metabolism of clinically used drugs. More than 100 variants of the CYP2D6 gene have been identified so far. The aim of this study was to investigate the allele distribution of CYP2D6 gene variants in 100 individuals of each of the Macedonian, Albanian and Romany population, by genotyping using long range polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and a multiplex single base extension method. The most frequent variants and almost equally distributed in the three groups were the fully functional alleles *1 and *2. The most common non functional allele in all groups was *4 that was found in 22.5% of the Albanians. The most common allele with decreased activity was *41 which was found in 23.0% of the Romany ethnic group, in 11.0% of the Macedonians and in 10.5% of the Albanians. Seven percent of the Albanians, 6.0% of the Romani and 4.0% of the Macedonians were poor metabolizers, while 5.0% of the Macedonians, 1.0% of Albanians and 1.0% of the Romanies were ultrarapid metabolizers. We concluded that the CYP2D6 gene locus is highly heterogeneous in these groups and that the prevalence of the CYP2D6 allele variants and genotypes in the Republic of Macedonia is in accordance with that of other European populations. PMID:27785397

  19. CYP2D6 allele distribution in Macedonians, Albanians and Romanies in the Republic of Macedonia.

    PubMed

    Kuzmanovska, M; Dimishkovska, M; Maleva Kostovska, I; Noveski, P; Sukarova Stefanovska, E; Plaseska-Karanfilska, D

    2015-12-01

    Cytochrome P450 2D6 (CYP2D6) is an enzyme of great importance for the metabolism of clinically used drugs. More than 100 variants of the CYP2D6 gene have been identified so far. The aim of this study was to investigate the allele distribution of CYP2D6 gene variants in 100 individuals of each of the Macedonian, Albanian and Romany population, by genotyping using long range polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and a multiplex single base extension method. The most frequent variants and almost equally distributed in the three groups were the fully functional alleles *1 and *2. The most common non functional allele in all groups was *4 that was found in 22.5% of the Albanians. The most common allele with decreased activity was *41 which was found in 23.0% of the Romany ethnic group, in 11.0% of the Macedonians and in 10.5% of the Albanians. Seven percent of the Albanians, 6.0% of the Romani and 4.0% of the Macedonians were poor metabolizers, while 5.0% of the Macedonians, 1.0% of Albanians and 1.0% of the Romanies were ultrarapid metabolizers. We concluded that the CYP2D6 gene locus is highly heterogeneous in these groups and that the prevalence of the CYP2D6 allele variants and genotypes in the Republic of Macedonia is in accordance with that of other European populations.

  20. Numerical upscaling in 2-D heterogeneous poroelastic rocks: Anisotropic attenuation and dispersion of seismic waves

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rubino, J. Germán.; Caspari, Eva; Müller, Tobias M.; Milani, Marco; Barbosa, Nicolás. D.; Holliger, Klaus

    2016-09-01

    The presence of stiffness contrasts at scales larger than the typical pore sizes but smaller than the predominant seismic wavelengths can produce seismic attenuation and velocity dispersion in fluid-saturated porous rocks. This energy dissipation mechanism is caused by wave-induced fluid pressure diffusion among the different components of the probed geological formations. In many cases, heterogeneities have elongated shapes and preferential orientations, which implies that the overall response of the medium is anisotropic. In this work, we propose a numerical upscaling procedure that permits to quantify seismic attenuation and phase velocity considering fluid pressure diffusion effects as well as generic anisotropy at the sample's scale. The methodology is based on a set of three relaxation tests performed on a 2-D synthetic rock sample representative of the medium of interest. It provides a complex-valued frequency-dependent equivalent stiffness matrix through a least squares procedure. We also derive an approach for computing various poroelastic fields associated with the considered sample in response to the propagation of a seismic wave with arbitrary incidence angle. Using this approach, we provide an energy-based estimation of seismic attenuation. A comprehensive numerical analysis indicates that the methodology is suitable for handling complex media and different levels of overall anisotropy. Comparisons with the energy-based estimations demonstrate that the dynamic-equivalent viscoelastic medium assumption made by the numerical upscaling procedure is reasonable even in the presence of high levels of overall anisotropy. This work also highlights the usefulness of poroelastic fields for the physical interpretation of seismic wave phenomena in strongly heterogeneous and complex media.

  1. Mechanical Anisotropy of Ankyrin Repeats

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Whasil; Zeng, Xiancheng; Rotolo, Kristina; Yang, Ming; Schofield, Christopher J.; Bennett, Vann; Yang, Weitao; Marszalek, Piotr E.

    2012-01-01

    Red blood cells are frequently deformed and their cytoskeletal proteins such as spectrin and ankyrin-R are repeatedly subjected to mechanical forces. While the mechanics of spectrin was thoroughly investigated in vitro and in vivo, little is known about the mechanical behavior of ankyrin-R. In this study, we combine coarse-grained steered molecular dynamics simulations and atomic force spectroscopy to examine the mechanical response of ankyrin repeats (ARs) in a model synthetic AR protein NI6C, and in the D34 fragment of native ankyrin-R when these proteins are subjected to various stretching geometry conditions. Our steered molecular dynamics results, supported by AFM measurements, reveal an unusual mechanical anisotropy of ARs: their mechanical stability is greater when their unfolding is forced to propagate from the N-terminus toward the C-terminus (repeats unfold at ∼60 pN), as compared to the unfolding in the opposite direction (unfolding force ∼ 30 pN). This anisotropy is also reflected in the complex refolding behavior of ARs. The origin of this unfolding and refolding anisotropy is in the various numbers of native contacts that are broken and formed at the interfaces between neighboring repeats depending on the unfolding/refolding propagation directions. Finally, we discuss how these complex mechanical properties of ARs in D34 may affect its behavior in vivo. PMID:22404934

  2. Duality Between Spin Networks and the 2D Ising Model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bonzom, Valentin; Costantino, Francesco; Livine, Etera R.

    2016-06-01

    The goal of this paper is to exhibit a deep relation between the partition function of the Ising model on a planar trivalent graph and the generating series of the spin network evaluations on the same graph. We provide respectively a fermionic and a bosonic Gaussian integral formulation for each of these functions and we show that they are the inverse of each other (up to some explicit constants) by exhibiting a supersymmetry relating the two formulations. We investigate three aspects and applications of this duality. First, we propose higher order supersymmetric theories that couple the geometry of the spin networks to the Ising model and for which supersymmetric localization still holds. Secondly, after interpreting the generating function of spin network evaluations as the projection of a coherent state of loop quantum gravity onto the flat connection state, we find the probability distribution induced by that coherent state on the edge spins and study its stationary phase approximation. It is found that the stationary points correspond to the critical values of the couplings of the 2D Ising model, at least for isoradial graphs. Third, we analyze the mapping of the correlations of the Ising model to spin network observables, and describe the phase transition on those observables on the hexagonal lattice. This opens the door to many new possibilities, especially for the study of the coarse-graining and continuum limit of spin networks in the context of quantum gravity.

  3. Synthetic Covalent and Non-Covalent 2D Materials.

    PubMed

    Boott, Charlotte E; Nazemi, Ali; Manners, Ian

    2015-11-16

    The creation of synthetic 2D materials represents an attractive challenge that is ultimately driven by their prospective uses in, for example, electronics, biomedicine, catalysis, sensing, and as membranes for separation and filtration. This Review illustrates some recent advances in this diverse field with a focus on covalent and non-covalent 2D polymers and frameworks, and self-assembled 2D materials derived from nanoparticles, homopolymers, and block copolymers.

  4. Topological defects and misfit strain in magnetic stripe domains of lateral multilayers with perpendicular magnetic anisotropy.

    PubMed

    Hierro-Rodriguez, A; Cid, R; Vélez, M; Rodriguez-Rodriguez, G; Martín, J I; Álvarez-Prado, L M; Alameda, J M

    2012-09-14

    Stripe domains are studied in perpendicular magnetic anisotropy films nanostructured with a periodic thickness modulation that induces the lateral modulation of both stripe periods and in-plane magnetization. The resulting system is the 2D equivalent of a strained superlattice with properties controlled by interfacial misfit strain within the magnetic stripe structure and shape anisotropy. This allows us to observe, experimentally for the first time, the continuous structural transformation of a grain boundary in this 2D magnetic crystal in the whole angular range. The magnetization reversal process can be tailored through the effect of misfit strain due to the coupling between disclinations in the magnetic stripe pattern and domain walls in the in-plane magnetization configuration.

  5. 2D Quantum Mechanical Study of Nanoscale MOSFETs

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Svizhenko, Alexei; Anantram, M. P.; Govindan, T. R.; Biegel, B.; Kwak, Dochan (Technical Monitor)

    2000-01-01

    With the onset of quantum confinement in the inversion layer in nanoscale MOSFETs, behavior of the resonant level inevitably determines all device characteristics. While most classical device simulators take quantization into account in some simplified manner, the important details of electrostatics are missing. Our work addresses this shortcoming and provides: (a) a framework to quantitatively explore device physics issues such as the source-drain and gate leakage currents, DIBL, and threshold voltage shift due to quantization, and b) a means of benchmarking quantum corrections to semiclassical models (such as density-gradient and quantum-corrected MEDICI). We have developed physical approximations and computer code capable of realistically simulating 2-D nanoscale transistors, using the non-equilibrium Green's function (NEGF) method. This is the most accurate full quantum model yet applied to 2-D device simulation. Open boundary conditions and oxide tunneling are treated on an equal footing. Electrons in the ellipsoids of the conduction band are treated within the anisotropic effective mass approximation. We present the results of our simulations of MIT 25, 50 and 90 nm "well-tempered" MOSFETs and compare them to those of classical and quantum corrected models. The important feature of quantum model is smaller slope of Id-Vg curve and consequently higher threshold voltage. Surprisingly, the self-consistent potential profile shows lower injection barrier in the channel in quantum case. These results are qualitatively consistent with ID Schroedinger-Poisson calculations. The effect of gate length on gate-oxide leakage and subthreshold current has been studied. The shorter gate length device has an order of magnitude smaller current at zero gate bias than the longer gate length device without a significant trade-off in on-current. This should be a device design consideration.

  6. 2D kinematic signatures of boxy/peanut bulges

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Iannuzzi, Francesca; Athanassoula, E.

    2015-07-01

    We study the imprints of boxy/peanut structures on the 2D line-of-sight kinematics of simulated disc galaxies. The models under study belong to a family with varying initial gas fraction and halo triaxiality, plus few other control runs with different structural parameters; the kinematic information was extracted using the Voronoi-binning technique and parametrized up to the fourth order of a Gauss-Hermite series. Building on a previous work for the long-slit case, we investigate the 2D kinematic behaviour in the edge-on projection as a function of the boxy/peanut strength and position angle; we find that for the strongest structures the highest moments show characteristic features away from the mid-plane in a range of position angles. We also discuss the masking effect of a classical bulge and the ambiguity in discriminating kinematically this spherically symmetric component from a boxy/peanut bulge seen end-on. Regarding the face-on case, we extend existing results to encompass the effect of a second buckling and find that this phenomenon spurs an additional set of even deeper minima in the fourth moment. Finally, we show how the results evolve when inclining the disc away from perfectly edge-on and face-on. The behaviour of stars born during the course of the simulations is discussed and confronted to that of the pre-existing disc. The general aim of our study is providing a handle to identify boxy/peanut structures and their properties in latest generation Integral Field Unit observations of nearby disc galaxies.

  7. 2D Quantum Transport Modeling in Nanoscale MOSFETs

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Svizhenko, Alexei; Anantram, M. P.; Govindan, T. R.; Biegel, Bryan

    2001-01-01

    With the onset of quantum confinement in the inversion layer in nanoscale MOSFETs, behavior of the resonant level inevitably determines all device characteristics. While most classical device simulators take quantization into account in some simplified manner, the important details of electrostatics are missing. Our work addresses this shortcoming and provides: (a) a framework to quantitatively explore device physics issues such as the source-drain and gate leakage currents, DIBL, and threshold voltage shift due to quantization, and b) a means of benchmarking quantum corrections to semiclassical models (such as density- gradient and quantum-corrected MEDICI). We have developed physical approximations and computer code capable of realistically simulating 2-D nanoscale transistors, using the non-equilibrium Green's function (NEGF) method. This is the most accurate full quantum model yet applied to 2-D device simulation. Open boundary conditions, oxide tunneling and phase-breaking scattering are treated on equal footing. Electrons in the ellipsoids of the conduction band are treated within the anisotropic effective mass approximation. Quantum simulations are focused on MIT 25, 50 and 90 nm "well- tempered" MOSFETs and compared to classical and quantum corrected models. The important feature of quantum model is smaller slope of Id-Vg curve and consequently higher threshold voltage. These results are quantitatively consistent with I D Schroedinger-Poisson calculations. The effect of gate length on gate-oxide leakage and sub-threshold current has been studied. The shorter gate length device has an order of magnitude smaller current at zero gate bias than the longer gate length device without a significant trade-off in on-current. This should be a device design consideration.

  8. Constraining depth of anisotropy in the Amazon region (Northern Brasil)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bianchi, Irene; Willy Corrêa Rosa, João; Bokelmann, Götz

    2014-05-01

    Seismic data recorded between November 2009 and September 2013, at the permanent station PTGA of the Brazilian seismic network were used to constrain the depth of anisotropy in the lithosphere beneath the station. 90 receiver functions (RF) have been computed, covering the backazimuthal directions from 0° to 180°. Both radial (R) and transverse (T) components of the RF contain useful information about the subsurface structure. The isotropic part of the seismic velocity profile at depth mainly affects the R-RF component, while anisotropy and dipping structures produce P-to-S conversion recorded on the T-RF component (Levin and Park, 1998; Savage, 1998). The incoming (radially polarized) S waves, when passing through an anisotropic crust, splits and part of it is projected onto the transverse component. The anisotropy symmetry orientations (Φ) can be estimated by the polarity change of the observed phases. The arrival times of the phases is related to the depth of the conversion. Depth and Φ are estimated by isolating phases at certain arrival times. SKS shear-wave splitting results from previous studies in this area (Krüger et al., 2002, Rosa et al., 2014), suggest the presence of anisotropy in the mantle with orientation of the fast splitting axis (about E-W) following major deep tectonic structures. The observed splitting orientation correlates well with the current South America plate motion (i.e. relative to mesosphere), and with observed aeromagnetic trends. This similarity leaves open the possibility of a linkage between the upper mantle fabric imaged by shear wave splitting analysis and the lower crustal structure imaged by aeromagnetometry. In this study we unravel, from RF data, two layers in which anisotropy concentrates, i.e. the lower crust and the upper mantle. Lower crustal and upper mantle anisotropy retrieved by RFs give some new hints in order to interpret the previously observed anisotropic orientations from SKS and the aeromagnetic anomalies.

  9. Epitaxial 2D SnSe2/ 2D WSe2 van der Waals Heterostructures.

    PubMed

    Aretouli, Kleopatra Emmanouil; Tsoutsou, Dimitra; Tsipas, Polychronis; Marquez-Velasco, Jose; Aminalragia Giamini, Sigiava; Kelaidis, Nicolaos; Psycharis, Vassilis; Dimoulas, Athanasios

    2016-09-07

    van der Waals heterostructures of 2D semiconductor materials can be used to realize a number of (opto)electronic devices including tunneling field effect devices (TFETs). It is shown in this work that high quality SnSe2/WSe2 vdW heterostructure can be grown by molecular beam epitaxy on AlN(0001)/Si(111) substrates using a Bi2Se3 buffer layer. A valence band offset of 0.8 eV matches the energy gap of SnSe2 in such a way that the VB edge of WSe2 and the CB edge of SnSe2 are lined up, making this materials combination suitable for (nearly) broken gap TFETs.

  10. 2D nearly orthogonal mesh generation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Yaoxin; Jia, Yafei; Wang, Sam S. Y.

    2004-11-01

    The Ryskin and Leal (RL) system is the most widely used mesh generation system for the orthogonal mapping. However, when this system is used in domains with complex geometry, particularly in those with sharp corners and strong curvatures, serious distortion or overlapping of mesh lines may occur and an acceptable solution may not be possible. In the present study, two methods are proposed to generate nearly orthogonal meshes with the smoothness control. In the first method, the original RL system is modified by introducing smoothness control functions, which are formulated through the blending of the conformal mapping and the orthogonal mapping; while in the second method, the RL system is modified by introducing the contribution factors. A hybrid system of both methods is also developed. The proposed methods are illustrated by several test examples. Applications of these methods in a natural river channel are demonstrated. It is shown that the modified RL systems are capable of producing meshes with an adequate balance between the orthogonality and the smoothness for complex computational domains without mesh distortions and overlapping.

  11. 2-d Packing of Prolate Granular Materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Franklin, Scott

    2002-11-01

    Piles of extremely prolate (aspect ratio α=L/D>10) granular materials are qualitatively different than lower aspect-ratio particles. One can run a hand through sand, for example, but not through nails. In three dimensions this transition occurs at α ˜ 35. We investigate the two-dimensional packing of particles with aspect ratios ranging from 10-44, comparing experiments with Monte-Carlo simulations. Particle alignment can quantified by an orientational order correlation function and related to the packing fraction. In both simulation and experiment the correlation between particle orientation decays after a distance of two particle lengths. We also quantify the distribution of voids in the pile, finding it to follow a power law with exponent -β=-2.370.05. Dynamic experiments involve rotating the pile. Particles with aspect ratio as low as 10 do not appear to have a well defined angle of repose, suggesting that the transition to rigidity occurs at a far lower aspect ratio in two dimensions. Preliminary results from this experiment will be presented.

  12. Large angular scale CMB anisotropy from an excited initial mode

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sojasi, A.; Mohsenzadeh, M.; Yusofi, E.

    2016-07-01

    According to inflationary cosmology, the CMB anisotropy gives an opportunity to test predictions of new physics hypotheses. The initial state of quantum fluctuations is one of the important options at high energy scale, as it can affect observables such as the CMB power spectrum. In this study a quasi-de Sitter inflationary background with approximate de Sitter mode function built over the Bunch-Davies mode is applied to investigate the scale-dependency of the CMB anisotropy. The recent Planck constraint on spectral index motivated us to examine the effect of a new excited mode function (instead of pure de Sitter mode) on the CMB anisotropy at large angular scales. In so doing, it is found that the angular scale-invariance in the CMB temperature fluctuations is broken and in the limit ℓ < 200 a tiny deviation appears. Also, it is shown that the power spectrum of CMB anisotropy is dependent on a free parameter with mass dimension H << M * < M p and on the slow-roll parameter ɛ. Supported by the Islamic Azad University, Rasht Branch, Rasht, Iran

  13. Circular photogalvanic effect caused by the transitions between edge and 2D states in a 2D topological insulator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Magarill, L. I.; Entin, M. V.

    2016-12-01

    The electron absorption and the edge photocurrent of a 2D topological insulator are studied for transitions between edge states to 2D states. The circular polarized light is found to produce the edge photocurrent, the direction of which is determined by light polarization and edge orientation. It is shown that the edge-state current is found to exceed the 2D current owing to the topological protection of the edge states.

  14. CONSTRAINTS ON VELOCITY ANISOTROPY OF SPHERICAL SYSTEMS WITH SEPARABLE AUGMENTED DENSITIES

    SciTech Connect

    An, Jin H.

    2011-08-01

    If the augmented density of a spherical anisotropic system is assumed to be multiplicatively separable into functions of the potential and the radius, the radial function, which can be completely specified by the behavior of the anisotropy parameter alone, also fixes the anisotropic ratios of every higher order velocity moment. It is inferred from this that the non-negativity of the distribution function necessarily limits the allowed behaviors of the radial function. This restriction is translated into the constraints on the behavior of the anisotropy parameter. We find that not all radial variations of the anisotropy parameter satisfy these constraints and thus anisotropy profiles exist that are not consistent with any separable augmented density.

  15. Human NKG2D-ligands: cell biology strategies to ensure immune recognition

    PubMed Central

    Fernández-Messina, Lola; Reyburn, Hugh T.; Valés-Gómez, Mar

    2012-01-01

    Immune recognition mediated by the activating receptor NKG2D plays an important role for the elimination of stressed cells, including tumors and virus-infected cells. On the other hand, the ligands for NKG2D can also be shed into the sera of cancer patients where they weaken the immune response by downmodulating the receptor on effector cells, mainly NK and T cells. Although both families of NKG2D-ligands, major histocompatibility complex class I-related chain (MIC) A/B and UL16 binding proteins (ULBPs), are related to MHC molecules and their expression is increased after stress, many differences are observed in terms of their biochemical properties and cell trafficking. In this paper, we summarize the variety of NKG2D-ligands and propose that selection pressure has driven evolution of diversity in their trafficking and shedding, but not receptor binding affinity. However, it is also possible to identify functional properties common to individual ULBP molecules and MICA/B alleles, but not generally conserved within the MIC or ULBP families. These characteristics likely represent examples of convergent evolution for efficient immune recognition, but are also attractive targets for pathogen immune evasion strategies. Categorization of NKG2D-ligands according to their biological features, rather than their genetic family, may help to achieve a better understanding of NKG2D-ligand association with disease. PMID:23056001

  16. SNP genotyping using TaqMan technology: the CYP2D6*17 assay conundrum.

    PubMed

    Gaedigk, Andrea; Freeman, Natalie; Hartshorne, Toinette; Riffel, Amanda K; Irwin, David; Bishop, Jeffrey R; Stein, Mark A; Newcorn, Jeffrey H; Jaime, Lazara Karelia Montané; Cherner, Mariana; Leeder, J Steven

    2015-03-19

    CYP2D6 contributes to the metabolism of many clinically used drugs and is increasingly tested to individualize drug therapy. The CYP2D6 gene is challenging to genotype due to the highly complex nature of its gene locus. TaqMan technology is widely used in the clinical and research settings for genotype analysis due to assay reliability, low cost, and the availability of commercially available assays. The assay identifying 1023C>T (rs28371706) defining a reduced function (CYP2D6*17) and several nonfunctional alleles, produced a small number of unexpected diplotype calls in three independent sets of samples, i.e. calls suggested the presence of a CYP2D6*4 subvariant containing 1023C>T. Gene resequencing did not reveal any unknown SNPs in the primer or probe binding sites in any of the samples, but all affected samples featured a trio of SNPs on their CYP2D6*4 allele between one of the PCR primer and probe binding sites. While the phenomenon was ultimately overcome by an alternate assay utilizing a PCR primer excluding the SNP trio, the mechanism causing this phenomenon remains elusive. This rare and unexpected event underscores the importance of assay validation in samples representing a variety of genotypes, but also vigilance of assay performance in highly polymorphic genes such as CYP2D6.

  17. Investigation of the partially coherent effects in a 2D Talbot interferometer.

    PubMed

    Ge, Xin; Wang, Zhili; Gao, Kun; Zhang, Kai; Hong, Youli; Wang, Dajiang; Zhu, Zhongzhu; Zhu, Peiping; Wu, Ziyu

    2011-08-01

    The recent use of a one-dimensional (1D) X-ray Talbot interferometer has triggered great interest in X-ray differential phase contrast imaging. As an improved version of a 1D interferometer, the development of two-dimensional (2D) grating interferometry strongly stimulated applications of grating-based imaging. In the framework of Fresnel diffraction theory, we investigated the self-image of 2D-phase gratings under partially coherent illumination. The fringe visibility of the self-image has been analyzed as a function of the spatial coherence length. From the viewpoint of self-image visibility, it is possible to find the optimal 2D grid for 2D X-ray grating interferometer imaging. Numerical simulations have been also carried out for quantitative evaluation. Results, in good agreement with theoretical analysis, indicate the spatial coherence requirements of the radiation illuminating a 2D grating interferometer. Moreover, our results can be used to optimize performances of a 2D grating interferometer and for further theoretical and experimental research on grating-based imaging systems.

  18. The mirror and ion cyclotron anisotropy instabilities

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gary, S. P.

    1992-01-01

    The linear dispersion equation for fully electromagnetic waves and instabilities at arbitrary directions of propagation relative to a background magnetic field B(0) in a homogeneous Vlasov plasma is solved numerically for bi-Maxwellian particle distributions. For isotropic plasmas the dispersion and damping of the three modes below the proton cyclotron frequency are studied as functions of Beta(i) and T(e)/T(i). The transport ratios of helicity, cross-helicity, Alfven ratio, compressibility, and parallel compressibility are defined. Under the condition that the proton temperature perpendicular to B(0) is greater than the parallel temperature, the growth rates and transport ratios of the mirror instability and the ion cyclotron anisotropy instability are examined and compared. Both the proton parallel compressibility and the proton Alfven ratio are significantly different for the two growing modes.

  19. Fragile watermarking using the VW2D watermark

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wolfgang, Raymond B.; Delp, Edward J., III

    1999-04-01

    Two classes of digital watermarks have been developed to protect the copyright ownership of digital images. Robust watermarks are designed to withstand attacks on an image (such as compression or scaling), while fragile watermarks are designed to detect minute changes in an image. Fragile marks can also identify where an image has been altered. This paper compares two fragile watermarks. The first method uses a hash function to obtain a digest of the image. An altered or forged version of the original image is then hashed and the digest is compared to the digest of the original image. If the image has changed the digests will be different. We will describe how images can be hashed so that any changes can be spatially localized. The second method uses the Variable-Watermark Two- Dimensional algorithm (VW2D). The sensitivity to changes is user-specific. Either no changes can be permitted (similar to a hard hash function), or an image can be altered and still be labeled authentic. Latter algorithms are known as semi-fragile watermarks. We will describe the performance of these two techniques and discuss under what circumstances one would use a particular technique.

  20. Crossover from in-plane to perpendicular anisotropy in Pt/CoFe/AlOx sandwiches as a function of Al oxidation: A very accurate control of the oxidation of tunnel barriers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Monso, S.; Rodmacq, B.; Auffret, S.; Casali, G.; Fettar, F.; Gilles, B.; Dieny, B.; Boyer, P.

    2002-06-01

    By measuring the extraordinary Hall effect on a series of naturally oxidized Pt3 nm/Co90Fe10 0.6 nm/Al tAl samples with 0anisotropy is observed when tAl is varied from 0 to 0.2 nm. The CoFe magnetization remains out of plane for 0.2anisotropy of the transition-metal layer. These sharp crossovers of anisotropy provide a very accurate and convenient way to monitor the oxidation of the tunnel barrier in magnetic tunnel junctions. This technique is also applied to characterize the oxidation kinetics of various ultrathin metallic layers as well as the aging effect in alumina barriers.

  1. Caffeine increases striatal dopamine D2/D3 receptor availability in the human brain

    DOE PAGES

    Volkow, N. D.; Wang, G. -J.; Logan, J.; ...

    2015-04-14

    Caffeine, the most widely consumed psychoactive substance in the world, is used to promote wakefulness and enhance alertness. Like other wake-promoting drugs (stimulants and modafinil), caffeine enhances dopamine (DA) signaling in the brain, which it does predominantly by antagonizing adenosine A2A receptors (A2AR). However, it is unclear if caffeine, at the doses consumed by humans, increases DA release or whether it modulates the functions of postsynaptic DA receptors through its interaction with adenosine receptors, which modulate them. We used positron emission tomography and [11C]raclopride (DA D2/D3 receptor radioligand sensitive to endogenous DA) to assess if caffeine increased DA release inmore » striatum in 20 healthy controls. Caffeine (300mg p.o.) significantly increased the availability of D2/D3 receptors in putamen and ventral striatum, but not in caudate, when compared with placebo. In addition, caffeine-induced increases in D2/D3 receptor availability in the ventral striatum were associated with caffeine-induced increases in alertness. Our findings indicate that in the human brain, caffeine, at doses typically consumed, increases the availability of DA D2/D3 receptors, which indicates that caffeine does not increase DA in the striatum for this would have decreased D2/D3 receptor availability. Instead, we interpret our findings to reflect an increase in D2/D3 receptor levels in striatum with caffeine (or changes in affinity). Furthermore, the association between increases in D2/D3 receptor availability in ventral striatum and alertness suggests that caffeine might enhance arousal, in part, by upregulating D2/D3 receptors.« less

  2. Caffeine increases striatal dopamine D2/D3 receptor availability in the human brain.

    PubMed

    Volkow, N D; Wang, G-J; Logan, J; Alexoff, D; Fowler, J S; Thanos, P K; Wong, C; Casado, V; Ferre, S; Tomasi, D

    2015-04-14

    Caffeine, the most widely consumed psychoactive substance in the world, is used to promote wakefulness and enhance alertness. Like other wake-promoting drugs (stimulants and modafinil), caffeine enhances dopamine (DA) signaling in the brain, which it does predominantly by antagonizing adenosine A2A receptors (A2AR). However, it is unclear if caffeine, at the doses consumed by humans, increases DA release or whether it modulates the functions of postsynaptic DA receptors through its interaction with adenosine receptors, which modulate them. We used positron emission tomography and [(11)C]raclopride (DA D2/D3 receptor radioligand sensitive to endogenous DA) to assess if caffeine increased DA release in striatum in 20 healthy controls. Caffeine (300 mg p.o.) significantly increased the availability of D2/D3 receptors in putamen and ventral striatum, but not in caudate, when compared with placebo. In addition, caffeine-induced increases in D2/D3 receptor availability in the ventral striatum were associated with caffeine-induced increases in alertness. Our findings indicate that in the human brain, caffeine, at doses typically consumed, increases the availability of DA D2/D3 receptors, which indicates that caffeine does not increase DA in the striatum for this would have decreased D2/D3 receptor availability. Instead, we interpret our findings to reflect an increase in D2/D3 receptor levels in striatum with caffeine (or changes in affinity). The association between increases in D2/D3 receptor availability in ventral striatum and alertness suggests that caffeine might enhance arousal, in part, by upregulating D2/D3 receptors.

  3. Energy Efficiency of D2D Multi-User Cooperation.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Zufan; Wang, Lu; Zhang, Jie

    2017-03-28

    The Device-to-Device (D2D) communication system is an important part of heterogeneous networks. It has great potential to improve spectrum efficiency, throughput and energy efficiency cooperation of multiple D2D users with the advantage of direct communication. When cooperating, D2D users expend extraordinary energy to relay data to other D2D users. Hence, the remaining energy of D2D users determines the life of the system. This paper proposes a cooperation scheme for multiple D2D users who reuse the orthogonal spectrum and are interested in the same data by aiming to solve the energy problem of D2D users. Considering both energy availability and the Signal to Noise Ratio (SNR) of each D2D user, the Kuhn-Munkres algorithm is introduced in the cooperation scheme to solve relay selection problems. Thus, the cooperation issue is transformed into a maximum weighted matching (MWM) problem. In order to enhance energy efficiency without the deterioration of Quality of Service (QoS), the link outage probability is derived according to the Shannon Equation by considering the data rate and delay. The simulation studies the relationships among the number of cooperative users, the length of shared data, the number of data packets and energy efficiency.

  4. Integrating Mobile Multimedia into Textbooks: 2D Barcodes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Uluyol, Celebi; Agca, R. Kagan

    2012-01-01

    The major goal of this study was to empirically compare text-plus-mobile phone learning using an integrated 2D barcode tag in a printed text with three other conditions described in multimedia learning theory. The method examined in the study involved modifications of the instructional material such that: a 2D barcode was used near the text, the…

  5. Efficient Visible Quasi-2D Perovskite Light-Emitting Diodes.

    PubMed

    Byun, Jinwoo; Cho, Himchan; Wolf, Christoph; Jang, Mi; Sadhanala, Aditya; Friend, Richard H; Yang, Hoichang; Lee, Tae-Woo

    2016-09-01

    Efficient quasi-2D-structure perovskite light-emitting diodes (4.90 cd A(-1) ) are demonstrated by mixing a 3D-structured perovskite material (methyl ammonium lead bromide) and a 2D-structured perovskite material (phenylethyl ammonium lead bromide), which can be ascribed to better film uniformity, enhanced exciton confinement, and reduced trap density.

  6. Adaptation algorithms for 2-D feedforward neural networks.

    PubMed

    Kaczorek, T

    1995-01-01

    The generalized weight adaptation algorithms presented by J.G. Kuschewski et al. (1993) and by S.H. Zak and H.J. Sira-Ramirez (1990) are extended for 2-D madaline and 2-D two-layer feedforward neural nets (FNNs).

  7. Roton-maxon excitation spectrum for Q2D weakly interacted dipolar excitons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fedorov, Aleksey; Kurbakov, Igor; Lozovik, Yurii

    2014-03-01

    Remarkable progress was achieved in investigation of collective properties and BEC of quasiparticles, e.g., excitons and polaritons. As it well known their small effective mass provides sufficiently high BEC temperature. However, in reality excitons lifetime is not enough to achieve thermodynamical equilibrium. Spatial separation of electrons and holes in semiconductor layer suppresses recombination process, and exciton lifetime increases sufficiently. Moreover, the separation results in appearance of excitons dipole moments. We predict generation of roton-maxon excitation spectrum for BEC of dipolar excitons in weak correlation regime in Q2D geometry of semiconductor layer. The effect of roton-maxon spectrum is the result of attraction and anisotropy of dipole-dipole interaction in Q2D geometry, and it can be viewed as residual phenomena of phonon collapse for 3D dipoles. According to our estimation effects of BEC and roton-maxon spectrum are principally observable experimentally for excitons in crossed electromagnetic fields in GaAs heterostructures. The work was supported by the RFBR (14-02-00937, 14-08-00606). A.K.F. is an RQC fellow.

  8. Magnetic Anisotropy in the Radula of Chiton

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, Jian-Gao; Qian, Xia; Liu, Wei; Liu, Chuan-Lin; Zhan, Wen-Shan

    2000-07-01

    Radular teeth of chitons were studied by using magnetic torque-meter and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). The magnetic torque curves give clear evidence of presence of strong uni-axial magnetic anisotropy. The easy axis is along the length direction of tongue-like radula. The TEM pattern shows that long chip-like magnetite nano-scaled particles packed in the radular teeth with both uni-axial shape anisotropy and magneto-crystalline anisotropy.

  9. Chemical Shift Anisotropy Selective Inversion*

    PubMed Central

    Caporini, Marc. A.; Turner, Christopher. J.; Bielecki, Anthony; Griffin, Robert G.

    2009-01-01

    Magic Angle Spinning (MAS) is used in solid-state NMR to remove the broadening effects of the chemical shift anisotropy (CSA). In this work we investigate a technique that can reintroduce the CSA in order to selectively invert transverse magnetization. The technique involves an amplitude sweep of the radio frequency field through a multiple of the spinning frequency. The selectivity of this inversion mechanism is determined by the size of the CSA. We develop a theoretical framework to describe this process and demonstrate the CSA selective inversion with numerical simulations and experimental data. We combine this approach with cross polarization (CP) for potential applications in multi-dimensional MAS NMR. PMID:19648036

  10. Regulation of ligands for the NKG2D activating receptor

    PubMed Central

    Raulet, David H.; Gasser, Stephan; Gowen, Benjamin G.; Deng, Weiwen; Jung, Heiyoun

    2014-01-01

    NKG2D is an activating receptor expressed by all NK cells and subsets of T cells. It serves as a major recognition receptor for detection and elimination of transformed and infected cells and participates in the genesis of several inflammatory diseases. The ligands for NKG2D are self-proteins that are induced by pathways that are active in certain pathophysiological states. NKG2D ligands are regulated transcriptionally, at the level of mRNA and protein stability, and by cleavage from the cell surface. In some cases, ligand induction can be attributed to pathways that are activated specifically in cancer cells or infected cells. We review the numerous pathways that have been implicated in the regulation of NKG2D ligands, discuss the pathologic states in which those pathways are likely to act, and attempt to synthesize the findings into general schemes of NKG2D ligand regulation in NK cell responses to cancer and infection. PMID:23298206

  11. New generation transistor technologies enabled by 2D crystals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jena, D.

    2013-05-01

    The discovery of graphene opened the door to 2D crystal materials. The lack of a bandgap in 2D graphene makes it unsuitable for electronic switching transistors in the conventional field-effect sense, though possible techniques exploiting the unique bandstructure and nanostructures are being explored. The transition metal dichalcogenides have 2D crystal semiconductors, which are well-suited for electronic switching. We experimentally demonstrate field effect transistors with current saturation and carrier inversion made from layered 2D crystal semiconductors such as MoS2, WS2, and the related family. We also evaluate the feasibility of such semiconducting 2D crystals for tunneling field effect transistors for low-power digital logic. The article summarizes the current state of new generation transistor technologies either proposed, or demonstrated, with a commentary on the challenges and prospects moving forward.

  12. Cytochrome P450 2D6 variants in a Caucasian population: Allele frequencies and phenotypic consequences

    SciTech Connect

    Sachse, C.; Brockmoeller, J.; Bauer, S.; Roots, I.

    1997-02-01

    Cytochrome P450 2D6 (CYP2D6) metabolizes many important drugs. CYP2D6 activity ranges from complete deficiency to ultrafast metabolism, depending on at least 16 different known alleles. Their frequencies were determined in 589 unrelated German volunteers and correlated with enzyme activity measured by phenotyping with dextromethorphan or debrisoquine. For genotyping, nested PCR-RFLP tests from a PCR amplificate of the entire CYP2D6 gene were developed. The frequency of the CYP2D6*1 allele coding for extensive metabolizer (EM) phenotype was .364. The alleles coding for slightly (CYP2D6*2) or moderately (*9 and *10) reduced activity (intermediate metabolizer phenotype [IM]) showed frequencies of .324, .018, and .015, respectively. By use of novel PCR tests for discrimination, CYP2D6 gene duplication alleles were found with frequencies of.005 (*1 x 2), .013 (* 2 x 2), and .001 (*4 x 2). Frequencies of alleles with complete deficiency (poor metabolizer phenotype [PM]) were .207 (*4), .020 (*3 and *5), .009 (*6), and .001 (*7, *15, and *16). The defective CYP2D6 alleles *8, *11, *12, *13, and *14 were not found. All 41 PMs (7.0%) in this sample were explained by five mutations detected by four PCR-RFLP tests, which may suffice, together with the gene duplication test, for clinical prediction of CYP2D6 capacity. Three novel variants of known CYP2D6 alleles were discovered: *1C (T{sub 1957}C), *2B (additional C{sub 2558}T), and *4E (additional C{sub 2938}T). Analysis of variance showed significant differences in enzymatic activity measured by the dextromethorphan metabolic ratio (MR) between carriers of EN/PM (mean MR = .006) and IM/PM (mean MR = .014) alleles and between carriers of one (mean MR = .009) and two (mean MR = .003) functional alleles. The results of this study provide a solid basis for prediction of CYP2D6 capacity, as required in drug research and routine drug treatment. 35 refs., 4 figs., 5 tabs.

  13. Quantification of layered patterns with structural anisotropy: a comparison of biological and geological systems.

    PubMed

    Smolyar, I; Bromage, T; Wikelski, M

    2016-03-01

    Large-scale patterns evident from satellite images of aeolian landforms on Earth and other planets; those of intermediate scale in marine and terrestrial sand ripples and sediment profiles; and small-scale patterns such as lamellae in the bones of vertebrates and annuli in fish scales are each represented by layers of different thicknesses and lengths. Layered patterns are important because they form a record of the state of internal and external factors that regulate pattern formation in these geological and biological systems. It is therefore potentially possible to recognize trends, periodicities, and events in the history of the formation of these systems among the incremental sequences. Though the structures and sizes of these 2-D patterns are typically scale-free, they are also characteristically anisotropic; that is, the number of layers and their absolute thicknesses vary significantly during formation. The aim of the present work is to quantify the structure of layered patterns and to reveal similarities and differences in the processing and interpretation of layered landforms and biological systems. To reach this goal we used N-partite graph and Boolean functions to quantify the structure of layers and plot charts for "layer thickness vs. layer number" and "layer area vs. layer number". These charts serve as a source of information about events in the history of formation of layered systems. The concept of synchronization of layer formation across a 2-D plane is introduced to develop the procedure for plotting "layer thickness vs. layer number" and "layer area vs. layer number", which takes into account the structural anisotropy of layered patterns and increase signal-to-noise ratio in charts. Examples include landforms on Mars and Earth and incremental layers in human and iguana bones.

  14. First-Year Wilkinson Microwave Anisotropy Probe (WMAP) Observations: Parameter Estimation Methodology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Verde, L.; Peiris, H. V.; Spergel, D. N.; Nolta, M. R.; Bennett, C. L.; Halpern, M.; Hinshaw, G.; Jarosik, N.; Kogut, A.; Limon, M.; Meyer, S. S.; Page, L.; Tucker, G. S.; Wollack, E.; Wright, E. L.

    2003-09-01

    We describe our methodology for comparing the Wilkinson Microwave Anisotropy Probe (WMAP) measurements of the cosmic microwave background (CMB) and other complementary data sets to theoretical models. The unprecedented quality of the WMAP data and the tight constraints on cosmological parameters that are derived require a rigorous analysis so that the approximations made in the modeling do not lead to significant biases. We describe our use of the likelihood function to characterize the statistical properties of the microwave background sky. We outline the use of the Monte Carlo Markov Chains to explore the likelihood of the data given a model to determine the best-fit cosmological parameters and their uncertainties. We add to the WMAP data the l>~700 Cosmic Background Imager (CBI) and Arcminute Cosmology Bolometer Array Receiver (ACBAR) measurements of the CMB, the galaxy power spectrum at z~0 obtained from the Two-Degree Field Galaxy Redshift Survey (2dFGRS), and the matter power spectrum at z~3 as measured with the Lyα forest. These last two data sets complement the CMB measurements by probing the matter power spectrum of the nearby universe. Combining CMB and 2dFGRS requires that we include in our analysis a model for galaxy bias, redshift distortions, and the nonlinear growth of structure. We show how the statistical and systematic uncertainties in the model and the data are propagated through the full analysis. WMAP is the result of a partnership between Princeton University and the NASA Goddard Space Flight Center. Scientific guidance is provided by the WMAP Science Team.

  15. Formation of Magnetic Anisotropy by Lithography

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Si Nyeon; Nam, Yoon Jae; Kim, Yang Doo; Choi, Jun Woo; Lee, Heon; Lim, Sang Ho

    2016-01-01

    Artificial interface anisotropy is demonstrated in alternating Co/Pt and Co/Pd stripe patterns, providing a means of forming magnetic anisotropy using lithography. In-plane hysteresis loops measured along two principal directions are explained in depth by two competing shape and interface anisotropies, thus confirming the formation of interface anisotropy at the Co/Pt and Co/Pd interfaces of the stripe patterns. The measured interface anisotropy energies, which are in the range of 0.2–0.3 erg/cm2 for both stripes, are smaller than those observed in conventional multilayers, indicating a decrease in smoothness of the interfaces when formed by lithography. The demonstration of interface anisotropy in the Co/Pt and Co/Pd stripe patterns is of significant practical importance, because this setup makes it possible to form anisotropy using lithography and to modulate its strength by controlling the pattern width. Furthermore, this makes it possible to form more complex interface anisotropy by fabricating two-dimensional patterns. These artificial anisotropies are expected to open up new device applications such as multilevel bits using in-plane magnetoresistive thin-film structures. PMID:27216420

  16. Estrogen-Induced Cholestasis Leads to Repressed CYP2D6 Expression in CYP2D6-Humanized Mice.

    PubMed

    Pan, Xian; Jeong, Hyunyoung

    2015-07-01

    Cholestasis activates bile acid receptor farnesoid X receptor (FXR) and subsequently enhances hepatic expression of small heterodimer partner (SHP). We previously demonstrated that SHP represses the transactivation of cytochrome P450 2D6 (CYP2D6) promoter by hepatocyte nuclear factor (HNF) 4α. In this study, we investigated the effects of estrogen-induced cholestasis on CYP2D6 expression. Estrogen-induced cholestasis occurs in subjects receiving estrogen for contraception or hormone replacement, or in susceptible women during pregnancy. In CYP2D6-humanized transgenic (Tg-CYP2D6) mice, cholestasis triggered by administration of 17α-ethinylestradiol (EE2) at a high dose led to 2- to 3-fold decreases in CYP2D6 expression. This was accompanied by increased hepatic SHP expression and subsequent decreases in the recruitment of HNF4α to CYP2D6 promoter. Interestingly, estrogen-induced cholestasis also led to increased recruitment of estrogen receptor (ER) α, but not that of FXR, to Shp promoter, suggesting a predominant role of ERα in transcriptional regulation of SHP in estrogen-induced cholestasis. EE2 at a low dose (that does not cause cholestasis) also increased SHP (by ∼ 50%) and decreased CYP2D6 expression (by 1.5-fold) in Tg-CYP2D6 mice, the magnitude of differences being much smaller than that shown in EE2-induced cholestasis. Taken together, our data indicate that EE2-induced cholestasis increases SHP and represses CYP2D6 expression in Tg-CYP2D6 mice in part through ERα transactivation of Shp promoter.

  17. Landau levels in 2D materials using Wannier Hamiltonians obtained by first principles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lado, J. L.; Fernández-Rossier, J.

    2016-09-01

    We present a method to calculate the Landau levels and the corresponding edge states of two dimensional (2D) crystals using as a starting point their electronic structure as obtained from standard density functional theory (DFT). The DFT Hamiltonian is represented in the basis of maximally localized Wannier functions. This defines a tight-binding Hamiltonian for the bulk that can be used to describe other structures, such as ribbons, provided that atomic scale details of the edges are ignored. The effect of the orbital magnetic field is described using the Peierls substitution in the hopping matrix elements. Implementing this approach in a ribbon geometry, we obtain both the Landau levels and the dispersive edge states for a series of 2D crystals, including graphene, Boron Nitride, MoS2, Black Phosphorous, Indium Selenide and MoO3. Our procedure can readily be used in any other 2D crystal, and provides an alternative to effective mass descriptions.

  18. Strong anisotropy and magnetostriction in the two-dimensional Stoner ferromagnet Fe3GeTe2

    SciTech Connect

    Zhuang, Houlong L.; Kent, P. R. C.; Hennig, Richard G.

    2016-04-06

    Computationally characterizing magnetic properies of novel two-dimensional (2D) materials serves as an important first step of exploring possible applications. Using density-functional theory, we show that single-layer Fe3GeTe2 is a potential 2D material with sufficiently low formation energy to be synthesized by mechanical exfoliation from the bulk phase with a van der Waals layered structure. In addition, we calculated the phonon dispersion demonstrating that single-layer Fe3GeTe2is dynamically stable. Furthermore, we find that similar to the bulk phase, 2D Fe3GeTe2 exhibits amagnetic moment that originates from a Stoner instability. In contrast to other 2D materials, we find that single-layer Fe3GeTe2 exhibits a significant uniaxial magnetocrystalline anisotropy energy of 920μ eV per Fe atom originating from spin-orbit coupling. In conclusion, we show that applying biaxial tensile strains enhances the anisotropy energy, which reveals strong magnetostriction in single-layer Fe3GeTe2 with a sizable magneostrictive coefficient. Our results indicate that single-layer Fe3GeTe2 is potentially useful for magnetic storage applications.

  19. Modulating fluorescence anisotropy of terminally labeled double-stranded DNA via the interaction between dye and nucleotides for rational design of DNA recognition based applications.

    PubMed

    Huang, Hongduan; Wei, Hejia; Zou, Mingjian; Xu, Xiao; Xia, Bin; Liu, Feng; Li, Na

    2015-03-03

    Effective signal enhancement for fluorescence anisotropy in a simple manner is most desirable for fluorescence anisotropy method development. This work aimed to provide insights into the fluorescence anisotropy of terminally labeled double-stranded DNA (dsDNA) to facilitate a facile and universal design strategy for DNA recognition based applications. We demonstrated that fluorescence anisotropy of dsDNA could be regulated by the nature of dyes, the molecular volume, and the end structure of dsDNA. Fluorescence anisotropy ascended with the increased number of base pairs up to 18 bp and leveled off thereafter, indicating the molecular volume was not the only factor responsible for fluorescence anisotropy. By choosing dyes with the positively charged center, high fluorescence anisotropy signal was obtained due to the confinement of the segmental motion of dyes through the electrostatic interaction. By properly designing the end structure of dsDNA, fluorescence anisotropy could be further improved by enlarging the effective overall rotational volume, as supported by two-dimensional (2D) (1)H-(1)H nuclear Overhauser enhancement spectroscopy (NOESY). With the successful enhancement of the fluorescence anisotropy for terminally labeled dsDNA, simple and universal designs were demonstrated by sensing of major classes of analytes from macromolecules (DNA and protein) to small molecules (cocaine).

  20. Targeted fluorescence imaging enhanced by 2D materials: a comparison between 2D MoS2 and graphene oxide.

    PubMed

    Xie, Donghao; Ji, Ding-Kun; Zhang, Yue; Cao, Jun; Zheng, Hu; Liu, Lin; Zang, Yi; Li, Jia; Chen, Guo-Rong; James, Tony D; He, Xiao-Peng

    2016-08-04

    Here we demonstrate that 2D MoS2 can enhance the receptor-targeting and imaging ability of a fluorophore-labelled ligand. The 2D MoS2 has an enhanced working concentration range when compared with graphene oxide, resulting in the improved imaging of both cell and tissue samples.

  1. Illustrative view on the magnetocrystalline anisotropy of adatoms and monolayers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Šipr, O.; Mankovsky, S.; Polesya, S.; Bornemann, S.; Minár, J.; Ebert, H.

    2016-05-01

    Although it has been known for decades that magnetocrystalline anisotropy is linked to spin-orbit coupling (SOC), the mechanism of how it arises for specific systems is still a subject of debate. We focused on finding markers of SOC in the density of states (DOS) and on using them to understand the source of magnetocrystalline anisotropy for the case of adatoms and monolayers. Fully relativistic ab initio Korringa-Kohn-Rostoker Green's-function calculations were performed for Fe, Co, and Ni adatoms and monolayers on Au(111) to investigate changes in the orbital-resolved DOS due to a rotation of magnetization. In this way, one can see that a significant contribution to magnetocrystalline anisotropy for adatoms comes from pushing the SOC-split states above or below the Fermi level. As a result of this, the magnetocrystalline anisotropy energy depends crucially on the position of the energy bands of the adatom with respect to the Fermi level of the substrate. This view is supported by model crystal-field Hamiltonian calculations.

  2. Dual-mode operation of 2D material-base hot electron transistors.

    PubMed

    Lan, Yann-Wen; Torres, Carlos M; Zhu, Xiaodan; Qasem, Hussam; Adleman, James R; Lerner, Mitchell B; Tsai, Shin-Hung; Shi, Yumeng; Li, Lain-Jong; Yeh, Wen-Kuan; Wang, Kang L

    2016-09-01

    Vertical hot electron transistors incorporating atomically-thin 2D materials, such as graphene or MoS2, in the base region have been proposed and demonstrated in the development of electronic and optoelectronic applications. To the best of our knowledge, all previous 2D material-base hot electron transistors only considered applying a positive collector-base potential (VCB > 0) as is necessary for the typical unipolar hot-electron transistor behavior. Here we demonstrate a novel functionality, specifically a dual-mode operation, in our 2D material-base hot electron transistors (e.g. with either graphene or MoS2 in the base region) with the application of a negative collector-base potential (VCB < 0). That is, our 2D material-base hot electron transistors can operate in either a hot-electron or a reverse-current dominating mode depending upon the particular polarity of VCB. Furthermore, these devices operate at room temperature and their current gains can be dynamically tuned by varying VCB. We anticipate our multi-functional dual-mode transistors will pave the way towards the realization of novel flexible 2D material-based high-density and low-energy hot-carrier electronic applications.

  3. Unveiling Dimensionality Dependence of Glassy Dynamics: 2D Infinite Fluctuation Eclipses Inherent Structural Relaxation.

    PubMed

    Shiba, Hayato; Yamada, Yasunori; Kawasaki, Takeshi; Kim, Kang

    2016-12-09

    By using large-scale molecular dynamics simulations, the dynamics of two-dimensional (2D) supercooled liquids turns out to be dependent on the system size, while the size dependence is not pronounced in three-dimensional (3D) systems. It is demonstrated that the strong system-size effect in 2D amorphous systems originates from the enhanced fluctuations at long wavelengths which are similar to those of 2D crystal phonons. This observation is further supported by the frequency dependence of the vibrational density of states, consisting of the Debye approximation in the low-wave-number limit. However, the system-size effect in the intermediate scattering function becomes negligible when the length scale is larger than the vibrational amplitude. This suggests that the finite-size effect in a 2D system is transient and also that the structural relaxation itself is not fundamentally different from that in a 3D system. In fact, the dynamic correlation lengths estimated from the bond-breakage function, which do not suffer from those enhanced fluctuations, are not size dependent in either 2D or 3D systems.

  4. Dual-mode operation of 2D material-base hot electron transistors

    PubMed Central

    Lan, Yann-Wen; Torres, Jr., Carlos M.; Zhu, Xiaodan; Qasem, Hussam; Adleman, James R.; Lerner, Mitchell B.; Tsai, Shin-Hung; Shi, Yumeng; Li, Lain-Jong; Yeh, Wen-Kuan; Wang, Kang L.

    2016-01-01

    Vertical hot electron transistors incorporating atomically-thin 2D materials, such as graphene or MoS2, in the base region have been proposed and demonstrated in the development of electronic and optoelectronic applications. To the best of our knowledge, all previous 2D material-base hot electron transistors only considered applying a positive collector-base potential (VCB > 0) as is necessary for the typical unipolar hot-electron transistor behavior. Here we demonstrate a novel functionality, specifically a dual-mode operation, in our 2D material-base hot electron transistors (e.g. with either graphene or MoS2 in the base region) with the application of a negative collector-base potential (VCB < 0). That is, our 2D material-base hot electron transistors can operate in either a hot-electron or a reverse-current dominating mode depending upon the particular polarity of VCB. Furthermore, these devices operate at room temperature and their current gains can be dynamically tuned by varying VCB. We anticipate our multi-functional dual-mode transistors will pave the way towards the realization of novel flexible 2D material-based high-density and low-energy hot-carrier electronic applications. PMID:27581550

  5. Unveiling Dimensionality Dependence of Glassy Dynamics: 2D Infinite Fluctuation Eclipses Inherent Structural Relaxation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shiba, Hayato; Yamada, Yasunori; Kawasaki, Takeshi; Kim, Kang

    2016-12-01

    By using large-scale molecular dynamics simulations, the dynamics of two-dimensional (2D) supercooled liquids turns out to be dependent on the system size, while the size dependence is not pronounced in three-dimensional (3D) systems. It is demonstrated that the strong system-size effect in 2D amorphous systems originates from the enhanced fluctuations at long wavelengths which are similar to those of 2D crystal phonons. This observation is further supported by the frequency dependence of the vibrational density of states, consisting of the Debye approximation in the low-wave-number limit. However, the system-size effect in the intermediate scattering function becomes negligible when the length scale is larger than the vibrational amplitude. This suggests that the finite-size effect in a 2D system is transient and also that the structural relaxation itself is not fundamentally different from that in a 3D system. In fact, the dynamic correlation lengths estimated from the bond-breakage function, which do not suffer from those enhanced fluctuations, are not size dependent in either 2D or 3D systems.

  6. Dual-mode operation of 2D material-base hot electron transistors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lan, Yann-Wen; Torres, Carlos M., Jr.; Zhu, Xiaodan; Qasem, Hussam; Adleman, James R.; Lerner, Mitchell B.; Tsai, Shin-Hung; Shi, Yumeng; Li, Lain-Jong; Yeh, Wen-Kuan; Wang, Kang L.

    2016-09-01

    Vertical hot electron transistors incorporating atomically-thin 2D materials, such as graphene or MoS2, in the base region have been proposed and demonstrated in the development of electronic and optoelectronic applications. To the best of our knowledge, all previous 2D material-base hot electron transistors only considered applying a positive collector-base potential (VCB > 0) as is necessary for the typical unipolar hot-electron transistor behavior. Here we demonstrate a novel functionality, specifically a dual-mode operation, in our 2D material-base hot electron transistors (e.g. with either graphene or MoS2 in the base region) with the application of a negative collector-base potential (VCB < 0). That is, our 2D material-base hot electron transistors can operate in either a hot-electron or a reverse-current dominating mode depending upon the particular polarity of VCB. Furthermore, these devices operate at room temperature and their current gains can be dynamically tuned by varying VCB. We anticipate our multi-functional dual-mode transistors will pave the way towards the realization of novel flexible 2D material-based high-density and low-energy hot-carrier electronic applications.

  7. Efficient 2D MRI relaxometry using compressed sensing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bai, Ruiliang; Cloninger, Alexander; Czaja, Wojciech; Basser, Peter J.

    2015-06-01

    Potential applications of 2D relaxation spectrum NMR and MRI to characterize complex water dynamics (e.g., compartmental exchange) in biology and other disciplines have increased in recent years. However, the large amount of data and long MR acquisition times required for conventional 2D MR relaxometry limits its applicability for in vivo preclinical and clinical MRI. We present a new MR pipeline for 2D relaxometry that incorporates compressed sensing (CS) as a means to vastly reduce the amount of 2D relaxation data needed for material and tissue characterization without compromising data quality. Unlike the conventional CS reconstruction in the Fourier space (k-space), the proposed CS algorithm is directly applied onto the Laplace space (the joint 2D relaxation data) without compressing k-space to reduce the amount of data required for 2D relaxation spectra. This framework is validated using synthetic data, with NMR data acquired in a well-characterized urea/water phantom, and on fixed porcine spinal cord tissue. The quality of the CS-reconstructed spectra was comparable to that of the conventional 2D relaxation spectra, as assessed using global correlation, local contrast between peaks, peak amplitude and relaxation parameters, etc. This result brings this important type of contrast closer to being realized in preclinical, clinical, and other applications.

  8. 2D vs. 3D mammography observer study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fernandez, James Reza F.; Hovanessian-Larsen, Linda; Liu, Brent

    2011-03-01

    Breast cancer is the most common type of non-skin cancer in women. 2D mammography is a screening tool to aid in the early detection of breast cancer, but has diagnostic limitations of overlapping tissues, especially in dense breasts. 3D mammography has the potential to improve detection outcomes by increasing specificity, and a new 3D screening tool with a 3D display for mammography aims to improve performance and efficiency as compared to 2D mammography. An observer study using a mammography phantom was performed to compare traditional 2D mammography with this ne 3D mammography technique. In comparing 3D and 2D mammography there was no difference in calcification detection, and mass detection was better in 2D as compared to 3D. There was a significant decrease in reading time for masses, calcifications, and normals in 3D compared to 2D, however, as well as more favorable confidence levels in reading normal cases. Given the limitations of the mammography phantom used, however, a clearer picture in comparing 3D and 2D mammography may be better acquired with the incorporation of human studies in the future.

  9. Fas-ligand-mediated paracrine T cell regulation by the receptor NKG2D in tumor immunity.

    PubMed

    Groh, Veronika; Smythe, Kimberly; Dai, Zhenpeng; Spies, Thomas

    2006-07-01

    Tumor-associated ligands of the activating NKG2D receptor can effectively stimulate T cell responses at early but not late stages of tumor growth. In late-stage human tumor settings, we observed MIC-driven proliferation of NKG2D(+)CD4(+) T cells that produced the cytokine Fas ligand (FasL) as a result of NKG2D costimulation but were themselves protected from Fas-mediated growth arrest. In contrast, FasL suppressed proliferation of T cells in vitro that did not receive NKG2D costimulation. Similar observations with normal peripheral blood NKG2D(+)CD8(+) T cells demonstrated unrecognized NKG2D-mediated immune functions, whereby FasL release promotes tumor cell death and NKG2D costimulation prolongs T cell survival. These effects, beneficial in conditions of limited NKG2D ligand expression, may be counterweighed when massive expression and shedding of MIC occurs, such as in some late-stage tumors, that causes sustained NKG2D costimulation and population expansion of immunosuppressive T cells.

  10. Near surface radial anisotropy in the Rigan area/SE Iran

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shirzad, Taghi; Shomali, Zaher-Hossein; Riahi, Mohammad-Ali; Jarrahi, Maziar

    2017-01-01

    By analyzing Rayleigh and Love wave empirical Green's functions extracted from ambient seismic noise and earthquake data, we obtained near surface radial anisotropy structure beneath the hidden part of the Kahurak fault in the Rigan region, in the southeast of Iran. The deduced seismic radial anisotropy within the hidden part of the Kahurak fault can reveal record of shallow crustal deformation caused by the Rigan earthquake (MW 6.5) occurred on 20 December 2010. Significant radial anisotropy with positive magnitude (VSH > VSV) appears in the shallow subsurface of the upper part of the crust. The magnitude of radial anisotropy varies from predominantly positive (VSH > VSV) to mostly negative (VSH < VSV) values with increasing depth which is correlated with a known sedimentary layer. The sedimentary layer is observed with prominent positive radial anisotropy (VSH > VSV). The thickness of the sedimentary layer varies between 1 and 3 km from the south to the north beneath the study area with an average radial anisotropy of about 5%. However, cross-section profiles indicate that negative anomaly stretches inside a thick sedimentary layer where the aftershocks occurred. Also, the investigation of cross-section profiles reveals that a dipping angle of the hidden part of Kahurak fault is resolved at approximately 85° using the anisotropy pattern. Moreover, the aftershocks generally occurred in the transitional zones where signs of radial anisotropy anomalies change. Our study indicates that the influence of different resolving powers and path coverage density of Rayleigh and Love waves, which can be artificially interpreted as radial anisotropy, have minor effect on calculated radial anisotropy and they are estimated in the range of - 2% to + 2%.

  11. NKG2D receptor and its ligands in host defense

    PubMed Central

    Lanier, Lewis L.

    2015-01-01

    NKG2D is an activating receptor expressed on the surface of natural killer (NK) cells, CD8+ T cells, and subsets of CD4+ T cells, iNKT cells, and γδ T cells. In humans NKG2D transmits signals by its association with the DAP10 adapter subunit and in mice alternatively spliced isoforms transmit signals either using DAP10 or DAP12 adapter subunits. Although NKG2D is encoded by a highly conserved gene (KLRK1) with limited polymorphism, the receptor recognizes an extensive repertoire of ligands, encoded by at least 8 genes in humans (MICA, MICB, RAET1E, RAET1G, RAET1H, RAET1I, RAET1L, and RAET1N), some with extensive allelic polymorphism. Expression of the NKG2D ligands is tightly regulated at the level of transcription, translation, and post-translation. In general healthy adult tissues do not express NKG2D glycoproteins on the cell surface, but these ligands can be induced by hyper-proliferation and transformation, as well as when cells are infected by pathogens. Thus, the NKG2D pathway serves a mechanism for the immune system to detect and eliminate cells that have undergone “stress”. Viruses and tumor cells have devised numerous strategies to evade detection by the NKG2D surveillance system and diversification of the NKG2D ligand genes likely has been driven by selective pressures imposed by pathogens. NKG2D provides an attractive target for therapeutics in the treatment of infectious diseases, cancer, and autoimmune diseases. PMID:26041808

  12. NKG2D Receptor and Its Ligands in Host Defense.

    PubMed

    Lanier, Lewis L

    2015-06-01

    NKG2D is an activating receptor expressed on the surface of natural killer (NK) cells, CD8(+) T cells, and subsets of CD4(+) T cells, invariant NKT cells (iNKT), and γδ T cells. In humans, NKG2D transmits signals by its association with the DAP10 adapter subunit, and in mice alternatively spliced isoforms transmit signals either using DAP10 or DAP12 adapter subunits. Although NKG2D is encoded by a highly conserved gene (KLRK1) with limited polymorphism, the receptor recognizes an extensive repertoire of ligands, encoded by at least eight genes in humans (MICA, MICB, RAET1E, RAET1G, RAET1H, RAET1I, RAET1L, and RAET1N), some with extensive allelic polymorphism. Expression of the NKG2D ligands is tightly regulated at the level of transcription, translation, and posttranslation. In general, healthy adult tissues do not express NKG2D glycoproteins on the cell surface, but these ligands can be induced by hyperproliferation and transformation, as well as when cells are infected by pathogens. Thus, the NKG2D pathway serves as a mechanism for the immune system to detect and eliminate cells that have undergone "stress." Viruses and tumor cells have devised numerous strategies to evade detection by the NKG2D surveillance system, and diversification of the NKG2D ligand genes likely has been driven by selective pressures imposed by pathogens. NKG2D provides an attractive target for therapeutics in the treatment of infectious diseases, cancer, and autoimmune diseases.

  13. 2-D Versus 3-D Magnetotelluric Data Interpretation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ledo, Juanjo

    2005-09-01

    In recent years, the number of publications dealing with the mathematical and physical 3-D aspects of the magnetotelluric method has increased drastically. However, field experiments on a grid are often impractical and surveys are frequently restricted to single or widely separated profiles. So, in many cases we find ourselves with the following question: is the applicability of the 2-D hypothesis valid to extract geoelectric and geological information from real 3-D environments? The aim of this paper is to explore a few instructive but general situations to understand the basics of a 2-D interpretation of 3-D magnetotelluric data and to determine which data subset (TE-mode or TM-mode) is best for obtaining the electrical conductivity distribution of the subsurface using 2-D techniques. A review of the mathematical and physical fundamentals of the electromagnetic fields generated by a simple 3-D structure allows us to prioritise the choice of modes in a 2-D interpretation of responses influenced by 3-D structures. This analysis is corroborated by numerical results from synthetic models and by real data acquired by other authors. One important result of this analysis is that the mode most unaffected by 3-D effects depends on the position of the 3-D structure with respect to the regional 2-D strike direction. When the 3-D body is normal to the regional strike, the TE-mode is affected mainly by galvanic effects, while the TM-mode is affected by galvanic and inductive effects. In this case, a 2-D interpretation of the TM-mode is prone to error. When the 3-D body is parallel to the regional 2-D strike the TE-mode is affected by galvanic and inductive effects and the TM-mode is affected mainly by galvanic effects, making it more suitable for 2-D interpretation. In general, a wise 2-D interpretation of 3-D magnetotelluric data can be a guide to a reasonable geological interpretation.

  14. Effects of electron pressure anisotropy on current sheet configuration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Artemyev, A. V.; Vasko, I. Y.; Angelopoulos, V.; Runov, A.

    2016-09-01

    Recent spacecraft observations in the Earth's magnetosphere have demonstrated that the magnetotail current sheet can be supported by currents of anisotropic electron population. Strong electron currents are responsible for the formation of very thin (intense) current sheets playing the crucial role in stability of the Earth's magnetotail. We explore the properties of such thin current sheets with hot isotropic ions and cold anisotropic electrons. Decoupling of the motions of ions and electrons results in the generation of a polarization electric field. The distribution of the corresponding scalar potential is derived from the electron pressure balance and the quasi-neutrality condition. We find that electron pressure anisotropy is partially balanced by a field-aligned component of this polarization electric field. We propose a 2D model that describes a thin current sheet supported by currents of anisotropic electrons embedded in an ion-dominated current sheet. Current density profiles in our model agree well with THEMIS observations in the Earth's magnetotail.

  15. The NKG2D ligand ULBP4 binds to TCRgamma9/delta2 and induces cytotoxicity to tumor cells through both TCRgammadelta and NKG2D.

    PubMed

    Kong, Yan; Cao, Wei; Xi, Xueyan; Ma, Chi; Cui, Lianxian; He, Wei

    2009-07-09

    UL16-binding proteins (ULBPs) belong to a family of ligands for NKG2D activating receptor of human natural killer (NK) cells. We previously reported that RAET1E2, a soluble isoform of the RAET1E (ULBP4), inhibits NKG2D-mediated NK cytotoxicity. In this study, we examined whether ULBP4 could be recognized by gammadeltaT cells via TCRgammadelta. Here we show that immobilized soluble ULBP4 (rULBP4) induces the proliferation of human ovarian epithelial carcinoma- or colonic carcinoma-derived Vdelta2(+) T cells in vitro. These Vdelta2(+) T cells secrete Th1 cytokines and display a strong cytolytic activity toward ULBP4-transfected targets. We also show that ULBP4 binds to a soluble chimeric protein containing TCRgamma9/delta2 and activates TCR(-) Jurkat T cells transfected with TCRgamma9/delta2. Moreover, both TCRgammadelta and NKG2D are involved in ULBP4-induced activation and cytotoxicity of gammadeltaT cells. We found that ULBP4 is expressed not only on human tumor cells, but also on Epstein-Barr virus (EBV)-infected peripheral blood cells. Taken together, our data suggest that ULBP4 functions as a ligand for both TCRgammadelta and NKG2D and may play a key role in immune surveillance of tumor development and clearance of viral infection.

  16. Comparison of 2D and 3D gamma analyses

    SciTech Connect

    Pulliam, Kiley B.; Huang, Jessie Y.; Howell, Rebecca M.; Followill, David; Kry, Stephen F.; Bosca, Ryan; O’Daniel, Jennifer

    2014-02-15

    Purpose: As clinics begin to use 3D metrics for intensity-modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) quality assurance, it must be noted that these metrics will often produce results different from those produced by their 2D counterparts. 3D and 2D gamma analyses would be expected to produce different values, in part because of the different search space available. In the present investigation, the authors compared the results of 2D and 3D gamma analysis (where both datasets were generated in the same manner) for clinical treatment plans. Methods: Fifty IMRT plans were selected from the authors’ clinical database, and recalculated using Monte Carlo. Treatment planning system-calculated (“evaluated dose distributions”) and Monte Carlo-recalculated (“reference dose distributions”) dose distributions were compared using 2D and 3D gamma analysis. This analysis was performed using a variety of dose-difference (5%, 3%, 2%, and 1%) and distance-to-agreement (5, 3, 2, and 1 mm) acceptance criteria, low-dose thresholds (5%, 10%, and 15% of the prescription dose), and data grid sizes (1.0, 1.5, and 3.0 mm). Each comparison was evaluated to determine the average 2D and 3D gamma, lower 95th percentile gamma value, and percentage of pixels passing gamma. Results: The average gamma, lower 95th percentile gamma value, and percentage of passing pixels for each acceptance criterion demonstrated better agreement for 3D than for 2D analysis for every plan comparison. The average difference in the percentage of passing pixels between the 2D and 3D analyses with no low-dose threshold ranged from 0.9% to 2.1%. Similarly, using a low-dose threshold resulted in a difference between the mean 2D and 3D results, ranging from 0.8% to 1.5%. The authors observed no appreciable differences in gamma with changes in the data density (constant difference: 0.8% for 2D vs 3D). Conclusions: The authors found that 3D gamma analysis resulted in up to 2.9% more pixels passing than 2D analysis. It must

  17. Ab initio modeling of 2D layered organohalide lead perovskites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fraccarollo, Alberto; Cantatore, Valentina; Boschetto, Gabriele; Marchese, Leonardo; Cossi, Maurizio

    2016-04-01

    A number of 2D layered perovskites A2PbI4 and BPbI4, with A and B mono- and divalent ammonium and imidazolium cations, have been modeled with different theoretical methods. The periodic structures have been optimized (both in monoclinic and in triclinic systems, corresponding to eclipsed and staggered arrangements of the inorganic layers) at the DFT level, with hybrid functionals, Gaussian-type orbitals and dispersion energy corrections. With the same methods, the various contributions to the solid stabilization energy have been discussed, separating electrostatic and dispersion energies, organic-organic intralayer interactions and H-bonding effects, when applicable. Then the electronic band gaps have been computed with plane waves, at the DFT level with scalar and full relativistic potentials, and including the correlation energy through the GW approximation. Spin orbit coupling and GW effects have been combined in an additive scheme, validated by comparing the computed gap with well known experimental and theoretical results for a model system. Finally, various contributions to the computed band gaps have been discussed on some of the studied systems, by varying some geometrical parameters and by substituting one cation in another's place.

  18. Phase diagram of split 2D dipolar spin ice

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roscilde, Tommaso; Henry, Louis-Paul

    2013-03-01

    Long-ranged dipolar interactions, which are very natural in artificial square-lattice spin ice, can mask some of the most relevant aspects of spin-ice physics, as they remove the extensive degeneracy of the ground state manifold to give a unique ground state, and they bind monopole pairs into localized spin flips. Following an earlier idea of G. Möller and R. Moessner [Phys. Rev. Lett. 96, 237202 (2006)] we investigate how adding a third direction to square ice allows to recover fundamental traits of spin-ice physics even in the presence of dipolar interactions. Using Monte Carlo simulations based on a generalized loop algorithm, we explore the phase diagram of square dipolar spin ice in which horizontal and vertical dipoles are spatially separated in a third direction (split 2D spin ice). As a function of the splitting we recover a two-fold degenerate staggered state for coplanar dipoles, and a four-fold degenerate ``Manhattan'' state for strongly split dipoles, separated by a first order transition. The competition between the two states at intermediate splitting leads to a strong suppression of the ordering transition temperatures, and makes space for the observation of a hallmark of spin-ice physics in the paramagnetic phase: pinch points in the static structure factor.

  19. 2-D Model for Normal and Sickle Cell Blood Microcirculation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tekleab, Yonatan; Harris, Wesley

    2011-11-01

    Sickle cell disease (SCD) is a genetic disorder that alters the red blood cell (RBC) structure and function such that hemoglobin (Hb) cannot effectively bind and release oxygen. Previous computational models have been designed to study the microcirculation for insight into blood disorders such as SCD. Our novel 2-D computational model represents a fast, time efficient method developed to analyze flow dynamics, O2 diffusion, and cell deformation in the microcirculation. The model uses a finite difference, Crank-Nicholson scheme to compute the flow and O2 concentration, and the level set computational method to advect the RBC membrane on a staggered grid. Several sets of initial and boundary conditions were tested. Simulation data indicate a few parameters to be significant in the perturbation of the blood flow and O2 concentration profiles. Specifically, the Hill coefficient, arterial O2 partial pressure, O2 partial pressure at 50% Hb saturation, and cell membrane stiffness are significant factors. Results were found to be consistent with those of Le Floch [2010] and Secomb [2006].

  20. Tracking of deformable target in 2D ultrasound images

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Royer, Lucas; Marchal, Maud; Le Bras, Anthony; Dardenne, Guillaume; Krupa, Alexandre

    2015-03-01

    In this paper, we propose a novel approach for automatically tracking deformable target within 2D ultrasound images. Our approach uses only dense information combined with a physically-based model and has therefore the advantage of not using any fiducial marker nor a priori knowledge on the anatomical environment. The physical model is represented by a mass-spring damper system driven by different types of forces where the external forces are obtained by maximizing image similarity metric between a reference target and a deformed target across the time. This deformation is represented by a parametric warping model where the optimal parameters are estimated from the intensity variation. This warping function is well-suited to represent localized deformations in the ultrasound images because it directly links the forces applied on each mass with the motion of all the pixels in its vicinity. The internal forces constrain the deformation to physically plausible motions, and reduce the sensitivity to the speckle noise. The approach was validated on simulated and real data, both for rigid and free-form motions of soft tissues. The results are very promising since the deformable target could be tracked with a good accuracy for both types of motion. Our approach opens novel possibilities for computer-assisted interventions where deformable organs are involved and could be used as a new tool for interactive tracking of soft tissues in ultrasound images.

  1. Magnetic-field-induced quantum criticality in a planar ferromagnet with single-ion anisotropy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mercaldo, M. T.; Rabuffo, I.; De Cesare, L.; Caramico D'Auria, A.

    2014-08-01

    We analyze the effects induced by single-ion anisotropy on quantum criticality in a d-dimensional spin-3/2 planar ferromagnet. To tackle this problem we employ the two-time Green's function method, using the Tyablikov decoupling for exchange interactions and the Anderson-Callen decoupling for single-ion anisotropy. In our analysis the role of non-thermal control parameter which drives the quantum phase transition is played by a longitudinal external magnetic field. We find that the single-ion anisotropy has substantial effects on the structure of the phase diagram close to the quantum critical point.

  2. Probing transverse magnetic anisotropy by electronic transport through a single-molecule magnet

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Misiorny, M.; Burzurí, E.; Gaudenzi, R.; Park, K.; Leijnse, M.; Wegewijs, M. R.; Paaske, J.; Cornia, A.; van der Zant, H. S. J.

    2015-01-01

    By means of electronic transport, we study the transverse magnetic anisotropy of an individual Fe4 single-molecule magnet (SMM) embedded in a three-terminal junction. In particular, we determine in situ the transverse anisotropy of the molecule from the pronounced intensity modulations of the linear conductance, which are observed as a function of applied magnetic field. The proposed technique works at temperatures exceeding the energy scale of the tunnel splittings of the SMM. We deduce that the transverse anisotropy for a single Fe4 molecule captured in a junction is substantially larger than the bulk value.

  3. Fluorescence anisotropy of UV-irradiated viruses.

    PubMed

    Hörer, O L

    1989-01-01

    The steady-state fluorescence anisotropy measurements on influenza and parainfluenza viruses, showed no changes in the microviscosity of the viral membranes after exposure to UV-irradiation, when a fluorescent probe was used, but the intrinsic fluorescence of viral proteins presented, under the same experimental conditions, a significant difference of anisotropy behaviour in the two viruses used.

  4. Effects of Surface Ligand Density on Lipid-Monolayer-mediated 2D Assembly of Proteins

    SciTech Connect

    Fukuto, M.; Wang, S; Lohr, M; Kewalramani, S; Yang, L

    2010-01-01

    The two-dimensional (2D) assembly of the protein streptavidin on a biotin-bearing lipid monolayer was studied as a function of the surface density of biotin, a protein-binding ligand, by means of in situ X-ray scattering and optical Brewster angle microscopy measurements at the liquid-vapor interface. Although this model system has been studied extensively, the relationship between the surface biotin density and the adsorption, 2D phase behavior, and binding state of streptavidin has yet to be determined quantitatively. The observed equilibrium phase behavior provides direct structural evidence that the 2D crystallization of the lipid-bound streptavidin occurs as a density-driven first-order phase transition. The minimum biotin density required for the 2D crystallization of streptavidin is found to be remarkably close to the density of the ligand-binding sites in the protein crystal. Moreover, both above and below this transition, the observed biotin-density dependence of protein adsorption is well described by the binding of biotin-bearing lipids at both of the two available sites per streptavidin molecule. These results imply that even in the low-density noncrystalline phase, the bound proteins share a common, fixed orientation relative to the surface normal, and that the 2D crystallization occurs when the lateral protein density reaches 50-70% of the 2D crystal density. This study demonstrates that in addition to a well-defined molecular orientation, high lateral packing density is essential to the 2D crystallization of proteins.

  5. Non-trivial θ-vacuum effects in the 2-d O(3) model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bögli, M.; Niedermayer, F.; Pepe, M.; Wiese, U.-J.

    2012-04-01

    We study θ-vacua in the 2-d lattice O(3) model using the standard action and an optimized constraint action with very small cut-off effects, combined with the geometric topological charge. Remarkably, dislocation lattice artifacts do not spoil the non-trivial continuum limit at θ ne 0 , and there are different continuum theories for each value 0 ≤ θ ≤ π. A very precise Monte Carlo study of the step scaling function indirectly confirms the exact S-matrix of the 2-d O(3) model at θ = π.

  6. Anisotropy in solar wind plasma turbulence.

    PubMed

    Oughton, S; Matthaeus, W H; Wan, M; Osman, K T

    2015-05-13

    A review of spectral anisotropy and variance anisotropy for solar wind fluctuations is given, with the discussion covering inertial range and dissipation range scales. For the inertial range, theory, simulations and observations are more or less in accord, in that fluctuation energy is found to be primarily in modes with quasi-perpendicular wavevectors (relative to a suitably defined mean magnetic field), and also that most of the fluctuation energy is in the vector components transverse to the mean field. Energy transfer in the parallel direction and the energy levels in the parallel components are both relatively weak. In the dissipation range, observations indicate that variance anisotropy tends to decrease towards isotropic levels as the electron gyroradius is approached; spectral anisotropy results are mixed. Evidence for and against wave interpretations and turbulence interpretations of these features will be discussed. We also present new simulation results concerning evolution of variance anisotropy for different classes of initial conditions, each with typical background solar wind parameters.

  7. Double resonance rotational spectroscopy of CH2D+

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Töpfer, Matthias; Jusko, Pavol; Schlemmer, Stephan; Asvany, Oskar

    2016-09-01

    Context. Deuterated forms of CH are thought to be responsible for deuterium enrichment in lukewarm astronomical environments. There is no unambiguous detection of CH2D+ in space to date. Aims: Four submillimetre rotational lines of CH2D+ are documented in the literature. Our aim is to present a complete dataset of highly resolved rotational lines, including millimetre (mm) lines needed for a potential detection. Methods: We used a low-temperature ion trap and applied a novel IR-mm-wave double resonance method to measure the rotational lines of CH2D+. Results: We measured 21 low-lying (J ≤ 4) rotational transitions of CH2D+ between 23 GHz and 1.1 THz with accuracies close to 2 ppb.

  8. Recovering 3D particle size distributions from 2D sections

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cuzzi, Jeffrey N.; Olson, Daniel M.

    2017-03-01

    We discuss different ways to convert observed, apparent particle size distributions from 2D sections (thin sections, SEM maps on planar surfaces, etc.) into true 3D particle size distributions. We give a simple, flexible, and practical method to do this; show which of these techniques gives the most faithful conversions; and provide (online) short computer codes to calculate both 2D-3D recoveries and simulations of 2D observations by random sectioning. The most important systematic bias of 2D sectioning, from the standpoint of most chondrite studies, is an overestimate of the abundance of the larger particles. We show that fairly good recoveries can be achieved from observed size distributions containing 100-300 individual measu