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Sample records for 2d anisotropy function

  1. Magnetic anisotropy of metal functionalized phthalocyanine 2D networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhu, Guojun; Zhang, Yun; Xiao, Huaping; Cao, Juexian

    2016-06-01

    The magnetic anisotropy of metal including Cr, Mn, Fe, Co, Mo, Tc, Ru, Rh, W, Re, Os, Ir atoms functionalized phthalocyanine networks have been investigated with first-principles calculations. The magnetic moments can be expressed as 8-n μB with n the electronic number of outmost d shell in the transition metals. The huge magnetocrystalline anisotropy energy (MAE) is obtained by torque method. Especially, the MAE of Re functionalized phthalocyanine network is about 20 meV with an easy axis perpendicular to the plane of phthalocyanine network. The MAE is further manipulated by applying the external biaxial strain. It is found that the MAE is linear increasing with the external strain in the range of -2% to 2%. Our results indicate an effective approach to modulate the MAE for practical application.

  2. Evaluation of TG-43 recommended 2D-anisotropy function for elongated brachytherapy sources.

    PubMed

    Awan, Shahid B; Meigooni, Ali S; Mokhberiosgouei, Ramin; Hussain, Manzoor

    2006-11-01

    The original and updated protocols recommended by Task Group 43 from the American Association of Physicists in Medicine (i.e., TG-43 and TG-43U1, respectively), have been introduced to unify brachytherapy source dosimetry around the world. Both of these protocols are based on experiences with sources less than 1.0 cm in length. TG-43U1 recommends that for 103Pd sources, 2D anisotropy function F(r, theta), should be tabulated at a minimum for radial distances of 0.5, 1.0, 2.0, 3.0, and 5.0 cm. Anisotropy functions defined in these protocols are only valid when the point of calculation does not fall on the active length of the source. However, for elongated brachytherapy sources (active length >1 cm), some of the calculation points with r < 1/2 active length and small theta may fall on the source itself and there is no clear recommendation to handle this situation. In addition, the linear interpolation technique recommended by TG-43U1 is found to be valid for seed types of sources as the difference between F(r, theta) for two consecutive radii is <10%. However, in the present investigations it has been found that values of F(r, 5 degrees) for a 5 cm long RadioCoil 103Pd source at radial distances of 2.5, 3.0, and 4.0 cm were 2.95, 1.74, and 1.19, respectively, with differences up to about a factor of 3. Therefore, the validity of the linear interpolation technique for an elongated brachytherapy source with such a large variation in F(r, theta) needs to be investigated. In this project, application of the TG-43U1 formalism for dose calculation around an elongated RadioCoil 103Pd brachytherapy source has been investigated. In addition, the linear interpolation techniques as described in TG-43U1 for seed type sources have been evaluated for a 5.0 cm long RadioCoil 103Pd brachytherapy source. Application of a polynomial fit to F(r, theta) has also been investigated as an alternate approach to the linear interpolation technique. The results of these investigations

  3. Phase states of a 2D easy-plane ferromagnet with strong inclined anisotropy

    SciTech Connect

    Fridman, Yu. A. Klevets, F. N.; Gorelikov, G. A.; Meleshko, A. G.

    2012-12-15

    We investigate the spin states of a 2D film exhibiting easy-axis anisotropy and a strong single-ion inclined anisotropy whose axis forms a certain angle with the normal to the film surface. Such a system may have an angular ferromagnetic phase, a spatially inhomogeneous state, and a quadrupole phase, whose realization depends substantially on the inclined anisotropy and the orientation of the wavevector in the film plane.

  4. Easy-plane anisotropy stabilizes skyrmions in 2D chiral magnets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rowland, James; Banerjee, Sumilan; Randeria, Mohit

    2014-03-01

    Experiments on two-dimensional (2D) chiral magnetic materials, like thin films of non-centrosymmetric helimagnets and metallic magnetic layers, have revealed interesting spatially modulated spin textures such as spirals and skyrmions. Motivated by this we study the ground-state phase diagram for a 2D chiral magnet in a magnetic field using a Ginzburg-Landau model, with Dzyaloshinskii-Moriya (DM) term, anisotropic exchange and single-ion anisotropy. The easy-axis anisotropy region of the phase diagram has been well-studied, whereas the easy-plane region has not been discussed. In the easy-plane region, we find an unexpectedly large stable skyrmion crystal (SkX) phase in a perpendicular magnetic field. We find re-entrant transitions between ferromagnetic and SkX phases, and intriguing internal structure of the skyrmion core with two-length scales. We argue that such an easy-plane anisotropy arises naturally from the compass terms induced by spin-orbit coupling that is also responsible for the DM term, as proposed recently in the context of oxide interfaces. We also discuss the phase diagram in a tilted field configuration, relevant for torque magnetometry experiments. JR and MR supported by NSF MRSEC DMR-0820414 and SB by DOE-BES DE-SC0005035.

  5. Strain-induced Fermi contour anisotropy of GaAs (311)A 2D holes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shabani, Javad; Shayegan, Mansour; Winkler, Roland

    2008-03-01

    There is considerable current interest in electronic properties of two-dimensional (2D) carriers whose energy bands are spin-split at finite values of in-plane wave vector, thanks to the spin-orbit interaction and the lack of inversion symmetry. We report experimental and theoretical results revealing that the spin-subband Fermi contours of the heavy and light heavy-holes (HHh and HHl) can be tuned in high mobility GaAs (311)A 2D hole systems via the application of symmetry-breaking in-plane strain. Our calculations show that the HHl spin-subband Fermi contour is circular but the HHh spin-subband Fermi contour is distorted. Experimentally, we probe the Fermi contour anisotropy by measuring the magneto-resistance commensurability peaks induced by square arrays of antidots. When the spin splitting is sufficiently large, the magneto-resistance trace exhibits two peaks, providing clear evidence for spin-resolved ballistic transport. The experimental results are in good agreement with the calculations, and confirm that the majority spin-subband (HHh) has a severely distorted Fermi contour whose anisotropy can be tuned with strain while Fermi contour of the minority spin-subband (HHl) remains nearly isotropic.

  6. Spin-orbit coupling, compass anisotropy and skyrmions in 2D chiral magnets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Banerjee, Sumilan; Erten, Onur; Rowland, James; Randeria, Mohit

    2014-03-01

    Spin-orbit coupling (SOC) gives rise to the chiral Dzyaloshinskii-Moriya (DM) interaction in systems that lack inversion symmetry like non-centrosymmetric helimagnets, and two-dimensional magnetism at surfaces and interfaces. We explore here the role of SOC in several microscopic exchange mechanisms - superexchange, double exchange and RKKY - in insulating and itinerant electron systems. We show that, in addition to giving rise to the DM interaction, SOC generically leads to compass anisotropy terms. Although seemingly negligible, the compass terms are energetically comparable to DM and play a crucial role in deciding the fate of the magnetic ground state. We demonstrate that the compass terms act as an effective easy-plane anisotropy in 2D chiral magnets and lead to extremely large region of stable skyrmion crystal (SkX) phase in a perpendicular magnetic field. We discuss the electronic properties of SkX in this hitherto unexplored region of the anisotropy-field plane for itinerant systems. We also comment on the possibility of realizing such SkX phase in the oxide interfaces. JR and MR supported by NSF MRSEC DMR-0820414 and SB by DOE-BES DE-SC0005035.

  7. Magnetic phase diagram of quasi-2D quantum Heisenberg antiferromagnets with XY anisotropy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xiao, Fan; Landee, Christopher; Turnbull, Mark; Fortune, Nathanael; Hannahs, Scott

    2012-02-01

    The magnetic phase diagram of a quasi-2D quantum Heisenberg antiferromagnetic compound Cu(pz)2(ClO4)2 [1] has been determined by experimental measurements; TN shows a strong field dependence. The data reveal the presence of a small (0.5%) amount of XY anisotropy. QMC simulations have been performed to examine the role of the anisotropy and the interlayer exchange (') upon the phase diagram [2,3]. Comparison of the QMC results with the experimental phase diagram will be presented. [4pt] [1] F. Xiao, F. M. Woodward, C. P. Landee, M. M. Turnbull, C. Mielke, N. Harrison, T. Lancaster, S. J. Blundell, P. J. Baker, P. Babkevich, and F. L. Pratt. Phys. Rev. B, 79(13): 134412 (2009) [0pt] [2] A. Cuccoli, T. Roscilde, R. Vaia, and P. Verrucchi. Phys. Rev. B, 68(6):060402 (2003). [0pt] [3] A. Cuccoli, T. Roscilde, R. Vaia, and P. Verrucchi. Phys. Rev. Lett., 90(16): 167205 (2003).

  8. Localization at the edge of a 2D topological insulator by Kondo impurities with random anisotropies.

    PubMed

    Altshuler, B L; Aleiner, I L; Yudson, V I

    2013-08-23

    We consider chiral electrons moving along the one-dimensional helical edge of a two-dimensional topological insulator and interacting with a disordered chain of Kondo impurities. Assuming the electron-spin couplings of random anisotropies, we map this system to the problem of the pinning of the charge density wave by the disordered potential. This mapping proves that arbitrary weak anisotropic disorder in coupling of chiral electrons with spin impurities leads to the Anderson localization of the edge states.

  9. Magnetic Anisotropy in Functionalized Bipyridyl Cryptates.

    PubMed

    Kreidt, Elisabeth; Bischof, Caroline; Platas-Iglesias, Carlos; Seitz, Michael

    2016-06-01

    The magnetic properties of molecular lanthanoid complexes are very important for a variety of scientific and technological applications, with the unique magnetic anisotropy being one of the most important features. In this context, a very rigid tris(bipyridine) cryptand was synthesized with a primary amine functionality for future bioconjugation. The magnetic anisotropy was investigated for the corresponding paramagnetic ytterbium cryptate. With the use of a combination of density functional theory calculations and lanthanoid-induced NMR shift analysis, the magnetic susceptibility tensor was determined and compared to the unfunctionalized cryptate analogue. The size and orientation of the axial and rhombic tensor components show remarkably great resilience toward the decrease of local symmetry around the metal and anion exchange in the inner coordination sphere. In addition, the functionalized ytterbium cryptate also exhibits efficient near-IR luminescence. PMID:27214575

  10. Automating pattern quantification: new tools for analysing anisotropy and inhomogeneity of 2d patterns

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gerik, A.; Kruhl, J. H.

    2006-12-01

    The quantitative analysis of patterns as a geometric arrangement of material domains with specific geometric or crystallographic properties such as shape, size or crystallographic orientation has been shown to be a valuable tool with a wide field of applications in geo- and material sciences. Pattern quantification allows an unbiased comparison of experimentally generated or theoretical patterns with patterns of natural origin. In addition to this, the application of different methods can also provide information about different pattern forming processes. This information includes the distribution of crystals in a matrix - to analyze i.e. the nature and orientation of flow within a melt - or the governing shear strain regime at the point of time the pattern was formed as well as nature of fracture patterns of different scales, all of which are of great interest not only in structural and engineering geology, but also in material sciences. Different approaches to this problem have been discussed over the past fifteen years, yet only few of the methods were applied successfully at least to single examples (i.e. Velde et al., 1990; Harris et al., 1991; Peternell et al., 2003; Volland &Kruhl, 2004). One of the reasons for this has been the high expenditure of time that was necessary to prepare and analyse the samples. To overcome this problem, a first selection of promising methods have been implemented into a growing collection of software tools: (1) The modifications that Harris et al. (1991) have suggested for the Cantor's dust method (Velde et al., 1990) and which have been applied by Volland &Kruhl (2004) to show the anisotropy in a breccia sample. (2) A map-counting method that uses local box-counting dimensions to map the inhomogeneity of a crystal distribution pattern. Peternell et al. (2003) have used this method to analyze the distribution of phenocrysts in a porphyric granite. (3) A modified perimeter method that relates the directional dependence of the

  11. Functionalized 2D atomic sheets with new properties

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sun, Qiang; Zhou, Jian; Wang, Qian; Jena, Puru

    2011-03-01

    Due to the unique atomic structure and novel physical and chemical properties, graphene has sparked tremendous theoretical and experimental efforts to explore other 2D atomic sheets like B-N, Al-N, and Zn-O, where the two components offer much more complexities and flexibilities in surface modifications. Using First principles calculations based on density functional theory, we have systematically studied the semi- and fully-decorated 2D sheets with H and F and Cl. We have found that the electronic structures and magnetic properties can be effectively tuned, and the system can be a direct or an indirect semiconductor or even a half-metal, and the system can be made ferromagnetic, antiferromagnetic, or magnetically degenerate depending upon how the surface is functionalized. Discussions are made for the possible device applications.

  12. 2D Potential theory using complex functions and conformal mapping

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Le Maire, Pauline; Munschy, Marc

    2016-04-01

    For infinitely horizontally extended bodies, functions that describe potential and field equations (gravity and magnetics) outside bodies are 2D and harmonic. The consequence of this property is that potential and field equations can be written as complex analytic functions. We define these complex functions whose real part is the commonly used real function and imaginary part is its Hilbert transform. Using data or synthetic cases the transformation is easily performed in the Fourier domain by setting to zero all values for negative frequencies. Written as complex functions of the complex variable, equations of potential and field in gravity and magnetics for different kinds of geometries are simple and correspond to powers of the inverse of the distance. For example, it is easily shown that for a tilted dyke, the dip and the apparent inclination have the same effect on the function and consequently that it is not possible, with data, to compute one of both values without knowing the other. Conformal mapping is an original way to display potential field functions. Considering that the complex variable corresponds to the real axis, complex potential field functions resume to a limaçon, a curve formed by the path of the point fixed to a circle when that circle rolls around the outside of another circle. For example, the point corresponding to the maximum distance to the origin of the complex magnetic field due to a cylinder, corresponds to the maximum of the analytic signal as defined by Nabighan in 1972 and its phase corresponds to the apparent inclination. Several applications are shown in different geological contexts using aeromagnetic data.

  13. Functional characterization of CYP2D6 enhancer polymorphisms

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Danxin; Papp, Audrey C.; Sun, Xiaochun

    2015-01-01

    CYP2D6 metabolizes nearly 25% of clinically used drugs. Genetic polymorphisms cause large inter-individual variability in CYP2D6 enzyme activity and are currently used as biomarker to predict CYP2D6 metabolizer phenotype. Previously, we had identified a region 115 kb downstream of CYP2D6 as enhancer for CYP2D6, containing two completely linked single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs), rs133333 and rs5758550, associated with enhanced transcription. However, the enhancer effect on CYP2D6 expression, and the causative variant, remained to be ascertained. To characterize the CYP2D6 enhancer element, we applied chromatin conformation capture combined with the next-generation sequencing (4C assays) and chromatin immunoprecipitation with P300 antibody, in HepG2 and human primary culture hepatocytes. The results confirmed the role of the previously identified enhancer region in CYP2D6 expression, expanding the number of candidate variants to three highly linked SNPs (rs133333, rs5758550 and rs4822082). Among these, only rs5758550 demonstrated regulating enhancer activity in a reporter gene assay. Use of clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats mediated genome editing in HepG2 cells targeting suspected enhancer regions decreased CYP2D6 mRNA expression by 70%, only upon deletion of the rs5758550 region. These results demonstrate robust effects of both the enhancer element and SNP rs5758550 on CYP2D6 expression, supporting consideration of rs5758550 for CYP2D6 genotyping panels to yield more accurate phenotype prediction. PMID:25381333

  14. Enhanced Collective Magnetic Properties in 2D Monolayers of Iron Oxide Nanoparticles Favored by Local Order and Local 1D Shape Anisotropy.

    PubMed

    Toulemon, Delphine; Liu, Yu; Cattoën, Xavier; Leuvrey, Cédric; Bégin-Colin, Sylvie; Pichon, Benoit P

    2016-02-16

    Magnetic nanoparticle arrays represent a very attractive research field because their collective properties can be efficiently modulated as a function of the structure of the assembly. Nevertheless, understanding the way dipolar interactions influence the intrinsic magnetic properties of nanoparticles still remains a great challenge. In this study, we report on the preparation of 2D assemblies of iron oxide nanoparticles as monolayers deposited onto substrates. Assemblies have been prepared by using the Langmuir-Blodgett technique and the SAM assisted assembling technique combined to CuAAC "click" reaction. These techniques afford to control the formation of well-defined monolayers of nanoparticles on large areas. The LB technique controls local ordering of nanoparticles, while adjusting the kinetics of CuAAC "click" reaction strongly affects the spatial arrangement of nanoparticles in monolayers. Fast kinetics favor disordered assemblies while slow kinetics favor the formation of chain-like structures. Such anisotropic assemblies are induced by dipolar interactions between nanoparticles as no magnetic field is applied and no solvent evaporation is performed. The collective magnetic properties of monolayers are studied as a function of average interparticle distance, local order and local shape anisotropy. We demonstrate that local control on spatial arrangement of nanoparticles in monolayers significantly strengthens dipolar interactions which enhances collective properties and results in possible super ferromagnetic order. PMID:26807596

  15. On anisotropy function in crystal growth simulations using Lattice Boltzmann equation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Younsi, Amina; Cartalade, Alain

    2016-11-01

    In this paper, we present the ability of the Lattice Boltzmann (LB) equation, usually applied to simulate fluid flows, to simulate various shapes of crystals. Crystal growth is modeled with a phase-field model for a pure substance, numerically solved with a LB method in 2D and 3D. This study focuses on the anisotropy function that is responsible for the anisotropic surface tension between the solid phase and the liquid phase. The anisotropy function involves the unit normal vectors of the interface, defined by gradients of phase-field. Those gradients have to be consistent with the underlying lattice of the LB method in order to avoid unwanted effects of numerical anisotropy. Isotropy of the solution is obtained when the directional derivatives method, specific for each lattice, is applied for computing the gradient terms. With the central finite differences method, the phase-field does not match with its rotation and the solution is not any more isotropic. Next, the method is applied to simulate simultaneous growth of several crystals, each of them being defined by its own anisotropy function. Finally, various shapes of 3D crystals are simulated with standard and nonstandard anisotropy functions which favor growth in <100>-, <110>- and <111>-directions.

  16. 13C and 15N—Chemical Shift Anisotropy of Ampicillin and Penicillin-V Studied by 2D-PASS and CP/MAS NMR

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Antzutkin, Oleg N.; Lee, Young K.; Levitt, Malcolm H.

    1998-11-01

    The principal values of the chemical shift tensors of all13C and15N sites in two antibiotics, ampicillin and penicillin-V, were determined by 2-dimensionalphaseadjustedspinningsideband (2D-PASS) and conventional CP/MAS experiments. The13C and15N chemical shift anisotropies (CSA), and their confidence limits, were evaluated using a Mathematica program. The CSA values suggest a revised assignment of the 2-methyl13C sites in the case of ampicillin. We speculate on a relationship between the chemical shift principal values of many of the13C and15N sites and the β-lactam ring conformation.

  17. 2D He+ pickup ion velocity distribution functions: STEREO PLASTIC observations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Drews, C.; Berger, L.; Taut, A.; Peleikis, T.; Wimmer-Schweingruber, R. F.

    2015-03-01

    Context. He+ pickup ions are either born from the ionization of interstellar neutral helium inside our heliosphere, the so-called interstellar pickup ions, or through the interaction of solar wind ions with small dust particles, the so-called inner source of pickup ions. Until now, most observations of pickup ions were limited to reduced 1D velocity spectra, which are insufficient to study certain characteristics of the He+ velocity distribution function (VDF). Aims: It is generally assumed that rapid pitch-angle scattering of freshly created pickup ions quickly leads to a fully isotropic He+ VDF. In light of recent observations, this assumption has found to be oversimplified and needs to be reinvestigated. Methods: Using He+ pickup ion data from the PLASTIC instrument on board the STEREO A spacecraft, we reconstruct a reduced form of the He+ VDF in two dimensions. This allows us to study relative changes of the 2D He+ VDF as a function of the configuration of the heliospheric magnetic field. Results: Our observations show that the He+ VDF is highly anisotropic and even indicates that, at least for certain configurations of B, it is not fully gyrotropic. Our results further suggest, that the observed velocity and pitch angle of He+ depends strongly on the local solar magnetic field vector, B, the ecliptic longitude, λ, the solar wind speed, vsw, and the global distribution of B. Conclusions: We found two distinct signatures that systematically change as a function of the alignment of B: (1) a ring beam distribution that is most pronounced at wsw> 0.5 and likely attributed to interstellar He+; (2) a beam signature aligned parallel to B that is most pronounced at wsw < 0.5 and attributed to inner-source He+. The strong anisotropy and the aforementioned dependencies of the He+ VDF also imply that observations of 1D velocity spectra of He+ pickup ions are potentially deceiving.

  18. Force Density Function Relationships in 2-D Granular Media

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Youngquist, Robert C.; Metzger, Philip T.; Kilts, Kelly N.

    2004-01-01

    An integral transform relationship is developed to convert between two important probability density functions (distributions) used in the study of contact forces in granular physics. Developing this transform has now made it possible to compare and relate various theoretical approaches with one another and with the experimental data despite the fact that one may predict the Cartesian probability density and another the force magnitude probability density. Also, the transforms identify which functional forms are relevant to describe the probability density observed in nature, and so the modified Bessel function of the second kind has been identified as the relevant form for the Cartesian probability density corresponding to exponential forms in the force magnitude distribution. Furthermore, it is shown that this transform pair supplies a sufficient mathematical framework to describe the evolution of the force magnitude distribution under shearing. Apart from the choice of several coefficients, whose evolution of values must be explained in the physics, this framework successfully reproduces the features of the distribution that are taken to be an indicator of jamming and unjamming in a granular packing. Key words. Granular Physics, Probability Density Functions, Fourier Transforms

  19. Density functional theory for polymeric systems in 2D

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Słyk, Edyta; Roth, Roland; Bryk, Paweł

    2016-06-01

    We propose density functional theory for polymeric fluids in two dimensions. The approach is based on Wertheim’s first order thermodynamic perturbation theory (TPT) and closely follows density functional theory for polymers proposed by Yu and Wu (2002 J. Chem. Phys. 117 2368). As a simple application we evaluate the density profiles of tangent hard-disk polymers at hard walls. The theoretical predictions are compared against the results of the Monte Carlo simulations. We find that for short chain lengths the theoretical density profiles are in an excellent agreement with the Monte Carlo data. The agreement is less satisfactory for longer chains. The performance of the theory can be improved by recasting the approach using the self-consistent field theory formalism. When the self-avoiding chain statistics is used, the theory yields a marked improvement in the low density limit. Further improvements for long chains could be reached by going beyond the first order of TPT.

  20. Density functional theory for polymeric systems in 2D.

    PubMed

    Słyk, Edyta; Roth, Roland; Bryk, Paweł

    2016-06-22

    We propose density functional theory for polymeric fluids in two dimensions. The approach is based on Wertheim's first order thermodynamic perturbation theory (TPT) and closely follows density functional theory for polymers proposed by Yu and Wu (2002 J. Chem. Phys. 117 2368). As a simple application we evaluate the density profiles of tangent hard-disk polymers at hard walls. The theoretical predictions are compared against the results of the Monte Carlo simulations. We find that for short chain lengths the theoretical density profiles are in an excellent agreement with the Monte Carlo data. The agreement is less satisfactory for longer chains. The performance of the theory can be improved by recasting the approach using the self-consistent field theory formalism. When the self-avoiding chain statistics is used, the theory yields a marked improvement in the low density limit. Further improvements for long chains could be reached by going beyond the first order of TPT. PMID:27115343

  1. Controlling the Structural and Functional Anisotropy of Engineered Cardiac Tissues

    PubMed Central

    Bursac, N

    2014-01-01

    The ability to control the degree of structural and functional anisotropy in 3D engineered cardiac tissues would have high utility for both in vitro studies of cardiac muscle physiology and pathology as well as potential tissue engineering therapies for myocardial infarction. Here, we applied a high aspect ratio soft lithography technique to generate network-like tissue patches seeded with neonatal rat cardiomyocytes. Fabricating longer elliptical pores within the patch networks increased the overall cardiomyocyte and extracellular matrix (ECM) alignment within the patch. Improved uniformity of cell and matrix alignment yielded an increase in anisotropy of action potential propagation and faster longitudinal conduction velocity (LCV). Cardiac tissue patches with a higher degree of cardiomyocyte alignment and electrical anisotropy also demonstrated greater isometric twitch forces. After two weeks of culture, specific measures of electrical and contractile function (LCV = 26.8 ± 0.8 cm/s, specific twitch force = 8.9 ± 1.1 mN/mm2 for the longest pores studied) were comparable to those of neonatal rat myocardium. We have thus described methodology for engineering of highly functional 3D engineered cardiac tissues with controllable degree of anisotropy. PMID:24717534

  2. Magnetic properties of Ni(C 5H 5N) 2Ni(CN) 4 - 2d S = 1 Heisenberg magnet with easy-axis anisotropy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Čižmár, E.; Kačmár, M.; Orendáč, M.; Orendáčová, A.; Černák, J.; Feher, A.

    1999-05-01

    Specific heat studies of structurally layered powdered Ni(C 5H 5N) 2Ni(CN) 4 have been carried out from 100 mK to 2.5 K in zero magnetic field. A λ-like anomaly with a strong rounding-off observed at 0.9 K might be ascribed to the phase transition into the magnetically ordered state. Consequently, easy-axis type of anisotropy introduced by C 5H 5N enabled analysing the system using a 2d S = {1}/{2} Ising model for the square lattice and a Schottky anomaly yielding D/ kB = - 1.9 K and | J/ kB| = 0.35 K.

  3. Monochromatic Wannier Functions in the Theory of 2D Photonic Crystals and Photonic Crystal Fibers

    SciTech Connect

    Mazhirina, Yu. A.; Melnikov, L. A.

    2011-10-03

    The use of the monochromatic Wannier functions which have the temporal dependence as (exp(-i{omega}t)) in the theory of 2D photonic crystals and photonic crystal fibers is proposed. Corresponding equations and formulae are derived and discussed.

  4. Crustal anisotropy along the North Anatolian Fault Zone from receiver functions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Licciardi, Andrea; Eken, Tuna; Taymaz, Tuncay; Piana Agostinetti, Nicola; Yolsal-Çevikbilen, Seda; Tilmann, Frederik

    2016-04-01

    The North Anatolian Fault Zone (NAFZ) that is considered to be one of the largest plate-bounding transform faults separates the Anatolian Plate to the south from the Eurasian Plate to the north. A proper estimation of the crustal anisotropy in the area is a key point to understand the present and past tectonic processes associated with the plate boundary as well as for assessing its strength and stability. In this work we used data from the North Anatolian Fault (NAF) passive seismic experiment in order to retrieve the anisotropic properties of the crust by means of the receiver function (RF) method. This approach provides robust constraints on the location at depth of anisotropic bodies compared to other seismological tools like S-waves splitting observations where anisotropic parameters are obtained through a path-integrated measurement process over depth. We computed RFs from teleseismic events, for 39 stations with a recording period of nearly 2 years, providing an excellent azimuthal coverage. The observed azimuthal variations in amplitudes and delay times on the Radial and Transverse RF indicate the presence of anisotropy in the crust. Isotropic and anisotropic effects on the RFs are analyzed separately after harmonic decomposition of the RF dataset (Bianchi et al. 2010). Pseudo 2D profiles are built to observe both the seismic isotropic structure and the depth-dependent lateral variations of crustal anisotropy in the area, including orientation of the symmetry axis. Preliminary results show that the isotropic structure is characterized by a complex crustal setting above a nearly flat Moho at a depth of ~40 km in the central portion of the studied area. Strong anisotropy is present in the upper crust along some portions of the NAFZ and the Ezinepazari-Sungurlu Fault (ESF), with a strong correlation between the orientation of the symmetry axis of anisotropy and the strike of the main geological structures. More complex patterns of anisotropy are present in the

  5. A functional technique based on the Euclidean algorithm with applications to 2-D acoustic diffractal diffusers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cortés-Vega, Luis

    2015-09-01

    We built, based on the Euclidean algorithm, a functional technique, which allows to discover a direct proof of Chinese Remainder Theorem. Afterwards, by using this functional approach, we present some applications to 2-D acoustic diffractal diffusers. The novelty of the method is their functional algorithmic character, which improves ideas, as well as, other results of the author and his collaborators in a previous work.

  6. Synthesize function for describing distorted 2-D magnetotelluric responses caused by topography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Promdee, Ninrat; Sarakorn, Weerachai

    2016-04-01

    In this research, the distortions of 2-D magnetotelluric responses caused by topographies are described by an appropriated synthesize functions. The damping wave equations and the considered topographic curves are used as the kernel of selected synthesize functions. The parameters of those functions are estimated by using the randomized neighborhood search method. The validity of functions is tested on half-space and COMMEMI2D-1 models with cosinusoidal, Gaussian and logistic topographic curves. The obtained results indicate that distorted apparent resistivity are well described by the selected synthesize functions with an acceptable root mean square errors. The obtained values of parameters are varied on both periods of EM wave and height of topographies.

  7. Methodological Gaps in Left Atrial Function Assessment by 2D Speckle Tracking Echocardiography

    PubMed Central

    Rimbaş, Roxana Cristina; Dulgheru, Raluca Elena; Vinereanu, Dragoş

    2015-01-01

    The assessment of left atrial (LA) function is used in various cardiovascular diseases. LA plays a complementary role in cardiac performance by modulating left ventricular (LV) function. Transthoracic two-dimensional (2D) phasic volumes and Doppler echocardiography can measure LA function non-invasively. However, evaluation of LA deformation derived from 2D speckle tracking echocardiography (STE) is a new feasible and promising approach for assessment of LA mechanics. These parameters are able to detect subclinical LA dysfunction in different pathological condition. Normal ranges for LA deformation and cut-off values to diagnose LA dysfunction with different diseases have been reported, but data are still conflicting, probably because of some methodological and technical issues. This review highlights the importance of an unique standardized technique to assess the LA phasic functions by STE, and discusses recent studies on the most important clinical applications of this technique. PMID:26761370

  8. The Ground Truth of Crustal Anisotropy from Receiver Functions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bianchi, I.; Apoloner, M. T.; Qorbani, E.; Lloyd, S. M.; Gribovski, K.; Gerner, A.; Arneitz, P.; Jordakiev, P.; Bokelmann, G.

    2014-12-01

    As one of the rare observational tools for studying deformation and stress within the Earth, seismic anisotropy has been one of the focuses of geophysical studies over the last decade. Recently, in order to unravel the anisotropic properties of the crust, the teleseismic receiver functions (RFs) methodology has been largely applied. Effects of anisotropy on the RFs dataset were illustrated in more than one theoretical study, showing the strong backazimuthal dependence of RFs on the 3D characteristics of the traversed media. The use of teleseismic RFs has the advantage of not being affected by heterogeneous depth distribution of local earthquakes, since teleseismic rays sample the entire crust beneath the stations. The application of this technique anyway, needs to be critically assessed using a suitable field test. To test this technique, we need a crustal block where the underground structure is reasonably well-known, e.g., where there is extensive knowledge from local seismic experiments and drilling. Therefore a field test around the KTB (Kontinental Tiefbohrung) site in the Oberpfalz in Southeastern Germany, has been carried out to test the technique, and to compare with previous results from deep drilling, and high-frequency seismic experiments around the drill site. The investigated region has been studied extensively by local geophysical experiments. The deep borehole was placed into gneiss rocks of the Zone Erbendorf-Vohenstrauss. Drilling activity lasted from 1987 to 1994, and descended down to a depth of 9101 meters, sampling an alternating sequence of paragneiss and amphibolite, with metamorphism of upper amphibolite facies conditions, and ductile deformation produced a strong foliation of the rocks. The application of the RFs reveals strong seismic anisotropy in the upper crust related to the so-called Erbendorf body.

  9. 2D Fourier series representation of gravitational functionals in spherical coordinates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ghobadi-Far, Khosro; Sharifi, Mohammad Ali; Sneeuw, Nico

    2016-09-01

    2D Fourier series representation of a scalar field like gravitational potential is conventionally derived by making use of the Fourier series of the Legendre functions in the spherical harmonic representation. This representation has been employed so far only in the case of a scalar field or the functionals that are related to it through a radial derivative. This paper provides a unified scheme to represent any gravitational functional in terms of spherical coordinates using a 2D Fourier series representation. The 2D Fourier series representation for each individual point is derived by transforming the spherical harmonics from the geocentric Earth-fixed frame to a rotated frame so that its equator coincides with the local meridian plane of that point. In the obtained formulation, each functional is linked to the potential in the spectral domain using a spectral transfer. We provide the spectral transfers of the first-, second- and third-order gradients of the gravitational potential in the local north-oriented reference frame and also those of some functionals of frequent use in the physical geodesy. The obtained representation is verified numerically. Moreover, spherical harmonic analysis of anisotropic functionals and contribution analysis of the third-order gradient tensor are provided as two numerical examples to show the power of the formulation. In conclusion, the 2D Fourier series representation on the sphere is generalized to functionals of the potential. In addition, the set of the spectral transfers can be considered as a pocket guide that provides the spectral characteristics of the functionals. Therefore, it extends the so-called Meissl scheme.

  10. A comment on the rank correlation merit function for 2D/3D registration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Figl, Michael; Bloch, Christoph; Birkfellner, Wolfgang

    2010-02-01

    Lots of procedures in computer assisted interventions register pre-interventionally generated 3D data sets to the intraoperative situation using fast and simply generated 2D images, e.g. from a C-Arm, a B-mode Ultrasound, etc. Registration is typically done by generating a 2D image out of the 3D data set, comparison to the original 2D image using a planar similarity measure and subsequent optimisation. As these two images can be very different, a lot of different comparison functions are in use. In a recent article Stochastic Rank Correlation, a merit function based on Spearman's rank correlation coefficient was presented. By comparing randomly chosen subsets of the images, the authors wanted to avoid the computational expense of sorting all the points in the image. In the current paper we show that, because of the limited grey level range in medical images, full image rank correlation can be computed almost as fast as Pearson's correlation coefficient. A run time estimation is illustrated with numerical results using a 2D Shepp-Logan phantom at different sizes, and a sample data set of a pig.

  11. 2D crystals of transition metal dichalcogenide and their iontronic functionalities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Y. J.; Yoshida, M.; Suzuki, R.; Iwasa, Y.

    2015-12-01

    2D crystals based on transition metal dichalcogenides (TMDs) provide a unique platform of novel physical properties and functionalities, including photoluminescence, laser, valleytronics, spintronics, piezoelectric devices, field effect transistors (FETs), and superconductivity. Among them, FET devices are extremely useful because of voltage-tunable carrier density and Fermi energy. In particular, high density charge accumulation in electric double layer transistor (EDLT), which is a FET device driven by ionic motions, is playing key roles for expanding the functionalities of TMD based 2D crystals. Here, we report several device concepts which were realized by introducing EDLTs in TMDs, taking the advantage of their extremely unique band structures and phase transition phenomena realized simply by thinning to the monolayer level. We address two kinds of TMDs based on group VI and group V transition metals, which basically yield semiconductors and metals, respectively. For each system, we first introduce peculiar characteristics of TMDs achieved by thinning the crystals, followed by the related FET functionalities.

  12. Rare Functional Variant in TM2D3 is Associated with Late-Onset Alzheimer's Disease

    PubMed Central

    Grove, Megan L.; Naj, Adam; Vronskaya, Maria; DeStefano, Anita L.; Brody, Jennifer A.; Smith, Albert V.; Amin, Najaf; Sims, Rebecca; Ibrahim-Verbaas, Carla A.; Choi, Seung-Hoan; Lopez, Oscar L.; Beiser, Alexa; Ikram, M. Arfan; Garcia, Melissa E.; Hayward, Caroline; Ripatti, Samuli; Franks, Paul W.; Hallmans, Göran; Rolandsson, Olov; Jansson, Jan-Håkon; Porteous, David J.; Salomaa, Veikko; Eiriksdottir, Gudny; Rice, Kenneth M.; Bellen, Hugo J.; Levy, Daniel; Uitterlinden, Andre G.; Emilsson, Valur; Rotter, Jerome I.; Aspelund, Thor; O’Donnell, Christopher J.; Fitzpatrick, Annette L.; Launer, Lenore J.; Hofman, Albert; Wang, Li-San; Williams, Julie; Schellenberg, Gerard D.; Boerwinkle, Eric; Psaty, Bruce M.; Seshadri, Sudha; Shulman, Joshua M.; Gudnason, Vilmundur; van Duijn, Cornelia M.

    2016-01-01

    We performed an exome-wide association analysis in 1393 late-onset Alzheimer’s disease (LOAD) cases and 8141 controls from the CHARGE consortium. We found that a rare variant (P155L) in TM2D3 was enriched in Icelanders (~0.5% versus <0.05% in other European populations). In 433 LOAD cases and 3903 controls from the Icelandic AGES sub-study, P155L was associated with increased risk and earlier onset of LOAD [odds ratio (95% CI) = 7.5 (3.5–15.9), p = 6.6x10-9]. Mutation in the Drosophila TM2D3 homolog, almondex, causes a phenotype similar to loss of Notch/Presenilin signaling. Human TM2D3 is capable of rescuing these phenotypes, but this activity is abolished by P155L, establishing it as a functionally damaging allele. Our results establish a rare TM2D3 variant in association with LOAD susceptibility, and together with prior work suggests possible links to the β-amyloid cascade. PMID:27764101

  13. Quantitative and functional analysis of CD69(+) NKG2D(+) T regulatory cells in healthy subjects.

    PubMed

    Vitales-Noyola, M; Doníz-Padilla, L; Álvarez-Quiroga, C; Monsiváis-Urenda, A; Portillo-Salazar, H; González-Amaro, R

    2015-07-01

    T regulatory (Treg) cells have a key role in immune homeostasis and the pathogenesis of chronic inflammatory and autoimmune diseases. CD69 is an early leukocyte activation molecule that under steady state conditions is detected in a small proportion of lymphocytes in peripheral blood and lymphoid tissues. Although it has been reported that a subset of CD69(+) T cells behaves as Treg lymphocytes, the possible relationship between CD69(+) Treg cells and CD4(+)NKG2D(+) T lymphocytes, which also exert immunosuppressive activity, has not been explored. In this study, we analyzed the expression of CD69 and NKG2D by T lymphocytes from the peripheral blood of twenty-five healthy subjects by multi-parametric flow cytometry analysis, and their suppressive activity by an assay of inhibition of lymphocyte activation (CD40L expression) and proliferation (carboxyfluorescein partition assay). We found a very small percentage of CD4(+)CD69(+)NKG2D(+) T cells (median 0.002%, Q1-Q3, 0.001-0.004%), which also expressed TGF-β (Latency Associated Peptide or LAP) and IL-10, in all samples analyzed. These cells exerted an important in vitro suppressive effect on both activation and proliferation of T effector cells. Our data suggest that at very small numbers, CD4(+)CD69(+)NKG2D(+) lymphocytes seem to exert a relevant functional immune-regulatory role in healthy subjects.

  14. Membrane proteins: functional and structural studies using reconstituted proteoliposomes and 2-D crystals.

    PubMed

    Rigaud, J-L

    2002-07-01

    Reconstitution of membrane proteins into lipid bilayers is a powerful tool to analyze functional as well as structural areas of membrane protein research. First, the proper incorporation of a purified membrane protein into closed lipid vesicles, to produce proteoliposomes, allows the investigation of transport and/or catalytic properties of any membrane protein without interference by other membrane components. Second, the incorporation of a large amount of membrane proteins into lipid bilayers to grow crystals confined to two dimensions has recently opened a new way to solve their structure at high resolution using electron crystallography. However, reconstitution of membrane proteins into functional proteoliposomes or 2-D crystallization has been an empirical domain, which has been viewed for a long time more like "black magic" than science. Nevertheless, in the last ten years, important progress has been made in acquiring knowledge of lipid-protein-detergent interactions and has permitted to build upon a set of basic principles that has limited the empirical approach of reconstitution experiments. Reconstitution strategies have been improved and new strategies have been developed, facilitating the success rate of proteoliposome formation and 2-D crystallization. This review deals with the various strategies available to obtain proteoliposomes and 2-D crystals from detergent-solubilized proteins. It gives an overview of the methods that have been applied, which may be of help for reconstituting more proteins into lipid bilayers in a form suitable for functional studies at the molecular level and for high-resolution structural analysis.

  15. The intrinsic quasar luminosity function: Accounting for accretion disk anisotropy

    SciTech Connect

    DiPompeo, M. A.; Myers, A. D.; Brotherton, M. S.; Runnoe, J. C.; Green, R. F.

    2014-05-20

    Quasar luminosity functions are a fundamental probe of the growth and evolution of supermassive black holes. Measuring the intrinsic luminosity function is difficult in practice, due to a multitude of observational and systematic effects. As sample sizes increase and measurement errors drop, characterizing the systematic effects is becoming more important. It is well known that the continuum emission from the accretion disk of quasars is anisotropic—in part due to its disk-like structure—but current luminosity function calculations effectively assume isotropy over the range of unobscured lines of sight. Here, we provide the first steps in characterizing the effect of random quasar orientations and simple models of anisotropy on observed luminosity functions. We find that the effect of orientation is not insignificant and exceeds other potential corrections such as those from gravitational lensing of foreground structures. We argue that current observational constraints may overestimate the intrinsic luminosity function by as much as a factor of ∼2 on the bright end. This has implications for models of quasars and their role in the universe, such as quasars' contribution to cosmological backgrounds.

  16. The Use of Legendre and Zernike Moment Functions for the Comparison of 2-D PAGE Maps.

    PubMed

    Marengo, Emilio; Robotti, Elisa; Demartini, Marco

    2016-01-01

    The comparison of 2-D maps is not trivial, the main difficulties being the high complexity of the sample and the large experimental variability characterizing 2-D gel electrophoresis. The comparison of maps from control and treated samples is usually performed by specific software, providing the so-called spot volume dataset where each spot of a specific map is matched to its analogous in other maps, and they are described by their optical density, which is supposed to be related to the underlying protein amount. Here, a different approach is presented, based on the direct comparison of 2-D map images: each map is decomposed in terms of moment functions, successively applying the multivariate tools usually adopted in image analysis problems. The moments calculated are then treated with multivariate classification techniques. Here, two types of moment functions are presented (Legendre and Zernike moments), while linear discriminant analysis and partial least squares discriminant analysis are exploited as classification tools to provide the classification of the samples. The procedure is applied to a sample dataset to prove its effectiveness.

  17. The Mammalian Orthologs of Drosophila Lgd, CC2D1A and CC2D1B, Function in the Endocytic Pathway, but Their Individual Loss of Function Does Not Affect Notch Signalling

    PubMed Central

    Drusenheimer, Nadja; Migdal, Bernhard; Jäckel, Sandra; Tveriakhina, Lena; Scheider, Kristina; Schulz, Katharina; Gröper, Jieny; Köhrer, Karl; Klein, Thomas

    2015-01-01

    CC2D1A and CC2D1B belong to the evolutionary conserved Lgd protein family with members in all multi-cellular animals. Several functions such as centrosomal cleavage, involvement in signalling pathways, immune response and synapse maturation have been described for CC2D1A. Moreover, the Drosophila melanogaster ortholog Lgd was shown to be involved in the endosomal trafficking of the Notch receptor and other transmembrane receptors and physically interacts with the ESCRT-III component Shrub/CHMP4. To determine if this function is conserved in mammals we generated and characterized Cc2d1a and Cc2d1b conditional knockout mice. While Cc2d1b deficient mice displayed no obvious phenotype, we found that Cc2d1a deficient mice as well as conditional mutants that lack CC2D1A only in the nervous system die shortly after birth due to respiratory distress. This finding confirms the suspicion that the breathing defect is caused by the central nervous system. However, an involvement in centrosomal function could not be confirmed in Cc2d1a deficient MEF cells. To analyse an influence on Notch signalling, we generated intestine specific Cc2d1a mutant mice. These mice did not display any alterations in goblet cell number, proliferating cell number or expression of the Notch reporter Hes1-emGFP, suggesting that CC2D1A is not required for Notch signalling. However, our EM analysis revealed that the average size of endosomes of Cc2d1a mutant cells, but not Cc2d1b mutant cells, is increased, indicating a defect in endosomal morphogenesis. We could show that CC2D1A and its interaction partner CHMP4B are localised on endosomes in MEF cells, when the activity of the endosomal protein VPS4 is reduced. This indicates that CC2D1A cycles between the cytosol and the endosomal membrane. Additionally, in rescue experiments in D. melanogaster, CC2D1A and CC2D1B were able to functionally replace Lgd. Altogether our data suggest a functional conservation of the Lgd protein family in the ESCRT

  18. Medical anatomy segmentation kit: combining 2D and 3D segmentation methods to enhance functionality

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tracton, Gregg S.; Chaney, Edward L.; Rosenman, Julian G.; Pizer, Stephen M.

    1994-07-01

    Image segmentation, in particular, defining normal anatomic structures and diseased or malformed tissue from tomographic images, is common in medical applications. Defining tumors or arterio-venous malformation from computed tomography or magnetic resonance images are typical examples. This paper describes a program, Medical Anatomy Segmentation Kit (MASK), whose design acknowledges that no single segmentation technique has proven to be successful or optimal for all object definition tasks associated with medical images. A practical solution is offered through a suite of complementary user-guided segmentation techniques and extensive manual editing functions to reach the final object definition goal. Manual editing can also be used to define objects which are abstract or otherwise not well represented in the image data and so require direct human definition - e.g., a radiotherapy target volume which requires human knowledge and judgement regarding image interpretation and tumor spread characteristics. Results are either in the form of 2D boundaries or regions of labeled pixels or voxels. MASK currently uses thresholding and edge detection to form contours, and 2D or 3D scale-sensitive fill and region algebra to form regions. In addition to these proven techniques, MASK's architecture anticipates clinically practical automatic 2D and 3D segmentation methods of the future.

  19. Omega from the anisotropy of the redshift correlation function

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hamilton, A. J. S.

    1993-01-01

    Peculiar velocities distort the correlation function of galaxies observed in redshift space. In the large scale, linear regime, the distortion takes a characteristic quadrupole plus hexadecapole form, with the amplitude of the distortion depending on the cosmological density parameter omega. Preliminary measurements are reported here of the harmonics of the correlation function in the CfA, SSRS, and IRAS 2 Jansky redshift surveys. The observed behavior of the harmonics agrees qualitatively with the predictions of linear theory on large scales in every survey. However, real anisotropy in the galaxy distribution induces large fluctuations in samples which do not yet probe a sufficiently fair volume of the Universe. In the CfA 14.5 sample in particular, the Great Wall induces a large negative quadrupole, which taken at face value implies an unrealistically large omega 20. The IRAS 2 Jy survey, which covers a substantially larger volume than the optical surveys and is less affected by fingers-of-god, yields a more reliable and believable value, omega = 0.5 sup +.5 sub -.25.

  20. Extending Ripley's K-Function to Quantify Aggregation in 2-D Grayscale Images.

    PubMed

    Amgad, Mohamed; Itoh, Anri; Tsui, Marco Man Kin

    2015-01-01

    In this work, we describe the extension of Ripley's K-function to allow for overlapping events at very high event densities. We show that problematic edge effects introduce significant bias to the function at very high densities and small radii, and propose a simple correction method that successfully restores the function's centralization. Using simulations of homogeneous Poisson distributions of events, as well as simulations of event clustering under different conditions, we investigate various aspects of the function, including its shape-dependence and correspondence between true cluster radius and radius at which the K-function is maximized. Furthermore, we validate the utility of the function in quantifying clustering in 2-D grayscale images using three modalities: (i) Simulations of particle clustering; (ii) Experimental co-expression of soluble and diffuse protein at varying ratios; (iii) Quantifying chromatin clustering in the nuclei of wt and crwn1 crwn2 mutant Arabidopsis plant cells, using a previously-published image dataset. Overall, our work shows that Ripley's K-function is a valid abstract statistical measure whose utility extends beyond the quantification of clustering of non-overlapping events. Potential benefits of this work include the quantification of protein and chromatin aggregation in fluorescent microscopic images. Furthermore, this function has the potential to become one of various abstract texture descriptors that are utilized in computer-assisted diagnostics in anatomic pathology and diagnostic radiology. PMID:26636680

  1. Extending Ripley’s K-Function to Quantify Aggregation in 2-D Grayscale Images

    PubMed Central

    Amgad, Mohamed; Itoh, Anri; Tsui, Marco Man Kin

    2015-01-01

    In this work, we describe the extension of Ripley’s K-function to allow for overlapping events at very high event densities. We show that problematic edge effects introduce significant bias to the function at very high densities and small radii, and propose a simple correction method that successfully restores the function’s centralization. Using simulations of homogeneous Poisson distributions of events, as well as simulations of event clustering under different conditions, we investigate various aspects of the function, including its shape-dependence and correspondence between true cluster radius and radius at which the K-function is maximized. Furthermore, we validate the utility of the function in quantifying clustering in 2-D grayscale images using three modalities: (i) Simulations of particle clustering; (ii) Experimental co-expression of soluble and diffuse protein at varying ratios; (iii) Quantifying chromatin clustering in the nuclei of wt and crwn1 crwn2 mutant Arabidopsis plant cells, using a previously-published image dataset. Overall, our work shows that Ripley’s K-function is a valid abstract statistical measure whose utility extends beyond the quantification of clustering of non-overlapping events. Potential benefits of this work include the quantification of protein and chromatin aggregation in fluorescent microscopic images. Furthermore, this function has the potential to become one of various abstract texture descriptors that are utilized in computer-assisted diagnostics in anatomic pathology and diagnostic radiology. PMID:26636680

  2. The Hartle-Hawking wave function in 2D causal set quantum gravity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Glaser, Lisa; Surya, Sumati

    2016-03-01

    We define the Hartle-Hawking no-boundary wave function for causal set theory (CST) over the discrete analogs of spacelike hypersurfaces. Using Markov Chain Monte Carlo and numerical integration methods we analyze the wave function in non-perturbative 2D CST. We find that in the low-temperature regime it is dominated by causal sets which have no continuum counterparts but possess physically interesting geometric properties. Not only do they exhibit a rapid spatial expansion with respect to the discrete proper time, but a high degree of spatial homogeneity. The latter is due to the extensive overlap of the causal pasts of the elements in the final discrete hypersurface and corresponds to high graph connectivity. Our results thus suggest new possibilities for the role of quantum gravity in the observable Universe.

  3. 2-D Modeling of Nanoscale MOSFETs: Non-Equilibrium Green's Function Approach

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Svizhenko, Alexei; Anantram, M. P.; Govindan, T. R.; Biegel, Bryan

    2001-01-01

    We have developed physical approximations and computer code capable of realistically simulating 2-D nanoscale transistors, using the non-equilibrium Green's function (NEGF) method. This is the most accurate full quantum model yet applied to 2-D device simulation. Open boundary conditions and oxide tunneling are treated on an equal footing. Electrons in the ellipsoids of the conduction band are treated within the anisotropic effective mass approximation. Electron-electron interaction is treated within Hartree approximation by solving NEGF and Poisson equations self-consistently. For the calculations presented here, parallelization is performed by distributing the solution of NEGF equations to various processors, energy wise. We present simulation of the "benchmark" MIT 25nm and 90nm MOSFETs and compare our results to those from the drift-diffusion simulator and the quantum-corrected results available. In the 25nm MOSFET, the channel length is less than ten times the electron wavelength, and the electron scattering time is comparable to its transit time. Our main results are: (1) Simulated drain subthreshold current characteristics are shown, where the potential profiles are calculated self-consistently by the corresponding simulation methods. The current predicted by our quantum simulation has smaller subthreshold slope of the Vg dependence which results in higher threshold voltage. (2) When gate oxide thickness is less than 2 nm, gate oxide leakage is a primary factor which determines off-current of a MOSFET (3) Using our 2-D NEGF simulator, we found several ways to drastically decrease oxide leakage current without compromising drive current. (4) Quantum mechanically calculated electron density is much smaller than the background doping density in the poly silicon gate region near oxide interface. This creates an additional effective gate voltage. Different ways to. include this effect approximately will be discussed.

  4. A novel time dependent gamma evaluation function for dynamic 2D and 3D dose distributions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Podesta, Mark; CGG Persoon, Lucas; Verhaegen, Frank

    2014-10-01

    Modern external beam radiotherapy requires detailed verification and quality assurance so that confidence can be placed on both the delivery of a single treatment fraction and on the consistency of delivery throughout the treatment course. To verify dose distributions, a comparison between prediction and measurement must be made. Comparisons between two dose distributions are commonly performed using a Gamma evaluation which is a calculation of two quantities on a pixel by pixel basis; the dose difference, and the distance to agreement. By providing acceptance criteria (e.g. 3%, 3 mm), the function will find the most appropriate match within its two degrees of freedom. For complex dynamic treatments such as IMRT or VMAT it is important to verify the dose delivery in a time dependent manner and so a gamma evaluation that includes a degree of freedom in the time domain via a third parameter, time to agreement, is presented here. A C++ (mex) based gamma function was created that could be run on either CPU and GPU computing platforms that would allow a degree of freedom in the time domain. Simple test cases were created in both 2D and 3D comprising of simple geometrical shapes with well-defined boundaries varying over time. Changes of varying magnitude in either space or time were introduced and repeated gamma analyses were performed varying the criteria. A clinical VMAT case was also included, artificial air bubbles of varying size were introduced to a patient geometry, along with shifts of varying magnitude in treatment time. For all test cases where errors in distance, dose or time were introduced, the time dependent gamma evaluation could accurately highlight the errors. The time dependent gamma function presented here allows time to be included as a degree of freedom in gamma evaluations. The function allows for 2D and 3D data sets which are varying over time to be compared using appropriate criteria without penalising minor offsets of subsequent radiation

  5. A novel time dependent gamma evaluation function for dynamic 2D and 3D dose distributions.

    PubMed

    Podesta, Mark; Persoon, Lucas C G G; Verhaegen, Frank

    2014-10-21

    Modern external beam radiotherapy requires detailed verification and quality assurance so that confidence can be placed on both the delivery of a single treatment fraction and on the consistency of delivery throughout the treatment course. To verify dose distributions, a comparison between prediction and measurement must be made. Comparisons between two dose distributions are commonly performed using a Gamma evaluation which is a calculation of two quantities on a pixel by pixel basis; the dose difference, and the distance to agreement. By providing acceptance criteria (e.g. 3%, 3 mm), the function will find the most appropriate match within its two degrees of freedom. For complex dynamic treatments such as IMRT or VMAT it is important to verify the dose delivery in a time dependent manner and so a gamma evaluation that includes a degree of freedom in the time domain via a third parameter, time to agreement, is presented here. A C++ (mex) based gamma function was created that could be run on either CPU and GPU computing platforms that would allow a degree of freedom in the time domain. Simple test cases were created in both 2D and 3D comprising of simple geometrical shapes with well-defined boundaries varying over time. Changes of varying magnitude in either space or time were introduced and repeated gamma analyses were performed varying the criteria. A clinical VMAT case was also included, artificial air bubbles of varying size were introduced to a patient geometry, along with shifts of varying magnitude in treatment time. For all test cases where errors in distance, dose or time were introduced, the time dependent gamma evaluation could accurately highlight the errors.The time dependent gamma function presented here allows time to be included as a degree of freedom in gamma evaluations. The function allows for 2D and 3D data sets which are varying over time to be compared using appropriate criteria without penalising minor offsets of subsequent radiation fields

  6. An open canvas--2D materials with defects, disorder, and functionality.

    PubMed

    Zou, Xiaolong; Yakobson, Boris I

    2015-01-20

    CONSPECTUS: While some exceptional properties are unique to graphene only (its signature Dirac-cone gapless dispersion, carrier mobility, record strength), other features are common to other two-dimensional materials. The broader family "beyond graphene" offers greater choices to be explored and tailored for various applications. Transition metal dichalcogenides (TMDCs), hexagonal boron nitride (h-BN), and 2D layers of pure elements, like phosphorus or boron, can complement or even surpass graphene in many ways and uses, ranging from electronics and optoelectronics to catalysis and energy storage. Their availability greatly relies on chemical vapor deposition growth of large samples, which are highly polycrystalline and include interfaces such as edges, heterostructures, and grain boundaries, as well as dislocations and point defects. These imperfections do not always degrade the material properties, but they often bring new physics and even useful functionality. It turns particularly interesting in combination with the sheer openness of all 2D sheets, fully exposed to the environment, which, as we show herein, can change and tune the defect structures and consequently all their qualities, from electronic levels, conductivity, magnetism, and optics to structural mobility of dislocations and catalytic activities. In this Account, we review our progress in understanding of various defects. We begin by expressing the energy of an arbitrary graphene edge analytically, so that the environment is regarded by "chemical phase shift". This has profound implications for graphene and carbon nanotube growth. Generalization of this equation to heteroelemental BN gives a method to determine the energy for arbitrary edges of BN, depending on the partial chemical potentials. This facilitates the tuning of the morphology and electronic and magnetic properties of pure BN or hybrid BN|C systems. Applying a similar method to three-atomic-layer TMDCs reveals more diverse edge

  7. An open canvas--2D materials with defects, disorder, and functionality.

    PubMed

    Zou, Xiaolong; Yakobson, Boris I

    2015-01-20

    CONSPECTUS: While some exceptional properties are unique to graphene only (its signature Dirac-cone gapless dispersion, carrier mobility, record strength), other features are common to other two-dimensional materials. The broader family "beyond graphene" offers greater choices to be explored and tailored for various applications. Transition metal dichalcogenides (TMDCs), hexagonal boron nitride (h-BN), and 2D layers of pure elements, like phosphorus or boron, can complement or even surpass graphene in many ways and uses, ranging from electronics and optoelectronics to catalysis and energy storage. Their availability greatly relies on chemical vapor deposition growth of large samples, which are highly polycrystalline and include interfaces such as edges, heterostructures, and grain boundaries, as well as dislocations and point defects. These imperfections do not always degrade the material properties, but they often bring new physics and even useful functionality. It turns particularly interesting in combination with the sheer openness of all 2D sheets, fully exposed to the environment, which, as we show herein, can change and tune the defect structures and consequently all their qualities, from electronic levels, conductivity, magnetism, and optics to structural mobility of dislocations and catalytic activities. In this Account, we review our progress in understanding of various defects. We begin by expressing the energy of an arbitrary graphene edge analytically, so that the environment is regarded by "chemical phase shift". This has profound implications for graphene and carbon nanotube growth. Generalization of this equation to heteroelemental BN gives a method to determine the energy for arbitrary edges of BN, depending on the partial chemical potentials. This facilitates the tuning of the morphology and electronic and magnetic properties of pure BN or hybrid BN|C systems. Applying a similar method to three-atomic-layer TMDCs reveals more diverse edge

  8. Absorption and scattering 2-D volcano images from numerically calculated space-weighting functions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Del Pezzo, Edoardo; Ibañez, Jesus; Prudencio, Janire; Bianco, Francesca; De Siena, Luca

    2016-08-01

    Short-period small magnitude seismograms mainly comprise scattered waves in the form of coda waves (the tail part of the seismogram, starting after S waves and ending when the noise prevails), spanning more than 70 per cent of the whole seismogram duration. Corresponding coda envelopes provide important information about the earth inhomogeneity, which can be stochastically modeled in terms of distribution of scatterers in a random medium. In suitable experimental conditions (i.e. high earth heterogeneity), either the two parameters describing heterogeneity (scattering coefficient), intrinsic energy dissipation (coefficient of intrinsic attenuation) or a combination of them (extinction length and seismic albedo) can be used to image Earth structures. Once a set of such parameter couples has been measured in a given area and for a number of sources and receivers, imaging their space distribution with standard methods is straightforward. However, as for finite-frequency and full-waveform tomography, the essential problem for a correct imaging is the determination of the weighting function describing the spatial sensitivity of observable data to scattering and absorption anomalies. Due to the nature of coda waves, the measured parameter couple can be seen as a weighted space average of the real parameters characterizing the rock volumes illuminated by the scattered waves. This paper uses the Monte Carlo numerical solution of the Energy Transport Equation to find approximate but realistic 2-D space-weighting functions for coda waves. Separate images for scattering and absorption based on these sensitivity functions are then compared with those obtained with commonly used sensitivity functions in an application to data from an active seismic experiment carried out at Deception Island (Antarctica). Results show that these novel functions are based on a reliable and physically grounded method to image magnitude and shape of scattering and absorption anomalies. Their

  9. Skyrmion core size dependence as a function of the perpendicular anisotropy and radius in magnetic nanodots

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Castro, M. A.; Allende, S.

    2016-11-01

    A detailed analytical and numerical analysis of the skyrmion core size dependence as a function of the uniaxial perpendicular anisotropy and radius in magnetic nanodots has been carried out. Results from micromagnetic calculations show a non-monotonic behavior between the skyrmion core size and the uniaxial perpendicular anisotropy. The increment of the radius reduces the skyrmion core size at constant uniaxial perpendicular anisotropy. Thus, these results can be used for the control of the core sizes in magnetic artificial skyrmion crystals or spintronic devices that need to use a skyrmion configuration at room temperature.

  10. NKG2D functions as an activating receptor on natural killer cells in the common marmoset (Callithrix jacchus).

    PubMed

    Watanabe, Masamichi; Kudo, Yohei; Kawano, Mitsuko; Nakayama, Masafumi; Nakamura, Kyohei; Kameda, Mai; Ebara, Masamune; Sato, Takeki; Nakamura, Marina; Omine, Kaito; Kametani, Yoshie; Suzuki, Ryuji; Ogasawara, Kouetsu

    2014-11-01

    The natural killer group 2 membrane D (NKG2D) receptor is an NK-activating receptor that plays an important role in host defense against tumors and viral infections. Although the marmoset is an important and reliable animal model, especially for the study of human-specific viral infections, functional characterization of NKG2D on marmoset NK cells has not previously been conducted. In the present study, we investigated a subpopulation of marmoset NK cells that express NKG2D and exhibit cytolytic potential. On the basis of their CD16 and CD56 expression patterns, marmoset NK cells can be classified into three subpopulations: CD16(+) CD56(-), CD16(-) CD56(+) and CD16(-) CD56(-) cells. NKG2D expression on marmoset CD16(+) CD56(-) and CD16(-) CD56(+) splenocytes was confirmed using an NKG2D ligand composed of an MHC class I chain-related molecule A (MICA)-Fc fusion protein. When marmoset splenocytes were cultured with IL-2 for 4 days, NKG2D expression was retained on CD16(+) CD56(-) and CD16(-) CD56(+). In addition, CD16(+) CD56(+) cells within the marmoset NK population appeared which expressed NKG2D after IL-2 stimulation. IL-2-activated marmoset NK cells showed strong cytolytic activity against K562 target cells and target cells stably expressing MICA. Further, the cytolytic activity of marmoset splenocytes was significantly reduced after addition of MICA-Fc fusion protein. Thus, NKG2D functions as an activating receptor on marmoset NK cells that possesses cytotoxic potential, and phenotypic profiles of marmoset NK cell subpopulations are similar to those seen in humans. PMID:24860119

  11. Striatal Dopamine D2/D3 Receptor Availability Is Associated with Executive Function in Healthy Controls but Not Methamphetamine Users

    PubMed Central

    Ballard, Michael E.; Dean, Andy C.; Mandelkern, Mark A.; London, Edythe D.

    2015-01-01

    Background Dopamine D2/D3 receptor availability in the striatum has been linked with executive function in healthy individuals, and is below control levels among drug addicts, possibly contributing to diminished executive function in the latter group. This study tested for an association of striatal D2/D3 receptor availability with a measure of executive function among research participants who met DSM-IV criteria for methamphetamine dependence. Methods Methamphetamine users and non-user controls (n = 18 per group) completed the Wisconsin Card Sorting Test and positron emission tomography with [18F]fallypride. Results The methamphetamine users displayed significantly lower striatal D2/D3 receptor availability on average than controls after controlling for age and education (p = 0.008), but they did not register greater proportions of either perseverative or non-perseverative errors when controlling for education (both ps ≥ 0.622). The proportion of non-perseverative, but not perseverative, errors was negatively correlated with striatal D2/D3 receptor availability among controls (r = -0.588, p = 0.010), but not methamphetamine users (r = 0.281, p = 0.258), and the group-wise interaction was significant (p = 0.030). Conclusions These results suggest that cognitive flexibility, as measured by perseverative errors on the Wisconsin Card Sorting Test, is not determined by signaling through striatal D2/D3 receptors in healthy controls, and that in stimulant abusers, who have lower D2/D3 receptor availability, compensation can effectively maintain other executive functions, which are associated with D2/D3 receptor signaling in controls. PMID:26657223

  12. CC2D1A Regulates Human Intellectual and Social Function as well as NF-κB Signaling Homeostasis

    PubMed Central

    Manzini, M. Chiara; Xiong, Lan; Shaheen, Ranad; Tambunan, Dimira E.; Di Costanzo, Stefania; Mitisalis, Vanessa; Tischfield, David J.; Cinquino, Antonella; Ghaziuddin, Mohammed; Christian, Mehtab; Jiang, Qin; Laurent, Sandra; Nanjiani, Zohair A.; Rasheed, Saima; Hill, R. Sean; Lizarraga, Sofia B.; Gleason, Danielle; Sabbagh, Diya; Salih, Mustafa A.; Alkuraya, Fowzan S.; Walsh, Christopher A.

    2015-01-01

    SUMMARY Autism spectrum disorder (ASD) and intellectual disability (ID) are often comorbid, but the extent to which they share common genetic causes remains controversial. Here, we present two autosomal-recessive “founder” mutations in the CC2D1A gene causing fully penetrant cognitive phenotypes, including mild-to-severe ID, ASD, as well as seizures, suggesting shared developmental mechanisms. CC2D1A regulates multiple intracellular signaling pathways, and we found its strongest effect to be on the transcription factor nuclear factor κB (NF-κB). Cc2d1a gain and loss of function both increase activation of NF-κB, revealing a critical role of Cc2d1a in homeostatic control of intra-cellular signaling. Cc2d1a knockdown in neurons reduces dendritic complexity and increases NF-κB activity, and the effects of Cc2d1a depletion can be rescued by inhibiting NF-κB activity. Homeostatic regulation of neuronal signaling pathways provides a mechanism whereby common founder mutations could manifest diverse symptoms in different patients. PMID:25066123

  13. Raman 2D response of graphene in hBN sandwich as a function of doping

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Xuanye; Christopher, Jason; Swan, Anna

    Graphene on SiO2 is plagued by accidental strain and charge doping which cause significant deterioration in electrical, thermal and optical properties. The stacking of Van der Waals layers can not only provide better properties, e.g., electrical mobility, but can also be used for novel interactions between layers. Here we use gated and contacted hBN-graphene-hBN heterostructures to calibrate the 2D Raman response to doping, particularly the low doping region less than 1 ×1012 cm-2 . This will enable the use of the correlation between Raman G and 2D band to determine effects from doping and strain or compression separately. The dielectric environment of hBN as compared to SiO2 affects the phonon dispersion and the Fermi velocity which results in approximately 7 cm-1 blue shift in 2D band per side of graphene contacted with hBN. Charge dependent Raman measurements of the G band provide the means to determine the electron-phonon coupling and the Fermi velocity for graphene in an hBN sandwich. NSF DMR 1411008.

  14. Crustal Anisotropy beneath selected Pacific Ocean-Islands from Harmonic Decomposition of Receiver Functions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Olugboji, T. M.; Park, J. J.

    2014-12-01

    Crustal anisotropy beneath ocean islands can be attributed to preferentially aligned minerals cracks or dike structures. Stacked with harmonic weighting, receiver functions from permanent ocean-island stations display evidence of strong and distinct anisotropy parameters in the underlying crust and in an underplated layer. We conduct analysis for eleven IRIS-GSN stations in the Pacific Ocean, with 211 to 774 seismic events at each station. We observe the prevalence of two-lobed RF amplitude variations with back-azimuth, consistent with tilted-axis anisotropy. With the assumption of a slow-axis hexagonal symmetry, we observe anisotropies in the underlying crust and under-plated crust that are oppositely oriented. Synthetic modeling of representative stations indicate that the strength of anisotropy ~5-10%. The strike of the inferred symmetry axis tends to align with plate motion, with some scatter. At stations in the northwest Pacific i.e. KWAJ, TARA, and WAKE, the symmetry axis aligns with past plate motion. The anisotropy closest to the present-day Hawaiian hotspot, beneath station POHA, aligns almost orthogonal to plate spreading. We attribute the crustal anisotropy to the preferred alignment of dike structures that transported asthenospheric magma toward the seafloor volcanic edifice. Our results argue that the thermal-plume origin for ocean islands must be supplemented by tectonic-stress heterogeneities that allow magma to penetrate the lithosphere via fractures. Magma-transport fractures should align normal to the least-compressive direction, which models predict should align approximately coeval to plate motion.

  15. Stochastic rank correlation: A robust merit function for 2D/3D registration of image data obtained at different energies

    PubMed Central

    Birkfellner, Wolfgang; Stock, Markus; Figl, Michael; Gendrin, Christelle; Hummel, Johann; Dong, Shuo; Kettenbach, Joachim; Georg, Dietmar; Bergmann, Helmar

    2010-01-01

    In this article, the authors evaluate a merit function for 2D/3D registration called stochastic rank correlation (SRC). SRC is characterized by the fact that differences in image intensity do not influence the registration result; it therefore combines the numerical advantages of cross correlation (CC)-type merit functions with the flexibility of mutual-information-type merit functions. The basic idea is that registration is achieved on a random subset of the image, which allows for an efficient computation of Spearman’s rank correlation coefficient. This measure is, by nature, invariant to monotonic intensity transforms in the images under comparison, which renders it an ideal solution for intramodal images acquired at different energy levels as encountered in intrafractional kV imaging in image-guided radiotherapy. Initial evaluation was undertaken using a 2D/3D registration reference image dataset of a cadaver spine. Even with no radiometric calibration, SRC shows a significant improvement in robustness and stability compared to CC. Pattern intensity, another merit function that was evaluated for comparison, gave rather poor results due to its limited convergence range. The time required for SRC with 5% image content compares well to the other merit functions; increasing the image content does not significantly influence the algorithm accuracy. The authors conclude that SRC is a promising measure for 2D/3D registration in IGRT and image-guided therapy in general. PMID:19746775

  16. Crustal anisotropy beneath Pacific Ocean-Islands from harmonic decomposition of receiver functions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Olugboji, Tolulope Morayo; Park, Jeffrey

    2016-03-01

    Crustal anisotropy beneath ocean islands can be attributed to preferentially aligned minerals, cracks, or dike structures. Stacked with harmonic weighting, receiver functions from permanent ocean-island stations display evidence of strong and distinct anisotropy parameters in the underlying crust and underplated layer. We analyze data for 11 IRIS-GSN stations in the Pacific Ocean. We observe the prevalence of two-lobed receiver function (RF) amplitude variations with back-azimuth, consistent with "slow" tilted-axis anisotropy. In most cases the anisotropy is accommodated in the underplated crust. Synthetic modeling of a representative station indicates that the strength of anisotropy of Vp=10% and Vs=5% is possible. The strike direction of the inferred symmetry axis tends to align with plate motion, with some scatter. At stations in the northwest Pacific i.e., KWAJ, TARA, and WAKE, the strike direction of the symmetry axis aligns with plate motion at the time of volcano emplacement. Beneath station POHA and the closest stations to the present-day Hawaiian hotspot, alignment of the symmetry axis is almost orthogonal to the plate motion. We attribute the crustal anisotropy to the preferred alignment of dike structures that transported asthenospheric magma toward the seafloor volcanic edifice. Our results suggest that the thermal-plume origin for ocean islands must be supplemented by tectonic-stress heterogeneities that allow magma to penetrate the lithosphere via fractures. Magma-transport fractures should align normal to the least-compressive direction, which are predicted by theoretical models to align approximately with plate motion at the time of emplacement.

  17. Massively parallel patterning of complex 2D and 3D functional polymer brushes by polymer pen lithography.

    PubMed

    Xie, Zhuang; Chen, Chaojian; Zhou, Xuechang; Gao, Tingting; Liu, Danqing; Miao, Qian; Zheng, Zijian

    2014-08-13

    We report the first demonstration of centimeter-area serial patterning of complex 2D and 3D functional polymer brushes by high-throughput polymer pen lithography. Arbitrary 2D and 3D structures of poly(glycidyl methacrylate) (PGMA) brushes are fabricated over areas as large as 2 cm × 1 cm, with a remarkable throughput being 3 orders of magnitudes higher than the state-of-the-arts. Patterned PGMA brushes are further employed as resist for fabricating Au micro/nanostructures and hard molds for the subsequent replica molding of soft stamps. On the other hand, these 2D and 3D PGMA brushes are also utilized as robust and versatile platforms for the immobilization of bioactive molecules to form 2D and 3D patterned DNA oligonucleotide and protein chips. Therefore, this low-cost, yet high-throughput "bench-top" serial fabrication method can be readily applied to a wide range of fields including micro/nanofabrication, optics and electronics, smart surfaces, and biorelated studies.

  18. Introducing anisotropic Minkowski functionals and quantitative anisotropy measures for local structure analysis in biomedical imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wismüller, Axel; De, Titas; Lochmüller, Eva; Eckstein, Felix; Nagarajan, Mahesh B.

    2013-03-01

    The ability of Minkowski Functionals to characterize local structure in different biological tissue types has been demonstrated in a variety of medical image processing tasks. We introduce anisotropic Minkowski Functionals (AMFs) as a novel variant that captures the inherent anisotropy of the underlying gray-level structures. To quantify the anisotropy characterized by our approach, we further introduce a method to compute a quantitative measure motivated by a technique utilized in MR diffusion tensor imaging, namely fractional anisotropy. We showcase the applicability of our method in the research context of characterizing the local structure properties of trabecular bone micro-architecture in the proximal femur as visualized on multi-detector CT. To this end, AMFs were computed locally for each pixel of ROIs extracted from the head, neck and trochanter regions. Fractional anisotropy was then used to quantify the local anisotropy of the trabecular structures found in these ROIs and to compare its distribution in different anatomical regions. Our results suggest a significantly greater concentration of anisotropic trabecular structures in the head and neck regions when compared to the trochanter region (p < 10-4). We also evaluated the ability of such AMFs to predict bone strength in the femoral head of proximal femur specimens obtained from 50 donors. Our results suggest that such AMFs, when used in conjunction with multi-regression models, can outperform more conventional features such as BMD in predicting failure load. We conclude that such anisotropic Minkowski Functionals can capture valuable information regarding directional attributes of local structure, which may be useful in a wide scope of biomedical imaging applications.

  19. Spectral functions in the 1D and 2D Bose Hubbard model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ivancic, Robert; Duchon, Eric; Trivedi, Nandini

    2014-03-01

    We use state of the art numerical techniques including quantum Monte Carlo and maximum entropy methods to obtain the low energy excitation spectra in the superfluid and Mott-insulator phases of the Bose Hubbard model. These results are checked in 1D against Bethe Ansatz and tDMRG results and extended to 2D where such approaches are impossible. In the superfluid, we find linearly dispersing Bogoliubov sound modes as well as additional gapped modes broadened by interaction effects. In the Mott insulator, we find evidence for a finite gap and well defined quasiparticle excitations. We examine properties such as the excitation lifetime, density of states, and speed of sound as the system is tuned across the quantum phase transition that separates the superfluid and Mott states. These results provide an important theoretical framework for upcoming ultracold atom experiments in one and two dimensions. We acknowledge support from the NSF DMR-0907275 (R.I., E.D. and N.T.).

  20. Spherical harmonic analysis of particle velocity distribution function: Comparison of moments and anisotropies using Cluster data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Viñas, Adolfo F.; Gurgiolo, Chris

    2009-01-01

    This paper presents a spherical harmonic analysis of the plasma velocity distribution function using high-angular, energy, and time resolution Cluster data obtained from the PEACE spectrometer instrument to demonstrate how this analysis models the particle distribution function and its moments and anisotropies. The results show that spherical harmonic analysis produced a robust physical representation model of the velocity distribution function, resolving the main features of the measured distributions. From the spherical harmonic analysis, a minimum set of nine spectral coefficients was obtained from which the moment (up to the heat flux), anisotropy, and asymmetry calculations of the velocity distribution function were obtained. The spherical harmonic method provides a potentially effective ``compression'' technique that can be easily carried out onboard a spacecraft to determine the moments and anisotropies of the particle velocity distribution function for any species. These calculations were implemented using three different approaches, namely, the standard traditional integration, the spherical harmonic (SPH) spectral coefficients integration, and the singular value decomposition (SVD) on the spherical harmonic methods. A comparison among the various methods shows that both SPH and SVD approaches provide remarkable agreement with the standard moment integration method.

  1. Spherical Harmonic Analysis of Particle Velocity Distribution Function: Comparison of Moments and Anisotropies using Cluster Data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gurgiolo, Chris; Vinas, Adolfo F.

    2009-01-01

    This paper presents a spherical harmonic analysis of the plasma velocity distribution function using high-angular, energy, and time resolution Cluster data obtained from the PEACE spectrometer instrument to demonstrate how this analysis models the particle distribution function and its moments and anisotropies. The results show that spherical harmonic analysis produced a robust physical representation model of the velocity distribution function, resolving the main features of the measured distributions. From the spherical harmonic analysis, a minimum set of nine spectral coefficients was obtained from which the moment (up to the heat flux), anisotropy, and asymmetry calculations of the velocity distribution function were obtained. The spherical harmonic method provides a potentially effective "compression" technique that can be easily carried out onboard a spacecraft to determine the moments and anisotropies of the particle velocity distribution function for any species. These calculations were implemented using three different approaches, namely, the standard traditional integration, the spherical harmonic (SPH) spectral coefficients integration, and the singular value decomposition (SVD) on the spherical harmonic methods. A comparison among the various methods shows that both SPH and SVD approaches provide remarkable agreement with the standard moment integration method.

  2. 2D Laplace-Domain Waveform Inversion of Field Data Using a Power Objective Function

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Park, Eunjin; Ha, Wansoo; Chung, Wookeen; Shin, Changsoo; Min, Dong-Joo

    2013-12-01

    The wavefield in the Laplace domain has a very small amplitude except only near the source point. In order to deal with this characteristic, the logarithmic objective function has been used in many Laplace domain inversion studies. The Laplace-domain waveform inversion using the logarithmic objective function has fewer local minima than the time- or frequency domain inversion. Recently, the power objective function was suggested as an alternative to the logarithmic objective function in the Laplace domain. Since amplitudes of wavefields are very small generally, a power <1 amplifies the wavefields especially at large offset. Therefore, the power objective function can enhance the Laplace-domain inversion results. In previous studies about synthetic datasets, it is confirmed that the inversion using a power objective function shows a similar result when compared with the inversion using a logarithmic objective function. In this paper, we apply an inversion algorithm using a power objective function to field datasets. We perform the waveform inversion using the power objective function and compare the result obtained by the logarithmic objective function. The Gulf of Mexico dataset is used for the comparison. When we use a power objective function in the inversion algorithm, it is important to choose the appropriate exponent. By testing the various exponents, we can select the range of the exponent from 5 × 10-3 to 5 × 10-8 in the Gulf of Mexico dataset. The results obtained from the power objective function with appropriate exponent are very similar to the results of the logarithmic objective function. Even though we do not get better results than the conventional method, we can confirm the possibility of applying the power objective function for field data. In addition, the power objective function shows good results in spite of little difference in the amplitude of the wavefield. Based on these results, we can expect that the power objective function will

  3. Corneal elastic anisotropy and hysteresis as a function of IOP assessed by optical coherence elastography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Jiasong; Singh, Manmohan; Han, Zhaolong; Wu, Chen; Raghunathan, Raksha; Liu, Chih-Hao; Nair, Achuth; Noorani, Shezaan; Aglyamov, Salavat R.; Twa, Michael D.; Larin, Kirill V.

    2016-03-01

    The mechanical anisotropic properties of the cornea can be an important indicator for determining the onset and severity of different diseases and can be used to assess the efficacy of various therapeutic interventions, such as cross-linking and LASIK surgery. In this work, we introduce a noncontact method of assessing corneal mechanical anisotropy as a function of intraocular pressure (IOP) using optical coherence elastography (OCE). A focused air-pulse induced low amplitude (<10 μm) elastic waves in fresh porcine corneas in the whole eye-globe configuration in situ. A phase-stabilized swept source optical coherence elastography (PhS-SSOCE) system imaged the elastic wave propagation at stepped radial angles, and the OCE measurements were repeated as the IOP was cycled. The elastic wave velocity was then quantified to determine the mechanical anisotropy and hysteresis of the cornea. The results show that the elastic anisotropy at the corneal of the apex of the cornea becomes more pronounced at higher IOPs, and that there are distinct radial angles of higher and lower stiffness. Due to the noncontact nature and small amplitude of the elastic wave, this method may be useful for characterizing the elastic anisotropy of ocular and other tissues in vivo completely noninvasively.

  4. On the use of rational-function fitting methods for the solution of 2D Laplace boundary-value problems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hochman, Amit; Leviatan, Yehuda; White, Jacob K.

    2013-04-01

    A computational scheme for solving 2D Laplace boundary-value problems using rational functions as the basis functions is described. The scheme belongs to the class of desingularized methods, for which the location of singularities and testing points is a major issue that is addressed by the proposed scheme, in the context he 2D Laplace equation. Well-established rational-function fitting techniques are used to set the poles, while residues are determined by enforcing the boundary conditions in the least-squares sense at the nodes of rational Gauss-Chebyshev quadrature rules. Numerical results show that errors approaching the machine epsilon can be obtained for sharp and almost sharp corners, nearly-touching boundaries, and almost-singular boundary data. We show various examples of these cases in which the method yields compact solutions, requiring fewer basis functions than the Nyström method, for the same accuracy. A scheme for solving fairly large-scale problems is also presented.

  5. Density functional theory of freezing for binary mixtures of 2D superparamagnetic colloids.

    PubMed

    Mukherjee, Manjori; Mishra, Pankaj; Löwen, Hartmut

    2014-11-19

    Density functional theory of freezing is used to study the phase diagram of a binary mixture of superparamagnetic colloidal particles in two dimensions. The particles interact via a purely repulsive potential that scales as the inverse cube of the inter-particle separation. This corresponds to a magnetic dipole interaction where the dipoles are induced by an external magnetic field applied normal to the plane. The pair correlation functions needed as input information in the density functional theory are calculated by the hypernetted chain integral equation closure. Considering the freezing into a disordered triangular solid phase, a spindle phase diagram is found for the susceptibility ratio 0.9 of the species, which changes to an azeotrope at a ratio 0.8. A eutectic-like phase diagram with an intervening solid phase emerges for the susceptibility ratio 0.7. The results are verifiable in real-space experiments on superparamagnetic colloids in external magnetic fields.

  6. FAST TRACK COMMUNICATION: Variational approach to the scaling function of the 2D Ising model in a magnetic field

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mangazeev, Vladimir V.; Batchelor, Murray T.; Bazhanov, Vladimir V.; Dudalev, Michael Yu

    2009-01-01

    The universal scaling function of the square lattice Ising model in a magnetic field is obtained numerically via Baxter's variational corner transfer matrix approach. The high precision numerical data are in perfect agreement with the remarkable field theory results obtained by Fonseca and Zamolodchikov, as well as with many previously known exact and numerical results for the 2D Ising model. This includes excellent agreement with analytic results for the magnetic susceptibility obtained by Orrick, Nickel, Guttmann and Perk. In general, the high precision of the numerical results underlines the potential and full power of the variational corner transfer matrix approach.

  7. A new approach to the learning of dental morphology, function, and esthetics: the "2D-3D-4D" concept.

    PubMed

    Magne, Pascal

    2015-01-01

    A concept is proposed for an approach to the learning of dental morphology and occlusion. Dental morphology, function, and esthetics should reflect a fundamental driving force, that is, the faithful emulation of the natural dentition's structural (functional, mechanical) and esthetic properties. The innovative part of the proposed approach is the emphasis on visual arts and the 2D-3D-4D aspect that starts with drawing (2D/3D) and continues with partial wax-up exercises that are followed by labial waxups and, finally, full wax-ups using innovative technical aids (electric waxers, prefabricated wax patterns, etc). Finally, the concept of layers (4D) and the histoanatomy of enamel/dentin and optical depth are taught through the realization of layering exercises (advanced acrylic mock-ups and composite resin restorations). All these techniques and materials are not only used to teach morphology and occlusion, but also constitute essential tools that will be of significant use for the student dentists and dental technologists in their future daily practice. The clinical significance of the presented methodology should allow not only students but also practicing dentists and dental technologists to help their youngest collaborators to develop a deep sense of morphology, function, and esthetics.

  8. Directional 2D functions as models for fast layout pattern transfer verification

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Torres, J. Andres; Hofmann, Mark; Otto, Oberdan

    2009-03-01

    As advanced manufacturing processes become more stable, the need to adapt new designs to fully utilize the available manufacturing technology becomes a key technologic differentiator. However, many times such gains can only be realized and evaluated during full chip analysis. It has been demonstrated that the most accurate layout verification methods require application of the actual OPC recipes along with most of the mask data preparation that defines the pattern transfer characteristics of the process. Still, this method in many instances is not sufficiently fast to be used in a layout creation environment which undergoes constant updates. By doing an analysis of typical mask data processing, it is possible to determine that the most CPUintensive computations are the OPC and contour simulation steps needed to perform layout printability checks. Several researchers have tried to reduce the time it takes to compute the OPC mask by introducing matrix convolutions of the layout with empirically calibrated two-dimensional functions. However, most of these approaches do not provide a sufficient speed-up since they only replace the OPC computation and still require a full contour computation. Another alternative is to try to find effective ways of pattern matching those topologies that will exhibit transfer difficulties4, but such methods lack the ability to be predictive beyond their calibration data. In this paper we present a methodology that includes common resolution enhancement techniques, such as retargeting and sub-resolution assist feature insertion, and which replaces the OPC computation and subsequent contour calculation with an edge bias function based on an empirically-calibrated, directional, two-dimensional function. Because the edge bias function does not provide adequate control over the corner locations, a spline-based smoothing process is applied. The outcome is a piecewise-linear curve similar to those obtained by full lithographic simulations. Our

  9. Collagen esterification enhances the function and survival of pancreatic β cells in 2D and 3D culture systems

    SciTech Connect

    Ko, Jae Hyung; Kim, Yang Hee; Jeong, Seong Hee; Lee, Song; Park, Si-Nae; Shim, In Kyong; Kim, Song Cheol

    2015-08-07

    Collagen, one of the most important components of the extracellular matrix (ECM), may play a role in the survival of pancreatic islet cells. In addition, chemical modifications that change the collagen charge profile to a net positive charge by esterification have been shown to increase the adhesion and proliferation of various cell types. The purpose of this study was to characterize and compare the effects of native collagen (NC) and esterified collagen (EC) on β cell function and survival. After isolation by the collagenase digestion technique, rat islets were cultured with NC and EC in 2 dimensional (2D) and 3 dimensional (3D) environments for a long-term duration in vitro. The cells were assessed for islet adhesion, morphology, viability, glucose-induced insulin secretion, and mRNA expression of glucose metabolism-related genes, and visualized by scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Islet cells attached tightly in the NC group, but islet cell viability was similar in both the NC and EC groups. Glucose-stimulated insulin secretion was higher in the EC group than in the NC group in both 2D and 3D culture. Furthermore, the mRNA expression levels of glucokinase in the EC group were higher than those in the NC group and were associated with glucose metabolism and insulin secretion. Finally, SEM observation confirmed that islets had more intact component cells on EC sponges than on NC sponges. These results indicate that modification of collagen may offer opportunities to improve function and viability of islet cells. - Highlights: • We changed the collagen charge profile to a net positive charge by esterification. • Islets cultured on esterified collagen improved survival in both 2D and 3D culture. • Islets cultured on esterified collagen enhanced glucose-stimulated insulin release. • High levels of glucokinase mRNA may be associated with increased insulin release.

  10. Scaling Analysis of Ocean Surface Turbulent Heterogeneities from Satellite Remote Sensing: Use of 2D Structure Functions.

    PubMed

    Renosh, P R; Schmitt, Francois G; Loisel, Hubert

    2015-01-01

    Satellite remote sensing observations allow the ocean surface to be sampled synoptically over large spatio-temporal scales. The images provided from visible and thermal infrared satellite observations are widely used in physical, biological, and ecological oceanography. The present work proposes a method to understand the multi-scaling properties of satellite products such as the Chlorophyll-a (Chl-a), and the Sea Surface Temperature (SST), rarely studied. The specific objectives of this study are to show how the small scale heterogeneities of satellite images can be characterised using tools borrowed from the fields of turbulence. For that purpose, we show how the structure function, which is classically used in the frame of scaling time series analysis, can be used also in 2D. The main advantage of this method is that it can be applied to process images which have missing data. Based on both simulated and real images, we demonstrate that coarse-graining (CG) of a gradient modulus transform of the original image does not provide correct scaling exponents. We show, using a fractional Brownian simulation in 2D, that the structure function (SF) can be used with randomly sampled couple of points, and verify that 1 million of couple of points provides enough statistics.

  11. Scaling Analysis of Ocean Surface Turbulent Heterogeneities from Satellite Remote Sensing: Use of 2D Structure Functions

    PubMed Central

    Renosh, P. R.; Schmitt, Francois G.; Loisel, Hubert

    2015-01-01

    Satellite remote sensing observations allow the ocean surface to be sampled synoptically over large spatio-temporal scales. The images provided from visible and thermal infrared satellite observations are widely used in physical, biological, and ecological oceanography. The present work proposes a method to understand the multi-scaling properties of satellite products such as the Chlorophyll-a (Chl-a), and the Sea Surface Temperature (SST), rarely studied. The specific objectives of this study are to show how the small scale heterogeneities of satellite images can be characterised using tools borrowed from the fields of turbulence. For that purpose, we show how the structure function, which is classically used in the frame of scaling time series analysis, can be used also in 2D. The main advantage of this method is that it can be applied to process images which have missing data. Based on both simulated and real images, we demonstrate that coarse-graining (CG) of a gradient modulus transform of the original image does not provide correct scaling exponents. We show, using a fractional Brownian simulation in 2D, that the structure function (SF) can be used with randomly sampled couple of points, and verify that 1 million of couple of points provides enough statistics. PMID:26017551

  12. Effect of anisotropy on creep behavior in a functionally graded material disc of variable thickness

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gupta, Vandana; Singh, S. B.

    2014-09-01

    In this paper, an effort has been made to study the effect of anisotropy on the steady state creep behavior in the functionally graded material disc with hyperbolic thickness made of Al-SiC (particle). The content of silicon carbide particles in the disc is assumed to decrease linearly from the inner to the outer radius of the disc. The creep behavior of the disc under stresses developing due to rotation at 15,000 rpm has been determined by Sherby's law. The creep parameters of the FGM disc vary along the radial distance due to varying composition and this variation has been estimated by regression fit of the available experimental data. The creep response of rotating disc is expressed by a threshold stress with value of stress exponent as 8. The study reveals that the anisotropy has a significant effect on the steady state creep response of rotating FGM disc. Thus, the care to introduce anisotropy should be taken for the safe design of the rotating FGM disc with hyperbolic thickness.

  13. Adaptive mapping functions to the azimuthal anisotropy of the neutral atmosphere

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gegout, P.; Biancale, R.; Soudarin, L.

    2011-10-01

    The anisotropy of propagation of radio waves used by global navigation satellite systems is investigated using high-resolution observational data assimilations produced by the European Centre for Medium-range Weather Forecast. The geometry and the refractivity of the neutral atmosphere are built introducing accurate geodetic heights and continuous formulations of the refractivity and its gradient. Hence the realistic ellipsoidal shape of the refractivity field above the topography is properly represented. Atmospheric delays are obtained by ray-tracing through the refractivity field, integrating the eikonal differential system. Ray-traced delays reveal the anisotropy of the atmosphere. With the aim to preserve the classical mapping function strategy, mapping functions can evolve to adapt to high-frequency atmospheric fluctuations and to account for the anisotropy of propagation by fitting at each site and time the zenith delays and the mapping functions coefficients. Adaptive mapping functions (AMF) are designed with coefficients of the continued fraction form which depend on azimuth. The basic idea is to expand the azimuthal dependency of the coefficients in Fourier series introducing a multi-scale azimuthal decomposition which slightly changes the elevation functions with the azimuth. AMF are used to approximate thousands of atmospheric ray-traced delays using a few tens of coefficients. Generic recursive definitions of the AMF and their partial derivatives lead to observe that the truncation of the continued fraction form at the third term and the truncation of the azimuthal Fourier series at the fourth term are sufficient in usual meteorological conditions. Delays' and elevations' mapping functions allow to store and to retrieve the ray-tracing results to solve the parallax problem at the observation level. AMF are suitable to fit the time-variable isotropic and anisotropic parts of the ray-traced delays at each site at each time step and to provide GPS range

  14. Scaling Analysis of Ocean Surface Turbulent Heterogeneities from Satellite Remote Sensing: Use of 2D Structure Functions, methodology and applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schmitt, F. G.; Pannimpullath Remanan, R.; Loisel, H.

    2015-12-01

    Satellite remote sensing observations allow the ocean surface to be sampled over large spatio-temporal scales. The images provided from visible and thermal infrared satellite observations are widely used in physical, biological, and ecological oceanography. The present work proposes a method to understand the multi-scaling properties of satellite products such as the Chlorophyll-a (Chl-a), and the Sea Surface Temperature (SST). The specific objectives of this study are to show how the small scale heterogeneities of satellite images can be characterised using tools borrowed from the fields of turbulence. We show how the structure function, which is classically used in the frame of scaling time series analysis, can be used also in 2D. The main advantage of this method is that it can be applied to process images which have missing data. Based on both simulated and real images, we demonstrate that coarse-graining (CG) of a gradient modulus transform of the original image does not provide correct scaling exponents. We show, using a fractional Brownian simulation in 2D, that the structure function (SF) can be used with randomly sampled couple of points, and verify that 1 million of couple of points provides enough statistics. After this methodological study, some applications are presented: the nonlinear moment function ζ(q) is fitted using the lognormal model with 2 parameters, the Hurst index H and the intermittency μ. The values of H and μ are discussed for 4 different parameters (Chl-a, SST, Rrs-443 and Rrs-555) and for different locations, chosen among different contrasted regions of the ocean, characterized by high spatial heterogeneity in Chl-a and SST.

  15. Influence of intermittency on the anisotropy of magnetic structure functions of solar wind turbulence

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pei, Zhongtian; He, Jiansen; Wang, Xin; Tu, Chuanyi; Marsch, Eckart; Wang, Linghua; Yan, Limei

    2016-02-01

    Intermittency appears to be connected with the spectral anisotropy of solar wind turbulence. We use the Local Intermittency Measure to identify and remove intermittency from the magnetic field data measured by the Ulysses spacecraft in fast solar wind. Structure functions are calculated based on the time sequences as obtained before and after removing intermittency and arranged by time scale (τ) and ΘRB (the angle between local mean magnetic field B0 and radial direction R). Thus, the scaling exponent (ξ(p, ΘRB)) of every structure function of order (p) is obtained for different angles. Before removing intermittency, ξ(p, ΘRB) shows a distinctive dependence on ΘRB: from monofractal scaling law at ΘRB ~0° to multifractal scaling law at ΘRB ~90°. In contrast after eliminating the intermittency, ξ(p, ΘRB) is found to be more monofractal for all ΘRB. The extended structure-function model is applied to ξ(p, ΘRB), revealing differences of its fitting parameters α (a proxy of the power spectral index) and P1 (fragmentation fraction) for the cases with and without intermittency. Parameter α shows an evident angular trend falling from 1.9 to 1.6 for the case with intermittency but has a relatively flat profile around 1.8 for the case without intermittency. Parameter P1 rises from around 0.5 to above 0.8 with increasing ΘRB for the intermittency case and is located between 0.5 and 0.8 for the case lacking intermittency. Therefore, we may infer that it is the anisotropy of intermittency that causes the scaling anisotropy of energy spectra and the unequal fragmentation of energy cascading.

  16. Seismic anisotropy indicators in Western Tibet: Shear wave splitting and receiver function analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Levin, Vadim; Roecker, Steven; Graham, Peter; Hosseini, Afsaneh

    2008-12-01

    Using recently collected data from western Tibet we find significant variation in the strength, vertical distribution and attributes of seismic wave speed anisotropy, constrained through a joint application of teleseismic shear wave splitting techniques and a study of P-S mode-converted waves (receiver functions). We find that the crust of Tibet is characterized by anisotropy on the order of 5%-15% concentrated in layers 10-20 km in thickness, and with relatively steep (30°-45° from the vertical) slow symmetry axes of anisotropy. These layers contribute no more than 0.3 s to the birefringence in teleseismic shear waves, significantly smaller than splitting in many of the observations, and much smaller than birefringence predicted by models developed through group inversions of shear-wave recordings. Consequently, we interpret models constrained with shear-wave observations in terms of structures in the upper mantle. Near the Altyn-Tagh fault our data favor a two-layer model, with the upper layer fast polarization approximately aligned with the strike of the fault. Near the Karakorum fault our data are well fit with a single layer of relatively modest (~ 0.5 s delay) anisotropy. Fast polarization in this layer is ~ 60°NE, similar to that of the lower layer in the model for the Altyn Tagh fault site. Assuming that layers of similar anisotropic properties at these two sites reflect a common cause, our finding favors a scenario where Indian lithosphere under-thrusts a significant fraction of the plateau. Data from a site at the southern edge of the Tarim basin appear to be inconsistent with a common model of seismic anisotropy distribution. We suspect that thick sediments underlying the site significantly distort observed waveforms. Our ability to resolve features of anisotropic structure in the crust and the upper mantle of western Tibet is limited by the small amount of data collected in a 6 month observing period. We stress the importance of future teleseismic

  17. Collagen esterification enhances the function and survival of pancreatic β cells in 2D and 3D culture systems.

    PubMed

    Ko, Jae Hyung; Kim, Yang Hee; Jeong, Seong Hee; Lee, Song; Park, Si-Nae; Shim, In Kyong; Kim, Song Cheol

    2015-08-01

    Collagen, one of the most important components of the extracellular matrix (ECM), may play a role in the survival of pancreatic islet cells. In addition, chemical modifications that change the collagen charge profile to a net positive charge by esterification have been shown to increase the adhesion and proliferation of various cell types. The purpose of this study was to characterize and compare the effects of native collagen (NC) and esterified collagen (EC) on β cell function and survival. After isolation by the collagenase digestion technique, rat islets were cultured with NC and EC in 2 dimensional (2D) and 3 dimensional (3D) environments for a long-term duration in vitro. The cells were assessed for islet adhesion, morphology, viability, glucose-induced insulin secretion, and mRNA expression of glucose metabolism-related genes, and visualized by scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Islet cells attached tightly in the NC group, but islet cell viability was similar in both the NC and EC groups. Glucose-stimulated insulin secretion was higher in the EC group than in the NC group in both 2D and 3D culture. Furthermore, the mRNA expression levels of glucokinase in the EC group were higher than those in the NC group and were associated with glucose metabolism and insulin secretion. Finally, SEM observation confirmed that islets had more intact component cells on EC sponges than on NC sponges. These results indicate that modification of collagen may offer opportunities to improve function and viability of islet cells.

  18. Regional spherical modeling of 2-D functions: The case of the critical frequency of the F2 ionospheric layer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    De Santis, A.; De Franceschi, G.; Kerridge, D. J.

    1994-06-01

    In this paper it is shown that Adjusted Spherical Harmonic Analysis (ASHA), previously used for modeling the three-dimensional (3-D) geomagnetic field in a restricted area can be adapted to model general bidimensional (2-D) spherical functions, f(γ, θ). As an example of application the case of the critical frequency of the F2 ionospheric layer, f0F2 is described. By assuming that, at a fixed epoch, the monthly median value of f0F2 is a function only of the geographic longitude γ and colatitude θ, that is f0F2 = f( γ, θ), ASHA has been applied to modeling and mapping this ionospheric parameter over Europe. Here, the FORTRAN-77 computer programs and subprograms are presented enabling the practical and easy use of the ASHA technique to obtain, as a final output, either a grid (2 × 2 degrees) of the computed monthly medians of f0F2 in the European area and the calculated value of the parameter at one point, in the region of interest, as a function of time. The same codes can be adapted easily to be used for modeling any bidimensional function defined over a spherical portion of the Earth.

  19. Communication: Effect of accidental mode degeneracy on Raman intensity in 2D materials: Hybrid functional study of bilayer phosphorene.

    PubMed

    Sun, Yi-Yang; Zhang, Shengbai

    2016-07-14

    Bulk black phosphorus has two optical phonon modes labeled as Ag (2) and B2u, respectively, that are nearly degenerate in frequency. However, density functional theory calculations using local or semi-local functionals cannot reproduce this degeneracy. Here, we propose a hybrid functional approach aided by van der Waals (vdW) force fields, which can accurately describe the lattice dynamic and electronic properties of both bulk and few-layer black phosphorus (phosphorene). Using this approach we show that in bilayer phosphorene, the two Raman modes derived from the B2u and Ag (2) modes could exhibit strong resonance as a result of the accidental degeneracy so that both modes could be observed in Raman experiment. Without the mode degeneracy, however, the Raman intensity of the B2u-derived mode would be too weak to be observed. We further show that the accidental degeneracy is correlated to the applied strain, which enables Raman spectroscopy to be a powerful tool for characterizing built-in strains in 2D materials, e.g., due to the interaction with substrates, which has emerged as an important issue in vdW epitaxy. PMID:27421389

  20. Communication: Effect of accidental mode degeneracy on Raman intensity in 2D materials: Hybrid functional study of bilayer phosphorene

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sun, Yi-Yang; Zhang, Shengbai

    2016-07-01

    Bulk black phosphorus has two optical phonon modes labeled as Ag2 and B2u, respectively, that are nearly degenerate in frequency. However, density functional theory calculations using local or semi-local functionals cannot reproduce this degeneracy. Here, we propose a hybrid functional approach aided by van der Waals (vdW) force fields, which can accurately describe the lattice dynamic and electronic properties of both bulk and few-layer black phosphorus (phosphorene). Using this approach we show that in bilayer phosphorene, the two Raman modes derived from the B2u and Ag2 modes could exhibit strong resonance as a result of the accidental degeneracy so that both modes could be observed in Raman experiment. Without the mode degeneracy, however, the Raman intensity of the B2u-derived mode would be too weak to be observed. We further show that the accidental degeneracy is correlated to the applied strain, which enables Raman spectroscopy to be a powerful tool for characterizing built-in strains in 2D materials, e.g., due to the interaction with substrates, which has emerged as an important issue in vdW epitaxy.

  1. Communication: Effect of accidental mode degeneracy on Raman intensity in 2D materials: Hybrid functional study of bilayer phosphorene.

    PubMed

    Sun, Yi-Yang; Zhang, Shengbai

    2016-07-14

    Bulk black phosphorus has two optical phonon modes labeled as Ag (2) and B2u, respectively, that are nearly degenerate in frequency. However, density functional theory calculations using local or semi-local functionals cannot reproduce this degeneracy. Here, we propose a hybrid functional approach aided by van der Waals (vdW) force fields, which can accurately describe the lattice dynamic and electronic properties of both bulk and few-layer black phosphorus (phosphorene). Using this approach we show that in bilayer phosphorene, the two Raman modes derived from the B2u and Ag (2) modes could exhibit strong resonance as a result of the accidental degeneracy so that both modes could be observed in Raman experiment. Without the mode degeneracy, however, the Raman intensity of the B2u-derived mode would be too weak to be observed. We further show that the accidental degeneracy is correlated to the applied strain, which enables Raman spectroscopy to be a powerful tool for characterizing built-in strains in 2D materials, e.g., due to the interaction with substrates, which has emerged as an important issue in vdW epitaxy.

  2. On the Anisotropy of the He+, C+, O+, and Ne+ Pickup Ion Velocity Distribution Function: STEREO PLASTIC Observations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Taut, A.; Drews, C.; Berger, L.; Peleikis, T.; Wimmer-Schweingruber, R. F.

    2015-12-01

    PickUp Ions (PUIs) are typically characterized by (1) their almost exclusively single charge state, (2) a highly non-thermal and anisotropic Velocity Distribution Function (VDF) [Drews et al., 2015], and (3) an extended source population of neutral atoms somewhere between the observer and the Sun. The origin of pickup ions ranges from sources only several solar radii away from the Sun, the so-called inner-source of pickup ions, up to a distance of several hundreds of astronomical units, the local interstellar medium. Their continuous production inside the heliosphere and complex interactions with the magnetized solar wind plasma leads to the development of non-thermal, anisotropic features of both the solar wind and pickup ion velocity distribution functions. In this study, we present observations of the VDF of He+, C+, N+, O+ and Ne+ pickup ions with PLASTIC on STEREO A. We have found a PUI flux increase during perpendicular configurations of the local magnetic field that is generally linked to the existence of a so-called torus-distribution [Drews et al., 2015] which is attributed to the production of PUIs close to the observer. A comparison of the PUI VDF between radial and perpendicular configurations of the local magnetic field vector is used to quantify the anisotropy of the PUI VDF and thereby enables us to estimate the mean free path for pitch-angle scattering of He, C, N, O and Ne pickup ions without the necessity of an over-simplified heliospheric model to describe the PUI phase space transport. Our results show a clear signature of a C+ torus signature at 1 AU as well as significant differences between the anisotropies of the He+ and O+ VDF. We will discuss our results in the light of recent studies about the nature of the inner-source of PUIs [Berger et al., 2015] and observations of the 2D VDF of He+[Drews et al., 2015]. Figure Caption: Velocity space diagrams of a pickup ion torus distribution as a (vx-vy)-projection (top left panel) and in the vz = 0

  3. Dual functions of 2D WS2 and MoS2-WS2 monolayers coupled with a Ag3PO4 photocatalyst

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wei, Zeng-Xi; Huang, Wei-Qing; Xu, Liang; Hu, Wangyu; Peng, P.; Huang, Gui-Fang

    2016-09-01

    The photocatalytic performance of semiconductors can be improved by coupling two-dimensional (2D) layered materials. Understanding the underlying mechanism of this phenomenon at the electronic level is important for the development of photocatalysts with a high efficiency. Here, we first present a theoretical elucidation of the dual functions of 2D layered material as a sensitizer and a co-catalyst by performing density functional theory calculations, taking WS2 and a lateral heterogeneous WS2-MoS2 monolayer as examples to couple with a promising photocatalyst Ag3PO4. The band alignment of a staggered type-II is formed between Ag3PO4 and the 2D monolayer with the latter possessing the higher electron affinity, resulting in the robust separation of photoexcited charge carriers between them, and indicating that the 2D monolayer is an effective sensitizer. Interestingly, the W (Mo) atoms, which are catalytically inert in the isolated 2D monolayer, turn into catalytic active sites, making the 2D monolayer a highly active co-catalyst in hybrids. A better photocatalytic performance in the coupled lateral heterogeneous WS2-MoS2 monolayer and Ag3PO4 can be expected. The calculated results can be rationalized by available experiments. These findings provide theoretical evidence supporting the experimental reports and may be used as a foundation for developing highly efficient 2D layered materials-based photocatalysts.

  4. Dual functions of 2D WS2 and MoS2–WS2 monolayers coupled with a Ag3PO4 photocatalyst

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wei, Zeng-Xi; Huang, Wei-Qing; Xu, Liang; Hu, Wangyu; Peng, P.; Huang, Gui-Fang

    2016-09-01

    The photocatalytic performance of semiconductors can be improved by coupling two-dimensional (2D) layered materials. Understanding the underlying mechanism of this phenomenon at the electronic level is important for the development of photocatalysts with a high efficiency. Here, we first present a theoretical elucidation of the dual functions of 2D layered material as a sensitizer and a co-catalyst by performing density functional theory calculations, taking WS2 and a lateral heterogeneous WS2–MoS2 monolayer as examples to couple with a promising photocatalyst Ag3PO4. The band alignment of a staggered type-II is formed between Ag3PO4 and the 2D monolayer with the latter possessing the higher electron affinity, resulting in the robust separation of photoexcited charge carriers between them, and indicating that the 2D monolayer is an effective sensitizer. Interestingly, the W (Mo) atoms, which are catalytically inert in the isolated 2D monolayer, turn into catalytic active sites, making the 2D monolayer a highly active co-catalyst in hybrids. A better photocatalytic performance in the coupled lateral heterogeneous WS2–MoS2 monolayer and Ag3PO4 can be expected. The calculated results can be rationalized by available experiments. These findings provide theoretical evidence supporting the experimental reports and may be used as a foundation for developing highly efficient 2D layered materials-based photocatalysts.

  5. Constraining Crustal Anisotropy by Receiver Functions at the Deep Continental Drilling Site KTB in Southern Germany

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bianchi, Irene; Qorbani, Ehsan; Bokelmann, Götz

    2016-04-01

    As one of the rare observational tools for studying deformation and stress within the Earth, seismic anisotropy has been one of the focuses of geophysical studies over the last decade. In order to unravel the anisotropic properties of the crust, the teleseismic receiver functions (RF) methodology has started to be widely applied recently. Such effects of anisotropy on RF were illustrated in theoretical studies, showing the strong backazimuthal dependence of RF on the 3D characteristics of the media sampled by the waves. The use of teleseismic RF has the advantage of not being affected by a heterogeneous depth distribution of local earthquakes, since teleseismic rays sample the entire crust beneath the stations. The application of this technique however, needs to be critically assessed using a suitable field test. To test the technique, we need a crustal block where the underground structure is reasonably well-known, e.g., where there is extensive knowledge from local seismic experiments and drilling. A field experiment has thus been carried out around the KTB (Kontinental Tiefbohrung) site in the Oberpfalz area in Southeastern Germany, in order to compare with previous results from deep drilling, and high-frequency seismic experiments around the drill site. The investigated region has been studied extensively by local geophysical experiments, and geological studies. The deep borehole was placed into gneiss rocks of the Zone Erbendorf-Vohenstrauss. The drilling activity lasted from 1987 to 1994, and descended down to a depth of 9101 meters, sampling an alternating sequence of paragneiss and amphibolite, with metamorphism of upper amphibolite facies conditions, and ductile deformation produced a strong foliation of the rocks. The application of the RFs reveals strong seismic anisotropy in the upper crust related to the so-called Erbendorf body. The SKS shear-wave splitting method has been applied as well, revealing coherent results for the whole region with exception

  6. Systematic Functional Study of Cytochrome P450 2D6 Promoter Polymorphisms in the Chinese Han Population

    PubMed Central

    Gong, Xueli; Liu, Yichen; Zhang, Xiaoqing; Wei, Zhiyun; Huo, Ran; Shen, Lu; He, Lin; Qin, Shengying

    2013-01-01

    The promoter polymorphisms of drug-metabolizing genes can lead to interindividual differences in gene expression, which may result in adverse drug effects and therapeutic failure. Based on the database of CYP2D6 gene polymorphisms in the Chinese Han population established by our group, we functionally characterized the single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) of the promoter region and corresponding haplotypes in this population. Using site-directed mutagenesis, all the five SNPs identified and ten haplotypes with a frequency equal to or greater than 0.01 in the population were constructed on a luciferase reporter system. Dual luciferase reporter systems were used to analyze regulatory activity. The activity produced by Haplo3(−2183G>A, −1775A>G, −1589G>C, −1431C>T, −1000G>A, −678A>G), Haplo8(−2065G>A, −2058T>G, −1775A>G, −1589G>C, −1235G>A, −678A>G) and MU3(−498C>A) was 0.7−, 0.7−, 1.2− times respectively compared with the wild type in human hepatoma cell lines(p<0.05). These findings might be useful for optimizing pharmacotherapy and the design of personalized medicine. PMID:23469064

  7. Reconfigurable anisotropy and functional transformations with VO2-based metamaterial electric circuits

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Savo, Salvatore; Zhou, You; Castaldi, Giuseppe; Moccia, Massimo; Galdi, Vincenzo; Ramanathan, Shriram; Sato, Yuki

    2015-04-01

    We demonstrate an innovative multifunctional artificial material that combines exotic metamaterial properties and the environmentally responsive nature of phase-change media. The tunable metamaterial is designed with the aid of two interwoven coordinate-transformation equations and implemented with a network of thin-film resistors and vanadium dioxide (VO2). The strong temperature dependence of VO2 electrical conductivity results in a significant modification of the resistor network behavior, and we provide experimental evidence for a reconfigurable metamaterial electric circuit that not only mimics a continuous medium, but is also capable of responding to thermal stimulation through dynamic variation of its spatial anisotropy. Upon external temperature change, the overall effective functionality of the material switches between a "truncated cloak" and a "concentrator" for electric currents. Possible applications may include adaptive matching resistor networks, multifunctional electronic devices, and equivalent artificial materials in the magnetic domain. Additionally, the proposed technology could also be relevant for thermal management of integrated circuits.

  8. Band-filling effect on magnetic anisotropy using a Green's function method

    DOE PAGES

    Ke, Liqin; van Schilfgaarde, Mark

    2015-07-28

    We use an analytical model to describe the magnetocrystalline anisotropy energy (MAE) in solids as a function of band filling. The MAE is evaluated in second-order perturbation theory, which makes it possible to decompose the MAE into a sum of transitions between occupied and unoccupied pairs. The model enables us to characterize the MAE as a sum of contributions from different, often competing terms. The nitridometalates Li2[(Li1–xTx)N], with T= Mn, Fe, Co, Ni, provide a system where the model is very effective because atomiclike orbital characters are preserved and the decomposition is fairly clean. The model results are also comparedmore » against MAE evaluated directly from first-principles calculations for this system. Good qualitative agreement is found.« less

  9. Band-filling effect on magnetic anisotropy using a Green's function method

    SciTech Connect

    Ke, Liqin; van Schilfgaarde, Mark

    2015-07-28

    We use an analytical model to describe the magnetocrystalline anisotropy energy (MAE) in solids as a function of band filling. The MAE is evaluated in second-order perturbation theory, which makes it possible to decompose the MAE into a sum of transitions between occupied and unoccupied pairs. The model enables us to characterize the MAE as a sum of contributions from different, often competing terms. The nitridometalates Li2[(Li1–xTx)N], with T= Mn, Fe, Co, Ni, provide a system where the model is very effective because atomiclike orbital characters are preserved and the decomposition is fairly clean. The model results are also compared against MAE evaluated directly from first-principles calculations for this system. Good qualitative agreement is found.

  10. Density functional theory calculations of magnetocrystalline anisotropy energies for (Fe1-xCox)2B

    DOE PAGES

    Daene, Markus; Kim, Soo Kyung; Surh, Michael P.; Aberg, Daniel; Benedict, Lorin X.

    2015-06-15

    We present and discuss density functional theory calculations of magnetic properties of the family of ferromagnetic compounds, (Fe1-xCox)2B, focusing specifically on the magnetocrystalline anisotropy energy (MAE). Using periodic supercells of various sizes (up to 96 atoms), it is shown that the general qualitative features of the composition dependence of the MAE is in agreement with experimental findings, while our predicted magnitudes are larger than those of experiment. We find that the use of small supercells (6 and 12-atom) favors larger MAE values relative to a statistical sample of configurations constructed with 96-atom supercells. As a result, the effect of latticemore » relaxations is shown to be small. Calculations of the Curie temperature for this alloy are also presented.« less

  11. Mantle wedge anisotropy in Southern Tyrrhenian Subduction Zone (Italy), from receiver function analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Piana Agostinetti, Nicola; Park, Jeffrey; Lucente, Francesco Pio

    2008-12-01

    We constrain mantle wedge seismic structure in the Southern Tyrrhenian Subduction Zone (Italy) using teleseismic receiver functions (RF) recorded at station CUC of the Mednet seismographic network. Station CUC lies above the northern portion of the Calabrian slab segment, which is recognized from deep seismicity and tomographic imaging as a narrow, laterally high-arched slab fragment, extending from the surface below Calabria down to the transition zone. To better define the descending slab interface and possible shear-coupled flow in the mantle wedge above the slab, we computed receiver functions from the P-coda of 147 teleseismic events to analyze the back-azimuth dependence of Ps converted phases from interfaces beneath CUC. We stack the RF data-set with back azimuth to compute its harmonic expansion, which relates to the effects of interface dip and anisotropy at layer boundaries. The seismic structure constrained through the RF analysis is characterized in its upper part by a sub-horizontal Moho at about 25 km depth, overlying a thin isotropic layer at top of mantle. For the deeper part, back-azimuth variation suggests two alternative models, each with an anisotropic layer between two dipping interfaces near 70- and 90-km depth, with fast- and slow-symmetry axes, respectively, above the Apennines slab. Although independent evidence suggests a north-south strike for the slab beneath CUC, the trend of the inferred anisotropy is 45° clockwise from north, inconsistent with a simple downdip shear-coupled flow model in the supra-slab mantle wedge. However complexities of flow and induced rock fabric in the Tyrrhenian back arc may arise due to several concurring factors such as the arcuate shape of the Apennines slab, its retreating kinematics, or slab edge effects.

  12. NMDA Receptors Containing the GluN2D Subunit Control Neuronal Function in the Subthalamic Nucleus

    PubMed Central

    Swanger, Sharon A.; Vance, Katie M.; Pare, Jean-François; Sotty, Florence; Fog, Karina; Smith, Yoland

    2015-01-01

    The GluN2D subunit of the NMDA receptor is prominently expressed in the basal ganglia and associated brainstem nuclei, including the subthalamic nucleus (STN), globus pallidus, striatum, and substantia nigra. However, little is known about how GluN2D-containing NMDA receptors contribute to synaptic activity in these regions. Using Western blotting of STN tissue punches, we demonstrated that GluN2D is expressed in the rat STN throughout development [age postnatal day 7 (P7)–P60] and in the adult (age P120). Immunoelectron microscopy of the adult rat brain showed that GluN2D is predominantly expressed in dendrites, unmyelinated axons, and axon terminals within the STN. Using subunit-selective allosteric modulators of NMDA receptors (TCN-201, ifenprodil, CIQ, and DQP-1105), we provide evidence that receptors containing the GluN2B and GluN2D subunits mediate responses to exogenously applied NMDA and glycine, as well as synaptic NMDA receptor activation in the STN of rat brain slices. EPSCs in the STN were mediated primarily by AMPA and NMDA receptors and GluN2D-containing NMDA receptors controlled the slow deactivation time course of EPSCs in the STN. In vivo recordings from the STN of anesthetized adult rats demonstrated that the spike firing rate was increased by the GluN2C/D potentiator CIQ and decreased by the GluN2C/D antagonist DQP-1105, suggesting that NMDA receptor activity can influence STN output. These data indicate that the GluN2B and GluN2D NMDA receptor subunits contribute to synaptic activity in the STN and may represent potential therapeutic targets for modulating subthalamic neuron activity in neurological disorders such as Parkinson's disease. SIGNIFICANCE STATEMENT The subthalamic nucleus (STN) is a key component of the basal ganglia, a group of subcortical nuclei that control movement and are dysregulated in movement disorders such as Parkinson's disease. Subthalamic neurons receive direct excitatory input, but the pharmacology of excitatory

  13. Alternative Splice Transcripts for MHC Class I-like MICA Encode Novel NKG2D Ligands with Agonist or Antagonist Functions.

    PubMed

    Gavlovsky, Pierre-Jean; Tonnerre, Pierre; Gérard, Nathalie; Nedellec, Steven; Daman, Andrew W; McFarland, Benjamin J; Charreau, Béatrice

    2016-08-01

    MHC class I chain-related proteins A and B (MICA and MICB) and UL16-binding proteins are ligands of the activating NKG2D receptor involved in cancer and immune surveillance of infection. Structurally, MICA/B proteins contain an α3 domain, whereas UL16-binding proteins do not. We identified novel alternative splice transcripts for MICA encoding five novel MICA isoforms: MICA-A, -B1, -B2, -C, and -D. Alternative splicing associates with MICA*015 and *017 and results from a point deletion (G) in the 5' splice donor site of MICA intron 4 leading to exon 3 and exon 4 skipping and/or deletions. These changes delete the α3 domain in all isoforms, and the α2 domain in the majority of isoforms (A, B1, C, and D). Endothelial and hematopoietic cells contained endogenous alternative splice transcripts and isoforms. MICA-B1, -B2, and -D bound NKG2D by surface plasmon resonance and were expressed at the cell surface. Functionally, MICA-B2 contains two extracellular domains (α1 and α2) and is a novel potent agonist ligand for NKG2D. We found that MICA-D is a new truncated form of MICA with weak affinity for NKG2D despite lacking α2 and α3 domains. MICA-D may functionally impair NKG2D activation by competing with full-length MICA or MICA-B2 for NKG2D engagement. Our study established NKG2D binding for recombinant MICA-B1 but found no function for this isoform. New truncated MICA isoforms exhibit a range of functions that may drive unexpected immune mechanisms and provide new tools for immunotherapy. PMID:27342847

  14. Alternative Splice Transcripts for MHC Class I-like MICA Encode Novel NKG2D Ligands with Agonist or Antagonist Functions.

    PubMed

    Gavlovsky, Pierre-Jean; Tonnerre, Pierre; Gérard, Nathalie; Nedellec, Steven; Daman, Andrew W; McFarland, Benjamin J; Charreau, Béatrice

    2016-08-01

    MHC class I chain-related proteins A and B (MICA and MICB) and UL16-binding proteins are ligands of the activating NKG2D receptor involved in cancer and immune surveillance of infection. Structurally, MICA/B proteins contain an α3 domain, whereas UL16-binding proteins do not. We identified novel alternative splice transcripts for MICA encoding five novel MICA isoforms: MICA-A, -B1, -B2, -C, and -D. Alternative splicing associates with MICA*015 and *017 and results from a point deletion (G) in the 5' splice donor site of MICA intron 4 leading to exon 3 and exon 4 skipping and/or deletions. These changes delete the α3 domain in all isoforms, and the α2 domain in the majority of isoforms (A, B1, C, and D). Endothelial and hematopoietic cells contained endogenous alternative splice transcripts and isoforms. MICA-B1, -B2, and -D bound NKG2D by surface plasmon resonance and were expressed at the cell surface. Functionally, MICA-B2 contains two extracellular domains (α1 and α2) and is a novel potent agonist ligand for NKG2D. We found that MICA-D is a new truncated form of MICA with weak affinity for NKG2D despite lacking α2 and α3 domains. MICA-D may functionally impair NKG2D activation by competing with full-length MICA or MICA-B2 for NKG2D engagement. Our study established NKG2D binding for recombinant MICA-B1 but found no function for this isoform. New truncated MICA isoforms exhibit a range of functions that may drive unexpected immune mechanisms and provide new tools for immunotherapy.

  15. Histamine-functionalized copolymer micelles as a drug delivery system in 2D and 3D models of breast cancer

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Yuning; Lundberg, Pontus; Diether, Maren; Porsch, Christian; Janson, Caroline; Lynd, Nathaniel A.; Ducani, Cosimo; Malkoch, Michael; Malmström, Eva; Hawker, Craig J.; Nyström, Andreas M.

    2015-01-01

    Histamine functionalized block copolymers based on poly(allyl glycidyl ether)-b-poly(ethylene oxide) (PAGE-b-PEO) were prepared with different ratios of histamine and octyl or benzyl groups using UV-initiated thiol-ene click chemistry. At neutral pH, the histamine units are uncharged and hydrophobic, while in acidic environments, such as in the endosome, lysosomes, or extracellular sites of tumours, the histamine groups are positively charged and hydrophilic. pH responsible polymer drug delivery systems is a promising route to site specific delivery of drugs and offers the potential to avoid side effects of systemic treatment. Our detailed in vitro experiments of the efficacy of drug delivery and the intracellular localization characteristics of this library of NPs in 2D and 3D cultures of breast cancer revealed that the 50% histamine-modified polymer loaded with DOX exhibited rapid accumulation in the nucleus of free DOX within 2 h. Confocal studies showed enhanced mitochondrial localization and lysosomal escape when compared to controls. From these combined studies, it was shown that by accurately tuning the structure of the initial block copolymers, the resulting self-assembled NPs can be designed to exploit histamine as an endosomal escape trigger and the octyl/benzyl units give rise to a hydrophobic core resulting in highly efficacious drug delivery systems (DDS) with control over intracellular localization. Optimization and rational control of the intracellular localization of both DDS and the parent drug can give nanomedicines a substantial increase in efficacy and should be explored in future studies. PMID:26257912

  16. Structural and Functional Analysis of JMJD2D Reveals Molecular Basis for Site-Specific Demethylation among JMJD2 Demethylases

    SciTech Connect

    Krishnan, Swathi; Trievel, Raymond C.

    2013-01-08

    We found that JMJD2 lysine demethylases (KDMs) participate in diverse genomic processes. Most JMJD2 homologs display dual selectivity toward H3K9me3 and H3K36me3, with the exception of JMJD2D, which is specific for H3K9me3. Here, we report the crystal structures of the JMJD2D•2-oxoglutarate•H3K9me3 ternary complex and JMJD2D apoenzyme. Utilizing structural alignments with JMJD2A, molecular docking, and kinetic analysis with an array of histone peptide substrates, we elucidate the specific signatures that permit efficient recognition of H3K9me3 by JMJD2A and JMJD2D, and the residues in JMJD2D that occlude H3K36me3 demethylation. Surprisingly, these results reveal that JMJD2A and JMJD2D exhibit subtle yet important differences in H3K9me3 recognition, despite the overall similarity in the substrate-binding conformation. Further, we show that H3T11 phosphorylation abrogates demethylation by JMJD2 KDMs. These studies reveal the molecular basis for JMJD2 site specificity and provide a framework for structure-based design of selective inhibitors of JMJD2 KDMs implicated in disease.

  17. Structure and anisotropy of the crust in the Cyclades, Greece, using receiver functions constrained by in situ rock textural data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cossette, Élise; Audet, Pascal; Schneider, David; Grasemann, Bernhard

    2016-04-01

    Seismic anisotropy data are often used to resolve rock textures and deformation in the crust based on compilations of rock properties that may not be representative of the local geology. In this paper, we use teleseismic receiver functions jointly with in situ rock property data to constrain the seismic structure and anisotropy of the crust in the Cyclades, Greece, located in the back-arc region of the Hellenic subduction zone. The receiver function data indicate that the Moho is relatively flat at 25 km depth toward the south and deepens to 33 km in the north, consistent with previous studies, and reveal an intracrustal discontinuity at depths varying from 3 to 11 km, mostly observed in the south central Aegean. Harmonic decomposition of the receiver functions further indicates the presence of both shallow and deep crustal anisotropy related to crustal structures. We model synthetic receiver functions based on constraints from in situ rock properties that we measured using the electron backscatter diffraction technique. Our results indicate that the shallow upper crustal layer is characterized by metapelites with ~5% anisotropy, underlain by a 20 km thick and possibly anisotropic layer of high-pressure rocks comprising blueschist and eclogite and/or restitic crust resulting from magmatism. This study demonstrates the importance of rock textural data in the interpretation of seismic velocity profiles.

  18. Moving-window 2D correlation spectroscopy in studies of fluphenazine-DPPC dehydrated film as a function of temperature

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Szwed, Joanna; Cieślik-Boczula, Katarzyna; Czarnik-Matusewicz, Bogusława; Jaszczyszyn, Agata; Gąsiorowski, Kazimierz; Świątek, Piotr; Malinka, Wiesław

    2010-06-01

    The effect of incorporating fluphenazine (FPh) into the dipalmitoylphosphatidylcholine (DPPC) multibilayers was studied by means of two-dimensional correlation spectroscopy (2DCOS) applied to attenuated total reflection (ATR) infrared spectra. DPPC is used as a model membrane that mimics the organization of lipids in biological membranes and their interaction with FPh. ATR-IR spectra for both DPPC dry film alone and the film doped with FPh were recorded as a function of temperature to provide information about the interaction between FPh molecules and DPPC lipid. The chain-melting phase-transition temperature changes are strictly correlated with the conformational order of the lipid hydrocarbon chains. To gain deeper insight into the accompanying spectral changes, we employed moving-window 2D correlation spectroscopy. Subdividing all the measurements from 10 to 90 °C into 20° subsets enables a detailed identification of spectral features induced by embedding FPh into DPPC multilayers. Moving-window analysis of the power spectra for the ν asym,symCH 2, δ sCH 2, and δ rCH 2 vibrations provides evidence that FPh is embedded in the region between the bilayers, penetrating their hydrophilic part, which destabilizes the interchain interaction. Above 60 °C the FPh-DPPC system reaches the liquid crystalline phase with the well-established location of FPh. A further temperature increase to 90 °C has little effect on the intrachain conformational order and the packing character of the FPh-DPPC system in the liquid crystalline phase. In addition, FPh hinders the formation of large domains. Comparison of the moving-window analysis done by using slice spectra for DPPC and FPh-doped DPPC dry film for ν asym,symCH 2, νC dbnd O, and νPO2- shows that the interaction between the DPPC and FPh molecules is accompanied by very distinct spectral changes located in a both lower and narrower temperature range than those observed in pure DPPC film.

  19. Kabuki syndrome genes KMT2D and KDM6A: functional analyses demonstrate critical roles in craniofacial, heart and brain development.

    PubMed

    Van Laarhoven, Peter M; Neitzel, Leif R; Quintana, Anita M; Geiger, Elizabeth A; Zackai, Elaine H; Clouthier, David E; Artinger, Kristin B; Ming, Jeffrey E; Shaikh, Tamim H

    2015-08-01

    Kabuki syndrome (KS) is a rare multiple congenital anomaly syndrome characterized by distinctive facial features, global developmental delay, intellectual disability and cardiovascular and musculoskeletal abnormalities. While mutations in KMT2D have been identified in a majority of KS patients, a few patients have mutations in KDM6A. We analyzed 40 individuals clinically diagnosed with KS for mutations in KMT2D and KDM6A. Mutations were detected in KMT2D in 12 and KDM6A in 4 cases, respectively. Observed mutations included single-nucleotide variations and indels leading to frame shifts, nonsense, missense or splice-site alterations. In two cases, we discovered overlapping chromosome X microdeletions containing KDM6A. To further elucidate the functional roles of KMT2D and KDM6A, we knocked down the expression of their orthologs in zebrafish. Following knockdown of kmt2d and the two zebrafish paralogs kdm6a and kdm6al, we analyzed morphants for developmental abnormalities in tissues that are affected in individuals with KS, including craniofacial structures, heart and brain. The kmt2d morphants exhibited severe abnormalities in all tissues examined. Although the kdm6a and kdm6al morphants had similar brain abnormalities, kdm6a morphants exhibited craniofacial phenotypes, whereas kdm6al morphants had prominent defects in heart development. Our results provide further support for the similar roles of KMT2D and KDM6A in the etiology of KS by using a vertebrate model organism to provide direct evidence of their roles in the development of organs and tissues affected in KS patients. PMID:25972376

  20. The Ciliopathy Protein CC2D2A Associates with NINL and Functions in RAB8-MICAL3-Regulated Vesicle Trafficking.

    PubMed

    Bachmann-Gagescu, Ruxandra; Dona, Margo; Hetterschijt, Lisette; Tonnaer, Edith; Peters, Theo; de Vrieze, Erik; Mans, Dorus A; van Beersum, Sylvia E C; Phelps, Ian G; Arts, Heleen H; Keunen, Jan E; Ueffing, Marius; Roepman, Ronald; Boldt, Karsten; Doherty, Dan; Moens, Cecilia B; Neuhauss, Stephan C F; Kremer, Hannie; van Wijk, Erwin

    2015-10-01

    Ciliopathies are a group of human disorders caused by dysfunction of primary cilia, ubiquitous microtubule-based organelles involved in transduction of extra-cellular signals to the cell. This function requires the concentration of receptors and channels in the ciliary membrane, which is achieved by complex trafficking mechanisms, in part controlled by the small GTPase RAB8, and by sorting at the transition zone located at the entrance of the ciliary compartment. Mutations in the transition zone gene CC2D2A cause the related Joubert and Meckel syndromes, two typical ciliopathies characterized by central nervous system malformations, and result in loss of ciliary localization of multiple proteins in various models. The precise mechanisms by which CC2D2A and other transition zone proteins control protein entrance into the cilium and how they are linked to vesicular trafficking of incoming cargo remain largely unknown. In this work, we identify the centrosomal protein NINL as a physical interaction partner of CC2D2A. NINL partially co-localizes with CC2D2A at the base of cilia and ninl knockdown in zebrafish leads to photoreceptor outer segment loss, mislocalization of opsins and vesicle accumulation, similar to cc2d2a-/- phenotypes. Moreover, partial ninl knockdown in cc2d2a-/- embryos enhances the retinal phenotype of the mutants, indicating a genetic interaction in vivo, for which an illustration is found in patients from a Joubert Syndrome cohort. Similar to zebrafish cc2d2a mutants, ninl morphants display altered Rab8a localization. Further exploration of the NINL-associated interactome identifies MICAL3, a protein known to interact with Rab8 and to play an important role in vesicle docking and fusion. Together, these data support a model where CC2D2A associates with NINL to provide a docking point for cilia-directed cargo vesicles, suggesting a mechanism by which transition zone proteins can control the protein content of the ciliary compartment. PMID:26485645

  1. Ubiquitin-dependent endocytosis of NKG2D-DAP10 receptor complexes activates signaling and functions in human NK cells.

    PubMed

    Quatrini, Linda; Molfetta, Rosa; Zitti, Beatrice; Peruzzi, Giovanna; Fionda, Cinzia; Capuano, Cristina; Galandrini, Ricciarda; Cippitelli, Marco; Santoni, Angela; Paolini, Rossella

    2015-10-27

    Cytotoxic lymphocytes share the presence of the activating receptor NK receptor group 2, member D (NKG2D) and the signaling-competent adaptor DNAX-activating protein 10 (DAP10), which together play an important role in antitumor immune surveillance. Ligand stimulation induces the internalization of NKG2D-DAP10 complexes and their delivery to lysosomes for degradation. In experiments with human NK cells and cell lines, we found that the ligand-induced endocytosis of NKG2D-DAP10 depended on the ubiquitylation of DAP10, which was also required for degradation of the internalized complexes. Moreover, through combined biochemical and microscopic analyses, we showed that ubiquitin-dependent receptor endocytosis was required for the activation of extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) and NK cell functions, such as the secretion of cytotoxic granules and the inflammatory cytokine interferon-γ. These results suggest that NKG2D-DAP10 endocytosis represents a means to decrease cell surface receptor abundance, as well as to control signaling outcome in cytotoxic lymphocytes.

  2. Obtaining T1-T2 distribution functions from 1-dimensional T1 and T2 measurements: The pseudo 2-D relaxation model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Williamson, Nathan H.; Röding, Magnus; Galvosas, Petrik; Miklavcic, Stanley J.; Nydén, Magnus

    2016-08-01

    We present the pseudo 2-D relaxation model (P2DRM), a method to estimate multidimensional probability distributions of material parameters from independent 1-D measurements. We illustrate its use on 1-D T1 and T2 relaxation measurements of saturated rock and evaluate it on both simulated and experimental T1-T2 correlation measurement data sets. Results were in excellent agreement with the actual, known 2-D distribution in the case of the simulated data set. In both the simulated and experimental case, the functional relationships between T1 and T2 were in good agreement with the T1-T2 correlation maps from the 2-D inverse Laplace transform of the full 2-D data sets. When a 1-D CPMG experiment is combined with a rapid T1 measurement, the P2DRM provides a double-shot method for obtaining a T1-T2 relationship, with significantly decreased experimental time in comparison to the full T1-T2 correlation measurement.

  3. The installation campaign of 9 seismic stations around the KTB site to test anisotropy detection by the Receiver Function Technique

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bianchi, I.; Anselmi, M.; Apoloner, M. T.; Qorbani, E.; Gribovski, K.; Bokelmann, G.

    2015-09-01

    The project at hand is a field test around the KTB (Kontinentale Tiefbohrung) site in the Oberpfalz, Southeastern Germany, at the northwestern edge of the Bohemian Massif. The region has been extensively studied through the analysis of several seismic reflection lines deployed around the drilling site. The deep borehole had been placed into gneiss rocks of the Zone Erbendorf-Vohenstrauss. Drilling activity lasted from 1987 to 1994, and it descended down to a depth of 9101 m. In our experiment, we aim to recover structural information as well as anisotropy of the upper crust using the receiver function technique. This retrieved information is the basis for comparing the out-coming anisotropy amount and orientation with information of rock samples from up to 9 km depth, and with high-frequency seismic experiments around the drill site. For that purpose, we installed 9 seismic stations, and recorded seismicity continuously for two years from June 2012 to July 2014.

  4. Detection of electron energy distribution function anisotropy in a magnetized electron cyclotron resonance plasma by using a directional Langmuir probe

    SciTech Connect

    Shikama, T. Hasuo, M.; Kitaoka, H.

    2014-07-15

    Anisotropy in the electron energy distribution function (EEDF) in an electron cyclotron resonance plasma with magnetized electrons and weakly magnetized ions is experimentally investigated using a directional Langmuir probe. Under an assumption of independent EEDFs in the directions parallel and perpendicular to the magnetic field, the directional variation of the EEDF is evaluated. In the measured EEDFs, a significantly large population density of electrons with energies larger than 30 eV is found in one of the cross-field directions depending on the magnetic field direction. With the aid of an electron trajectory calculation, it is suggested that the observed anisotropic electrons originate from the EEDF anisotropy and the cross-field electron drift.

  5. 2d-4d connection between q-Virasoro/W block at root of unity limit and instanton partition function on ALE space

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Itoyama, H.; Oota, T.; Yoshioka, R.

    2013-12-01

    We propose and demonstrate a limiting procedure in which, starting from the q-lifted version (or K-theoretic five-dimensional version) of the (W)AGT conjecture to be assumed in this paper, the Virasoro/W block is generated in the r-th root of unity limit in q in the 2d side, while the same limit automatically generates the projection of the five-dimensional instanton partition function onto that on the ALE space R4/Zr. This circumvents case-by-case conjectures to be made in a wealth of examples found so far. In the 2d side, we successfully generate the super-Virasoro algebra and the proper screening charge in the q→-1, t→-1 limit, from the defining relation of the q-Virasoro algebra and the q-deformed Heisenberg algebra. The central charge obtained coincides with that of the minimal series carrying odd integers of the N=1 superconformal algebra. In the r-th root of unity limit in q in the 2d side, we give some evidence of the appearance of the parafermion-like currents. Exploiting the q-analysis literatures, q-deformed su(n) block is readily generated both at generic q,t and the r-th root of unity limit. In the 4d side, we derive the proper normalization function for general (n,r) that accomplishes the automatic projection through the limit.

  6. Calibration of Modulation Transfer Function of Surface Profilometers with 1D and 2D Binary Pseudo-random Array Standards

    SciTech Connect

    Yashchuk, Valeriy V.; McKinney, Wayne R.; Takacs, Peter Z.

    2008-05-19

    We suggest and describe the use of a binary pseudo-random grating as a standard test surface for calibration of the modulation transfer function of microscopes. Results from calibration of a MicromapTM-570 interferometric microscope are presented.

  7. The 2dF-SDSS LRG and QSO (2SLAQ) Survey: the z < 2.1 quasar luminosity function from 5645 quasars to g= 21.85

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Richards, Gordon T.; Croom, Scott M.; Anderson, Scott F.; Bland-Hawthorn, Joss; Boyle, Brian J.; De Propris, Roberto; Drinkwater, Michael J.; Fan, Xiaohui; Gunn, James E.; Ivezić, Željko; Jester, Sebastian; Loveday, Jon; Meiksin, Avery; Miller, Lance; Myers, Adam; Nichol, Robert C.; Outram, Phil J.; Pimbblet, Kevin A.; Roseboom, Isaac G.; Ross, Nic; Schneider, Donald P.; Shanks, Tom; Sharp, Robert G.; Stoughton, Chris; Strauss, Michael A.; Szalay, Alexander S.; Vanden Berk, Daniel E.; York, Donald G.

    2005-07-01

    We have used the Two-Degree Field (2dF) instrument on the Anglo-Australian Telescope (AAT) to obtain redshifts of a sample of z < 3 and 18.0 < g < 21.85 quasars selected from Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS) imaging. These data are part of a larger joint programme between the SDSS and 2dF communities to obtain spectra of faint quasars and luminous red galaxies, namely the 2dF-SDSS LRG and QSO (2SLAQ) Survey. We describe the quasar selection algorithm and present the resulting number counts and luminosity function of 5645 quasars in 105.7 deg2. The bright-end number counts and luminosity functions agree well with determinations from the 2dF QSO Redshift Survey (2QZ) data to g~ 20.2. However, at the faint end, the 2SLAQ number counts and luminosity functions are steeper (i.e. require more faint quasars) than the final 2QZ results from Croom et al., but are consistent with the preliminary 2QZ results from Boyle et al. Using the functional form adopted for the 2QZ analysis (a double power law with pure luminosity evolution characterized by a second-order polynomial in redshift), we find a faint-end slope of β=-1.78 +/- 0.03 if we allow all of the parameters to vary, and β=-1.45 +/- 0.03 if we allow only the faint-end slope and normalization to vary (holding all other parameters equal to the final 2QZ values). Over the magnitude range covered by the 2SLAQ survey, our maximum-likelihood fit to the data yields 32 per cent more quasars than the final 2QZ parametrization, but is not inconsistent with other g > 21 deep surveys for quasars. The 2SLAQ data exhibit no well-defined `break' in the number counts or luminosity function, but do clearly flatten with increasing magnitude. Finally, we find that the shape of the quasar luminosity function derived from 2SLAQ is in good agreement with that derived from Type I quasars found in hard X-ray surveys.

  8. Study on aggregation and electric properties in the micro-region of functionalized dithieno[2, 3-b: 3', 2'-d]thiophene (DTT) oligomers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jiang, Xiaohong; Huang, Xiaowei; Zhang, Jiajia; Lu, Zhijuan; Wang, Hua; Du, Zuliang

    2016-07-01

    Three kinds of 2,5,-diphenyl-dithienol[2, 3-b: 3', 2'-d]thiophene (DP-DTT), 2,5,-distyryl-dithienol[2, 3-b: 3', 2'-d]thiophene (DEP-DTT) and 2,5,-thienyl-dithienol[2, 3-b: 3', 2'-d]thiophene (DET-DTT) micro-region structure and electronic properties were studied. Thin films of these functionalized DTT oligomers were prepared in a one-step drop-casting deposition onto highly oriented pyrolytic graphite substrates. The surface structure of these films was characterized by atomic force microscopy (AFM). Conducting probe atomic force microscope (C-AFM) and Kelvin probe force microscope (KFM) were both used to characterize the electronic transport behavior and surface potential distribution. The substituents of DTT oligomers can greatly affect their aggregation and the hopping conductance mechanism was used to explain the Au-DTTs-HOPG junctions. KFM investigation revealed that these oligomers with different substituents have different highest occupied molecular orbital energy levels. The corresponding theoretical analysis reveals similar result to KFM characterization. The I-V results indicated that the aggregates of molecules were the dominating factor to their micro-region electrical transport.

  9. 1-Aza-15-Crown-5 Functionalized Graphene Oxide for 2D Graphene-Based Li⁺-ion Conductor.

    PubMed

    Banerjee, Moutusi; Gupta, Abhisek; Saha, Shyamal K; Chakravorty, Dipankar

    2015-07-01

    Attachment of Li(+) ion on graphene surface to realize Li(+)-ion conductor is a real challenge because of the weak interaction between the ions and the functional groups of graphene oxide; although, a large number of theoretical results are already available in the literature. To overcome this problem, graphene oxide is functionalized by 1-aza-15-crown-5, the cage-like structure containing four oxygens that can bind Li(+) ion through electrostatic interaction. Li(+) migration on graphene surface has been investigated using ac relaxation mechanism. Perfect Debye-type relaxation behavior with β (relaxation exponent) value ≈1 resulting from single ion is observed. The activation energy of Li(+) migration arising due to cation-π interaction is found to be 0.37 eV, which agrees well with recently reported theoretical value. It is believed that this study will help to design isolated ion conductors for Li(+)-ion battery.

  10. Size-dependent permittivity and intrinsic optical anisotropy of nanometric gold thin films: a density functional theory study.

    PubMed

    Laref, Slimane; Cao, Jiangrong; Asaduzzaman, Abu; Runge, Keith; Deymier, Pierre; Ziolkowski, Richard W; Miyawaki, Mamoru; Muralidharan, Krishna

    2013-05-20

    Physical properties of materials are known to be different from the bulk at the nanometer scale. In this context, the dependence of optical properties of nanometric gold thin films with respect to film thickness is studied using density functional theory (DFT). We find that the in-plane plasma frequency of the gold thin film decreases with decreasing thickness and that the optical permittivity tensor is highly anisotropic as well as thickness dependent. Quantitative knowledge of planar metal film permittivity's thickness dependence can improve the accuracy and reliability of the designs of plasmonic devices and electromagnetic metamaterials. The strong anisotropy observed may become an alternative method of realizing indefinite media.

  11. Nonaxisymmetric anisotropy of solar wind turbulence as a direct test for models of magnetohydrodynamic turbulence.

    PubMed

    Turner, A J; Gogoberidze, G; Chapman, S C

    2012-02-24

    Single point spacecraft observations of the turbulent solar wind flow exhibit a characteristic nonaxisymmetric anisotropy that depends sensitively on the perpendicular power spectral exponent. We use this nonaxisymmetric anisotropy as a function of wave vector direction to test models of MHD turbulence. Using Ulysses magnetic field observations in the fast, quiet polar solar wind we find that the Goldreich-Sridhar model of MHD turbulence is not consistent with the observed anisotropy, whereas the observations are well reproduced by the "slab+2D" model. The Goldreich-Sridhar model alone cannot account for the observations unless an additional component is also present. PMID:22463536

  12. Nonaxisymmetric anisotropy of solar wind turbulence as a direct test for models of magnetohydrodynamic turbulence.

    PubMed

    Turner, A J; Gogoberidze, G; Chapman, S C

    2012-02-24

    Single point spacecraft observations of the turbulent solar wind flow exhibit a characteristic nonaxisymmetric anisotropy that depends sensitively on the perpendicular power spectral exponent. We use this nonaxisymmetric anisotropy as a function of wave vector direction to test models of MHD turbulence. Using Ulysses magnetic field observations in the fast, quiet polar solar wind we find that the Goldreich-Sridhar model of MHD turbulence is not consistent with the observed anisotropy, whereas the observations are well reproduced by the "slab+2D" model. The Goldreich-Sridhar model alone cannot account for the observations unless an additional component is also present.

  13. 2D quantum gravity on compact Riemann surfaces and two-loop partition function: A first principles approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bilal, Adel; Leduc, Laetitia

    2015-07-01

    We study two-dimensional quantum gravity on arbitrary genus Riemann surfaces in the Kähler formalism where the basic quantum field is the (Laplacian of the) Kähler potential. We do a careful first-principles computation of the fixed-area partition function Z [ A ] up to and including all two-loop contributions. This includes genuine two-loop diagrams as determined by the Liouville action, one-loop diagrams resulting from the non-trivial measure on the space of metrics, as well as one-loop diagrams involving various counterterm vertices. Contrary to what is often believed, several such counterterms, in addition to the usual cosmological constant, do and must occur. We consistently determine the relevant counterterms from a one-loop computation of the full two-point Green's function of the Kähler field. Throughout this paper we use the general spectral cutoff regularization developed recently and which is well-suited for multi-loop computations on curved manifolds. At two loops, while all "unwanted" contributions to ln ⁡ (Z [ A ] / Z [A0 ]) correctly cancel, it appears that the finite coefficient of ln ⁡ (A /A0) does depend on the finite part of a certain counterterm coefficient, i.e. on the finite renormalization conditions one has to impose. There exists a choice that reproduces the famous KPZ-scaling, but it seems to be only one consistent choice among others. Maybe, this hints at the possibility that other renormalization conditions could eventually provide a way to circumvent the famous c = 1 barrier.

  14. Separation of experimental 2D IR frequency-frequency correlation functions into structural and reorientation-induced contributions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kramer, Patrick L.; Nishida, Jun; Fayer, Michael D.

    2015-09-01

    A vibrational transition frequency can couple to its environment through a directional vector interaction. In such cases, reorientation of the vibrational transition dipole (molecular orientational relaxation) and its frequency fluctuations can be strongly coupled. It was recently shown [Kramer et al., J. Chem. Phys. 142, 184505 (2015)] that differing frequency-frequency correlation function (FFCF) decays, due to reorientation-induced spectral diffusion (RISD), are observed with different two-dimensional infrared polarization configurations when such strong coupling is present. The FFC functional forms were derived for the situation in which all spectral diffusion is due to reorientational motion. We extend the previous theory to include vibrational frequency evolution (spectral diffusion) caused by structural fluctuations of the medium. Model systems with diffusive reorientation and several regimes of structural spectral diffusion rates are analyzed for first order Stark effect interactions. Additionally, the transition dipole reorientational motion in complex environments is frequently not completely diffusive. Several periods of restricted angular motion (wobbling-in-a-cone) may precede the final diffusive orientational randomization. The polarization-weighted FFCF decays are presented in this case of restricted transition dipole wobbling. With these extensions to the polarization-dependent FFCF expressions, the structural spectral diffusion dynamics of methanol in the room temperature ionic liquid 1-hexyl-3-methylimidazolium hexafluorophosphate can be separated quantitatively from RISD using the experimental center line slope data. In addition, prior results on the spectral diffusion of water, methanol, and ethanol in 1-ethyl-3-methylimidazolium bis(trifluoromethylsulfonyl)imide are re-examined to elucidate the influence of reorientation on the data, which were interpreted in terms of structural fluctuations.

  15. CROSS-POWER SPECTRUM AND ITS APPLICATION ON WINDOW FUNCTIONS IN THE WILKINSON MICROWAVE ANISOTROPY PROBE DATA

    SciTech Connect

    Chiang, Lung-Yih; Chen, Fei-Fan

    2011-09-10

    The cross-power spectrum is a quadratic estimator between two maps that can provide unbiased estimate of the underlying power spectrum of the correlated signals, which is therefore used for extracting the power spectrum in the Wilkinson Microwave Anisotropy Probe (WMAP) data. In this paper, we discuss the limit of the cross-power spectrum and derive the residual from the uncorrelated signal, which is the source of error in power spectrum extraction. We employ the estimator to extract window functions by crossing pairs of extragalactic point sources. We demonstrate its usefulness in WMAP difference assembly maps where the window functions are measured via Jupiter and then extract the window functions of the five WMAP frequency band maps.

  16. A time series generalized functional model based method for vibration-based damage precise localization in structures consisting of 1D, 2D, and 3D elements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sakaris, C. S.; Sakellariou, J. S.; Fassois, S. D.

    2016-06-01

    This study focuses on the problem of vibration-based damage precise localization via data-based, time series type, methods for structures consisting of 1D, 2D, or 3D elements. A Generalized Functional Model Based method is postulated based on an expanded Vector-dependent Functionally Pooled ARX (VFP-ARX) model form, capable of accounting for an arbitrary structural topology. The FP model's operating parameter vector elements are properly constrained to reflect any given topology. Damage localization is based on operating parameter vector estimation within the specified topology, so that the location estimate and its uncertainty bounds are statistically optimal. The method's effectiveness is experimentally demonstrated through damage precise localization on a laboratory spatial truss structure using various damage scenarios and a single pair of random excitation - vibration response signals in a low and limited frequency bandwidth.

  17. Increased sMICA and TGFβ1 levels in HNSCC patients impair NKG2D-dependent functionality of activated NK cells

    PubMed Central

    Klöß, Stephan; Chambron, Nicole; Gardlowski, Tanja; Arseniev, Lubomir; Koch, Joachim; Esser, Ruth; Glienke, Wolfgang; Seitz, Oliver; Köhl, Ulrike

    2015-01-01

    Disseminated head-and-neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC) escapes immune surveillance and thus frequently manifests as fatal disease. Here, we report on the distribution of distinct immune cell subpopulations, natural killer (NK) cell cytotoxicity and tumor immune escape mechanisms (TIEMs) in 55 HNSCC patients, either at initial diagnosis or present with tumor relapse. Compared to healthy controls, the regulatory NK cells and the ratio of pro/anti-inflammatory cytokines were decreased in HNSCC patients, while soluble major histocompatibility complex Class I chain-related peptide A (sMICA) and transforming growth factor β1 (TGFβ1) plasma levels were markedly elevated. Increased sMICA and TGFβ1 concentrations correlated with tumor progression and staging characteristics in 7 follow-up HNSCC patients, with significantly elevated levels of both soluble factors from the time of initial diagnosis to that of relapse. Patient plasma containing elevated sMICA and TGFβ1 markedly impaired NKG2D-dependent cytotoxicity against HNSCC cells upon incubation with patient-derived and IL-2 activated NK cells vs. those derived from healthy donors. Decreased antitumor recognition was accompanied by reduced NKG2D expression on the NK cell surface and an enhanced caspase-3 activity. In-vitro blocking and neutralization experiments demonstrated a synergistic negative impact of sMICA and TGFβ1 on NK cell functionality. Although we previously showed the feasibility and safety of transfer of allogeneic donor NK cells in a prior clinical study encompassing various leukemia and tumor patients, our present results suggest the need for caution regarding the sole use of adoptive NK cell transfer. The presence of soluble NKG2D ligands in the plasma of HNSCC patients and the decreased NK cell cytotoxicity due to several factors, especially TGFβ1, indicates timely depletion of these immunosuppressing molecules may promote NK cell-based immunotherapy. PMID:26451327

  18. Enhanced magnetic anisotropy and heating efficiency in multi-functional manganese ferrite/graphene oxide nanostructures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Le, Anh-Tuan; Duy Giang, Chu; Thi Tam, Le; Tuan, Ta Quoc; Phan, Vu Ngoc; Alonso, Javier; Devkota, Jagannath; Garaio, Eneko; Ángel García, José; Martín-Rodríguez, Rosa; Fdez-Gubieda, Ma Luisa; Srikanth, Hariharan; Phan, Manh-Huong

    2016-04-01

    A promising nanocomposite material composed of MnFe2O4 (MFO) nanoparticles of ˜17 nm diameter deposited onto graphene oxide (GO) nanosheets was successfully synthesized using a modified co-precipitation method. X-ray diffraction, transmission electron microscopy, and selected area electron diffraction confirmed the quality of the synthesized samples. Fourier transform infrared measurements and analysis evidenced that the MFO nanoparticles were attached to the GO surface. Magnetic measurements and analysis using the modified Langevin model evidenced the superparamagnetic characteristic of both the bare MFO nanoparticles and the MFO-GO nanocomposite at room temperature, and an appreciable increase of the effective anisotropy for the MFO-GO sample. Magnetic hyperthermia experiments performed by both calorimetric and ac magnetometry methods indicated that relative to the bare MFO nanoparticles, the heating efficiency of the MFO-GO nanocomposite was similar at low ac fields (0-300 Oe) but became progressively larger with increasing ac fields (>300 Oe). This has been related to the higher effective anisotropy of the MFO-GO nanocomposite. In comparison with the bare MFO nanoparticles, a smaller reduction in the heating efficiency was observed in the MFO-GO composites when embedded in agar or when their concentration was increased, indicating that the GO helped minimize the physical rotation and aggregation of the MFO nanoparticles. These findings can be of practical importance in exploiting this type of nanocomposite for advanced hyperthermia. Magnetoimpedance-based biodetection studies also indicated that the MFO-GO nanocomposite could be used as a promising magnetic biomarker in biosensing applications.

  19. Enhanced magnetic anisotropy and heating efficiency in multi-functional manganese ferrite/graphene oxide nanostructures.

    PubMed

    Le, Anh-Tuan; Giang, Chu Duy; Tam, Le Thi; Tuan, Ta Quoc; Phan, Vu Ngoc; Alonso, Javier; Devkota, Jagannath; Garaio, Eneko; García, José Ángel; Martín-Rodríguez, Rosa; Fdez-Gubieda, Ma Luisa; Srikanth, Hariharan; Phan, Manh-Huong

    2016-04-15

    A promising nanocomposite material composed of MnFe2O4 (MFO) nanoparticles of ∼17 nm diameter deposited onto graphene oxide (GO) nanosheets was successfully synthesized using a modified co-precipitation method. X-ray diffraction, transmission electron microscopy, and selected area electron diffraction confirmed the quality of the synthesized samples. Fourier transform infrared measurements and analysis evidenced that the MFO nanoparticles were attached to the GO surface. Magnetic measurements and analysis using the modified Langevin model evidenced the superparamagnetic characteristic of both the bare MFO nanoparticles and the MFO-GO nanocomposite at room temperature, and an appreciable increase of the effective anisotropy for the MFO-GO sample. Magnetic hyperthermia experiments performed by both calorimetric and ac magnetometry methods indicated that relative to the bare MFO nanoparticles, the heating efficiency of the MFO-GO nanocomposite was similar at low ac fields (0-300 Oe) but became progressively larger with increasing ac fields (>300 Oe). This has been related to the higher effective anisotropy of the MFO-GO nanocomposite. In comparison with the bare MFO nanoparticles, a smaller reduction in the heating efficiency was observed in the MFO-GO composites when embedded in agar or when their concentration was increased, indicating that the GO helped minimize the physical rotation and aggregation of the MFO nanoparticles. These findings can be of practical importance in exploiting this type of nanocomposite for advanced hyperthermia. Magnetoimpedance-based biodetection studies also indicated that the MFO-GO nanocomposite could be used as a promising magnetic biomarker in biosensing applications.

  20. Enhanced magnetic anisotropy and heating efficiency in multi-functional manganese ferrite/graphene oxide nanostructures.

    PubMed

    Le, Anh-Tuan; Giang, Chu Duy; Tam, Le Thi; Tuan, Ta Quoc; Phan, Vu Ngoc; Alonso, Javier; Devkota, Jagannath; Garaio, Eneko; García, José Ángel; Martín-Rodríguez, Rosa; Fdez-Gubieda, Ma Luisa; Srikanth, Hariharan; Phan, Manh-Huong

    2016-04-15

    A promising nanocomposite material composed of MnFe2O4 (MFO) nanoparticles of ∼17 nm diameter deposited onto graphene oxide (GO) nanosheets was successfully synthesized using a modified co-precipitation method. X-ray diffraction, transmission electron microscopy, and selected area electron diffraction confirmed the quality of the synthesized samples. Fourier transform infrared measurements and analysis evidenced that the MFO nanoparticles were attached to the GO surface. Magnetic measurements and analysis using the modified Langevin model evidenced the superparamagnetic characteristic of both the bare MFO nanoparticles and the MFO-GO nanocomposite at room temperature, and an appreciable increase of the effective anisotropy for the MFO-GO sample. Magnetic hyperthermia experiments performed by both calorimetric and ac magnetometry methods indicated that relative to the bare MFO nanoparticles, the heating efficiency of the MFO-GO nanocomposite was similar at low ac fields (0-300 Oe) but became progressively larger with increasing ac fields (>300 Oe). This has been related to the higher effective anisotropy of the MFO-GO nanocomposite. In comparison with the bare MFO nanoparticles, a smaller reduction in the heating efficiency was observed in the MFO-GO composites when embedded in agar or when their concentration was increased, indicating that the GO helped minimize the physical rotation and aggregation of the MFO nanoparticles. These findings can be of practical importance in exploiting this type of nanocomposite for advanced hyperthermia. Magnetoimpedance-based biodetection studies also indicated that the MFO-GO nanocomposite could be used as a promising magnetic biomarker in biosensing applications. PMID:26933975

  1. NKG2D performs two functions in invariant NKT cells: Direct TCR-independent activation of NK-like cytolysis, and co-stimulation of activation by CD1d

    PubMed Central

    Kuylenstierna, Carlotta; Björkström, Niklas K.; Andersson, Sofia K.; Sahlström, Peter; Bosnjak, Lidija; Paquin-Proulx, Dominic; Malmberg, Karl-Johan; Ljunggren, Hans-Gustaf; Moll, Markus; Sandberg, Johan K.

    2012-01-01

    Invariant NKT cells are important in the activation and regulation of immune responses. They can also function as CD1d-restricted killer cells. However, the role of activating innate NK cell receptors expressed on NKT cells in triggering cytolytic function is poorly characterized. Here, we initially confirmed that the cellular stress-ligand receptor NKG2D is expressed on CD4− NKT cells, whereas most CD4+ NKT cells lack this receptor. Interestingly, NKG2D+ NKT cells frequently expressed perforin, and both NKG2D and perforin localized at the site of contact with NKG2D ligand-expressing target cells. CD4− NKT cells degranulated in response to NKG2D engagement in a redirected activation assay independently of stimulation via their invariant TCR. NKT cells killed P815 cells coated with anti-NKG2D mAb and CD1d-negative K562 tumor target cells in an NKG2D-dependent manner. Furthermore, NKG2D engagement co-stimulated TCR-mediated NKT cell activation in response to endogenous CD1d-presented ligands or suboptimal levels of anti-CD3 triggering. These data indicate that the CD4− subset of human NKT cells can mediate direct lysis of target cells via NKG2D engagement independently of CD1d, and that NKG2D also functions as a co-stimulatory receptor in these cells. NKG2D thus plays both a direct and a co-stimulatory role in the activation of NKT cells. PMID:21590763

  2. A single-stage functionalization and exfoliation method for the production of graphene in water: stepwise construction of 2D-nanostructured composites with iron oxide nanoparticles.

    PubMed

    Ihiawakrim, Dris; Ersen, Ovidiu; Melin, Frédéric; Hellwig, Petra; Janowska, Izabela; Begin, Dominique; Baaziz, Walid; Begin-Colin, Sylvie; Pham-Huu, Cuong; Baati, Rachid

    2013-10-01

    A practically simple top-down process for the exfoliation of graphene (GN) and few-layer graphene (FLG) from graphite is described. We have discovered that a biocompatible amphiphilic pyrene-based hexahistidine peptide is able to exfoliate, functionalize, and dissolve few layer graphene flakes in pure water under exceptionally mild, sustainable and virtually innocuous low intensity cavitation conditions. Large area functionalized graphene flakes with the hexahistidine oligopeptide (His₆-TagGN = His₆@GN) have been produced efficiently at room temperature and characterized by TEM, Raman, and UV spectroscopy. Conductivity experiments carried out on His₆-TagGN samples revealed superior electric performances as compared to reduced graphene oxide (rGO) and non-functionalized graphene, demonstrating the non-invasive features of our non-covalent functionalization process. We postulated a rational exfoliation mechanism based on the intercalation of the peptide amphiphile under cavitational chemistry. We also demonstrated the ability of His6-TagGN nanoassemblies to self-assemble spontaneously with inorganic iron oxide nanoparticles generating magnetic two-dimensional (2D) His₆-TagGN/Fe₃O₄ nanocomposites under mild and non-hydrothermal conditions. The set of original experiments described here open novel perspectives in the facile production of water dispersible high quality GN and FLG sheets that will improve and facilitate the interfacing, processing and manipulation of graphene for promising applications in catalysis, nanocomposite construction, integrated nanoelectronic devices and bionanotechnology.

  3. Thickness effect on magnetocrystalline anisotropy of Co/Pd(111) films: A density functional study

    SciTech Connect

    Jekal, Soyoung; Rhim, S. H. E-mail: schong@ulsan.ac.kr; Kwon, Oryong; Hong, Soon Cheol E-mail: schong@ulsan.ac.kr

    2015-05-07

    In this study, we carried out first-principles calculations on magnetocrystalline anisotropy (MCA) of Co/Pd thin films by adopting two different systems of (i) n-Co/3-Pd and (ii) n-Pd/3-Co. In one system, we vary the thickness of Co layer, fixing the thickness of the Pd layer to 3-monolayers, and in the other system vice versa. MCA is mainly governed by the surface and interface Co atoms, while contributions from other Co atoms are smaller. MCA energy (E{sub MCA}) of the Co/Pd thin film shows oscillatory behavior with the thickness of the Co layer, but is insensitive to the thickness of the Pd layer. In particular, the n-Co/3-Pd films of n = 2, 4, and 6 exhibit strong perpendicular MCA of about 1 meV. Our results suggest that controlling the thickness of the Co layer in Co/Pd (111) is crucial in achieving strong perpendicular MCA.

  4. A semi-automated method for the detection of seismic anisotropy at depth via receiver function analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Licciardi, A.; Piana Agostinetti, N.

    2016-06-01

    Information about seismic anisotropy is embedded in the variation of the amplitude of the Ps pulses as a function of the azimuth, on both the Radial and the Transverse components of teleseismic receiver functions (RF). We develop a semi-automatic method to constrain the presence and the depth of anisotropic layers beneath a single seismic broad-band station. An algorithm is specifically designed to avoid trial and error methods and subjective crustal parametrizations in RF inversions, providing a suitable tool for large-size data set analysis. The algorithm couples together information extracted from a 1-D VS profile and from a harmonic decomposition analysis of the RF data set. This information is used to determine the number of anisotropic layers and their approximate position at depth, which, in turn, can be used to, for example, narrow the search boundaries for layer thickness and S-wave velocity in a subsequent parameter space search. Here, the output of the algorithm is used to invert an RF data set by means of the Neighbourhood Algorithm (NA). To test our methodology, we apply the algorithm to both synthetic and observed data. We make use of synthetic RF with correlated Gaussian noise to investigate the resolution power for multiple and thin (1-3 km) anisotropic layers in the crust. The algorithm successfully identifies the number and position of anisotropic layers at depth prior the NA inversion step. In the NA inversion, strength of anisotropy and orientation of the symmetry axis are correctly retrieved. Then, the method is applied to field measurement from station BUDO in the Tibetan Plateau. Two consecutive layers of anisotropy are automatically identified with our method in the first 25-30 km of the crust. The data are then inverted with the retrieved parametrization. The direction of the anisotropic axis in the uppermost layer correlates well with the orientation of the major planar structure in the area. The deeper anisotropic layer is associated with

  5. Density functional theory calculations of magnetocrystalline anisotropy energies for (Fe(1-x)Co(x))(2)B.

    PubMed

    Däne, Markus; Kim, Soo Kyung; Surh, Michael P; Åberg, Daniel; Benedict, Lorin X

    2015-07-01

    We present and discuss density functional theory calculations of magnetic properties of the family of ferromagnetic compounds, (Fe(1-x)Co(x))(2)B, focusing specifically on the magnetocrystalline anisotropy energy (MAE). Using periodic supercells of various sizes (up to 96 atoms), it is shown that the general qualitative features of the composition dependence of the MAE is in agreement with experimental findings, while our predicted magnitudes are larger than those of experiment. We find that the use of small supercells (6 and 12-atom) favors larger MAE values relative to a statistical sample of configurations constructed with 96-atom supercells. The effect of lattice relaxations is shown to be small. Calculations of the Curie temperature for this alloy are also presented.

  6. Large-area high-quality 2D ultrathin Mo2C superconducting crystals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Chuan; Wang, Libin; Liu, Zhibo; Chen, Long; Guo, Jingkun; Kang, Ning; Ma, Xiu-Liang; Cheng, Hui-Ming; Ren, Wencai

    2015-11-01

    Transition metal carbides (TMCs) are a large family of materials with many intriguing properties and applications, and high-quality 2D TMCs are essential for investigating new physics and properties in the 2D limit. However, the 2D TMCs obtained so far are chemically functionalized, defective nanosheets having maximum lateral dimensions of ~10 μm. Here we report the fabrication of large-area high-quality 2D ultrathin α-Mo2C crystals by chemical vapour deposition (CVD). The crystals are a few nanometres thick, over 100 μm in size, and very stable under ambient conditions. They show 2D characteristics of superconducting transitions that are consistent with Berezinskii-Kosterlitz-Thouless behaviour and show strong anisotropy with magnetic field orientation; moreover, the superconductivity is also strongly dependent on the crystal thickness. Our versatile CVD process allows the fabrication of other high-quality 2D TMC crystals, such as ultrathin WC and TaC crystals, which further expand the large family of 2D materials.

  7. A single-stage functionalization and exfoliation method for the production of graphene in water: stepwise construction of 2D-nanostructured composites with iron oxide nanoparticles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ihiawakrim, Dris; Ersen, Ovidiu; Melin, Frédéric; Hellwig, Petra; Janowska, Izabela; Begin, Dominique; Baaziz, Walid; Begin-Colin, Sylvie; Pham-Huu, Cuong; Baati, Rachid

    2013-09-01

    A practically simple top-down process for the exfoliation of graphene (GN) and few-layer graphene (FLG) from graphite is described. We have discovered that a biocompatible amphiphilic pyrene-based hexahistidine peptide is able to exfoliate, functionalize, and dissolve few layer graphene flakes in pure water under exceptionally mild, sustainable and virtually innocuous low intensity cavitation conditions. Large area functionalized graphene flakes with the hexahistidine oligopeptide (His6-TagGN = His6@GN) have been produced efficiently at room temperature and characterized by TEM, Raman, and UV spectroscopy. Conductivity experiments carried out on His6-TagGN samples revealed superior electric performances as compared to reduced graphene oxide (rGO) and non-functionalized graphene, demonstrating the non-invasive features of our non-covalent functionalization process. We postulated a rational exfoliation mechanism based on the intercalation of the peptide amphiphile under cavitational chemistry. We also demonstrated the ability of His6-TagGN nanoassemblies to self-assemble spontaneously with inorganic iron oxide nanoparticles generating magnetic two-dimensional (2D) His6-TagGN/Fe3O4 nanocomposites under mild and non-hydrothermal conditions. The set of original experiments described here open novel perspectives in the facile production of water dispersible high quality GN and FLG sheets that will improve and facilitate the interfacing, processing and manipulation of graphene for promising applications in catalysis, nanocomposite construction, integrated nanoelectronic devices and bionanotechnology.A practically simple top-down process for the exfoliation of graphene (GN) and few-layer graphene (FLG) from graphite is described. We have discovered that a biocompatible amphiphilic pyrene-based hexahistidine peptide is able to exfoliate, functionalize, and dissolve few layer graphene flakes in pure water under exceptionally mild, sustainable and virtually innocuous low

  8. Validation for 2D/3D registration II: The comparison of intensity- and gradient-based merit functions using a new gold standard data set

    SciTech Connect

    Gendrin, Christelle; Markelj, Primoz; Pawiro, Supriyanto Ardjo; Spoerk, Jakob; Bloch, Christoph; Weber, Christoph; Figl, Michael; Bergmann, Helmar; Birkfellner, Wolfgang; Likar, Bostjan; Pernus, Franjo

    2011-03-15

    Purpose: A new gold standard data set for validation of 2D/3D registration based on a porcine cadaver head with attached fiducial markers was presented in the first part of this article. The advantage of this new phantom is the large amount of soft tissue, which simulates realistic conditions for registration. This article tests the performance of intensity- and gradient-based algorithms for 2D/3D registration using the new phantom data set. Methods: Intensity-based methods with four merit functions, namely, cross correlation, rank correlation, correlation ratio, and mutual information (MI), and two gradient-based algorithms, the backprojection gradient-based (BGB) registration method and the reconstruction gradient-based (RGB) registration method, were compared. Four volumes consisting of CBCT with two fields of view, 64 slice multidetector CT, and magnetic resonance-T1 weighted images were registered to a pair of kV x-ray images and a pair of MV images. A standardized evaluation methodology was employed. Targets were evenly spread over the volumes and 250 starting positions of the 3D volumes with initial displacements of up to 25 mm from the gold standard position were calculated. After the registration, the displacement from the gold standard was retrieved and the root mean square (RMS), mean, and standard deviation mean target registration errors (mTREs) over 250 registrations were derived. Additionally, the following merit properties were computed: Accuracy, capture range, number of minima, risk of nonconvergence, and distinctiveness of optimum for better comparison of the robustness of each merit. Results: Among the merit functions used for the intensity-based method, MI reached the best accuracy with an RMS mTRE down to 1.30 mm. Furthermore, it was the only merit function that could accurately register the CT to the kV x rays with the presence of tissue deformation. As for the gradient-based methods, BGB and RGB methods achieved subvoxel accuracy (RMS m

  9. Aniso2D

    2005-07-01

    Aniso2d is a two-dimensional seismic forward modeling code. The earth is parameterized by an X-Z plane in which the seismic properties Can have monoclinic with x-z plane symmetry. The program uses a user define time-domain wavelet to produce synthetic seismograms anrwhere within the two-dimensional media.

  10. Towards 2D nanocomposites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jang, Hyun-Sook; Yu, Changqian; Hayes, Robert; Granick, Steve

    2015-03-01

    Polymer vesicles (``polymersomes'') are an intriguing class of soft materials, commonly used to encapsulate small molecules or particles. Here we reveal they can also effectively incorporate nanoparticles inside their polymer membrane, leading to novel ``2D nanocomposites.'' The embedded nanoparticles alter the capacity of the polymersomes to bend and to stretch upon external stimuli.

  11. Noise-driven diamagnetic susceptibility of impurity doped quantum dots: Role of anisotropy, position-dependent effective mass and position-dependent dielectric screening function

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bera, Aindrila; Saha, Surajit; Ganguly, Jayanta; Ghosh, Manas

    2016-08-01

    We explore Diamagnetic susceptibility (DMS) of impurity doped quantum dot (QD) in presence of Gaussian white noise introduced to the system additively and multiplicatively. In view of this profiles of DMS have been pursued with variations of geometrical anisotropy and dopant location. We have invoked position-dependent effective mass (PDEM) and position-dependent dielectric screening function (PDDSF) of the system. Presence of noise sometimes suppresses and sometimes amplifies DMS from that of noise-free condition and the extent of suppression/amplification depends on mode of application of noise. It is important to mention that the said suppression/amplification exhibits subtle dependence on use of PDEM, PDDSF and geometrical anisotropy. The study reveals that DMS, or more fundamentally, the effective confinement of LDSS, can be tuned by appropriate mingling of geometrical anisotropy/effective mass/dielectric constant of the system with noise and also on the pathway of application of latter.

  12. In Vitro Differentiation of Pluripotent Stem Cells into Functional β Islets Under 2D and 3D Culture Conditions and In Vivo Preclinical Validation of 3D Islets.

    PubMed

    Bose, Bipasha; Sudheer, P Shenoy

    2016-01-01

    Since the advent of pluripotent stem cells, (embryonic and induced pluripotent stem cells), applications of such pluripotent stem cells are of prime importance. Indeed, scientists are involved in studying the basic biology of pluripotent stem cells, but equal impetus is there to direct the pluripotent stem cells into multiple lineages for cell therapy applications. Scientists across the globe have been successful, to a certain extent, in obtaining cells of definitive endoderm and also pancreatic β islets by differentiating human pluripotent stem cells. Pluripotent stem cell differentiation protocols aim at mimicking in vivo embryonic development. As in vivo embryonic development is a complex process and involves interplay of multiple cytokines, the differentiation protocols also involve a stepwise use of multiple cytokines. Indeed the novel markers for pancreas organogenesis serve as the roadmaps to develop new protocols for pancreatic differentiation from pluripotent stem cells. Earliest developed protocols for pancreas differentiation involved "Nestin selection pathway," a pathway common for both neuronal and pancreatic differentiation lead to the generation of cells that were a combination of cells from neuronal lineage. Eventually with the discovery of hierarchy of β cell transcription factors like Pdx1, Pax4, and Nkx2.2, forced expression of such transcription factors proved successful in converting a pluripotent stem cell into a β cell. Protocols developed almost half a decade ago to the recent ones rather involve stepwise differentiations involving various cytokines and could generate as high as 25 % functional insulin-positive cells in vitro. Most advanced protocols for β islet differentiations from human pluripotent stem cells focused on 3D culture conditions, which reportedly produced 60-65 % functional β islet cells. Here, we describe the protocol for differentiation of human pluripotent stem cells into functional β cells under both 2D and 3D

  13. Measurement of a 2D fast-ion velocity distribution function by tomographic inversion of fast-ion D-alpha spectra

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Salewski, M.; Geiger, B.; Jacobsen, A. S.; García-Muñoz, M.; Heidbrink, W. W.; Korsholm, S. B.; Leipold, F.; Madsen, J.; Moseev, D.; Nielsen, S. K.; Rasmussen, J.; Stejner, M.; Tardini, G.; Weiland, M.; the ASDEX Upgrade Team

    2014-02-01

    We present the first measurement of a local fast-ion 2D velocity distribution function f(v‖, v⊥). To this end, we heated a plasma in ASDEX Upgrade by neutral beam injection and measured spectra of fast-ion Dα (FIDA) light from the plasma centre in three views simultaneously. The measured spectra agree very well with synthetic spectra calculated from a TRANSP/NUBEAM simulation. Based on the measured FIDA spectra alone, we infer f(v‖, v⊥) by tomographic inversion. Salient features of our measurement of f(v‖, v⊥) agree reasonably well with the simulation: the measured as well as the simulated f(v‖, v⊥) are lopsided towards negative velocities parallel to the magnetic field, and they have similar shapes. Further, the peaks in the simulation of f(v‖, v⊥) at full and half injection energies of the neutral beam also appear in the measurement at similar velocity-space locations. We expect that we can measure spectra in up to seven views simultaneously in the next ASDEX Upgrade campaign which would further improve measurements of f(v‖, v⊥) by tomographic inversion.

  14. Cellulose Structural Polymorphism in Plant Primary Cell Walls Investigated by High-Field 2D Solid-State NMR Spectroscopy and Density Functional Theory Calculations.

    PubMed

    Wang, Tuo; Yang, Hui; Kubicki, James D; Hong, Mei

    2016-06-13

    The native cellulose of bacterial, algal, and animal origins has been well studied structurally using X-ray and neutron diffraction and solid-state NMR spectroscopy, and is known to consist of varying proportions of two allomorphs, Iα and Iβ, which differ in hydrogen bonding, chain packing, and local conformation. In comparison, cellulose structure in plant primary cell walls is much less understood because plant cellulose has lower crystallinity and extensive interactions with matrix polysaccharides. Here we have combined two-dimensional magic-angle-spinning (MAS) solid-state nuclear magnetic resonance (solid-state NMR) spectroscopy at high magnetic fields with density functional theory (DFT) calculations to obtain detailed information about the structural polymorphism and spatial distributions of plant primary-wall cellulose. 2D (13)C-(13)C correlation spectra of uniformly (13)C-labeled cell walls of several model plants resolved seven sets of cellulose chemical shifts. Among these, five sets (denoted a-e) belong to cellulose in the interior of the microfibril while two sets (f and g) can be assigned to surface cellulose. Importantly, most of the interior cellulose (13)C chemical shifts differ significantly from the (13)C chemical shifts of the Iα and Iβ allomorphs, indicating that plant primary-wall cellulose has different conformations, packing, and hydrogen bonding from celluloses of other organisms. 2D (13)C-(13)C correlation experiments with long mixing times and with water polarization transfer revealed the spatial distributions and matrix-polysaccharide interactions of these cellulose structures. Celluloses f and g are well mixed chains on the microfibril surface, celluloses a and b are interior chains that are in molecular contact with the surface chains, while cellulose c resides in the core of the microfibril, outside spin diffusion contact with the surface. Interestingly, cellulose d, whose chemical shifts differ most significantly from those of

  15. Cellulose Structural Polymorphism in Plant Primary Cell Walls Investigated by High-Field 2D Solid-State NMR Spectroscopy and Density Functional Theory Calculations.

    PubMed

    Wang, Tuo; Yang, Hui; Kubicki, James D; Hong, Mei

    2016-06-13

    The native cellulose of bacterial, algal, and animal origins has been well studied structurally using X-ray and neutron diffraction and solid-state NMR spectroscopy, and is known to consist of varying proportions of two allomorphs, Iα and Iβ, which differ in hydrogen bonding, chain packing, and local conformation. In comparison, cellulose structure in plant primary cell walls is much less understood because plant cellulose has lower crystallinity and extensive interactions with matrix polysaccharides. Here we have combined two-dimensional magic-angle-spinning (MAS) solid-state nuclear magnetic resonance (solid-state NMR) spectroscopy at high magnetic fields with density functional theory (DFT) calculations to obtain detailed information about the structural polymorphism and spatial distributions of plant primary-wall cellulose. 2D (13)C-(13)C correlation spectra of uniformly (13)C-labeled cell walls of several model plants resolved seven sets of cellulose chemical shifts. Among these, five sets (denoted a-e) belong to cellulose in the interior of the microfibril while two sets (f and g) can be assigned to surface cellulose. Importantly, most of the interior cellulose (13)C chemical shifts differ significantly from the (13)C chemical shifts of the Iα and Iβ allomorphs, indicating that plant primary-wall cellulose has different conformations, packing, and hydrogen bonding from celluloses of other organisms. 2D (13)C-(13)C correlation experiments with long mixing times and with water polarization transfer revealed the spatial distributions and matrix-polysaccharide interactions of these cellulose structures. Celluloses f and g are well mixed chains on the microfibril surface, celluloses a and b are interior chains that are in molecular contact with the surface chains, while cellulose c resides in the core of the microfibril, outside spin diffusion contact with the surface. Interestingly, cellulose d, whose chemical shifts differ most significantly from those of

  16. Mesh2d

    2011-12-31

    Mesh2d is a Fortran90 program designed to generate two-dimensional structured grids of the form [x(i),y(i,j)] where [x,y] are grid coordinates identified by indices (i,j). The x(i) coordinates alone can be used to specify a one-dimensional grid. Because the x-coordinates vary only with the i index, a two-dimensional grid is composed in part of straight vertical lines. However, the nominally horizontal y(i,j0) coordinates along index i are permitted to undulate or otherwise vary. Mesh2d also assignsmore » an integer material type to each grid cell, mtyp(i,j), in a user-specified manner. The complete grid is specified through three separate input files defining the x(i), y(i,j), and mtyp(i,j) variations.« less

  17. 1,25(OH)2D3 Alters Growth Plate Maturation and Bone Architecture in Young Rats with Normal Renal Function

    PubMed Central

    Idelevich, Anna; Kerschnitzki, Michael; Shahar, Ron; Monsonego-Ornan, Efrat

    2011-01-01

    Whereas detrimental effects of vitamin D deficiency are known over century, the effects of vitamin D receptor activation by 1,25(OH)2D3, the principal hormonal form of vitamin D, on the growing bone and its growth plate are less clear. Currently, 1,25(OH)2D3 is used in pediatric patients with chronic kidney disease and mineral and bone disorder (CKD-MBD) and is strongly associated with growth retardation. Here, we investigate the effect of 1,25(OH)2D3 treatment on bone development in normal young rats, unrelated to renal insufficiency. Young rats received daily i.p. injections of 1 µg/kg 1,25(OH)2D3 for one week, or intermittent 3 µg/kg 1,25(OH)2D3 for one month. Histological analysis revealed narrower tibial growth plates, predominantly in the hypertrophic zone of 1,25(OH)2D3-treated animals in both experimental protocols. This phenotype was supported by narrower distribution of aggrecan, collagens II and X mRNA, shown by in situ hybridization. Concomitant with altered chondrocyte maturation, 1,25(OH)2D3 increased chondrocyte proliferation and apoptosis in terminal hypertrophic cells. In vitro treatment of the chondrocytic cell line ATDC5 with 1,25(OH)2D3 lowered differentiation and increased proliferation dose and time-dependently. Micro-CT analysis of femurs from 1-week 1,25(OH)2D3-treated group revealed reduced cortical thickness, elevated cortical porosity, and higher trabecular number and thickness. 1-month administration resulted in a similar cortical phenotype but without effect on trabecular bone. Evaluation of fluorochrome binding with confocal microscopy revealed inhibiting effects of 1,25(OH)2D3 on intracortical bone formation. This study shows negative effects of 1,25(OH)2D3 on growth plate and bone which may contribute to the exacerbation of MBD in the CKD pediatric patients. PMID:21695192

  18. Periodically sheared 2D Yukawa systems

    SciTech Connect

    Kovács, Anikó Zsuzsa; Hartmann, Peter; Donkó, Zoltán

    2015-10-15

    We present non-equilibrium molecular dynamics simulation studies on the dynamic (complex) shear viscosity of a 2D Yukawa system. We have identified a non-monotonic frequency dependence of the viscosity at high frequencies and shear rates, an energy absorption maximum (local resonance) at the Einstein frequency of the system at medium shear rates, an enhanced collective wave activity, when the excitation is near the plateau frequency of the longitudinal wave dispersion, and the emergence of significant configurational anisotropy at small frequencies and high shear rates.

  19. Static & Dynamic Response of 2D Solids

    1996-07-15

    NIKE2D is an implicit finite-element code for analyzing the finite deformation, static and dynamic response of two-dimensional, axisymmetric, plane strain, and plane stress solids. The code is fully vectorized and available on several computing platforms. A number of material models are incorporated to simulate a wide range of material behavior including elasto-placicity, anisotropy, creep, thermal effects, and rate dependence. Slideline algorithms model gaps and sliding along material interfaces, including interface friction, penetration and single surfacemore » contact. Interactive-graphics and rezoning is included for analyses with large mesh distortions. In addition to quasi-Newton and arc-length procedures, adaptive algorithms can be defined to solve the implicit equations using the solution language ISLAND. Each of these capabilities and more make NIKE2D a robust analysis tool.« less

  20. Static & Dynamic Response of 2D Solids

    SciTech Connect

    Lin, Jerry

    1996-07-15

    NIKE2D is an implicit finite-element code for analyzing the finite deformation, static and dynamic response of two-dimensional, axisymmetric, plane strain, and plane stress solids. The code is fully vectorized and available on several computing platforms. A number of material models are incorporated to simulate a wide range of material behavior including elasto-placicity, anisotropy, creep, thermal effects, and rate dependence. Slideline algorithms model gaps and sliding along material interfaces, including interface friction, penetration and single surface contact. Interactive-graphics and rezoning is included for analyses with large mesh distortions. In addition to quasi-Newton and arc-length procedures, adaptive algorithms can be defined to solve the implicit equations using the solution language ISLAND. Each of these capabilities and more make NIKE2D a robust analysis tool.

  1. Interacting functionally graded quantum wires/quantum dots with arbitrary shapes and general anisotropy within a distinct piezoelectric matrix

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shodja, Hossein M.; Rashidinejad, Ehsan

    2014-05-01

    An accurate determination of the two- and three-dimensional electro-elastic fields of periodically as well as arbitrarily distributed interacting quantum wires (QWRs) and interacting quantum dots (QDs) of arbitrary shapes within a piezoelectric matrix is of particular interest. Both the QWR/QD and the barrier may be made of materials with distinct general rectilinear anisotropy in elastic, piezoelectric, and dielectric constants. The lattice mismatch between the QWR/QD and the barrier is accounted by prescribing an initial misfit strain field within the QWR/QD. Previous analytical treatments have neglected the distinction between the electro-mechanical properties of the QWR/QD and those of the barrier. This simplifying assumption is circumvented in the present work by using a novel electro-mechanical equivalent inclusion method in Fourier space (FEMEIM). Moreover, the theory can readily treat cases where the QWRs/QDs are multiphase or functionally graded (FG). It was proven that for two-dimensional problems of either a periodic or an arbitrary distribution of FG QWRs in a transversely isotropic piezoelectric barrier, the elastic and electric fields are electrically and elastically impotent, respectively, and no electric field would be induced in the medium provided that the rotational symmetry and polarization axes coincide. Some numerical examples of more frequent shapes and different distributions of indium nitride QDs/QWRs within transversely isotropic aluminum nitride barrier are solved.

  2. Individual differences in regional prefrontal gray matter morphometry and fractional anisotropy are associated with different constructs of executive function

    PubMed Central

    Smolker, H. R.; Reineberg, A. E.; Orr, J. M.; Banich, M. T.

    2015-01-01

    Although the relationship between structural differences within the prefrontal cortex (PFC) and executive function (EF) has been widely explored in cognitively impaired populations, little is known about this relationship in healthy young adults. Using optimized voxel-based morphometry (VBM), surface-based morphometry (SBM), and fractional anisotropy (FA) we determined the association between regional PFC grey matter (GM) morphometry and white matter tract diffusivity with performance on tasks that tap different aspects of EF as drawn from Miyake et al.’s three-factor model of EF. Reductions in both GM volume (VBM) and cortical folding (SBM) in the ventromedial PFC (vmPFC), ventrolateral PFC (vlPFC), and dorsolateral PFC (dlPFC) predicted better common EF, shifting-specific, and updating-specific performance, respectively. Despite capturing different components of GM morphometry, voxel- and surface-based findings were highly related, exhibiting regionally overlapping relationships with EF. Increased white matter FA in fiber tracts that connect the vmPFC and vlPFC with posterior regions of the brain also predicted better common EF and shifting-specific performance, respectively. These results suggest that the neural mechanisms supporting distinct aspects of EF may differentially rely on distinct regions of the PFC, and at least in healthy young adults, are influenced by regional morphometry of the PFC and the FA of major white matter tracts that connect the PFC with posterior cortical and subcortical regions. PMID:24562372

  3. CYP2D6 function moderates the pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics of 3,4-methylene-dioxymethamphetamine in a controlled study in healthy individuals.

    PubMed

    Schmid, Yasmin; Vizeli, Patrick; Hysek, Cédric M; Prestin, Katharina; Meyer Zu Schwabedissen, Henriette E; Liechti, Matthias E

    2016-08-01

    The role of genetic polymorphisms in cytochrome (CYP) 2D6 involved in the metabolism of 3,4-methylene-dioxymethamphetamine (MDMA, ecstasy) is unclear. Effects of genetic variants in CYP2D6 on the pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamic effects of MDMA were characterized in 139 healthy individuals (70 men, 69 women) in a pooled analysis of eight double-blind, placebo-controlled crossover studies. In CYP2D6 poor metabolizers, the maximum concentrations (Cmax) of MDMA and its active metabolite 3,4-methylene-dioxyamphetamine were +15 and +50% higher, respectively, compared with extensive metabolizers and the Cmax of the inactive metabolite 4-hydroxy-3-methoxymethamphetamine was 50-70% lower. Blood pressure and subjective drug effects increased more rapidly after MDMA administration in poor metabolizers than in extensive metabolizers. In conclusion, the disposition of MDMA and its effects in humans are altered by polymorphic CYP2D6 activity, but the effects are small because of the autoinhibition of CYP2D6. PMID:27253829

  4. CYP2D6 function moderates the pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics of 3,4-methylene-dioxymethamphetamine in a controlled study in healthy individuals

    PubMed Central

    Schmid, Yasmin; Vizeli, Patrick; Hysek, Cédric M.; Prestin, Katharina; Meyer zu Schwabedissen, Henriette E.

    2016-01-01

    The role of genetic polymorphisms in cytochrome (CYP) 2D6 involved in the metabolism of 3,4-methylene-dioxymethamphetamine (MDMA, ecstasy) is unclear. Effects of genetic variants in CYP2D6 on the pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamic effects of MDMA were characterized in 139 healthy individuals (70 men, 69 women) in a pooled analysis of eight double-blind, placebo-controlled crossover studies. In CYP2D6 poor metabolizers, the maximum concentrations (Cmax) of MDMA and its active metabolite 3,4-methylene-dioxyamphetamine were +15 and +50% higher, respectively, compared with extensive metabolizers and the Cmax of the inactive metabolite 4-hydroxy-3-methoxymethamphetamine was 50–70% lower. Blood pressure and subjective drug effects increased more rapidly after MDMA administration in poor metabolizers than in extensive metabolizers. In conclusion, the disposition of MDMA and its effects in humans are altered by polymorphic CYP2D6 activity, but the effects are small because of the autoinhibition of CYP2D6. PMID:27253829

  5. Feasibility and correlation of standard 2D speckle tracking echocardiography and automated function imaging derived parameters of left ventricular function during dobutamine stress test.

    PubMed

    Wierzbowska-Drabik, Karina; Hamala, Piotr; Roszczyk, Nikolina; Lipiec, Piotr; Plewka, Michał; Kręcki, Radosław; Kasprzak, Jarosław Damian

    2014-04-01

    Speckle tracking echocardiography (STE) is a method of quantitative assessment of myocardial function complementary to ejection fraction and visual evaluation. Standard STE analysis, demands manual tracing of the myocardium whereas automated function imaging (AFI) offers more convenient (based on selection of three points) assessment of longitudinal strain. Nevertheless, feasibility and correlation between both methods were not thoroughly examined, especially during tachycardia at peak stage of dobutamine stress echocardiography (DSE). We performed DSE in 238 patients (pts) with recording of apical views during baseline (0) and peak (1) DSE and analyzed them by STE and AFI. According to angiography, 127/238 pts had significant (≥70%) lesions in coronary arteries. We assessed correlations between STE and AFI derived peak systolic longitudinal strain values for global and regional parameters, feasibility, time of analysis and interobserver agreement. Global systolic longitudinal strain measured during baseline and peak stage of DSE by AFI showed very good correlation with standard STE parameters, with correlation coefficients r = 0.90 and r = 0.86 respectively (p < 0.0001). For regional parameters correlation coefficients ranged from 0.83 to 0.85 for baseline and from 0.70 to 0.79 for peak DSE. Both methods provided good and similar feasibility with only 1% segments excluded from analysis at peak stage of DSE with shorter time and lower coefficient of variance offered by AFI. Global and regional longitudinal strain achieved by faster and less operator-dependent AFI method correlate well with standard more time-consuming STE analysis during baseline and peak stage of DSE.

  6. Skyrmions in quasi-2D chiral magnets with broken bulk and surface inversion symmetry (Presentation Recording)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Randeria, Mohit; Banerjee, Sumilan; Rowland, James

    2015-09-01

    Most theoretical studies of chiral magnetism, and the resulting spin textures, have focused on 3D systems with broken bulk inversion symmetry, where skyrmions are stabilized by easy-axis anisotropy. In this talk I will describe our results on 2D and quasi-2D systems with broken surface inversion, where we find [1] that skyrmion crystals are much more stable than in 3D, especially for the case of easy-plane anisotropy. These results are of particular interest for thin films, surfaces, and oxide interfaces [2], where broken surface-inversion symmetry and Rashba spin-orbit coupling naturally lead to both the chiral Dzyaloshinskii-Moriya (DM) interaction and to easy-plane compass anisotropy. I will then turn to systems that break both bulk and surface inversion, resulting in two distinct DM terms arising from Dresselhaus and Rashba spin-orbit coupling. I will describe [3] the evolution of the skyrmion structure and of the phase diagram as a function of the ratio of Dresselhaus and Rashba terms, which can be tuned by varying film thickness and strain. [1] S. Banerjee, J. Rowland, O. Erten, and M. Randeria, PRX 4, 031045 (2014). [2] S. Banerjee, O. Erten, and M. Randeria, Nature Phys. 9, 626 (2013). [3] J. Rowland, S. Banerjee and M. Randeria, (unpublished).

  7. Five-Year Wilkinson Microwave Anisotropy Probe (WMAP)Observations: Beam Maps and Window Functions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hill, R.S.; Weiland, J.L.; Odegard, N.; Wollack, E.; Hinshaw, G.; Larson, D.; Bennett, C.L.; Halpern, M.; Kogut, A.; Page, L.; Dunkley, J.; Gold, B.; Jarosik, N.; Spergel, D.N.; Limon, M.; Nolta, M.R.; Tucker, G.S.; Wright, E.L.

    2008-01-01

    Cosmology and other scientific results from the WMAP mission require an accurate knowledge of the beam patterns in flight. While the degree of beam knowledge for the WMAP one-year and three-year results was unprecedented for a CMB experiment, we have significantly improved the beam determination as part of the five-year data release. Physical optics fits are done on both the A and the B sides for the first time. The cutoff scale of the fitted distortions on the primary mirror is reduced by a factor of approximately 2 from previous analyses. These changes enable an improvement in the hybridization of Jupiter data with beam models, which is optimized with respect to error in the main beam solid angle. An increase in main-beam solid angle of approximately 1% is found for the V2 and W1-W4 differencing assemblies. Although the five-year results are statistically consistent with previous ones, the errors in the five-year beam transfer functions are reduced by a factor of approximately 2 as compared to the three-year analysis. We present radiometry of the planet Jupiter as a test of the beam consistency and as a calibration standard; for an individual differencing assembly. errors in the measured disk temperature are approximately 0.5%.

  8. Effect of strong anisotropy on the dissipative and non-dissipative regimes of the second-order structure function

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Morshed, Khandakar Niaz; Dasi, Lakshmi Prasad

    2013-05-01

    We study the variations in second-order velocity structure functions (SFs) in the strongly anisotropic turbulent flow past a backward facing step. Time-resolved particle image velocimetry measurements were taken in a stationary turbulent flow past a backward facing step at Reynolds numbers 13,600, 9,000, and 5,500 based on the maximum velocity and step size. Large-scale anisotropic properties of the flow along with local small-scale turbulence characteristics were characterized in detail. Seven interrogation points distributed along points of different large-scale anisotropic characteristics systematically probed the influence of large-scale anisotropy on the second-order SFs. The velocity SFs at each interrogation point represent variance of velocity increments in the streamwise, transverse (wall normal), and the two principle directions of local deformation field. Logarithmic derivatives of the SFs captured the scale-dependent scaling characteristics at the small scales. Measurements revealed a strongly anisotropic large-scale flow with an intense turbulent free-shear layer downstream of the step. Comparison among second-order SFs reveals a mechanistic relationship between the mean flow deformation field, defined by the principle axis of deformation and the magnitude of eigenvalues, to the characteristic influence on SF scaling in the dissipative and non-dissipative scales. Specifically, we report that non-dissipative scaling between orthogonal directions does not differentially saturate if these directions are aligned with the principle axis of deformation. We also show that the relative root mean square of velocity components influences the level of exponent saturation in the dissipative scale regime.

  9. Giant and Tunable Anisotropy of Nanoscale Friction in Graphene.

    PubMed

    Almeida, Clara M; Prioli, Rodrigo; Fragneaud, Benjamin; Cançado, Luiz Gustavo; Paupitz, Ricardo; Galvão, Douglas S; De Cicco, Marcelo; Menezes, Marcos G; Achete, Carlos A; Capaz, Rodrigo B

    2016-01-01

    The nanoscale friction between an atomic force microscopy tip and graphene is investigated using friction force microscopy (FFM). During the tip movement, friction forces are observed to increase and then saturate in a highly anisotropic manner. As a result, the friction forces in graphene are highly dependent on the scanning direction: under some conditions, the energy dissipated along the armchair direction can be 80% higher than along the zigzag direction. In comparison, for highly-oriented pyrolitic graphite (HOPG), the friction anisotropy between armchair and zigzag directions is only 15%. This giant friction anisotropy in graphene results from anisotropies in the amplitudes of flexural deformations of the graphene sheet driven by the tip movement, not present in HOPG. The effect can be seen as a novel manifestation of the classical phenomenon of Euler buckling at the nanoscale, which provides the non-linear ingredients that amplify friction anisotropy. Simulations based on a novel version of the 2D Tomlinson model (modified to include the effects of flexural deformations), as well as fully atomistic molecular dynamics simulations and first-principles density-functional theory (DFT) calculations, are able to reproduce and explain the experimental observations. PMID:27534691

  10. Giant and Tunable Anisotropy of Nanoscale Friction in Graphene

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Almeida, Clara M.; Prioli, Rodrigo; Fragneaud, Benjamin; Cançado, Luiz Gustavo; Paupitz, Ricardo; Galvão, Douglas S.; de Cicco, Marcelo; Menezes, Marcos G.; Achete, Carlos A.; Capaz, Rodrigo B.

    2016-08-01

    The nanoscale friction between an atomic force microscopy tip and graphene is investigated using friction force microscopy (FFM). During the tip movement, friction forces are observed to increase and then saturate in a highly anisotropic manner. As a result, the friction forces in graphene are highly dependent on the scanning direction: under some conditions, the energy dissipated along the armchair direction can be 80% higher than along the zigzag direction. In comparison, for highly-oriented pyrolitic graphite (HOPG), the friction anisotropy between armchair and zigzag directions is only 15%. This giant friction anisotropy in graphene results from anisotropies in the amplitudes of flexural deformations of the graphene sheet driven by the tip movement, not present in HOPG. The effect can be seen as a novel manifestation of the classical phenomenon of Euler buckling at the nanoscale, which provides the non-linear ingredients that amplify friction anisotropy. Simulations based on a novel version of the 2D Tomlinson model (modified to include the effects of flexural deformations), as well as fully atomistic molecular dynamics simulations and first-principles density-functional theory (DFT) calculations, are able to reproduce and explain the experimental observations.

  11. Giant and Tunable Anisotropy of Nanoscale Friction in Graphene

    PubMed Central

    Almeida, Clara M.; Prioli, Rodrigo; Fragneaud, Benjamin; Cançado, Luiz Gustavo; Paupitz, Ricardo; Galvão, Douglas S.; De Cicco, Marcelo; Menezes, Marcos G.; Achete, Carlos A.; Capaz, Rodrigo B.

    2016-01-01

    The nanoscale friction between an atomic force microscopy tip and graphene is investigated using friction force microscopy (FFM). During the tip movement, friction forces are observed to increase and then saturate in a highly anisotropic manner. As a result, the friction forces in graphene are highly dependent on the scanning direction: under some conditions, the energy dissipated along the armchair direction can be 80% higher than along the zigzag direction. In comparison, for highly-oriented pyrolitic graphite (HOPG), the friction anisotropy between armchair and zigzag directions is only 15%. This giant friction anisotropy in graphene results from anisotropies in the amplitudes of flexural deformations of the graphene sheet driven by the tip movement, not present in HOPG. The effect can be seen as a novel manifestation of the classical phenomenon of Euler buckling at the nanoscale, which provides the non-linear ingredients that amplify friction anisotropy. Simulations based on a novel version of the 2D Tomlinson model (modified to include the effects of flexural deformations), as well as fully atomistic molecular dynamics simulations and first-principles density-functional theory (DFT) calculations, are able to reproduce and explain the experimental observations. PMID:27534691

  12. Chemical Approaches to 2D Materials.

    PubMed

    Samorì, Paolo; Palermo, Vincenzo; Feng, Xinliang

    2016-08-01

    Chemistry plays an ever-increasing role in the production, functionalization, processing and applications of graphene and other 2D materials. This special issue highlights a selection of enlightening chemical approaches to 2D materials, which nicely reflect the breadth of the field and convey the excitement of the individuals involved in it, who are trying to translate graphene and related materials from the laboratory into a real, high-impact technology. PMID:27478083

  13. Chemical Approaches to 2D Materials.

    PubMed

    Samorì, Paolo; Palermo, Vincenzo; Feng, Xinliang

    2016-08-01

    Chemistry plays an ever-increasing role in the production, functionalization, processing and applications of graphene and other 2D materials. This special issue highlights a selection of enlightening chemical approaches to 2D materials, which nicely reflect the breadth of the field and convey the excitement of the individuals involved in it, who are trying to translate graphene and related materials from the laboratory into a real, high-impact technology.

  14. Impact of Cytochrome P450 2D6 Function on the Chiral Blood Plasma Pharmacokinetics of 3,4-Methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA) and Its Phase I and II Metabolites in Humans.

    PubMed

    Steuer, Andrea E; Schmidhauser, Corina; Tingelhoff, Eva H; Schmid, Yasmin; Rickli, Anna; Kraemer, Thomas; Liechti, Matthias E

    2016-01-01

    3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA; ecstasy) metabolism is known to be stereoselective, with preference for S-stereoisomers. Its major metabolic step involves CYP2D6-catalyzed demethylenation to 3,4-dihydroxymethamphetamine (DHMA), followed by methylation and conjugation. Alterations in CYP2D6 genotype and/or phenotype have been associated with higher toxicity. Therefore, the impact of CYP2D6 function on the plasma pharmacokinetics of MDMA and its phase I and II metabolites was tested by comparing extensive metabolizers (EMs), intermediate metabolizers (IMs), and EMs that were pretreated with bupropion as a metabolic inhibitor in a controlled MDMA administration study. Blood plasma samples were collected from 16 healthy participants (13 EMs and three IMs) up to 24 h after MDMA administration in a double-blind, placebo-controlled, four-period, cross-over design, with subjects receiving 1 week placebo or bupropion pretreatment followed by a single placebo or MDMA (125 mg) dose. Bupropion pretreatment increased the maximum plasma concentration (Cmax) and area under the plasma concentration-time curve from 0 to 24 h (AUC24) of R-MDMA (9% and 25%, respectively) and S-MDMA (16% and 38%, respectively). Bupropion reduced the Cmax and AUC24 of the CYP2D6-dependently formed metabolite stereoisomers of DHMA 3-sulfate, DHMA 4-sulfate, and 4-hydroxy-3-methoxymethamphetamine (HMMA sulfate and HMMA glucuronide) by approximately 40%. The changes that were observed in IMs were generally comparable to bupropion-pretreated EMs. Although changes in stereoselectivity based on CYP2D6 activity were observed, these likely have low clinical relevance. Bupropion and hydroxybupropion stereoisomer pharmacokinetics were unaltered by MDMA co-administration. The present data might aid further interpretations of toxicity based on CYP2D6-dependent MDMA metabolism. PMID:26967321

  15. Impact of Cytochrome P450 2D6 Function on the Chiral Blood Plasma Pharmacokinetics of 3,4-Methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA) and Its Phase I and II Metabolites in Humans

    PubMed Central

    Steuer, Andrea E.; Schmidhauser, Corina; Tingelhoff, Eva H.; Schmid, Yasmin; Rickli, Anna; Kraemer, Thomas; Liechti, Matthias E.

    2016-01-01

    3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA; ecstasy) metabolism is known to be stereoselective, with preference for S-stereoisomers. Its major metabolic step involves CYP2D6-catalyzed demethylenation to 3,4-dihydroxymethamphetamine (DHMA), followed by methylation and conjugation. Alterations in CYP2D6 genotype and/or phenotype have been associated with higher toxicity. Therefore, the impact of CYP2D6 function on the plasma pharmacokinetics of MDMA and its phase I and II metabolites was tested by comparing extensive metabolizers (EMs), intermediate metabolizers (IMs), and EMs that were pretreated with bupropion as a metabolic inhibitor in a controlled MDMA administration study. Blood plasma samples were collected from 16 healthy participants (13 EMs and three IMs) up to 24 h after MDMA administration in a double-blind, placebo-controlled, four-period, cross-over design, with subjects receiving 1 week placebo or bupropion pretreatment followed by a single placebo or MDMA (125 mg) dose. Bupropion pretreatment increased the maximum plasma concentration (Cmax) and area under the plasma concentration-time curve from 0 to 24 h (AUC24) of R-MDMA (9% and 25%, respectively) and S-MDMA (16% and 38%, respectively). Bupropion reduced the Cmax and AUC24 of the CYP2D6-dependently formed metabolite stereoisomers of DHMA 3-sulfate, DHMA 4-sulfate, and 4-hydroxy-3-methoxymethamphetamine (HMMA sulfate and HMMA glucuronide) by approximately 40%. The changes that were observed in IMs were generally comparable to bupropion-pretreated EMs. Although changes in stereoselectivity based on CYP2D6 activity were observed, these likely have low clinical relevance. Bupropion and hydroxybupropion stereoisomer pharmacokinetics were unaltered by MDMA co-administration. The present data might aid further interpretations of toxicity based on CYP2D6-dependent MDMA metabolism. PMID:26967321

  16. Defective female reproductive function in 1,25(OH)2D-deficient mice results from indirect effect mediated by extracellular calcium and/or phosphorus.

    PubMed

    Sun, Weiwei; Xie, Hui; Ji, Ji; Zhou, Xiaojie; Goltzman, David; Miao, Dengshun

    2010-12-01

    We used mice with targeted deletion of 25-hydroxyvitamin D 1α-hydroxylase [1α(OH)ase(-/-)] to investigate the effects of calcium and phosphorus on defects in the reproductive system of 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D [1,25(OH)(2)D]-deficient female mice. The 1α(OH)ase(-/-) mice and their wild-type littermates were fed either a normal diet or a rescue diet (high calcium, phosphate, and lactose) starting from weaning until 3 mo of age. We then determined serum calcium and phosphorus levels, assessed gonadotropin and gonadal hormone production, and evaluated folliculogenesis, corpus luteum formation, ovarian angiogenesis, uterus development, and fertility. Results showed that hypocalcemic and hypophosphatemic female 1α(OH)ase(-/-) mice developed infertility accompanied by decreased estrogen and progestogen levels, elevated follicle-stimulating hormone and luteinizing hormone levels, defects in follicular development and corpus luteum formation, uterine hypoplasia, and decreased ovarian expression of angiogenic factors including vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), angiopoietin-1 and -2, and Tie-2. When serum calcium and phosphorus were normalized by the rescue diet, the defective reproductive phenotype in the female 1α(OH)ase(-/-) mice, including the dysfunction in the hypothalamic-pituitary-ovarian axis, and ovarian angiogenesis were reversed. These results indicate that the infertility seen in 1,25(OH)(2)D-deficient mice is not a direct effect of active vitamin D deficiency on the reproductive system but is an indirect effect mediated by extracellular calcium and phosphorus.

  17. Internal Photoemission Spectroscopy of 2-D Materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nguyen, Nhan; Li, Mingda; Vishwanath, Suresh; Yan, Rusen; Xiao, Shudong; Xing, Huili; Cheng, Guangjun; Hight Walker, Angela; Zhang, Qin

    Recent research has shown the great benefits of using 2-D materials in the tunnel field-effect transistor (TFET), which is considered a promising candidate for the beyond-CMOS technology. The on-state current of TFET can be enhanced by engineering the band alignment of different 2D-2D or 2D-3D heterostructures. Here we present the internal photoemission spectroscopy (IPE) approach to determine the band alignments of various 2-D materials, in particular SnSe2 and WSe2, which have been proposed for new TFET designs. The metal-oxide-2-D semiconductor test structures are fabricated and characterized by IPE, where the band offsets from the 2-D semiconductor to the oxide conduction band minimum are determined by the threshold of the cube root of IPE yields as a function of photon energy. In particular, we find that SnSe2 has a larger electron affinity than most semiconductors and can be combined with other semiconductors to form near broken-gap heterojunctions with low barrier heights which can produce a higher on-state current. The details of data analysis of IPE and the results from Raman spectroscopy and spectroscopic ellipsometry measurements will also be presented and discussed.

  18. Prediction of {sup 2}D Rydberg energy levels of {sup 6}Li and {sup 7}Li based on very accurate quantum mechanical calculations performed with explicitly correlated Gaussian functions

    SciTech Connect

    Bubin, Sergiy; Sharkey, Keeper L.; Adamowicz, Ludwik

    2013-04-28

    Very accurate variational nonrelativistic finite-nuclear-mass calculations employing all-electron explicitly correlated Gaussian basis functions are carried out for six Rydberg {sup 2}D states (1s{sup 2}nd, n= 6, Horizontal-Ellipsis , 11) of the {sup 7}Li and {sup 6}Li isotopes. The exponential parameters of the Gaussian functions are optimized using the variational method with the aid of the analytical energy gradient determined with respect to these parameters. The experimental results for the lower states (n= 3, Horizontal-Ellipsis , 6) and the calculated results for the higher states (n= 7, Horizontal-Ellipsis , 11) fitted with quantum-defect-like formulas are used to predict the energies of {sup 2}D 1s{sup 2}nd states for {sup 7}Li and {sup 6}Li with n up to 30.

  19. High divergent 2D grating

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Jin; Ma, Jianyong; Zhou, Changhe

    2014-11-01

    A 3×3 high divergent 2D-grating with period of 3.842μm at wavelength of 850nm under normal incidence is designed and fabricated in this paper. This high divergent 2D-grating is designed by the vector theory. The Rigorous Coupled Wave Analysis (RCWA) in association with the simulated annealing (SA) is adopted to calculate and optimize this 2D-grating.The properties of this grating are also investigated by the RCWA. The diffraction angles are more than 10 degrees in the whole wavelength band, which are bigger than the traditional 2D-grating. In addition, the small period of grating increases the difficulties of fabrication. So we fabricate the 2D-gratings by direct laser writing (DLW) instead of traditional manufacturing method. Then the method of ICP etching is used to obtain the high divergent 2D-grating.

  20. Resolution of anisotropic and shielded highly conductive layers using 2-D electromagnetic modelling in the Rhine Graben and Black Forest

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tezkan, Bülent; Červ, Václav; Pek, Josef

    1992-12-01

    Anisotropy in magnetotelluric (MT) data has been found very often and has been explained as the result of local structures of different conductivities. In this paper, an observed anisotropy in MT data is not interpreted qualitatively in terms of local structures but is modelled quantitatively by a quasi-anisotropic layer. Besides the MT transfer functions, measurements of the vertical magnetic component are required. The second goal of this paper is to describe a method which permits the resolution of mid-crustal conductive layers in the presence of an additional high-conductivity layer at the surface. This method is possible in a two-dimensional (2-D) situation that limits the spatial extension of the surface structure. Again, vertical magnetic field recordings are necessary, but the phase of the E-polarization with respect to the 2-D structure is the most sensitive parameter. Using two field sites in Southern Germany, it has been possible to give a quantitative explanation of anisotropy and an improved depth resolution, and to derive an integrated conductivity of the highly conductive mid-crustal layers using MT and geomagnetic depth sounding data. The anisotropic highly conductive layer is located 12 km beneath the poorly conductive Black Forest crystalline rocks, whereas it is at a depth of 6 km beneath the highly conductive Rhine Graben sediments.

  1. Ultrafast 2D IR microscopy

    PubMed Central

    Baiz, Carlos R.; Schach, Denise; Tokmakoff, Andrei

    2014-01-01

    We describe a microscope for measuring two-dimensional infrared (2D IR) spectra of heterogeneous samples with μm-scale spatial resolution, sub-picosecond time resolution, and the molecular structure information of 2D IR, enabling the measurement of vibrational dynamics through correlations in frequency, time, and space. The setup is based on a fully collinear “one beam” geometry in which all pulses propagate along the same optics. Polarization, chopping, and phase cycling are used to isolate the 2D IR signals of interest. In addition, we demonstrate the use of vibrational lifetime as a contrast agent for imaging microscopic variations in molecular environments. PMID:25089490

  2. Magnetism and magnetocrystalline anisotropy of 3dtransition metal monolayers on Pt(001): a density-functional study.

    PubMed

    Taivansaikhan, P; Odkhuu, D; Kwon, O R; Tsogbadrakh, N; Hong, S C

    2014-12-01

    We systematically investigate the effects of having Pt as a substrate and/or capping layer on the magnetism and magnetocrystalline anisotropy (MCA) of 3d transition metal (TMs; Cr, Mn, Fe, and Co) monolayers (MLs) by using a first-principles calculationl method. We found that Fe and Co MLs are ferromagnetic (FM) on a Pt(001) surface, but Mn and Cr MLs are antiferromagnetic (AFM). The magnetic moments are quite robust with additional Pt-capping. Furthermore, Pt-capping enhances the small perpendicular MCA (meV) of Fe/Pt(001) significantly to 4.44 meV. Our electronic structure analyses indicate that strong hybridization between Pt-5d and TM-3d orbitals plays a crucial role in determining magnetic ordering and MCA. For comparison we also calculated magnetism and MCA of 3d TM MLs on Ta(001) with and without Ta-capping.

  3. AnisWave 2D

    2004-08-01

    AnisWave2D is a 2D finite-difference code for a simulating seismic wave propagation in fully anisotropic materials. The code is implemented to run in parallel over multiple processors and is fully portable. A mesh refinement algorithm has been utilized to allow the grid-spacing to be tailored to the velocity model, avoiding the over-sampling of high-velocity materials that usually occurs in fixed-grid schemes.

  4. Tuning the magnetic anisotropy in single-layer crystal structures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Torun, E.; Sahin, H.; Bacaksiz, C.; Senger, R. T.; Peeters, F. M.

    2015-09-01

    The effect of an applied electric field and the effect of charging are investigated on the magnetic anisotropy (MA) of various stable two-dimensional (2D) crystals such as graphene, FeCl2, graphone, fluorographene, and MoTe2 using first-principles calculations. We found that the magnetocrystalline anisotropy energy of Co-on-graphene and Os-doped-MoTe2 systems change linearly with electric field, opening the possibility of electric field tuning MA of these compounds. In addition, charging can rotate the easy-axis direction of Co-on-graphene and Os-doped-MoTe2 systems from the out-of-plane (in-plane) to in-plane (out-of-plane) direction. The tunable MA of the studied materials is crucial for nanoscale electronic technologies such as data storage and spintronics devices. Our results show that controlling the MA of the mentioned 2D crystal structures can be realized in various ways, and this can lead to the emergence of a wide range of potential applications where the tuning and switching of magnetic functionalities are important.

  5. CYP2D6*36 gene arrangements within the cyp2d6 locus: association of CYP2D6*36 with poor metabolizer status.

    PubMed

    Gaedigk, Andrea; Bradford, L Dianne; Alander, Sarah W; Leeder, J Steven

    2006-04-01

    Unexplained cases of CYP2D6 genotype/phenotype discordance continue to be discovered. In previous studies, several African Americans with a poor metabolizer phenotype carried the reduced function CYP2D6*10 allele in combination with a nonfunctional allele. We pursued the possibility that these alleles harbor either a known sequence variation (i.e., CYP2D6*36 carrying a gene conversion in exon 9 along the CYP2D6*10-defining 100C>T single-nucleotide polymorphism) or novel sequences variation(s). Discordant cases were evaluated by long-range polymerase chain reaction (PCR) to test for gene rearrangement events, and a 6.6-kilobase pair PCR product encompassing the CYP2D6 gene was cloned and entirely sequenced. Thereafter, allele frequencies were determined in different study populations comprising whites, African Americans, and Asians. Analyses covering the CYP2D7 to 2D6 gene region established that CYP2D6*36 did not only exist as a gene duplication (CYP2D6*36x2) or in tandem with *10 (CYP2D6*36+*10), as previously reported, but also by itself. This "single" CYP2D6*36 allele was found in nine African Americans and one Asian, but was absent in the whites tested. Ultimately, the presence of CYP2D6*36 resolved genotype/phenotype discordance in three cases. We also discovered an exon 9 conversion-positive CYP2D6*4 gene in a duplication arrangement (CYP2D6*4Nx2) and a CYP2D6*4 allele lacking 100C>T (CYP2D6*4M) in two white subjects. The discovery of an allele that carries only one CYP2D6*36 gene copy provides unequivocal evidence that both CYP2D6*36 and *36x2 are associated with a poor metabolizer phenotype. Given a combined frequency of between 0.5 and 3% in African Americans and Asians, genotyping for CYP2D6*36 should improve the accuracy of genotype-based phenotype prediction in these populations.

  6. Elastic anisotropy of crystals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kube, Christopher M.

    2016-09-01

    An anisotropy index seeks to quantify how directionally dependent the properties of a system are. In this article, the focus is on quantifying the elastic anisotropy of crystalline materials. Previous elastic anisotropy indices are reviewed and their shortcomings discussed. A new scalar log-Euclidean anisotropy measure AL is proposed, which overcomes these deficiencies. It is based on a distance measure in a log-Euclidean space applied to fourth-rank elastic tensors. AL is an absolute measure of anisotropy where the limiting case of perfect isotropy yields zero. It is a universal measure of anisotropy applicable to all crystalline materials. Specific examples of strong anisotropy are highlighted. A supplementary material (ftp://ftp.aip.org/epaps/aip_advances/E-AAIDBI-6-041609) provides an anisotropy table giving the values of AL for 2,176 crystallite compounds.

  7. Nanoscale Graphene Disk: A Natural Functionally Graded Material–How is Fourier’s Law Violated along Radius Direction of 2D Disk

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Nuo; Hu, Shiqian; Ma, Dengke; Lu, Tingyu; Li, Baowen

    2015-01-01

    In this Paper, we investigate numerically and analytically the thermal conductivity of nanoscale graphene disks (NGDs), and discussed the possibility to realize functionally graded material (FGM) with only one material, NGDs. Different from previous studies on divergence/non-diffusive of thermal conductivity in nano-structures with different size, we found a novel non-homogeneous (graded) thermal conductivity along the radius direction in a single nano-disk structure. We found that, instead of a constant value, the NGD has a graded thermal conductivity along the radius direction. That is, Fourier’s law of heat conduction is not valid in two dimensional graphene disk structures Moreover, we show the dependent of NGDs’ thermal conductivity on radius and temperature. Our study might inspire experimentalists to develop NGD based versatile FGMs, improve understanding of the heat removal of hot spots on chips, and enhance thermoelectric energy conversion efficiency by two dimensional disk with a graded thermal conductivity. PMID:26443206

  8. Nanoscale Graphene Disk: A Natural Functionally Graded Material-How is Fourier's Law Violated along Radius Direction of 2D Disk.

    PubMed

    Yang, Nuo; Hu, Shiqian; Ma, Dengke; Lu, Tingyu; Li, Baowen

    2015-10-07

    In this Paper, we investigate numerically and analytically the thermal conductivity of nanoscale graphene disks (NGDs), and discussed the possibility to realize functionally graded material (FGM) with only one material, NGDs. Different from previous studies on divergence/non-diffusive of thermal conductivity in nano-structures with different size, we found a novel non-homogeneous (graded) thermal conductivity along the radius direction in a single nano-disk structure. We found that, instead of a constant value, the NGD has a graded thermal conductivity along the radius direction. That is, Fourier's law of heat conduction is not valid in two dimensional graphene disk structures Moreover, we show the dependent of NGDs' thermal conductivity on radius and temperature. Our study might inspire experimentalists to develop NGD based versatile FGMs, improve understanding of the heat removal of hot spots on chips, and enhance thermoelectric energy conversion efficiency by two dimensional disk with a graded thermal conductivity.

  9. Nanoscale Graphene Disk: A Natural Functionally Graded Material-How is Fourier’s Law Violated along Radius Direction of 2D Disk

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Nuo; Hu, Shiqian; Ma, Dengke; Lu, Tingyu; Li, Baowen

    2015-10-01

    In this Paper, we investigate numerically and analytically the thermal conductivity of nanoscale graphene disks (NGDs), and discussed the possibility to realize functionally graded material (FGM) with only one material, NGDs. Different from previous studies on divergence/non-diffusive of thermal conductivity in nano-structures with different size, we found a novel non-homogeneous (graded) thermal conductivity along the radius direction in a single nano-disk structure. We found that, instead of a constant value, the NGD has a graded thermal conductivity along the radius direction. That is, Fourier’s law of heat conduction is not valid in two dimensional graphene disk structures Moreover, we show the dependent of NGDs’ thermal conductivity on radius and temperature. Our study might inspire experimentalists to develop NGD based versatile FGMs, improve understanding of the heat removal of hot spots on chips, and enhance thermoelectric energy conversion efficiency by two dimensional disk with a graded thermal conductivity.

  10. Density functional theory calculations of magnetocrystalline anisotropy energies for (Fe1-xCox)2B

    SciTech Connect

    Daene, Markus; Kim, Soo Kyung; Surh, Michael P.; Aberg, Daniel; Benedict, Lorin X.

    2015-06-15

    We present and discuss density functional theory calculations of magnetic properties of the family of ferromagnetic compounds, (Fe1-xCox)2B, focusing specifically on the magnetocrystalline anisotropy energy (MAE). Using periodic supercells of various sizes (up to 96 atoms), it is shown that the general qualitative features of the composition dependence of the MAE is in agreement with experimental findings, while our predicted magnitudes are larger than those of experiment. We find that the use of small supercells (6 and 12-atom) favors larger MAE values relative to a statistical sample of configurations constructed with 96-atom supercells. As a result, the effect of lattice relaxations is shown to be small. Calculations of the Curie temperature for this alloy are also presented.

  11. A novel material detection algorithm based on 2D GMM-based power density function and image detail addition scheme in dual energy X-ray images.

    PubMed

    Pourghassem, Hossein

    2012-01-01

    Material detection is a vital need in dual energy X-ray luggage inspection systems at security of airport and strategic places. In this paper, a novel material detection algorithm based on statistical trainable models using 2-Dimensional power density function (PDF) of three material categories in dual energy X-ray images is proposed. In this algorithm, the PDF of each material category as a statistical model is estimated from transmission measurement values of low and high energy X-ray images by Gaussian Mixture Models (GMM). Material label of each pixel of object is determined based on dependency probability of its transmission measurement values in the low and high energy to PDF of three material categories (metallic, organic and mixed materials). The performance of material detection algorithm is improved by a maximum voting scheme in a neighborhood of image as a post-processing stage. Using two background removing and denoising stages, high and low energy X-ray images are enhanced as a pre-processing procedure. For improving the discrimination capability of the proposed material detection algorithm, the details of the low and high energy X-ray images are added to constructed color image which includes three colors (orange, blue and green) for representing the organic, metallic and mixed materials. The proposed algorithm is evaluated on real images that had been captured from a commercial dual energy X-ray luggage inspection system. The obtained results show that the proposed algorithm is effective and operative in detection of the metallic, organic and mixed materials with acceptable accuracy.

  12. Correlated oscillations of the magnetic anisotropy energy and orbital moment anisotropy in thin films: The role of quantum well states

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sandratskii, L. M.

    2015-10-01

    We report the first-principles study of the correlated behavior of the magnetic anisotropy energy (MAE) and orbital moment anisotropy (OMA) as the functions of the thickness N of the Fe film. The work is motivated by recent experimental studies combining photoemission, x-ray magnetic circular dichroism, and magnetic anisotropy measurements. In agreement with experiment, the correlated oscillations of MAE (N ) and OMA (N ) are obtained that have their origin in the formation of the 3d quantum well states (QWS) confined in the films. The main contribution to the oscillation amplitude comes from the surface layer. This is an interesting feature of the phenomenon consisting in the peculiar dependence of the physical quantities on the thickness of the film. We demonstrate that the band structure of the bulk Fe does not reflect adequately the properties of the 3d QWS in thin films and, therefore, does not provide the basis for understanding the oscillations of MAE (N ) and OMA (N ) . A detailed point-by-point analysis in the two-dimensional (2D) Brillouin zone (BZ) of the film shows that the contribution of the Γ point, contrary to a rather common expectation, does not play an important role in the formation of the oscillations. Instead, the most important contributions come from a broad region of the 2D BZ distant from the center of the BZ. Combining symmetry arguments and direct calculations we show that orbital moments of the electronic states possess nonzero transverse components orthogonal to the direction of the spin magnetization. The account for this feature is crucial in the point-by-point analysis of the OMA. On the basis of the calculations for noncollinear spin configurations we suggest interpretations of two interesting experimental findings: fast temperature decay of the oscillation amplitude in MAE (N ) and unexpectedly strong spin mixing of the initial states of the photoemission process.

  13. GBL-2D Version 1.0: a 2D geometry boolean library.

    SciTech Connect

    McBride, Cory L. (Elemental Technologies, American Fort, UT); Schmidt, Rodney Cannon; Yarberry, Victor R.; Meyers, Ray J.

    2006-11-01

    This report describes version 1.0 of GBL-2D, a geometric Boolean library for 2D objects. The library is written in C++ and consists of a set of classes and routines. The classes primarily represent geometric data and relationships. Classes are provided for 2D points, lines, arcs, edge uses, loops, surfaces and mask sets. The routines contain algorithms for geometric Boolean operations and utility functions. Routines are provided that incorporate the Boolean operations: Union(OR), XOR, Intersection and Difference. A variety of additional analytical geometry routines and routines for importing and exporting the data in various file formats are also provided. The GBL-2D library was originally developed as a geometric modeling engine for use with a separate software tool, called SummitView [1], that manipulates the 2D mask sets created by designers of Micro-Electro-Mechanical Systems (MEMS). However, many other practical applications for this type of software can be envisioned because the need to perform 2D Boolean operations can arise in many contexts.

  14. CYP2D7 Sequence Variation Interferes with TaqMan CYP2D6*15 and *35 Genotyping

    PubMed Central

    Riffel, Amanda K.; Dehghani, Mehdi; Hartshorne, Toinette; Floyd, Kristen C.; Leeder, J. Steven; Rosenblatt, Kevin P.; Gaedigk, Andrea

    2016-01-01

    TaqMan™ genotyping assays are widely used to genotype CYP2D6, which encodes a major drug metabolizing enzyme. Assay design for CYP2D6 can be challenging owing to the presence of two pseudogenes, CYP2D7 and CYP2D8, structural and copy number variation and numerous single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) some of which reflect the wild-type sequence of the CYP2D7 pseudogene. The aim of this study was to identify the mechanism causing false-positive CYP2D6*15 calls and remediate those by redesigning and validating alternative TaqMan genotype assays. Among 13,866 DNA samples genotyped by the CompanionDx® lab on the OpenArray platform, 70 samples were identified as heterozygotes for 137Tins, the key SNP of CYP2D6*15. However, only 15 samples were confirmed when tested with the Luminex xTAG CYP2D6 Kit and sequencing of CYP2D6-specific long range (XL)-PCR products. Genotype and gene resequencing of CYP2D6 and CYP2D7-specific XL-PCR products revealed a CC>GT dinucleotide SNP in exon 1 of CYP2D7 that reverts the sequence to CYP2D6 and allows a TaqMan assay PCR primer to bind. Because CYP2D7 also carries a Tins, a false-positive mutation signal is generated. This CYP2D7 SNP was also responsible for generating false-positive signals for rs769258 (CYP2D6*35) which is also located in exon 1. Although alternative CYP2D6*15 and *35 assays resolved the issue, we discovered a novel CYP2D6*15 subvariant in one sample that carries additional SNPs preventing detection with the alternate assay. The frequency of CYP2D6*15 was 0.1% in this ethnically diverse U.S. population sample. In addition, we also discovered linkage between the CYP2D7 CC>GT dinucleotide SNP and the 77G>A (rs28371696) SNP of CYP2D6*43. The frequency of this tentatively functional allele was 0.2%. Taken together, these findings emphasize that regardless of how careful genotyping assays are designed and evaluated before being commercially marketed, rare or unknown SNPs underneath primer and/or probe regions can impact

  15. CYP2D7 Sequence Variation Interferes with TaqMan CYP2D6 (*) 15 and (*) 35 Genotyping.

    PubMed

    Riffel, Amanda K; Dehghani, Mehdi; Hartshorne, Toinette; Floyd, Kristen C; Leeder, J Steven; Rosenblatt, Kevin P; Gaedigk, Andrea

    2015-01-01

    TaqMan™ genotyping assays are widely used to genotype CYP2D6, which encodes a major drug metabolizing enzyme. Assay design for CYP2D6 can be challenging owing to the presence of two pseudogenes, CYP2D7 and CYP2D8, structural and copy number variation and numerous single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) some of which reflect the wild-type sequence of the CYP2D7 pseudogene. The aim of this study was to identify the mechanism causing false-positive CYP2D6 (*) 15 calls and remediate those by redesigning and validating alternative TaqMan genotype assays. Among 13,866 DNA samples genotyped by the CompanionDx® lab on the OpenArray platform, 70 samples were identified as heterozygotes for 137Tins, the key SNP of CYP2D6 (*) 15. However, only 15 samples were confirmed when tested with the Luminex xTAG CYP2D6 Kit and sequencing of CYP2D6-specific long range (XL)-PCR products. Genotype and gene resequencing of CYP2D6 and CYP2D7-specific XL-PCR products revealed a CC>GT dinucleotide SNP in exon 1 of CYP2D7 that reverts the sequence to CYP2D6 and allows a TaqMan assay PCR primer to bind. Because CYP2D7 also carries a Tins, a false-positive mutation signal is generated. This CYP2D7 SNP was also responsible for generating false-positive signals for rs769258 (CYP2D6 (*) 35) which is also located in exon 1. Although alternative CYP2D6 (*) 15 and (*) 35 assays resolved the issue, we discovered a novel CYP2D6 (*) 15 subvariant in one sample that carries additional SNPs preventing detection with the alternate assay. The frequency of CYP2D6 (*) 15 was 0.1% in this ethnically diverse U.S. population sample. In addition, we also discovered linkage between the CYP2D7 CC>GT dinucleotide SNP and the 77G>A (rs28371696) SNP of CYP2D6 (*) 43. The frequency of this tentatively functional allele was 0.2%. Taken together, these findings emphasize that regardless of how careful genotyping assays are designed and evaluated before being commercially marketed, rare or unknown SNPs underneath primer

  16. DYNA2D96. Explicit 2-D Hydrodynamic FEM Program

    SciTech Connect

    Whirley, R.G.

    1992-04-01

    DYNA2D is a vectorized, explicit, two-dimensional, axisymmetric and plane strain finite element program for analyzing the large deformation dynamic and hydrodynamic response of inelastic solids. DYNA2D contains 13 material models and 9 equations of state (EOS) to cover a wide range of material behavior. The material models implemented in all machine versions are: elastic, orthotropic elastic, kinematic/isotropic elastic plasticity, thermoelastoplastic, soil and crushable foam, linear viscoelastic, rubber, high explosive burn, isotropic elastic-plastic, temperature-dependent elastic-plastic. The isotropic and temperature-dependent elastic-plastic models determine only the deviatoric stresses. Pressure is determined by one of 9 equations of state including linear polynomial, JWL high explosive, Sack Tuesday high explosive, Gruneisen, ratio of polynomials, linear polynomial with energy deposition, ignition and growth of reaction in HE, tabulated compaction, and tabulated.

  17. MAGNUM-2D computer code: user's guide

    SciTech Connect

    England, R.L.; Kline, N.W.; Ekblad, K.J.; Baca, R.G.

    1985-01-01

    Information relevant to the general use of the MAGNUM-2D computer code is presented. This computer code was developed for the purpose of modeling (i.e., simulating) the thermal and hydraulic conditions in the vicinity of a waste package emplaced in a deep geologic repository. The MAGNUM-2D computer computes (1) the temperature field surrounding the waste package as a function of the heat generation rate of the nuclear waste and thermal properties of the basalt and (2) the hydraulic head distribution and associated groundwater flow fields as a function of the temperature gradients and hydraulic properties of the basalt. MAGNUM-2D is a two-dimensional numerical model for transient or steady-state analysis of coupled heat transfer and groundwater flow in a fractured porous medium. The governing equations consist of a set of coupled, quasi-linear partial differential equations that are solved using a Galerkin finite-element technique. A Newton-Raphson algorithm is embedded in the Galerkin functional to formulate the problem in terms of the incremental changes in the dependent variables. Both triangular and quadrilateral finite elements are used to represent the continuum portions of the spatial domain. Line elements may be used to represent discrete conduits. 18 refs., 4 figs., 1 tab.

  18. Shale seismic anisotropy vs. compaction trend

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pervukhina, M.

    2015-12-01

    Shales comprise more than 60% of sedimentary rocks and form natural seals above hydrocarbon reservoirs. Their sealing capacity is also used for storage of nuclear wastes. Shales are notorious for their strong elastic anisotropy, so-called, vertical transverse isotropy or VTI. This VTI anisotropy is of practical importance as it is required for correct surface seismic data interpretation, seismic to well tie and azimuth versus offset analysis. A number of competing factors are responsible for VTI anisotropy in shales, namely, (1) micro-scale elastic anisotropy of clay particles, (2) anisotropic orientation distribution function of clay particles, (3) anisotropic orientation of pores and organic matter. On the contrary, silt (non-clay mineralogy grains with size between 0.06 -0.002 mm) is known to reduce elastic anisotropy of shales. Methods developed for calculations of anisotropy in polycrystalline materials can be used to estimate elastic anisotropy of shales from orientation distribution function (ODF) of clay platelets if elastic properties of individual clay platelets are known. Unfortunately, elastic properties of individual clay platelets cannot be directly measured. Recently, elastic properties of properties of individual clay platelets with different mineralogy were calculated from first principles based on density functional theory. In this work we use these elastic properties of individual platelets of muscovite, illite-smectite and kaolinite to obtain correlations between elastic anisotropy and Legendre coefficients W200 and W400 of different ODFs. Comparison of the Legendre coefficients calculated for more than 800 shales from depths 0 - 6 km (www.rockphysicists.org/data) with those of compaction ODFs shows that compaction has no first order effect on elastic anisotropy. Thus, elastic anisotropy is to large extent determined by factors other than compaction processes, such as depositional environment, chemical composition of fluid, silt fraction, etc.

  19. MOSS2D V1

    2001-01-31

    This software reduces the data from two-dimensional kSA MOS program, k-Space Associates, Ann Arbor, MI. Initial MOS data is recorded without headers in 38 columns, with one row of data per acquisition per lase beam tracked. The final MOSS 2d data file is reduced, graphed, and saved in a tab-delimited column format with headers that can be plotted in any graphing software.

  20. A Geometric Boolean Library for 2D Objects

    2006-01-05

    The 2D Boolean Library is a collection of C++ classes -- which primarily represent 2D geometric data and relationships, and routines -- which contain algorithms for 2D geometric Boolean operations and utility functions. Classes are provided for 2D points, lines, arcs, edgeuses, loops, surfaces and mask sets. Routines are provided that incorporate the Boolean operations Union(OR), XOR, Intersection and Difference. Various analytical geometry routines and routines for importing and exporting the data in various filemore » formats, are also provided in the library.« less

  1. Stochastic Inversion of 2D Magnetotelluric Data

    SciTech Connect

    Chen, Jinsong

    2010-07-01

    The algorithm is developed to invert 2D magnetotelluric (MT) data based on sharp boundary parametrization using a Bayesian framework. Within the algorithm, we consider the locations and the resistivity of regions formed by the interfaces are as unknowns. We use a parallel, adaptive finite-element algorithm to forward simulate frequency-domain MT responses of 2D conductivity structure. Those unknown parameters are spatially correlated and are described by a geostatistical model. The joint posterior probability distribution function is explored by Markov Chain Monte Carlo (MCMC) sampling methods. The developed stochastic model is effective for estimating the interface locations and resistivity. Most importantly, it provides details uncertainty information on each unknown parameter. Hardware requirements: PC, Supercomputer, Multi-platform, Workstation; Software requirements C and Fortan; Operation Systems/version is Linux/Unix or Windows

  2. Stochastic Inversion of 2D Magnetotelluric Data

    2010-07-01

    The algorithm is developed to invert 2D magnetotelluric (MT) data based on sharp boundary parametrization using a Bayesian framework. Within the algorithm, we consider the locations and the resistivity of regions formed by the interfaces are as unknowns. We use a parallel, adaptive finite-element algorithm to forward simulate frequency-domain MT responses of 2D conductivity structure. Those unknown parameters are spatially correlated and are described by a geostatistical model. The joint posterior probability distribution function ismore » explored by Markov Chain Monte Carlo (MCMC) sampling methods. The developed stochastic model is effective for estimating the interface locations and resistivity. Most importantly, it provides details uncertainty information on each unknown parameter. Hardware requirements: PC, Supercomputer, Multi-platform, Workstation; Software requirements C and Fortan; Operation Systems/version is Linux/Unix or Windows« less

  3. Computational Screening of 2D Materials for Photocatalysis.

    PubMed

    Singh, Arunima K; Mathew, Kiran; Zhuang, Houlong L; Hennig, Richard G

    2015-03-19

    Two-dimensional (2D) materials exhibit a range of extraordinary electronic, optical, and mechanical properties different from their bulk counterparts with potential applications for 2D materials emerging in energy storage and conversion technologies. In this Perspective, we summarize the recent developments in the field of solar water splitting using 2D materials and review a computational screening approach to rapidly and efficiently discover more 2D materials that possess properties suitable for solar water splitting. Computational tools based on density-functional theory can predict the intrinsic properties of potential photocatalyst such as their electronic properties, optical absorbance, and solubility in aqueous solutions. Computational tools enable the exploration of possible routes to enhance the photocatalytic activity of 2D materials by use of mechanical strain, bias potential, doping, and pH. We discuss future research directions and needed method developments for the computational design and optimization of 2D materials for photocatalysis.

  4. WFR-2D: an analytical model for PWAS-generated 2D ultrasonic guided wave propagation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shen, Yanfeng; Giurgiutiu, Victor

    2014-03-01

    This paper presents WaveFormRevealer 2-D (WFR-2D), an analytical predictive tool for the simulation of 2-D ultrasonic guided wave propagation and interaction with damage. The design of structural health monitoring (SHM) systems and self-aware smart structures requires the exploration of a wide range of parameters to achieve best detection and quantification of certain types of damage. Such need for parameter exploration on sensor dimension, location, guided wave characteristics (mode type, frequency, wavelength, etc.) can be best satisfied with analytical models which are fast and efficient. The analytical model was constructed based on the exact 2-D Lamb wave solution using Bessel and Hankel functions. Damage effects were inserted in the model by considering the damage as a secondary wave source with complex-valued directivity scattering coefficients containing both amplitude and phase information from wave-damage interaction. The analytical procedure was coded with MATLAB, and a predictive simulation tool called WaveFormRevealer 2-D was developed. The wave-damage interaction coefficients (WDICs) were extracted from harmonic analysis of local finite element model (FEM) with artificial non-reflective boundaries (NRB). The WFR-2D analytical simulation results were compared and verified with full scale multiphysics finite element models and experiments with scanning laser vibrometer. First, Lamb wave propagation in a pristine aluminum plate was simulated with WFR-2D, compared with finite element results, and verified by experiments. Then, an inhomogeneity was machined into the plate to represent damage. Analytical modeling was carried out, and verified by finite element simulation and experiments. This paper finishes with conclusions and suggestions for future work.

  5. Crustal and mantle structure beneath the Terre Adélie Craton, East Antarctica: insights from receiver function and seismic anisotropy measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lamarque, Gaëlle; Barruol, Guilhem; Fontaine, Fabrice R.; Bascou, Jérôme; Ménot, René-Pierre

    2015-02-01

    The Terre Adélie and George V Land (East Antarctica) represent key areas for understanding tectonic relationships between terranes forming the Neoarchean-Palaeoproterozoic Terre Adélie Craton (TAC) and the neighbouring lithospheric blocks, together with the nature of its boundary. This region that represents the eastern border of the TAC is limited on its eastern side by the Mertz shear zone (MSZ) separating more recent Palaeozoic units from the craton. The MSZ, that recorded dextral strike-slip movement at 1.7 and 1.5 Ga, is likely correlated with the Kalinjala or Coorong shear zone in South Australia, east of the Gawler Craton and may therefore represent a frozen lithospheric-scale structure. In order to investigate the lithospheric structure of the TAC and the MSZ, we deployed from 2009 October to 2011 October four temporary seismic stations, which sampled the various lithospheric units of the TAC and of the neighbouring Palaeozoic block, together with the MSZ. We used receiver function method to deduce Moho depths and seismic anisotropy technique to infer the upper mantle deformation. Results from receiver functions analysis reveal Moho at 40-44 km depth beneath the TAC, at 36 km under the MSZ and at 28 km beneath the eastern Palaeozoic domain. The MSZ therefore delimits two crustal blocks of different thicknesses with a vertical offset of the Moho of 12 km. Seismic anisotropy deduced from SKS splitting at stations on the TAC shows fast polarisation directions (Φ) trending E-W, that is, parallel to the continental margin, and delay times (δt) ranging from 0.8 to 1.6 s. These results are similar to the splitting parameters observed at the permanent GEOSCOPE Dumont D'Urville station (DRV: Φ 95°N, δt 1.1 s) located in the Palaeoproterozoic domain of TAC. On the MSZ, the small number of good quality measurements limits the investigation of the deep signature of the shear zone. However, the station in the Palaeozoic domain shows Φ trending N60°E, which is

  6. Magnetic surface anisotropy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rado, George T.

    1992-02-01

    Selected aspects of magnetic surface anisotropy are reviewed. The emphasis is on methods for deducing reliable surface anisotropy values from experiments such as ferromagnetic resonance at microwave frequencies and Brillouin scattering at optical frequencies. The methods used are the "general exchange boundary condition method" and the "effective volume anisotropy method". The essence of the former is the supplementing of the equation of motion of the magnetization with the general exchange boundary condition whereas the latter consists of using the "stratagem" of effective volume anisotropy. We find that use of the general exchange boundary condition method is not only preferable in principle but often actually necessary to prevent the prediction of wrong surface anisotropy values and to permit the prediction of some observable Brillouin shifts.

  7. Chaotic advection in 2D anisotropic porous media

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Varghese, Stephen; Speetjens, Michel; Trieling, Ruben; Toschi, Federico

    2015-11-01

    Traditional methods for heat recovery from underground geothermal reservoirs employ a static system of injector-producer wells. Recent studies in literature have shown that using a well-devised pumping scheme, through actuation of multiple injector-producer wells, can dramatically enhance production rates due to the increased scalar / heat transport by means of chaotic advection. However the effect of reservoir anisotropy on kinematic mixing and heat transport is unknown and has to be incorporated and studied for practical deployment in the field. As a first step, we numerically investigate the effect of anisotropy (both magnitude and direction) on (chaotic) advection of passive tracers in a time-periodic Darcy flow within a 2D circular domain driven by periodically reoriented diametrically opposite source-sink pairs. Preliminary results indicate that anisotropy has a significant impact on the location, shape and size of coherent structures in the Poincare sections. This implies that the optimal operating parameters (well spacing, time period of well actuation) may vary strongly and must be carefully chosen so as to enhance subsurface transport. This work is part of the research program of the Foundation for Fundamental Research on Matter (FOM), which is part of Netherlands Organisation for Scientific Research (NWO). This research program is co-financed by Shell Global Solutions International B.V.

  8. Alternative representations of an image via the 2D wavelet transform: application to character recognition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Antoine, Jean-Pierre; Vandergheynst, Pierre; Bouyoucef, Karim; Murenzi, Romain

    1995-06-01

    Both in 1D (signal analysis) and 2D (image processing), the wavelet transform (WT) has become by now a standard tool. Although the discrete version, based on multiresolution analysis, is probably better known, the continous WT (CWT) plays a crucial role for the detection and analysis of particular features in a signal, and we will focus here on the latter. In 2D however, one faces a practical problem. Indeed, the full parameter space of the wavelet transform of an image is 4D. It yields a representation of the image in position parameters (range and perception angle), as well as scale and anisotropy angle. The real challenge is to compute and visualize the full continuous wavelet transform in all four variables--obviously a demanding task. Thus, in order to obtain a manageable tool, some of the variables must be frozen. In other words, one must limit oneself to sections of the parameter space, usually 2D or 3D. For 2D sections, two variables are fixed and the transform is viewed as a function of the two remaing ones, and similarly for 3D sections. Among the six possible 2D sections, two play a privileged role. They yield respectively the position representation, which is the standard one, and the scale-angle representation, which has been proposed and studied systematically by two of us in a number of works. In this paper we will review these results and investigate the four remaining 2D representations. We will also make some comments on possible applications of 3D sections. The most spectacular property of the CWT is its ability at detecting discontinuities in a signal. In an image, this means in particular the sharp boundary between two regions of different luminosity, that is, a contour or an edge. Even more prominent in the transform are the corners of a given contour, for instance the contour of a letter. In a second part, we will exploit this property of the CWT and describe how one may design an algorithm for automatic character recognition (here we

  9. The Stereoscopic Anisotropy Develops During Childhood

    PubMed Central

    Serrano-Pedraza, Ignacio; Herbert, William; Villa-Laso, Laura; Widdall, Michael; Vancleef, Kathleen; Read, Jenny C. A.

    2016-01-01

    Purpose Human vision has a puzzling stereoscopic anisotropy: horizontal depth corrugations are easier to detect than vertical depth corrugations. To date, little is known about the function or the underlying mechanism responsible for this anisotropy. Here, we aim to find out whether this anisotropy is independent of age. To answer this, we compare detection thresholds for horizontal and vertical depth corrugations as a function of age. Methods The depth corrugations were defined solely by the horizontal disparity of random dot patterns. The disparities depicted a horizontal or vertical sinusoidal depth corrugation of spatial frequency 0.1 cyc/deg. Detection thresholds were obtained using Bayesian adaptive staircases from a total of 159 subjects aged from 3 to 73 years. For each participant we computed the anisotropy index, defined as the log10-ratio of the detection threshold for vertical corrugations divided by that for horizontal. Results Anisotropy index was highly variable between individuals but was positive in 87% of the participants. There was a significant correlation between anisotropy index and log-age (r = 0.21, P = 0.008) mainly driven by a significant difference between children and adults. In 67 children aged 3 to 13 years, the mean anisotropy index was 0.34 ± 0.38 (mean ± SD, meaning that vertical thresholds were on average 2.2 times the horizontal ones), compared with 0.59 ± 0.55 in 84 adults aged 18 to 73 years (vertical 3.9 times horizontal). This was mainly driven by a decline in the sensitivity to vertical corrugations. Children had poorer stereoacuity than adults, but had similar sensitivity to adults for horizontal corrugations and were actually more sensitive than adults to vertical corrugations. Conclusions The fact that adults show stronger stereo anisotropy than children raises the possibility that visual experience plays a critical role in developing and strengthening the stereo anisotropy. PMID:26962692

  10. Unparticle example in 2D.

    PubMed

    Georgi, Howard; Kats, Yevgeny

    2008-09-26

    We discuss what can be learned about unparticle physics by studying simple quantum field theories in one space and one time dimension. We argue that the exactly soluble 2D theory of a massless fermion coupled to a massive vector boson, the Sommerfield model, is an interesting analog of a Banks-Zaks model, approaching a free theory at high energies and a scale-invariant theory with nontrivial anomalous dimensions at low energies. We construct a toy standard model coupling to the fermions in the Sommerfield model and study how the transition from unparticle behavior at low energies to free particle behavior at high energies manifests itself in interactions with the toy standard model particles.

  11. Strong anisotropy and magnetostriction in the two-dimensional Stoner ferromagnet Fe3GeTe2

    DOE PAGES

    Zhuang, Houlong L.; Kent, P. R. C.; Hennig, Richard G.

    2016-04-06

    Comore » mputationally characterizing magnetic properies of novel two-dimensional (2D) materials serves as an important first step of exploring possible applications. Using density-functional theory, we show that single-layer Fe3GeTe2 is a potential 2D material with sufficiently low formation energy to be synthesized by mechanical exfoliation from the bulk phase with a van der Waals layered structure. In addition, we calculated the phonon dispersion demonstrating that single-layer Fe3GeTe2is dynamically stable. Furthermore, we find that similar to the bulk phase, 2D Fe3GeTe2 exhibits amagnetic moment that originates from a Stoner instability. In contrast to other 2D materials, we find that single-layer Fe3GeTe2 exhibits a significant uniaxial magnetocrystalline anisotropy energy of 920μ eV per Fe atom originating from spin-orbit coupling. In conclusion, we show that applying biaxial tensile strains enhances the anisotropy energy, which reveals strong magnetostriction in single-layer Fe3GeTe2 with a sizable magneostrictive coefficient. Our results indicate that single-layer Fe3GeTe2 is potentially useful for magnetic storage applications.« less

  12. 2D materials and van der Waals heterostructures.

    PubMed

    Novoselov, K S; Mishchenko, A; Carvalho, A; Castro Neto, A H

    2016-07-29

    The physics of two-dimensional (2D) materials and heterostructures based on such crystals has been developing extremely fast. With these new materials, truly 2D physics has begun to appear (for instance, the absence of long-range order, 2D excitons, commensurate-incommensurate transition, etc.). Novel heterostructure devices--such as tunneling transistors, resonant tunneling diodes, and light-emitting diodes--are also starting to emerge. Composed from individual 2D crystals, such devices use the properties of those materials to create functionalities that are not accessible in other heterostructures. Here we review the properties of novel 2D crystals and examine how their properties are used in new heterostructure devices.

  13. Van der Waals stacked 2D layered materials for optoelectronics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Wenjing; Wang, Qixing; Chen, Yu; Wang, Zhuo; Wee, Andrew T. S.

    2016-06-01

    The band gaps of many atomically thin 2D layered materials such as graphene, black phosphorus, monolayer semiconducting transition metal dichalcogenides and hBN range from 0 to 6 eV. These isolated atomic planes can be reassembled into hybrid heterostructures made layer by layer in a precisely chosen sequence. Thus, the electronic properties of 2D materials can be engineered by van der Waals stacking, and the interlayer coupling can be tuned, which opens up avenues for creating new material systems with rich functionalities and novel physical properties. Early studies suggest that van der Waals stacked 2D materials work exceptionally well, dramatically enriching the optoelectronics applications of 2D materials. Here we review recent progress in van der Waals stacked 2D materials, and discuss their potential applications in optoelectronics.

  14. Charge-transport anisotropy in black phosphorus: critical dependence on the number of layers.

    PubMed

    Banerjee, Swastika; Pati, Swapan K

    2016-06-28

    Phosphorene is a promising candidate for modern electronics because of the anisotropy associated with high electron-hole mobility. Additionally, superior mechanical flexibility allows the strain-engineering of various properties including the transport of charge carriers in phosphorene. In this work, we have shown the criticality of the number of layers to dictate the transport properties of black phosphorus. Trilayer black phosphorus (TBP) has been proposed as an excellent anisotropic material, based on the transport parameters using Boltzmann transport formalisms coupled with density functional theory. The mobilities of both the electron and the hole are found to be higher along the zigzag direction (∼10(4) cm(2) V(-1) s(-1) at 300 K) compared to the armchair direction (∼10(2) cm(2) V(-1) s(-1)), resulting in the intrinsic directional anisotropy. Application of strain leads to additional electron-hole anisotropy with 10(3) fold higher mobility for the electron compared to the hole. Critical strain for maximum anisotropic response has also been determined. Whether the transport anisotropy is due to the spatial or charge-carrier has been determined through analyses of the scattering process of electrons and holes, and their recombination as well as relaxation dynamics. In this context, we have derived two descriptors (S and F(k)), which are general enough for any 2D or quasi-2D systems. Information on the scattering involving purely the carrier states also helps to understand the layer-dependent photoluminescence and electron (hole) relaxation in black phosphorus. Finally, we justify trilayer black phosphorus (TBP) as the material of interest with excellent transport properties. PMID:27257640

  15. Charge-transport anisotropy in black phosphorus: critical dependence on the number of layers.

    PubMed

    Banerjee, Swastika; Pati, Swapan K

    2016-06-28

    Phosphorene is a promising candidate for modern electronics because of the anisotropy associated with high electron-hole mobility. Additionally, superior mechanical flexibility allows the strain-engineering of various properties including the transport of charge carriers in phosphorene. In this work, we have shown the criticality of the number of layers to dictate the transport properties of black phosphorus. Trilayer black phosphorus (TBP) has been proposed as an excellent anisotropic material, based on the transport parameters using Boltzmann transport formalisms coupled with density functional theory. The mobilities of both the electron and the hole are found to be higher along the zigzag direction (∼10(4) cm(2) V(-1) s(-1) at 300 K) compared to the armchair direction (∼10(2) cm(2) V(-1) s(-1)), resulting in the intrinsic directional anisotropy. Application of strain leads to additional electron-hole anisotropy with 10(3) fold higher mobility for the electron compared to the hole. Critical strain for maximum anisotropic response has also been determined. Whether the transport anisotropy is due to the spatial or charge-carrier has been determined through analyses of the scattering process of electrons and holes, and their recombination as well as relaxation dynamics. In this context, we have derived two descriptors (S and F(k)), which are general enough for any 2D or quasi-2D systems. Information on the scattering involving purely the carrier states also helps to understand the layer-dependent photoluminescence and electron (hole) relaxation in black phosphorus. Finally, we justify trilayer black phosphorus (TBP) as the material of interest with excellent transport properties.

  16. Designing electronic anisotropy of three-dimensional carbon allotropes for the all-carbon device

    SciTech Connect

    Xu, Li-Chun Song, Xian-Jiang; Yang, Zhi; Li, Xiu-Yan; Wang, Ru-Zhi; Yan, Hui

    2015-07-13

    Extending two-dimensional (2D) graphene nanosheets to a three-dimensional (3D) network can enhance the design of all-carbon electronic devices. Based on the great diversity of carbon atomic bonding, we have constructed four superlattice-type carbon allotrope candidates, containing sp{sup 2}-bonding transport channels and sp{sup 3}-bonding insulating layers, using density functional theory. It was demonstrated through systematic simulations that the ultra-thin insulating layer with only three-atom thickness can switch off the tunneling transport and isolate the electronic connection between the adjacent graphene strips, and these alternating perpendicular strips also extend the electron road from 2D to 3D. Designing electronic anisotropy originates from the mutually perpendicular π bonds and the rare partial charge density of the corresponding carriers in insulating layers. Our results indicate the possibility of producing custom-designed 3D all-carbon devices with building blocks of graphene and diamond.

  17. Practical Algorithm For Computing The 2-D Arithmetic Fourier Transform

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reed, Irving S.; Choi, Y. Y.; Yu, Xiaoli

    1989-05-01

    Recently, Tufts and Sadasiv [10] exposed a method for computing the coefficients of a Fourier series of a periodic function using the Mobius inversion of series. They called this method of analysis the Arithmetic Fourier Transform(AFT). The advantage of the AFT over the FN 1' is that this method of Fourier analysis needs only addition operations except for multiplications by scale factors at one stage of the computation. The disadvantage of the AFT as they expressed it originally is that it could be used effectively only to compute finite Fourier coefficients of a real even function. To remedy this the AFT developed in [10] is extended in [11] to compute the Fourier coefficients of both the even and odd components of a periodic function. In this paper, the improved AFT [11] is extended to a two-dimensional(2-D) Arithmetic Fourier Transform for calculating the Fourier Transform of two-dimensional discrete signals. This new algorithm is based on both the number-theoretic method of Mobius inversion of double series and the complex conjugate property of Fourier coefficients. The advantage of this algorithm over the conventional 2-D FFT is that the corner-turning problem needed in a conventional 2-D Discrete Fourier Transform(DFT) can be avoided. Therefore, this new 2-D algorithm is readily suitable for VLSI implementation as a parallel architecture. Comparing the operations of 2-D AFT of a MxM 2-D data array with the conventional 2-D FFT, the number of multiplications is significantly reduced from (2log2M)M2 to (9/4)M2. Hence, this new algorithm is faster than the FFT algorithm. Finally, two simulation results of this new 2-D AFT algorithm for 2-D artificial and real images are given in this paper.

  18. In-Plane Optical Anisotropy of Layered Gallium Telluride.

    PubMed

    Huang, Shengxi; Tatsumi, Yuki; Ling, Xi; Guo, Huaihong; Wang, Ziqiang; Watson, Garrett; Puretzky, Alexander A; Geohegan, David B; Kong, Jing; Li, Ju; Yang, Teng; Saito, Riichiro; Dresselhaus, Mildred S

    2016-09-27

    Layered gallium telluride (GaTe) has attracted much attention recently, due to its extremely high photoresponsivity, short response time, and promising thermoelectric performance. Different from most commonly studied two-dimensional (2D) materials, GaTe has in-plane anisotropy and a low symmetry with the C2h(3) space group. Investigating the in-plane optical anisotropy, including the electron-photon and electron-phonon interactions of GaTe is essential in realizing its applications in optoelectronics and thermoelectrics. In this work, the anisotropic light-matter interactions in the low-symmetry material GaTe are studied using anisotropic optical extinction and Raman spectroscopies as probes. Our polarized optical extinction spectroscopy reveals the weak anisotropy in optical extinction spectra for visible light of multilayer GaTe. Polarized Raman spectroscopy proves to be sensitive to the crystalline orientation of GaTe, and shows the intricate dependences of Raman anisotropy on flake thickness, photon and phonon energies. Such intricate dependences can be explained by theoretical analyses employing first-principles calculations and group theory. These studies are a crucial step toward the applications of GaTe especially in optoelectronics and thermoelectrics, and provide a general methodology for the study of the anisotropy of light-matter interactions in 2D layered materials with in-plane anisotropy. PMID:27529802

  19. In-Plane Optical Anisotropy of Layered Gallium Telluride.

    PubMed

    Huang, Shengxi; Tatsumi, Yuki; Ling, Xi; Guo, Huaihong; Wang, Ziqiang; Watson, Garrett; Puretzky, Alexander A; Geohegan, David B; Kong, Jing; Li, Ju; Yang, Teng; Saito, Riichiro; Dresselhaus, Mildred S

    2016-09-27

    Layered gallium telluride (GaTe) has attracted much attention recently, due to its extremely high photoresponsivity, short response time, and promising thermoelectric performance. Different from most commonly studied two-dimensional (2D) materials, GaTe has in-plane anisotropy and a low symmetry with the C2h(3) space group. Investigating the in-plane optical anisotropy, including the electron-photon and electron-phonon interactions of GaTe is essential in realizing its applications in optoelectronics and thermoelectrics. In this work, the anisotropic light-matter interactions in the low-symmetry material GaTe are studied using anisotropic optical extinction and Raman spectroscopies as probes. Our polarized optical extinction spectroscopy reveals the weak anisotropy in optical extinction spectra for visible light of multilayer GaTe. Polarized Raman spectroscopy proves to be sensitive to the crystalline orientation of GaTe, and shows the intricate dependences of Raman anisotropy on flake thickness, photon and phonon energies. Such intricate dependences can be explained by theoretical analyses employing first-principles calculations and group theory. These studies are a crucial step toward the applications of GaTe especially in optoelectronics and thermoelectrics, and provide a general methodology for the study of the anisotropy of light-matter interactions in 2D layered materials with in-plane anisotropy.

  20. Quantum criticality of a spin-1 XY model with easy-plane single-ion anisotropy via a two-time Green function approach avoiding the Anderson-Callen decoupling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mercaldo, M. T.; Rabuffo, I.; De Cesare, L.; Caramico D'Auria, A.

    2016-04-01

    In this work we study the quantum phase transition, the phase diagram and the quantum criticality induced by the easy-plane single-ion anisotropy in a d-dimensional quantum spin-1 XY model in absence of an external longitudinal magnetic field. We employ the two-time Green function method by avoiding the Anderson-Callen decoupling of spin operators at the same sites which is of doubtful accuracy. Following the original Devlin procedure we treat exactly the higher order single-site anisotropy Green functions and use Tyablikov-like decouplings for the exchange higher order ones. The related self-consistent equations appear suitable for an analysis of the thermodynamic properties at and around second order phase transition points. Remarkably, the equivalence between the microscopic spin model and the continuous O(2) -vector model with transverse-Ising model (TIM)-like dynamics, characterized by a dynamic critical exponent z=1, emerges at low temperatures close to the quantum critical point with the single-ion anisotropy parameter D as the non-thermal control parameter. The zero-temperature critic anisotropy parameter Dc is obtained for dimensionalities d > 1 as a function of the microscopic exchange coupling parameter and the related numerical data for different lattices are found to be in reasonable agreement with those obtained by means of alternative analytical and numerical methods. For d > 2, and in particular for d=3, we determine the finite-temperature critical line ending in the quantum critical point and the related TIM-like shift exponent, consistently with recent renormalization group predictions. The main crossover lines between different asymptotic regimes around the quantum critical point are also estimated providing a global phase diagram and a quantum criticality very similar to the conventional ones.

  1. Recent advances in 2D materials for photocatalysis.

    PubMed

    Luo, Bin; Liu, Gang; Wang, Lianzhou

    2016-04-01

    Two-dimensional (2D) materials have attracted increasing attention for photocatalytic applications because of their unique thickness dependent physical and chemical properties. This review gives a brief overview of the recent developments concerning the chemical synthesis and structural design of 2D materials at the nanoscale and their applications in photocatalytic areas. In particular, recent progress on the emerging strategies for tailoring 2D material-based photocatalysts to improve their photo-activity including elemental doping, heterostructure design and functional architecture assembly is discussed.

  2. QUENCH2D. Two-Dimensional IHCP Code

    SciTech Connect

    Osman, A.; Beck, J.V.

    1995-01-01

    QUENCH2D* is developed for the solution of general, non-linear, two-dimensional inverse heat transfer problems. This program provides estimates for the surface heat flux distribution and/or heat transfer coefficient as a function of time and space by using transient temperature measurements at appropriate interior points inside the quenched body. Two-dimensional planar and axisymmetric geometries such as turnbine disks and blades, clutch packs, and many other problems can be analyzed using QUENCH2D*.

  3. Anisotropies in the gravitational-wave stochastic background

    SciTech Connect

    Ölmez, S.; Mandic, V.; Siemens, X. E-mail: mandic@physics.umn.edu

    2012-07-01

    We consider anisotropies in the stochastic background of gravitational-waves (SBGW) arising from random fluctuations in the number of gravitational-wave sources. We first develop the general formalism which can be applied to different cosmological or astrophysical scenarios. We then apply this formalism to calculate the anisotropies of SBGW associated with the fluctuations in the number of cosmic string loops, considering both cosmic string cusps and kinks. We calculate the anisotropies as a function of angle and frequency.

  4. Finite temperature corrections in 2d integrable models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Caselle, M.; Hasenbusch, M.

    2002-09-01

    We study the finite size corrections for the magnetization and the internal energy of the 2d Ising model in a magnetic field by using transfer matrix techniques. We compare these corrections with the functional form recently proposed by Delfino and LeClair-Mussardo for the finite temperature behaviour of one-point functions in integrable 2d quantum field theories. We find a perfect agreement between theoretical expectations and numerical results. Assuming the proposed functional form as an input in our analysis we obtain a relevant improvement in the precision of the continuum limit estimates of both quantities.

  5. Perspectives for spintronics in 2D materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Han, Wei

    2016-03-01

    The past decade has been especially creative for spintronics since the (re)discovery of various two dimensional (2D) materials. Due to the unusual physical characteristics, 2D materials have provided new platforms to probe the spin interaction with other degrees of freedom for electrons, as well as to be used for novel spintronics applications. This review briefly presents the most important recent and ongoing research for spintronics in 2D materials.

  6. Quantitative 2D liquid-state NMR.

    PubMed

    Giraudeau, Patrick

    2014-06-01

    Two-dimensional (2D) liquid-state NMR has a very high potential to simultaneously determine the absolute concentration of small molecules in complex mixtures, thanks to its capacity to separate overlapping resonances. However, it suffers from two main drawbacks that probably explain its relatively late development. First, the 2D NMR signal is strongly molecule-dependent and site-dependent; second, the long duration of 2D NMR experiments prevents its general use for high-throughput quantitative applications and affects its quantitative performance. Fortunately, the last 10 years has witnessed an increasing number of contributions where quantitative approaches based on 2D NMR were developed and applied to solve real analytical issues. This review aims at presenting these recent efforts to reach a high trueness and precision in quantitative measurements by 2D NMR. After highlighting the interest of 2D NMR for quantitative analysis, the different strategies to determine the absolute concentrations from 2D NMR spectra are described and illustrated by recent applications. The last part of the manuscript concerns the recent development of fast quantitative 2D NMR approaches, aiming at reducing the experiment duration while preserving - or even increasing - the analytical performance. We hope that this comprehensive review will help readers to apprehend the current landscape of quantitative 2D NMR, as well as the perspectives that may arise from it.

  7. Anisotropy across Superplume Boundaries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cottaar, S.; Romanowicz, B. A.

    2011-12-01

    Sdiff data sets are presented for paths that run parallel to the African and the Pacific superplume boundaries. Objective clustering of waveforms illustrates sharp changes across these boundaries. The African plume shows a sharp offset in travel times in the SHdiff phase, while a more gradual offset towards slower arrivals is seen in the case of the Pacific superplume. Additionally, Pdiff phases display no offset around the African plume and a weak one around the Pacific plume. Here we focus mainly on another striking feature observed in both cases: outside of the superplume the Sdiff particle motion is strongly elliptical, but becomes linear within the superplume (first noticed by To et al. 2005 in the African superplume case). For the African plume we argue that these observations of delayed SV at large distances (~120 degrees) are indicative of the occurrence of azimuthal anisotropy. The SV arrivals have similar polarity as SH, opposite from what their radiation pattern predicts. Azimuthal anisotropy causes SH energy to be converted to SV (Maupin, 1994), explaining the travel time, polarity and amplitude. Forward modeling through different isotropic and anisotropic models supports this statement, although there are trade-offs between direction and magnitude of azimuthal anisotropy. The strong elliptical particle motions are also observed outside the Pacific plume, but at shorter distances (95-105 degrees). Elliptical motions can occur in the absence of anisotropy when strong velocity deviations or layering occurs close to the CMB, which, based on velocity profiles with depth in global tomographic models would be more likely within the superplume rather than on the fast side. The elliptical particle motions here can be modelled with a simple transverse isotropic model with VSH>VSV, but azimuthal anisotropy cannot be ruled out. The complexities within the Pacific superplume, including strong amplitude drop and existence of a post-cursor, are likely caused by an

  8. Killing vectors and anisotropy

    SciTech Connect

    Krisch, J. P.; Glass, E. N.

    2009-08-15

    We consider an action that can generate fluids with three unequal stresses for metrics with a spacelike Killing vector. The parameters in the action are directly related to the stress anisotropies. The field equations following from the action are applied to an anisotropic cosmological expansion and an extension of the Gott-Hiscock cosmic string.

  9. Staring 2-D hadamard transform spectral imager

    DOEpatents

    Gentry, Stephen M.; Wehlburg, Christine M.; Wehlburg, Joseph C.; Smith, Mark W.; Smith, Jody L.

    2006-02-07

    A staring imaging system inputs a 2D spatial image containing multi-frequency spectral information. This image is encoded in one dimension of the image with a cyclic Hadamarid S-matrix. The resulting image is detecting with a spatial 2D detector; and a computer applies a Hadamard transform to recover the encoded image.

  10. Three dimensional solar anisotropy of galactic cosmic rays near the recent solar minimum 23/24

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Modzelewska, R.; Alania, M. V.

    2015-08-01

    Three dimensional (3D) galactic cosmic ray (GCR) anisotropy has been studied for 2006-2012. The GCR anisotropy, both in the ecliptic plane and in polar direction, were obtained based on the neutron monitors (NMs) and Nagoya muon telescopes (MT) data. We analyze two dimensional (2D) GCR anisotropy in the ecliptic plane and north-south anisotropy normal to the ecliptic plane. We reveal quasi-periodicities - the annual and 27-days waves in the GCR anisotropy in 2006-2012. We investigate the relationship of the 27-day variation of the GCR anisotropy in the ecliptic plane and in the polar direction with the parameters of solar activity and solar wind.

  11. The agreement between 3D, standard 2D and triplane 2D speckle tracking: effects of image quality and 3D volume rate

    PubMed Central

    Stöbe, Stephan; Tarr, Adrienn; Pfeiffer, Dietrich; Hagendorff, Andreas

    2014-01-01

    Comparison of 3D and 2D speckle tracking performed on standard 2D and triplane 2D datasets of normal and pathological left ventricular (LV) wall-motion patterns with a focus on the effect that 3D volume rate (3DVR), image quality and tracking artifacts have on the agreement between 2D and 3D speckle tracking. 37 patients with normal LV function and 18 patients with ischaemic wall-motion abnormalities underwent 2D and 3D echocardiography, followed by offline speckle tracking measurements. The values of 3D global, regional and segmental strain were compared with the standard 2D and triplane 2D strain values. Correlation analysis with the LV ejection fraction (LVEF) was also performed. The 3D and 2D global strain values correlated good in both normally and abnormally contracting hearts, though systematic differences between the two methods were observed. Of the 3D strain parameters, the area strain showed the best correlation with the LVEF. The numerical agreement of 3D and 2D analyses varied significantly with the volume rate and image quality of the 3D datasets. The highest correlation between 2D and 3D peak systolic strain values was found between 3D area and standard 2D longitudinal strain. Regional wall-motion abnormalities were similarly detected by 2D and 3D speckle tracking. 2DST of triplane datasets showed similar results to those of conventional 2D datasets. 2D and 3D speckle tracking similarly detect normal and pathological wall-motion patterns. Limited image quality has a significant impact on the agreement between 3D and 2D numerical strain values. PMID:26693303

  12. Microwave background anisotropy induced by gravitational waves

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Linder, Eric V.

    1988-01-01

    A cosmological background of gravitational waves induces redshift perturbations in light transversing it. Calculations of this Sachs-Wolfe effect on the microwave background are presented in an Omega = 1 Friedmann universe as a function of angular scale and gravitational wave spectrum. Blurriness of the last-scattering surface can cause nonnegligible dilution of the anisotropy for wavelengths less than about 100 Mpc. The limit implied for the energy density of the gravitational waves is given. A difficulty in associating a linear scale with an angular anisotropy, due to the clumpiness of the universe, is also pointed out.

  13. Anisotropy of the cosmic microwave background radiation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Silk, J.

    1981-01-01

    Theoretical predictions of the angular anisotropy in the cosmic microwave background radiation on both small and large angular scales are presented, and the effect of massive neutrinos on both the background radiation anisotropy and on the galaxy correlation function over very large scales is reviewed. Current observations show that the quadrupole anisotropy provides the greatest constraint on theory, and the values for the gravitational potential fluctuations indicate that small amplitude but sufficiently large-scale density fluctuations, both at the present epoch and on the surface of last scattering, can produce significant large angular scale variations in the radiation temperature. Most importantly, it is proposed that the quadrupole moment is most simply and elegantly interpreted in terms of the density fluctuations on very large scales whose presence is inferred from the requirement that an initial fluctuation spectrum is required in order for structure to develop.

  14. 2D materials for nanophotonic devices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Renjing; Yang, Jiong; Zhang, Shuang; Pei, Jiajie; Lu, Yuerui

    2015-12-01

    Two-dimensional (2D) materials have become very important building blocks for electronic, photonic, and phononic devices. The 2D material family has four key members, including the metallic graphene, transition metal dichalcogenide (TMD) layered semiconductors, semiconducting black phosphorous, and the insulating h-BN. Owing to the strong quantum confinements and defect-free surfaces, these atomically thin layers have offered us perfect platforms to investigate the interactions among photons, electrons and phonons. The unique interactions in these 2D materials are very important for both scientific research and application engineering. In this talk, I would like to briefly summarize and highlight the key findings, opportunities and challenges in this field. Next, I will introduce/highlight our recent achievements. We demonstrated atomically thin micro-lens and gratings using 2D MoS2, which is the thinnest optical component around the world. These devices are based on our discovery that the elastic light-matter interactions in highindex 2D materials is very strong. Also, I would like to introduce a new two-dimensional material phosphorene. Phosphorene has strongly anisotropic optical response, which creates 1D excitons in a 2D system. The strong confinement in phosphorene also enables the ultra-high trion (charged exciton) binding energies, which have been successfully measured in our experiments. Finally, I will briefly talk about the potential applications of 2D materials in energy harvesting.

  15. Hydraulic Conductivity Anisotropy of Heterogeneous Unsaturated Soils

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sun, Dongmin; Zhu, Jianting

    2010-05-01

    The effects of saturation degree (or capillary pressure) on hydraulic conductivity anisotropy in unsaturated soils have not been fully understood. This study developed an approach based on a conceptualization of combining the neural network based pedo-transfer function (PTF) results with the thin layer concept to explore the capillary pressure-dependent anisotropy in relation to soil texture and soil bulk density. The main objective is to examine how anisotropy characteristics are related to the relationships between hydraulic parameters and the basic soil attributes such as texture and bulk density. The hydraulic parameters are correlated with the texture and bulk density based on the pedo-transfer function (PTF) results. It is demonstrated that non-monotonic behavior of the unsaturated soil anisotropy in relation to the capillary pressure is only observed when the saturated hydraulic conductivity and the shape parameter are both related to the mean particle diameter. When only one hydraulic parameter is related to the grain diameter or when both are not related to the same attribute simultaneously, the unsaturated soil anisotropy increases monotonically with the increasing capillary pressure head. Therefore, it is suggested that this behavior is mainly due to the coupled dependence of the layer saturated hydraulic conductivities and the shape factors on the texture and bulk density. The correlation between the soil grain diameter and bulk density decreases the anisotropy effects of the unsaturated layered soils. The study illustrates that the inter-relationships of soil texture, bulk density, and hydraulic properties may cause vastly different characteristics of anisotropic unsaturated soils.

  16. 2D materials: to graphene and beyond.

    PubMed

    Mas-Ballesté, Rubén; Gómez-Navarro, Cristina; Gómez-Herrero, Julio; Zamora, Félix

    2011-01-01

    This review is an attempt to illustrate the different alternatives in the field of 2D materials. Graphene seems to be just the tip of the iceberg and we show how the discovery of alternative 2D materials is starting to show the rest of this iceberg. The review comprises the current state-of-the-art of the vast literature in concepts and methods already known for isolation and characterization of graphene, and rationalizes the quite disperse literature in other 2D materials such as metal oxides, hydroxides and chalcogenides, and metal-organic frameworks.

  17. Phase Engineering of 2D Tin Sulfides.

    PubMed

    Mutlu, Zafer; Wu, Ryan J; Wickramaratne, Darshana; Shahrezaei, Sina; Liu, Chueh; Temiz, Selcuk; Patalano, Andrew; Ozkan, Mihrimah; Lake, Roger K; Mkhoyan, K A; Ozkan, Cengiz S

    2016-06-01

    Tin sulfides can exist in a variety of phases and polytypes due to the different oxidation states of Sn. A subset of these phases and polytypes take the form of layered 2D structures that give rise to a wide host of electronic and optical properties. Hence, achieving control over the phase, polytype, and thickness of tin sulfides is necessary to utilize this wide range of properties exhibited by the compound. This study reports on phase-selective growth of both hexagonal tin (IV) sulfide SnS2 and orthorhombic tin (II) sulfide SnS crystals with diameters of over tens of microns on SiO2 substrates through atmospheric pressure vapor-phase method in a conventional horizontal quartz tube furnace with SnO2 and S powders as the source materials. Detailed characterization of each phase of tin sulfide crystals is performed using various microscopy and spectroscopy methods, and the results are corroborated by ab initio density functional theory calculations. PMID:27099950

  18. Phase Engineering of 2D Tin Sulfides.

    PubMed

    Mutlu, Zafer; Wu, Ryan J; Wickramaratne, Darshana; Shahrezaei, Sina; Liu, Chueh; Temiz, Selcuk; Patalano, Andrew; Ozkan, Mihrimah; Lake, Roger K; Mkhoyan, K A; Ozkan, Cengiz S

    2016-06-01

    Tin sulfides can exist in a variety of phases and polytypes due to the different oxidation states of Sn. A subset of these phases and polytypes take the form of layered 2D structures that give rise to a wide host of electronic and optical properties. Hence, achieving control over the phase, polytype, and thickness of tin sulfides is necessary to utilize this wide range of properties exhibited by the compound. This study reports on phase-selective growth of both hexagonal tin (IV) sulfide SnS2 and orthorhombic tin (II) sulfide SnS crystals with diameters of over tens of microns on SiO2 substrates through atmospheric pressure vapor-phase method in a conventional horizontal quartz tube furnace with SnO2 and S powders as the source materials. Detailed characterization of each phase of tin sulfide crystals is performed using various microscopy and spectroscopy methods, and the results are corroborated by ab initio density functional theory calculations.

  19. 2-D Gaussian beam imaging of multicomponent seismic data in anisotropic media

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Protasov, M. I.

    2015-12-01

    An approach for true-amplitude seismic beam imaging of multicomponent seismic data in 2-D anisotropic elastic media is presented and discussed. Here, the recovered true-amplitude function is a scattering potential. This approach is a migration procedure based on the weighted summation of pre-stack data. The true-amplitude weights are computed by applying Gaussian beams (GBs). We shoot a pair of properly chosen GBs with a fixed dip and opening angles from the current imaging point towards an acquisition system. This pair of beams is used to compute a true-amplitude selective image of a rapid velocity variation. The total true-amplitude image is constructed by superimposing selective images computed for a range of available dip angles. The global regularity of the GBs allows one to disregard whether a ray field is regular or irregular. P- and S-wave GBs can be used to handle raw multicomponent data without separating the waves. The use of anisotropic GBs allows one to take into account the anisotropy of the background model.

  20. Vortex lines in layered superconductors. I. From 3D to 2D behaviour

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Feinberg, D.

    1994-02-01

    The fundamental aspects of vortices in layered superconductors (natural or artificial multilayered materials) are reviewed, focusing on the role of anisotropy and very short coherence lengths. These materials divide into three classes, with increasing T_c's : chalcogenides, organic superconductors and high-T_c copper oxides. The first part of the paper summarizes the quantitative features of the vortex lattice, due to the incorporation of anisotropy in the 3D Ginzburg-Landau or London descriptions : anisotropy of critical fields and vortex lattice, elastic coefficients and melting. This kind of model describes most of the properties of moderately anisotropic compounds as Y : 123. The second part concerns the Josephson-coupled layered systems and identifies in which regimes vortices exhibit a quasi-2D character. Qualitatively new features as Josephson vortices, 2D vortices, Kosterlitz-Thouless transition and lock-in of vortices are reviewed. This analysis is adapted to compounds as Bi : 2212 or multilayers, but also to Y : 123 for some aspects. On passe en revue les aspects fondamentaux des vortex dans les supraconducteurs lamellaires (naturels ou superréseaux artificiels), en mettant l'accent sur le rôle de l'anisotropie et des très courtes longueurs de cohérence. Ces composés se divisent en trois classes, de T_c croissants : chalcogénures, supraconducteurs organiques et oxydes de cuivre à haut T_c. La première partie de l'article résume les aspects quantitatifs dus à l'incorporation de l'anisotropie dans les descriptions 3D Ginzburg-Landau ou London du réseau de vortex.: anisotropie des champs critiques et du réseau de vortex, coefficients élastiques et fusion. Ce type de modèle décrit une grande partie des propriétés des composés modérément anisotropes tels que Y : 123. La seconde partie concerne les systèmes lamellaires à couplage Josephson et identifie dans quels régimes les vortex présentent un caractère quasi-2D. Des effets

  1. 2-d Finite Element Code Postprocessor

    1996-07-15

    ORION is an interactive program that serves as a postprocessor for the analysis programs NIKE2D, DYNA2D, TOPAZ2D, and CHEMICAL TOPAZ2D. ORION reads binary plot files generated by the two-dimensional finite element codes currently used by the Methods Development Group at LLNL. Contour and color fringe plots of a large number of quantities may be displayed on meshes consisting of triangular and quadrilateral elements. ORION can compute strain measures, interface pressures along slide lines, reaction forcesmore » along constrained boundaries, and momentum. ORION has been applied to study the response of two-dimensional solids and structures undergoing finite deformations under a wide variety of large deformation transient dynamic and static problems and heat transfer analyses.« less

  2. Matrix models of 2d gravity

    SciTech Connect

    Ginsparg, P.

    1991-01-01

    These are introductory lectures for a general audience that give an overview of the subject of matrix models and their application to random surfaces, 2d gravity, and string theory. They are intentionally 1.5 years out of date.

  3. Matrix models of 2d gravity

    SciTech Connect

    Ginsparg, P.

    1991-12-31

    These are introductory lectures for a general audience that give an overview of the subject of matrix models and their application to random surfaces, 2d gravity, and string theory. They are intentionally 1.5 years out of date.

  4. Brittle damage models in DYNA2D

    SciTech Connect

    Faux, D.R.

    1997-09-01

    DYNA2D is an explicit Lagrangian finite element code used to model dynamic events where stress wave interactions influence the overall response of the system. DYNA2D is often used to model penetration problems involving ductile-to-ductile impacts; however, with the advent of the use of ceramics in the armor-anti-armor community and the need to model damage to laser optics components, good brittle damage models are now needed in DYNA2D. This report will detail the implementation of four brittle damage models in DYNA2D, three scalar damage models and one tensor damage model. These new brittle damage models are then used to predict experimental results from three distinctly different glass damage problems.

  5. Anisotropies in the HI gas distribution toward 3C 196

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kalberla, P. M. W.; Kerp, J.

    2016-10-01

    Context. The local Galactic Hi gas was found to contain cold neutral medium (CNM) filaments that are aligned with polarized dust emission. These filaments appear to be dominated by the magnetic field and in this case turbulence is expected to show distinct anisotropies. Aims: We use the Galactic Effelsberg-Bonn Hi Survey (EBHIS) to derive 2D turbulence spectra for the Hi distribution in direction to 3C 196 and two more comparison fields. Methods: Prior to Fourier transform we apply a rotational symmetric 50% Tukey window to apodize the data. We derive average as well as position angle dependent power spectra. Anisotropies in the power distribution are defined as the ratio of the spectral power in orthogonal directions. Results: We find strong anisotropies. For a narrow range in position angle, in direction perpendicular to the filaments and the magnetic field, the spectral power is on average more than an order of magnitude larger than parallel. In the most extreme case the anisotropy reaches locally a factor of 130. Anisotropies increase on average with spatial frequency as predicted by Goldreich & Sridhar (1995, ApJ, 438, 763), at the same time the Kolmogorov spectral index remains almost unchanged. The strongest anisotropies are observable for a narrow range in velocity and decay with a power law index close to -8/3, almost identical to the average isotropic spectral index of -2.9 <γ< -2.6. Conclusions: Hi filaments, associated with linear polarization structures in LOFAR observations in direction to 3C 196, show turbulence spectra with marked anisotropies. Decaying anisotropies appear to indicate that we witness an ongoing shock passing the Hi and affecting the observed Faraday depth.

  6. Glitter in a 2D monolayer.

    PubMed

    Yang, Li-Ming; Dornfeld, Matthew; Frauenheim, Thomas; Ganz, Eric

    2015-10-21

    We predict a highly stable and robust atomically thin gold monolayer with a hexagonal close packed lattice stabilized by metallic bonding with contributions from strong relativistic effects and aurophilic interactions. We have shown that the framework of the Au monolayer can survive 10 ps MD annealing simulations up to 1400 K. The framework is also able to survive large motions out of the plane. Due to the smaller number of bonds per atom in the 2D layer compared to the 3D bulk we observe significantly enhanced energy per bond (0.94 vs. 0.52 eV per bond). This is similar to the increase in bond strength going from 3D diamond to 2D graphene. It is a non-magnetic metal, and was found to be the global minima in the 2D space. Phonon dispersion calculations demonstrate high kinetic stability with no negative modes. This 2D gold monolayer corresponds to the top monolayer of the bulk Au(111) face-centered cubic lattice. The close-packed lattice maximizes the aurophilic interactions. We find that the electrons are completely delocalized in the plane and behave as 2D nearly free electron gas. We hope that the present work can inspire the experimental fabrication of novel free standing 2D metal systems.

  7. 2d index and surface operators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gadde, Abhijit; Gukov, Sergei

    2014-03-01

    In this paper we compute the superconformal index of 2d (2, 2) supersymmetric gauge theories. The 2d superconformal index, a.k.a. flavored elliptic genus, is computed by a unitary matrix integral much like the matrix integral that computes the 4d superconformal index. We compute the 2d index explicitly for a number of examples. In the case of abelian gauge theories we see that the index is invariant under flop transition and under CY-LG correspondence. The index also provides a powerful check of the Seiberg-type duality for non-abelian gauge theories discovered by Hori and Tong. In the later half of the paper, we study half-BPS surface operators in = 2 super-conformal gauge theories. They are engineered by coupling the 2d (2, 2) supersymmetric gauge theory living on the support of the surface operator to the 4d = 2 theory, so that different realizations of the same surface operator with a given Levi type are related by a 2d analogue of the Seiberg duality. The index of this coupled system is computed by using the tools developed in the first half of the paper. The superconformal index in the presence of surface defect is expected to be invariant under generalized S-duality. We demonstrate that it is indeed the case. In doing so the Seiberg-type duality of the 2d theory plays an important role.

  8. Anisotropy of radiation emitted from planar wire arrays

    SciTech Connect

    Kantsyrev, V. L.; Esaulov, A. A.; Safronova, A. S.; Williamson, K. M.; Osborne, G. C.; Shrestha, I. K.; Weller, M. E.; Shlyaptseva, V. V.; Chuvatin, A. S.; Rudakov, L. I.; Velikovich, A.

    2013-07-15

    The planar wire array (PWA) is a promising load for new multi-source inertial confinement fusion (ICF) hohlraums [B. Jones et al., Phys. Rev. Lett. 104, 125001 (2010)]. The hohlraum radiation symmetry is an important issue for ICF. It was found that extreme ultraviolet and sub-keV photon emission from PWAs may have considerable anisotropy in the load azimuthal plane. This experimental result is obtained on the UNR 1–1.7 MA Zebra generator. The time-dependent anisotropy effect is detected. This feature is studied in 2D numerical simulations and can be explained by initial anisotropy of implosion of those non-cylindrical loads radiating essentially as surface sources in sub-keV quanta and also by radiation absorption in cold magnetized plasma tails forming in the direction of magnetic compression.

  9. Carrier-dependent magnetic anisotropy of Gd-adsorbed graphene

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lu, Yuan; Zhou, Tie-ge; Shao, Bin; Zuo, Xu; Feng, Min

    2016-05-01

    Using first-principles calculation based on density functional theory, we study the magnetic anisotropy of Gd-adsorbed graphene and its dependence on carrier accumulation. We show that carrier accumulation not only impacts the magnitude of magnetic anisotropy but also switches its sign. Hole accumulation enhances the perpendicular anisotropy up to ˜16 meV per Gd atom, while electron accumulation switches the anisotropy from perpendicular to in-plane direction. Moreover, we find that the first order perturbation of spin-orbit coupling interaction induces a pseudo-gap at Γ for the perpendicular magnetization, which leads to the the anomalous magnetic anisotropy for the neutral composite. Our findings pave the way for magneto-electric materials based on rare-earth-decorated graphene for voltage-controlled spintronics.

  10. T2D@ZJU: a knowledgebase integrating heterogeneous connections associated with type 2 diabetes mellitus.

    PubMed

    Yang, Zhenzhong; Yang, Jihong; Liu, Wei; Wu, Leihong; Xing, Li; Wang, Yi; Fan, Xiaohui; Cheng, Yiyu

    2013-01-01

    Type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2D), affecting >90% of the diabetic patients, is one of the major threats to human health. A comprehensive understanding of the mechanisms of T2D at molecular level is essential to facilitate the related translational research. Here, we introduce a comprehensive and up-to-date knowledgebase for T2D, i.e. T2D@ZJU. T2D@ZJU contains three levels of heterogeneous connections associated with T2D, which is retrieved from pathway databases, protein-protein interaction databases and literature, respectively. In current release, T2D@ZJU contains 1078 T2D related entities such as proteins, protein complexes, drugs and others together with their corresponding relationships, which include 3069 manually curated connections, 14,893 protein-protein interactions and 26,716 relationships identified by text-mining technology. Moreover, T2D@ZJU provides a user-friendly web interface for users to browse and search data. A Cytoscape Web-based interactive network browser is available to visualize the corresponding network relationships between T2D-related entities. The functionality of T2D@ZJU is shown by means of several case studies. Database URL: http://tcm.zju.edu.cn/t2d.

  11. Potential role of CYP2D6 in the central nervous system

    PubMed Central

    Cheng, Jie; Zhen, Yueying; Miksys, Sharon; Beyoğlu, Diren; Krausz, Kristopher W.; Tyndale, Rachel F.; Yu, Aiming; Idle, Jeffrey R.; Gonzalez, Frank J.

    2013-01-01

    Cytochrome P450 2D6 (CYP2D6) is a pivotal enzyme responsible for a major human drug oxidation polymorphism in human populations. Distribution of CYP2D6 in brain and its role in serotonin metabolism suggest this CYP2D6 may have a function in central nervous system. To establish an efficient and accurate platform for the study of CYP2D6 in vivo, a transgenic human CYP2D6 (Tg-2D6) model was generated by transgenesis in wild-type C57BL/6 (WT) mice using a P1 phage artificial chromosome clone containing the complete human CYP2D locus, including CYP2D6 gene and 5’- and 3’- flanking sequences. Human CYP2D6 was expressed not only in the liver, but also in brain. The abundance of serotonin and 5-hydroxyindoleacetic acid in brain of Tg-2D6 is higher than in WT mice either basal levels or after harmaline induction. Metabolomics of brain homogenate and cerebrospinal fluid revealed a significant up-regulation of l-carnitine, acetyl-l-carnitine, pantothenic acid, dCDP, anandamide, N-acetylglucosaminylamine, and a down-regulation of stearoyl-l-carnitine in Tg-2D6 mice compared with WT mice. Anxiety tests indicate Tg-2D6 mice have a higher capability to adapt to anxiety. Overall, these findings indicate that the Tg-2D6 mouse model may serve as a valuable in vivo tool to determine CYP2D6-involved neurophysiological metabolism and function. PMID:23614566

  12. Simultaneous Measurement of Elastic and Electrical Anisotropy of Shales under Elevated Pressure: A Preliminary Study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ou, L.; Niu, Q.; Prasad, M.

    2015-12-01

    Low-porosity shales are generally considered as transverse isotropic (TI) material, both elastically and electrically. We explore the correlation of elastic and electrical anisotropy of shales to mineralogy and organic richness. Both, elastic and electrical anisotropies in rocks are known to be functions of clay and kerogen contents. The elastic anisotropy in clay- and organic-rich shales is related to their laminated and lenticular texture that is enhanced with compaction and diagenesis leading. The correlation of complex resistivity and anisotropy in shales with clay content has theoretically modeled using cation exchange capacity of the clay minerals. Although, it is appear likely that elastic and electrical anisotropy might be controlled by similar petrophyiscal properties, very little research exists that explores the relationship between these two anisotropies and how petrophysical properties might influence them. We present an experimental data of elastic and electrical anisotropy in shales acquired with a new system that allows simultaneous measurements of acoustic velocities and complex resistivities under hydrostatic pressure in three directions: parallel, 45° and perpendicular to any orientation, such as bedding planes. Our results of five shale samples show: Elastic and electrical anisotropy are inversely related to pressure Electrical anisotropy is generally higher than elastic anisotropy Electrical anisotropy is more sensitive to pressure change Complex resistivity anisotropy for in-phase resistivity and phase is highly frequency dependent In future, we plan to measure shale samples with varying clay and organic contents and correlate anisotropy to petrophysical properties.

  13. STUDYING THE INTERSTELLAR MAGNETIC FIELD FROM ANISOTROPIES IN VELOCITY CHANNELS

    SciTech Connect

    Esquivel, A.; Lazarian, A.; Pogosyan, D. E-mail: lazarian@astro.wisc.edu

    2015-11-20

    Turbulence in the interstellar medium is anisotropic due to the ubiquitous magnetic fields. This anisotropy depends on the strength of the magnetic field and leaves an imprint on observations of spectral line maps. We use a grid of ideal magnetohydrodynamic simulations of driven turbulence and produce synthetic position–position–velocity maps to study the turbulence anisotropy in velocity channels of various resolutions. We found that the average structure function of velocity channels is aligned with the projection of the magnetic field on the plane of the sky. We also found that the degree of such anisotropy increases with the magnitude of the magnetic field. For thick velocity channels (low velocity resolution), the anisotropy is dominated by density, and the degree of anisotropy in these maps allows one to distinguish sub-Alfvénic and super-Alfvénic turbulence regimes, but it also depends strongly on the sonic Mach number. For thin channels (high velocity resolution), we find that the anisotropy depends less on the sonic Mach number. An important limitation of this technique is that it only gives a lower limit on the magnetic field strength because the anisotropy is related only to the magnetic field component on the plane of the sky. It can, and should, be used in combination with other techniques to estimate the magnetic field, such as the Fermi-Chandrasekhar method, anisotropies in centroids, Faraday rotation measurements, or direct line-of-sight determinations of the field from Zeeman effect observations.

  14. COBE anisotropy from supercluster gas

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hogan, Craig J.

    1992-01-01

    It is suggested that the microwave background anisotropy detected by the COBE DMR might be dominated not by the direct gravitational effect of primordial fluctuations in the last scattering surface, but by scattering off of moving electrons in optically thin, nearby superclusters. Hot diffuse clouds of ionized gas created during supercluster collapse produce Sunyaev-Zel'dovich and Doppler background anisotropy whose properties may closely mimic those of primordial anisotropy in current data. Strategies for and difficulties in separating the effects are discussed, based on the anisotropy spectrum, autocorrelation, correlation with galaxy catalogs, X-ray emission, and integrated spectral distortions.

  15. Orthotropic Piezoelectricity in 2D Nanocellulose

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    García, Y.; Ruiz-Blanco, Yasser B.; Marrero-Ponce, Yovani; Sotomayor-Torres, C. M.

    2016-10-01

    The control of electromechanical responses within bonding regions is essential to face frontier challenges in nanotechnologies, such as molecular electronics and biotechnology. Here, we present Iβ-nanocellulose as a potentially new orthotropic 2D piezoelectric crystal. The predicted in-layer piezoelectricity is originated on a sui-generis hydrogen bonds pattern. Upon this fact and by using a combination of ab-initio and ad-hoc models, we introduce a description of electrical profiles along chemical bonds. Such developments lead to obtain a rationale for modelling the extended piezoelectric effect originated within bond scales. The order of magnitude estimated for the 2D Iβ-nanocellulose piezoelectric response, ~pm V‑1, ranks this material at the level of currently used piezoelectric energy generators and new artificial 2D designs. Such finding would be crucial for developing alternative materials to drive emerging nanotechnologies.

  16. Orthotropic Piezoelectricity in 2D Nanocellulose

    PubMed Central

    García, Y.; Ruiz-Blanco, Yasser B.; Marrero-Ponce, Yovani; Sotomayor-Torres, C. M.

    2016-01-01

    The control of electromechanical responses within bonding regions is essential to face frontier challenges in nanotechnologies, such as molecular electronics and biotechnology. Here, we present Iβ-nanocellulose as a potentially new orthotropic 2D piezoelectric crystal. The predicted in-layer piezoelectricity is originated on a sui-generis hydrogen bonds pattern. Upon this fact and by using a combination of ab-initio and ad-hoc models, we introduce a description of electrical profiles along chemical bonds. Such developments lead to obtain a rationale for modelling the extended piezoelectric effect originated within bond scales. The order of magnitude estimated for the 2D Iβ-nanocellulose piezoelectric response, ~pm V−1, ranks this material at the level of currently used piezoelectric energy generators and new artificial 2D designs. Such finding would be crucial for developing alternative materials to drive emerging nanotechnologies. PMID:27708364

  17. 2D microwave imaging reflectometer electronics

    SciTech Connect

    Spear, A. G.; Domier, C. W. Hu, X.; Muscatello, C. M.; Ren, X.; Luhmann, N. C.; Tobias, B. J.

    2014-11-15

    A 2D microwave imaging reflectometer system has been developed to visualize electron density fluctuations on the DIII-D tokamak. Simultaneously illuminated at four probe frequencies, large aperture optics image reflections from four density-dependent cutoff surfaces in the plasma over an extended region of the DIII-D plasma. Localized density fluctuations in the vicinity of the plasma cutoff surfaces modulate the plasma reflections, yielding a 2D image of electron density fluctuations. Details are presented of the receiver down conversion electronics that generate the in-phase (I) and quadrature (Q) reflectometer signals from which 2D density fluctuation data are obtained. Also presented are details on the control system and backplane used to manage the electronics as well as an introduction to the computer based control program.

  18. Optical modulators with 2D layered materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sun, Zhipei; Martinez, Amos; Wang, Feng

    2016-04-01

    Light modulation is an essential operation in photonics and optoelectronics. With existing and emerging technologies increasingly demanding compact, efficient, fast and broadband optical modulators, high-performance light modulation solutions are becoming indispensable. The recent realization that 2D layered materials could modulate light with superior performance has prompted intense research and significant advances, paving the way for realistic applications. In this Review, we cover the state of the art of optical modulators based on 2D materials, including graphene, transition metal dichalcogenides and black phosphorus. We discuss recent advances employing hybrid structures, such as 2D heterostructures, plasmonic structures, and silicon and fibre integrated structures. We also take a look at the future perspectives and discuss the potential of yet relatively unexplored mechanisms, such as magneto-optic and acousto-optic modulation.

  19. Quantum-confinement and Structural Anisotropy result in Electrically-Tunable Dirac Cone in Few-layer Black Phosphorous

    PubMed Central

    Dolui, Kapildeb; Quek, Su Ying

    2015-01-01

    Two-dimensional (2D) materials are well-known to exhibit interesting phenomena due to quantum confinement. Here, we show that quantum confinement, together with structural anisotropy, result in an electric-field-tunable Dirac cone in 2D black phosphorus. Using density functional theory calculations, we find that an electric field, Eext, applied normal to a 2D black phosphorus thin film, can reduce the direct band gap of few-layer black phosphorus, resulting in an insulator-to-metal transition at a critical field, Ec. Increasing Eext beyond Ec can induce a Dirac cone in the system, provided the black phosphorus film is sufficiently thin. The electric field strength can tune the position of the Dirac cone and the Dirac-Fermi velocities, the latter being similar in magnitude to that in graphene. We show that the Dirac cone arises from an anisotropic interaction term between the frontier orbitals that are spatially separated due to the applied field, on different halves of the 2D slab. When this interaction term becomes vanishingly small for thicker films, the Dirac cone can no longer be induced. Spin-orbit coupling can gap out the Dirac cone at certain electric fields; however, a further increase in field strength reduces the spin-orbit-induced gap, eventually resulting in a topological-insulator-to-Dirac-semimetal transition. PMID:26129645

  20. Quantum-confinement and Structural Anisotropy result in Electrically-Tunable Dirac Cone in Few-layer Black Phosphorous.

    PubMed

    Dolui, Kapildeb; Quek, Su Ying

    2015-07-01

    Two-dimensional (2D) materials are well-known to exhibit interesting phenomena due to quantum confinement. Here, we show that quantum confinement, together with structural anisotropy, result in an electric-field-tunable Dirac cone in 2D black phosphorus. Using density functional theory calculations, we find that an electric field, E ext, applied normal to a 2D black phosphorus thin film, can reduce the direct band gap of few-layer black phosphorus, resulting in an insulator-to-metal transition at a critical field, Ec. Increasing E ext beyond Ec can induce a Dirac cone in the system, provided the black phosphorus film is sufficiently thin. The electric field strength can tune the position of the Dirac cone and the Dirac-Fermi velocities, the latter being similar in magnitude to that in graphene. We show that the Dirac cone arises from an anisotropic interaction term between the frontier orbitals that are spatially separated due to the applied field, on different halves of the 2D slab. When this interaction term becomes vanishingly small for thicker films, the Dirac cone can no longer be induced. Spin-orbit coupling can gap out the Dirac cone at certain electric fields; however, a further increase in field strength reduces the spin-orbit-induced gap, eventually resulting in a topological-insulator-to-Dirac-semimetal transition.

  1. Quantum-confinement and Structural Anisotropy result in Electrically-Tunable Dirac Cone in Few-layer Black Phosphorous

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dolui, Kapildeb; Quek, Su Ying

    2015-07-01

    Two-dimensional (2D) materials are well-known to exhibit interesting phenomena due to quantum confinement. Here, we show that quantum confinement, together with structural anisotropy, result in an electric-field-tunable Dirac cone in 2D black phosphorus. Using density functional theory calculations, we find that an electric field, Eext, applied normal to a 2D black phosphorus thin film, can reduce the direct band gap of few-layer black phosphorus, resulting in an insulator-to-metal transition at a critical field, Ec. Increasing Eext beyond Ec can induce a Dirac cone in the system, provided the black phosphorus film is sufficiently thin. The electric field strength can tune the position of the Dirac cone and the Dirac-Fermi velocities, the latter being similar in magnitude to that in graphene. We show that the Dirac cone arises from an anisotropic interaction term between the frontier orbitals that are spatially separated due to the applied field, on different halves of the 2D slab. When this interaction term becomes vanishingly small for thicker films, the Dirac cone can no longer be induced. Spin-orbit coupling can gap out the Dirac cone at certain electric fields; however, a further increase in field strength reduces the spin-orbit-induced gap, eventually resulting in a topological-insulator-to-Dirac-semimetal transition.

  2. Inkjet printing of 2D layered materials.

    PubMed

    Li, Jiantong; Lemme, Max C; Östling, Mikael

    2014-11-10

    Inkjet printing of 2D layered materials, such as graphene and MoS2, has attracted great interests for emerging electronics. However, incompatible rheology, low concentration, severe aggregation and toxicity of solvents constitute critical challenges which hamper the manufacturing efficiency and product quality. Here, we introduce a simple and general technology concept (distillation-assisted solvent exchange) to efficiently overcome these challenges. By implementing the concept, we have demonstrated excellent jetting performance, ideal printing patterns and a variety of promising applications for inkjet printing of 2D layered materials. PMID:25169938

  3. Inkjet printing of 2D layered materials.

    PubMed

    Li, Jiantong; Lemme, Max C; Östling, Mikael

    2014-11-10

    Inkjet printing of 2D layered materials, such as graphene and MoS2, has attracted great interests for emerging electronics. However, incompatible rheology, low concentration, severe aggregation and toxicity of solvents constitute critical challenges which hamper the manufacturing efficiency and product quality. Here, we introduce a simple and general technology concept (distillation-assisted solvent exchange) to efficiently overcome these challenges. By implementing the concept, we have demonstrated excellent jetting performance, ideal printing patterns and a variety of promising applications for inkjet printing of 2D layered materials.

  4. Spectral Anisotropy of Elsässer Variables in Two-dimensional Wave-vector Space as Observed in the Fast Solar Wind Turbulence

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yan, Limei; He, Jiansen; Zhang, Lei; Tu, Chuanyi; Marsch, Eckart; Chen, Christopher H. K.; Wang, Xin; Wang, Linghua; Wicks, Robert T.

    2016-01-01

    Intensive studies have been conducted to understand the anisotropy of solar wind turbulence. However, the anisotropy of Elsässer variables ({{\\boldsymbol{Z}}}+/- ) in 2D wave-vector space has yet to be investigated. Here we first verify the transformation based on the projection-slice theorem between the power spectral density {{PSD}}2{{D}}({k}\\parallel ,{k}\\perp ) and the spatial correlation function {{CF}}2{{D}}({r}\\parallel ,{r}\\perp ). Based on the application of the transformation to the magnetic field and the particle measurements from the WIND spacecraft, we investigate the spectral anisotropy of Elsässer variables ({{\\boldsymbol{Z}}}+/- ), and the distribution of residual energy {E}{{R}}, Alfvén ratio {R}{{A}}, and Elsässer ratio {R}{{E}} in the ({k}\\parallel ,{k}\\perp ) space. The spectra {{PSD}}2{{D}}({k}\\parallel ,{k}\\perp ) of {\\boldsymbol{B}}, {\\boldsymbol{V}}, and {{\\boldsymbol{Z}}}{major} (the larger of {{\\boldsymbol{Z}}}+/- ) show a similar pattern that {{PSD}}2{{D}}({k}\\parallel ,{k}\\perp ) is mainly distributed along a ridge inclined toward the k⊥ axis. This is probably the signature of the oblique Alfvénic fluctuations propagating outwardly. Unlike those of {\\boldsymbol{B}}, {\\boldsymbol{V}}, and {{\\boldsymbol{Z}}}{major}, the spectrum {{PSD}}2{{D}}({k}\\parallel ,{k}\\perp ) of {{\\boldsymbol{Z}}}{minor} is distributed mainly along the k⊥ axis. Close to the k⊥ axis, | {E}{{R}}| becomes larger while {R}{{A}} becomes smaller, suggesting that the dominance of magnetic energy over kinetic energy becomes more significant at small k∥. {R}{{E}} is larger at small k∥, implying that {{PSD}}2{{D}}({k}\\parallel ,{k}\\perp ) of {{\\boldsymbol{Z}}}{minor} is more concentrated along the k⊥ direction as compared to that of {{\\boldsymbol{Z}}}{major}. The residual energy condensate at small k∥ is consistent with simulation results in which {E}{{R}} is spontaneously generated by Alfvén wave interaction.

  5. Parallel stitching of 2D materials

    DOE PAGES

    Ling, Xi; Wu, Lijun; Lin, Yuxuan; Ma, Qiong; Wang, Ziqiang; Song, Yi; Yu, Lili; Huang, Shengxi; Fang, Wenjing; Zhang, Xu; et al

    2016-01-27

    Diverse parallel stitched 2D heterostructures, including metal–semiconductor, semiconductor–semiconductor, and insulator–semiconductor, are synthesized directly through selective “sowing” of aromatic molecules as the seeds in the chemical vapor deposition (CVD) method. Lastly, the methodology enables the large-scale fabrication of lateral heterostructures, which offers tremendous potential for its application in integrated circuits.

  6. Parallel Stitching of 2D Materials.

    PubMed

    Ling, Xi; Lin, Yuxuan; Ma, Qiong; Wang, Ziqiang; Song, Yi; Yu, Lili; Huang, Shengxi; Fang, Wenjing; Zhang, Xu; Hsu, Allen L; Bie, Yaqing; Lee, Yi-Hsien; Zhu, Yimei; Wu, Lijun; Li, Ju; Jarillo-Herrero, Pablo; Dresselhaus, Mildred; Palacios, Tomás; Kong, Jing

    2016-03-23

    Diverse parallel stitched 2D heterostructures, including metal-semiconductor, semiconductor-semiconductor, and insulator-semiconductor, are synthesized directly through selective "sowing" of aromatic molecules as the seeds in the chemical vapor deposition (CVD) method. The methodology enables the large-scale fabrication of lateral heterostructures, which offers tremendous potential for its application in integrated circuits.

  7. ELLIPT2D: A Flexible Finite Element Code Written Python

    SciTech Connect

    Pletzer, A.; Mollis, J.C.

    2001-03-22

    The use of the Python scripting language for scientific applications and in particular to solve partial differential equations is explored. It is shown that Python's rich data structure and object-oriented features can be exploited to write programs that are not only significantly more concise than their counter parts written in Fortran, C or C++, but are also numerically efficient. To illustrate this, a two-dimensional finite element code (ELLIPT2D) has been written. ELLIPT2D provides a flexible and easy-to-use framework for solving a large class of second-order elliptic problems. The program allows for structured or unstructured meshes. All functions defining the elliptic operator are user supplied and so are the boundary conditions, which can be of Dirichlet, Neumann or Robbins type. ELLIPT2D makes extensive use of dictionaries (hash tables) as a way to represent sparse matrices.Other key features of the Python language that have been widely used include: operator over loading, error handling, array slicing, and the Tkinter module for building graphical use interfaces. As an example of the utility of ELLIPT2D, a nonlinear solution of the Grad-Shafranov equation is computed using a Newton iterative scheme. A second application focuses on a solution of the toroidal Laplace equation coupled to a magnetohydrodynamic stability code, a problem arising in the context of magnetic fusion research.

  8. Application of 2D Non-Graphene Materials and 2D Oxide Nanostructures for Biosensing Technology

    PubMed Central

    Shavanova, Kateryna; Bakakina, Yulia; Burkova, Inna; Shtepliuk, Ivan; Viter, Roman; Ubelis, Arnolds; Beni, Valerio; Starodub, Nickolaj; Yakimova, Rositsa; Khranovskyy, Volodymyr

    2016-01-01

    The discovery of graphene and its unique properties has inspired researchers to try to invent other two-dimensional (2D) materials. After considerable research effort, a distinct “beyond graphene” domain has been established, comprising the library of non-graphene 2D materials. It is significant that some 2D non-graphene materials possess solid advantages over their predecessor, such as having a direct band gap, and therefore are highly promising for a number of applications. These applications are not limited to nano- and opto-electronics, but have a strong potential in biosensing technologies, as one example. However, since most of the 2D non-graphene materials have been newly discovered, most of the research efforts are concentrated on material synthesis and the investigation of the properties of the material. Applications of 2D non-graphene materials are still at the embryonic stage, and the integration of 2D non-graphene materials into devices is scarcely reported. However, in recent years, numerous reports have blossomed about 2D material-based biosensors, evidencing the growing potential of 2D non-graphene materials for biosensing applications. This review highlights the recent progress in research on the potential of using 2D non-graphene materials and similar oxide nanostructures for different types of biosensors (optical and electrochemical). A wide range of biological targets, such as glucose, dopamine, cortisol, DNA, IgG, bisphenol, ascorbic acid, cytochrome and estradiol, has been reported to be successfully detected by biosensors with transducers made of 2D non-graphene materials. PMID:26861346

  9. Application of 2D Non-Graphene Materials and 2D Oxide Nanostructures for Biosensing Technology.

    PubMed

    Shavanova, Kateryna; Bakakina, Yulia; Burkova, Inna; Shtepliuk, Ivan; Viter, Roman; Ubelis, Arnolds; Beni, Valerio; Starodub, Nickolaj; Yakimova, Rositsa; Khranovskyy, Volodymyr

    2016-01-01

    The discovery of graphene and its unique properties has inspired researchers to try to invent other two-dimensional (2D) materials. After considerable research effort, a distinct "beyond graphene" domain has been established, comprising the library of non-graphene 2D materials. It is significant that some 2D non-graphene materials possess solid advantages over their predecessor, such as having a direct band gap, and therefore are highly promising for a number of applications. These applications are not limited to nano- and opto-electronics, but have a strong potential in biosensing technologies, as one example. However, since most of the 2D non-graphene materials have been newly discovered, most of the research efforts are concentrated on material synthesis and the investigation of the properties of the material. Applications of 2D non-graphene materials are still at the embryonic stage, and the integration of 2D non-graphene materials into devices is scarcely reported. However, in recent years, numerous reports have blossomed about 2D material-based biosensors, evidencing the growing potential of 2D non-graphene materials for biosensing applications. This review highlights the recent progress in research on the potential of using 2D non-graphene materials and similar oxide nanostructures for different types of biosensors (optical and electrochemical). A wide range of biological targets, such as glucose, dopamine, cortisol, DNA, IgG, bisphenol, ascorbic acid, cytochrome and estradiol, has been reported to be successfully detected by biosensors with transducers made of 2D non-graphene materials.

  10. Non-chiral 2d CFT with integer energy levels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ashrafi, M.; Loran, F.

    2016-09-01

    The partition function of 2d conformal field theory is a modular invariant function. It is known that the partition function of a holomorphic CFT whose central charge is a multiple of 24 is a polynomial in the Klein function. In this paper, by using the medium temperature expansion we show that every modular invariant partition function can be mapped to a holomorphic partition function whose structure can be determined similarly. We use this map to study partition function of CFTs with half-integer left and right conformal weights. We show that the corresponding left and right central charges are necessarily multiples of 4. Furthermore, the degree of degeneracy of high-energy levels can be uniquely determined in terms of the degeneracy in the low energy states.

  11. Accurate coronary modeling procedure using 2D calibrated projections based on 2D centerline points on a single projection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Movassaghi, Babak; Rasche, Volker; Viergever, Max A.; Niessen, Wiro J.

    2004-05-01

    For the diagnosis of ischemic heart disease, accurate quantitative analysis of the coronary arteries is important. In coronary angiography, a number of projections is acquired from which 3D models of the coronaries can be reconstructed. A signifcant limitation of the current 3D modeling procedures is the required user interaction for defining the centerlines of the vessel structures in the 2D projections. Currently, the 3D centerlines of the coronary tree structure are calculated based on the interactively determined centerlines in two projections. For every interactively selected centerline point in a first projection the corresponding point in a second projection has to be determined interactively by the user. The correspondence is obtained based on the epipolar-geometry. In this paper a method is proposed to retrieve all the information required for the modeling procedure, by the interactive determination of the 2D centerline-points in only one projection. For every determined 2D centerline-point the corresponding 3D centerline-point is calculated by the analysis of the 1D gray value functions of the corresponding epipolarlines in space for all available 2D projections. This information is then used to build a 3D representation of the coronary arteries using coronary modeling techniques. The approach is illustrated on the analysis of calibrated phantom and calibrated coronary projection data.

  12. Explicit 2-D Hydrodynamic FEM Program

    1996-08-07

    DYNA2D* is a vectorized, explicit, two-dimensional, axisymmetric and plane strain finite element program for analyzing the large deformation dynamic and hydrodynamic response of inelastic solids. DYNA2D* contains 13 material models and 9 equations of state (EOS) to cover a wide range of material behavior. The material models implemented in all machine versions are: elastic, orthotropic elastic, kinematic/isotropic elastic plasticity, thermoelastoplastic, soil and crushable foam, linear viscoelastic, rubber, high explosive burn, isotropic elastic-plastic, temperature-dependent elastic-plastic. Themore » isotropic and temperature-dependent elastic-plastic models determine only the deviatoric stresses. Pressure is determined by one of 9 equations of state including linear polynomial, JWL high explosive, Sack Tuesday high explosive, Gruneisen, ratio of polynomials, linear polynomial with energy deposition, ignition and growth of reaction in HE, tabulated compaction, and tabulated.« less

  13. Explicit 2-D Hydrodynamic FEM Program

    SciTech Connect

    Lin, Jerry

    1996-08-07

    DYNA2D* is a vectorized, explicit, two-dimensional, axisymmetric and plane strain finite element program for analyzing the large deformation dynamic and hydrodynamic response of inelastic solids. DYNA2D* contains 13 material models and 9 equations of state (EOS) to cover a wide range of material behavior. The material models implemented in all machine versions are: elastic, orthotropic elastic, kinematic/isotropic elastic plasticity, thermoelastoplastic, soil and crushable foam, linear viscoelastic, rubber, high explosive burn, isotropic elastic-plastic, temperature-dependent elastic-plastic. The isotropic and temperature-dependent elastic-plastic models determine only the deviatoric stresses. Pressure is determined by one of 9 equations of state including linear polynomial, JWL high explosive, Sack Tuesday high explosive, Gruneisen, ratio of polynomials, linear polynomial with energy deposition, ignition and growth of reaction in HE, tabulated compaction, and tabulated.

  14. 2D photonic-crystal optomechanical nanoresonator.

    PubMed

    Makles, K; Antoni, T; Kuhn, A G; Deléglise, S; Briant, T; Cohadon, P-F; Braive, R; Beaudoin, G; Pinard, L; Michel, C; Dolique, V; Flaminio, R; Cagnoli, G; Robert-Philip, I; Heidmann, A

    2015-01-15

    We present the optical optimization of an optomechanical device based on a suspended InP membrane patterned with a 2D near-wavelength grating (NWG) based on a 2D photonic-crystal geometry. We first identify by numerical simulation a set of geometrical parameters providing a reflectivity higher than 99.8% over a 50-nm span. We then study the limitations induced by the finite value of the optical waist and lateral size of the NWG pattern using different numerical approaches. The NWG grating, pierced in a suspended InP 265-nm thick membrane, is used to form a compact microcavity involving the suspended nanomembrane as an end mirror. The resulting cavity has a waist size smaller than 10 μm and a finesse in the 200 range. It is used to probe the Brownian motion of the mechanical modes of the nanomembrane. PMID:25679837

  15. Compact 2-D graphical representation of DNA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Randić, Milan; Vračko, Marjan; Zupan, Jure; Novič, Marjana

    2003-05-01

    We present a novel 2-D graphical representation for DNA sequences which has an important advantage over the existing graphical representations of DNA in being very compact. It is based on: (1) use of binary labels for the four nucleic acid bases, and (2) use of the 'worm' curve as template on which binary codes are placed. The approach is illustrated on DNA sequences of the first exon of human β-globin and gorilla β-globin.

  16. 2D materials: Graphene and others

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bansal, Suneev Anil; Singh, Amrinder Pal; Kumar, Suresh

    2016-05-01

    Present report reviews the recent advancements in new atomically thick 2D materials. Materials covered in this review are Graphene, Silicene, Germanene, Boron Nitride (BN) and Transition metal chalcogenides (TMC). These materials show extraordinary mechanical, electronic and optical properties which make them suitable candidates for future applications. Apart from unique properties, tune-ability of highly desirable properties of these materials is also an important area to be emphasized on.

  17. Layer Engineering of 2D Semiconductor Junctions.

    PubMed

    He, Yongmin; Sobhani, Ali; Lei, Sidong; Zhang, Zhuhua; Gong, Yongji; Jin, Zehua; Zhou, Wu; Yang, Yingchao; Zhang, Yuan; Wang, Xifan; Yakobson, Boris; Vajtai, Robert; Halas, Naomi J; Li, Bo; Xie, Erqing; Ajayan, Pulickel

    2016-07-01

    A new concept for junction fabrication by connecting multiple regions with varying layer thicknesses, based on the thickness dependence, is demonstrated. This type of junction is only possible in super-thin-layered 2D materials, and exhibits similar characteristics as p-n junctions. Rectification and photovoltaic effects are observed in chemically homogeneous MoSe2 junctions between domains of different thicknesses. PMID:27136275

  18. Realistic and efficient 2D crack simulation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yadegar, Jacob; Liu, Xiaoqing; Singh, Abhishek

    2010-04-01

    Although numerical algorithms for 2D crack simulation have been studied in Modeling and Simulation (M&S) and computer graphics for decades, realism and computational efficiency are still major challenges. In this paper, we introduce a high-fidelity, scalable, adaptive and efficient/runtime 2D crack/fracture simulation system by applying the mathematically elegant Peano-Cesaro triangular meshing/remeshing technique to model the generation of shards/fragments. The recursive fractal sweep associated with the Peano-Cesaro triangulation provides efficient local multi-resolution refinement to any level-of-detail. The generated binary decomposition tree also provides efficient neighbor retrieval mechanism used for mesh element splitting and merging with minimal memory requirements essential for realistic 2D fragment formation. Upon load impact/contact/penetration, a number of factors including impact angle, impact energy, and material properties are all taken into account to produce the criteria of crack initialization, propagation, and termination leading to realistic fractal-like rubble/fragments formation. The aforementioned parameters are used as variables of probabilistic models of cracks/shards formation, making the proposed solution highly adaptive by allowing machine learning mechanisms learn the optimal values for the variables/parameters based on prior benchmark data generated by off-line physics based simulation solutions that produce accurate fractures/shards though at highly non-real time paste. Crack/fracture simulation has been conducted on various load impacts with different initial locations at various impulse scales. The simulation results demonstrate that the proposed system has the capability to realistically and efficiently simulate 2D crack phenomena (such as window shattering and shards generation) with diverse potentials in military and civil M&S applications such as training and mission planning.

  19. Anisotropy and AVO from walkaways

    SciTech Connect

    Leaney, W.S.

    1994-12-31

    A multi-offset VSP or ``walkaway`` is a wide aperture borehole seismic experiment ideal for studying angle-dependent wave propagation. In this paper, two aspects of elastic wave propagation are studied with walkaways: anisotropy (transverse isotropy) and AVO (amplitude variation with offset). Anisotropy is measured from walkaway data using extracted vertical and horizontal phase slownesses. Results are shown for a Java Sea walkaway data set and tabulated for walkaways from different locations. The anisotropy measurements are classified using Schoenberg`s parameters of ellipticity and anellipticity. Shale anisotropy is found to be significant and variable. Anisotropic AVO is studied on Ostrander`s shale-sand model and through the computation of anisotropic ray-trace synthetics. The ratio of ellipticity to anellipticity is found to be a good measure of shale anisotropy in the context of AVO. Depending on the ``flavor`` of shale anisotropy, AVO can be significantly reduced or exaggerated. The AVO response of a reservoir sequence can also be measured (as opposed to modeled) with a properly designed walkaway. The results of processing a walkaway for AVO are shown. Such a seismic experiment is arguably the best way to determine the AVO response of a reservoir or reservoir sequence. Together, these two new applications of walkaways -- to measure anisotropy and AVO -- can be used to: (1) Establish the viability of using AVO to map a reservoir. (2) Reduce the risk involved with the added cost of AVO studies. (3) Improve the reliability of AVO interpretations.

  20. 2D Spinodal Decomposition in Forced Turbulence

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fan, Xiang; Diamond, Patrick; Chacon, Luis; Li, Hui

    2015-11-01

    Spinodal decomposition is a second order phase transition for binary fluid mixture, from one thermodynamic phase to form two coexisting phases. The governing equation for this coarsening process below critical temperature, Cahn-Hilliard Equation, is very similar to 2D MHD Equation, especially the conserved quantities have a close correspondence between each other, so theories for MHD turbulence are used to study spinodal decomposition in forced turbulence. Domain size is increased with time along with the inverse cascade, and the length scale can be arrested by a forced turbulence with direct cascade. The two competing mechanisms lead to a stabilized domain size length scale, which can be characterized by Hinze Scale. The 2D spinodal decomposition in forced turbulence is studied by both theory and simulation with ``pixie2d.'' This work focuses on the relation between Hinze scale and spectra and cascades. Similarities and differences between spinodal decomposition and MHD are investigated. Also some transport properties are studied following MHD theories. This work is supported by the Department of Energy under Award Number DE-FG02-04ER54738.

  1. Engineering light outcoupling in 2D materials.

    PubMed

    Lien, Der-Hsien; Kang, Jeong Seuk; Amani, Matin; Chen, Kevin; Tosun, Mahmut; Wang, Hsin-Ping; Roy, Tania; Eggleston, Michael S; Wu, Ming C; Dubey, Madan; Lee, Si-Chen; He, Jr-Hau; Javey, Ali

    2015-02-11

    When light is incident on 2D transition metal dichalcogenides (TMDCs), it engages in multiple reflections within underlying substrates, producing interferences that lead to enhancement or attenuation of the incoming and outgoing strength of light. Here, we report a simple method to engineer the light outcoupling in semiconducting TMDCs by modulating their dielectric surroundings. We show that by modulating the thicknesses of underlying substrates and capping layers, the interference caused by substrate can significantly enhance the light absorption and emission of WSe2, resulting in a ∼11 times increase in Raman signal and a ∼30 times increase in the photoluminescence (PL) intensity of WSe2. On the basis of the interference model, we also propose a strategy to control the photonic and optoelectronic properties of thin-layer WSe2. This work demonstrates the utilization of outcoupling engineering in 2D materials and offers a new route toward the realization of novel optoelectronic devices, such as 2D LEDs and solar cells.

  2. On the interplay between geometrical structure and magnetic anisotropy: a relativistic density-functional study of mixed Pt-Co and Pt-Fe trimers and tetramers in the gas-phase and supported on graphene.

    PubMed

    Błoński, Piotr; Hafner, Jürgen

    2015-02-01

    The structural and magnetic properties of mixed Pt-Co and Pt-Fe trimers and tetramers in the gas-phase and supported on a free-standing graphene layer have been calculated using density-functional theory. The influence of the strong magnetic moments of the 3d atoms on the Pt atoms and the influence of the strong spin-orbit coupling contributed by the Pt atoms on the 3d atoms have been studied in detail. All mixed trimers form isocele triangles in the gas-phase. On a graphene layer the structure is influenced by the strong binding of the 3d atoms, leading to an asymmetric configuration for Pt-rich and more symmetric structures for 3d-rich clusters. The magnetic anisotropy energy defined as the energy difference for easy and hard magnetization directions varies between 5 and 13 meV/atom for the free trimers, but is strongly reduced to values between 0.7 and 6.6 meV/atom for the graphene-supported clusters. The saddle-point energy representing the barrier against magnetization reversal is on average 3 meV/atom for free trimers, it is reduced to 2 meV/atom for the more symmetric PtCo(Fe)(2) clusters, and to only about 0.3 meV/atom for the asymmetric Pt(2)Co(Fe) cluster on graphene. For the mixed tetramers the strong magnetism stabilizes a flat geometric structure, except for Pt(3)Co which forms a distorted trigonal pyramid. The geometry of the graphene-supported tetramers is very different due to the requirement of a good match to the substrate. Large magnetic anisotropy energies are found for free Pt(3)Co where the change of the magnetization direction also induces a transition from a high- to a low-moment magnetic isomer. For all other free tetramers the magnetic anisotropy energy ranges between 3 to 5 meV/atom only, it is further reduced to 0.4 to 3.8 meV/atom for the graphene-supported tetramers. The reduction is strongest for Pt(3)Fe/graphene because of the asymmetric structure of the adsorption complex. The barriers against magnetization reversal range between

  3. 2D FEM Heat Transfer & E&M Field Code

    SciTech Connect

    1992-04-02

    TOPAZ and TOPAZ2D are two-dimensional implicit finite element computer codes for heat transfer analysis. TOPAZ2D can also be used to solve electrostatic and magnetostatic problems. The programs solve for the steady-state or transient temperature or electrostatic and magnetostatic potential field on two-dimensional planar or axisymmetric geometries. Material properties may be temperature or potential-dependent and either isotropic or orthotropic. A variety of time and temperature-dependent boundary conditions can be specified including temperature, flux, convection, and radiation. By implementing the user subroutine feature, users can model chemical reaction kinetics and allow for any type of functional representation of boundary conditions and internal heat generation. The programs can solve problems of diffuse and specular band radiation in an enclosure coupled with conduction in the material surrounding the enclosure. Additional features include thermal contact resistance across an interface, bulk fluids, phase change, and energy balances.

  4. 2D ice from first principles: structures and phase transitions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Ji; Schusteritsch, Georg; Pickard, Chris J.; Salzmann, Christoph G.; Michaelides, Angelos

    Despite relevance to disparate areas such as cloud microphysics and tribology, major gaps in the understanding of the structures and phase transitions of low-dimensional water ice remain. Here we report a first principles study of confined 2D ice as a function of pressure. We find that at ambient pressure hexagonal and pentagonal monolayer structures are the two lowest enthalpy phases identified. Upon mild compression the pentagonal structure becomes the most stable and persists up to ca. 2 GPa at which point square and rhombic phases are stable. The square phase agrees with recent experimental observations of square ice confined within graphene sheets. We also find a double layer AA stacked square ice phase, which clarifies the difference between experimental observations and earlier force field simulations. This work provides a fresh perspective on 2D confined ice, highlighting the sensitivity of the structures observed to both the confining pressure and width.

  5. 2D FEM Heat Transfer & E&M Field Code

    1992-04-02

    TOPAZ and TOPAZ2D are two-dimensional implicit finite element computer codes for heat transfer analysis. TOPAZ2D can also be used to solve electrostatic and magnetostatic problems. The programs solve for the steady-state or transient temperature or electrostatic and magnetostatic potential field on two-dimensional planar or axisymmetric geometries. Material properties may be temperature or potential-dependent and either isotropic or orthotropic. A variety of time and temperature-dependent boundary conditions can be specified including temperature, flux, convection, and radiation.more » By implementing the user subroutine feature, users can model chemical reaction kinetics and allow for any type of functional representation of boundary conditions and internal heat generation. The programs can solve problems of diffuse and specular band radiation in an enclosure coupled with conduction in the material surrounding the enclosure. Additional features include thermal contact resistance across an interface, bulk fluids, phase change, and energy balances.« less

  6. Optical Anisotropy of Black Phosphorus in the Visible Regime.

    PubMed

    Mao, Nannan; Tang, Jingyi; Xie, Liming; Wu, Juanxia; Han, Bowen; Lin, Jingjing; Deng, Shibin; Ji, Wei; Xu, Hua; Liu, Kaihui; Tong, Lianming; Zhang, Jin

    2016-01-13

    The striking in-plane anisotropy remains one of the most intriguing properties for the newly rediscovered black phosphorus (BP) 2D crystals. However, because of its rather low-energy band gap, the optical anisotropy of few-layer BP has been primarily investigated in the near-infrared (NIR) regime. Moreover, the essential physics that determine the intrinsic anisotropic optical property of few-layer BP, which is of great importance for practical applications in optical and optoelectronic devices, are still in the fancy of theory. Herein, we report the direct observation of the optical anisotropy of few-layer BP in the visible regime simply by using polarized optical microscopy. On the basis of the Fresnel equation, the intrinsic anisotropic complex refractive indices (n-iκ) in the visible regime (480-650 nm) were experimentally obtained for the first time using the anisotropic optical contrast spectra. Our findings not only provide a convenient approach to measure the optical constants of 2D layered materials but also suggest a possibility to design novel BP-based photonic devices such as atom-thick light modulators, including linear polarizer, phase plate, and optical compensator in a broad spectral range extending to the visible window.

  7. Seismic Anisotropy of Soft Sands, Offshore Western AUstralia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Urosevic, M.; Gurevich, B.

    2007-05-01

    Seismic anisotropy is commonly measured in sand shale environment. Intrinsic polar anisotropy of the shale and its effect on seismic data processing and analysis is well established and reasonably well understood. In sandstone, azimuthal anisotropy is often detected and is typically connected to an in situ stress regime and the brittleness of the rock. This type of anisotropy, commonly referred to as fractured induced anisotropy, has been widely and extensively studied as it directly affects both permeability and the strength of the rock. Hence fracture induced anisotropy is not only important for hydrocarbon exploration but also for geotechnical studies, underground mining, etc. Interestingly, in the last few years azimuthal anisotropy has also been detected in soft, poorly consolidated clean sands, mainly by cross-dipole sonic log measurements. This is somewhat surprising as in such soft, typically highly porous and permeable rocks stress induced fractures are unlikely to be abundant. In this study we analyse the anisotropy in such sand class using well-log measurements, three-component VSP data, as well as 2D and 3D surface seismic (reflection) data. High-quality cross-dipole sonic log measurements showed significant shear wave splitting over unconsolidated, highly porous and permeable sand interval. The shear wave anisotropy was computed to be around 10-15%. This is commonly seen as an indication that the rock is fractured and that the fractures are likely to be open. However, image log data over the same sand section suggested dilute most likely non-conductive fractures. Analysis of the shear wave splitting in VSP data also suggested low fracture density. The frequency content of the direct fast and slow shear waves on the VSP data was very similar, not supporting the presence of open fluid saturated fractures. Unfortunately, the evidence from the VSP data is not very compelling because the reservoir is thin compared to the wavelength and sampling interval of

  8. Tunable Ambipolar Polarization-Sensitive Photodetectors Based on High-Anisotropy ReSe2 Nanosheets.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Enze; Wang, Peng; Li, Zhe; Wang, Haifeng; Song, Chaoyu; Huang, Ce; Chen, Zhi-Gang; Yang, Lei; Zhang, Kaitai; Lu, Shiheng; Wang, Weiyi; Liu, Shanshan; Fang, Hehai; Zhou, Xiaohao; Yan, Hugen; Zou, Jin; Wan, Xiangang; Zhou, Peng; Hu, Weida; Xiu, Faxian

    2016-08-23

    Atomically thin 2D-layered transition-metal dichalcogenides have been studied extensively in recent years because of their intriguing physical properties and promising applications in nanoelectronic devices. Among them, ReSe2 is an emerging material that exhibits a stable distorted 1T phase and strong in-plane anisotropy due to its reduced crystal symmetry. Here, the anisotropic nature of ReSe2 is revealed by Raman spectroscopy under linearly polarized excitations in which different vibration modes exhibit pronounced periodic variations in intensity. Utilizing high-quality ReSe2 nanosheets, top-gate ReSe2 field-effect transistors were built that show an excellent on/off current ratio exceeding 10(7) and a well-developed current saturation in the current-voltage characteristics at room temperature. Importantly, the successful synthesis of ReSe2 directly onto hexagonal boron nitride substrates has effectively improved the electron motility over 500 times and the hole mobility over 100 times at low temperatures. Strikingly, corroborating with our density-functional calculations, the ReSe2-based photodetectors exhibit a polarization-sensitive photoresponsivity due to the intrinsic linear dichroism originated from high in-plane optical anisotropy. With a back-gate voltage, the linear dichroism photodetection can be unambiguously tuned both in the electron and hole regime. The appealing physical properties demonstrated in this study clearly identify ReSe2 as a highly anisotropic 2D material for exotic electronic and optoelectronic applications. PMID:27472807

  9. Exploring the promising properties of 2D exfoliated black phosphorus for optoelectronic applications under 1.55 μm optical excitation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Penillard, A.; Tripon-Canseliet, C.; Maksimovic, I.; Rosticher, M.; Servet, B.; Liu, Z.; Géron, E.

    2016-04-01

    A great interest has been lately initiated in the optoelectronics field for 2D materials with a tunable bandgap. Being able to choose the bandgap of a material is a huge progress in optoelectronics, since it would permit to overcome the limitation imposed by the graphene lack of energy bandgap, but also the restriction imposed by already used semiconductor whose bandgap are fixed and cannot apply for IR-NIR applications. From DFT simulations predictions, Black Phosphorus (bP) becomes a bidimensional semiconducting material with a direct tunable energy bandgap from 0.3 eV to 2 eV by controlling number of layers. This material also has a picosecond carrier response and exceptional mobilities under external excitation. Hence black phosphorus is a promising 2D material candidate for photoconductive switching under a NIR optical excitation as in telecommunication wavelength range of 1.55 μm. In this paper, material electromagnetic properties analysis is described in a large frequency band from optical to microwave measurements executed on different samples allowing energy bandgap and work function dependency to fabrication techniques, anisotropy and multiscale optoelectronic device realization by switch contact engineering and material passivation or encapsulation. Material implementation in microwave devices opens the route to new broadband electronic functionalities triggered by optics, thanks to light/matter extreme confinement degree. In this paper we present fabrication method of bP based microwave photoconductive switch, with a focus on black phosphorus Raman characterization, and obtained performances.

  10. Anisotropy in solid inflation

    SciTech Connect

    Bartolo, Nicola; Matarrese, Sabino; Ricciardone, Angelo; Peloso, Marco E-mail: sabino.matarrese@pd.infn.it E-mail: angelo.ricciardone@pd.infn.it

    2013-08-01

    In the model of solid / elastic inflation, inflation is driven by a source that has the field theoretical description of a solid. To allow for prolonged slow roll inflation, the solid needs to be extremely insensitive to the spatial expansion. We point out that, because of this property, the solid is also rather inefficient in erasing anisotropic deformations of the geometry. This allows for a prolonged inflationary anisotropic solution, providing the first example with standard gravity and scalar fields only which evades the conditions of the so called cosmic no-hair conjecture. We compute the curvature perturbations on the anisotropic solution, and the corresponding phenomenological bound on the anisotropy. Finally, we discuss the analogy between this model and the f(φ)F{sup 2} model, which also allows for anisotropic inflation thanks to a suitable coupling between the inflaton φ and a vector field. We remark that the bispectrum of the curvature perturbations in solid inflation is enhanced in the squeezed limit and presents a nontrivial angular dependence, as had previously been found for the f(φ)F{sup 2} model.

  11. Anisotropy in rotating drums

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Povall, Timothy; McBride, Andrew; Govender, Indresan

    2015-11-01

    An anisotropic relationship between the stress and the strain rate has been observed in two-dimensional simulations of rotating drums. The objective of this work is to investigate the structure of the constitutive relation using three-dimensional discrete-element-method simulations of a rotating drum containing identical rigid spheres for a range of rotational speeds. Anisotropy is quantified from the alignment of the stress and strain rate tensors, with the strain rate computed using a least-squares fit. It is shown that in certain regions there is a strong anisotropic relationship, regardless of the speed of rotation. The effective friction coefficient is examined in order to determine the phase space in which the μ (I) rheology is valid. Lastly, a depth-averaged approach through the flowing layer is employed to determine the relationship between the velocity tangential to the equilibrium surface and the height of the flowing layer. A power-law relationship that approaches linear at high speeds is observed. Supported by NRF/DST Scarce Skills (South Africa).

  12. THz quantum cascade lasers operating on the radiative modes of a 2D photonic crystal.

    PubMed

    Halioua, Y; Xu, G; Moumdji, S; Li, L H; Davies, A G; Linfield, E H; Colombelli, R

    2014-07-01

    Photonic-crystal lasers operating on Γ-point band-edge states of a photonic structure naturally exploit the so-called "nonradiative" modes. As the surface output coupling efficiency of these modes is low, they have relatively high Q factors, which favor lasing. We propose a new 2D photonic-crystal design that is capable of reversing this mode competition and achieving lasing on the radiative modes instead. Previously, this has only been shown in 1D structures, where the central idea is to introduce anisotropy into the system, both at unit-cell and resonator scales. By applying this concept to 2D photonic-crystal patterned terahertz frequency quantum cascade lasers, surface-emitting devices with diffraction-limited beams are demonstrated, with 17 mW peak output power.

  13. The inspection of anisotropic single-crystal components using a 2-D ultrasonic array.

    PubMed

    Lane, Christopher J L; Dunhill, A K; Drinkwater, Bruce W; Wilcox, Paul D

    2010-12-01

    Single-crystal metal alloys are used extensively in the manufacture of jet engine components for their excellent mechanical properties at elevated temperatures. The inspection of these components using 2-D ultrasonic arrays potentially allows the detection of subsurface defects in threedimensions from one inspection location. Such methods are not currently suitable for the inspection of single-crystal components because the high elastic anisotropy of single-crystal materials causes directional variation in ultrasonic waves. In this paper, a model of wave propagation in anisotropic material is used to correct an ultrasonic imaging algorithm and is applied to a single-crystal test specimen. For this correctedalgorithm, the orientation of the crystal in a specimen must be known before the inspection. Using the same ultrasonic array to measure the orientation and perform the defect inspection offers the most practical solution. Therefore, potential crystallographic orientation methods using 2-D ultrasonic arrays are also developed and evaluated. PMID:21156370

  14. ENERGY LANDSCAPE OF 2D FLUID FORMS

    SciTech Connect

    Y. JIANG; ET AL

    2000-04-01

    The equilibrium states of 2D non-coarsening fluid foams, which consist of bubbles with fixed areas, correspond to local minima of the total perimeter. (1) The authors find an approximate value of the global minimum, and determine directly from an image how far a foam is from its ground state. (2) For (small) area disorder, small bubbles tend to sort inwards and large bubbles outwards. (3) Topological charges of the same sign repel while charges of opposite sign attract. (4) They discuss boundary conditions and the uniqueness of the pattern for fixed topology.

  15. Lower crust and upper mantle electrical anisotropy in southeastern Australia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dennis, Zara R. 13Thiel, Stephan 2Cull, James P.

    2012-08-01

    The dominant north-south strike of the Palaeozoic outcrop of central Victoria has been well documented, but to the north, these rocks are covered by the Cainozoic sedimentary deposits of the Murray Basin. Two magnetotelluric surveys were completed to assist in extrapolation of the known structure and to identify possible new targets for mineral discovery. Supporting the results from previous seismic interpretations for the region, the 2D MT inversion models substantiate an intrazone thrust fault system of listric geometries in the Bendigo Zone connected in the mid-crust. With the zone boundary clearly defined the electrical resistivity structure is distinct between the major subdivisions, indicating a different tectonic evolution for the Bendigo and Melbourne Zones. However, the conductive overburden in the region poses complications for the generation of the 2D resistivity models. Static shifts and electrical anisotropy were identified as distortions in the dataset, with further processing needed to attain a complete picture of the underlying geology. The difficulties caused by galvanic distortion were allayed by using the phase tensor response in place of the distorted amplitude response. Phase tensor analysis of MT data has been completed subsequently, the results of which we present here, along with the original 2D inversion models, confirming that electrical anisotropy persists into the mantle.

  16. Broadband THz Spectroscopy of 2D Nanoscale Materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Lu; Tripathi, Shivendra; Huang, Mengchen; Hsu, Jen-Feng; D'Urso, Brian; Lee, Hyungwoo; Eom, Chang-Beom; Irvin, Patrick; Levy, Jeremy

    Two-dimensional (2D) materials such as graphene and transition-metal dichalcogenides (TMDC) have attracted intense research interest in the past decade. Their unique electronic and optical properties offer the promise of novel optoelectronic applications in the terahertz regime. Recently, generation and detection of broadband terahertz (10 THz bandwidth) emission from 10-nm-scale LaAlO3/SrTiO3 nanostructures created by conductive atomic force microscope (c-AFM) lithography has been demonstrated . This unprecedented control of THz emission at 10 nm length scales creates a pathway toward hybrid THz functionality in 2D-material/LaAlO3/SrTiO3 heterostructures. Here we report initial efforts in THz spectroscopy of 2D nanoscale materials with resolution comparable to the dimensions of the nanowire (10 nm). Systems under investigation include graphene, single-layer molybdenum disulfide (MoS2), and tungsten diselenide (WSe2) nanoflakes. 1. Y. Ma, et al., Nano Lett. 13, 2884 (2013). We gratefully acknowledge financial support from the following agencies and grants: AFOSR (FA9550-12-1-0268 (JL, PRI), FA9550-12-1-0342 (CBE)), ONR (N00014-13-1-0806 (JL, CBE), N00014-15-1-2847 (JL)), NSF DMR-1124131 (JL, CBE) and DMR-1234096 (CBE).

  17. Molecular anisotropy effects in carbon K-edge scattering: depolarized diffuse scattering and optical anisotropy

    SciTech Connect

    Stone, Kevin H.

    2014-07-14

    Some polymer properties, such as conductivity, are very sensitive to short- and intermediate-range orientational and positional ordering of anisotropic molecular functional groups, and yet means to characterize orientational order in disordered systems are very limited. We demonstrate that resonant scattering at the carbon K-edge is uniquely sensitive to short-range orientation correlations in polymers through depolarized scattering at high momentum transfers, using atactic polystyrene as a well-characterized test system. Depolarized scattering is found to coexist with unpolarized fluorescence, and to exhibit pronounced anisotropy. We also quantify the spatially averaged optical anisotropy from low-angle reflectivity measurements, finding anisotropy consistent with prior visible, x-ray absorption, and theoretical studies. The average anisotropy is much smaller than that in the depolarized scattering and the two have different character. Both measurements exhibit clear spectral signatures from the phenyl rings and the polyethylene-like backbone. Discussion focuses on analysis considerations and prospects for using this depolarized scattering for studies of disorder in soft condensed matter.

  18. Microwave Assisted 2D Materials Exfoliation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Yanbin

    Two-dimensional materials have emerged as extremely important materials with applications ranging from energy and environmental science to electronics and biology. Here we report our discovery of a universal, ultrafast, green, solvo-thermal technology for producing excellent-quality, few-layered nanosheets in liquid phase from well-known 2D materials such as such hexagonal boron nitride (h-BN), graphite, and MoS2. We start by mixing the uniform bulk-layered material with a common organic solvent that matches its surface energy to reduce the van der Waals attractive interactions between the layers; next, the solutions are heated in a commercial microwave oven to overcome the energy barrier between bulk and few-layers states. We discovered the minutes-long rapid exfoliation process is highly temperature dependent, which requires precise thermal management to obtain high-quality inks. We hypothesize a possible mechanism of this proposed solvo-thermal process; our theory confirms the basis of this novel technique for exfoliation of high-quality, layered 2D materials by using an as yet unknown role of the solvent.

  19. Multienzyme Inkjet Printed 2D Arrays.

    PubMed

    Gdor, Efrat; Shemesh, Shay; Magdassi, Shlomo; Mandler, Daniel

    2015-08-19

    The use of printing to produce 2D arrays is well established, and should be relatively facile to adapt for the purpose of printing biomaterials; however, very few studies have been published using enzyme solutions as inks. Among the printing technologies, inkjet printing is highly suitable for printing biomaterials and specifically enzymes, as it offers many advantages. Formulation of the inkjet inks is relatively simple and can be adjusted to a variety of biomaterials, while providing nonharmful environment to the enzymes. Here we demonstrate the applicability of inkjet printing for patterning multiple enzymes in a predefined array in a very straightforward, noncontact method. Specifically, various arrays of the enzymes glucose oxidase (GOx), invertase (INV) and horseradish peroxidase (HP) were printed on aminated glass surfaces, followed by immobilization using glutardialdehyde after printing. Scanning electrochemical microscopy (SECM) was used for imaging the printed patterns and to ascertain the enzyme activity. The successful formation of 2D arrays consisting of enzymes was explored as a means of developing the first surface confined enzyme based logic gates. Principally, XOR and AND gates, each consisting of two enzymes as the Boolean operators, were assembled, and their operation was studied by SECM. PMID:26214072

  20. Structural origins of diamagnetic anisotropy in proteins.

    PubMed Central

    Worcester, D L

    1978-01-01

    Magnetic anisotropy in proteins and polypeptides can be attributed to the diamagnetic anisotropy of the planar peptide bonds. The alpha helix in particular has large anisotropy due to the axial alignment of the peptide bonds. The regular arrangements of the peptide bonds in beta pleated sheet and collagen structures also produce substantial anisotropy, but less than for alpha helix. The anisotropy permits orientation of small structures of these types in magnetic fields of several kilogauss. PMID:281695

  1. Polymorphism, crystal nucleation and growth in the phase-field crystal model in 2D and 3D.

    PubMed

    Tóth, Gyula I; Tegze, György; Pusztai, Tamás; Tóth, Gergely; Gránásy, László

    2010-09-15

    We apply a simple dynamical density functional theory, the phase-field crystal (PFC) model of overdamped conservative dynamics, to address polymorphism, crystal nucleation, and crystal growth in the diffusion-controlled limit. We refine the phase diagram for 3D, and determine the line free energy in 2D and the height of the nucleation barrier in 2D and 3D for homogeneous and heterogeneous nucleation by solving the respective Euler-Lagrange (EL) equations. We demonstrate that, in the PFC model, the body-centered cubic (bcc), the face-centered cubic (fcc), and the hexagonal close-packed structures (hcp) compete, while the simple cubic structure is unstable, and that phase preference can be tuned by changing the model parameters: close to the critical point the bcc structure is stable, while far from the critical point the fcc prevails, with an hcp stability domain in between. We note that with increasing distance from the critical point the equilibrium shapes vary from the sphere to specific faceted shapes: rhombic dodecahedron (bcc), truncated octahedron (fcc), and hexagonal prism (hcp). Solving the equation of motion of the PFC model supplied with conserved noise, solidification starts with the nucleation of an amorphous precursor phase, into which the stable crystalline phase nucleates. The growth rate is found to be time dependent and anisotropic; this anisotropy depends on the driving force. We show that due to the diffusion-controlled growth mechanism, which is especially relevant for crystal aggregation in colloidal systems, dendritic growth structures evolve in large-scale isothermal single-component PFC simulations. An oscillatory effective pair potential resembling those for model glass formers has been evaluated from structural data of the amorphous phase obtained by instantaneous quenching. Finally, we present results for eutectic solidification in a binary PFC model. PMID:21386517

  2. Screening and transport in 2D semiconductor systems at low temperatures

    PubMed Central

    Das Sarma, S.; Hwang, E. H.

    2015-01-01

    Low temperature carrier transport properties in 2D semiconductor systems can be theoretically well-understood within RPA-Boltzmann theory as being limited by scattering from screened Coulomb disorder arising from random quenched charged impurities in the environment. In this work, we derive a number of analytical formula, supported by realistic numerical calculations, for the relevant density, mobility, and temperature range where 2D transport should manifest strong intrinsic (i.e., arising purely from electronic effects) metallic temperature dependence in different semiconductor materials arising entirely from the 2D screening properties, thus providing an explanation for why the strong temperature dependence of the 2D resistivity can only be observed in high-quality and low-disorder 2D samples and also why some high-quality 2D materials manifest much weaker metallicity than other materials. We also discuss effects of interaction and disorder on the 2D screening properties in this context as well as compare 2D and 3D screening functions to comment why such a strong intrinsic temperature dependence arising from screening cannot occur in 3D metallic carrier transport. Experimentally verifiable predictions are made about the quantitative magnitude of the maximum possible low-temperature metallicity in 2D systems and the scaling behavior of the temperature scale controlling the quantum to classical crossover. PMID:26572738

  3. 2D quantum gravity at three loops: A counterterm investigation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leduc, Lætitia; Bilal, Adel

    2016-02-01

    We analyze the divergences of the three-loop partition function at fixed area in 2D quantum gravity. Considering the Liouville action in the Kähler formalism, we extract the coefficient of the leading divergence ∼ AΛ2(ln ⁡ AΛ2) 2. This coefficient is non-vanishing. We discuss the counterterms one can and must add and compute their precise contribution to the partition function. This allows us to conclude that every local and non-local divergence in the partition function can be balanced by local counterterms, with the only exception of the maximally non-local divergence (ln ⁡ AΛ2) 3. Yet, this latter is computed and does cancel between the different three-loop diagrams. Thus, requiring locality of the counterterms is enough to renormalize the partition function. Finally, the structure of the new counterterms strongly suggests that they can be understood as a renormalization of the measure action.

  4. 2-D or not 2-D, that is the question: A Northern California test

    SciTech Connect

    Mayeda, K; Malagnini, L; Phillips, W S; Walter, W R; Dreger, D

    2005-06-06

    Reliable estimates of the seismic source spectrum are necessary for accurate magnitude, yield, and energy estimation. In particular, how seismic radiated energy scales with increasing earthquake size has been the focus of recent debate within the community and has direct implications on earthquake source physics studies as well as hazard mitigation. The 1-D coda methodology of Mayeda et al. has provided the lowest variance estimate of the source spectrum when compared against traditional approaches that use direct S-waves, thus making it ideal for networks that have sparse station distribution. The 1-D coda methodology has been mostly confined to regions of approximately uniform complexity. For larger, more geophysically complicated regions, 2-D path corrections may be required. The complicated tectonics of the northern California region coupled with high quality broadband seismic data provides for an ideal ''apples-to-apples'' test of 1-D and 2-D path assumptions on direct waves and their coda. Using the same station and event distribution, we compared 1-D and 2-D path corrections and observed the following results: (1) 1-D coda results reduced the amplitude variance relative to direct S-waves by roughly a factor of 8 (800%); (2) Applying a 2-D correction to the coda resulted in up to 40% variance reduction from the 1-D coda results; (3) 2-D direct S-wave results, though better than 1-D direct waves, were significantly worse than the 1-D coda. We found that coda-based moment-rate source spectra derived from the 2-D approach were essentially identical to those from the 1-D approach for frequencies less than {approx}0.7-Hz, however for the high frequencies (0.7{le} f {le} 8.0-Hz), the 2-D approach resulted in inter-station scatter that was generally 10-30% smaller. For complex regions where data are plentiful, a 2-D approach can significantly improve upon the simple 1-D assumption. In regions where only 1-D coda correction is available it is still preferable over 2

  5. Adaptive finite element modeling of direct current resistivity in 2-D generally anisotropic structures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yan, Bo; Li, Yuguo; Liu, Ying

    2016-07-01

    In this paper, we present an adaptive finite element (FE) algorithm for direct current (DC) resistivity modeling in 2-D generally anisotropic conductivity structures. Our algorithm is implemented on an unstructured triangular mesh that readily accommodates complex structures such as topography and dipping layers and so on. We implement a self-adaptive, goal-oriented grid refinement algorithm in which the finite element analysis is performed on a sequence of refined grids. The grid refinement process is guided by an a posteriori error estimator. The problem is formulated in terms of total potentials where mixed boundary conditions are incorporated. This type of boundary condition is superior to the Dirichlet type of conditions and improves numerical accuracy considerably according to model calculations. We have verified the adaptive finite element algorithm using a two-layered earth with azimuthal anisotropy. The FE algorithm with incorporation of mixed boundary conditions achieves high accuracy. The relative error between the numerical and analytical solutions is less than 1% except in the vicinity of the current source location, where the relative error is up to 2.4%. A 2-D anisotropic model is used to demonstrate the effects of anisotropy upon the apparent resistivity in DC soundings.

  6. Quantifying Therapeutic and Diagnostic Efficacy in 2D Microvascular Images

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Parsons-Wingerter, Patricia; Vickerman, Mary B.; Keith, Patricia A.

    2009-01-01

    VESGEN is a newly automated, user-interactive program that maps and quantifies the effects of vascular therapeutics and regulators on microvascular form and function. VESGEN analyzes two-dimensional, black and white vascular images by measuring important vessel morphology parameters. This software guides the user through each required step of the analysis process via a concise graphical user interface (GUI). Primary applications of the VESGEN code are 2D vascular images acquired as clinical diagnostic images of the human retina and as experimental studies of the effects of vascular regulators and therapeutics on vessel remodeling.

  7. Finite Element Analysis of 2-D Elastic Contacts Involving FGMs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abhilash, M. N.; Murthy, H.

    2014-05-01

    The response of elastic indenters in contact with Functionally Graded Material (FGM) coated homogeneous elastic half space has been presented in the current paper. Finite element analysis has been used due to its ability to handle complex geometry, material, and boundary conditions. Indenters of different typical surface profiles have been considered and the problem has been idealized as a two-dimensional (2D) plane strain problem considering only normal loads. Initially, indenters were considered to be rigid and the results were validated with the solutions presented in the literature. The analysis has then been extended to the case of elastic indenters on FGM-coated half spaces and the results are discussed.

  8. Energetic Electrons in Dipolarization Events: Spatial Properties and Anisotropy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Birn, J.; Runov, A.; Hesse, M.

    2014-01-01

    Using the electromagnetic fields of an MHD simulation of magnetotail reconnection, flow bursts, and dipolarization, we further investigate the acceleration of electrons to suprathermal energies. Particular emphasis is on spatial properties and anisotropies as functions of energy and time. The simulation results are compared with Time History of Events and Macroscale Interactions during Substorms observations. The test particle approach successfully reproduces several observed injection features and puts them into a context of spatial maps of the injection region(s): a dominance of perpendicular anisotropies farther down the tail and closer to the equatorial plane, an increasing importance of parallel anisotropy closer to Earth and at higher latitudes, a drop in energy fluxes at energies below approximately 10 keV, coinciding with the plasma density drop, together with increases at higher energy, a triple peak structure of flux increases near 0 deg, 90 deg, and 180 deg, and a tendency of flux increases to extend to higher energy closer to Earth and at lower latitudes. We identified the plasma sheet boundary layers and adjacent lobes as a main source region for both increased and decreased energetic electron fluxes, related to the different effects of adiabatic acceleration at high and low energies. The simulated anisotropies tend to exceed the observed ones, particularly for perpendicular fluxes at high energies. The most plausible reason is that the MHD simulation lacks the effects of anisotropy-driven microinstabilities and waves, which would reduce anisotropies.

  9. Canard configured aircraft with 2-D nozzle

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Child, R. D.; Henderson, W. P.

    1978-01-01

    A closely-coupled canard fighter with vectorable two-dimensional nozzle was designed for enhanced transonic maneuvering. The HiMAT maneuver goal of a sustained 8g turn at a free-stream Mach number of 0.9 and 30,000 feet was the primary design consideration. The aerodynamic design process was initiated with a linear theory optimization minimizing the zero percent suction drag including jet effects and refined with three-dimensional nonlinear potential flow techniques. Allowances were made for mutual interference and viscous effects. The design process to arrive at the resultant configuration is described, and the design of a powered 2-D nozzle model to be tested in the LRC 16-foot Propulsion Wind Tunnel is shown.

  10. 2D Electrostatic Actuation of Microshutter Arrays

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Burns, Devin E.; Oh, Lance H.; Li, Mary J.; Kelly, Daniel P.; Kutyrev, Alexander S.; Moseley, Samuel H.

    2015-01-01

    Electrostatically actuated microshutter arrays consisting of rotational microshutters (shutters that rotate about a torsion bar) were designed and fabricated through the use of models and experiments. Design iterations focused on minimizing the torsional stiffness of the microshutters, while maintaining their structural integrity. Mechanical and electromechanical test systems were constructed to measure the static and dynamic behavior of the microshutters. The torsional stiffness was reduced by a factor of four over initial designs without sacrificing durability. Analysis of the resonant behavior of the microshutters demonstrates that the first resonant mode is a torsional mode occurring around 3000 Hz. At low vacuum pressures, this resonant mode can be used to significantly reduce the drive voltage necessary for actuation requiring as little as 25V. 2D electrostatic latching and addressing was demonstrated using both a resonant and pulsed addressing scheme.

  11. 2D Electrostatic Actuation of Microshutter Arrays

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Burns, Devin E.; Oh, Lance H.; Li, Mary J.; Jones, Justin S.; Kelly, Daniel P.; Zheng, Yun; Kutyrev, Alexander S.; Moseley, Samuel H.

    2015-01-01

    An electrostatically actuated microshutter array consisting of rotational microshutters (shutters that rotate about a torsion bar) were designed and fabricated through the use of models and experiments. Design iterations focused on minimizing the torsional stiffness of the microshutters, while maintaining their structural integrity. Mechanical and electromechanical test systems were constructed to measure the static and dynamic behavior of the microshutters. The torsional stiffness was reduced by a factor of four over initial designs without sacrificing durability. Analysis of the resonant behavior of the microshutter arrays demonstrates that the first resonant mode is a torsional mode occurring around 3000 Hz. At low vacuum pressures, this resonant mode can be used to significantly reduce the drive voltage necessary for actuation requiring as little as 25V. 2D electrostatic latching and addressing was demonstrated using both a resonant and pulsed addressing scheme.

  12. 2D quantum gravity from quantum entanglement.

    PubMed

    Gliozzi, F

    2011-01-21

    In quantum systems with many degrees of freedom the replica method is a useful tool to study the entanglement of arbitrary spatial regions. We apply it in a way that allows them to backreact. As a consequence, they become dynamical subsystems whose position, form, and extension are determined by their interaction with the whole system. We analyze, in particular, quantum spin chains described at criticality by a conformal field theory. Its coupling to the Gibbs' ensemble of all possible subsystems is relevant and drives the system into a new fixed point which is argued to be that of the 2D quantum gravity coupled to this system. Numerical experiments on the critical Ising model show that the new critical exponents agree with those predicted by the formula of Knizhnik, Polyakov, and Zamolodchikov.

  13. Graphene suspensions for 2D printing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Soots, R. A.; Yakimchuk, E. A.; Nebogatikova, N. A.; Kotin, I. A.; Antonova, I. V.

    2016-04-01

    It is shown that, by processing a graphite suspension in ethanol or water by ultrasound and centrifuging, it is possible to obtain particles with thicknesses within 1-6 nm and, in the most interesting cases, 1-1.5 nm. Analogous treatment of a graphite suspension in organic solvent yields eventually thicker particles (up to 6-10 nm thick) even upon long-term treatment. Using the proposed ink based on graphene and aqueous ethanol with ethylcellulose and terpineol additives for 2D printing, thin (~5 nm thick) films with sheet resistance upon annealing ~30 MΩ/□ were obtained. With the ink based on aqueous graphene suspension, the sheet resistance was ~5-12 kΩ/□ for 6- to 15-nm-thick layers with a carrier mobility of ~30-50 cm2/(V s).

  14. Metrology for graphene and 2D materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pollard, Andrew J.

    2016-09-01

    The application of graphene, a one atom-thick honeycomb lattice of carbon atoms with superlative properties, such as electrical conductivity, thermal conductivity and strength, has already shown that it can be used to benefit metrology itself as a new quantum standard for resistance. However, there are many application areas where graphene and other 2D materials, such as molybdenum disulphide (MoS2) and hexagonal boron nitride (h-BN), may be disruptive, areas such as flexible electronics, nanocomposites, sensing and energy storage. Applying metrology to the area of graphene is now critical to enable the new, emerging global graphene commercial world and bridge the gap between academia and industry. Measurement capabilities and expertise in a wide range of scientific areas are required to address this challenge. The combined and complementary approach of varied characterisation methods for structural, chemical, electrical and other properties, will allow the real-world issues of commercialising graphene and other 2D materials to be addressed. Here, examples of metrology challenges that have been overcome through a multi-technique or new approach are discussed. Firstly, the structural characterisation of defects in both graphene and MoS2 via Raman spectroscopy is described, and how nanoscale mapping of vacancy defects in graphene is also possible using tip-enhanced Raman spectroscopy (TERS). Furthermore, the chemical characterisation and removal of polymer residue on chemical vapour deposition (CVD) grown graphene via secondary ion mass spectrometry (SIMS) is detailed, as well as the chemical characterisation of iron films used to grow large domain single-layer h-BN through CVD growth, revealing how contamination of the substrate itself plays a role in the resulting h-BN layer. In addition, the role of international standardisation in this area is described, outlining the current work ongoing in both the International Organization of Standardization (ISO) and the

  15. Heterogeneity and Disorder in Ti{1-x}Fe{y}O{2-d) Nanocrystal Rutile-based Flower Like Aggregates: Detection of Anatase

    SciTech Connect

    Bozin, E.S.; Kremenovic, A.; Antic, B.; Blanusa, J.; Comor, M.; Columban, P.; Mazerolles, L.

    2011-03-24

    Here we report results of systematic investigation of heterogeneity and disorder in Ti{sub 1-x}Fe{sub y}O{sub 2-d} nanorod rutile-based flowerlike aggregates. It was found that Ti{sub 1-x}Fe{sub y}O{sub 2-d} aggregates are composed of two crystalline phases: rutile as a dominant and anatase as a minor phase. Flowerlike aggregates were found to grow from an isometric core ca. 5-10 nm in diameter that was built from anatase and rutile nanorods ca. 5 x 100 nm that were grown on the anatase surface having base plane (001) intergrowth with an anatase plane. The direction of rutile nanorods growth, i.e., direction of the nanorod elongation, was [001]. Highly nonisometric rutile crystals produce anisotropic X-ray powder diffraction line broadening and doubling of vibrational bands in Raman spectra. Both these techniques confirmed nonisometric character of rutile crystals and gave a quantitative measure of crystal shape anisotropy in excellent agreement with high-resolution transmission electron microscopy measurements. In addition, from the atomic pair distribution function and Raman spectral analyses the level of vacancy concentration was determined in rutile and anatase phases of investigated samples.

  16. Experimental investigation of magnetic anisotropy in spin vortex discs

    SciTech Connect

    Garraud, N. Arnold, D. P.

    2014-05-07

    We present experimental 2D vector vibrating sample magnetometer measurements to demonstrate the shape anisotropy effects occurring in micrometer-diameter supermalloy spin vortex discs. Measurements made for different disc sizes and orientations confirm the out-of-plane susceptibility is several orders of magnitude smaller than the in-plane susceptibility. These results validate with a high certitude that spin vortices with high diameter to thickness ratio retain in-plane-only magnetization, even when subjected to fields in the out-of-plane direction. These results contribute to further computational simulations of the dynamics of spin vortex structures in colloidal suspensions where external fields may be applied in any arbitrary direction.

  17. Simulation of 2D Fields of Raindrop Size Distributions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Berne, A.; Schleiss, M.; Uijlenhoet, R.

    2008-12-01

    The raindrop size distribution (DSD hereafter) is of primary importance for quantitative applications of weather radar measurements. The radar reflectivity~Z (directly measured by radar) is related to the power backscattered by the ensemble of hydrometeors within the radar sampling volume. However, the rain rate~R (the flux of water to the surface) is the variable of interest for many applications (hydrology, weather forecasting, air traffic for example). Usually, radar reflectivity is converted into rain rate using a power law such as Z=aRb. The coefficients a and b of the Z-R relationship depend on the DSD. The variability of the DSD in space and time has to be taken into account to improve radar rain rate estimates. Therefore, the ability to generate a large number of 2D fields of DSD which are statistically homogeneous provides a very useful simulation framework that nicely complements experimental approaches based on DSD data, in order to investigate radar beam propagation through rain as well as radar retrieval techniques. The proposed approach is based on geostatistics for structural analysis and stochastic simulation. First, the DSD is assumed to follow a gamma distribution. Hence a 2D field of DSDs can be adequately described as a 2D field of a multivariate random function consisting of the three DSD parameters. Such fields are simulated by combining a Gaussian anamorphosis and a multivariate Gaussian random field simulation algorithm. Using the (cross-)variogram models fitted on data guaranties that the spatial structure of the simulated fields is consistent with the observed one. To assess its validity, the proposed method is applied to data collected during intense Mediterranean rainfall. As only time series are available, Taylor's hypothesis is assumed to convert time series in 1D range profile. Moreover, DSD fields are assumed to be isotropic so that the 1D structure can be used to simulate 2D fields. A large number of 2D fields of DSD parameters are

  18. Is 2-D turbulence relevant in the atmosphere?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lovejoy, Shaun; Schertzer, Daniel

    2010-05-01

    Starting with (Taylor, 1935), the paradigm of isotropic (and scaling!) turbulence was developed initially for laboratory applications, but following (Kolmogorov, 1941), three dimensional isotropic turbulence was progressively applied to the atmosphere. Since the atmosphere is strongly stratified, a single wide scale range model which is both isotropic and scaling is not possible so that theorists had to immediately choose between the two symmetries: isotropy or scale invariance. Following the development of models of two dimensional isotropic turbulence ((Fjortoft, 1953), but especially (Kraichnan, 1967) and (Charney, 1971)), the mainstream choice was to first make the convenient assumption of isotropy and to drop wide range scale invariance. Starting at the end of the 1970's this "isotropy primary" (IP) paradigm has lead to a series of increasingly complex isotropic 2D/isotropic 3D models of atmospheric dynamics which continue to dominate the theoretical landscape. Justifications for IP approaches have focused almost exclusively on the horizontal statistics of the horizontal wind in both numerical models and analyses and from aircraft campaigns, especially the highly cited GASP (Nastrom and Gage, 1983), (Gage and Nastrom, 1986; Nastrom and Gage, 1985) and MOZAIC (Cho and Lindborg, 2001) experiments. Since understanding the anisotropy clearly requires comparisons between horizontal and vertical statistics/structures this focus has been unfortunate. Over the same thirty year period that 2D/3D isotropic models were being elaborated, evidence slowly accumulated in favour of the opposite theoretical choice: to drop the isotropy assumption but to retain wide range scaling. The models in the alternative paradigm are scaling but strongly anisotropic with vertical sections of structures becoming increasingly stratified at larger and larger scales albeit in a power law manner; we collectively refer to these as "SP" for "scaling primary" approaches. Early authors explicitly

  19. TMD 2D Materials: Defects, Passivation, Functionalization and Device Impact

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wallace, Robert

    Transition metal dichalcogenides (TMDs) such as MoS2 have become popular in ``beyond CMOS'' device concepts and research due to their band structure in two-dimensional layers - viz. a significant band gap. Various device demonstrations have been reported utilizing exfoliated and synthesized single/few layer TMDs for possible electronic and photonic applications. The performance of such devices will also necessarily depend upon the TMD layer quality. The impact of defects and impurities on device transport characteristics is of interest, as well as methods to passivate and minimize their effects. The interaction of the TMDs with component materials, such as dielectrics and contacts, is also an important aspect. This talk will present our recent work using in-situ and ex-situ methods to understand the physics and chemistry of TMDs and their associated interfaces. This work was supported in part by the LEAST Center, one of the six SRC STARnet Centers, sponsored by MARCO and DARPA; the SWAN Center sponsored by the SRC NRI and NIST, and the NSF under Award ECCS-1407765.

  20. Rbfox proteins regulate tissue-specific alternative splicing of Mef2D required for muscle differentiation.

    PubMed

    Runfola, Valeria; Sebastian, Soji; Dilworth, F Jeffrey; Gabellini, Davide

    2015-02-15

    Among the Mef2 family of transcription factors, Mef2D is unique in that it undergoes tissue-specific splicing to generate an isoform that is essential for muscle differentiation. However, the mechanisms mediating this muscle-specific processing of Mef2D remain unknown. Using bioinformatics, we identified Rbfox proteins as putative modulators of Mef2D muscle-specific splicing. Accordingly, we found direct and specific Rbfox1 and Rbfox2 binding to Mef2D pre-mRNA in vivo. Gain- and loss-of-function experiments demonstrated that Rbfox1 and Rbfox2 cooperate in promoting Mef2D splicing and subsequent myogenesis. Thus, our findings reveal a new role for Rbfox proteins in regulating myogenesis through activation of essential muscle-specific splicing events.

  1. A new inversion method for (T2, D) 2D NMR logging and fluid typing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tan, Maojin; Zou, Youlong; Zhou, Cancan

    2013-02-01

    One-dimensional nuclear magnetic resonance (1D NMR) logging technology has some significant limitations in fluid typing. However, not only can two-dimensional nuclear magnetic resonance (2D NMR) provide some accurate porosity parameters, but it can also identify fluids more accurately than 1D NMR. In this paper, based on the relaxation mechanism of (T2, D) 2D NMR in a gradient magnetic field, a hybrid inversion method that combines least-squares-based QR decomposition (LSQR) and truncated singular value decomposition (TSVD) is examined in the 2D NMR inversion of various fluid models. The forward modeling and inversion tests are performed in detail with different acquisition parameters, such as magnetic field gradients (G) and echo spacing (TE) groups. The simulated results are discussed and described in detail, the influence of the above-mentioned observation parameters on the inversion accuracy is investigated and analyzed, and the observation parameters in multi-TE activation are optimized. Furthermore, the hybrid inversion can be applied to quantitatively determine the fluid saturation. To study the effects of noise level on the hybrid method and inversion results, the numerical simulation experiments are performed using different signal-to-noise-ratios (SNRs), and the effect of different SNRs on fluid typing using three fluid models are discussed and analyzed in detail.

  2. Three-bosons in 2D with a magnetic field

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rittenhouse, Seth; Johnson, Brad; Wray, Andrew; D'Incao, Jose

    2016-05-01

    Systems of interacting particles in reduced dimensions in the presence of external fields can exhibit a number of surprising behaviors, for instance the emergence of the fractional quantum Hall effect. Examining few-body interactions and effects can lead to significant insights within these systems. In this talk we examine a system of three bosons confined to two dimensions in the presence of a perpendicular magnetic field within the framework of the adiabatic hyperspherical method. For the case of zero-range, regularized pseudo-potential interactions, we find that the system is nearly separable in hyperspherical coordinates and that, away from a set of narrow avoided crossings, the full energy eigenspectrum as a function of the 2D s-wave scattering length is well described by ignoring coupling between adiabatic hyperradial potentials. In the case of weak attractive or repulsive interactions, we find the lowest three-body energy states exhibit even/odd parity oscillations as a function of total internal 2D angular momentum and that for weak repulsive interactions, the universal lowest energy interacting state has an internal angular momentum of M=3. We also discuss the effect of including finite range and higher partial-wave interactions.

  3. Amiba Observation of CMB Anisotropies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ng, Kin-Wang

    2003-03-01

    The Array for Microwave Background Anisotropies (AMiBA), a 13-element dual-channel 85-105 GHz interferometer array with full polarization capabilities, is being built to search for high redshift clusters of galaxies via the Sunyaev-Zel'dovich effect as well as to probe the polarization properties of the cosmic microwave background (CMB). We discuss several important issues in the observation of the CMB anisotropies such as observing strategy, l space resolution and mosaicing, optimal estimation of the power spectra, and ground pickup removal.

  4. Protein kinase A represses skeletal myogenesis by targeting myocyte enhancer factor 2D.

    PubMed

    Du, Min; Perry, Robert L S; Nowacki, Nathaniel B; Gordon, Joseph W; Salma, Jahan; Zhao, Jianzhong; Aziz, Arif; Chan, Joseph; Siu, K W Michael; McDermott, John C

    2008-05-01

    Activation of protein kinase A (PKA) by elevation of the intracellular cyclic AMP (cAMP) level inhibits skeletal myogenesis. Previously, an indirect modulation of the myogenic regulatory factors (MRFs) was implicated as the mechanism. Because myocyte enhancer factor 2 (MEF2) proteins are key regulators of myogenesis and obligatory partners for the MRFs, here we assessed whether these proteins could be involved in PKA-mediated myogenic repression. Initially, in silico analysis revealed several consensus PKA phosphoacceptor sites on MEF2, and subsequent analysis by in vitro kinase assays indicated that PKA directly and efficiently phosphorylates MEF2D. Using mass spectrometric determination of phosphorylated residues, we document that MEF2D serine 121 and serine 190 are targeted by PKA. Transcriptional reporter gene assays to assess MEF2D function revealed that PKA potently represses the transactivation properties of MEF2D. Furthermore, engineered mutation of MEF2D PKA phosphoacceptor sites (serines 121 and 190 to alanine) rendered a PKA-resistant MEF2D protein, which efficiently rescues myogenesis from PKA-mediated repression. Concomitantly, increased intracellular cAMP-mediated PKA activation also resulted in an enhanced nuclear accumulation of histone deacetylase 4 (HDAC4) and a subsequent increase in the MEF2D-HDAC4 repressor complex. Collectively, these data identify MEF2D as a primary target of PKA signaling in myoblasts that leads to inhibition of the skeletal muscle differentiation program.

  5. Radiofrequency Spectroscopy and Thermodynamics of Fermi Gases in the 2D to Quasi-2D Dimensional Crossover

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cheng, Chingyun; Kangara, Jayampathi; Arakelyan, Ilya; Thomas, John

    2016-05-01

    We tune the dimensionality of a strongly interacting degenerate 6 Li Fermi gas from 2D to quasi-2D, by adjusting the radial confinement of pancake-shaped clouds to control the radial chemical potential. In the 2D regime with weak radial confinement, the measured pair binding energies are in agreement with 2D-BCS mean field theory, which predicts dimer pairing energies in the many-body regime. In the qausi-2D regime obtained with increased radial confinement, the measured pairing energy deviates significantly from 2D-BCS theory. In contrast to the pairing energy, the measured radii of the cloud profiles are not fit by 2D-BCS theory in either the 2D or quasi-2D regimes, but are fit in both regimes by a beyond mean field polaron-model of the free energy. Supported by DOE, ARO, NSF, and AFOSR.

  6. Competing coexisting phases in 2D water

    PubMed Central

    Zanotti, Jean-Marc; Judeinstein, Patrick; Dalla-Bernardina, Simona; Creff, Gaëlle; Brubach, Jean-Blaise; Roy, Pascale; Bonetti, Marco; Ollivier, Jacques; Sakellariou, Dimitrios; Bellissent-Funel, Marie-Claire

    2016-01-01

    The properties of bulk water come from a delicate balance of interactions on length scales encompassing several orders of magnitudes: i) the Hydrogen Bond (HBond) at the molecular scale and ii) the extension of this HBond network up to the macroscopic level. Here, we address the physics of water when the three dimensional extension of the HBond network is frustrated, so that the water molecules are forced to organize in only two dimensions. We account for the large scale fluctuating HBond network by an analytical mean-field percolation model. This approach provides a coherent interpretation of the different events experimentally (calorimetry, neutron, NMR, near and far infra-red spectroscopies) detected in interfacial water at 160, 220 and 250 K. Starting from an amorphous state of water at low temperature, these transitions are respectively interpreted as the onset of creation of transient low density patches of 4-HBonded molecules at 160 K, the percolation of these domains at 220 K and finally the total invasion of the surface by them at 250 K. The source of this surprising behaviour in 2D is the frustration of the natural bulk tetrahedral local geometry and the underlying very significant increase in entropy of the interfacial water molecules. PMID:27185018

  7. Competing coexisting phases in 2D water

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zanotti, Jean-Marc; Judeinstein, Patrick; Dalla-Bernardina, Simona; Creff, Gaëlle; Brubach, Jean-Blaise; Roy, Pascale; Bonetti, Marco; Ollivier, Jacques; Sakellariou, Dimitrios; Bellissent-Funel, Marie-Claire

    2016-05-01

    The properties of bulk water come from a delicate balance of interactions on length scales encompassing several orders of magnitudes: i) the Hydrogen Bond (HBond) at the molecular scale and ii) the extension of this HBond network up to the macroscopic level. Here, we address the physics of water when the three dimensional extension of the HBond network is frustrated, so that the water molecules are forced to organize in only two dimensions. We account for the large scale fluctuating HBond network by an analytical mean-field percolation model. This approach provides a coherent interpretation of the different events experimentally (calorimetry, neutron, NMR, near and far infra-red spectroscopies) detected in interfacial water at 160, 220 and 250 K. Starting from an amorphous state of water at low temperature, these transitions are respectively interpreted as the onset of creation of transient low density patches of 4-HBonded molecules at 160 K, the percolation of these domains at 220 K and finally the total invasion of the surface by them at 250 K. The source of this surprising behaviour in 2D is the frustration of the natural bulk tetrahedral local geometry and the underlying very significant increase in entropy of the interfacial water molecules.

  8. Quantifying reflectance anisotropy of photosynthetically active radiation in grasslands

    SciTech Connect

    Middleton, E.M. )

    1992-11-30

    This work is part of the First International Satellite Land Surface Climatology Project (ISLSCP) Field Experiment (FIFE), an international land-surface-atmosphere experiment aimed at improving the way climate models represent energy, water, heat, and carbon exchanges, and improving the utilization of satellite based remote sensing to monitor such parameters. This paper reports on a study to quantify the reflectance anisotropy of the photosynthetically active radiation (PAR) for grasslands. PAR falls in the wavelength range 0.4 to 0.7[mu]m. The study looks at the variation of PAR with illumination and vegetative canopy conditions. It uses bidirectional reflectance distribution function data, and measures of anisotropy derived from reflectance factor and reflectance fraction data to aid in the analysis. The data used for this analysis came from an intense effort mounted to measure diurnal changes in the anisotropy of surface reflectance from prairie grassland as a function of the vegetative canopy.

  9. Developmental correlation of diffusion anisotropy with auditory-evoked response.

    PubMed

    Roberts, Timothy P L; Khan, Sarah Y; Blaskey, Lisa; Dell, John; Levy, Susan E; Zarnow, Deborah M; Edgar, J Christopher

    2009-12-01

    White matter diffusion anisotropy in the acoustic radiations of the auditory pathway was characterized as a function of development in children and adolescents. Auditory-evoked neuromagnetic fields were also recorded from the same individuals, and the latency of the left and right superior temporal gyrus auditory response of approximately 100 ms was also obtained. White matter diffusion anisotropy increased with age. There was a commensurate shortening of the auditory-evoked response latency with increased age as well as with increased white matter diffusion anisotropy. The significant negative correlation between structural integrity of white matter pathways and electrophysiological function (response timing) of distal cortex supports a biophysical model of developmental changes in white matter myelination, conduction velocity, and cortical response timing.

  10. Grupos de galaxias en el catálogo 2dF: La estructura en gran escala con grupos

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zandivarez, A.; Merchán, M. E.; Padilla, N. D.

    We use the 2dF Galaxy Group Catalogue constructed by Merchán & Zandivarez to study the large scale structure of the Universe traced by galaxy groups. The resulting group power spectrum shows a similar shape to the galaxy power spectrum of the 2dF Galaxy Redshift Survey, but with a higher amplitude quantified by a relative bias in redshift space of bs(k) ˜ 1.5. The group two point correlation function ξ(s) for the total sample is well described by a power law with correlation length s0=8.9 ± 0.3 h-1 Mpc and slope γ=-1.6 ± 0.1. In order to study the dependence of the clustering properties on group mass we split the catalogue in four subsamples defined by different ranges of group virial masses finding that our results are consistent with a 40% increase of the correlation length s0. These computations allow a fair estimate of the relation described by s0 and the mean intergroup separation dc. An empirical scaling law s0=4.7 dc0.32 provides a very good fit to the results from this work, as well as to previous results obtained for groups and clusters of galaxies and for dark matter haloes in N-body simulations of ΛCDM models. We also study the redshift space distortions of galaxy groups, finding that the anisotropies in the clustering pattern of groups are consistent with gravitational instability, with a flattening of the ξ(s) contours in the direction of the line of sight and group pairwise velocities found for almost the whole sample of groups are consistent with < w2 >1/2 = (280+50-110)km/s, in agreement with ΛCDM cosmological simulations. The bias factor for the 2dF groups of moderate masses is consistent with the values predicted by the combination of a CDM model and the ellipsoidal collapse model for the formation of structures.

  11. Prevalence of CYP2D6*2, CYP2D6*4, CYP2D6*10, and CYP3A5*3 in Thai breast cancer patients undergoing tamoxifen treatment

    PubMed Central

    Charoenchokthavee, Wanaporn; Panomvana, Duangchit; Sriuranpong, Virote; Areepium, Nutthada

    2016-01-01

    Background Tamoxifen (TAM) is used in breast cancer treatment, but interindividual variabilities in TAM-metabolizing enzymes exist and have been linked to single nucleotide polymorphisms in the respective encoding genes. The different alleles and genotypes of these genes have been presented for Caucasians and Asians. This study aimed to explore the prevalence of the incomplete functional alleles and genotypes of the CYP2D6 and CYP3A5 genes in Thai breast cancer patients undergoing TAM treatment. Patients and methods In total, 134 Thai breast cancer patients were randomly invited to join the Thai Tamoxifen Project. Their blood samples were collected and extracted for individual DNA. The alleles and genotypes were determined by real-time polymerase chain reaction with TaqMan® Drug Metabolism Genotyping Assays. Results The patients were aged from 27.0 years to 82.0 years with a body mass index range from 15.4 to 40.0, with the majority (103/134) in the early stage (stages 0–II) of breast cancer. The median duration of TAM administration was 17.2 months (interquartile range 16.1 months). Most (53%) of the patients were premenopausal with an estrogen receptor (ER) and progesterone receptor (PR) status of ER+/PR+ (71.7%), ER+/PR− (26.9%), ER−/PR+ (0.7%), and ER−/PR− (0.7%). The allele frequencies of CYP2D6*1, CYP2D6*2, CYP2D6*4, CYP2D6*10, CYP3A5*1, and CYP3A5*3 were 72.9%, 3.2%, 1.1%, 22.8%, 37.3%, and 62.7%, respectively, while the genotype frequencies of CYP2D6*1/*1, CYP2D6*1/*2, CYP2D6*2/*2, CYP2D6*4/*4, CYP2D6*1/*10, CYP2D6*2/*10, CYP2D6*4/*10, CYP2D6*10/*10, CYP3A5*1/*1, CYP3A5*1/*3, and CYP3A5*3/*3 were 9.7%, 2.2%, 3.7%, 1.5%, 15.7%, 9.7%, 3.7%, 53.7%, 13.4%, 47.8%, and 38.8%, respectively. Conclusion The majority (97.8%) of Thai breast cancer patients undergoing TAM treatment carry at least one incomplete functional allele, including 20.9% of the patients who carry only incomplete functional alleles for both the CYP2D6 and CYP3A5 genes. This research

  12. Axisymmetric equilibria with pressure anisotropy and plasma flow

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Throumoulopoulos, George; Evangelias, Achilleas

    2015-11-01

    A generalised Grad-Shafranov equation that governs the equilibrium of an axisymmetric toroidal plasma with anisotropic pressure and incompressible flow of arbitrary direction is derived. This equation includes six free surface functions and recovers known Grad-Shafranov-like equations in the literature as well as the usual static, isotropic one. The form of the generalised equation indicates that pressure anisotropy and flow act additively on equilibrium. In addition, two sets of analytical solutions, an extended Solovev one with a free boundary and an extended Hernegger-Maschke one for a plasma surrounded by a fixed boundary possessing an X-point, are constructed, particularly in relevance to the ITER and NSTX tokamaks. Furthermore, the impacts both of pressure anisotropy and plasma flow on these equilibria are examined. It turns out that depending on the maximum value and the shape of an anisotropy function, the anisotropy can act either paramagnetically or diamagnetically. Also, in most of the cases considered both the anisotropy and the flow have stronger effects on NSTX equilibria than on ITER ones. This work has been carried out within the framework of the EUROfusion Consortium and has received funding from (a) the National Programme for the Controlled Thermonuclear Fusion, Hellenic Republic, (b) Euratom research and training programme 2014-2018.

  13. An estimator for statistical anisotropy from the CMB bispectrum

    SciTech Connect

    Bartolo, N.; Dimastrogiovanni, E.; Matarrese, S.; Liguori, M.; Riotto, A. E-mail: dimastro@pd.infn.it E-mail: sabino.matarrese@pd.infn.it

    2012-01-01

    Various data analyses of the Cosmic Microwave Background (CMB) provide observational hints of statistical isotropy breaking. Some of these features can be studied within the framework of primordial vector fields in inflationary theories which generally display some level of statistical anisotropy both in the power spectrum and in higher-order correlation functions. Motivated by these observations and the recent theoretical developments in the study of primordial vector fields, we develop the formalism necessary to extract statistical anisotropy information from the three-point function of the CMB temperature anisotropy. We employ a simplified vector field model and parametrize the bispectrum of curvature fluctuations in such a way that all the information about statistical anisotropy is encoded in some parameters λ{sub LM} (which measure the anisotropic to the isotropic bispectrum amplitudes). For such a template bispectrum, we compute an optimal estimator for λ{sub LM} and the expected signal-to-noise ratio. We estimate that, for f{sub NL} ≅ 30, an experiment like Planck can be sensitive to a ratio of the anisotropic to the isotropic amplitudes of the bispectrum as small as 10%. Our results are complementary to the information coming from a power spectrum analysis and particularly relevant for those models where statistical anisotropy turns out to be suppressed in the power spectrum but not negligible in the bispectrum.

  14. Magnetoresistance in Co/2D MoS2/Co and Ni/2D MoS2/Ni junctions.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Han; Ye, Meng; Wang, Yangyang; Quhe, Ruge; Pan, Yuanyuan; Guo, Ying; Song, Zhigang; Yang, Jinbo; Guo, Wanlin; Lu, Jing

    2016-06-28

    Semiconducting single-layer (SL) and few-layer MoS2 have a flat surface, free of dangling bonds. Using density functional theory coupled with non-equilibrium Green's function method, we investigate the spin-polarized transport properties of Co/2D MoS2/Co and Ni/2D MoS2/Ni junctions with MoS2 layer numbers of N = 1, 3, and 5. Well-defined interfaces are formed between MoS2 and metal electrodes. The junctions with a SL MoS2 spacer are almost metallic owing to the strong coupling between MoS2 and the ferromagnets, while those are tunneling with a few layer MoS2 spacer. Both large magnetoresistance and tunneling magnetoresistance are found when fcc or hcp Co is used as an electrode. Therefore, flat single- and few-layer MoS2 can serve as an effective nonmagnetic spacer in a magnetoresistance or tunneling magnetoresistance device with a well-defined interface.

  15. Magnetoresistance in Co/2D MoS2/Co and Ni/2D MoS2/Ni junctions.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Han; Ye, Meng; Wang, Yangyang; Quhe, Ruge; Pan, Yuanyuan; Guo, Ying; Song, Zhigang; Yang, Jinbo; Guo, Wanlin; Lu, Jing

    2016-06-28

    Semiconducting single-layer (SL) and few-layer MoS2 have a flat surface, free of dangling bonds. Using density functional theory coupled with non-equilibrium Green's function method, we investigate the spin-polarized transport properties of Co/2D MoS2/Co and Ni/2D MoS2/Ni junctions with MoS2 layer numbers of N = 1, 3, and 5. Well-defined interfaces are formed between MoS2 and metal electrodes. The junctions with a SL MoS2 spacer are almost metallic owing to the strong coupling between MoS2 and the ferromagnets, while those are tunneling with a few layer MoS2 spacer. Both large magnetoresistance and tunneling magnetoresistance are found when fcc or hcp Co is used as an electrode. Therefore, flat single- and few-layer MoS2 can serve as an effective nonmagnetic spacer in a magnetoresistance or tunneling magnetoresistance device with a well-defined interface. PMID:27257639

  16. 2-D Animation's Not Just for Mickey Mouse.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weinman, Lynda

    1995-01-01

    Discusses characteristics of two-dimensional (2-D) animation; highlights include character animation, painting issues, and motion graphics. Sidebars present Silicon Graphics animations tools and 2-D animation programs for the desktop computer. (DGM)

  17. Multi-dimensional Magnetotelluric Modeling of General Anisotropy and Its Implication for Structural Interpretation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guo, Z.; Wei, W.; Egbert, G. D.

    2015-12-01

    Although electrical anisotropy is likely at various scales in the Earth, present 3D inversion codes only allow for isotropic models. In fact, any effects of anisotropy present in any real data can always be accommodated by (possibly fine scale) isotropic structures. This suggests that some complex structures found in 3D inverse solutions (e.g., alternating elongate conductive and resistive "streaks" of Meqbel et al. (2014)), may actually represent anisotropic layers. As a step towards better understanding how anisotropy is manifest in 3D inverse models, and to better incorporate anisotropy in 3D MT interpretations, we have implemented new 1D, 2D AND 3D forward modeling codes which allow for general anisotropy and are implemented in matlab using an object oriented (OO) approach. The 1D code is used primarily to provide boundary conditions (BCs). For the 2D case we have used the OO approach to quickly develop and compare several variants including different formulations (three coupled electric field components, one electric and one magnetic component coupled) and different discretizations (staggered and fixed grids). The 3D case is implemented in integral form on a staggered grid, using either 1D or 2D BC. Iterative solvers, including divergence correction, allow solution for large model grids. As an initial application of these codes we are conducting synthetic inversion tests. We construct test models by replacing streaky conductivity layers, as found at the top of the mantle in the EarthScope models of Meqbel et al. (2014), with simpler smoothly varying anisotropic layers. The modeling process is iterated to obtain a reasonable match to actual data. Synthetic data generated from these 3D anisotropic models can then be inverted with a 3D code (ModEM) and compared to the inversions obtained with actual data. Results will be assessed, taking into account the diffusive nature of EM imaging, to better understand how actual anisotropy is mapped to structure by 3D

  18. CAST2D: A finite element computer code for casting process modeling

    SciTech Connect

    Shapiro, A.B.; Hallquist, J.O.

    1991-10-01

    CAST2D is a coupled thermal-stress finite element computer code for casting process modeling. This code can be used to predict the final shape and stress state of cast parts. CAST2D couples the heat transfer code TOPAZ2D and solid mechanics code NIKE2D. CAST2D has the following features in addition to all the features contained in the TOPAZ2D and NIKE2D codes: (1) a general purpose thermal-mechanical interface algorithm (i.e., slide line) that calculates the thermal contact resistance across the part-mold interface as a function of interface pressure and gap opening; (2) a new phase change algorithm, the delta function method, that is a robust method for materials undergoing isothermal phase change; (3) a constitutive model that transitions between fluid behavior and solid behavior, and accounts for material volume change on phase change; and (4) a modified plot file data base that allows plotting of thermal variables (e.g., temperature, heat flux) on the deformed geometry. Although the code is specialized for casting modeling, it can be used for other thermal stress problems (e.g., metal forming).

  19. Anisotropy of machine building materials

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ashkenazi, Y. K.

    1981-01-01

    The results of experimental studies of the anisotropy of elastic and strength characteristics of various structural materials, including pressure worked metals and alloys, laminated fiberglass plastics, and laminated wood plastics, are correlated and classified. Strength criteria under simple and complex stresses are considered as applied to anisotropic materials. Practical application to determining the strength of machine parts and structural materials is discussed.

  20. Generates 2D Input for DYNA NIKE & TOPAZ

    SciTech Connect

    Hallquist, J. O.; Sanford, Larry

    1996-07-15

    MAZE is an interactive program that serves as an input and two-dimensional mesh generator for DYNA2D, NIKE2D, TOPAZ2D, and CHEMICAL TOPAZ2D. MAZE also generates a basic template for ISLAND input. MAZE has been applied to the generation of input data to study the response of two-dimensional solids and structures undergoing finite deformations under a wide variety of large deformation transient dynamic and static problems and heat transfer analyses.

  1. MAZE96. Generates 2D Input for DYNA NIKE & TOPAZ

    SciTech Connect

    Sanford, L.; Hallquist, J.O.

    1992-02-24

    MAZE is an interactive program that serves as an input and two-dimensional mesh generator for DYNA2D, NIKE2D, TOPAZ2D, and CHEMICAL TOPAZ2D. MAZE also generates a basic template for ISLAND input. MAZE has been applied to the generation of input data to study the response of two-dimensional solids and structures undergoing finite deformations under a wide variety of large deformation transient dynamic and static problems and heat transfer analyses.

  2. Outcoupling efficiency of OLEDs with 2D periodical corrugation at the cathode

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Belousov, Sergei; Bogdanova, Maria; Teslyuk, Anton

    2016-03-01

    We study theoretically the optical performance of organic light-emitting diodes (OLEDs) with 2D periodical corrugation at the cathode. We show how emergence of radiative surface plasmon resonances at the 2D corrugated cathode leads to the enhancement of the outcoupling efficiency of the OLED, which is primarily due to the outcoupling of emission generated by vertically oriented emitting excitons in the emission layer. We analyze the outcoupling efficiency of the OLED as a function of geometrical parameters of the corrugation and establish design rules for optimal outcoupling enhancement with the 2D corrugation at the cathode.

  3. Single Scan 2D NMR Spectroscopy on a 25 T Bitter Magnet.

    PubMed

    Shapira, Boaz; Shetty, Kiran; Brey, William W; Gan, Zhehong; Frydman, Lucio

    2007-07-16

    2D NMR relies on monitoring systematic changes in the phases incurred by spin coherences as a function of an encoding time t(1), whose value changes over the course of independent experiments. The intrinsic multiscan nature of such protocols implies that resistive and/or hybrid magnets, capable of delivering the highest magnetic field strengths but possessing poor temporal stabilities, become unsuitable for 2D NMR acquisitions. It is here shown with a series of homo- and hetero-nuclear examples that such limitations can be bypassed using recently proposed 2D "ultrafast" acquisition schemes, which correlate interactions along all spectral dimensions within a single scan.

  4. Single Scan 2D NMR Spectroscopy on a 25 T Bitter Magnet

    PubMed Central

    Shapira, Boaz; Shetty, Kiran; Brey, William W.; Gan, Zhehong; Frydman, Lucio

    2007-01-01

    2D NMR relies on monitoring systematic changes in the phases incurred by spin coherences as a function of an encoding time t1, whose value changes over the course of independent experiments. The intrinsic multiscan nature of such protocols implies that resistive and/or hybrid magnets, capable of delivering the highest magnetic field strengths but possessing poor temporal stabilities, become unsuitable for 2D NMR acquisitions. It is here shown with a series of homo- and hetero-nuclear examples that such limitations can be bypassed using recently proposed 2D “ultrafast” acquisition schemes, which correlate interactions along all spectral dimensions within a single scan. PMID:18037970

  5. RADON and DIRPOWER: Projection software for 2-D Fourier power spectra

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Prince, Christopher M.

    1993-07-01

    Two-dimensional (2-D) Fourier analysis provides a method for spatial analysis of rock fabrics in thin section. RADON and DIRPOWER are analytical aids designed to create projections of 2-D real-valued functions, including 2-D Fourier power spectra. RADON is used to create parallel projections, projecting the power spectrum towards a line oriented at any angle relative to the spectrum. It provides an "edge-on" view of the power spectrum. DIRPOWER is used to create a Mean Directional Power Spectrum (MDPS), a circular projection used to assess the direction and degree of orientation within rock fabrics.

  6. 2d PDE Linear Symmetric Matrix Solver

    1983-10-01

    ICCG2 (Incomplete Cholesky factorized Conjugate Gradient algorithm for 2d symmetric problems) was developed to solve a linear symmetric matrix system arising from a 9-point discretization of two-dimensional elliptic and parabolic partial differential equations found in plasma physics applications, such as resistive MHD, spatial diffusive transport, and phase space transport (Fokker-Planck equation) problems. These problems share the common feature of being stiff and requiring implicit solution techniques. When these parabolic or elliptic PDE''s are discretized withmore » finite-difference or finite-element methods,the resulting matrix system is frequently of block-tridiagonal form. To use ICCG2, the discretization of the two-dimensional partial differential equation and its boundary conditions must result in a block-tridiagonal supermatrix composed of elementary tridiagonal matrices. The incomplete Cholesky conjugate gradient algorithm is used to solve the linear symmetric matrix equation. Loops are arranged to vectorize on the Cray1 with the CFT compiler, wherever possible. Recursive loops, which cannot be vectorized, are written for optimum scalar speed. For matrices lacking symmetry, ILUCG2 should be used. Similar methods in three dimensions are available in ICCG3 and ILUCG3. A general source containing extensions and macros, which must be processed by a pre-compiler to obtain the standard FORTRAN source, is provided along with the standard FORTRAN source because it is believed to be more readable. The pre-compiler is not included, but pre-compilation may be performed by a text editor as described in the UCRL-88746 Preprint.« less

  7. 2d PDE Linear Asymmetric Matrix Solver

    1983-10-01

    ILUCG2 (Incomplete LU factorized Conjugate Gradient algorithm for 2d problems) was developed to solve a linear asymmetric matrix system arising from a 9-point discretization of two-dimensional elliptic and parabolic partial differential equations found in plasma physics applications, such as plasma diffusion, equilibria, and phase space transport (Fokker-Planck equation) problems. These equations share the common feature of being stiff and requiring implicit solution techniques. When these parabolic or elliptic PDE''s are discretized with finite-difference or finite-elementmore » methods, the resulting matrix system is frequently of block-tridiagonal form. To use ILUCG2, the discretization of the two-dimensional partial differential equation and its boundary conditions must result in a block-tridiagonal supermatrix composed of elementary tridiagonal matrices. A generalization of the incomplete Cholesky conjugate gradient algorithm is used to solve the matrix equation. Loops are arranged to vectorize on the Cray1 with the CFT compiler, wherever possible. Recursive loops, which cannot be vectorized, are written for optimum scalar speed. For problems having a symmetric matrix ICCG2 should be used since it runs up to four times faster and uses approximately 30% less storage. Similar methods in three dimensions are available in ICCG3 and ILUCG3. A general source, containing extensions and macros, which must be processed by a pre-compiler to obtain the standard FORTRAN source, is provided along with the standard FORTRAN source because it is believed to be more readable. The pre-compiler is not included, but pre-compilation may be performed by a text editor as described in the UCRL-88746 Preprint.« less

  8. Position control using 2D-to-2D feature correspondences in vision guided cell micromanipulation.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yanliang; Han, Mingli; Shee, Cheng Yap; Ang, Wei Tech

    2007-01-01

    Conventional camera calibration that utilizes the extrinsic and intrinsic parameters of the camera and the objects has certain limitations for micro-level cell operations due to the presence of hardware deviations and external disturbances during the experimental process, thereby invalidating the extrinsic parameters. This invalidation is often neglected in macro-world visual servoing and affects the visual image processing quality, causing deviation from the desired position in micro-level cell operations. To increase the success rate of vision guided biological micromanipulations, a novel algorithm monitoring the changing image pattern of the manipulators including the injection micropipette and cell holder is designed and implemented based on 2 dimensional (2D)-to 2D feature correspondences and can adjust the manipulator and perform position control simultaneously. When any deviation is found, the manipulator is retracted to the initial focusing plane before continuing the operation.

  9. 2D exchange 31P NMR spectroscopy of bacteriophage M13 and tobacco mosaic virus.

    PubMed Central

    Magusin, P C; Hemminga, M A

    1995-01-01

    Two-dimensional (2D) exchange 31P nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy is used to study the slow overall motion of the rod-shaped viruses M13 and tobacco mosaic virus in concentrated gels. Even for short mixing times, observed diagonal spectra differ remarkably from projection spectra and one-dimensional spectra. Our model readily explains this to be a consequence of the T2e anisotropy caused by slow overall rotation of the viruses about their length axis. 2D exchange spectra recorded for 30% (w/w) tobacco mosaic virus with mixing times < 1 s do not show any off-diagonal broadening, indicating that its overall motion occurs in the sub-Hz frequency range. In contrast, the exchange spectra obtained for 30% M13 show significant off-diagonal intensity for mixing times of 0.01 s and higher. A log-gaussian distribution around 25 Hz of overall diffusion coefficients mainly spread between 1 and 10(3) Hz faithfully reproduces the 2D exchange spectra of 30% M13 recorded at various mixing times in a consistent way. A small but notable change in diagonal spectra at increasing mixing time is not well accounted for by our model and is probably caused by 31P spin diffusion. PMID:7756532

  10. Chemically engineered graphene-based 2D organic molecular magnet.

    PubMed

    Hong, Jeongmin; Bekyarova, Elena; de Heer, Walt A; Haddon, Robert C; Khizroev, Sakhrat

    2013-11-26

    Carbon-based magnetic materials and structures of mesoscopic dimensions may offer unique opportunities for future nanomagnetoelectronic/spintronic devices. To achieve their potential, carbon nanosystems must have controllable magnetic properties. We demonstrate that nitrophenyl functionalized graphene can act as a room-temperature 2D magnet. We report a comprehensive study of low-temperature magnetotransport, vibrating sample magnetometry (VSM), and superconducting quantum interference (SQUID) measurements before and after radical functionalization. Following nitrophenyl (NP) functionalization, epitaxially grown graphene systems can become organic molecular magnets with ferromagnetic and antiferromagnetic ordering that persists at temperatures above 400 K. The field-dependent, surface magnetoelectric properties were studied using scanning probe microscopy (SPM) techniques. The results indicate that the NP-functionalization orientation and degree of coverage directly affect the magnetic properties of the graphene surface. In addition, graphene-based organic magnetic nanostructures were found to demonstrate a pronounced magneto-optical Kerr effect (MOKE). The results were consistent across different characterization techniques and indicate room-temperature magnetic ordering along preferred graphene orientations in the NP-functionalized samples. Chemically isolated graphene nanoribbons (CINs) were observed along the preferred functionality directions. These results pave the way for future magnetoelectronic/spintronic applications based on promising concepts such as current-induced magnetization switching, magnetoelectricity, half-metallicity, and quantum tunneling of magnetization.

  11. GEO2D - Two-Dimensional Computer Model of a Ground Source Heat Pump System

    DOE Data Explorer

    James Menart

    2013-06-07

    This file contains a zipped file that contains many files required to run GEO2D. GEO2D is a computer code for simulating ground source heat pump (GSHP) systems in two-dimensions. GEO2D performs a detailed finite difference simulation of the heat transfer occurring within the working fluid, the tube wall, the grout, and the ground. Both horizontal and vertical wells can be simulated with this program, but it should be noted that the vertical wall is modeled as a single tube. This program also models the heat pump in conjunction with the heat transfer occurring. GEO2D simulates the heat pump and ground loop as a system. Many results are produced by GEO2D as a function of time and position, such as heat transfer rates, temperatures and heat pump performance. On top of this information from an economic comparison between the geothermal system simulated and a comparable air heat pump systems or a comparable gas, oil or propane heating systems with a vapor compression air conditioner. The version of GEO2D in the attached file has been coupled to the DOE heating and cooling load software called ENERGYPLUS. This is a great convenience for the user because heating and cooling loads are an input to GEO2D. GEO2D is a user friendly program that uses a graphical user interface for inputs and outputs. These make entering data simple and they produce many plotted results that are easy to understand. In order to run GEO2D access to MATLAB is required. If this program is not available on your computer you can download the program MCRInstaller.exe, the 64 bit version, from the MATLAB website or from this geothermal depository. This is a free download which will enable you to run GEO2D..

  12. 2D Wavefront Sensor Analysis and Control

    1996-02-19

    This software is designed for data acquisition and analysis of two dimensional wavefront sensors. The software includes data acquisition and control functions for an EPIX frame grabber to acquire data from a computer and all the appropriate analysis functions necessary to produce and display intensity and phase information. This software is written in Visual Basic for windows.

  13. The microwave background anisotropies: observations.

    PubMed

    Wilkinson, D

    1998-01-01

    Most cosmologists now believe that we live in an evolving universe that has been expanding and cooling since its origin about 15 billion years ago. Strong evidence for this standard cosmological model comes from studies of the cosmic microwave background radiation (CMBR), the remnant heat from the initial fireball. The CMBR spectrum is blackbody, as predicted from the hot Big Bang model before the discovery of the remnant radiation in 1964. In 1992 the cosmic background explorer (COBE) satellite finally detected the anisotropy of the radiation-fingerprints left by tiny temperature fluctuations in the initial bang. Careful design of the COBE satellite, and a bit of luck, allowed the 30 microK fluctuations in the CMBR temperature (2.73 K) to be pulled out of instrument noise and spurious foreground emissions. Further advances in detector technology and experiment design are allowing current CMBR experiments to search for predicted features in the anisotropy power spectrum at angular scales of 1 degrees and smaller. If they exist, these features were formed at an important epoch in the evolution of the universe--the decoupling of matter and radiation at a temperature of about 4,000 K and a time about 300,000 years after the bang. CMBR anisotropy measurements probe directly some detailed physics of the early universe. Also, parameters of the cosmological model can be measured because the anisotropy power spectrum depends on constituent densities and the horizon scale at a known cosmological epoch. As sophisticated experiments on the ground and on balloons pursue these measurements, two CMBR anisotropy satellite missions are being prepared for launch early in the next century.

  14. A Planar Quantum Transistor Based on 2D-2D Tunneling in Double Quantum Well Heterostructures

    SciTech Connect

    Baca, W.E.; Blount, M.A.; Hafich, M.J.; Lyo, S.K.; Moon, J.S.; Reno, J.L.; Simmons, J.A.; Wendt, J.R.

    1998-12-14

    We report on our work on the double electron layer tunneling transistor (DELTT), based on the gate-control of two-dimensional -- two-dimensional (2D-2D) tunneling in a double quantum well heterostructure. While previous quantum transistors have typically required tiny laterally-defined features, by contrast the DELTT is entirely planar and can be reliably fabricated in large numbers. We use a novel epoxy-bond-and-stop-etch (EBASE) flip-chip process, whereby submicron gating on opposite sides of semiconductor epitaxial layers as thin as 0.24 microns can be achieved. Because both electron layers in the DELTT are 2D, the resonant tunneling features are unusually sharp, and can be easily modulated with one or more surface gates. We demonstrate DELTTs with peak-to-valley ratios in the source-drain I-V curve of order 20:1 below 1 K. Both the height and position of the resonant current peak can be controlled by gate voltage over a wide range. DELTTs with larger subband energy offsets ({approximately} 21 meV) exhibit characteristics that are nearly as good at 77 K, in good agreement with our theoretical calculations. Using these devices, we also demonstrate bistable memories operating at 77 K. Finally, we briefly discuss the prospects for room temperature operation, increases in gain, and high-speed.

  15. 'Brukin2D': a 2D visualization and comparison tool for LC-MS data

    PubMed Central

    Tsagkrasoulis, Dimosthenis; Zerefos, Panagiotis; Loudos, George; Vlahou, Antonia; Baumann, Marc; Kossida, Sophia

    2009-01-01

    Background Liquid Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry (LC-MS) is a commonly used technique to resolve complex protein mixtures. Visualization of large data sets produced from LC-MS, namely the chromatogram and the mass spectra that correspond to its compounds is the focus of this work. Results The in-house developed 'Brukin2D' software, built in Matlab 7.4, which is presented here, uses the compound data that are exported from the Bruker 'DataAnalysis' program, and depicts the mean mass spectra of all the chromatogram compounds from one LC-MS run, in one 2D contour/density plot. Two contour plots from different chromatograph runs can then be viewed in the same window and automatically compared, in order to find their similarities and differences. The results of the comparison can be examined through detailed mass quantification tables, while chromatogram compound statistics are also calculated during the procedure. Conclusion 'Brukin2D' provides a user-friendly platform for quick, easy and integrated view of complex LC-MS data. The software is available at . PMID:19534737

  16. Inhibition of human cytochrome P450 2D6 (CYP2D6) by methadone.

    PubMed Central

    Wu, D; Otton, S V; Sproule, B A; Busto, U; Inaba, T; Kalow, W; Sellers, E M

    1993-01-01

    1. In microsomes prepared from three human livers, methadone competitively inhibited the O-demethylation of dextromethorphan, a marker substrate for CYP2D6. The apparent Ki value of methadone ranged from 2.5 to 5 microM. 2. Two hundred and fifty-two (252) white Caucasians, including 210 unrelated healthy volunteers and 42 opiate abusers undergoing treatment with methadone were phenotyped using dextromethorphan as the marker drug. Although the frequency of poor metabolizers was similar in both groups, the extensive metabolizers among the opiate abusers tended to have higher O-demethylation metabolic ratios and to excrete less of the dose as dextromethorphan metabolites than control extensive metabolizer subjects. These data suggest inhibition of CYP2D6 by methadone in vivo as well. 3. Because methadone is widely used in the treatment of opiate abuse, inhibition of CYP2D6 activity in these patients might contribute to exaggerated response or unexpected toxicity from drugs that are substrates of this enzyme. PMID:8448065

  17. Results from the Wilkinson Microwave Anisotropy Probe

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Komatsu, E.; Bennett, Charles L.; Komatsu, Eiichiro

    2015-01-01

    The Wilkinson Microwave Anisotropy Probe (WMAP) mapped the distribution of temperature and polarization over the entire sky in five microwave frequency bands. These full-sky maps were used to obtain measurements of temperature and polarization anisotropy of the cosmic microwave background with the unprecedented accuracy and precision. The analysis of two-point correlation functions of temperature and polarization data gives determinations of the fundamental cosmological parameters such as the age and composition of the universe, as well as the key parameters describing the physics of inflation, which is further constrained by three-point correlation functions. WMAP observations alone reduced the flat ? cold dark matter (Lambda Cold Dark Matter) cosmological model (six) parameter volume by a factor of > 68, 000 compared with pre-WMAP measurements. The WMAP observations (sometimes in combination with other astrophysical probes) convincingly show the existence of non-baryonic dark matter, the cosmic neutrino background, flatness of spatial geometry of the universe, a deviation from a scale-invariant spectrum of initial scalar fluctuations, and that the current universe is undergoing an accelerated expansion. The WMAP observations provide the strongest ever support for inflation; namely, the structures we see in the universe originate from quantum fluctuations generated during inflation.

  18. Mass loss in 2D rotating stellar models

    SciTech Connect

    Lovekin, Caterine; Deupree, Bob

    2010-10-05

    Radiatively driven mass loss is an important factor in the evolution of massive stars . The mass loss rates depend on a number of stellar parameters, including the effective temperature and luminosity. Massive stars are also often rapidly rotating, which affects their structure and evolution. In sufficiently rapidly rotating stars, both the effective temperature and radius vary significantly as a function of latitude, and hence mass loss rates can vary appreciably between the poles and the equator. In this work, we discuss the addition of mass loss to a 2D stellar evolution code (ROTORC) and compare evolution sequences with and without mass loss. Preliminary results indicate that a full 2D calculation of mass loss using the local effective temperature and luminosity can significantly affect the distribution of mass loss in rotating main sequence stars. More mass is lost from the pole than predicted by 1D models, while less mass is lost at the equator. This change in the distribution of mass loss will affect the angular momentum loss, the surface temperature and luminosity, and even the interior structure of the star. After a single mass loss event, these effects are small, but can be expected to accumulate over the course of the main sequence evolution.

  19. Flatbands in 2D boroxine-linked covalent organic frameworks.

    PubMed

    Wang, Rui-Ning; Zhang, Xin-Ran; Wang, Shu-Fang; Fu, Guang-Sheng; Wang, Jiang-Long

    2016-01-14

    Density functional calculations have been performed to analyze the electronic and mechanical properties of a number of 2D boroxine-linked covalent organic frameworks (COFs), which are experimentally fabricated from di-borate aromatic molecules. Furthermore, the band structures are surprising and show flat-band characteristics which are mainly attributed to the delocalized π-conjugated electrons around the phenyl rings and can be better understood within aromaticity theories. Next, the effects of branch sizes and hydrostatic strains on their band structures are systematically considered within generalized gradient approximations. It is found that their band gaps will start to saturate when the branch size reaches 9. For boroxine-linked COFs with only one benzene ring in the branch, the band gap is robust under compressive strain while it decreases with the tensile strain increasing. When the branch size is equal or greater than 2, their band gaps will monotonously increase with the strain increasing in the range of [-1.0, 2.0] Å. All boroxine-linked COFs are semiconductors with controllable band gaps, depending on the branch length and the applied strain. In comparison with other 2D materials, such as graphene, hexagonal boron nitride, and even γ-graphyne, all boroxine-linked COFs are much softer and even more stable. That is, they can maintain the planar features under a larger compressive strain, which means that they are good candidates in flexible electronics. PMID:26662215

  20. Peak width issues with generalised 2D correlation NMR spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kirwan, Gemma M.; Adams, Michael J.

    2008-12-01

    Two-dimensional spectral correlation analysis is shown to be sensitive to fluctuations in spectral peak width as a function of perturbation variable. This is particularly significant where peak width fluctuations are of similar order of magnitude as the peak width values themselves and where changes in peak width are not random but are, for example, proportional to intensity. In such cases these trends appear in the asynchronous matrix as false peaks that serve to interfere with interpretation of the data. Complex, narrow band spectra such as provided by 1H NMR spectroscopy are demonstrated to be prone to such interference. 2D correlation analysis was applied to a series of NMR spectra corresponding to a commercial wine fermentation, in which the samples collected over a period of several days exhibit dramatic changes in concentration of minor and major components. The interference due to changing peak width effects is eliminated by synthesizing the recorded spectra using a constant peak width value prior to performing 2D correlation analysis.

  1. Application Perspective of 2D+SCALE Dimension

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Karim, H.; Rahman, A. Abdul

    2016-09-01

    Different applications or users need different abstraction of spatial models, dimensionalities and specification of their datasets due to variations of required analysis and output. Various approaches, data models and data structures are now available to support most current application models in Geographic Information System (GIS). One of the focuses trend in GIS multi-dimensional research community is the implementation of scale dimension with spatial datasets to suit various scale application needs. In this paper, 2D spatial datasets that been scaled up as the third dimension are addressed as 2D+scale (or 3D-scale) dimension. Nowadays, various data structures, data models, approaches, schemas, and formats have been proposed as the best approaches to support variety of applications and dimensionality in 3D topology. However, only a few of them considers the element of scale as their targeted dimension. As the scale dimension is concerned, the implementation approach can be either multi-scale or vario-scale (with any available data structures and formats) depending on application requirements (topology, semantic and function). This paper attempts to discuss on the current and new potential applications which positively could be integrated upon 3D-scale dimension approach. The previous and current works on scale dimension as well as the requirements to be preserved for any given applications, implementation issues and future potential applications forms the major discussion of this paper.

  2. Flatbands in 2D boroxine-linked covalent organic frameworks.

    PubMed

    Wang, Rui-Ning; Zhang, Xin-Ran; Wang, Shu-Fang; Fu, Guang-Sheng; Wang, Jiang-Long

    2016-01-14

    Density functional calculations have been performed to analyze the electronic and mechanical properties of a number of 2D boroxine-linked covalent organic frameworks (COFs), which are experimentally fabricated from di-borate aromatic molecules. Furthermore, the band structures are surprising and show flat-band characteristics which are mainly attributed to the delocalized π-conjugated electrons around the phenyl rings and can be better understood within aromaticity theories. Next, the effects of branch sizes and hydrostatic strains on their band structures are systematically considered within generalized gradient approximations. It is found that their band gaps will start to saturate when the branch size reaches 9. For boroxine-linked COFs with only one benzene ring in the branch, the band gap is robust under compressive strain while it decreases with the tensile strain increasing. When the branch size is equal or greater than 2, their band gaps will monotonously increase with the strain increasing in the range of [-1.0, 2.0] Å. All boroxine-linked COFs are semiconductors with controllable band gaps, depending on the branch length and the applied strain. In comparison with other 2D materials, such as graphene, hexagonal boron nitride, and even γ-graphyne, all boroxine-linked COFs are much softer and even more stable. That is, they can maintain the planar features under a larger compressive strain, which means that they are good candidates in flexible electronics.

  3. Local currents in a 2D topological insulator.

    PubMed

    Dang, Xiaoqian; Burton, J D; Tsymbal, Evgeny Y

    2015-12-23

    Symmetry protected edge states in 2D topological insulators are interesting both from the fundamental point of view as well as from the point of view of potential applications in nanoelectronics as perfectly conducting 1D channels and functional elements of circuits. Here using a simple tight-binding model and the Landauer-Büttiker formalism we explore local current distributions in a 2D topological insulator focusing on effects of non-magnetic impurities and vacancies as well as finite size effects. For an isolated edge state, we show that the local conductance decays into the bulk in an oscillatory fashion as explained by the complex band structure of the bulk topological insulator. We demonstrate that although the net conductance of the edge state is topologically protected, impurity scattering leads to intricate local current patterns. In the case of vacancies we observe vortex currents of certain chirality, originating from the scattering of current-carrying electrons into states localized at the edges of hollow regions. For finite size strips of a topological insulator we predict the formation of an oscillatory band gap in the spectrum of the edge states, the emergence of Friedel oscillations caused by an open channel for backscattering from an impurity and antiresonances in conductance when the Fermi energy matches the energy of the localized state created by an impurity. PMID:26610145

  4. Suspended 2-D photonic crystal aluminum nitride membrane reflector.

    PubMed

    Ho, Chong Pei; Pitchappa, Prakash; Soon, Bo Woon; Lee, Chengkuo

    2015-04-20

    We experimentally demonstrated a free-standing two-dimensional (2-D) photonic crystal (PhC) aluminum nitride (AlN) membrane to function as a free space (or out-of-plane) reflector working in the mid infrared region. By etching circular holes of radius 620nm in a 330nm thick AlN slab, greater than 90% reflection was measured from 3.08μm to 3.78μm, with the peak reflection of 96% at 3.16μm. Due to the relatively low refractive index of AlN, we also investigated the importance of employing methods such as sacrificial layer release to enhance the performance of the PhC. In addition, characterization of the AlN based PhC was also done up to 450°C to examine the impact of thermo-optic effect on the performance. Despite the high temperature operation, the redshift in the peak reflection wavelengths of the device was estimated to be only 14.1nm. This equates to a relatively low thermo-optic coefficient 2.22 × 10(-5) K(-1) for AlN. Such insensitivity to thermo-optic effect makes AlN based 2-D PhC a promising technology to be used as photonic components for high temperature applications such as Fabry-Perot interferometer used for gas sensing in down-hole oil drilling and ruggedized electronics. PMID:25969099

  5. Local currents in a 2D topological insulator.

    PubMed

    Dang, Xiaoqian; Burton, J D; Tsymbal, Evgeny Y

    2015-12-23

    Symmetry protected edge states in 2D topological insulators are interesting both from the fundamental point of view as well as from the point of view of potential applications in nanoelectronics as perfectly conducting 1D channels and functional elements of circuits. Here using a simple tight-binding model and the Landauer-Büttiker formalism we explore local current distributions in a 2D topological insulator focusing on effects of non-magnetic impurities and vacancies as well as finite size effects. For an isolated edge state, we show that the local conductance decays into the bulk in an oscillatory fashion as explained by the complex band structure of the bulk topological insulator. We demonstrate that although the net conductance of the edge state is topologically protected, impurity scattering leads to intricate local current patterns. In the case of vacancies we observe vortex currents of certain chirality, originating from the scattering of current-carrying electrons into states localized at the edges of hollow regions. For finite size strips of a topological insulator we predict the formation of an oscillatory band gap in the spectrum of the edge states, the emergence of Friedel oscillations caused by an open channel for backscattering from an impurity and antiresonances in conductance when the Fermi energy matches the energy of the localized state created by an impurity.

  6. Asymmetric 2D spatial beam filtering by photonic crystals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gailevicius, D.; Purlys, V.; Maigyte, L.; Gaizauskas, E.; Peckus, M.; Gadonas, R.; Staliunas, K.

    2016-04-01

    Spatial filtering techniques are important for improving the spatial quality of light beams. Photonic crystals (PhCs) with a selective spatial (angular) transmittance can also provide spatial filtering with the added benefit transversal symmetries, submillimeter dimensions and monolithic integration in other devices, such as micro-lasers or semiconductor lasers. Workable bandgap PhC configurations require a modulated refractive index with period lengths that are approximately less than the wavelength of radiation. This imposes technical limitations, whereby the available direct laser write (DLW) fabrication techniques are limited in resolution and refractive index depth. If, however, a deflection mechanism is chosen instead, a functional filter PhC can be produced that is operational in the visible wavelength regime. For deflection based PhCs glass is an attractive choice as it is highly stable medium. 2D and 3D PhC filter variations have already been produced on soda-lime glass. However, little is known about how to control the scattering of PhCs when approaching the smallest period values. Here we look into the internal structure of the initially symmetric geometry 2D PhCs and associating it with the resulting transmittance spectra. By varying the DLW fabrication beam parameters and scanning algorithms, we show that such PhCs contain layers that are comprised of semi-tilted structure voxels. We show the appearance of asymmetry can be compensated in order to circumvent some negative effects at the cost of potentially maximum scattering efficiency.

  7. 2D Quantum Transport Modeling in Nanoscale MOSFETs

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Svizhenko, Alexei; Anantram, M. P.; Govindan, T. R.; Biegel, B.

    2001-01-01

    We have developed physical approximations and computer code capable of realistically simulating 2-D nanoscale transistors, using the non-equilibrium Green's function (NEGF) method. This is the most accurate full quantum model yet applied to 2-D device simulation. Open boundary conditions, oxide tunneling and phase-breaking scattering are treated on an equal footing. Electron bandstructure is treated within the anisotropic effective mass approximation. We present the results of our simulations of MIT 25 and 90 nm "well-tempered" MOSFETs and compare them to those of classical and quantum corrected models. The important feature of quantum model is smaller slope of Id-Vg curve and consequently higher threshold voltage. These results are consistent with 1D Schroedinger-Poisson calculations. The effect of gate length on gate-oxide leakage and subthreshold current has been studied. The shorter gate length device has an order of magnitude smaller leakage current than the longer gate length device without a significant trade-off in on-current.

  8. Suspended 2-D photonic crystal aluminum nitride membrane reflector.

    PubMed

    Ho, Chong Pei; Pitchappa, Prakash; Soon, Bo Woon; Lee, Chengkuo

    2015-04-20

    We experimentally demonstrated a free-standing two-dimensional (2-D) photonic crystal (PhC) aluminum nitride (AlN) membrane to function as a free space (or out-of-plane) reflector working in the mid infrared region. By etching circular holes of radius 620nm in a 330nm thick AlN slab, greater than 90% reflection was measured from 3.08μm to 3.78μm, with the peak reflection of 96% at 3.16μm. Due to the relatively low refractive index of AlN, we also investigated the importance of employing methods such as sacrificial layer release to enhance the performance of the PhC. In addition, characterization of the AlN based PhC was also done up to 450°C to examine the impact of thermo-optic effect on the performance. Despite the high temperature operation, the redshift in the peak reflection wavelengths of the device was estimated to be only 14.1nm. This equates to a relatively low thermo-optic coefficient 2.22 × 10(-5) K(-1) for AlN. Such insensitivity to thermo-optic effect makes AlN based 2-D PhC a promising technology to be used as photonic components for high temperature applications such as Fabry-Perot interferometer used for gas sensing in down-hole oil drilling and ruggedized electronics.

  9. Is 2-D turbulence relevant in the atmosphere?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lovejoy, Shaun; Schertzer, Daniel

    2010-05-01

    Starting with (Taylor, 1935), the paradigm of isotropic (and scaling!) turbulence was developed initially for laboratory applications, but following (Kolmogorov, 1941), three dimensional isotropic turbulence was progressively applied to the atmosphere. Since the atmosphere is strongly stratified, a single wide scale range model which is both isotropic and scaling is not possible so that theorists had to immediately choose between the two symmetries: isotropy or scale invariance. Following the development of models of two dimensional isotropic turbulence ((Fjortoft, 1953), but especially (Kraichnan, 1967) and (Charney, 1971)), the mainstream choice was to first make the convenient assumption of isotropy and to drop wide range scale invariance. Starting at the end of the 1970's this "isotropy primary" (IP) paradigm has lead to a series of increasingly complex isotropic 2D/isotropic 3D models of atmospheric dynamics which continue to dominate the theoretical landscape. Justifications for IP approaches have focused almost exclusively on the horizontal statistics of the horizontal wind in both numerical models and analyses and from aircraft campaigns, especially the highly cited GASP (Nastrom and Gage, 1983), (Gage and Nastrom, 1986; Nastrom and Gage, 1985) and MOZAIC (Cho and Lindborg, 2001) experiments. Since understanding the anisotropy clearly requires comparisons between horizontal and vertical statistics/structures this focus has been unfortunate. Over the same thirty year period that 2D/3D isotropic models were being elaborated, evidence slowly accumulated in favour of the opposite theoretical choice: to drop the isotropy assumption but to retain wide range scaling. The models in the alternative paradigm are scaling but strongly anisotropic with vertical sections of structures becoming increasingly stratified at larger and larger scales albeit in a power law manner; we collectively refer to these as "SP" for "scaling primary" approaches. Early authors explicitly

  10. FAST TRACK COMMUNICATION: Poisson-sigma model for 2D gravity with non-metricity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Adak, M.; Grumiller, D.

    2007-10-01

    We present a Poisson-sigma model describing general 2D dilaton gravity with non-metricity, torsion and curvature. It involves three arbitrary functions of the dilaton field, two of which are well known from metric compatible theories, while the third one characterizes the local strength of non-metricity. As an example we show that α' corrections in 2D string theory can generate (target space) non-metricity.

  11. Correlated Electron Phenomena in 2D Materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lambert, Joseph G.

    In this thesis, I present experimental results on coherent electron phenomena in layered two-dimensional materials: single layer graphene and van der Waals coupled 2D TiSe2. Graphene is a two-dimensional single-atom thick sheet of carbon atoms first derived from bulk graphite by the mechanical exfoliation technique in 2004. Low-energy charge carriers in graphene behave like massless Dirac fermions, and their density can be easily tuned between electron-rich and hole-rich quasiparticles with electrostatic gating techniques. The sharp interfaces between regions of different carrier densities form barriers with selective transmission, making them behave as partially reflecting mirrors. When two of these interfaces are set at a separation distance within the phase coherence length of the carriers, they form an electronic version of a Fabry-Perot cavity. I present measurements and analysis of multiple Fabry-Perot modes in graphene with parallel electrodes spaced a few hundred nanometers apart. Transition metal dichalcogenide (TMD) TiSe2 is part of the family of materials that coined the term "materials beyond graphene". It contains van der Waals coupled trilayer stacks of Se-Ti-Se. Many TMD materials exhibit a host of interesting correlated electronic phases. In particular, TiSe2 exhibits chiral charge density waves (CDW) below TCDW ˜ 200 K. Upon doping with copper, the CDW state gets suppressed with Cu concentration, and CuxTiSe2 becomes superconducting with critical temperature of T c = 4.15 K. There is still much debate over the mechanisms governing the coexistence of the two correlated electronic phases---CDW and superconductivity. I will present some of the first conductance spectroscopy measurements of proximity coupled superconductor-CDW systems. Measurements reveal a proximity-induced critical current at the Nb-TiSe2 interfaces, suggesting pair correlations in the pure TiSe2. The results indicate that superconducting order is present concurrently with CDW in

  12. Iterative 2D deconvolution of portal imaging radiographs.

    PubMed

    Looe, Hui Khee; Harder, Dietrich; Willborn, Kay C; Poppe, Björn

    2011-01-01

    Portal imaging has become an integral part of modern radiotherapy techniques such as IMRT and IGRT. It serves to verify the accuracy of day-to-day patient positioning, a prerequisite for treatment success. However, image blurring attributable to different physical and geometrical effects, analysed in this work, impairs the image quality of the portal images, and anatomical structures cannot always be clearly outlined. A 2D iterative deconvolution method was developed to reduce this image blurring. The affiliated data basis was generated by the separate measurement of the components contributing to image blurring. Secondary electron transport and pixel size within the EPID, as well as geometrical penumbra due to the finite photon source size were found to be the major contributors, whereas photon scattering in the patient is less important. The underlying line-spread kernels of these components were shown to be Lorentz functions. This implies that each of these convolution kernels and also their combination can be characterized by a single characteristic, the width parameter λ of the Lorentz function. The overall resulting λ values were 0.5mm for 6 MV and 0.65 mm for 15 MV. Portal images were deconvolved using the point-spread function derived from the Lorentz function together with the experimentally determined λ values. The improvement of the portal images was quantified in terms of the modulation transfer function of a bar pattern. The resulting clinical images show a clear enhancement of sharpness and contrast.

  13. FIELD EVALUATION OF DIPOLE METHOD TO MEASURE AQUIFER ANISOTROPY

    EPA Science Inventory

    The ultimate size of a three-dimensional groundwater circulation cell surrounding a vertical circulation well (VCW) is a strong function of the aquifer hydraulic anisotropy, the ratio of the hydraulic conductivity in the horizontal direction to that in the vertical direction. In ...

  14. Effects of magnetic anisotropy and exchange in Tm{sub 2}Fe{sub 17}

    SciTech Connect

    Pirogov, A. N. Bogdanov, S. G.; Rosenfeld, E. V.; Park, J.-G.; Choi, Y. N.; Lee, Seongsu; Prokes, K.; Golosova, N. O.; Sashin, I. L.; Kudrevatykh, N. V.; Skryabin, Yu. N.; Vokhmyanin, A. P.

    2012-11-15

    Neutron diffraction experiments have been carried out to study the magnetocrystalline anisotropy of two (2b and 2d) Tm sublattices and four (4f, 6g, 12j, and 12k) Fe sublattices in ferrimagnetic compound Tm{sub 2}Fe{sub 17} (space group P6{sub 3}/mmc). We have determined the temperature dependence of the magnitude and orientation of magnetization for each of the thulium and iron sublattices in the range (10-300) K. A spontaneous rotation (at about 90 K) of the Tm and Fe sublattice magnetizations from the c-axis to the basal plane is accompanied by a drastic change in the magnetization magnitude, signifying a large magnetization anisotropy. Both Tm sublattices exhibit an easy-axis type of the magnetocrystalline anisotropy. The Fe sublattices manifest both the uniaxial and planar anisotropy types. The sublattice formed by Fe atoms at the 4f position reveals the largest planar anisotropy constant. The Fe atoms at the 12j position show a uniaxial anisotropy. We find that the inelastic neutron scattering spectra measured below and above the spin-reorientation transition are remarkably different.

  15. Magnetic anisotropies in ultrathin bismuth iron garnet films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Popova, Elena; Franco Galeano, Andres Felipe; Deb, Marwan; Warot-Fonrose, Bénédicte; Kachkachi, Hamid; Gendron, François; Ott, Frédéric; Berini, Bruno; Keller, Niels

    2013-06-01

    Ultrathin bismuth iron garnet Bi3Fe5O12 films were grown epitaxially on (001)-oriented gadolinium gallium garnet substrates. Film thickness varied from two to three dozens of unit cells. Bi3Fe5O12 films grow pseudomorphically on substrates up to a thickness of 20 nm, and then a lattice relaxation occurs. Magnetic properties of the films were studied as a function of bismuth iron garnet thickness. The magnetization and cubic anisotropy decrease with decreasing film thickness. The uniaxial magnetocrystalline anisotropy is constant for all film thicknesses. For two unit cell thick films, the easy magnetization axis changes from in-plane to perpendicular to the plane direction. Such a reorientation takes place as a result of the competition of constant uniaxial perpendicular anisotropy with weakening film magnetization.

  16. Disruption of KMT2D perturbs germinal center B cell development and promotes lymphomagenesis.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Jiyuan; Dominguez-Sola, David; Hussein, Shafinaz; Lee, Ji-Eun; Holmes, Antony B; Bansal, Mukesh; Vlasevska, Sofija; Mo, Tongwei; Tang, Hongyan; Basso, Katia; Ge, Kai; Dalla-Favera, Riccardo; Pasqualucci, Laura

    2015-10-01

    Mutations in the gene encoding the KMT2D (or MLL2) methyltransferase are highly recurrent and occur early during tumorigenesis in diffuse large B cell lymphoma (DLBCL) and follicular lymphoma (FL). However, the functional consequences of these mutations and their role in lymphomagenesis are unknown. Here we show that FL- and DLBCL-associated KMT2D mutations impair KMT2D enzymatic activity, leading to diminished global H3K4 methylation in germinal-center (GC) B cells and DLBCL cells. Conditional deletion of Kmt2d early during B cell development, but not after initiation of the GC reaction, results in an increase in GC B cells and enhances B cell proliferation in mice. Moreover, genetic ablation of Kmt2d in mice overexpressing Bcl2 increases the incidence of GC-derived lymphomas resembling human tumors. These findings suggest that KMT2D acts as a tumor suppressor gene whose early loss facilitates lymphomagenesis by remodeling the epigenetic landscape of the cancer precursor cells. Eradication of KMT2D-deficient cells may thus represent a rational therapeutic approach for targeting early tumorigenic events. PMID:26366712

  17. RADIAL EVOLUTION OF THE WAVEVECTOR ANISOTROPY OF SOLAR WIND TURBULENCE BETWEEN 0.3 AND 1 AU

    SciTech Connect

    He Jiansen; Tu Chuanyi; Pei Zhongtian; Marsch, Eckart; Bourouaine, Sofiane

    2013-08-10

    We present observations of the power spectral anisotropy in the wavevector space of solar wind turbulence and study how it evolves in interplanetary space with increasing heliocentric distance. We use magnetic field measurements from the Helios 2 spacecraft within 1 AU. To derive the power spectral density (PSD) in the (k{sub Parallel-To }, k ) space based on single-satellite measurements is a challenging task that had not been accomplished previously. Here, we derive the spectrum PSD{sub 2D}(k{sub Parallel-To }, k{sub Up-Tack }) from the spatial correlation function CF{sub 2D}(r{sub Parallel-To }, r ) by a transformation according to the projection-slice theorem. We find the so-constructed PSDs to be distributed in k space mainly along a ridge that is more inclined toward the k{sub Up-Tack} axis than the k{sub Parallel-To} axis. Furthermore, this ridge of the distribution is found to gradually get closer to the k{sub Up-Tack} axis as the outer scale length of the turbulence becomes larger with increasing radial distance. In the vicinity of the k{sub Parallel-To} axis, a minor spectral component appears that probably corresponds to quasi-parallel Alfvenic fluctuations. Their relative contribution to the total spectral density tends to decrease with radial distance. These findings suggest that solar wind turbulence undergoes an anisotropic cascade transporting most of its magnetic energy toward larger k{sub Up-Tack} and that the anisotropy in the inertial range is radially developing further at scales that are relatively far from the ever increasing outer scale. For the ion-scale fluctuations, we speculate, from the radial evolution of the extended oblique major component, a transition tendency from dominance by oblique Alfven/ion-cyclotron waves (<1 AU) to dominance by kinetic Alfven waves (>1 AU)

  18. The lithosphere-asthenosphere transition and radial anisotropy beneath the Australian continent

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yoshizawa, K.; Kennett, B. L. N.

    2015-05-01

    A new 3-D S wave speed model for the Australian region derived from multimode surface waves allows us to examine the nature of the lithosphere-asthenosphere transition (LAT) and its relation to radial anisotropy. In eastern Phanerozoic Australia the estimated depths of the LAT tie well with those from receiver functions. However, in the Archean and Proterozoic lithosphere in western and central Australia, the LAT derived from the surface wave model is generally much deeper than the discontinuities recognized from receiver functions and shows a smooth transition. There is significant radial anisotropy (SH > SV) in the upper lithosphere as well as in the LAT and the underlying asthenosphere. Strong anisotropy in the asthenosphere reflects the effects of present shear flow in the mantle beneath the continent. The lateral variation of lithospheric anisotropy correlates well with the suture zones between cratonic blocks, representing frozen anisotropy associated with the ancient tectonics of Australia.

  19. 3D Ordering in 2D Quantum Heisenberg Antiferromagnets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Landee, C. P.; Woodward, F. M.; Giantsidis, J.; Turnbull, M. M.

    2000-03-01

    The family of 2D quantum Heisenberg antiferromagnets (5-ZAP)_2CuX4 consists of CuX_4^2- dianions packed together in magnetically square layers, interacting through X\\cdotsX contacts (X = Cl, Br). The strength of both the intralayer interaction J and interlayer interaction J^' are controlled by the substituent Z in the 5-position of 5-Z, 2-aminopyridine. The 3D critical temperature TN is a function of the J^'/J ratio and consequently is also subject to control by the Z-substituent. Previously we have reported on the compounds with Z = Cl (5-CAP), and Z = methyl (5-MAP). We have now prepared the isomorphous 5-bromo analogue (5-BAP)_2CuX4 and will discuss the T_N/J ratios for all three compounds in terms of the structural parameters.

  20. A full 2D IDCT with extreme low complexity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Navarro, Antonio; Silva, Antonio; Reznik, Yuriy

    2007-09-01

    In the context of a Call for Proposal for integer IDCTs issued by MPEG in July 2005, a full 2D integer IDCT based on a previous Feig and Winograd's work has been proposed. It achieves a high precision by meeting all IEEE1180 conditions and is suitable of implementation on hardware since it can be performed only with shifts and additions. Furthermore, it can be useful in high video resolution scenarios like in 720p/1080i/p due to its feedforward operation mode without any loop as usual in row-column implementations. The proposed transformation can be implemented without changing other functional blocks either at the encoder or at the decoder or alternatively as a scaled version incorporating the scaling factors into the dequantization stage. Our algorithm uses only 1328 operations for 8x8 blocks, including scaling factors.

  1. TOPAZ2D validation status report, August 1990

    SciTech Connect

    Davis, B.

    1990-08-01

    Analytic solutions to two heat transfer problems were used to partially evaluate the performance TOPAZ, and LLNL finite element heat transfer code. The two benchmark analytic solutions were for: 2D steady state slab, with constant properties, constant uniform temperature boundary conditions on three sides, and constant temperature distribution according to a sine function on the fourth side; 1D transient non-linear, with temperature dependent conductivity and specific heat (varying such that the thermal diffusivity remained constant), constant heat flux on the front face and adiabatic conditions on the other face. The TOPAZ solution converged to the analytic solution in both the transient and the steady state problem. Consistent mass matrix type of analysis yielded best performance for the transient problem, in the late-time response; but notable unnatural anomalies were observed in the early-time temperature response at nodal locations near the front face. 5 refs., 22 figs.

  2. Fast and robust recognition and localization of 2D objects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Otterbach, Rainer; Gerdes, Rolf; Kammueller, R.

    1994-11-01

    The paper presents a vision system which provides a robust model-based identification and localization of 2-D objects in industrial scenes. A symbolic image description based on the polygonal approximation of the object silhouettes is extracted in video real time by the use of dedicated hardware. Candidate objects are selected from the model database using a time and memory efficient hashing algorithm. Any candidate object is submitted to the next computation stage which generates pose hypotheses by assigning model to image contours. Corresponding continuous measures of similarity are derived from the turning functions of the curves. Finally, the previous generated hypotheses are verified using a voting scheme in transformation space. Experimental results reveal the fault tolerance of the vision system with regard to noisy and split image contours as well as partial occlusion of objects. THe short cycle time and the easy adaptability of the vision system make it well suited for a wide variety of applications in industrial automation.

  3. The seismic analyzer: interpreting and illustrating 2D seismic data.

    PubMed

    Patel, Daniel; Giertsen, Christopher; Thurmond, John; Gjelberg, John; Gröller, M Eduard

    2008-01-01

    We present a toolbox for quickly interpreting and illustrating 2D slices of seismic volumetric reflection data. Searching for oil and gas involves creating a structural overview of seismic reflection data to identify hydrocarbon reservoirs. We improve the search of seismic structures by precalculating the horizon structures of the seismic data prior to interpretation. We improve the annotation of seismic structures by applying novel illustrative rendering algorithms tailored to seismic data, such as deformed texturing and line and texture transfer functions. The illustrative rendering results in multi-attribute and scale invariant visualizations where features are represented clearly in both highly zoomed in and zoomed out views. Thumbnail views in combination with interactive appearance control allows for a quick overview of the data before detailed interpretation takes place. These techniques help reduce the work of seismic illustrators and interpreters.

  4. Rhenium-phthalocyanine molecular nanojunction with high magnetic anisotropy and high spin filtering efficiency

    SciTech Connect

    Li, J.; Hu, J.; Wang, H.; Wu, R. Q.

    2015-07-20

    Using the density functional and non-equilibrium Green's function approaches, we studied the magnetic anisotropy and spin-filtering properties of various transition metal-Phthalocyanine molecular junctions across two Au electrodes. Our important finding is that the Au-RePc-Au junction has both large spin filtering efficiency (>80%) and large magnetic anisotropy energy, which makes it suitable for device applications. To provide insights for the further experimental work, we discussed the correlation between the transport property, magnetic anisotropy, and wave function features of the RePc molecule, and we also illustrated the possibility of controlling its magnetic state.

  5. Heliospheric influence on the anisotropy of TeV cosmic rays

    SciTech Connect

    Zhang, Ming; Zuo, Pingbing; Pogorelov, Nikolai

    2014-07-20

    This paper provides a theory of using Liouville's theorem to map the anisotropy of TeV cosmic rays seen at Earth using the particle distribution function in the local interstellar medium (LISM). The ultimate source of cosmic ray anisotropy is the energy, pitch angle, and spatial dependence of the cosmic ray distribution function in the LISM. Because young nearby cosmic ray sources can make a special contribution to the cosmic ray anisotropy, the anisotropy depends on the source age, distance and magnetic connection, and particle diffusion of these cosmic rays, all of which make the anisotropy sensitive to the particle energy. When mapped through the magnetic and electric field of a magnetohydrodynamic model heliosphere, the large-scale dipolar and bidirectional interstellar anisotropy patterns become distorted if they are seen from Earth, resulting in many small structures in the observations. Best fits to cosmic ray anisotropy measurements have allowed us to estimate the particle density gradient and pitch angle anisotropies in the LISM. It is found that the heliotail, hydrogen deflection plane, and the plane perpendicular to the LISM magnetic field play a special role in distorting cosmic ray anisotropy. These features can lead to an accurate determination of the LISM magnetic field direction and polarity. The effects of solar cycle variation, the Sun's coronal magnetic field, and turbulence in the LISM and heliospheric magnetic fields are minor but clearly visible at a level roughly equal to a fraction of the overall anisotropy amplitude. The heliospheric influence becomes stronger at lower energies. Below 1 TeV, the anisotropy is dominated by small-scale patterns produced by disturbances in the heliosphere.

  6. Silicene: silicon conquers the 2D world

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Le Lay, Guy; Salomon, Eric; Angot, Thierry

    2016-01-01

    We live in the digital age based on the silicon chip and driven by Moore's law. Last July, IBM created a surprise by announcing the fabrication of a 7 nm test chip with functional transistors using, instead of just silicon, a silicon-germanium alloy. Will silicon be dethroned?

  7. Magnetic anisotropy in single clusters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jamet, Matthieu; Wernsdorfer, Wolfgang; Thirion, Christophe; Dupuis, Véronique; Mélinon, Patrice; Pérez, Alain; Mailly, Dominique

    2004-01-01

    The magnetic measurements on single cobalt and iron nanoclusters containing almost 1000 atoms are presented. Particles are directly buried within the superconducting film of a micro-SQUID (superconducting quantum interference device) which leads to the required sensitivity. The angular dependence of the switching field in three dimensions turns out to be in good agreement with a uniform rotation of cluster magnetization. The Stoner and Wohlfarth model yields therefore an estimation of magnetic anisotropy in a single cluster. In particular, uniaxial, biaxial, and cubic contributions can be separated. Results are interpreted on the basis of a simple atomic model in which clusters are assimilated to “giant spins.” We present an extension of the Néel model to clusters in order to estimate surface anisotropy. In the case of cobalt, this last contribution dominates and numerical simulations allow us to get the morphology of the investigated clusters.

  8. Stress, strain rate and anisotropy in Kyushu, Japan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Savage, M. K.; Aoki, Y.; Unglert, K.; Ohkura, T.; Umakoshi, K.; Shimizu, H.; Iguchi, M.; Tameguri, T.; Ohminato, T.; Mori, J.

    2016-04-01

    Seismic anisotropy, the directional dependence of wave speeds, may be caused by stress-oriented cracks or by strain-oriented minerals, yet few studies have quantitatively compared anisotropy to stress and strain over large regions. Here we compare crustal stress and strain rates on the Island of Kyushu, Japan, as measured from inversions of focal mechanisms, GPS and shear wave splitting. Over 85,000 shear wave splitting measurements from local and regional earthquakes are obtained from the NIED network between 2004 and 2012, and on Aso, Sakurajima, Kirishima and Unzen volcano networks. Strain rate measurements are made from the Japanese Geonet stations. JMA-determined S arrival times processed with the MFAST shear wave splitting code measure fast polarisations (Φ), related to the orientation of the anisotropic medium and time delays (dt), related to the path length and the percent anisotropy. We apply the TESSA 2-D delay time tomography and spatial averaging code to the highest quality events, which have nearly vertical incidence angles, separating the 3455 shallow (depth < 40 km) from the 4957 deep (> = 40 km) earthquakes. Using square grids with 30 km sides for all the inversions, the best correlations are observed between splitting from shallow earthquakes and stress. Axes of maximum horizontal stress (SHmax) and Φ correlate with a coefficient c of 0.56, significant at the 99% confidence level. Their mean difference is 31.9°. Axes of maximum compressional strain rate and SHmax are also well aligned, with an average difference of 28°, but they do not correlate with each other, meaning that where they differ, the difference is not systematic. Anisotropy strength is negatively correlated with the stress ratio parameter determined from focal mechanism inversion (c = - 0.64; significant at the 99% confidence level). The anisotropy and stress results are consistent with stress-aligned microcracks in the crust in a dominantly strike-slip regime. Eigenvalues of

  9. 2D seismic reflection tomography in strongly anisotropic media

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, Guangnan; Zhou, Bing; Li, Hongxi; Zhang, Hua; Li, Zelin

    2014-12-01

    Seismic traveltime tomography is an effective method to reconstruct underground anisotropic parameters. Currently, most anisotropic tomographic methods were developed under the assumption of weak anisotropy. The tomographic method proposed here can be implemented for imaging subsurface targets in strongly anisotropic media with a known tilted symmetry axis, since the adopted ray tracing method is suitable for anisotropic media with arbitrary degree. There are three kinds of reflection waves (qP, qSV and qSH waves) that were separately used to invert the blocky abnormal body model. The reflection traveltime tomographiy is developed here because a surface observation system is the most economical and practical way compared with crosswell and VSP. The numerical examples show that the traveltimes of qP reflection wave have inverted parameters {{c}11},{{c}13},{{c}33} \\text{and} {{c}44} successfully. Traveltimes of qSV reflection wave have inverted parameters {{c}11},{{c}33} \\text{and} {{c}44} successfully, with the exception of the {{c}13}, since it is less sensitive than other parameters. Traveltimes of qSH reflection wave also have inverted parameters {{c}44} \\text{and} {{c}66} successfully. In addition, we find that the velocity sensitivity functions (derivatives of phase velocity with respect to elastic moduli parameters) and raypath illuminating angles have a great influence on the qualities of tomograms according to the inversion of theoretical models. Finally, the numerical examples confirm that the reflection traveltime tomography can be applied to invert strongly anisotropic models.

  10. Probing 2D black phosphorus by quantum capacitance measurements.

    PubMed

    Kuiri, Manabendra; Kumar, Chandan; Chakraborty, Biswanath; Gupta, Satyendra N; Naik, Mit H; Jain, Manish; Sood, A K; Das, Anindya

    2015-12-01

    Two-dimensional materials and their heterostructures have emerged as a new class of materials, not only for fundamental physics but also for electronic and optoelectronic applications. Black phosphorus (BP) is a relatively new addition to this class of materials. Its strong in-plane anisotropy makes BP a unique material for making conceptually new types of electronic devices. However, the global density of states (DOS) of BP in device geometry has not been measured experimentally. Here, we report the quantum capacitance measurements together with the conductance measurements on an hBN-protected few-layer BP (∼six layers) in a dual-gated field effect transistor (FET) geometry. The measured DOS from our quantum capacitance is compared with density functional theory (DFT). Our results reveal that the transport gap for quantum capacitance is smaller than that in conductance measurements due to the presence of localized states near the band edge. The presence of localized states is confirmed by the variable range hopping seen in our temperature dependence conductivity. A large asymmetry is observed between the electron and hole side. This asymmetric nature is attributed to the anisotropic band dispersion of BP. Our measurements establish the uniqueness of quantum capacitance in probing the localized states near the band edge, hitherto not seen in conductance measurements. PMID:26559656

  11. Probing 2D black phosphorus by quantum capacitance measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kuiri, Manabendra; Kumar, Chandan; Chakraborty, Biswanath; Gupta, Satyendra N.; Naik, Mit H.; Jain, Manish; Sood, A. K.; Das, Anindya

    2015-12-01

    Two-dimensional materials and their heterostructures have emerged as a new class of materials, not only for fundamental physics but also for electronic and optoelectronic applications. Black phosphorus (BP) is a relatively new addition to this class of materials. Its strong in-plane anisotropy makes BP a unique material for making conceptually new types of electronic devices. However, the global density of states (DOS) of BP in device geometry has not been measured experimentally. Here, we report the quantum capacitance measurements together with the conductance measurements on an hBN-protected few-layer BP (∼six layers) in a dual-gated field effect transistor (FET) geometry. The measured DOS from our quantum capacitance is compared with density functional theory (DFT). Our results reveal that the transport gap for quantum capacitance is smaller than that in conductance measurements due to the presence of localized states near the band edge. The presence of localized states is confirmed by the variable range hopping seen in our temperature dependence conductivity. A large asymmetry is observed between the electron and hole side. This asymmetric nature is attributed to the anisotropic band dispersion of BP. Our measurements establish the uniqueness of quantum capacitance in probing the localized states near the band edge, hitherto not seen in conductance measurements.

  12. Probing 2D black phosphorus by quantum capacitance measurements.

    PubMed

    Kuiri, Manabendra; Kumar, Chandan; Chakraborty, Biswanath; Gupta, Satyendra N; Naik, Mit H; Jain, Manish; Sood, A K; Das, Anindya

    2015-12-01

    Two-dimensional materials and their heterostructures have emerged as a new class of materials, not only for fundamental physics but also for electronic and optoelectronic applications. Black phosphorus (BP) is a relatively new addition to this class of materials. Its strong in-plane anisotropy makes BP a unique material for making conceptually new types of electronic devices. However, the global density of states (DOS) of BP in device geometry has not been measured experimentally. Here, we report the quantum capacitance measurements together with the conductance measurements on an hBN-protected few-layer BP (∼six layers) in a dual-gated field effect transistor (FET) geometry. The measured DOS from our quantum capacitance is compared with density functional theory (DFT). Our results reveal that the transport gap for quantum capacitance is smaller than that in conductance measurements due to the presence of localized states near the band edge. The presence of localized states is confirmed by the variable range hopping seen in our temperature dependence conductivity. A large asymmetry is observed between the electron and hole side. This asymmetric nature is attributed to the anisotropic band dispersion of BP. Our measurements establish the uniqueness of quantum capacitance in probing the localized states near the band edge, hitherto not seen in conductance measurements.

  13. [Cosmic Microwave Background (CMB) Anisotropies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Silk, Joseph

    1998-01-01

    One of the main areas of research is the theory of cosmic microwave background (CMB) anisotropies and analysis of CMB data. Using the four year COBE data we were able to improve existing constraints on global shear and vorticity. We found that, in the flat case (which allows for greatest anisotropy), (omega/H)0 less than 10-7, where omega is the vorticity and H is the Hubble constant. This is two orders of magnitude lower than the tightest, previous constraint. We have defined a new set of statistics which quantify the amount of non-Gaussianity in small field cosmic microwave background maps. By looking at the distribution of power around rings in Fourier space, and at the correlations between adjacent rings, one can identify non-Gaussian features which are masked by large scale Gaussian fluctuations. This may be particularly useful for identifying unresolved localized sources and line-like discontinuities. Levin and collaborators devised a method to determine the global geometry of the universe through observations of patterns in the hot and cold spots of the CMB. We have derived properties of the peaks (maxima) of the CMB anisotropies expected in flat and open CDM models. We represent results for angular resolutions ranging from 5 arcmin to 20 arcmin (antenna FWHM), scales that are relevant for the MAP and COBRA/SAMBA space missions and the ground-based interferometer. Results related to galaxy formation and evolution are also discussed.

  14. [Cosmic Microwave Background (CMB) Anisotropies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Silk, Joseph

    1998-01-01

    One of the main areas of research is the theory of cosmic microwave background (CMB) anisotropies and analysis of CMB data. Using the four year COBE data we were able to improve existing constraints on global shear and vorticity. We found that, in the flat case (which allows for greatest anisotropy), (omega/H)0 less than 10(exp -7), where omega is the vorticity and H is the Hubble constant. This is two orders of magnitude lower than the tightest, previous constraint. We have defined a new set of statistics which quantify the amount of non-Gaussianity in small field cosmic microwave background maps. By looking at the distribution of power around rings in Fourier space, and at the correlations between adjacent rings, one can identify non-Gaussian features which are masked by large scale Gaussian fluctuations. This may be particularly useful for identifying unresolved localized sources and line-like discontinuities. Levin and collaborators devised a method to determine the global geometry of the universe through observations of patterns in the hot and cold spots of the CMB. We have derived properties of the peaks (maxima) of the CMB anisotropies expected in flat and open CDM models. We represent results for angular resolutions ranging from 5 arcmin to 20 arcmin (antenna FWHM), scales that are relevant for the MAP and COBRA/SAMBA space missions and the ground-based interferometer. Results related to galaxy formation and evolution are also discussed.

  15. Defragged Binary I Ching Genetic Code Chromosomes Compared to Nirenberg’s and Transformed into Rotating 2D Circles and Squares and into a 3D 100% Symmetrical Tetrahedron Coupled to a Functional One to Discern Start From Non-Start Methionines through a Stella Octangula

    PubMed Central

    Castro-Chavez, Fernando

    2012-01-01

    Background Three binary representations of the genetic code according to the ancient I Ching of Fu-Xi will be presented, depending on their defragging capabilities by pairing based on three biochemical properties of the nucleic acids: H-bonds, Purine/Pyrimidine rings, and the Keto-enol/Amino-imino tautomerism, yielding the last pair a 32/32 single-strand self-annealed genetic code and I Ching tables. Methods Our working tool is the ancient binary I Ching's resulting genetic code chromosomes defragged by vertical and by horizontal pairing, reverse engineered into non-binaries of 2D rotating 4×4×4 circles and 8×8 squares and into one 3D 100% symmetrical 16×4 tetrahedron coupled to a functional tetrahedron with apical signaling and central hydrophobicity (codon formula: 4[1(1)+1(3)+1(4)+4(2)]; 5:5, 6:6 in man) forming a stella octangula, and compared to Nirenberg's 16×4 codon table (1965) pairing the first two nucleotides of the 64 codons in axis y. Results One horizontal and one vertical defragging had the start Met at the center. Two, both horizontal and vertical pairings produced two pairs of 2×8×4 genetic code chromosomes naturally arranged (M and I), rearranged by semi-introversion of central purines or pyrimidines (M' and I') and by clustering hydrophobic amino acids; their quasi-identity was disrupted by amino acids with odd codons (Met and Tyr pairing to Ile and TGA Stop); in all instances, the 64-grid 90° rotational ability was restored. Conclusions We defragged three I Ching representations of the genetic code while emphasizing Nirenberg's historical finding. The synthetic genetic code chromosomes obtained reflect the protective strategy of enzymes with a similar function, having both humans and mammals a biased G-C dominance of three H-bonds in the third nucleotide of their most used codons per amino acid, as seen in one chromosome of the i, M and M' genetic codes, while a two H-bond A-T dominance was found in their complementary chromosome, as seen

  16. Defragged Binary I Ching Genetic Code Chromosomes Compared to Nirenberg's and Transformed into Rotating 2D Circles and Squares and into a 3D 100% Symmetrical Tetrahedron Coupled to a Functional One to Discern Start From Non-Start Methionines through a Stella Octangula.

    PubMed

    Castro-Chavez, Fernando

    2012-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Three binary representations of the genetic code according to the ancient I Ching of Fu-Xi will be presented, depending on their defragging capabilities by pairing based on three biochemical properties of the nucleic acids: H-bonds, Purine/Pyrimidine rings, and the Keto-enol/Amino-imino tautomerism, yielding the last pair a 32/32 single-strand self-annealed genetic code and I Ching tables. METHODS: Our working tool is the ancient binary I Ching's resulting genetic code chromosomes defragged by vertical and by horizontal pairing, reverse engineered into non-binaries of 2D rotating 4×4×4 circles and 8×8 squares and into one 3D 100% symmetrical 16×4 tetrahedron coupled to a functional tetrahedron with apical signaling and central hydrophobicity (codon formula: 4[1(1)+1(3)+1(4)+4(2)]; 5:5, 6:6 in man) forming a stella octangula, and compared to Nirenberg's 16×4 codon table (1965) pairing the first two nucleotides of the 64 codons in axis y. RESULTS: One horizontal and one vertical defragging had the start Met at the center. Two, both horizontal and vertical pairings produced two pairs of 2×8×4 genetic code chromosomes naturally arranged (M and I), rearranged by semi-introversion of central purines or pyrimidines (M' and I') and by clustering hydrophobic amino acids; their quasi-identity was disrupted by amino acids with odd codons (Met and Tyr pairing to Ile and TGA Stop); in all instances, the 64-grid 90° rotational ability was restored. CONCLUSIONS: We defragged three I Ching representations of the genetic code while emphasizing Nirenberg's historical finding. The synthetic genetic code chromosomes obtained reflect the protective strategy of enzymes with a similar function, having both humans and mammals a biased G-C dominance of three H-bonds in the third nucleotide of their most used codons per amino acid, as seen in one chromosome of the i, M and M' genetic codes, while a two H-bond A-T dominance was found in their complementary chromosome, as

  17. CYP2D6 allele distribution in Macedonians, Albanians and Romanies in the Republic of Macedonia

    PubMed Central

    Kuzmanovska, M; Dimishkovska, M; Maleva Kostovska, I; Noveski, P; Sukarova Stefanovska, E

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Cytochrome P450 2D6 (CYP2D6) is an enzyme of great importance for the metabolism of clinically used drugs. More than 100 variants of the CYP2D6 gene have been identified so far. The aim of this study was to investigate the allele distribution of CYP2D6 gene variants in 100 individuals of each of the Macedonian, Albanian and Romany population, by genotyping using long range polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and a multiplex single base extension method. The most frequent variants and almost equally distributed in the three groups were the fully functional alleles *1 and *2. The most common non functional allele in all groups was *4 that was found in 22.5% of the Albanians. The most common allele with decreased activity was *41 which was found in 23.0% of the Romany ethnic group, in 11.0% of the Macedonians and in 10.5% of the Albanians. Seven percent of the Albanians, 6.0% of the Romani and 4.0% of the Macedonians were poor metabolizers, while 5.0% of the Macedonians, 1.0% of Albanians and 1.0% of the Romanies were ultrarapid metabolizers. We concluded that the CYP2D6 gene locus is highly heterogeneous in these groups and that the prevalence of the CYP2D6 allele variants and genotypes in the Republic of Macedonia is in accordance with that of other European populations.

  18. Mechanical characterization of 2D, 2D stitched, and 3D braided/RTM materials

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Deaton, Jerry W.; Kullerd, Susan M.; Portanova, Marc A.

    1993-01-01

    Braided composite materials have potential for application in aircraft structures. Fuselage frames, floor beams, wing spars, and stiffeners are examples where braided composites could find application if cost effective processing and damage tolerance requirements are met. Another important consideration for braided composites relates to their mechanical properties and how they compare to the properties of composites produced by other textile composite processes being proposed for these applications. Unfortunately, mechanical property data for braided composites do not appear extensively in the literature. Data are presented in this paper on the mechanical characterization of 2D triaxial braid, 2D triaxial braid plus stitching, and 3D (through-the-thickness) braid composite materials. The braided preforms all had the same graphite tow size and the same nominal braid architectures, (+/- 30 deg/0 deg), and were resin transfer molded (RTM) using the same mold for each of two different resin systems. Static data are presented for notched and unnotched tension, notched and unnotched compression, and compression after impact strengths at room temperature. In addition, some static results, after environmental conditioning, are included. Baseline tension and compression fatigue results are also presented, but only for the 3D braided composite material with one of the resin systems.

  19. ELRIS2D: A MATLAB Package for the 2D Inversion of DC Resistivity/IP Data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Akca, Irfan

    2016-04-01

    ELRIS2D is an open source code written in MATLAB for the two-dimensional inversion of direct current resistivity (DCR) and time domain induced polarization (IP) data. The user interface of the program is designed for functionality and ease of use. All available settings of the program can be reached from the main window. The subsurface is discretized using a hybrid mesh generated by the combination of structured and unstructured meshes, which reduces the computational cost of the whole inversion procedure. The inversion routine is based on the smoothness constrained least squares method. In order to verify the program, responses of two test models and field data sets were inverted. The models inverted from the synthetic data sets are consistent with the original test models in both DC resistivity and IP cases. A field data set acquired in an archaeological site is also used for the verification of outcomes of the program in comparison with the excavation results.

  20. L-plastin is involved in NKG2D recruitment into lipid rafts and NKG2D-mediated NK cell migration.

    PubMed

    Serrano-Pertierra, Esther; Cernuda-Morollón, Eva; Brdička, Tomáš; Hoøejši, Václav; López-Larrea, Carlos

    2014-09-01

    Membrane rafts are microdomains of the plasma membrane that have multiple biological functions. The involvement of these structures in the biology of T cells, namely in signal transduction by the TCR, has been widely studied. However, the role of membrane rafts in immunoreceptor signaling in NK cells is less well known. We studied the distribution of the activating NKG2D receptor in lipid rafts by isolating DRMs in a sucrose density gradient or by raft fractionation by β-OG-selective solubility in the NKL cell line. We found that the NKG2D-DAP10 complex and pVav are recruited into rafts upon receptor stimulation. Qualitative proteomic analysis of these fractions showed that the actin cytoskeleton is involved in this process. In particular, we found that the actin-bundling protein L-plastin plays an important role in the clustering of NKG2D into lipid rafts. Moreover, coengagement of the inhibitory receptor NKG2A partially disrupted NKG2D recruitment into rafts. Furthermore, we demonstrated that L-plastin participates in NKG2D-mediated inhibition of NK cell chemotaxis.

  1. 2-D Finite Element Heat Conduction

    1989-10-30

    AYER is a finite element program which implicitly solves the general two-dimensional equation of thermal conduction for plane or axisymmetric bodies. AYER takes into account the effects of time (transient problems), in-plane anisotropic thermal conductivity, a three-dimensional velocity distribution, and interface thermal contact resistance. Geometry and material distributions are arbitrary, and input is via subroutines provided by the user. As a result, boundary conditions, material properties, velocity distributions, and internal power generation may be mademore » functions of, e.g., time, temperature, location, and heat flux.« less

  2. Evolution of plastic anisotropy for high-strain-rate computations

    SciTech Connect

    Schiferl, S.K.; Maudlin, P.J.

    1994-12-01

    A model for anisotropic material strength, and for changes in the anisotropy due to plastic strain, is described. This model has been developed for use in high-rate, explicit, Lagrangian multidimensional continuum-mechanics codes. The model handles anisotropies in single-phase materials, in particular the anisotropies due to crystallographic texture--preferred orientations of the single-crystal grains. Textural anisotropies, and the changes in these anisotropies, depend overwhelmingly no the crystal structure of the material and on the deformation history. The changes, particularly for a complex deformations, are not amenable to simple analytical forms. To handle this problem, the material model described here includes a texture code, or micromechanical calculation, coupled to a continuum code. The texture code updates grain orientations as a function of tensor plastic strain, and calculates the yield strength in different directions. A yield function is fitted to these yield points. For each computational cell in the continuum simulation, the texture code tracks a particular set of grain orientations. The orientations will change due to the tensor strain history, and the yield function will change accordingly. Hence, the continuum code supplies a tensor strain to the texture code, and the texture code supplies an updated yield function to the continuum code. Since significant texture changes require relatively large strains--typically, a few percent or more--the texture code is not called very often, and the increase in computer time is not excessive. The model was implemented, using a finite-element continuum code and a texture code specialized for hexagonal-close-packed crystal structures. The results for several uniaxial stress problems and an explosive-forming problem are shown.

  3. Synthetic Covalent and Non-Covalent 2D Materials.

    PubMed

    Boott, Charlotte E; Nazemi, Ali; Manners, Ian

    2015-11-16

    The creation of synthetic 2D materials represents an attractive challenge that is ultimately driven by their prospective uses in, for example, electronics, biomedicine, catalysis, sensing, and as membranes for separation and filtration. This Review illustrates some recent advances in this diverse field with a focus on covalent and non-covalent 2D polymers and frameworks, and self-assembled 2D materials derived from nanoparticles, homopolymers, and block copolymers.

  4. Duality Between Spin Networks and the 2D Ising Model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bonzom, Valentin; Costantino, Francesco; Livine, Etera R.

    2016-06-01

    The goal of this paper is to exhibit a deep relation between the partition function of the Ising model on a planar trivalent graph and the generating series of the spin network evaluations on the same graph. We provide respectively a fermionic and a bosonic Gaussian integral formulation for each of these functions and we show that they are the inverse of each other (up to some explicit constants) by exhibiting a supersymmetry relating the two formulations. We investigate three aspects and applications of this duality. First, we propose higher order supersymmetric theories that couple the geometry of the spin networks to the Ising model and for which supersymmetric localization still holds. Secondly, after interpreting the generating function of spin network evaluations as the projection of a coherent state of loop quantum gravity onto the flat connection state, we find the probability distribution induced by that coherent state on the edge spins and study its stationary phase approximation. It is found that the stationary points correspond to the critical values of the couplings of the 2D Ising model, at least for isoradial graphs. Third, we analyze the mapping of the correlations of the Ising model to spin network observables, and describe the phase transition on those observables on the hexagonal lattice. This opens the door to many new possibilities, especially for the study of the coarse-graining and continuum limit of spin networks in the context of quantum gravity.

  5. Velocity distributions for 2D inelastic granular gases

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miracle, Dylan J.; Goldman, Daniel I.; Moon, Sung Joon; Rericha, Erin; Swift, J. B.; Swinney, Harry L.

    2002-11-01

    A previous study of a vertically vibrated 2D granular gas found a time-averaged horizontal velocity distribution function of the form P(v) exp(-C|v|^3/2) for the entire velocity range(F. Rouyer and N. Menon, Phys. Rev. Lett. 85), 3676 (2000).. We examine the dependence of the velocity distribution function on phase in the cycle, height above the plate and air pressure in the container. We use 1.6 mm stainless steel balls confined to a vertical plane by a container 32σ tall, 48σ wide, and 1.15σ thick, where σ is the particle diameter. The container oscillates with peak acceleration 20g and frequency 50 Hz. We observe that a shock forms at collision of the plate with the layer and propagates through the layer, heating the grains. The shock rapidly decays over a distance of approximately 8σ above the plate; above this height the granular temperature and density are essentially independent of phase in the cycle. In this steady-state region, we compare the observed functional form of the velocity distribution to molecular dynamics simulations.

  6. Constraining depth of anisotropy in the Amazon region (Northern Brasil)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bianchi, Irene; Willy Corrêa Rosa, João; Bokelmann, Götz

    2014-05-01

    Seismic data recorded between November 2009 and September 2013, at the permanent station PTGA of the Brazilian seismic network were used to constrain the depth of anisotropy in the lithosphere beneath the station. 90 receiver functions (RF) have been computed, covering the backazimuthal directions from 0° to 180°. Both radial (R) and transverse (T) components of the RF contain useful information about the subsurface structure. The isotropic part of the seismic velocity profile at depth mainly affects the R-RF component, while anisotropy and dipping structures produce P-to-S conversion recorded on the T-RF component (Levin and Park, 1998; Savage, 1998). The incoming (radially polarized) S waves, when passing through an anisotropic crust, splits and part of it is projected onto the transverse component. The anisotropy symmetry orientations (Φ) can be estimated by the polarity change of the observed phases. The arrival times of the phases is related to the depth of the conversion. Depth and Φ are estimated by isolating phases at certain arrival times. SKS shear-wave splitting results from previous studies in this area (Krüger et al., 2002, Rosa et al., 2014), suggest the presence of anisotropy in the mantle with orientation of the fast splitting axis (about E-W) following major deep tectonic structures. The observed splitting orientation correlates well with the current South America plate motion (i.e. relative to mesosphere), and with observed aeromagnetic trends. This similarity leaves open the possibility of a linkage between the upper mantle fabric imaged by shear wave splitting analysis and the lower crustal structure imaged by aeromagnetometry. In this study we unravel, from RF data, two layers in which anisotropy concentrates, i.e. the lower crust and the upper mantle. Lower crustal and upper mantle anisotropy retrieved by RFs give some new hints in order to interpret the previously observed anisotropic orientations from SKS and the aeromagnetic anomalies.

  7. Hydrogen diffusivity and electrical anisotropy of a peridotite mantle

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Simpson, Fiona; Tommasi, Andréa

    2005-03-01

    Long-period magnetotelluric (MT) data have indicated that electrical conductivity in the upper mantle is highly anisotropic. Rates and anisotropies for self-diffusion of hydrogen in single crystals of mantle minerals are related to electrical resistivity by the Nernst-Einstein relationship. Assuming that the dominant mechanism for electrical conduction in the mantle is hydrogen diffusion, the electrical anisotropy of a peridotite should be controlled by its mineral composition and by the lattice-preferred orientation (LPO) of its constitutive minerals. Macroscopic electrical anisotropies arising from diffusion of hydrogen in upper mantle rocks displaying strain-induced LPO of olivine, enstatite and diopside are calculated using resistor networks in which each resistor has a statistical probability of representing a mineral grain with a particular misorientation relative to the olivine [100] maximum density direction. The orientations of the grains are defined by angular distribution functions describing LPO (1) generated by viscoplastic self-consistent modelling at a range of shear strains and (2) measured in a naturally deformed peridotite. The naturally deformed peridotite displays a strong LPO, but the predicted mean electrical anisotropy factor is less than 3. Geophysical data indicate higher electrical anisotropies for the mantle. This suggests that grain boundary processes that are controlled by shape-preferred orientation of crystals and/or macroscopic heterogeneities further enhance the electrical anisotropy of the mantle. Ambiguities in the conduction mechanism highlight the need for direct laboratory measurements of ionic conductivities in mantle assemblages that can be compared with those calculated from the Nernst-Einstein equation.

  8. 2D kinematic signatures of boxy/peanut bulges

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Iannuzzi, Francesca; Athanassoula, E.

    2015-07-01

    We study the imprints of boxy/peanut structures on the 2D line-of-sight kinematics of simulated disc galaxies. The models under study belong to a family with varying initial gas fraction and halo triaxiality, plus few other control runs with different structural parameters; the kinematic information was extracted using the Voronoi-binning technique and parametrized up to the fourth order of a Gauss-Hermite series. Building on a previous work for the long-slit case, we investigate the 2D kinematic behaviour in the edge-on projection as a function of the boxy/peanut strength and position angle; we find that for the strongest structures the highest moments show characteristic features away from the mid-plane in a range of position angles. We also discuss the masking effect of a classical bulge and the ambiguity in discriminating kinematically this spherically symmetric component from a boxy/peanut bulge seen end-on. Regarding the face-on case, we extend existing results to encompass the effect of a second buckling and find that this phenomenon spurs an additional set of even deeper minima in the fourth moment. Finally, we show how the results evolve when inclining the disc away from perfectly edge-on and face-on. The behaviour of stars born during the course of the simulations is discussed and confronted to that of the pre-existing disc. The general aim of our study is providing a handle to identify boxy/peanut structures and their properties in latest generation Integral Field Unit observations of nearby disc galaxies.

  9. 2D Quantum Transport Modeling in Nanoscale MOSFETs

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Svizhenko, Alexei; Anantram, M. P.; Govindan, T. R.; Biegel, Bryan

    2001-01-01

    With the onset of quantum confinement in the inversion layer in nanoscale MOSFETs, behavior of the resonant level inevitably determines all device characteristics. While most classical device simulators take quantization into account in some simplified manner, the important details of electrostatics are missing. Our work addresses this shortcoming and provides: (a) a framework to quantitatively explore device physics issues such as the source-drain and gate leakage currents, DIBL, and threshold voltage shift due to quantization, and b) a means of benchmarking quantum corrections to semiclassical models (such as density- gradient and quantum-corrected MEDICI). We have developed physical approximations and computer code capable of realistically simulating 2-D nanoscale transistors, using the non-equilibrium Green's function (NEGF) method. This is the most accurate full quantum model yet applied to 2-D device simulation. Open boundary conditions, oxide tunneling and phase-breaking scattering are treated on equal footing. Electrons in the ellipsoids of the conduction band are treated within the anisotropic effective mass approximation. Quantum simulations are focused on MIT 25, 50 and 90 nm "well- tempered" MOSFETs and compared to classical and quantum corrected models. The important feature of quantum model is smaller slope of Id-Vg curve and consequently higher threshold voltage. These results are quantitatively consistent with I D Schroedinger-Poisson calculations. The effect of gate length on gate-oxide leakage and sub-threshold current has been studied. The shorter gate length device has an order of magnitude smaller current at zero gate bias than the longer gate length device without a significant trade-off in on-current. This should be a device design consideration.

  10. 2D Quantum Mechanical Study of Nanoscale MOSFETs

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Svizhenko, Alexei; Anantram, M. P.; Govindan, T. R.; Biegel, B.; Kwak, Dochan (Technical Monitor)

    2000-01-01

    With the onset of quantum confinement in the inversion layer in nanoscale MOSFETs, behavior of the resonant level inevitably determines all device characteristics. While most classical device simulators take quantization into account in some simplified manner, the important details of electrostatics are missing. Our work addresses this shortcoming and provides: (a) a framework to quantitatively explore device physics issues such as the source-drain and gate leakage currents, DIBL, and threshold voltage shift due to quantization, and b) a means of benchmarking quantum corrections to semiclassical models (such as density-gradient and quantum-corrected MEDICI). We have developed physical approximations and computer code capable of realistically simulating 2-D nanoscale transistors, using the non-equilibrium Green's function (NEGF) method. This is the most accurate full quantum model yet applied to 2-D device simulation. Open boundary conditions and oxide tunneling are treated on an equal footing. Electrons in the ellipsoids of the conduction band are treated within the anisotropic effective mass approximation. We present the results of our simulations of MIT 25, 50 and 90 nm "well-tempered" MOSFETs and compare them to those of classical and quantum corrected models. The important feature of quantum model is smaller slope of Id-Vg curve and consequently higher threshold voltage. Surprisingly, the self-consistent potential profile shows lower injection barrier in the channel in quantum case. These results are qualitatively consistent with ID Schroedinger-Poisson calculations. The effect of gate length on gate-oxide leakage and subthreshold current has been studied. The shorter gate length device has an order of magnitude smaller current at zero gate bias than the longer gate length device without a significant trade-off in on-current. This should be a device design consideration.

  11. VizieR Online Data Catalog: The 2dF Galaxy Redshift Survey (2dFGRS) (2dFGRS Team, 1998-2003)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Colless, M.; Dalton, G.; Maddox, S.; Sutherland, W.; Norberg, P.; Cole, S.; Bland-Hawthorn, J.; Bridges, T.; Cannon, R.; Collins, C.; Couch, W.; Cross, N.; Deeley, K.; de Propris, R.; Driver, S. P.; Efstathiou, G.; Ellis, R. S.; Frenk, C. S.; Glazebrook, K.; Jackson, C.; Lahav, O.; Lewis, I.; Lumsden, S.; Madgwick, D.; Peacock, J. A.; Peterson, B. A.; Price, I.; Seaborne, M.; Taylor, K.

    2007-11-01

    The 2dF Galaxy Redshift Survey (2dFGRS) is a major spectroscopic survey taking full advantage of the unique capabilities of the 2dF facility built by the Anglo-Australian Observatory. The 2dFGRS is integrated with the 2dF QSO survey (2QZ, Cat. VII/241). The 2dFGRS obtained spectra for 245591 objects, mainly galaxies, brighter than a nominal extinction-corrected magnitude limit of bJ=19.45. Reliable (quality>=3) redshifts were obtained for 221414 galaxies. The galaxies cover an area of approximately 1500 square degrees selected from the extended APM Galaxy Survey in three regions: a North Galactic Pole (NGP) strip, a South Galactic Pole (SGP) strip, and random fields scattered around the SGP strip. Redshifts are measured from spectra covering 3600-8000 Angstroms at a two-pixel resolution of 9.0 Angstrom and a median S/N of 13 per pixel. All redshift identifications are visually checked and assigned a quality parameter Q in the range 1-5; Q>=3 redshifts are 98.4% reliable and have an rms uncertainty of 85 km/s. The overall redshift completeness for Q>=3 redshifts is 91.8% but this varies with magnitude from 99% for the brightest galaxies to 90% for objects at the survey limit. The 2dFGRS data base is available on the World Wide Web at http://www.mso.anu.edu.au/2dFGRS/. (6 data files).

  12. ORMDIN. 2-D Nonlinear Inverse Heat Conduction

    SciTech Connect

    Bass, B.R.

    1990-05-01

    ORMDIN is a finite-element program developed for two-dimensional nonlinear inverse heat conduction analysis as part of the Oak Ridge National Laboratory Pressurized Water Reactor Blowdown Heat Transfer (BDHT) program. One of the primary objectives of the program was to determine the transient surface temperature and surface heat flux of fuel pin simulators from internal thermocouple signals obtained during a loss-of-coolant accident experiment in the Thermal-Hydraulic Test Facility (THTF). ORMDIN was designed primarily to perform a transient two-dimensional nonlinear inverse heat conduction analysis of the THTF bundle 3 heater rod; however, it can be applied to other cylindrical geometries for which the thermophysical properties are prescribed functions of temperature. The program assumes that discretized temperature histories are provided at three thermocouple locations in the interior of the cylinder. Concurrent with the two-dimensional analysis, ORMDIN also generates one-dimensional solutions for each of the three thermocouple radial planes.

  13. Large angular scale CMB anisotropy from an excited initial mode

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sojasi, A.; Mohsenzadeh, M.; Yusofi, E.

    2016-07-01

    According to inflationary cosmology, the CMB anisotropy gives an opportunity to test predictions of new physics hypotheses. The initial state of quantum fluctuations is one of the important options at high energy scale, as it can affect observables such as the CMB power spectrum. In this study a quasi-de Sitter inflationary background with approximate de Sitter mode function built over the Bunch-Davies mode is applied to investigate the scale-dependency of the CMB anisotropy. The recent Planck constraint on spectral index motivated us to examine the effect of a new excited mode function (instead of pure de Sitter mode) on the CMB anisotropy at large angular scales. In so doing, it is found that the angular scale-invariance in the CMB temperature fluctuations is broken and in the limit ℓ < 200 a tiny deviation appears. Also, it is shown that the power spectrum of CMB anisotropy is dependent on a free parameter with mass dimension H << M * < M p and on the slow-roll parameter ɛ. Supported by the Islamic Azad University, Rasht Branch, Rasht, Iran

  14. Klassifikation von Standardebenen in der 2D-Echokardiographie mittels 2D-3D-Bildregistrierung

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bergmeir, Christoph; Subramanian, Navneeth

    Zum Zweck der Entwicklung eines Systems, das einen unerfahrenen Anwender von Ultraschall (US) zur Aufnahme relevanter anatomischer Strukturen leitet, untersuchen wir die Machbarkeit von 2D-US zu 3D-CT Registrierung. Wir verwenden US-Aufnahmen von Standardebenen des Herzens, welche zu einem 3D-CT-Modell registriert werden. Unser Algorithmus unterzieht sowohl die US-Bilder als auch den CT-Datensatz Vorverarbeitungsschritten, welche die Daten durch Segmentierung auf wesentliche Informationen in Form von Labein für Muskel und Blut reduzieren. Anschließend werden diese Label zur Registrierung mittels der Match-Cardinality-Metrik genutzt. Durch mehrmaliges Registrieren mit verschiedenen Initialisierungen ermitteln wir die im US-Bild sichtbare Standardebene. Wir evaluierten die Methode auf sieben US-Bildern von Standardebenen. Fünf davon wurden korrekt zugeordnet.

  15. Epitaxial 2D SnSe2/ 2D WSe2 van der Waals Heterostructures.

    PubMed

    Aretouli, Kleopatra Emmanouil; Tsoutsou, Dimitra; Tsipas, Polychronis; Marquez-Velasco, Jose; Aminalragia Giamini, Sigiava; Kelaidis, Nicolaos; Psycharis, Vassilis; Dimoulas, Athanasios

    2016-09-01

    van der Waals heterostructures of 2D semiconductor materials can be used to realize a number of (opto)electronic devices including tunneling field effect devices (TFETs). It is shown in this work that high quality SnSe2/WSe2 vdW heterostructure can be grown by molecular beam epitaxy on AlN(0001)/Si(111) substrates using a Bi2Se3 buffer layer. A valence band offset of 0.8 eV matches the energy gap of SnSe2 in such a way that the VB edge of WSe2 and the CB edge of SnSe2 are lined up, making this materials combination suitable for (nearly) broken gap TFETs. PMID:27537619

  16. CVMAC 2D Program: A method of converting 3D to 2D

    SciTech Connect

    Lown, J.

    1990-06-20

    This paper presents the user with a method of converting a three- dimensional wire frame model into a technical illustration, detail, or assembly drawing. By using the 2D Program, entities can be mapped from three-dimensional model space into two-dimensional model space, as if they are being traced. Selected entities to be mapped can include circles, arcs, lines, and points. This program prompts the user to digitize the view to be mapped, specify the layers in which the new two-dimensional entities will reside, and select the entities, either by digitizing or windowing. The new two-dimensional entities are displayed in a small view which the program creates in the lower left corner of the drawing. 9 figs.

  17. ac susceptibility of an assembly of nanomagnets: Combined effects of surface anisotropy and dipolar interactions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vernay, F.; Sabsabi, Z.; Kachkachi, H.

    2014-09-01

    We compute the ac susceptibility of a weakly dipolar-interacting monodisperse assembly of magnetic nanoclusters with oriented anisotropy. For this purpose, we first compute the relaxation rate in a longitudinal magnetic field of a single nanomagnet taking account of both dipolar interactions in the case of dilute assemblies and surface anisotropy. We then study the behavior of the real and imaginary components of the ac susceptibility as functions of temperature, frequency, surface anisotropy, and interparticle interactions. We find that the surface anisotropy induces an upward shift of the temperature at the maximum of the ac susceptibility components and that its effects may be tuned so as to screen out the effects of interactions. The phenomenological Vogel-Fulcher law for the effect of dipolar interaction on the relaxation rate is revisited within our formalism and a semianalytical expression is given for the effective temperature in terms of inter alia the applied field, surface anisotropy, and dipolar interaction.

  18. Control of the magnetic in-plane anisotropy in off-stoichiometric NiMnSb

    SciTech Connect

    Gerhard, F.; Schumacher, C.; Gould, C.; Molenkamp, L. W.

    2014-03-07

    NiMnSb is a ferromagnetic half-metal which, because of its rich anisotropy and very low Gilbert damping, is a promising candidate for applications in information technologies. We have investigated the in-plane anisotropy properties of thin, molecular beam epitaxy-grown NiMnSb films as a function of their Mn concentration. Using ferromagnetic resonance to determine the uniaxial and four-fold anisotropy fields, (2K{sub U})/(M{sub s}) and (2K{sub 1})/(M{sub s}) , we find that a variation in composition can change the strength of the four-fold anisotropy by more than an order of magnitude and cause a complete 90° rotation of the uniaxial anisotropy. This provides valuable flexibility in designing new device geometries.

  19. From molecular dynamics to fluorescence anisotropy of fluorophores bound to oriented structures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mazzeo, Brian A.; Busath, David D.

    2013-01-01

    Molecular dynamics are often used to analyze and interpret fluorophore motions in relation to observed fluorescence anisotropy measurements. The Soleillet method allows computation of fluorescence anisotropy from molecular dynamics for isotropically oriented fluorophores, but not for oriented fluorophores, such as might be used to study oriented bacterial cultures, oriented, functionalized nanotubes, or oriented, stacked planar bilayers. A numerical approach to distribute molecular dynamics systems appropriately into a larger experimental frame context, allowing prediction of time-resolved and steady-state anisotropies for fluorophores distributed in the crystal-like arrays, is presented. The classical principles of absorption selectivity and motional effects on fluorescence anisotropy for isotropically distributed fluorophores are confirmed. Fluorescence anisotropy for fluorophores distributed on oriented cylinders are predicted to show a rich cylinder-angle dependence.

  20. T Cells Engineered With Chimeric Antigen Receptors Targeting NKG2D Ligands Display Lethal Toxicity in Mice.

    PubMed

    VanSeggelen, Heather; Hammill, Joanne A; Dvorkin-Gheva, Anna; Tantalo, Daniela G M; Kwiecien, Jacek M; Denisova, Galina F; Rabinovich, Brian; Wan, Yonghong; Bramson, Jonathan L

    2015-10-01

    Ligands for the NKG2D receptor are overexpressed on tumors, making them interesting immunotherapy targets. To assess the tumoricidal properties of T cells directed to attack NKG2D ligands, we engineered murine T cells with two distinct NKG2D-based chimeric antigen receptors (CARs): (i) a fusion between the NKG2D receptor and the CD3ζ chain and (ii) a conventional second-generation CAR, where the extracellular domain of NKG2D was fused to CD28 and CD3ζ. To enhance the CAR surface expression, we also engineered T cells to coexpress DAP10. In vitro functionality and surface expression levels of all three CARs was greater in BALB/c T cells than C57BL/6 T cells, indicating strain-specific differences. Upon adoptive transfer of NKG2D-CAR-T cells into syngeneic animals, we observed significant clinical toxicity resulting in morbidity and mortality. The severity of these toxicities varied between the CAR configurations and paralleled their in vitro NKG2D surface expression. BALB/c mice were more sensitive to these toxicities than C57BL/6 mice, consistent with the higher in vitro functionality of BALB/c T cells. Treatment with cyclophosphamide prior to adoptive transfer exacerbated the toxicity. We conclude that while NKG2D ligands may be useful targets for immunotherapy, the pursuit of NKG2D-based CAR-T cell therapies should be undertaken with caution. PMID:26122933

  1. 2D Four-Channel Perfect Reconstruction Filter Bank Realized with the 2D Lattice Filter Structure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sezen, S.; Ertüzün, A.

    2006-12-01

    A novel orthogonal 2D lattice structure is incorporated into the design of a nonseparable 2D four-channel perfect reconstruction filter bank. The proposed filter bank is obtained by using the polyphase decomposition technique which requires the design of an orthogonal 2D lattice filter. Due to constraint of perfect reconstruction, each stage of this lattice filter bank is simply parameterized by two coefficients. The perfect reconstruction property is satisfied regardless of the actual values of these parameters and of the number of the lattice stages. It is also shown that a separable 2D four-channel perfect reconstruction lattice filter bank can be constructed from the 1D lattice filter and that this is a special case of the proposed 2D lattice filter bank under certain conditions. The perfect reconstruction property of the proposed 2D lattice filter approach is verified by computer simulations.

  2. Dimensional 3D-2D cross-over under magnetic field in Bi2Sr2-xLaxCuOy induced by La/Sr substitution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Murrills, C. D.; Li, Z. Z.; Raffy, H.

    2015-06-01

    The single CuO2 layer Bi2Sr2CuO6 (Bi-2201) is characterized by a low anisotropy under magnetic field. We show that this anisotropy increases exponentially from 4 to 400 with La/Sr substitution in Bi2Sr2-xLaxCu06 (Bi(La)-2201). We present a phase diagram showing the change in transport properties from 3D to 2D when the La concentration is increased, deduced from angular transport measurements in the mixed state of c-axis oriented epitaxial Bi(La)-2201 thin films with columnar pinning centers parallel to the c-axis. We attribute this anisotropy increase to the decrease of the distortion of CuO2 planes by La/Sr substitution.

  3. From 2-D electrophoresis to proteomics.

    PubMed

    Klose, Joachim

    2009-06-01

    At first, a short history of the beginning of 2-DE is provided. Based on the present state of the art at the time I developed a 2-DE technique in 1975 that was able to resolve complex protein extracts from mouse tissues in hundreds of protein spots. My intention was to study proteins from a global point of view. Questions of interest were, how do proteins change during embryonic development, and what is the effect of induced mutations on the protein level. At that time protein chemistry was a matter of analyzing single proteins in detail. Therefore, my approach was frequently criticized as inappropriate because it would be impossible to identify and characterize the hundreds of proteins resolved. But soon it was realized that studying total proteins gives opportunities to answer many interesting questions. This led to a research field nowadays called "proteomics". Already in the beginning of the 1980s the idea to analyze the total human proteins had come up. By entering the post-genome era it became obvious that a human proteome project is needed in order to explain the human genome in terms of its functions. The problems in realizing such a project are considered. PMID:19517494

  4. AUTO: A computer program for the determination of the two-dimensional autocorrelation function of digital images

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pfleiderer, S.; Ball, D. G. A.; Bailey, R. C.

    1993-07-01

    The two-dimensional (2-D) autocorrelation function (ACF) of an image statistically characterizes the spatial pattern within that image and presents a powerful tool for fabric analysis. It determines shape preferred orientation, degree of alignment, and distribution anisotropy of image objects. We present here a fast, user-friendly, MS-DOS based computer program, AUTO, to calculate the 2-D ACF of a digital monochrome image. AUTO displays an image on the screen and allows selection of a portion of the image for autocorrelation. Rapid calculation of ACF values is achieved by using a fast Fourier transform (FFT) routine according to the convolution theorem. The spatial distribution of ACF values is contoured for quantitative analysis of fabric anisotropy. Applications of this technique include the determination of grain or pore fabric of geological specimens, strain analysis, and the interpretation of petrophysical properties.

  5. A multifunctional automated system of 2D laser polarimetry of biological tissues

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zabolotna, Natalia I.; Radchenko, Kostiantyn O.

    2014-09-01

    Multifunctional automated system of 2D laser polarimetry of biological tissues with enhanced functional capabilities is proposed. Two-layer optically thin (attenuation coefficient τ <= 0,1 ) biological structures, formed by "muscle tissue (MT) - the dermis of the skin (DS)" histological cryosections for the two physiological states (normal - dystrophy) were investigated. Complex of objective indexes which characterized by 2D polarization reproduced distributions under the following criteria: histograms of the distributions; statistical moments of the 1st - 4th order; autocorrelation functions; correlation moments; power spectra logarithmic dependencies of the distributions; fractal dimensions of the distributions; spectra moments are presented.

  6. Seismic anisotropy and anisotropy of magnetic susceptibility (AMS) in the Pelona-Orocopia-Rand schist in the Mojave region of southern California

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brownlee, S. J.; Hacker, B. R.; Feinberg, J. M.; Chapman, A. D.; Saleeby, J.; Seward, G. G.

    2013-12-01

    Our current interpretation of the composition and elastic properties of the middle and lower crust depends strongly on seismic observations. Advances in seismic methods are leading to more studies focused on seismic anisotropy in the lower crust. With increasing observations of lower crustal anisotropy, the need for a more comprehensive characterization of the seismic properties of candidate lower crustal materials is growing. In addition, links between seismic anisotropy and other geophysical parameters need to be investigated. This work combines measurements of anisotropy of magnetic susceptibility (AMS) and electron backscatter diffraction (EBSD)-based calculations of seismic anisotropy in samples of the Pelona-Orocopia-Rand (POR) schist from the Mojave region of southern California. The POR schist is thought to comprise much of the lower crust of southern California, and is one of the archetypes for understanding shallow slab subduction and subduction erosion. The goals of this study are to characterize the: 1) seismic anisotropy of the POR schist and its relationship to observed crustal anisotropy in the region, and 2) relationship between seismic anisotropy and AMS. Velocity anisotropy in individual samples of the POR schist ranges from ~2-11% in VP and ~3-15% in VS, which is consistent with results of Porter et al. (2011) for lower crustal anisotropy in southern California from analysis of receiver functions. When all schist samples are averaged together to approximate the bulk schist, the velocity anisotropy is significantly reduced to ~6% in Vs and ~8% in Vs, lower than the average values inferred by Porter et al. (2011). AMS results indicate that the directions of maximum and minimum susceptibility are subparallel to Vp-max and Vp-min, respectively (Figure 1). The magnitude of anisotropy in AMS does not show as strong a correlation with magnitude of seismic anisotropy, and may have a stronger dependence on magnetic mineralogy. These results indicate that

  7. Glutamate dependent NMDA receptor 2D is a novel angiogenic tumour endothelial marker in colorectal cancer

    PubMed Central

    Ward, Stephen; Heath, Victoria L.; Ismail, Tariq; Bicknell, Roy

    2016-01-01

    Current vascular-targeted therapies in colorectal cancer (CRC) have shown limited benefit. The lack of novel, specific treatment in CRC has been hampered by a dearth of specific endothelial markers. Microarray comparison of endothelial gene expression in patient-matched CRC and normal colon identified a panel of putative colorectal tumour endothelial markers. Of these the glutamate dependent NMDA receptor GRIN2D emerged as the most interesting target. GRIN2D expression was shown to be specific to colorectal cancer vessels by RTqPCR and IHC analysis. Its expression was additionally shown be predictive of improved survival in CRC. Targeted knockdown studies in vitro demonstrated a role for GRIN2D in endothelial function and angiogenesis. This effect was also shown in vivo as vaccination against the extracellular region of GRIN2D resulted in reduced vascularisation in the subcutaneous sponge angiogenesis assay. The utility of immunologically targeting GRIN2D in CRC was demonstrated by the vaccination approach inhibiting murine CRC tumour growth and vascularisation. GRIN2D represents a promising target for the future treatment of CRC. PMID:26943033

  8. An Incompressible 2D Didactic Model with Singularity and Explicit Solutions of the 2D Boussinesq Equations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chae, Dongho; Constantin, Peter; Wu, Jiahong

    2014-09-01

    We give an example of a well posed, finite energy, 2D incompressible active scalar equation with the same scaling as the surface quasi-geostrophic equation and prove that it can produce finite time singularities. In spite of its simplicity, this seems to be the first such example. Further, we construct explicit solutions of the 2D Boussinesq equations whose gradients grow exponentially in time for all time. In addition, we introduce a variant of the 2D Boussinesq equations which is perhaps a more faithful companion of the 3D axisymmetric Euler equations than the usual 2D Boussinesq equations.

  9. Caffeine increases striatal dopamine D2/D3 receptor availability in the human brain

    DOE PAGES

    Volkow, N. D.; Wang, G. -J.; Logan, J.; Alexoff, D.; Fowler, J. S.; Thanos, P. K.; Wong, C.; Casado, V.; Ferre, S.; Tomasi, D.

    2015-04-14

    Caffeine, the most widely consumed psychoactive substance in the world, is used to promote wakefulness and enhance alertness. Like other wake-promoting drugs (stimulants and modafinil), caffeine enhances dopamine (DA) signaling in the brain, which it does predominantly by antagonizing adenosine A2A receptors (A2AR). However, it is unclear if caffeine, at the doses consumed by humans, increases DA release or whether it modulates the functions of postsynaptic DA receptors through its interaction with adenosine receptors, which modulate them. We used positron emission tomography and [11C]raclopride (DA D2/D3 receptor radioligand sensitive to endogenous DA) to assess if caffeine increased DA release inmore » striatum in 20 healthy controls. Caffeine (300mg p.o.) significantly increased the availability of D2/D3 receptors in putamen and ventral striatum, but not in caudate, when compared with placebo. In addition, caffeine-induced increases in D2/D3 receptor availability in the ventral striatum were associated with caffeine-induced increases in alertness. Our findings indicate that in the human brain, caffeine, at doses typically consumed, increases the availability of DA D2/D3 receptors, which indicates that caffeine does not increase DA in the striatum for this would have decreased D2/D3 receptor availability. Instead, we interpret our findings to reflect an increase in D2/D3 receptor levels in striatum with caffeine (or changes in affinity). Furthermore, the association between increases in D2/D3 receptor availability in ventral striatum and alertness suggests that caffeine might enhance arousal, in part, by upregulating D2/D3 receptors.« less

  10. Caffeine increases striatal dopamine D2/D3 receptor availability in the human brain.

    PubMed

    Volkow, N D; Wang, G-J; Logan, J; Alexoff, D; Fowler, J S; Thanos, P K; Wong, C; Casado, V; Ferre, S; Tomasi, D

    2015-01-01

    Caffeine, the most widely consumed psychoactive substance in the world, is used to promote wakefulness and enhance alertness. Like other wake-promoting drugs (stimulants and modafinil), caffeine enhances dopamine (DA) signaling in the brain, which it does predominantly by antagonizing adenosine A2A receptors (A2AR). However, it is unclear if caffeine, at the doses consumed by humans, increases DA release or whether it modulates the functions of postsynaptic DA receptors through its interaction with adenosine receptors, which modulate them. We used positron emission tomography and [(11)C]raclopride (DA D2/D3 receptor radioligand sensitive to endogenous DA) to assess if caffeine increased DA release in striatum in 20 healthy controls. Caffeine (300 mg p.o.) significantly increased the availability of D2/D3 receptors in putamen and ventral striatum, but not in caudate, when compared with placebo. In addition, caffeine-induced increases in D2/D3 receptor availability in the ventral striatum were associated with caffeine-induced increases in alertness. Our findings indicate that in the human brain, caffeine, at doses typically consumed, increases the availability of DA D2/D3 receptors, which indicates that caffeine does not increase DA in the striatum for this would have decreased D2/D3 receptor availability. Instead, we interpret our findings to reflect an increase in D2/D3 receptor levels in striatum with caffeine (or changes in affinity). The association between increases in D2/D3 receptor availability in ventral striatum and alertness suggests that caffeine might enhance arousal, in part, by upregulating D2/D3 receptors. PMID:25871974

  11. Caffeine increases striatal dopamine D2/D3 receptor availability in the human brain.

    PubMed

    Volkow, N D; Wang, G-J; Logan, J; Alexoff, D; Fowler, J S; Thanos, P K; Wong, C; Casado, V; Ferre, S; Tomasi, D

    2015-04-14

    Caffeine, the most widely consumed psychoactive substance in the world, is used to promote wakefulness and enhance alertness. Like other wake-promoting drugs (stimulants and modafinil), caffeine enhances dopamine (DA) signaling in the brain, which it does predominantly by antagonizing adenosine A2A receptors (A2AR). However, it is unclear if caffeine, at the doses consumed by humans, increases DA release or whether it modulates the functions of postsynaptic DA receptors through its interaction with adenosine receptors, which modulate them. We used positron emission tomography and [(11)C]raclopride (DA D2/D3 receptor radioligand sensitive to endogenous DA) to assess if caffeine increased DA release in striatum in 20 healthy controls. Caffeine (300 mg p.o.) significantly increased the availability of D2/D3 receptors in putamen and ventral striatum, but not in caudate, when compared with placebo. In addition, caffeine-induced increases in D2/D3 receptor availability in the ventral striatum were associated with caffeine-induced increases in alertness. Our findings indicate that in the human brain, caffeine, at doses typically consumed, increases the availability of DA D2/D3 receptors, which indicates that caffeine does not increase DA in the striatum for this would have decreased D2/D3 receptor availability. Instead, we interpret our findings to reflect an increase in D2/D3 receptor levels in striatum with caffeine (or changes in affinity). The association between increases in D2/D3 receptor availability in ventral striatum and alertness suggests that caffeine might enhance arousal, in part, by upregulating D2/D3 receptors.

  12. Magnetic Anisotropy in the Radula of Chiton

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, Jian-Gao; Qian, Xia; Liu, Wei; Liu, Chuan-Lin; Zhan, Wen-Shan

    2000-07-01

    Radular teeth of chitons were studied by using magnetic torque-meter and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). The magnetic torque curves give clear evidence of presence of strong uni-axial magnetic anisotropy. The easy axis is along the length direction of tongue-like radula. The TEM pattern shows that long chip-like magnetite nano-scaled particles packed in the radular teeth with both uni-axial shape anisotropy and magneto-crystalline anisotropy.

  13. Variance Anisotropy in Kinetic Plasmas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Parashar, Tulasi N.; Oughton, Sean; Matthaeus, William H.; Wan, Minping

    2016-06-01

    Solar wind fluctuations admit well-documented anisotropies of the variance matrix, or polarization, related to the mean magnetic field direction. Typically, one finds a ratio of perpendicular variance to parallel variance of the order of 9:1 for the magnetic field. Here we study the question of whether a kinetic plasma spontaneously generates and sustains parallel variances when initiated with only perpendicular variance. We find that parallel variance grows and saturates at about 5% of the perpendicular variance in a few nonlinear times irrespective of the Reynolds number. For sufficiently large systems (Reynolds numbers) the variance approaches values consistent with the solar wind observations.

  14. Manifestation of coherent magnetic anisotropy in a carbon nanotube matrix with low ferromagnetic nanoparticle content

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Danilyuk, A. L.; Komissarov, I. V.; Labunov, V. A.; Le Normand, F.; Derory, A.; Hernandez, J. M.; Tejada, J.; Prischepa, S. L.

    2015-02-01

    The influence of the magnetic medium can lead to peculiar interaction between ferromagnetic nanoparticles (NPs). Most research in this area involves analysis of the interplay between magnetic anisotropy and exchange coupling. Increasing the average interparticle distance leads to the dominant role of the random magnetic anisotropy. Here we study the interparticle interaction in a carbon nanotube (CNT) matrix with low ferromagnetic NP content. Samples were synthesized by floating catalyst chemical vapor deposition. We found that below some critical NP concentration, when NPs are intercalated only inside CNTs, and at low temperatures, the extended magnetic order, of up to 150 nm, presents in our samples. It is shown by analyzing the correlation functions of the magnetic anisotropy axes that the extended order is not simply due to random anisotropy but is associated with the coherent magnetic anisotropy, which is strengthened by the CNT alignment. With increasing temperature the extended magnetic order is lost. Above the critical NP concentration, when NPs start to be intercalated not only into inner CNT channels, but also outside CNTs, the coherent anisotropy weakens and the exchange coupling dominates in the whole temperature range. We can make a connection with the various correlation functions using the generalized expression for the law of the approach to saturation and show that these different correlation functions reflect the peculiarities in the interparticle interaction inside CNTs. Moreover, we can extract such important micromagnetic parameters like the exchange field, local fields of random and coherent anisotropies, as well as their temperature and NP concentration dependencies.

  15. Quantification of layered patterns with structural anisotropy: a comparison of biological and geological systems.

    PubMed

    Smolyar, I; Bromage, T; Wikelski, M

    2016-03-01

    Large-scale patterns evident from satellite images of aeolian landforms on Earth and other planets; those of intermediate scale in marine and terrestrial sand ripples and sediment profiles; and small-scale patterns such as lamellae in the bones of vertebrates and annuli in fish scales are each represented by layers of different thicknesses and lengths. Layered patterns are important because they form a record of the state of internal and external factors that regulate pattern formation in these geological and biological systems. It is therefore potentially possible to recognize trends, periodicities, and events in the history of the formation of these systems among the incremental sequences. Though the structures and sizes of these 2-D patterns are typically scale-free, they are also characteristically anisotropic; that is, the number of layers and their absolute thicknesses vary significantly during formation. The aim of the present work is to quantify the structure of layered patterns and to reveal similarities and differences in the processing and interpretation of layered landforms and biological systems. To reach this goal we used N-partite graph and Boolean functions to quantify the structure of layers and plot charts for "layer thickness vs. layer number" and "layer area vs. layer number". These charts serve as a source of information about events in the history of formation of layered systems. The concept of synchronization of layer formation across a 2-D plane is introduced to develop the procedure for plotting "layer thickness vs. layer number" and "layer area vs. layer number", which takes into account the structural anisotropy of layered patterns and increase signal-to-noise ratio in charts. Examples include landforms on Mars and Earth and incremental layers in human and iguana bones.

  16. Quantification of layered patterns with structural anisotropy: a comparison of biological and geological systems.

    PubMed

    Smolyar, I; Bromage, T; Wikelski, M

    2016-03-01

    Large-scale patterns evident from satellite images of aeolian landforms on Earth and other planets; those of intermediate scale in marine and terrestrial sand ripples and sediment profiles; and small-scale patterns such as lamellae in the bones of vertebrates and annuli in fish scales are each represented by layers of different thicknesses and lengths. Layered patterns are important because they form a record of the state of internal and external factors that regulate pattern formation in these geological and biological systems. It is therefore potentially possible to recognize trends, periodicities, and events in the history of the formation of these systems among the incremental sequences. Though the structures and sizes of these 2-D patterns are typically scale-free, they are also characteristically anisotropic; that is, the number of layers and their absolute thicknesses vary significantly during formation. The aim of the present work is to quantify the structure of layered patterns and to reveal similarities and differences in the processing and interpretation of layered landforms and biological systems. To reach this goal we used N-partite graph and Boolean functions to quantify the structure of layers and plot charts for "layer thickness vs. layer number" and "layer area vs. layer number". These charts serve as a source of information about events in the history of formation of layered systems. The concept of synchronization of layer formation across a 2-D plane is introduced to develop the procedure for plotting "layer thickness vs. layer number" and "layer area vs. layer number", which takes into account the structural anisotropy of layered patterns and increase signal-to-noise ratio in charts. Examples include landforms on Mars and Earth and incremental layers in human and iguana bones. PMID:27441261

  17. Adaptation algorithms for 2-D feedforward neural networks.

    PubMed

    Kaczorek, T

    1995-01-01

    The generalized weight adaptation algorithms presented by J.G. Kuschewski et al. (1993) and by S.H. Zak and H.J. Sira-Ramirez (1990) are extended for 2-D madaline and 2-D two-layer feedforward neural nets (FNNs).

  18. Integrating Mobile Multimedia into Textbooks: 2D Barcodes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Uluyol, Celebi; Agca, R. Kagan

    2012-01-01

    The major goal of this study was to empirically compare text-plus-mobile phone learning using an integrated 2D barcode tag in a printed text with three other conditions described in multimedia learning theory. The method examined in the study involved modifications of the instructional material such that: a 2D barcode was used near the text, the…

  19. Efficient Visible Quasi-2D Perovskite Light-Emitting Diodes.

    PubMed

    Byun, Jinwoo; Cho, Himchan; Wolf, Christoph; Jang, Mi; Sadhanala, Aditya; Friend, Richard H; Yang, Hoichang; Lee, Tae-Woo

    2016-09-01

    Efficient quasi-2D-structure perovskite light-emitting diodes (4.90 cd A(-1) ) are demonstrated by mixing a 3D-structured perovskite material (methyl ammonium lead bromide) and a 2D-structured perovskite material (phenylethyl ammonium lead bromide), which can be ascribed to better film uniformity, enhanced exciton confinement, and reduced trap density. PMID:27334788

  20. CYP2D6: novel genomic structures and alleles

    PubMed Central

    Kramer, Whitney E.; Walker, Denise L.; O’Kane, Dennis J.; Mrazek, David A.; Fisher, Pamela K.; Dukek, Brian A.; Bruflat, Jamie K.; Black, John L.

    2010-01-01

    Objective CYP2D6 is a polymorphic gene. It has been observed to be deleted, to be duplicated and to undergo recombination events involving the CYP2D7 pseudogene and surrounding sequences. The objective of this study was to discover the genomic structure of CYP2D6 recombinants that interfere with clinical genotyping platforms that are available today. Methods Clinical samples containing rare homozygous CYP2D6 alleles, ambiguous readouts, and those with duplication signals and two different alleles were analyzed by long-range PCR amplification of individual genes, PCR fragment analysis, allele-specific primer extension assay, and DNA sequencing to characterize alleles and genomic structure. Results Novel alleles, genomic structures, and the DNA sequence of these structures are described. Interestingly, in 49 of 50 DNA samples that had CYP2D6 gene duplications or multiplications where two alleles were detected, the chromosome containing the duplication or multiplication had identical tandem alleles. Conclusion Several new CYP2D6 alleles and genomic structures are described which will be useful for CYP2D6 genotyping. The findings suggest that the recombination events responsible for CYP2D6 duplications and multiplications are because of mechanisms other than interchromosomal crossover during meiosis. PMID:19741566

  1. Efficient Visible Quasi-2D Perovskite Light-Emitting Diodes.

    PubMed

    Byun, Jinwoo; Cho, Himchan; Wolf, Christoph; Jang, Mi; Sadhanala, Aditya; Friend, Richard H; Yang, Hoichang; Lee, Tae-Woo

    2016-09-01

    Efficient quasi-2D-structure perovskite light-emitting diodes (4.90 cd A(-1) ) are demonstrated by mixing a 3D-structured perovskite material (methyl ammonium lead bromide) and a 2D-structured perovskite material (phenylethyl ammonium lead bromide), which can be ascribed to better film uniformity, enhanced exciton confinement, and reduced trap density.

  2. Exact solution of an anisotropic 2D random walk model with strong memory correlations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cressoni, J. C.; Viswanathan, G. M.; da Silva, M. A. A.

    2013-12-01

    Over the last decade, there has been progress in understanding one-dimensional non-Markovian processes via analytic, sometimes exact, solutions. The extension of these ideas and methods to two and higher dimensions is challenging. We report the first exactly solvable two-dimensional (2D) non-Markovian random walk model belonging to the family of the elephant random walk model. In contrast to Lévy walks or fractional Brownian motion, such models incorporate memory effects by keeping an explicit history of the random walk trajectory. We study a memory driven 2D random walk with correlated memory and stops, i.e. pauses in motion. The model has an inherent anisotropy with consequences for its diffusive properties, thereby mixing the dominant regime along one dimension with a subdiffusive walk along a perpendicular dimension. The anomalous diffusion regimes are fully characterized by an exact determination of the Hurst exponent. We discuss the remarkably rich phase diagram, as well as several possible combinations of the independent walks in both directions. The relationship between the exponents of the first and second moments is also unveiled.

  3. Phosphorene: an unexplored 2D semiconductor with a high hole mobility.

    PubMed

    Liu, Han; Neal, Adam T; Zhu, Zhen; Luo, Zhe; Xu, Xianfan; Tománek, David; Ye, Peide D

    2014-04-22

    We introduce the 2D counterpart of layered black phosphorus, which we call phosphorene, as an unexplored p-type semiconducting material. Same as graphene and MoS2, single-layer phosphorene is flexible and can be mechanically exfoliated. We find phosphorene to be stable and, unlike graphene, to have an inherent, direct, and appreciable band gap. Our ab initio calculations indicate that the band gap is direct, depends on the number of layers and the in-layer strain, and is significantly larger than the bulk value of 0.31-0.36 eV. The observed photoluminescence peak of single-layer phosphorene in the visible optical range confirms that the band gap is larger than that of the bulk system. Our transport studies indicate a hole mobility that reflects the structural anisotropy of phosphorene and complements n-type MoS2. At room temperature, our few-layer phosphorene field-effect transistors with 1.0 μm channel length display a high on-current of 194 mA/mm, a high hole field-effect mobility of 286 cm(2)/V·s, and an on/off ratio of up to 10(4). We demonstrate the possibility of phosphorene integration by constructing a 2D CMOS inverter consisting of phosphorene PMOS and MoS2 NMOS transistors.

  4. Formation of Magnetic Anisotropy by Lithography

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Si Nyeon; Nam, Yoon Jae; Kim, Yang Doo; Choi, Jun Woo; Lee, Heon; Lim, Sang Ho

    2016-01-01

    Artificial interface anisotropy is demonstrated in alternating Co/Pt and Co/Pd stripe patterns, providing a means of forming magnetic anisotropy using lithography. In-plane hysteresis loops measured along two principal directions are explained in depth by two competing shape and interface anisotropies, thus confirming the formation of interface anisotropy at the Co/Pt and Co/Pd interfaces of the stripe patterns. The measured interface anisotropy energies, which are in the range of 0.2–0.3 erg/cm2 for both stripes, are smaller than those observed in conventional multilayers, indicating a decrease in smoothness of the interfaces when formed by lithography. The demonstration of interface anisotropy in the Co/Pt and Co/Pd stripe patterns is of significant practical importance, because this setup makes it possible to form anisotropy using lithography and to modulate its strength by controlling the pattern width. Furthermore, this makes it possible to form more complex interface anisotropy by fabricating two-dimensional patterns. These artificial anisotropies are expected to open up new device applications such as multilevel bits using in-plane magnetoresistive thin-film structures. PMID:27216420

  5. Formation of Magnetic Anisotropy by Lithography.

    PubMed

    Kim, Si Nyeon; Nam, Yoon Jae; Kim, Yang Doo; Choi, Jun Woo; Lee, Heon; Lim, Sang Ho

    2016-01-01

    Artificial interface anisotropy is demonstrated in alternating Co/Pt and Co/Pd stripe patterns, providing a means of forming magnetic anisotropy using lithography. In-plane hysteresis loops measured along two principal directions are explained in depth by two competing shape and interface anisotropies, thus confirming the formation of interface anisotropy at the Co/Pt and Co/Pd interfaces of the stripe patterns. The measured interface anisotropy energies, which are in the range of 0.2-0.3 erg/cm(2) for both stripes, are smaller than those observed in conventional multilayers, indicating a decrease in smoothness of the interfaces when formed by lithography. The demonstration of interface anisotropy in the Co/Pt and Co/Pd stripe patterns is of significant practical importance, because this setup makes it possible to form anisotropy using lithography and to modulate its strength by controlling the pattern width. Furthermore, this makes it possible to form more complex interface anisotropy by fabricating two-dimensional patterns. These artificial anisotropies are expected to open up new device applications such as multilevel bits using in-plane magnetoresistive thin-film structures. PMID:27216420

  6. Anomalous Nernst Effect with Magnetocrystalline Anisotropy (110)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chesman, Carlos; Costa Neto, Jose; Department of Physics-UFRN Team

    2014-03-01

    When a ferromagnetic material is submitted to a temperature gradient and the magnetic field generates voltage on the edges of the samples, this is called the Anomalous Nernst Effect (ANE). The Heusler alloys that currently exhibit this effect are the most promising for spintronics and spin caloritronics. In this study we perform a theoretical investigation of voltage curves associated to the ANE, when the material displays magnetocrystalline anisotropy for experimental results in two configurations, ANE versus applied magnetic field and planar angle variations of ANE. We analyzed three types of magnetocrystalline anisotropy: cubic anisotropy (100) with C4 symmetry, uniaxial anisotropy with C2 symmetry and cubic anisotropy (110). The aim was to prove that cubic anisotropy (110) is equivalent to anisotropy (100) combined with uniaxial anisotropy. Theoretical fitting of experimental ANE data demonstrates this total equivalence and that a new interpretation with the use of cubic anisotropy (110) may be due to the atomic arrangement of the so-called full-Heusler. Comparative analyses of Co2FeAl and Co2MnGe alloys will be presented. CNPq, CAPES, FAPERN.

  7. Landau levels in 2D materials using Wannier Hamiltonians obtained by first principles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lado, J. L.; Fernández-Rossier, J.

    2016-09-01

    We present a method to calculate the Landau levels and the corresponding edge states of two dimensional (2D) crystals using as a starting point their electronic structure as obtained from standard density functional theory (DFT). The DFT Hamiltonian is represented in the basis of maximally localized Wannier functions. This defines a tight-binding Hamiltonian for the bulk that can be used to describe other structures, such as ribbons, provided that atomic scale details of the edges are ignored. The effect of the orbital magnetic field is described using the Peierls substitution in the hopping matrix elements. Implementing this approach in a ribbon geometry, we obtain both the Landau levels and the dispersive edge states for a series of 2D crystals, including graphene, Boron Nitride, MoS2, Black Phosphorous, Indium Selenide and MoO3. Our procedure can readily be used in any other 2D crystal, and provides an alternative to effective mass descriptions.

  8. Estrogen-Induced Cholestasis Leads to Repressed CYP2D6 Expression in CYP2D6-Humanized Mice

    PubMed Central

    Pan, Xian

    2015-01-01

    Cholestasis activates bile acid receptor farnesoid X receptor (FXR) and subsequently enhances hepatic expression of small heterodimer partner (SHP). We previously demonstrated that SHP represses the transactivation of cytochrome P450 2D6 (CYP2D6) promoter by hepatocyte nuclear factor (HNF) 4α. In this study, we investigated the effects of estrogen-induced cholestasis on CYP2D6 expression. Estrogen-induced cholestasis occurs in subjects receiving estrogen for contraception or hormone replacement, or in susceptible women during pregnancy. In CYP2D6-humanized transgenic (Tg-CYP2D6) mice, cholestasis triggered by administration of 17α-ethinylestradiol (EE2) at a high dose led to 2- to 3-fold decreases in CYP2D6 expression. This was accompanied by increased hepatic SHP expression and subsequent decreases in the recruitment of HNF4α to CYP2D6 promoter. Interestingly, estrogen-induced cholestasis also led to increased recruitment of estrogen receptor (ER) α, but not that of FXR, to Shp promoter, suggesting a predominant role of ERα in transcriptional regulation of SHP in estrogen-induced cholestasis. EE2 at a low dose (that does not cause cholestasis) also increased SHP (by ∼50%) and decreased CYP2D6 expression (by 1.5-fold) in Tg-CYP2D6 mice, the magnitude of differences being much smaller than that shown in EE2-induced cholestasis. Taken together, our data indicate that EE2-induced cholestasis increases SHP and represses CYP2D6 expression in Tg-CYP2D6 mice in part through ERα transactivation of Shp promoter. PMID:25943116

  9. Pareto joint inversion of 2D magnetotelluric and gravity data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miernik, Katarzyna; Bogacz, Adrian; Kozubal, Adam; Danek, Tomasz; Wojdyła, Marek

    2015-04-01

    In this contribution, the first results of the "Innovative technology of petrophysical parameters estimation of geological media using joint inversion algorithms" project were described. At this stage of the development, Pareto joint inversion scheme for 2D MT and gravity data was used. Additionally, seismic data were provided to set some constrains for the inversion. Sharp Boundary Interface(SBI) approach and description model with set of polygons were used to limit the dimensionality of the solution space. The main engine was based on modified Particle Swarm Optimization(PSO). This algorithm was properly adapted to handle two or more target function at once. Additional algorithm was used to eliminate non- realistic solution proposals. Because PSO is a method of stochastic global optimization, it requires a lot of proposals to be evaluated to find a single Pareto solution and then compose a Pareto front. To optimize this stage parallel computing was used for both inversion engine and 2D MT forward solver. There are many advantages of proposed solution of joint inversion problems. First of all, Pareto scheme eliminates cumbersome rescaling of the target functions, that can highly affect the final solution. Secondly, the whole set of solution is created in one optimization run, providing a choice of the final solution. This choice can be based off qualitative data, that are usually very hard to be incorporated into the regular inversion schema. SBI parameterisation not only limits the problem of dimensionality, but also makes constraining of the solution easier. At this stage of work, decision to test the approach using MT and gravity data was made, because this combination is often used in practice. It is important to mention, that the general solution is not limited to this two methods and it is flexible enough to be used with more than two sources of data. Presented results were obtained for synthetic models, imitating real geological conditions, where

  10. Modulating fluorescence anisotropy of terminally labeled double-stranded DNA via the interaction between dye and nucleotides for rational design of DNA recognition based applications.

    PubMed

    Huang, Hongduan; Wei, Hejia; Zou, Mingjian; Xu, Xiao; Xia, Bin; Liu, Feng; Li, Na

    2015-03-01

    Effective signal enhancement for fluorescence anisotropy in a simple manner is most desirable for fluorescence anisotropy method development. This work aimed to provide insights into the fluorescence anisotropy of terminally labeled double-stranded DNA (dsDNA) to facilitate a facile and universal design strategy for DNA recognition based applications. We demonstrated that fluorescence anisotropy of dsDNA could be regulated by the nature of dyes, the molecular volume, and the end structure of dsDNA. Fluorescence anisotropy ascended with the increased number of base pairs up to 18 bp and leveled off thereafter, indicating the molecular volume was not the only factor responsible for fluorescence anisotropy. By choosing dyes with the positively charged center, high fluorescence anisotropy signal was obtained due to the confinement of the segmental motion of dyes through the electrostatic interaction. By properly designing the end structure of dsDNA, fluorescence anisotropy could be further improved by enlarging the effective overall rotational volume, as supported by two-dimensional (2D) (1)H-(1)H nuclear Overhauser enhancement spectroscopy (NOESY). With the successful enhancement of the fluorescence anisotropy for terminally labeled dsDNA, simple and universal designs were demonstrated by sensing of major classes of analytes from macromolecules (DNA and protein) to small molecules (cocaine). PMID:25671552

  11. Constraints on Average Radial Anisotropy in the Lower Mantle

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Trampert, J.; De Wit, R. W. L.; Kaeufl, P.; Valentine, A. P.

    2014-12-01

    Quantifying uncertainties in seismological models is challenging, yet ideally quality assessment is an integral part of the inverse method. We invert centre frequencies for spheroidal and toroidal modes for three parameters of average radial anisotropy, density and P- and S-wave velocities in the lower mantle. We adopt a Bayesian machine learning approach to extract the information on the earth model that is available in the normal mode data. The method is flexible and allows us to infer probability density functions (pdfs), which provide a quantitative description of our knowledge of the individual earth model parameters. The parameters describing shear- and P-wave anisotropy show little deviations from isotropy, but the intermediate parameter η carries robust information on negative anisotropy of ~1% below 1900 km depth. The mass density in the deep mantle (below 1900 km) shows clear positive deviations from existing models. Other parameters (P- and shear-wave velocities) are close to PREM. Our results require that the average mantle is about 150K colder than commonly assumed adiabats and consist of a mixture of about 60% perovskite and 40% ferropericlase containing 10-15% iron. The anisotropy favours a specific orientation of the two minerals. This observation has important consequences for the nature of mantle flow.

  12. A study of local anisotropy in globally isotropic incompressible MHD

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Milano, L. J.; Dmitruk, P.; Matthaeus, W. H.; Montgomery, D.

    2000-10-01

    It is a well known fact that in presence of a DC applied field, MHD turbulence develops spectral anisotropy from an isotropic initial condition [1]. Typically, the reduced spectrum is steeper in the direction of the magnetic field than it is in any transverse direction. Theoretical insight into the origin of this effect has been derived from simulations in which there is a uniform DC magnetic field, but suggestions of a similar anisotropy is seen in various laboratory devices and also in the solar wind [2,3]. One might expect that a DC field is not essential, and it is the local mean field that is responsible. Here we investigate the occurence of local anisotropy in 3 dimensional MHD, i.e. we search for a local version of the spectral anisotropy effect. We perform 3D MHD pseudo-spectral incompressible relaxation simulations, and compute structure functions accumulated according to whether the separation is parallel to, or transverse to, the local magnetic field. Preliminary results show that correlations decay slower in the locally averaged magnetic field direction. [1] J. Shebalin, W. Matthaeus and D. Montgomery, J. Plasma Phys. 29, 525 (1983) [2] W.H. Matthaeus, M.L. Goldsteon and D.A. Roberts, J. Geophys. Res. 95, 20 673 (1990) [3] J. Armstrong, W. Coles, M. Kojima and B. Rickett, Ap. J. 358, 685 (1990)

  13. Effect of fold structures on seismic anisotropy in continental crust

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Song, W. J.; Vel, S. S.; Johnson, S. E.; Okaya, D.

    2012-04-01

    Tectonic deformation and metamorphism in the middle and lower crust can produce and modify seismic anisotropy owing to the development of micro-scale fabrics including crystallographic preferred orientation and large-scale structures such as folds, domes, faults and shear zones. Although the impact of the microfabrics on seismic anisotropy is well known via petrophysical or thin-section-based measurements, there have been few studies on how the macro-scale structures affect seismic responses. In this study, we investigate the influence of types and limb angles of cylindrical fold structures on seismic anisotropy through tensor manipulation. To calculate the velocity of seismic waves propagating through the fold structures, the elastic stiffness tensor in the Christoffel equation is substituted by geological effective media (GEM) of the folds. Here the Voigt averaging method is used in computing the GEM stiffness analytically or numerically. In this case, the GEM (C*) is decomposed into the product of a structural geometry operator (SGO) and stiffness of a representative rock that makes up the fold (Crep); C* = SGO - Crep. SGO is an operator that reorients Crep at each point of the fold with respect to a geographical reference frame and averages the reoriented stiffnesses. As an example of the representative rock stiffness, we take the stiffness tensor of the Haast schist of South Island, New Zealand (Okaya & Christensen, 2002), which has intrinsic P-wave anisotropy (AVP) of 12.7% and S1-wave anisotropy (AVS1) of 16.5%. While the rock is hexagonal in symmetry, the calculated GEM for the fold structures range between hexagonal to orthorhombic symmetry, depending on limb angle. The common types of folds are described via power or trigonometric functions: cuspate, chevron, sinusoidal, parabolic and box folds. Our results include the velocity behavior with respect to limb angle and incident angle on specific planes of the folds as well as the seismic anisotropy as a

  14. Dual-mode operation of 2D material-base hot electron transistors

    PubMed Central

    Lan, Yann-Wen; Torres, Jr., Carlos M.; Zhu, Xiaodan; Qasem, Hussam; Adleman, James R.; Lerner, Mitchell B.; Tsai, Shin-Hung; Shi, Yumeng; Li, Lain-Jong; Yeh, Wen-Kuan; Wang, Kang L.

    2016-01-01

    Vertical hot electron transistors incorporating atomically-thin 2D materials, such as graphene or MoS2, in the base region have been proposed and demonstrated in the development of electronic and optoelectronic applications. To the best of our knowledge, all previous 2D material-base hot electron transistors only considered applying a positive collector-base potential (VCB > 0) as is necessary for the typical unipolar hot-electron transistor behavior. Here we demonstrate a novel functionality, specifically a dual-mode operation, in our 2D material-base hot electron transistors (e.g. with either graphene or MoS2 in the base region) with the application of a negative collector-base potential (VCB < 0). That is, our 2D material-base hot electron transistors can operate in either a hot-electron or a reverse-current dominating mode depending upon the particular polarity of VCB. Furthermore, these devices operate at room temperature and their current gains can be dynamically tuned by varying VCB. We anticipate our multi-functional dual-mode transistors will pave the way towards the realization of novel flexible 2D material-based high-density and low-energy hot-carrier electronic applications. PMID:27581550

  15. Dual-mode operation of 2D material-base hot electron transistors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lan, Yann-Wen; Torres, Carlos M., Jr.; Zhu, Xiaodan; Qasem, Hussam; Adleman, James R.; Lerner, Mitchell B.; Tsai, Shin-Hung; Shi, Yumeng; Li, Lain-Jong; Yeh, Wen-Kuan; Wang, Kang L.

    2016-09-01

    Vertical hot electron transistors incorporating atomically-thin 2D materials, such as graphene or MoS2, in the base region have been proposed and demonstrated in the development of electronic and optoelectronic applications. To the best of our knowledge, all previous 2D material-base hot electron transistors only considered applying a positive collector-base potential (VCB > 0) as is necessary for the typical unipolar hot-electron transistor behavior. Here we demonstrate a novel functionality, specifically a dual-mode operation, in our 2D material-base hot electron transistors (e.g. with either graphene or MoS2 in the base region) with the application of a negative collector-base potential (VCB < 0). That is, our 2D material-base hot electron transistors can operate in either a hot-electron or a reverse-current dominating mode depending upon the particular polarity of VCB. Furthermore, these devices operate at room temperature and their current gains can be dynamically tuned by varying VCB. We anticipate our multi-functional dual-mode transistors will pave the way towards the realization of novel flexible 2D material-based high-density and low-energy hot-carrier electronic applications.

  16. Dual-mode operation of 2D material-base hot electron transistors.

    PubMed

    Lan, Yann-Wen; Torres, Carlos M; Zhu, Xiaodan; Qasem, Hussam; Adleman, James R; Lerner, Mitchell B; Tsai, Shin-Hung; Shi, Yumeng; Li, Lain-Jong; Yeh, Wen-Kuan; Wang, Kang L

    2016-01-01

    Vertical hot electron transistors incorporating atomically-thin 2D materials, such as graphene or MoS2, in the base region have been proposed and demonstrated in the development of electronic and optoelectronic applications. To the best of our knowledge, all previous 2D material-base hot electron transistors only considered applying a positive collector-base potential (VCB > 0) as is necessary for the typical unipolar hot-electron transistor behavior. Here we demonstrate a novel functionality, specifically a dual-mode operation, in our 2D material-base hot electron transistors (e.g. with either graphene or MoS2 in the base region) with the application of a negative collector-base potential (VCB < 0). That is, our 2D material-base hot electron transistors can operate in either a hot-electron or a reverse-current dominating mode depending upon the particular polarity of VCB. Furthermore, these devices operate at room temperature and their current gains can be dynamically tuned by varying VCB. We anticipate our multi-functional dual-mode transistors will pave the way towards the realization of novel flexible 2D material-based high-density and low-energy hot-carrier electronic applications. PMID:27581550

  17. Dual-mode operation of 2D material-base hot electron transistors.

    PubMed

    Lan, Yann-Wen; Torres, Carlos M; Zhu, Xiaodan; Qasem, Hussam; Adleman, James R; Lerner, Mitchell B; Tsai, Shin-Hung; Shi, Yumeng; Li, Lain-Jong; Yeh, Wen-Kuan; Wang, Kang L

    2016-09-01

    Vertical hot electron transistors incorporating atomically-thin 2D materials, such as graphene or MoS2, in the base region have been proposed and demonstrated in the development of electronic and optoelectronic applications. To the best of our knowledge, all previous 2D material-base hot electron transistors only considered applying a positive collector-base potential (VCB > 0) as is necessary for the typical unipolar hot-electron transistor behavior. Here we demonstrate a novel functionality, specifically a dual-mode operation, in our 2D material-base hot electron transistors (e.g. with either graphene or MoS2 in the base region) with the application of a negative collector-base potential (VCB < 0). That is, our 2D material-base hot electron transistors can operate in either a hot-electron or a reverse-current dominating mode depending upon the particular polarity of VCB. Furthermore, these devices operate at room temperature and their current gains can be dynamically tuned by varying VCB. We anticipate our multi-functional dual-mode transistors will pave the way towards the realization of novel flexible 2D material-based high-density and low-energy hot-carrier electronic applications.

  18. Targeted fluorescence imaging enhanced by 2D materials: a comparison between 2D MoS2 and graphene oxide.

    PubMed

    Xie, Donghao; Ji, Ding-Kun; Zhang, Yue; Cao, Jun; Zheng, Hu; Liu, Lin; Zang, Yi; Li, Jia; Chen, Guo-Rong; James, Tony D; He, Xiao-Peng

    2016-08-01

    Here we demonstrate that 2D MoS2 can enhance the receptor-targeting and imaging ability of a fluorophore-labelled ligand. The 2D MoS2 has an enhanced working concentration range when compared with graphene oxide, resulting in the improved imaging of both cell and tissue samples.

  19. Effects of electron pressure anisotropy on current sheet configuration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Artemyev, A. V.; Vasko, I. Y.; Angelopoulos, V.; Runov, A.

    2016-09-01

    Recent spacecraft observations in the Earth's magnetosphere have demonstrated that the magnetotail current sheet can be supported by currents of anisotropic electron population. Strong electron currents are responsible for the formation of very thin (intense) current sheets playing the crucial role in stability of the Earth's magnetotail. We explore the properties of such thin current sheets with hot isotropic ions and cold anisotropic electrons. Decoupling of the motions of ions and electrons results in the generation of a polarization electric field. The distribution of the corresponding scalar potential is derived from the electron pressure balance and the quasi-neutrality condition. We find that electron pressure anisotropy is partially balanced by a field-aligned component of this polarization electric field. We propose a 2D model that describes a thin current sheet supported by currents of anisotropic electrons embedded in an ion-dominated current sheet. Current density profiles in our model agree well with THEMIS observations in the Earth's magnetotail.

  20. Efficient 2D MRI relaxometry using compressed sensing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bai, Ruiliang; Cloninger, Alexander; Czaja, Wojciech; Basser, Peter J.

    2015-06-01

    Potential applications of 2D relaxation spectrum NMR and MRI to characterize complex water dynamics (e.g., compartmental exchange) in biology and other disciplines have increased in recent years. However, the large amount of data and long MR acquisition times required for conventional 2D MR relaxometry limits its applicability for in vivo preclinical and clinical MRI. We present a new MR pipeline for 2D relaxometry that incorporates compressed sensing (CS) as a means to vastly reduce the amount of 2D relaxation data needed for material and tissue characterization without compromising data quality. Unlike the conventional CS reconstruction in the Fourier space (k-space), the proposed CS algorithm is directly applied onto the Laplace space (the joint 2D relaxation data) without compressing k-space to reduce the amount of data required for 2D relaxation spectra. This framework is validated using synthetic data, with NMR data acquired in a well-characterized urea/water phantom, and on fixed porcine spinal cord tissue. The quality of the CS-reconstructed spectra was comparable to that of the conventional 2D relaxation spectra, as assessed using global correlation, local contrast between peaks, peak amplitude and relaxation parameters, etc. This result brings this important type of contrast closer to being realized in preclinical, clinical, and other applications.

  1. 2D electron cyclotron emission imaging at ASDEX Upgrade (invited)

    SciTech Connect

    Classen, I. G. J.; Boom, J. E.; Vries, P. C. de; Suttrop, W.; Schmid, E.; Garcia-Munoz, M.; Schneider, P. A.; Tobias, B.; Domier, C. W.; Luhmann, N. C. Jr.; Donne, A. J. H.; Jaspers, R. J. E.; Park, H. K.; Munsat, T.

    2010-10-15

    The newly installed electron cyclotron emission imaging diagnostic on ASDEX Upgrade provides measurements of the 2D electron temperature dynamics with high spatial and temporal resolution. An overview of the technical and experimental properties of the system is presented. These properties are illustrated by the measurements of the edge localized mode and the reversed shear Alfven eigenmode, showing both the advantage of having a two-dimensional (2D) measurement, as well as some of the limitations of electron cyclotron emission measurements. Furthermore, the application of singular value decomposition as a powerful tool for analyzing and filtering 2D data is presented.

  2. Comparison of 2D and 3D gamma analyses

    SciTech Connect

    Pulliam, Kiley B.; Huang, Jessie Y.; Howell, Rebecca M.; Followill, David; Kry, Stephen F.; Bosca, Ryan; O’Daniel, Jennifer

    2014-02-15

    Purpose: As clinics begin to use 3D metrics for intensity-modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) quality assurance, it must be noted that these metrics will often produce results different from those produced by their 2D counterparts. 3D and 2D gamma analyses would be expected to produce different values, in part because of the different search space available. In the present investigation, the authors compared the results of 2D and 3D gamma analysis (where both datasets were generated in the same manner) for clinical treatment plans. Methods: Fifty IMRT plans were selected from the authors’ clinical database, and recalculated using Monte Carlo. Treatment planning system-calculated (“evaluated dose distributions”) and Monte Carlo-recalculated (“reference dose distributions”) dose distributions were compared using 2D and 3D gamma analysis. This analysis was performed using a variety of dose-difference (5%, 3%, 2%, and 1%) and distance-to-agreement (5, 3, 2, and 1 mm) acceptance criteria, low-dose thresholds (5%, 10%, and 15% of the prescription dose), and data grid sizes (1.0, 1.5, and 3.0 mm). Each comparison was evaluated to determine the average 2D and 3D gamma, lower 95th percentile gamma value, and percentage of pixels passing gamma. Results: The average gamma, lower 95th percentile gamma value, and percentage of passing pixels for each acceptance criterion demonstrated better agreement for 3D than for 2D analysis for every plan comparison. The average difference in the percentage of passing pixels between the 2D and 3D analyses with no low-dose threshold ranged from 0.9% to 2.1%. Similarly, using a low-dose threshold resulted in a difference between the mean 2D and 3D results, ranging from 0.8% to 1.5%. The authors observed no appreciable differences in gamma with changes in the data density (constant difference: 0.8% for 2D vs 3D). Conclusions: The authors found that 3D gamma analysis resulted in up to 2.9% more pixels passing than 2D analysis. It must

  3. Variance Anisotropy of Solar Wind Velocity and Magnetic Field Fluctuations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oughton, S.; Matthaeus, W. H.; Wan, M.

    2015-12-01

    At MHD scales in the solar wind, velocity and magnetic fieldfluctuations are typically observed to have much more energy in thecomponents transverse to the mean magnetic field, relative to theparallel components [eg, 1,2]. This is often referred to asvariance anisotropy. Various explanations for it have been suggested,including that the fluctuations are predominantly shear Alfvén waves[1] and that turbulent dynamics leads to such states [eg, 3].Here we investigate the origin and strength of such varianceanisotropies, using spectral method simulations of thecompressible (polytropic) 3D MHD equations. We report on results from runs with several different classes ofinitial conditions. These classes include(i) fluctuations polarized only in the same sense as shear Alfvénwaves (aka toroidal polarization),(ii) randomly polarized fluctuations, and(iii) fluctuations restricted so that most of the energy is inmodes which have their wavevectors perpendicular, or nearly so, to thebackground magnetic field: quasi-2D modes. The plasma beta and Mach number dependence [4] of quantities like the variance anisotropy, Alfven ratio, and fraction of the energy in the toroidal fluctuations will be examined, along with the timescales for the development of any systematic features.Implications for solar wind fluctuations will be discussed. References:[1] Belcher & Davis 1971, J. Geophys. Res, 76, 3534.[2] Oughton et al 2015, Phil Trans Roy Soc A, 373, 20140152.[3] Matthaeus et al 1996, J. Geophys. Res, 101, 7619.[4] Smith et al 2006, J. Geophys. Res, 111, A09111.

  4. 2D to 3D crossover of the magnetic properties in ordered arrays of iron oxide nanocrystals.

    PubMed

    Faure, Bertrand; Wetterskog, Erik; Gunnarsson, Klas; Josten, Elisabeth; Hermann, Raphaël P; Brückel, Thomas; Andreasen, Jens Wenzel; Meneau, Florian; Meyer, Mathias; Lyubartsev, Alexander; Bergström, Lennart; Salazar-Alvarez, German; Svedlindh, Peter

    2013-02-01

    The magnetic 2D to 3D crossover behavior of well-ordered arrays of monodomain γ-Fe(2)O(3) spherical nanoparticles with different thicknesses has been investigated by magnetometry and Monte Carlo (MC) simulations. Using the structural information of the arrays obtained from grazing incidence small-angle X-ray scattering and scanning electron microscopy together with the experimentally determined values for the saturation magnetization and magnetic anisotropy of the nanoparticles, we show that MC simulations can reproduce the thickness-dependent magnetic behavior. The magnetic dipolar particle interactions induce a ferromagnetic coupling that increases in strength with decreasing thickness of the array. The 2D to 3D transition in the magnetic properties is mainly driven by a change in the orientation of the magnetic vortex states with increasing thickness, becoming more isotropic as the thickness of the array increases. Magnetic anisotropy prevents long-range ferromagnetic order from being established at low temperature and the nanoparticle magnetic moments instead freeze along directions defined by the distribution of easy magnetization directions.

  5. Ab initio modeling of 2D layered organohalide lead perovskites.

    PubMed

    Fraccarollo, Alberto; Cantatore, Valentina; Boschetto, Gabriele; Marchese, Leonardo; Cossi, Maurizio

    2016-04-28

    A number of 2D layered perovskites A2PbI4 and BPbI4, with A and B mono- and divalent ammonium and imidazolium cations, have been modeled with different theoretical methods. The periodic structures have been optimized (both in monoclinic and in triclinic systems, corresponding to eclipsed and staggered arrangements of the inorganic layers) at the DFT level, with hybrid functionals, Gaussian-type orbitals and dispersion energy corrections. With the same methods, the various contributions to the solid stabilization energy have been discussed, separating electrostatic and dispersion energies, organic-organic intralayer interactions and H-bonding effects, when applicable. Then the electronic band gaps have been computed with plane waves, at the DFT level with scalar and full relativistic potentials, and including the correlation energy through the GW approximation. Spin orbit coupling and GW effects have been combined in an additive scheme, validated by comparing the computed gap with well known experimental and theoretical results for a model system. Finally, various contributions to the computed band gaps have been discussed on some of the studied systems, by varying some geometrical parameters and by substituting one cation in another's place. PMID:27131557

  6. 2-D Model for Normal and Sickle Cell Blood Microcirculation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tekleab, Yonatan; Harris, Wesley

    2011-11-01

    Sickle cell disease (SCD) is a genetic disorder that alters the red blood cell (RBC) structure and function such that hemoglobin (Hb) cannot effectively bind and release oxygen. Previous computational models have been designed to study the microcirculation for insight into blood disorders such as SCD. Our novel 2-D computational model represents a fast, time efficient method developed to analyze flow dynamics, O2 diffusion, and cell deformation in the microcirculation. The model uses a finite difference, Crank-Nicholson scheme to compute the flow and O2 concentration, and the level set computational method to advect the RBC membrane on a staggered grid. Several sets of initial and boundary conditions were tested. Simulation data indicate a few parameters to be significant in the perturbation of the blood flow and O2 concentration profiles. Specifically, the Hill coefficient, arterial O2 partial pressure, O2 partial pressure at 50% Hb saturation, and cell membrane stiffness are significant factors. Results were found to be consistent with those of Le Floch [2010] and Secomb [2006].

  7. Probing transverse magnetic anisotropy by electronic transport through a single-molecule magnet

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Misiorny, M.; Burzurí, E.; Gaudenzi, R.; Park, K.; Leijnse, M.; Wegewijs, M. R.; Paaske, J.; Cornia, A.; van der Zant, H. S. J.

    2015-01-01

    By means of electronic transport, we study the transverse magnetic anisotropy of an individual Fe4 single-molecule magnet (SMM) embedded in a three-terminal junction. In particular, we determine in situ the transverse anisotropy of the molecule from the pronounced intensity modulations of the linear conductance, which are observed as a function of applied magnetic field. The proposed technique works at temperatures exceeding the energy scale of the tunnel splittings of the SMM. We deduce that the transverse anisotropy for a single Fe4 molecule captured in a junction is substantially larger than the bulk value.

  8. A new approach to the statistical treatment of 2D-maps in proteomics using fuzzy logic.

    PubMed

    Marengo, Emilio; Robotti, Elisa; Gianotti, Valentina; Righetti, Pier Giorgio

    2003-01-01

    A new approach to the statistical treatment of 2D-maps has been developed. This method is based on the use of fuzzy logic and allows to take into consideration the typical low reproducibility of 2D-maps. In this approach the signal corresponding to the presence of proteins on the 2D-maps is substituted with probability functions, centred on the signal itself. The standard deviation of the bidimensional gaussian probability function employed to blur the signal allows to assign different uncertainties to the two electrophoretic dimensions. The effect of changing the standard deviation and the digitalisation resolution are investigated. PMID:12650579

  9. A 2D driven 3D vessel segmentation algorithm for 3D digital subtraction angiography data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Spiegel, M.; Redel, T.; Struffert, T.; Hornegger, J.; Doerfler, A.

    2011-10-01

    Cerebrovascular disease is among the leading causes of death in western industrial nations. 3D rotational angiography delivers indispensable information on vessel morphology and pathology. Physicians make use of this to analyze vessel geometry in detail, i.e. vessel diameters, location and size of aneurysms, to come up with a clinical decision. 3D segmentation is a crucial step in this pipeline. Although a lot of different methods are available nowadays, all of them lack a method to validate the results for the individual patient. Therefore, we propose a novel 2D digital subtraction angiography (DSA)-driven 3D vessel segmentation and validation framework. 2D DSA projections are clinically considered as gold standard when it comes to measurements of vessel diameter or the neck size of aneurysms. An ellipsoid vessel model is applied to deliver the initial 3D segmentation. To assess the accuracy of the 3D vessel segmentation, its forward projections are iteratively overlaid with the corresponding 2D DSA projections. Local vessel discrepancies are modeled by a global 2D/3D optimization function to adjust the 3D vessel segmentation toward the 2D vessel contours. Our framework has been evaluated on phantom data as well as on ten patient datasets. Three 2D DSA projections from varying viewing angles have been used for each dataset. The novel 2D driven 3D vessel segmentation approach shows superior results against state-of-the-art segmentations like region growing, i.e. an improvement of 7.2% points in precision and 5.8% points for the Dice coefficient. This method opens up future clinical applications requiring the greatest vessel accuracy, e.g. computational fluid dynamic modeling.

  10. Anisotropy in solar wind plasma turbulence.

    PubMed

    Oughton, S; Matthaeus, W H; Wan, M; Osman, K T

    2015-05-13

    A review of spectral anisotropy and variance anisotropy for solar wind fluctuations is given, with the discussion covering inertial range and dissipation range scales. For the inertial range, theory, simulations and observations are more or less in accord, in that fluctuation energy is found to be primarily in modes with quasi-perpendicular wavevectors (relative to a suitably defined mean magnetic field), and also that most of the fluctuation energy is in the vector components transverse to the mean field. Energy transfer in the parallel direction and the energy levels in the parallel components are both relatively weak. In the dissipation range, observations indicate that variance anisotropy tends to decrease towards isotropic levels as the electron gyroradius is approached; spectral anisotropy results are mixed. Evidence for and against wave interpretations and turbulence interpretations of these features will be discussed. We also present new simulation results concerning evolution of variance anisotropy for different classes of initial conditions, each with typical background solar wind parameters.

  11. Anisotropy vs chemical composition at ultra-high energies

    SciTech Connect

    Lemoine, Martin; Waxman, Eli E-mail: eli.waxman@weizmann.ac.il

    2009-11-01

    This paper proposes and discusses a test of the chemical composition of ultra-high energy cosmic rays that relies on the anisotropy patterns measured as a function of energy. In particular, we show that if one records an anisotropy signal produced by heavy nuclei of charge Z above an energy E{sub thr}, one should record an even stronger (possibly much stronger) anisotropy at energies >E{sub thr}/Z due to the proton component that is expected to be associated with the sources of the heavy nuclei. This conclusion remains robust with respect to the parameters characterizing the sources and it does not depend at all on the modelling of astrophysical magnetic fields. As a concrete example, we apply this test to the most recent data of the Pierre Auger Observatory. Assuming that the anisotropy reported above 55 EeV is not a statistical accident, and that no significant anisotropy has been observed at energies ∼<10 EeV, we show that the apparent clustering toward Cen A cannot be attributed to heavy nuclei. Similar conclusions are drawn regarding the apparent excess correlation with nearby active galactic nuclei. We then discuss a robust lower bound to the magnetic luminosity that a source must possess in order to be able to accelerate particles of charge Z up to 100 EeV, L{sub B} ∼> 10{sup 45} Z{sup −2} erg/s. Using this bound in conjunction with the above conclusions, we argue that the current PAO data does not support the model of cosmic ray origin in active radio-quiet or even radio-loud galaxies. Finally, we demonstrate that the apparent clustering in the direction of Cen A can be explained by the contribution of the last few gamma-ray bursts or magnetars in the host galaxy thanks to the scattering of the cosmic rays on the magnetized lobes.

  12. Crustal anisotropy beneath the Yunnan region and dynamic implications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sun, C.; Lei, J.; Zhang, G.; Zha, X.; Li, C.

    2013-12-01

    By measuring seismic anisotropy we are able to obtain information about strain in the Earth's crust and mantle, which can in turn be related to deformation. One important method used to examine seismic anisotropy is shear wave splitting. The Moho P-to-S phase (Pms) is converted from a near-vertically incident P wave at the crust-mantle boundary and the source region inducing anisotropy can be exactly confined within the crust. Therefore, the Pms splitting provides an opportunity to isolate the anisotropy of the crust from that of the deep mantle, and gives clues as to the deformations within the whole crust in the past and present (McNamara and Owens, 1993). In this study, we chose high-quality Pms (Moho-converted) phases from the receiver functions which were obtained by using the time-domain iterative deconvolution of the waveforms. These waveform data were recorded by the 21 temporary seismic stations in the Yunnan region during 2010 and 2011, which were deployed by the Institute of Crustal Dynamics, CEA. Using the transverse energy maximal method on the Pms, we obtained the crustal anisotropy beneath the Yunnan region from the 283 pairs of splitting parameters with high signal-to-noise ratios and unambiguous Pms phases. Our results show that delay times between fast and slow Pms range from 0.125 to 0.40 s with an average of 0.25 s, and the strength of anisotropy is related to the tectonics. The Yangtze and Baoshan blocks show a relative stronger anisotropy, whereas the Simao block has a weaker one, suggesting the different effect of the lower crustal flow. Except for the region where the orientations of Red-River and Lancang-River faults change rapidly, the polarization direction of the fast wave is approximately parallel to the orientation of faults, suggesting that the large-scale faults may control the deformation of the lower crustal flow. Distinguished from other blocks, the Tengchong block shows a scatter-shaped direction in the fast polarization

  13. Statistical anisotropy from inflationary magnetogenesis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Giovannini, Massimo

    2016-02-01

    Provided the quantum fluctuations are amplified in the presence of a classical gauge field configuration the resulting curvature perturbations exhibit a mild statistical anisotropy which should be sufficiently weak not to conflict with current observational data. The curvature power spectra induced by weakly anisotropic initial states are computed here for the first time when the electric and the magnetic gauge couplings evolve at different rates as it happens, for instance, in the relativistic theory of van der Waals interactions. After recovering the results valid for coincident gauge couplings, the constraints imposed by the isotropy and the homogeneity of the initial states are discussed. The obtained bounds turn out to be more stringent than naively expected and cannot be ignored when discussing the underlying magnetogenesis scenarios.

  14. Texture induced microwave background anisotropies

    SciTech Connect

    Borrill, Julian; Copeland, Edmund J.; Liddle, Andrew R.; Stebbins, Albert; Veeraraghavan, Shoba

    1994-03-01

    We use numerical simulations to calculate the cosmic microwave background anisotropy induced by the evolution of a global texture field, with special emphasis on individual textures. Both spherically symmetric and general configurations are analyzed, and in the latter case we consider field configurations which exhibit unwinding events and also ones which do not. We compare the results given by evolving the field numerically under both the expanded core (XCORE) and non-linear sigma model (NLSM) approximations with the analytic predictions of the NLSM exact solution for a spherically symmetric self-similar (SSSS) unwinding. We find that the random unwinding configuration spots' typical peak height is 60-75\\% and angular size typically only 10% of those of the SSSS unwinding, and that random configurations without an unwinding event nonetheless may generate indistinguishable hot and cold spots. A brief comparison is made with other work.

  15. Quantifying reflectance anisotropy of photosynthetically active radiation in grasslands

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Middleton, Elizabeth M.

    1992-01-01

    Quantifying the vegetative surface's reflectance anisotropy was an important part of the First ISLSCP Field Experiment, as its major objectives focused on retrieval of surface parameters from satellite-derived reflectances. The explicit remote measurements for approximating the bidirectional reflectance distribution function (BRDF) of photosynthetically active radiation had not been previously undertaken. In this paper the proper expression of reflectance for BRDFs for retrieval of canopy parameters is assessed.

  16. Alloyed 2D Metal-Semiconductor Atomic Layer Junctions.

    PubMed

    Kim, Ah Ra; Kim, Yonghun; Nam, Jaewook; Chung, Hee-Suk; Kim, Dong Jae; Kwon, Jung-Dae; Park, Sang Won; Park, Jucheol; Choi, Sun Young; Lee, Byoung Hun; Park, Ji Hyeon; Lee, Kyu Hwan; Kim, Dong-Ho; Choi, Sung Mook; Ajayan, Pulickel M; Hahm, Myung Gwan; Cho, Byungjin

    2016-03-01

    Heterostructures of compositionally and electronically variant two-dimensional (2D) atomic layers are viable building blocks for ultrathin optoelectronic devices. We show that the composition of interfacial transition region between semiconducting WSe2 atomic layer channels and metallic NbSe2 contact layers can be engineered through interfacial doping with Nb atoms. WxNb1-xSe2 interfacial regions considerably lower the potential barrier height of the junction, significantly improving the performance of the corresponding WSe2-based field-effect transistor devices. The creation of such alloyed 2D junctions between dissimilar atomic layer domains could be the most important factor in controlling the electronic properties of 2D junctions and the design and fabrication of 2D atomic layer devices.

  17. Emerging and potential opportunities for 2D flexible nanoelectronics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhu, Weinan; Park, Saungeun; Akinwande, Deji

    2016-05-01

    The last 10 years have seen the emergence of two-dimensional (2D) nanomaterials such as graphene, transition metal dichalcogenides (TMDs), and black phosphorus (BP) among the growing portfolio of layered van der Waals thin films. Graphene, the prototypical 2D material has advanced rapidly in device, circuit and system studies that has resulted in commercial large-area applications. In this work, we provide a perspective of the emerging and potential translational applications of 2D materials including semiconductors, semimetals, and insulators that comprise the basic material set for diverse nanosystems. Applications include RF transceivers, smart systems, the so-called internet of things, and neurotechnology. We will review the DC and RF electronic performance of graphene and BP thin film transistors. 2D materials at sub-um channel length have so far enabled cut-off frequencies from baseband to 100GHz suitable for low-power RF and sub-THz concepts.

  18. 2D hexagonal quaternion Fourier transform in color image processing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grigoryan, Artyom M.; Agaian, Sos S.

    2016-05-01

    In this paper, we present a novel concept of the quaternion discrete Fourier transform on the two-dimensional hexagonal lattice, which we call the two-dimensional hexagonal quaternion discrete Fourier transform (2-D HQDFT). The concept of the right-side 2D HQDFT is described and the left-side 2-D HQDFT is similarly considered. To calculate the transform, the image on the hexagonal lattice is described in the tensor representation when the image is presented by a set of 1-D signals, or splitting-signals which can be separately processed in the frequency domain. The 2-D HQDFT can be calculated by a set of 1-D quaternion discrete Fourier transforms (QDFT) of the splitting-signals.

  19. Technical Review of the UNET2D Hydraulic Model

    SciTech Connect

    Perkins, William A.; Richmond, Marshall C.

    2009-05-18

    The Kansas City District of the US Army Corps of Engineers is engaged in a broad range of river management projects that require knowledge of spatially-varied hydraulic conditions such as velocities and water surface elevations. This information is needed to design new structures, improve existing operations, and assess aquatic habitat. Two-dimensional (2D) depth-averaged numerical hydraulic models are a common tool that can be used to provide velocity and depth information. Kansas City District is currently using a specific 2D model, UNET2D, that has been developed to meet the needs of their river engineering applications. This report documents a tech- nical review of UNET2D.

  20. Double resonance rotational spectroscopy of CH2D+

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Töpfer, Matthias; Jusko, Pavol; Schlemmer, Stephan; Asvany, Oskar

    2016-09-01

    Context. Deuterated forms of CH are thought to be responsible for deuterium enrichment in lukewarm astronomical environments. There is no unambiguous detection of CH2D+ in space to date. Aims: Four submillimetre rotational lines of CH2D+ are documented in the literature. Our aim is to present a complete dataset of highly resolved rotational lines, including millimetre (mm) lines needed for a potential detection. Methods: We used a low-temperature ion trap and applied a novel IR-mm-wave double resonance method to measure the rotational lines of CH2D+. Results: We measured 21 low-lying (J ≤ 4) rotational transitions of CH2D+ between 23 GHz and 1.1 THz with accuracies close to 2 ppb.

  1. Alloyed 2D Metal-Semiconductor Atomic Layer Junctions.

    PubMed

    Kim, Ah Ra; Kim, Yonghun; Nam, Jaewook; Chung, Hee-Suk; Kim, Dong Jae; Kwon, Jung-Dae; Park, Sang Won; Park, Jucheol; Choi, Sun Young; Lee, Byoung Hun; Park, Ji Hyeon; Lee, Kyu Hwan; Kim, Dong-Ho; Choi, Sung Mook; Ajayan, Pulickel M; Hahm, Myung Gwan; Cho, Byungjin

    2016-03-01

    Heterostructures of compositionally and electronically variant two-dimensional (2D) atomic layers are viable building blocks for ultrathin optoelectronic devices. We show that the composition of interfacial transition region between semiconducting WSe2 atomic layer channels and metallic NbSe2 contact layers can be engineered through interfacial doping with Nb atoms. WxNb1-xSe2 interfacial regions considerably lower the potential barrier height of the junction, significantly improving the performance of the corresponding WSe2-based field-effect transistor devices. The creation of such alloyed 2D junctions between dissimilar atomic layer domains could be the most important factor in controlling the electronic properties of 2D junctions and the design and fabrication of 2D atomic layer devices. PMID:26839956

  2. ORION96. 2-d Finite Element Code Postprocessor

    SciTech Connect

    Sanford, L.A.; Hallquist, J.O.

    1992-02-02

    ORION is an interactive program that serves as a postprocessor for the analysis programs NIKE2D, DYNA2D, TOPAZ2D, and CHEMICAL TOPAZ2D. ORION reads binary plot files generated by the two-dimensional finite element codes currently used by the Methods Development Group at LLNL. Contour and color fringe plots of a large number of quantities may be displayed on meshes consisting of triangular and quadrilateral elements. ORION can compute strain measures, interface pressures along slide lines, reaction forces along constrained boundaries, and momentum. ORION has been applied to study the response of two-dimensional solids and structures undergoing finite deformations under a wide variety of large deformation transient dynamic and static problems and heat transfer analyses.

  3. Phylogenetic tree construction based on 2D graphical representation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liao, Bo; Shan, Xinzhou; Zhu, Wen; Li, Renfa

    2006-04-01

    A new approach based on the two-dimensional (2D) graphical representation of the whole genome sequence [Bo Liao, Chem. Phys. Lett., 401(2005) 196.] is proposed to analyze the phylogenetic relationships of genomes. The evolutionary distances are obtained through measuring the differences among the 2D curves. The fuzzy theory is used to construct phylogenetic tree. The phylogenetic relationships of H5N1 avian influenza virus illustrate the utility of our approach.

  4. Generating a 2D Representation of a Complex Data Structure

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    James, Mark

    2006-01-01

    A computer program, designed to assist in the development and debugging of other software, generates a two-dimensional (2D) representation of a possibly complex n-dimensional (where n is an integer >2) data structure or abstract rank-n object in that other software. The nature of the 2D representation is such that it can be displayed on a non-graphical output device and distributed by non-graphical means.

  5. Anisotropic 2D Materials for Tunable Hyperbolic Plasmonics.

    PubMed

    Nemilentsau, Andrei; Low, Tony; Hanson, George

    2016-02-12

    Motivated by the recent emergence of a new class of anisotropic 2D materials, we examine their electromagnetic modes and demonstrate that a broad class of the materials can host highly directional hyperbolic plasmons. Their propagation direction can be manipulated on the spot by gate doping, enabling hyperbolic beam reflection, refraction, and bending. The realization of these natural 2D hyperbolic media opens up a new avenue in dynamic control of hyperbolic plasmons not possible in the 3D version.

  6. A simultaneous 2D/3D autostereo workstation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chau, Dennis; McGinnis, Bradley; Talandis, Jonas; Leigh, Jason; Peterka, Tom; Knoll, Aaron; Sumer, Aslihan; Papka, Michael; Jellinek, Julius

    2012-03-01

    We present a novel immersive workstation environment that scientists can use for 3D data exploration and as their everyday 2D computer monitor. Our implementation is based on an autostereoscopic dynamic parallax barrier 2D/3D display, interactive input devices, and a software infrastructure that allows client/server software modules to couple the workstation to scientists' visualization applications. This paper describes the hardware construction and calibration, software components, and a demonstration of our system in nanoscale materials science exploration.

  7. Quantum Diffusion on Molecular Tubes: Universal Scaling of the 1D to 2D Transition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chuang, Chern; Lee, Chee Kong; Moix, Jeremy M.; Knoester, Jasper; Cao, Jianshu

    2016-05-01

    The transport properties of disordered systems are known to depend critically on dimensionality. We study the diffusion coefficient of a quantum particle confined to a lattice on the surface of a tube, where it scales between the 1D and 2D limits. It is found that the scaling relation is universal and independent of the temperature, disorder, and noise parameters, and the essential order parameter is the ratio between the localization length in 2D and the circumference of the tube. Phenomenological and quantitative expressions for transport properties as functions of disorder and noise are obtained and applied to real systems: In the natural chlorosomes found in light-harvesting bacteria the exciton transfer dynamics is predicted to be in the 2D limit, whereas a family of synthetic molecular aggregates is found to be in the homogeneous limit and is independent of dimensionality.

  8. Quantum Diffusion on Molecular Tubes: Universal Scaling of the 1D to 2D Transition.

    PubMed

    Chuang, Chern; Lee, Chee Kong; Moix, Jeremy M; Knoester, Jasper; Cao, Jianshu

    2016-05-13

    The transport properties of disordered systems are known to depend critically on dimensionality. We study the diffusion coefficient of a quantum particle confined to a lattice on the surface of a tube, where it scales between the 1D and 2D limits. It is found that the scaling relation is universal and independent of the temperature, disorder, and noise parameters, and the essential order parameter is the ratio between the localization length in 2D and the circumference of the tube. Phenomenological and quantitative expressions for transport properties as functions of disorder and noise are obtained and applied to real systems: In the natural chlorosomes found in light-harvesting bacteria the exciton transfer dynamics is predicted to be in the 2D limit, whereas a family of synthetic molecular aggregates is found to be in the homogeneous limit and is independent of dimensionality. PMID:27232033

  9. A shed NKG2D ligand that promotes natural killer cell activation and tumor rejection

    PubMed Central

    Deng, Weiwen; Gowen, Benjamin G.; Zhang, Li; Wang, Lin; Lau, Stephanie; Iannello, Alexandre; Xu, Jianfeng; Rovis, Tihana L.; Xiong, Na; Raulet, David H.

    2016-01-01

    Immune cells, including natural killer (NK) cells, recognize transformed cells and eliminate them in a process termed immunosurveillance. It is thought that tumor cells evade immunosurveillance by shedding membrane ligands that bind to the NKG2D activating receptor on NK cells and/or T cells, and desensitize these cells. In contrast, we show that in mice, shedding of MULT1, a high affinity NKG2D ligand, causes NK cell activation and tumor rejection. Recombinant soluble MULT1 stimulated tumor rejection in mice. Soluble MULT1 functions, at least in part, by competitively reversing a global desensitization of NK cells imposed by engagement of membrane NKG2D ligands on tumor-associated cells, such as myeloid cells. The results overturn conventional wisdom that soluble ligands are inhibitory, and suggest a new approach for cancer immunotherapy. PMID:25745066

  10. Integrin associated proteins differentially regulate neutrophil polarity and directed migration in 2D and 3D

    PubMed Central

    Yamahashi, Yukie; Cavnar, Peter J.; Hind, Laurel E.; Berthier, Erwin; Bennin, David A.; Beebe, David

    2015-01-01

    Directed neutrophil migration in blood vessels and tissues is critical for proper immune function; however, the mechanisms that regulate three-dimensional neutrophil chemotaxis remain unclear. It has been shown that integrins are dispensable for interstitial three-dimensional (3D) leukocyte migration; however, the role of integrin regulatory proteins during directed neutrophil migration is not known. Using a novel microfluidic gradient generator amenable to 2D and 3D analysis, we found that the integrin regulatory proteins Kindlin-3, RIAM, and talin-1 differentially regulate neutrophil polarization and directed migration to gradients of chemoattractant in 2D versus 3D. Both talin-1-deficient and RIAM-deficient neutrophil-like cells had impaired adhesion, polarization, and migration on 2D surfaces whereas in 3D the cells polarized but had impaired 3D chemotactic velocity. Kindlin-3 deficient cells were able to polarize and migrate on 2D surfaces but had impaired directionality. In a 3D environment, Kindlin-3 deficient cells displayed efficient chemotaxis. These findings demonstrate that the role of integrin regulatory proteins in cell polarity and directed migration can be different in 2D and 3D. PMID:26354879

  11. The infrared spectrum of the Ne-C2D2 complex.

    PubMed

    Moazzen-Ahmadi, N; McKellar, A R W; Fernández, Berta; Farrelly, David

    2015-11-28

    Infrared spectra of Ne-C2D2 are observed in the region of the ν3 fundamental band (asymmetric C-D stretch, ≈2440 cm(-1)) using a tunable optical parametric oscillator to probe a pulsed supersonic slit jet expansion from a cooled nozzle. Like helium-acetylene, this system lies close to the free rotor limit, making analysis tricky because stronger transitions tend to pile up close to monomer (C2D2) rotation-vibration transitions. Assignments are aided by predicted rotational energies calculated from a published ab initio intermolecular potential energy surface. The analysis extends up to the j = 3←2 band, where j labels C2D2 rotation within the dimer, and is much more complete than the limited infrared assignments previously reported for Ne-C2H2 and Ne-C2HD. Two previous microwave transitions within the j = 1 state of Ne-C2D2 are reassigned. Coriolis model fits to the theoretical levels and to the spectrum are compared. Since the variations observed as a function of C2D2 vibrational excitation are comparable to those noted between theory and experiment, it is evident that more detailed testing of theory will require vibrational averaging over the acetylene intramolecular modes.

  12. Synthesis, properties and applications of 2D non-graphene materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Feng; Wang, Zhenxing; Wang, Qisheng; Wang, Fengmei; Yin, Lei; Xu, Kai; Huang, Yun; He, Jun

    2015-07-01

    As an emerging class of new materials, two-dimensional (2D) non-graphene materials, including layered and non-layered, and their heterostructures are currently attracting increasing interest due to their promising applications in electronics, optoelectronics and clean energy. In contrast to traditional semiconductors, such as Si, Ge and III-V group materials, 2D materials show significant merits of ultrathin thickness, very high surface-to-volume ratio, and high compatibility with flexible devices. Owing to these unique properties, while scaling down to ultrathin thickness, devices based on these materials as well as artificially synthetic heterostructures exhibit novel and surprising functions and performances. In this review, we aim to provide a summary on the state-of-the-art research activities on 2D non-graphene materials. The scope of the review will cover the preparation of layered and non-layered 2D materials, construction of 2D vertical van der Waals and lateral ultrathin heterostructures, and especially focus on the applications in electronics, optoelectronics and clean energy. Moreover, the review is concluded with some perspectives on the future developments in this field.

  13. Synthesis, properties and applications of 2D non-graphene materials.

    PubMed

    Wang, Feng; Wang, Zhenxing; Wang, Qisheng; Wang, Fengmei; Yin, Lei; Xu, Kai; Huang, Yun; He, Jun

    2015-07-24

    As an emerging class of new materials, two-dimensional (2D) non-graphene materials, including layered and non-layered, and their heterostructures are currently attracting increasing interest due to their promising applications in electronics, optoelectronics and clean energy. In contrast to traditional semiconductors, such as Si, Ge and III-V group materials, 2D materials show significant merits of ultrathin thickness, very high surface-to-volume ratio, and high compatibility with flexible devices. Owing to these unique properties, while scaling down to ultrathin thickness, devices based on these materials as well as artificially synthetic heterostructures exhibit novel and surprising functions and performances. In this review, we aim to provide a summary on the state-of-the-art research activities on 2D non-graphene materials. The scope of the review will cover the preparation of layered and non-layered 2D materials, construction of 2D vertical van der Waals and lateral ultrathin heterostructures, and especially focus on the applications in electronics, optoelectronics and clean energy. Moreover, the review is concluded with some perspectives on the future developments in this field.

  14. Enhanced photon absorption in spiral nanostructured solar cells using layered 2D materials.

    PubMed

    Tahersima, Mohammad H; Sorger, Volker J

    2015-08-28

    Recent investigations of semiconducting two-dimensional (2D) transition metal dichalcogenides have provided evidence for strong light absorption relative to its thickness attributed to high density of states. Stacking a combination of metallic, insulating, and semiconducting 2D materials enables functional devices with atomic thicknesses. While photovoltaic cells based on 2D materials have been demonstrated, the reported absorption is still just a few percent of the incident light due to their sub-wavelength thickness leading to low cell efficiencies. Here we show that taking advantage of the mechanical flexibility of 2D materials by rolling a molybdenum disulfide (MoS(2))/graphene (Gr)/hexagonal boron nitride stack to a spiral solar cell allows for optical absorption up to 90%. The optical absorption of a 1 μm long hetero-material spiral cell consisting of the aforementioned hetero stack is about 50% stronger compared to a planar MoS(2) cell of the same thickness; although the volumetric absorbing material ratio is only 6%. A core-shell structure exhibits enhanced absorption and pronounced absorption peaks with respect to a spiral structure without metallic contacts. We anticipate these results to provide guidance for photonic structures that take advantage of the unique properties of 2D materials in solar energy conversion applications.

  15. T cell triggering: insights from 2D kinetics analysis of molecular interactions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zarnitsyna, Veronika; Zhu, Cheng

    2012-08-01

    Interaction of the T cell receptor (TCR) with pathogen-derived peptide presented by the major histocompatibility complex (pMHC) molecule is central to adaptive immunity as it initiates intracellular signaling to trigger T cell response to infection. Kinetic parameters of this interaction have been under intensive investigation for more than two decades using soluble pMHCs and/or TCRs with at least one of them in the solution (three-dimensional (3D) methods). Recently, several techniques have been developed to enable kinetic analysis on live T cells with pMHCs presented by surrogate antigen presenting cells (APCs) or supported planar lipid bilayers (two-dimensional (2D) methods). Comparison of 2D versus 3D parameters reveals drastic differences with broader ranges of 2D affinities and on-rates and orders of magnitude faster 2D off-rates for functionally distinct pMHCs. Here we review new 2D data and discuss how it may impact previously developed models of T cell discrimination between pMHCs of different potencies.

  16. Simulating MEMS Chevron Actuator for Strain Engineering 2D Materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vutukuru, Mounika; Christopher, Jason; Bishop, David; Swan, Anna

    2D materials pose an exciting paradigm shift in the world of electronics. These crystalline materials have demonstrated high electric and thermal conductivities and tensile strength, showing great potential as the new building blocks of basic electronic circuits. However, strain engineering 2D materials for novel devices remains a difficult experimental feat. We propose the integration of 2D materials with MEMS devices to investigate the strain dependence on material properties such as electrical and thermal conductivity, refractive index, mechanical elasticity, and band gap. MEMS Chevron actuators, provides the most accessible framework to study strain in 2D materials due to their high output force displacements for low input power. Here, we simulate Chevron actuators on COMSOL to optimize actuator design parameters and accurately capture the behavior of the devices while under the external force of a 2D material. Through stationary state analysis, we analyze the response of the device through IV characteristics, displacement and temperature curves. We conclude that the simulation precisely models the real-world device through experimental confirmation, proving that the integration of 2D materials with MEMS is a viable option for constructing novel strain engineered devices. The authors acknowledge support from NSF DMR1411008.

  17. Effects of NKG2D haplotypes on the cell-surface expression of NKG2D protein on natural killer and CD8 T cells of peripheral blood among atomic-bomb survivors.

    PubMed

    Imai, Kazue; Hayashi, Tomonori; Yamaoka, Mika; Kajimura, Junko; Yoshida, Kengo; Kusunoki, Yoichiro; Nakachi, Kei

    2012-06-01

    NKG2D is a primary activating receptor that triggers cell-mediated cytotoxicity in NK cells against tumor and virus-infected cells. We previously identified the NKG2D haplotypes in the natural killer gene complex region on chromosome 12p. Two major haplotype alleles, LNK1 and HNK1, were closely related to low and high natural cytotoxic activity phenotypes, respectively. Furthermore, the haplotype of HNK1/HNK1 has revealed a decreased risk of cancer compared with LNK1/LNK1. In the present study, using flow cytometry, we evaluated the functional effects of NKG2D haplotypes and five htSNPs in terms of the cell-surface expression of NKG2D protein on NK and CD8 T cells of peripheral blood among 732 atomic-bomb survivors. NKG2D expression on NK cells showed significant increases, in the order of LNK1/LNK1, LNK1/HNK1 and HNK1/HNK1 haplotypes (p for trend=0.003), or with major homozygous, heterozygous, and minor homozygous genotypes for individual htSNPs (p for trend=0.02-0.003). The same trend was observed for NKG2D expression on CD8 T cells. Our findings indicate that the NKG2D haplotypes are associated with the expression levels of NKG2D protein on NK and CD8 T cells, resulting in inter-individual variations in human cytotoxic response.

  18. Effects of NKG2D haplotypes on the cell-surface expression of NKG2D protein on natural killer and CD8 T cells of peripheral blood among atomic-bomb survivors.

    PubMed

    Imai, Kazue; Hayashi, Tomonori; Yamaoka, Mika; Kajimura, Junko; Yoshida, Kengo; Kusunoki, Yoichiro; Nakachi, Kei

    2012-06-01

    NKG2D is a primary activating receptor that triggers cell-mediated cytotoxicity in NK cells against tumor and virus-infected cells. We previously identified the NKG2D haplotypes in the natural killer gene complex region on chromosome 12p. Two major haplotype alleles, LNK1 and HNK1, were closely related to low and high natural cytotoxic activity phenotypes, respectively. Furthermore, the haplotype of HNK1/HNK1 has revealed a decreased risk of cancer compared with LNK1/LNK1. In the present study, using flow cytometry, we evaluated the functional effects of NKG2D haplotypes and five htSNPs in terms of the cell-surface expression of NKG2D protein on NK and CD8 T cells of peripheral blood among 732 atomic-bomb survivors. NKG2D expression on NK cells showed significant increases, in the order of LNK1/LNK1, LNK1/HNK1 and HNK1/HNK1 haplotypes (p for trend=0.003), or with major homozygous, heterozygous, and minor homozygous genotypes for individual htSNPs (p for trend=0.02-0.003). The same trend was observed for NKG2D expression on CD8 T cells. Our findings indicate that the NKG2D haplotypes are associated with the expression levels of NKG2D protein on NK and CD8 T cells, resulting in inter-individual variations in human cytotoxic response. PMID:22507622

  19. Association between striatal dopamine D2/D3 receptors and brain activation during visual attention: effects of sleep deprivation.

    PubMed

    Tomasi, D; Wang, G-J; Volkow, N D

    2016-01-01

    Sleep deprivation (SD) disrupts dopamine (DA) signaling and impairs attention. However, the interpretation of these concomitant effects requires a better understanding of dopamine's role in attention processing. Here we test the hypotheses that D2/D3 receptors (D2/D3R) in dorsal and ventral striatum would distinctly regulate the activation of attention regions and that, by decreasing D2/D3, SD would disrupt these associations. We measured striatal D2/D3R using positron emission tomography with [(11)C]raclopride and brain activation to a visual attention (VA) task using 4-Tesla functional magnetic resonance imaging. Fourteen healthy men were studied during rested wakefulness and also during SD. Increased D2/D3R in striatum (caudate, putamen and ventral striatum) were linearly associated with higher thalamic activation. Subjects with higher D2/D3R in caudate relative to ventral striatum had higher activation in superior parietal cortex and ventral precuneus, and those with higher D2/D3R in putamen relative to ventral striatum had higher activation in anterior cingulate. SD impaired the association between striatal D2/D3R and VA-induced thalamic activation, which is essential for alertness. Findings suggest a robust DAergic modulation of cortical activation during the VA task, such that D2/D3R in dorsal striatum counterbalanced the stimulatory influence of D2/D3R in ventral striatum, which was not significantly disrupted by SD. In contrast, SD disrupted thalamic activation, which did not show counterbalanced DAergic modulation but a positive association with D2/D3R in both dorsal and ventral striatum. The counterbalanced dorsal versus ventral striatal DAergic modulation of VA activation mirrors similar findings during sensorimotor processing (Tomasi et al., 2015) suggesting a bidirectional influence in signaling between the dorsal caudate and putamen and the ventral striatum. PMID:27244237

  20. Association between striatal dopamine D2/D3 receptors and brain activation during visual attention: effects of sleep deprivation

    PubMed Central

    Tomasi, D; Wang, G-J; Volkow, N D

    2016-01-01

    Sleep deprivation (SD) disrupts dopamine (DA) signaling and impairs attention. However, the interpretation of these concomitant effects requires a better understanding of dopamine's role in attention processing. Here we test the hypotheses that D2/D3 receptors (D2/D3R) in dorsal and ventral striatum would distinctly regulate the activation of attention regions and that, by decreasing D2/D3, SD would disrupt these associations. We measured striatal D2/D3R using positron emission tomography with [11C]raclopride and brain activation to a visual attention (VA) task using 4-Tesla functional magnetic resonance imaging. Fourteen healthy men were studied during rested wakefulness and also during SD. Increased D2/D3R in striatum (caudate, putamen and ventral striatum) were linearly associated with higher thalamic activation. Subjects with higher D2/D3R in caudate relative to ventral striatum had higher activation in superior parietal cortex and ventral precuneus, and those with higher D2/D3R in putamen relative to ventral striatum had higher activation in anterior cingulate. SD impaired the association between striatal D2/D3R and VA-induced thalamic activation, which is essential for alertness. Findings suggest a robust DAergic modulation of cortical activation during the VA task, such that D2/D3R in dorsal striatum counterbalanced the stimulatory influence of D2/D3R in ventral striatum, which was not significantly disrupted by SD. In contrast, SD disrupted thalamic activation, which did not show counterbalanced DAergic modulation but a positive association with D2/D3R in both dorsal and ventral striatum. The counterbalanced dorsal versus ventral striatal DAergic modulation of VA activation mirrors similar findings during sensorimotor processing (Tomasi et al., 2015) suggesting a bidirectional influence in signaling between the dorsal caudate and putamen and the ventral striatum. PMID:27219347

  1. Melt in the mantle and seismic azimuthal anisotropy: evidence from Anatolia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vinnik, Lev; Oreshin, Sergey; Erduran, Murat

    2016-04-01

    Observations of shear wave splitting in SKS seismic phase play a key role in the current efforts to understand kinematics and dynamics of mantle flow, but azimuthal anisotropy as a depth-localized phenomenon still is poorly known. Here we analyse stratification of seismic azimuthal anisotropy beneath central and northern Anatolia (a microplate within the Alpine belt) by inverting P-wave receiver functions jointly with shear wave splitting in SKS seismic phase. The analysis is based on recordings of stations of the North Anatolian Fault (NAF) passive seismic experiment. In the resulting model in a depth interval from 120 to 200 km fast direction of anisotropy is nearly parallel to the plate motion direction (˜E-W), whilst a normal direction (close to S-N) is found in the low velocity zone (LVZ) between 60 and 90 km. Our preferred interpretation of these data suggests that the flow in upper mantle is nearly parallel to the Anatolian plate motion direction in the depth range from the LAB to 200 km, but in part of the LVZ fast direction of anisotropy is normal to the direction of shear in the mantle. This relation between anisotropy and shear is known from laboratory experiments with peridotite-type rock containing melt. A similar relation between anisotropy and flow in the LVZ is found in Fennoscandia. These findings may have far-reaching implications for interpreting mantle anisotropy elsewhere.

  2. Primordial anisotropies in gauged hybrid inflation

    SciTech Connect

    Abolhasani, Ali Akbar; Emami, Razieh; Firouzjahi, Hassan E-mail: emami@ipm.ir

    2014-05-01

    We study primordial anisotropies generated in the model of gauged hybrid inflation in which the complex waterfall field is charged under a U(1)gauge field. Primordial anisotropies are generated either actively during inflation or from inhomogeneities modulating the surface of end of inflation during waterfall transition. We present a consistent δN mechanism to calculate the anisotropic power spectrum and bispectrum. We show that the primordial anisotropies generated at the surface of end of inflation do not depend on the number of e-folds and therefore do not produce dangerously large anisotropies associated with the IR modes. Furthermore, one can find the parameter space that the anisotropies generated from the surface of end of inflation cancel the anisotropies generated during inflation, therefore relaxing the constrains on model parameters imposed from IR anisotropies. We also show that the gauge field fluctuations induce a red-tilted power spectrum so the averaged power spectrum from the gauge field can change the total power spectrum from blue to red. Therefore, hybrid inflation, once gauged under a U(1) field, can be consistent with the cosmological observations.

  3. Ab Initio Calculation of Nuclear Magnetic Resonance Chemical Shift Anisotropy Tensors 1. Influence of Basis Set on the Calculation of 31P Chemical Shifts

    SciTech Connect

    Alam, T.M.

    1998-09-01

    The influence of changes in the contracted Gaussian basis set used for ab initio calculations of nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) phosphorous chemical shift anisotropy (CSA) tensors was investigated. The isotropic chemical shitl and chemical shift anisotropy were found to converge with increasing complexity of the basis set at the Hartree-Fock @IF) level. The addition of d polarization function on the phosphorous nucIei was found to have a major impact of the calculated chemical shi~ but diminished with increasing number of polarization fimctions. At least 2 d polarization fimctions are required for accurate calculations of the isotropic phosphorous chemical shift. The introduction of density fictional theory (DFT) techniques through tie use of hybrid B3LYP methods for the calculation of the phosphorous chemical shift tensor resulted in a poorer estimation of the NMR values, even though DFT techniques result in improved energy and force constant calculations. The convergence of the W parametem with increasing basis set complexity was also observed for the DFT calculations, but produced results with consistent large deviations from experiment. The use of a HF 6-31 l++G(242p) basis set represents a good compromise between accuracy of the simulation and the complexity of the calculation for future ab initio calculations of 31P NMR parameters in larger complexes.

  4. Altered NK Cell Development and Enhanced NK Cell-Mediated Resistance to MCMV in NKG2D-Deficient Mice

    PubMed Central

    Zafirova, Biljana; Mandarić, Sanja; Antulov, Ronald; Krmpotić, Astrid; Jonsson, Helena; Yokoyama, Wayne M.; Jonjić, Stipan; Polić, Bojan

    2009-01-01

    Summary NKG2D is a potent activating receptor on NK cells which acts as a molecular sensor for stressed cells expressing NKG2D ligands such as infected or tumor transformed cells. Although NKG2D is expressed on NK cell precursors, its role in NK cell development is still not known. We have generated NKG2D-deficient mice by targeting the Klrk1 locus. Here we provide evidence for an important regulatory role of NKG2D in the development of NK cells. The absence of NKG2D causes faster division of NK cells, perturbation in size of some NK cell subpopulations and their augmented sensitivity to apoptosis. As expected, NKG2D−/− NK cells are less responsive to tumor targets expressing NKG2D ligands. NKG2D−/− mice, however, show an enhanced NK cell-mediated resistance to MCMV infection as a consequence of NK cell dysregulation. Altogether, these findings provide evidence for yet unknown regulatory function of NKG2D in NK cell physiology. PMID:19631564

  5. Use of the 'Precessions' process for prepolishing and correcting 2D & 2(1/2)D form.

    PubMed

    Walker, David D; Freeman, Richard; Morton, Roger; McCavana, Gerry; Beaucamp, Anthony

    2006-11-27

    The Precessions process polishes complex surfaces from the ground state preserving the ground-in form, and subsequently rectifies measured form errors. Our first paper introduced the technology and focused on the novel tooling. In this paper we describe the unique CNC machine tools and how they operate in polishing and correcting form. Experimental results demonstrate both the '2D' and '2(1/2)D' form-correction modes, as applied to aspheres with rotationally-symmetric target-form.

  6. Mechanical anisotropy of the Yucca Mountain tuffs

    SciTech Connect

    Price, R.H.; Boyd, P.J.; Martin, R.J.; Haupt, R.W.; Noel, J.S.

    1991-12-31

    Three series of measurements were performed on oriented cores of several Yucca Mountain tuffs to determine the importance of mechanical anisotropy in the intact rock. Outcrop and drillhole samples were tested for acoustic velocities, linear compressibilities, and strengths in different orientations. The present data sets are preliminary, but suggest the tuffs are transversely anisotropic for these mechanical properties. The planar fabric that produces the anisotropy is believed to be predominantly the result of the preferred orientation of shards and pumice fragments. The potential of significant anisotropy has direct relevance to the formulation of constitutive formulation and the analyses of an underground opening within the Yucca Mountain.

  7. Anisotropy in spatial summation properties of human Ocular-Following Response (OFR)

    PubMed Central

    Sheliga, B. M.; Quaia, C.; FitzGibbon, E. J.; Cumming, B.G.

    2015-01-01

    Using sinusoidal gratings we show that an increase in stimulus size confined to the dimension orthogonal to the axis of motion leads to stronger Ocular Following Responses (OFRs) up to a certain optimal size. An increase beyond this optimum produces smaller responses, indicating suppressive interactions. In sharp contrast, when the stimulus growth occurs parallel to the axis of motion OFR magnitudes increase monotonically both for horizontal and vertical directions of motion. Similar results are obtained with 1D white noise patterns. However, the OFR spatial anisotropy is minimal with 2D white noise patterns, revealing a pivotal role of orientation-selective (i.e., cortical) mechanisms in mediating this phenomenon. The lack of anisotropy for 2D patterns suggests that directional signals alone are not sufficient to elicit this suppression. The OFR spatial anisotropy is potentiated if a stationary grating is presented for 600-1000 ms before its motion commences, further emphasizing the importance of static orientation signals. These results suggest that the strength of cortical spatial interactions is asymmetric—i.e., larger in the direction of the ends than the flanks of an orientation-selective receptive field—which corroborates the existing neurophysiological evidence. PMID:25743079

  8. Anisotropies in magnetic field evolution and local Lyapunov exponents

    SciTech Connect

    Tang, X.Z.; Boozer, A.H.

    2000-01-13

    The natural occurrence of small scale structures and the extreme anisotropy in the evolution of a magnetic field embedded in a conducting flow is interpreted in terms of the properties of the local Lyapunov exponents along the various local characteristic (un)stable directions for the Lagrangian flow trajectories. The local Lyapunov exponents and the characteristic directions are functions of Lagrangian coordinates and time, which are completely determined once the flow field is specified. The characteristic directions that are associated with the spatial anisotropy of the problem, are prescribed in both Lagrangian and Eulerian frames. Coordinate transformation techniques are employed to relate the spatial distributions of the magnetic field, the induced current density, and the Lorentz force, which are usually followed in Eulerian frame, to those of the local Lyapunov exponents, which are naturally defined in Lagrangian coordinates.

  9. Quantum spin Hall insulators with interactions and lattice anisotropy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Wei; Rachel, Stephan; Liu, Wu-Ming; Le Hur, Karyn

    2012-05-01

    We investigate the interplay between spin-orbit coupling and electron-electron interactions on the honeycomb lattice, combining the cellular dynamical mean-field theory and its real-space extension with analytical approaches. We provide a thorough analysis of the phase diagram and temperature effects at weak spin-orbit coupling. We systematically discuss the stability of the quantum spin Hall phase toward interactions and lattice anisotropy, resulting in the plaquette-honeycomb model. We also show the evolution of the helical edge states characteristic of quantum spin Hall insulators as a function of Hubbard interaction and anisotropy. At very weak spin-orbit coupling and intermediate electron-electron interactions, we substantiate the existence of a quantum spin liquid phase.

  10. Anisotropy minimization via least squares method for transformation optics.

    PubMed

    Junqueira, Mateus A F C; Gabrielli, Lucas H; Spadoti, Danilo H

    2014-07-28

    In this work the least squares method is used to reduce anisotropy in transformation optics technique. To apply the least squares method a power series is added on the coordinate transformation functions. The series coefficients were calculated to reduce the deviations in Cauchy-Riemann equations, which, when satisfied, result in both conformal transformations and isotropic media. We also present a mathematical treatment for the special case of transformation optics to design waveguides. To demonstrate the proposed technique a waveguide with a 30° of bend and with a 50% of increase in its output width was designed. The results show that our technique is simultaneously straightforward to be implement and effective in reducing the anisotropy of the transformation for an extremely low value close to zero.

  11. Applications of Sunphotometry to Aerosol Extinction and Surface Anisotropy

    SciTech Connect

    Tsay, S.

    2002-09-30

    Support cost-sharing of a newly developed sunphotometer in field deployment for aerosol studies. This is a cost-sharing research to deploy a newly developed sun-sky-surface photometer for studying aerosol extinction and surface anisotropy at the ARM SGP, TWP, and NSA-AAO CART sites and in many field campaigns. Atmospheric aerosols affect the radiative energy balance of the Earth, both directly by perturbing the incoming/outgoing radiation fields and indirectly by influencing the properties/processes of clouds and reactive greenhouse gases. The surface bidirectional reflectance distribution function (BRDF) also plays a crucial role in the radiative energy balance, since the BRDF is required to determine (i) the spectral and spectrally-averaged surface albedo, and (ii) the top-of-the-atmosphere (TOA) angular distribution of radiance field. Therefore, the CART sites provide an excellent, albeit unique, opportunity to collect long-term climatic data in characterizing aerosol properties and various types of surface anisotropy.

  12. Solvated Electrons in Clusters: Magic Numbers for the Photoelectron Anisotropy.

    PubMed

    West, Adam H C; Yoder, Bruce L; Luckhaus, David; Signorell, Ruth

    2015-12-17

    This paper reports on a curiosity concerning magic numbers in neutral molecular clusters, namely on magic numbers related to the photoelectron anisotropy in angle-resolved photoelectron spectra. With a combination of density functional calculations and experiment, we search for magic numbers in Na(H2O)n, Na(NH3)n, Na(CH3OH)n, and Na(CH3OCH3)n clusters. In clusters of high symmetry, the highest occupied molecular orbital can be delocalized over an extended region, forming a symmetric charge distribution of high s character, which results in a pronounced anisotropy in the photoelectron a