Ballistic Transport in Graphene Antidot Lattices.
Sandner, Andreas; Preis, Tobias; Schell, Christian; Giudici, Paula; Watanabe, Kenji; Taniguchi, Takashi; Weiss, Dieter; Eroms, Jonathan
2015-12-01
The bulk carrier mobility in graphene was shown to be enhanced in graphene-boron nitride heterostructures. However, nanopatterning graphene can add extra damage and drastically degrade the intrinsic properties by edge disorder. Here we show that graphene embedded into a heterostructure with hexagonal boron nitride (hBN) on both sides is protected during a nanopatterning step. In this way, we can prepare graphene-based antidot lattices where the high mobility is preserved. We report magnetotransport experiments in those antidot lattices with lattice periods down to 50 nm. We observe pronounced commensurability features stemming from ballistic orbits around one or several antidots. Due to the short lattice period in our samples, we can also explore the boundary between the classical and the quantum transport regime, as the Fermi wavelength of the electrons approaches the smallest length scale of the artificial potential. PMID:26598218
Magnetic switching of nanoscale antidot lattices
Gräfe, Joachim; Lebecki, Kristof M; Skripnik, Maxim; Haering, Felix; Schütz, Gisela; Ziemann, Paul; Goering, Eberhard; Nowak, Ulrich
2016-01-01
Summary We investigate the rich magnetic switching properties of nanoscale antidot lattices in the 200 nm regime. In-plane magnetized Fe, Co, and Permalloy (Py) as well as out-of-plane magnetized GdFe antidot films are prepared by a modified nanosphere lithography allowing for non-close packed voids in a magnetic film. We present a magnetometry protocol based on magneto-optical Kerr microscopy elucidating the switching modes using first-order reversal curves. The combination of various magnetometry and magnetic microscopy techniques as well as micromagnetic simulations delivers a thorough understanding of the switching modes. While part of the investigations has been published before, we summarize these results and add significant new insights in the magnetism of exchange-coupled antidot lattices. PMID:27335762
Experimental Studies of Graphene Antidot Lattices for Thermoelectric Applications
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Hao, Qing; Xu, Dongchao; Zhao, Hongbo; Du, Xu
Pristine graphene has low thermoelectric performance due to its ultra-high thermal conductivity and zero band gap that leads to a low Seebeck coefficient (S) . Both issues can be addressed by patterning periodic nano- or sub-1-nm pores (antidots) across graphene, called graphene antidot lattices (GALs). In GALs, a geometry-dependent band gap can be opened up to dramatically increase S, with significantly reduced thermal conductivity (k) due to phonon scattering by antidots. Above will lead to a high thermoelectric figure of merit (~1.0 at 300 K by computations) in GALs to be used for device cooling. Despite numerous calculations, experimental studies of GALs are restricted to electrical conductivity (σ) measurements for GALs with ~10 nm patterns. The critical k measurements are still lacking. In this work, all three thermoelectric properties (S, k, and σ) are measured on suspended GALs with sub-10 nm pores. In comparison, electrical properties are also characterized for GALs on a substrate. The results presented here provide important guidance on how to tailor transport properties of general two-dimensional materials with ALs. Qing Hao acknowledges the support from the Young Investigator Program of U.S. Air Force Office of Scientific Research (Grant FA9550-15-1-0403).
Boron and nitrogen doping in graphene antidot lattices
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Brun, Søren J.; Pereira, Vitor M.; Pedersen, Thomas G.
2016-06-01
Bottom-up fabrication of graphene antidot lattices (GALs) has previously yielded atomically precise structures with subnanometer periodicity. Focusing on this type of experimentally realized GAL, we perform density functional theory calculations on the pristine structure as well as GALs with edge carbon atoms substituted with boron or nitrogen. We show that p - and n -type doping levels emerge with activation energies that depend on the level of hydrogenation at the impurity. Furthermore, a tight-binding parametrization together with a Green's function method are used to describe more dilute doping. Finally, random configurations of impurities in moderately doped systems are considered to show that the doping properties are robust against disorder.
Influence of lattice defects on the ferromagnetic resonance behaviour of 2D magnonic crystals
Manzin, Alessandra; Barrera, Gabriele; Celegato, Federica; Coïsson, Marco; Tiberto, Paola
2016-01-01
This paper studies, from a modelling point of view, the influence of randomly distributed lattice defects (non-patterned areas and variable hole size) on the ferromagnetic resonance behaviour and spin wave mode profiles of 2D magnonic crystals based on Ni80Fe20 antidot arrays with hexagonal lattice. A reference sample is first defined via the comparison of experimental and simulated hysteresis loops and magnetoresistive curves of patterned films, prepared by self-assembly of polystyrene nanospheres. Second, a parametric analysis of the dynamic response is performed, investigating how edge, quasi-uniform and localized modes are affected by alterations of the lattice geometry and bias field amplitude. Finally, some results about the possible use of magnetic antidot arrays in frequency-based sensors for magnetic bead detection are presented, highlighting the need for an accurate control of microstructural features. PMID:26911336
Goswami, Srijit; Aamir, Mohammed Ali; Shamim, Saquib; Ghosh, Arindam; Siegert, Christoph; Farrer, Ian; Ritchie, David A.; Pepper, Michael
2013-12-04
We use a dual gated device structure to introduce a gate-tuneable periodic potential in a GaAs/AlGaAs two dimensional electron gas (2DEG). Using only a suitable choice of gate voltages we can controllably alter the potential landscape of the bare 2DEG, inducing either a periodic array of antidots or quantum dots. Antidots are artificial scattering centers, and therefore allow for a study of electron dynamics. In particular, we show that the thermovoltage of an antidot lattice is particularly sensitive to the relative positions of the Fermi level and the antidot potential. A quantum dot lattice, on the other hand, provides the opportunity to study correlated electron physics. We find that its current-voltage characteristics display a voltage threshold, as well as a power law scaling, indicative of collective Coulomb blockade in a disordered background.
Mandal, Ruma; Laha, Pinaki; Das, Kaustuv; Saha, Susmita; Barman, Saswati; Raychaudhuri, A. K.; Barman, Anjan
2013-12-23
We show that the optically induced spin wave spectra of nanoscale Ni{sub 80}Fe{sub 20} (permalloy) antidot lattices can be tuned by changing the antidot shape. The spin wave spectra also show an anisotropy with the variation of the in-plane bias field orientation. Analyses show this is due to various quantized and extended modes, whose nature changes with the antidot shape and bias field orientation as a result of the variation of the internal magnetic field profile. The observed variation and anisotropy in the spin waves with the internal and external parameters are important for their applications in magnonic devices.
Quantum computing via defect states in two-dimensional antidot lattices.
Flindt, Christian; Mortensen, Niels Asger; Jauho, Antti-Pekka
2005-12-01
We propose a new structure suitable for quantum computing in a solid-state environment: designed defect states in antidot lattices superimposed on a two-dimensional electron gas at a semiconductor heterostructure. State manipulation can be obtained with gate control. Model calculations indicate that it is feasible to fabricate structures whose energy level structure is robust against thermal dephasing.
Gubbiotti, G.; Tacchi, S.; Madami, M.; Carlotti, G.; Ding, J.; Adeyeye, A. O.
2015-06-29
The Brillouin light scattering technique has been exploited to study the angle-resolved spin wave band diagrams of squared Permalloy antidot lattice. Frequency dispersion of spin waves has been measured for a set of fixed wave vector magnitudes, while varying the wave vector in-plane orientation with respect to the applied magnetic field. The magnonic band gap between the two most dispersive modes exhibits a minimum value at an angular position, which exclusively depends on the product between the selected wave vector magnitude and the lattice constant of the array. The experimental data are in very good agreement with predictions obtained by dynamical matrix method calculations. The presented results are relevant for magnonic devices where the antidot lattice, acting as a diffraction grating, is exploited to achieve multidirectional spin wave emission.
Beam-Plasma Instabilities in a 2D Yukawa Lattice
Kyrkos, S.; Kalman, G. J.; Rosenberg, M.
2009-06-05
We consider a 2D Yukawa lattice of grains, with a beam of other charged grains moving in the lattice plane. In contrast to Vlasov plasmas, where the electrostatic instability excited by the beam is only longitudinal, here both longitudinal and transverse instabilities of the lattice phonons can develop. We determine and compare the transverse and longitudinal growth rates. The growth rate spectrum in wave number space exhibits remarkable gaps where no instability can develop. Depending on the system parameters, the transverse instability can be selectively excited.
Bisotto, I.; Portal, J.-C.; Brown, D.; Wieck, A. D.
2015-11-15
We present new photovoltage oscillation in a pure two dimensional electron gas (2DEG) and in the presence of circular or semicircular antidot lattices. Results were interpreted as EMPs-like photovoltage oscillations. We observed and explained the photovoltage oscillation amplitude enhancement in the presence of an antidot lattice with regard to the pure 2DEG. The microwave frequency excitation range is 139 – 350 GHz. The cyclotron and magnetoplasmon resonances take place in the magnetic field range 0.4 – 0.8 T. This original experimental condition allows edge magnetoplasmons EMPs interference like observation at low magnetic field, typically B < B{sub c} where B{sub c} is the magnetic field at which the cyclotron resonance takes place. The different oscillation periods observed and their microwave frequency dependence were discussed. For 139 and 158 GHz microwave excitation frequencies, a unique EMPs-like interference period was found in the presence of antidots whereas two periods were extracted for 295 or 350 GHz. An explanation of this effect is given taking account of strong electron interaction with antidot at low magnetic field. Indeed, electrons involved in EMPs like phenomenon interact strongly with antidots when electron cyclotron orbits are larger than or comparable to the antidot diameter.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Bisotto, I.; Portal, J.-C.; Brown, D.; D. Wieck, A.
2015-11-01
We present new photovoltage oscillation in a pure two dimensional electron gas (2DEG) and in the presence of circular or semicircular antidot lattices. Results were interpreted as EMPs-like photovoltage oscillations. We observed and explained the photovoltage oscillation amplitude enhancement in the presence of an antidot lattice with regard to the pure 2DEG. The microwave frequency excitation range is 139 - 350 GHz. The cyclotron and magnetoplasmon resonances take place in the magnetic field range 0.4 - 0.8 T. This original experimental condition allows edge magnetoplasmons EMPs interference like observation at low magnetic field, typically B < Bc where Bc is the magnetic field at which the cyclotron resonance takes place. The different oscillation periods observed and their microwave frequency dependence were discussed. For 139 and 158 GHz microwave excitation frequencies, a unique EMPs-like interference period was found in the presence of antidots whereas two periods were extracted for 295 or 350 GHz. An explanation of this effect is given taking account of strong electron interaction with antidot at low magnetic field. Indeed, electrons involved in EMPs like phenomenon interact strongly with antidots when electron cyclotron orbits are larger than or comparable to the antidot diameter.
2D Four-Channel Perfect Reconstruction Filter Bank Realized with the 2D Lattice Filter Structure
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Sezen, S.; Ertüzün, A.
2006-12-01
A novel orthogonal 2D lattice structure is incorporated into the design of a nonseparable 2D four-channel perfect reconstruction filter bank. The proposed filter bank is obtained by using the polyphase decomposition technique which requires the design of an orthogonal 2D lattice filter. Due to constraint of perfect reconstruction, each stage of this lattice filter bank is simply parameterized by two coefficients. The perfect reconstruction property is satisfied regardless of the actual values of these parameters and of the number of the lattice stages. It is also shown that a separable 2D four-channel perfect reconstruction lattice filter bank can be constructed from the 1D lattice filter and that this is a special case of the proposed 2D lattice filter bank under certain conditions. The perfect reconstruction property of the proposed 2D lattice filter approach is verified by computer simulations.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Farmer, B.; Bhat, V. S.; Sklenar, J.; Teipel, E.; Woods, J.; Ketterson, J. B.; Hastings, J. T.; De Long, L. E.
2015-05-01
The static and dynamic magnetic responses of patterned ferromagnetic thin films are uniquely altered in the case of aperiodic patterns that retain long-range order (e.g., quasicrystals). We have fabricated permalloy wire networks based on periodic square antidot lattices (ADLs) distorted according to an aperiodic Fibonacci sequence applied to two lattice translations, d1 = 1618 nm and d2 = 1000 nm. The wire segment thickness is fixed at t = 25 nm, and the width W varies from 80 to 510 nm. We measured the DC magnetization between room temperature and 5 K. Room-temperature, narrow-band (9.7 GHz) ferromagnetic resonance (FMR) spectra were acquired for various directions of applied magnetic field. The DC magnetization curves exhibited pronounced step anomalies and plateaus that signal flux closure states. Although the Fibonacci distortion breaks the fourfold symmetry of a finite periodic square ADL, the FMR data exhibit fourfold rotational symmetry with respect to the applied DC magnetic field direction.
Shi, Likun; Lou, Wenkai; Cheng, F.; Zou, Y. L.; Yang, Wen; Chang, Kai
2015-01-01
Based on the Born-Oppemheimer approximation, we divide the total electron Hamiltonian in a spin-orbit coupled system into the slow orbital motion and the fast interband transition processes. We find that the fast motion induces a gauge field on the slow orbital motion, perpendicular to the electron momentum, inducing a topological phase. From this general designing principle, we present a theory for generating artificial gauge field and topological phase in a conventional two-dimensional electron gas embedded in parabolically graded GaAs/InxGa1−xAs/GaAs quantum wells with antidot lattices. By tuning the etching depth and period of the antidot lattices, the band folding caused by the antidot potential leads to the formation of minibands and band inversions between neighboring subbands. The intersubband spin-orbit interaction opens considerably large nontrivial minigaps and leads to many pairs of helical edge states in these gaps. PMID:26471126
Theoretical study on electronic properties of MoS{sub 2} antidot lattices
Shao, Li; Chen, Guangde; Ye, Honggang Wu, Yelong; Niu, Haibo; Zhu, Youzhang
2014-09-21
Motivated by the state of the art method for etching hexagonal array holes in molybdenum disulfide (MoS{sub 2}), the electronic properties of MoS{sub 2} antidot lattices (MoS{sub 2}ALs) with zigzag edge were studied with first-principles calculations. Monolayer MoS{sub 2}ALs are semiconducting and the band gaps converge to constant values as the supercell area increases, which can be attributed to the edge effect. Multilayer MoS{sub 2}ALs and chemical adsorbed MoS{sub 2}ALs by F atoms show metallic behavior, while the structure adsorbed with H atoms remains to be semiconducting with a tiny bandgap. Our results show that forming periodically repeating structures in MoS{sub 2} can develop a promising technique for engineering nano materials and offer new opportunities for designing MoS{sub 2}-based nanoscale electronic devices and chemical sensors.
Size and shape dependence study of magnetization reversal in magnetic antidot lattice arrays
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Mallick, Sougata; Bedanta, Subhankar
2015-05-01
Magnetic Antidot Lattice (MAL) arrays of Co have been prepared in micron range using ultraviolet (UV) lithography technique with different shapes and sizes. Magnetization reversal in such MAL systems has been studied by magneto-optic Kerr effect (MOKE) based microscopy by varying the angle between the easy axis and the external magnetic field. The domain images evidence that the magnetization reversal along easy axis is highly dominated by nucleation of domains which is subsequently accompanied by domain wall motion. We have observed that with increase in active magnetic area domain size increases but on the contrary coercivity decreases. The presence of periodic holes turns the MALs magnetically hard when compared to similar thickness of continuous thin film. The magnetization relaxation along easy axis for the Co MAL at constant dc field fits very well with the exponential law of Fatuzzo-Labrune indicating domain nucleated dominant process.
Mallick, Sougata; Mallik, Srijani; Bedanta, Subhankar
2015-08-28
Microdimensional triangular magnetic antidot lattice arrays were prepared by varying the speed of substrate rotation. The pre-deposition patterning has been performed using photolithography technique followed by a post-deposition lift-off. Surface morphology taken by atomic force microscopy depicted that the growth mechanism of the grains changes from chain like formation to island structures due to the substrate rotation. Study of magnetization reversal via magneto optic Kerr effect based microscopy revealed reduction of uniaxial anisotropy and increase in domain size with substrate rotation. The relaxation measured under constant magnetic field becomes faster with rotation of the substrate during deposition. The nature of relaxation for the non-rotating sample can be described by a double exponential decay. However, the relaxation for the sample with substrate rotation is well described either by a double exponential or a Fatuzzo-Labrune like single exponential decay, which increases in applied field.
Pal, S.; Das, K.; Barman, A.; Klos, J. W.; Gruszecki, P.; Krawczyk, M.; Hellwig, O.
2014-10-20
We present an all-optical time-resolved measurement of spin wave (SW) dynamics in a series of antidot lattices based on [Co(0.75 nm)/Pd(0.9 nm)]{sub 8} multilayer (ML) systems with perpendicular magnetic anisotropy. The spectra depend significantly on the areal density of the antidots. The observed SW modes are qualitatively reproduced by the plane wave method. The interesting results found in our measurements and calculations at small lattice constants can be attributed to the increase of areal density of the shells with modified magnetic properties probably due to distortion of the regular ML structure by the Ga ion bombardment and to increased coupling between localized modes. We propose and discuss the possible mechanisms for this coupling including exchange interaction, tunnelling, and dipolar interactions.
Mandal, R.; Barman, S.; Saha, S.; Barman, A.; Otani, Y.
2015-08-07
Ferromagnetic antidot lattices are important systems for magnetic data storage and magnonic devices, and understanding their magnetization dynamics by varying their structural parameters is an important problems in magnetism. Here, we investigate the variation in spin wave spectrum in two-dimensional nanoscale Ni{sub 80}Fe{sub 20} antidot lattices with lattice symmetry. By varying the bias magnetic field values in a broadband ferromagnetic resonance spectrometer, we observed a stark variation in the spin wave spectrum with the variation of lattice symmetry. The simulated mode profiles showed further difference in the spatial nature of the modes between different lattices. While for square and rectangular lattices extended modes are observed in addition to standing spin wave modes, all modes in the hexagonal, honeycomb, and octagonal lattices are either localized or standing waves. In addition, the honeycomb and octagonal lattices showed two different types of modes confined within the honeycomb (octagonal) units and between two such consecutive units. Simulated internal magnetic fields confirm the origin of such a wide variation in the frequency and spatial nature of the spin wave modes. The tunability of spin waves with the variation of lattice symmetry is important for the design of future magnetic data storage and magnonic devices.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Jungfleisch, Matthias B.; Zhang, Wei; Ding, Junjia; Jiang, Wanjun; Sklenar, Joseph; Pearson, John E.; Ketterson, John B.; Hoffmann, Axel
2016-02-01
The understanding of spin dynamics in laterally confined structures on sub-micron length scales has become a significant aspect of the development of novel magnetic storage technologies. Numerous ferromagnetic resonance measurements, optical characterization by Kerr microscopy and Brillouin light scattering spectroscopy, and x-ray studies were carried out to detect the dynamics in patterned magnetic antidot lattices. Here, we investigate Oersted-field driven spin dynamics in rectangular Ni80Fe20/Pt antidot lattices with different lattice parameters by electrical means and compare them to micromagnetic simulations. When the system is driven to resonance, a dc voltage across the length of the sample is detected that changes its sign upon field reversal, which is in agreement with a rectification mechanism based on the inverse spin Hall effect. Furthermore, we show that the voltage output scales linearly with the applied microwave drive in the investigated range of powers. Our findings have direct implications on the development of engineered magnonics applications and devices.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Abuali, Z.; Golshan, M. M.; Davatolhagh, S.
2016-09-01
The present work is concerned with a report on the effects of Pauli, Rashba and Dresselhaus spin-orbit interactions (SOI) on the energy levels of a 2D circular hydrogenic quantum anti-dot(QAD). To pursue this aim, we first present a brief review on the analytical solutions to the Schrödinger equation of electronic states in a quantum anti-dot when a hydrogenic donor is placed at the center, revealing the degeneracies involved in the ground, first and second excited states. We then proceed by adding the aforementioned spin-orbit interactions to the Hamiltonian and treat them as perturbation, thereby, calculating the energy shifts to the first three states. As we show, the Rashba spin-orbit interaction gives rise to a shift in the energies of the ground and second excited states, while it partially lifts the degeneracy of the first excited state. Our calculations also indicate that the Dresselhaus effect, while keeping the degeneracy of the ground and second excited states intact, removes the degeneracy of the first excited state in the opposite sense. The Pauli spin-orbit interaction, on the other hand, is diagonal in the appropriate bases, and thus its effect is readily calculated. The results show that degeneracy of ℓ = 0 (prevailing in the ground and second excited state) remains but the degeneracy of ℓ = 1 (prevailing in the first excited state) is again partially lifted. Moreover, we present the energy corrections due to the three spin-orbit interactions as functions of anti-dot's radius, Rashba and Dresselhaus strengths discussing how they affect the corresponding states. The material presented in the article conceives the possibility of generating spin currents in the hydrogenic circular anti-dots.
Lattice Boltzmann Equation On a 2D Rectangular Grid
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Bouzidi, MHamed; DHumieres, Dominique; Lallemand, Pierre; Luo, Li-Shi; Bushnell, Dennis M. (Technical Monitor)
2002-01-01
We construct a multi-relaxation lattice Boltzmann model on a two-dimensional rectangular grid. The model is partly inspired by a previous work of Koelman to construct a lattice BGK model on a two-dimensional rectangular grid. The linearized dispersion equation is analyzed to obtain the constraints on the isotropy of the transport coefficients and Galilean invariance for various wave propagations in the model. The linear stability of the model is also studied. The model is numerically tested for three cases: (a) a vortex moving with a constant velocity on a mesh periodic boundary conditions; (b) Poiseuille flow with an arbitrasy inclined angle with respect to the lattice orientation: and (c) a cylinder &symmetrically placed in a channel. The numerical results of these tests are compared with either analytic solutions or the results obtained by other methods. Satisfactory results are obtained for the numerical simulations.
Simulations of Quantum Spin Models on 2D Frustrated Lattices
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Melko, Roger
2006-03-01
Algorithmic advances in quantum Monte Carlo techniques have opened up the possibility of studying models in the general class of the S=1/2 XXZ model (equivalent to hard-core bosons) on frustrated lattices. With an antiferromagnetic diagonal interaction (Jz), these models can be solved exactly with QMC, albeit with some effort required to retain ergodicity in the near-degenerate manifold of states that exists for large Jz. The application of the quantum (ferromagnetic off-diagonal) interaction to this classically degenerate manifold produces a variety of intriguing physics, including an order-by-disorder supersolid phase, novel insulating states, and possible exotic quantum critical phenomena. We discuss numerical results for the triangular and kagome lattices with nearest and next-nearest neighbor exchange interactions, and focus on the relevance of the simulations to related areas of physics, such as experiments of cold trapped atomic gasses and the recent theory of deconfined quantum criticality.
Lattice Formulation of 2D SQCD with exact supersymmetry
Sugino, Fumihiko
2008-11-23
We construct a lattice model for two-dimensional N = (2,2) supersymmetric QCD (SQCD), with the matter multiplets belonging to the fundamental or anti-fundamental representation of the gauge group U(N) or SU(N). The construction is based on the topological field theory (twisted supercharge) formulation and exactly preserves one supercharge. In order to avoid the species doublers of the matter multiplets, we introduce the Wilson terms and the model is defined for the case of the number of the fundamental matters (n{sub +}) equal to that of the anti-fundamental matters (n{sub -}). If some of the matter multiplets decouple from the theory by sending the corresponding anti-holomorphic twisted masses to the infinity, we can analyze the general n{sub +}{ne}n{sub -} case, although the lattice model is defined for n{sub +} = n{sub -}. By computing the anomaly of the U(1){sub A} R-symmetry in the lattice perturbation, we see that the decoupling is achieved and the anomaly for n{sub +}{ne}n{sub -} is correctly obtained.
Dynamical polarizability of the 2D pseudospin-1 dice lattice
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Malcolm, John; Nicol, Elisabeth
The two-dimensional dice lattice is composed of three triangular sublattices whose low-energy excitation spectrum consists of Dirac-Weyl fermions with pseudospin-1. The energy dispersion has two Dirac cones, like the pseudospin-1/2 two-triangular-sublattice graphene, with an additional third band exactly at zero energy. We present theoretical results for the electronic dynamical polarization function in the material. This is a fundamental entity in many-body physics, renormalizing the Coulomb interaction through the dielectric function. From the polarization function we also obtain the Lindhard function, the plasmon branch, and can discuss other screening effects. These are constrasted with those of graphene.
Quantum spin Hall phase in 2D trigonal lattice.
Wang, Z F; Jin, Kyung-Hwan; Liu, Feng
2016-01-01
The quantum spin Hall (QSH) phase is an exotic phenomena in condensed-matter physics. Here we show that a minimal basis of three orbitals (s, px, py) is required to produce a QSH phase via nearest-neighbour hopping in a two-dimensional trigonal lattice. Tight-binding model analyses and calculations show that the QSH phase arises from a spin-orbit coupling (SOC)-induced s-p band inversion or p-p bandgap opening at Brillouin zone centre (Γ point), whose topological phase diagram is mapped out in the parameter space of orbital energy and SOC. Remarkably, based on first-principles calculations, this exact model of QSH phase is shown to be realizable in an experimental system of Au/GaAs(111) surface with an SOC gap of ∼73 meV, facilitating the possible room-temperature measurement. Our results will extend the search for substrate supported QSH materials to new lattice and orbital types. PMID:27599580
Quantum spin Hall phase in 2D trigonal lattice
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Wang, Z. F.; Jin, Kyung-Hwan; Liu, Feng
2016-09-01
The quantum spin Hall (QSH) phase is an exotic phenomena in condensed-matter physics. Here we show that a minimal basis of three orbitals (s, px, py) is required to produce a QSH phase via nearest-neighbour hopping in a two-dimensional trigonal lattice. Tight-binding model analyses and calculations show that the QSH phase arises from a spin-orbit coupling (SOC)-induced s-p band inversion or p-p bandgap opening at Brillouin zone centre (Γ point), whose topological phase diagram is mapped out in the parameter space of orbital energy and SOC. Remarkably, based on first-principles calculations, this exact model of QSH phase is shown to be realizable in an experimental system of Au/GaAs(111) surface with an SOC gap of ~73 meV, facilitating the possible room-temperature measurement. Our results will extend the search for substrate supported QSH materials to new lattice and orbital types.
Quantum spin Hall phase in 2D trigonal lattice
Wang, Z. F.; Jin, Kyung-Hwan; Liu, Feng
2016-01-01
The quantum spin Hall (QSH) phase is an exotic phenomena in condensed-matter physics. Here we show that a minimal basis of three orbitals (s, px, py) is required to produce a QSH phase via nearest-neighbour hopping in a two-dimensional trigonal lattice. Tight-binding model analyses and calculations show that the QSH phase arises from a spin–orbit coupling (SOC)-induced s–p band inversion or p–p bandgap opening at Brillouin zone centre (Γ point), whose topological phase diagram is mapped out in the parameter space of orbital energy and SOC. Remarkably, based on first-principles calculations, this exact model of QSH phase is shown to be realizable in an experimental system of Au/GaAs(111) surface with an SOC gap of ∼73 meV, facilitating the possible room-temperature measurement. Our results will extend the search for substrate supported QSH materials to new lattice and orbital types. PMID:27599580
Ffrench, P A; Zeidler, J H; Ku, W H
1997-01-01
Two-dimensional (2-D) adaptive filtering is a technique that can be applied to many image processing applications. This paper will focus on the development of an improved 2-D adaptive lattice algorithm (2-D AL) and its application to the removal of correlated clutter to enhance the detectability of small objects in images. The two improvements proposed here are increased flexibility in the calculation of the reflection coefficients and a 2-D method to update the correlations used in the 2-D AL algorithm. The 2-D AL algorithm is shown to predict correlated clutter in image data and the resulting filter is compared with an ideal Wiener-Hopf filter. The results of the clutter removal will be compared to previously published ones for a 2-D least mean square (LMS) algorithm. 2-D AL is better able to predict spatially varying clutter than the 2-D LMS algorithm, since it converges faster to new image properties. Examples of these improvements are shown for a spatially varying 2-D sinusoid in white noise and simulated clouds. The 2-D LMS and 2-D AL algorithms are also shown to enhance a mammogram image for the detection of small microcalcifications and stellate lesions.
Bound states and Cooper pairs of molecules in 2D optical lattices bilayer
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Camacho-Guardian, A.; Domínguez-Castro, G. A.; Paredes, R.
2016-08-01
We investigate the formation of Cooper pairs, bound dimers and the dimer-dimer elastic scattering of ultra- cold dipolar Fermi molecules confined in a 2D optical lattice bilayer configuration. While the energy and their associated bound states are determined in a variational way, the correlated two-molecule pair is addressed as in the original Cooper formulation. We demonstrate that the 2D lattice confinement favors the formation of zero center mass momentum bound states. Regarding the Cooper pairs binding energy, this depends on the molecule populations in each layer. Maximum binding energies occur for non-zero (zero) pair momentum when the Fermi system is polarized (unpolarized). We find an analytic expression for the dimer-dimer effective interaction in the deep BEC regime. The present analysis represents a route for addressing the BCS-BEC crossover superfluidity in dipolar Fermi gases confined in 2D optical lattices within the current experimental panorama.
Resonant tunneling diode based on band gap engineered graphene antidot structures
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Palla, Penchalaiah; Ethiraj, Anita S.; Raina, J. P.
2016-04-01
The present work demonstrates the operation and performance of double barrier Graphene Antidot Resonant Tunnel Diode (DBGA-RTD). Non-Equilibrium Green's Function (NEGF) frame work with tight-binding Hamiltonian and 2-D Poisson equations were solved self-consistently for device study. The interesting feature in this device is that it is an all graphene RTD with band gap engineered graphene antidot tunnel barriers. Another interesting new finding is that it shows negative differential resistance (NDR), which involves the resonant tunneling in the graphene quantum well through both the electron and hole bound states. The Graphene Antidot Lattice (GAL) barriers in this device efficiently improved the Peak to Valley Ratio to approximately 20 even at room temperature. A new fitting model is developed for the number of antidots and their corresponding effective barrier width, which will help in determining effective barrier width of any size of actual antidot geometry.
Grid Cell Responses in 1D Environments Assessed as Slices through a 2D Lattice.
Yoon, KiJung; Lewallen, Sam; Kinkhabwala, Amina A; Tank, David W; Fiete, Ila R
2016-03-01
Grid cells, defined by their striking periodic spatial responses in open 2D arenas, appear to respond differently on 1D tracks: the multiple response fields are not periodically arranged, peak amplitudes vary across fields, and the mean spacing between fields is larger than in 2D environments. We ask whether such 1D responses are consistent with the system's 2D dynamics. Combining analytical and numerical methods, we show that the 1D responses of grid cells with stable 1D fields are consistent with a linear slice through a 2D triangular lattice. Further, the 1D responses of comodular cells are well described by parallel slices, and the offsets in the starting points of the 1D slices can predict the measured 2D relative spatial phase between the cells. From these results, we conclude that the 2D dynamics of these cells is preserved in 1D, suggesting a common computation during both types of navigation behavior. PMID:26898777
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
de Long, Lance; Kryukov, Sergiy; Metlushko, Vitali
2007-03-01
We report AC and DC SQUID magnetometer data for Au(25nm)/Pb(x) bilayers (x = 50, 100 nm) patterned with square antidot (AD) lattices having AD diameter D = 600 nm and AD separation d = 1 micron, in DC magnetic fields applied perpendicular to the film plane. Both AC and DC data for x = 100 nm samples exhibit a ``two-horned'' magnetization m(H) well below TC, with small, sharp cusps having DC field spacings near 3 Oe. Just below TC = 6.2 K, m(H) is highly reversible, and exhibits at least two matching fields Hn = (20 Oe)n. This striking behavior is compared with recent theoretical models for flux matching in patterned films in the Type-I intermediate state, for which formation of ``giant vortices'' or pinning of normal domains by AD are possible. In contrast, data for x = 50 nm samples exhibit smooth (no small cusps) m(H) behavior with sharp matching peaks and highly irreversible behavior just below TC, typical of extensively studied, Type-II patterned films.
Nonlinear propagating localized modes in a 2D hexagonal crystal lattice
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Bajars, Janis; Eilbeck, J. Chris; Leimkuhler, Benedict
2015-05-01
In this paper we consider a 2D hexagonal crystal lattice model first proposed by Marín, Eilbeck and Russell in 1998. We perform a detailed numerical study of nonlinear propagating localized modes, that is, propagating discrete breathers and kinks. The original model is extended to allow for arbitrary atomic interactions, and to allow atoms to travel out of the unit cell. A new on-site potential is considered with a periodic smooth function with hexagonal symmetry. We are able to confirm the existence of long-lived propagating discrete breathers. Our simulations show that, as they evolve, breathers appear to localize in frequency space, i.e. the energy moves from sidebands to a main frequency band. Our numerical findings shed light on the open question of whether exact moving breather solutions exist in 2D hexagonal layers in physical crystal lattices.
A 2D DNA lattice as an ultrasensitive detector for beta radiations.
Dugasani, Sreekantha Reddy; Kim, Jang Ah; Kim, Byeonghoon; Joshirao, Pranav; Gnapareddy, Bramaramba; Vyas, Chirag; Kim, Taesung; Park, Sung Ha; Manchanda, Vijay
2014-02-26
There is growing demand for the development of efficient ultrasensitive radiation detectors to monitor the doses administered to individuals during therapeutic nuclear medicine which is often based on radiopharmaceuticals, especially those involving beta emitters. Recently biological materials are used in sensors in the nanobio disciplines due to their abilities to detect specific target materials or sites. Artificially designed two-dimensional (2D) DNA lattices grown on a substrate were analyzed after exposure to pure beta emitters, (90)Sr-(90)Y. We studied the Raman spectra and reflected intensities of DNA lattices at various distances from the source with different exposure times. Although beta particles have very low linear energy transfer values, the significant physical and chemical changes observed throughout the extremely thin, ∼0.6 nm, DNA lattices suggested the feasibility of using them to develop ultrasensitive detectors of beta radiations.
Self-Assembly of Cubes into 2D Hexagonal and Honeycomb Lattices by Hexapolar Capillary Interactions
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Soligno, Giuseppe; Dijkstra, Marjolein; van Roij, René
2016-06-01
Particles adsorbed at a fluid-fluid interface induce capillary deformations that determine their orientations and generate mutual capillary interactions which drive them to assemble into 2D ordered structures. We numerically calculate, by energy minimization, the capillary deformations induced by adsorbed cubes for various Young's contact angles. First, we show that capillarity is crucial not only for quantitative, but also for qualitative predictions of equilibrium configurations of a single cube. For a Young's contact angle close to 90°, we show that a single-adsorbed cube generates a hexapolar interface deformation with three rises and three depressions. Thanks to the threefold symmetry of this hexapole, strongly directional capillary interactions drive the cubes to self-assemble into hexagonal or graphenelike honeycomb lattices. By a simple free-energy model, we predict a density-temperature phase diagram in which both the honeycomb and hexagonal lattice phases are present as stable states.
2D photonic crystals on the Archimedean lattices (tribute to Johannes Kepler (1571 1630))
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Gajić, R.; class="cross-out">D. Jovanović,
2008-03-01
Results of our research on 2D Archemedean lattice photonic crystals are presented. This involves the calculations of the band structures, band-gap maps, equifrequency contours and FDTD simulations of electromagnetic propagation through the structures as well as an experimental verification of negative refraction at microwaves. The band-gap dependence on dielectric contrast is established both for dielectric rods in air and air-holes in dielectric materials. A special emphasis is placed on possibilities of negative refraction and left-handedness in these structures. Together with the familiar Archimedean lattices like square, triangular, honeycomb and Kagome' ones, we consider also, the less known, (3 2, 4, 3, 4) (ladybug) and (3, 4, 6, 4) (honeycomb-ring) structures.
Self-Assembly of Cubes into 2D Hexagonal and Honeycomb Lattices by Hexapolar Capillary Interactions.
Soligno, Giuseppe; Dijkstra, Marjolein; van Roij, René
2016-06-24
Particles adsorbed at a fluid-fluid interface induce capillary deformations that determine their orientations and generate mutual capillary interactions which drive them to assemble into 2D ordered structures. We numerically calculate, by energy minimization, the capillary deformations induced by adsorbed cubes for various Young's contact angles. First, we show that capillarity is crucial not only for quantitative, but also for qualitative predictions of equilibrium configurations of a single cube. For a Young's contact angle close to 90°, we show that a single-adsorbed cube generates a hexapolar interface deformation with three rises and three depressions. Thanks to the threefold symmetry of this hexapole, strongly directional capillary interactions drive the cubes to self-assemble into hexagonal or graphenelike honeycomb lattices. By a simple free-energy model, we predict a density-temperature phase diagram in which both the honeycomb and hexagonal lattice phases are present as stable states. PMID:27391753
Identifying topological edge states in 2D optical lattices using light scattering
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Goldman, Nathan; Beugnon, Jérôme; Gerbier, Fabrice
2013-02-01
We recently proposed in a Letter [Phys. Rev. Lett. 108, 255303] a novel scheme to detect topological edge states in an optical lattice, based on a generalization of Bragg spectroscopy. The scope of the present article is to provide a more detailed and pedagogical description of the system - the Hofstadter optical lattice - and probing method. We first show the existence of topological edge states, in an ultra-cold gas trapped in a 2D optical lattice and subjected to a synthetic magnetic field. The remarkable robustness of the edge states is verified for a variety of external confining potentials. Then, we describe a specific laser probe, made from two lasers in Laguerre-Gaussian modes, which captures unambiguous signatures of these edge states. In particular, the resulting Bragg spectra provide the dispersion relation of the edge states, establishing their chiral nature. In order to make the Bragg signal experimentally detectable, we introduce a "shelving method", which simultaneously transfers angular momentum and changes the internal atomic state. This scheme allows to directly visualize the selected edge states on a dark background, offering an instructive view on topological insulating phases, not accessible in solid-state experiments.
All optical active high decoder using integrated 2D square lattice photonic crystals
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Moniem, Tamer A.
2015-11-01
The paper introduces a novel all optical active high 2 × 4 decoder based on 2D photonic crystals (PhC) of silicon rods with permittivity of ε = 10.1 × 10-11 farad/m. The main structure of optical decoder is designed using a combination of five nonlinear photonic crystal ring resonator, set of T-type waveguide, and line defect of Y and T branch splitters. The proposed structure has two logic input ports, four output ports, and one bias input port. The total size of the proposed 2 × 4 decoder is equal to 40 μm × 38 μm. The PhC structure has a square lattice of silicon rod with refractive index of 3.39 in air. The overall design and the results are discussed through the realization and the numerically simulation to confirm its operation and feasibility.
Electronic and geometrical properties of monoatomic and diatomic 2D honeycomb lattices. A DFT study
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Rojas, Ángela; Rey, Rafael; Fonseca, Karen; Grupo de Óptica e Información Cuántica Team
Since the discovery of graphene by Geim and Novoselov at 2004, several analogous systems have been theoretically and experimentally studied, due to their technological interest. Both monoatomic lattices, such as silicine and germanene, and diatomic lattices (h-GaAs and h-GaN) have been studied. Using Density Functional Theory we obtain and confirm the chemical stability of these hexagonal 2D systems through the total energy curves as a function of interatomic distance. Unlike graphene, silicine and germanene, gapless materials, h-GaAs and h-GaN exhibit electronic gaps, different from that of the bulk, which could be interesting for the industry. On the other hand, the ab initio band structure calculations for graphene, silicene and germanene show a non-circular cross section around K points, at variance with the prediction of usual Tight-binding models. In fact, we have found that Dirac cones display a dihedral group symmetry. This implies that Fermi speed can change up to 30 % due to the orientation of the wave vector, for both electrons and holes. Traditional analytic studies use the Dirac equation for the electron dynamics at low energies. However, this equation assumes an isotropic, homogeneous and uniform space. Authors would like to thank the División de Investigación Sede Bogotá for their financial support at Universidad Nacional de Colombia. A. M. Rojas-Cuervo would also like to thank the Colciencias, Colombia.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Guillamon, I.; Vieira, S.; Suderow, H.; Cordoba, R.; Sese, J.; de Teresa, J. M.; Ibarra, R.
In two dimensional (2D) systems, theory has proposed that random disorder destroys long range correlations driving a transition to a glassy state. Here, I will discuss new insights into this issue obtained through the direct visualization of the critical behaviour of a 2D superconducting vortex lattice formed in a thin film with a smooth 1D thickness modulation. Using scanning tunneling microscopy at 0.1K, we have tracked the modification in the 2D vortex arrangements induced by the 1D thickness modulation while increasing the vortex density by three orders of magnitude. Upon increasing the field, we observed a two-step order-disorder transition in the 2D vortex lattice mediated by the appearance of dislocations and disclinations and accompanied by an increase in the local vortex density fluctuations. Through a detailed analysis of correlation functions, we find that the transition is driven by the incommensurate 1D thickness modulation. We calculate the critical points and exponents and find that they are well above theoretical expectation for random disorder. Our results show that long range 1D correlations in random potentials enhance the stability range of the ordered phase in a 2D vortex lattice. Work supported by Spanish MINECO, CIG Marie Curie Grant, Axa Research Fund and FBBVA.
Orso, G.; Stringari, S.; Menotti, C.
2006-11-10
We use Bogoliubov theory to calculate the beyond mean field correction to the equation of state of a weakly interacting Bose gas in the presence of a tight 2D optical lattice. We show that the lattice induces a characteristic 3D to 1D crossover in the behavior of quantum fluctuations. Using the hydrodynamic theory of superfluids, we calculate the corresponding shift of the collective frequencies of a harmonically trapped gas. We find that this correction can be of the order of a few percent and hence easily measurable in current experiments. The behavior of the quantum depletion of the condensate is also discussed.
Metastable States of a Gas of Dipolar Bosons in a 2D Optical Lattice
Menotti, C.; Trefzger, C.; Lewenstein, M.
2007-06-08
We investigate the physics of dipolar bosons in a two-dimensional optical lattice. It is known that due to the long-range character of dipole-dipole interaction, the ground state phase diagram of a gas of dipolar bosons in an optical lattice presents novel quantum phases, like checkerboard and supersolid phases. In this Letter, we consider the properties of the system beyond its ground state, finding that it is characterized by a multitude of almost degenerate metastable states, often competing with the ground state. This makes dipolar bosons in a lattice similar to a disordered system and opens possibilities of using them as quantum memories.
Interferometric approach to measuring band topology in 2D optical lattices.
Abanin, Dmitry A; Kitagawa, Takuya; Bloch, Immanuel; Demler, Eugene
2013-04-19
Recently, optical lattices with nonzero Berry's phases of Bloch bands have been realized. New approaches for measuring Berry's phases and topological properties of bands with experimental tools appropriate for ultracold atoms need to be developed. In this Letter, we propose an interferometric method for measuring Berry's phases of two-dimensional Bloch bands. The key idea is to use a combination of Ramsey interference and Bloch oscillations to measure Zak phases, i.e., Berry's phases for closed trajectories corresponding to reciprocal lattice vectors. We demonstrate that this technique can be used to measure the Berry curvature of Bloch bands, the π Berry's phase of Dirac points, and the first Chern number of topological bands. We discuss several experimentally feasible realizations of this technique, which make it robust against low-frequency magnetic noise.
Spin frustration in 2D kagomé lattices: a problem for inorganic synthetic chemistry.
Nocera, Daniel G; Bartlett, Bart M; Grohol, Daniel; Papoutsakis, Dimitris; Shores, Matthew P
2004-08-20
A kagomé antiferromagnet presents an ideal construct for studying the unusual physics that result from the placement of magnetically frustrated spins on a low-dimensional lattice. Jarosites are the prototype for a spin-frustrated magnetic structure, because these materials are composed exclusively of kagomé layers. Notwithstanding, jarosite-type materials have escaped precise magnetic characterization over the past three decades, because they are notoriously difficult to prepare in pure and single-crystal forms. These hurdles have been overcome with the development of redox-based hydrothermal methods. Armed with pure and crystalline materials, several perplexing issues surrounding the magnetic properties of the jarosites have been resolved, yielding a detailed and comprehensive picture of the ground-state physics of this kagomé lattice.
Lattice Boltzmann methods for some 2-D nonlinear diffusion equations:Computational results
Elton, B.H.; Rodrigue, G.H. . Dept. of Applied Science Lawrence Livermore National Lab., CA ); Levermore, C.D. . Dept. of Mathematics)
1990-01-01
In this paper we examine two lattice Boltzmann methods (that are a derivative of lattice gas methods) for computing solutions to two two-dimensional nonlinear diffusion equations of the form {partial derivative}/{partial derivative}t u = v ({partial derivative}/{partial derivative}x D(u){partial derivative}/{partial derivative}x u + {partial derivative}/{partial derivative}y D(u){partial derivative}/{partial derivative}y u), where u = u({rvec x},t), {rvec x} {element of} R{sup 2}, v is a constant, and D(u) is a nonlinear term that arises from a Chapman-Enskog asymptotic expansion. In particular, we provide computational evidence supporting recent results showing that the methods are second order convergent (in the L{sub 1}-norm), conservative, conditionally monotone finite difference methods. Solutions computed via the lattice Boltzmann methods are compared with those computed by other explicit, second order, conservative, monotone finite difference methods. Results are reported for both the L{sub 1}- and L{sub {infinity}}-norms.
Metal-dielectric photonic crystal superlattice: 1D and 2D models and empty lattice approximation
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kichin, G.; Weiss, T.; Gao, H.; Henzie, J.; Odom, T. W.; Tikhodeev, S. G.; Giessen, H.
2012-10-01
Periodic nanostructures are one of the main building blocks in modern nanooptics. They are used for constructing photonic crystals and metamaterials and provide optical properties that can be changed by adjusting the geometrical parameters of the structures. In this paper the optical properties of a photonic crystal slab with a 2D superlattice are discussed. The structure consists of a gold layer with a finite periodic pattern of air holes that is itself repeated periodically with a larger superperiod. We propose simplified 1D and 2D models to understand the physical nature of Wood's anomalies in the optical spectra of the investigated structure. The latter are attributed to the Rayleigh anomalies, surface plasmon Bragg resonances and the hole-localized plasmons.
Yang Xuefeng; Cui Jian; Zhang Yuan; Liu Yue
2012-07-15
The dispersion relations of the externally and thermally (naturally) excited dust lattice modes (both longitudinal and transverse) in two-dimensional Debye-Yukawa complex plasma crystals are investigated. The dispersion relations are calculated numerically by taking the neutral gas damping effects into account and the numerical results are in agreement with the experimental data given by Nunomura et al.[Phys. Rev. E 65, 066402 (2002)]. It is found that for the mode excited by an external disturbance with a real frequency, the dispersion properties are changed at a critical frequency near where the group velocity of the mode goes to zero. Therefore, the high frequency branch with negative dispersion cannot be reached. In contrast, for the thermally excited mode, the dispersion curve can extend all the way to the negative dispersion region, while a 'cut-off' wave number exists at the long wavelength end of the dispersion in the transverse mode.
Kondo lattice on the edge of a 2D topological insulator
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Maciejko, Joseph
2012-02-01
Much attention has been devoted recently to the experimental and theoretical study of the effect of magnetic impurities on the stability of the gapless boundary modes of topological insulators. When the quantum dynamics of the impurities is considered, those boundary modes constitute novel types of fermionic baths which may affect the nature of possible impurity phases and phase transitions. We study a regular one-dimensional array of quantum magnetic impurities interacting with the helical edge liquid of a two-dimensional time-reversal invariant topological insulator. Exact solutions at the special Toulouse and Luther-Emery points as well as a renormalization group analysis àla Anderson-Yuval allow us to construct a phase diagram in the space of Kondo coupling, electron-electron interaction strength, and electron density. We point out similarities and differences with the Kondo lattice in a ordinary one-dimensional electron gas.
A hydrodynamically-consistent MRT lattice Boltzmann model on a 2D rectangular grid
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Peng, Cheng; Min, Haoda; Guo, Zhaoli; Wang, Lian-Ping
2016-12-01
A multiple-relaxation time (MRT) lattice Boltzmann (LB) model on a D2Q9 rectangular grid is designed theoretically and validated numerically in the present work. By introducing stress components into the equilibrium moments, this MRT-LB model restores the isotropy of diffusive momentum transport at the macroscopic level (or in the continuum limit), leading to moment equations that are fully consistent with the Navier-Stokes equations. The model is derived by an inverse design process which is described in detail. Except one moment associated with the energy square, all other eight equilibrium moments can be theoretically and uniquely determined. The model is then carefully validated using both the two-dimensional decaying Taylor-Green vortex flow and lid-driven cavity flow, with different grid aspect ratios. The corresponding results from an earlier model (Bouzidi et al. (2001) [28]) are also presented for comparison. The results of Bouzidi et al.'s model show problems associated with anisotropy of viscosity coefficients, while the present model exhibits full isotropy and is accurate and stable.
Adiabatic and Hamiltonian computing on a 2D lattice with simple two-qubit interactions
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Lloyd, Seth; Terhal, Barbara M.
2016-02-01
We show how to perform universal Hamiltonian and adiabatic computing using a time-independent Hamiltonian on a 2D grid describing a system of hopping particles which string together and interact to perform the computation. In this construction, the movement of one particle is controlled by the presence or absence of other particles, an effective quantum field effect transistor that allows the construction of controlled-NOT and controlled-rotation gates. The construction translates into a model for universal quantum computation with time-independent two-qubit ZZ and XX+YY interactions on an (almost) planar grid. The effective Hamiltonian is arrived at by a single use of first-order perturbation theory avoiding the use of perturbation gadgets. The dynamics and spectral properties of the effective Hamiltonian can be fully determined as it corresponds to a particular realization of a mapping between a quantum circuit and a Hamiltonian called the space-time circuit-to-Hamiltonian construction. Because of the simple interactions required, and because no higher-order perturbation gadgets are employed, our construction is potentially realizable using superconducting or other solid-state qubits.
A hierarchical lattice spring model to simulate the mechanics of 2-D materials-based composites
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Brely, Lucas; Bosia, Federico; Pugno, Nicola
2015-07-01
In the field of engineering materials, strength and toughness are typically two mutually exclusive properties. Structural biological materials such as bone, tendon or dentin have resolved this conflict and show unprecedented damage tolerance, toughness and strength levels. The common feature of these materials is their hierarchical heterogeneous structure, which contributes to increased energy dissipation before failure occurring at different scale levels. These structural properties are the key to exceptional bioinspired material mechanical properties, in particular for nanocomposites. Here, we develop a numerical model in order to simulate the mechanisms involved in damage progression and energy dissipation at different size scales in nano- and macro-composites, which depend both on the heterogeneity of the material and on the type of hierarchical structure. Both these aspects have been incorporated into a 2-dimensional model based on a Lattice Spring Model, accounting for geometrical nonlinearities and including statistically-based fracture phenomena. The model has been validated by comparing numerical results to continuum and fracture mechanics results as well as finite elements simulations, and then employed to study how structural aspects impact on hierarchical composite material properties. Results obtained with the numerical code highlight the dependence of stress distributions on matrix properties and reinforcement dispersion, geometry and properties, and how failure of sacrificial elements is directly involved in the damage tolerance of the material. Thanks to the rapidly developing field of nanocomposite manufacture, it is already possible to artificially create materials with multi-scale hierarchical reinforcements. The developed code could be a valuable support in the design and optimization of these advanced materials, drawing inspiration and going beyond biological materials with exceptional mechanical properties.
An exact and efficient first passage time algorithm for reaction-diffusion processes on a 2D-lattice
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Bezzola, Andri; Bales, Benjamin B.; Alkire, Richard C.; Petzold, Linda R.
2014-01-01
We present an exact and efficient algorithm for reaction-diffusion-nucleation processes on a 2D-lattice. The algorithm makes use of first passage time (FPT) to replace the computationally intensive simulation of diffusion hops in KMC by larger jumps when particles are far away from step-edges or other particles. Our approach computes exact probability distributions of jump times and target locations in a closed-form formula, based on the eigenvectors and eigenvalues of the corresponding 1D transition matrix, maintaining atomic-scale resolution of resulting shapes of deposit islands. We have applied our method to three different test cases of electrodeposition: pure diffusional aggregation for large ranges of diffusivity rates and for simulation domain sizes of up to 4096×4096 sites, the effect of diffusivity on island shapes and sizes in combination with a KMC edge diffusion, and the calculation of an exclusion zone in front of a step-edge, confirming statistical equivalence to standard KMC simulations. The algorithm achieves significant speedup compared to standard KMC for cases where particles diffuse over long distances before nucleating with other particles or being captured by larger islands.
An exact and efficient first passage time algorithm for reaction–diffusion processes on a 2D-lattice
Bezzola, Andri; Bales, Benjamin B.; Alkire, Richard C.; Petzold, Linda R.
2014-01-01
We present an exact and efficient algorithm for reaction–diffusion–nucleation processes on a 2D-lattice. The algorithm makes use of first passage time (FPT) to replace the computationally intensive simulation of diffusion hops in KMC by larger jumps when particles are far away from step-edges or other particles. Our approach computes exact probability distributions of jump times and target locations in a closed-form formula, based on the eigenvectors and eigenvalues of the corresponding 1D transition matrix, maintaining atomic-scale resolution of resulting shapes of deposit islands. We have applied our method to three different test cases of electrodeposition: pure diffusional aggregation for large ranges of diffusivity rates and for simulation domain sizes of up to 4096×4096 sites, the effect of diffusivity on island shapes and sizes in combination with a KMC edge diffusion, and the calculation of an exclusion zone in front of a step-edge, confirming statistical equivalence to standard KMC simulations. The algorithm achieves significant speedup compared to standard KMC for cases where particles diffuse over long distances before nucleating with other particles or being captured by larger islands.
Magnetic edge states and magnetotransport in graphene antidot barriers
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Thomsen, M. R.; Power, S. R.; Jauho, A.-P.; Pedersen, T. G.
2016-07-01
Magnetic fields are often used for characterizing transport in nanoscale materials. Recent magnetotransport experiments have demonstrated that ballistic transport is possible in graphene antidot lattices (GALs). These experiments have inspired the present theoretical study of GALs in a perpendicular magnetic field. We calculate magnetotransport through graphene antidot barriers (GABs), which are finite rows of antidots arranged periodically in a pristine graphene sheet, using a tight-binding model and the Landauer-Büttiker formula. We show that GABs behave as ideal Dirac mass barriers for antidots smaller than the magnetic length and demonstrate the presence of magnetic edge states, which are localized states on the periphery of the antidots due to successive reflections on the antidot edge in the presence of a magnetic field. We show that these states are robust against variations in lattice configuration and antidot edge chirality. Moreover, we calculate the transmittance of disordered GABs and find that magnetic edge states survive a moderate degree of disorder. Due to the long phase-coherence length in graphene and the robustness of these states, we expect magnetic edge states to be observable in experiments as well.
Quantum Hall effect in bilayer system with array of antidots
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Pagnossin, I. R.; Gusev, G. M.; Sotomayor, N. M.; Seabra, A. C.; Quivy, A. A.; Lamas, T. E.; Portal, J. C.
2007-04-01
We have studied the Quantum Hall effect in a bilayer system modulated by gate-controlled antidot lattice potential. The Hall resistance shows plateaus which are quantized to anomalous multiplies of h/e2. We suggest that this complex behavior is due to the nature of the edge-states in double quantum well (DQW) structures coupled to an array of antidots: these plateaus may be originated from the coexistence of normal and counter-rotating edge-states in different layers.
Antidotes for acute cyanide poisoning.
Borron, Stephen W; Baud, Frederic J
2012-08-01
Cyanide poisoning can present in multiple ways, given its widespread industrial use, presence in combustion products, multiple physical forms, and chemical structures. The primary target of toxicity is mitochondrial cytochrome oxidase. The onset and severity of poisoning depend on the route, dose, physicochemical structure and other variables. Common poisoning features include dyspnea, altered respiratory patterns, abnormal vital signs, altered mental status, seizures, and lactic acidosis. Our present knowledge supports cyanide poisoning treatment based on excellent supportive care with adjunctive antidotal therapy. Multiple antidotes exist and vary in regional availability. All currently marketed antidotes appear to be effective. Antidotal mechanisms include chelation, formation of stable, less toxic complexes, methemoglobin induction, and sulfane sulfur supplementation for detoxification by endogenous rhodanese. Each antidote has advantages and disadvantages. For example, hydroxocobalamin is safer than the methemoglobin inducers in patients with smoke inhalation. Research for new, safer and more effective cyanide antidotes continues.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Amaya-Ventura, Gilberto; Rodríguez-Romo, Suemi
2011-09-01
This paper deals with the computational simulation of the reaction-diffusion-advection phenomena emerging in Rayleigh-Bénard (RB) and Poiseuille-Bénard reactive convection systems. We use the Boussinesq's approximation for buoyancy forces and the Lattice Boltzmann method (LBM). The first kinetic mesoscopic model proposed here is based on the discrete Boltzmann equation needed to solve the momentum balance coupled with buoyancy forces. Then, a second lattice Boltzmann algorithm is applied to solve the reaction-diffusion-advection equation to calculate the evolution of the chemical species concentration. We use a reactive system composed by nitrous oxide (so call laughing gas) in air as an example; its spatio-temporal decomposition is calculated. Two cases are considered, a rectangular enclosed cavity and an open channel. The simulations are performed at low Reynolds numbers and in a steady state between the first and second thermo-hydrodynamic instabilities. The results presented here, for the thermo-hydrodynamic behavior, are in good agreement with experimental data; while our| chemical kinetics simulation yields expected results. Some applications of our approach are related to chemical reactors and atmospheric phenomena, among others.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Li, Shuai; Qiu, Wen-Xuan; Gao, Jin-Hua
2016-06-01
Recently, a new kind of artificial two dimensional (2D) electron lattice on the nanoscale, i.e. molecular graphene, has drawn a lot of interest, where the metal surface electrons are transformed into a honeycomb lattice via absorbing a molecular lattice on the metal surface [Gomes et al., Nature, 2012, 438, 306; Wang et al., Phys. Rev. Lett., 2014, 113, 196803]. In this work, we theoretically demonstrate that this technique can be readily used to build other complex 2D electron lattices on a metal surface, which are of high interest in the field of condensed matter physics. The main challenge to build a complex 2D electron lattice is that this is a quantum antidot system, where the absorbed molecule normally exerts a repulsive potential on the surface electrons. Thus, there is no straightforward corresponding relation between the molecular lattice pattern and the desired 2D lattice of surface electrons. Here, we give an interesting example about the Kagome lattice, which has exotic correlated electronic states. We design a special molecular pattern and show that this molecular lattice can transform the surface electrons into a Kagome-like lattice. The numerical simulation is conducted using a Cu(111) surface and CO molecules. We first estimate the effective parameters of the Cu/CO system by fitting experimental data of the molecular graphene. Then, we calculate the corresponding energy bands and LDOS of the surface electrons in the presence of the proposed molecular lattice. Finally, we interpret the numerical results by the tight binding model of the Kagome lattice. We hope that our work can stimulate further theoretical and experimental interest in this novel artificial 2D electron lattice system.
Li, Shuai; Qiu, Wen-Xuan; Gao, Jin-Hua
2016-07-01
Recently, a new kind of artificial two dimensional (2D) electron lattice on the nanoscale, i.e. molecular graphene, has drawn a lot of interest, where the metal surface electrons are transformed into a honeycomb lattice via absorbing a molecular lattice on the metal surface [Gomes et al., Nature, 2012, 438, 306; Wang et al., Phys. Rev. Lett., 2014, 113, 196803]. In this work, we theoretically demonstrate that this technique can be readily used to build other complex 2D electron lattices on a metal surface, which are of high interest in the field of condensed matter physics. The main challenge to build a complex 2D electron lattice is that this is a quantum antidot system, where the absorbed molecule normally exerts a repulsive potential on the surface electrons. Thus, there is no straightforward corresponding relation between the molecular lattice pattern and the desired 2D lattice of surface electrons. Here, we give an interesting example about the Kagome lattice, which has exotic correlated electronic states. We design a special molecular pattern and show that this molecular lattice can transform the surface electrons into a Kagome-like lattice. The numerical simulation is conducted using a Cu(111) surface and CO molecules. We first estimate the effective parameters of the Cu/CO system by fitting experimental data of the molecular graphene. Then, we calculate the corresponding energy bands and LDOS of the surface electrons in the presence of the proposed molecular lattice. Finally, we interpret the numerical results by the tight binding model of the Kagome lattice. We hope that our work can stimulate further theoretical and experimental interest in this novel artificial 2D electron lattice system. PMID:27279292
[Theriac: medicine and antidote].
Parojcic, Dusanka; Stupar, Dragan; Mirica, Milica
2003-06-01
Theriac was an ancient multi-ingredient preparation; originating as a cure for the bites of serpents, mad dogs and wild beasts, it later became an antidote to all known poisons. The name theriac (treacle), (Greek theriake, Latin theriaca, French thériaque) was derived from the Greek for wild beast - theriakos. The first formula was created by Mithridates Vl, King of Pontus, a skillful ruler but a monster of cruelty, who, living in such a fear of being poisoned, took a great interest in toxicology. In the 1st century AD, Nero's personal physician Andromachus improved the formula of Antidotum Mithridatium by adding flesh of vipers, which was commonly believed to be the best antidote against snakebite, and by increasing the proportion of opium. It became known as Theriac of Andromachus, and contained 64 ingredients including various minerals, herbals, poisons and animal flesh and blood, all combined with honey in the form of electuarium. Later it became the cure-all medicine which, accumulating all the simples into one form, was supposed to be a universal panacea against all diseases. In the Middle Ages this famous electuarium become a patent medicine and entered official dispensaries and pharmacopoeias. The most famous and expensive Theriac in Europe was that of Venice. It was not until the l8th century that it was excluded from medical use.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Yang, PeiPei; Wen, Zhi; Dou, RuiFeng; Liu, Xunliang
2016-08-01
Flow and heat transfer through a 2D random porous medium are studied by using the lattice Boltzmann method (LBM). For the random porous medium, the influence of disordered cylinder arrangement on permeability and Nusselt number are investigated. Results indicate that the permeability and Nusselt number for different cylinder locations are unequal even with the same number and size of cylinders. New correlations for the permeability and coefficient b‧Den of the Forchheimer equation are proposed for random porous medium composed of Gaussian distributed circular cylinders. Furthermore, a general set of heat transfer correlations is proposed and compared with existing experimental data and empirical correlations. Our results show that the Nu number increases with the increase of the porosity, hence heat transfer is found to be accurate considering the effect of porosity.
Xu, Zhenfeng; Wang, Jiangang; He, Qingsheng; Cao, Liangcai; Su, Ping; Jin, Guofan
2005-07-25
A coupler-type optical filter in 2D photonic crystal (PhC) with square lattice of dielectric rods in air is presented. The reduced-index and increased-index waveguides of filter have dispersion curves with opposite slopes to realize contra-directional coupling, and the point of anti-crossing is designed below the light line to avoid vertical radiation. The filter has a broad operable bandwidth due to the absence of mini stop bands. The transmission properties are analyzed using coupled modes theory (CMT) and simulated using the finite-difference time-domain (FDTD) method. The results show that a filtering bandwidth of 4 nm can be achieved in the range of 1500~1600 nm, and over 83% drop coefficient is obtained.
Polymer antidotes for toxin sequestration.
Weisman, Adam; Chou, Beverly; O'Brien, Jeffrey; Shea, Kenneth J
2015-08-01
Toxins delivered by envenomation, secreted by microorganisms, or unintentionally ingested can pose an immediate threat to life. Rapid intervention coupled with the appropriate antidote is required to mitigate the threat. Many antidotes are biological products and their cost, methods of production, potential for eliciting immunogenic responses, the time needed to generate them, and stability issues contribute to their limited availability and effectiveness. These factors exacerbate a world-wide challenge for providing treatment. In this review we evaluate a number of polymer constructs that may serve as alternative antidotes. The range of toxins investigated includes those from sources such as plants, animals and bacteria. The development of polymeric heavy metal sequestrants for use as antidotes to heavy metal poisoning faces similar challenges, thus recent findings in this area have also been included. Two general strategies have emerged for the development of polymeric antidotes. In one, the polymer acts as a scaffold for the presentation of ligands with a known affinity for the toxin. A second strategy is to generate polymers with an intrinsic affinity, and in some cases selectivity, to a range of toxins. Importantly, in vivo efficacy has been demonstrated for each of these strategies, which suggests that these approaches hold promise as an alternative to biological or small molecule based treatments.
Dea-Ayuela, María Auxiliadora; Pérez-Castillo, Yunierkis; Meneses-Marcel, Alfredo; Ubeira, Florencio M; Bolas-Fernández, Francisco; Chou, Kuo-Chen; González-Díaz, Humberto
2008-08-15
The toxicity and inefficacy of actual organic drugs against Leishmaniosis justify research projects to find new molecular targets in Leishmania species including Leishmania infantum (L. infantum) and Leishmaniamajor (L. major), both important pathogens. In this sense, quantitative structure-activity relationship (QSAR) methods, which are very useful in Bioorganic and Medicinal Chemistry to discover small-sized drugs, may help to identify not only new drugs but also new drug targets, if we apply them to proteins. Dyneins are important proteins of these parasites governing fundamental processes such as cilia and flagella motion, nuclear migration, organization of the mitotic splinde, and chromosome separation during mitosis. However, despite the interest for them as potential drug targets, so far there has been no report whatsoever on dyneins with QSAR techniques. To the best of our knowledge, we report here the first QSAR for dynein proteins. We used as input the Spectral Moments of a Markov matrix associated to the HP-Lattice Network of the protein sequence. The data contain 411 protein sequences of different species selected by ClustalX to develop a QSAR that correctly discriminates on average between 92.75% and 92.51% of dyneins and other proteins in four different train and cross-validation datasets. We also report a combined experimental and theoretic study of a new dynein sequence in order to illustrate the utility of the model to search for potential drug targets with a practical example. First, we carried out a 2D-electrophoresis analysis of L. infantum biological samples. Next, we excised from 2D-E gels one spot of interest belonging to an unknown protein or protein fragment in the region M<20,200 and pI<4. We used MASCOT search engine to find proteins in the L. major data base with the highest similarity score to the MS of the protein isolated from L. infantum. We used the QSAR model to predict the new sequence as dynein with probability of 99.99% without
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kumar, Ajit; Verma, Sanjay K.; Alvi, P. A.; Jasrotia, Dinesh
2016-04-01
The nanospatial morphological features of [ZnCl]- [C5H4NCH3]+ hybrid derivative depicts 28 nm granular size and 3D spreader shape packing pattern as analyzed by FESEM and single crystal XRD structural studies. The organic moiety connect the inorganic components through N-H+…Cl- hydrogen bond to form a hybrid composite, the replacement of organic derivatives from 2-methylpyridine to 2-Amino-5-choloropyridine results the increase in granular size from 28nm to 60nm and unit cell packing pattern from 3D-2D lattice dimensionality along ac plane. The change in optical energy direct band gap value from 3.01eV for [ZnCl]- [C5H4NCH3]+ (HM1) to 3.42eV for [ZnCl]- [C5H5ClN2]+ (HM2) indicates the role of organic moiety in optical properties of hybrid materials. The photoluminescence emission spectra is observed in the wavelength range of 370 to 600 nm with maximum peak intensity of 9.66a.u. at 438 nm for (HM1) and 370 to 600 nm with max peak intensity of 9.91 a.u. at 442 nm for (HM2), indicating that the emission spectra lies in visible range. PL excitation spectra depicts the maximum excitation intensity [9.8] at 245.5 nm for (HM1) and its value of 9.9 a.u. at 294 nm, specify the excitation spectra lies in UV range. Photoluminescence excitation spectra is observed in the wavelength range of 280 to 350 nm with maximum peak intensity of 9.4 a.u. at 285.5 nm and 9.9 a.u. at 294 and 297 nm, indicating excitation in the UV spectrum. Single crystal growth process and detailed physiochemical characterization such as XRD, FESEM image analysis photoluminescence property reveals the structure stability with non-covalent interactions, lattice dimensionality (3D-2D) correlations interweaving into the design of inorganic-organic hybrid materials.
2011-01-01
Insects carry out essential ecological functions, such as pollination, but also cause extensive damage to agricultural crops and transmit human diseases such as malaria and dengue fever. Advances in insect transgenesis are making it increasingly feasible to engineer genes conferring desirable phenotypes, and gene drive systems are required to spread these genes into wild populations. Medea provides one solution, being able to spread into a population from very low initial frequencies through the action of a maternally-expressed toxin linked to a zygotically-expressed antidote. Several other toxin-antidote combinations are imaginable that distort the offspring ratio in favor of a desired transgene, or drive the population towards an all-male crash. We explore two such systems—Semele, which is capable of spreading a desired transgene into an isolated population in a confined manner; and Merea, which is capable of inducing a local population crash when located on the Z chromosome of a Lepidopteron pest. PMID:21876382
Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR
2014-10-01
... 46 Shipping 5 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Antidotes. 154.1440 Section 154.1440 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) CERTAIN BULK DANGEROUS CARGOES SAFETY STANDARDS FOR SELF-PROPELLED VESSELS CARRYING BULK LIQUEFIED GASES Design, Construction and Equipment Safety Equipment § 154.1440 Antidotes. Each vessel must...
Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR
2010-10-01
... 46 Shipping 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Antidotes. 154.1440 Section 154.1440 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) CERTAIN BULK DANGEROUS CARGOES SAFETY STANDARDS FOR SELF-PROPELLED VESSELS CARRYING BULK LIQUEFIED GASES Design, Construction and Equipment Safety Equipment § 154.1440 Antidotes. Each vessel must...
Regular Exercise: Antidote for Deadly Diseases?
... https://medlineplus.gov/news/fullstory_160326.html Regular Exercise: Antidote for Deadly Diseases? High levels of physical ... Aug. 9, 2016 (HealthDay News) -- Getting lots of exercise may reduce your risk for five common diseases, ...
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Bouchiat, Marie-Anne; Bouchiat, Claude
2012-10-01
We have constructed the geometric phases emerging from the non-trivial topology of a space-dependent magnetic field B(r), interacting with the spin magnetic moment of a neutral particle. Our basic tool, adapted from a previous work on Berry’s phases, is the space-dependent unitary transformation {U}({\\mathbf {r}}), which leads to the identity, {U}({\\mathbf {r}})^{\\dag }\\, {\\mathbf {S}}\\,{\\bm \\cdot}\\, {\\mathbf {B}}({\\mathbf {r}}) \\, {U}({\\mathbf {r}}) = \\vert {\\mathbf {B}}({\\mathbf {r}}) \\vert \\, S_z, at each point r. In the ‘rotated’ Hamiltonian \\widehat{ H}, \\frac{ \\partial }{\\partial {\\mathbf {r}}} is replaced by the non-Abelian covariant derivative \\frac{ \\partial }{\\partial {\\mathbf {r}}}- \\frac{i}{\\hbar } {A}({\\mathbf {r}}) where {A}({\\mathbf {r}}) = i \\hbar \\, {U}^{\\dag }\\,{\\bm\\cdot}\\, \\frac{ \\partial }{\\partial {\\mathbf {r}}} {U} can be written as A1(r)Sx + A2(r)Sy + A3(r)Sz. The Abelian differentials Ak(r)·dr are given in terms of the Euler angles defining the orientation of B(r). The non-Abelian field {A}({\\mathbf {r}}) transforms as a Yang-Mills field; however, its vanishing ‘curvature’ reveals its purely geometric character. We have defined a perturbation scheme based upon the assumption that in \\widehat{ H} the longitudinal field A3(r) dominates the transverse field A1, 2(r) contributions, evaluated to second order. The geometry embedded in both the vector field A3(r) and the geometric magnetic field \\mathbf { B}_3 ({\\mathbf {r}}) = \\frac{ \\partial }{\\partial {\\mathbf {r}}}\\wedge {{\\mathbf {A}}}_3({\\mathbf {r}}) is described by their associated Aharonov-Bohm phase. As an illustration we study the physics of cold 171Yb atoms dressed by overlaying two circularly polarized stationary waves with orthogonal directions, which form a 2D square optical lattice. The frequency is tuned midway between the two hyperfine levels of the (6s6p)3P1 states to protect the optical B(r) field generated by the
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Mishra, M. K.; Sharma, R. K.; Tyagi, R.; Manchanda, R.; Pandey, A. K.; Thakur, O. P.; Muralidharan, R.
2016-04-01
Large low temperature negative magnetoresistance (NMR) experimentally observed in AlGaN/GaN high electron mobility transistors (HEMT) structures grown by metalorganic chemical vapour deposition on sapphire substrate has been reported. A linear B -1 ln B dependence of magnetoresistance observed in our samples indicates the presence of random antidot array together with smooth disorder. It is proposed that the antidots are linked with high bandgap AlN rich regions formed due to possible Al-Ga segregation at the interface during growth and the smooth random disorder is due to interface roughness. The antidot density is estimated to be of ˜7 to 8 × 1010 cm-2 in our samples. The magnitude of NMR is also correlated with the extent of interface roughness indicated by x-ray reflectivity. It is also proposed that the formation of antidots is related with the lattice mismatch between substrate and epitaxial heterostructures. The NMR in AlGaN/GaN HEMT structures grown on SiC substrates having relatively lower lattice mismatch has been shown to have a usual B 2 and ln T dependences indicating only electron-electron interaction and absence of antidot-like scatterers.
Gao, Song; Fan, Rui Qing; Wang, Xin Ming; Wei, Li Guo; Song, Yang; Du, Xi; Xing, Kai; Wang, Ping; Yang, Yu Lin
2016-07-28
In this work, a rare 2D → 3D single-crystal-to-single-crystal transformation (SCSC) is observed in metal-organic coordination complexes, which is triggered by thermal treatment. The 2D two-fold interpenetrating square lattice layer [Cd(IBA)2]n (1) is irreversibly converted into a 3D four-fold interpenetrating diamond framework {[Cd(IBA)2(H2O)]·2.5H2O}n (2) (HIBA = 4-(1H-imidazol-1-yl)benzoic acid). Consideration is given to these two complexes with different interpenetrating structures and dimensionality, and their influence on photovoltaic properties are studied. Encouraged by the UV-visible absorption and HOMO-LUMO energy states matched for sensitizing TiO2, the two complexes are employed in combination with N719 in dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSCs) to compensate absorption in the ultraviolet and blue-violet region, offset competitive visible light absorption of I3(-) and reducing charge the recombination of injected electrons. After co-sensitization with 1 and 2, the device co-sensitized by 1/N719 and 2/N719 to yield overall efficiencies of 7.82% and 8.39%, which are 19.94% and 28.68% higher than that of the device sensitized only by N719 (6.52%). Consequently, high dimensional interpenetrating complexes could serve as excellent co-sensitizers and have application in DSSCs. PMID:27356177
Gao, Song; Fan, Rui Qing; Wang, Xin Ming; Wei, Li Guo; Song, Yang; Du, Xi; Xing, Kai; Wang, Ping; Yang, Yu Lin
2016-07-28
In this work, a rare 2D → 3D single-crystal-to-single-crystal transformation (SCSC) is observed in metal-organic coordination complexes, which is triggered by thermal treatment. The 2D two-fold interpenetrating square lattice layer [Cd(IBA)2]n (1) is irreversibly converted into a 3D four-fold interpenetrating diamond framework {[Cd(IBA)2(H2O)]·2.5H2O}n (2) (HIBA = 4-(1H-imidazol-1-yl)benzoic acid). Consideration is given to these two complexes with different interpenetrating structures and dimensionality, and their influence on photovoltaic properties are studied. Encouraged by the UV-visible absorption and HOMO-LUMO energy states matched for sensitizing TiO2, the two complexes are employed in combination with N719 in dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSCs) to compensate absorption in the ultraviolet and blue-violet region, offset competitive visible light absorption of I3(-) and reducing charge the recombination of injected electrons. After co-sensitization with 1 and 2, the device co-sensitized by 1/N719 and 2/N719 to yield overall efficiencies of 7.82% and 8.39%, which are 19.94% and 28.68% higher than that of the device sensitized only by N719 (6.52%). Consequently, high dimensional interpenetrating complexes could serve as excellent co-sensitizers and have application in DSSCs.
Influence of structural changes in a periodic antidot waveguide on the spin-wave spectra
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kłos, J. W.; Kumar, D.; Krawczyk, M.; Barman, A.
2014-01-01
We demonstrate that the magnonic band structure, including the band gap of a ferromagnetic antidot waveguide, can be significantly tuned by a relatively weak modulation of its structural parameters. We study the magnonic band structure in nanoscale spin-wave waveguides with periodically distributed small antidots along their central line by two independent computational methods, namely, a micromagnetic simulation and a plane-wave method. The calculations were performed with consideration of both the exchange and dipolar interactions. For the exchange dominated regime, we discuss, in details, the impact of the changes of the lattice constant, size, and shape of the antidots on the spin-wave spectra. We have shown that a precise choice of these parameters is crucial for achieving desired properties of antidot waveguides, i.e., a large group velocity and filtering properties due to existence of magnonic band gaps. We discuss different mechanisms of magnonic gap opening resulting from Bragg scattering or anticrossing of modes. We have shown that the dipolar interactions start to assert their role in the spin-wave spectrum when the waveguide is scaled up, but even for a period of few hundreds of nanometers, the magnonic band structure preserves qualitatively the properties found in the exchange dominating regime. The obtained results are important for future development of magnonic crystal based devices.
46 CFR 153.930 - Cargo antidotes.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR
2012-10-01
... 46 Shipping 5 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Cargo antidotes. 153.930 Section 153.930 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) CERTAIN BULK DANGEROUS CARGOES SHIPS CARRYING BULK LIQUID, LIQUEFIED GAS, OR COMPRESSED GAS HAZARDOUS MATERIALS Operations General Vessel Safety §...
46 CFR 153.930 - Cargo antidotes.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR
2011-10-01
... 46 Shipping 5 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Cargo antidotes. 153.930 Section 153.930 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) CERTAIN BULK DANGEROUS CARGOES SHIPS CARRYING BULK LIQUID, LIQUEFIED GAS, OR COMPRESSED GAS HAZARDOUS MATERIALS Operations General Vessel Safety §...
46 CFR 153.930 - Cargo antidotes.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR
2014-10-01
... 46 Shipping 5 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Cargo antidotes. 153.930 Section 153.930 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) CERTAIN BULK DANGEROUS CARGOES SHIPS CARRYING BULK LIQUID, LIQUEFIED GAS, OR COMPRESSED GAS HAZARDOUS MATERIALS Operations General Vessel Safety §...
46 CFR 153.930 - Cargo antidotes.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR
2010-10-01
... 46 Shipping 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Cargo antidotes. 153.930 Section 153.930 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) CERTAIN BULK DANGEROUS CARGOES SHIPS CARRYING BULK LIQUID, LIQUEFIED GAS, OR COMPRESSED GAS HAZARDOUS MATERIALS Operations General Vessel Safety §...
46 CFR 153.930 - Cargo antidotes.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR
2013-10-01
... 46 Shipping 5 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Cargo antidotes. 153.930 Section 153.930 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) CERTAIN BULK DANGEROUS CARGOES SHIPS CARRYING BULK LIQUID, LIQUEFIED GAS, OR COMPRESSED GAS HAZARDOUS MATERIALS Operations General Vessel Safety §...
Spectral properties of a charged particle in antidot array: A limiting case of quantum billiard
Geyler, V.A.; Pavlov, B.S.; Popov, I.Y.
1996-10-01
A model of the periodic array of quantum antidots in the presence of a uniform magnetic field is suggested. The model can be conceived as a periodic lattice of resonators (curvilinear triangles) connected through {open_quote}{open_quote}infinitely small{close_quote}{close_quote} openings at the vertices of the triangles. The model Hamiltonian is obtained by means of operator extension theory in indefinite metric spaces. In the case of rational magnetic flux through an elementary cell of the lattice, the dispersion equation is found in an explicit form with the help of harmonic analysis on the magnetic translation group. It is proved, at least in the case of integer flux, that the spectrum of the model Hamiltonian consists of three parts: (1) Landau levels (they correspond to the classical orbits lying between antidots); (2) extended states that correspond to the classical propagation trajectories; and (3) bound states satisfying the dispersion equation; they correspond to the classical chaotic orbits rotating around single antidots. Among other things, methods of finding the Green{close_quote}s function for some planar domains with curvilinear boundaries are derived. {copyright} {ital 1996 American Institute of Physics.}
Zhang, Kai; Du, Kai; Liu, Hao; Zhang, X.-G.; Lan, Fanli; Lin, Hanxuan; Wei, Wengang; Zhu, Yinyan; Kou, Yunfang; Shao, Jian; Niu, Jiebin; Wang, Wenbin; Wu, Ruqian; Yin, Lifeng; Plummer, E. W.; Shen, Jian
2015-01-01
The interesting transport and magnetic properties in manganites depend sensitively on the nucleation and growth of electronic phase-separated domains. By fabricating antidot arrays in La0.325Pr0.3Ca0.375MnO3 (LPCMO) epitaxial thin films, we create ordered arrays of micrometer-sized ferromagnetic metallic (FMM) rings in the LPCMO films that lead to dramatically increased metal–insulator transition temperatures and reduced resistances. The FMM rings emerge from the edges of the antidots where the lattice symmetry is broken. Based on our Monte Carlo simulation, these FMM rings assist the nucleation and growth of FMM phase domains increasing the metal–insulator transition with decreasing temperature or increasing magnetic field. This study points to a way in which electronic phase separation in manganites can be artificially controlled without changing chemical composition or applying external field. PMID:26195791
Self-assembled Metallic Dots and Antidots: Epitaxial Co on Ru(0001)
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Yu, Chengtao; Li, Dongqi; Pearson, J.; Bader, S. D.
2001-03-01
We have grown 1-420 nm thick epitaxial Co wedge on Ru(0001) with molecular beam epitaxy at 350^oC to investigate self-assembly in metals utilizing ex-situ atomic force microscopy. A novel growth mode was observed whereby three-dimensional islands (dots) or a flat film network with deep holes (antidots) in truncated pyramidal shapes exist below or above 20 nm, respectively. The tops of the islands and the rims of the holes are flat with a root mean square roughness values of 0.3 nm. The lateral sizes of these dots/antidots, 10^2 nm, tend to be uniform. We postulate that this growth mode, similar to that of self-assembled quantum dots in semiconductors, is mainly driven by strain as a result of an 8% lateral mismatch between the basil plane lattice constants of bulk Co and Ru.
[Antidotes to novel direct oral anticoagulants].
Khorev, N G; Momot, A P; Kon'kova, V O
2016-01-01
During the last 10 years, several novel direct oral anticoagulants (NOACs) have entered the clinical arena and were registered in the Russian Federation for use in patients presenting with atrial fibrillation, venous thrombosis, and pulmonary artery thromboembolism. NOACs are classified into two groups: direct thrombin inhibitor (notably dabigatran) and factor Xa inhibitors (including rivaroxaban, apixaban, and edoxaban). Their disadvantage is lack of specific antidotes in case of an emergency situation (injury, infarction, stroke requiring thrombolysis, urgent operation). The review contains the data on the existing therapeutic regimens of treating haemorrhage on the background of taking these coagulants. This is followed by analysing the present-day results of clinical trials aimed at working out pharmaceutical agents (andexanet alpha, idarucizumab, aripazine) being antidotes to direct thrombin inhibitor and the factor Xa inhibitors. Administration of these agents makes it possible to reverse coagulation and minimize the aftermaths of haemorrhage in patients taking these drugs, in emergency situations. PMID:27626268
COBALT COMPOUNDS AS ANTIDOTES FOR HYDROCYANIC ACID.
EVANS, C L
1964-12-01
The antidotal potency of a cobalt salt (acetate), of dicobalt edetate, of hydroxocobalamin and of cobinamide against hydrocyanic acid was examined mainly on mice and rabbits. All the compounds were active antidotes for up to twice the LD50; under some conditions for larger doses. The most successful was cobalt acetate for rabbits (5xLD50), which was effective at a molar cyanide/cobalt (CN/Co) ratio of 5, but had as a side-effect intense purgation. Hydroxocobalamin was irregular in action, but on the whole was most effective for mice (4.5xLD50 at a molar ratio of 1), and had no apparent side effects. Dicobalt edetate, at molar ratios of up to 2, was more effective for rabbits (3xLD50) than for mice (2xLD50), but had fewer side effects than cobalt acetate. The effect of thiosulphate was to augment the efficacy of dicobalt edetate and, in mice, that of hydroxocobalamin; but, apparently, in rabbits, to reduce that of hydroxocobalamin. Cobinamide, at a molar ratio of 1, was slightly more effective than hydroxocobalamin on rabbits and also less irregular in its action. Cobalt acetate by mouth was effective against orally administered hydrocyanic acid. The oxygen uptake of the body, reduced by cyanide, is rapidly reinstated when one of the cobalt antidotes has been successfully administered.
Yang, Li-Ming; Dornfeld, Matthew; Frauenheim, Thomas; Ganz, Eric
2015-10-21
We predict a highly stable and robust atomically thin gold monolayer with a hexagonal close packed lattice stabilized by metallic bonding with contributions from strong relativistic effects and aurophilic interactions. We have shown that the framework of the Au monolayer can survive 10 ps MD annealing simulations up to 1400 K. The framework is also able to survive large motions out of the plane. Due to the smaller number of bonds per atom in the 2D layer compared to the 3D bulk we observe significantly enhanced energy per bond (0.94 vs. 0.52 eV per bond). This is similar to the increase in bond strength going from 3D diamond to 2D graphene. It is a non-magnetic metal, and was found to be the global minima in the 2D space. Phonon dispersion calculations demonstrate high kinetic stability with no negative modes. This 2D gold monolayer corresponds to the top monolayer of the bulk Au(111) face-centered cubic lattice. The close-packed lattice maximizes the aurophilic interactions. We find that the electrons are completely delocalized in the plane and behave as 2D nearly free electron gas. We hope that the present work can inspire the experimental fabrication of novel free standing 2D metal systems.
Antidot effects on micromagnetic behavior of Py ferromagnetic samples
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Yetis, Hakan; Denizli, Haluk
2016-09-01
The coercivity and magnetic hysteresis behavior of permalloy (Py) samples have been studied in the presence of square arrays of the circular antidots. The open source OOMMF micromagnetic software is used to numerically solve the Landau-Lifshitz-Gilbert (LLG) equation. In calculations, Py samples are designed in such a way that they include a different number of antidot in an array which possess the same total surface area. In this way, the total Py region stayed unchanged despite the growing number of antidots in a fixed sample size. We found significant increase in the coercive field for the sample with the smallest antidot spacing. The results are discussed within the framework of superdomain (SD) and superdomain wall (SDW) formation.
Dynamic optical lattices: two-dimensional rotating and accordion lattices for ultracold atoms.
Williams, R A; Pillet, J D; Al-Assam, S; Fletcher, B; Shotter, M; Foot, C J
2008-10-13
We demonstrate a novel experimental arrangement which can rotate a 2D optical lattice at frequencies up to several kilohertz. Ultracold atoms in such a rotating lattice can be used for the direct quantum simulation of strongly correlated systems under large effective magnetic fields, allowing investigation of phenomena such as the fractional quantum Hall effect. Our arrangement also allows the periodicity of a 2D optical lattice to be varied dynamically, producing a 2D accordion lattice.
2005-07-01
Aniso2d is a two-dimensional seismic forward modeling code. The earth is parameterized by an X-Z plane in which the seismic properties Can have monoclinic with x-z plane symmetry. The program uses a user define time-domain wavelet to produce synthetic seismograms anrwhere within the two-dimensional media.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Jang, Hyun-Sook; Yu, Changqian; Hayes, Robert; Granick, Steve
2015-03-01
Polymer vesicles (``polymersomes'') are an intriguing class of soft materials, commonly used to encapsulate small molecules or particles. Here we reveal they can also effectively incorporate nanoparticles inside their polymer membrane, leading to novel ``2D nanocomposites.'' The embedded nanoparticles alter the capacity of the polymersomes to bend and to stretch upon external stimuli.
48 CFR 225.7005 - Restriction on certain chemical weapons antidote.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR
2012-10-01
... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 3 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Restriction on certain chemical weapons antidote. 225.7005 Section 225.7005 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEFENSE... on certain chemical weapons antidote....
48 CFR 225.7005 - Restriction on certain chemical weapons antidote.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR
2013-10-01
... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 3 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Restriction on certain chemical weapons antidote. 225.7005 Section 225.7005 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEFENSE... on certain chemical weapons antidote....
48 CFR 225.7005 - Restriction on certain chemical weapons antidote.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR
2011-10-01
... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 3 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Restriction on certain chemical weapons antidote. 225.7005 Section 225.7005 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEFENSE... on certain chemical weapons antidote....
48 CFR 225.7005 - Restriction on certain chemical weapons antidote.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR
2014-10-01
... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 3 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Restriction on certain chemical weapons antidote. 225.7005 Section 225.7005 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEFENSE... on certain chemical weapons antidote....
48 CFR 225.7005 - Restriction on certain chemical weapons antidote.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR
2010-10-01
... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Restriction on certain chemical weapons antidote. 225.7005 Section 225.7005 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEFENSE... on certain chemical weapons antidote....
2011-12-31
Mesh2d is a Fortran90 program designed to generate two-dimensional structured grids of the form [x(i),y(i,j)] where [x,y] are grid coordinates identified by indices (i,j). The x(i) coordinates alone can be used to specify a one-dimensional grid. Because the x-coordinates vary only with the i index, a two-dimensional grid is composed in part of straight vertical lines. However, the nominally horizontal y(i,j0) coordinates along index i are permitted to undulate or otherwise vary. Mesh2d also assignsmore » an integer material type to each grid cell, mtyp(i,j), in a user-specified manner. The complete grid is specified through three separate input files defining the x(i), y(i,j), and mtyp(i,j) variations.« less
Magneto Transport of Graphene Monolayer with Antidot Arrays
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Wang, Lei; Yin, Ming; Datta, Timir; Mbamalu, Godwin; Alameri, Dheyaa
Graphene has a significant potential for electronics application as well as in high precision resistive metrological standard. Here we report magneto transport studies of monolayer graphene with antidot in hexagonal arrays on SiO2/Si substrate. The choice of antidot array was motivated by the potential to enhance quantum interference effect amongst charge carriers. The graphene-antidot arrays were fabricated by electron beam lithography followed by reactive ion etching. In our samples the dc magnetic field (B) was applied continuously up to 18 Tesla while the measurement temperature (T) was held steady at desired set points, ranging from 200 mK to 20 K. The effect of nanoarrays on the temperature and field dependence of the electrical properties (MR) and quantum hall effect with particular attention to Aharonov-Bohm oscillations will be reported.
Magnetoconductance of a hybrid quantum ring: Effects of antidot potentials
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kim, Nammee; Park, Dae-Han; Kim, Heesang
2016-05-01
The electronic structures and two-terminal magnetoconductance of a hybrid quantum ring are studied. The backscattering due to energy-resonance is considered in the conductance calculation. The hybrid magnetic-electric quantum ring is fabricated by applying an antidot electrostatic potential in the middle of a magnetic quantum dot. Electrons are both magnetically and electrically confined in the plane. The antidot potential repelling electrons from the center of the dot plays a critical role in the energy spectra and magnetoconductance. The angular momentum transition in the energy dispersion and the magnetoconductance behavior are investigated in consideration of the antidot potential variation. Results are shown using a comparison of the results of the conventional magnetic quantum dot.
Creativity: Performativity's Poison or Its Antidote?
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Munday, Ian
2014-01-01
A common move in the study of creativity and performativity is to present the former as an antidote to the latter. Might we, therefore, see work on creativity in education as heralding an era of post-performativity? In this paper I argue that the portrayal of performativity in the literature on creativity presents an overly simplistic (vulgar?)…
Writing as a Neighborly Act: An Antidote for Academentia.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Savage, Mary C.
1989-01-01
Describes "academentia," the delusion that disciplines are intellectually powerful as a result of their specialization. Prescribes "neighborliness"--intellectual and practical work done from the perspective of critical consciousness--as the antidote to academentia. Suggests that writing projects have great potential as "neighborly" activities. (MM)
2D hexagonal quaternion Fourier transform in color image processing
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Grigoryan, Artyom M.; Agaian, Sos S.
2016-05-01
In this paper, we present a novel concept of the quaternion discrete Fourier transform on the two-dimensional hexagonal lattice, which we call the two-dimensional hexagonal quaternion discrete Fourier transform (2-D HQDFT). The concept of the right-side 2D HQDFT is described and the left-side 2-D HQDFT is similarly considered. To calculate the transform, the image on the hexagonal lattice is described in the tensor representation when the image is presented by a set of 1-D signals, or splitting-signals which can be separately processed in the frequency domain. The 2-D HQDFT can be calculated by a set of 1-D quaternion discrete Fourier transforms (QDFT) of the splitting-signals.
The need for translational research on antidotes for pesticide poisoning
Buckley, Nick A; Eddleston, Michael; Dawson, Andrew H
2006-01-01
Summary Pesticide poisoning kills hundreds of thousands of people in the Asia Pacific region each year. The majority are from deliberate self-poisoning with organophosphorus pesticides (OP), aluminium phosphide and paraquat. The current response from a public health, medical and research perspective is inadequate. There are few proven or effective treatments; in addition, very little clinical research has been done to transfer antidotes shown to work in animal studies into clinical practice. The human toxicity of pesticides is poorly studied and better information might inform a more sustained and appropriate regulatory response. Further understanding may also lead to improvement in diagnosis and treatment. The few effective treatments are not being recommended or delivered in an optimal and timely fashion to poisoned patients. A regional approach to facilitate appropriate pricing, packaging and delivery of antidotes is required. PMID:16405459
Simonenko, V E; Sarmanaev, S Kh; Kovalev, E V; Sarmanaeva, R R; Kukhanov, A V
2014-11-01
This article analyses the approaches to the formation of specific treatment of acute poisoning in the various countries. The authors present a systematic review of scientific publications about the formation of reserves of antidote agents at medical institutions of the Russian Federation, the US, Canada, France, Spain, Greece, Norway, Czech Republic, Taiwan and Poland. A search for a variety of databases, as well as by reviewing reference lists of publications on the subject of "stockpiling antidote means". It is concluded that the antidote provision at health care institutions in different countries is insufficient. State of affairs with the formation of antidote stocks is better at hospitals of Czech Republic, France and Spain. To determine the range and volume of the stock of fixed assets necessary antidote coordination and approval of the list and the number of mandatory for every medical institution antidotes. PMID:25816678
Performance effects of chemical warfare antidotes: A perspective
Caldwell, J.A.
1992-07-01
The threat that enemy forces may use chemical warfare against United States military troops has caused the medical research and development community to find effective antidotes. Particularly in the case of nerve agent poisoning, the timely use of antidote therapies represents the key to survival in contaminated environments. Current training doctrine instructs soldiers how to recognize the symptoms of nerve agent exposure, and then how to counteract the life-threatening effects with the administration of atropine sulfate and pralidoxime chloride. However, these compounds can produce performance degrading effects on their own even when no chemical agent is present. Particularly in the case of the aviator, who is expected to exercise very precise control over an inherently complex vehicle such as a helicopter, the impact of self-administered antidotes should be fully appreciated. The present review briefly summarizes what is known about the actions and performance effects of both atropine and pralidoxime chloride, and recommendations are made concerning the need for additional research.
Photostability of antidotal oxime HI-6, impact on drug development.
Bogan, Reinhard; Worek, Franz; Koller, Marianne; Klaubert, Bernd
2012-01-01
HI-6 exhibits superior efficacy in the therapy of intoxication by different highly toxic organophosphorus nerve agents. Therefore HI-6 is a promising candidate for the development of new antidotes against nerve agents. For ethical and safety reasons antidotes containing HI-6 should get marketing authorization. Active pharmaceutical ingredients of medicinal products have to fulfil regulatory conditions in terms of purity and stability. Photostability is an essential parameter in this testing strategy. HI-6 was tested under conditions of ICH Q1B 'Photostability testing of new drug substances and products'. The data showed a marked degradation of HI-6 after exposure to daylight. The mechanism of degradation could be detected as photoisomerism. The light burden dependent rate of photoisomerism was followed quantitatively. Based on these quantitative results on the amount of light induced isomeric product a pharmacological qualification was made. A standardized in vitro test showed a decreased ability of light exposed HI-6 to reactivate sarin- and paraoxon-inhibited human acetylcholinesterase. These results have an impact on the further development of antidotes containing HI-6, as light protection will probably be necessary during handling, packaging, storage and application.
Nanometer Scale Hard/Soft Bilayer Magnetic Antidots.
Béron, Fanny; Kaidatzis, Andreas; Velo, Murilo F; Arzuza, Luis C C; Palmero, Ester M; Del Real, Rafael P; Niarchos, Dimitrios; Pirota, Kleber R; García-Martín, José Miguel
2016-12-01
The effect of arrays of nanometer scale pores on the magnetic properties of thin films has been analyzed. Particularly, we investigated the influence of the out-of-plane magnetization component created by the nanopores on the in-plane magnetic behavior of patterned hard/soft magnetic thin films in antidot morphology. Its influence on the coupling in Co/Py bilayers of few tens of nanometer thick is compared for disordered and ordered antidots of 35-nm diameter. The combination of magneto-optical Kerr effect (MOKE) and first-order reversal curve (FORC) technique allows probing the effects of the induced perpendicular magnetization component on the bilayer magnetic behavior, while magnetic force microscopy (MFM) is used to image it. We found that ordered antidots yield a stronger out-of-plane component than disordered ones, influencing in a similar manner the hard layer global in-plane magnetic behavior if with a thin or without soft layer. However, its influence changes with a thicker soft layer, which may be an indication of a weaker coupling.
Nanometer Scale Hard/Soft Bilayer Magnetic Antidots.
Béron, Fanny; Kaidatzis, Andreas; Velo, Murilo F; Arzuza, Luis C C; Palmero, Ester M; Del Real, Rafael P; Niarchos, Dimitrios; Pirota, Kleber R; García-Martín, José Miguel
2016-12-01
The effect of arrays of nanometer scale pores on the magnetic properties of thin films has been analyzed. Particularly, we investigated the influence of the out-of-plane magnetization component created by the nanopores on the in-plane magnetic behavior of patterned hard/soft magnetic thin films in antidot morphology. Its influence on the coupling in Co/Py bilayers of few tens of nanometer thick is compared for disordered and ordered antidots of 35-nm diameter. The combination of magneto-optical Kerr effect (MOKE) and first-order reversal curve (FORC) technique allows probing the effects of the induced perpendicular magnetization component on the bilayer magnetic behavior, while magnetic force microscopy (MFM) is used to image it. We found that ordered antidots yield a stronger out-of-plane component than disordered ones, influencing in a similar manner the hard layer global in-plane magnetic behavior if with a thin or without soft layer. However, its influence changes with a thicker soft layer, which may be an indication of a weaker coupling. PMID:26873261
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Wang, Jin; Ma, Jianyong; Zhou, Changhe
2014-11-01
A 3×3 high divergent 2D-grating with period of 3.842μm at wavelength of 850nm under normal incidence is designed and fabricated in this paper. This high divergent 2D-grating is designed by the vector theory. The Rigorous Coupled Wave Analysis (RCWA) in association with the simulated annealing (SA) is adopted to calculate and optimize this 2D-grating.The properties of this grating are also investigated by the RCWA. The diffraction angles are more than 10 degrees in the whole wavelength band, which are bigger than the traditional 2D-grating. In addition, the small period of grating increases the difficulties of fabrication. So we fabricate the 2D-gratings by direct laser writing (DLW) instead of traditional manufacturing method. Then the method of ICP etching is used to obtain the high divergent 2D-grating.
Fang, H.; Akinoglu, E. M.; Fumagalli, P.; Caballero, B.; García-Martín, A.; Papaioannou, E. Th.; Cuevas, J. C.; Giersig, M.
2015-04-13
A combined experimental and theoretical study of the magneto-optic properties of a series of nickel antidot thin films is presented. The hole diameter varies from 869 down to 636 nm, while the lattice periodicity is fixed at 920 nm. This results in an overall increase of the polar Kerr rotation with decreasing hole diameter due to the increasing surface coverage with nickel. In addition, at photon energies of 2.7 and 3.3 eV, where surface-plasmon excitations are expected, we observe distinct features in the polar Kerr rotation not present in continuous nickel films. The spectral position of the peaks exhibits a red shift with decreasing hole size. This is explained within the context of an effective medium theory by a change in the effective dielectric function of the Ni thin films.
Antidotes and treatments for chemical warfare/terrorism agents: an evidence-based review.
Rodgers, G C; Condurache, C T
2010-09-01
This article reviews the evidence supporting the efficacy of antidotes used or recommended for the potential chemical warfare agents of most concern. Chemical warfare agents considered include cyanide, vesicants, pulmonary irritants such as chlorine and phosgene, and nerve agents. The strength of evidence for most antidotes is weak, highlighting the need for additional research in this area.
Patterson, Steven E.; Monteil, Alexandre R.; Cohen, Jonathan F.; Crankshaw, Daune L.; Vince, Robert; Nagasawa, Herbert T.
2013-01-01
Current cyanide antidotes are administered by IV infusion which is suboptimal for mass casualties. Therefore, in a cyanide disaster intramuscular (IM) injectable antidotes would be more appropriate. We report the discovery of the highly water-soluble sulfanegen triethanolamine as a promising lead for development as an IM injectable cyanide antidote. PMID:23301495
Patterson, Steven E; Monteil, Alexandre R; Cohen, Jonathan F; Crankshaw, Daune L; Vince, Robert; Nagasawa, Herbert T
2013-02-14
Current cyanide antidotes are administered by IV infusion, which is suboptimal for mass casualties. Therefore, in a cyanide disaster, intramuscular (IM) injectable antidotes would be more appropriate. We report the discovery of the highly water-soluble sulfanegen triethanolamine as a promising lead for development as an IM injectable cyanide antidote.
Baiz, Carlos R.; Schach, Denise; Tokmakoff, Andrei
2014-01-01
We describe a microscope for measuring two-dimensional infrared (2D IR) spectra of heterogeneous samples with μm-scale spatial resolution, sub-picosecond time resolution, and the molecular structure information of 2D IR, enabling the measurement of vibrational dynamics through correlations in frequency, time, and space. The setup is based on a fully collinear “one beam” geometry in which all pulses propagate along the same optics. Polarization, chopping, and phase cycling are used to isolate the 2D IR signals of interest. In addition, we demonstrate the use of vibrational lifetime as a contrast agent for imaging microscopic variations in molecular environments. PMID:25089490
2004-08-01
AnisWave2D is a 2D finite-difference code for a simulating seismic wave propagation in fully anisotropic materials. The code is implemented to run in parallel over multiple processors and is fully portable. A mesh refinement algorithm has been utilized to allow the grid-spacing to be tailored to the velocity model, avoiding the over-sampling of high-velocity materials that usually occurs in fixed-grid schemes.
Enhanced Spin Hall Effect by Single Antidot Potential
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Eto, Mikio; Yokoyama, Tomohiro
2009-03-01
We theoretically investigate an extrinsic spin Hall effect in semiconductor heterostructures due to the scattering by an artificial potential created by a single antidot, STM tip, etc. The strength of the potential is electrically tunable. First, we formulate the spin Hall effect in terms of phase shifts in the partial wave expansion for two-dimensional electron gas. For scattered electrons in θ direction, we obtain a spin polarization P(θ) perpendicular to the two-dimensional plane [P(-θ)=-P (θ)]. The spin polarization P(θ) is significantly enhanced by an attractive potential when the resonant condition of a partial wave is satisfied by tuning the potential strength. Second, we study the spin Hall effect in a three-terminal device with an antidot at the junction. The conductance and spin polarization are evaluated numerically.ootnotetextM. Yamamoto and B. Kramer, J. Appl. Phys. 103, 123703 (2008), for repulsive potential. We obtain a spin polarization of more than 50% due to the resonant scattering when the attractive potential is properly tuned.
Castle, Toen; Sussman, Daniel M.; Tanis, Michael; Kamien, Randall D.
2016-01-01
Kirigami uses bending, folding, cutting, and pasting to create complex three-dimensional (3D) structures from a flat sheet. In the case of lattice kirigami, this cutting and rejoining introduces defects into an underlying 2D lattice in the form of points of nonzero Gaussian curvature. A set of simple rules was previously used to generate a wide variety of stepped structures; we now pare back these rules to their minimum. This allows us to describe a set of techniques that unify a wide variety of cut-and-paste actions under the rubric of lattice kirigami, including adding new material and rejoining material across arbitrary cuts in the sheet. We also explore the use of more complex lattices and the different structures that consequently arise. Regardless of the choice of lattice, creating complex structures may require multiple overlapping kirigami cuts, where subsequent cuts are not performed on a locally flat lattice. Our additive kirigami method describes such cuts, providing a simple methodology and a set of techniques to build a huge variety of complex 3D shapes. PMID:27679822
Castle, Toen; Sussman, Daniel M.; Tanis, Michael; Kamien, Randall D.
2016-01-01
Kirigami uses bending, folding, cutting, and pasting to create complex three-dimensional (3D) structures from a flat sheet. In the case of lattice kirigami, this cutting and rejoining introduces defects into an underlying 2D lattice in the form of points of nonzero Gaussian curvature. A set of simple rules was previously used to generate a wide variety of stepped structures; we now pare back these rules to their minimum. This allows us to describe a set of techniques that unify a wide variety of cut-and-paste actions under the rubric of lattice kirigami, including adding new material and rejoining material across arbitrary cuts in the sheet. We also explore the use of more complex lattices and the different structures that consequently arise. Regardless of the choice of lattice, creating complex structures may require multiple overlapping kirigami cuts, where subsequent cuts are not performed on a locally flat lattice. Our additive kirigami method describes such cuts, providing a simple methodology and a set of techniques to build a huge variety of complex 3D shapes.
Interdisciplinary research: a philosophy, art form, artifact or antidote?
Bruhn, J G
2000-01-01
Interdisciplinary research has many faces--a philosophy, an art form, an artifact, and an antidote. It is all of these things because interdisciplinary research attempts to ask questions in ways that cut across disciplinary boundaries. This is not politically correct and universities especially find it difficult to manage interdisciplinarians and their projects. The author argues that interdisciplinary research has persisted as an alternative when traditional research approaches have failed to come up with answers to common problems. Interdisciplinary research will continue to survive as long as there are creative, risk-taking scientists who are dissatisfied with the political and organizational boundaries we establish around disciplines which limit our ability to learn about their commonalities. PMID:10885547
Nanoencapsulated and microencapsulated enzymes in drug antidotal therapy.
Szilasi, Mária; Budai, Marianna; Budai, Lívia; Petrikovics, Ilona
2012-07-01
A catalytic bioscavenger for the therapeutic and prophylactic defense against recognized chemical threat agents has been a long-standing objective of civilian and military research. Among the toxic agents, organophosphate molecules and cyanide have been widely studied. In order to overcome the limitations of traditional antidotal therapies, isolated, purified, recombinant enzymes with bacterial origin possessing fast catalytic activity were used in in vitro and in vivo experiments. However, the fast degradation, excretion and adverse immunologic reaction against enzymes limit their in vivo use. Development of biodegradable, nontoxic carrier systems, microparticles, and nanoparticles-offering advantageous pharmacokinetic parameters was suggested. Present work deals with the perspectives of carrier systems, such as resealed and annealed erythrocytes and sterically stabilized liposomes. Dendritic polymers and polymer-conjugated enzymes, being in the focus of extensive research efforts nowadays, are also discussed.
DYNA2D96. Explicit 2-D Hydrodynamic FEM Program
Whirley, R.G.
1992-04-01
DYNA2D is a vectorized, explicit, two-dimensional, axisymmetric and plane strain finite element program for analyzing the large deformation dynamic and hydrodynamic response of inelastic solids. DYNA2D contains 13 material models and 9 equations of state (EOS) to cover a wide range of material behavior. The material models implemented in all machine versions are: elastic, orthotropic elastic, kinematic/isotropic elastic plasticity, thermoelastoplastic, soil and crushable foam, linear viscoelastic, rubber, high explosive burn, isotropic elastic-plastic, temperature-dependent elastic-plastic. The isotropic and temperature-dependent elastic-plastic models determine only the deviatoric stresses. Pressure is determined by one of 9 equations of state including linear polynomial, JWL high explosive, Sack Tuesday high explosive, Gruneisen, ratio of polynomials, linear polynomial with energy deposition, ignition and growth of reaction in HE, tabulated compaction, and tabulated.
Antiferromagnetism in 2D arrays of superconducting rings
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Davidović, D.; Kumar, S.; Reich, D. H.; Siegel, J.; Field, S. B.; Tiberio, R. C.; Hey, R.; Ploog, K.
1996-03-01
An array of isolated superconducting rings at Φ_0/2 applied flux is equivalent to a 2D random field Ising antiferromagnet. The quantized magnetic moments of the rings play the role of Ising spins, and small variations in the rings' areas lead to a Gaussian random field. Using SQUID magnetometry and scanning Hall probe microscopy, we studied the dynamics and antiferromagnetic correlations of arrays of micron-size Al rings, arranged on square, honeycomb, triangular, and kagomé lattices. All the arrays exhibit short range antiferromagnetic order. Spin freezing at low temperatures and the random field prevent the development of long range correlations on bipartite lattices. Effects of geometrical frustration on the triangular and kagomé lattices were also observed.
Reprint of : Thermodynamic properties of a quantum Hall anti-dot interferometer
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Levy Schreier, Sarah; Stern, Ady; Rosenow, Bernd; Halperin, Bertrand I.
2016-08-01
We study quantum Hall interferometers in which the interference loop encircles a quantum anti-dot. We base our study on thermodynamic considerations, which we believe reflect the essential aspects of interference transport phenomena. We find that similar to the more conventional Fabry-Perot quantum Hall interferometers, in which the interference loop forms a quantum dot, the anti-dot interferometer is affected by the electro-static Coulomb interaction between the edge modes defining the loop. We show that in the Aharonov-Bohm regime, in which effects of fractional statistics should be visible, is easier to access in interferometers based on anti-dots than in those based on dots. We discuss the relevance of our results to recent measurements on anti-dots interferometers.
2001-01-31
This software reduces the data from two-dimensional kSA MOS program, k-Space Associates, Ann Arbor, MI. Initial MOS data is recorded without headers in 38 columns, with one row of data per acquisition per lase beam tracked. The final MOSS 2d data file is reduced, graphed, and saved in a tab-delimited column format with headers that can be plotted in any graphing software.
Specific antidotes in development for reversal of novel anticoagulants: a review.
Gomez-Outes, Antonio; Suarez-Gea, M L; Lecumberri, Ramon; Terleira-Fernandez, Ana I; Vargas-Castrillon, Emilio
2014-01-01
In the last decade, several direct oral anticoagulants (DOAC; dabigatran, rivaroxaban, apixaban, edoxaban) have been marketed for prophylaxis and/or treatment of thromboembolism without having specific antidotes available for their reversal. Current management of bleeding associated to DOAC includes the removal of all antithrombotic medications and supportive care. Non-specific procoagulant agents (prothrombin complex concentrates and activated factor VIIa) have been used in case of serious bleeding. Currently, some specific antidotes for the DOAC are under development. Idarucizumab (BI 655075; Boehringer Ingelheim) is a fragment of an antibody (Fab), which is a specific antidote to the oral direct thrombin inhibitor dabigatran. Andexanet alfa (r-Antidote, PRT064445; Portola Pharmaceuticals) is a truncated form of enzymatically inactive factor Xa, which binds and reverses the anticoagulant action of the factor Xa inhibitors (e.g.: rivaroxaban, apixaban and edoxaban). Aripazine (PER-977, ciraparantag; Perosphere Inc.) is a synthetic small molecule (~500 Da) that reverses oral dabigatran, apixaban, rivaroxaban, as well as subcutaneous fondaparinux and LMWH in vivo. These antidotes could provide an alternative for management of life-threatening bleeding events occurring with the above-mentioned anticoagulants. In addition, the specific antidote anivamersen (RB007; Regado Biosciences Inc.) is an RNA aptamer in clinical development to reverse the anticoagulant effect of the parenteral factor IXa inhibitor pegnivacogin, which is also in development. This anticoagulant-antidote pair may provide an alternative in situations in which a fast onset and offset of anticoagulation is needed, like in patients undergoing cardiac surgery with extracorporeal circulation, as an alternative to the heparin/protamine pair. This patent review includes a description of the pharmacological characteristics of the novel specific antidotes, the available results from completed non
Baskin, S.I.; Horowitz, A.M.; Nealley, E.W.
1992-04-01
The combination of sodium thiosulfate and sodium nitrite has been used in the United States since the 1930s as the primary antidote for cyanide intoxication. Although this combination was shown to exhibit much greater efficacy than either ingredient alone, the two compounds could not be used prophylactically because each exhibits a number of side effects. This review discusses the pharmacodynamics, pharmacokinetics, and toxicology of the individual agents, and their combination....Cyanide, Blood agent, Chemical warfare agents, Antidotes, Sodium nitrite, Sodium thiosulfate.
Metrology for graphene and 2D materials
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Pollard, Andrew J.
2016-09-01
The application of graphene, a one atom-thick honeycomb lattice of carbon atoms with superlative properties, such as electrical conductivity, thermal conductivity and strength, has already shown that it can be used to benefit metrology itself as a new quantum standard for resistance. However, there are many application areas where graphene and other 2D materials, such as molybdenum disulphide (MoS2) and hexagonal boron nitride (h-BN), may be disruptive, areas such as flexible electronics, nanocomposites, sensing and energy storage. Applying metrology to the area of graphene is now critical to enable the new, emerging global graphene commercial world and bridge the gap between academia and industry. Measurement capabilities and expertise in a wide range of scientific areas are required to address this challenge. The combined and complementary approach of varied characterisation methods for structural, chemical, electrical and other properties, will allow the real-world issues of commercialising graphene and other 2D materials to be addressed. Here, examples of metrology challenges that have been overcome through a multi-technique or new approach are discussed. Firstly, the structural characterisation of defects in both graphene and MoS2 via Raman spectroscopy is described, and how nanoscale mapping of vacancy defects in graphene is also possible using tip-enhanced Raman spectroscopy (TERS). Furthermore, the chemical characterisation and removal of polymer residue on chemical vapour deposition (CVD) grown graphene via secondary ion mass spectrometry (SIMS) is detailed, as well as the chemical characterisation of iron films used to grow large domain single-layer h-BN through CVD growth, revealing how contamination of the substrate itself plays a role in the resulting h-BN layer. In addition, the role of international standardisation in this area is described, outlining the current work ongoing in both the International Organization of Standardization (ISO) and the
Bornyakov, V.G.
2005-06-01
Possibilities that are provided by a lattice regularization of QCD for studying nonperturbative properties of QCD are discussed. A review of some recent results obtained from computer calculations in lattice QCD is given. In particular, the results for the QCD vacuum structure, the hadron mass spectrum, and the strong coupling constant are considered.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Wang, Da-Wei; Liu, Ren-Bao; Zhu, Shi-Yao; Scully, Marlan O.
2015-01-01
We show that the timed Dicke states of a collection of three-level atoms can form a tight-binding lattice in momentum space. This lattice, coined the superradiance lattice (SL), can be constructed based on electromagnetically induced transparency (EIT). For a one-dimensional SL, we need the coupling field of the EIT system to be a standing wave. The detuning between the two components of the standing wave introduces an effective uniform force in momentum space. The quantum lattice dynamics, such as Bloch oscillations, Wannier-Stark ladders, Bloch band collapsing, and dynamic localization can be observed in the SL. The two-dimensional SL provides a flexible platform for Dirac physics in graphene. The SL can be extended to three and higher dimensions where no analogous real space lattices exist with new physics waiting to be explored.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Singh, Kevin; Geiger, Zachary; Senaratne, Ruwan; Rajagopal, Shankari; Fujiwara, Kurt; Weld, David; Weld Group Team
2015-05-01
Quasiperiodicity is intimately involved in quantum phenomena from localization to the quantum Hall effect. Recent experimental investigation of quasiperiodic quantum effects in photonic and electronic systems have revealed intriguing connections to topological phenomena. However, such experiments have been limited by the absence of techniques for creating tunable quasiperiodic structures. We propose a new type of quasiperiodic optical lattice, constructed by intersecting a Gaussian beam with a 2D square lattice at an angle with an irrational tangent. The resulting potential, a generalization of the Fibonacci lattice, is a physical realization of the mathematical ``cut-and-project'' construction which underlies all quasiperiodic structures. Calculation of the energies and wavefunctions of atoms loaded into the proposed quasiperiodic lattice demonstrate a fractal energy spectrum and the existence of edge states. We acknowledge support from the ONR (award N00014-14-1-0805), the ARO and the PECASE program (award W911NF-14-1-0154), the AFOSR (award FA9550-12-1-0305), and the Alfred P. Sloan foundation (grant BR2013-110).
Pride and purpose as antidotes to black homicidal violence.
Thomas, C W
1987-02-01
The incidence of black male homicide is a major public menace. The lowest incidence of black male homicide was when the black power movement was visible and flourishing. Psychohistorical data support the contention that racial pride is an effective means for regulating intragroup tensions. In the absence of an Afrocentric orientation that promotes community power and self-determination, the need for self-reliance is eroded by value illnesses.The value orientation of the black movement supplied the pride used to obtain academic success, to reduce juvenile delinquency, and to help Afro-Americans to structure their lives for personal satisfactions. Blackness has always been about personal power and social control, but society does not allow much access to either for Afro-Americans. As a consequence, stress from racism is severe, asymptomatic, and multi-faceted. The best antidote to black homicidal violence comes from a pro-social effort based upon a self-image that gives a feeling of positive accomplishment and appreciation. Afrocentric pride promotes or enhances pro-social behavior. PMID:3560242
MOKE Diffraction Study of Magnetic Dot and Antidot Arrays.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Grimsditch, Marcos
2003-03-01
A beam of visible light, incident on a particle array with a submicron period, is diffracted. Extending conventional Magneto Optic Kerr Effect (MOKE) techniques to include the diffracted beams leads to a variety of 'hysteresis' loops. From these loops we show that it is possible to obtain information on the magnetic structure within a unit cell of the array. A brief review of the experimental technique, the theoretical interpretation of the results, and a brief summary of our earlier results on vortices in circular disks [1] and coherent domain formation in antidot arrays [2] will be given. The D-MOKE results from square Permalloy rings will then be presented and compared with micromagnetic simulations. Our results show that magnetization reversal in these ring structures, which is expected to be a jump between two onion states, actually occurs via intermediate, metastable states. For different directions of the applied field these intermediate states are a vortex state or a horseshoe state. A suitable field history allows these states to be quenched and observed using Magnetic Force Microscopy. Work at ANL supported by the US DOE BES Mater. Sci. under contract # W-31-109-ENG-38. [1] M. Grimsditch et al, Phys. Rev. B 65, 172419 (2002) [2] I. Guedes et al, Phys, Rev. B 66, 014434 (2002)
Pride and purpose as antidotes to black homicidal violence.
Thomas, C W
1987-02-01
The incidence of black male homicide is a major public menace. The lowest incidence of black male homicide was when the black power movement was visible and flourishing. Psychohistorical data support the contention that racial pride is an effective means for regulating intragroup tensions. In the absence of an Afrocentric orientation that promotes community power and self-determination, the need for self-reliance is eroded by value illnesses.The value orientation of the black movement supplied the pride used to obtain academic success, to reduce juvenile delinquency, and to help Afro-Americans to structure their lives for personal satisfactions. Blackness has always been about personal power and social control, but society does not allow much access to either for Afro-Americans. As a consequence, stress from racism is severe, asymptomatic, and multi-faceted. The best antidote to black homicidal violence comes from a pro-social effort based upon a self-image that gives a feeling of positive accomplishment and appreciation. Afrocentric pride promotes or enhances pro-social behavior.
[Chemical weapons: antidotes. View about the real means, perspectives].
Ricordel, I; Meunier, J
2000-01-01
Chemical methods remain a credible threat in 1999. The doctrine for their use not only includes the battlefield but also domestic terrorism as was disclosed during the Tokyo metro attempt in 1995. International Treaties have not yet proven their efficacy. The arsenal of chemical weapons has changed little since the second World War but is now dispersed into many high-risk zones throughout the world. There has also been little change in antidotes: therapeutic prevention with pyridostigmine against organo-phosphorus compounds, protective treatment for seizure-induced brain lesions using anticonvulsants in association with oxime for acetylcholinesterase reactivation, and atropine are combined in a three-compartment syringe. Preventive measures against vesicants and other suffocating or toxic intracellular substances (CN, AsH(3), fluorocarbons.) can only be achieved with protective skin covering or protective breathing devices. There is no specific treatment and we often have to use symptomatic medications. Future perspectives include: phosphotriesterases as organo-phosphorus scavengers, huperzine as pretreatment and gacyclidine (GCK 11) which would effectively complete emergency multiple drug therapy against nerve agents. A new two-compartment syringe is now prepared with atropine, avisafone and HI6 or pralidoxine. A gel made of cyclodextrines for external and eventually internal use is under study.
Pride and Purpose as Antidotes to Black Homicidal Violence
Thomas, Charles W.
1987-01-01
The incidence of black male homicide is a major public menace. The lowest incidence of black male homicide was when the black power movement was visible and flourishing. Psychohistorical data support the contention that racial pride is an effective means for regulating intragroup tensions. In the absence of an Afrocentric orientation that promotes community power and self-determination, the need for self-reliance is eroded by value illnesses. The value orientation of the black movement supplied the pride used to obtain academic success, to reduce juvenile delinquency, and to help Afro-Americans to structure their lives for personal satisfactions. Blackness has always been about personal power and social control, but society does not allow much access to either for Afro-Americans. As a consequence, stress from racism is severe, asymptomatic, and multi-faceted. The best antidote to black homicidal violence comes from a pro-social effort based upon a self-image that gives a feeling of positive accomplishment and appreciation. Afrocentric pride promotes or enhances pro-social behavior. PMID:3560242
Antidotes for poisoning by alcohols that form toxic metabolites.
McMartin, Kenneth; Jacobsen, Dag; Hovda, Knut Erik
2016-03-01
The alcohols, methanol, ethylene glycol and diethylene glycol, have many features in common, the most important of which is the fact that the compounds themselves are relatively non-toxic but are metabolized, initially by alcohol dehydrogenase, to various toxic intermediates. These compounds are readily available worldwide in commercial products as well as in homemade alcoholic beverages, both of which lead to most of the poisoning cases, from either unintentional or intentional ingestion. Although relatively infrequent in overall occurrence, poisonings by metabolically-toxic alcohols do unfortunately occur in outbreaks and can result in severe morbidity and mortality. These poisonings have traditionally been treated with ethanol since it competes for the active site of alcohol dehydrogenase and decreases the formation of toxic metabolites. Although ethanol can be effective in these poisonings, there are substantial practical problems with its use and so fomepizole, a potent competitive inhibitor of alcohol dehydrogenase, was developed for a hopefully better treatment for metabolically-toxic alcohol poisonings. Fomepizole has few side effects and is easy to use in practice and it may obviate the need for haemodialysis in some, but not all, patients. Hence, fomepizole has largely replaced ethanol as the toxic alcohol antidote in many countries. Nevertheless, ethanol remains an important alternative because access to fomepizole can be limited, the cost may appear excessive, or the physician may prefer ethanol due to experience.
Georgi, Howard; Kats, Yevgeny
2008-09-26
We discuss what can be learned about unparticle physics by studying simple quantum field theories in one space and one time dimension. We argue that the exactly soluble 2D theory of a massless fermion coupled to a massive vector boson, the Sommerfield model, is an interesting analog of a Banks-Zaks model, approaching a free theory at high energies and a scale-invariant theory with nontrivial anomalous dimensions at low energies. We construct a toy standard model coupling to the fermions in the Sommerfield model and study how the transition from unparticle behavior at low energies to free particle behavior at high energies manifests itself in interactions with the toy standard model particles.
Lattice Green's functions in all dimensions
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Guttmann, Anthony J.
2010-07-01
We give a systematic treatment of lattice Green's functions (LGF) on the d-dimensional diamond, simple cubic, body-centred cubic and face-centred cubic lattices for arbitrary dimensionality d >= 2 for the first three lattices, and for 2 <= d <= 5 for the hyper-fcc lattice. We show that there is a close connection between the LGF of the d-dimensional hyper-cubic lattice and that of the (d - 1)-dimensional diamond lattice. We give constant-term formulations of LGFs for each of these lattices in all dimensions. Through a still under-developed connection with Mahler measures, we point out an unexpected connection between the coefficients of the sc, bcc and diamond LGFs and some Ramanujan-type formulae for 1/π.
N-acetylcysteine amide, a promising antidote for acetaminophen toxicity.
Khayyat, Ahdab; Tobwala, Shakila; Hart, Marcia; Ercal, Nuran
2016-01-22
Acetaminophen (N-acetyl-p-aminophenol, APAP) is one of the most widely used over the counter antipyretic and analgesic medications. It is safe at therapeutic doses, but its overdose can result in severe hepatotoxicity, a leading cause of drug-induced acute liver failure in the USA. Depletion of glutathione (GSH) is one of the initiating steps in APAP-induced hepatotoxicity; therefore, one strategy for restricting organ damage is to restore GSH levels by using GSH prodrugs. N-acetylcysteine (NAC), a GSH precursor, is the only currently approved antidote for an acetaminophen overdose. Unfortunately, fairly high doses and longer treatment times are required due to its poor bioavailability. In addition, oral and I.V. administration of NAC in a hospital setting are laborious and costly. Therefore, we studied the protective effects of N-acetylcysteine amide (NACA), a novel antioxidant with higher bioavailability, and compared it with NAC in APAP-induced hepatotoxicity in C57BL/6 mice. Our results showed that NACA is better than NAC at a low dose (106mg/kg) in preventing oxidative stress and protecting against APAP-induced damage. NACA significantly increased GSH levels and the GSH/GSSG ratio in the liver to 66.5% and 60.5% of the control, respectively; and it reduced the level of ALT by 30%. However, at the dose used, NAC was not effective in combating the oxidative stress induced by APAP. Thus, NACA appears to be better than NAC in reducing the oxidative stress induced by APAP. It would be of great value in the health care field to develop drugs like NACA as more effective and safer options for the prevention and therapeutic intervention in APAP-induced toxicity. PMID:26602168
N-acetylcysteine amide, a promising antidote for acetaminophen toxicity.
Khayyat, Ahdab; Tobwala, Shakila; Hart, Marcia; Ercal, Nuran
2016-01-22
Acetaminophen (N-acetyl-p-aminophenol, APAP) is one of the most widely used over the counter antipyretic and analgesic medications. It is safe at therapeutic doses, but its overdose can result in severe hepatotoxicity, a leading cause of drug-induced acute liver failure in the USA. Depletion of glutathione (GSH) is one of the initiating steps in APAP-induced hepatotoxicity; therefore, one strategy for restricting organ damage is to restore GSH levels by using GSH prodrugs. N-acetylcysteine (NAC), a GSH precursor, is the only currently approved antidote for an acetaminophen overdose. Unfortunately, fairly high doses and longer treatment times are required due to its poor bioavailability. In addition, oral and I.V. administration of NAC in a hospital setting are laborious and costly. Therefore, we studied the protective effects of N-acetylcysteine amide (NACA), a novel antioxidant with higher bioavailability, and compared it with NAC in APAP-induced hepatotoxicity in C57BL/6 mice. Our results showed that NACA is better than NAC at a low dose (106mg/kg) in preventing oxidative stress and protecting against APAP-induced damage. NACA significantly increased GSH levels and the GSH/GSSG ratio in the liver to 66.5% and 60.5% of the control, respectively; and it reduced the level of ALT by 30%. However, at the dose used, NAC was not effective in combating the oxidative stress induced by APAP. Thus, NACA appears to be better than NAC in reducing the oxidative stress induced by APAP. It would be of great value in the health care field to develop drugs like NACA as more effective and safer options for the prevention and therapeutic intervention in APAP-induced toxicity.
The Copernican Revolution as Story: an Antidote for Scientific Illiteracy
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Wallace, P. M.
2005-08-01
``When a white-robed scientist, momentarily looking away from his microscope or cyclotron [or telescope], makes some pronouncement for the general public, he may not be understood but at least he is certain to be believed.'' The truth of this opening sentence of Anthony Standen's 1950 book Science is a Sacred Cow, as clear today as it was then, is the motivation for a new astronomy course at Berry College near Atlanta, GA, USA. To non-scientists, science is known by its products, not by what it is: a human progress. For this illiteracy an antidote is offered: the history of astronomy. In this course the story of the Copernican Revolution is told, for within this story the true nature of science can be found in its fullness. For example, Aristotle's uniform circular motion is used to emphasize the role of assumptions, and the occasional value of wrong ideas is evident in Tycho's theory and in Kepler's universe of perfect solids. Tycho's observations of Mars and Kepler's analysis illustrate the interplay of observation, theory, and technology. As a final example, the indirectness and often-unintentional nature of scientific advance can be seen in the work of Copernicus. The roles of personality and the intersections of science and society are themes throughout the course, as are the merging of disparate fields and the power of strong theories. There are other themes (e.g., coherence, the role of mathematics), but the emphasis is on the science and much of the work is quantitative. There is a laboratory component that features observations and experiments, and in order to bring the narrative to life the class spends two weeks in Poland, the Czech Republic, and Italy, touring sites that are relevant to the story of the Copernican Revolution.
Continuum Nonsimple Loops and 2D Critical Percolation
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Camia, Federico; Newman, Charles M.
2004-08-01
Substantial progress has been made in recent years on the 2D critical percolation scaling limit and its conformal invariance properties. In particular, chordal SLE 6(the Stochastic Loewner Evolution with parameter κ=6) was, in the work of Schramm and of Smirnov, identified as the scaling limit of the critical percolation "exploration process." In this paper we use that and other results to construct what we argue is the fullscaling limit of the collection of allclosed contours surrounding the critical percolation clusters on the 2D triangular lattice. This random process or gas of continuum nonsimple loops in Bbb R2is constructed inductively by repeated use of chordal SLE 6. These loops do not cross but do touch each other—indeed, any two loops are connected by a finite "path" of touching loops.
Homer's moly identified as Galanthus nivalis L.: physiologic antidote to stramonium poisoning.
Plaitakis, A; Duvoisin, R C
1983-03-01
The antidotal properties of certain naturally occurring medicinal plants against central nervous system intoxication appear to have been empirically established in ancient times. Homer, in his epic poem, the Odyssey, described a plant, "moly," used by Odysseus as an antidote against Circe's poisonous drugs. Centrally acting anticholinergic agents are thought to have been used by Circe to induce amnesia and a delusional state in Odysseus' crew. We present evidence to support the hypothesis that "moly" might have been the snowdrop, Galanthus nivalis, which contains galanthamine, a centrally acting anticholinesterase. Thus the description of "moly" as an antidote in Homer's Odyssey may represent the oldest recorded use of an anticholinesterase to reverse central anticholinergic intoxication.
Davies, C. S. Kruglyak, V. V.; Sadovnikov, A. V.; Nikitov, S. A.; Grishin, S. V.; Sharaevskii, Yu. P.
2015-10-19
We have used Brillouin Light Scattering and micromagnetic simulations to demonstrate a point-like source of spin waves created by the inherently nonuniform internal magnetic field in the vicinity of an isolated antidot formed in a continuous film of yttrium-iron-garnet. The field nonuniformity ensures that only well-defined regions near the antidot respond in resonance to a continuous excitation of the entire sample with a harmonic microwave field. The resonantly excited parts of the sample then served as reconfigurable sources of spin waves propagating (across the considered sample) in the form of caustic beams. Our findings are relevant to further development of magnonic circuits, in which point-like spin wave stimuli could be required, and as a building block for interpretation of spin wave behavior in magnonic crystals formed by antidot arrays.
dc and ac magnetic properties of thin-walled Nb cylinders with and without a row of antidots.
Tsindlekht, M I; Genkin, V M; Felner, I; Zeides, F; Katz, N; Gazi, Š; Chromik, Š; Dobrovolskiy, O V; Sachser, R; Huth, M
2016-06-01
dc and ac magnetic properties of two thin-walled superconducting Nb cylinders with a rectangular cross-section are reported. Magnetization curves and the ac response were studied on as-prepared and patterned samples in magnetic fields parallel to the cylinder axis. A row of micron-sized antidots (holes) was made in the film along the cylinder axis. Avalanche-like jumps of the magnetization are observed for both samples at low temperatures for magnetic fields not only above H c1, but in fields lower than H c1 in the vortex-free region. The positions of the jumps are not reproducible and they change from one experiment to another, resembling vortex lattice instabilities usually observed for magnetic fields larger than H c1. At temperatures above [Formula: see text] and [Formula: see text] the magnetization curves become smooth for the patterned and the as-prepared samples, respectively. The magnetization curve of a reference planar Nb film in the parallel field geometry does not exhibit jumps in the entire range of accessible temperatures. The ac response was measured in constant and swept dc magnetic field modes. Experiment shows that ac losses at low magnetic fields in a swept field mode are smaller for the patterned sample. For both samples the shapes of the field dependences of losses and the amplitude of the third harmonic are the same in constant and swept field near H c3. This similarity does not exist at low fields in a swept mode.
dc and ac magnetic properties of thin-walled Nb cylinders with and without a row of antidots.
Tsindlekht, M I; Genkin, V M; Felner, I; Zeides, F; Katz, N; Gazi, Š; Chromik, Š; Dobrovolskiy, O V; Sachser, R; Huth, M
2016-06-01
dc and ac magnetic properties of two thin-walled superconducting Nb cylinders with a rectangular cross-section are reported. Magnetization curves and the ac response were studied on as-prepared and patterned samples in magnetic fields parallel to the cylinder axis. A row of micron-sized antidots (holes) was made in the film along the cylinder axis. Avalanche-like jumps of the magnetization are observed for both samples at low temperatures for magnetic fields not only above H c1, but in fields lower than H c1 in the vortex-free region. The positions of the jumps are not reproducible and they change from one experiment to another, resembling vortex lattice instabilities usually observed for magnetic fields larger than H c1. At temperatures above [Formula: see text] and [Formula: see text] the magnetization curves become smooth for the patterned and the as-prepared samples, respectively. The magnetization curve of a reference planar Nb film in the parallel field geometry does not exhibit jumps in the entire range of accessible temperatures. The ac response was measured in constant and swept dc magnetic field modes. Experiment shows that ac losses at low magnetic fields in a swept field mode are smaller for the patterned sample. For both samples the shapes of the field dependences of losses and the amplitude of the third harmonic are the same in constant and swept field near H c3. This similarity does not exist at low fields in a swept mode. PMID:27143621
Subwavelength Lattice Optics by Evolutionary Design
2015-01-01
This paper describes a new class of structured optical materials—lattice opto-materials—that can manipulate the flow of visible light into a wide range of three-dimensional profiles using evolutionary design principles. Lattice opto-materials are based on the discretization of a surface into a two-dimensional (2D) subwavelength lattice whose individual lattice sites can be controlled to achieve a programmed optical response. To access a desired optical property, we designed a lattice evolutionary algorithm that includes and optimizes contributions from every element in the lattice. Lattice opto-materials can exhibit simple properties, such as on- and off-axis focusing, and can also concentrate light into multiple, discrete spots. We expanded the unit cell shapes of the lattice to achieve distinct, polarization-dependent optical responses from the same 2D patterned substrate. Finally, these lattice opto-materials can also be combined into architectures that resemble a new type of compound flat lens. PMID:25380062
Aspects on antidote therapy in acute poisoning affecting the nervous system.
Persson, H
1984-01-01
The number of toxic substances affecting the nervous system through acute or chronic exposure is overwhelming. This survey will elucidate the possibilities of antidote therapy in some acute cases of poisoning, caused by nervous system toxicants. Antidotes exert their therapeutic effects through a variety of mechanisms: Adsorption, formation of inert complexes, inhibited conversion to toxic metabolites, enhancement of endogenous detoxification, interference at receptor sites, and physiological antagonism. The application of these principles in treating some poisonings caused by important nervous system toxicants will be considered. This survey is by no means comprehensive, but rather gives some relevant examples and deals only with acute poisoning.
Enhanced spin Hall effect by tuning antidot potential: Proposal for a spin filter
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Yokoyama, Tomohiro; Eto, Mikio
2009-09-01
We propose an efficient spin filter including an antidot fabricated on semiconductor heterostructures with strong spin-orbit interaction. The antidot creates a tunable potential on two-dimensional electron gas in the heterostructures, which may be attractive as well as repulsive. Our idea is based on the enhancement of extrinsic spin Hall effect by resonant scattering when the attractive potential is properly tuned. Numerical studies for three- and four-terminal devices indicate that the efficiency of the spin filter can be more than 50% by tuning the potential to the resonant condition.
Interfacing graphene and related 2D materials with the 3D world.
Tománek, David
2015-04-10
An important prerequisite to translating the exceptional intrinsic performance of 2D materials such as graphene and transition metal dichalcogenides into useful devices precludes their successful integration within the current 3D technology. This review provides theoretical insight into nontrivial issues arising from interfacing 2D materials with 3D systems including epitaxy and ways to accommodate lattice mismatch, the key role of contact resistance and the effect of defects in electrical and thermal transport.
Prehospital diagnosis of massive ethylene glycol poisoning and use of an early antidote.
Amathieu, Roland; Merouani, Medhi; Borron, Stephen W; Lapostolle, Frédéric; Smail, Nadia; Adnet, Frédéric
2006-08-01
We report the case of a patient suspected of voluntary massive poisoning by ethylene glycol. Prehospital diagnosis was established by portable blood analyser and an early antidote with 4 MP treatment initiated in out-of-hospital setting. Use of portable blood analyser in prehospital care should be considered in case of suspected massive poisoning by ethylene glycol. PMID:16808995
Thallium toxicity: The problem; an analytical approach; an antidotal study. Master's thesis
Mulkey, J.P.
1993-03-15
Thallium (Tl) is a highly toxic metal that is anthropogenically concentrated in the environment. Tl toxicity and the quantitative analysis of trace levels of Tl in biologic materials by atomic absorption spectroscopy is reviewed; a study designed to evaluate the antidotal efficacy of 2 compounds in the treatment of acute Tl toxicity in rats is documented. Unithiol (2,3-dimercapto-1-propanesulfonic acid, DMPS) and prussian blue (potassium ferric hexacyanoferrate(II), PB), given alone and in combination, were evaluated as antidotes in the treatment of acute thallotoxicosis in male Sprauge-Dawley rats. The relative accumulation of Tl in organs was kidney>>heart>liver-brain. PB induced significant decorporation of Tl from all tissues. DMPS failed to significantly decrease the Tl content in any organ, but significantly decreased the Tl content in whole blood. PB+DMPS treatment significantly decreased the Tl content in all organs, but to no greater extent than PB alone. PB and PB+DMPS treatments significantly increased the Tl content of feces, whereas DMPS treatment alone produced little effect. This study indicates that PB is a beneficial antidote in the treatment of acute thallotoxicosis in rats. The failure of DMPS to significantly decrease the Tl content in 4 target organs suggests it would not be useful in the treatment of Tl poisoning....Thallium, Poison, Antidote, Chelator, Prussian blue, Potassium ferric hexacyanoferrate(II), Unithiol, 2,3-dimercapto-1-propanesulfonic acid, Rat.
Isom, G.E.
1996-02-01
Work for this contract involved both cyanide (Part 1) and sulfur mustard vesicants (Part 2). Part (1) To develop an in vitro screen for cyanide antidotes, compounds were tested empirically for ability to block the biochemical effects of cyanide in isolated rat pheochromocytoma (PC 12) cells. Effects in vitro were then compared to ability to block cyanide toxicity in mice. Of the five biochemical actions of cyanide tested, blockade of catalase activity was the one most correlated with in vivo protection. Overall, significant correlations were found between catalase protection in vitro and cyanide antidotal effects in vivo. Data involving 40 different chemical compounds showed that approximately 75% of the time, the in vitro assay was predictive of effectiveness in vivo. The results indicate that the ability of a compound to protect catalase in cultured PC 12 cells against cyanide is a useful screen for cyanide antidotal action in mice. Part (2) To develop an in vitro screen for antivesicant compounds. Mechanisms by which sulfur mustards cause cell death were studied in differentiated PC 12 cells. Both the `Apotag` method and electron microscopy indicated that apoptosis occurred after sulfur mustard exposure. A necrotic mechanism was also evident at higher concentrations (>10-4M). It may be possible to identify sulfur mustard antidotes by their ability to block each of these mechanisms in differentiated PC12 cells.
Chemical and metabolomic screens identify novel biomarkers and antidotes for cyanide exposure.
Nath, Anjali K; Roberts, Lee D; Liu, Yan; Mahon, Sari B; Kim, Sonia; Ryu, Justine H; Werdich, Andreas; Januzzi, James L; Boss, Gerry R; Rockwood, Gary A; MacRae, Calum A; Brenner, Matthew; Gerszten, Robert E; Peterson, Randall T
2013-05-01
Exposure to cyanide causes a spectrum of cardiac, neurological, and metabolic dysfunctions that can be fatal. Improved cyanide antidotes are needed, but the ideal biological pathways to target are not known. To understand better the metabolic effects of cyanide and to discover novel cyanide antidotes, we developed a zebrafish model of cyanide exposure and scaled it for high-throughput chemical screening. In a screen of 3120 small molecules, we discovered 4 novel antidotes that block cyanide toxicity. The most potent antidote was riboflavin. Metabolomic profiling of cyanide-treated zebrafish revealed changes in bile acid and purine metabolism, most notably by an increase in inosine levels. Riboflavin normalizes many of the cyanide-induced neurological and metabolic perturbations in zebrafish. The metabolic effects of cyanide observed in zebrafish were conserved in a rabbit model of cyanide toxicity. Further, humans treated with nitroprusside, a drug that releases nitric oxide and cyanide ions, display increased circulating bile acids and inosine. In summary, riboflavin may be a novel treatment for cyanide toxicity and prophylactic measure during nitroprusside treatment, inosine may serve as a biomarker of cyanide exposure, and metabolites in the bile acid and purine metabolism pathways may shed light on the pathways critical to reversing cyanide toxicity.
Quaternary and tertiary aldoxime antidotes for organophosphate exposure in a zebrafish model system
Schmidt, Hayden R.; Radić, Zoran; Taylor, Palmer; Fradinger, Erica A.
2015-04-15
The zebrafish is rapidly becoming an important model system for screening of new therapeutics. Here we evaluated the zebrafish as a potential pharmacological model for screening novel oxime antidotes to organophosphate (OP)-inhibited acetylcholinesterase (AChE). The k{sub i} values determined for chlorpyrifos oxon (CPO) and dichlorvos (DDVP) showed that CPO was a more potent inhibitor of both human and zebrafish AChE, but overall zebrafish AChE was less sensitive to OP inhibition. In contrast, aldoxime antidotes, the quaternary ammonium 2-PAM and tertiary amine RS-194B, showed generally similar overall reactivation kinetics, k{sub r}, in both zebrafish and human AChE. However, differences between the K{sub ox} and k{sub 2} constants suggest that zebrafish AChE associates more tightly with oximes, but has a slower maximal reactivation rate than human AChE. Homology modeling suggests that these kinetic differences result from divergences in the amino acids lining the entrance to the active site gorge. Although 2-PAM had the more favorable in vitro reactivation kinetics, RS-194B was more effective antidote in vivo. In intact zebrafish embryos, antidotal treatment with RS-194B rescued embryos from OP toxicity, whereas 2-PAM had no effect. Dechorionation of the embryos prior to antidotal treatment allowed both 2-PAM and RS-194B to rescue zebrafish embryos from OP toxicity. Interestingly, RS-194B and 2-PAM alone increased cholinergic motor activity in dechorionated embryos possibly due to the reversible inhibition kinetics, K{sub i} and αK{sub i}, of the oximes. Together these results demonstrate that the zebrafish at various developmental stages provides an excellent model for investigating membrane penetrant antidotes to OP exposure. - Highlights: • Zebrafish AChE shares significant structural similarities with human AChE. • OP-inhibited zebrafish and human AChE exhibit similar reactivation kinetics. • The zebrafish chorion is permeable to BBB penetrant and not
Thermodynamic modeling using BINGO-ANTIDOTE: A new strategy to investigate metamorphic rocks
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Lanari, Pierre; Duesterhoeft, Erik
2016-04-01
BINGO-ANTIDOTE is a new program, combing the achievements of the two petrological software packages XMAPTOOLS[1] and THERIAK-DOMINO[2]. XMAPTOOLS affords information about compositional zoning in mineral and local bulk composition of domains at the thin sections scale. THERIAK-DOMINO calculates equilibrium phase assemblages from given bulk rock composition, temperature T and pressure P. Primarily BINGO-ANTIDOTE can be described as an inverse THERIAK-DOMINO, because it uses the information provided by XMAPTOOLS to calculate the probable P-T equilibrium conditions of metamorphic rocks. Consequently, the introduced program combines the strengths of forward Gibbs free energy minimization models with the intuitive output of inverse thermobarometry models. In order to get "best" P-T equilibrium conditions of a metamorphic rock sample and thus estimating the degree of agreement between the observed and calculated mineral assemblage, it is critical to define a reliable scoring strategy. BINGO uses the THERIAKD ADD-ON[3] (Duesterhoeft and de Capitani, 2013) and is a flexible model scorer with 3+1 evaluation criteria. These criteria are the statistical agreement between the observed and calculated mineral-assemblage, -proportions (vol%) and -composition (mol). Additionally, a total likelihood, consisting of the first three criteria, allows the user an evaluation of the most probable equilibrium P-T condition. ANTIDOTE is an interactive user interface, displaying the 3+1 evaluation criteria as probability P-T-maps. It can be used with and without XMAPTOOLS. As a stand-alone program, the user is able to give the program macroscopic observations (i.e., mineral names and proportions), which ANTIDOTE converts to a readable BINGO input. In this manner, the use of BINGO-ANTIDOTE opens up thermodynamics to students and people with only a basic knowledge of phase diagrams and thermodynamic modeling techniques. This presentation introduces BINGO-ANTIDOTE and includes typical examples
Perspectives for spintronics in 2D materials
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Han, Wei
2016-03-01
The past decade has been especially creative for spintronics since the (re)discovery of various two dimensional (2D) materials. Due to the unusual physical characteristics, 2D materials have provided new platforms to probe the spin interaction with other degrees of freedom for electrons, as well as to be used for novel spintronics applications. This review briefly presents the most important recent and ongoing research for spintronics in 2D materials.
Quantitative 2D liquid-state NMR.
Giraudeau, Patrick
2014-06-01
Two-dimensional (2D) liquid-state NMR has a very high potential to simultaneously determine the absolute concentration of small molecules in complex mixtures, thanks to its capacity to separate overlapping resonances. However, it suffers from two main drawbacks that probably explain its relatively late development. First, the 2D NMR signal is strongly molecule-dependent and site-dependent; second, the long duration of 2D NMR experiments prevents its general use for high-throughput quantitative applications and affects its quantitative performance. Fortunately, the last 10 years has witnessed an increasing number of contributions where quantitative approaches based on 2D NMR were developed and applied to solve real analytical issues. This review aims at presenting these recent efforts to reach a high trueness and precision in quantitative measurements by 2D NMR. After highlighting the interest of 2D NMR for quantitative analysis, the different strategies to determine the absolute concentrations from 2D NMR spectra are described and illustrated by recent applications. The last part of the manuscript concerns the recent development of fast quantitative 2D NMR approaches, aiming at reducing the experiment duration while preserving - or even increasing - the analytical performance. We hope that this comprehensive review will help readers to apprehend the current landscape of quantitative 2D NMR, as well as the perspectives that may arise from it.
An antidot array as an edge for total non-reflection of spin waves in yttrium iron garnet films
Gieniusz, R. Guzowska, U.; Maziewski, A.; Bessonov, V. D.; Stognii, A. I.
2014-02-24
An array of antidots has been used as an edge to create the phenomenon of total non-reflection of spin waves in yttrium iron garnet films. At the critical angle between the line of antidots and the magnetic field, we observe a high-intensity beam of spin waves moving along the line of antidots. The properties of these waves are investigated experimentally by Brillouin light scattering spectroscopy. The conditions required for the occurrence of this phenomenon based on an analysis of the properties of the isofrequency dependencies are presented. The numerical simulations are in good agreement with those of the experimental measurements.
Cold atoms in a rotating optical lattice
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Foot, Christopher J.
2009-05-01
We have demonstrated a novel experimental arrangement which can rotate a two-dimensional optical lattice at frequencies up to several kilohertz. Our arrangement also allows the periodicity of the optical lattice to be varied dynamically, producing a 2D ``accordion lattice'' [1]. The angles of the laser beams are controlled by acousto-optic deflectors and this allows smooth changes with little heating of the trapped cold (rubidium) atoms. We have loaded a BEC into lattices with periodicities ranging from 1.8μm to 18μm, observing the collapse and revival of the diffraction orders of the condensate over a large range of lattice parameters as recently reported by a group in NIST [2]. We have also imaged atoms in situ in a 2D lattice over a range of lattice periodicities. Ultracold atoms in a rotating lattice can be used for the direct quantum simulation of strongly correlated systems under large effective magnetic fields, i.e. the Hamiltonian of the atoms in the rotating frame resembles that of a charged particle in a strong magnetic field. In the future, we plan to use this to investigate a range of phenomena such as the analogue of the fractional quantum Hall effect. [4pt] [1] R. A. Williams, J. D. Pillet, S. Al-Assam, B. Fletcher, M. Shotter, and C. J. Foot, ``Dynamic optical lattices: two-dimensional rotating and accordion lattices for ultracold atoms,'' Opt. Express 16, 16977-16983 (2008) [0pt] [2] J. H. Huckans, I. B. Spielman, B. Laburthe Tolra, W. D. Phillips, and J. V. Porto, Quantum and Classical Dynamics of a BEC in a Large-Period Optical Lattice, arXiv:0901.1386v1
Photonic crystal based 2D integrating cell for sensing applications
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Fohrmann, Lena Simone; Petrov, Alexander Y.; Sommer, Gerrit; Krauss, Thomas; Eich, Manfred
2016-04-01
We present a concept of a silicon slab based 2D integrating cell where photonic crystal (PhC) reflectors are used in order to confine light in a two-dimensional area to acquire a long propagation length. The evanescent field of the guided wave can be used for sensing applications. We use FDTD simulations to investigate the dependence of the reflectivity of photonic crystal mirrors with a hexagonal lattice. The reflectivity in ΓM direction demonstrates reduced vertical losses compared to the ΓK direction and can be further improved by adiabatically tapering the hole radii of the photonic crystal. A small hexagonal 2D integrating cell was studied with PhC boundaries oriented in ΓM and ΓK direction. It is shown that average reflectivities of 99% can be obtained in a rectangular 2D cell with optimized reflector design, limited only by residual vertical scattering losses at the PhC boundary. This reflectivity is already comparable to the best metallic reflectors.
Coherent transfer by adiabatic passage in two-dimensional lattices
Longhi, Stefano
2014-09-15
Coherent tunneling by adiabatic passage (CTAP) is a well-established technique for robust spatial transport of quantum particles in linear chains. Here we introduce two exactly-solvable models where the CTAP protocol can be extended to two-dimensional lattice geometries. Such bi-dimensional lattice models are synthesized from time-dependent second-quantization Hamiltonians, in which the bosonic field operators evolve adiabatically like in an ordinary three-level CTAP scheme thus ensuring adiabatic passage in Fock space. - Highlights: • New ways of coherent transport by adiabatic passage (CTAP) in 2D lattices. • Synthesis of exactly-solvable 2D lattices from a simple three-well model. • CTAP in 2D lattices can be exploited for quantum state transfer.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Buchheim, Jakob; Wyss, Roman M.; Shorubalko, Ivan; Park, Hyung Gyu
2016-04-01
We report experimentally and theoretically the behavior of freestanding graphene subjected to bombardment of energetic ions, investigating the capability of large-scale patterning of freestanding graphene with nanometer sized features by focused ion beam technology. A precise control over the He+ and Ga+ irradiation offered by focused ion beam techniques enables investigating the interaction of the energetic particles and graphene suspended with no support and allows determining sputter yields of the 2D lattice. We found a strong dependency of the 2D sputter yield on the species and kinetic energy of the incident ion beams. Freestanding graphene shows material semi-transparency to He+ at high energies (10-30 keV) allowing the passage of >97% He+ particles without creating destructive lattice vacancy. Large Ga+ ions (5-30 keV), in contrast, collide far more often with the graphene lattice to impart a significantly higher sputter yield of ~50%. Binary collision theory applied to monolayer and few-layer graphene can successfully elucidate this collision mechanism, in great agreement with experiments. Raman spectroscopy analysis corroborates the passage of a large fraction of He+ ions across graphene without much damaging the lattice whereas several colliding ions create single vacancy defects. Physical understanding of the interaction between energetic particles and suspended graphene can practically lead to reproducible and efficient pattern generation of unprecedentedly small features on 2D materials by design, manifested by our perforation of sub-5 nm pore arrays. This capability of nanometer-scale precision patterning of freestanding 2D lattices shows the practical applicability of focused ion beam technology to 2D material processing for device fabrication and integration.We report experimentally and theoretically the behavior of freestanding graphene subjected to bombardment of energetic ions, investigating the capability of large-scale patterning of
Mirror effects and optical meta-surfaces in 2d atomic arrays
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Shahmoon, Ephraim; Wild, Dominik; Lukin, Mikhail; Yelin, Susanne
2016-05-01
Strong optical response of natural and artificial (meta-) materials typically relies on the fact that the lattice constant that separates their constituent particles (atoms or electromagnetic resonators, respectively) is much smaller than the optical wavelength. Here we consider a single layer of a 2d atom array with a lattice constant on the order of an optical wavelength, which can be thought of as a highly dilute 2d metamaterial (meta-surface). Our theoretical analysis shows how strong scattering of resonant incoming light off the array can be controlled by choosing its lattice constant, e.g. allowing the array to operate as a perfect mirror or a retro-reflector for most incident angles of the incoming light. We discuss the prospects for quantum metasurfaces, i.e. the ability to shape the output quantum state of light by controlling the atomic states, and the possible generality of our results as a universal wave phenomena.
Staring 2-D hadamard transform spectral imager
Gentry, Stephen M.; Wehlburg, Christine M.; Wehlburg, Joseph C.; Smith, Mark W.; Smith, Jody L.
2006-02-07
A staring imaging system inputs a 2D spatial image containing multi-frequency spectral information. This image is encoded in one dimension of the image with a cyclic Hadamarid S-matrix. The resulting image is detecting with a spatial 2D detector; and a computer applies a Hadamard transform to recover the encoded image.
Strain-induced Fermi contour anisotropy of GaAs (311)A 2D holes
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Shabani, Javad; Shayegan, Mansour; Winkler, Roland
2008-03-01
There is considerable current interest in electronic properties of two-dimensional (2D) carriers whose energy bands are spin-split at finite values of in-plane wave vector, thanks to the spin-orbit interaction and the lack of inversion symmetry. We report experimental and theoretical results revealing that the spin-subband Fermi contours of the heavy and light heavy-holes (HHh and HHl) can be tuned in high mobility GaAs (311)A 2D hole systems via the application of symmetry-breaking in-plane strain. Our calculations show that the HHl spin-subband Fermi contour is circular but the HHh spin-subband Fermi contour is distorted. Experimentally, we probe the Fermi contour anisotropy by measuring the magneto-resistance commensurability peaks induced by square arrays of antidots. When the spin splitting is sufficiently large, the magneto-resistance trace exhibits two peaks, providing clear evidence for spin-resolved ballistic transport. The experimental results are in good agreement with the calculations, and confirm that the majority spin-subband (HHh) has a severely distorted Fermi contour whose anisotropy can be tuned with strain while Fermi contour of the minority spin-subband (HHl) remains nearly isotropic.
Buchheim, Jakob; Wyss, Roman M; Shorubalko, Ivan; Park, Hyung Gyu
2016-04-21
We report experimentally and theoretically the behavior of freestanding graphene subjected to bombardment of energetic ions, investigating the capability of large-scale patterning of freestanding graphene with nanometer sized features by focused ion beam technology. A precise control over the He(+) and Ga(+) irradiation offered by focused ion beam techniques enables investigating the interaction of the energetic particles and graphene suspended with no support and allows determining sputter yields of the 2D lattice. We found a strong dependency of the 2D sputter yield on the species and kinetic energy of the incident ion beams. Freestanding graphene shows material semi-transparency to He(+) at high energies (10-30 keV) allowing the passage of >97% He(+) particles without creating destructive lattice vacancy. Large Ga(+) ions (5-30 keV), in contrast, collide far more often with the graphene lattice to impart a significantly higher sputter yield of ∼50%. Binary collision theory applied to monolayer and few-layer graphene can successfully elucidate this collision mechanism, in great agreement with experiments. Raman spectroscopy analysis corroborates the passage of a large fraction of He(+) ions across graphene without much damaging the lattice whereas several colliding ions create single vacancy defects. Physical understanding of the interaction between energetic particles and suspended graphene can practically lead to reproducible and efficient pattern generation of unprecedentedly small features on 2D materials by design, manifested by our perforation of sub-5 nm pore arrays. This capability of nanometer-scale precision patterning of freestanding 2D lattices shows the practical applicability of focused ion beam technology to 2D material processing for device fabrication and integration.
Liu, Hong-Chao; Lu, Hai-Zhou; He, Hong-Tao; Li, Baikui; Liu, Shi-Guang; He, Qing Lin; Wang, Gan; Sou, Iam Keong; Shen, Shun-Qing; Wang, Jiannong
2014-09-23
Recently, a logarithmic decrease of conductivity has been observed in topological insulators at low temperatures, implying a tendency of localization of surface electrons. Here, we report quantum transport experiments on the topological insulator Bi2Te3 thin films with arrayed antidot nanostructures. With increasing density of the antidots, a systematic decrease is observed in the slope of the logarithmic temperature-dependent conductivity curves, indicating the electron-electron interaction can be tuned by the antidots. Meanwhile, the weak antilocalization effect revealed in magnetoconductivity exhibits an enhanced dominance of electron-electron interaction among decoherence mechanisms. The observation can be understood from an antidot-induced reduction of the effective dielectric constant, which controls the interactions between the surface electrons. Our results clarify the indispensable role of the electron-electron interaction in the localization of surface electrons and indicate the localization of surface electrons in an interacting topological insulator.
Patterns of cyanide antidote use since regulatory approval of hydroxocobalamin in the United States.
Streitz, Matthew J; Bebarta, Vikhyat S; Borys, Douglas J; Morgan, David L
2014-01-01
Sodium nitrite and sodium thiosulfate are common cyanide antidotes. Hydroxocobalamin was approved for use in the United States in 2006. Our objective was to determine the frequency of antidote use as reported to the US poison centers from 2005 to 2009 and describe which antidotes were used in critically ill cyanide toxic patients. We performed a retrospective review over 5 years (2005-2009) from 61 US poison centers. We identified all cyanide-exposed cases that received a cyanide antidote. Variables collected included demographics, gastric decontamination, antidote used, predefined serious clinical effects (hypotension, cardiac arrest, respiratory arrest, and coma), and predefined serious therapies (cardiopulmonary resuscitation, vasopressors, atropine, anticonvulsant, antidysrhythmic, and intubation/ventilation). One trained abstractor abstracted each chart to a standardized electronic form. Another investigator audited 20% of the charts. Kappa values were calculated. One hundred sixty-five exposures were identified. Mean age was 42 years (range, 3-93 years). Seventy-one percent were male. Exposures were 27% ingestion and 53% inhalation. Thirty-two percent of the ingestions were suicide attempts. Twenty percent (32 of 157) of all cases died. Over all years reported, hydroxocobalamin was administered to 29% (45 of 157) of patients, sodium nitrite to 25%, and sodium thiosulfate to 46%. Hydroxocobalamin use increased from 24% to 54% from 2007 to 2009, respectively (P = 0.024). Sodium thiosulfate use decreased from 73% to 31% (P = 0.002) and sodium nitrite use decreased from 26% to 14% (P = 0.39). The proportion of cases with serious clinical effects that received hydroxocobalamin increased each year, and the proportion that received other antidotes decreased. Hydroxocobalamin was also administered more often in cases that required serious therapies and increased each year. Hydroxocobalamin use for cyanide toxicity increased each year as reported to the US poison
Lentz, J.M.; Reams, G.G.; DeJohn, C.A.
1986-04-01
The bibliographic abstracts in this report are part of a project to assess biomedical effects of chemical-warfare antidote agents and related pre-treatment drugs. Specific attention is focused on the biomedical effects in the following general areas: vision, auditory, spatial orientation, musculoskeletal, cardipulmonary, cognitive performance, pharmacology, cutaneous stimuli, and cortical effects. In some cases, the bibliography addresses other therapeutic drugs that may be used simultaneously with chemical-warfare antidotes.
2D materials for nanophotonic devices
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Xu, Renjing; Yang, Jiong; Zhang, Shuang; Pei, Jiajie; Lu, Yuerui
2015-12-01
Two-dimensional (2D) materials have become very important building blocks for electronic, photonic, and phononic devices. The 2D material family has four key members, including the metallic graphene, transition metal dichalcogenide (TMD) layered semiconductors, semiconducting black phosphorous, and the insulating h-BN. Owing to the strong quantum confinements and defect-free surfaces, these atomically thin layers have offered us perfect platforms to investigate the interactions among photons, electrons and phonons. The unique interactions in these 2D materials are very important for both scientific research and application engineering. In this talk, I would like to briefly summarize and highlight the key findings, opportunities and challenges in this field. Next, I will introduce/highlight our recent achievements. We demonstrated atomically thin micro-lens and gratings using 2D MoS2, which is the thinnest optical component around the world. These devices are based on our discovery that the elastic light-matter interactions in highindex 2D materials is very strong. Also, I would like to introduce a new two-dimensional material phosphorene. Phosphorene has strongly anisotropic optical response, which creates 1D excitons in a 2D system. The strong confinement in phosphorene also enables the ultra-high trion (charged exciton) binding energies, which have been successfully measured in our experiments. Finally, I will briefly talk about the potential applications of 2D materials in energy harvesting.
Internal Photoemission Spectroscopy of 2-D Materials
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Nguyen, Nhan; Li, Mingda; Vishwanath, Suresh; Yan, Rusen; Xiao, Shudong; Xing, Huili; Cheng, Guangjun; Hight Walker, Angela; Zhang, Qin
Recent research has shown the great benefits of using 2-D materials in the tunnel field-effect transistor (TFET), which is considered a promising candidate for the beyond-CMOS technology. The on-state current of TFET can be enhanced by engineering the band alignment of different 2D-2D or 2D-3D heterostructures. Here we present the internal photoemission spectroscopy (IPE) approach to determine the band alignments of various 2-D materials, in particular SnSe2 and WSe2, which have been proposed for new TFET designs. The metal-oxide-2-D semiconductor test structures are fabricated and characterized by IPE, where the band offsets from the 2-D semiconductor to the oxide conduction band minimum are determined by the threshold of the cube root of IPE yields as a function of photon energy. In particular, we find that SnSe2 has a larger electron affinity than most semiconductors and can be combined with other semiconductors to form near broken-gap heterojunctions with low barrier heights which can produce a higher on-state current. The details of data analysis of IPE and the results from Raman spectroscopy and spectroscopic ellipsometry measurements will also be presented and discussed.
Unusual dimensionality effects and surface charge density in 2D Mg(OH)2
Suslu, Aslihan; Wu, Kedi; Sahin, Hasan; Chen, Bin; Yang, Sijie; Cai, Hui; Aoki, Toshihiro; Horzum, Seyda; Kang, Jun; Peeters, Francois M.; Tongay, Sefaattin
2016-01-01
We present two-dimensional Mg(OH)2 sheets and their vertical heterojunctions with CVD-MoS2 for the first time as flexible 2D insulators with anomalous lattice vibration and chemical and physical properties. New hydrothermal crystal growth technique enabled isolation of environmentally stable monolayer Mg(OH)2 sheets. Raman spectroscopy and vibrational calculations reveal that the lattice vibrations of Mg(OH)2 have fundamentally different signature peaks and dimensionality effects compared to other 2D material systems known to date. Sub-wavelength electron energy-loss spectroscopy measurements and theoretical calculations show that Mg(OH)2 is a 6 eV direct-gap insulator in 2D, and its optical band gap displays strong band renormalization effects from monolayer to bulk, marking the first experimental confirmation of confinement effects in 2D insulators. Interestingly, 2D-Mg(OH)2 sheets possess rather strong surface polarization (charge) effects which is in contrast to electrically neutral h-BN materials. Using 2D-Mg(OH)2 sheets together with CVD-MoS2 in the vertical stacking shows that a strong change transfer occurs from n-doped CVD-MoS2 sheets to Mg(OH)2, naturally depleting the semiconductor, pushing towards intrinsic doping limit and enhancing overall optical performance of 2D semiconductors. Results not only establish unusual confinement effects in 2D-Mg(OH)2, but also offer novel 2D-insulating material with unique physical, vibrational, and chemical properties for potential applications in flexible optoelectronics. PMID:26846617
Unusual dimensionality effects and surface charge density in 2D Mg(OH)2
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Suslu, Aslihan; Wu, Kedi; Sahin, Hasan; Chen, Bin; Yang, Sijie; Cai, Hui; Aoki, Toshihiro; Horzum, Seyda; Kang, Jun; Peeters, Francois M.; Tongay, Sefaattin
2016-02-01
We present two-dimensional Mg(OH)2 sheets and their vertical heterojunctions with CVD-MoS2 for the first time as flexible 2D insulators with anomalous lattice vibration and chemical and physical properties. New hydrothermal crystal growth technique enabled isolation of environmentally stable monolayer Mg(OH)2 sheets. Raman spectroscopy and vibrational calculations reveal that the lattice vibrations of Mg(OH)2 have fundamentally different signature peaks and dimensionality effects compared to other 2D material systems known to date. Sub-wavelength electron energy-loss spectroscopy measurements and theoretical calculations show that Mg(OH)2 is a 6 eV direct-gap insulator in 2D, and its optical band gap displays strong band renormalization effects from monolayer to bulk, marking the first experimental confirmation of confinement effects in 2D insulators. Interestingly, 2D-Mg(OH)2 sheets possess rather strong surface polarization (charge) effects which is in contrast to electrically neutral h-BN materials. Using 2D-Mg(OH)2 sheets together with CVD-MoS2 in the vertical stacking shows that a strong change transfer occurs from n-doped CVD-MoS2 sheets to Mg(OH)2, naturally depleting the semiconductor, pushing towards intrinsic doping limit and enhancing overall optical performance of 2D semiconductors. Results not only establish unusual confinement effects in 2D-Mg(OH)2, but also offer novel 2D-insulating material with unique physical, vibrational, and chemical properties for potential applications in flexible optoelectronics.
dc and ac magnetic properties of thin-walled Nb cylinders with and without a row of antidots
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Tsindlekht, M. I.; Genkin, V. M.; Felner, I.; Zeides, F.; Katz, N.; Gazi, Š.; Chromik, Š.; Dobrovolskiy, O. V.; Sachser, R.; Huth, M.
2016-06-01
dc and ac magnetic properties of two thin-walled superconducting Nb cylinders with a rectangular cross-section are reported. Magnetization curves and the ac response were studied on as-prepared and patterned samples in magnetic fields parallel to the cylinder axis. A row of micron-sized antidots (holes) was made in the film along the cylinder axis. Avalanche-like jumps of the magnetization are observed for both samples at low temperatures for magnetic fields not only above H c1, but in fields lower than H c1 in the vortex-free region. The positions of the jumps are not reproducible and they change from one experiment to another, resembling vortex lattice instabilities usually observed for magnetic fields larger than H c1. At temperatures above 0.66{{T}\\text{c}} and 0.78{{T}\\text{c}} the magnetization curves become smooth for the patterned and the as-prepared samples, respectively. The magnetization curve of a reference planar Nb film in the parallel field geometry does not exhibit jumps in the entire range of accessible temperatures. The ac response was measured in constant and swept dc magnetic field modes. Experiment shows that ac losses at low magnetic fields in a swept field mode are smaller for the patterned sample. For both samples the shapes of the field dependences of losses and the amplitude of the third harmonic are the same in constant and swept field near H c3. This similarity does not exist at low fields in a swept mode.
2D materials: to graphene and beyond.
Mas-Ballesté, Rubén; Gómez-Navarro, Cristina; Gómez-Herrero, Julio; Zamora, Félix
2011-01-01
This review is an attempt to illustrate the different alternatives in the field of 2D materials. Graphene seems to be just the tip of the iceberg and we show how the discovery of alternative 2D materials is starting to show the rest of this iceberg. The review comprises the current state-of-the-art of the vast literature in concepts and methods already known for isolation and characterization of graphene, and rationalizes the quite disperse literature in other 2D materials such as metal oxides, hydroxides and chalcogenides, and metal-organic frameworks.
Marshall, John M
2011-01-01
Insects carry out essential ecological functions, such as pollination, but also cause extensive damage to agricultural crops, and transmit human diseases such as malaria and dengue fever. Advances in insect transgenesis are making it increasingly feasible to engineer genes conferring desirable phenotypes, and gene drive systems are required to spread these genes into wild populations. Medea provides one solution, being able to spread into a population from very low initial frequencies through the action of a maternally-expressed toxin linked to a zygotically-expressed antidote. Several other toxin-antidote combinations are imaginable that distort the offspring ratio in favor of a desired transgene, or drive the population towards an all-male crash. We explore two such systems--Semele, which is capable of spreading a desired transgene into an isolated population in a confined manner; and Merea, which is capable of inducing a local population crash when located on the Z chromosome of a Lepidopteron pest.
Daphnia intoxicated by nerve agent tabun can be treated using human antidotes.
Vesela, Sarka; Kuca, Kamil; Jun, Daniel
2008-05-01
Application of human antidotes against nerve agent intoxications to microcrustacean Daphnia magna (Crustacea, Cladocera) intoxicated by a nerve agent tabun (O-ethyl-N,N-dimethylphosphoramidocyanidate) and their efficacy was investigated. It was found that antidotes can be successfully applied to intoxicated daphnids. Three different treatment regimens were tested: the combination of atropine and acetylcholinesterase reactivator (trimedoxime was chosen), atropine only and trimedoxime alone, too. The most efficient was the combination of atropine and trimedoxime followed by treatment with atropine only. The proportion of recovered animals increased with time not only in treated groups but also in the control as well. This can be explained by a spontaneous reactivation of tabun-inhibited cholinesterase in daphnids probably indicating a difference between mammalian and crustacean cholinesterases.
Quantitative structure-activity relationships of imidazolium oximes as nerve agent antidotes
Musallam, H.A.; Foye, W.O.; Hansch, C.; Harris, R.N.; Engle, R.R.
1993-05-13
Organophosphorus-containing pesticides and chemical warfare agents are potent inhibitors of synaptic acetylcholinesterase, a key regulator of cholinergic neurotransmission. These nerve agents have for many years constituted a serious threat to military personnel. These threats stimulated considerable efforts to develop effective medical countermeasures. Several potential drugs have been found recently which are capable of protecting animals from lethal levels of nerve agents. A recent U. S. Army Medical Research and Development Command drug development project synthesized a large number of imidazolium oximes. These compounds were found to possess strong antidotal activity against one of the most lethal nerve agents, soman. The Army's approach, like most conventional drug discovery approaches, depended primarily on the trial and error method. This research was carried out to determine if these potential nerve agent antidotes could have been discovered through the use of Quantitative Structure Activity-Relationships (QSAR) technique.
Transport through a quantum spin Hall antidot as a spectroscopic probe of spin textures
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Rod, Alexia; Dolcetto, Giacomo; Rachel, Stephan; Schmidt, Thomas L.
2016-07-01
We investigate electron transport through an antidot embedded in a narrow strip of a two-dimensional topological insulator. We focus on the most generic and experimentally relevant case with broken axial spin symmetry. Spin-nonconservation allows additional scattering processes, which change the transport properties profoundly. We start from an analytical model for noninteracting transport, which we also compare with a numerical tight-binding simulation. We then extend this model by including Coulomb repulsion on the antidot, and we study the transport in the Coulomb-blockade limit. We investigate sequential tunneling and cotunneling regimes, and we find that the current-voltage characteristic allows a spectroscopic measurement of the edge-state spin textures.
Oral anticoagulants and status of antidotes for the reversal of bleeding risk.
Ebright, Joseph; Mousa, Shaker A
2015-03-01
Anticoagulants have been used in clinical practice for more than 50 years. Their indications expand, as more people are diagnosed each year with atrial fibrillation and venous thromboembolism. Vitamin K antagonists have been the most popular choice due to their effectiveness and their ability to reverse bleeding using a known antidote; oral and intravenous vitamin K have long been known to reverse the effects of warfarin. With new classes of anticoagulants making their way onto the market, such as factor Xa inhibitors (rivaroxaban, apixaban) and direct thrombin inhibitors (dabigatran), the need for new reversal agents is paramount. Patients tend to be more receptive to these medications because they do not require routine blood monitoring, can be used at fixed doses, and do not have major drug or food interactions. Antidotes for these medications have shown promise in animal models and are currently in clinical trials.
Quantum Hall effect in semiconductor systems with quantum dots and antidots
Beltukov, Ya. M.; Greshnov, A. A.
2015-04-15
The integer quantum Hall effect in systems of semiconductor quantum dots and antidots is studied theoretically as a factor of temperature. It is established that the conditions for carrier localization in quantum-dot systems favor the observation of the quantum Hall effect at higher temperatures than in quantum-well systems. The obtained numerical results show that the fundamental plateau corresponding to the transition between the ground and first excited Landau levels can be retained up to a temperature of T ∼ 50 K, which is an order of magnitude higher than in the case of quantum wells. Implementation of the quantum Hall effect at such temperatures requires quantum-dot systems with controllable characteristics, including the optimal size and concentration and moderate geometrical and composition fluctuations. In addition, ordered arrangement is desirable, hence quantum antidots are preferable.
Edge structures and properties of triangular antidots in single-layer MoS2
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Gan, Li-Yong; Cheng, Yingchun; Schwingenschlögl, Udo; Yao, Yingbang; Zhao, Yong; Zhang, Xi-xiang; Huang, Wei
2016-08-01
Density functional theory and experiments are employed to shed light on the edge structures of antidots in O etched single-layer MoS2. The equilibrium morphology is found to be the zigzag Mo edge with each Mo atom bonded to two O atoms, in a wide range of O chemical potentials. Scanning electron microscopy shows that the orientation of the created triangular antidots is opposite to the triangular shape of the single-layer MoS2 samples, in agreement with the theoretical predictions. Furthermore, edges induced by O etching turn out to be p-doped, suggesting an effective strategy to realize p-type MoS2 devices.
Nitrocobinamide, a new cyanide antidote that can be administered by intramuscular injection.
Chan, Adriano; Jiang, Jingjing; Fridman, Alla; Guo, Ling T; Shelton, G Diane; Liu, Ming-Tao; Green, Carol; Haushalter, Kristofer J; Patel, Hemal H; Lee, Jangwoen; Yoon, David; Burney, Tanya; Mukai, David; Mahon, Sari B; Brenner, Matthew; Pilz, Renate B; Boss, Gerry R
2015-02-26
Currently available cyanide antidotes must be given by intravenous injection over 5-10 min, making them ill-suited for treating many people in the field, as could occur in a major fire, an industrial accident, or a terrorist attack. These scenarios call for a drug that can be given quickly, e.g., by intramuscular injection. We have shown that aquohydroxocobinamide is a potent cyanide antidote in animal models of cyanide poisoning, but it is unstable in solution and poorly absorbed after intramuscular injection. Here we show that adding sodium nitrite to cobinamide yields a stable derivative (referred to as nitrocobinamide) that rescues cyanide-poisoned mice and rabbits when given by intramuscular injection. We also show that the efficacy of nitrocobinamide is markedly enhanced by coadministering sodium thiosulfate (reducing the total injected volume), and we calculate that ∼1.4 mL each of nitrocobinamide and sodium thiosulfate should rescue a human from a lethal cyanide exposure.
Brunel, C; Widmer, C; Augsburger, M; Dussy, F; Fracasso, T
2012-11-30
Here we report the case of a 70-year-old woman who committed suicide by cyanide poisoning. During resuscitation cares, she underwent an antidote treatment by hydroxocobalamin. Postmortem investigations showed marked bright pink discolouration of organs and fluids, and a lethal cyanide blood concentration of 43 mg/L was detected by toxicological investigation. Discolouration of hypostasis and organs has widely been studied in forensic literature. In our case, we interpreted the unusual pink coloration as the result of the presence of hydroxocobalamin. This substance is a known antidote against cyanide poisoning, indicated because of its efficiency and poor adverse effects. However, its main drawback is to interfere with measurements of many routine biochemical parameters. We have tested the potential influence of this molecule in some routine postmortem investigations. The results are discussed.
Magnetoresistance oscillations in topological insulator Bi2Te3 nanoscale antidot arrays.
Song, Min; Chu, Jiun-Haw; Zhou, Jian; Tongay, Sefaattin; Liu, Kai; Suh, Joonki; Chen, Henry; Seuk Kang, Jeong; Zou, Xuecheng; You, Long
2015-07-01
Nanoscale antidot arrays were fabricated on a single-crystal microflake of topological insulator Bi2Te3. The introduction of antidot arrays significantly increased the resistance of the microflake, yet the temperature dependence of the resistance remains metallic. We observed that small oscillations that are periodic in magnetic field B appeared on top of the weak anti-localization magnetoresistance. Since the electron coherence length at low temperature becomes comparable to the feature size in our device, we argued that the magnetoresistance oscillations are the manifestation of quantum interference induced by the nanostructure. Our work demonstrates that the transport of topological insulators could indeed be controlled by artificially created nanostructures, and paves the way for future technological applications of this class of materials.
2-d Finite Element Code Postprocessor
1996-07-15
ORION is an interactive program that serves as a postprocessor for the analysis programs NIKE2D, DYNA2D, TOPAZ2D, and CHEMICAL TOPAZ2D. ORION reads binary plot files generated by the two-dimensional finite element codes currently used by the Methods Development Group at LLNL. Contour and color fringe plots of a large number of quantities may be displayed on meshes consisting of triangular and quadrilateral elements. ORION can compute strain measures, interface pressures along slide lines, reaction forcesmore » along constrained boundaries, and momentum. ORION has been applied to study the response of two-dimensional solids and structures undergoing finite deformations under a wide variety of large deformation transient dynamic and static problems and heat transfer analyses.« less
Ginsparg, P.
1991-01-01
These are introductory lectures for a general audience that give an overview of the subject of matrix models and their application to random surfaces, 2d gravity, and string theory. They are intentionally 1.5 years out of date.
Ginsparg, P.
1991-12-31
These are introductory lectures for a general audience that give an overview of the subject of matrix models and their application to random surfaces, 2d gravity, and string theory. They are intentionally 1.5 years out of date.
Brittle damage models in DYNA2D
Faux, D.R.
1997-09-01
DYNA2D is an explicit Lagrangian finite element code used to model dynamic events where stress wave interactions influence the overall response of the system. DYNA2D is often used to model penetration problems involving ductile-to-ductile impacts; however, with the advent of the use of ceramics in the armor-anti-armor community and the need to model damage to laser optics components, good brittle damage models are now needed in DYNA2D. This report will detail the implementation of four brittle damage models in DYNA2D, three scalar damage models and one tensor damage model. These new brittle damage models are then used to predict experimental results from three distinctly different glass damage problems.
Chemical Approaches to 2D Materials.
Samorì, Paolo; Palermo, Vincenzo; Feng, Xinliang
2016-08-01
Chemistry plays an ever-increasing role in the production, functionalization, processing and applications of graphene and other 2D materials. This special issue highlights a selection of enlightening chemical approaches to 2D materials, which nicely reflect the breadth of the field and convey the excitement of the individuals involved in it, who are trying to translate graphene and related materials from the laboratory into a real, high-impact technology. PMID:27478083
Chemical Approaches to 2D Materials.
Samorì, Paolo; Palermo, Vincenzo; Feng, Xinliang
2016-08-01
Chemistry plays an ever-increasing role in the production, functionalization, processing and applications of graphene and other 2D materials. This special issue highlights a selection of enlightening chemical approaches to 2D materials, which nicely reflect the breadth of the field and convey the excitement of the individuals involved in it, who are trying to translate graphene and related materials from the laboratory into a real, high-impact technology.
2d index and surface operators
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Gadde, Abhijit; Gukov, Sergei
2014-03-01
In this paper we compute the superconformal index of 2d (2, 2) supersymmetric gauge theories. The 2d superconformal index, a.k.a. flavored elliptic genus, is computed by a unitary matrix integral much like the matrix integral that computes the 4d superconformal index. We compute the 2d index explicitly for a number of examples. In the case of abelian gauge theories we see that the index is invariant under flop transition and under CY-LG correspondence. The index also provides a powerful check of the Seiberg-type duality for non-abelian gauge theories discovered by Hori and Tong. In the later half of the paper, we study half-BPS surface operators in = 2 super-conformal gauge theories. They are engineered by coupling the 2d (2, 2) supersymmetric gauge theory living on the support of the surface operator to the 4d = 2 theory, so that different realizations of the same surface operator with a given Levi type are related by a 2d analogue of the Seiberg duality. The index of this coupled system is computed by using the tools developed in the first half of the paper. The superconformal index in the presence of surface defect is expected to be invariant under generalized S-duality. We demonstrate that it is indeed the case. In doing so the Seiberg-type duality of the 2d theory plays an important role.
Kalaska, Bartlomiej; Kaminski, Kamil; Sokolowska, Emilia; Czaplicki, Dominik; Kujdowicz, Monika; Stalinska, Krystyna; Bereta, Joanna; Szczubialka, Krzysztof; Pawlak, Dariusz; Nowakowska, Maria; Mogielnicki, Andrzej
2015-01-01
Protamine, the only registered antidote of unfractionated heparin (UFH), may produce a number of adverse effects, such as anaphylactic shock or serious hypotension. We aimed to develop an alternative UFH antidote as efficient as protamine, but safer and easier to produce. As a starting material, we have chosen generally non-toxic, biocompatible, widely available, inexpensive, and easy to functionalize polysaccharides. Our approach was to synthesize, purify and characterize cationic derivatives of dextran, hydroxypropylcellulose, pullulan and γ-cyclodextrin, then to screen them for potential heparin-reversal activity using an in vitro assay and finally examine efficacy and safety of the most active polymers in Wistar rat and BALB/c mouse models of experimentally induced arterial and venous thrombosis. Efficacy studies included the measurement of thrombus formation, activated partial thromboplastin time, bleeding time, and anti-factor Xa activity; safety studies included the measurement of hemodynamic, hematologic and immunologic parameters. Linear, high molecular weight dextran substituted with glycidyltrimethylammonium chloride groups at a ratio of 0.65 per glucose unit (Dex40-GTMAC3) is the most potent and the safest UFH inhibitor showing activity comparable to that of protamine while possessing lower immunogenicity. Cationic polysaccharides of various structures neutralize UFH. Dex40-GTMAC3 is a promising and potentially better UFH antidote than protamine. PMID:25781030
Jones, S.G.; Jones, M.M.
1984-03-01
Eight sodium dithiocarbamates (NaS/sub 2/CNR/sub 1/R/sub 2/) have been examined as antidotes for acute cadmium intoxication. While all of them possess an ability to increase survival when given to mice 2 hr after a lethal (>99%) intraperitoneal injection of 10 mg/kg of CdCl/sub 2/. 2.5H/sub 2/O, their effects on the organ distribution of cadmium vary considerably. It has been possible to show that the accumulation of cadmium in the brain and kidney as well as the survival rates can be correlated with a numerical measure of the polarity of the groups R/sub 1/ and R/sub 2/. Each factor has a different dependence on the polarity, but it is possible to construct a composite factor for antidotal efficacy which incorporates survival rate, brain cadmium levels and kidney cadmium levels. The factor constructed here exhibits an optimal value approximately in the middle of the polarity range studied. Compounds which have R/sub 1/ = -CH/sub 2/CH/sub 1/OH and R/sub 2/ = -CH/sub 2/CH/sub 2/OH, OR -CH/sub 3/ or -C/sub 2/H/sub 5/ appear to be the most effective antidotes of the compounds examined. 22 references, 4 figures 3 tables.
Exchange bias and magnetization reversal in ferromagnet/antiferromagnet antidot arrays
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Luo, An; Ma, Fenghua; Hu, Yong
2016-09-01
Exchange bias and coercivity in ferromagnet/antiferromagnet antidot arrays magnetized perpendicularly are simulated to demonstrate the mechanism of their variations in specific nanostructures, using a modified Monte Carlo Metropolis algorithm. Three kinds of antidot array models characterized by different morphologies in the vicinity of pore are established and their magnetization behaviors are compared with that in the continuous film. An increase in the exchange bias field with a suppressed coercivity is obtained if the antiferromagnet covers the wall of pore entirely. By means of the results of the spin configurations, it is found that only the heterostructure component, e.g., the antiferromagnet can cut off the domain in the ferromagnet layer into small sizes effectively, and thus increases the pinning effect to the ferromagnet and changes the nucleation field. Moreover, the thermal stability of exchange bias in the antidot arrays is not enhanced and the coercivity is nonmonotonic with increasing temperature probably due to the magnetic field applied perpendicular to the film plane. We suggest that our numerical findings are also suitable for other nanostructures.
Effect of magnetization pinning on the spectrum of spin waves in magnonic antidot waveguides
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kłos, J. W.; Kumar, D.; Romero-Vivas, J.; Fangohr, H.; Franchin, M.; Krawczyk, M.; Barman, A.
2012-11-01
We study the spin-wave spectra in magnonic antidot waveguides (MAWs) for two limiting cases (strong and negligible) of the surface anisotropy at the ferromagnet/air interface. The MAWs under investigation have the form of a thin stripe of permalloy with a single row of periodically arranged antidots in the middle. The introduction of a magnetization pinning at the edges of the permalloy stripe and the edges of antidots is found to modify the spin-wave spectrum. This effect is shown to be necessary for magnonic gaps to open in the considered systems. Our study demonstrates that the surface anisotropy can be crucial in the practical applications of MAWs and related structures and in the interpretation of experimental results in one- and two-dimensional magnonic crystals. We used three different numerical methods, i.e., plane waves method (PWM), finite difference method, and finite element method to validate the results. We showed that PWM in the present formulation assumes pinned magnetization, while in micromagnetic simulations special care must be taken to introduce pinning.
Identification, solubility enhancement and in vivo testing of a cyanide antidote candidate.
Kovacs, Kristof; Ancha, Madhuri; Jane, Mario; Lee, Stephen; Angalakurthi, Siva; Negrito, Maelani; Rasheed, Senan; Nwaneri, Assumpta; Petrikovics, Ilona
2013-06-14
Present studies focused on the in vitro testing, the solubility enhancement and the in vivo testing of methyl propyl trisulfide (MPTS), a newly identified sulfur donor to treat cyanide (CN) intoxication. To enhance the solubility of the lipophilic MPTS, various FDA approved co-solvents, surfactants and their combinations were applied. The order of MPTS solubility in the given co-solvents was found to be the following: ethanol > PEG 200 ≈ PEG400 ≈ PEG300 > PG. The maximum solubility of MPTS was found at 90% ethanol of 177.11 ± 12.17 mg/ml. The order of MPTS solubility in different surfactants is Cremophor EL>Cremophor RH40>polysorbate 80>sodium deoxycholate>sodium cholate. The maximum solubility of 40.99 mg/ml was achieved with 20% Cremophor EL. A synergistic solubilizing effect encountered with the combination of 20% Cremophor EL+75% ethanol lead to a 2900-fold increase (compared to water solubility) in solubility. The in vivo efficacy using intramuscular administration was determined on a therapeutic mice model and expressed as a ratio of CN LD50 with and without the test antidote(s) (APR). Intramuscular administration was shown to be effective and the therapeutic antidotal protection by MPTS alone and MPTS+thiosulfate (TS) was significantly higher than the present therapy of TS.
Dumestre, Danielle; Nickerson, Duncan
2014-01-01
This study aimed to assess the use of cyanide antidotes and the determine the opinion on empiric administration of hydroxocobalamin in North American burn patients with suspected smoke inhalation injuries. An online cross-sectional survey was sent to directors of 90 major burn centers in North America, which were listed on the American Burn Association Web site. A multiple-choice format was used to determine the percentage of patients tested for cyanide poisoning on admission, the current administration of a cyanide antidote based solely on clinical suspicion of poisoning, and the antidote used. To ascertain views on immediate administration of hydroxocobalamin before confirmation of cyanide poisoning an option was included to expand the response in written format. Twenty-nine of 90 burn directors (32%) completed the survey. For the population of interest, the majority of burn centers (59%) do not test for cyanide poisoning on admission and do not administer an antidote based solely on clinical suspicion of cyanide poisoning (58%). The most commonly available antidote is hydroxocobalamin (50%), followed by the cyanide antidote kit (29%). The opinion regarding instant administration of hydroxocobalamin when inhalation injury is suspected is mixed: 31% support its empiric use, 17% do not, and the remaining 52% have varying degrees of confidence in its utility. In North America, most patients burnt in closed-space fires with inhalation injuries are neither tested for cyanide poisoning in a timely manner nor empirically treated with a cyanide antidote. Although studies have shown the safety and efficacy of empiric and immediate administration of hydroxocobalamin, most centers are not willing to do so.
Simulations of two-particle interactions with 2D quantum walks in time
Schreiber, A.; Laiho, K.; Silberhorn, C.; Rohde, P. P.; Štefaňak, M.; Potoček, V.; Hamilton, C.; Jex, I.
2014-12-04
We present the experimental implementation of a quantum walk on a two-dimensional lattice and show how to employ the optical system to simulate the quantum propagation of two interacting particles. Our quantum walk in time transfers the spatial spread of a quantum walk into the time domain, which guarantees a high stability and scalability of the setup. We present with our device quantum walks over 12 steps on a 2D lattice. By changing the properties of the driving quantum coin, we investigate different kinds of two-particle interactions and reveal their impact on the occurring quantum propagation.
A 2-D Model to Predict Time Development of Scour below Pipelines with Spoiler
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Alam, M. S.; Cheng, Liang
2010-05-01
A lattice Boltzmann 2-D scour model is developed in order to predict time development of scour around offshore pipelines with spoiler. The fluid flow is captured employing Lattice Boltzmann method and the scour model is designed with the combination of multi-particle Cellular Automata technique and threshold of sediment entrainment technique available in literature. It is revealed that the proposed hybrid model is robust enough to predict evolution of bed profiles for flow and scour underneath offshore pipelines considering various orientation and length of spoiler attached.
Construction of 2D atomic crystals on transition metal surfaces: graphene, silicene, and hafnene.
Pan, Yi; Zhang, Lizhi; Huang, Li; Li, Linfei; Meng, Lei; Gao, Min; Huan, Qing; Lin, Xiao; Wang, Yeliang; Du, Shixuan; Freund, Hans-Joachim; Gao, Hong-Jun
2014-06-12
The synthesis and structures of graphene on Ru(0001) and Pt(111), silicene on Ag(111) and Ir(111) and the honeycomb hafnium lattice on Ir(111) are reviewed. Epitaxy on a transition metal (TM) substrate is a pro-mising method to produce a variety of two dimensional (2D) atomic crystals which potentially can be used in next generation electronic devices. This method is particularly valuable in the case of producing 2D materials that do not exist in 3D forms, for instance, silicene. Based on the intensive investigations of epitaxial graphene on TM in recent years, it is known that the quality of graphene is affected by many factors, including the interaction between the 2D material overlayer and the substrate, the lattice mismatch, the nucleation density at the early stage of growth. It is found that these factors also apply to many other epitaxial 2D crystals on TM. The knowledge from the reviewed systems will shine light on the design and synthesis of new 2D crystals with novel properties.
Orthotropic Piezoelectricity in 2D Nanocellulose
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
García, Y.; Ruiz-Blanco, Yasser B.; Marrero-Ponce, Yovani; Sotomayor-Torres, C. M.
2016-10-01
The control of electromechanical responses within bonding regions is essential to face frontier challenges in nanotechnologies, such as molecular electronics and biotechnology. Here, we present Iβ-nanocellulose as a potentially new orthotropic 2D piezoelectric crystal. The predicted in-layer piezoelectricity is originated on a sui-generis hydrogen bonds pattern. Upon this fact and by using a combination of ab-initio and ad-hoc models, we introduce a description of electrical profiles along chemical bonds. Such developments lead to obtain a rationale for modelling the extended piezoelectric effect originated within bond scales. The order of magnitude estimated for the 2D Iβ-nanocellulose piezoelectric response, ~pm V‑1, ranks this material at the level of currently used piezoelectric energy generators and new artificial 2D designs. Such finding would be crucial for developing alternative materials to drive emerging nanotechnologies.
Orthotropic Piezoelectricity in 2D Nanocellulose
García, Y.; Ruiz-Blanco, Yasser B.; Marrero-Ponce, Yovani; Sotomayor-Torres, C. M.
2016-01-01
The control of electromechanical responses within bonding regions is essential to face frontier challenges in nanotechnologies, such as molecular electronics and biotechnology. Here, we present Iβ-nanocellulose as a potentially new orthotropic 2D piezoelectric crystal. The predicted in-layer piezoelectricity is originated on a sui-generis hydrogen bonds pattern. Upon this fact and by using a combination of ab-initio and ad-hoc models, we introduce a description of electrical profiles along chemical bonds. Such developments lead to obtain a rationale for modelling the extended piezoelectric effect originated within bond scales. The order of magnitude estimated for the 2D Iβ-nanocellulose piezoelectric response, ~pm V−1, ranks this material at the level of currently used piezoelectric energy generators and new artificial 2D designs. Such finding would be crucial for developing alternative materials to drive emerging nanotechnologies. PMID:27708364
2D microwave imaging reflectometer electronics
Spear, A. G.; Domier, C. W. Hu, X.; Muscatello, C. M.; Ren, X.; Luhmann, N. C.; Tobias, B. J.
2014-11-15
A 2D microwave imaging reflectometer system has been developed to visualize electron density fluctuations on the DIII-D tokamak. Simultaneously illuminated at four probe frequencies, large aperture optics image reflections from four density-dependent cutoff surfaces in the plasma over an extended region of the DIII-D plasma. Localized density fluctuations in the vicinity of the plasma cutoff surfaces modulate the plasma reflections, yielding a 2D image of electron density fluctuations. Details are presented of the receiver down conversion electronics that generate the in-phase (I) and quadrature (Q) reflectometer signals from which 2D density fluctuation data are obtained. Also presented are details on the control system and backplane used to manage the electronics as well as an introduction to the computer based control program.
Optical modulators with 2D layered materials
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Sun, Zhipei; Martinez, Amos; Wang, Feng
2016-04-01
Light modulation is an essential operation in photonics and optoelectronics. With existing and emerging technologies increasingly demanding compact, efficient, fast and broadband optical modulators, high-performance light modulation solutions are becoming indispensable. The recent realization that 2D layered materials could modulate light with superior performance has prompted intense research and significant advances, paving the way for realistic applications. In this Review, we cover the state of the art of optical modulators based on 2D materials, including graphene, transition metal dichalcogenides and black phosphorus. We discuss recent advances employing hybrid structures, such as 2D heterostructures, plasmonic structures, and silicon and fibre integrated structures. We also take a look at the future perspectives and discuss the potential of yet relatively unexplored mechanisms, such as magneto-optic and acousto-optic modulation.
Tunable Lattice-Induced Opacity for Matter Wave Transport
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Zhang, Chen; Greene, Chris H.
2014-03-01
We describe the novel phenomena of lattice-induced opacity in the process of matter wave scattering from a two dimensional atomic lattice. As an analogue to the confinement-induced resonance, the two dimensional atomic lattice can be tuned to complete opacity to a normally incident low energy matter wave, by changing the s-wave scattering length between the matter wave and the atoms in the lattice. A scheme for a matter wave transistor is proposed based on the transmission-reflection properties of the matter wave through the atomic lattice. We also propose a matter wave cavity, constructed by two parallel 2D atomic lattices that are both opaque to the matter wave. In higher kinetic energy regimes of the matter wave, the two dimensional atomic lattice is shown to be a matter wave beam splitter and wave plate, with tunable peak intensity into different directions.
Inkjet printing of 2D layered materials.
Li, Jiantong; Lemme, Max C; Östling, Mikael
2014-11-10
Inkjet printing of 2D layered materials, such as graphene and MoS2, has attracted great interests for emerging electronics. However, incompatible rheology, low concentration, severe aggregation and toxicity of solvents constitute critical challenges which hamper the manufacturing efficiency and product quality. Here, we introduce a simple and general technology concept (distillation-assisted solvent exchange) to efficiently overcome these challenges. By implementing the concept, we have demonstrated excellent jetting performance, ideal printing patterns and a variety of promising applications for inkjet printing of 2D layered materials. PMID:25169938
Inkjet printing of 2D layered materials.
Li, Jiantong; Lemme, Max C; Östling, Mikael
2014-11-10
Inkjet printing of 2D layered materials, such as graphene and MoS2, has attracted great interests for emerging electronics. However, incompatible rheology, low concentration, severe aggregation and toxicity of solvents constitute critical challenges which hamper the manufacturing efficiency and product quality. Here, we introduce a simple and general technology concept (distillation-assisted solvent exchange) to efficiently overcome these challenges. By implementing the concept, we have demonstrated excellent jetting performance, ideal printing patterns and a variety of promising applications for inkjet printing of 2D layered materials.
Parallel stitching of 2D materials
Ling, Xi; Wu, Lijun; Lin, Yuxuan; Ma, Qiong; Wang, Ziqiang; Song, Yi; Yu, Lili; Huang, Shengxi; Fang, Wenjing; Zhang, Xu; et al
2016-01-27
Diverse parallel stitched 2D heterostructures, including metal–semiconductor, semiconductor–semiconductor, and insulator–semiconductor, are synthesized directly through selective “sowing” of aromatic molecules as the seeds in the chemical vapor deposition (CVD) method. Lastly, the methodology enables the large-scale fabrication of lateral heterostructures, which offers tremendous potential for its application in integrated circuits.
Parallel Stitching of 2D Materials.
Ling, Xi; Lin, Yuxuan; Ma, Qiong; Wang, Ziqiang; Song, Yi; Yu, Lili; Huang, Shengxi; Fang, Wenjing; Zhang, Xu; Hsu, Allen L; Bie, Yaqing; Lee, Yi-Hsien; Zhu, Yimei; Wu, Lijun; Li, Ju; Jarillo-Herrero, Pablo; Dresselhaus, Mildred; Palacios, Tomás; Kong, Jing
2016-03-23
Diverse parallel stitched 2D heterostructures, including metal-semiconductor, semiconductor-semiconductor, and insulator-semiconductor, are synthesized directly through selective "sowing" of aromatic molecules as the seeds in the chemical vapor deposition (CVD) method. The methodology enables the large-scale fabrication of lateral heterostructures, which offers tremendous potential for its application in integrated circuits.
Application of 2D Non-Graphene Materials and 2D Oxide Nanostructures for Biosensing Technology
Shavanova, Kateryna; Bakakina, Yulia; Burkova, Inna; Shtepliuk, Ivan; Viter, Roman; Ubelis, Arnolds; Beni, Valerio; Starodub, Nickolaj; Yakimova, Rositsa; Khranovskyy, Volodymyr
2016-01-01
The discovery of graphene and its unique properties has inspired researchers to try to invent other two-dimensional (2D) materials. After considerable research effort, a distinct “beyond graphene” domain has been established, comprising the library of non-graphene 2D materials. It is significant that some 2D non-graphene materials possess solid advantages over their predecessor, such as having a direct band gap, and therefore are highly promising for a number of applications. These applications are not limited to nano- and opto-electronics, but have a strong potential in biosensing technologies, as one example. However, since most of the 2D non-graphene materials have been newly discovered, most of the research efforts are concentrated on material synthesis and the investigation of the properties of the material. Applications of 2D non-graphene materials are still at the embryonic stage, and the integration of 2D non-graphene materials into devices is scarcely reported. However, in recent years, numerous reports have blossomed about 2D material-based biosensors, evidencing the growing potential of 2D non-graphene materials for biosensing applications. This review highlights the recent progress in research on the potential of using 2D non-graphene materials and similar oxide nanostructures for different types of biosensors (optical and electrochemical). A wide range of biological targets, such as glucose, dopamine, cortisol, DNA, IgG, bisphenol, ascorbic acid, cytochrome and estradiol, has been reported to be successfully detected by biosensors with transducers made of 2D non-graphene materials. PMID:26861346
Application of 2D Non-Graphene Materials and 2D Oxide Nanostructures for Biosensing Technology.
Shavanova, Kateryna; Bakakina, Yulia; Burkova, Inna; Shtepliuk, Ivan; Viter, Roman; Ubelis, Arnolds; Beni, Valerio; Starodub, Nickolaj; Yakimova, Rositsa; Khranovskyy, Volodymyr
2016-01-01
The discovery of graphene and its unique properties has inspired researchers to try to invent other two-dimensional (2D) materials. After considerable research effort, a distinct "beyond graphene" domain has been established, comprising the library of non-graphene 2D materials. It is significant that some 2D non-graphene materials possess solid advantages over their predecessor, such as having a direct band gap, and therefore are highly promising for a number of applications. These applications are not limited to nano- and opto-electronics, but have a strong potential in biosensing technologies, as one example. However, since most of the 2D non-graphene materials have been newly discovered, most of the research efforts are concentrated on material synthesis and the investigation of the properties of the material. Applications of 2D non-graphene materials are still at the embryonic stage, and the integration of 2D non-graphene materials into devices is scarcely reported. However, in recent years, numerous reports have blossomed about 2D material-based biosensors, evidencing the growing potential of 2D non-graphene materials for biosensing applications. This review highlights the recent progress in research on the potential of using 2D non-graphene materials and similar oxide nanostructures for different types of biosensors (optical and electrochemical). A wide range of biological targets, such as glucose, dopamine, cortisol, DNA, IgG, bisphenol, ascorbic acid, cytochrome and estradiol, has been reported to be successfully detected by biosensors with transducers made of 2D non-graphene materials.
2D to 3D transition of polymeric carbon nitride nanosheets
Chamorro-Posada, Pedro; Vázquez-Cabo, José; Martín-Ramos, Pablo; Martín-Gil, Jesús; Navas-Gracia, Luis M.; Dante, Roberto C.
2014-11-15
The transition from a prevalent turbostratic arrangement with low planar interactions (2D) to an array of polymeric carbon nitride nanosheets with stronger interplanar interactions (3D), occurring for samples treated above 650 °C, was detected by terahertz-time domain spectroscopy (THz-TDS). The simulated 3D material made of stacks of shifted quasi planar sheets composed of zigzagged polymer ribbons, delivered a XRD simulated pattern in relatively good agreement with the experimental one. The 2D to 3D transition was also supported by the simulation of THz-TDS spectra obtained from quantum chemistry calculations, in which the same broad bands around 2 THz and 1.5 THz were found for 2D and 3D arrays, respectively. This transition was also in accordance with the tightening of the interplanar distance probably due to an interplanar π bond contribution, as evidenced also by a broad absorption around 2.6 eV in the UV–vis spectrum, which appeared in the sample treated at 650 °C, and increased in the sample treated at 700 °C. The band gap was calculated for 1D and 2D cases. The value of 3.374 eV for the 2D case is, within the model accuracy and precision, in a relative good agreement with the value of 3.055 eV obtained from the experimental results. - Graphical abstract: 2D lattice mode vibrations and structural changes correlated with the so called “2D to 3D transition”. - Highlights: • A 2D to 3D transition has been detected for polymeric carbon nitride. • THz-TDS allowed us to discover and detect the 2D to 3D transition of polymeric carbon nitride. • We propose a structure for polymeric carbon nitride confirming it with THz-TDS.
Kinetics and stability of a multicomponent organophosphate antidote formulation in glass and plastic
Zvirblis, P.; Ellin, R.I.
1982-03-01
An aqueous solution of trimedoxime bromide, atropine, and benactyzine hydrochloride was formulated to have maximum stability as an antidote in organophosphorus poisoning. The stability of the mixture in glass and plastic cartridges was determined. Glass cartridges were more desirable than plastic; there was less vapor loss, color formation, and anomalous reaction. Trimedoxime was stable, losing 1.4% of its potency after 1 year at 25 degrees and atropine was more stable than trimedoxime. Considerable degradation of benactyzine occurred; 20% of its potency was lost after 1 year at 25 degrees. Equations for predicting the shelf life of each ingredient at selected temperatures are presented.
Novel imidazolium oximes as improved nerve-agent antidotes. Final report, April 1986-November 1987
Koplovitz, I.; Stewart, J.R.
1988-07-01
Four compounds from a large series of N,N disubstituted imidazolium - aldoximes were identified in the mouse as potential lead candidates for an improved nerve-agent antidote. The potency and efficacy of these compounds in combination with atropine were evaluated against lethality from the nerve agents soman, sarin, tabun, and VX. Also, the authors evaluated the effect of the imidazolium oximes on recovery from debilitation 24 hours after soman poisoning. The results suggest that the imidazolium oximes, as a class, may have much utility in the treatment of nerve agent poisoning. Their potential therapeutic benefit deserves further exploration in advance animal models.
2014-01-01
Background Recent alleged attacks with nerve agent sarin on civilians in Syria indicate their potential threat to both civilian and military population. Acute nerve agent exposure can cause rapid death or leads to multiple and long term neurological effects. The biochemical changes that occur following nerve agent exposure needs to be elucidated to understand the mechanisms behind their long term neurological effects and to design better therapeutic drugs to block their multiple neurotoxic effects. In the present study, we intend to study the efficacy of antidotes comprising of HI-6 (1-[[[4-(aminocarbonyl)-pyridinio]-methoxy]-methyl]-2-[(hydroxyimino) methyl] pyridinium dichloride), atropine and midazolam on soman induced neurodegeneration and the expression of c-Fos, Calpain, and Bax levels in discrete rat brain areas. Results Therapeutic regime consisting of HI-6 (50 mg/kg, i.m), atropine (10 mg/kg, i.m) and midazolam (5 mg/kg, i.m) protected animals against soman (2 × LD50, s.c) lethality completely at 2 h and 80% at 24 h. HI-6 treatment reactivated soman inhibited plasma and RBC cholinesterase up to 40%. Fluoro-Jade B (FJ-B) staining of neurodegenerative neurons showed that soman induced significant necrotic neuronal cell death, which was reduced by this antidotal treatment. Soman increased the expression of neuronal proteins including c-Fos, Bax and Calpain levels in the hippocampus, cerebral cortex and cerebellum regions of the brain. This therapeutic regime also reduced the soman induced Bax, Calpain expression levels to near control levels in the different brain regions studied, except a mild induction of c-Fos expression in the hippocampus. Conclusion Rats that received antidotal treatment after soman exposure were protected from mortality and showed reduction in the soman induced expression of c-Fos, Bax and Calpain and necrosis. Results highlight the need for timely administration of better antidotes than standard therapy in order to prevent the
Giant intrinsic tunnel magnetoresistance in manganite thin films etched with antidot arrays
Li, Hui; Li, Lin; Li, Long; Liang, Haixing; Cheng, Long; Zhai, Xiaofang; Zeng, Changgan
2014-02-24
Huge intrinsic tunnel magnetoresistance effects at low field are demonstrated in macroscopic La{sub 0.33}Pr{sub 0.34}Ca{sub 0.33}MnO{sub 3} thin films etched with periodic antidot arrays, and a highest magnetoresistance ratio (about 1600%) is achieved at 58 K. Such giant tunnel magnetoresistance effect might originate from delicate phase separation and coherent transport under the applied periodic spatial confinement. Strong transport fluctuation is also revealed in such systems due to phase competition. Our findings pave a way to realize tunnel magnetoresistance devices based on electronically phase separated materials with spatial modulations.
Sparse and incomplete factorial matrices to screen membrane protein 2D crystallization.
Lasala, R; Coudray, N; Abdine, A; Zhang, Z; Lopez-Redondo, M; Kirshenbaum, R; Alexopoulos, J; Zolnai, Z; Stokes, D L; Ubarretxena-Belandia, I
2015-02-01
Electron crystallography is well suited for studying the structure of membrane proteins in their native lipid bilayer environment. This technique relies on electron cryomicroscopy of two-dimensional (2D) crystals, grown generally by reconstitution of purified membrane proteins into proteoliposomes under conditions favoring the formation of well-ordered lattices. Growing these crystals presents one of the major hurdles in the application of this technique. To identify conditions favoring crystallization a wide range of factors that can lead to a vast matrix of possible reagent combinations must be screened. However, in 2D crystallization these factors have traditionally been surveyed in a relatively limited fashion. To address this problem we carried out a detailed analysis of published 2D crystallization conditions for 12 β-barrel and 138 α-helical membrane proteins. From this analysis we identified the most successful conditions and applied them in the design of new sparse and incomplete factorial matrices to screen membrane protein 2D crystallization. Using these matrices we have run 19 crystallization screens for 16 different membrane proteins totaling over 1300 individual crystallization conditions. Six membrane proteins have yielded diffracting 2D crystals suitable for structure determination, indicating that these new matrices show promise to accelerate the success rate of membrane protein 2D crystallization.
Sparse and incomplete factorial matrices to screen membrane protein 2D crystallization
Lasala, R.; Coudray, N.; Abdine, A.; Zhang, Z.; Lopez-Redondo, M.; Kirshenbaum, R.; Alexopoulos, J.; Zolnai, Z.; Stokes, D.L.; Ubarretxena-Belandia, I.
2014-01-01
Electron crystallography is well suited for studying the structure of membrane proteins in their native lipid bilayer environment. This technique relies on electron cryomicroscopy of two-dimensional (2D) crystals, grown generally by reconstitution of purified membrane proteins into proteoliposomes under conditions favoring the formation of well-ordered lattices. Growing these crystals presents one of the major hurdles in the application of this technique. To identify conditions favoring crystallization a wide range of factors that can lead to a vast matrix of possible reagent combinations must be screened. However, in 2D crystallization these factors have traditionally been surveyed in a relatively limited fashion. To address this problem we carried out a detailed analysis of published 2D crystallization conditions for 12 β-barrel and 138 α-helical membrane proteins. From this analysis we identified the most successful conditions and applied them in the design of new sparse and incomplete factorial matrices to screen membrane protein 2D crystallization. Using these matrices we have run 19 crystallization screens for 16 different membrane proteins totaling over 1,300 individual crystallization conditions. Six membrane proteins have yielded diffracting 2D crystals suitable for structure determination, indicating that these new matrices show promise to accelerate the success rate of membrane protein 2D crystallization. PMID:25478971
Sparse and incomplete factorial matrices to screen membrane protein 2D crystallization.
Lasala, R; Coudray, N; Abdine, A; Zhang, Z; Lopez-Redondo, M; Kirshenbaum, R; Alexopoulos, J; Zolnai, Z; Stokes, D L; Ubarretxena-Belandia, I
2015-02-01
Electron crystallography is well suited for studying the structure of membrane proteins in their native lipid bilayer environment. This technique relies on electron cryomicroscopy of two-dimensional (2D) crystals, grown generally by reconstitution of purified membrane proteins into proteoliposomes under conditions favoring the formation of well-ordered lattices. Growing these crystals presents one of the major hurdles in the application of this technique. To identify conditions favoring crystallization a wide range of factors that can lead to a vast matrix of possible reagent combinations must be screened. However, in 2D crystallization these factors have traditionally been surveyed in a relatively limited fashion. To address this problem we carried out a detailed analysis of published 2D crystallization conditions for 12 β-barrel and 138 α-helical membrane proteins. From this analysis we identified the most successful conditions and applied them in the design of new sparse and incomplete factorial matrices to screen membrane protein 2D crystallization. Using these matrices we have run 19 crystallization screens for 16 different membrane proteins totaling over 1300 individual crystallization conditions. Six membrane proteins have yielded diffracting 2D crystals suitable for structure determination, indicating that these new matrices show promise to accelerate the success rate of membrane protein 2D crystallization. PMID:25478971
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Jeromin, A.; Schaffarczyk, A. P.; Puczylowski, J.; Peinke, J.; Hölling, M.
2014-12-01
For the investigation of atmospheric turbulent flows on small scales a new anemometer was developed, the so-called 2d-Atmospheric Laser Cantilever Anemometer (2d-ALCA). It performs highly resolved measurements with a spatial resolution in millimeter range and temporal resolution in kHz range, thus detecting very small turbulent structures. The anemometer is a redesign of the successfully operating 2d-LCA for laboratory application. The new device was designed to withstand hostile operating environments (rain and saline, humid air). In February 2012, the 2d-ALCA was used for the first time in a test field. The device was mounted in about 53 m above ground level on a lattice tower near the German North Sea coast. Wind speed was measured by the 2d-ALCA at 10 kHz sampling rate and by cup anemometers at 1 Hz. The instantaneous wind speed ranged from 8 m/s to 19 m/s at an average turbulence level of about 7 %. Wind field characteristics were analyzed based on cup anemometer as well as 2d-ALCA. The combination of both devices allowed the study of atmospheric turbulence over several magnitudes in turbulent scales.
Stochastic Inversion of 2D Magnetotelluric Data
Chen, Jinsong
2010-07-01
The algorithm is developed to invert 2D magnetotelluric (MT) data based on sharp boundary parametrization using a Bayesian framework. Within the algorithm, we consider the locations and the resistivity of regions formed by the interfaces are as unknowns. We use a parallel, adaptive finite-element algorithm to forward simulate frequency-domain MT responses of 2D conductivity structure. Those unknown parameters are spatially correlated and are described by a geostatistical model. The joint posterior probability distribution function is explored by Markov Chain Monte Carlo (MCMC) sampling methods. The developed stochastic model is effective for estimating the interface locations and resistivity. Most importantly, it provides details uncertainty information on each unknown parameter. Hardware requirements: PC, Supercomputer, Multi-platform, Workstation; Software requirements C and Fortan; Operation Systems/version is Linux/Unix or Windows
Explicit 2-D Hydrodynamic FEM Program
1996-08-07
DYNA2D* is a vectorized, explicit, two-dimensional, axisymmetric and plane strain finite element program for analyzing the large deformation dynamic and hydrodynamic response of inelastic solids. DYNA2D* contains 13 material models and 9 equations of state (EOS) to cover a wide range of material behavior. The material models implemented in all machine versions are: elastic, orthotropic elastic, kinematic/isotropic elastic plasticity, thermoelastoplastic, soil and crushable foam, linear viscoelastic, rubber, high explosive burn, isotropic elastic-plastic, temperature-dependent elastic-plastic. Themore » isotropic and temperature-dependent elastic-plastic models determine only the deviatoric stresses. Pressure is determined by one of 9 equations of state including linear polynomial, JWL high explosive, Sack Tuesday high explosive, Gruneisen, ratio of polynomials, linear polynomial with energy deposition, ignition and growth of reaction in HE, tabulated compaction, and tabulated.« less
Stochastic Inversion of 2D Magnetotelluric Data
2010-07-01
The algorithm is developed to invert 2D magnetotelluric (MT) data based on sharp boundary parametrization using a Bayesian framework. Within the algorithm, we consider the locations and the resistivity of regions formed by the interfaces are as unknowns. We use a parallel, adaptive finite-element algorithm to forward simulate frequency-domain MT responses of 2D conductivity structure. Those unknown parameters are spatially correlated and are described by a geostatistical model. The joint posterior probability distribution function ismore » explored by Markov Chain Monte Carlo (MCMC) sampling methods. The developed stochastic model is effective for estimating the interface locations and resistivity. Most importantly, it provides details uncertainty information on each unknown parameter. Hardware requirements: PC, Supercomputer, Multi-platform, Workstation; Software requirements C and Fortan; Operation Systems/version is Linux/Unix or Windows« less
Static & Dynamic Response of 2D Solids
1996-07-15
NIKE2D is an implicit finite-element code for analyzing the finite deformation, static and dynamic response of two-dimensional, axisymmetric, plane strain, and plane stress solids. The code is fully vectorized and available on several computing platforms. A number of material models are incorporated to simulate a wide range of material behavior including elasto-placicity, anisotropy, creep, thermal effects, and rate dependence. Slideline algorithms model gaps and sliding along material interfaces, including interface friction, penetration and single surfacemore » contact. Interactive-graphics and rezoning is included for analyses with large mesh distortions. In addition to quasi-Newton and arc-length procedures, adaptive algorithms can be defined to solve the implicit equations using the solution language ISLAND. Each of these capabilities and more make NIKE2D a robust analysis tool.« less
Static & Dynamic Response of 2D Solids
Lin, Jerry
1996-07-15
NIKE2D is an implicit finite-element code for analyzing the finite deformation, static and dynamic response of two-dimensional, axisymmetric, plane strain, and plane stress solids. The code is fully vectorized and available on several computing platforms. A number of material models are incorporated to simulate a wide range of material behavior including elasto-placicity, anisotropy, creep, thermal effects, and rate dependence. Slideline algorithms model gaps and sliding along material interfaces, including interface friction, penetration and single surface contact. Interactive-graphics and rezoning is included for analyses with large mesh distortions. In addition to quasi-Newton and arc-length procedures, adaptive algorithms can be defined to solve the implicit equations using the solution language ISLAND. Each of these capabilities and more make NIKE2D a robust analysis tool.
Explicit 2-D Hydrodynamic FEM Program
Lin, Jerry
1996-08-07
DYNA2D* is a vectorized, explicit, two-dimensional, axisymmetric and plane strain finite element program for analyzing the large deformation dynamic and hydrodynamic response of inelastic solids. DYNA2D* contains 13 material models and 9 equations of state (EOS) to cover a wide range of material behavior. The material models implemented in all machine versions are: elastic, orthotropic elastic, kinematic/isotropic elastic plasticity, thermoelastoplastic, soil and crushable foam, linear viscoelastic, rubber, high explosive burn, isotropic elastic-plastic, temperature-dependent elastic-plastic. The isotropic and temperature-dependent elastic-plastic models determine only the deviatoric stresses. Pressure is determined by one of 9 equations of state including linear polynomial, JWL high explosive, Sack Tuesday high explosive, Gruneisen, ratio of polynomials, linear polynomial with energy deposition, ignition and growth of reaction in HE, tabulated compaction, and tabulated.
2D photonic-crystal optomechanical nanoresonator.
Makles, K; Antoni, T; Kuhn, A G; Deléglise, S; Briant, T; Cohadon, P-F; Braive, R; Beaudoin, G; Pinard, L; Michel, C; Dolique, V; Flaminio, R; Cagnoli, G; Robert-Philip, I; Heidmann, A
2015-01-15
We present the optical optimization of an optomechanical device based on a suspended InP membrane patterned with a 2D near-wavelength grating (NWG) based on a 2D photonic-crystal geometry. We first identify by numerical simulation a set of geometrical parameters providing a reflectivity higher than 99.8% over a 50-nm span. We then study the limitations induced by the finite value of the optical waist and lateral size of the NWG pattern using different numerical approaches. The NWG grating, pierced in a suspended InP 265-nm thick membrane, is used to form a compact microcavity involving the suspended nanomembrane as an end mirror. The resulting cavity has a waist size smaller than 10 μm and a finesse in the 200 range. It is used to probe the Brownian motion of the mechanical modes of the nanomembrane. PMID:25679837
Compact 2-D graphical representation of DNA
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Randić, Milan; Vračko, Marjan; Zupan, Jure; Novič, Marjana
2003-05-01
We present a novel 2-D graphical representation for DNA sequences which has an important advantage over the existing graphical representations of DNA in being very compact. It is based on: (1) use of binary labels for the four nucleic acid bases, and (2) use of the 'worm' curve as template on which binary codes are placed. The approach is illustrated on DNA sequences of the first exon of human β-globin and gorilla β-globin.
2D materials: Graphene and others
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Bansal, Suneev Anil; Singh, Amrinder Pal; Kumar, Suresh
2016-05-01
Present report reviews the recent advancements in new atomically thick 2D materials. Materials covered in this review are Graphene, Silicene, Germanene, Boron Nitride (BN) and Transition metal chalcogenides (TMC). These materials show extraordinary mechanical, electronic and optical properties which make them suitable candidates for future applications. Apart from unique properties, tune-ability of highly desirable properties of these materials is also an important area to be emphasized on.
Layer Engineering of 2D Semiconductor Junctions.
He, Yongmin; Sobhani, Ali; Lei, Sidong; Zhang, Zhuhua; Gong, Yongji; Jin, Zehua; Zhou, Wu; Yang, Yingchao; Zhang, Yuan; Wang, Xifan; Yakobson, Boris; Vajtai, Robert; Halas, Naomi J; Li, Bo; Xie, Erqing; Ajayan, Pulickel
2016-07-01
A new concept for junction fabrication by connecting multiple regions with varying layer thicknesses, based on the thickness dependence, is demonstrated. This type of junction is only possible in super-thin-layered 2D materials, and exhibits similar characteristics as p-n junctions. Rectification and photovoltaic effects are observed in chemically homogeneous MoSe2 junctions between domains of different thicknesses. PMID:27136275
Realistic and efficient 2D crack simulation
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Yadegar, Jacob; Liu, Xiaoqing; Singh, Abhishek
2010-04-01
Although numerical algorithms for 2D crack simulation have been studied in Modeling and Simulation (M&S) and computer graphics for decades, realism and computational efficiency are still major challenges. In this paper, we introduce a high-fidelity, scalable, adaptive and efficient/runtime 2D crack/fracture simulation system by applying the mathematically elegant Peano-Cesaro triangular meshing/remeshing technique to model the generation of shards/fragments. The recursive fractal sweep associated with the Peano-Cesaro triangulation provides efficient local multi-resolution refinement to any level-of-detail. The generated binary decomposition tree also provides efficient neighbor retrieval mechanism used for mesh element splitting and merging with minimal memory requirements essential for realistic 2D fragment formation. Upon load impact/contact/penetration, a number of factors including impact angle, impact energy, and material properties are all taken into account to produce the criteria of crack initialization, propagation, and termination leading to realistic fractal-like rubble/fragments formation. The aforementioned parameters are used as variables of probabilistic models of cracks/shards formation, making the proposed solution highly adaptive by allowing machine learning mechanisms learn the optimal values for the variables/parameters based on prior benchmark data generated by off-line physics based simulation solutions that produce accurate fractures/shards though at highly non-real time paste. Crack/fracture simulation has been conducted on various load impacts with different initial locations at various impulse scales. The simulation results demonstrate that the proposed system has the capability to realistically and efficiently simulate 2D crack phenomena (such as window shattering and shards generation) with diverse potentials in military and civil M&S applications such as training and mission planning.
Gallori, E; Casalone, E; Colella, C M; Daly, S; Polsinelli, M
1991-01-01
The effects of ten fungicides, six herbicides and four insecticides on the nitrogen-fixing bacterium Azospirillum brasilense were examined. The fungicides captan and thiram were the most toxic among the compounds tested. Cell growth and nitrogenase activity of the bacterium were markedly inhibited by low concentrations of the two fungicides. Antidote 1,8-naphthalic anhydride increased by a factor of 2 the cellular level of glutathione. The addition of the antidote in the presence of captan or thiram caused a similar increase in the glutathione content, but at the same time enhanced the toxicity of the two fungicides.
Strain-displacement relations for strain engineering in single-layer 2d materials
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Midtvedt, Daniel; Lewenkopf, Caio H.; Croy, Alexander
2016-03-01
We investigate the electromechanical coupling in single-layer 2d materials. For non-Bravais lattices, we find important corrections to the standard macroscopic strain-microscopic atomic-displacement theory. We put forward a general and systematic approach to calculate strain-displacement relations for several classes of 2d materials. We apply our findings to graphene as a study case, by combining a tight binding and a valence force-field model to calculate electronic and mechanical properties of graphene nanoribbons under strain. The results show good agreement with the predictions of the Dirac equation coupled to continuum mechanics. For this long wave-limit effective theory, we find that the strain-displacement relations lead to a renormalization correction to the strain-induced pseudo-magnetic fields. A similar renormalization is found for the strain-induced band-gap of black phosphorous. Implications for nanomechanical properties and electromechanical coupling in 2d materials are discussed.
Quantum Diffusion on Molecular Tubes: Universal Scaling of the 1D to 2D Transition
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Chuang, Chern; Lee, Chee Kong; Moix, Jeremy M.; Knoester, Jasper; Cao, Jianshu
2016-05-01
The transport properties of disordered systems are known to depend critically on dimensionality. We study the diffusion coefficient of a quantum particle confined to a lattice on the surface of a tube, where it scales between the 1D and 2D limits. It is found that the scaling relation is universal and independent of the temperature, disorder, and noise parameters, and the essential order parameter is the ratio between the localization length in 2D and the circumference of the tube. Phenomenological and quantitative expressions for transport properties as functions of disorder and noise are obtained and applied to real systems: In the natural chlorosomes found in light-harvesting bacteria the exciton transfer dynamics is predicted to be in the 2D limit, whereas a family of synthetic molecular aggregates is found to be in the homogeneous limit and is independent of dimensionality.
Quantum Diffusion on Molecular Tubes: Universal Scaling of the 1D to 2D Transition.
Chuang, Chern; Lee, Chee Kong; Moix, Jeremy M; Knoester, Jasper; Cao, Jianshu
2016-05-13
The transport properties of disordered systems are known to depend critically on dimensionality. We study the diffusion coefficient of a quantum particle confined to a lattice on the surface of a tube, where it scales between the 1D and 2D limits. It is found that the scaling relation is universal and independent of the temperature, disorder, and noise parameters, and the essential order parameter is the ratio between the localization length in 2D and the circumference of the tube. Phenomenological and quantitative expressions for transport properties as functions of disorder and noise are obtained and applied to real systems: In the natural chlorosomes found in light-harvesting bacteria the exciton transfer dynamics is predicted to be in the 2D limit, whereas a family of synthetic molecular aggregates is found to be in the homogeneous limit and is independent of dimensionality. PMID:27232033
2D Spinodal Decomposition in Forced Turbulence
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Fan, Xiang; Diamond, Patrick; Chacon, Luis; Li, Hui
2015-11-01
Spinodal decomposition is a second order phase transition for binary fluid mixture, from one thermodynamic phase to form two coexisting phases. The governing equation for this coarsening process below critical temperature, Cahn-Hilliard Equation, is very similar to 2D MHD Equation, especially the conserved quantities have a close correspondence between each other, so theories for MHD turbulence are used to study spinodal decomposition in forced turbulence. Domain size is increased with time along with the inverse cascade, and the length scale can be arrested by a forced turbulence with direct cascade. The two competing mechanisms lead to a stabilized domain size length scale, which can be characterized by Hinze Scale. The 2D spinodal decomposition in forced turbulence is studied by both theory and simulation with ``pixie2d.'' This work focuses on the relation between Hinze scale and spectra and cascades. Similarities and differences between spinodal decomposition and MHD are investigated. Also some transport properties are studied following MHD theories. This work is supported by the Department of Energy under Award Number DE-FG02-04ER54738.
MAGNUM-2D computer code: user's guide
England, R.L.; Kline, N.W.; Ekblad, K.J.; Baca, R.G.
1985-01-01
Information relevant to the general use of the MAGNUM-2D computer code is presented. This computer code was developed for the purpose of modeling (i.e., simulating) the thermal and hydraulic conditions in the vicinity of a waste package emplaced in a deep geologic repository. The MAGNUM-2D computer computes (1) the temperature field surrounding the waste package as a function of the heat generation rate of the nuclear waste and thermal properties of the basalt and (2) the hydraulic head distribution and associated groundwater flow fields as a function of the temperature gradients and hydraulic properties of the basalt. MAGNUM-2D is a two-dimensional numerical model for transient or steady-state analysis of coupled heat transfer and groundwater flow in a fractured porous medium. The governing equations consist of a set of coupled, quasi-linear partial differential equations that are solved using a Galerkin finite-element technique. A Newton-Raphson algorithm is embedded in the Galerkin functional to formulate the problem in terms of the incremental changes in the dependent variables. Both triangular and quadrilateral finite elements are used to represent the continuum portions of the spatial domain. Line elements may be used to represent discrete conduits. 18 refs., 4 figs., 1 tab.
Engineering light outcoupling in 2D materials.
Lien, Der-Hsien; Kang, Jeong Seuk; Amani, Matin; Chen, Kevin; Tosun, Mahmut; Wang, Hsin-Ping; Roy, Tania; Eggleston, Michael S; Wu, Ming C; Dubey, Madan; Lee, Si-Chen; He, Jr-Hau; Javey, Ali
2015-02-11
When light is incident on 2D transition metal dichalcogenides (TMDCs), it engages in multiple reflections within underlying substrates, producing interferences that lead to enhancement or attenuation of the incoming and outgoing strength of light. Here, we report a simple method to engineer the light outcoupling in semiconducting TMDCs by modulating their dielectric surroundings. We show that by modulating the thicknesses of underlying substrates and capping layers, the interference caused by substrate can significantly enhance the light absorption and emission of WSe2, resulting in a ∼11 times increase in Raman signal and a ∼30 times increase in the photoluminescence (PL) intensity of WSe2. On the basis of the interference model, we also propose a strategy to control the photonic and optoelectronic properties of thin-layer WSe2. This work demonstrates the utilization of outcoupling engineering in 2D materials and offers a new route toward the realization of novel optoelectronic devices, such as 2D LEDs and solar cells.
Antidotal efficacy of bisquaternary oximes against soman and tabun poisoning in various species
Amitai, G.; Rabinovitz, I.; Chen, R.; Cohen, G.; Zomber, G.
1993-05-13
The introduction of Hagedorn oximes, e.g. HI-6 and HLo-7, was an important milestone in the development of antidotal treatment against soman poisoning. We have developed a series of 'cholinergic receptor-directed' AB-oximes which combine in their molecular structure both AChE reactivation potency and anti-cholinergic properties. Marked antidotal efficacy against soman and tabun poisoning was obtained for AB-8, AB-13, toxogonin, HLo-7 and HI-6 in conjunction with atropine and benactyzine in pyridostigmine (PYR) pretreated mice and guinea pigs. In the absence of PYR, all oximes except for HI-6 in mice or HI-6 and HLo-7 in guinea pigs provided poor protection (PR=1-2) against soman. In tabun poisoning, AB-13, toxogonin and HLO-7 conferred high PR values: 8.6, 21.3 and 21.7, respectively, even without PYR pretreatment. These data are consistent with reactivation potency of these oximes (kr = 12.5, 157 and 18.7 m(1) min(1), respectively) for tabun-inhibited FBS-AChE. Elimination of benactyzine significantly decreased the PR values obtained against soman in guinea pigs.
Whitehouse, L W; Wong, L T; Paul, C J; Pakuts, A; Solomonraj, G
1985-05-01
Male Swiss Webster mice, treated with N-acetylcysteine (NAC, 500 mg/kg po) 1 h following acetaminophen (NAPA, 350 mg/kg po) administration, had control levels of transaminases indicating that NAC protects against NAPA-induced hepatotoxicity by postabsorption antidotal mechanism(s). Hepatic congestion induced by NAPA was reduced by NAC. Significantly higher elimination rate constants (K) for indocyanine green (500 micrograms/kg, iv) in mice treated with NAPA and NAC (K = 0.676 +/- 0.062) than in animals receiving NAPA alone (0.341 +/- 0.105) suggested NAC improved or preserved the hepatic circulation of the compromised liver. This NAC-induced improvement and (or) preservation of hepatic circulation was reflected in biliary and urinary excretion of acetaminophen and its metabolites by a general increase in elimination during the first 6 h (70.2 +/- 2.6 vs. 32.6 +/- 7.1%), and in the repletion of glutathione (GSH) in the liver by a return to control levels more quickly (3 vs. greater than 5 h) following depletion by NAPA. The metabolic consequences of the postabsorption antidotal effect of NAC in the compromised liver was a preferential excretion of sulphydryl-derived metabolites in the 1-4 h bile (GSH conjugate 11.30 +/- 1.25 vs. 7.25 +/- 0.39%) which was subsequently observed in the urine by preferential excretion of glutathione degradation products.
Golderman, Valery; Shavit-Stein, Efrat; Tamarin, Ilia; Rosman, Yossi; Shrot, Shai; Rosenberg, Nurit
2016-01-01
Organophosphates (OPs) are potentially able to affect serine proteases by reacting with their active site. The potential effects of OPs on coagulation factors such as thrombin and on coagulation tests have been only partially characterized and potential interactions with OPs antidotes such as oximes and muscarinic blockers have not been addressed. In the current study, we investigated the in vitro interactions between coagulation, thrombin, the OP paraoxon, and its antidotes obidoxime and atropine. The effects of these substances on thrombin activity were measured in a fluorescent substrate and on coagulation by standard tests. Both paraoxon and obidoxime but not atropine significantly inhibited thrombin activity, and prolonged prothrombin time, thrombin time, and partial thromboplastin time. When paraoxon and obidoxime were combined, a significant synergistic effect was found on both thrombin activity and coagulation tests. In conclusion, paraoxon and obidoxime affect thrombin activity and consequently alter the function of the coagulation system. Similar interactions may be clinically relevant for coagulation pathways in the blood and possibly in the brain. PMID:27689805
Saffron as an antidote or a protective agent against natural or chemical toxicities.
Razavi, Bibi Marjan; Hosseinzadeh, Hossein
2015-01-01
Saffron (Crocus sativus) is an extensively used food additive for its color and taste. Since ancient times this plant has been introduced as a marvelous medicine throughout the world. The wide spectrum of saffron pharmacological activities is related to its major constituents including crocin, crocetin and safranal. Based on several studies, saffron and its active ingredients have been used as an antioxidant, antiinflammatory and antinociceptive, antidepressant, antitussive, anticonvulsant, memory enhancer, hypotensive and anticancer. According to the literatures, saffron has remarkable therapeutic effects. The protective effects of saffron and its main constituents in different tissues including brain, heart, liver, kidney and lung have been reported against some toxic materials either natural or chemical toxins in animal studies.In this review article, we have summarized different in vitro and animal studies in scientific databases which investigate the antidotal and protective effects of saffron and its major components against natural toxins and chemical-induced toxicities. Due to the lake of human studies, further investigations are required to ascertain the efficacy of saffron as an antidote or a protective agent in human intoxication.
Reddy, Sandesh D.; Reddy, Doodipala Samba
2015-01-01
SUMMARY Objective This review summarizes the therapeutic potential of midazolam as an anticonvulsant antidote for organophosphate (OP) intoxication. Methods Benzodiazepines are widely used for acute seizures and status epilepticus (SE), a neurological emergency of persistent seizures that can lead to severe neuronal damage or death. Midazolam is a benzodiazepine hypnotic with a rapid onset and short duration of action. Results Midazolam is considered the new drug of choice for persistent acute seizures and SE, including those caused by neurotoxic OPs and nerve agents. Midazolam is a positive allosteric modulator of synaptic GABA-A receptors in the brain. It potentiates GABAergic inhibition and thereby controls hyperexcitability and seizures. Midazolam is administered intravenously or intramuscularly to control acute seizures and SE. Due to its favorable pharmacokinetic features, midazolam is being considered as a replacement anticonvulsant for diazepam in the antidote kit for nerve agents. Clinical studies such as the recent RAMPART trial have confirmed the anticonvulsant efficacy of midazolam in SE in prehospital settings. Significance In experimental models, midazolam is effective when given at the onset of seizures caused by nerve agents. However, benzodiazepines are less effective at terminating seizures when given 30 min or later after OP exposure or seizure onset likely because of internalization or down-regulation of synaptic, but not extrasynaptic, GABA-A receptors, which can lead to diminished potency and seizure recurrence. PMID:26032507
Vick, J.A.; Von Bredow, J.D.
1993-05-13
Successful first aid therapy for cyanide intoxication is dependent upon the immediate administration of antidotes which directly or indirectly interact with the cyanide ion to remove it from circulation. Exceptionally rapid methemoglobin formers (hydroxylamine hydrochloride 'HA) and Dimethylaminophenol (DMAP) are usually able to prevent the lethal effect of cyanide following intramuscular injections in doses sufficient to induce 20% methemoglobin (HA = 20 mg/kg and DMAP= 2 mg/kg). Sodium nitrite, the methemoglobin inducer approved by the FDA and is available for military use, must be administered by intravenous infusion since it is not an effective cyanide antidote by the intramuscular route. In the normal un-intoxicated animal an intramuscular injection of 20 mg/kg sodium nitrite will form 20% methemoglobin at a rapid rate; however, in the presence of acute cyanide intoxication the associated severe bradycardia appears to limit the rate of absorption of sodium nitrite from the intramuscular site which prevents the rapid formation of sufficient methemoglobin to counteract cyanide intoxication.
GBL-2D Version 1.0: a 2D geometry boolean library.
McBride, Cory L. (Elemental Technologies, American Fort, UT); Schmidt, Rodney Cannon; Yarberry, Victor R.; Meyers, Ray J.
2006-11-01
This report describes version 1.0 of GBL-2D, a geometric Boolean library for 2D objects. The library is written in C++ and consists of a set of classes and routines. The classes primarily represent geometric data and relationships. Classes are provided for 2D points, lines, arcs, edge uses, loops, surfaces and mask sets. The routines contain algorithms for geometric Boolean operations and utility functions. Routines are provided that incorporate the Boolean operations: Union(OR), XOR, Intersection and Difference. A variety of additional analytical geometry routines and routines for importing and exporting the data in various file formats are also provided. The GBL-2D library was originally developed as a geometric modeling engine for use with a separate software tool, called SummitView [1], that manipulates the 2D mask sets created by designers of Micro-Electro-Mechanical Systems (MEMS). However, many other practical applications for this type of software can be envisioned because the need to perform 2D Boolean operations can arise in many contexts.
Periodically sheared 2D Yukawa systems
Kovács, Anikó Zsuzsa; Hartmann, Peter; Donkó, Zoltán
2015-10-15
We present non-equilibrium molecular dynamics simulation studies on the dynamic (complex) shear viscosity of a 2D Yukawa system. We have identified a non-monotonic frequency dependence of the viscosity at high frequencies and shear rates, an energy absorption maximum (local resonance) at the Einstein frequency of the system at medium shear rates, an enhanced collective wave activity, when the excitation is near the plateau frequency of the longitudinal wave dispersion, and the emergence of significant configurational anisotropy at small frequencies and high shear rates.
ENERGY LANDSCAPE OF 2D FLUID FORMS
Y. JIANG; ET AL
2000-04-01
The equilibrium states of 2D non-coarsening fluid foams, which consist of bubbles with fixed areas, correspond to local minima of the total perimeter. (1) The authors find an approximate value of the global minimum, and determine directly from an image how far a foam is from its ground state. (2) For (small) area disorder, small bubbles tend to sort inwards and large bubbles outwards. (3) Topological charges of the same sign repel while charges of opposite sign attract. (4) They discuss boundary conditions and the uniqueness of the pattern for fixed topology.
Quantum Simulation with 2D Arrays of Trapped Ions
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Richerme, Philip
2016-05-01
The computational difficulty of solving fully quantum many-body spin problems is a significant obstacle to understanding the behavior of strongly correlated quantum matter. This work proposes the design and construction of a 2D quantum spin simulator to investigate the physics of frustrated materials, highly entangled states, mechanisms potentially underpinning high-temperature superconductivity, and other topics inaccessible to current 1D systems. The effective quantum spins will be encoded within the well-isolated electronic levels of trapped ions, confined in a two-dimensional planar geometry, and made to interact using phonon-mediated optical dipole forces. The system will be scalable to 100+ quantum particles, far beyond the realm of classical intractability, while maintaining individual-ion control, long quantum coherence times, and site-resolved projective spin measurements. Once constructed, the two-dimensional quantum simulator will implement a broad range of spin models on a variety of reconfigurable lattices and characterize their behavior through measurements of spin-spin correlations and entanglement. This versatile tool will serve as an important experimental resource for exploring difficult quantum many-body problems in a regime where classical methods fail.
Duality Between Spin Networks and the 2D Ising Model
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Bonzom, Valentin; Costantino, Francesco; Livine, Etera R.
2016-06-01
The goal of this paper is to exhibit a deep relation between the partition function of the Ising model on a planar trivalent graph and the generating series of the spin network evaluations on the same graph. We provide respectively a fermionic and a bosonic Gaussian integral formulation for each of these functions and we show that they are the inverse of each other (up to some explicit constants) by exhibiting a supersymmetry relating the two formulations. We investigate three aspects and applications of this duality. First, we propose higher order supersymmetric theories that couple the geometry of the spin networks to the Ising model and for which supersymmetric localization still holds. Secondly, after interpreting the generating function of spin network evaluations as the projection of a coherent state of loop quantum gravity onto the flat connection state, we find the probability distribution induced by that coherent state on the edge spins and study its stationary phase approximation. It is found that the stationary points correspond to the critical values of the couplings of the 2D Ising model, at least for isoradial graphs. Third, we analyze the mapping of the correlations of the Ising model to spin network observables, and describe the phase transition on those observables on the hexagonal lattice. This opens the door to many new possibilities, especially for the study of the coarse-graining and continuum limit of spin networks in the context of quantum gravity.
Cooperative dynamics in ultrasoft 2D crystals
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Sprakel, Joris; van der Meer, Berend; Dijkstra, Marjolein; van der Gucht, Jasper
2015-03-01
The creation, annihilation, and diffusion of defects in crystal lattices play an important role during crystal melting and deformation. Although it is well understood how defects form and react when crystals are subjected to external stresses, it remains unclear how crystals cope with internal stresses. We report a study in which we create a highly localized internal stress, by means of optical tweezing, in a crystal formed from micrometer-sized colloidal spheres and directly observe how the solid reacts using microscopy. We find that, even though the excitation is highly localized, a collective dance of colloidal particles results; these collective modes take the form of closed rings or open-ended strings, depending on the sequence of events which nucleate the rearrangements. Surprisingly, we find from Brownian Dynamics simulations that these cooperative dynamics are thermally-activated modes inherent to the crystal, and can even occur through a single, sufficiently large thermal fluctuation, resulting in the irreversible displacement of 100s of particles from their lattice sites.
Superfluid density through 2D superconductor junctions
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Nam, Hyoungdo; Shih, Chih-Kang
As S. Qin et al. reported, two monolayer (2 ML) lead film on a silicon (111) substrate has one of two different atomic structures on the silicon substrate: the unstrained 1x1 and the psedumorphically strained √3x √3 (i.e. the same lattice constant as the Si √3x √3 lattice). Most interestingly, although these two different regions show the same quantum well state features, they have different Tc's (5 K and 4 K). These two different regions of 2 ML film naturally form superconductor-superconductor (SS or SS') junctions along silicon step edges. Physical connection of the junction is only 1 ML thickness because of the step height difference of substrate. We will present this study of SS (or SS') junction system using scanning tunneling microscopy/spectroscopy and in-situ double-coil mutual inductance measurement. The transition of superconducting gaps across either SS or SS' junctions should show how to locally affect each other. Double coil measurement show a global Tc close to the lower Tc region with sizable superfluid density. We will discuss the phase rigidity and its relationship to the superfluid density in this ultra-thin Pb film that is only 2 ML thick.
WFR-2D: an analytical model for PWAS-generated 2D ultrasonic guided wave propagation
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Shen, Yanfeng; Giurgiutiu, Victor
2014-03-01
This paper presents WaveFormRevealer 2-D (WFR-2D), an analytical predictive tool for the simulation of 2-D ultrasonic guided wave propagation and interaction with damage. The design of structural health monitoring (SHM) systems and self-aware smart structures requires the exploration of a wide range of parameters to achieve best detection and quantification of certain types of damage. Such need for parameter exploration on sensor dimension, location, guided wave characteristics (mode type, frequency, wavelength, etc.) can be best satisfied with analytical models which are fast and efficient. The analytical model was constructed based on the exact 2-D Lamb wave solution using Bessel and Hankel functions. Damage effects were inserted in the model by considering the damage as a secondary wave source with complex-valued directivity scattering coefficients containing both amplitude and phase information from wave-damage interaction. The analytical procedure was coded with MATLAB, and a predictive simulation tool called WaveFormRevealer 2-D was developed. The wave-damage interaction coefficients (WDICs) were extracted from harmonic analysis of local finite element model (FEM) with artificial non-reflective boundaries (NRB). The WFR-2D analytical simulation results were compared and verified with full scale multiphysics finite element models and experiments with scanning laser vibrometer. First, Lamb wave propagation in a pristine aluminum plate was simulated with WFR-2D, compared with finite element results, and verified by experiments. Then, an inhomogeneity was machined into the plate to represent damage. Analytical modeling was carried out, and verified by finite element simulation and experiments. This paper finishes with conclusions and suggestions for future work.
Li, Changzhao; Srivastava, Ritesh K; Weng, Zhiping; Croutch, Claire R; Agarwal, Anupam; Elmets, Craig A; Afaq, Farrukh; Athar, Mohammad
2016-10-01
Lewisite is a potent arsenic-based chemical warfare agent known to induce painful cutaneous inflammation and blistering. Only a few modestly effective antidotes have so far been described in the literature. However, the discovery of effective antidotes for lewisite was hampered by the paucity of the exact molecular mechanism underlying its cutaneous pathogenesis. We investigated the molecular mechanism underlying lewisite-induced cutaneous blistering and inflammation and describe its novel antidotes. On the basis of our initial screening, we used a highly sensitive murine model that recapitulates the known human pathogenesis of arsenicals-induced cutaneous inflammation and blistering. Topically administered lewisite induced potent acute inflammation and microvesication in the skin of Ptch1(+/-)/SKH-1 mice. Even at a very low dose, lewisite up-regulates unfolded protein response signaling, inflammatory response, and apoptosis. These cutaneous lesions were associated with production of reactive oxygen species and extensive apoptosis of the epidermal keratinocytes. We confirmed that activation of reactive oxygen species-dependent unfolded protein response signaling is the underlying molecular mechanism of skin damage. Similar alterations were noticed in lewisite-treated cultured human skin keratinocytes. We discovered that chemical chaperone 4-phenyl butyric acid and antioxidant N-acetylcysteine, which significantly attenuate lewisite-mediated skin injury, can serve as potent antidotes. These data reveal a novel molecular mechanism underlying the cutaneous pathogenesis of lewisite-induced lesions. We also identified novel potential therapeutic targets for lewisite-mediated cutaneous injury. PMID:27528504
Hamad, Eike; Babu, Kavita; Bebarta, Vikhyat S
2016-06-01
Cyanide toxicity is common after significant smoke inhalation. Two cases are presented that provide framework for the discussion of epidemiology, pathogenesis, presenting signs and symptoms, and treatment options of inhalational cyanide poisoning. An evidence-based algorithm is proposed that utilizes point-of-care testing to help physicians identify patients who benefit most from antidotal therapy.
Microwave Assisted 2D Materials Exfoliation
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Wang, Yanbin
Two-dimensional materials have emerged as extremely important materials with applications ranging from energy and environmental science to electronics and biology. Here we report our discovery of a universal, ultrafast, green, solvo-thermal technology for producing excellent-quality, few-layered nanosheets in liquid phase from well-known 2D materials such as such hexagonal boron nitride (h-BN), graphite, and MoS2. We start by mixing the uniform bulk-layered material with a common organic solvent that matches its surface energy to reduce the van der Waals attractive interactions between the layers; next, the solutions are heated in a commercial microwave oven to overcome the energy barrier between bulk and few-layers states. We discovered the minutes-long rapid exfoliation process is highly temperature dependent, which requires precise thermal management to obtain high-quality inks. We hypothesize a possible mechanism of this proposed solvo-thermal process; our theory confirms the basis of this novel technique for exfoliation of high-quality, layered 2D materials by using an as yet unknown role of the solvent.
Multienzyme Inkjet Printed 2D Arrays.
Gdor, Efrat; Shemesh, Shay; Magdassi, Shlomo; Mandler, Daniel
2015-08-19
The use of printing to produce 2D arrays is well established, and should be relatively facile to adapt for the purpose of printing biomaterials; however, very few studies have been published using enzyme solutions as inks. Among the printing technologies, inkjet printing is highly suitable for printing biomaterials and specifically enzymes, as it offers many advantages. Formulation of the inkjet inks is relatively simple and can be adjusted to a variety of biomaterials, while providing nonharmful environment to the enzymes. Here we demonstrate the applicability of inkjet printing for patterning multiple enzymes in a predefined array in a very straightforward, noncontact method. Specifically, various arrays of the enzymes glucose oxidase (GOx), invertase (INV) and horseradish peroxidase (HP) were printed on aminated glass surfaces, followed by immobilization using glutardialdehyde after printing. Scanning electrochemical microscopy (SECM) was used for imaging the printed patterns and to ascertain the enzyme activity. The successful formation of 2D arrays consisting of enzymes was explored as a means of developing the first surface confined enzyme based logic gates. Principally, XOR and AND gates, each consisting of two enzymes as the Boolean operators, were assembled, and their operation was studied by SECM. PMID:26214072
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kuramashi, Yoshinobu
2007-12-01
Preface -- Fixed point actions, symmetries and symmetry transformations on the lattice / P. Hasenfratz -- Algorithms for dynamical fennions / A. D. Kennedy -- Applications of chiral perturbation theory to lattice QCD / Stephen R. Sharpe -- Lattice QCD with a chiral twist / S. Sint -- Non-perturbative QCD: renormalization, O(A) - Improvement and matching to Heavy Quark effective theory / Rainer Sommer.
2-D or not 2-D, that is the question: A Northern California test
Mayeda, K; Malagnini, L; Phillips, W S; Walter, W R; Dreger, D
2005-06-06
Reliable estimates of the seismic source spectrum are necessary for accurate magnitude, yield, and energy estimation. In particular, how seismic radiated energy scales with increasing earthquake size has been the focus of recent debate within the community and has direct implications on earthquake source physics studies as well as hazard mitigation. The 1-D coda methodology of Mayeda et al. has provided the lowest variance estimate of the source spectrum when compared against traditional approaches that use direct S-waves, thus making it ideal for networks that have sparse station distribution. The 1-D coda methodology has been mostly confined to regions of approximately uniform complexity. For larger, more geophysically complicated regions, 2-D path corrections may be required. The complicated tectonics of the northern California region coupled with high quality broadband seismic data provides for an ideal ''apples-to-apples'' test of 1-D and 2-D path assumptions on direct waves and their coda. Using the same station and event distribution, we compared 1-D and 2-D path corrections and observed the following results: (1) 1-D coda results reduced the amplitude variance relative to direct S-waves by roughly a factor of 8 (800%); (2) Applying a 2-D correction to the coda resulted in up to 40% variance reduction from the 1-D coda results; (3) 2-D direct S-wave results, though better than 1-D direct waves, were significantly worse than the 1-D coda. We found that coda-based moment-rate source spectra derived from the 2-D approach were essentially identical to those from the 1-D approach for frequencies less than {approx}0.7-Hz, however for the high frequencies (0.7{le} f {le} 8.0-Hz), the 2-D approach resulted in inter-station scatter that was generally 10-30% smaller. For complex regions where data are plentiful, a 2-D approach can significantly improve upon the simple 1-D assumption. In regions where only 1-D coda correction is available it is still preferable over 2
Canard configured aircraft with 2-D nozzle
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Child, R. D.; Henderson, W. P.
1978-01-01
A closely-coupled canard fighter with vectorable two-dimensional nozzle was designed for enhanced transonic maneuvering. The HiMAT maneuver goal of a sustained 8g turn at a free-stream Mach number of 0.9 and 30,000 feet was the primary design consideration. The aerodynamic design process was initiated with a linear theory optimization minimizing the zero percent suction drag including jet effects and refined with three-dimensional nonlinear potential flow techniques. Allowances were made for mutual interference and viscous effects. The design process to arrive at the resultant configuration is described, and the design of a powered 2-D nozzle model to be tested in the LRC 16-foot Propulsion Wind Tunnel is shown.
2D Electrostatic Actuation of Microshutter Arrays
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Burns, Devin E.; Oh, Lance H.; Li, Mary J.; Kelly, Daniel P.; Kutyrev, Alexander S.; Moseley, Samuel H.
2015-01-01
Electrostatically actuated microshutter arrays consisting of rotational microshutters (shutters that rotate about a torsion bar) were designed and fabricated through the use of models and experiments. Design iterations focused on minimizing the torsional stiffness of the microshutters, while maintaining their structural integrity. Mechanical and electromechanical test systems were constructed to measure the static and dynamic behavior of the microshutters. The torsional stiffness was reduced by a factor of four over initial designs without sacrificing durability. Analysis of the resonant behavior of the microshutters demonstrates that the first resonant mode is a torsional mode occurring around 3000 Hz. At low vacuum pressures, this resonant mode can be used to significantly reduce the drive voltage necessary for actuation requiring as little as 25V. 2D electrostatic latching and addressing was demonstrated using both a resonant and pulsed addressing scheme.
2D Electrostatic Actuation of Microshutter Arrays
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Burns, Devin E.; Oh, Lance H.; Li, Mary J.; Jones, Justin S.; Kelly, Daniel P.; Zheng, Yun; Kutyrev, Alexander S.; Moseley, Samuel H.
2015-01-01
An electrostatically actuated microshutter array consisting of rotational microshutters (shutters that rotate about a torsion bar) were designed and fabricated through the use of models and experiments. Design iterations focused on minimizing the torsional stiffness of the microshutters, while maintaining their structural integrity. Mechanical and electromechanical test systems were constructed to measure the static and dynamic behavior of the microshutters. The torsional stiffness was reduced by a factor of four over initial designs without sacrificing durability. Analysis of the resonant behavior of the microshutter arrays demonstrates that the first resonant mode is a torsional mode occurring around 3000 Hz. At low vacuum pressures, this resonant mode can be used to significantly reduce the drive voltage necessary for actuation requiring as little as 25V. 2D electrostatic latching and addressing was demonstrated using both a resonant and pulsed addressing scheme.
2D quantum gravity from quantum entanglement.
Gliozzi, F
2011-01-21
In quantum systems with many degrees of freedom the replica method is a useful tool to study the entanglement of arbitrary spatial regions. We apply it in a way that allows them to backreact. As a consequence, they become dynamical subsystems whose position, form, and extension are determined by their interaction with the whole system. We analyze, in particular, quantum spin chains described at criticality by a conformal field theory. Its coupling to the Gibbs' ensemble of all possible subsystems is relevant and drives the system into a new fixed point which is argued to be that of the 2D quantum gravity coupled to this system. Numerical experiments on the critical Ising model show that the new critical exponents agree with those predicted by the formula of Knizhnik, Polyakov, and Zamolodchikov.
Graphene suspensions for 2D printing
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Soots, R. A.; Yakimchuk, E. A.; Nebogatikova, N. A.; Kotin, I. A.; Antonova, I. V.
2016-04-01
It is shown that, by processing a graphite suspension in ethanol or water by ultrasound and centrifuging, it is possible to obtain particles with thicknesses within 1-6 nm and, in the most interesting cases, 1-1.5 nm. Analogous treatment of a graphite suspension in organic solvent yields eventually thicker particles (up to 6-10 nm thick) even upon long-term treatment. Using the proposed ink based on graphene and aqueous ethanol with ethylcellulose and terpineol additives for 2D printing, thin (~5 nm thick) films with sheet resistance upon annealing ~30 MΩ/□ were obtained. With the ink based on aqueous graphene suspension, the sheet resistance was ~5-12 kΩ/□ for 6- to 15-nm-thick layers with a carrier mobility of ~30-50 cm2/(V s).
Some properties of correlations of quantum lattice systems in thermal equilibrium
Fröhlich, Jürg; Ueltschi, Daniel
2015-05-15
Simple proofs of uniqueness of the thermodynamic limit of KMS states and of the decay of equilibrium correlations are presented for a large class of quantum lattice systems at high temperatures. New quantum correlation inequalities for general Heisenberg models are described. Finally, a simplified derivation of a general result on power-law decay of correlations in 2D quantum lattice systems with continuous symmetries is given, extending results of McBryan and Spencer for the 2D classical XY model.
Gaedigk, Andrea; Bradford, L Dianne; Alander, Sarah W; Leeder, J Steven
2006-04-01
Unexplained cases of CYP2D6 genotype/phenotype discordance continue to be discovered. In previous studies, several African Americans with a poor metabolizer phenotype carried the reduced function CYP2D6*10 allele in combination with a nonfunctional allele. We pursued the possibility that these alleles harbor either a known sequence variation (i.e., CYP2D6*36 carrying a gene conversion in exon 9 along the CYP2D6*10-defining 100C>T single-nucleotide polymorphism) or novel sequences variation(s). Discordant cases were evaluated by long-range polymerase chain reaction (PCR) to test for gene rearrangement events, and a 6.6-kilobase pair PCR product encompassing the CYP2D6 gene was cloned and entirely sequenced. Thereafter, allele frequencies were determined in different study populations comprising whites, African Americans, and Asians. Analyses covering the CYP2D7 to 2D6 gene region established that CYP2D6*36 did not only exist as a gene duplication (CYP2D6*36x2) or in tandem with *10 (CYP2D6*36+*10), as previously reported, but also by itself. This "single" CYP2D6*36 allele was found in nine African Americans and one Asian, but was absent in the whites tested. Ultimately, the presence of CYP2D6*36 resolved genotype/phenotype discordance in three cases. We also discovered an exon 9 conversion-positive CYP2D6*4 gene in a duplication arrangement (CYP2D6*4Nx2) and a CYP2D6*4 allele lacking 100C>T (CYP2D6*4M) in two white subjects. The discovery of an allele that carries only one CYP2D6*36 gene copy provides unequivocal evidence that both CYP2D6*36 and *36x2 are associated with a poor metabolizer phenotype. Given a combined frequency of between 0.5 and 3% in African Americans and Asians, genotyping for CYP2D6*36 should improve the accuracy of genotype-based phenotype prediction in these populations.
Liu, Yang; Du, Juanjuan; Yan, Ming; Lau, Mo Yin; Hu, Jay; Han, Hui; Yang, Otto O.; Liang, Sheng; Wei, Wei; Wang, Hui; Li, Jianmin; Zhu, Xinyuan; Shi, Linqi; Chen, Wei; Ji, Cheng; Lu, Yunfeng
2013-01-01
Organisms have sophisticated subcellular compartments containing enzymes that function in tandem. These confined compartments ensure effective chemical transformation and transport of molecules, and the elimination of toxic metabolic wastes1,2. Creating functional enzyme complexes that are confined in a similar way remains challenging. Here we show that two or more enzymes with complementary functions can be assembled and encapsulated within a thin polymer shell to form enzyme nanocomplexes. These nanocomplexes exhibit improved catalytic efficiency and enhanced stability when compared with free enzymes. Furthermore, the co-localized enzymes display complementary functions, whereby toxic intermediates generated by one enzyme can be promptly eliminated by another enzyme. We show that nanocomplexes containing alcohol oxidase and catalase could reduce blood alcohol levels in intoxicated mice, offering an alternative antidote and prophylactic for alcohol intoxication. PMID:23416793
Satav, Sunita S; Bhat, Shreedhar; Thayumanavan, S
2010-07-12
A possible approach to handling the harmful side effects of an analgesic overdose, without losing its therapeutic potential, involves feedback regulated delivery of an antidote. For example, overdose of morphine causes hypoventilation, an inadequate ventilation to perform gas exchanges in lungs leading to increased CO2 concentration in the blood. Taking advantage of CO2 as a toxicity marker, a hydrogel-based delivery vehicle containing dimethylamino groups [poly(N,N-dimethylaminoethyl methacrylate) cross-linked by trimethylolpropane trimethacrylate] was designed. Stimulus controlled swelling of these hydrogels in naloxone delivery is discussed. A remarkable control over naloxone release was achieved against the concentration of the biomarker. The overall stimuli response of the gel could be enhanced further by encapsulating carbonic anhydrase, a metalloenzyme known to catalyze the reversible hydration of CO2. Thus, a feedback regulated drug delivery vehicle based on toxicity biomarker strategy was modeled successfully, which has the potential to mitigate risks associated with drug overdose.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Liu, Yang; Du, Juanjuan; Yan, Ming; Lau, Mo Yin; Hu, Jay; Han, Hui; Yang, Otto O.; Liang, Sheng; Wei, Wei; Wang, Hui; Li, Jianmin; Zhu, Xinyuan; Shi, Linqi; Chen, Wei; Ji, Cheng; Lu, Yunfeng
2013-03-01
Organisms have sophisticated subcellular compartments containing enzymes that function in tandem. These confined compartments ensure effective chemical transformation and transport of molecules, and the elimination of toxic metabolic wastes. Creating functional enzyme complexes that are confined in a similar way remains challenging. Here we show that two or more enzymes with complementary functions can be assembled and encapsulated within a thin polymer shell to form enzyme nanocomplexes. These nanocomplexes exhibit improved catalytic efficiency and enhanced stability when compared with free enzymes. Furthermore, the co-localized enzymes display complementary functions, whereby toxic intermediates generated by one enzyme can be promptly eliminated by another enzyme. We show that nanocomplexes containing alcohol oxidase and catalase could reduce blood alcohol levels in intoxicated mice, offering an alternative antidote and prophylactic for alcohol intoxication.
N-acetylcysteine - a safe antidote for cysteine/glutathione deficiency
Atkuri, Kondala R.; Mantovani, John J.; Herzenberg, Leonard A.; Herzenberg, Leonore A.
2015-01-01
Glutathione (GSH) deficiency is associated with numerous pathlogical conditions. Administration of N-acetylcysteine (NAC), a cysteine prodrug, replenishes intracellular GSH levels. NAC, best known for it ability to counter acetaminophen toxicity, is a safe well-tolerated antidote for cysteine/GSH deficiency. NAC has been used successfully to treat GSH deficiency in a wide range of infections, genetics defects and metabolic disorders, including HIV infection and COPD. Over two-thirds of 46 placebo-controlled clinical trials with orally administered NAC have indicated beneficial effects of NAC measured either as trial end-points or as general measures of improvement in quality of life and well being of the patients. PMID:17602868
A breakthrough on Amanita phalloides poisoning: an effective antidotal effect by polymyxin B.
Garcia, Juliana; Costa, Vera Marisa; Carvalho, Alexandra T P; Silvestre, Ricardo; Duarte, José Alberto; Dourado, Daniel F A R; Arbo, Marcelo D; Baltazar, Teresa; Dinis-Oliveira, Ricardo Jorge; Baptista, Paula; de Lourdes Bastos, Maria; Carvalho, Félix
2015-12-01
Amanita phalloides is responsible for more than 90 % of mushroom-related fatalities, and no effective antidote is available. α-Amanitin, the main toxin of A. phalloides, inhibits RNA polymerase II (RNAP II), causing hepatic and kidney failure. In silico studies included docking and molecular dynamics simulation coupled to molecular mechanics with generalized Born and surface area method energy decomposition on RNAP II. They were performed with a clinical drug that shares chemical similarities to α-amanitin, polymyxin B. The results show that polymyxin B potentially binds to RNAP II in the same interface of α-amanitin, preventing the toxin from binding to RNAP II. In vivo, the inhibition of the mRNA transcripts elicited by α-amanitin was efficiently reverted by polymyxin B in the kidneys. Moreover, polymyxin B significantly decreased the hepatic and renal α-amanitin-induced injury as seen by the histology and hepatic aminotransferases plasma data. In the survival assay, all animals exposed to α-amanitin died within 5 days, whereas 50 % survived up to 30 days when polymyxin B was administered 4, 8, and 12 h post-α-amanitin. Moreover, a single dose of polymyxin B administered concomitantly with α-amanitin was able to guarantee 100 % survival. Polymyxin B protects RNAP II from inactivation leading to an effective prevention of organ damage and increasing survival in α-amanitin-treated animals. The present use of clinically relevant concentrations of an already human-use-approved drug prompts the use of polymyxin B as an antidote for A. phalloides poisoning in humans.
Two-dimensional B-C-O alloys: a promising class of 2D materials for electronic devices.
Zhou, Si; Zhao, Jijun
2016-04-28
Graphene, a superior 2D material with high carrier mobility, has limited application in electronic devices due to zero band gap. In this regard, boron and nitrogen atoms have been integrated into the graphene lattice to fabricate 2D semiconducting heterostructures. It is an intriguing question whether oxygen can, as a replacement of nitrogen, enter the sp2 honeycomb lattice and form stable B-C-O monolayer structures. Here we explore the atomic structures, energetic and thermodynamic stability, and electronic properties of various 2D B-C-O alloys using first-principles calculations. Our results show that oxygen can be stably incorporated into the graphene lattice by bonding with boron. The B and O species favor forming alternate patterns into the chain- or ring-like structures embedded in the pristine graphene regions. These B-C-O hybrid sheets can be either metals or semiconductors depending on the B : O ratio. The semiconducting (B2O)nCm and (B6O3)nCm phases exist under the B- and O-rich conditions, and possess a tunable band gap of 1.0-3.8 eV and high carrier mobility, retaining ∼1000 cm2 V(-1) s(-1) even for half coverage of B and O atoms. These B-C-O alloys form a new class of 2D materials that are promising candidates for high-speed electronic devices.
A new inversion method for (T2, D) 2D NMR logging and fluid typing
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Tan, Maojin; Zou, Youlong; Zhou, Cancan
2013-02-01
One-dimensional nuclear magnetic resonance (1D NMR) logging technology has some significant limitations in fluid typing. However, not only can two-dimensional nuclear magnetic resonance (2D NMR) provide some accurate porosity parameters, but it can also identify fluids more accurately than 1D NMR. In this paper, based on the relaxation mechanism of (T2, D) 2D NMR in a gradient magnetic field, a hybrid inversion method that combines least-squares-based QR decomposition (LSQR) and truncated singular value decomposition (TSVD) is examined in the 2D NMR inversion of various fluid models. The forward modeling and inversion tests are performed in detail with different acquisition parameters, such as magnetic field gradients (G) and echo spacing (TE) groups. The simulated results are discussed and described in detail, the influence of the above-mentioned observation parameters on the inversion accuracy is investigated and analyzed, and the observation parameters in multi-TE activation are optimized. Furthermore, the hybrid inversion can be applied to quantitatively determine the fluid saturation. To study the effects of noise level on the hybrid method and inversion results, the numerical simulation experiments are performed using different signal-to-noise-ratios (SNRs), and the effect of different SNRs on fluid typing using three fluid models are discussed and analyzed in detail.
Incommensurate lattice modulations in Potassium Vanadate
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Chakoumakos, Bryan; Banerjee, Arnab; Mark, Lumsden; Cao, Huibo; Kim, Jong-Woo; Hoffman, Christina; Wang, Xiaoping
Potassium Vanadate (K2V3O8) is an S = 1/2 2D square lattice antiferromagnet that shows spin reorientation indicating a strong coupling between the magnetism and its dielectric properties with a promise of rich physics that promises multiferroicity. These tangible physical properties are strongly tied through a spin-lattice coupling to the underlying lattice and superlattice behavior. It has a superlattice (SL) onsetting below Tc = 115 K with an approximate [3 x 3 x 2] modulation. Here we present our recent experiments at TOPAZ beamline at SNS which for the first time proves conclusively that the lattice modulations are incommensurate, with an in-plane Q of 0.315. We will also show our attempts to refine the data using JANA which requires a redefinition of the lattice, as well as the temperature and Q dependence of the superlattice modulation measured using neutrons at HFIR and synchrotron x-rays at APS. Our results are not only relevant for the ongoing search of multifunctional behavior in K2V3O8 but also generally for the superlattice modulations observed in a large family of fresnoites. Work performed at ORNL and ANL is supported by U.S. Dept. of Energy, Office of Basic Energy Sciences and Office of User Facilities Division.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Cheng, Chingyun; Kangara, Jayampathi; Arakelyan, Ilya; Thomas, John
2016-05-01
We tune the dimensionality of a strongly interacting degenerate 6 Li Fermi gas from 2D to quasi-2D, by adjusting the radial confinement of pancake-shaped clouds to control the radial chemical potential. In the 2D regime with weak radial confinement, the measured pair binding energies are in agreement with 2D-BCS mean field theory, which predicts dimer pairing energies in the many-body regime. In the qausi-2D regime obtained with increased radial confinement, the measured pairing energy deviates significantly from 2D-BCS theory. In contrast to the pairing energy, the measured radii of the cloud profiles are not fit by 2D-BCS theory in either the 2D or quasi-2D regimes, but are fit in both regimes by a beyond mean field polaron-model of the free energy. Supported by DOE, ARO, NSF, and AFOSR.
A lattice-Boltzmann scheme of the Navier-Stokes equations on a 3D cuboid lattice
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Min, Haoda; Peng, Cheng; Wang, Lian-Ping
2015-11-01
The standard lattice-Boltzmann method (LBM) for fluid flow simulation is based on a square (in 2D) or cubic (in 3D) lattice grids. Recently, two new lattice Boltzmann schemes have been developed on a 2D rectangular grid using the MRT (multiple-relaxation-time) collision model, by adding a free parameter in the definition of moments or by extending the equilibrium moments. Here we developed a lattice Boltzmann model on 3D cuboid lattice, namely, a lattice grid with different grid lengths in different spatial directions. We designed our MRT-LBM model by matching the moment equations from the Chapman-Enskog expansion with the Navier-Stokes equations. The model guarantees correct hydrodynamics. A second-order term is added to the equilibrium moments in order to restore the isotropy of viscosity on a cuboid lattice. The form and the coefficients of the extended equilibrium moments are determined through an inverse design process. An additional benefit of the model is that the viscosity can be adjusted independent of the stress-moment relaxation parameter, thus improving the numerical stability of the model. The resulting cuboid MRT-LBM model is then validated through benchmark simulations using laminar channel flow, turbulent channel flow, and the 3D Taylor-Green vortex flow.
Competing coexisting phases in 2D water
Zanotti, Jean-Marc; Judeinstein, Patrick; Dalla-Bernardina, Simona; Creff, Gaëlle; Brubach, Jean-Blaise; Roy, Pascale; Bonetti, Marco; Ollivier, Jacques; Sakellariou, Dimitrios; Bellissent-Funel, Marie-Claire
2016-01-01
The properties of bulk water come from a delicate balance of interactions on length scales encompassing several orders of magnitudes: i) the Hydrogen Bond (HBond) at the molecular scale and ii) the extension of this HBond network up to the macroscopic level. Here, we address the physics of water when the three dimensional extension of the HBond network is frustrated, so that the water molecules are forced to organize in only two dimensions. We account for the large scale fluctuating HBond network by an analytical mean-field percolation model. This approach provides a coherent interpretation of the different events experimentally (calorimetry, neutron, NMR, near and far infra-red spectroscopies) detected in interfacial water at 160, 220 and 250 K. Starting from an amorphous state of water at low temperature, these transitions are respectively interpreted as the onset of creation of transient low density patches of 4-HBonded molecules at 160 K, the percolation of these domains at 220 K and finally the total invasion of the surface by them at 250 K. The source of this surprising behaviour in 2D is the frustration of the natural bulk tetrahedral local geometry and the underlying very significant increase in entropy of the interfacial water molecules. PMID:27185018
Phase Engineering of 2D Tin Sulfides.
Mutlu, Zafer; Wu, Ryan J; Wickramaratne, Darshana; Shahrezaei, Sina; Liu, Chueh; Temiz, Selcuk; Patalano, Andrew; Ozkan, Mihrimah; Lake, Roger K; Mkhoyan, K A; Ozkan, Cengiz S
2016-06-01
Tin sulfides can exist in a variety of phases and polytypes due to the different oxidation states of Sn. A subset of these phases and polytypes take the form of layered 2D structures that give rise to a wide host of electronic and optical properties. Hence, achieving control over the phase, polytype, and thickness of tin sulfides is necessary to utilize this wide range of properties exhibited by the compound. This study reports on phase-selective growth of both hexagonal tin (IV) sulfide SnS2 and orthorhombic tin (II) sulfide SnS crystals with diameters of over tens of microns on SiO2 substrates through atmospheric pressure vapor-phase method in a conventional horizontal quartz tube furnace with SnO2 and S powders as the source materials. Detailed characterization of each phase of tin sulfide crystals is performed using various microscopy and spectroscopy methods, and the results are corroborated by ab initio density functional theory calculations. PMID:27099950
Phase Engineering of 2D Tin Sulfides.
Mutlu, Zafer; Wu, Ryan J; Wickramaratne, Darshana; Shahrezaei, Sina; Liu, Chueh; Temiz, Selcuk; Patalano, Andrew; Ozkan, Mihrimah; Lake, Roger K; Mkhoyan, K A; Ozkan, Cengiz S
2016-06-01
Tin sulfides can exist in a variety of phases and polytypes due to the different oxidation states of Sn. A subset of these phases and polytypes take the form of layered 2D structures that give rise to a wide host of electronic and optical properties. Hence, achieving control over the phase, polytype, and thickness of tin sulfides is necessary to utilize this wide range of properties exhibited by the compound. This study reports on phase-selective growth of both hexagonal tin (IV) sulfide SnS2 and orthorhombic tin (II) sulfide SnS crystals with diameters of over tens of microns on SiO2 substrates through atmospheric pressure vapor-phase method in a conventional horizontal quartz tube furnace with SnO2 and S powders as the source materials. Detailed characterization of each phase of tin sulfide crystals is performed using various microscopy and spectroscopy methods, and the results are corroborated by ab initio density functional theory calculations.
Competing coexisting phases in 2D water
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Zanotti, Jean-Marc; Judeinstein, Patrick; Dalla-Bernardina, Simona; Creff, Gaëlle; Brubach, Jean-Blaise; Roy, Pascale; Bonetti, Marco; Ollivier, Jacques; Sakellariou, Dimitrios; Bellissent-Funel, Marie-Claire
2016-05-01
The properties of bulk water come from a delicate balance of interactions on length scales encompassing several orders of magnitudes: i) the Hydrogen Bond (HBond) at the molecular scale and ii) the extension of this HBond network up to the macroscopic level. Here, we address the physics of water when the three dimensional extension of the HBond network is frustrated, so that the water molecules are forced to organize in only two dimensions. We account for the large scale fluctuating HBond network by an analytical mean-field percolation model. This approach provides a coherent interpretation of the different events experimentally (calorimetry, neutron, NMR, near and far infra-red spectroscopies) detected in interfacial water at 160, 220 and 250 K. Starting from an amorphous state of water at low temperature, these transitions are respectively interpreted as the onset of creation of transient low density patches of 4-HBonded molecules at 160 K, the percolation of these domains at 220 K and finally the total invasion of the surface by them at 250 K. The source of this surprising behaviour in 2D is the frustration of the natural bulk tetrahedral local geometry and the underlying very significant increase in entropy of the interfacial water molecules.
Holographic method for site-resolved detection of a 2D array of ultracold atoms
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Hoffmann, Daniel Kai; Deissler, Benjamin; Limmer, Wolfgang; Hecker Denschlag, Johannes
2016-08-01
We propose a novel approach to site-resolved detection of a 2D gas of ultracold atoms in an optical lattice. A near-resonant laser beam is coherently scattered by the atomic array, and after passing a lens its interference pattern is holographically recorded by superimposing it with a reference laser beam on a CCD chip. Fourier transformation of the recorded intensity pattern reconstructs the atomic distribution in the lattice with single-site resolution. The holographic detection method requires only about two hundred scattered photons per atom in order to achieve a high reconstruction fidelity of 99.9 %. Therefore, additional cooling during detection might not be necessary even for light atomic elements such as lithium. Furthermore, first investigations suggest that small aberrations of the lens can be post-corrected in imaging processing.
Electrochemical fabrication of 2D and 3D nickel nanowires using porous anodic alumina templates
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Mebed, A. M.; Abd-Elnaiem, Alaa M.; Al-Hosiny, Najm M.
2016-06-01
Mechanically stable nickel (Ni) nanowires array and nanowires network were synthesized by pulse electrochemical deposition using 2D and 3D porous anodic alumina (PAA) templates. The structures and morphologies of as-prepared films were characterized by X-ray diffraction and scanning electron microscopy, respectively. The grown Ni nanowire using 3D PAA revealed more strength and larger surface area than has grown Ni use 2D PAA template. The prepared nanowires have a face-centered cubic crystal structure with average grain size 15 nm, and the preferred orientation of the nucleation of the nanowires is (111). The diameter of the nanowires is about 50-70 nm with length 3 µm. The resulting 3D Ni nanowire lattice, which provides enhanced mechanical stability and an increased surface area, benefits energy storage and many other applications which utilize the large surface area.
2-D Animation's Not Just for Mickey Mouse.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Weinman, Lynda
1995-01-01
Discusses characteristics of two-dimensional (2-D) animation; highlights include character animation, painting issues, and motion graphics. Sidebars present Silicon Graphics animations tools and 2-D animation programs for the desktop computer. (DGM)
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Yue, Yang-Yang; Lu, Rong-er; Yang, Bo; Huang, Huang; Hong, Xu-Hao; Zhang, Chao; Qin, Yi-Qiang; Zhu, Yong-Yuan
2016-10-01
We take a theoretical investigation on the reciprocal property of a class of 2D nonlinear photonic quasicrystal proposed by Lifshitz et al. in PRL 95, 133901 (2005). Using the rectangular projection method, the analytical expression for the Fourier spectrum of the quasicrystal structure is obtained explicitly. It is interesting to find that the result has a similar form to the corresponding expression of the well-known 1D Fibonacci lattice. In addition, we predict a further extension of the result to higher dimensions. This work is of practical importance for the photonic device design in nonlinear optical conversion progresses.
Canonical vs. micro-canonical sampling methods in a 2D Ising model
Kepner, J.
1990-12-01
Canonical and micro-canonical Monte Carlo algorithms were implemented on a 2D Ising model. Expressions for the internal energy, U, inverse temperature, Z, and specific heat, C, are given. These quantities were calculated over a range of temperature, lattice sizes, and time steps. Both algorithms accurately simulate the Ising model. To obtain greater than three decimal accuracy from the micro-canonical method requires that the more complicated expression for Z be used. The overall difference between the algorithms is small. The physics of the problem under study should be the deciding factor in determining which algorithm to use. 13 refs., 6 figs., 2 tabs.
Zhang, Zi-Xuan; Ding, Ni-Ni; Zhang, Wen-Hua; Chen, Jin-Xiang; Young, David J; Hor, T S Andy
2014-04-25
A 2D coordination polymer prepared with bulky diethylformamide solvates exhibits channels which allow dipyridyl bridging ligands to diffuse into the crystal lattice. The absorbed dipyridyls thread through the pores of one layer and substitute the surface diethylformamide molecules on the neighboring layers to stitch alternate layers to form flexible interpenetrated metal-orgaic frameworks. The threading process also results in exchange of the bulky diethylformamide solvates for aqua to minimize congestion and, more strikingly, forces the slippage of two-dimensional layers, while still maintaining crystallinity. PMID:24692130
On Traveling Waves in Lattices: The Case of Riccati Lattices
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Dimitrova, Zlatinka
2012-09-01
The method of simplest equation is applied for analysis of a class of lattices described by differential-difference equations that admit traveling-wave solutions constructed on the basis of the solution of the Riccati equation. We denote such lattices as Riccati lattices. We search for Riccati lattices within two classes of lattices: generalized Lotka-Volterra lattices and generalized Holling lattices. We show that from the class of generalized Lotka-Volterra lattices only the Wadati lattice belongs to the class of Riccati lattices. Opposite to this many lattices from the Holling class are Riccati lattices. We construct exact traveling wave solutions on the basis of the solution of Riccati equation for three members of the class of generalized Holling lattices.
Generates 2D Input for DYNA NIKE & TOPAZ
Hallquist, J. O.; Sanford, Larry
1996-07-15
MAZE is an interactive program that serves as an input and two-dimensional mesh generator for DYNA2D, NIKE2D, TOPAZ2D, and CHEMICAL TOPAZ2D. MAZE also generates a basic template for ISLAND input. MAZE has been applied to the generation of input data to study the response of two-dimensional solids and structures undergoing finite deformations under a wide variety of large deformation transient dynamic and static problems and heat transfer analyses.
MAZE96. Generates 2D Input for DYNA NIKE & TOPAZ
Sanford, L.; Hallquist, J.O.
1992-02-24
MAZE is an interactive program that serves as an input and two-dimensional mesh generator for DYNA2D, NIKE2D, TOPAZ2D, and CHEMICAL TOPAZ2D. MAZE also generates a basic template for ISLAND input. MAZE has been applied to the generation of input data to study the response of two-dimensional solids and structures undergoing finite deformations under a wide variety of large deformation transient dynamic and static problems and heat transfer analyses.
Engineering novel optical lattices.
Windpassinger, Patrick; Sengstock, Klaus
2013-08-01
Optical lattices have developed into a widely used and highly recognized tool to study many-body quantum physics with special relevance for solid state type systems. One of the most prominent reasons for this success is the high degree of tunability in the experimental setups. While at the beginning quasi-static, cubic geometries were mainly explored, the focus of the field has now shifted toward new lattice topologies and the dynamical control of lattice structures. In this review we intend to give an overview of the progress recently achieved in this field on the experimental side. In addition, we discuss theoretical proposals exploiting specifically these novel lattice geometries. PMID:23828639
Arslan, Naheed; Khiljee, Sonia; Bakhsh, Allah; Ashraf, Muhammad; Maqsood, Iram
2016-03-01
This study was conducted to evaluate the availability of antidotes/key emergency drugs in tertiary care hospitals of the Punjab province, and to assess the knowledge of health care professionals in the stocking and administration of antidotes in the proper management of poisoning cases. Seventeen (n=17) tertiary care hospitals of Punjab Pakistan were selected. Two performas (A and B) were designed for 26 antidotes/key emergency drugs and given to the hospital pharmacists and physicians respectively. It was observed that Activated Charcoal, being the universal antidote was found only in 6 hospitals (41%). Digoxin Immune Fab, Edentate Calcium disodium and Glucagon were not available in emergency department of any hospital and even not included in the formulary of any hospital. About 80% pharmacists were aware of the method of preparation of Activated Charcoal and 85% physicians were familiar with its route of administration. Data showed that tertiary care hospitals of Punjab do not stock antidotes according to national drug policy. Moreover the study strongly suggests the development of health care centers and professional by organizing antidote awareness programs, continuous education and record keeping of poisonous cases and availability of emergency drugs around the clock. PMID:27087082
Electrostatic 2D assembly of bionanoparticles on a cationic lipid monolayer.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kewalramani, Sumit; Wang, Suntao; Fukuto, Masafumi; Yang, Lin; Niu, Zhongwei; Nguyen, Giang; Wang, Qian
2010-03-01
We present a grazing-incidence small-angle X-ray scattering (GISAXS) study on 2D assembly of cowpea mosaic virus (CPMV) under a mixed cationic-zwitterionic (DMTAP^+-DMPC) lipid monolayer at the air-water interface. The inter-particle and particle-lipid electrostatic interactions were varied by controlling the subphase pH and the membrane charge density. GISAXS data show that 2D crystals of CPMV are formed above a threshold membrane charge density and only in a narrow pH range just above CPMV's isoelectric point, where the charge on CPMV is expected to be weakly negative. The particle density for the 2D crystals is similar to that for the densest lattice plane in the 3D crystals of CPMV. The results show that the 2D crystallization is achieved in the part of the phase space where the electrostatic interactions are expected to maximize the adsorption of CPMV onto the lipid membrane. This electrostatics-based strategy for controlling interfacial nanoscale assembly should be generally applicable to other nanoparticles.
Fractal properties of the lattice Lotka-Volterra model.
Tsekouras, G A; Provata, A
2002-01-01
The lattice Lotka-Volterra (LLV) model is studied using mean-field analysis and Monte Carlo simulations. While the mean-field phase portrait consists of a center surrounded by an infinity of closed trajectories, when the process is restricted to a two-dimensional (2D) square lattice, local inhomogeneities/fluctuations appear. Spontaneous local clustering is observed on lattice and homogeneous initial distributions turn into clustered structures. Reactions take place only at the interfaces between different species and the borders adopt locally fractal structure. Intercluster surface reactions are responsible for the formation of local fluctuations of the species concentrations. The box-counting fractal dimension of the LLV dynamics on a 2D support is found to depend on the reaction constants while the upper bound of fractality determines the size of the local oscillators. Lacunarity analysis is used to determine the degree of clustering of homologous species. Besides the spontaneous clustering that takes place on a regular 2D lattice, the effects of fractal supports on the dynamics of the LLV are studied. For supports of dimensionality D(s)<2 the lattice can, for certain domains of the reaction constants, adopt a poisoned state where only one of the species survives. By appropriately selecting the fractal dimension of the substrate, it is possible to direct the system into a poisoned or oscillatory steady state at will.
2d PDE Linear Symmetric Matrix Solver
1983-10-01
ICCG2 (Incomplete Cholesky factorized Conjugate Gradient algorithm for 2d symmetric problems) was developed to solve a linear symmetric matrix system arising from a 9-point discretization of two-dimensional elliptic and parabolic partial differential equations found in plasma physics applications, such as resistive MHD, spatial diffusive transport, and phase space transport (Fokker-Planck equation) problems. These problems share the common feature of being stiff and requiring implicit solution techniques. When these parabolic or elliptic PDE''s are discretized withmore » finite-difference or finite-element methods,the resulting matrix system is frequently of block-tridiagonal form. To use ICCG2, the discretization of the two-dimensional partial differential equation and its boundary conditions must result in a block-tridiagonal supermatrix composed of elementary tridiagonal matrices. The incomplete Cholesky conjugate gradient algorithm is used to solve the linear symmetric matrix equation. Loops are arranged to vectorize on the Cray1 with the CFT compiler, wherever possible. Recursive loops, which cannot be vectorized, are written for optimum scalar speed. For matrices lacking symmetry, ILUCG2 should be used. Similar methods in three dimensions are available in ICCG3 and ILUCG3. A general source containing extensions and macros, which must be processed by a pre-compiler to obtain the standard FORTRAN source, is provided along with the standard FORTRAN source because it is believed to be more readable. The pre-compiler is not included, but pre-compilation may be performed by a text editor as described in the UCRL-88746 Preprint.« less
2d PDE Linear Asymmetric Matrix Solver
1983-10-01
ILUCG2 (Incomplete LU factorized Conjugate Gradient algorithm for 2d problems) was developed to solve a linear asymmetric matrix system arising from a 9-point discretization of two-dimensional elliptic and parabolic partial differential equations found in plasma physics applications, such as plasma diffusion, equilibria, and phase space transport (Fokker-Planck equation) problems. These equations share the common feature of being stiff and requiring implicit solution techniques. When these parabolic or elliptic PDE''s are discretized with finite-difference or finite-elementmore » methods, the resulting matrix system is frequently of block-tridiagonal form. To use ILUCG2, the discretization of the two-dimensional partial differential equation and its boundary conditions must result in a block-tridiagonal supermatrix composed of elementary tridiagonal matrices. A generalization of the incomplete Cholesky conjugate gradient algorithm is used to solve the matrix equation. Loops are arranged to vectorize on the Cray1 with the CFT compiler, wherever possible. Recursive loops, which cannot be vectorized, are written for optimum scalar speed. For problems having a symmetric matrix ICCG2 should be used since it runs up to four times faster and uses approximately 30% less storage. Similar methods in three dimensions are available in ICCG3 and ILUCG3. A general source, containing extensions and macros, which must be processed by a pre-compiler to obtain the standard FORTRAN source, is provided along with the standard FORTRAN source because it is believed to be more readable. The pre-compiler is not included, but pre-compilation may be performed by a text editor as described in the UCRL-88746 Preprint.« less
Position control using 2D-to-2D feature correspondences in vision guided cell micromanipulation.
Zhang, Yanliang; Han, Mingli; Shee, Cheng Yap; Ang, Wei Tech
2007-01-01
Conventional camera calibration that utilizes the extrinsic and intrinsic parameters of the camera and the objects has certain limitations for micro-level cell operations due to the presence of hardware deviations and external disturbances during the experimental process, thereby invalidating the extrinsic parameters. This invalidation is often neglected in macro-world visual servoing and affects the visual image processing quality, causing deviation from the desired position in micro-level cell operations. To increase the success rate of vision guided biological micromanipulations, a novel algorithm monitoring the changing image pattern of the manipulators including the injection micropipette and cell holder is designed and implemented based on 2 dimensional (2D)-to 2D feature correspondences and can adjust the manipulator and perform position control simultaneously. When any deviation is found, the manipulator is retracted to the initial focusing plane before continuing the operation.
A Planar Quantum Transistor Based on 2D-2D Tunneling in Double Quantum Well Heterostructures
Baca, W.E.; Blount, M.A.; Hafich, M.J.; Lyo, S.K.; Moon, J.S.; Reno, J.L.; Simmons, J.A.; Wendt, J.R.
1998-12-14
We report on our work on the double electron layer tunneling transistor (DELTT), based on the gate-control of two-dimensional -- two-dimensional (2D-2D) tunneling in a double quantum well heterostructure. While previous quantum transistors have typically required tiny laterally-defined features, by contrast the DELTT is entirely planar and can be reliably fabricated in large numbers. We use a novel epoxy-bond-and-stop-etch (EBASE) flip-chip process, whereby submicron gating on opposite sides of semiconductor epitaxial layers as thin as 0.24 microns can be achieved. Because both electron layers in the DELTT are 2D, the resonant tunneling features are unusually sharp, and can be easily modulated with one or more surface gates. We demonstrate DELTTs with peak-to-valley ratios in the source-drain I-V curve of order 20:1 below 1 K. Both the height and position of the resonant current peak can be controlled by gate voltage over a wide range. DELTTs with larger subband energy offsets ({approximately} 21 meV) exhibit characteristics that are nearly as good at 77 K, in good agreement with our theoretical calculations. Using these devices, we also demonstrate bistable memories operating at 77 K. Finally, we briefly discuss the prospects for room temperature operation, increases in gain, and high-speed.
'Brukin2D': a 2D visualization and comparison tool for LC-MS data
Tsagkrasoulis, Dimosthenis; Zerefos, Panagiotis; Loudos, George; Vlahou, Antonia; Baumann, Marc; Kossida, Sophia
2009-01-01
Background Liquid Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry (LC-MS) is a commonly used technique to resolve complex protein mixtures. Visualization of large data sets produced from LC-MS, namely the chromatogram and the mass spectra that correspond to its compounds is the focus of this work. Results The in-house developed 'Brukin2D' software, built in Matlab 7.4, which is presented here, uses the compound data that are exported from the Bruker 'DataAnalysis' program, and depicts the mean mass spectra of all the chromatogram compounds from one LC-MS run, in one 2D contour/density plot. Two contour plots from different chromatograph runs can then be viewed in the same window and automatically compared, in order to find their similarities and differences. The results of the comparison can be examined through detailed mass quantification tables, while chromatogram compound statistics are also calculated during the procedure. Conclusion 'Brukin2D' provides a user-friendly platform for quick, easy and integrated view of complex LC-MS data. The software is available at . PMID:19534737
Inhibition of human cytochrome P450 2D6 (CYP2D6) by methadone.
Wu, D; Otton, S V; Sproule, B A; Busto, U; Inaba, T; Kalow, W; Sellers, E M
1993-01-01
1. In microsomes prepared from three human livers, methadone competitively inhibited the O-demethylation of dextromethorphan, a marker substrate for CYP2D6. The apparent Ki value of methadone ranged from 2.5 to 5 microM. 2. Two hundred and fifty-two (252) white Caucasians, including 210 unrelated healthy volunteers and 42 opiate abusers undergoing treatment with methadone were phenotyped using dextromethorphan as the marker drug. Although the frequency of poor metabolizers was similar in both groups, the extensive metabolizers among the opiate abusers tended to have higher O-demethylation metabolic ratios and to excrete less of the dose as dextromethorphan metabolites than control extensive metabolizer subjects. These data suggest inhibition of CYP2D6 by methadone in vivo as well. 3. Because methadone is widely used in the treatment of opiate abuse, inhibition of CYP2D6 activity in these patients might contribute to exaggerated response or unexpected toxicity from drugs that are substrates of this enzyme. PMID:8448065
Quantum confinement effect in Bi anti-dot thin films with tailored pore wall widths and thicknesses
Park, Y.; Hirose, Y.; Fukumura, T.; Hasegawa, T.; Nakao, S.; Xu, J.
2014-01-13
We investigated quantum confinement effects in Bi anti-dot thin films grown on anodized aluminium oxide templates. The pore wall widths (w{sub Bi}) and thickness (t) of the films were tailored to have values longer or shorter than Fermi wavelength of Bi (λ{sub F} = ∼40 nm). Magnetoresistance measurements revealed a well-defined weak antilocalization effect below 10 K. Coherence lengths (L{sub ϕ}) as functions of temperature were derived from the magnetoresistance vs field curves by assuming the Hikami-Larkin-Nagaoka model. The anti-dot thin film with w{sub Bi} and t smaller than λ{sub F} showed low dimensional electronic behavior at low temperatures where L{sub ϕ}(T) exceed w{sub Bi} or t.
Zhou, Yungang; Yang, Ping; Zu, Haoyue; Gao, Fei; Zu, Xiaotao
2013-04-24
MoS2-based nanostructures, including atomic defect, nanohole, nanodot and antidot, are characterized with spin-polarized density functional theory. The S-vacancy defect is more likely to form than the Mo-vacancy defect due to the formation of Mo-Mo metallic bonds. Among different shaped nanoholes and nanodots, triangle ones associated with ferromagnetic characteristic are the most energetically favorable, and exhibit unexpected large spin moment that is scaled linearly with edged length.
Correlated Electron Phenomena in 2D Materials
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Lambert, Joseph G.
In this thesis, I present experimental results on coherent electron phenomena in layered two-dimensional materials: single layer graphene and van der Waals coupled 2D TiSe2. Graphene is a two-dimensional single-atom thick sheet of carbon atoms first derived from bulk graphite by the mechanical exfoliation technique in 2004. Low-energy charge carriers in graphene behave like massless Dirac fermions, and their density can be easily tuned between electron-rich and hole-rich quasiparticles with electrostatic gating techniques. The sharp interfaces between regions of different carrier densities form barriers with selective transmission, making them behave as partially reflecting mirrors. When two of these interfaces are set at a separation distance within the phase coherence length of the carriers, they form an electronic version of a Fabry-Perot cavity. I present measurements and analysis of multiple Fabry-Perot modes in graphene with parallel electrodes spaced a few hundred nanometers apart. Transition metal dichalcogenide (TMD) TiSe2 is part of the family of materials that coined the term "materials beyond graphene". It contains van der Waals coupled trilayer stacks of Se-Ti-Se. Many TMD materials exhibit a host of interesting correlated electronic phases. In particular, TiSe2 exhibits chiral charge density waves (CDW) below TCDW ˜ 200 K. Upon doping with copper, the CDW state gets suppressed with Cu concentration, and CuxTiSe2 becomes superconducting with critical temperature of T c = 4.15 K. There is still much debate over the mechanisms governing the coexistence of the two correlated electronic phases---CDW and superconductivity. I will present some of the first conductance spectroscopy measurements of proximity coupled superconductor-CDW systems. Measurements reveal a proximity-induced critical current at the Nb-TiSe2 interfaces, suggesting pair correlations in the pure TiSe2. The results indicate that superconducting order is present concurrently with CDW in
Kassa, Jiri; Pohanka, Miroslav; Timperley, Christopher M; Bird, Mike; Green, A Christopher; Tattersall, John E H
2016-06-01
The potency of the bispyridinium non-oxime compound MB327 [1,1'-(propane-1,3-diyl)bis(4-tert-butylpyridinium) diiodide] to increase the therapeutic efficacy of the standard antidotal treatment (atropine in combination with an oxime) of acute poisoning with organophosphorus nerve agents was studied in vivo. The therapeutic efficacy of atropine alone - or atropine in combination with an oxime, MB327, or both an oxime and MB237 - was evaluated by the determination of LD50 values of several nerve agents (tabun, sarin and soman) in mice with and without treatment. The addition of MB327 increased the therapeutic efficacy of atropine alone, and atropine in combination with an oxime, against all three nerve agents, although differences in the LD50 values only reached statistical significance for sarin. In conclusion, the addition of the compound MB327 to the standard antidotal treatment of acute poisonings with nerve agents was beneficial regardless of the chemical structure of the nerve agent, although at the dose employed, MB327 in combination with atropine, or atropine and an oxime, provided only a modest increase in protection ratio. These results from mice, and previous ones from guinea-pigs, provide consistent evidence for additional, albeit modest, efficacy resulting from the inclusion of the antinicotinic compound MB327 in standard antidotal therapy. Given the typically steep probit slope for the dose-lethality relationship for nerve agents, such modest increases in protection ratio could provide significant survival benefit.
Allgardsson, Anders; Berg, Lotta; Akfur, Christine; Hörnberg, Andreas; Linusson, Anna; Ekström, Fredrik J.
2016-01-01
Organophosphorus nerve agents interfere with cholinergic signaling by covalently binding to the active site of the enzyme acetylcholinesterase (AChE). This inhibition causes an accumulation of the neurotransmitter acetylcholine, potentially leading to overstimulation of the nervous system and death. Current treatments include the use of antidotes that promote the release of functional AChE by an unknown reactivation mechanism. We have used diffusion trap cryocrystallography and density functional theory (DFT) calculations to determine and analyze prereaction conformers of the nerve agent antidote HI-6 in complex with Mus musculus AChE covalently inhibited by the nerve agent sarin. These analyses reveal previously unknown conformations of the system and suggest that the cleavage of the covalent enzyme–sarin bond is preceded by a conformational change in the sarin adduct itself. Together with data from the reactivation kinetics, this alternate conformation suggests a key interaction between Glu202 and the O-isopropyl moiety of sarin. Moreover, solvent kinetic isotope effect experiments using deuterium oxide reveal that the reactivation mechanism features an isotope-sensitive step. These findings provide insights into the reactivation mechanism and provide a starting point for the development of improved antidotes. The work also illustrates how DFT calculations can guide the interpretation, analysis, and validation of crystallographic data for challenging reactive systems with complex conformational dynamics. PMID:27140636
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Bergner, Georg; Catterall, Simon
2016-08-01
We discuss the motivations, difficulties and progress in the study of supersymmetric lattice gauge theories focusing in particular on 𝒩 = 1 and 𝒩 = 4 super-Yang-Mills in four dimensions. Brief reviews of the corresponding lattice formalisms are given and current results are presented and discussed. We conclude with a summary of the main aspects of current work and prospects for the future.
Laterally closed lattice homomorphisms
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Toumi, Mohamed Ali; Toumi, Nedra
2006-12-01
Let A and B be two Archimedean vector lattices and let be a lattice homomorphism. We call that T is laterally closed if T(D) is a maximal orthogonal system in the band generated by T(A) in B, for each maximal orthogonal system D of A. In this paper we prove that any laterally closed lattice homomorphism T of an Archimedean vector lattice A with universal completion Au into a universally complete vector lattice B can be extended to a lattice homomorphism of Au into B, which is an improvement of a result of M. Duhoux and M. Meyer [M. Duhoux and M. Meyer, Extended orthomorphisms and lateral completion of Archimedean Riesz spaces, Ann. Soc. Sci. Bruxelles 98 (1984) 3-18], who established it for the order continuous lattice homomorphism case. Moreover, if in addition Au and B are with point separating order duals (Au)' and B' respectively, then the laterally closedness property becomes a necessary and sufficient condition for any lattice homomorphism to have a similar extension to the whole Au. As an application, we give a new representation theorem for laterally closed d-algebras from which we infer the existence of d-algebra multiplications on the universal completions of d-algebras.
CYP2D7 Sequence Variation Interferes with TaqMan CYP2D6*15 and *35 Genotyping
Riffel, Amanda K.; Dehghani, Mehdi; Hartshorne, Toinette; Floyd, Kristen C.; Leeder, J. Steven; Rosenblatt, Kevin P.; Gaedigk, Andrea
2016-01-01
TaqMan™ genotyping assays are widely used to genotype CYP2D6, which encodes a major drug metabolizing enzyme. Assay design for CYP2D6 can be challenging owing to the presence of two pseudogenes, CYP2D7 and CYP2D8, structural and copy number variation and numerous single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) some of which reflect the wild-type sequence of the CYP2D7 pseudogene. The aim of this study was to identify the mechanism causing false-positive CYP2D6*15 calls and remediate those by redesigning and validating alternative TaqMan genotype assays. Among 13,866 DNA samples genotyped by the CompanionDx® lab on the OpenArray platform, 70 samples were identified as heterozygotes for 137Tins, the key SNP of CYP2D6*15. However, only 15 samples were confirmed when tested with the Luminex xTAG CYP2D6 Kit and sequencing of CYP2D6-specific long range (XL)-PCR products. Genotype and gene resequencing of CYP2D6 and CYP2D7-specific XL-PCR products revealed a CC>GT dinucleotide SNP in exon 1 of CYP2D7 that reverts the sequence to CYP2D6 and allows a TaqMan assay PCR primer to bind. Because CYP2D7 also carries a Tins, a false-positive mutation signal is generated. This CYP2D7 SNP was also responsible for generating false-positive signals for rs769258 (CYP2D6*35) which is also located in exon 1. Although alternative CYP2D6*15 and *35 assays resolved the issue, we discovered a novel CYP2D6*15 subvariant in one sample that carries additional SNPs preventing detection with the alternate assay. The frequency of CYP2D6*15 was 0.1% in this ethnically diverse U.S. population sample. In addition, we also discovered linkage between the CYP2D7 CC>GT dinucleotide SNP and the 77G>A (rs28371696) SNP of CYP2D6*43. The frequency of this tentatively functional allele was 0.2%. Taken together, these findings emphasize that regardless of how careful genotyping assays are designed and evaluated before being commercially marketed, rare or unknown SNPs underneath primer and/or probe regions can impact
CYP2D7 Sequence Variation Interferes with TaqMan CYP2D6 (*) 15 and (*) 35 Genotyping.
Riffel, Amanda K; Dehghani, Mehdi; Hartshorne, Toinette; Floyd, Kristen C; Leeder, J Steven; Rosenblatt, Kevin P; Gaedigk, Andrea
2015-01-01
TaqMan™ genotyping assays are widely used to genotype CYP2D6, which encodes a major drug metabolizing enzyme. Assay design for CYP2D6 can be challenging owing to the presence of two pseudogenes, CYP2D7 and CYP2D8, structural and copy number variation and numerous single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) some of which reflect the wild-type sequence of the CYP2D7 pseudogene. The aim of this study was to identify the mechanism causing false-positive CYP2D6 (*) 15 calls and remediate those by redesigning and validating alternative TaqMan genotype assays. Among 13,866 DNA samples genotyped by the CompanionDx® lab on the OpenArray platform, 70 samples were identified as heterozygotes for 137Tins, the key SNP of CYP2D6 (*) 15. However, only 15 samples were confirmed when tested with the Luminex xTAG CYP2D6 Kit and sequencing of CYP2D6-specific long range (XL)-PCR products. Genotype and gene resequencing of CYP2D6 and CYP2D7-specific XL-PCR products revealed a CC>GT dinucleotide SNP in exon 1 of CYP2D7 that reverts the sequence to CYP2D6 and allows a TaqMan assay PCR primer to bind. Because CYP2D7 also carries a Tins, a false-positive mutation signal is generated. This CYP2D7 SNP was also responsible for generating false-positive signals for rs769258 (CYP2D6 (*) 35) which is also located in exon 1. Although alternative CYP2D6 (*) 15 and (*) 35 assays resolved the issue, we discovered a novel CYP2D6 (*) 15 subvariant in one sample that carries additional SNPs preventing detection with the alternate assay. The frequency of CYP2D6 (*) 15 was 0.1% in this ethnically diverse U.S. population sample. In addition, we also discovered linkage between the CYP2D7 CC>GT dinucleotide SNP and the 77G>A (rs28371696) SNP of CYP2D6 (*) 43. The frequency of this tentatively functional allele was 0.2%. Taken together, these findings emphasize that regardless of how careful genotyping assays are designed and evaluated before being commercially marketed, rare or unknown SNPs underneath primer
BERG,J.S.; RUGGIERO, A.; MACHIDA, S.; KOSCIELNIAK, S.
2007-06-25
EMMA is a 10 to 20 MeV electron ring designed to test our understanding of beam dynamics in a relativistic linear non-scaling fixed field alternating gradient accelerator (FFAG). This paper describes the design of the EMMA lattice. We begin with a summary of the experimental goals that impact the lattice design, and then outline what motivated the choice for the basic lattice parameters, such as the type of cells, the number of cells, and the RF frequency. We next list the different configurations that we wish to operate the machine in so as to accomplish our experimental goals. Finally, we enumerate the detailed lattice parameters, showing how these parameters result from the various lattice configurations.
Lei, Shengbin; Surin, Mathieu; Tahara, Kazukuni; Adisoejoso, Jinne; Lazzaroni, Roberto; Tobe, Yoshito; De Feyter, Steven
2008-08-01
Recognition and selection are of fundamental importance for the hierarchical assembly of supramolecular systems. Coronene induces the formation of a hydrogen-bonded isophthalic acid supramolecular macrocycle, and this well-defined heterocluster forces, in its turn, DBA1 to form a van der Waals stabilized honeycomb lattice, leading to a three-component 2D crystal containing nine molecules in the unit cell. The recognition and selection events enable efficient error correction and healing in redundant mixtures.
Low lattice thermal conductivity of stanene.
Peng, Bo; Zhang, Hao; Shao, Hezhu; Xu, Yuchen; Zhang, Xiangchao; Zhu, Heyuan
2016-02-03
A fundamental understanding of phonon transport in stanene is crucial to predict the thermal performance in potential stanene-based devices. By combining first-principle calculation and phonon Boltzmann transport equation, we obtain the lattice thermal conductivity of stanene. A much lower thermal conductivity (11.6 W/mK) is observed in stanene, which indicates higher thermoelectric efficiency over other 2D materials. The contributions of acoustic and optical phonons to the lattice thermal conductivity are evaluated. Detailed analysis of phase space for three-phonon processes shows that phonon scattering channels LA + LA/TA/ZA ↔ TA/ZA are restricted, leading to the dominant contributions of high-group-velocity LA phonons to the thermal conductivity. The size dependence of thermal conductivity is investigated as well for the purpose of the design of thermoelectric nanostructures.
Low lattice thermal conductivity of stanene
Peng, Bo; Zhang, Hao; Shao, Hezhu; Xu, Yuchen; Zhang, Xiangchao; Zhu, Heyuan
2016-01-01
A fundamental understanding of phonon transport in stanene is crucial to predict the thermal performance in potential stanene-based devices. By combining first-principle calculation and phonon Boltzmann transport equation, we obtain the lattice thermal conductivity of stanene. A much lower thermal conductivity (11.6 W/mK) is observed in stanene, which indicates higher thermoelectric efficiency over other 2D materials. The contributions of acoustic and optical phonons to the lattice thermal conductivity are evaluated. Detailed analysis of phase space for three-phonon processes shows that phonon scattering channels LA + LA/TA/ZA ↔ TA/ZA are restricted, leading to the dominant contributions of high-group-velocity LA phonons to the thermal conductivity. The size dependence of thermal conductivity is investigated as well for the purpose of the design of thermoelectric nanostructures. PMID:26838731
Mechanical cloak design by direct lattice transformation.
Bückmann, Tiemo; Kadic, Muamer; Schittny, Robert; Wegener, Martin
2015-04-21
Spatial coordinate transformations have helped simplifying mathematical issues and solving complex boundary-value problems in physics for decades already. More recently, material-parameter transformations have also become an intuitive and powerful engineering tool for designing inhomogeneous and anisotropic material distributions that perform wanted functions, e.g., invisibility cloaking. A necessary mathematical prerequisite for this approach to work is that the underlying equations are form invariant with respect to general coordinate transformations. Unfortunately, this condition is not fulfilled in elastic-solid mechanics for materials that can be described by ordinary elasticity tensors. Here, we introduce a different and simpler approach. We directly transform the lattice points of a 2D discrete lattice composed of a single constituent material, while keeping the properties of the elements connecting the lattice points the same. After showing that the approach works in various areas, we focus on elastic-solid mechanics. As a demanding example, we cloak a void in an effective elastic material with respect to static uniaxial compression. Corresponding numerical calculations and experiments on polymer structures made by 3D printing are presented. The cloaking quality is quantified by comparing the average relative SD of the strain vectors outside of the cloaked void with respect to the homogeneous reference lattice. Theory and experiment agree and exhibit very good cloaking performance. PMID:25848021
Phonons and elasticity in critically coordinated lattices
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Lubensky, T. C.; Kane, C. L.; Mao, Xiaoming; Souslov, A.; Sun, Kai
2015-07-01
Much of our understanding of vibrational excitations and elasticity is based upon analysis of frames consisting of sites connected by bonds occupied by central-force springs, the stability of which depends on the average number of neighbors per site z. When z < zc ≈ 2d, where d is the spatial dimension, frames are unstable with respect to internal deformations. This pedagogical review focuses on the properties of frames with z at or near zc, which model systems like randomly packed spheres near jamming and network glasses. Using an index theorem, N0 -NS = dN -NB relating the number of sites, N, and number of bonds, NB, to the number, N0, of modes of zero energy and the number, NS, of states of self stress, in which springs can be under positive or negative tension while forces on sites remain zero, it explores the properties of periodic square, kagome, and related lattices for which z = zc and the relation between states of self stress and zero modes in periodic lattices to the surface zero modes of finite free lattices (with free boundary conditions). It shows how modifications to the periodic kagome lattice can eliminate all but trivial translational zero modes and create topologically distinct classes, analogous to those of topological insulators, with protected zero modes at free boundaries and at interfaces between different topological classes.
Mechanical cloak design by direct lattice transformation
Bückmann, Tiemo; Kadic, Muamer; Schittny, Robert; Wegener, Martin
2015-01-01
Spatial coordinate transformations have helped simplifying mathematical issues and solving complex boundary-value problems in physics for decades already. More recently, material-parameter transformations have also become an intuitive and powerful engineering tool for designing inhomogeneous and anisotropic material distributions that perform wanted functions, e.g., invisibility cloaking. A necessary mathematical prerequisite for this approach to work is that the underlying equations are form invariant with respect to general coordinate transformations. Unfortunately, this condition is not fulfilled in elastic–solid mechanics for materials that can be described by ordinary elasticity tensors. Here, we introduce a different and simpler approach. We directly transform the lattice points of a 2D discrete lattice composed of a single constituent material, while keeping the properties of the elements connecting the lattice points the same. After showing that the approach works in various areas, we focus on elastic–solid mechanics. As a demanding example, we cloak a void in an effective elastic material with respect to static uniaxial compression. Corresponding numerical calculations and experiments on polymer structures made by 3D printing are presented. The cloaking quality is quantified by comparing the average relative SD of the strain vectors outside of the cloaked void with respect to the homogeneous reference lattice. Theory and experiment agree and exhibit very good cloaking performance. PMID:25848021
Kinetics of largely lattice-mismatch epitaxy
Chen, Yong |
1997-12-31
The kinetics of island nucleation, growth, and dislocation formation in largely lattice-mismatch heteroepitaxy are analyzed theoretically. It is shown that 2D platelets tend to transform to 3D islands as they exceed a certain critical size. During island growth, the increase of the strain concentration at the island edge makes it increasingly difficult for adatoms to reach the island, which leads to the formation of homogeneously sized islands. The high strain concentration at the island edge is eventually relieved by growing-in dislocations.
Deadly venom of Asobara japonica parasitoid needs ovarian antidote to regulate host physiology.
Mabiala-Moundoungou, A D N; Doury, G; Eslin, P; Cherqui, A; Prévost, G
2010-01-01
Asobara japonica (Braconidae) is an endophagous parasitoid developing in Drosophila larvae. The present study shows that A. japonica was never encapsulated in Drosophila melanogaster, and that it caused an overall inhibition of the host encapsulation reaction since injected foreign bodies were never encapsulated in parasitized hosts. Both the number of circulating hemocytes and the phenoloxidase activity decreased in parasitized larvae, and the hematopoietic organ appeared highly disrupted. We also found that A. japonica venom secretions had atypical effects on hosts compared to other braconid wasps. A. japonica venom secretions induced permanent paralysis followed by death of D. melanogaster larvae, whether injected by the female wasp during an interrupted oviposition, or manually injected into unparasitized larvae. More remarkably, these effects could be reversed by injection of ovarian extracts from female wasps. This is the first report that the venom of an endophagous braconid parasitoid can have a deadly effect on hosts, and moreover, that ovarian extracts can act as an antidote to reverse the effects of the wasp's venom. These results also demonstrate that A. japonica secretions from both venom gland and ovary are required to regulate synergistically the host physiology for the success of the parasitoid.
Hydroxypyri(mi)dine-based chelators as antidotes of toxicity due to aluminum and actinides.
Santos, M A; Esteves, M A; Chaves, S
2012-01-01
This review is focused on recent developments on hydroxypyri(mi)dines, as aluminum and actinide chelating agents to combat the toxicity due to accumulations of these metal ions in human body resulting from excessive metal exposure. After a brief update revision of the most common processes of aluminum (Al) exposure, as well as the associated toxicities and pathologies, we will focus on the current available Al chelators and future perspective as potential antidotes of Al toxicity. Due to the similarity between Al and Fe, a major emphasis is given to the hydroxypyridinone and hydroxypyrimidinone chelators, since they are analogues of the current iron chelators in clinical use (DFP and DFO). This review includes issues such as molecular design strategies and corresponding effects on the associated physico-chemical properties, lipo-hydrophilic balance, toxicity, in vivo bioassays and current clinical applications. The hydroxypyri(mi)dine chelators are also suitable for other hard metal ions, such as the radiotoxic actinides, and so a brief review is included on the applications of these chelators in actinides scavenging.
Bench-to-bedside review: Antidotal treatment of sulfonylurea-induced hypoglycaemia with octreotide
Lheureux, Philippe ER; Zahir, Soheil; Penaloza, Andrea; Gris, Mireille
2005-01-01
The major potential adverse effect of use of sulfonylurea agents (SUAs) is a hyperinsulinaemic state that causes hypoglycaemia. It may be observed during chronic therapeutic dosing, even with very low doses of a SUA, and especially in older patients. It may also result from accidental or intentional poisoning in both diabetic and nondiabetic patients. The traditional approach to SUA-induced hypoglycaemia includes administration of glucose, and glucagon or diazoxide in those who remain hypoglycaemic despite repeated or continuous glucose supplementation. However, these antidotal approaches are associated with several shortcomings, including further exacerbation of insulin release by glucose and glucagon, leading only to a temporary beneficial effect and later relapse into hypoglycaemia, as well as the adverse effects of both glucagon and diazoxide. Octreotide inhibits the secretion of several neuropeptides, including insulin, and has successfully been used to control life-threatening hypoglycaemia caused by insulinoma or persistent hyperinsulinaemic hypoglycaemia of infancy. Therefore, this agent should in theory also be useful to decrease glucose requirements and the number of hypoglycaemic episodes in patients with SUA-induced hypoglycaemia. This has apparently been confirmed by experimental data, one retrospective study based on chart review, and several anecdotal case reports. There is thus a need for further prospective studies, which should be adequately powered, randomized and controlled, to confirm the probable beneficial effect of octreotide in this setting. PMID:16356235
Mechanical characterization of 2D, 2D stitched, and 3D braided/RTM materials
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Deaton, Jerry W.; Kullerd, Susan M.; Portanova, Marc A.
1993-01-01
Braided composite materials have potential for application in aircraft structures. Fuselage frames, floor beams, wing spars, and stiffeners are examples where braided composites could find application if cost effective processing and damage tolerance requirements are met. Another important consideration for braided composites relates to their mechanical properties and how they compare to the properties of composites produced by other textile composite processes being proposed for these applications. Unfortunately, mechanical property data for braided composites do not appear extensively in the literature. Data are presented in this paper on the mechanical characterization of 2D triaxial braid, 2D triaxial braid plus stitching, and 3D (through-the-thickness) braid composite materials. The braided preforms all had the same graphite tow size and the same nominal braid architectures, (+/- 30 deg/0 deg), and were resin transfer molded (RTM) using the same mold for each of two different resin systems. Static data are presented for notched and unnotched tension, notched and unnotched compression, and compression after impact strengths at room temperature. In addition, some static results, after environmental conditioning, are included. Baseline tension and compression fatigue results are also presented, but only for the 3D braided composite material with one of the resin systems.
Courant, E.D.; Garren, A.A.
1985-10-01
A realistic, distributed interaction region (IR) lattice has been designed that includes new components discussed in the June 1985 lattice workshop. Unlike the test lattices, the lattice presented here includes utility straights and the mechanism for crossing the beams in the experimental straights. Moreover, both the phase trombones and the dispersion suppressors contain the same bending as the normal cells. Vertically separated beams and 6 Tesla, 1-in-1 magnets are assumed. Since the cells are 200 meters long, and have 60 degree phase advance, this lattice has been named RLD1, in analogy with the corresponding test lattice, TLD1. The quadrupole gradient is 136 tesla/meter in the cells, and has similar values in other quadrupoles except in those in the IR`s, where the maximum gradient is 245 tesla/meter. RLD1 has distributed IR`s; however, clustered realistic lattices can easily be assembled from the same components, as was recently done in a version that utilizes the same type of experimental and utility straights as those of RLD1.
Superalloy Lattice Block Structures
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Whittenberger, J. D.; Nathal, M. V.; Hebsur, M. G.; Kraus, D. L.
2003-01-01
In their simplest form, lattice block panels are produced by direct casting and result in lightweight, fully triangulated truss-like configurations which provide strength and stiffness [2]. The earliest realizations of lattice block were made from A1 and steels, primarily under funding from the US Navy [3]. This work also showed that the mechanical efficiency (eg., specific stiffness) of lattice block structures approached that of honeycomb structures [2]. The lattice architectures are also less anisotropic, and the investment casting route should provide a large advantage in cost and temperature capability over honeycombs which are limited to alloys that can be processed into foils. Based on this early work, a program was initiated to determine the feasibility of extending the high temperature superalloy lattice block [3]. The objective of this effort was to provide an alternative to intermetallics and composites in achieving a lightweight high temperature structure without sacrificing the damage tolerance and moderate cost inherent in superalloys. To establish the feasibility of the superalloy lattice block concept, work was performed in conjunction with JAMCORP, Inc. Billerica, MA, to produce a number of lattice block panels from both IN71 8 and Mar-M247.
Local Scale Transformations on the Lattice with Tensor Network Renormalization.
Evenbly, G; Vidal, G
2016-01-29
Consider the partition function of a classical system in two spatial dimensions, or the Euclidean path integral of a quantum system in two space-time dimensions, both on a lattice. We show that the tensor network renormalization algorithm [G. Evenbly and G. Vidal Phys. Rev. Lett. 115, 180405 (2015)] can be used to implement local scale transformations on these objects, namely, a lattice version of conformal maps. Specifically, we explain how to implement the lattice equivalent of the logarithmic conformal map that transforms the Euclidean plane into a cylinder. As an application, and with the 2D critical Ising model as a concrete example, we use this map to build a lattice version of the scaling operators of the underlying conformal field theory, from which one can extract their scaling dimensions and operator product expansion coefficients.
Local Scale Transformations on the Lattice with Tensor Network Renormalization
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Evenbly, G.; Vidal, G.
2016-01-01
Consider the partition function of a classical system in two spatial dimensions, or the Euclidean path integral of a quantum system in two space-time dimensions, both on a lattice. We show that the tensor network renormalization algorithm [G. Evenbly and G. Vidal Phys. Rev. Lett. 115, 180405 (2015)] can be used to implement local scale transformations on these objects, namely, a lattice version of conformal maps. Specifically, we explain how to implement the lattice equivalent of the logarithmic conformal map that transforms the Euclidean plane into a cylinder. As an application, and with the 2D critical Ising model as a concrete example, we use this map to build a lattice version of the scaling operators of the underlying conformal field theory, from which one can extract their scaling dimensions and operator product expansion coefficients.
Computational Screening of 2D Materials for Photocatalysis.
Singh, Arunima K; Mathew, Kiran; Zhuang, Houlong L; Hennig, Richard G
2015-03-19
Two-dimensional (2D) materials exhibit a range of extraordinary electronic, optical, and mechanical properties different from their bulk counterparts with potential applications for 2D materials emerging in energy storage and conversion technologies. In this Perspective, we summarize the recent developments in the field of solar water splitting using 2D materials and review a computational screening approach to rapidly and efficiently discover more 2D materials that possess properties suitable for solar water splitting. Computational tools based on density-functional theory can predict the intrinsic properties of potential photocatalyst such as their electronic properties, optical absorbance, and solubility in aqueous solutions. Computational tools enable the exploration of possible routes to enhance the photocatalytic activity of 2D materials by use of mechanical strain, bias potential, doping, and pH. We discuss future research directions and needed method developments for the computational design and optimization of 2D materials for photocatalysis.
Coherent matter waves of a dipolar condensate in two-dimensional optical lattices
Zhang Aixia; Xue Jukui
2010-07-15
The coherent matter waves of a dipolar condensate in deep two-dimensional (2D) tilted and nontilted optical lattices are studied both analytically and numerically. It is shown that, in tilted lattices, by properly designing the sign and the magnitude of the contact interaction and the dipolar interaction, it is possible to control the decoherence of Bloch oscillations. Contrary to the usual short-range interacting Bose system, long-lived Bloch oscillations of the dipolar condensate are achieved when the dipolar interaction, the contact interaction, and the lattice dimension satisfy an analytical condition. Furthermore, we predict that, in untilted lattices, stable coherent 2D moving soliton and breather states of the dipolar condensate exist. This fact is very different from the purely short-range interacting Bose system (where the moving soliton cannot be stabilized in high-dimensional lattices). The dipolar interaction can lead to some novel phenomena that can not appear in short-range interacting BEC system.
Savara, Aditya
2016-08-15
The paper by Campbell et al. was recently brought to my attention. This comment is written to provide greater clarity to the community to prevent misconceptions regarding the entropies being discussed in that work and to clarify the differences between the adsorbate standard states suggested by Campbell and by Savara.
Kornilovitch, P E; Hague, J P
2015-02-25
Both FeSe and cuprate superconductors are quasi 2D materials with high transition temperatures and local fermion pairs. Motivated by such systems, we investigate real space pairing of fermions in an anisotropic lattice model with intersite attraction, V, and strong local Coulomb repulsion, U, leading to a determination of the optimal conditions for superconductivity from Bose-Einstein condensation. Our aim is to gain insight as to why high temperature superconductors tend to be quasi 2D. We make both analytically and numerically exact solutions for two body local pairing applicable to intermediate and strong V. We find that the Bose-Einstein condensation temperature of such local pairs pairs is maximal when hopping between layers is intermediate relative to in-plane hopping, indicating that the quasi 2D nature of unconventional superconductors has an important contribution to their high transition temperatures. PMID:25629425
Synthetic Covalent and Non-Covalent 2D Materials.
Boott, Charlotte E; Nazemi, Ali; Manners, Ian
2015-11-16
The creation of synthetic 2D materials represents an attractive challenge that is ultimately driven by their prospective uses in, for example, electronics, biomedicine, catalysis, sensing, and as membranes for separation and filtration. This Review illustrates some recent advances in this diverse field with a focus on covalent and non-covalent 2D polymers and frameworks, and self-assembled 2D materials derived from nanoparticles, homopolymers, and block copolymers.
Color generation and refractive index sensing using diffraction from 2D silicon nanowire arrays.
Walia, Jaspreet; Dhindsa, Navneet; Khorasaninejad, Mohammadreza; Saini, Simarjeet Singh
2014-01-15
Tunable structural color generation from vertical silicon nanowires arranged in different square lattices is demonstrated. The generated colors are adjustable using well-defined Bragg diffraction theory, and only depend on the lattice spacing and angles of incidence. Vivid colors spanning from bright red to blue are easily achieved. In keeping with this, a single square lattice of silicon nanowires is also able to produce different colors spanning the entire visible range. It is also shown that the 2D gratings also have a third grating direction when rotated 45 degrees. These simple and elegant solutions to color generation from silicon are used to demonstrate a cost-effective refractive index sensor. The sensor works by measuring color changes resulting from changes in the refractive index of the medium surrounding the nanowires using a trichromatic RGB decomposition. Moreover, the sensor produces linear responses in the trichromatic decomposition values versus the surrounding medium index. An index resolution of 10(-4) is achieved by performing basic image processing on the collected images, without the need for a laser or a spectrometer. Spectral analysis enables an increase in the index resolution of the sensor to a value of 10(-6) , with a sensitivity of 400 nm/RIU. PMID:23784866
All-optical digital 4 × 2 encoder based on 2D photonic crystal ring resonators
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Moniem, Tamer A.
2016-04-01
The photonic crystals draw significant attention to build all-optical logic devices and are considered one of the solutions for the opto-electronic bottleneck via speed and size. The paper presents a novel optical 4 × 2 encoder based on 2D square lattice photonic crystals of silicon rods. The main realization of optical encoder is based on the photonic crystal ring resonator NOR gates. The proposed structure has four logic input ports, two output ports, and two bias input port. The photonic crystal structure has a square lattice of silicon rods with a refractive index of 3.39 in air. The structure has lattice constant 'a' equal to 630 nm and bandgap range from 0.32 to 044. The total size of the proposed 4 × 2 encoder is equal to 35 μm × 35 μm. The simulation results using the dimensional finite difference time domain and Plane Wave Expansion methods confirm the operation and the feasibility of the proposed optical encoder for ultrafast optical digital circuits.
Ruzmetov, Dmitry; Zhang, Kehao; Stan, Gheorghe; Kalanyan, Berc; Bhimanapati, Ganesh R; Eichfeld, Sarah M; Burke, Robert A; Shah, Pankaj B; O'Regan, Terrance P; Crowne, Frank J; Birdwell, A Glen; Robinson, Joshua A; Davydov, Albert V; Ivanov, Tony G
2016-03-22
When designing semiconductor heterostructures, it is expected that epitaxial alignment will facilitate low-defect interfaces and efficient vertical transport. Here, we report lattice-matched epitaxial growth of molybdenum disulfide (MoS2) directly on gallium nitride (GaN), resulting in high-quality, unstrained, single-layer MoS2 with strict registry to the GaN lattice. These results present a promising path toward the implementation of high-performance electronic devices based on 2D/3D vertical heterostructures, where each of the 3D and 2D semiconductors is both a template for subsequent epitaxial growth and an active component of the device. The MoS2 monolayer triangles average 1 μm along each side, with monolayer blankets (merged triangles) exhibiting properties similar to that of single-crystal MoS2 sheets. Photoluminescence, Raman, atomic force microscopy, and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy analyses identified monolayer MoS2 with a prominent 20-fold enhancement of photoluminescence in the center regions of larger triangles. The MoS2/GaN structures are shown to electrically conduct in the out-of-plane direction, confirming the potential of directly synthesized 2D/3D semiconductor heterostructures for vertical current flow. Finally, we estimate a MoS2/GaN contact resistivity to be less than 4 Ω·cm(2) and current spreading in the MoS2 monolayer of approximately 1 μm in diameter. PMID:26866442
Ruzmetov, Dmitry; Zhang, Kehao; Stan, Gheorghe; Kalanyan, Berc; Bhimanapati, Ganesh R; Eichfeld, Sarah M; Burke, Robert A; Shah, Pankaj B; O'Regan, Terrance P; Crowne, Frank J; Birdwell, A Glen; Robinson, Joshua A; Davydov, Albert V; Ivanov, Tony G
2016-03-22
When designing semiconductor heterostructures, it is expected that epitaxial alignment will facilitate low-defect interfaces and efficient vertical transport. Here, we report lattice-matched epitaxial growth of molybdenum disulfide (MoS2) directly on gallium nitride (GaN), resulting in high-quality, unstrained, single-layer MoS2 with strict registry to the GaN lattice. These results present a promising path toward the implementation of high-performance electronic devices based on 2D/3D vertical heterostructures, where each of the 3D and 2D semiconductors is both a template for subsequent epitaxial growth and an active component of the device. The MoS2 monolayer triangles average 1 μm along each side, with monolayer blankets (merged triangles) exhibiting properties similar to that of single-crystal MoS2 sheets. Photoluminescence, Raman, atomic force microscopy, and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy analyses identified monolayer MoS2 with a prominent 20-fold enhancement of photoluminescence in the center regions of larger triangles. The MoS2/GaN structures are shown to electrically conduct in the out-of-plane direction, confirming the potential of directly synthesized 2D/3D semiconductor heterostructures for vertical current flow. Finally, we estimate a MoS2/GaN contact resistivity to be less than 4 Ω·cm(2) and current spreading in the MoS2 monolayer of approximately 1 μm in diameter.
Room temperature quantum spin Hall insulators with a buckled square lattice.
Luo, Wei; Xiang, Hongjun
2015-05-13
Two-dimensional (2D) topological insulators (TIs), also known as quantum spin Hall (QSH) insulators, are excellent candidates for coherent spin transport related applications because the edge states of 2D TIs are robust against nonmagnetic impurities since the only available backscattering channel is forbidden. Currently, most known 2D TIs are based on a hexagonal (specifically, honeycomb) lattice. Here, we propose that there exists the quantum spin Hall effect (QSHE) in a buckled square lattice. Through performing global structure optimization, we predict a new three-layer quasi-2D (Q2D) structure, which has the lowest energy among all structures with the thickness less than 6.0 Å for the BiF system. It is identified to be a Q2D TI with a large band gap (0.69 eV). The electronic states of the Q2D BiF system near the Fermi level are mainly contributed by the middle Bi square lattice, which are sandwiched by two inert BiF2 layers. This is beneficial since the interaction between a substrate and the Q2D material may not change the topological properties of the system, as we demonstrate in the case of the NaF substrate. Finally, we come up with a new tight-binding model for a two-orbital system with the buckled square lattice to explain the low-energy physics of the Q2D BiF material. Our study not only predicts a QSH insulator for realistic room temperature applications but also provides a new lattice system for engineering topological states such as quantum anomalous Hall effect.
A Geometric Boolean Library for 2D Objects
2006-01-05
The 2D Boolean Library is a collection of C++ classes -- which primarily represent 2D geometric data and relationships, and routines -- which contain algorithms for 2D geometric Boolean operations and utility functions. Classes are provided for 2D points, lines, arcs, edgeuses, loops, surfaces and mask sets. Routines are provided that incorporate the Boolean operations Union(OR), XOR, Intersection and Difference. Various analytical geometry routines and routines for importing and exporting the data in various filemore » formats, are also provided in the library.« less
VizieR Online Data Catalog: The 2dF Galaxy Redshift Survey (2dFGRS) (2dFGRS Team, 1998-2003)
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Colless, M.; Dalton, G.; Maddox, S.; Sutherland, W.; Norberg, P.; Cole, S.; Bland-Hawthorn, J.; Bridges, T.; Cannon, R.; Collins, C.; Couch, W.; Cross, N.; Deeley, K.; de Propris, R.; Driver, S. P.; Efstathiou, G.; Ellis, R. S.; Frenk, C. S.; Glazebrook, K.; Jackson, C.; Lahav, O.; Lewis, I.; Lumsden, S.; Madgwick, D.; Peacock, J. A.; Peterson, B. A.; Price, I.; Seaborne, M.; Taylor, K.
2007-11-01
The 2dF Galaxy Redshift Survey (2dFGRS) is a major spectroscopic survey taking full advantage of the unique capabilities of the 2dF facility built by the Anglo-Australian Observatory. The 2dFGRS is integrated with the 2dF QSO survey (2QZ, Cat. VII/241). The 2dFGRS obtained spectra for 245591 objects, mainly galaxies, brighter than a nominal extinction-corrected magnitude limit of bJ=19.45. Reliable (quality>=3) redshifts were obtained for 221414 galaxies. The galaxies cover an area of approximately 1500 square degrees selected from the extended APM Galaxy Survey in three regions: a North Galactic Pole (NGP) strip, a South Galactic Pole (SGP) strip, and random fields scattered around the SGP strip. Redshifts are measured from spectra covering 3600-8000 Angstroms at a two-pixel resolution of 9.0 Angstrom and a median S/N of 13 per pixel. All redshift identifications are visually checked and assigned a quality parameter Q in the range 1-5; Q>=3 redshifts are 98.4% reliable and have an rms uncertainty of 85 km/s. The overall redshift completeness for Q>=3 redshifts is 91.8% but this varies with magnitude from 99% for the brightest galaxies to 90% for objects at the survey limit. The 2dFGRS data base is available on the World Wide Web at http://www.mso.anu.edu.au/2dFGRS/. (6 data files).
Superalloy Lattice Block Structures
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Nathal, M. V.; Whittenberger, J. D.; Hebsur, M. G.; Kantzos, P. T.; Krause, D. L.
2004-01-01
Initial investigations of investment cast superalloy lattice block suggest that this technology will yield a low cost approach to utilize the high temperature strength and environmental resistance of superalloys in lightweight, damage tolerant structural configurations. Work to date has demonstrated that relatively large superalloy lattice block panels can be successfully investment cast from both IN-718 and Mar-M247. These castings exhibited mechanical properties consistent with the strength of the same superalloys measured from more conventional castings. The lattice block structure also accommodates significant deformation without failure, and is defect tolerant in fatigue. The potential of lattice block structures opens new opportunities for the use of superalloys in future generations of aircraft applications that demand strength and environmental resistance at elevated temperatures along with low weight.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Weidner, Carrie; Yu, Hoon; Anderson, Dana
2016-05-01
In this work, we report on progress towards performing interferometry using atoms trapped in an optical lattice. That is, we start with atoms in the ground state of an optical lattice potential V(x) =V0cos [ 2 kx + ϕ(t) ] , and by a prescribed phase function ϕ(t) , transform from one atomic wavefunction to another. In this way, we implement the standard interferometric sequence of beam splitting, propagation, reflection, reverse propagation, and recombination. Through the use of optimal control techniques, we have computationally demonstrated a scalable accelerometer that provides information on the sign of the applied acceleration. Extension of this idea to a two-dimensional shaken-lattice-based gyroscope is discussed. In addition, we report on the experimental implementation of the shaken lattice system.
ORGINOS,K.
2003-01-07
I review the current status of hadronic structure computations on the lattice. I describe the basic lattice techniques and difficulties and present some of the latest lattice results; in particular recent results of the RBC group using domain wall fermions are also discussed. In conclusion, lattice computations can play an important role in understanding the hadronic structure and the fundamental properties of Quantum Chromodynamics (QCD). Although some difficulties still exist, several significant steps have been made. Advances in computer technology are expected to play a significant role in pushing these computations closer to the chiral limit and in including dynamical fermions. RBC has already begun preliminary dynamical domain wall fermion computations [49] which we expect to be pushed forward with the arrival of QCD0C. In the near future, we also expect to complete the non-perturbative renormalization of the relevant derivative operators in quenched QCD.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Yan, Weigen; Zhang, Zuhe
2009-04-01
The energy of a simple graph G arising in chemical physics, denoted by E(G), is defined as the sum of the absolute values of eigenvalues of G. As the dimer problem and spanning trees problem in statistical physics, in this paper we propose the energy per vertex problem for lattice systems. In general for a type of lattice in statistical physics, to compute the entropy constant with toroidal, cylindrical, Mobius-band, Klein-bottle, and free boundary conditions are different tasks with different hardness and may have different solutions. We show that the energy per vertex of plane lattices is independent of the toroidal, cylindrical, Mobius-band, Klein-bottle, and free boundary conditions. In particular, the asymptotic formulae of energies of the triangular, 33.42, and hexagonal lattices with toroidal, cylindrical, Mobius-band, Klein-bottle, and free boundary conditions are obtained explicitly.
Klassifikation von Standardebenen in der 2D-Echokardiographie mittels 2D-3D-Bildregistrierung
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Bergmeir, Christoph; Subramanian, Navneeth
Zum Zweck der Entwicklung eines Systems, das einen unerfahrenen Anwender von Ultraschall (US) zur Aufnahme relevanter anatomischer Strukturen leitet, untersuchen wir die Machbarkeit von 2D-US zu 3D-CT Registrierung. Wir verwenden US-Aufnahmen von Standardebenen des Herzens, welche zu einem 3D-CT-Modell registriert werden. Unser Algorithmus unterzieht sowohl die US-Bilder als auch den CT-Datensatz Vorverarbeitungsschritten, welche die Daten durch Segmentierung auf wesentliche Informationen in Form von Labein für Muskel und Blut reduzieren. Anschließend werden diese Label zur Registrierung mittels der Match-Cardinality-Metrik genutzt. Durch mehrmaliges Registrieren mit verschiedenen Initialisierungen ermitteln wir die im US-Bild sichtbare Standardebene. Wir evaluierten die Methode auf sieben US-Bildern von Standardebenen. Fünf davon wurden korrekt zugeordnet.
Epitaxial 2D SnSe2/ 2D WSe2 van der Waals Heterostructures.
Aretouli, Kleopatra Emmanouil; Tsoutsou, Dimitra; Tsipas, Polychronis; Marquez-Velasco, Jose; Aminalragia Giamini, Sigiava; Kelaidis, Nicolaos; Psycharis, Vassilis; Dimoulas, Athanasios
2016-09-01
van der Waals heterostructures of 2D semiconductor materials can be used to realize a number of (opto)electronic devices including tunneling field effect devices (TFETs). It is shown in this work that high quality SnSe2/WSe2 vdW heterostructure can be grown by molecular beam epitaxy on AlN(0001)/Si(111) substrates using a Bi2Se3 buffer layer. A valence band offset of 0.8 eV matches the energy gap of SnSe2 in such a way that the VB edge of WSe2 and the CB edge of SnSe2 are lined up, making this materials combination suitable for (nearly) broken gap TFETs. PMID:27537619
CVMAC 2D Program: A method of converting 3D to 2D
Lown, J.
1990-06-20
This paper presents the user with a method of converting a three- dimensional wire frame model into a technical illustration, detail, or assembly drawing. By using the 2D Program, entities can be mapped from three-dimensional model space into two-dimensional model space, as if they are being traced. Selected entities to be mapped can include circles, arcs, lines, and points. This program prompts the user to digitize the view to be mapped, specify the layers in which the new two-dimensional entities will reside, and select the entities, either by digitizing or windowing. The new two-dimensional entities are displayed in a small view which the program creates in the lower left corner of the drawing. 9 figs.
Ultrafast state detection and 2D ion crystals in a Paul trap
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ip, Michael; Ransford, Anthony; Campbell, Wesley
2016-05-01
Projective readout of quantum information stored in atomic qubits typically uses state-dependent CW laser-induced fluorescence. This method requires an often sophisticated imaging system to spatially filter out the background CW laser light. We present an alternative approach that instead uses simple pulse sequences from a mode-locked laser to affect the same state-dependent excitations in less than 1 ns. The resulting atomic fluorescence occurs in the dark, allowing the placement of non-imaging detectors right next to the atom to improve the qubit state detection efficiency and speed. We also study 2D Coulomb crystals of atomic ions in an oblate Paul trap. We find that crystals with hundreds of ions can be held in the trap, potentially offering an alternative to the use of Penning traps for the quantum simulation of 2D lattice spin models. We discuss the classical physics of these crystals and the metastable states that are supported in 2D. This work is supported by the US Army Research Office.
Fukuto, M.; Kewalramani, S.; Wang, S.; Lin, Y.; Nguyen, G.; Wang, Q.; Yang, L.
2011-02-07
We report an experimental demonstration of a strategy for inducing two-dimensional (2D) crystallization of charged nanoparticles on oppositely charged fluid interfaces. This strategy aims to maximize the interfacial adsorption of nanoparticles, and hence their lateral packing density, by utilizing a combination of weakly charged particles and a high surface charge density on the planar interface. In order to test this approach, we investigated the assembly of cowpea mosaic virus (CPMV) on positively charged lipid monolayers at the aqueous solution surface, by means of in situ X-ray scattering measurements at the liquid-vapor interface. The assembly was studied as a function of the solution pH, which was used to vary the charge on CPMV, and of the mole fraction of the cationic lipid in the binary lipid monolayer, which set the interface charge density. The 2D crystallization of CPMV occurred in a narrow pH range just above the particle's isoelectric point, where the particle charge was weakly negative, and only when the cationic-lipid fraction in the monolayer exceeded a threshold. The observed 2D crystals exhibited nearly the same packing density as the densest lattice plane within the known 3D crystals of CPMV. The above electrostatic approach of maximizing interfacial adsorption may provide an efficient route to the crystallization of nanoparticles at aqueous interfaces.
Automated Lattice Perturbation Theory
Monahan, Christopher
2014-11-01
I review recent developments in automated lattice perturbation theory. Starting with an overview of lattice perturbation theory, I focus on the three automation packages currently "on the market": HiPPy/HPsrc, Pastor and PhySyCAl. I highlight some recent applications of these methods, particularly in B physics. In the final section I briefly discuss the related, but distinct, approach of numerical stochastic perturbation theory.
Legless locomotion in lattices
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Schiebel, Perrin; Dai, Jin; Gong, Chaohui; Serrano, Miguel M.; Mendelson, Joseph R., III; Choset, Howie; Goldman, Daniel I.
2015-03-01
By propagating waves from head to tail, limbless organisms like snakes can traverse terrain composed of rocks, foliage, soil and sand. Previous research elucidated how rigid obstacles influence snake locomotion by studying a model terrain-symmetric lattices of pegs placed in hard ground. We want to understand how different substrate-body interaction modes affect performance in desert-adapted snakes during transit of substrates composed of both rigid obstacles and granular media (GM). We tested Chionactis occipitalis, the Mojave shovel-nosed snake, in two laboratory treatments: lattices of 0 . 64 cm diameter obstacles arrayed on both a hard, slick substrate and in a GM of ~ 0 . 3 mm diameter glass particles. For all lattice spacings, d, speed through the hard ground lattices was less than that in GM lattices. However, maximal undulation efficiencies ηu (number of body lengths advanced per undulation cycle) in both treatments were comparable when d was intermediate. For other d, ηu was lower than this maximum in hard ground lattices, while on GM, ηu was insensitive to d. To systematically explore such locomotion, we tested a physical robot model of the snake; performance depended sensitively on base substrate, d and body wave parameters.
Functional characterization of CYP2D6 enhancer polymorphisms
Wang, Danxin; Papp, Audrey C.; Sun, Xiaochun
2015-01-01
CYP2D6 metabolizes nearly 25% of clinically used drugs. Genetic polymorphisms cause large inter-individual variability in CYP2D6 enzyme activity and are currently used as biomarker to predict CYP2D6 metabolizer phenotype. Previously, we had identified a region 115 kb downstream of CYP2D6 as enhancer for CYP2D6, containing two completely linked single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs), rs133333 and rs5758550, associated with enhanced transcription. However, the enhancer effect on CYP2D6 expression, and the causative variant, remained to be ascertained. To characterize the CYP2D6 enhancer element, we applied chromatin conformation capture combined with the next-generation sequencing (4C assays) and chromatin immunoprecipitation with P300 antibody, in HepG2 and human primary culture hepatocytes. The results confirmed the role of the previously identified enhancer region in CYP2D6 expression, expanding the number of candidate variants to three highly linked SNPs (rs133333, rs5758550 and rs4822082). Among these, only rs5758550 demonstrated regulating enhancer activity in a reporter gene assay. Use of clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats mediated genome editing in HepG2 cells targeting suspected enhancer regions decreased CYP2D6 mRNA expression by 70%, only upon deletion of the rs5758550 region. These results demonstrate robust effects of both the enhancer element and SNP rs5758550 on CYP2D6 expression, supporting consideration of rs5758550 for CYP2D6 genotyping panels to yield more accurate phenotype prediction. PMID:25381333
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Chae, Dongho; Constantin, Peter; Wu, Jiahong
2014-09-01
We give an example of a well posed, finite energy, 2D incompressible active scalar equation with the same scaling as the surface quasi-geostrophic equation and prove that it can produce finite time singularities. In spite of its simplicity, this seems to be the first such example. Further, we construct explicit solutions of the 2D Boussinesq equations whose gradients grow exponentially in time for all time. In addition, we introduce a variant of the 2D Boussinesq equations which is perhaps a more faithful companion of the 3D axisymmetric Euler equations than the usual 2D Boussinesq equations.
Two-dimensional B-C-O alloys: a promising class of 2D materials for electronic devices
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Zhou, Si; Zhao, Jijun
2016-04-01
Graphene, a superior 2D material with high carrier mobility, has limited application in electronic devices due to zero band gap. In this regard, boron and nitrogen atoms have been integrated into the graphene lattice to fabricate 2D semiconducting heterostructures. It is an intriguing question whether oxygen can, as a replacement of nitrogen, enter the sp2 honeycomb lattice and form stable B-C-O monolayer structures. Here we explore the atomic structures, energetic and thermodynamic stability, and electronic properties of various 2D B-C-O alloys using first-principles calculations. Our results show that oxygen can be stably incorporated into the graphene lattice by bonding with boron. The B and O species favor forming alternate patterns into the chain- or ring-like structures embedded in the pristine graphene regions. These B-C-O hybrid sheets can be either metals or semiconductors depending on the B : O ratio. The semiconducting (B2O)nCm and (B6O3)nCm phases exist under the B- and O-rich conditions, and possess a tunable band gap of 1.0-3.8 eV and high carrier mobility, retaining ~1000 cm2 V-1 s-1 even for half coverage of B and O atoms. These B-C-O alloys form a new class of 2D materials that are promising candidates for high-speed electronic devices.Graphene, a superior 2D material with high carrier mobility, has limited application in electronic devices due to zero band gap. In this regard, boron and nitrogen atoms have been integrated into the graphene lattice to fabricate 2D semiconducting heterostructures. It is an intriguing question whether oxygen can, as a replacement of nitrogen, enter the sp2 honeycomb lattice and form stable B-C-O monolayer structures. Here we explore the atomic structures, energetic and thermodynamic stability, and electronic properties of various 2D B-C-O alloys using first-principles calculations. Our results show that oxygen can be stably incorporated into the graphene lattice by bonding with boron. The B and O species favor
Adaptation algorithms for 2-D feedforward neural networks.
Kaczorek, T
1995-01-01
The generalized weight adaptation algorithms presented by J.G. Kuschewski et al. (1993) and by S.H. Zak and H.J. Sira-Ramirez (1990) are extended for 2-D madaline and 2-D two-layer feedforward neural nets (FNNs).
Integrating Mobile Multimedia into Textbooks: 2D Barcodes
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Uluyol, Celebi; Agca, R. Kagan
2012-01-01
The major goal of this study was to empirically compare text-plus-mobile phone learning using an integrated 2D barcode tag in a printed text with three other conditions described in multimedia learning theory. The method examined in the study involved modifications of the instructional material such that: a 2D barcode was used near the text, the…
Efficient Visible Quasi-2D Perovskite Light-Emitting Diodes.
Byun, Jinwoo; Cho, Himchan; Wolf, Christoph; Jang, Mi; Sadhanala, Aditya; Friend, Richard H; Yang, Hoichang; Lee, Tae-Woo
2016-09-01
Efficient quasi-2D-structure perovskite light-emitting diodes (4.90 cd A(-1) ) are demonstrated by mixing a 3D-structured perovskite material (methyl ammonium lead bromide) and a 2D-structured perovskite material (phenylethyl ammonium lead bromide), which can be ascribed to better film uniformity, enhanced exciton confinement, and reduced trap density. PMID:27334788
CYP2D6: novel genomic structures and alleles
Kramer, Whitney E.; Walker, Denise L.; O’Kane, Dennis J.; Mrazek, David A.; Fisher, Pamela K.; Dukek, Brian A.; Bruflat, Jamie K.; Black, John L.
2010-01-01
Objective CYP2D6 is a polymorphic gene. It has been observed to be deleted, to be duplicated and to undergo recombination events involving the CYP2D7 pseudogene and surrounding sequences. The objective of this study was to discover the genomic structure of CYP2D6 recombinants that interfere with clinical genotyping platforms that are available today. Methods Clinical samples containing rare homozygous CYP2D6 alleles, ambiguous readouts, and those with duplication signals and two different alleles were analyzed by long-range PCR amplification of individual genes, PCR fragment analysis, allele-specific primer extension assay, and DNA sequencing to characterize alleles and genomic structure. Results Novel alleles, genomic structures, and the DNA sequence of these structures are described. Interestingly, in 49 of 50 DNA samples that had CYP2D6 gene duplications or multiplications where two alleles were detected, the chromosome containing the duplication or multiplication had identical tandem alleles. Conclusion Several new CYP2D6 alleles and genomic structures are described which will be useful for CYP2D6 genotyping. The findings suggest that the recombination events responsible for CYP2D6 duplications and multiplications are because of mechanisms other than interchromosomal crossover during meiosis. PMID:19741566
Efficient Visible Quasi-2D Perovskite Light-Emitting Diodes.
Byun, Jinwoo; Cho, Himchan; Wolf, Christoph; Jang, Mi; Sadhanala, Aditya; Friend, Richard H; Yang, Hoichang; Lee, Tae-Woo
2016-09-01
Efficient quasi-2D-structure perovskite light-emitting diodes (4.90 cd A(-1) ) are demonstrated by mixing a 3D-structured perovskite material (methyl ammonium lead bromide) and a 2D-structured perovskite material (phenylethyl ammonium lead bromide), which can be ascribed to better film uniformity, enhanced exciton confinement, and reduced trap density.
Good manufacturing practice: manufacturing of a nerve agent antidote nanoparticle suspension.
Clark, Andrew P-Z; Dixon, Hong; Cantu, Norma L; Cabell, Larry A; McDonough, Joe A
2013-01-01
We have established a current good manufacturing practice (GMP) manufacturing process to produce a nanoparticle suspension of 1,1'-methylenebis-4-[(hydroxyimino)methyl]pyridinium dimethanesulfonate (MMB4 DMS) in cottonseed oil (CSO) as a nerve agent antidote for a Phase 1 clinical trial. Bis-pyridinium oximes such as MMB4 were previously developed for emergency treatment of organophosphate nerve agent intoxication. Many of these compounds offer efficacy superior to monopyridinium oximes, but they have poor thermal stability due to hydrolytic cleavage in aqueous solution. We previously developed a nonaqueous nanoparticle suspension to improve the hydrothermal stability, termed Enhanced Formulation (EF). An example of this formulation technology is a suspension of MMB4 DMS nanoparticles in CSO. Due to the profound effect of particle size distribution on product quality and performance, particle size must be controlled during the manufacturing process. Therefore, a particle size analysis method for MMB4 DMS in CSO was developed and validated to use in support of good laboratory practice/GMP development and production activities. Manufacturing of EF was accomplished by milling MMB4 DMS with CSO and zirconia beads in an agitator bead mill. The resulting bulk material was filled into 5-mL glass vials at a sterile fill facility and terminally sterilized by gamma irradiation. The clinical lot was tested and released, a Certificate of Analysis was issued, and a 3-year International Conference on Harmonisation of Technical Requirements for Registration of Pharmaceuticals for Human Use (ICH) stability study started. The drug product was placed in storage for Phase 1 clinical trial distribution. A dose delivery uniformity study was undertaken to ensure that the correct doses were delivered to the patients in the clinic. PMID:23929446
Good manufacturing practice: manufacturing of a nerve agent antidote nanoparticle suspension.
Clark, Andrew P-Z; Dixon, Hong; Cantu, Norma L; Cabell, Larry A; McDonough, Joe A
2013-01-01
We have established a current good manufacturing practice (GMP) manufacturing process to produce a nanoparticle suspension of 1,1'-methylenebis-4-[(hydroxyimino)methyl]pyridinium dimethanesulfonate (MMB4 DMS) in cottonseed oil (CSO) as a nerve agent antidote for a Phase 1 clinical trial. Bis-pyridinium oximes such as MMB4 were previously developed for emergency treatment of organophosphate nerve agent intoxication. Many of these compounds offer efficacy superior to monopyridinium oximes, but they have poor thermal stability due to hydrolytic cleavage in aqueous solution. We previously developed a nonaqueous nanoparticle suspension to improve the hydrothermal stability, termed Enhanced Formulation (EF). An example of this formulation technology is a suspension of MMB4 DMS nanoparticles in CSO. Due to the profound effect of particle size distribution on product quality and performance, particle size must be controlled during the manufacturing process. Therefore, a particle size analysis method for MMB4 DMS in CSO was developed and validated to use in support of good laboratory practice/GMP development and production activities. Manufacturing of EF was accomplished by milling MMB4 DMS with CSO and zirconia beads in an agitator bead mill. The resulting bulk material was filled into 5-mL glass vials at a sterile fill facility and terminally sterilized by gamma irradiation. The clinical lot was tested and released, a Certificate of Analysis was issued, and a 3-year International Conference on Harmonisation of Technical Requirements for Registration of Pharmaceuticals for Human Use (ICH) stability study started. The drug product was placed in storage for Phase 1 clinical trial distribution. A dose delivery uniformity study was undertaken to ensure that the correct doses were delivered to the patients in the clinic.
2D materials and van der Waals heterostructures.
Novoselov, K S; Mishchenko, A; Carvalho, A; Castro Neto, A H
2016-07-29
The physics of two-dimensional (2D) materials and heterostructures based on such crystals has been developing extremely fast. With these new materials, truly 2D physics has begun to appear (for instance, the absence of long-range order, 2D excitons, commensurate-incommensurate transition, etc.). Novel heterostructure devices--such as tunneling transistors, resonant tunneling diodes, and light-emitting diodes--are also starting to emerge. Composed from individual 2D crystals, such devices use the properties of those materials to create functionalities that are not accessible in other heterostructures. Here we review the properties of novel 2D crystals and examine how their properties are used in new heterostructure devices.
Van der Waals stacked 2D layered materials for optoelectronics
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Zhang, Wenjing; Wang, Qixing; Chen, Yu; Wang, Zhuo; Wee, Andrew T. S.
2016-06-01
The band gaps of many atomically thin 2D layered materials such as graphene, black phosphorus, monolayer semiconducting transition metal dichalcogenides and hBN range from 0 to 6 eV. These isolated atomic planes can be reassembled into hybrid heterostructures made layer by layer in a precisely chosen sequence. Thus, the electronic properties of 2D materials can be engineered by van der Waals stacking, and the interlayer coupling can be tuned, which opens up avenues for creating new material systems with rich functionalities and novel physical properties. Early studies suggest that van der Waals stacked 2D materials work exceptionally well, dramatically enriching the optoelectronics applications of 2D materials. Here we review recent progress in van der Waals stacked 2D materials, and discuss their potential applications in optoelectronics.
A Class of Lattice Boltzmann Models with the Energy Equation
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Li, Yuanxiang; Xiong, Shengwu; Zou, Xiufen
In this paper a class of lattice Boltzmann models with the energy equation for simulating fluid thermodynamics are studied. The features of this class of models are that the discrete velocity set consists of multi-speed velocities and the internal energy of fluid is introduced by a multi-speed. Therefore, the energy term appears in the local equilibrium distribution functions of these models. Two examples are given in this paper. One is a 1D model and the other is a 2D model, which are used to model a shock wave tube problem and the Benard convection problem, respectively. Keywords: lattice Boltzmann model, energy equation, shock wave tube, Benard convection
Estrogen-Induced Cholestasis Leads to Repressed CYP2D6 Expression in CYP2D6-Humanized Mice
Pan, Xian
2015-01-01
Cholestasis activates bile acid receptor farnesoid X receptor (FXR) and subsequently enhances hepatic expression of small heterodimer partner (SHP). We previously demonstrated that SHP represses the transactivation of cytochrome P450 2D6 (CYP2D6) promoter by hepatocyte nuclear factor (HNF) 4α. In this study, we investigated the effects of estrogen-induced cholestasis on CYP2D6 expression. Estrogen-induced cholestasis occurs in subjects receiving estrogen for contraception or hormone replacement, or in susceptible women during pregnancy. In CYP2D6-humanized transgenic (Tg-CYP2D6) mice, cholestasis triggered by administration of 17α-ethinylestradiol (EE2) at a high dose led to 2- to 3-fold decreases in CYP2D6 expression. This was accompanied by increased hepatic SHP expression and subsequent decreases in the recruitment of HNF4α to CYP2D6 promoter. Interestingly, estrogen-induced cholestasis also led to increased recruitment of estrogen receptor (ER) α, but not that of FXR, to Shp promoter, suggesting a predominant role of ERα in transcriptional regulation of SHP in estrogen-induced cholestasis. EE2 at a low dose (that does not cause cholestasis) also increased SHP (by ∼50%) and decreased CYP2D6 expression (by 1.5-fold) in Tg-CYP2D6 mice, the magnitude of differences being much smaller than that shown in EE2-induced cholestasis. Taken together, our data indicate that EE2-induced cholestasis increases SHP and represses CYP2D6 expression in Tg-CYP2D6 mice in part through ERα transactivation of Shp promoter. PMID:25943116
Xie, Donghao; Ji, Ding-Kun; Zhang, Yue; Cao, Jun; Zheng, Hu; Liu, Lin; Zang, Yi; Li, Jia; Chen, Guo-Rong; James, Tony D; He, Xiao-Peng
2016-08-01
Here we demonstrate that 2D MoS2 can enhance the receptor-targeting and imaging ability of a fluorophore-labelled ligand. The 2D MoS2 has an enhanced working concentration range when compared with graphene oxide, resulting in the improved imaging of both cell and tissue samples.
Efficient 2D MRI relaxometry using compressed sensing
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Bai, Ruiliang; Cloninger, Alexander; Czaja, Wojciech; Basser, Peter J.
2015-06-01
Potential applications of 2D relaxation spectrum NMR and MRI to characterize complex water dynamics (e.g., compartmental exchange) in biology and other disciplines have increased in recent years. However, the large amount of data and long MR acquisition times required for conventional 2D MR relaxometry limits its applicability for in vivo preclinical and clinical MRI. We present a new MR pipeline for 2D relaxometry that incorporates compressed sensing (CS) as a means to vastly reduce the amount of 2D relaxation data needed for material and tissue characterization without compromising data quality. Unlike the conventional CS reconstruction in the Fourier space (k-space), the proposed CS algorithm is directly applied onto the Laplace space (the joint 2D relaxation data) without compressing k-space to reduce the amount of data required for 2D relaxation spectra. This framework is validated using synthetic data, with NMR data acquired in a well-characterized urea/water phantom, and on fixed porcine spinal cord tissue. The quality of the CS-reconstructed spectra was comparable to that of the conventional 2D relaxation spectra, as assessed using global correlation, local contrast between peaks, peak amplitude and relaxation parameters, etc. This result brings this important type of contrast closer to being realized in preclinical, clinical, and other applications.
Practical Algorithm For Computing The 2-D Arithmetic Fourier Transform
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Reed, Irving S.; Choi, Y. Y.; Yu, Xiaoli
1989-05-01
Recently, Tufts and Sadasiv [10] exposed a method for computing the coefficients of a Fourier series of a periodic function using the Mobius inversion of series. They called this method of analysis the Arithmetic Fourier Transform(AFT). The advantage of the AFT over the FN 1' is that this method of Fourier analysis needs only addition operations except for multiplications by scale factors at one stage of the computation. The disadvantage of the AFT as they expressed it originally is that it could be used effectively only to compute finite Fourier coefficients of a real even function. To remedy this the AFT developed in [10] is extended in [11] to compute the Fourier coefficients of both the even and odd components of a periodic function. In this paper, the improved AFT [11] is extended to a two-dimensional(2-D) Arithmetic Fourier Transform for calculating the Fourier Transform of two-dimensional discrete signals. This new algorithm is based on both the number-theoretic method of Mobius inversion of double series and the complex conjugate property of Fourier coefficients. The advantage of this algorithm over the conventional 2-D FFT is that the corner-turning problem needed in a conventional 2-D Discrete Fourier Transform(DFT) can be avoided. Therefore, this new 2-D algorithm is readily suitable for VLSI implementation as a parallel architecture. Comparing the operations of 2-D AFT of a MxM 2-D data array with the conventional 2-D FFT, the number of multiplications is significantly reduced from (2log2M)M2 to (9/4)M2. Hence, this new algorithm is faster than the FFT algorithm. Finally, two simulation results of this new 2-D AFT algorithm for 2-D artificial and real images are given in this paper.
David Richards
2004-10-01
This talk describes progress at understanding the properties of the nucleon and its excitations from lattice QCD. I begin with a review of recent lattice results for the lowest-lying states of the excited baryon spectrum. The need to approach physical values of the light quark masses is emphasized, enabling the effects of the pion cloud to be revealed. I then outline the development of techniques that will enable the extraction of the masses of the higher resonances, and describe how such calculations provide insight into the structure of the hadrons. Finally, I discuss direct probes of the quark and gluon structure of baryons through the lattice measurement of the moments of quark distributions and of Generalized Parton Distributions.
Latticed pentamode acoustic cloak.
Chen, Yi; Liu, Xiaoning; Hu, Gengkai
2015-01-01
We report in this work a practical design of pentamode acoustic cloak with microstructure. The proposed cloak is assembled by pentamode lattice made of a single-phase solid material. The function of rerouting acoustic wave round an obstacle has been demonstrated numerically. It is also revealed that shear related resonance due to weak shear resistance in practical pentamode lattices punctures broadband feature predicted based on ideal pentamode cloak. As a consequence, the latticed pentamode cloak can only conceal the obstacle in segmented frequency ranges. We have also shown that the shear resonance can be largely reduced by introducing material damping, and an improved broadband performance can be achieved. These works pave the way for experimental demonstration of pentamode acoustic cloak. PMID:26503821
Latticed pentamode acoustic cloak
Chen, Yi; Liu, Xiaoning; Hu, Gengkai
2015-01-01
We report in this work a practical design of pentamode acoustic cloak with microstructure. The proposed cloak is assembled by pentamode lattice made of a single-phase solid material. The function of rerouting acoustic wave round an obstacle has been demonstrated numerically. It is also revealed that shear related resonance due to weak shear resistance in practical pentamode lattices punctures broadband feature predicted based on ideal pentamode cloak. As a consequence, the latticed pentamode cloak can only conceal the obstacle in segmented frequency ranges. We have also shown that the shear resonance can be largely reduced by introducing material damping, and an improved broadband performance can be achieved. These works pave the way for experimental demonstration of pentamode acoustic cloak. PMID:26503821
Vortex lines in layered superconductors. I. From 3D to 2D behaviour
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Feinberg, D.
1994-02-01
The fundamental aspects of vortices in layered superconductors (natural or artificial multilayered materials) are reviewed, focusing on the role of anisotropy and very short coherence lengths. These materials divide into three classes, with increasing T_c's : chalcogenides, organic superconductors and high-T_c copper oxides. The first part of the paper summarizes the quantitative features of the vortex lattice, due to the incorporation of anisotropy in the 3D Ginzburg-Landau or London descriptions : anisotropy of critical fields and vortex lattice, elastic coefficients and melting. This kind of model describes most of the properties of moderately anisotropic compounds as Y : 123. The second part concerns the Josephson-coupled layered systems and identifies in which regimes vortices exhibit a quasi-2D character. Qualitatively new features as Josephson vortices, 2D vortices, Kosterlitz-Thouless transition and lock-in of vortices are reviewed. This analysis is adapted to compounds as Bi : 2212 or multilayers, but also to Y : 123 for some aspects. On passe en revue les aspects fondamentaux des vortex dans les supraconducteurs lamellaires (naturels ou superréseaux artificiels), en mettant l'accent sur le rôle de l'anisotropie et des très courtes longueurs de cohérence. Ces composés se divisent en trois classes, de T_c croissants : chalcogénures, supraconducteurs organiques et oxydes de cuivre à haut T_c. La première partie de l'article résume les aspects quantitatifs dus à l'incorporation de l'anisotropie dans les descriptions 3D Ginzburg-Landau ou London du réseau de vortex.: anisotropie des champs critiques et du réseau de vortex, coefficients élastiques et fusion. Ce type de modèle décrit une grande partie des propriétés des composés modérément anisotropes tels que Y : 123. La seconde partie concerne les systèmes lamellaires à couplage Josephson et identifie dans quels régimes les vortex présentent un caractère quasi-2D. Des effets
2D electron cyclotron emission imaging at ASDEX Upgrade (invited)
Classen, I. G. J.; Boom, J. E.; Vries, P. C. de; Suttrop, W.; Schmid, E.; Garcia-Munoz, M.; Schneider, P. A.; Tobias, B.; Domier, C. W.; Luhmann, N. C. Jr.; Donne, A. J. H.; Jaspers, R. J. E.; Park, H. K.; Munsat, T.
2010-10-15
The newly installed electron cyclotron emission imaging diagnostic on ASDEX Upgrade provides measurements of the 2D electron temperature dynamics with high spatial and temporal resolution. An overview of the technical and experimental properties of the system is presented. These properties are illustrated by the measurements of the edge localized mode and the reversed shear Alfven eigenmode, showing both the advantage of having a two-dimensional (2D) measurement, as well as some of the limitations of electron cyclotron emission measurements. Furthermore, the application of singular value decomposition as a powerful tool for analyzing and filtering 2D data is presented.
Comparison of 2D and 3D gamma analyses
Pulliam, Kiley B.; Huang, Jessie Y.; Howell, Rebecca M.; Followill, David; Kry, Stephen F.; Bosca, Ryan; O’Daniel, Jennifer
2014-02-15
Purpose: As clinics begin to use 3D metrics for intensity-modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) quality assurance, it must be noted that these metrics will often produce results different from those produced by their 2D counterparts. 3D and 2D gamma analyses would be expected to produce different values, in part because of the different search space available. In the present investigation, the authors compared the results of 2D and 3D gamma analysis (where both datasets were generated in the same manner) for clinical treatment plans. Methods: Fifty IMRT plans were selected from the authors’ clinical database, and recalculated using Monte Carlo. Treatment planning system-calculated (“evaluated dose distributions”) and Monte Carlo-recalculated (“reference dose distributions”) dose distributions were compared using 2D and 3D gamma analysis. This analysis was performed using a variety of dose-difference (5%, 3%, 2%, and 1%) and distance-to-agreement (5, 3, 2, and 1 mm) acceptance criteria, low-dose thresholds (5%, 10%, and 15% of the prescription dose), and data grid sizes (1.0, 1.5, and 3.0 mm). Each comparison was evaluated to determine the average 2D and 3D gamma, lower 95th percentile gamma value, and percentage of pixels passing gamma. Results: The average gamma, lower 95th percentile gamma value, and percentage of passing pixels for each acceptance criterion demonstrated better agreement for 3D than for 2D analysis for every plan comparison. The average difference in the percentage of passing pixels between the 2D and 3D analyses with no low-dose threshold ranged from 0.9% to 2.1%. Similarly, using a low-dose threshold resulted in a difference between the mean 2D and 3D results, ranging from 0.8% to 1.5%. The authors observed no appreciable differences in gamma with changes in the data density (constant difference: 0.8% for 2D vs 3D). Conclusions: The authors found that 3D gamma analysis resulted in up to 2.9% more pixels passing than 2D analysis. It must
Recent advances in 2D materials for photocatalysis.
Luo, Bin; Liu, Gang; Wang, Lianzhou
2016-04-01
Two-dimensional (2D) materials have attracted increasing attention for photocatalytic applications because of their unique thickness dependent physical and chemical properties. This review gives a brief overview of the recent developments concerning the chemical synthesis and structural design of 2D materials at the nanoscale and their applications in photocatalytic areas. In particular, recent progress on the emerging strategies for tailoring 2D material-based photocatalysts to improve their photo-activity including elemental doping, heterostructure design and functional architecture assembly is discussed.
Room Temperature Quantum Spin Hall Insulators with a Buckled Square Lattice
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Luo, Wei; Xiang, Hongjun
Two-dimensional (2D) topological insulators (TIs), are excellent candidates for coherent spin transport related applications Currently, most known 2D TIs are based on a hexagonal lattice. Here, we propose that there exists the quantum spin Hall effect (QSHE) in a new tight-binding (TB) model for a two-orbital system with the buckled square lattices. We show that the band inversion is due to the hybridization between thepx andpyorbitals, while the spin-orbit coupling (SOC) induced nearest-neighbor effective hopping is responsible for a band gap opening at the Dirac cone. Through performing global structure optimization, we predict a new three-layer quasi-2D (Q2D) structure which has the lowest energy among all structures with the thickness less than 6.0 Å for the BiF system. It is identified to be a Q2D TI with a large band gap (0.69 eV). The electronic states of the Q2D BiF system near the Fermi level are mainly contributed by the middle Bi square lattice, which are sandwiched by two inert BiF2 layers. This is beneficial since the interaction between a substrate and the Q2D material may not change the topological properties of the system, as we demonstrate in the case of the NaF substrate. Our analysis shows that the low-energy physics of the Q2D BiF system can be qualitatively described by our newly proposed two-orbital TB model. Our study not only predicts a Q2D QSH insulator for realistic room temperature (RT) applications, but also provides a new lattice system for engineering topological states such as quantum anomalous Hall effect.
Catterall, Simon; Kaplan, David B.; Unsal, Mithat
2009-03-31
We provide an introduction to recent lattice formulations of supersymmetric theories which are invariant under one or more real supersymmetries at nonzero lattice spacing. These include the especially interesting case of N = 4 SYM in four dimensions. We discuss approaches based both on twisted supersymmetry and orbifold-deconstruction techniques and show their equivalence in the case of gauge theories. The presence of an exact supersymmetry reduces and in some cases eliminates the need for fine tuning to achieve a continuum limit invariant under the full supersymmetry of the target theory. We discuss open problems.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Xia, J. W.; Yuan, Y. J.; Song, M. T.; Zhang, W. Z.; Yang, X. D.; He, Y.; Mao, L. Z.; Xia, G. X.; Yang, J. C.; Wu, J. X.; Liu, W.
2001-12-01
CSR, a new Cooler-Storage-Ring project, is the post-acceleration system of the Heavy Ion Research Facility in Lanzhou (HIRFL). It consists of a main ring (CSRm) and an experimental ring (CSRe). From the HIRFL cyclotron system the heavy ions will be accumulated, cooled and accelerated in the CSRm, then extracted fast and injected into the CSRe for many internal-target experiments with electron cooling. The experimental ring (CSRe) will be operated with three lattice modes for different experiments. The details of the lattice for the two rings will be described in this paper.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Brajuskovic, V.; Barrows, F.; Phatak, C.; Petford-Long, A. K.
2016-10-01
Artificial spin ice lattices have emerged as model systems for studying magnetic frustration in recent years. Most work to date has looked at periodic artificial spin ice lattices. In this paper, we observe frustration effects in quasicrystal artificial spin ice lattices that lack translational symmetry and contain vertices with different numbers of interacting elements. We find that as the lattice state changes following demagnetizing and annealing, specific vertex motifs retain low-energy configurations, which excites other motifs into higher energy configurations. Additionally, we find that unlike the magnetization reversal process for periodic artificial spin ice lattices, which occurs through 1D avalanches, quasicrystal lattices undergo reversal through a dendritic 2D avalanche mechanism.
Brajuskovic, V.; Barrows, F.; Phatak, C.; Petford-Long, A. K.
2016-01-01
Artificial spin ice lattices have emerged as model systems for studying magnetic frustration in recent years. Most work to date has looked at periodic artificial spin ice lattices. In this paper, we observe frustration effects in quasicrystal artificial spin ice lattices that lack translational symmetry and contain vertices with different numbers of interacting elements. We find that as the lattice state changes following demagnetizing and annealing, specific vertex motifs retain low-energy configurations, which excites other motifs into higher energy configurations. Additionally, we find that unlike the magnetization reversal process for periodic artificial spin ice lattices, which occurs through 1D avalanches, quasicrystal lattices undergo reversal through a dendritic 2D avalanche mechanism. PMID:27694973
Karki, Pragalv; Loh, Yen Lee
2016-11-01
We simulate three types of random inductor-capacitor (LC) networks on [Formula: see text] square lattices. We calculate the dynamical conductivity using an equation-of-motion method in which timestep error is eliminated and windowing error is minimized. We extract the critical exponent a such that [Formula: see text] at low frequencies. The results suggest that there are three different universality classes. The [Formula: see text] model, with capacitances from each site to ground, has a = 0.314(4). The [Formula: see text] model, with capacitances along bonds, has a = 0. The [Formula: see text] model, with both types of capacitances, has a = 0.304(1). This implies that classical percolative 2D superconductor-insulator transitions (SITs) generically have [Formula: see text] as [Formula: see text]. Therefore, any experiments that give a constant conductivity as [Formula: see text] must be explained in terms of quantum effects.
Symmetry origins of the `caldera' valence band distortion in 2D semiconductors
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Li, Pengke; Appelbaum, Ian; Physics Department Team
The electronic structures of many two-dimensional van der Waals semiconductors exhibit various fascinating properties distinct from their three-dimensional bulk counterparts. Through an examination of their lattice symmetries, we identify several universal rules dictating their band dispersion in the monolayer limit, where in-plane mirror symmetry and quantum confinement play critical roles. Taking group-III metal monochalcogenides (such as GaSe) as an example, we reveal the origin of the unusual `caldera' shape of the valence band edge (otherwise inelegantly dubbed an `upside down Mexican hat'), which we show is surprisingly common among other 2D semiconductors (such as in phosphorene for k along its zigzag direction). Reference: arXiv:1508.06963
Observation of spatial charge and spin correlations in the 2D Fermi-Hubbard model.
Cheuk, Lawrence W; Nichols, Matthew A; Lawrence, Katherine R; Okan, Melih; Zhang, Hao; Khatami, Ehsan; Trivedi, Nandini; Paiva, Thereza; Rigol, Marcos; Zwierlein, Martin W
2016-09-16
Strong electron correlations lie at the origin of high-temperature superconductivity. Its essence is believed to be captured by the Fermi-Hubbard model of repulsively interacting fermions on a lattice. Here we report on the site-resolved observation of charge and spin correlations in the two-dimensional (2D) Fermi-Hubbard model realized with ultracold atoms. Antiferromagnetic spin correlations are maximal at half-filling and weaken monotonically upon doping. At large doping, nearest-neighbor correlations between singly charged sites are negative, revealing the formation of a correlation hole, the suppressed probability of finding two fermions near each other. As the doping is reduced, the correlations become positive, signaling strong bunching of doublons and holes, in agreement with numerical calculations. The dynamics of the doublon-hole correlations should play an important role for transport in the Fermi-Hubbard model. PMID:27634529
Soltani, Motahareh; Shetab-Boushehri, Seyed F.; Shetab-Boushehri, Seyed V.
2016-01-01
Objectives: Aluminium phosphide (AlP) is a fumigant pesticide which protects stored grains from insects and rodents. When it comes into contact with moisture, AlP releases phosphine (PH3), a highly toxic gas. No efficient antidote has been found for AlP poisoning so far and most people who are poisoned do not survive. Boric acid is a Lewis acid with an empty p orbital which accepts electrons. This study aimed to investigate the neutralisation of PH3 gas with boric acid. Methods: This study was carried out at the Baharlou Hospital, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran, between December 2013 and February 2014. The volume of released gas, rate of gas evolution and changes in pH were measured during reactions of AlP tablets with water, acidified water, saturated boric acid solution, acidified saturated boric acid solution, activated charcoal and acidified activated charcoal. Infrared spectroscopy was used to study the resulting probable adduct between PH3 and boric acid. Results: Activated charcoal significantly reduced the volume of released gas (P <0.01). Although boric acid did not significantly reduce the volume of released gas, it significantly reduced the rate of gas evolution (P <0.01). A gaseous adduct was formed in the reaction between pure AlP and boric acid. Conclusion: These findings indicate that boric acid may be an efficient and non-toxic antidote for PH3 poisoning. PMID:27606109
Soltani, Motahareh; Shetab-Boushehri, Seyed F.; Shetab-Boushehri, Seyed V.
2016-01-01
Objectives: Aluminium phosphide (AlP) is a fumigant pesticide which protects stored grains from insects and rodents. When it comes into contact with moisture, AlP releases phosphine (PH3), a highly toxic gas. No efficient antidote has been found for AlP poisoning so far and most people who are poisoned do not survive. Boric acid is a Lewis acid with an empty p orbital which accepts electrons. This study aimed to investigate the neutralisation of PH3 gas with boric acid. Methods: This study was carried out at the Baharlou Hospital, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran, between December 2013 and February 2014. The volume of released gas, rate of gas evolution and changes in pH were measured during reactions of AlP tablets with water, acidified water, saturated boric acid solution, acidified saturated boric acid solution, activated charcoal and acidified activated charcoal. Infrared spectroscopy was used to study the resulting probable adduct between PH3 and boric acid. Results: Activated charcoal significantly reduced the volume of released gas (P <0.01). Although boric acid did not significantly reduce the volume of released gas, it significantly reduced the rate of gas evolution (P <0.01). A gaseous adduct was formed in the reaction between pure AlP and boric acid. Conclusion: These findings indicate that boric acid may be an efficient and non-toxic antidote for PH3 poisoning.
Doebler, J.A.; Dant, B.C.; Chang, F.C.T.
1997-05-01
Studies were conducted to investigate the utility of a novel in vitro system to monitor the efficacy of potential antidotes against sodium channel neurotoxins. Intracellular free calcium levels were measured in PC-12 (rat adrenal pheochromocytoma) cells utilizing a calcium imaging system with Fura-2 as the ratiometric calcium-sensitive indicator. Elevations in Ca(++) induced by high extracellular potassium (K(+)) and 4-aminopyridine (4-AP) were demonstrated, thus confirming the responsiveness of the system. Saxitoxin (STX), however, did not produce any alteration in Ca(++), perhaps due to a relatively low level of neuronal activity, i.e., impulse generation, in the in vitro state. Therefore, we attempted to activate PC-12 cells using the sodium channel agonist veratridine (VER) to determine whether STX could reduce enhanced Ca(++) levels. Although VER generally increased Ca(++), this response was somewhat variable and thus could not be used to demonstrate STX-induced toxic effects. Such variability may be inherent to cell lines; thus, the use of primary cultures is recommended to develop an in vitro system using Ca(++) levels as an endpoint to evaluate the efficacy of antidotes against sodium channel toxins.
Alloyed 2D Metal-Semiconductor Atomic Layer Junctions.
Kim, Ah Ra; Kim, Yonghun; Nam, Jaewook; Chung, Hee-Suk; Kim, Dong Jae; Kwon, Jung-Dae; Park, Sang Won; Park, Jucheol; Choi, Sun Young; Lee, Byoung Hun; Park, Ji Hyeon; Lee, Kyu Hwan; Kim, Dong-Ho; Choi, Sung Mook; Ajayan, Pulickel M; Hahm, Myung Gwan; Cho, Byungjin
2016-03-01
Heterostructures of compositionally and electronically variant two-dimensional (2D) atomic layers are viable building blocks for ultrathin optoelectronic devices. We show that the composition of interfacial transition region between semiconducting WSe2 atomic layer channels and metallic NbSe2 contact layers can be engineered through interfacial doping with Nb atoms. WxNb1-xSe2 interfacial regions considerably lower the potential barrier height of the junction, significantly improving the performance of the corresponding WSe2-based field-effect transistor devices. The creation of such alloyed 2D junctions between dissimilar atomic layer domains could be the most important factor in controlling the electronic properties of 2D junctions and the design and fabrication of 2D atomic layer devices.
Emerging and potential opportunities for 2D flexible nanoelectronics
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Zhu, Weinan; Park, Saungeun; Akinwande, Deji
2016-05-01
The last 10 years have seen the emergence of two-dimensional (2D) nanomaterials such as graphene, transition metal dichalcogenides (TMDs), and black phosphorus (BP) among the growing portfolio of layered van der Waals thin films. Graphene, the prototypical 2D material has advanced rapidly in device, circuit and system studies that has resulted in commercial large-area applications. In this work, we provide a perspective of the emerging and potential translational applications of 2D materials including semiconductors, semimetals, and insulators that comprise the basic material set for diverse nanosystems. Applications include RF transceivers, smart systems, the so-called internet of things, and neurotechnology. We will review the DC and RF electronic performance of graphene and BP thin film transistors. 2D materials at sub-um channel length have so far enabled cut-off frequencies from baseband to 100GHz suitable for low-power RF and sub-THz concepts.
Technical Review of the UNET2D Hydraulic Model
Perkins, William A.; Richmond, Marshall C.
2009-05-18
The Kansas City District of the US Army Corps of Engineers is engaged in a broad range of river management projects that require knowledge of spatially-varied hydraulic conditions such as velocities and water surface elevations. This information is needed to design new structures, improve existing operations, and assess aquatic habitat. Two-dimensional (2D) depth-averaged numerical hydraulic models are a common tool that can be used to provide velocity and depth information. Kansas City District is currently using a specific 2D model, UNET2D, that has been developed to meet the needs of their river engineering applications. This report documents a tech- nical review of UNET2D.
Double resonance rotational spectroscopy of CH2D+
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Töpfer, Matthias; Jusko, Pavol; Schlemmer, Stephan; Asvany, Oskar
2016-09-01
Context. Deuterated forms of CH are thought to be responsible for deuterium enrichment in lukewarm astronomical environments. There is no unambiguous detection of CH2D+ in space to date. Aims: Four submillimetre rotational lines of CH2D+ are documented in the literature. Our aim is to present a complete dataset of highly resolved rotational lines, including millimetre (mm) lines needed for a potential detection. Methods: We used a low-temperature ion trap and applied a novel IR-mm-wave double resonance method to measure the rotational lines of CH2D+. Results: We measured 21 low-lying (J ≤ 4) rotational transitions of CH2D+ between 23 GHz and 1.1 THz with accuracies close to 2 ppb.
Alloyed 2D Metal-Semiconductor Atomic Layer Junctions.
Kim, Ah Ra; Kim, Yonghun; Nam, Jaewook; Chung, Hee-Suk; Kim, Dong Jae; Kwon, Jung-Dae; Park, Sang Won; Park, Jucheol; Choi, Sun Young; Lee, Byoung Hun; Park, Ji Hyeon; Lee, Kyu Hwan; Kim, Dong-Ho; Choi, Sung Mook; Ajayan, Pulickel M; Hahm, Myung Gwan; Cho, Byungjin
2016-03-01
Heterostructures of compositionally and electronically variant two-dimensional (2D) atomic layers are viable building blocks for ultrathin optoelectronic devices. We show that the composition of interfacial transition region between semiconducting WSe2 atomic layer channels and metallic NbSe2 contact layers can be engineered through interfacial doping with Nb atoms. WxNb1-xSe2 interfacial regions considerably lower the potential barrier height of the junction, significantly improving the performance of the corresponding WSe2-based field-effect transistor devices. The creation of such alloyed 2D junctions between dissimilar atomic layer domains could be the most important factor in controlling the electronic properties of 2D junctions and the design and fabrication of 2D atomic layer devices. PMID:26839956
ORION96. 2-d Finite Element Code Postprocessor
Sanford, L.A.; Hallquist, J.O.
1992-02-02
ORION is an interactive program that serves as a postprocessor for the analysis programs NIKE2D, DYNA2D, TOPAZ2D, and CHEMICAL TOPAZ2D. ORION reads binary plot files generated by the two-dimensional finite element codes currently used by the Methods Development Group at LLNL. Contour and color fringe plots of a large number of quantities may be displayed on meshes consisting of triangular and quadrilateral elements. ORION can compute strain measures, interface pressures along slide lines, reaction forces along constrained boundaries, and momentum. ORION has been applied to study the response of two-dimensional solids and structures undergoing finite deformations under a wide variety of large deformation transient dynamic and static problems and heat transfer analyses.
Phylogenetic tree construction based on 2D graphical representation
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Liao, Bo; Shan, Xinzhou; Zhu, Wen; Li, Renfa
2006-04-01
A new approach based on the two-dimensional (2D) graphical representation of the whole genome sequence [Bo Liao, Chem. Phys. Lett., 401(2005) 196.] is proposed to analyze the phylogenetic relationships of genomes. The evolutionary distances are obtained through measuring the differences among the 2D curves. The fuzzy theory is used to construct phylogenetic tree. The phylogenetic relationships of H5N1 avian influenza virus illustrate the utility of our approach.
Generating a 2D Representation of a Complex Data Structure
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
James, Mark
2006-01-01
A computer program, designed to assist in the development and debugging of other software, generates a two-dimensional (2D) representation of a possibly complex n-dimensional (where n is an integer >2) data structure or abstract rank-n object in that other software. The nature of the 2D representation is such that it can be displayed on a non-graphical output device and distributed by non-graphical means.
Anisotropic 2D Materials for Tunable Hyperbolic Plasmonics.
Nemilentsau, Andrei; Low, Tony; Hanson, George
2016-02-12
Motivated by the recent emergence of a new class of anisotropic 2D materials, we examine their electromagnetic modes and demonstrate that a broad class of the materials can host highly directional hyperbolic plasmons. Their propagation direction can be manipulated on the spot by gate doping, enabling hyperbolic beam reflection, refraction, and bending. The realization of these natural 2D hyperbolic media opens up a new avenue in dynamic control of hyperbolic plasmons not possible in the 3D version.
A simultaneous 2D/3D autostereo workstation
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Chau, Dennis; McGinnis, Bradley; Talandis, Jonas; Leigh, Jason; Peterka, Tom; Knoll, Aaron; Sumer, Aslihan; Papka, Michael; Jellinek, Julius
2012-03-01
We present a novel immersive workstation environment that scientists can use for 3D data exploration and as their everyday 2D computer monitor. Our implementation is based on an autostereoscopic dynamic parallax barrier 2D/3D display, interactive input devices, and a software infrastructure that allows client/server software modules to couple the workstation to scientists' visualization applications. This paper describes the hardware construction and calibration, software components, and a demonstration of our system in nanoscale materials science exploration.
QUENCH2D. Two-Dimensional IHCP Code
Osman, A.; Beck, J.V.
1995-01-01
QUENCH2D* is developed for the solution of general, non-linear, two-dimensional inverse heat transfer problems. This program provides estimates for the surface heat flux distribution and/or heat transfer coefficient as a function of time and space by using transient temperature measurements at appropriate interior points inside the quenched body. Two-dimensional planar and axisymmetric geometries such as turnbine disks and blades, clutch packs, and many other problems can be analyzed using QUENCH2D*.
Quantum oscillations of magnetization in tight-binding electrons on a honeycomb lattice
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kishigi, Keita; Hasegawa, Yasumasa
2014-08-01
We show that quantum oscillations of the magnetization can occur when the Fermi surface consists of points (massless Dirac points) or even when the chemical potential is in an energy gap by studying tight-binding electrons on a honeycomb lattice in a uniform magnetic field. The quantum oscillations of the magnetization as a function of the inverse magnetic field are known as de Haas-van Alphen (dHvA) oscillations and the frequency is proportional to the area of the Fermi surface. The dominant period of the oscillations shown in this paper corresponds to the area of the first Brillouin zone and its phase is zero. The origin of these quantum oscillations is the characteristic magnetic field dependence of the energy known as the Hofstadter butterfly and the Harper broadening of Landau levels. These oscillations are not caused by the crossing of the chemical potential and Landau levels, which is the case in dHvA oscillations. These oscillations can be observed experimentally in systems with a large supercell such as a graphene antidot lattice or ultracold atoms in an optical lattice at an external magnetic field of a few Tesla when the area of the supercell is 104 times larger than that of graphene.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ma, Yandong; Kou, Liangzhi; Li, Xiao; Dai, Ying; Heine, Thomas
2016-01-01
So far, several transition metal dichalcogenide (TMDC)-based two-dimensional (2D) topological insulators (TIs) have been discovered, all of them based on a tetragonal lattice. However, in 2D crystals, the hexagonal rather than the tetragonal symmetry is the most common motif. Here, based on first principles calculations, we propose a class of stable 2D TMDCs of composition MX2(M =Mo ,W ;X =S ,Se ,Te ) with a hexagonal lattice. They are all in the same stability range as other 2D TMDC allotropes that have been demonstrated experimentally, and they are identified to be practical 2D TIs with large band gaps ranging from 41 to 198 meV, making them suitable for applications at room temperature. Besides, in contrast to tetragonal 2D TMDCs, their hexagonal lattice will greatly facilitate the integration of theses novel TI state van der Waals crystals with other hexagonal or honeycomb materials and thus provide a route for 2D material-based devices for wider nanoelectronic and spintronic applications. The nontrivial band gaps of both WS e2 and WT e2 2D crystals are 198 meV, which are larger than that in any previously reported TMDC-based TIs. These large band gaps entirely stem from the strong spin orbit coupling strength within the d orbitals of Mo/W atoms near the Fermi level. Our findings broaden the scientific and technological impact of both 2D TIs and TMDCs.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Savelyev, V. A.
1979-01-01
The means of ensuring total rigidity of lattice domes, using comparison with solid shells of 1-3 layers are discussed. Irregularities of manufacture, processing, and other factors are considered, as they relate to diminution of rigidity. The discussion uses the concepts of upper and lower critical loads on the structure in question.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Schaich, David
2016-03-01
Lattice field theory provides a non-perturbative regularization of strongly interacting systems, which has proven crucial to the study of quantum chromodynamics among many other theories. Supersymmetry plays prominent roles in the study of physics beyond the standard model, both as an ingredient in model building and as a tool to improve our understanding of quantum field theory. Attempts to apply lattice techniques to supersymmetric field theories have a long history, but until recently these efforts have generally encountered insurmountable difficulties related to the interplay of supersymmetry with the lattice discretization of spacetime. In recent years these difficulties have been overcome for a class of theories that includes the particularly interesting case of maximally supersymmetric Yang-Mills (N = 4 SYM) in four dimensions, which is a cornerstone of AdS/CFT duality. In combination with computational advances this progress enables practical numerical investigations of N = 4 SYM on the lattice, which can address questions that are difficult or impossible to handle through perturbation theory, AdS/CFT duality, or the conformal bootstrap program. I will briefly review some of the new ideas underlying this recent progress, and present some results from ongoing large-scale numerical calculations, including comparisons with analytic predictions.
Andreas S. Kronfeld
2002-09-30
After reviewing some of the mathematical foundations and numerical difficulties facing lattice QCD, I review the status of several calculations relevant to experimental high-energy physics. The topics considered are moments of structure functions, which may prove relevant to search for new phenomena at the LHC, and several aspects of flavor physics, which are relevant to understanding CP and flavor violation.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Shigaki, Kenta; Noda, Fumiaki; Yamamoto, Kazami; Machida, Shinji; Molodojentsev, Alexander; Ishi, Yoshihiro
2002-12-01
The JKJ high-intensity proton accelerator facility consists of a 400-MeV linac, a 3-GeV 1-MW rapid-cycling synchrotron and a 50-GeV 0.75-MW synchrotron. The lattice and beam dynamics design of the two synchrotrons are reported.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Weidner, Carrie; Yu, Hoon; Anderson, Dana
2015-05-01
This work introduces a method to perform interferometry using atoms trapped in an optical lattice. Starting at t = 0 with atoms in the ground state of a lattice potential V(x) =V0cos [ 2 kx + ϕ(t) ] , we show that it is possible to transform from one atomic wavefunction to another by a prescribed shaking of the lattice, i.e., by an appropriately tailored time-dependent phase shift ϕ(t) . In particular, the standard interferometer sequence of beam splitting, propagation, reflection, reverse propagation, and recombination can be achieved via a set of phase modulation operations {ϕj(t) } . Each ϕj(t) is determined using a learning algorithm, and the split-step method calculates the wavefunction dynamics. We have numerically demonstrated an interferometer in which the shaken wavefunctions match the target states to better than 1 % . We carried out learning using a genetic algorithm and optimal control techniques. The atoms remain trapped in the lattice throughout the full interferometer sequence. Thus, the approach may be suitable for use in an dynamic environment. In addition to the general principles, we discuss aspects of the experimental implementation. Supported by the Office of Naval Research (ONR) and Northrop Grumman.
Simulating MEMS Chevron Actuator for Strain Engineering 2D Materials
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Vutukuru, Mounika; Christopher, Jason; Bishop, David; Swan, Anna
2D materials pose an exciting paradigm shift in the world of electronics. These crystalline materials have demonstrated high electric and thermal conductivities and tensile strength, showing great potential as the new building blocks of basic electronic circuits. However, strain engineering 2D materials for novel devices remains a difficult experimental feat. We propose the integration of 2D materials with MEMS devices to investigate the strain dependence on material properties such as electrical and thermal conductivity, refractive index, mechanical elasticity, and band gap. MEMS Chevron actuators, provides the most accessible framework to study strain in 2D materials due to their high output force displacements for low input power. Here, we simulate Chevron actuators on COMSOL to optimize actuator design parameters and accurately capture the behavior of the devices while under the external force of a 2D material. Through stationary state analysis, we analyze the response of the device through IV characteristics, displacement and temperature curves. We conclude that the simulation precisely models the real-world device through experimental confirmation, proving that the integration of 2D materials with MEMS is a viable option for constructing novel strain engineered devices. The authors acknowledge support from NSF DMR1411008.
Theoretical and numerical study of axisymmetric lattice Boltzmann models
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Huang, Haibo; Lu, Xi-Yun
2009-07-01
The forcing term in the lattice Boltzmann equation (LBE) is usually used to mimic Navier-Stokes equations with a body force. To derive axisymmetric model, forcing terms are incorporated into the two-dimensional (2D) LBE to mimic the additional axisymmetric contributions in 2D Navier-Stokes equations in cylindrical coordinates. Many axisymmetric lattice Boltzmann D2Q9 models were obtained through the Chapman-Enskog expansion to recover the 2D Navier-Stokes equations in cylindrical coordinates [I. Halliday , Phys. Rev. E 64, 011208 (2001); K. N. Premnath and J. Abraham, Phys. Rev. E 71, 056706 (2005); T. S. Lee, H. Huang, and C. Shu, Int. J. Mod. Phys. C 17, 645 (2006); T. Reis and T. N. Phillips, Phys. Rev. E 75, 056703 (2007); J. G. Zhou, Phys. Rev. E 78, 036701 (2008)]. The theoretical differences between them are discussed in detail. Numerical studies were also carried out by simulating two different flows to make a comparison on these models’ accuracy and τ sensitivity. It is found all these models are able to obtain accurate results and have the second-order spatial accuracy. However, the model C [J. G. Zhou, Phys. Rev. E 78, 036701 (2008)] is the most stable one in terms of τ sensitivity. It is also found that if density of fluid is defined in its usual way and not directly relevant to source terms, the lattice Boltzmann model seems more stable.
Use of the 'Precessions' process for prepolishing and correcting 2D & 2(1/2)D form.
Walker, David D; Freeman, Richard; Morton, Roger; McCavana, Gerry; Beaucamp, Anthony
2006-11-27
The Precessions process polishes complex surfaces from the ground state preserving the ground-in form, and subsequently rectifies measured form errors. Our first paper introduced the technology and focused on the novel tooling. In this paper we describe the unique CNC machine tools and how they operate in polishing and correcting form. Experimental results demonstrate both the '2D' and '2(1/2)D' form-correction modes, as applied to aspheres with rotationally-symmetric target-form.
Implications of lack-of-ergodicity in 2D Potts model
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ota, Smita
2015-03-01
Microcanonical Monte Carlo simulation is used to study two dimensional (2D) q state Potts model. We consider a 2D square lattice having NxN spins with periodic boundary condition and simulated the system with N =15 and q =10. The demon energy distribution is found to be exponential for high system energy and large system size. For smaller system size and above the first order transition the demon energy distribution is found to deviate from exp(- βED) and has the form exp(- βED + γ ED2). Here β = 1/kBT and kB is the Boltzmann constant. It is found that γ is finite at higher temperatures. As the system energy is reduced γ becomes zero near the first order transition. It is found that during cooling γ changes sign from negative to positive and then to negative again near the 1st order transition. Therefore the demon energy distribution becomes exp(- βED) (or ergodic) at two values of system energy near the 1st order transition. Further cooling or at still lower temperatures the system shows lack of ergodicity. However, difference in heating cooling curves are apparent in E vs γ. The system energies for which γ is zero during cooling can represent the 'ergodic' states. This can be related to the two-level systems observed in glasses at low temperatures.
Interfacing 2D and 3D Topological Insulators: Bi(111) Bilayer on Bi2Te3
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Hirahara, Toru; Bihlmayer, Gustav; Sakamoto, Yusuke; Yamada, Manabu; Miyazaki, Hidetoshi; Kimura, Shin-Ichi; Blügel, Stefan; Hasegawa, Shuji
2012-02-01
Topological insulators (TI) are insulating materials but have metallic edge states that carry spin currents and are robust against nonmagnetic impurities [1]. While there have been a large number of reports on three-dimensional (3D) TI, only few works have been done in terms of two-dimensional (2D) TI. In the present paper, we report the successful formation of bilayer Bi, which was theoretically predicted to be a 2D TI [2]. We deposited bilayer Bi on a 3D TI Bi2Te3, which the lattice mismatch is very small. From angle-resolved photoemission spectroscopy measurements and ab initio calculations, the electronic structure of the system can be understood as an overlap of the band dispersions of bilayer Bi and Bi2Te3. Our results show that the Dirac cone is actually robust against nonmagnetic perturbations and imply a unique situation where the topologically protected one- and two-dimensional edge states are coexisting at the surface [3]. [0pt] [1] M. Z. Hasan and C. L. Kane, Rev. Mod. Phys. 82, 3045 (2010).[0pt] [2] S. Murakami, Phys. Rev. Lett. 97, 236805 (2006).[0pt] [3] T. Hirahara et al., Phys. Rev. Lett. 107, 166801 (2011).
Observation of 2D Ising criticality of liquid-gas transition by the flowgram method
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Yarmolinsky, Max; Kuklov, Anatoly
We study the critical properties of the transition in 2D liquid-gas system with the square-well potential interaction by Monte Carlo simulations in the grand canonical ensemble. Due to lack of the underlying Ising symmetry, the analysis cannot be done reliably by the standard methods applicable to lattice systems. In contrast, the analysis based on the flowgram method allowed us to find the critical point to significantly higher (and controllable) accuracy than in previous studies by other authors. Simulations were performed in a progression of sizes L up to size L = 84 , with the particle numbers varying over 3 orders of magnitude and the subcritical behavior not extending beyond L = 10 - 15 . The finite size scaling analysis of the critical exponents and their ratio, μ and γ / ν , gives values consistent with the 2D Ising universality class within 1-2% of errors. Our result essentially closes proposals that the nature of the liquid-gas transition might be different from the Ising model in systems with short-range interactions. This work was supported by the NSF Grant PHY1314469.
Creation of quantum-degenerate gases of ytterbium in a compact 2D-/3D-magneto-optical trap setup
Doerscher, Soeren; Thobe, Alexander; Hundt, Bastian; Kochanke, Andre; Le Targat, Rodolphe; Windpassinger, Patrick; Becker, Christoph; Sengstock, Klaus
2013-04-15
We report on the first experimental setup based on a 2D-/3D-magneto-optical trap (MOT) scheme to create both Bose-Einstein condensates and degenerate Fermi gases of several ytterbium isotopes. Our setup does not require a Zeeman slower and offers the flexibility to simultaneously produce ultracold samples of other atomic species. Furthermore, the extraordinary optical access favors future experiments in optical lattices. A 2D-MOT on the strong {sup 1}S{sub 0}{yields}{sup 1}P{sub 1} transition captures ytterbium directly from a dispenser of atoms and loads a 3D-MOT on the narrow {sup 1}S{sub 0}{yields}{sup 3}P{sub 1} intercombination transition. Subsequently, atoms are transferred to a crossed optical dipole trap and cooled evaporatively to quantum degeneracy.
2D nanostructures for water purification: graphene and beyond.
Dervin, Saoirse; Dionysiou, Dionysios D; Pillai, Suresh C
2016-08-18
Owing to their atomically thin structure, large surface area and mechanical strength, 2D nanoporous materials are considered to be suitable alternatives for existing desalination and water purification membrane materials. Recent progress in the development of nanoporous graphene based materials has generated enormous potential for water purification technologies. Progress in the development of nanoporous graphene and graphene oxide (GO) membranes, the mechanism of graphene molecular sieve action, structural design, hydrophilic nature, mechanical strength and antifouling properties and the principal challenges associated with nanopore generation are discussed in detail. Subsequently, the recent applications and performance of newly developed 2D materials such as 2D boron nitride (BN) nanosheets, graphyne, molybdenum disulfide (MoS2), tungsten chalcogenides (WS2) and titanium carbide (Ti3C2Tx) are highlighted. In addition, the challenges affecting 2D nanostructures for water purification are highlighted and their applications in the water purification industry are discussed. Though only a few 2D materials have been explored so far for water treatment applications, this emerging field of research is set to attract a great deal of attention in the near future.
Ultrafast 2D-IR spectroelectrochemistry of flavin mononucleotide
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
El Khoury, Youssef; Van Wilderen, Luuk J. G. W.; Bredenbeck, Jens
2015-06-01
We demonstrate the coupling of ultrafast two-dimensional infrared (2D-IR) spectroscopy to electrochemistry in solution and apply it to flavin mononucleotide, an important cofactor of redox proteins. For this purpose, we designed a spectroelectrochemical cell optimized for 2D-IR measurements in reflection and measured the time-dependent 2D-IR spectra of the oxidized and reduced forms of flavin mononucleotide. The data show anharmonic coupling and vibrational energy transfer between different vibrational modes in the two redox species. Such information is inaccessible with redox-controlled steady-state FTIR spectroscopy. The wide range of applications offered by 2D-IR spectroscopy, such as sub-picosecond structure determination, IR band assignment via energy transfer, disentangling reaction mixtures through band connectivity in the 2D spectra, and the measurement of solvation dynamics and chemical exchange can now be explored under controlled redox potential. The development of this technique furthermore opens new horizons for studying the dynamics of redox proteins.
Ultrafast 2D-IR spectroelectrochemistry of flavin mononucleotide.
El Khoury, Youssef; Van Wilderen, Luuk J G W; Bredenbeck, Jens
2015-06-01
We demonstrate the coupling of ultrafast two-dimensional infrared (2D-IR) spectroscopy to electrochemistry in solution and apply it to flavin mononucleotide, an important cofactor of redox proteins. For this purpose, we designed a spectroelectrochemical cell optimized for 2D-IR measurements in reflection and measured the time-dependent 2D-IR spectra of the oxidized and reduced forms of flavin mononucleotide. The data show anharmonic coupling and vibrational energy transfer between different vibrational modes in the two redox species. Such information is inaccessible with redox-controlled steady-state FTIR spectroscopy. The wide range of applications offered by 2D-IR spectroscopy, such as sub-picosecond structure determination, IR band assignment via energy transfer, disentangling reaction mixtures through band connectivity in the 2D spectra, and the measurement of solvation dynamics and chemical exchange can now be explored under controlled redox potential. The development of this technique furthermore opens new horizons for studying the dynamics of redox proteins.
Mean flow and anisotropic cascades in decaying 2D turbulence
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Liu, Chien-Chia; Cerbus, Rory; Gioia, Gustavo; Chakraborty, Pinaki
2015-11-01
Many large-scale atmospheric and oceanic flows are decaying 2D turbulent flows embedded in a non-uniform mean flow. Despite its importance for large-scale weather systems, the affect of non-uniform mean flows on decaying 2D turbulence remains unknown. In the absence of mean flow it is well known that decaying 2D turbulent flows exhibit the enstrophy cascade. More generally, for any 2D turbulent flow, all computational, experimental and field data amassed to date indicate that the spectrum of longitudinal and transverse velocity fluctuations correspond to the same cascade, signifying isotropy of cascades. Here we report experiments on decaying 2D turbulence in soap films with a non-uniform mean flow. We find that the flow transitions from the usual isotropic enstrophy cascade to a series of unusual and, to our knowledge, never before observed or predicted, anisotropic cascades where the longitudinal and transverse spectra are mutually independent. We discuss implications of our results for decaying geophysical turbulence.
Sparse radar imaging using 2D compressed sensing
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Hou, Qingkai; Liu, Yang; Chen, Zengping; Su, Shaoying
2014-10-01
Radar imaging is an ill-posed linear inverse problem and compressed sensing (CS) has been proved to have tremendous potential in this field. This paper surveys the theory of radar imaging and a conclusion is drawn that the processing of ISAR imaging can be denoted mathematically as a problem of 2D sparse decomposition. Based on CS, we propose a novel measuring strategy for ISAR imaging radar and utilize random sub-sampling in both range and azimuth dimensions, which will reduce the amount of sampling data tremendously. In order to handle 2D reconstructing problem, the ordinary solution is converting the 2D problem into 1D by Kronecker product, which will increase the size of dictionary and computational cost sharply. In this paper, we introduce the 2D-SL0 algorithm into the reconstruction of imaging. It is proved that 2D-SL0 can achieve equivalent result as other 1D reconstructing methods, but the computational complexity and memory usage is reduced significantly. Moreover, we will state the results of simulating experiments and prove the effectiveness and feasibility of our method.
Ultrafast 2D NMR: an emerging tool in analytical spectroscopy.
Giraudeau, Patrick; Frydman, Lucio
2014-01-01
Two-dimensional nuclear magnetic resonance (2D NMR) spectroscopy is widely used in chemical and biochemical analyses. Multidimensional NMR is also witnessing increased use in quantitative and metabolic screening applications. Conventional 2D NMR experiments, however, are affected by inherently long acquisition durations, arising from their need to sample the frequencies involved along their indirect domains in an incremented, scan-by-scan nature. A decade ago, a so-called ultrafast (UF) approach was proposed, capable of delivering arbitrary 2D NMR spectra involving any kind of homo- or heteronuclear correlation, in a single scan. During the intervening years, the performance of this subsecond 2D NMR methodology has been greatly improved, and UF 2D NMR is rapidly becoming a powerful analytical tool experiencing an expanded scope of applications. This review summarizes the principles and main developments that have contributed to the success of this approach and focuses on applications that have been recently demonstrated in various areas of analytical chemistry--from the real-time monitoring of chemical and biochemical processes, to extensions in hyphenated techniques and in quantitative applications. PMID:25014342
2D nanostructures for water purification: graphene and beyond.
Dervin, Saoirse; Dionysiou, Dionysios D; Pillai, Suresh C
2016-08-18
Owing to their atomically thin structure, large surface area and mechanical strength, 2D nanoporous materials are considered to be suitable alternatives for existing desalination and water purification membrane materials. Recent progress in the development of nanoporous graphene based materials has generated enormous potential for water purification technologies. Progress in the development of nanoporous graphene and graphene oxide (GO) membranes, the mechanism of graphene molecular sieve action, structural design, hydrophilic nature, mechanical strength and antifouling properties and the principal challenges associated with nanopore generation are discussed in detail. Subsequently, the recent applications and performance of newly developed 2D materials such as 2D boron nitride (BN) nanosheets, graphyne, molybdenum disulfide (MoS2), tungsten chalcogenides (WS2) and titanium carbide (Ti3C2Tx) are highlighted. In addition, the challenges affecting 2D nanostructures for water purification are highlighted and their applications in the water purification industry are discussed. Though only a few 2D materials have been explored so far for water treatment applications, this emerging field of research is set to attract a great deal of attention in the near future. PMID:27506268
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Mangazeev, Vladimir V.; Batchelor, Murray T.; Bazhanov, Vladimir V.; Dudalev, Michael Yu
2009-01-01
The universal scaling function of the square lattice Ising model in a magnetic field is obtained numerically via Baxter's variational corner transfer matrix approach. The high precision numerical data are in perfect agreement with the remarkable field theory results obtained by Fonseca and Zamolodchikov, as well as with many previously known exact and numerical results for the 2D Ising model. This includes excellent agreement with analytic results for the magnetic susceptibility obtained by Orrick, Nickel, Guttmann and Perk. In general, the high precision of the numerical results underlines the potential and full power of the variational corner transfer matrix approach.
Menezes, J W; Cescato, L; de Carvalho, E J; Braga, E S
2006-09-18
2D hexagonal patterns can be generated by the superimposition of two or three fringe patterns that have been formed by two-wave interference and that have rotations of 60 degrees between them. Superimposing three exposures solves the problem of asymmetry in the cross section of structures, which is caused by double exposure. The resulting structure, however, depends on the phase shift of the third fringe pattern in relation to the previous two. We propose a method for controlling the phase shift, and we demonstrate that three different lattice geometries of hexagonal photonic crystals can be recorded when the phase is chosen.
Cambal, Leah K; Weitz, Andrew C; Li, Hui-Hua; Zhang, Yang; Zheng, Xi; Pearce, Linda L; Peterson, Jim
2013-05-20
Isoamyl nitrite has previously been considered acceptable as an inhaled cyanide antidote; therefore, the antidotal utility of this organic nitrite compared with sodium nitrite was investigated. To facilitate a quantitative comparison, doses of both sodium nitrite and isoamyl nitrite were given intraperitoneally in equimolar amounts to sublethally cyanide-challenged mice. Righting recovery from the knockdown state was clearly compromised in the isoamyl nitrite-treated animals, the effect being attributable to the toxicity of the isoamyl alchol produced during hydrolysis of the isoamyl nitrite to release nitrite anion. Subsequently, inhaled aqueous sodium nitrite aerosol was demonstrated to ameliorate sublethal cyanide toxicity, when provided to mice after the toxic dose, by the more rapid recovery of righting ability compared to that of the control animals given only the toxicant. Aerosolized sodium nitrite has thus been shown by these experiments to have promise as a better alternative to organic nitrites for development as an inhaled cyanide antidote. The inhaled sodium nitrite led to the production of NO in the bloodstream as determined by the appearance of EPR signals attributable to nitrosylhemoglobin and methemoglobin. The aerosol delivery was performed in an unmetered inhalation chamber, and in this study, no attempt was made to optimize the procedure. It is argued that administration of an effective inhaled aqueous sodium nitrite dose in humans is possible, though just beyond the capability of current individual metered-dose inhaler designs, such as those used for asthma. Finally, working at slightly greater than LD50 NaCN doses, it was fortuitously discovered that (i) anesthesia leads to significantly prolonged survival compared to that of unanesthetized animals and that (ii) the antidotal activity of nitrite anion was completely abolished under anesthesia. Plausible explanations for these effects in mice and their practical consequences in relation to
Cambal, Leah K; Weitz, Andrew C; Li, Hui-Hua; Zhang, Yang; Zheng, Xi; Pearce, Linda L; Peterson, Jim
2013-05-20
Isoamyl nitrite has previously been considered acceptable as an inhaled cyanide antidote; therefore, the antidotal utility of this organic nitrite compared with sodium nitrite was investigated. To facilitate a quantitative comparison, doses of both sodium nitrite and isoamyl nitrite were given intraperitoneally in equimolar amounts to sublethally cyanide-challenged mice. Righting recovery from the knockdown state was clearly compromised in the isoamyl nitrite-treated animals, the effect being attributable to the toxicity of the isoamyl alchol produced during hydrolysis of the isoamyl nitrite to release nitrite anion. Subsequently, inhaled aqueous sodium nitrite aerosol was demonstrated to ameliorate sublethal cyanide toxicity, when provided to mice after the toxic dose, by the more rapid recovery of righting ability compared to that of the control animals given only the toxicant. Aerosolized sodium nitrite has thus been shown by these experiments to have promise as a better alternative to organic nitrites for development as an inhaled cyanide antidote. The inhaled sodium nitrite led to the production of NO in the bloodstream as determined by the appearance of EPR signals attributable to nitrosylhemoglobin and methemoglobin. The aerosol delivery was performed in an unmetered inhalation chamber, and in this study, no attempt was made to optimize the procedure. It is argued that administration of an effective inhaled aqueous sodium nitrite dose in humans is possible, though just beyond the capability of current individual metered-dose inhaler designs, such as those used for asthma. Finally, working at slightly greater than LD50 NaCN doses, it was fortuitously discovered that (i) anesthesia leads to significantly prolonged survival compared to that of unanesthetized animals and that (ii) the antidotal activity of nitrite anion was completely abolished under anesthesia. Plausible explanations for these effects in mice and their practical consequences in relation to
Lattice Quantum Chromodynamics
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Sachrajda, C. T.
2016-10-01
I review the the application of the lattice formulation of QCD and large-scale numerical simulations to the evaluation of non-perturbative hadronic effects in Standard Model Phenomenology. I present an introduction to the elements of the calculations and discuss the limitations both in the range of quantities which can be studied and in the precision of the results. I focus particularly on the extraction of the QCD parameters, i.e. the quark masses and the strong coupling constant, and on important quantities in flavour physics. Lattice QCD is playing a central role in quantifying the hadronic effects necessary for the development of precision flavour physics and its use in exploring the limits of the Standard Model and in searches for inconsistencies which would signal the presence of new physics.
Gupta, R.
1998-12-31
The goal of the lectures on lattice QCD (LQCD) is to provide an overview of both the technical issues and the progress made so far in obtaining phenomenologically useful numbers. The lectures consist of three parts. The author`s charter is to provide an introduction to LQCD and outline the scope of LQCD calculations. In the second set of lectures, Guido Martinelli will discuss the progress they have made so far in obtaining results, and their impact on Standard Model phenomenology. Finally, Martin Luescher will discuss the topical subjects of chiral symmetry, improved formulation of lattice QCD, and the impact these improvements will have on the quality of results expected from the next generation of simulations.
Revisiting the microtrabecular lattice.
Clegg, James S
2010-11-01
The 'microtrabecular lattice' (MTL) that Keith Porter described in the 1970s and 1980s is reconsidered as a proposed fundamental cytoplasmic structure of eukaryotic cells. Although considered to be an artefact by most cell biologists of his time (and probably ours), the case is made that something like the MTL may well exist, but in a much more dynamic form than images from electron microscopy imply and convey.
Crystallographic Lattice Boltzmann Method
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Namburi, Manjusha; Krithivasan, Siddharth; Ansumali, Santosh
2016-06-01
Current approaches to Direct Numerical Simulation (DNS) are computationally quite expensive for most realistic scientific and engineering applications of Fluid Dynamics such as automobiles or atmospheric flows. The Lattice Boltzmann Method (LBM), with its simplified kinetic descriptions, has emerged as an important tool for simulating hydrodynamics. In a heterogeneous computing environment, it is often preferred due to its flexibility and better parallel scaling. However, direct simulation of realistic applications, without the use of turbulence models, remains a distant dream even with highly efficient methods such as LBM. In LBM, a fictitious lattice with suitable isotropy in the velocity space is considered to recover Navier-Stokes hydrodynamics in macroscopic limit. The same lattice is mapped onto a cartesian grid for spatial discretization of the kinetic equation. In this paper, we present an inverted argument of the LBM, by making spatial discretization as the central theme. We argue that the optimal spatial discretization for LBM is a Body Centered Cubic (BCC) arrangement of grid points. We illustrate an order-of-magnitude gain in efficiency for LBM and thus a significant progress towards feasibility of DNS for realistic flows.
Crystallographic Lattice Boltzmann Method.
Namburi, Manjusha; Krithivasan, Siddharth; Ansumali, Santosh
2016-01-01
Current approaches to Direct Numerical Simulation (DNS) are computationally quite expensive for most realistic scientific and engineering applications of Fluid Dynamics such as automobiles or atmospheric flows. The Lattice Boltzmann Method (LBM), with its simplified kinetic descriptions, has emerged as an important tool for simulating hydrodynamics. In a heterogeneous computing environment, it is often preferred due to its flexibility and better parallel scaling. However, direct simulation of realistic applications, without the use of turbulence models, remains a distant dream even with highly efficient methods such as LBM. In LBM, a fictitious lattice with suitable isotropy in the velocity space is considered to recover Navier-Stokes hydrodynamics in macroscopic limit. The same lattice is mapped onto a cartesian grid for spatial discretization of the kinetic equation. In this paper, we present an inverted argument of the LBM, by making spatial discretization as the central theme. We argue that the optimal spatial discretization for LBM is a Body Centered Cubic (BCC) arrangement of grid points. We illustrate an order-of-magnitude gain in efficiency for LBM and thus a significant progress towards feasibility of DNS for realistic flows. PMID:27251098
Crystallographic Lattice Boltzmann Method
Namburi, Manjusha; Krithivasan, Siddharth; Ansumali, Santosh
2016-01-01
Current approaches to Direct Numerical Simulation (DNS) are computationally quite expensive for most realistic scientific and engineering applications of Fluid Dynamics such as automobiles or atmospheric flows. The Lattice Boltzmann Method (LBM), with its simplified kinetic descriptions, has emerged as an important tool for simulating hydrodynamics. In a heterogeneous computing environment, it is often preferred due to its flexibility and better parallel scaling. However, direct simulation of realistic applications, without the use of turbulence models, remains a distant dream even with highly efficient methods such as LBM. In LBM, a fictitious lattice with suitable isotropy in the velocity space is considered to recover Navier-Stokes hydrodynamics in macroscopic limit. The same lattice is mapped onto a cartesian grid for spatial discretization of the kinetic equation. In this paper, we present an inverted argument of the LBM, by making spatial discretization as the central theme. We argue that the optimal spatial discretization for LBM is a Body Centered Cubic (BCC) arrangement of grid points. We illustrate an order-of-magnitude gain in efficiency for LBM and thus a significant progress towards feasibility of DNS for realistic flows. PMID:27251098
Graphene based 2D-materials for supercapacitors
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Palaniselvam, Thangavelu; Baek, Jong-Beom
2015-09-01
Ever-increasing energy demands and the depletion of fossil fuels are compelling humanity toward the development of suitable electrochemical energy conversion and storage devices to attain a more sustainable society with adequate renewable energy and zero environmental pollution. In this regard, supercapacitors are being contemplated as potential energy storage devices to afford cleaner, environmentally friendly energy. Recently, a great deal of attention has been paid to two-dimensional (2D) nanomaterials, including 2D graphene and its inorganic analogues (transition metal double layer hydroxides, chalcogenides, etc), as potential electrodes for the development of supercapacitors with high electrochemical performance. This review provides an overview of the recent progress in using these graphene-based 2D materials as potential electrodes for supercapacitors. In addition, future research trends including notable challenges and opportunities are also discussed.
Perception-based reversible watermarking for 2D vector maps
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Men, Chaoguang; Cao, Liujuan; Li, Xiang
2010-07-01
This paper presents an effective and reversible watermarking approach for digital copyright protection of 2D-vector maps. To ensure that the embedded watermark is insensitive for human perception, we only select the noise non-sensitive regions for watermark embedding by estimating vertex density within each polyline. To ensure the exact recovery of original 2D-vector map after watermark extraction, we introduce a new reversible watermarking scheme based on reversible high-frequency wavelet coefficients modification. Within the former-selected non-sensitive regions, our watermarking operates on the lower-order vertex coordinate decimals with integer wavelet transform. Such operation further reduces the visual distortion caused by watermark embedding. We have validated the effectiveness of our scheme on our real-world city river/building 2D-vector maps. We give extensive experimental comparisons with state-of-the-art methods, including embedding capability, invisibility, and robustness over watermark attacking.
Secretory pathways generating immunosuppressive NKG2D ligands
Baragaño Raneros, Aroa; Suarez-Álvarez, Beatriz; López-Larrea, Carlos
2014-01-01
Natural Killer Group 2 member D (NKG2D) activating receptor, present on the surface of various immune cells, plays an important role in activating the anticancer immune response by their interaction with stress-inducible NKG2D ligands (NKG2DL) on transformed cells. However, cancer cells have developed numerous mechanisms to evade the immune system via the downregulation of NKG2DL from the cell surface, including the release of NKG2DL from the cell surface in a soluble form. Here, we review the mechanisms involved in the production of soluble NKG2DL (sNKG2DL) and the potential therapeutic strategies aiming to block the release of these immunosuppressive ligands. Therapeutically enabling the NKG2D-NKG2DL interaction would promote immunorecognition of malignant cells, thus abrogating disease progression. PMID:25050215
2D bifurcations and Newtonian properties of memristive Chua's circuits
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Marszalek, W.; Podhaisky, H.
2016-01-01
Two interesting properties of Chua's circuits are presented. First, two-parameter bifurcation diagrams of Chua's oscillatory circuits with memristors are presented. To obtain various 2D bifurcation images a substantial numerical effort, possibly with parallel computations, is needed. The numerical algorithm is described first and its numerical code for 2D bifurcation image creation is available for free downloading. Several color 2D images and the corresponding 1D greyscale bifurcation diagrams are included. Secondly, Chua's circuits are linked to Newton's law φ ''= F(t,φ,φ')/m with φ=\\text{flux} , constant m > 0, and the force term F(t,φ,φ') containing memory terms. Finally, the jounce scalar equations for Chua's circuits are also discussed.
Focusing surface wave imaging with flexible 2D array
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Zhou, Shiyuan; Fu, Junqiang; Li, Zhe; Xu, Chunguang; Xiao, Dingguo; Wang, Shaohan
2016-04-01
Curved surface is widely exist in key parts of energy and power equipment, such as, turbine blade cylinder block and so on. Cycling loading and harsh working condition of enable fatigue cracks appear on the surface. The crack should be found in time to avoid catastrophic damage to the equipment. A flexible 2D array transducer was developed. 2D Phased Array focusing method (2DPA), Mode-Spatial Double Phased focusing method (MSDPF) and the imaging method using the flexible 2D array probe are studied. Experiments using these focusing and imaging method are carried out. Surface crack image is obtained with both 2DPA and MSDPF focusing method. It have been proved that MSDPF can be more adaptable for curved surface and more calculate efficient than 2DPA.
A Mechanical Lattice Aid for Crystallography Teaching.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Amezcua-Lopez, J.; Cordero-Borboa, A. E.
1988-01-01
Introduces a 3-dimensional mechanical lattice with adjustable telescoping mechanisms. Discusses the crystalline state, the 14 Bravais lattices, operational principles of the mechanical lattice, construction methods, and demonstrations in classroom. Provides lattice diagrams, schemes of the lattice, and various pictures of the lattice. (YP)
Composite boson mapping for lattice boson systems.
Huerga, Daniel; Dukelsky, Jorge; Scuseria, Gustavo E
2013-07-26
We present a canonical mapping transforming physical boson operators into quadratic products of cluster composite bosons that preserves matrix elements of operators when a physical constraint is enforced. We map the 2D lattice Bose-Hubbard Hamiltonian into 2×2 composite bosons and solve it within a generalized Hartree-Bogoliubov approximation. The resulting Mott insulator-superfluid phase diagram reproduces well quantum Monte Carlo results. The Higgs boson behavior in the superfluid phase along the unit density line is unraveled and in remarkable agreement with experiments. Results for the properties of the ground and excited states are competitive with other state-of-the-art approaches, but at a fraction of their computational cost. The composite boson mapping here introduced can be readily applied to frustrated many-body systems where most methodologies face significant hurdles. PMID:23931383
Radiative heat transfer in 2D Dirac materials.
Rodriguez-López, Pablo; Tse, Wang-Kong; Dalvit, Diego A R
2015-06-01
We compute the radiative heat transfer between two sheets of 2D Dirac materials, including topological Chern insulators and graphene, within the framework of the local approximation for the optical response of these materials. In this approximation, which neglects spatial dispersion, we derive both numerically and analytically the short-distance asymptotic of the near-field heat transfer in these systems, and show that it scales as the inverse of the distance between the two sheets. Finally, we discuss the limitations to the validity of this scaling law imposed by spatial dispersion in 2D Dirac materials. PMID:25965703
Quantum process tomography by 2D fluorescence spectroscopy
Pachón, Leonardo A.; Marcus, Andrew H.; Aspuru-Guzik, Alán
2015-06-07
Reconstruction of the dynamics (quantum process tomography) of the single-exciton manifold in energy transfer systems is proposed here on the basis of two-dimensional fluorescence spectroscopy (2D-FS) with phase-modulation. The quantum-process-tomography protocol introduced here benefits from, e.g., the sensitivity enhancement ascribed to 2D-FS. Although the isotropically averaged spectroscopic signals depend on the quantum yield parameter Γ of the doubly excited-exciton manifold, it is shown that the reconstruction of the dynamics is insensitive to this parameter. Applications to foundational and applied problems, as well as further extensions, are discussed.
On 2D bisection method for double eigenvalue problems
Ji, X.
1996-06-01
The two-dimensional bisection method presented in (SIAM J. Matrix Anal. Appl. 13(4), 1085 (1992)) is efficient for solving a class of double eigenvalue problems. This paper further extends the 2D bisection method of full matrix cases and analyses its stability. As in a single parameter case, the 2D bisection method is very stable for the tridiagonal matrix triples satisfying the symmetric-definite condition. Since the double eigenvalue problems arise from two-parameter boundary value problems, an estimate of the discretization error in eigenpairs is also given. Some numerical examples are included. 42 refs., 1 tab.
Design of the LRP airfoil series using 2D CFD
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Zahle, Frederik; Bak, Christian; Sørensen, Niels N.; Vronsky, Tomas; Gaudern, Nicholas
2014-06-01
This paper describes the design and wind tunnel testing of a high-Reynolds number, high lift airfoil series designed for wind turbines. The airfoils were designed using direct gradient- based numerical multi-point optimization based on a Bezier parameterization of the shape, coupled to the 2D Navier-Stokes flow solver EllipSys2D. The resulting airfoils, the LRP2-30 and LRP2-36, achieve both higher operational lift coefficients and higher lift to drag ratios compared to the equivalent FFA-W3 airfoils.
Laboratory Experiments On Continually Forced 2d Turbulence
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Wells, M. G.; Clercx, H. J. H.; Van Heijst, G. J. F.
There has been much recent interest in the advection of tracers by 2D turbulence in geophysical flows. While there is a large body of literature on decaying 2D turbulence or forced 2D turbulence in unbounded domains, there have been very few studies of forced turbulence in bounded domains. In this study we present new experimental results from a continuously forced quasi 2D turbulent field. The experiments are performed in a square Perspex tank filled with water. The flow is made quasi 2D by a steady background rotation. The rotation rate of the tank has a small (<8 %) sinusoidal perturbation which leads to the periodic formation of eddies in the corners of the tank. When the oscillation period of the perturbation is greater than an eddy roll-up time-scale, dipole structures are observed to form. The dipoles can migrate away from the walls, and the interior of the tank is continually filled with vortexs. From experimental visualizations the length scale of the vortexs appears to be largely controlled by the initial formation mechanism and large scale structures are not observed to form at large times. Thus the experiments provide a simple way of cre- ating a continuously forced 2D turbulent field. The resulting structures are in contrast with most previous laboratory experiments on 2D turbulence which have investigated decaying turbulence and have observed the formations of large scale structure. In these experiments, decaying turbulence had been produced by a variety of methods such as the decaying turbulence in the wake of a comb of rods (Massen et al 1999), organiza- tion of vortices in thin conducting liquids (Cardoso et al 1994) or in rotating systems where there are sudden changes in angular rotation rate (Konijnenberg et al 1998). Results of dye visualizations, particle tracking experiments and a direct numerical simulation will be presented and discussed in terms of their oceanographic application. Bibliography Cardoso,O. Marteau, D. &Tabeling, P
2012-01-05
Code is for a layered electric medium with 2d structure. Includes air-earth interface at node z=2.. The electric ex and ez fields are calculated on edges of elemental grid and magnetic field hy is calculated on the face of the elemental grid. The code allows for a layered earth with 2d structures. Solutions of coupled first order Maxwell's equations are solved in the two dimensional environment using a finite- difference scheme on a staggered spationamore » and temporal grid.« less
Noninvasive deep Raman detection with 2D correlation analysis
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kim, Hyung Min; Park, Hyo Sun; Cho, Youngho; Jin, Seung Min; Lee, Kang Taek; Jung, Young Mee; Suh, Yung Doug
2014-07-01
The detection of poisonous chemicals enclosed in daily necessaries is prerequisite essential for homeland security with the increasing threat of terrorism. For the detection of toxic chemicals, we combined a sensitive deep Raman spectroscopic method with 2D correlation analysis. We obtained the Raman spectra from concealed chemicals employing spatially offset Raman spectroscopy in which incident line-shaped light experiences multiple scatterings before being delivered to inner component and yielding deep Raman signal. Furthermore, we restored the pure Raman spectrum of each component using 2D correlation spectroscopic analysis with chemical inspection. Using this method, we could elucidate subsurface component under thick powder and packed contents in a bottle.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Hosomichi, Kazuo; Lee, Sungjay
2015-01-01
We study the system of M2-branes suspended between parallel M5-branes using ABJM model with a natural half-BPS boundary condition. For small separation between M5-branes, the worldvolume theory is shown to reduce to a 2D super Yang-Mills theory with some similarity to q-deformed Yang-Mills theory. The gauge coupling is related to the position of the branes in an interesting manner. The theory is considerably different from the 2D theory proposed for multiple "M-strings". We make a detailed comparison of elliptic genus of the two descriptions and find only a partial agreement.
Finite temperature corrections in 2d integrable models
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Caselle, M.; Hasenbusch, M.
2002-09-01
We study the finite size corrections for the magnetization and the internal energy of the 2d Ising model in a magnetic field by using transfer matrix techniques. We compare these corrections with the functional form recently proposed by Delfino and LeClair-Mussardo for the finite temperature behaviour of one-point functions in integrable 2d quantum field theories. We find a perfect agreement between theoretical expectations and numerical results. Assuming the proposed functional form as an input in our analysis we obtain a relevant improvement in the precision of the continuum limit estimates of both quantities.
2dF grows up: Echidna for the AAT
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
McGrath, Andrew; Barden, Sam; Miziarski, Stan; Rambold, William; Smith, Greg
2008-07-01
We present the concept design of a new fibre positioner and spectrograph system for the Anglo-Australian Telescope, as a proposed enhancement to the Anglo-Australian Observatory's well-known 2dF facility. A four-fold multiplex enhancement is accomplished by replacing the 400-fibre 2dF fibre positioning robot with a 1600-fibre Echidna unit, feeding three clones of the AAOmega optical spectrograph. Such a facility has the capability of a redshift 1 survey of a large fraction of the southern sky, collecting five to ten thousand spectra per night for a million-galaxy survey.
Radiative heat transfer in 2D Dirac materials
Rodriguez-López, Pablo; Tse, Wang -Kong; Dalvit, Diego A. R.
2015-05-12
We compute the radiative heat transfer between two sheets of 2D Dirac materials, including topological Chern insulators and graphene, within the framework of the local approximation for the optical response of these materials. In this approximation, which neglects spatial dispersion, we derive both numerically and analytically the short-distance asymptotic of the near-field heat transfer in these systems, and show that it scales as the inverse of the distance between the two sheets. In conclusion, we discuss the limitations to the validity of this scaling law imposed by spatial dispersion in 2D Dirac materials.
Nomenclature for human CYP2D6 alleles.
Daly, A K; Brockmöller, J; Broly, F; Eichelbaum, M; Evans, W E; Gonzalez, F J; Huang, J D; Idle, J R; Ingelman-Sundberg, M; Ishizaki, T; Jacqz-Aigrain, E; Meyer, U A; Nebert, D W; Steen, V M; Wolf, C R; Zanger, U M
1996-06-01
To standardize CYP2D6 allele nomenclature, and to conform with international human gene nomenclature guidelines, an alternative to the current arbitrary system is described. Based on recommendations for human genome nomenclature, we propose that alleles be designated by CYP2D6 followed by an asterisk and a combination of roman letters and arabic numerals distinct for each allele with the number specifying the key mutation and, where appropriate, a letter specifying additional mutations. Criteria for classification as a separate allele and protein nomenclature are also presented. PMID:8807658
Spreading dynamics of 2D dipolar Langmuir monolayer phases.
Heinig, P; Wurlitzer, S; Fischer, Th M
2004-07-01
We study the spreading of a liquid 2D dipolar droplet in a Langmuir monolayer. Interfacial tensions (line tensions) and microscopic contact angles depend on the scale on which they are probed and obey a scaling law. Assuming rapid equilibration of the microscopic contact angle and ideal slippage of the 2D solid/liquid and solid/gas boundary, the driving force of spreading is merely expressed by the shape-dependent long-range interaction integrals. We obtain good agreement between experiment and numerical simulations using this theory. PMID:15278693
Evaluation of 2D ceramic matrix composites in aeroconvective environments
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Riccitiello, Salvatore R.; Love, Wendell L.; Balter-Peterson, Aliza
1992-01-01
An evaluation is conducted of a novel ceramic-matrix composite (CMC) material system for use in the aeroconvective-heating environments encountered by the nose caps and wing leading edges of such aerospace vehicles as the Space Shuttle, during orbit-insertion and reentry from LEO. These CMCs are composed of an SiC matrix that is reinforced with Nicalon, Nextel, or carbon refractory fibers in a 2D architecture. The test program conducted for the 2D CMCs gave attention to their subsurface oxidation.
Quantum process tomography by 2D fluorescence spectroscopy
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Pachón, Leonardo A.; Marcus, Andrew H.; Aspuru-Guzik, Alán
2015-06-01
Reconstruction of the dynamics (quantum process tomography) of the single-exciton manifold in energy transfer systems is proposed here on the basis of two-dimensional fluorescence spectroscopy (2D-FS) with phase-modulation. The quantum-process-tomography protocol introduced here benefits from, e.g., the sensitivity enhancement ascribed to 2D-FS. Although the isotropically averaged spectroscopic signals depend on the quantum yield parameter Γ of the doubly excited-exciton manifold, it is shown that the reconstruction of the dynamics is insensitive to this parameter. Applications to foundational and applied problems, as well as further extensions, are discussed.
Rowley-Neale, Samuel J; Fearn, Jamie M; Brownson, Dale A C; Smith, Graham C; Ji, Xiaobo; Banks, Craig E
2016-08-21
Two-dimensional molybdenum disulphide nanosheets (2D-MoS2) have proven to be an effective electrocatalyst, with particular attention being focused on their use towards increasing the efficiency of the reactions associated with hydrogen fuel cells. Whilst the majority of research has focused on the Hydrogen Evolution Reaction (HER), herein we explore the use of 2D-MoS2 as a potential electrocatalyst for the much less researched Oxygen Reduction Reaction (ORR). We stray from literature conventions and perform experiments in 0.1 M H2SO4 acidic electrolyte for the first time, evaluating the electrochemical performance of the ORR with 2D-MoS2 electrically wired/immobilised upon several carbon based electrodes (namely; Boron Doped Diamond (BDD), Edge Plane Pyrolytic Graphite (EPPG), Glassy Carbon (GC) and Screen-Printed Electrodes (SPE)) whilst exploring a range of 2D-MoS2 coverages/masses. Consequently, the findings of this study are highly applicable to real world fuel cell applications. We show that significant improvements in ORR activity can be achieved through the careful selection of the underlying/supporting carbon materials that electrically wire the 2D-MoS2 and utilisation of an optimal mass of 2D-MoS2. The ORR onset is observed to be reduced to ca. +0.10 V for EPPG, GC and SPEs at 2D-MoS2 (1524 ng cm(-2) modification), which is far closer to Pt at +0.46 V compared to bare/unmodified EPPG, GC and SPE counterparts. This report is the first to demonstrate such beneficial electrochemical responses in acidic conditions using a 2D-MoS2 based electrocatalyst material on a carbon-based substrate (SPEs in this case). Investigation of the beneficial reaction mechanism reveals the ORR to occur via a 4 electron process in specific conditions; elsewhere a 2 electron process is observed. This work offers valuable insights for those wishing to design, fabricate and/or electrochemically test 2D-nanosheet materials towards the ORR. PMID:27448174
Tønning, Erik; Polders, Daniel; Callaghan, Paul T; Engelsen, Søren B
2007-09-01
This paper demonstrates how the multi-linear PARAFAC model can with advantage be used to decompose 2D diffusion-relaxation correlation NMR spectra prior to 2D-Laplace inversion to the T(2)-D domain. The decomposition is advantageous for better interpretation of the complex correlation maps as well as for the quantification of extracted T(2)-D components. To demonstrate the new method seventeen mixtures of wheat flour, starch, gluten, oil and water were prepared and measured with a 300 MHz nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectrometer using a pulsed gradient stimulated echo (PGSTE) pulse sequence followed by a Carr-Purcell-Meiboom-Gill (CPMG) pulse echo train. By varying the gradient strength, 2D diffusion-relaxation data were recorded for each sample. From these double exponentially decaying relaxation data the PARAFAC algorithm extracted two unique diffusion-relaxation components, explaining 99.8% of the variation in the data set. These two components were subsequently transformed to the T(2)-D domain using 2D-inverse Laplace transformation and quantitatively assigned to the oil and water components of the samples. The oil component was one distinct distribution with peak intensity at D=3 x 10(-12) m(2) s(-1) and T(2)=180 ms. The water component consisted of two broad populations of water molecules with diffusion coefficients and relaxation times centered around correlation pairs: D=10(-9) m(2) s(-1), T(2)=10 ms and D=3 x 10(-13) m(2) s(-1), T(2)=13 ms. Small spurious peaks observed in the inverse Laplace transformation of original complex data were effectively filtered by the PARAFAC decomposition and thus considered artefacts from the complex Laplace transformation. The oil-to-water ratio determined by PARAFAC followed by 2D-Laplace inversion was perfectly correlated with known oil-to-water ratio of the samples. The new method of using PARAFAC prior to the 2D-Laplace inversion proved to have superior potential in analysis of diffusion-relaxation spectra, as it
Rowley-Neale, Samuel J; Fearn, Jamie M; Brownson, Dale A C; Smith, Graham C; Ji, Xiaobo; Banks, Craig E
2016-08-21
Two-dimensional molybdenum disulphide nanosheets (2D-MoS2) have proven to be an effective electrocatalyst, with particular attention being focused on their use towards increasing the efficiency of the reactions associated with hydrogen fuel cells. Whilst the majority of research has focused on the Hydrogen Evolution Reaction (HER), herein we explore the use of 2D-MoS2 as a potential electrocatalyst for the much less researched Oxygen Reduction Reaction (ORR). We stray from literature conventions and perform experiments in 0.1 M H2SO4 acidic electrolyte for the first time, evaluating the electrochemical performance of the ORR with 2D-MoS2 electrically wired/immobilised upon several carbon based electrodes (namely; Boron Doped Diamond (BDD), Edge Plane Pyrolytic Graphite (EPPG), Glassy Carbon (GC) and Screen-Printed Electrodes (SPE)) whilst exploring a range of 2D-MoS2 coverages/masses. Consequently, the findings of this study are highly applicable to real world fuel cell applications. We show that significant improvements in ORR activity can be achieved through the careful selection of the underlying/supporting carbon materials that electrically wire the 2D-MoS2 and utilisation of an optimal mass of 2D-MoS2. The ORR onset is observed to be reduced to ca. +0.10 V for EPPG, GC and SPEs at 2D-MoS2 (1524 ng cm(-2) modification), which is far closer to Pt at +0.46 V compared to bare/unmodified EPPG, GC and SPE counterparts. This report is the first to demonstrate such beneficial electrochemical responses in acidic conditions using a 2D-MoS2 based electrocatalyst material on a carbon-based substrate (SPEs in this case). Investigation of the beneficial reaction mechanism reveals the ORR to occur via a 4 electron process in specific conditions; elsewhere a 2 electron process is observed. This work offers valuable insights for those wishing to design, fabricate and/or electrochemically test 2D-nanosheet materials towards the ORR.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Tønning, Erik; Polders, Daniel; Callaghan, Paul T.; Engelsen, Søren B.
2007-09-01
This paper demonstrates how the multi-linear PARAFAC model can with advantage be used to decompose 2D diffusion-relaxation correlation NMR spectra prior to 2D-Laplace inversion to the T2- D domain. The decomposition is advantageous for better interpretation of the complex correlation maps as well as for the quantification of extracted T2- D components. To demonstrate the new method seventeen mixtures of wheat flour, starch, gluten, oil and water were prepared and measured with a 300 MHz nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectrometer using a pulsed gradient stimulated echo (PGSTE) pulse sequence followed by a Carr-Purcell-Meiboom-Gill (CPMG) pulse echo train. By varying the gradient strength, 2D diffusion-relaxation data were recorded for each sample. From these double exponentially decaying relaxation data the PARAFAC algorithm extracted two unique diffusion-relaxation components, explaining 99.8% of the variation in the data set. These two components were subsequently transformed to the T2- D domain using 2D-inverse Laplace transformation and quantitatively assigned to the oil and water components of the samples. The oil component was one distinct distribution with peak intensity at D = 3 × 10 -12 m 2 s -1 and T2 = 180 ms. The water component consisted of two broad populations of water molecules with diffusion coefficients and relaxation times centered around correlation pairs: D = 10 -9 m 2 s -1, T2 = 10 ms and D = 3 × 10 -13 m 2 s -1, T2 = 13 ms. Small spurious peaks observed in the inverse Laplace transformation of original complex data were effectively filtered by the PARAFAC decomposition and thus considered artefacts from the complex Laplace transformation. The oil-to-water ratio determined by PARAFAC followed by 2D-Laplace inversion was perfectly correlated with known oil-to-water ratio of the samples. The new method of using PARAFAC prior to the 2D-Laplace inversion proved to have superior potential in analysis of diffusion-relaxation spectra, as it
A lattice-free concept lattice update algorithm
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Outrata, Jan
2016-02-01
Upon a change of input data, one usually wants an update of output computed from the data rather than recomputing the whole output over again. In Formal Concept Analysis, update of concept lattice of input data when introducing new objects to the data can be done by any of the so-called incremental algorithms for computing concept lattice. The algorithms use and update the lattice while introducing new objects to input data one by one. The present concept lattice of input data without the new objects is thus required by the computation. However, the lattice can be large and may not fit into memory. In this paper, we propose an efficient algorithm for updating the lattice from the present and new objects only, not requiring the possibly large concept lattice of present objects. The algorithm results as a modification of the Close-by-One algorithm for computing the set of all formal concepts, or its modifications like Fast Close-by-One, Parallel Close-by-One or Parallel Fast Close-by-One, to compute new and modified formal concepts and the changes of the lattice order relation only. The algorithm can be used not only for updating the lattice when new objects are introduced but also when some existing objects are removed from the input data or attributes of the objects are changed. We describe the algorithm, discuss efficiency issues and present an experimental evaluation of its performance and a comparison with the AddIntent incremental algorithm for computing concept lattice.
Solids and Supersolids of Three-Body Interacting Polar Molecules on an Optical Lattice
Schmidt, Kai P.; Dorier, Julien; Laeuchli, Andreas M.
2008-10-10
We study the physics of cold polar molecules loaded into an optical lattice in the regime of strong three-body interactions, as put forward recently by Buechler et al.[Nature Phys. 3, 726 (2007)]. To this end, quantum Monte Carlo simulations, exact diagonalization, and a semiclassical approach are used to explore hard-core bosons on the 2D square lattice which interact solely by long-ranged three-body terms. The resulting phase diagram shows a sequence of solid and supersolid phases. Our findings are directly relevant for future experimental implementations and open a new route towards the discovery of a lattice supersolid phase in experiment.
Lattice architecture effect on the cooperativity of spin transition coordination polymers
Chiruta, Daniel; Jureschi, Catalin-Maricel; Rotaru, Aurelian E-mail: rotaru@eed.usv.ro; Linares, Jorge E-mail: rotaru@eed.usv.ro; Garcia, Yann
2014-02-07
We have investigated in the framework of the Ising-like model, by means of Monte Carlo Metropolis method with open boundary condition, the architecture effect on the cooperativity of spin transition coordination polymers. We have analyzed the influence of several physical parameters (size, pressure, and edge effects) on different lattice architectures which were in good agreement with reported experimental data. We show that the cooperativity of a spin crossover system, characterized by the same number of molecules and the same short- and long-range interaction parameters, is progressively enhanced when going from a 1D chain to a 1D ladder type lattice and to a 2D square lattice.
Goswami, Soumik; Haldar, Chandana
2015-12-01
The sun rays brings along the ultraviolet radiations (UVRs) which prove deleterious for living organisms. The UVR is a known mutagen and is the prime cause of skin carcinomas. UVR causes acute oxidative stress and this in turn deteriorates other physiological functions. Inflammatory conditions and elevation of pro-inflammatory molecules are also associated with UVR mediated cellular damages. The inflammatory conditions can secondarily trigger the generation of free radicals and this act cumulatively in further deterioration of tissue homeostasis. Photoimmunologists have also related UVR to the suppression of not only cutaneous but also systemic immunity by different mechanisms. Some researchers have proposed the use of various plant products as antioxidants against UVR induced oxidative imbalances but Melatonin is gaining rapid interest as a product that can be utilized to delineate the pathological effects of UVR since it is an established antioxidant. Besides the antioxidative nature, the capacity of melatonin to attenuate apoptosis and more importantly the efficacy of its metabolites to further aid in the detoxification of free radicals have made it a key player to be utilized against UVR mediated aggravated conditions. However, there is need for further extensive investigation to speculate melatonin as an antidote to UVR. Although too early to prescribe melatonin as a clinical remedy, the hormone can be integrated into dermal formulations or oral supplements to prevent the ever increasing incidences of skin cancers due to the prevalence of the UVR on the surface of the earth. The present review focuses and substantiates the work by different photo-biologists demonstrating the protective effects of melatonin and its metabolites against solar UVR - Melatonin as a possible antidote to UV radiation induced cutaneous damages and immune-suppression: an overview. J Photochem Photobiol B.
Takagawa, Yousuke; Ogawa, Shinpei; Kimata, Masafumi
2015-01-01
Wavelength-selective uncooled infrared (IR) sensors are highly promising for a wide range of applications, such as fire detection, gas analysis and biomedical analysis. We have recently developed wavelength-selective uncooled IR sensors using square lattice two-dimensional plasmonic absorbers (2-D PLAs). The PLAs consist of a periodic 2-D lattice of Au-based dimples, which allow photons to be manipulated using surface plasmon modes. In the present study, a detailed investigation into control of the detection wavelength was conducted by varying the PLA lattice structure. A comparison was made between wavelength-selective uncooled IR sensors with triangular and square PLA lattices that were fabricated using complementary metal oxide semiconductor and micromachining techniques. Selective enhancement of the responsivity could be achieved, and the detection wavelength for the triangular lattice was shorter than that for the square lattice. The results indicate that the detection wavelength is determined by the reciprocal-lattice vector for the PLAs. The ability to control the detection wavelength in this manner enables the application of such PLAs to many types of thermal IR sensors. The results obtained here represent an important step towards multi-color imaging in the IR region. PMID:26067198
Takagawa, Yousuke; Ogawa, Shinpei; Kimata, Masafumi
2015-06-10
Wavelength-selective uncooled infrared (IR) sensors are highly promising for a wide range of applications, such as fire detection, gas analysis and biomedical analysis. We have recently developed wavelength-selective uncooled IR sensors using square lattice two-dimensional plasmonic absorbers (2-D PLAs). The PLAs consist of a periodic 2-D lattice of Au-based dimples, which allow photons to be manipulated using surface plasmon modes. In the present study, a detailed investigation into control of the detection wavelength was conducted by varying the PLA lattice structure. A comparison was made between wavelength-selective uncooled IR sensors with triangular and square PLA lattices that were fabricated using complementary metal oxide semiconductor and micromachining techniques. Selective enhancement of the responsivity could be achieved, and the detection wavelength for the triangular lattice was shorter than that for the square lattice. The results indicate that the detection wavelength is determined by the reciprocal-lattice vector for the PLAs. The ability to control the detection wavelength in this manner enables the application of such PLAs to many types of thermal IR sensors. The results obtained here represent an important step towards multi-color imaging in the IR region.
One Dimensional(1D)-to-2D Crossover of Spin Correlations in the 3D Magnet ZnMn2O4
Disseler, S. M.; Chen, Y.; Yeo, S.; Gasparovic, G.; Piccoli, P. M. B.; Schultz, A. J.; Qiu, Y.; Huang, Q.; Cheong, S. -W.; Ratcliff, W.
2015-12-08
In this paper we report on the intriguing evolution of the dynamical spin correlations of the frustrated spinel ZnMn2O4. Inelastic neutron scattering and magnetization studies reveal that the dynamical correlations at high temperatures are 1D. At lower temperature, these dynamical correlations become 2D. Surprisingly, the dynamical correlations condense into a quasi 2D Ising-like ordered state, making this a rare observation of two dimensional order on the spinel lattice. Remarkably, 3D ordering is not observed down to temperatures as low as 300 mK. This unprecedented dimensional crossover stems from frustrated exchange couplings due to the huge Jahn-Teller distortions around Mn3+ ionsmore » on the spinel lattice.« less
One Dimensional(1D)-to-2D Crossover of Spin Correlations in the 3D Magnet ZnMn2O4
Disseler, S. M.; Chen, Y.; Yeo, S.; Gasparovic, G.; Piccoli, P. M. B.; Schultz, A. J.; Qiu, Y.; Huang, Q.; Cheong, S.-W.; Ratcliff, W.
2015-01-01
We report on the intriguing evolution of the dynamical spin correlations of the frustrated spinel ZnMn2O4. Inelastic neutron scattering and magnetization studies reveal that the dynamical correlations at high temperatures are 1D. At lower temperature, these dynamical correlations become 2D. Surprisingly, the dynamical correlations condense into a quasi 2D Ising-like ordered state, making this a rare observation of two dimensional order on the spinel lattice. Remarkably, 3D ordering is not observed down to temperatures as low as 300 mK. This unprecedented dimensional crossover stems from frustrated exchange couplings due to the huge Jahn-Teller distortions around Mn3+ ions on the spinel lattice. PMID:26644220
One Dimensional(1D)-to-2D Crossover of Spin Correlations in the 3D Magnet ZnMn_{2}O_{4}
Disseler, S. M.; Chen, Y.; Yeo, S.; Gasparovic, G.; Piccoli, P. M. B.; Schultz, A. J.; Qiu, Y.; Huang, Q.; Cheong, S. -W.; Ratcliff, W.
2015-12-08
In this paper we report on the intriguing evolution of the dynamical spin correlations of the frustrated spinel ZnMn_{2}O_{4}. Inelastic neutron scattering and magnetization studies reveal that the dynamical correlations at high temperatures are 1D. At lower temperature, these dynamical correlations become 2D. Surprisingly, the dynamical correlations condense into a quasi 2D Ising-like ordered state, making this a rare observation of two dimensional order on the spinel lattice. Remarkably, 3D ordering is not observed down to temperatures as low as 300 mK. This unprecedented dimensional crossover stems from frustrated exchange couplings due to the huge Jahn-Teller distortions around Mn^{3+} ions on the spinel lattice.
One Dimensional(1D)-to-2D Crossover of Spin Correlations in the 3D Magnet ZnMn2O4
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Disseler, S. M.; Chen, Y.; Yeo, S.; Gasparovic, G.; Piccoli, P. M. B.; Schultz, A. J.; Qiu, Y.; Huang, Q.; Cheong, S.-W.; Ratcliff, W.
2015-12-01
We report on the intriguing evolution of the dynamical spin correlations of the frustrated spinel ZnMn2O4. Inelastic neutron scattering and magnetization studies reveal that the dynamical correlations at high temperatures are 1D. At lower temperature, these dynamical correlations become 2D. Surprisingly, the dynamical correlations condense into a quasi 2D Ising-like ordered state, making this a rare observation of two dimensional order on the spinel lattice. Remarkably, 3D ordering is not observed down to temperatures as low as 300 mK. This unprecedented dimensional crossover stems from frustrated exchange couplings due to the huge Jahn-Teller distortions around Mn3+ ions on the spinel lattice.
Light Localization and Magneto-Optic Enhancement in Ni Antidot Arrays.
Rollinger, Markus; Thielen, Philip; Melander, Emil; Östman, Erik; Kapaklis, Vassilios; Obry, Björn; Cinchetti, Mirko; García-Martín, Antonio; Aeschlimann, Martin; Papaioannou, Evangelos Th
2016-04-13
We reveal an explicit strategy to design the magneto-optic response of a magneto-plasmonic crystal by correlating near- and far-fields effects. We use photoemission electron microscopy to map the spatial distribution of the electric near-field on a nanopatterned magnetic surface that supports plasmon polaritons. By using different photon energies and polarization states of the incident light we reveal that the electric near-field is either concentrated in spots forming a hexagonal lattice with the same symmetry as the Ni nanopattern or in stripes oriented along the Γ-K direction of the lattice and perpendicular to the polarization direction. We show that the polarization-dependent near-field enhancement on the patterned surface is directly correlated to both the excitation of surface plasmon polaritons on the patterned surface as well as the enhancement of the polar magneto-optical Kerr effect. We obtain a relationship between the size of the enhanced magneto-optical behavior and the polarization and wavelength of optical excitation. The engineering of the magneto-optic response based on the plasmon-induced modification of the optical properties introduces the concept of a magneto-plasmonic meta-structure.
Light Localization and Magneto-Optic Enhancement in Ni Antidot Arrays.
Rollinger, Markus; Thielen, Philip; Melander, Emil; Östman, Erik; Kapaklis, Vassilios; Obry, Björn; Cinchetti, Mirko; García-Martín, Antonio; Aeschlimann, Martin; Papaioannou, Evangelos Th
2016-04-13
We reveal an explicit strategy to design the magneto-optic response of a magneto-plasmonic crystal by correlating near- and far-fields effects. We use photoemission electron microscopy to map the spatial distribution of the electric near-field on a nanopatterned magnetic surface that supports plasmon polaritons. By using different photon energies and polarization states of the incident light we reveal that the electric near-field is either concentrated in spots forming a hexagonal lattice with the same symmetry as the Ni nanopattern or in stripes oriented along the Γ-K direction of the lattice and perpendicular to the polarization direction. We show that the polarization-dependent near-field enhancement on the patterned surface is directly correlated to both the excitation of surface plasmon polaritons on the patterned surface as well as the enhancement of the polar magneto-optical Kerr effect. We obtain a relationship between the size of the enhanced magneto-optical behavior and the polarization and wavelength of optical excitation. The engineering of the magneto-optic response based on the plasmon-induced modification of the optical properties introduces the concept of a magneto-plasmonic meta-structure. PMID:27018661
Lattice-induced nonadiabatic frequency shifts in optical lattice clocks
Beloy, K.
2010-09-15
We consider the frequency shift in optical lattice clocks which arises from the coupling of the electronic motion to the atomic motion within the lattice. For the simplest of three-dimensional lattice geometries this coupling is shown to affect only clocks based on blue-detuned lattices. We have estimated the size of this shift for the prospective strontium lattice clock operating at the 390-nm blue-detuned magic wavelength. The resulting fractional frequency shift is found to be on the order of 10{sup -18} and is largely overshadowed by the electric quadrupole shift. For lattice clocks based on more complex geometries or other atomic systems, this shift could potentially be a limiting factor in clock accuracy.
Discrepant Results in a 2-D Marble Collision
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Kalajian, Peter
2013-01-01
Video analysis of 2-D collisions is an excellent way to investigate conservation of linear momentum. The often-desired experimental design goal is to minimize the momentum loss in order to demonstrate the conservation law. An air table with colliding pucks is an ideal medium for this experiment, but such equipment is beyond the budget of many…
THz devices based on 2D electron systems
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Xing, Huili Grace; Yan, Rusen; Song, Bo; Encomendero, Jimy; Jena, Debdeep
2015-05-01
In two-dimensional electron systems with mobility on the order of 1,000 - 10,000 cm2/Vs, the electron scattering time is about 1 ps. For the THz window of 0.3 - 3 THz, the THz photon energy is in the neighborhood of 1 meV, substantially smaller than the optical phonon energy of solids where these 2D electron systems resides. These properties make the 2D electron systems interesting as a platform to realize THz devices. In this paper, I will review 3 approaches investigated in the past few years in my group toward THz devices. The first approach is the conventional high electron mobility transistor based on GaN toward THz amplifiers. The second approach is to employ the tunable intraband absorption in 2D electron systems to realize THz modulators, where I will use graphene as a model material system. The third approach is to exploit plasma wave in these 2D electron systems that can be coupled with a negative differential conductance element for THz amplifiers/sources/detectors.
ELLIPT2D: A Flexible Finite Element Code Written Python
Pletzer, A.; Mollis, J.C.
2001-03-22
The use of the Python scripting language for scientific applications and in particular to solve partial differential equations is explored. It is shown that Python's rich data structure and object-oriented features can be exploited to write programs that are not only significantly more concise than their counter parts written in Fortran, C or C++, but are also numerically efficient. To illustrate this, a two-dimensional finite element code (ELLIPT2D) has been written. ELLIPT2D provides a flexible and easy-to-use framework for solving a large class of second-order elliptic problems. The program allows for structured or unstructured meshes. All functions defining the elliptic operator are user supplied and so are the boundary conditions, which can be of Dirichlet, Neumann or Robbins type. ELLIPT2D makes extensive use of dictionaries (hash tables) as a way to represent sparse matrices.Other key features of the Python language that have been widely used include: operator over loading, error handling, array slicing, and the Tkinter module for building graphical use interfaces. As an example of the utility of ELLIPT2D, a nonlinear solution of the Grad-Shafranov equation is computed using a Newton iterative scheme. A second application focuses on a solution of the toroidal Laplace equation coupled to a magnetohydrodynamic stability code, a problem arising in the context of magnetic fusion research.
NKG2D ligands mediate immunosurveillance of senescent cells.
Sagiv, Adi; Burton, Dominick G A; Moshayev, Zhana; Vadai, Ezra; Wensveen, Felix; Ben-Dor, Shifra; Golani, Ofra; Polic, Bojan; Krizhanovsky, Valery
2016-02-01
Cellular senescence is a stress response mechanism that limits tumorigenesis and tissue damage. Induction of cellular senescence commonly coincides with an immunogenic phenotype that promotes self-elimination by components of the immune system, thereby facilitating tumor suppression and limiting excess fibrosis during wound repair. The mechanisms by which senescent cells regulate their immune surveillance are not completely understood. Here we show that ligands of an activating Natural Killer (NK) cell receptor (NKG2D), MICA and ULBP2 are consistently up-regulated following induction of replicative senescence, oncogene-induced senescence and DNA damage - induced senescence. MICA and ULBP2 proteins are necessary for efficient NK-mediated cytotoxicity towards senescent fibroblasts. The mechanisms regulating the initial expression of NKG2D ligands in senescent cells are dependent on a DNA damage response, whilst continuous expression of these ligands is regulated by the ERK signaling pathway. In liver fibrosis, the accumulation of senescent activated stellate cells is increased in mice lacking NKG2D receptor leading to increased fibrosis. Overall, our results provide new insights into the mechanisms regulating the expression of immune ligands in senescent cells and reveal the importance of NKG2D receptor-ligand interaction in protecting against liver fibrosis. PMID:26878797
Proteomic Profiling of Macrophages by 2D Electrophoresis
Bouvet, Marion; Turkieh, Annie; Acosta-Martin, Adelina E.; Chwastyniak, Maggy; Beseme, Olivia; Amouyel, Philippe; Pinet, Florence
2014-01-01
The goal of the two-dimensional (2D) electrophoresis protocol described here is to show how to analyse the phenotype of human cultured macrophages. The key role of macrophages has been shown in various pathological disorders such as inflammatory, immunological, and infectious diseases. In this protocol, we use primary cultures of human monocyte-derived macrophages that can be differentiated into the M1 (pro-inflammatory) or the M2 (anti-inflammatory) phenotype. This in vitro model is reliable for studying the biological activities of M1 and M2 macrophages and also for a proteomic approach. Proteomic techniques are useful for comparing the phenotype and behaviour of M1 and M2 macrophages during host pathogenicity. 2D gel electrophoresis is a powerful proteomic technique for mapping large numbers of proteins or polypeptides simultaneously. We describe the protocol of 2D electrophoresis using fluorescent dyes, named 2D Differential Gel Electrophoresis (DIGE). The M1 and M2 macrophages proteins are labelled with cyanine dyes before separation by isoelectric focusing, according to their isoelectric point in the first dimension, and their molecular mass, in the second dimension. Separated protein or polypeptidic spots are then used to detect differences in protein or polypeptide expression levels. The proteomic approaches described here allows the investigation of the macrophage protein changes associated with various disorders like host pathogenicity or microbial toxins. PMID:25408153
2D signature for detection and identification of drugs
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Trofimov, Vyacheslav A.; Varentsova, Svetlana A.; Shen, Jingling; Zhang, Cunlin; Zhou, Qingli; Shi, Yulei
2011-06-01
The method of spectral dynamics analysis (SDA-method) is used for obtaining the2D THz signature of drugs. This signature is used for the detection and identification of drugs with similar Fourier spectra by transmitted THz signal. We discuss the efficiency of SDA method for the identification problem of pure methamphetamine (MA), methylenedioxyamphetamine (MDA), 3, 4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA) and Ketamine.
2-D Imaging of Electron Temperature in Tokamak Plasmas
T. Munsat; E. Mazzucato; H. Park; C.W. Domier; M. Johnson; N.C. Luhmann Jr.; J. Wang; Z. Xia; I.G.J. Classen; A.J.H. Donne; M.J. van de Pol
2004-07-08
By taking advantage of recent developments in millimeter wave imaging technology, an Electron Cyclotron Emission Imaging (ECEI) instrument, capable of simultaneously measuring 128 channels of localized electron temperature over a 2-D map in the poloidal plane, has been developed for the TEXTOR tokamak. Data from the new instrument, detailing the MHD activity associated with a sawtooth crash, is presented.
On the sensitivity of the 2D electromagnetic invisibility cloak
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kaproulias, S.; Sigalas, M. M.
2012-10-01
A computational study of the sensitivity of the two dimensional (2D) electromagnetic invisibility cloaks is performed with the finite element method. A circular metallic object is covered with the cloak and the effects of absorption, gain and disorder are examined. Also the effect of covering the cloak with a thin dielectric layer is studied.
Rheological Properties of Quasi-2D Fluids in Microgravity
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Stannarius, Ralf; Trittel, Torsten; Eremin, Alexey; Harth, Kirsten; Clark, Noel; Maclennan, Joseph; Glaser, Matthew; Park, Cheol; Hall, Nancy; Tin, Padetha
2015-01-01
In recent years, research on complex fluids and fluids in restricted geometries has attracted much attention in the scientific community. This can be attributed not only to the development of novel materials based on complex fluids but also to a variety of important physical phenomena which have barely been explored. One example is the behavior of membranes and thin fluid films, which can be described by two-dimensional (2D) rheology behavior that is quite different from 3D fluids. In this study, we have investigated the rheological properties of freely suspended films of a thermotropic liquid crystal in microgravity experiments. This model system mimics isotropic and anisotropic quasi 2D fluids [46]. We use inkjet printing technology to dispense small droplets (inclusions) onto the film surface. The motion of these inclusions provides information on the rheological properties of the films and allows the study of a variety of flow instabilities. Flat films have been investigated on a sub-orbital rocket flight and curved films (bubbles) have been studied in the ISS project OASIS. Microgravity is essential when the films are curved in order to avoid sedimentation. The experiments yield the mobility of the droplets in the films as well as the mutual mobility of pairs of particles. Experimental results will be presented for 2D-isotropic (smectic-A) and 2D-nematic (smectic-C) phases.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Rowley-Neale, Samuel J.; Fearn, Jamie M.; Brownson, Dale A. C.; Smith, Graham C.; Ji, Xiaobo; Banks, Craig E.
2016-08-01
Two-dimensional molybdenum disulphide nanosheets (2D-MoS2) have proven to be an effective electrocatalyst, with particular attention being focused on their use towards increasing the efficiency of the reactions associated with hydrogen fuel cells. Whilst the majority of research has focused on the Hydrogen Evolution Reaction (HER), herein we explore the use of 2D-MoS2 as a potential electrocatalyst for the much less researched Oxygen Reduction Reaction (ORR). We stray from literature conventions and perform experiments in 0.1 M H2SO4 acidic electrolyte for the first time, evaluating the electrochemical performance of the ORR with 2D-MoS2 electrically wired/immobilised upon several carbon based electrodes (namely; Boron Doped Diamond (BDD), Edge Plane Pyrolytic Graphite (EPPG), Glassy Carbon (GC) and Screen-Printed Electrodes (SPE)) whilst exploring a range of 2D-MoS2 coverages/masses. Consequently, the findings of this study are highly applicable to real world fuel cell applications. We show that significant improvements in ORR activity can be achieved through the careful selection of the underlying/supporting carbon materials that electrically wire the 2D-MoS2 and utilisation of an optimal mass of 2D-MoS2. The ORR onset is observed to be reduced to ca. +0.10 V for EPPG, GC and SPEs at 2D-MoS2 (1524 ng cm-2 modification), which is far closer to Pt at +0.46 V compared to bare/unmodified EPPG, GC and SPE counterparts. This report is the first to demonstrate such beneficial electrochemical responses in acidic conditions using a 2D-MoS2 based electrocatalyst material on a carbon-based substrate (SPEs in this case). Investigation of the beneficial reaction mechanism reveals the ORR to occur via a 4 electron process in specific conditions; elsewhere a 2 electron process is observed. This work offers valuable insights for those wishing to design, fabricate and/or electrochemically test 2D-nanosheet materials towards the ORR.Two-dimensional molybdenum disulphide nanosheets
The NH2D hyperfine structure revealed by astrophysical observations
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Daniel, F.; Coudert, L. H.; Punanova, A.; Harju, J.; Faure, A.; Roueff, E.; Sipilä, O.; Caselli, P.; Güsten, R.; Pon, A.; Pineda, J. E.
2016-02-01
Context. The 111-101 lines of ortho- and para-NH2D (o/p-NH2D) at 86 and 110 GHz, respectively, are commonly observed to provide constraints on the deuterium fractionation in the interstellar medium. In cold regions, the hyperfine structure that is due to the nitrogen (14N) nucleus is resolved. To date, this splitting is the only one that is taken into account in the NH2D column density estimates. Aims: We investigate how including the hyperfine splitting caused by the deuterium (D) nucleus affects the analysis of the rotational lines of NH2D. Methods: We present 30 m IRAM observations of the above mentioned lines and APEX o/p-NH2D observations of the 101-000 lines at 333 GHz. The hyperfine patterns of the observed lines were calculated taking into account the splitting induced by the D nucleus. The analysis then relies on line lists that either neglect or include the splitting induced by the D nucleus. Results: The hyperfine spectra are first analyzed with a line list that only includes the hyperfine splitting that is due to the 14N nucleus. We find inconsistencies between the line widths of the 101-000 and 111-101 lines, the latter being larger by a factor of ~1.6 ± 0.3. Such a large difference is unexpected because the two sets of lines probably originate from the same region. We next employed a newly computed line list for the o/p-NH2D transitions where the hyperfine structure induced by both nitrogen and deuterium nuclei was included. With this new line list, the analysis of the previous spectra leads to compatible line widths. Conclusions: Neglecting the hyperfine structure caused by D leads to overestimating the line widths of the o/p-NH2D lines at 3 mm. The error for a cold molecular core is about 50%. This error propagates directly to the column density estimate. We therefore recommend to take the hyperfine splittings caused by both the 14N and D nuclei into account in any analysis that relies on these lines. Based on observations carried out with the IRAM
Single identities for lattice theory and for weakly associative lattices
McCune, W.; Padmanabhan, R.
1995-03-13
We present a single identity for the variety of all lattices that is much simpler than those previously known to us. We also show that the variety of weakly associative lattices is one-based, and we present a generalized one-based theorem for subvarieties of weakly associative lattices that can be defined with absorption laws. The automated theorem-proving program OTTER was used in substantial way to obtain the results.
Half-metallicity in 2D organometallic honeycomb frameworks
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Sun, Hao; Li, Bin; Zhao, Jin
2016-10-01
Half-metallic materials with a high Curie temperature (T C) have many potential applications in spintronics. Magnetic metal free two-dimensional (2D) half-metallic materials with a honeycomb structure contain graphene-like Dirac bands with π orbitals and show excellent aspects in transport properties. In this article, by investigating a series of 2D organometallic frameworks with a honeycomb structure using first principles calculations, we study the origin of forming half-metallicity in this kind of 2D organometallic framework. Our analysis shows that charge transfer and covalent bonding are two crucial factors in the formation of half-metallicity in organometallic frameworks. (i) Sufficient charge transfer from metal atoms to the molecules is essential to form the magnetic centers. (ii) These magnetic centers need to be connected through covalent bonding, which guarantee the strong ferromagnetic (FM) coupling. As examples, the organometallic frameworks composed by (1,3,5)-benzenetricarbonitrile (TCB) molecules with noble metals (Au, Ag, Cu) show half-metallic properties with T C as high as 325 K. In these organometallic frameworks, the strong electronegative cyano-groups (CN groups) drive the charge transfer from metal atoms to the TCB molecules, forming the local magnetic centers. These magnetic centers experience strong FM coupling through the d-p covalent bonding. We propose that most of the 2D organometallic frameworks composed by molecule—CN—noble metal honeycomb structures contain similar half metallicity. This is verified by replacing TCB molecules with other organic molecules. Although the TCB-noble metal organometallic framework has not yet been synthesized, we believe the development of synthesizing techniques and facility will enable the realization of them. Our study provides new insight into the 2D half-metallic material design for the potential applications in nanotechnology.
Half-metallicity in 2D organometallic honeycomb frameworks.
Sun, Hao; Li, Bin; Zhao, Jin
2016-10-26
Half-metallic materials with a high Curie temperature (T C) have many potential applications in spintronics. Magnetic metal free two-dimensional (2D) half-metallic materials with a honeycomb structure contain graphene-like Dirac bands with π orbitals and show excellent aspects in transport properties. In this article, by investigating a series of 2D organometallic frameworks with a honeycomb structure using first principles calculations, we study the origin of forming half-metallicity in this kind of 2D organometallic framework. Our analysis shows that charge transfer and covalent bonding are two crucial factors in the formation of half-metallicity in organometallic frameworks. (i) Sufficient charge transfer from metal atoms to the molecules is essential to form the magnetic centers. (ii) These magnetic centers need to be connected through covalent bonding, which guarantee the strong ferromagnetic (FM) coupling. As examples, the organometallic frameworks composed by (1,3,5)-benzenetricarbonitrile (TCB) molecules with noble metals (Au, Ag, Cu) show half-metallic properties with T C as high as 325 K. In these organometallic frameworks, the strong electronegative cyano-groups (CN groups) drive the charge transfer from metal atoms to the TCB molecules, forming the local magnetic centers. These magnetic centers experience strong FM coupling through the d-p covalent bonding. We propose that most of the 2D organometallic frameworks composed by molecule-CN-noble metal honeycomb structures contain similar half metallicity. This is verified by replacing TCB molecules with other organic molecules. Although the TCB-noble metal organometallic framework has not yet been synthesized, we believe the development of synthesizing techniques and facility will enable the realization of them. Our study provides new insight into the 2D half-metallic material design for the potential applications in nanotechnology.
Half-metallicity in 2D organometallic honeycomb frameworks.
Sun, Hao; Li, Bin; Zhao, Jin
2016-10-26
Half-metallic materials with a high Curie temperature (T C) have many potential applications in spintronics. Magnetic metal free two-dimensional (2D) half-metallic materials with a honeycomb structure contain graphene-like Dirac bands with π orbitals and show excellent aspects in transport properties. In this article, by investigating a series of 2D organometallic frameworks with a honeycomb structure using first principles calculations, we study the origin of forming half-metallicity in this kind of 2D organometallic framework. Our analysis shows that charge transfer and covalent bonding are two crucial factors in the formation of half-metallicity in organometallic frameworks. (i) Sufficient charge transfer from metal atoms to the molecules is essential to form the magnetic centers. (ii) These magnetic centers need to be connected through covalent bonding, which guarantee the strong ferromagnetic (FM) coupling. As examples, the organometallic frameworks composed by (1,3,5)-benzenetricarbonitrile (TCB) molecules with noble metals (Au, Ag, Cu) show half-metallic properties with T C as high as 325 K. In these organometallic frameworks, the strong electronegative cyano-groups (CN groups) drive the charge transfer from metal atoms to the TCB molecules, forming the local magnetic centers. These magnetic centers experience strong FM coupling through the d-p covalent bonding. We propose that most of the 2D organometallic frameworks composed by molecule-CN-noble metal honeycomb structures contain similar half metallicity. This is verified by replacing TCB molecules with other organic molecules. Although the TCB-noble metal organometallic framework has not yet been synthesized, we believe the development of synthesizing techniques and facility will enable the realization of them. Our study provides new insight into the 2D half-metallic material design for the potential applications in nanotechnology. PMID:27541575
Lattice Boltzmann LES for MHD Turbulence
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Flint, Chris; Vahala, George; Vahala, Linda; Soe, Min
2015-11-01
Dellar's lattice Boltzmann (LB) model of 2D incompressible MHD introduced both a scalar velocity and vector magnetic distribution functions, which automatically enforces div B = 0 through the trace of an antisymmetric perturbed tensor. In the Smagorinsky LES model, the filtered Reynolds stresses are modeled by mean field gradient terms, with ad hoc closure eddy transport terms. Ansumali et. al. have developed an LES for Navier-Stokes turbulence by filtering the underlying mesoscopic LB. The filtered LB equations are then subjected to the Chapman-Enskog expansion. A Smagorinsky-like LES is recovered with no ad hoc assumptions other than the subgrid terms contribute only at the transport time scales. Here we extend these ideas to 2D MHD turbulence. The DNS data base is being generated from a multiple relaxation time (MRT) model with a quasi-entropic analytic scheme introduced recently by Karlin et. al. (2014) based on splitting the moment representation into various subgroups. Work supported by NSF, DoD.
Surface phonons, elastic response, and conformal invariance in twisted kagome lattices
Sun, Kai; Souslov, Anton; Mao, Xiaoming; Lubensky, T. C.
2012-01-01
Model lattices consisting of balls connected by central-force springs provide much of our understanding of mechanical response and phonon structure of real materials. Their stability depends critically on their coordination number z. d-dimensional lattices with z = 2d are at the threshold of mechanical stability and are isostatic. Lattices with z < 2d exhibit zero-frequency “floppy” modes that provide avenues for lattice collapse. The physics of systems as diverse as architectural structures, network glasses, randomly packed spheres, and biopolymer networks is strongly influenced by a nearby isostatic lattice. We explore elasticity and phonons of a special class of two-dimensional isostatic lattices constructed by distorting the kagome lattice. We show that the phonon structure of these lattices, characterized by vanishing bulk moduli and thus negative Poisson ratios (equivalently, auxetic elasticity), depends sensitively on boundary conditions and on the nature of the kagome distortions. We construct lattices that under free boundary conditions exhibit surface floppy modes only or a combination of both surface and bulk floppy modes; and we show that bulk floppy modes present under free boundary conditions are also present under periodic boundary conditions but that surface modes are not. In the long-wavelength limit, the elastic theory of all these lattices is a conformally invariant field theory with holographic properties (characteristics of the bulk are encoded on the sample boundary), and the surface waves are Rayleigh waves. We discuss our results in relation to recent work on jammed systems. Our results highlight the importance of network architecture in determining floppy-mode structure. PMID:22733727
Surface phonons, elastic response, and conformal invariance in twisted kagome lattices.
Sun, Kai; Souslov, Anton; Mao, Xiaoming; Lubensky, T C
2012-07-31
Model lattices consisting of balls connected by central-force springs provide much of our understanding of mechanical response and phonon structure of real materials. Their stability depends critically on their coordination number z. d-dimensional lattices with z = 2d are at the threshold of mechanical stability and are isostatic. Lattices with z < 2d exhibit zero-frequency "floppy" modes that provide avenues for lattice collapse. The physics of systems as diverse as architectural structures, network glasses, randomly packed spheres, and biopolymer networks is strongly influenced by a nearby isostatic lattice. We explore elasticity and phonons of a special class of two-dimensional isostatic lattices constructed by distorting the kagome lattice. We show that the phonon structure of these lattices, characterized by vanishing bulk moduli and thus negative Poisson ratios (equivalently, auxetic elasticity), depends sensitively on boundary conditions and on the nature of the kagome distortions. We construct lattices that under free boundary conditions exhibit surface floppy modes only or a combination of both surface and bulk floppy modes; and we show that bulk floppy modes present under free boundary conditions are also present under periodic boundary conditions but that surface modes are not. In the long-wavelength limit, the elastic theory of all these lattices is a conformally invariant field theory with holographic properties (characteristics of the bulk are encoded on the sample boundary), and the surface waves are Rayleigh waves. We discuss our results in relation to recent work on jammed systems. Our results highlight the importance of network architecture in determining floppy-mode structure.
Engineered nonlinear lattices.
Clausen, C B; Christiansen, P L; Torner, L; Gaididei, Y B
1999-11-01
We show that with the quasi-phase-matching technique it is possible to fabricate stripes of nonlinearity that trap and guide light like waveguides. We investigate an array of such stripes and find that when the stripes are sufficiently narrow, the beam dynamics is governed by a quadratic nonlinear discrete equation. The proposed structure therefore provides an experimental setting for exploring discrete effects in a controlled manner. In particular, we show propagation of breathers that are eventually trapped by discreteness. When the stripes are wide the beams evolve in a structure we term a quasilattice, which interpolates between a lattice system and a continuous system. PMID:11970457
2D-2D tunneling field-effect transistors using WSe2/SnSe2 heterostructures
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Roy, Tania; Tosun, Mahmut; Hettick, Mark; Ahn, Geun Ho; Hu, Chenming; Javey, Ali
2016-02-01
Two-dimensional materials present a versatile platform for developing steep transistors due to their uniform thickness and sharp band edges. We demonstrate 2D-2D tunneling in a WSe2/SnSe2 van der Waals vertical heterojunction device, where WSe2 is used as the gate controlled p-layer and SnSe2 is the degenerately n-type layer. The van der Waals gap facilitates the regulation of band alignment at the heterojunction, without the necessity of a tunneling barrier. ZrO2 is used as the gate dielectric, allowing the scaling of gate oxide to improve device subthreshold swing. Efficient gate control and clean interfaces yield a subthreshold swing of ˜100 mV/dec for >2 decades of drain current at room temperature, hitherto unobserved in 2D-2D tunneling devices. The subthreshold swing is independent of temperature, which is a clear signature of band-to-band tunneling at the heterojunction. A maximum switching ratio ION/IOFF of 107 is obtained. Negative differential resistance in the forward bias characteristics is observed at 77 K. This work bodes well for the possibilities of two-dimensional materials for the realization of energy-efficient future-generation electronics.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Movassaghi, Babak; Rasche, Volker; Viergever, Max A.; Niessen, Wiro J.
2004-05-01
For the diagnosis of ischemic heart disease, accurate quantitative analysis of the coronary arteries is important. In coronary angiography, a number of projections is acquired from which 3D models of the coronaries can be reconstructed. A signifcant limitation of the current 3D modeling procedures is the required user interaction for defining the centerlines of the vessel structures in the 2D projections. Currently, the 3D centerlines of the coronary tree structure are calculated based on the interactively determined centerlines in two projections. For every interactively selected centerline point in a first projection the corresponding point in a second projection has to be determined interactively by the user. The correspondence is obtained based on the epipolar-geometry. In this paper a method is proposed to retrieve all the information required for the modeling procedure, by the interactive determination of the 2D centerline-points in only one projection. For every determined 2D centerline-point the corresponding 3D centerline-point is calculated by the analysis of the 1D gray value functions of the corresponding epipolarlines in space for all available 2D projections. This information is then used to build a 3D representation of the coronary arteries using coronary modeling techniques. The approach is illustrated on the analysis of calibrated phantom and calibrated coronary projection data.
Epitaxial MoS2/GaN structures to enable vertical 2D/3D semiconductor heterostructure devices
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ruzmetov, D.; Zhang, K.; Stan, G.; Kalanyan, B.; Eichfeld, S.; Burke, R.; Shah, P.; O'Regan, T.; Crowne, F.; Birdwell, A. G.; Robinson, J.; Davydov, A.; Ivanov, T.
MoS2/GaN structures are investigated as a building block for vertical 2D/3D semiconductor heterostructure devices that utilize a 3D substrate (GaN) as an active component of the semiconductor device without the need of mechanical transfer of the 2D layer. Our CVD-grown monolayer MoS2 has been shown to be epitaxially aligned to the GaN lattice which is a pre-requisite for high quality 2D/3D interfaces desired for efficient vertical transport and large area growth. The MoS2 coverage is nearly 50 % including isolated triangles and monolayer islands. The GaN template is a double-layer grown by MOCVD on sapphire and allows for measurement of transport perpendicular to the 2D layer. Photoluminescence, Raman, XPS, Kelvin force probe microscopy, and SEM analysis identified high quality monolayer MoS2. The MoS2/GaN structures electrically conduct in the out-of-plane direction and across the van der Waals gap, as measured with conducting AFM (CAFM). The CAFM current maps and I-V characteristics are analyzed to estimate the MoS2/GaN contact resistivity to be less than 4 Ω-cm2 and current spreading in the MoS2 monolayer to be approx. 1 μm in diameter. Epitaxial MoS2/GaN heterostructures present a promising platform for the design of energy-efficient, high-speed vertical devices incorporating 2D layered materials with 3D semiconductors.
Kondo effect at low electron density and high particle-hole asymmetry in 1D, 2D, and 3D
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Žitko, Rok; Horvat, Alen
2016-09-01
Using the perturbative scaling equations and the numerical renormalization group, we study the characteristic energy scales in the Kondo impurity problem as a function of the exchange coupling constant J and the conduction-band electron density. We discuss the relation between the energy gain (impurity binding energy) Δ E and the Kondo temperature TK. We find that the two are proportional only for large values of J , whereas in the weak-coupling limit the energy gain is quadratic in J , while the Kondo temperature is exponentially small. The exact relation between the two quantities depends on the detailed form of the density of states of the band. In the limit of low electron density the Kondo screening is affected by the strong particle-hole asymmetry due to the presence of the band-edge van Hove singularities. We consider the cases of one- (1D), two- (2D), and three-dimensional (3D) tight-binding lattices (linear chain, square lattice, cubic lattice) with inverse-square-root, step-function, and square-root onsets of the density of states that are characteristic of the respective dimensionalities. We always find two different regimes depending on whether TK is higher or lower than μ , the chemical potential measured from the bottom of the band. For 2D and 3D, we find a sigmoidal crossover between the large-J and small-J asymptotics in Δ E and a clear separation between Δ E and TK for TK<μ . For 1D, there is, in addition, a sizable intermediate-J regime where the Kondo temperature is quadratic in J due to the diverging density of states at the band edge. Furthermore, we find that in 1D the particle-hole asymmetry leads to a large decrease of TK compared to the standard result obtained by approximating the density of states to be constant (flat-band approximation), while in 3D the opposite is the case; this is due to the nontrivial interplay of the exchange and potential scattering renormalization in the presence of particle-hole asymmetry. The 2D square-lattice
S.R. Beane; P.F.Bedaque; A. Parreno; M.J. Savage
2004-04-01
The two-nucleon sector is near an infrared fixed point of QCD and as a result the S-wave scattering lengths are unnaturally large compared to the effective ranges and shape parameters. It is usually assumed that a lattice QCD simulation of the two-nucleon sector will require a lattice that is much larger than the scattering lengths in order to extract quantitative information. In this paper we point out that this does not have to be the case: lattice QCD simulations on much smaller lattices will produce rigorous results for nuclear physics.
Nuclear Physics and Lattice QCD
Beane, Silas
2003-11-01
Impressive progress is currently being made in computing properties and interac- tions of the low-lying hadrons using lattice QCD. However, cost limitations will, for the foreseeable future, necessitate the use of quark masses, Mq, that are signif- icantly larger than those of nature, lattice spacings, a, that are not significantly smaller than the physical scale of interest, and lattice sizes, L, that are not sig- nificantly larger than the physical scale of interest. Extrapolations in the quark masses, lattice spacing and lattice volume are therefore required. The hierarchy of mass scales is: L 1 j Mq j â ºC j a 1 . The appropriate EFT for incorporating the light quark masses, the finite lattice spacing and the lattice size into hadronic observables is C-PT, which provides systematic expansions in the small parame- ters e m L, 1/ Lâ ºC, p/â ºC, Mq/â ºC and aâ ºC . The lattice introduces other unphysical scales as well. Lattice QCD quarks will increasingly be artificially separated
Automatic lattice determination for two-dimensional crystal images.
Zeng, Xiangyan; Gipson, Bryant; Zheng, Zi Yan; Renault, Ludovic; Stahlberg, Henning
2007-12-01
Electron crystallography determines the structure of membrane proteins and other periodic samples by recording either images or diffraction patterns. Computer processing of recorded images requires the determination of the reciprocal lattice parameters in the Fourier transform of the image. We have developed a set of three programs 2dx_peaksearch, 2dx_findlat and 2dx_getlat, which can determine the reciprocal lattice from a Fourier transformation of a 2D crystal image automatically. 2dx_peaksearch determines a list of Fourier peak coordinates from a processed calculated diffraction pattern. These coordinates are evaluated by 2dx_findlat to determine one or more lattices, using a-priori knowledge of the real-space crystal unit cell dimensions, and the sample tilt geometry. If these are unknown, then the program 2dx_getlat can be used to obtain a guess for the unit cell dimensions. These programs are available as part of the 2dx software package for the image processing of 2D crystal images at http://2dx.org.
Interpretation of Magnetic Phase Anomalies over 2D Tabular Bodies
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Subrahmanyam, M.
2016-05-01
In this study, phase angle (inverse tangent of the ratio of the horizontal to vertical gradients of magnetic anomalies) profile over two-dimensional tabular bodies has been subjected to detailed analysis for determining the source parameters. Distances between certain characteristic positions on this phase curve are related to the parameters of two-dimensional tabular magnetic sources. In this paper, I have derived the mathematical expressions for these relations. It has been demonstrated here that for locating the origin of the 2D tabular source, knowledge on the type of the model (contact, sheet, dyke, and fault) is not necessary. A procedure is evolved to determine the location, depth, width and magnetization angle of the 2D sources from the mathematical expressions. The method is tested on real field data. The effect of the overlapping bodies is also discussed with two synthetic examples. The interpretation technique is developed for contact, sheet, dike and inclined fault bodies.
2-D Magnetohydrodynamic Modeling of A Pulsed Plasma Thruster
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Thio, Y. C. Francis; Cassibry, J. T.; Wu, S. T.; Rodgers, Stephen L. (Technical Monitor)
2002-01-01
Experiments are being performed on the NASA Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) MK-1 pulsed plasma thruster. Data produced from the experiments provide an opportunity to further understand the plasma dynamics in these thrusters via detailed computational modeling. The detailed and accurate understanding of the plasma dynamics in these devices holds the key towards extending their capabilities in a number of applications, including their applications as high power (greater than 1 MW) thrusters, and their use for producing high-velocity, uniform plasma jets for experimental purposes. For this study, the 2-D MHD modeling code, MACH2, is used to provide detailed interpretation of the experimental data. At the same time, a 0-D physics model of the plasma initial phase is developed to guide our 2-D modeling studies.
Functionalized 2D atomic sheets with new properties
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Sun, Qiang; Zhou, Jian; Wang, Qian; Jena, Puru
2011-03-01
Due to the unique atomic structure and novel physical and chemical properties, graphene has sparked tremendous theoretical and experimental efforts to explore other 2D atomic sheets like B-N, Al-N, and Zn-O, where the two components offer much more complexities and flexibilities in surface modifications. Using First principles calculations based on density functional theory, we have systematically studied the semi- and fully-decorated 2D sheets with H and F and Cl. We have found that the electronic structures and magnetic properties can be effectively tuned, and the system can be a direct or an indirect semiconductor or even a half-metal, and the system can be made ferromagnetic, antiferromagnetic, or magnetically degenerate depending upon how the surface is functionalized. Discussions are made for the possible device applications.
A Better 2-D Mechanical Energy Conservation Experiment
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Paesler, Michael
2012-02-01
A variety of simple classical mechanics energy conservation experiments are used in teaching laboratories. Typical one-dimensional (1-D) setups may involve falling balls or oscillating springs. Many of these can be quite satisfying in that students can confirm—within a few percent—that mechanical energy is conserved. Students generally have little trouble identifying discrepancies such as the loss of a few percent of the gravitational potential energy due to air friction encountered by a falling ball. Two-dimensional (2-D) systems can require more sophisticated analysis for higher level laboratories, but such systems often incorporate complicating components that can make the exercise academically incomplete and experimentally less accurate. The following describes a simple 2-D energy conservation experiment based on the popular "Newton's Cradle" toy that allows students to account for nearly all of the mechanical energy in the system in an academically complete analysis.
Critical Dynamics in Quenched 2D Atomic Gases
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Larcher, F.; Dalfovo, F.; Proukakis, N. P.
2016-05-01
Non-equilibrium dynamics across phase transitions is a subject of intense investigations in diverse physical systems. One of the key issues concerns the validity of the Kibble-Zurek (KZ) scaling law for spontaneous defect creation. The KZ mechanism has been recently studied in cold atoms experiments. Interesting open questions arise in the case of 2D systems, due to the distinct nature of the Berezinskii-Kosterlitz-Thouless (BKT) transition. Our studies rely on the stochastic Gross-Pitaevskii equation. We perform systematic numerical simulations of the spontaneous emergence and subsequent dynamics of vortices in a uniform 2D Bose gas, which is quenched across the BKT phase transition in a controlled manner, focusing on dynamical scaling and KZ-type effects. By varying the transverse confinement, we also look at the extent to which such features can be seen in current experiments. Financial support from EPSRC and Provincia Autonoma di Trento.
Defect Dynamics in Active 2D Nematic Liquid Crystals
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Decamp, Stephen; Redner, Gabriel; Hagan, Michael; Dogic, Zvonimir
2014-03-01
Active materials are assemblies of animate, energy-consuming objects that exhibit continuous dynamics. As such, they have properties that are dramatically different from those found in conventional materials made of inanimate objects. We present a 2D active nematic liquid crystal composed of bundled microtubules and kinesin motor proteins that exists in a dynamic steady-state far from equilibrium. The active nematic exhibits spontaneous binding and unbinding of charge +1/2 and -1/2 disclination defects as well as streaming of +1/2 defects. By tuning ATP concentration, we precisely control the amount of activity, a key parameter of the system. We characterize the dynamics of streaming defects on a large, flat, 2D interface using quantitative polarization light microscopy. We report fundamental characteristics of the active nematics such as defect velocities, defect creation and annihilation rates, and emergent length scales in the system.
Controlling avalanche criticality in 2D nano arrays.
Zohar, Y C; Yochelis, S; Dahmen, K A; Jung, G; Paltiel, Y
2013-01-01
Many physical systems respond to slowly changing external force through avalanches spanning broad range of sizes. Some systems crackle even without apparent external force, such as bursts of neuronal activity or charge transfer avalanches in 2D molecular layers. Advanced development of theoretical models describing disorder-induced critical phenomena calls for experiments probing the dynamics upon tuneable disorder. Here we show that isomeric structural transitions in 2D organic self-assembled monolayer (SAM) exhibit critical dynamics with experimentally tuneable disorder. The system consists of field effect transistor coupled through SAM to illuminated semiconducting nanocrystals (NCs). Charges photoinduced in NCs are transferred through SAM to the transistor surface and modulate its conductivity. Avalanches of isomeric structural transitions are revealed by measuring the current noise I(t) of the transistor. Accumulated surface traps charges reduce dipole moments of the molecules, decrease their coupling, and thus decrease the critical disorder of the SAM enabling its tuning during experiments.
Visualization of 2-D and 3-D Tensor Fields
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Hesselink, Lambertus
1997-01-01
In previous work we have developed a novel approach to visualizing second order symmetric 2-D tensor fields based on degenerate point analysis. At degenerate points the eigenvalues are either zero or equal to each other, and the hyper-streamlines about these points give rise to tri-sector or wedge points. These singularities and their connecting hyper-streamlines determine the topology of the tensor field. In this study we are developing new methods for analyzing and displaying 3-D tensor fields. This problem is considerably more difficult than the 2-D one, as the richness of the data set is much larger. Here we report on our progress and a novel method to find , analyze and display 3-D degenerate points. First we discuss the theory, then an application involving a 3-D tensor field, the Boussinesq problem with two forces.
Visualization of 2-D and 3-D Tensor Fields
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Hesselink, Lambertus
1995-01-01
In previous work we have developed a novel approach to visualizing second order symmetric 2-D tensor fields based on degenerate point analysis. At degenerate points the eigenvalues are either zero or equal to each other, and the hyperstreamlines about these points give rise to trisector or wedge points. These singularities and their connecting hyperstreamlines determine the topology of the tensor field. In this study we are developing new methods for analyzing and displaying 3-D tensor fields. This problem is considerably more difficult than the 2-D one, as the richness of the data set is much larger. Here we report on our progress and a novel method to find, analyze and display 3-D degenerate points. First we discuss the theory, then an application involving a 3-D tensor field, the Boussinesq problem with two forces.