2-d Finite Element Code Postprocessor
1996-07-15
ORION is an interactive program that serves as a postprocessor for the analysis programs NIKE2D, DYNA2D, TOPAZ2D, and CHEMICAL TOPAZ2D. ORION reads binary plot files generated by the two-dimensional finite element codes currently used by the Methods Development Group at LLNL. Contour and color fringe plots of a large number of quantities may be displayed on meshes consisting of triangular and quadrilateral elements. ORION can compute strain measures, interface pressures along slide lines, reaction forcesmore » along constrained boundaries, and momentum. ORION has been applied to study the response of two-dimensional solids and structures undergoing finite deformations under a wide variety of large deformation transient dynamic and static problems and heat transfer analyses.« less
2-D Finite Element Heat Conduction
1989-10-30
AYER is a finite element program which implicitly solves the general two-dimensional equation of thermal conduction for plane or axisymmetric bodies. AYER takes into account the effects of time (transient problems), in-plane anisotropic thermal conductivity, a three-dimensional velocity distribution, and interface thermal contact resistance. Geometry and material distributions are arbitrary, and input is via subroutines provided by the user. As a result, boundary conditions, material properties, velocity distributions, and internal power generation may be mademore » functions of, e.g., time, temperature, location, and heat flux.« less
2D axisymmetric analysis of SRM ignition transient
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Bai, S. D.; Han, Samuel S.; Pardue, B. A.
1993-06-01
To analyze ignition transient of Space Shuttle solid rocket motor, a transient two-dimensional numerical model based on turbulent compressible Navier-Stokes equations in a generalized coordinate system was developed. One-dimensional numerical models (Peretz et al., 1973; Han, 1992; Pardue and Han, 1992) with empirical correlations data obtained from steady turbulent boundary layer flows agrees reasonably well with test rocket data by adjusting a few parameters. However, a 1D model can not provide a physical insight into the complex multidimensional thermal fields and flowfields in the chamber and the converging-diverging rocket nozzle. As an interim step, a 2D model was developed and compared with test data. A modified version of SIMPLE algorithm was used for the numerical model, and the standard k-epsilon model with a wall function was used for turbulence closure. Transient flowfields and thermal fields in the combustion chamber and the attached nozzle were obtained for a selected rocket geometry and propellant. Transient behaviors of the flow and thermal fields were analyzed, and were found to be in good agreement with physical expectations.
2-D/Axisymmetric Formulation of Multi-dimensional Upwind Scheme
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Wood, William A.; Kleb, William L.
2001-01-01
A multi-dimensional upwind discretization of the two-dimensional/axisymmetric Navier-Stokes equations is detailed for unstructured meshes. The algorithm is an extension of the fluctuation splitting scheme of Sidilkover. Boundary conditions are implemented weakly so that all nodes are updated using the base scheme, and eigen-value limiting is incorporated to suppress expansion shocks. Test cases for Mach numbers ranging from 0.1-17 are considered, with results compared against an unstructured upwind finite volume scheme. The fluctuation splitting inviscid distribution requires fewer operations than the finite volume routine, and is seen to produce less artificial dissipation, leading to generally improved solution accuracy.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Gelinas, R. J.; Doss, S. K.; Vajk, J. P.; Djomehri, J.; Miller, K.
1983-01-01
The mathematical background regarding the moving finite element (MFE) method of Miller and Miller (1981) is discussed, taking into account a general system of partial differential equations (PDE) and the amenability of the MFE method in two dimensions to code modularization and to semiautomatic user-construction of numerous PDE systems for both Dirichlet and zero-Neumann boundary conditions. A description of test problem results is presented, giving attention to aspects of single square wave propagation, and a solution of the heat equation.
Finite Axisymmetric Charged Dust Disks Sources for Conformastatic Spacetimes
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
González, Guillermo A.; Gutiérrez-Piñeres, Antonio C.; Ospina, Paolo A.
2009-05-01
An infinite family of finite axisymmetric charged dust disks is presented. The disks are obtained by solving the Einstein-Maxwell equations for conformastatic spacetimes by assuming a functional dependency between the time-like component of the electromagnetic potential and the metric potential in terms of a solution of the Laplace equation. We give solutions to the Einstein-Maxwell equations with disk sources of finite extension in which the charge density is proportional to the energy surface density. We apply the well-know ``inverse'' approach to the gravitational potential representing finite thin disks given by Gonzalez and Reina to generate conformastatic charged dust thin discs. Exact examples of conformastatic metrics with disk sources are worked out in full.
Finite axisymmetric charged dust disks in conformastatic spacetimes
Gonzalez, Guillermo A.; Gutierrez-Pineres, Antonio C.; Ospina, Paolo A.
2008-09-15
An infinite family of axisymmetric charged dust disks of finite extension is presented. The disks are obtained by solving the vacuum Einstein-Maxwell equations for conformastatic spacetimes, which are characterized by only one metric function. In order to obtain the solutions, a functional relationship between the metric function and the electric potential is assumed. It is also assumed that the metric function is functionally dependent on another auxiliary function, which is taken as a solution of the Laplace equation. The solutions for the auxiliary function are then taken as given by the infinite family of generalized Kalnajs disks recently obtained by Gonzalez and Reina [G. A. Gonzalez and J. I. Reina, Mon. Not. R. Astron. Soc. 371, 1873 (2006).], expressed in terms of the oblate spheroidal coordinates and corresponding to a family of well-behaved Newtonian axisymmetric thin disks of finite radius. The obtained relativistic thin disks have a charge density that is equal, except maybe by a sign, to their mass density, in such a way that the electric and gravitational forces are in exact balance. The energy density of the disks is everywhere positive and well behaved, vanishing at the edge. Accordingly, as the disks are made of dust, their energy-momentum tensor agrees with all the energy conditions.
Finite axisymmetric charged dust disks in conformastatic spacetimes
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
González, Guillermo A.; Gutiérrez-Piñeres, Antonio C.; Ospina, Paolo A.
2008-09-01
An infinite family of axisymmetric charged dust disks of finite extension is presented. The disks are obtained by solving the vacuum Einstein-Maxwell equations for conformastatic spacetimes, which are characterized by only one metric function. In order to obtain the solutions, a functional relationship between the metric function and the electric potential is assumed. It is also assumed that the metric function is functionally dependent on another auxiliary function, which is taken as a solution of the Laplace equation. The solutions for the auxiliary function are then taken as given by the infinite family of generalized Kalnajs disks recently obtained by González and Reina [G. A. González and J. I. Reina, Mon. Not. R. Astron. Soc. 371, 1873 (2006).MNRAA40035-871110.1111/j.1365-2966.2006.10819.x], expressed in terms of the oblate spheroidal coordinates and corresponding to a family of well-behaved Newtonian axisymmetric thin disks of finite radius. The obtained relativistic thin disks have a charge density that is equal, except maybe by a sign, to their mass density, in such a way that the electric and gravitational forces are in exact balance. The energy density of the disks is everywhere positive and well behaved, vanishing at the edge. Accordingly, as the disks are made of dust, their energy-momentum tensor agrees with all the energy conditions.
Computer program BL2D for solving two-dimensional and axisymmetric boundary layers
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Iyer, Venkit
1995-01-01
This report presents the formulation, validation, and user's manual for the computer program BL2D. The program is a fourth-order-accurate solution scheme for solving two-dimensional or axisymmetric boundary layers in speed regimes that range from low subsonic to hypersonic Mach numbers. A basic implementation of the transition zone and turbulence modeling is also included. The code is a result of many improvements made to the program VGBLP, which is described in NASA TM-83207 (February 1982), and can effectively supersede it. The code BL2D is designed to be modular, user-friendly, and portable to any machine with a standard fortran77 compiler. The report contains the new formulation adopted and the details of its implementation. Five validation cases are presented. A detailed user's manual with the input format description and instructions for running the code is included. Adequate information is presented in the report to enable the user to modify or customize the code for specific applications.
ELLIPT2D: A Flexible Finite Element Code Written Python
Pletzer, A.; Mollis, J.C.
2001-03-22
The use of the Python scripting language for scientific applications and in particular to solve partial differential equations is explored. It is shown that Python's rich data structure and object-oriented features can be exploited to write programs that are not only significantly more concise than their counter parts written in Fortran, C or C++, but are also numerically efficient. To illustrate this, a two-dimensional finite element code (ELLIPT2D) has been written. ELLIPT2D provides a flexible and easy-to-use framework for solving a large class of second-order elliptic problems. The program allows for structured or unstructured meshes. All functions defining the elliptic operator are user supplied and so are the boundary conditions, which can be of Dirichlet, Neumann or Robbins type. ELLIPT2D makes extensive use of dictionaries (hash tables) as a way to represent sparse matrices.Other key features of the Python language that have been widely used include: operator over loading, error handling, array slicing, and the Tkinter module for building graphical use interfaces. As an example of the utility of ELLIPT2D, a nonlinear solution of the Grad-Shafranov equation is computed using a Newton iterative scheme. A second application focuses on a solution of the toroidal Laplace equation coupled to a magnetohydrodynamic stability code, a problem arising in the context of magnetic fusion research.
Finite Element Analysis of 2-D Elastic Contacts Involving FGMs
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Abhilash, M. N.; Murthy, H.
2014-05-01
The response of elastic indenters in contact with Functionally Graded Material (FGM) coated homogeneous elastic half space has been presented in the current paper. Finite element analysis has been used due to its ability to handle complex geometry, material, and boundary conditions. Indenters of different typical surface profiles have been considered and the problem has been idealized as a two-dimensional (2D) plane strain problem considering only normal loads. Initially, indenters were considered to be rigid and the results were validated with the solutions presented in the literature. The analysis has then been extended to the case of elastic indenters on FGM-coated half spaces and the results are discussed.
AnisWave2D: User's Guide to the 2d Anisotropic Finite-DifferenceCode
Toomey, Aoife
2005-01-06
This document describes a parallel finite-difference code for modeling wave propagation in 2D, fully anisotropic materials. The code utilizes a mesh refinement scheme to improve computational efficiency. Mesh refinement allows the grid spacing to be tailored to the velocity model, so that fine grid spacing can be used in low velocity zones where the seismic wavelength is short, and coarse grid spacing can be used in zones with higher material velocities. Over-sampling of the seismic wavefield in high velocity zones is therefore avoided. The code has been implemented to run in parallel over multiple processors and allows large-scale models and models with large velocity contrasts to be simulated with ease.
Predicting Fracture Using 2D Finite Element Modeling
MacNeil, J.A.M.; Adachi, J.D; Goltzman, D; Josse, R.G; Kovacs, C.S; Prior, J.C; Olszynski, W; Davison, K.S.; Kaiser, S.M
2013-01-01
A decrease in bone density at the hip or spine has been shown to increase the risk of fracture. A limitation of the bone mineral density (BMD) measurement is that it provides only a measure of a bone samples average density when projected onto a 2D surface. Effectively, what determines bone fracture is whether an applied load exceeds ultimate strength, with both bone tissue material properties (can be approximated through bone density), and geometry playing a role. The goal of this project was to use bone geometry and BMD obtained from radiographs and DXA measurements respectively to estimate fracture risk, using a two-dimensional finite element model (FEM) of the sagittal plane of lumbar vertebrae. The Canadian Multicenter Osteoporosis Study (CaMos) data was used for this study. There were 4194 men and women over the age of 50 years, with 786 having fractures. Each subject had BMD testing and radiographs of their lumbar vertebrae. A single two dimensional FEM of the first to fourth lumbar vertebra was automatically generated for each subject. Bone tissue stiffness was assigned based on the BMD of the individual vertebrae, and adjusted for patient age. Axial compression boundary conditions were applied with a force proportional to body mass. The resulting overall strain from the applied force was found. Men and women were analyzed separately. At baseline, the sensitivity of BMD to predict fragility fractures in women and men was 3.77 % and 0.86 %, while the sensitivity of FEM to predict fragility fractures for women and men was 10.8 % and 11.3 %. The FEM ROC curve demonstrated better performance compared to BMD. The relative risk of being considered at high fracture risk using FEM at baseline, was a better predictor of 5 year incident fragility fracture risk compared to BMD. PMID:21959170
Shapiro, A.B.
1983-08-01
The computer code FACET calculates the radiation geometric view factor (alternatively called shape factor, angle factor, or configuration factor) between surfaces for axisymmetric, two-dimensional planar and three-dimensional geometries with interposed third surface obstructions. FACET was developed to calculate view factors for input to finite-element heat-transfer analysis codes. The first section of this report is a brief review of previous radiation-view-factor computer codes. The second section presents the defining integral equation for the geometric view factor between two surfaces and the assumptions made in its derivation. Also in this section are the numerical algorithms used to integrate this equation for the various geometries. The third section presents the algorithms used to detect self-shadowing and third-surface shadowing between the two surfaces for which a view factor is being calculated. The fourth section provides a user's input guide followed by several example problems.
Hallquist, J.O.
1982-02-01
This revised report provides an updated user's manual for DYNA2D, an explicit two-dimensional axisymmetric and plane strain finite element code for analyzing the large deformation dynamic and hydrodynamic response of inelastic solids. A contact-impact algorithm permits gaps and sliding along material interfaces. By a specialization of this algorithm, such interfaces can be rigidly tied to admit variable zoning without the need of transition regions. Spatial discretization is achieved by the use of 4-node solid elements, and the equations-of motion are integrated by the central difference method. An interactive rezoner eliminates the need to terminate the calculation when the mesh becomes too distorted. Rather, the mesh can be rezoned and the calculation continued. The command structure for the rezoner is described and illustrated by an example.
Finite element analysis of axisymmetric oscillations of sessile liquid drops
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Bixler, N. E.; Benner, R. E.
Inviscid oscillations of sessile liquid drops are simulated by the Galerkin finite element method in conjunction with the time integrator proposed by Gresho, et al. Simulations are of drops in spherical containers which are subjected to imposed oscillations of specified frequency and amplitude. Five equations govern drop response: (1) Laplace's equation for velocity potential within the drop; (2) a kinematic condition at the free surface; (3) a Bernoulli equation augmented to include gravity and capillary pressure at the free surface; (4) a kinematic condition at the solid surface; and (5) either a condition for fixed contact line or fixed contact angle. Each of these equations is modified to account for an accelerating frame of reference which moves the container. Normalized drop volume, contact angle, and gravitational Bond number are dimensionless parameters which control drop response to an imposed oscillation. Given a set of fluid properties, such as those for mercury, gravitational Bond number is uniquely defined by the container radius. Resonant frequencies and mode interaction are detected by Fourier analysis of a transient signal, such as free surface position at the pole of a spherical coordinate system. Results, especially resonant frequencies, are found to depend strongly on contact line condition. Calculation of resonant frequencies by eigenanalysis with Stewart's method is also discussed.
Axisymmetric analysis of a tube-type acoustic levitator by a finite element method.
Hatano, H
1994-01-01
A finite element approach was taken for the study of the sound field and positioning force in a tube-type acoustic levitator. An axisymmetric model, where a rigid sphere is suspended on the tube axis, was introduced to model a cylindrical chamber of a levitation tube furnace. Distributions of velocity potential, magnitudes of positioning force, and resonance frequency shifts of the chamber due to the presence of the sphere were numerically estimated in relation to the sphere's position and diameter. Experiments were additionally made to compare with the simulation. The finite element method proved to be a useful tool for analyzing and designing the tube-type levitator. PMID:18263265
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Marvin, Joseph G.; Brown, James L.; Gnoffo, Peter A.
2013-01-01
A database compilation of hypersonic shock-wave/turbulent boundary layer experiments is provided. The experiments selected for the database are either 2D or axisymmetric, and include both compression corner and impinging type SWTBL interactions. The strength of the interactions range from attached to incipient separation to fully separated flows. The experiments were chosen based on criterion to ensure quality of the datasets, to be relevant to NASA's missions and to be useful for validation and uncertainty assessment of CFD Navier-Stokes predictive methods, both now and in the future. An emphasis on datasets selected was on surface pressures and surface heating throughout the interaction, but include some wall shear stress distributions and flowfield profiles. Included, for selected cases, are example CFD grids and setup information, along with surface pressure and wall heating results from simulations using current NASA real-gas Navier-Stokes codes by which future CFD investigators can compare and evaluate physics modeling improvements and validation and uncertainty assessments of future CFD code developments. The experimental database is presented tabulated in the Appendices describing each experiment. The database is also provided in computer-readable ASCII files located on a companion DVD.
Automatic differentiation of the TACO2D finite element code using ADIFOR
Carle, A.; Fagan, M.
1996-04-01
The need for sensitivities in particular applications is becoming increasingly important in problems such as optimal design or control. In this study, the authors use ADIFOR to generate derivative code for TACO2D, a finite element heat transfer code. The study of TACO2D indicates that ADIFOR-generated derivatives yield accurate derivatives at a fraction of the time requirements of finite difference approximations, and space requirements proportional to the number of variables. The primary focus on TACO2D was for the design of chemical vapor deposition reactors.
Finite Temperature Response of a 2D Dipolar Bose Gas at Different Dipolar Tilt Angles
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Shen, Pengtao; Quader, Khandker
We calculate finite temperature (T) response of a 2D Bose gas, subject to dipolar interaction, within the random phase approximation (RPA). We evaluate the appropriate 2D finite-T pair bubble diagram needed in RPA, and explore ranges of density and temperature for various dipolar tilt angles. We find the system to exhibit a collapse transition and a finite momentum instability, signaling a density wave or striped phase. We construct phase diagrams depicting these instabilities and resulting phases, including a normal Bose gas phase. We also consider the finite-T response of a quasi-2D dipolar Bose gas. We discuss how our results may apply to ultracold dense Bose gas of polar molecules, such as 41K87Rb, that has been realized experimentally. Acknowledge partial support from Institute for Complex Adaptive Matter (ICAM).
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Anderson, O. L.
1974-01-01
A finite-difference procedure for computing the turbulent, swirling, compressible flow in axisymmetric ducts is described. Arbitrary distributions of heat and mass transfer at the boundaries can be treated, and the effects of struts, inlet guide vanes, and flow straightening vanes can be calculated. The calculation procedure is programmed in FORTRAN 4 and has operated successfully on the UNIVAC 1108, IBM 360, and CDC 6600 computers. The analysis which forms the basis of the procedure, a detailed description of the computer program, and the input/output formats are presented. The results of sample calculations performed with the computer program are compared with experimental data.
Shape optimization of axisymmetric solids with the finite cell method using a fixed grid
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Meng, Liang; Zhang, Wei-Hong; Zhu, Ji-Hong; Xu, Zhao; Cai, Shou-Hu
2016-06-01
In this work, a design procedure extending the B-spline based finite cell method into shape optimization is developed for axisymmetric solids involving the centrifugal force effect. We first replace the traditional conforming mesh in the finite element method with structured cells that are fixed during the whole design process with a view to avoid the sophisticated re-meshing and eventual mesh distortion. Then, B-spline shape functions are further implemented to yield a high-order continuity field along the cell boundary in stress analysis. By means of the implicit description of the shape boundary, stress sensitivity is analytically derived with respect to shape design variables. Finally, we illustrate the efficiency and accuracy of the proposed protocol by several numerical test cases as well as a whole design procedure carried out on an aeronautic turbine disk.
Shape optimization of axisymmetric solids with the finite cell method using a fixed grid
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Meng, Liang; Zhang, Wei-Hong; Zhu, Ji-Hong; Xu, Zhao; Cai, Shou-Hu
2016-02-01
In this work, a design procedure extending the B-spline based finite cell method into shape optimization is developed for axisymmetric solids involving the centrifugal force effect. We first replace the traditional conforming mesh in the finite element method with structured cells that are fixed during the whole design process with a view to avoid the sophisticated re-meshing and eventual mesh distortion. Then, B-spline shape functions are further implemented to yield a high-order continuity field along the cell boundary in stress analysis. By means of the implicit description of the shape boundary, stress sensitivity is analytically derived with respect to shape design variables. Finally, we illustrate the efficiency and accuracy of the proposed protocol by several numerical test cases as well as a whole design procedure carried out on an aeronautic turbine disk.
Effects of 2D and Finite Density Fluctuations on O-X Correlation Reflectometry
G.J. Kramer; R. Nazikian; E. Valeo
2001-07-05
The correlation between O-mode and X-mode reflectometer signals is studied with a 1D and 2D reflectometer model in order to explore its feasibilities as a q-profile diagnostic. It was found that 2D effects and finite fluctuation levels both decrease the O-X correlation. At very low fluctuation levels, which are usually present in the plasma core, there is good possibility to determine the local magnetic field strength and use that as a constraint for the equilibrium reconstruction.
Dynamic Analysis of 2D Electromagnetic Resonant Optical Scanner Using 3D Finite Element Method
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Hirata, Katsuhiro; Hong, Sara; Maeda, Kengo
The optical scanner is a scanning device in which a laser beam is reflected by a mirror that can be rotated or oscillated. In this paper, we propose a new 2D electromagnetic resonant optical scanner that employs electromagnets and leaf springs. Torque characteristics and resonance characteristics of the scanner are analyzed using the 3D finite element method. The validity of the analysis is shown by comparing the characteristics inferred from the analysis with the characteristics of the prototype. Further, 2D resonance is investigated by introducing a superimposed-frequency current in a single coil.
2D-3D hybrid stabilized finite element method for tsunami runup simulations
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Takase, S.; Moriguchi, S.; Terada, K.; Kato, J.; Kyoya, T.; Kashiyama, K.; Kotani, T.
2016-09-01
This paper presents a two-dimensional (2D)-three-dimensional (3D) hybrid stabilized finite element method that enables us to predict a propagation process of tsunami generated in a hypocentral region, which ranges from offshore propagation to runup to urban areas, with high accuracy and relatively low computational costs. To be more specific, the 2D shallow water equation is employed to simulate the propagation of offshore waves, while the 3D Navier-Stokes equation is employed for the runup in urban areas. The stabilized finite element method is utilized for numerical simulations for both of the 2D and 3D domains that are independently discretized with unstructured meshes. The multi-point constraint and transmission methods are applied to satisfy the continuity of flow velocities and pressures at the interface between the resulting 2D and 3D meshes, since neither their spatial dimensions nor node arrangements are consistent. Numerical examples are presented to demonstrate the performance of the proposed hybrid method to simulate tsunami behavior, including offshore propagation and runup to urban areas, with substantially lower computation costs in comparison with full 3D computations.
2D-3D hybrid stabilized finite element method for tsunami runup simulations
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Takase, S.; Moriguchi, S.; Terada, K.; Kato, J.; Kyoya, T.; Kashiyama, K.; Kotani, T.
2016-05-01
This paper presents a two-dimensional (2D)-three-dimensional (3D) hybrid stabilized finite element method that enables us to predict a propagation process of tsunami generated in a hypocentral region, which ranges from offshore propagation to runup to urban areas, with high accuracy and relatively low computational costs. To be more specific, the 2D shallow water equation is employed to simulate the propagation of offshore waves, while the 3D Navier-Stokes equation is employed for the runup in urban areas. The stabilized finite element method is utilized for numerical simulations for both of the 2D and 3D domains that are independently discretized with unstructured meshes. The multi-point constraint and transmission methods are applied to satisfy the continuity of flow velocities and pressures at the interface between the resulting 2D and 3D meshes, since neither their spatial dimensions nor node arrangements are consistent. Numerical examples are presented to demonstrate the performance of the proposed hybrid method to simulate tsunami behavior, including offshore propagation and runup to urban areas, with substantially lower computation costs in comparison with full 3D computations.
2D resistivity inversion using conjugate gradients for a finite element discretization
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Bortolozo, C. A.; Santos, F. M.; Porsani, J. L.
2014-12-01
In this work we present a DC 2D inversion algorithm using conjugate gradients relaxation to solve the maximum likelihood inverse equations. We apply, according to Zhang (1995), the maximum likelihood inverse theory developed by Tarantola and Valette (1982) to our 2D resistivity inversion. This algorithm was chosen to this research because it doesn't need to calculate the field's derivatives. Since conjugate gradient techniques only need the results of the sensitivity matrix Ã or its transpose ÃT multiplying a vector, the actual computation of the sensitivity matrix are not performed, according to the methodology described in Zhang (1995). In Zhang (1995), the terms Ãx and ÃTy, are dependent of the stiffness matrix K and its partial derivative ∂K⁄∂ρ. The inversion methodology described in Zhang (1995) is for the case of 3D electrical resistivity by finite differences discretization. So it was necessary to make a series of adjustments to obtain a satisfactory result for 2D electrical inversion using finite element method. The difference between the modeling of 3D resistivity with finite difference and the 2D finite element method are in the integration variable, used in the 2D case. In the 2D case the electrical potential are initially calculated in the transformed domain, including the stiffness matrix, and only in the end is transformed in Cartesian domain. In the case of 3D, described by Zhang (1995) this is done differently, the calculation is done directly in the Cartesian domain. In the literature was not found any work describing how to deal with this problem. Because the calculations of Ãx and ÃTy must be done without having the real stiffness matrix, the adaptation consist in calculate the stiffness matrix and its partial derivative using a set of integration variables. We transform those matrix in the same form has in the potential case, but with different sets of variables. The results will be presented and are very promising.
2D Axisymmetric vs 1D: A PIC/DSMC Model of Breakdown in Triggered Vacuum Spark Gaps
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Moore, Stan; Moore, Chris; Boerner, Jeremiah
2015-09-01
Last year at GEC14, we presented results of one-dimensional PIC/DSMC simulations of breakdown in triggered vacuum spark gaps. In this talk, we extend the model to two-dimensional axisymmetric and compare the results to the previous 1D case. Specially, we vary the fraction of the cathode that emits electrons and neutrals (holding the total injection rates over the cathode surface constant) and show the effects of the higher dimensionality on the time to breakdown. Sandia National Laboratories is a multi-program laboratory managed and operated by Sandia Corporation, a wholly owned subsidiary of Lockheed Martin Corporation, for the U. S. Department of Energy's National Nuclear Security Administration under contract DE-AC04-94AL85000.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Yan, Bo; Li, Yuguo; Liu, Ying
2016-07-01
In this paper, we present an adaptive finite element (FE) algorithm for direct current (DC) resistivity modeling in 2-D generally anisotropic conductivity structures. Our algorithm is implemented on an unstructured triangular mesh that readily accommodates complex structures such as topography and dipping layers and so on. We implement a self-adaptive, goal-oriented grid refinement algorithm in which the finite element analysis is performed on a sequence of refined grids. The grid refinement process is guided by an a posteriori error estimator. The problem is formulated in terms of total potentials where mixed boundary conditions are incorporated. This type of boundary condition is superior to the Dirichlet type of conditions and improves numerical accuracy considerably according to model calculations. We have verified the adaptive finite element algorithm using a two-layered earth with azimuthal anisotropy. The FE algorithm with incorporation of mixed boundary conditions achieves high accuracy. The relative error between the numerical and analytical solutions is less than 1% except in the vicinity of the current source location, where the relative error is up to 2.4%. A 2-D anisotropic model is used to demonstrate the effects of anisotropy upon the apparent resistivity in DC soundings.
Justification for a 2D versus 3D fingertip finite element model during static contact simulations.
Harih, Gregor; Tada, Mitsunori; Dolšak, Bojan
2016-10-01
The biomechanical response of a human hand during contact with various products has not been investigated in details yet. It has been shown that excessive contact pressure on the soft tissue can result in discomfort, pain and also cumulative traumatic disorders. This manuscript explores the benefits and limitations of a simplified two-dimensional vs. an anatomically correct three-dimensional finite element model of a human fingertip. Most authors still use 2D FE fingertip models due to their simplicity and reduced computational costs. However we show that an anatomically correct 3D FE fingertip model can provide additional insight into the biomechanical behaviour. The use of 2D fingertip FE models is justified when observing peak contact pressure values as well as displacement during the contact for the given studied cross-section. On the other hand, an anatomically correct 3D FE fingertip model provides a contact pressure distribution, which reflects the fingertip's anatomy. PMID:26856769
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Zou, B.; Li, D. F.; Hu, H. J.; Zhang, H. W.; Lou, L. H.; Chen, M.; Lv, Z. Y.
Based on the verified two dimensional(2D) finite element model for river flow simulation, the effect of estuary training levees on the water flow and sediment movement in the Yellow River estuary is analyzed. For disclosing the effect of setting the two training levees on the flow and sediment motion, the calculation and analysis for the two projects, (one is no levees, the other is setting up two no levees) are given. The results show that when setting up two training levees, water flow is bound by levees and the water flows become more concentrated. As a result, velocity increases in the main channel, sediment carrying capacity of water flow increases correspondingly.
Coope, Wilfred Anthony; Ferrando i Margalet, Sergi; Allfrey, Simon J.; Kisslinger, Johann; Wobig, Horst F.G.; Narushima, Yoshiro; Okamura, Shoichi; Suzuki, Chihiro; Watanabe, Kiyomasa Y.; Yamazaki, Kozo; Isaev, Maxim Yu
2004-09-15
The impact of the bootstrap current is investigated on the equilibrium properties of a two-period quasi-axisymmetric stellarator reactor with free boundary and on the corresponding ideal magnetohydrodynamic stability properties. Although the magnetic field strength B spectrum is dominated by a m/n = 1/0 component, the discrete filamentary coils trigger some small-amplitude symmetry-breaking components that can disturb the quasi-symmetry of B. Finite {beta} causes the plasma column to shift outward in the absence of bootstrap current. With a self-consistent bootstrap current in the 1/{nu} regime, the plasma becomes more elongated and more distorted in the horizontally elongated up-down symmetric cross section. At {beta} (approximately equal to) 3.25%, the plasma can be restored to its near-vacuum shape with the application of a vertical field with coil currents 20% of those of the modular coils, but at the expense of a significant mirror component in the B-field spectrum. The bootstrap current causes the rotational transform {iota} profile to increase above the critical resonant value ({iota}{sub c} = 1/2 for {beta} {>=}1.1%) and combines with the Pfirsch-Schlueter current to destabilize a m/n = 2/1 external kink mode for {beta} {>=}1.8%.
Finite-size scaling in a 2D disordered electron gas with spectral nodes
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Sinner, Andreas; Ziegler, Klaus
2016-08-01
We study the DC conductivity of a weakly disordered 2D electron gas with two bands and spectral nodes, employing the field theoretical version of the Kubo–Greenwood conductivity formula. Disorder scattering is treated within the standard perturbation theory by summing up ladder and maximally crossed diagrams. The emergent gapless (diffusion) modes determine the behavior of the conductivity on large scales. We find a finite conductivity with an intermediate logarithmic finite-size scaling towards smaller conductivities but do not obtain the logarithmic divergence of the weak-localization approach. Our results agree with the experimentally observed logarithmic scaling of the conductivity in graphene with the formation of a plateau near {{e}2}/π h .
Finite-size scaling in a 2D disordered electron gas with spectral nodes.
Sinner, Andreas; Ziegler, Klaus
2016-08-01
We study the DC conductivity of a weakly disordered 2D electron gas with two bands and spectral nodes, employing the field theoretical version of the Kubo-Greenwood conductivity formula. Disorder scattering is treated within the standard perturbation theory by summing up ladder and maximally crossed diagrams. The emergent gapless (diffusion) modes determine the behavior of the conductivity on large scales. We find a finite conductivity with an intermediate logarithmic finite-size scaling towards smaller conductivities but do not obtain the logarithmic divergence of the weak-localization approach. Our results agree with the experimentally observed logarithmic scaling of the conductivity in graphene with the formation of a plateau near [Formula: see text]. PMID:27270084
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ahn, J.-W.; Gan, K. F.; Scotti, F.; Lore, J. D.; Maingi, R.; Canik, J. M.; Gray, T. K.; McLean, A. G.; Roquemore, A. L.; Soukhanovskii, V. A.
2013-07-01
Toroidally non-axisymmetric divertor profiles during the 3-D field application and for ELMs are studied with simultaneous observation by a new wide angle visible camera and a high speed IR camera. A newly implemented 3-D heat conduction code, TACO, is used to obtain divertor heat flux. The wide angle camera data confirmed the previously reported result on the validity of vacuum field line tracing on the prediction of split strike point pattern by 3-D fields as well as the phase locking of ELM heat flux to the 3-D fields. TACO calculates the 2-D heat flux distribution allowing assessment of toroidal asymmetry of peak heat flux and heat flux width. The degree of asymmetry (ɛDA) is defined to quantify the asymmetric heat deposition on the divertor surface and is found to have a strong positive dependence on peak heat flux.
ZONE - a finite element mesh generator. [2-D, for CDC 7600
Burger, M.J.
1980-03-12
The ZONE computer program is a finite element mesh generator that produces the nodes and element description of any two-dimensional geometry. The geometry is subdivided into a mesh of quadrilateral and triangular zones arranged sequentially in an ordered march through the geometry. The order of march can be chosen so that the minimum bandwidth is obtained. The node points are defined in terms of the x and y coordinates in a global rectangular coordinate system. The zones generated are quadrilaterals or triangles defined by four node points in a counterclockwise sequence. Node points defining the outside boundary are generated for slide lines and to describe pressure boundary conditions. The mesh that is generated can be used as input to any two dimensional as well as any axisymmetrical structure program. The following points are taken up: program concept and characteristics; regions; layers; meridians (offset, circular arc, ellipse); rays; common characterstics - rays and meridians, ZONE input description; output files; examples; and program availability. Also generated is the input to the program PLOT. 15 figures. (RWR)
Moving finite elements in 2-D. Technical progress report, year 3
Gelinas, R.J.
1984-04-03
The moving finite element (MFE) method has emerged as a potentially potent and interesting method for solving partial differential equations (PDE's) with large gradients. The principal feature of the MFE method is that the grid node co-ordinates, themselves, are dependent variables and are calculated at each time step so as to minimize a PDE residual in some norm. This has the effect of moving the grid nodes continuously and systematically to those positions which minimize PDE numerical solution errors. Research on the MFE method to this time has been advanced by a relatively small number of groups and individual investigators. Of these, the presently proposing group at Science Applications, Inc. (SAI), in Pleasanton, California, has pursued simultaneously developments of the basic theory, numerical analysis, and real-world applications under sponsorship of the DOE and others. The results of our MFE research to date in both 1-D and 2-D transient PDE systems have been quite positive, as well as laden with indicators for further advancements. We report the progress of this third year of 2-D MFE research and indicate those research tasks which should now be pursued into their next logical stages of advancement for large-gradient PDE problems in 2-D.
Numerical method of crack analysis in 2D finite magnetoelectroelastic media
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Zhao, Minghao; Xu, Guangtao; Fan, Cuiying
2010-04-01
The present paper extends the hybrid extended displacement discontinuity fundamental solution method (HEDD-FSM) (Eng Anal Bound Elem 33:592-600, 2009) to analysis of cracks in 2D finite magnetoelectroelastic media. The solution of the crack is expressed approximately by a linear combination of fundamental solutions of the governing equations, which includes the extended point force fundamental solutions with sources placed at chosen points outside the domain of the problem under consideration, and the extended Crouch fundamental solutions with extended displacement discontinuities placed on the crack. The coefficients of the fundamental solutions are determined by letting the approximated solution satisfy the prescribed boundary conditions on the boundary of the domain and on the crack face. The Crouch fundamental solution for a parabolic element at the crack tip is derived to model the square root variations of near tip fields. The extended stress intensity factors are calculated under different electric and magnetic boundary conditions.
A framework for grand scale parallelization of the combined finite discrete element method in 2d
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Lei, Z.; Rougier, E.; Knight, E. E.; Munjiza, A.
2014-09-01
Within the context of rock mechanics, the Combined Finite-Discrete Element Method (FDEM) has been applied to many complex industrial problems such as block caving, deep mining techniques (tunneling, pillar strength, etc.), rock blasting, seismic wave propagation, packing problems, dam stability, rock slope stability, rock mass strength characterization problems, etc. The reality is that most of these were accomplished in a 2D and/or single processor realm. In this work a hardware independent FDEM parallelization framework has been developed using the Virtual Parallel Machine for FDEM, (V-FDEM). With V-FDEM, a parallel FDEM software can be adapted to different parallel architecture systems ranging from just a few to thousands of cores.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Cervone, A.; Manservisi, S.; Scardovelli, R.
2010-09-01
A multilevel VOF approach has been coupled to an accurate finite element Navier-Stokes solver in axisymmetric geometry for the simulation of incompressible liquid jets with high density ratios. The representation of the color function over a fine grid has been introduced to reduce the discontinuity of the interface at the cell boundary. In the refined grid the automatic breakup and coalescence occur at a spatial scale much smaller than the coarse grid spacing. To reduce memory requirements, we have implemented on the fine grid a compact storage scheme which memorizes the color function data only in the mixed cells. The capillary force is computed by using the Laplace-Beltrami operator and a volumetric approach for the two principal curvatures. Several simulations of axisymmetric jets have been performed to show the accuracy and robustness of the proposed scheme.
A New Cell-Centered Implicit Numerical Scheme for Ions in the 2-D Axisymmetric Code Hall2de
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Lopez Ortega, Alejandro; Mikellides, Ioannis G.
2014-01-01
We present a new algorithm in the Hall2De code to simulate the ion hydrodynamics in the acceleration channel and near plume regions of Hall-effect thrusters. This implementation constitutes an upgrade of the capabilities built in the Hall2De code. The equations of mass conservation and momentum for unmagnetized ions are solved using a conservative, finite-volume, cell-centered scheme on a magnetic-field-aligned grid. Major computational savings are achieved by making use of an implicit predictor/multi-corrector algorithm for time evolution. Inaccuracies in the prediction of the motion of low-energy ions in the near plume in hydrodynamics approaches are addressed by implementing a multi-fluid algorithm that tracks ions of different energies separately. A wide range of comparisons with measurements are performed to validate the new ion algorithms. Several numerical experiments with the location and value of the anomalous collision frequency are also presented. Differences in the plasma properties in the near-plume between the single fluid and multi-fluid approaches are discussed. We complete our validation by comparing predicted erosion rates at the channel walls of the thruster with measurements. Erosion rates predicted by the plasma properties obtained from simulations replicate accurately measured rates of erosion within the uncertainty range of the sputtering models employed.
Use of finite volume radiation for predicting the Knudsen minimum in 2D channel flow
Malhotra, Chetan P.; Mahajan, Roop L.
2014-12-09
In an earlier paper we employed an analogy between surface-to-surface radiation and free-molecular flow to model Knudsen flow through tubes and onto planes. In the current paper we extend the analogy between thermal radiation and molecular flow to model the flow of a gas in a 2D channel across all regimes of rarefaction. To accomplish this, we break down the problem of gaseous flow into three sub-problems (self-diffusion, mass-motion and generation of pressure gradient) and use the finite volume method for modeling radiation through participating media to model the transport in each sub-problem as a radiation problem. We first model molecular self-diffusion in the stationary gas by modeling the transport of the molecular number density through the gas starting from the analytical asymptote for free-molecular flow to the kinetic theory limit of gaseous self-diffusion. We then model the transport of momentum through the gas at unit pressure gradient to predict Poiseuille flow and slip flow in the 2D gas. Lastly, we predict the generation of pressure gradient within the gas due to molecular collisions by modeling the transport of the forces generated due to collisions per unit volume of gas. We then proceed to combine the three radiation problems to predict flow of the gas over the entire Knudsen number regime from free-molecular to transition to continuum flow and successfully capture the Knudsen minimum at Kn ∼ 1.
2D time-domain finite-difference modeling for viscoelastic seismic wave propagation
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Fan, Na; Zhao, Lian-Feng; Xie, Xiao-Bi; Ge, Zengxi; Yao, Zhen-Xing
2016-07-01
Real Earth media are not perfectly elastic. Instead, they attenuate propagating mechanical waves. This anelastic phenomenon in wave propagation can be modeled by a viscoelastic mechanical model consisting of several standard linear solids. Using this viscoelastic model, we approximate a constant Q over a frequency band of interest. We use a four-element viscoelastic model with a tradeoff between accuracy and computational costs to incorporate Q into 2D time-domain first-order velocity-stress wave equations. To improve the computational efficiency, we limit the Q in the model to a list of discrete values between 2 and 1000. The related stress and strain relaxation times that characterize the viscoelastic model are pre-calculated and stored in a database for use by the finite-difference calculation. A viscoelastic finite-difference scheme that is second-order in time and fourth-order in space is developed based on the MacCormack algorithm. The new method is validated by comparing the numerical result with analytical solutions that are calculated using the generalized reflection/transmission coefficient method. The synthetic seismograms exhibit greater than 95 per cent consistency in a two-layer viscoelastic model. The dispersion generated from the simulation is consistent with the Kolsky-Futterman dispersion relationship.
Optimal implicit 2-D finite differences to model wave propagation in poroelastic media
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Itzá, Reymundo; Iturrarán-Viveros, Ursula; Parra, Jorge O.
2016-05-01
Numerical modeling of seismic waves in heterogeneous porous reservoir rocks is an important tool for the interpretation of seismic surveys in reservoir engineering. We apply globally optimal implicit staggered-grid finite-differences to model 2-D wave propagation in heterogeneous poroelastic media at a low-frequency range (<10kHz). We validate the numerical solution by comparing it to an analytical-transient solution obtaining clear seismic wavefields including fast P, slow P and S waves (for a porous media saturated with fluid). The numerical dispersion and stability conditions are derived using von Neumann analysis, showing that over a wide range of porous materials the Courant condition governs the stability and this optimal implicit scheme improves the stability of explicit schemes. High order explicit finite-differences (FD) can be replaced by some lower order optimal implicit FD so computational cost will not be as expensive while maintaining the accuracy. Here we compute weights for the optimal implicit FD scheme to attain an accuracy of γ = 10-8. The implicit spatial differentiation involves solving tridiagonal linear systems of equations through Thomas' algorithm.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Oliver, Stanley T.
-processor provides a simple process for establishing contact regions. Finally, a test is conducted to experimentally measure the displacement profile of a disk subjected to the pre-stressed condition using speckle metrology and digital image correlation. A comparison between the experimental and analytical results shows a good agreement, thereby validating the finite element models and confirming the original observation made regarding the non-axisymmetric out-of-plane displacement.
Diverse Geological Applications For Basil: A 2d Finite-deformation Computational Algorithm
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Houseman, Gregory A.; Barr, Terence D.; Evans, Lynn
Geological processes are often characterised by large finite-deformation continuum strains, on the order of 100% or greater. Microstructural processes cause deformation that may be represented by a viscous constitutive mechanism, with viscosity that may depend on temperature, pressure, or strain-rate. We have developed an effective com- putational algorithm for the evaluation of 2D deformation fields produced by Newto- nian or non-Newtonian viscous flow. With the implementation of this algorithm as a computer program, Basil, we have applied it to a range of diverse applications in Earth Sciences. Viscous flow fields in 2D may be defined for the thin-sheet case or, using a velocity-pressure formulation, for the plane-strain case. Flow fields are represented using 2D triangular elements with quadratic interpolation for velocity components and linear for pressure. The main matrix equation is solved by an efficient and compact conjugate gradient algorithm with iteration for non-Newtonian viscosity. Regular grids may be used, or grids based on a random distribution of points. Definition of the prob- lem requires that velocities, tractions, or some combination of the two, are specified on all external boundary nodes. Compliant boundaries may also be defined, based on the idea that traction is opposed to and proportional to boundary displacement rate. In- ternal boundary segments, allowing fault-like displacements within a viscous medium have also been developed, and we find that the computed displacement field around the fault tip is accurately represented for Newtonian and non-Newtonian viscosities, in spite of the stress singularity at the fault tip. Basil has been applied by us and colleagues to problems that include: thin sheet calculations of continental collision, Rayleigh-Taylor instability of the continental mantle lithosphere, deformation fields around fault terminations at the outcrop scale, stress and deformation fields in and around porphyroblasts, and
Simulations of SH wave scattering due to cracks by the 2-D finite difference method
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Suzuki, Y.; Kawahara, J.; Okamoto, T.; Miyashita, K.
2006-05-01
We simulate SH wave scattering by 2-D parallel cracks using the finite difference method (FDM), instead of the popularly used boundary integral equation method (BIEM). Here special emphasis is put on simplicity; we apply a standard FDM (fourth-order velocity-stress scheme with a staggered grid) to media in cluding traction-freecracks, which are expressed by arrays of grid points with zero traction. Two types of accuracy tests based oncomparison with a reliable BIEM, suggest that the present method gives practically sufficient accuracy, except for the wavefields in the vicinity of cracks, which can be well handled if the second-order FDM is used instead. As an application of this method, we also simulate wave propagation in media with randomly distributed cracks of the same length. We experimentally determine the attenuation and velocity dispersion induced by scattering from the synthetic seismograms, using a waveform averaging technique. It is shown that the results are well explained by a theory based on the Foldy approximation for crack densities of up to about 01. The presence of a free surface does not affect the validity of the theory. A preliminary experiment also suggests that the validity will not change even for multi-scale cracks.
Optimal implicit 2-D finite differences to model wave propagation in poroelastic media
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Itzá, Reymundo; Iturrarán-Viveros, Ursula; Parra, Jorge O.
2016-08-01
Numerical modeling of seismic waves in heterogeneous porous reservoir rocks is an important tool for the interpretation of seismic surveys in reservoir engineering. We apply globally optimal implicit staggered-grid finite differences (FD) to model 2-D wave propagation in heterogeneous poroelastic media at a low-frequency range (<10 kHz). We validate the numerical solution by comparing it to an analytical-transient solution obtaining clear seismic wavefields including fast P and slow P and S waves (for a porous media saturated with fluid). The numerical dispersion and stability conditions are derived using von Neumann analysis, showing that over a wide range of porous materials the Courant condition governs the stability and this optimal implicit scheme improves the stability of explicit schemes. High-order explicit FD can be replaced by some lower order optimal implicit FD so computational cost will not be as expensive while maintaining the accuracy. Here, we compute weights for the optimal implicit FD scheme to attain an accuracy of γ = 10-8. The implicit spatial differentiation involves solving tridiagonal linear systems of equations through Thomas' algorithm.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Syed, S. A.; Chiappetta, L. M.
1985-01-01
A methodological evaluation for two-finite differencing schemes for computer-aided gas turbine design is presented. The two computational schemes include; a Bounded Skewed Finite Differencing Scheme (BSUDS); and a Quadratic Upwind Differencing Scheme (QSDS). In the evaluation, the derivations of the schemes were incorporated into two-dimensional and three-dimensional versions of the Teaching Axisymmetric Characteristics Heuristically (TEACH) computer code. Assessments were made according to performance criteria for the solution of problems of turbulent, laminar, and coannular turbulent flow. The specific performance criteria used in the evaluation were simplicity, accuracy, and computational economy. It is found that the BSUDS scheme performed better with respect to the criteria than the QUDS. Some of the reasons for the more successful performance BSUDS are discussed.
Browning, R.V.; Anderson, C.A.
1982-02-01
The finite element method is used to determine the temperatures, displacements, stresses, and strains in axisymmetric solids with orthotropic, temperature-dependent material properties under axisymmetric thermal and mechanical loads. The mechanical loads can be surface pressures, surface shears, and nodal point forces as well as an axial or centripetal acceleration. The continuous solid is replaced by a system of ring elements with triangular or quadrilateral cross sections. Accordingly, the method is valid for solids that are composed of many different materials and that have complex geometry. Nonlinear mechanical behavior as typified by plastic, locking, or creeping materials can be approximated. Two dimensional mesh generation, plotting, and editing features allow the computer program to be readily used. In addition to a stress analysis program that is based on a modified version of the SAAS code, TSAAS can carry out a transient thermal analysis with the finite element mesh used in stress analysis. An implicit time differencing scheme allows the use of arbitrary time steps with consequent fast running times. At specified times, the program will return to SAAS for thermal stress analysis. Nonlinear thermal properties and Arrhenius reaction kinetics are also incorporated into TSAAS. Several versions of TSAAS are in use at Los Alamos, running on CDC-7600, CRAY-1 and VAX 11/780 computers. This report describes the nominal TSAAS; other versions may have some unique features.
Shear flow over a plane wall with an axisymmetric cavity or a circular orifice of finite thickness
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Pozrikidis, C.
1994-01-01
Shear flow over a plane wall that contains an axisymmetric depression or pore is studied using a new boundary integral method which is suitable for computing three-dimensional Stokes flow within axisymmetric domains. Numerical results are presented for cavities in the shape of a section of a sphere or a circular cylinder of finite length, and for a family of pores or orifices with finite thickness. The results illustrate the distribution of shear stresses over the plane wall and inside the cavities or pores. It is found that in most cases, the distribution of shear stresses over the plane wall, around the depressions, is well approximated with that for flow over an orifice of infinitesimal thickness for which an exact solution is available. The kinematic structure of the flow is discussed with reference to eddy formation and three-dimensional flow reversal. It is shown that the thickness of a circular orifice or depth of a pore play an important role in determining the kinematical structure of the flow underneath the orifice in the lower half-space.
Hoffman, E.L.; Ammerman, D.J.
1995-04-01
A series of tests investigating dynamic pulse buckling of a cylindrical shell under axial impact is compared to several 2D and 3D finite element simulations of the event. The purpose of the work is to investigate the performance of various analysis codes and element types on a problem which is applicable to radioactive material transport packages, and ultimately to develop a benchmark problem to qualify finite element analysis codes for the transport package design industry. Four axial impact tests were performed on 4 in-diameter, 8 in-long, 304 L stainless steel cylinders with a 3/16 in wall thickness. The cylinders were struck by a 597 lb mass with an impact velocity ranging from 42.2 to 45.1 ft/sec. During the impact event, a buckle formed at each end of the cylinder, and one of the two buckles became unstable and collapsed. The instability occurred at the top of the cylinder in three tests and at the bottom in one test. Numerical simulations of the test were performed using the following codes and element types: PRONTO2D with axisymmetric four-node quadrilaterals; PRONTO3D with both four-node shells and eight-node hexahedrons; and ABAQUS/Explicit with axisymmetric two-node shells and four-node quadrilaterals, and 3D four-node shells and eight-node hexahedrons. All of the calculations are compared to the tests with respect to deformed shape and impact load history. As in the tests, the location of the instability is not consistent in all of the calculations. However, the calculations show good agreement with impact load measurements with the exception of an initial load spike which is proven to be the dynamic response of the load cell to the impact. Finally, the PRONIT02D calculation is compared to the tests with respect to strain and acceleration histories. Accelerometer data exhibited good qualitative agreement with the calculations. The strain comparisons show that measurements are very sensitive to gage placement.
SIMULATIONS OF 2D AND 3D THERMOCAPILLARY FLOWS BY A LEAST-SQUARES FINITE ELEMENT METHOD. (R825200)
Numerical results for time-dependent 2D and 3D thermocapillary flows are presented in this work. The numerical algorithm is based on the Crank-Nicolson scheme for time integration, Newton's method for linearization, and a least-squares finite element method, together with a matri...
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Buczek, M. B.; Gregory, M. A.; Herakovich, C. T.
1983-01-01
CLFE2D is a two dimensional generalized plane strain finite element code, using a linear, four node, general quadrilateral, isoparametric element. The program is developed to calculate the displacements, strains, stresses, and strain energy densities in a finite width composite laminate. CLFE2D offers any combination of the following load types: nodal displacements, nodal forces, uniform normal strain, or hygrothermal. The program allows the user to input one set of three dimensional orthotropic material properties. The user can then specify the angle of material principal orientation for each element in the mesh. Output includes displacements, stresses, strains and strain densities at points selected by the user. An option is also available to plot the underformed and deformed finite element meshes.
Transport theory for potato orbits in an axisymmetric torus with finite toroidal flow speed
Shaing, K. C.; Peng, Yueng Kay Martin
2004-01-01
Transport theory for potato orbits in the region near the magnetic axis in an axisymmetric torus such as tokamaks and spherical tori is extended to the situation where the toroidal flow speed is of the order of the sonic speed as observed in National Spherical Torus Experiment [E. J. Synakowski, M. G. Bell, R. E. Bell et al., Nucl. Fusion 43, 1653 (2003)]. It is found that transport fluxes such as ion radial heat flux, and bootstrap current density are modified by a factor of the order of the square of the toroidal Mach number. The consequences of the orbit squeezing are also presented. The theory is developed for parabolic (in radius r) plasma profiles. A method to apply the results of the theory for the transport modeling is discussed.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Abrahamson, A. L.
1977-01-01
An accurate mathematical model for sound propagation in axisymmetric aircraft engine ducts with compressible mean flow is reported. The model is based on the usual perturbation of the basic fluid mechanics equations for small motions. Mean flow parameters are derived in the absence of fluctuating quantities and are then substituted into the equations for the acoustic quantities which were linearized by eliminating higher order terms. Mean swirl is assumed to be zero from the restriction of axisymmetry. A linear rectangular serendipity element is formulated from these equations using a Galerkin procedure and assembled in a special purpose computer program in which the matrix map for a rectangular mesh was specifically coded. Representations of the fluctuating quantities, mean quantities and coordinate transformations are isoparametric. The global matrix is solved by foreward and back substitution following an L-U decomposition with pivoting restricted internally to the blocks. Results from the model were compared with results from several alternative analyses and yielded satisfactory agreement.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Chae, Dongho; Constantin, Peter; Wu, Jiahong
2014-09-01
We give an example of a well posed, finite energy, 2D incompressible active scalar equation with the same scaling as the surface quasi-geostrophic equation and prove that it can produce finite time singularities. In spite of its simplicity, this seems to be the first such example. Further, we construct explicit solutions of the 2D Boussinesq equations whose gradients grow exponentially in time for all time. In addition, we introduce a variant of the 2D Boussinesq equations which is perhaps a more faithful companion of the 3D axisymmetric Euler equations than the usual 2D Boussinesq equations.
Extreme value statistics of 2D Gaussian free field: effect of finite domains
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Cao, X.; Rosso, A.; Santachiara, R.
2016-01-01
We study minima statistics of the 2D Gaussian free field (GFF) on circles in the unit disk with Dirichlet boundary condition. Free energy distributions of the associated random energy models are exactly calculated in the high temperature phase, and shown to satisfy the duality property, which enables us to predict the minima distribution by assuming the freezing scenario. Numerical tests are provided. Related questions concerning the GFF on a sphere are also considered.
A 2-D Interface Element for Coupled Analysis of Independently Modeled 3-D Finite Element Subdomains
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Kandil, Osama A.
1998-01-01
Over the past few years, the development of the interface technology has provided an analysis framework for embedding detailed finite element models within finite element models which are less refined. This development has enabled the use of cascading substructure domains without the constraint of coincident nodes along substructure boundaries. The approach used for the interface element is based on an alternate variational principle often used in deriving hybrid finite elements. The resulting system of equations exhibits a high degree of sparsity but gives rise to a non-positive definite system which causes difficulties with many of the equation solvers in general-purpose finite element codes. Hence the global system of equations is generally solved using, a decomposition procedure with pivoting. The research reported to-date for the interface element includes the one-dimensional line interface element and two-dimensional surface interface element. Several large-scale simulations, including geometrically nonlinear problems, have been reported using the one-dimensional interface element technology; however, only limited applications are available for the surface interface element. In the applications reported to-date, the geometry of the interfaced domains exactly match each other even though the spatial discretization within each domain may be different. As such, the spatial modeling of each domain, the interface elements and the assembled system is still laborious. The present research is focused on developing a rapid modeling procedure based on a parametric interface representation of independently defined subdomains which are also independently discretized.
TOPAZ - a finite element heat conduction code for analyzing 2-D solids
Shapiro, A.B.
1984-03-01
TOPAZ is a two-dimensional implicit finite element computer code for heat conduction analysis. This report provides a user's manual for TOPAZ and a description of the numerical algorithms used. Sample problems with analytical solutions are presented. TOPAZ has been implemented on the CRAY and VAX computers.
Exact ground state for the four-electron problem in a 2D finite honeycomb lattice
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Trencsényi, Réka; Glukhov, Konstantin; Gulácsi, Zsolt
2014-07-01
Working in a subspace with dimensionality much smaller than the dimension of the full Hilbert space, we deduce exact four-particle ground states in 2D samples containing hexagonal repeat units and described by Hubbard type of models. The procedure identifies first a small subspace ? in which the ground state ? is placed, than deduces ? by exact diagonalization in ?. The small subspace is obtained by the repeated application of the Hamiltonian ? on a carefully chosen starting wave vector describing the most interacting particle configuration, and the wave vectors resulting from the application of ?, till the obtained system of equations closes in itself. The procedure which can be applied in principle at fixed but arbitrary system size and number of particles is interesting on its own since it provides exact information for the numerical approximation techniques which use a similar strategy, but apply non-complete basis for ?. The diagonalization inside ? provides an incomplete image of the low lying part of the excitation spectrum, but provides the exact ?. Once the exact ground state is obtained, its properties can be easily analysed. The ? is found always as a singlet state whose energy, interestingly, saturates in the ? limit. The unapproximated results show that the emergence probabilities of different particle configurations in the ground state presents 'Zittern' (trembling) characteristics which are absent in 2D square Hubbard systems. Consequently, the manifestation of the local Coulomb repulsion in 2D square and honeycomb types of systems presents differences, which can be a real source in the differences in the many-body behaviour.
A 2D finite element wave equation solver based on triangular base elements
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Van Eester, D.; Lerche, E.; Evrard, M.
2009-11-01
A finite element method based on the subdivision of the physical domain in triangular sub-domains in which simple local 'areale' coordinates are adopted is explored. The advantage of the method is that it straightforwardly allows grid refinement in regions where higher precision is required. The plasma model was kept simple for this 'proof-of-principle' exercise. Rather than accounting for the actual differential or integro-differential dielectric tensor, its locally uniform plasma equivalent was adopted for 3 possible choices: the cold plasma response, the full hot Stix/Swanson plasma tensor retaining all orders in finite Larmor radius (FLR) and the more common hot tensor, truncated at terms of second order in the Larmor radius.
A 2D finite element wave equation solver based on triangular base elements
Van Eester, D.; Lerche, E.; Evrard, M.
2009-11-26
A finite element method based on the subdivision of the physical domain in triangular sub-domains in which simple local 'areale' coordinates are adopted is explored. The advantage of the method is that it straightforwardly allows grid refinement in regions where higher precision is required. The plasma model was kept simple for this 'proof-of-principle' exercise. Rather than accounting for the actual differential or integro-differential dielectric tensor, its locally uniform plasma equivalent was adopted for 3 possible choices: the cold plasma response, the full hot Stix/Swanson plasma tensor retaining all orders in finite Larmor radius (FLR) and the more common hot tensor, truncated at terms of second order in the Larmor radius.
Mixed-RKDG Finite Element Methods for the 2-D Hydrodynamic Model for Semiconductor Device Simulation
Chen, Zhangxin; Cockburn, Bernardo; Jerome, Joseph W.; Shu, Chi-Wang
1995-01-01
In this paper we introduce a new method for numerically solving the equations of the hydrodynamic model for semiconductor devices in two space dimensions. The method combines a standard mixed finite element method, used to obtain directly an approximation to the electric field, with the so-called Runge-Kutta Discontinuous Galerkin (RKDG) method, originally devised for numerically solving multi-dimensional hyperbolic systems of conservation laws, which is applied here to the convective part of the equations. Numerical simulations showing the performance of the new method are displayed, and the results compared with those obtained by using Essentially Nonoscillatory (ENO) finite difference schemes. Frommore » the perspective of device modeling, these methods are robust, since they are capable of encompassing broad parameter ranges, including those for which shock formation is possible. The simulations presented here are for Gallium Arsenide at room temperature, but we have tested them much more generally with considerable success.« less
Finite element nonlinear flutter and fatigue life of 2-D panels with temperature effects
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Mei, Chuh; Xue, David Y.
1991-01-01
A frequency domain method for two-dimensional nonlinear panel flutter with thermal effects obtained from a consistent finite element formulation is presented. The von Karman nonlinear strain-displacement relation is used to account for large deflections, and the quasi-steady first-order piston theory is employed for aerodynamic loading. The finite element frequency domain results are compared with analytical time domain solutions. In a limit-cycle motion, the panel frequency and stress can be determined, thus fatigue life can be predicted. The influence of temperature and dynamic pressure on panel fatigue life is presented. An endurance dynamic pressure can be established at a given temperature from the present method.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Schuler, James J.; Felippa, Carlos A.
1994-01-01
The present work is part of a research program for the numerical simulation of electromagnetic (EM) fields within conventional Ginzburg-Landau (GL) superconductors. The final goal of this research is to formulate, develop and validate finite element (FE) models that can accurately capture electromagnetic thermal and material phase changes in a superconductor. The formulations presented here are for a time-independent Ginzburg-Landau superconductor and are derived from a potential-based variational principle. We develop an appropriate variational formulation of time-independent supercontivity for the general three-dimensional case and specialize it to the one-dimensional case. Also developed are expressions for the material-dependent parameters alpha and beta of GL theory and their dependence upon the temperature T. The one-dimensional formulation is then discretized for finite element purposes and the first variation of these equations is obtained. The resultant Euler equations contain nonlinear terms in the primary variables. To solve these equations, an incremental-iterative solution method is used. Expressions for the internal force vector, external force vector, loading vector and tangent stiffness matrix are therefore developed for use with the solution procedure.
A convergent 2D finite-difference scheme for the Dirac–Poisson system and the simulation of graphene
Brinkman, D.; Heitzinger, C.; Markowich, P.A.
2014-01-15
We present a convergent finite-difference scheme of second order in both space and time for the 2D electromagnetic Dirac equation. We apply this method in the self-consistent Dirac–Poisson system to the simulation of graphene. The model is justified for low energies, where the particles have wave vectors sufficiently close to the Dirac points. In particular, we demonstrate that our method can be used to calculate solutions of the Dirac–Poisson system where potentials act as beam splitters or Veselago lenses.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Sambasivan, Shiv Kumar; Shashkov, Mikhail J.; Burton, Donald E.
2013-03-01
A finite volume cell-centered Lagrangian formulation is presented for solving large deformation problems in cylindrical axisymmetric geometries. Since solid materials can sustain significant shear deformation, evolution equations for stress and strain fields are solved in addition to mass, momentum and energy conservation laws. The total strain-rate realized in the material is split into an elastic and plastic response. The elastic and plastic components in turn are modeled using hypo-elastic theory. In accordance with the hypo-elastic model, a predictor-corrector algorithm is employed for evolving the deviatoric component of the stress tensor. A trial elastic deviatoric stress state is obtained by integrating a rate equation, cast in the form of an objective (Jaumann) derivative, based on Hooke's law. The dilatational response of the material is modeled using an equation of state of the Mie-Grüneisen form. The plastic deformation is accounted for via an iterative radial return algorithm constructed from the J2 von Mises yield condition. Several benchmark example problems with non-linear strain hardening and thermal softening yield models are presented. Extensive comparisons with representative Eulerian and Lagrangian hydrocodes in addition to analytical and experimental results are made to validate the current approach.
Using Multithreading for the Automatic Load Balancing of 2D Adaptive Finite Element Meshes
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Heber, Gerd; Biswas, Rupak; Thulasiraman, Parimala; Gao, Guang R.; Bailey, David H. (Technical Monitor)
1998-01-01
In this paper, we present a multi-threaded approach for the automatic load balancing of adaptive finite element (FE) meshes. The platform of our choice is the EARTH multi-threaded system which offers sufficient capabilities to tackle this problem. We implement the question phase of FE applications on triangular meshes, and exploit the EARTH token mechanism to automatically balance the resulting irregular and highly nonuniform workload. We discuss the results of our experiments on EARTH-SP2, an implementation of EARTH on the IBM SP2, with different load balancing strategies that are built into the runtime system.
Using Multi-threading for the Automatic Load Balancing of 2D Adaptive Finite Element Meshes
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Heber, Gerd; Biswas, Rupak; Thulasiraman, Parimala; Gao, Guang R.; Saini, Subhash (Technical Monitor)
1998-01-01
In this paper, we present a multi-threaded approach for the automatic load balancing of adaptive finite element (FE) meshes The platform of our choice is the EARTH multi-threaded system which offers sufficient capabilities to tackle this problem. We implement the adaption phase of FE applications oil triangular meshes and exploit the EARTH token mechanism to automatically balance the resulting irregular and highly nonuniform workload. We discuss the results of our experiments oil EARTH-SP2, on implementation of EARTH on the IBM SP2 with different load balancing strategies that are built into the runtime system.
Coupling finite and boundary element methods for 2-D elasticity problems
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Krishnamurthy, T.; Raju, I. S.; Sistla, R.
1993-01-01
A finite element-boundary element (FE-BE) coupling method for two-dimensional elasticity problems is developed based on a weighted residual variational method in which a portion of the domain of interest is modeled by FEs and the remainder of the region by BEs. The performance of the FE-BE coupling method is demonstrated via applications to a simple 'patch test' problem and three-crack problems. The method passed the patch tests for various modeling configurations and yielded accurate strain energy release rates for the crack problems studied.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Hermance, J. F.
1984-01-01
Electromagnetic induction in a laterally homogeneous earth is analyzed in terms of a source field with finite dimensions. Attention is focused on a time-varying two-dimensional current source directed parallel to the strike of a two-dimensional anomalous structure within the earth, i.e., the E-parallel mode. The spatially harmonic source field is expressed as discontinuities in the magnetic (or electric) field of the current in the source. The model is applied to describing the magnetic gradients across megatectonic features, and may be used to predict the magnetic fields encountered by a satellite orbiting above the ionosphere.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Hooper, Russell; Toose, Matthijs; Macosko, Christopher W.; Derby, Jeffrey J.
2001-12-01
A modified boundary element method (BEM) and the DEVSS-G finite element method (FEM) are applied to model the deformation of a polymeric drop suspended in another fluid subjected to start-up uniaxial extensional flow. The effects of viscoelasticity, via the Oldroyd-B differential model, are considered for the drop phase using both FEM and BEM and for both the drop and matrix phases using FEM. Where possible, results are compared with the linear deformation theory. Consistent predictions are obtained among the BEM, FEM, and linear theory for purely Newtonian systems and between FEM and linear theory for fully viscoelastic systems. FEM and BEM predictions for viscoelastic drops in a Newtonian matrix agree very well at short times but differ at longer times, with worst agreement occurring as critical flow strength is approached. This suggests that the dominant computational advantages held by the BEM over the FEM for this and similar problems may diminish or even disappear when the issue of accuracy is appropriately considered. Fully viscoelastic problems, which are only feasible using the FEM formulation, shed new insight on the role of viscoelasticity of the matrix fluid in drop deformation. Copyright
Finite-size effects for anisotropic 2D Ising model with various boundary conditions
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Izmailian, N. Sh
2012-12-01
We analyze the exact partition function of the anisotropic Ising model on finite M × N rectangular lattices under four different boundary conditions (periodic-periodic (pp), periodic-antiperiodic (pa), antiperiodic-periodic (ap) and antiperiodic-antiperiodic (aa)) obtained by Kaufman (1949 Phys. Rev. 76 1232), Wu and Hu (2002 J. Phys. A: Math. Gen. 35 5189) and Kastening (2002 Phys. Rev. E 66 057103)). We express the partition functions in terms of the partition functions Zα, β(J, k) with (α, β) = (0, 0), (1/2, 0), (0, 1/2) and (1/2, 1/2), J is an interaction coupling and k is an anisotropy parameter. Based on such expressions, we then extend the algorithm of Ivashkevich et al (2002 J. Phys. A: Math. Gen. 35 5543) to derive the exact asymptotic expansion of the logarithm of the partition function for all boundary conditions mentioned above. Our result is f = fbulk + ∑∞p = 0fp(ρ, k)S-p - 1, where f is the free energy of the system, fbulk is the free energy of the bulk, S = MN is the area of the lattice and ρ = M/N is the aspect ratio. All coefficients in this expansion are expressed through analytical functions. We have introduced the effective aspect ratio ρeff = ρ/sinh 2Jc and show that for pp and aa boundary conditions all finite size correction terms are invariant under the transformation ρeff → 1/ρeff. This article is part of ‘Lattice models and integrability’, a special issue of Journal of Physics A: Mathematical and Theoretical in honour of F Y Wu's 80th birthday.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Guan, Zhen; Heinonen, Vili; Lowengrub, John; Wang, Cheng; Wise, Steven M.
2016-09-01
In this paper we construct an energy stable finite difference scheme for the amplitude expansion equations for the two-dimensional phase field crystal (PFC) model. The equations are formulated in a periodic hexagonal domain with respect to the reciprocal lattice vectors to achieve a provably unconditionally energy stable and solvable scheme. To our knowledge, this is the first such energy stable scheme for the PFC amplitude equations. The convexity of each part in the amplitude equations is analyzed, in both the semi-discrete and fully-discrete cases. Energy stability is based on a careful convexity analysis for the energy (in both the spatially continuous and discrete cases). As a result, unique solvability and unconditional energy stability are available for the resulting scheme. Moreover, we show that the scheme is point-wise stable for any time and space step sizes. An efficient multigrid solver is devised to solve the scheme, and a few numerical experiments are presented, including grain rotation and shrinkage and grain growth studies, as examples of the strength and robustness of the proposed scheme and solver.
Accurate 2d finite element calculations for hydrogen in magnetic fields of arbitrary strength
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Schimeczek, C.; Wunner, G.
2014-02-01
Recent observations of hundreds of hydrogen-rich magnetic white dwarf stars with magnetic fields up to 105 T (103 MG) have called for more comprehensive and accurate databases for wavelengths and oscillator strengths of the H atom in strong magnetic fields for all states evolving from the field-free levels with principal quantum numbers n≤10. We present a code to calculate the energy eigenvalues and wave functions of such states which is capable of covering the entire regime of field strengths B=0 T to B˜109 T. We achieve this high flexibility by using a two-dimensional finite element expansion of the wave functions in terms of B-splines in the directions parallel and perpendicular to the magnetic field, instead of using asymptotically valid basis expansions in terms of spherical harmonics or Landau orbitals. We have paid special attention to the automation of the program such that the data points for the magnetic field strengths at which the energy of a given state are calculated can be selected automatically. Furthermore, an elaborate method for varying the basis parameters is applied to ensure that the results reach a pre-selected precision, which also can be adjusted freely. Energies and wave functions are stored in a convenient format for further analysis, e.g. for the calculation of transition energies and oscillator strengths. The code has been tested to work for 300 states with an accuracy of better than 10-6 Rydberg across several symmetry subspaces over the entire regime of magnetic field strengths.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Noji, H.
This study investigates the losses in a two conducting-layer REBCO cable fabricated by researchers at Furukawa Electric Co. Ltd. The losses were calculated using a combination of my electric circuit (EC) model with a two-dimensional finite element method (2D FEM). The helical pitches of the tapes in each layer, P1 and P2, were adjusted to equalize the current in both cable layers, although the loss calculation assumed infinite helical pitches and the same current in each layer at first. The results showed that the losses depended on the relative tape-position angle between the layers (θ/θ'), because the vertical field between adjacent tapes in the same layer varied with θ/θ'. When simulating the real cable, the helical pitches were adjusted and the layer currents were calculated by the EC model. These currents were input to the 2D FEM to compute the losses. The losses changed along the cable length because the difference between P1 and P2 altered the θ/θ' along this direction. The average angle-dependent and position-dependent losses were equal and closely approximated the measured losses. As an example to reduce the loss in this cable, the angle and the helical pitches were fixed at θ/θ' = 0.5 and P1 = P2 = 100 mm (S-direction). The calculation with these conditions indicated that the loss is about one order of magnitude lower than the measurement.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Horritt, M. S.; Bates, P. D.; Mattinson, M. J.
2006-09-01
SummaryThe effects of mesh resolution and topographic data quality on the predictions of a 2D finite volume model of channel flow are investigated. 25 cm resolution side scan sonar swath bathymetry of a 7 km reach of the river Thames, UK, provides topography for a series of finite volume models with resolutions ranging from 2.5 to 50 m. Results from the coarser meshes are compared with the 2.5 m simulation which is used as a benchmark. The model shows greater sensitivity to mesh resolution than topographic sampling. Sensitivity to mesh resolution is attributed to two effects of roughly equal magnitude. Small elements are able to represent hydraulic features such as recirculation zones, and a more accurate representation of the domain boundary helps to drive these flow features. In practical terms, a models at a resolution of 20 and 50 m require 50 m cross-sections, whereas the 10 m model predictions are improved by using all the bathymetry data.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Schaa, R.; Gross, L.; du Plessis, J.
2016-04-01
We present a general finite-element solver, escript, tailored to solve geophysical forward and inverse modeling problems in terms of partial differential equations (PDEs) with suitable boundary conditions. Escript’s abstract interface allows geoscientists to focus on solving the actual problem without being experts in numerical modeling. General-purpose finite element solvers have found wide use especially in engineering fields and find increasing application in the geophysical disciplines as these offer a single interface to tackle different geophysical problems. These solvers are useful for data interpretation and for research, but can also be a useful tool in educational settings. This paper serves as an introduction into PDE-based modeling with escript where we demonstrate in detail how escript is used to solve two different forward modeling problems from applied geophysics (3D DC resistivity and 2D magnetotellurics). Based on these two different cases, other geophysical modeling work can easily be realized. The escript package is implemented as a Python library and allows the solution of coupled, linear or non-linear, time-dependent PDEs. Parallel execution for both shared and distributed memory architectures is supported and can be used without modifications to the scripts.
An Approximate Axisymmetric Viscous Shock Layer Aeroheating Method for Three-Dimensional Bodies
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Brykina, Irina G.; Scott, Carl D.
1998-01-01
A technique is implemented for computing hypersonic aeroheating, shear stress, and other flow properties on the windward side of a three-dimensional (3D) blunt body. The technique uses a 2D/axisymmetric flow solver modified by scale factors for a, corresponding equivalent axisymmetric body. Examples are given in which a 2D solver is used to calculate the flow at selected meridional planes on elliptic paraboloids in reentry flight. The report describes the equations and the codes used to convert the body surface parameters into input used to scale the 2D viscous shock layer equations in the axisymmetric viscous shock layer code. Very good agreement is obtained with solutions to finite rate chemistry 3D thin viscous shock layer equations for a finite rate catalytic body.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Hamilton, H. Harris, II; Millman, Daniel R.; Greendyke, Robert B.
1992-01-01
A computer code was developed that uses an implicit finite-difference technique to solve nonsimilar, axisymmetric boundary layer equations for both laminar and turbulent flow. The code can treat ideal gases, air in chemical equilibrium, and carbon tetrafluoride (CF4), which is a useful gas for hypersonic blunt-body simulations. This is the only known boundary layer code that can treat CF4. Comparisons with experimental data have demonstrated that accurate solutions are obtained. The method should prove useful as an analysis tool for comparing calculations with wind tunnel experiments and for making calculations about flight vehicles where equilibrium air chemistry assumptions are valid.
Simulations of P-SV wave scattering due to cracks by the 2-D finite difference method
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Suzuki, Yuji; Shiina, Takahiro; Kawahara, Jun; Okamoto, Taro; Miyashita, Kaoru
2013-12-01
We simulate P-SV wave scattering by 2-D parallel cracks using the finite difference method (FDM). Here, special emphasis is put on simplicity; we apply a standard FDM (second-order velocity-stress scheme with a staggered grid) to media including traction-free, infinitesimally thin cracks, which are expressed in a simple manner. As an accuracy test of the present method, we calculate the displacement discontinuity along an isolated crack caused by harmonic waves using the method, which is compared with the corresponding results based on a reliable boundary integral equation method. The test resultantly indicates that the present method yields sufficient accuracy. As an application of this method, we also simulate wave propagation in media with randomly distributed cracks. We experimentally determine the attenuation and velocity dispersion induced by scattering from the synthetic seismograms, using a waveform averaging technique. It is shown that the results are well explained by a theory based on the Foldy approximation, if the crack density is sufficiently low. The theory appears valid with a crack density up to at least 0.1 for SV wave incidence, whereas the validity limit appears lower for P wave incidence.
Salomons, E M
2000-10-01
The validity of the axisymmetric parabolic-equation (PE) method for line-of-sight sound propagation in a turbulent atmosphere is investigated. The axisymmetric PE method is a finite-difference method for solving a 2D parabolic wave equation, which follows from the 3D wave equation by the assumption of axial symmetry around the vertical axis through the source. It is found that this axisymmetric approximation has a considerable spurious effect on the fluctuations of the sound field. This is concluded from analytical expressions for the log-amplitude and phase variances, derived both for isotropic turbulence and for axisymmetric turbulence. The expressions for axisymmetric turbulence are compared with the results of numerical computations with the PE method. PMID:11051480
Torak, L.J.
1993-01-01
A MODular, Finite-Element digital-computer program (MODFE) was developed to simulate steady or unsteady-state, two-dimensional or axisymmetric ground-water flow. Geometric- and hydrologic-aquifer characteristics in two spatial dimensions are represented by triangular finite elements and linear basis functions; one-dimensional finite elements and linear basis functions represent time. Finite-element matrix equations are solved by the direct symmetric-Doolittle method or the iterative modified, incomplete-Cholesky, conjugate-gradient method. Physical processes that can be represented by the model include (1) confined flow, unconfined flow (using the Dupuit approximation), or a combination of both; (2) leakage through either rigid or elastic confining beds; (3) specified recharge or discharge at points, along lines, and over areas; (4) flow across specified-flow, specified-head, or bead-dependent boundaries; (5) decrease of aquifer thickness to zero under extreme water-table decline and increase of aquifer thickness from zero as the water table rises; and (6) head-dependent fluxes from springs, drainage wells, leakage across riverbeds or confining beds combined with aquifer dewatering, and evapotranspiration. The report describes procedures for applying MODFE to ground-water-flow problems, simulation capabilities, and data preparation. Guidelines for designing the finite-element mesh and for node numbering and determining band widths are given. Tables are given that reference simulation capabilities to specific versions of MODFE. Examples of data input and model output for different versions of MODFE are provided.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Wang, Enjiang; Liu, Yang; Sen, Mrinal K.
2016-07-01
The 2D acoustic wave equation is commonly solved numerically by finite-difference (FD) methods in which the accuracy of solution is significantly affected by the FD stencils. The commonly used cross stencil can reach either only second-order accuracy for space domain dispersion-relation-based FD method or (2 M)th-order accuracy along eight specific propagation directions for time-space domain dispersion-relation-based FD method, if the conventional (2 M)th-order spatial FD and second-order temporal FD are used to discretize the equation. One other newly developed rhombus stencil can reach arbitrary even-order accuracy. However, this stencil adds significantly computational cost when the operator length is large. To achieve a balance between the solution accuracy and efficiency, we develop a new FD stencil to solve the 2D acoustic wave equation. This stencil is a combination of the cross stencil and rhombus stencil. A cross stencil with an operator length parameter M is used to approximate the spatial partial derivatives while a rhombus stencil with an operator length parameter N together with the conventional 2nd-order temporal FD is employed in approximating the temporal partial derivatives. Using this stencil, a new FD scheme is developed; we demonstrate that this scheme can reach (2 M)th-order accuracy in space and (2 N)th-order accuracy in time when spatial FD coefficients and temporal FD coefficients are derived from respective dispersion relation using Taylor-series expansion (TE) method. To further increase the accuracy, we derive the FD coefficients by employing the time-space domain dispersion relation of this FD scheme using TE. We also use least-squares (LS) optimization method to reduce dispersion at high wavenumbers. Dispersion analysis, stability analysis and modelling examples demonstrate that our new scheme has greater accuracy and better stability than conventional FD schemes, and thus can adopt large time steps. To reduce the extra computational
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Chang, Chau-Lyan
2003-01-01
During the past two decades, our understanding of laminar-turbulent transition flow physics has advanced significantly owing to, in a large part, the NASA program support such as the National Aerospace Plane (NASP), High-speed Civil Transport (HSCT), and Advanced Subsonic Technology (AST). Experimental, theoretical, as well as computational efforts on various issues such as receptivity and linear and nonlinear evolution of instability waves take part in broadening our knowledge base for this intricate flow phenomenon. Despite all these advances, transition prediction remains a nontrivial task for engineers due to the lack of a widely available, robust, and efficient prediction tool. The design and development of the LASTRAC code is aimed at providing one such engineering tool that is easy to use and yet capable of dealing with a broad range of transition related issues. LASTRAC was written from scratch based on the state-of-the-art numerical methods for stability analysis and modem software technologies. At low fidelity, it allows users to perform linear stability analysis and N-factor transition correlation for a broad range of flow regimes and configurations by using either the linear stability theory (LST) or linear parabolized stability equations (LPSE) method. At high fidelity, users may use nonlinear PSE to track finite-amplitude disturbances until the skin friction rise. Coupled with the built-in receptivity model that is currently under development, the nonlinear PSE method offers a synergistic approach to predict transition onset for a given disturbance environment based on first principles. This paper describes the governing equations, numerical methods, code development, and case studies for the current release of LASTRAC. Practical applications of LASTRAC are demonstrated for linear stability calculations, N-factor transition correlation, non-linear breakdown simulations, and controls of stationary crossflow instability in supersonic swept wing boundary
Static & Dynamic Response of 2D Solids
1996-07-15
NIKE2D is an implicit finite-element code for analyzing the finite deformation, static and dynamic response of two-dimensional, axisymmetric, plane strain, and plane stress solids. The code is fully vectorized and available on several computing platforms. A number of material models are incorporated to simulate a wide range of material behavior including elasto-placicity, anisotropy, creep, thermal effects, and rate dependence. Slideline algorithms model gaps and sliding along material interfaces, including interface friction, penetration and single surfacemore » contact. Interactive-graphics and rezoning is included for analyses with large mesh distortions. In addition to quasi-Newton and arc-length procedures, adaptive algorithms can be defined to solve the implicit equations using the solution language ISLAND. Each of these capabilities and more make NIKE2D a robust analysis tool.« less
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Martowicz, A.; Ruzzene, M.; Staszewski, W. J.; Rimoli, J. J.; Uhl, T.
2014-03-01
The work deals with the reduction of numerical dispersion in simulations of wave propagation in solids. The phenomenon of numerical dispersion naturally results from time and spatial discretization present in a numerical model of mechanical continuum. Although discretization itself makes possible to model wave propagation in structures with complicated geometries and made of different materials, it inevitably causes simulation errors when improper time and length scales are chosen for the simulations domains. Therefore, by definition, any characteristic parameter for spatial and time resolution must create limitations on maximal wavenumber and frequency for a numerical model. It should be however noted that expected increase of the model quality and its functionality in terms of affordable wavenumbers, frequencies and speeds should not be achieved merely by denser mesh and reduced time integration step. The computational cost would be simply unacceptable. The authors present a nonlocal finite difference scheme with the coefficients calculated applying a Fourier series, which allows for considerable reduction of numerical dispersion. There are presented the results of analyses for 2D models, with isotropic and anisotropic materials, fulfilling the planar stress state. Reduced numerical dispersion is shown in the dispersion surfaces for longitudinal and shear waves propagating for different directions with respect to the mesh orientation and without dramatic increase of required number of nonlocal interactions. A case with the propagation of longitudinal wave in composite material is studied with given referential solution of the initial value problem for verification of the time-domain outcomes. The work gives a perspective of modeling of any type of real material dispersion according to measurements and with assumed accuracy.
Kennedy, J. M.; Pfeiffer, P. A.; Marchertas, A. H.
1989-01-01
TEMP-STRESS has been developed to improve the understanding of the behavior of concrete subjected to mechanical loadings and high temperatures simulating the effects of coolant spills, molten debris, etc. The capability to model concrete structures subjected to static and dynamic overpressures, such as LWR and LMR containments with complex axisymmetric geometries, can be solved. The computer code is a finite element program which has a weakly coupled thermomechanical formulation. It can handle transient and steady state problems through the use of explicit time integration and dynamic relaxation. There is a plane or axisymmetric continuum element and flexural beam and shell elements for concrete discretization. The continuum element is a four node quadrilateral using numerical integration and elastic hourglass control. Variable material properties as a function of temperature are available. Thermal and/or mechanical loading can be handled. The concrete material model has the following characteristics: (a) elastic-plastic response, (b) variable loading surface capability, (c) cracking normal to maximum principal strain at specified failure surface, (d) post-failure element treatment, and (e) variable temperature dependence. Concrete can be reinforced and/or prestressed. 15 refs., 33 figs., 24 tabs.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Taylor, Anthony G.; Craggs, Anthony
1995-09-01
A finite element model of a rotor-bearing system with non-axisymmetric stiffness and mass properties was analyzed in a previous study. In this paper the model is extended to include the effects of external damping due to symmetrical tilting-pad bearings. The same instability mechanisms, due to the lack of axisymmetry and shear deflection occurred in the damped case as for the undamped case, but within the normal operating speed of typical industrial rotor systems, a quite high degree of asymmetry is necessary. A ratio of the difference in a diametral second moments of area to mean diametral second moment of area, greater than 0.3 is necessary for instability for the configuration modelled. The instabilities involving antisymmetric modes in the undamped case are not present in the damped case. The first backward mode is involved in the instabilities of most practical interest. The effect of internal damping is also examined for an axisymmetric rotor and the behaviour, involving instability of the first forward mode, compares well with purely analytical methods for simple rotors.
Comparison of 3-D finite element model of ashlar masonry with 2-D numerical models of ashlar masonry
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Beran, Pavel
2016-06-01
3-D state of stress in heterogeneous ashlar masonry can be also computed by several suitable chosen 2-D numerical models of ashlar masonry. The results obtained from 2-D numerical models well correspond to the results obtained from 3-D numerical model. The character of thermal stress is the same. While using 2-D models the computational time is reduced more than hundredfold and therefore this method could be used for computation of thermal stresses during long time periods with 10 000 of steps.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Hua, Chongyu; Volakis, John L.
1990-01-01
AUTOMESH-2D is a computer program specifically designed as a preprocessor for the scattering analysis of two dimensional bodies by the finite element method. This program was developed due to a need for reproducing the effort required to define and check the geometry data, element topology, and material properties. There are six modules in the program: (1) Parameter Specification; (2) Data Input; (3) Node Generation; (4) Element Generation; (5) Mesh Smoothing; and (5) Data File Generation.
Hsu, Sen-Ming; Chang, Hung-Chun
2007-11-26
A full-vectorial finite element method based eigenvalue algorithm is developed to analyze the band structures of two-dimensional (2D) photonic crystals (PCs) with arbitray 3D anisotropy for in-planewave propagations, in which the simple transverse-electric (TE) or transverse-magnetic (TM) modes may not be clearly defined. By taking all the field components into consideration simultaneously without decoupling of the wave modes in 2D PCs into TE and TM modes, a full-vectorial matrix eigenvalue equation, with the square of the wavenumber as the eigenvalue, is derived. We examine the convergence behaviors of this algorithm and analyze 2D PCs with arbitrary anisotropy using this algorithm to demonstrate its correctness and usefulness by explaining the numerical results theoretically. PMID:19550864
Cooley, Richard L.
1992-01-01
MODFE, a modular finite-element model for simulating steady- or unsteady-state, area1 or axisymmetric flow of ground water in a heterogeneous anisotropic aquifer is documented in a three-part series of reports. In this report, part 2, the finite-element equations are derived by minimizing a functional of the difference between the true and approximate hydraulic head, which produces equations that are equivalent to those obtained by either classical variational or Galerkin techniques. Spatial finite elements are triangular with linear basis functions, and temporal finite elements are one dimensional with linear basis functions. Physical processes that can be represented by the model include (1) confined flow, unconfined flow (using the Dupuit approximation), or a combination of both; (2) leakage through either rigid or elastic confining units; (3) specified recharge or discharge at points, along lines, or areally; (4) flow across specified-flow, specified-head, or head-dependent boundaries; (5) decrease of aquifer thickness to zero under extreme water-table decline and increase of aquifer thickness from zero as the water table rises; and (6) head-dependent fluxes from springs, drainage wells, leakage across riverbeds or confining units combined with aquifer dewatering, and evapotranspiration. The matrix equations produced by the finite-element method are solved by the direct symmetric-Doolittle method or the iterative modified incomplete-Cholesky conjugate-gradient method. The direct method can be efficient for small- to medium-sized problems (less than about 500 nodes), and the iterative method is generally more efficient for larger-sized problems. Comparison of finite-element solutions with analytical solutions for five example problems demonstrates that the finite-element model can yield accurate solutions to ground-water flow problems.
Berge, G.; Freidberg, J. P.
1992-06-30
This work is within the framework of MHD. We study a confined plasma surrounded by a vacuum region and bounded by a resistive wall. Confined to axisymmetric systems, Chapter 1 deals with a fairly general theory for such systems. To be more specific, we are interested here in the case where the configuration is stable in the presence of an infinitely conducting wall, but unstable without the wall. For physical reasons an infinitely conducting wall cannot be made. It is therefore of interest to study the effect of a resistive wall. This is done in Chapter 1. The results in Chapter 1 depend upon knowledge of the solution for the stability problem in the two limiting cases. 1. The wall and the conductors in the vacuum region are not taken into account (wall and conductors at infinity). 2. The wall and the conductors in the vacumm region are taken into account as infinitely conducting elements in the proximity of the plasma. It appears to be the case that even the last of these problem areas has yet to be comprehensively studied, probably because it is rather complex. This is the subject of Chapter 2.
Explicit 2-D Hydrodynamic FEM Program
1996-08-07
DYNA2D* is a vectorized, explicit, two-dimensional, axisymmetric and plane strain finite element program for analyzing the large deformation dynamic and hydrodynamic response of inelastic solids. DYNA2D* contains 13 material models and 9 equations of state (EOS) to cover a wide range of material behavior. The material models implemented in all machine versions are: elastic, orthotropic elastic, kinematic/isotropic elastic plasticity, thermoelastoplastic, soil and crushable foam, linear viscoelastic, rubber, high explosive burn, isotropic elastic-plastic, temperature-dependent elastic-plastic. Themore » isotropic and temperature-dependent elastic-plastic models determine only the deviatoric stresses. Pressure is determined by one of 9 equations of state including linear polynomial, JWL high explosive, Sack Tuesday high explosive, Gruneisen, ratio of polynomials, linear polynomial with energy deposition, ignition and growth of reaction in HE, tabulated compaction, and tabulated.« less
Bailey, T S; Adams, M L; Chang, J H
2008-10-01
We present a new spatial discretization of the discrete-ordinates transport equation in two-dimensional cylindrical (RZ) geometry for arbitrary polygonal meshes. This discretization is a discontinuous finite element method that utilizes the piecewise linear basis functions developed by Stone and Adams. We describe an asymptotic analysis that shows this method to be accurate for many problems in the thick diffusion limit on arbitrary polygons, allowing this method to be applied to radiative transfer problems with these types of meshes. We also present numerical results for multiple problems on quadrilateral grids and compare these results to the well-known bi-linear discontinuous finite element method.
Veijola, Timo; Råback, Peter
2007-01-01
We present a straightforward method to solve gas damping problems for perforated structures in two dimensions (2D) utilising a Perforation Profile Reynolds (PPR) solver. The PPR equation is an extended Reynolds equation that includes additional terms modelling the leakage flow through the perforations, and variable diffusivity and compressibility profiles. The solution method consists of two phases: 1) determination of the specific admittance profile and relative diffusivity (and relative compressibility) profiles due to the perforation, and 2) solution of the PPR equation with a FEM solver in 2D. Rarefied gas corrections in the slip-flow region are also included. Analytic profiles for circular and square holes with slip conditions are presented in the paper. To verify the method, square perforated dampers with 16–64 holes were simulated with a three-dimensional (3D) Navier-Stokes solver, a homogenised extended Reynolds solver, and a 2D PPR solver. Cases for both translational (in normal to the surfaces) and torsional motion were simulated. The presented method extends the region of accurate simulation of perforated structures to cases where the homogenisation method is inaccurate and the full 3D Navier-Stokes simulation is too time-consuming.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Li, Jianbao; Wang, Yue-Sheng; Zhang, Chuanzeng
2010-05-01
In this paper, a finite element method based on the ABAQUS code and user subroutine is presented to evaluate the propagation of acoustic waves in the two-dimensional phononic crystals with Archimedean-like tilings. Two systems composed of cylinder scatters embedded in a host in Ladybug and Bathroom lattices are considered. Complete and accurate band structures and transmission spectra are obtained to identify the band gaps and eigenmodes. We found that Archimedean-like structures can have some advantages over the traditional square lattice regarding the completeness of the gap and its position and width. Also, due to the same square primitive unit cell and the first Brillouin zone, the two square-like lattices have similar acoustic response in lower bands. The results indicate that the finite element method is precise for the band structure computation of the complex phononic crystals with Archimedean tilings.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Wendling, A.; Daniel, J. L.; Hivet, G.; Vidal-Sallé, E.; Boisse, P.
2015-12-01
Numerical simulation is a powerful tool to predict the mechanical behavior and the feasibility of composite parts. Among the available numerical approaches, as far as woven reinforced composites are concerned, 3D finite element simulation at the mesoscopic scale leads to a good compromise between realism and complexity. At this scale, the fibrous reinforcement is modeled by an interlacement of yarns assumed to be homogeneous that have to be accurately represented. Among the numerous issues induced by these simulations, the first one consists in providing a representative meshed geometrical model of the unit cell at the mesoscopic scale. The second one consists in enabling a fast data input in the finite element software (contacts definition, boundary conditions, elements reorientation, etc.) so as to obtain results within reasonable time. Based on parameterized 3D CAD modeling tool of unit-cells of dry fabrics already developed, this paper presents an efficient strategy which permits an automated meshing of the models with 3D hexahedral elements and to accelerate of several orders of magnitude the simulation data input. Finally, the overall modeling strategy is illustrated by examples of finite element simulation of the mechanical behavior of fabrics.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Le Hardy, D.; Favennec, Y.; Rousseau, B.
2016-08-01
The 2D radiative transfer equation coupled with specular reflection boundary conditions is solved using finite element schemes. Both Discontinuous Galerkin and Streamline-Upwind Petrov-Galerkin variational formulations are fully developed. These two schemes are validated step-by-step for all involved operators (transport, scattering, reflection) using analytical formulations. Numerical comparisons of the two schemes, in terms of convergence rate, reveal that the quadratic SUPG scheme proves efficient for solving such problems. This comparison constitutes the main issue of the paper. Moreover, the solution process is accelerated using block SOR-type iterative methods, for which the determination of the optimal parameter is found in a very cheap way.
Coupled 2D-3D finite element method for analysis of a skin panel with a discontinuous stiffener
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Wang, J. T.; Lotts, C. G.; Davis, D. D., Jr.; Krishnamurthy, T.
1992-01-01
This paper describes a computationally efficient analysis method which was used to predict detailed stress states in a typical composite compression panel with a discontinuous hat stiffener. A global-local approach was used. The global model incorporated both 2D shell and 3D brick elements connected by newly developed transition elements. Most of the panel was modeled with 2D elements, while 3D elements were employed to model the stiffener flange and the adjacent skin. Both linear and geometrically nonlinear analyses were performed on the global model. The effect of geometric nonlinearity induced by the eccentric load path due to the discontinuous hat stiffener was significant. The local model used a fine mesh of 3D brick elements to model the region at the end of the stiffener. Boundary conditions of the local 3D model were obtained by spline interpolation of the nodal displacements from the global analysis. Detailed in-plane and through-the-thickness stresses were calculated in the flange-skin interface near the end of the stiffener.
Coltrin, Michael E.; Kee, Robert J.
2016-06-18
This paper develops a unified analysis of stagnation flow heat and mass transport, considering both semi-infinite domains and finite gaps, with and without rotation of the stagnation surface. An important objective is to derive Nusselt- and Sherwood-number correlations that represent heat and mass transport at the stagnation surface. The approach is based on computationally solving the governing conservation equations in similarity form as a boundary-value problem. The formulation considers ideal gases and incompressible fluids. The correlated results depend on fluid properties in terms of Prandtl, Schmidt, and Damkohler numbers. Heterogeneous chemistry at the stagnation surface is represented as a singlemore » first-order reaction. A composite Reynolds number represents the combination of stagnation flows with and without stagnation-surface rotation.« less
Stress analysis of a rectangular implant in laminated composites using 2-D and 3-D finite elements
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Chow, Wai T.; Graves, Michael J.
1992-01-01
An analysis method using the FEM based on the Hellinger-Reissner variation principle has been developed to determine the 3-D stresses and displacements near a rectangular implant inside a laminated composite material. Three-dimensional elements are employed in regions where the interlaminar stress is considered to be significant; 2-D elements are used in other areas. Uniaxially loaded graphite-epoxy laminates have been analyzed; the implant was modeled as four plies of 3501/6 epoxy located in the middle of the laminate. It is shown that the interlaminar stresses are an order of magnitude lower than the stress representing the applied far-field load. The stress concentration factors of both the interlaminar and in-plane stresses depend on the stacking sequence of the laminate.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Krueger, Ronald; Paris, Isbelle L.; OBrien, T. Kevin; Minguet, Pierre J.
2004-01-01
The influence of two-dimensional finite element modeling assumptions on the debonding prediction for skin-stiffener specimens was investigated. Geometrically nonlinear finite element analyses using two-dimensional plane-stress and plane-strain elements as well as three different generalized plane strain type approaches were performed. The computed skin and flange strains, transverse tensile stresses and energy release rates were compared to results obtained from three-dimensional simulations. The study showed that for strains and energy release rate computations the generalized plane strain assumptions yielded results closest to the full three-dimensional analysis. For computed transverse tensile stresses the plane stress assumption gave the best agreement. Based on this study it is recommended that results from plane stress and plane strain models be used as upper and lower bounds. The results from generalized plane strain models fall between the results obtained from plane stress and plane strain models. Two-dimensional models may also be used to qualitatively evaluate the stress distribution in a ply and the variation of energy release rates and mixed mode ratios with delamination length. For more accurate predictions, however, a three-dimensional analysis is required.
Lerche, Ernesto; Van Eester, Dirk
2011-12-23
Fourier analysis in the poloidal direction is a standard ingredient in present-day 2D wave equation solvers describing radio frequency waves in hot tokamak plasmas. Although a powerful and elegant technique, Fourier analysis has the disadvantage that a large number of modes is needed to describe the field pattern on a magnetic surface if a short wavelength mode exists on any - even very small - subpart of the particle trajectory. The present paper examines the potential of a method that does not suffer from this drawback: a finite element technique relying on simple linear or cubic area base functions that are defined on irregular elementary surfaces of triangular shape. The wave equation is solved in its weak Galerkin variational form and for realistic 2D tokamak geometry, accounting for the toroidal curvature but assuming the toroidal angle is ignorable, allowing to study the wave pattern for each of the independent toroidal modes excited by the antenna individually.The locally uniform full hot plasma dielectric tensor to all orders in finite Larmor radius was adopted. As the main intended application is the study of fast wave behavior (heating and current drive) at arbitrary harmonics, the wave vector complex amplitude appearing in the dielectric tensor is determined through a local dispersion root evaluation. High frequency fast wave propagation and damping is provided as an illustration in view of possible application of this type of current drive in future high density reactor-like tokamaks.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ren, Xiaotao; Corcolle, Romain; Daniel, Laurent
2016-02-01
The use of soft magnetic composites (SMCs) in electrical engineering applications is growing. SMCs provide an effective alternative to laminated steels because they exhibit a high permeability with low eddy current losses. Losses are a critical feature in the design of electrical machines, and it is necessary to evaluate the role of microstructure and constitutive properties of SMCs during the predesign stage. In this paper we propose a simplified finite element approach to compute eddy current losses in these materials. The computations allow to quantify the role of exciting source and material properties on eddy current losses. This analysis can later be used in the development of homogenization models for SMC. Contribution to the topical issue "Numelec 2015 - Elected submissions", edited by Adel Razek
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Sauer, Roger A.
2013-08-01
Recently an enriched contact finite element formulation has been developed that substantially increases the accuracy of contact computations while keeping the additional numerical effort at a minimum reported by Sauer (Int J Numer Meth Eng, 87: 593-616, 2011). Two enrich-ment strategies were proposed, one based on local p-refinement using Lagrange interpolation and one based on Hermite interpolation that produces C 1-smoothness on the contact surface. Both classes, which were initially considered for the frictionless Signorini problem, are extended here to friction and contact between deformable bodies. For this, a symmetric contact formulation is used that allows the unbiased treatment of both contact partners. This paper also proposes a post-processing scheme for contact quantities like the contact pressure. The scheme, which provides a more accurate representation than the raw data, is based on an averaging procedure that is inspired by mortar formulations. The properties of the enrichment strategies and the corresponding post-processing scheme are illustrated by several numerical examples considering sliding and peeling contact in the presence of large deformations.
Torak, L.J.
1993-01-01
A MODular Finite-Element, digital-computer program (MODFE) was developed to simulate steady or unsteady-state, two-dimensional or axisymmetric ground-water-flow. The modular structure of MODFE places the computationally independent tasks that are performed routinely by digital-computer programs simulating ground-water flow into separate subroutines, which are executed from the main program by control statements. Each subroutine consists of complete sets of computations, or modules, which are identified by comment statements, and can be modified by the user without affecting unrelated computations elsewhere in the program. Simulation capabilities can be added or modified by either adding or modifying subroutines that perform specific computational tasks, and the modular-program structure allows the user to create versions of MODFE that contain only the simulation capabilities that pertain to the ground-water problem of interest. MODFE is written in a Fortran programming language that makes it virtually device independent and compatible with desk-top personal computers and large mainframes. MODFE uses computer storage and execution time efficiently by taking advantage of symmetry and sparseness within the coefficient matrices of the finite-element equations. Parts of the matrix coefficients are computed and stored as single-subscripted variables, which are assembled into a complete coefficient just prior to solution. Computer storage is reused during simulation to decrease storage requirements. Descriptions of subroutines that execute the computational steps of the modular-program structure are given in tables that cross reference the subroutines with particular versions of MODFE. Programming details of linear and nonlinear hydrologic terms are provided. Structure diagrams for the main programs show the order in which subroutines are executed for each version and illustrate some of the linear and nonlinear versions of MODFE that are possible. Computational aspects of
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Key, K.
2013-12-01
This work announces the public release of an open-source inversion code named MARE2DEM (Modeling with Adaptively Refined Elements for 2D Electromagnetics). Although initially designed for the rapid inversion of marine electromagnetic data, MARE2DEM now supports a wide variety of acquisition configurations for both offshore and onshore surveys that utilize electric and magnetic dipole transmitters or magnetotelluric plane waves. The model domain is flexibly parameterized using a grid of arbitrarily shaped polygonal regions, allowing for complicated structures such as topography or seismically imaged horizons to be easily assimilated. MARE2DEM efficiently solves the forward problem in parallel by dividing the input data parameters into smaller subsets using a parallel data decomposition algorithm. The data subsets are then solved in parallel using an automatic adaptive finite element method that iterative solves the forward problem on successively refined finite element meshes until a specified accuracy tolerance is met, thus freeing the end user from the burden of designing an accurate numerical modeling grid. Regularized non-linear inversion for isotropic or anisotropic conductivity is accomplished with a new implementation of Occam's method referred to as fast-Occam, which is able to minimize the objective function in much fewer forward evaluations than the required by the original method. This presentation will review the theoretical considerations behind MARE2DEM and use a few recent offshore EM data sets to demonstrate its capabilities and to showcase the software interface tools that streamline model building and data inversion.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Choi, S.-J.; Giraldo, F. X.; Kim, J.; Shin, S.
2014-11-01
The non-hydrostatic (NH) compressible Euler equations for dry atmosphere were solved in a simplified two-dimensional (2-D) slice framework employing a spectral element method (SEM) for the horizontal discretization and a finite difference method (FDM) for the vertical discretization. By using horizontal SEM, which decomposes the physical domain into smaller pieces with a small communication stencil, a high level of scalability can be achieved. By using vertical FDM, an easy method for coupling the dynamics and existing physics packages can be provided. The SEM uses high-order nodal basis functions associated with Lagrange polynomials based on Gauss-Lobatto-Legendre (GLL) quadrature points. The FDM employs a third-order upwind-biased scheme for the vertical flux terms and a centered finite difference scheme for the vertical derivative and integral terms. For temporal integration, a time-split, third-order Runge-Kutta (RK3) integration technique was applied. The Euler equations that were used here are in flux form based on the hydrostatic pressure vertical coordinate. The equations are the same as those used in the Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) model, but a hybrid sigma-pressure vertical coordinate was implemented in this model. We validated the model by conducting the widely used standard tests: linear hydrostatic mountain wave, tracer advection, and gravity wave over the Schär-type mountain, as well as density current, inertia-gravity wave, and rising thermal bubble. The results from these tests demonstrated that the model using the horizontal SEM and the vertical FDM is accurate and robust provided sufficient diffusion is applied. The results with various horizontal resolutions also showed convergence of second-order accuracy due to the accuracy of the time integration scheme and that of the vertical direction, although high-order basis functions were used in the horizontal. By using the 2-D slice model, we effectively showed that the combined spatial
Radiation from Axisymmetric Waveguide Fed Horns
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Chinn, G. C.; Hoppe, D. J.; Epp, L. W.
1995-01-01
Return losses and radiation patterns for axisymmetric waveguide fed horns are calculated with the finite element method (FEM) in conjunction with the method of moments (MoM) and the mode matching technique (MM).
2D FEM Heat Transfer & E&M Field Code
1992-04-02
TOPAZ and TOPAZ2D are two-dimensional implicit finite element computer codes for heat transfer analysis. TOPAZ2D can also be used to solve electrostatic and magnetostatic problems. The programs solve for the steady-state or transient temperature or electrostatic and magnetostatic potential field on two-dimensional planar or axisymmetric geometries. Material properties may be temperature or potential-dependent and either isotropic or orthotropic. A variety of time and temperature-dependent boundary conditions can be specified including temperature, flux, convection, and radiation.more » By implementing the user subroutine feature, users can model chemical reaction kinetics and allow for any type of functional representation of boundary conditions and internal heat generation. The programs can solve problems of diffuse and specular band radiation in an enclosure coupled with conduction in the material surrounding the enclosure. Additional features include thermal contact resistance across an interface, bulk fluids, phase change, and energy balances.« less
2D FEM Heat Transfer & E&M Field Code
1992-04-02
TOPAZ and TOPAZ2D are two-dimensional implicit finite element computer codes for heat transfer analysis. TOPAZ2D can also be used to solve electrostatic and magnetostatic problems. The programs solve for the steady-state or transient temperature or electrostatic and magnetostatic potential field on two-dimensional planar or axisymmetric geometries. Material properties may be temperature or potential-dependent and either isotropic or orthotropic. A variety of time and temperature-dependent boundary conditions can be specified including temperature, flux, convection, and radiation. By implementing the user subroutine feature, users can model chemical reaction kinetics and allow for any type of functional representation of boundary conditions and internal heat generation. The programs can solve problems of diffuse and specular band radiation in an enclosure coupled with conduction in the material surrounding the enclosure. Additional features include thermal contact resistance across an interface, bulk fluids, phase change, and energy balances.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ge, Wenjun; Modest, Michael F.; Marquez, Ricardo
2015-05-01
The spherical harmonics (PN) method is a radiative transfer equation solver, which approximates the radiative intensity as a truncated series of spherical harmonics. For general 3-D configurations, N(N + 1) / 2 intensity coefficients must be solved from a system of coupled second-order elliptic PDEs. In 2-D axisymmetric applications, the number of equations and intensity coefficients reduces to (N + 1) 2 / 4 if the geometric relations of the intensity coefficients are taken into account. This paper presents the mathematical details for the transformation and its implementation on the OpenFOAM finite volume based CFD software platform. The transformation and implementation are applicable to any arbitrary axisymmetric geometry, but the examples to test the new formulation are based on a wedge grid, which is the most common axisymmetric geometry in CFD simulations, because OpenFOAM and most other platforms do not have true axisymmetric solvers. Two example problems for the new axisymmetric PN formulation are presented, and the results are verified with that of the general 3-D PN solver, a Photon Monte Carlo solver and exact solutions.
Wang, Xiang; Zauel, Roger R.; Rao, D. Sudhaker; Fyhrie, David P.
2009-01-01
Biomechanical stereology is proposed as a two-dimensional (2D) finite element (FE) method to estimate the ability of bone tissue to sustain damage and to separate patients with osteoporotic fracture from normal controls. Briefly, 2D nonlinear compact tension FE models were created from quantitative back scattered electron images taken of iliac crest bone specimens collected from the individuals with or without osteoporotic fracture history. The effects of bone mineral microstructure on predicted bone fracture toughness and microcrack propagation were examined. The 2D FE models were used as surrogates for the real bone tissues. The calculated microcrack propagation results and bone mechanical properties were examined as surrogates for measurements from mechanical testing of actual specimens. The results for the 2D FE simulation separated patients with osteoporotic fracture from normal controls even though only the variability in tissue mineral microstructure was used to build the models. The models were deliberately created to ignore all differences in mean mineralization. Hence, the current results support the following hypotheses: (1) that material heterogeneity is important to the separation of patients with osteoporotic fracture from normal controls and; and (2) that 2D nonlinear finite element modeling can produce surrogate mechanical parameters that separate patients with fracture from normal controls. PMID:18378204
TOPAZ2D heat transfer code users manual and thermal property data base
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Shapiro, A. B.; Edwards, A. L.
1990-05-01
TOPAZ2D is a two dimensional implicit finite element computer code for heat transfer analysis. This user's manual provides information on the structure of a TOPAZ2D input file. Also included is a material thermal property data base. This manual is supplemented with The TOPAZ2D Theoretical Manual and the TOPAZ2D Verification Manual. TOPAZ2D has been implemented on the CRAY, SUN, and VAX computers. TOPAZ2D can be used to solve for the steady state or transient temperature field on two dimensional planar or axisymmetric geometries. Material properties may be temperature dependent and either isotropic or orthotropic. A variety of time and temperature dependent boundary conditions can be specified including temperature, flux, convection, and radiation. Time or temperature dependent internal heat generation can be defined locally be element or globally by material. TOPAZ2D can solve problems of diffuse and specular band radiation in an enclosure coupled with conduction in material surrounding the enclosure. Additional features include thermally controlled reactive chemical mixtures, thermal contact resistance across an interface, bulk fluid flow, phase change, and energy balances. Thermal stresses can be calculated using the solid mechanics code NIKE2D which reads the temperature state data calculated by TOPAZ2D. A three dimensional version of the code, TOPAZ3D is available.
Experiments in axisymmetric supersonic jets
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Moore, Cyrille Dennis
An experimental study of the effects of exit Mach number and density ratio on the development of axisymmetric jets is described in this thesis. Jet exit Mach numbers of 1.41, 2.0, and 3.0, were studied for jets of helium, argon, and nitrogen. The jets exit into a gas at rest (velocity ratio = 0), in order to better isolate the effects of compressibility and density ratio. Density ratios vary from 0.23 to 5.5.In order to generate shock free-jets, unique nozzles were designed and constructed for each gas and Mach number combination. A plating method for the construction of the nozzles was developed to ensure high-accuracy and a good surface finish at a cost significantly less than direct-machining techniques.The spreading rate of the jet for several downstream locations is measured with a pitot probe. Centerline data are used to characterise the length of the potential core of the jet, which correlates well with the relative spreading rates. Limited frequency data is obtained through the use of piezo-resistive pressure probes. This method is promising for flows that are not conducive to hot-wire probes.Spark shadography is used to visualize both the mean and instantaneous flow, with the minimum spark time being 20 nanoseconds. The convection velocity of large-scale disturbances is estimated from the visible Mach-type acoustic waves emanating from the jet.For a wide range of jet Mach and Reynolds numbers, the convection velocity of the large scale disturbances in the potential core region of the jet is approximately 0.8 times the jet velocity, the approximate velocity of the first helical instability mode of the jet.The main objectives of the present work were to investigate the effects of compressibility and density on the initial development of the axisymmetric jet. Although the data are not sufficient to determine if the convective Mach number concept used in 2-d shear layer research will work in the case of an axisymmetric jet, it is clear that the axisymmetric
Hoffman, E.L.; Ammerman, D.J.
1993-08-01
A series of tests investigating dynamic pulse buckling of a cylindrical shell under axial impact is compared to several finite element simulations of the event. The purpose of the study is to compare the performance of the various analysis codes and element types with respect to a problem which is applicable to radioactive material transport packages, and ultimately to develop a benchmark problem to qualify finite element analysis codes for the transport package design industry.
Eyler, L.L.; Budden, M.J.
1985-03-01
The objective of this work is to assess prediction capabilities and features of the MAGNUM-2D computer code in relation to its intended use in the Basalt Waste Isolation Project (BWIP). This objective is accomplished through a code verification and benchmarking task. Results are documented which support correctness of prediction capabilities in areas of intended model application. 10 references, 43 figures, 11 tables.
TOPAZ2D heat transfer code users manual and thermal property data base
Shapiro, A.B.; Edwards, A.L.
1990-05-01
TOPAZ2D is a two dimensional implicit finite element computer code for heat transfer analysis. This user's manual provides information on the structure of a TOPAZ2D input file. Also included is a material thermal property data base. This manual is supplemented with The TOPAZ2D Theoretical Manual and the TOPAZ2D Verification Manual. TOPAZ2D has been implemented on the CRAY, SUN, and VAX computers. TOPAZ2D can be used to solve for the steady state or transient temperature field on two dimensional planar or axisymmetric geometries. Material properties may be temperature dependent and either isotropic or orthotropic. A variety of time and temperature dependent boundary conditions can be specified including temperature, flux, convection, and radiation. Time or temperature dependent internal heat generation can be defined locally be element or globally by material. TOPAZ2D can solve problems of diffuse and specular band radiation in an enclosure coupled with conduction in material surrounding the enclosure. Additional features include thermally controlled reactive chemical mixtures, thermal contact resistance across an interface, bulk fluid flow, phase change, and energy balances. Thermal stresses can be calculated using the solid mechanics code NIKE2D which reads the temperature state data calculated by TOPAZ2D. A three dimensional version of the code, TOPAZ3D is available. The material thermal property data base, Chapter 4, included in this manual was originally published in 1969 by Art Edwards for use with his TRUMP finite difference heat transfer code. The format of the data has been altered to be compatible with TOPAZ2D. Bob Bailey is responsible for adding the high explosive thermal property data.
2004-08-01
AnisWave2D is a 2D finite-difference code for a simulating seismic wave propagation in fully anisotropic materials. The code is implemented to run in parallel over multiple processors and is fully portable. A mesh refinement algorithm has been utilized to allow the grid-spacing to be tailored to the velocity model, avoiding the over-sampling of high-velocity materials that usually occurs in fixed-grid schemes.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Düll, Wolf-Patrick; Schneider, Guido; Wayne, C. Eugene
2016-05-01
In 1968 V.E. Zakharov derived the Nonlinear Schrödinger equation for the two-dimensional water wave problem in the absence of surface tension, that is, for the evolution of gravity driven surface water waves, in order to describe slow temporal and spatial modulations of a spatially and temporarily oscillating wave packet. In this paper we give a rigorous proof that the wave packets in the two-dimensional water wave problem in a canal of finite depth can be approximated over a physically relevant timespan by solutions of the Nonlinear Schrödinger equation.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Gallego, A.; Moreno-García, P.; Casanova, Cesar F.
2013-06-01
Structural studies to find defects (in particular delaminations) in composite plates have been very prevalent in the Structural Health Monitoring field. The present work develops a new method to detect delaminations in CFRP (Carbon Fiber Reinforced Polymer) plates. In this paper the method is validated with numerical simulations, which come to support its adequacy for use with real acquisition data. This is done firstly through the implementation of a delaminated plate finite element. Using the classical lamination plate theory, delamination is considered in the kinematic equations through jump functions and additional degrees of freedom. The element allows the introduction of nd delaminations through its thickness. Classical QMITC (Quadrilateral Mixed Interpolation Tensorial Components) and DKQ (Discrete Kirchhoff Quadrilateral) elements are used for the membrane and bending FEM (Finite Element Method) formulation. Second, using the vibration modes obtained with the FEM, a damage location technique based on the variational Ritz method and Wavelet Analysis is proposed. The approach has the advantage of requiring only damaged modes and not the healthy ones. Both FEM simulations and Ritz/Wavelet damage detection schemes are applied in an orthotropic CFRP plate with the stacking sequence [0/90]3S. In addition, the influence of delamination thickness position, boundary conditions and added noise (in order to simulate experimental measures) was studied.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Krueger, Ronald; Minguet, Pierre J.; Bushnell, Dennis M. (Technical Monitor)
2002-01-01
The influence of two-dimensional finite element modeling assumptions on the debonding prediction for skin-stiffener specimens was investigated. Geometrically nonlinear finite element analyses using two-dimensional plane-stress and plane strain elements as well as three different generalized plane strain type approaches were performed. The computed deflections, skin and flange strains, transverse tensile stresses and energy release rates were compared to results obtained from three-dimensional simulations. The study showed that for strains and energy release rate computations the generalized plane strain assumptions yielded results closest to the full three-dimensional analysis. For computed transverse tensile stresses the plane stress assumption gave the best agreement. Based on this study it is recommended that results from plane stress and plane strain models be used as upper and lower bounds. The results from generalized plane strain models fall between the results obtained from plane stress and plane strain models. Two-dimensional models may also be used to qualitatively evaluate the stress distribution in a ply and the variation of energy release rates and mixed mode ratios with lamination length. For more accurate predictions, however, a three-dimensional analysis is required.
Park, S.J.; Song, J.H.
1999-07-01
A two-dimensional elastic-plastic finite element analysis is performed for plane stress conditions with 4-node isoparametric elements to investigate the closure behavior under various variable-amplitude loading, i.e., single overloading, Hi-Lo block loading, and narrow- and wide-band random loading. The closure behavior under single overloading and Hi-Lo block loading can be well simulated by applying the concept of the most appropriate mesh size that will provide numerical results consistent with experimental data under constant-amplitude loading. It is found that the crack opening load under random loading may be predicted approximately by replacing the complicated random load history with the appropriate equivalent, simplified variable load history.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Abudaram, Yaakov Jack
This work is concerned with a new method to apply consistent and known pretension to silicone rubber membranes intended for micro air vehicles as well as an understanding in the science of developed pre-tension in membranes constrained by 2- D and 3-D frames and structures. Pre-tension has a marked effect on the static and dynamic response of membrane wings and controls the overall deflections, as such control and measurement of the membrane pre-tension is important. Two different 2-D frame geometries were fabricated to evaluate the technique. For open-cell frames, the pretension was not uniform, whereas it was for closed-cell frames. Results show developed full-field stress and strain fields as a function of membrane attachment temperature and frame geometry along with experimental iterations to prove repeatability. The membranes can be stretched to a specific pretension according to the temperature at which it adheres to frames. Strain fields in membranes attached to 3-D frames at various temperatures are modeled through FEA utilizing Abaqus to be able to predict the developed membrane deformations, stresses, and strains. Rigid frames with various curvatures are built via appropriate molds and then adhered to silicone rubber membranes and elevated to various temperatures to achieve different pre-strains for experimental validation. Additional experiments are conducted for more complex frame geometries involving both convex and concave topologies embedded within frames. Results are then compared with the Abaqus outputs to validate the accuracy of the FEA model. Highly compliant wings have been used for MAV platforms, where the wing structure is determined by some combination of carbon fiber composites and a membrane skin, adhered in between the layers of composite material. Another new technique of attaching membranes firmly on wing structures is introduced, which involves the application of a technology known as corona treatment coupled with another method of
Supersonic quasi-axisymmetric vortex breakdown
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Kandil, Osama A.; Kandil, Hamdy A.; Liu, C. H.
1991-01-01
An extensive computational study of supersonic quasi-axisymmetric vortex breakdown in a configured circular duct is presented. The unsteady, compressible, full Navier-Stokes (NS) equations are used. The NS equations are solved for the quasi-axisymmetric flows using an implicit, upwind, flux difference splitting, finite volume scheme. The quasi-axisymmetric solutions are time accurate and are obtained by forcing the components of the flowfield vector to be equal on two axial planes, which are in close proximity of each other. The effect of Reynolds number, for laminar flows, on the evolution and persistence of vortex breakdown, is studied. Finally, the effect of swirl ration at the duct inlet is investigated.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Tessitore, S.; Fernández-Merodo, J. A.; Herrera, G.; Tomás, R.; Ramondini, M.; Sanabria, M.; Duro, J.; Mulas, J.; Calcaterra, D.
2015-11-01
Subsidence is a hazard that may have natural or anthropogenic origin causing important economic losses. The area of Murcia city (SE Spain) has been affected by subsidence due to groundwater overexploitation since the year 1992. The main observed historical piezometric level declines occurred in the periods 1982-1984, 1992-1995 and 2004-2008 and showed a close correlation with the temporal evolution of ground displacements. Since 2008, the pressure recovery in the aquifer has led to an uplift of the ground surface that has been detected by the extensometers. In the present work an elastic hydro-mechanical finite element code has been used to compute the subsidence time series for 24 geotechnical boreholes, prescribing the measured groundwater table evolution. The achieved results have been compared with the displacements estimated through an advanced DInSAR technique and measured by the extensometers. These spatio-temporal comparisons have showed that, in spite of the limited geomechanical data available, the model has turned out to satisfactorily reproduce the subsidence phenomenon affecting Murcia City. The model will allow the prediction of future induced deformations and the consequences of any piezometric level variation in the study area.
Hsu, Sen-ming; Chang, Hung-chun
2008-12-22
To effectively investigate the fundamental characteristics of two-dimensional (2D) photonic crystals (PCs) with arbitrary 3D material anisotropy under the out-of-plane wave propagation, we establish a full-vectorial finite element method based eigenvalue algorithm to perform related analysis correctly. The band edge diagrams can be conveniently constructed from the band structures of varied propagation constants obtained from the algorithm, which is helpful for the analysis and design of photonic ban gap (PBG) fibers. Several PCs are analyzed to demonstrate the correctness of this numerical model. Our analysis results for simple PCs are checked with others' ones using different methods, including the transfer matrix method, the finite-difference frequency-domain (FDFD) method, and the plane-wave expansion method. And the validity of those for the most complex PC with arbitrary 3D anisotropy is supported by related liquid-crystal-filled PBG fiber mode analysis, which demonstrates the dependence of transmission properties on the PBGs, employing a full-vectorial finite element beam propagation method (FE-BPM). PMID:19104565
Discretizations of axisymmetric systems
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Frauendiener, Jörg
2002-11-01
In this paper we discuss stability properties of various discretizations for axisymmetric systems including the so-called cartoon method which was proposed by Alcubierre et al. for the simulation of such systems on Cartesian grids. We show that within the context of the method of lines such discretizations tend to be unstable unless one takes care in the way individual singular terms are treated. Examples are given for the linear axisymmetric wave equation in flat space.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Martinez, J.; Belahcen, A.; Detoni, J. G.
2016-01-01
This paper presents a coupled Finite Element Model in order to study the vibrations in induction motors under steady-state. The model utilizes a weak coupling strategy between both magnetic and elastodynamic fields on the structure. Firstly, the problem solves the magnetic vector potential in an axial cut and secondly the former solution is coupled to a three dimensional model of the stator. The coupling is performed using projection based algorithms between the computed magnetic solution and the three-dimensional mesh. The three-dimensional model of the stator includes both end-windings and end-shields in order to give a realistic picture of the motor. The present model is validated using two steps. Firstly, a modal analysis hammer test is used to validate the material characteristic of this complex structure and secondly an array of accelerometer sensors is used in order to study the rotating waves using multi-dimensional spectral techniques. The analysis of the radial vibrations presented in this paper firstly concludes that slot harmonic components are visible when the motor is loaded. Secondly, the multidimensional spectrum presents the most relevant mechanical waves on the stator such as the ones produced by the space harmonics or the saturation of the iron core. The direct retrieval of the wave-number in a multi-dimensional spectrum is able to show the internal current distribution in a non-intrusive way. Experimental results for healthy induction motors are showing mechanical imbalances in a multi-dimensional spectrum in a more straightforward form.
Galaxies, Axisymmetric Systems and Relativity
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
MacCallum, M. A. H.
2011-06-01
List of contributors; Preface; Prof. W. B. Bonnor: a biological sketch; Part I. Galaxies and Cosmology: 1. The origin of large scale cosmic structure B. J. T. Jones and P. L. Palmer; 2. The problem of origin of the primordial pertubations and the modern cosmology V. N. Lukash and I. D. Novikov; 3. The automorphism group and field equations for Bianchi universes W. L. Rogue and G. F. R. Ellis; 4. New perspectives on galaxy formation J. Silk; Part II. Axisymmetric Systems: 5. On exact radiative solutions representing finite sources J. Bicak; 6. Proof of a generalized Geroch conjecture I. Hauser and F. J. Ernst; 7. Limits of the double Kerr solution C. Hoenselaers; 8. Non-inheritance of static symmetry by Maxwell fields M. A. H. MacCallum and N. Van den Bergh; 9. Stationary axisymmetric electrovacuum fields in general relativity G. Neugebauer and D. Kramer; 10. An almost conformal approach to axial symmetry Z. Perjes; 11. Conformally stationary axisymmetric space-times J. Winicour; Part III. Relativity: 12. A family of conformally flat space-times having the same curvature tensor in a given co-ordinate frame C. D. Collinson; 13. On the Bell-Szekeres solution for colliding electromagnetic waves J. B. Griffiths; 14. A remark on the Hauser metric A. Held; 15. Numerical relativity by power series R. Penrose; 16. Projective relativity and the equation of motion E. Schmutzer; 17. On generalized equations of goedesic deviation B. F. Schutz; 18. Lobatchevski plane gravitational waves S. T. C. Siklos; 19. Perfect fluid and vacuum solutions of Einstein's field equations with flat 3-dimensional slices H. Stephani and Th. Wolf; 20. Self-similar solutions of Einstein's equations J. Wainwright.
Biffle, J.H.; Blanford, M.L.
1994-05-01
JAC2D is a two-dimensional finite element program designed to solve quasi-static nonlinear mechanics problems. A set of continuum equations describes the nonlinear mechanics involving large rotation and strain. A nonlinear conjugate gradient method is used to solve the equations. The method is implemented in a two-dimensional setting with various methods for accelerating convergence. Sliding interface logic is also implemented. A four-node Lagrangian uniform strain element is used with hourglass stiffness to control the zero-energy modes. This report documents the elastic and isothermal elastic/plastic material model. Other material models, documented elsewhere, are also available. The program is vectorized for efficient performance on Cray computers. Sample problems described are the bending of a thin beam, the rotation of a unit cube, and the pressurization and thermal loading of a hollow sphere.
VAM2D: Variably saturated analysis model in two dimensions
Huyakorn, P.S.; Kool, J.B.; Wu, Y.S. )
1991-10-01
This report documents a two-dimensional finite element model, VAM2D, developed to simulate water flow and solute transport in variably saturated porous media. Both flow and transport simulation can be handled concurrently or sequentially. The formulation of the governing equations and the numerical procedures used in the code are presented. The flow equation is approximated using the Galerkin finite element method. Nonlinear soil moisture characteristics and atmospheric boundary conditions (e.g., infiltration, evaporation and seepage face), are treated using Picard and Newton-Raphson iterations. Hysteresis effects and anisotropy in the unsaturated hydraulic conductivity can be taken into account if needed. The contaminant transport simulation can account for advection, hydrodynamic dispersion, linear equilibrium sorption, and first-order degradation. Transport of a single component or a multi-component decay chain can be handled. The transport equation is approximated using an upstream weighted residual method. Several test problems are presented to verify the code and demonstrate its utility. These problems range from simple one-dimensional to complex two-dimensional and axisymmetric problems. This document has been produced as a user's manual. It contains detailed information on the code structure along with instructions for input data preparation and sample input and printed output for selected test problems. Also included are instructions for job set up and restarting procedures. 44 refs., 54 figs., 24 tabs.
Tracy, F.T.
1991-09-01
This report describes new advances in the computational modeling of ground water and seepage using the finite element method (FEM) in conjunction with tools and techniques typically used by the aerospace engineers. The unsolved environmental issues regarding our hazardous and toxic waste problems must be resolved, and significant resources must be placed on this effort. Some military bases are contaminated with hazardous waste that has entered the groundwater domain. A groundwater model that takes into account contaminant flow is therefore critical. First, an extension of the technique of generating an orthogonal structured grid (using the Cauchy-Riemann equations) to automatically generate a flow net for two-dimensional (2-D) steady-state seepage problems is presented for various boundary conditions. Second, a complete implementation of a three-dimensional (3-D) seepage package is described where (1) grid generation is accomplished using the EAGLE program, (2) the seepage and groundwater analysis for either confined or unconfined steady-state flow, homogeneous or inhomogeneous media, and isotropic or anisotropic soil is accomplished with no restriction on the FE grid or requirement of an initial guess of the free surface for unconfined flow problems, and (3) scientific visualization is accomplished using the program FAST developed by NASA.
Ablation problems using a finite control volume technique
Blackwell, B.F.; Thornton, A.L.; Hogan, R.E.
1993-03-01
An element based finite control volume procedure is applied to the solution of ablation problems for 2-D axisymmetric geometries. A mesh consisting of four node quadrilateral elements was used. The nodes are allowed to move in response to the surface recession rate. The computational domain is divided into a region with a structured mesh with moving nodes and a region with an unstructured mesh with stationary nodes. The mesh is costrained to move along spines associated with the original mesh. Example problems are presented for the ablation of a realistic nose tip geometry exposed to aerodynamic heating from a uniform free stream environment.
Ablation problems using a finite control volume technique
Blackwell, B.F.; Thornton, A.L.; Hogan, R.E.
1993-01-01
An element based finite control volume procedure is applied to the solution of ablation problems for 2-D axisymmetric geometries. A mesh consisting of four node quadrilateral elements was used. The nodes are allowed to move in response to the surface recession rate. The computational domain is divided into a region with a structured mesh with moving nodes and a region with an unstructured mesh with stationary nodes. The mesh is costrained to move along spines associated with the original mesh. Example problems are presented for the ablation of a realistic nose tip geometry exposed to aerodynamic heating from a uniform free stream environment.
Axisymmetric multiwormholes revisited
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Clément, Gérard
2016-06-01
The construction of stationary axisymmetric multiwormhole solutions to gravitating field theories admitting toroidal reductions to three-dimensional gravitating sigma models is reviewed. We show that, as in the multi-black hole case, strut singularities always appear in this construction, except for very special configurations with an odd number of centers. We also review the analytical continuation of the multicenter solution across the n cuts associated with the wormhole mouths. The resulting Riemann manifold has 2^n sheets interconnected by 2^{n-1}n wormholes. We find that the maximally extended multicenter solution can never be asymptotically locally flat in all the Riemann sheets.
Calculation of rf fields in axisymmetric cavities
Iwashita, Y.
1985-01-01
A new code, PISCES, has been developed for calculating a complete set of rf electromagnetic modes in an axisymmetric cavity. The finite-element method is used with up to third-order shape functions. Although two components are enough to express these modes, three components are used as unknown variables to take advantage of the symmetry of the element matrix. The unknowns are taken to be either the electric field components or the magnetic field components. The zero-divergence condition will be satisfied by the shape function within each element.
MHD-stable plasma confinement in an axisymmetric mirror system
Stupakov, G.V.
1988-02-01
If the magnetic field of a nonparaxial mirror system is chosen appropriately, it is possible to maintain a sharp plasma boundary in an open axisymmetric confinement system in a manner which is stable against flute modes (both global and small-scale). Stability prevails in the ideal MHD approximation without finite-ion-Larmor radius effects.
Magneto-hydrodynamically stable axisymmetric mirrors
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ryutov, Dmitri
2010-11-01
The achievement of high beta (60%) plasma with near classical confinement in a linear axisymmetric magnetic configuration has sparked interest in the Gas Dynamic Trap concept. The significance of these results is that they can be projected directly to a neutron source for materials testing. The possibility of axisymmetric mirrors (AM) being magneto-hydrodynamically (MHD) stable is also of interest from a general physics standpoint (as it seemingly contradicts to well-established criteria of curvature-driven instabilities). The axial symmetry allows for much simpler and more reliable designs of mirror-based fusion facilities than the well-known quadrupole mirror configurations. In this tutorial, after a brief summary of classical results (in particular of the Rosenbluth-Longmire theory and of the energy principle as applied to AM) several approaches towards achieving MHD stabilization of the AM will be considered: 1) Employing the favorable field-line curvature in the end tanks; 2) Using the line-tying effect; 3) Setting the plasma in a slow or fast differential rotation; 4) Imposing a divertor configuration on the solenoidal magnetic field; 5) Controlling the plasma dynamics by the ponderomotive force; 6) Other techniques. Several of these approaches go beyond pure MHD and require accounting for finite Larmor radius effects and trapped particle modes. Some illuminative theoretical approaches for understanding axisymmetric mirror stability will be described. Wherever possible comparison of theoretical and experimental results on AM will be provided. The applicability of the various stabilization techniques to axisymmetric mirrors as neutron sources, hybrids, and pure-fusion reactors will be discussed and the constraints on the plasma parameters will be formulated. Prepared by LLNL under Contract DE-AC52-07NA27344.
Study of axisymmetric flow problems by Hele-Shaw models
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Rao, P. V.; Sachan, J. S.
1980-05-01
Hele-Shaw models have been applied for solving two-dimensional, irrotational flow problems such as flow past bodies or radial seepage flow. The gap between the two plates is varied as a cubic parabola in the radial direction. Results are presented for seven axisymmetric models, including a cylindrical body with 60-deg conical head forms, an axisymmetric sluice entrance with a compound elliptical transition and radial flow to a well with a free surface. Pressure distributions were computed and compared with water-tunnel data, wind-tunnel data, finite-differential solutions and exact solutions.
MAZE96. Generates 2D Input for DYNA NIKE & TOPAZ
Sanford, L.; Hallquist, J.O.
1992-02-24
MAZE is an interactive program that serves as an input and two-dimensional mesh generator for DYNA2D, NIKE2D, TOPAZ2D, and CHEMICAL TOPAZ2D. MAZE also generates a basic template for ISLAND input. MAZE has been applied to the generation of input data to study the response of two-dimensional solids and structures undergoing finite deformations under a wide variety of large deformation transient dynamic and static problems and heat transfer analyses.
Generates 2D Input for DYNA NIKE & TOPAZ
1996-07-15
MAZE is an interactive program that serves as an input and two-dimensional mesh generator for DYNA2D, NIKE2D, TOPAZ2D, and CHEMICAL TOPAZ2D. MAZE also generates a basic template for ISLAND input. MAZE has been applied to the generation of input data to study the response of two-dimensional solids and structures undergoing finite deformations under a wide variety of large deformation transient dynamic and static problems and heat transfer analyses.
Preserving spherical symmetry in axisymmetric coordinates for diffusion problems
Brunner, T. A.; Kolev, T. V.; Bailey, T. S.; Till, A. T.
2013-07-01
Persevering symmetric solutions, even in the under-converged limit, is important to the robustness of production simulation codes. We explore the symmetry preservation in both a continuous nodal and a mixed finite element method. In their standard formulation, neither method preserves spherical solution symmetry in axisymmetric (RZ) coordinates. We propose two methods, one for each family of finite elements, that recover spherical symmetry for low-order finite elements on linear or curvilinear meshes. This is a first step toward understanding achieving symmetry for higher-order elements. (authors)
Wright, B.L.; Alrick, K.R.; Fritz, J.N.
1994-05-01
Axisymmetric magnetic (ASM) gauges are useful diagnostic tools in the study of the conversion of energy from underground explosions to distant seismic signals. Requiring no external power, they measure the strength (particle velocity) of the emerging shock wave under conditions that would destroy most instrumentation. Shock pins are included with each gauge to determine the angle of the shock front. For the Non-Proliferation Experiment, two ASM gauges were installed in the ANFO mixture to monitor the detonation wave and 10 were grouted into boreholes at various ranges in the surrounding rock (10 to 64 m from the center of explosion). These gauges were of a standard 3.8-inch-diameter design. In addition, two unique Jumbo ASM gauges (3-ft by 3-ft in cross section) were grouted to the wall of a drift at a range of 65 m. We discuss issues encountered in data analysis, present the results of our measurements, and compare these results with those of model simulations of the experiment.
2005-07-01
Aniso2d is a two-dimensional seismic forward modeling code. The earth is parameterized by an X-Z plane in which the seismic properties Can have monoclinic with x-z plane symmetry. The program uses a user define time-domain wavelet to produce synthetic seismograms anrwhere within the two-dimensional media.
Brittle damage models in DYNA2D
Faux, D.R.
1997-09-01
DYNA2D is an explicit Lagrangian finite element code used to model dynamic events where stress wave interactions influence the overall response of the system. DYNA2D is often used to model penetration problems involving ductile-to-ductile impacts; however, with the advent of the use of ceramics in the armor-anti-armor community and the need to model damage to laser optics components, good brittle damage models are now needed in DYNA2D. This report will detail the implementation of four brittle damage models in DYNA2D, three scalar damage models and one tensor damage model. These new brittle damage models are then used to predict experimental results from three distinctly different glass damage problems.
Axisymmetric instability in a thinning electrified jet
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Dharmansh; Chokshi, Paresh
2016-04-01
The axisymmetric stability of an electrified jet is analyzed under electrospinning conditions using the linear stability theory. The fluid is considered Newtonian with a finite electrical conductivity, modeled as a leaky dielectric medium. While the previous studies impose axisymmetric disturbances on a cylindrical jet of uniform radius, referred to as the base state, in the present study the actual thinning jet profile, obtained as the steady-state solution of the one-dimensional slender filament model, is treated as the base state. The analysis takes into account the role of variation in the jet variables like radius, velocity, electric field, and surface charge density along the thinning jet in the stability behavior. The eigenspectrum of the axisymmetric disturbance growth rate is constructed from the linearized disturbance equations discretized using the Chebyshev collocation method. The most unstable growth rate for the thinning jet is significantly different from that for the uniform radius jet. For the same electrospinning conditions, while the uniform radius jet is predicted to be highly unstable, the thinning jet profile is found to be unstable but with a relatively very low growth rate. The stabilizing role of the thinning jet is attributed to the variation in the surface charge density as well as the extensional deformation rate in the fluid ignored in the uniform radius jet analysis. The dominant mode for the thinning jet is an oscillatory conducting mode driven by the field-charge coupling. The disturbance energy balance finds the electric force to be the dominant force responsible for the disturbance growth, potentially leading to bead formation along the fiber. The role of various material and process parameters in the stability behavior is also investigated.
Axisymmetric annular curtain stability
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ahmed, Zahir U.; Khayat, Roger E.; Maissa, Philippe; Mathis, Christian
2012-06-01
A temporal stability analysis was carried out to investigate the stability of an axially moving viscous annular liquid jet subject to axisymmetric disturbances in surrounding co-flowing viscous gas media. We investigated in this study the effects of inertia, surface tension, the gas-to-liquid density ratio, the inner-to-outer radius ratio and the gas-to-liquid viscosity ratio on the stability of the jet. With an increase in inertia, the growth rate of the unstable disturbances is found to increase. The dominant (or most unstable) wavenumber decreases with increasing Reynolds number for larger values of the gas-to-liquid viscosity ratio. However, an opposite tendency for the most unstable wavenumber is predicted for small viscosity ratio in the same inertia range. The surrounding gas density, in the presence of viscosity, always reduces the growth rate, hence stabilizing the flow. There exists a critical value of the density ratio above which the flow becomes stable for very small viscosity ratio, whereas for large viscosity ratio, no stable flow appears in the same range of the density ratio. The curvature has a significant destabilizing effect on the thin annular jet, whereas for a relatively thick jet, the maximum growth rate decreases as the inner radius increases, irrespective of the surrounding gas viscosity. The degree of instability increases with Weber number for a relatively large viscosity ratio. In contrast, for small viscosity ratio, the growth rate exhibits a dramatic dependence on the surface tension. There is a small Weber number range, which depends on the viscosity ratio, where the flow is stable. The viscosity ratio always stabilizes the flow. However, the dominant wavenumber increases with increasing viscosity ratio. The range of unstable wavenumbers is affected only by the curvature effect.
Greg Flach, Frank Smith
2011-12-31
Mesh2d is a Fortran90 program designed to generate two-dimensional structured grids of the form [x(i),y(i,j)] where [x,y] are grid coordinates identified by indices (i,j). The x(i) coordinates alone can be used to specify a one-dimensional grid. Because the x-coordinates vary only with the i index, a two-dimensional grid is composed in part of straight vertical lines. However, the nominally horizontal y(i,j0) coordinates along index i are permitted to undulate or otherwise vary. Mesh2d also assigns an integer material type to each grid cell, mtyp(i,j), in a user-specified manner. The complete grid is specified through three separate input files defining the x(i), y(i,j), and mtyp(i,j) variations.
2011-12-31
Mesh2d is a Fortran90 program designed to generate two-dimensional structured grids of the form [x(i),y(i,j)] where [x,y] are grid coordinates identified by indices (i,j). The x(i) coordinates alone can be used to specify a one-dimensional grid. Because the x-coordinates vary only with the i index, a two-dimensional grid is composed in part of straight vertical lines. However, the nominally horizontal y(i,j0) coordinates along index i are permitted to undulate or otherwise vary. Mesh2d also assignsmore » an integer material type to each grid cell, mtyp(i,j), in a user-specified manner. The complete grid is specified through three separate input files defining the x(i), y(i,j), and mtyp(i,j) variations.« less
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Lotsch, Bettina V.
2015-07-01
Graphene's legacy has become an integral part of today's condensed matter science and has equipped a whole generation of scientists with an armory of concepts and techniques that open up new perspectives for the postgraphene area. In particular, the judicious combination of 2D building blocks into vertical heterostructures has recently been identified as a promising route to rationally engineer complex multilayer systems and artificial solids with intriguing properties. The present review highlights recent developments in the rapidly emerging field of 2D nanoarchitectonics from a materials chemistry perspective, with a focus on the types of heterostructures available, their assembly strategies, and their emerging properties. This overview is intended to bridge the gap between two major—yet largely disjunct—developments in 2D heterostructures, which are firmly rooted in solid-state chemistry or physics. Although the underlying types of heterostructures differ with respect to their dimensions, layer alignment, and interfacial quality, there is common ground, and future synergies between the various assembly strategies are to be expected.
WFR-2D: an analytical model for PWAS-generated 2D ultrasonic guided wave propagation
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Shen, Yanfeng; Giurgiutiu, Victor
2014-03-01
This paper presents WaveFormRevealer 2-D (WFR-2D), an analytical predictive tool for the simulation of 2-D ultrasonic guided wave propagation and interaction with damage. The design of structural health monitoring (SHM) systems and self-aware smart structures requires the exploration of a wide range of parameters to achieve best detection and quantification of certain types of damage. Such need for parameter exploration on sensor dimension, location, guided wave characteristics (mode type, frequency, wavelength, etc.) can be best satisfied with analytical models which are fast and efficient. The analytical model was constructed based on the exact 2-D Lamb wave solution using Bessel and Hankel functions. Damage effects were inserted in the model by considering the damage as a secondary wave source with complex-valued directivity scattering coefficients containing both amplitude and phase information from wave-damage interaction. The analytical procedure was coded with MATLAB, and a predictive simulation tool called WaveFormRevealer 2-D was developed. The wave-damage interaction coefficients (WDICs) were extracted from harmonic analysis of local finite element model (FEM) with artificial non-reflective boundaries (NRB). The WFR-2D analytical simulation results were compared and verified with full scale multiphysics finite element models and experiments with scanning laser vibrometer. First, Lamb wave propagation in a pristine aluminum plate was simulated with WFR-2D, compared with finite element results, and verified by experiments. Then, an inhomogeneity was machined into the plate to represent damage. Analytical modeling was carried out, and verified by finite element simulation and experiments. This paper finishes with conclusions and suggestions for future work.
Mason, W.E.
1983-03-01
A set of finite element codes for the solution of nonlinear, two-dimensional (TACO2D) and three-dimensional (TACO3D) heat transfer problems. Performs linear and nonlinear analyses of both transient and steady state heat transfer problems. Has the capability to handle time or temperature dependent material properties. Materials may be either isotropic or orthotropic. A variety of time and temperature dependent boundary conditions and loadings are available including temperature, flux, convection, radiation, and internal heat generation.
Gross, M.B.
1984-10-01
STEALTH is a family of computer codes that can be used to calculate a variety of physical processes in which the dynamic behavior of a continuum is involved. The version of STEALTH described in this volume is designed for calculations of fluid-structure interaction. This version of the program consists of a hydrodynamic version of STEALTH which has been coupled to a finite-element code, WHAMSE. STEALTH computes the transient response of the fluid continuum, while WHAMSE computes the transient response of shell and beam structures under external fluid loadings. The coupling between STEALTH and WHAMSE is performed during each cycle or step of a calculation. Separate calculations of fluid response and structural response are avoided, thereby giving a more accurate model of the dynamic coupling between fluid and structure. This volume provides the theoretical background, the finite-difference equations, the finite-element equations, a discussion of several sample problems, a listing of the input decks for the sample problems, a programmer's manual and a description of the input records for the STEALTH/WHAMSE computer program.
Seismic wave propagation in fully anisotropic axisymmetric media
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
van Driel, Martin; Nissen-Meyer, Tarje
2014-11-01
We present a numerical method to compute 3-D elastic waves in fully anisotropic axisymmetric media. This method is based on a decomposition of the wave equation into a series of uncoupled 2-D equations for which the dependence of the wavefield on the azimuth can be solved analytically. Four independent equations up to quadrupole order appear as solutions for moment-tensor sources located on the symmetry axis while single forces can be accommodated by two separate solutions up to dipole order. This decomposition gives rise to an efficient solution of the 3-D wave equation in a 2-D axisymmetric medium. First, we prove the validity of the decomposition of the wavefield in the presence of general anisotropy. Then we use it to derive the reduced 2-D equations of motions and discretize them using the spectral element method. Finally, we benchmark the numerical implementation for global wave propagation at 1 Hz and consider inner core anisotropy as an application for high-frequency wave propagation in anisotropic media at frequencies up to 2 Hz.
Application of the PTT model to axisymmetric free surface flows
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Merejolli, R.; Paulo, G. S.; Tomé, M. F.
2013-10-01
This work is concerned with numerical simulation of axisymmetric viscoelastic free surface flows using the Phan-Thien-Tanner (PTT) constitutive equation. A finite difference technique for solving the governing equations for unsteady incompressible flows written in Cylindrical coordinates on a staggered grid is described. The fluid is modelled by a Marker-and-Cell type method and an accurate representation of the fluid surface is employed. The full free surface stress conditions are applied. The numerical method is verified by comparing numerical predictions of fully developed flow in a pipe with the corresponding analytic solutions. To demonstrate that the numerical method can simulate axisymmetric free surface flows governed by the PTT model, numerical results of the flow evolution of a drop impacting on a rigid dry plate are presented. In these simulations, the rheological effects of the parameters ɛ and ξ are investigated.
Stability of axisymmetric liquid bridges
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Fel, Leonid G.; Rubinstein, Boris Y.
2015-12-01
Based on the Weierstrass representation of second variation, we develop a non-spectral theory of stability for isoperimetric problem with minimized and constrained two-dimensional functionals of general type and free endpoints allowed to move along two given planar curves. We establish the stability criterion and apply this theory to the axisymmetric liquid bridge between two axisymmetric solid bodies without gravity to determine the stability of menisci with free contact lines. For catenoid and cylinder menisci and different solid shapes, we determine the stability domain. The other menisci (unduloid, nodoid and sphere) are considered in a simple setup between two plates. We find the existence conditions of stable unduloid menisci with and without inflection points.
Computation of compressible quasi-axisymmetric slender vortex flow and breakdown
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Kandil, Osama A.; Kandil, Hamdy A.
1991-01-01
The unsteady, compressible Navier-Stokes equations are used to compute and analyze compressible quasi-axisymmetric isolated vortices. The Navier-Stokes equations are solved using an implicit, upwind, flux difference splitting finite volume scheme. The developed three dimensional solver was verified by comparing its solution profiles with those of a slender, quasi-axisymmetric vortex solver for a subsonic, quasi-axisymmetric vortex in an unbounded domain. The Navier-Stokes solver is then used to solve for a supersonic, quasi-axisymmetric vortex flow in a configured circular duct. Steady and unsteady vortex-shock interactions and breakdown were captured. The problem was also calculated using the Euler solver of the same code; the results were compared with those of the Navier-Stokes solver. The effect of the initial swirl was investigated.
MAGNUM-2D computer code: user's guide
England, R.L.; Kline, N.W.; Ekblad, K.J.; Baca, R.G.
1985-01-01
Information relevant to the general use of the MAGNUM-2D computer code is presented. This computer code was developed for the purpose of modeling (i.e., simulating) the thermal and hydraulic conditions in the vicinity of a waste package emplaced in a deep geologic repository. The MAGNUM-2D computer computes (1) the temperature field surrounding the waste package as a function of the heat generation rate of the nuclear waste and thermal properties of the basalt and (2) the hydraulic head distribution and associated groundwater flow fields as a function of the temperature gradients and hydraulic properties of the basalt. MAGNUM-2D is a two-dimensional numerical model for transient or steady-state analysis of coupled heat transfer and groundwater flow in a fractured porous medium. The governing equations consist of a set of coupled, quasi-linear partial differential equations that are solved using a Galerkin finite-element technique. A Newton-Raphson algorithm is embedded in the Galerkin functional to formulate the problem in terms of the incremental changes in the dependent variables. Both triangular and quadrilateral finite elements are used to represent the continuum portions of the spatial domain. Line elements may be used to represent discrete conduits. 18 refs., 4 figs., 1 tab.
Minimum weight design of a generic axisymmetric inlet
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Nadell, Shari-Beth
1996-01-01
A new minimum weight design method for high-speed axisymmetric inlets was demonstrated on a generic inlet. The method uses Classical Beam Theory and shell buckling to determine the minimum required equivalent isotropic thickness for a stiffened shell based on prescribed structural design requirements and load conditions. The optimum spacing and equivalent isotropic thickness of ring frame supports are computed to prevent buckling. The method thus develops a preliminary structural design for the inlet and computes the structural weight. Finite element analyses were performed on the resulting inlet design to evaluate the analytical results. Comparisons between the analytical and finite element stresses and deflections identified areas needing improvement in the analytical method. The addition of the deflection due to shear and a torsional buckling failure mode to the new method brought its results in line with those from the finite element analyses. Final validation of the new method will be made using data from actual inlets.
Stochastic Inversion of 2D Magnetotelluric Data
2010-07-01
The algorithm is developed to invert 2D magnetotelluric (MT) data based on sharp boundary parametrization using a Bayesian framework. Within the algorithm, we consider the locations and the resistivity of regions formed by the interfaces are as unknowns. We use a parallel, adaptive finite-element algorithm to forward simulate frequency-domain MT responses of 2D conductivity structure. Those unknown parameters are spatially correlated and are described by a geostatistical model. The joint posterior probability distribution function ismore » explored by Markov Chain Monte Carlo (MCMC) sampling methods. The developed stochastic model is effective for estimating the interface locations and resistivity. Most importantly, it provides details uncertainty information on each unknown parameter. Hardware requirements: PC, Supercomputer, Multi-platform, Workstation; Software requirements C and Fortan; Operation Systems/version is Linux/Unix or Windows« less
Stochastic Inversion of 2D Magnetotelluric Data
Chen, Jinsong
2010-07-01
The algorithm is developed to invert 2D magnetotelluric (MT) data based on sharp boundary parametrization using a Bayesian framework. Within the algorithm, we consider the locations and the resistivity of regions formed by the interfaces are as unknowns. We use a parallel, adaptive finite-element algorithm to forward simulate frequency-domain MT responses of 2D conductivity structure. Those unknown parameters are spatially correlated and are described by a geostatistical model. The joint posterior probability distribution function is explored by Markov Chain Monte Carlo (MCMC) sampling methods. The developed stochastic model is effective for estimating the interface locations and resistivity. Most importantly, it provides details uncertainty information on each unknown parameter. Hardware requirements: PC, Supercomputer, Multi-platform, Workstation; Software requirements C and Fortan; Operation Systems/version is Linux/Unix or Windows
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Wang, Jin; Ma, Jianyong; Zhou, Changhe
2014-11-01
A 3×3 high divergent 2D-grating with period of 3.842μm at wavelength of 850nm under normal incidence is designed and fabricated in this paper. This high divergent 2D-grating is designed by the vector theory. The Rigorous Coupled Wave Analysis (RCWA) in association with the simulated annealing (SA) is adopted to calculate and optimize this 2D-grating.The properties of this grating are also investigated by the RCWA. The diffraction angles are more than 10 degrees in the whole wavelength band, which are bigger than the traditional 2D-grating. In addition, the small period of grating increases the difficulties of fabrication. So we fabricate the 2D-gratings by direct laser writing (DLW) instead of traditional manufacturing method. Then the method of ICP etching is used to obtain the high divergent 2D-grating.
A dynamo model for axisymmetric and non-axisymmetric solar magnetic fields
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Jiang, J.; Wang, J. X.
2007-05-01
More and more observations are showing a relatively weak, but persistent, non-axisymmetric magnetic field co-existing with the dominant axisymmetric field on the Sun. Its existence indicates that the non-axisymmetric magnetic field plays an important role in the origin of solar activity. A linear non-axisymmetric α2-Ω dynamo model is derived to explore the characteristics of the axisymmetric (m = 0) and the first non-axisymmetric (m = 1) modes and to provide a theoretical basis with which to explain the `active longitude', `flip-flop' and other non-axisymmetric phenomena. The model consists of an updated solar internal differential rotation, a turbulent diffusivity varying with depth, and an α-effect working at the tachocline in a rotating spherical system. The difference between the α2-Ω and the α-Ω models and the conditions that favour the non-axisymmetric modes under solar-like parameters are also presented.
Non-axisymmetric annular curtain stability
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ahmed, Zahir U.; Khayat, Roger E.; Maissa, Philippe; Mathis, Christian
2013-08-01
A stability analysis of non-axisymmetric annular curtain is carried out for an axially moving viscous jet subject in surrounding viscous gas media. The effect of inertia, surface tension, gas-to-liquid density ratio, inner-to-outer radius ratio, and gas-to-liquid viscosity ratio on the stability of the jet is studied. In general, the axisymmetric disturbance is found to be the dominant mode. However, for small wavenumber, the non-axisymmetric mode is the most unstable mode and the one likely observed in reality. Inertia and the viscosity ratio for non-axisymmetric disturbances show a similar stability influence as observed for axisymmetric disturbances. The maximum growth rate in non-axisymmetric flow, interestingly, appears at very small wavenumber for all inertia levels. The dominant wavenumber increases (decreases) with inertia for non-axisymmetric (axisymmetric) flow. Gas-to-liquid density ratio, curvature effect, and surface tension, however, exhibit an opposite influence on growth rate compared to axisymmetric disturbances. Surface tension tends to stabilize the flow with reductions of the unstable wavenumber range and the maximum growth rate as well as the dominant wavenumber. The dominant wavenumber remains independent of viscosity ratio indicating the viscosity ratio increases the breakup length of the sheet with very little influence on the size of the drops. The range of unstable wavenumbers is affected only by curvature in axisymmetric flow, whereas all the stability parameters control the range of unstable wavenumbers in non-axisymmetric flow. Inertia and gas density increase the unstable wavenumber range, whereas the radius ratio, surface tension, and the viscosity ratio decrease the unstable wavenumber range. Neutral curves are plotted to separate the stable and unstable domains. Critical radius ratio decreases linearly and nonlinearly with the wavenumber for axisymmetric and non-axisymmetric disturbances, respectively. At smaller Weber numbers, a
Design of swirled axisymmetric turbulent jets
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Zhumayev, Z. S.; Abramov, A. A.; Fayziyev, R. A.
1984-10-01
The problem of swirling a jet for such applications as turbulization of the flame from burners in industrial furnaces or combustion chambers is treated on the basis of steady state turbulent straight axisymmetric flow of an incompressible fluid with the addition of a tangential velocity component. In the corresponding system of four partial differential equations there appears an exchange coefficient proportional to the mixing half width squared. After reduction to dimensionless form, this system of nonlinear equations is solved for the appropriate boundary conditions with constant momentum flow and constant moment of momentum. Radial profiles of both axial and tangential velocity components at various distances from the nozzle throat have been calculated numerically by the method of finite differences with an implicit scheme. The maxima of both velocity components are found to decrease and to shift toward the jet axis with increasing distance from the nozzle. A sharp swirl can give rise to a positive pressure gradient sufficiently large to produce a backcurrent. The results agree qualitatively with experimental data.
An axisymmetric PFEM formulation for bottle forming simulation
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ryzhakov, Pavel B.
2016-05-01
A numerical model for bottle forming simulation is proposed. It is based upon the Particle Finite Element Method (PFEM) and is developed for the simulation of bottles characterized by rotational symmetry. The PFEM strategy is adapted to suit the problem of interest. Axisymmetric version of the formulation is developed and a modified contact algorithm is applied. This results in a method characterized by excellent computational efficiency and volume conservation characteristics. The model is validated. An example modelling the final blow process is solved. Bottle wall thickness is estimated and the mass conservation of the method is analysed.
Accuracy Improvement in Magnetic Field Modeling for an Axisymmetric Electromagnet
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Ilin, Andrew V.; Chang-Diaz, Franklin R.; Gurieva, Yana L.; Il,in, Valery P.
2000-01-01
This paper examines the accuracy and calculation speed for the magnetic field computation in an axisymmetric electromagnet. Different numerical techniques, based on an adaptive nonuniform grid, high order finite difference approximations, and semi-analitical calculation of boundary conditions are considered. These techniques are being applied to the modeling of the Variable Specific Impulse Magnetoplasma Rocket. For high-accuracy calculations, a fourth-order scheme offers dramatic advantages over a second order scheme. For complex physical configurations of interest in plasma propulsion, a second-order scheme with nonuniform mesh gives the best results. Also, the relative advantages of various methods are described when the speed of computation is an important consideration.
Axisymmetric Simulations of the ITER Vertical Stability Coil
Titus, Peter H.
2013-07-09
The ITER in-vessel coil system includes Vertical Stability (VS) coils and Edge Localized Mode (ELM) coils. There are two large VS ring coils, one upper and one lower. Each has four turns which are independently connected. The VS coils are needed for successful operation of ITER for most all of its operating modes. The VS coils must be highly reliable and fault tolerant. The operating environment includes normal and disruption Lorentz forces. To parametrically address all these design conditions in a tractable analysis requires a simplified model. The VS coils are predominately axisymmetric, and this suggests that an axisymmetric model can be meaningfully used to address the variations in mechanical design, loading, material properties, and time dependency. The axisymmetric finite element analysis described in this paper includes simulations of the bolted frictional connections used for the mounting details. Radiation and elastic-plastic response are modeled particularly for the extreme faulted conditions. Thermal connectivity is varied to study the effects of partial thermal connection of the actively cooled conductor to the remaining structure.
Local stability of axisymmetric plumes
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
R. v. K., Chakravarthy; Lesshafft, Lutz; Huerre, Patrick
2014-11-01
A linear stability analysis of a forced plume with non-zero momentum at the inlet is performed for Pr = 1 , Re = 100 and Ri near 1. The steady base flow is obtained as a laminar solution of the steady Navier Stokes equations. The base flow asymptotes to a self-similar solution as it evolves downstream. In the non-self-similar regime close to the inlet, both axisymmetric mode (m = 0) and the helical mode (m = 1) are convectively unstable at sufficiently low Richardson number. In the self-similar regime, only the helical mode is absolutely unstable and the axisymmetric mode is stable. Higher helical modes (m >= 2) are seen to be convectively unstable very close to the inlet and become stable as the flow evolves downstream. The transition from convective to absolute instability makes the flow a good candidate for observing steep nonlinear global modes associated with buoyancy. This work is supported by a PhD scholarship from Ecole polytechnique.
Nonlinear Heat Transfer 2d Structure
1987-09-01
DOT-BPMD is a general-purpose, finite-element, heat-transfer program used to predict thermal environments. The code considers linear and nonlinear transient or steady-state heat conduction in two-dimensional planar or axisymmetric representations of structures. Capabilities are provided for modeling anisotropic heterogeneous materials with temperature-dependent thermal properties and time-dependent temperature, heat flux, convection and radiation boundary conditions, together with time-dependent internal heat generation. DOT-BPMD may be used in the evaluation of steady-state geothermal gradients as well as in themore » transient heat conduction analysis of repository and waste package subsystems. Strengths of DOT-BPMD include its ability to account for a wide range of possible boundary conditions, nonlinear material properties, and its efficient equation solution algorithm. Limitations include the lack of a three-dimensional analysis capability, no radiative or convective internal heat transfer, and the need to maintain a constant time-step in each program execution.« less
2D constant-loss taper for mode conversion
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Horth, Alexandre; Kashyap, Raman; Quitoriano, Nathaniel J.
2015-03-01
Proposed in this manuscript is a novel taper geometry, the constant-loss taper (CLT). This geometry is derived with 1D slabs of silicon embedded in silicon dioxide using coupled-mode theory (CMT). The efficiency of the CLT is compared to both linear and parabolic tapers using CMT and 2D finite-difference time-domain simulations. It is shown that over a short 2D, 4.45 μm long taper the CLT's mode conversion efficiency is ~90% which is 10% and 18% more efficient than a 2D parabolic or linear taper, respectively.
Status of Axisymmetric CFD of an Eleven Inch Diameter Hybrid Rocket Motor
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Ruf, Joseph; Sullivan, Matthew R.; Wang, Ten See
1993-01-01
Current status of a steady state, axisymmetric analysis of an experimental 11 inch diameter hybrid rocket motor internal flow field is given. The objective of this effort is to develop a steady state axisymmetric model of the 11 inch hybrid rocket motor which can be used as a design and/or analytical tool. A test hardware description, modeling approach, and future plans are given. The analysis was performed with FDNS implementing several finite rate chemistry sets. A converged solution for a two equation and five species set on a 'fine' grid is shown.
Status of axisymmetric CFD of an eleven inch diameter hybrid rocket motor
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ruf, Joseph; Sullivan, Matthew R.; Wang, Ten See
1993-07-01
Current status of a steady state, axisymmetric analysis of an experimental 11 inch diameter hybrid rocket motor internal flow field is given. The objective of this effort is to develop a steady state axisymmetric model of the 11 inch hybrid rocket motor which can be used as a design and/or analytical tool. A test hardware description, modeling approach, and future plans are given. The analysis was performed with FDNS implementing several finite rate chemistry sets. A converged solution for a two equation and five species set on a 'fine' grid is shown.
On axisymmetric and stationary solutions of the self-gravitating Vlasov system
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ames, Ellery; Andréasson, Håkan; Logg, Anders
2016-08-01
Axisymmetric and stationary solutions are constructed to the Einstein–Vlasov and Vlasov–Poisson systems. These solutions are constructed numerically, using finite element methods and a fixed-point iteration in which the total mass is fixed at each step. A variety of axisymmetric stationary solutions are exhibited, including solutions with toroidal, disk-like, spindle-like, and composite spatial density configurations, as are solutions with non-vanishing net angular momentum. In the case of toroidal solutions, we show for the first time, solutions of the Einstein–Vlasov system which contain ergoregions.
An analytical and numerical study of axisymmetric flow around spheroids
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Chang, Chien-Cheng; Liou, Biing-Horng; Chern, Ruey-Ling
1992-01-01
Axisymmetric viscous flow around ellipsoids of circular section is examined in detail using a matched asymptotic analysis and a deterministic hybrid vortex method. The hybrid vortex method solves the viscous vorticity equation by combining a finite-difference method for diffusion and a vortex-in-cell method for convection and stretching. The numerical study was carried out for an ellipsoid of axis ratio 2:1 and the limiting case of a sphere at Reynolds numbers between 100 and 3000. Particular attention is given to evaluation of the drag coefficient using three different approaches. Numerical and asymptotic results at small times are found to be in good agreement. Separation angles, wake lengths, and stationary drag coefficients for the sphere are also in good agreement with previous results obtained by a finite-difference method and with the standard drag curve.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Wang, Z.; Guan, W.; Gao, Y.; Hu, H.
2012-04-01
Electromagnetic signals have been recorded during earthquakes (e.g. Karakelian et al., 2002). One important mechanism for the coupling between the elastic and the electromagnetic energies is the electrokinetic effect. Gao and Hu (2010) simulated the electromagnetic fields excited by a double couple by solving analytically the set of equations derived by Pride (1994), which combines the Biot equations with the Maxwell equations. However, analytical solution is not available when the geological structure is complex. Numerical methods are thus needed to solve for the seismoelectric fields. In the present work, seismoelectric fields excited by an underground double couple in a horizontally layered geological structure are computed by solving the Pride equations with a finite-difference time-domain (FDTD) algorithm with 2-D grids. A double couple source represents a small fault, and it has no axisymmetric nature. However, as the layered formation is axisymmetric, we only need to solve a 2-D problem by Fourier transforming the seismoelectric fields from the azimuthal angle θ domain to the corresponding wavenumber m domain in cylindrical coordinates. Further, we can prove that m ≤ 2 for a double couple source. 2-D FDTD grid is developed, and the perfectly matched layer technique (Guan and Hu, 2008) is applied to truncate the computational region. The radiation pattern of the double couple is computed. The seismic and the electromagnetic fields on the surface of the layered formation are obtained and compared to the analytical results given by Hu and Gao (2011). Good agreements between the FDTD results and the analytical solutions show the validity of our FDTD algorithm. Extension to a general 3-D problem is under way. A key issue involved in our modeling of the earthquake source in a porous medium is to find out the body forces in the Pride equations. We point out that if Biot (1956) theory (which is one base of Pride equations) is used, no equivalent force should be
Non Axisymmetric Three-Dimensional Magnetic Bernstein-Greene-Kruskal (BGK) Modes
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ng, Chung-Sang
2013-10-01
The theory of three-dimensional (3D) magnetic Magnetic Bernstein-Greene-Kruskal (BGK) modes has been generalized to the non axisymmetric case. While the shape of the electrostatic structure is usually elongated along the direction of the strong large-scale magnetic field, a limiting case with the elongated direction along one of the perpendicular direction is also possible. Essentially this makes the solution 2D with the magnetic field on the 2D plane. Note that such 2D BGK modes are very different from those described by another theory, of which the magnetic field is perpendicular to the 2D plane. This theory might explain 2D BGK modes observed in some numerical simulations. This work is supported by a National Science Foundation grant PHY-1004357 and by the National Science Foundation of China NSFC under Grant No. 41128004.
Time dependent difference theory for sound propagation in axisymmetric ducts with plug flow
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Baumeister, K. J.
1980-01-01
The time dependent governing/acoustic-difference equations and boundary conditions are developed and solved for sound propagation in an axisymmetric (cylindrical) hard wall duct with a plug mean flow and spinning acoustic modes. The analysis begins with a harmonic sound source radiating into a quiescent duct. This explicit iteration method then calculates stepwise in real time to obtain the transient as well as the 'steady' state solutions of the acoustic field. The time dependent finite difference analysis has two advantages over the steady state finite difference and finite element techniques: (1) the elimination of large matrix storage requirements, and (2) shorter solution times under most conditions.
Stone, C.M.
1997-07-01
SANTOS is a finite element program designed to compute the quasistatic, large deformation, inelastic response of two-dimensional planar or axisymmetric solids. The code is derived from the transient dynamic code PRONTO 2D. The solution strategy used to compute the equilibrium states is based on a self-adaptive dynamic relaxation solution scheme, which is based on explicit central difference pseudo-time integration and artificial mass proportional damping. The element used in SANTOS is a uniform strain 4-node quadrilateral element with an hourglass control scheme to control the spurious deformation modes. Finite strain constitutive models for many common engineering materials are included. A robust master-slave contact algorithm for modeling sliding contact is implemented. An interface for coupling to an external code is also provided. 43 refs., 22 figs.
Axisymmetric Coanda-assisted vectoring
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Allen, Dustin; Smith, Barton L.
2009-01-01
An experimental demonstration of a jet vectoring technique used in our novel spray method called Coanda-assisted Spray Manipulation (CSM) is presented. CSM makes use of the Coanda effect on axisymmetric geometries through the interaction of two jets: a primary jet and a control jet. The primary jet has larger volume flow rate but generally a smaller momentum flux than the control jet. The primary jet flows through the center of a rounded collar. The control jet is parallel to the primary and is adjacent to the convex collar. The Reynolds number range for the primary jet at the exit plane was between 20,000 and 80,000. The flow was in the incompressible Mach number range (Mach < 0.3). The control jet attaches to the convex wall and vectors according to known Coanda effect principles, entraining and vectoring the primary jet, resulting in controllable r - θ directional spraying. Several annular control slots and collar radii were tested over a range of momentum flux ratios to determine the effects of these variables on the vectored jet angle and spreading. Two and Three-component Particle Image Velocimetry systems were used to determine the vectoring angle and the profile of the combined jet in each experiment. The experiments show that the control slot and expansion radius, along with the momentum ratios of the two jets predominantly affected the vectoring angle and profile of the combined jets.
Axisymmetric Boundary Element Method for vesicles in a capillary
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Trozzo, R.; Boedec, G.; Leonetti, M.; Jaeger, M.
2015-05-01
The problem of a vesicle transported by a fluid flow can present a large range of length scales. One example is the case of a vesicle producing a tether, and eventually pearls, in an elongational flow. Another case occurs when a lubrication film is formed, such as during the short range interaction between two vesicles. Such problems are still challenging for 3D simulations. On the other hand, a good understanding could be obtained by first considering the axisymmetric regime when such a regime exists. An axisymmetric model could then be used, without the criticisms that can be made of a 2D approach. We propose such a model, primarily interested in flows through narrow cylindrical capillaries. Two options are compared, with and without explicit representation of the capillary boundaries by a mesh. The numerical effort is characterized as a function of the vesicle's initial shape, the flow magnitude and the confinement. The model is able to treat typical configurations of red blood cells flowing through very narrow pores with extremely thin lubrication films.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Mayor, Louise
2016-05-01
Graphene might be the most famous example, but there are other 2D materials and compounds too. Louise Mayor explains how these atomically thin sheets can be layered together to create flexible “van der Waals heterostructures”, which could lead to a range of novel applications.
High order curvilinear finite elements for elastic–plastic Lagrangian dynamics
Dobrev, Veselin A.; Kolev, Tzanio V.; Rieben, Robert N.
2014-01-15
This paper presents a high-order finite element method for calculating elastic–plastic flow on moving curvilinear meshes and is an extension of our general high-order curvilinear finite element approach for solving the Euler equations of gas dynamics in a Lagrangian frame [1,2]. In order to handle transition to plastic flow, we formulate the stress–strain relation in rate (or incremental) form and augment our semi-discrete equations for Lagrangian hydrodynamics with an additional evolution equation for the deviatoric stress which is valid for arbitrary order spatial discretizations of the kinematic and thermodynamic variables. The semi-discrete equation for the deviatoric stress rate is developed for 2D planar, 2D axisymmetric and full 3D geometries. For each case, the strain rate is approximated via a collocation method at zone quadrature points while the deviatoric stress is approximated using an L{sub 2} projection onto the thermodynamic basis. We apply high order, energy conserving, explicit time stepping methods to the semi-discrete equations to develop the fully discrete method. We conclude with numerical results from an extensive series of verification tests that demonstrate several practical advantages of using high-order finite elements for elastic–plastic flow.
2001-01-31
This software reduces the data from two-dimensional kSA MOS program, k-Space Associates, Ann Arbor, MI. Initial MOS data is recorded without headers in 38 columns, with one row of data per acquisition per lase beam tracked. The final MOSS 2d data file is reduced, graphed, and saved in a tab-delimited column format with headers that can be plotted in any graphing software.
Generalized energy principle for flute perturbations in axisymmetric mirror machines
Lansky, I.M.; Ryutov, D.D.
1993-01-20
Axial symmetry is a very desirable property of the mirror devices both for fusion and neutron source applications. The main obstacle to be circumvented in the development of such systems, is the flute instability of axisymmetric mirrors. In recent years there appeared a number of proposals, devoted to the stabilization of the flute perturbations in the framework of axisymmetric magnetic configurations, which are based on the combining of the MHD unstable central cell with various types of end-cell stabilizers. In the present paper we concentrate ourselves just on this scheme, including long solenoid with a uniform field, conjugated with the end stabilizing anchor, intended to provide MHD stability of the system as a whole. The attractive feature of such a configuration is that it allows to exploit finite larmor radius (FLR) effects for the stabilization of the flute perturbations. As is well known, FLR effects, being strong, stabilize all flute modes, except the one with azimuthal number m = 1, corresponding to the ``rigid`` displacement of the plasma column (the ``global`` mode). Consequently, in the conditions when FLR effects dominate, the anchor has to stabilize the ``global` mode only. Bearing in mind a favorable influence of FLR effects we, however, don`t restrict our paper by discussion of only ``global`` mode stability and consider a general case of an arbitrary azimuthal mode.
MHD Simulations of Plasma Dynamics with Non-Axisymmetric Boundaries
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Hansen, Chris; Levesque, Jeffrey; Morgan, Kyle; Jarboe, Thomas
2015-11-01
The arbitrary geometry, 3D extended MHD code PSI-TET is applied to linear and non-linear simulations of MCF plasmas with non-axisymmetric boundaries. Progress and results from simulations on two experiments will be presented: 1) Detailed validation studies of the HIT-SI experiment with self-consistent modeling of plasma dynamics in the helicity injectors. Results will be compared to experimental data and NIMROD simulations that model the effect of the helicity injectors through boundary conditions on an axisymmetric domain. 2) Linear studies of HBT-EP with different wall configurations focusing on toroidal asymmetries in the adjustable conducting wall. HBT-EP studies the effect of active/passive stabilization with an adjustable ferritic wall. Results from linear verification and benchmark studies of ideal mode growth with and without toroidal asymmetries will be presented and compared to DCON predictions. Simulations of detailed experimental geometries are enabled by use of the PSI-TET code, which employs a high order finite element method on unstructured tetrahedral grids that are generated directly from CAD models. Further development of PSI-TET will also be presented including work to support resistive wall regions within extended MHD simulations. Work supported by DoE.
Acoustic intensity calculations for axisymmetrically modeled fluid regions
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Hambric, Stephen A.; Everstine, Gordon C.
1992-01-01
An algorithm for calculating acoustic intensities from a time harmonic pressure field in an axisymmetric fluid region is presented. Acoustic pressures are computed in a mesh of NASTRAN triangular finite elements of revolution (TRIAAX) using an analogy between the scalar wave equation and elasticity equations. Acoustic intensities are then calculated from pressures and pressure derivatives taken over the mesh of TRIAAX elements. Intensities are displayed as vectors indicating the directions and magnitudes of energy flow at all mesh points in the acoustic field. A prolate spheroidal shell is modeled with axisymmetric shell elements (CONEAX) and submerged in a fluid region of TRIAAX elements. The model is analyzed to illustrate the acoustic intensity method and the usefulness of energy flow paths in the understanding of the response of fluid-structure interaction problems. The structural-acoustic analogy used is summarized for completeness. This study uncovered a NASTRAN limitation involving numerical precision issues in the CONEAX stiffness calculation causing large errors in the system matrices for nearly cylindrical cones.
On axisymmetric/diamond-like mode transitions in axially compressed core-shell cylinders
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Xu, Fan; Potier-Ferry, Michel
2016-09-01
Recent interests in curvature- and stress-induced pattern formation and pattern selection motivate the present study. Surface morphological wrinkling of a cylindrical shell supported by a soft core subjected to axial compression is investigated based on a nonlinear 3D finite element model. The post-buckling behavior of core-shell cylinders beyond the first bifurcation often leads to complicated responses with surface mode transitions. The proposed finite element framework allows predicting and tracing these bifurcation portraits from a quantitative standpoint. The occurrence and evolution of 3D instability modes including sinusoidally deformed axisymmetric patterns and non-axisymmetric diamond-like modes will be highlighted according to critical dimensionless parameters. Besides, the phase diagram obtained from dimensional analyses and numerical results could be used to guide the design of core-shell cylindrical systems to achieve the desired instability patterns.
2012-01-05
Code is for a layered electric medium with 2d structure. Includes air-earth interface at node z=2.. The electric ex and ez fields are calculated on edges of elemental grid and magnetic field hy is calculated on the face of the elemental grid. The code allows for a layered earth with 2d structures. Solutions of coupled first order Maxwell's equations are solved in the two dimensional environment using a finite- difference scheme on a staggered spationamore » and temporal grid.« less
Nanoimprint lithography: 2D or not 2D? A review
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Schift, Helmut
2015-11-01
Nanoimprint lithography (NIL) is more than a planar high-end technology for the patterning of wafer-like substrates. It is essentially a 3D process, because it replicates various stamp topographies by 3D displacement of material and takes advantage of the bending of stamps while the mold cavities are filled. But at the same time, it keeps all assets of a 2D technique being able to pattern thin masking layers like in photon- and electron-based traditional lithography. This review reports about 20 years of development of replication techniques at Paul Scherrer Institut, with a focus on 3D aspects of molding, which enable NIL to stay 2D, but at the same time enable 3D applications which are "more than Moore." As an example, the manufacturing of a demonstrator for backlighting applications based on thermally activated selective topography equilibration will be presented. This technique allows generating almost arbitrary sloped, convex and concave profiles in the same polymer film with dimensions in micro- and nanometer scale.
Fast optimization of static axisymmetric shell structures
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Jacoby, Jeffrey
An axisymmetric shell optimization procedure is developed which is a fast, user-friendly and practical tool for design use in disciplines including aerospace, mechanical and civil engineering. The shape and thickness of a shell can be optimized to minimize shell mass, mass/volume ratio or stress with constraints imposed on von Mises stress and local buckling. The procedure was created with the aid of the GENOPT optimization development system (Dr. D. Bushnell, Lockheed Missiles and Space Co) and uses the FAST1 shell analysis program (Prof. C. R. Steele, Stanford University) to perform the constraint analysis. The optimization method used is the modified method of feasible directions. The procedure is fast because exact analysis methods allow complex shells to be modelled with only a few large shell elements and still retain a sufficiently accurate solution. This is of particular advantage near shell boundaries and intersections which can have small regions of very detailed variation in the solution. Finite element methods would require many small elements to capture accurately this detail with a resulting increase in computation time and model complexity. Reducing the complexity of the model also reduces the size of the required input and contributes to the simplicity of the procedure. Optimization design variables are the radial and axial coordinates of nodes and the shape parameters and thicknesses of the elements. Thickness distribution within an element can be optimized by specifying the thickness at evenly spaced control points. Spline interpolation is used to provide a smooth thickness variation between the control points. An effective method is developed for reducing the number of required stress constraint equations. Various shells have been optimized and include models for comparison with published results. Shape, thickness and shape/thickness optimization has been performed on examples including a simple aerobrake, sphere-nozzle intersections, ring
Induced stresses due to fluid extraction from axisymmetric reservoirs
Segall, P.
1992-01-01
Earthquakes can be induced by fluid extraction, as well as by fluid injection. Segall (1989) proposed that poroelastic stresses are responsible for inducing earthquakes associated with fluid extraction. Here, I present methods for computing poroelastic stress changes due to fluid extraction for general axisymmetric reservoir geometries. The results of Geertsma (1973) for a thin disk reservoir with uniform pressure drop are recovered as a special case. Predicted surface subsidence agrees very well with measured leveling changes over the deep Lacq gas field in southwestern France. The induced stresses are finite if the reservoir pressure changes are continuous. Computed stress changes are on the order of several bars, suggesting that the preexisting stress states in regions of extraction induced seismicity are very close to frictional instability prior to production. ?? 1992 Birkha??user Verlag.
Numerical simulation of axisymmetric turbulent flow in combustors and diffusers
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Yung, Chain-Nan; Keith, Theo G., Jr.; De Witt, Kenneth J.
1989-01-01
Numerical studies of turbulent flow in an axisymmetric 45-deg-expansion combustor and bifurcated diffuser are presented. The Navier-Stokes equations incorporating a k-epsilon model were solved in a nonorthogonal curvilinear coordinate system. A zonal-grid method, where the flow field was divided into several subsections, was developed. This approach permitted different computational schemes to be used in the various zones. In addition, grid generation was made a more simple task. Boundary overlap and interpolating techniques were used, and an adjustment of the flow variables was required to assure conservation of mass flux. Three finite-differencing methods (hybrid, quadratic upwind, and skew upwind) were used to represent the convection terms. Results were compared with existing experimental data. In general, good agreement between predicted and measured values was obtained.
Development of a moderately sized finite element program for nonlinear structural analysis
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Haisler, W. E.
1977-01-01
AGGIE 1 is a computer program for predicting the linear and nonlinear, static and dynamic structural response of two- and three-dimensional continuum solids. The program is based on isoparametric finite elements and allows for 2-D plane stress, plane strain, and axisymmetric analyses and general 3-D analyses. Large strain kinematics is based on the total Lagrangian formulation. Materially nonlinear models include several elastic-plastic work-hardening models as well as an incompressible Mooney-Rivlin model. Included in this report is a brief description of the theoretical bases of the program, the material models used, the element library and the overall program organization. Instructions for data input preparation are given in detail. Several sample problems are given along with the required program input and program generated solutions.
An inverse design method for 2D airfoil
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Liang, Zhi-Yong; Cui, Peng; Zhang, Gen-Bao
2010-03-01
The computational method for aerodynamic design of aircraft is applied more universally than before, in which the design of an airfoil is a hot problem. The forward problem is discussed by most relative papers, but inverse method is more useful in practical designs. In this paper, the inverse design of 2D airfoil was investigated. A finite element method based on the variational principle was used for carrying out. Through the simulation, it was shown that the method was fit for the design.
2d PDE Linear Symmetric Matrix Solver
1983-10-01
ICCG2 (Incomplete Cholesky factorized Conjugate Gradient algorithm for 2d symmetric problems) was developed to solve a linear symmetric matrix system arising from a 9-point discretization of two-dimensional elliptic and parabolic partial differential equations found in plasma physics applications, such as resistive MHD, spatial diffusive transport, and phase space transport (Fokker-Planck equation) problems. These problems share the common feature of being stiff and requiring implicit solution techniques. When these parabolic or elliptic PDE''s are discretized withmore » finite-difference or finite-element methods,the resulting matrix system is frequently of block-tridiagonal form. To use ICCG2, the discretization of the two-dimensional partial differential equation and its boundary conditions must result in a block-tridiagonal supermatrix composed of elementary tridiagonal matrices. The incomplete Cholesky conjugate gradient algorithm is used to solve the linear symmetric matrix equation. Loops are arranged to vectorize on the Cray1 with the CFT compiler, wherever possible. Recursive loops, which cannot be vectorized, are written for optimum scalar speed. For matrices lacking symmetry, ILUCG2 should be used. Similar methods in three dimensions are available in ICCG3 and ILUCG3. A general source containing extensions and macros, which must be processed by a pre-compiler to obtain the standard FORTRAN source, is provided along with the standard FORTRAN source because it is believed to be more readable. The pre-compiler is not included, but pre-compilation may be performed by a text editor as described in the UCRL-88746 Preprint.« less
2d PDE Linear Asymmetric Matrix Solver
1983-10-01
ILUCG2 (Incomplete LU factorized Conjugate Gradient algorithm for 2d problems) was developed to solve a linear asymmetric matrix system arising from a 9-point discretization of two-dimensional elliptic and parabolic partial differential equations found in plasma physics applications, such as plasma diffusion, equilibria, and phase space transport (Fokker-Planck equation) problems. These equations share the common feature of being stiff and requiring implicit solution techniques. When these parabolic or elliptic PDE''s are discretized with finite-difference or finite-elementmore » methods, the resulting matrix system is frequently of block-tridiagonal form. To use ILUCG2, the discretization of the two-dimensional partial differential equation and its boundary conditions must result in a block-tridiagonal supermatrix composed of elementary tridiagonal matrices. A generalization of the incomplete Cholesky conjugate gradient algorithm is used to solve the matrix equation. Loops are arranged to vectorize on the Cray1 with the CFT compiler, wherever possible. Recursive loops, which cannot be vectorized, are written for optimum scalar speed. For problems having a symmetric matrix ICCG2 should be used since it runs up to four times faster and uses approximately 30% less storage. Similar methods in three dimensions are available in ICCG3 and ILUCG3. A general source, containing extensions and macros, which must be processed by a pre-compiler to obtain the standard FORTRAN source, is provided along with the standard FORTRAN source because it is believed to be more readable. The pre-compiler is not included, but pre-compilation may be performed by a text editor as described in the UCRL-88746 Preprint.« less
Axisymmetric whole pin life modelling of advanced gas-cooled reactor nuclear fuel
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Mella, R.; Wenman, M. R.
2013-06-01
Thermo-mechanical contributions to pellet-clad interaction (PCI) in advanced gas-cooled reactors (AGRs) are modelled in the ABAQUS finite element (FE) code. User supplied sub-routines permit the modelling of the non-linear behaviour of AGR fuel through life. Through utilisation of ABAQUS's well-developed pre- and post-processing ability, the behaviour of the axially constrained steel clad fuel was modelled. The 2D axisymmetric model includes thermo-mechanical behaviour of the fuel with time and condition dependent material properties. Pellet cladding gap dynamics and thermal behaviour are also modelled. The model treats heat up as a fully coupled temperature-displacement study. Dwell time and direct power cycling was applied to model the impact of online refuelling, a key feature of the AGR. The model includes the visco-plastic behaviour of the fuel under the stress and irradiation conditions within an AGR core and a non-linear heat transfer model. A multiscale fission gas release model is applied to compute pin pressure; this model is coupled to the PCI gap model through an explicit fission gas inventory code. Whole pin, whole life, models are able to show the impact of the fuel on all segments of cladding including weld end caps and cladding pellet locking mechanisms (unique to AGR fuel). The development of this model in a commercial FE package shows that the development of a potentially verified and future-proof fuel performance code can be created and used. The usability of a FE based fuel performance code would be an enhancement over past codes. Pre- and post-processors have lowered the entry barrier for the development of a fuel performance model to permit the ability to model complicated systems. Typical runtimes for a 5 year axisymmetric model takes less than one hour on a single core workstation. The current model has implemented: Non-linear fuel thermal behaviour, including a complex description of heat flow in the fuel. Coupled with a variety of
Magneto-hydrodynamically stable axisymmetric mirrorsa)
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ryutov, D. D.; Berk, H. L.; Cohen, B. I.; Molvik, A. W.; Simonen, T. C.
2011-09-01
Making axisymmetric mirrors magnetohydrodynamically (MHD) stable opens up exciting opportunities for using mirror devices as neutron sources, fusion-fission hybrids, and pure-fusion reactors. This is also of interest from a general physics standpoint (as it seemingly contradicts well-established criteria of curvature-driven instabilities). The axial symmetry allows for much simpler and more reliable designs of mirror-based fusion facilities than the well-known quadrupole mirror configurations. In this tutorial, after a summary of classical results, several techniques for achieving MHD stabilization of the axisymmetric mirrors are considered, in particular: (1) employing the favorable field-line curvature in the end tanks; (2) using the line-tying effect; (3) controlling the radial potential distribution; (4) imposing a divertor configuration on the solenoidal magnetic field; and (5) affecting the plasma dynamics by the ponderomotive force. Some illuminative theoretical approaches for understanding axisymmetric mirror stability are described. The applicability of the various stabilization techniques to axisymmetric mirrors as neutron sources, hybrids, and pure-fusion reactors are discussed; and the constraints on the plasma parameters are formulated.
Fabrication of Submillimeter Axisymmetric Optical Components
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Grudinin, Ivan; Savchenkov, Anatoliy; Strekalov, Dmitry
2007-01-01
It is now possible to fashion transparent crystalline materials into axisymmetric optical components having diameters ranging from hundreds down to tens of micrometers, whereas previously, the smallest attainable diameter was 500 m. A major step in the fabrication process that makes this possible can be characterized as diamond turning or computer numerically controlled machining on an ultrahigh-precision lathe.
Axisymmetric ideal MHD stellar wind flow
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Heinemann, M.; Olbert, S.
1978-01-01
The ideal MHD equations are reduced to a single equation under the assumption of axisymmetric flow. A variational principle from which the equation is derivable is given. The characteristics of the equation are briefly discussed. The equation is used to rederive the theorem of Gussenhoven and Carovillano.
Non-Ideal ELM Stability and Non-Axisymmetric Field Penetration Calculations with M3D-C1
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ferraro, N. M.; Chu, M. S.; Snyder, P. B.; Jardin, S. C.; Luo, X.
2009-11-01
Numerical studies of ELM stability and non-axisymmetric field penetration in diverted DIII-D and NSTX equilibria are presented, with resistive and finite Larmor radius effects included. These results are obtained with the nonlinear two-fluid code M3D-C1, which has recently been extended to allow linear non-axisymmetric calculations. Benchmarks of M3D-C1 with ideal codes ELITE and GATO show good agreement for the linear stability of peeling-ballooning modes in the ideal limit. New calculations of the resistive stability of ideally stable DIII-D equilibria are presented. M3D-C1 has also been used to calculate the linear response to non-axisymmetric external fields; these calculations are benchmarked with Surfmn and MARS-F. New numerical methods implemented in M3D-C1 are presented, including the treatment of boundary conditions with C^1 elements in a non-rectangular mesh.
Axisymmetric, Nonstationary Black Hole Magnetospheres: Revisited
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Song, Yoo Geun; Park, Seok Jae
2015-10-01
An axisymmetric, stationary, general-relativistic, electrodynamic engine model of an active galactic nucleus was formulated by Macdonald and Thorne that consisted of a supermassive black hole surrounded by a plasma magnetosphere and a magnetized accretion disk. Based on this initial formulation, a nonstationary, force-free version of their model was constructed by Park & Vishniac (PV), with the simplifying assumption that the poloidal component of the magnetic field line velocity be confined along the radial direction in cylindrical polar coordinates. In this paper, we derive the new, nonstationary “Transfield Equation,” which was not specified in PV. If we can solve this “Transfield Equation” numerically, then we will understand the axisymmetric, nonstationary black hole magnetosphere in more rigorous ways.
Attitude stability criteria of axisymmetric solar sail
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Hu, Xiaosai; Gong, Shengping; Li, Junfeng
2014-07-01
Passive attitude stability criteria of a solar sail whose membrane surface is axisymmetric are studied in this paper under a general SRP model. This paper proves that arbitrary attitude equilibrium position can be designed through adjusting the deviation between the pressure center and the mass center of the sail. The linearized method is applied to inspect analytically the stability of the equilibrium point from two different points of views. The results show that the attitude stability depends on the membrane surface shape and area. The results of simulation with full dynamic equations confirm that the two stability criteria are effective in judging the attitude stability for axisymmetric solar sail. Several possible applications of the study are also mentioned.
Axisymmetric single shear element combustion instability experiment
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Breisacher, Kevin J.
1993-06-01
The combustion stability characteristics of a combustor consisting of a single shear element and a cylindrical chamber utilizing LOX and gaseous hydrogen as propellants are presented. The combustor geometry and the resulting longitudinal mode instability are axisymmetric. Hydrogen injection temperature and pyrotechnic pulsing were used to determine stability boundaries. Mixture ratio, fuel annulus gap, and LOX post configuration were varied. Performance and stability data are presented for chamber pressures of 300 and 1000 psia.
Nonlinear axisymmetric flexural vibration of spherical shells
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Kunieda, H.
1972-01-01
Axisymmetric responses are presented of a nonshallow thin-walled spherical shell on the basis of nonlinear bending theory. An ordinary differential equation with nonlinearity of quadratic as well as cubic terms associated with variable time is derived. The derivation is based on the assumption that the deflection mode is the sum of four Legendre polynomials, and the Galerkin procedure is applied. The equation is solved by asymptotic expansion, and a first approximate solution is adopted. Unstable regions of this solution are discussed.
Axisymmetric single shear element combustion instability experiment
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Breisacher, Kevin J.
1993-01-01
The combustion stability characteristics of a combustor consisting of a single shear element and a cylindrical chamber utilizing LOX and gaseous hydrogen as propellants are presented. The combustor geometry and the resulting longitudinal mode instability are axisymmetric. Hydrogen injection temperature and pyrotechnic pulsing were used to determine stability boundaries. Mixture ratio, fuel annulus gap, and LOX post configuration were varied. Performance and stability data are presented for chamber pressures of 300 and 1000 psia.
Axisymmetric single shear element combustion instability experiment
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Breisacher, Kevin J.
1993-01-01
The combustion stability characteristics of a combustor consisting of a single shear element and a cylindrical chamber utilizing LOX and gaseous hydrogen as propellants are presented. The combustor geometry and the resulting longitudinal mode instability are axisymmetric. Hydrogen injection temperature and pyrotechnic pulsing were used to determine stability boundaries. Mixture ratio, fuel annulus gap, and LOX post configuration were varied. Performance and stability data were obtained for chamber pressures of 300 and 1000 psia.
NKG2D ligands as therapeutic targets
Spear, Paul; Wu, Ming-Ru; Sentman, Marie-Louise; Sentman, Charles L.
2013-01-01
The Natural Killer Group 2D (NKG2D) receptor plays an important role in protecting the host from infections and cancer. By recognizing ligands induced on infected or tumor cells, NKG2D modulates lymphocyte activation and promotes immunity to eliminate ligand-expressing cells. Because these ligands are not widely expressed on healthy adult tissue, NKG2D ligands may present a useful target for immunotherapeutic approaches in cancer. Novel therapies targeting NKG2D ligands for the treatment of cancer have shown preclinical success and are poised to enter into clinical trials. In this review, the NKG2D receptor and its ligands are discussed in the context of cancer, infection, and autoimmunity. In addition, therapies targeting NKG2D ligands in cancer are also reviewed. PMID:23833565
Lin, Zhen; Fu, Mengyin; Deng, Zhihong; Liu, Ning; Liu, Hong
2015-01-01
The resonator of a solid-state vibratory gyro is responsible for sensing angular motion. Frequency splitting of an axisymmetric-shell resonator is a common problem caused by manufacturing defects. The defect causes a frequency difference between two working modes which consist of two nodes and two antinodes. The difference leads to the loss of gyroscopic effect, and thus the resonator cannot sense angular motion. In this paper, the resonator based on an axisymmetric multi-curved surface shell structure is investigated and an approach to eliminate frequency splits is proposed. Since axisymmetric multi-curved surface shell resonators are too complex to be modeled, this paper proposes a simplified model by focusing on a common property of the axisymmetric shell. The resonator with stochastic imperfections is made equivalent to a perfect shell with an imperfect mass point. Rayleigh's energy method is used in the theoretical analysis. Finite element modeling is used to demonstrate the effectiveness of the elimination approach. In real cases, a resonator's frequency split is eliminated by the proposed approach. In this paper, errors in the theoretical analysis are discussed and steps to be taken when the deviation between assumptions and the real situation is large are figured out. The resonator has good performance after processing. The elimination approach can be applied to any kind of solid-state vibratory gyro resonators with an axisymmetric shell structure. PMID:25648707
Finite element analysis of inviscid subsonic boattail flow
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Chima, R. V.; Gerhart, P. M.
1981-01-01
A finite element code for analysis of inviscid subsonic flows over arbitrary nonlifting planar or axisymmetric bodies is described. The code solves a novel primitive variable formulation of the coupled irrotationality and compressible continuity equations. Results for flow over a cylinder, a sphere, and a NACA 0012 airfoil verify the code. Computed subcritical flows over an axisymmetric boattailed afterbody compare well with finite difference results and experimental data. Interative coupling with an integral turbulent boundary layer code shows strong viscous effects on the inviscid flow. Improvements in code efficiency and extensions to transonic flows are discussed.
Transient unsteadiness of SWBLI in an axisymmetric geometry
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Baars, Woutijn J.; Tinney, Charles E.
2013-11-01
Shock wave boundary layer interactions (SWBLIs) inside an axisymmetric large area ratio nozzle (Me = 5 . 58) are studied by way of unsteady wall pressure measurements. First, a case of non-transient SWBLI is considered by operating at a nozzle pressure ratio of 28.7, at which a RSS structure forms with trapped annular separation bubbles [Baars et al. AIAA J. 50:1, 2012]. Conditional selection of the data [Erengil and Dolling, AIAA J. 29:5, 1991] resemble similar unsteady features as encountered in nominally 2D interactions. That is, 1) pressures increase in the separated regions as the incipient separation shock translates downstream, and vice versa, which indicates a breathing behavior, and 2) the PDF of the time between shock crossings in the intermittent region is highly skewed, e.g. the shock zero frequency is 33% of the most probable frequency. Secondly, ramping the pressure ratio sweeps the shock system over the transducers and allows the study of transient SWBLI. Time-frequency analyses reveal global features of the unsteady wall signatures, such as low-frequency oscillations in separated regions, and it is identified that nozzle shut-downs are more energetic than start-ups. Post Doctoral Research Fellow.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Insfrán, J. F.; Ubal, S.; Di Paolo, y. J.
2016-04-01
A simplified model of a proximal convoluted tubule of an average human nephron is presented. The model considers the 2D axisymmetric flow of the luminal solution exchanging matter with the tubule walls and the peritubular fluid by means of 0D models for the epithelial cells. The tubule radius is considered to vary along the conduit due to the trans-epithelial pressure difference. The fate of more than ten typical solutes is tracked down by the model. The Navier-Stokes and Reaction-Diffusion-Advection equations (considering the electro-neutrality principle) are solved in the lumen, giving a detailed picture of the velocity, pressure and concentration fields, along with trans-membrane fluxes and tubule deformation, via coupling with the 0D model for the tubule wall. The calculations are carried out numerically by means of the finite element method. The results obtained show good agreement with those published by other authors using models that ignore the diffusive transport and disregard a detailed calculation of velocity, pressure and concentrations. This work should be seen as a first approach towards the development of a more comprehensive model of the filtration process taking place in the kidneys, which ultimately helps in devising a device that can mimic/complement the renal function.
Perspectives for spintronics in 2D materials
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Han, Wei
2016-03-01
The past decade has been especially creative for spintronics since the (re)discovery of various two dimensional (2D) materials. Due to the unusual physical characteristics, 2D materials have provided new platforms to probe the spin interaction with other degrees of freedom for electrons, as well as to be used for novel spintronics applications. This review briefly presents the most important recent and ongoing research for spintronics in 2D materials.
Breakdown of wave diffusion in 2D due to loops.
Haney, Matthew; Snieder, Roel
2003-08-29
The validity of the diffusion approximation for the intensity of multiply scattered waves is tested with numerical simulations in a strongly scattering 2D medium of finite extent. We show that the diffusion equation underestimates the intensity and attribute this to both the neglect of recurrent scattering paths and interference within diffusion theory. We present a theory to quantify this discrepancy based on counting all possible scattering paths between point scatterers. Interference phenomena, due to loop paths, are incorporated in a way similar to coherent backscattering. PMID:14525183
A parallel splitting wavelet method for 2D conservation laws
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Schmidt, Alex A.; Kozakevicius, Alice J.; Jakobsson, Stefan
2016-06-01
The current work presents a parallel formulation using the MPI protocol for an adaptive high order finite difference scheme to solve 2D conservation laws. Adaptivity is achieved at each time iteration by the application of an interpolating wavelet transform in each space dimension. High order approximations for the numerical fluxes are computed by ENO and WENO schemes. Since time evolution is made by a TVD Runge-Kutta space splitting scheme, the problem is naturally suitable for parallelization. Numerical simulations and speedup results are presented for Euler equations in gas dynamics problems.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Bouclier, R.; Elguedj, T.; Combescure, A.
2013-11-01
This work deals with the development of 2D solid shell non-uniform rational B-spline elements. We address a static problem, that can be solved with a 2D model, involving a thin slender structure under small perturbations. The plane stress, plane strain and axisymmetric assumption can be made. projection and reduced integration techniques are considered to deal with the locking phenomenon. The use of the approach leads to the implementation of two strategies insensitive to locking: the first strategy is based on a 1D projection of the mean strain across the thickness; the second strategy undertakes to project all the strains onto a suitably chosen 2D space. Conversely, the reduced integration approach based on Gauss points is less expensive, but only alleviates locking and is limited to quadratic approximations. The performance of the various 2D elements developed is assessed through several numerical examples. Simple extensions of these techniques to 3D are finally performed.
Non-axisymmetric ultrasonic guided waves for tubing inspection
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Shin, Hyeon Jae
1997-11-01
The purpose of this study is to understand the physical phenomena of wave propagation in hollow cylinders and also to investigate the utility of ultrasonic guided waves in hollow cylinders for nondestructive evaluation purposes. In this document, a theoretical and experimental study of axisymmetric and non-axisymmetric ultrasonic guided wave modes is carried out. Guided wave modes in hollow cylinders are calculated and are represented in phase and group velocity dispersion diagrams based on wave mechanics and the theory of elasticity. Guided wave propagation characteristics and proper mode selection concepts are discussed by analyzing the acoustic fields. Excellent inspection results of using axisymmetric modes for programmed flaws are given. Designs of a bore probe and specifications of a high power tone burst system are given for practical implementation. The work also focuses on an experimental study on the utilization of non-axisymmetric guided waves generated by a non-axisymmetric oblique incident partial loading transducer setup. For complete coverage in tubing inspection with non-axisymmetric guided waves, three dimensional tuning concepts are developed. An experimental study on the relationship between the circumferential loading angle and the generated guided waves was carried out. It is found that a 180 degree partial loading comb transducer set up could generate strong axisymmetric modes. The expected non-axisymmetric guided wave fields are studied by normal mode expansion. The non-axisymmetric source design parameters are discussed for partial uniform pressure loading on the outer boundary of a sample tube.
Preferential axisymmetric field growth in kinematic geodynamo models
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Livermore, Philip W.; Jackson, Andrew
2004-11-01
Earth's magnetic field, generated by fluid motion and inductive processes in Earth's core, has a predominantly axisymmetric dipolar component. Yet indefinite self-excitation of purely axisymmetric fields through any dynamo mechanism is specifically disallowed, begging the question of why the geodynamo sustains this dominant axisymmetric component. By considering a number of different fluid flow models modified from existing studies, we show that axisymmetric fields are consistently the most easily regenerated magnetic fields on short timescales, despite the fact that on long timescales they must die away. We argue that this transient field generation may play an important role in generating Earth's magnetic field, especially in the recovery after reversals.
Multiscale simulation of 2D elastic wave propagation
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Zhang, Wensheng; Zheng, Hui
2016-06-01
In this paper, we develop the multiscale method for simulation of elastic wave propagation. Based on the first-order velocity-stress hyperbolic form of 2D elastic wave equation, the particle velocities are solved first ona coarse grid by the finite volume method. Then the stress tensor is solved by using the multiscale basis functions which can represent the fine-scale variation of the wavefield on the coarse grid. The basis functions are computed by solving a local problem with the finite element method. The theoretical formulae and description of the multiscale method for elastic wave equation are given in more detail. The numerical computations for an inhomogeneous model with random scatter are completed. The results show the effectiveness of the multiscale method.
The breaking of axisymmetric slender liquid bridges
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Meseguer, J.
1983-05-01
Liquids held by surface tension forces can bridge the gap between two solid bodies placed not too far apart from each other. The equilibrium conditions and stability criteria for static, cylindrical liquid bridges are well known. However, the behaviour of an unstable liquid bridge, regarding both its transition toward breaking and the resulting configuration, is a matter for discussion. The dynamical problem of axisymmetric rupture of a long liquid bridge anchored at two equal coaxial disks is treated in this paper through the adoption of one-dimensional theories which are widely used in capillary jet problems.
Lagrangian aspects of the axisymmetric Euler equation
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Preston, Stephen C.; Sarria, Alejandro
2016-03-01
In this paper we are interested in geometric aspects of blowup in the axisymmetric three-dimensional (3D) Euler equations with swirl on a cylinder. Writing the equations in Lagrangian form for the flow derivative along either the axis or the boundary and imposing oddness on the vertical component of the flow, we extend some blowup criteria due to Chae, Constantin and Wu related to assumptions on the sign of the pressure Hessian. In addition. we give a geometric interpretation of the results, both in terms of the local geometry along trajectories and in terms of the Riemannian geometry of the volume-preserving diffeomorphism group.
Isodynamic axisymmetric equilibrium near the magnetic axis
Arsenin, V. V.
2013-08-15
Plasma equilibrium near the magnetic axis of an axisymmetric toroidal magnetic confinement system is described in orthogonal flux coordinates. For the case of a constant current density in the vicinity of the axis and magnetic surfaces with nearly circular cross sections, expressions for the poloidal and toroidal magnetic field components are obtained in these coordinates by using expansion in the reciprocal of the aspect ratio. These expressions allow one to easily derive relationships between quantities in an isodynamic equilibrium, in which the absolute value of the magnetic field is constant along the magnetic surface (Palumbo’s configuration)
Isodynamic axisymmetric equilibrium near the magnetic axis
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Arsenin, V. V.
2013-08-01
Plasma equilibrium near the magnetic axis of an axisymmetric toroidal magnetic confinement system is described in orthogonal flux coordinates. For the case of a constant current density in the vicinity of the axis and magnetic surfaces with nearly circular cross sections, expressions for the poloidal and toroidal magnetic field components are obtained in these coordinates by using expansion in the reciprocal of the aspect ratio. These expressions allow one to easily derive relationships between quantities in an isodynamic equilibrium, in which the absolute value of the magnetic field is constant along the magnetic surface (Palumbo's configuration).
Mach disk from underexpanded axisymmetric nozzle flow
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Chang, I.-S.; Chow, W. L.
1974-01-01
The flowfield associated with the underexpanded axisymmetric nozzle freejet flow including the appearance of a Mach disk has been studied. It is shown that the location and size of the Mach disk are governed by the appearance of a triple-point shock configuration and the condition that the central core flow will reach a state of 'choking at a throat'. It is recognized that coalescence of waves requires special attention and the reflected wave, as well as the vorticity generated from these wave interactions, have to be taken accurately into account. The theoretical results obtained agreed well with the experimental data.
Axisymmetric scrape-off plasma transport
Singer, C.E.; Langer, W.D.
1983-05-01
The two-dimensional flow of a collision dominated hydrogen scrape-off plasma in an axisymmetric tokamak is examined. This flow is described by a set of equations which contain the dominant terms in a maximal ordering appropriate to high density experimental divertors and reactor scrape-off plasmas. Comparison of the theory to estimates of scrape-off parameters in the Doublet III expanded boundary plasmas suggests that analysis of classical and neoclassical processes alone may be sufficient to predict plasma transport in high density scrape-off plasmas of practical importance.
Minimal energy damping in an axisymmetric flow
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Sachs, Alexander
2008-05-01
The method of Lagrange's undetermined multipliers is used to find the velocity field which minimizes the energy damping for a viscous incompressible fluid described by the Navier- Stoke equation. The vorticity of this velocity field obeys a Helmholtz equation with an undetermined parameter. This Helmholtz equation is used to determine the axisymmetric velocity field in a cylinder. This velocity field is slightly different from the Poiseuille velocity field. The rate of energy damping per unit energy is calculated as a function of the parameter. It is a minimum when the parameter is equal to the root of a Bessel function.
Rapid Numerical Simulation of Viscous Axisymmetric Flow Fields
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Tweedt, Daniel L.; Chima, Rodrick V.
1995-01-01
A two-dimensional Navier-Stokes code has been developed for rapid numerical simulation of axisymmetric flow fields, including flow fields with an azimuthal velocity component. The azimuthal-invariant Navier-Stokes equations in a cylindrical coordinate system are mapped to a general body-fitted coordinate system, with the streamwise viscous terms then neglected by applying the thin-layer approximation. Turbulence effects are modeled using an algebraic model, typically the Baldwin-Lomax turbulence model, although a modified Cebeci-Smith model can also be used. The equations are discretized using central finite differences and solved using a multistage Runge-Kutta algorithm with a spatially varying time step and implicit residual smoothing. Results are presented for calculations of supersonic flow over a waisted body-of-revolution, transonic flow through a normal shock wave in a straight circular duct of constant cross sectional area, swirling supersonic (inviscid) flow through a strong shock in a straight radial duct, and swirling subsonic flow in an annular-to-circular diffuser duct. Comparisons between computed and experimental results are in fair to good agreement, demonstrating that the viscous code can be a useful tool for practical engineering design and analysis work.
Axisymmetric toroidal modes of general relativistic magnetized neutron star models
Asai, Hidetaka; Lee, Umin E-mail: lee@astr.tohoku.ac.jp
2014-07-20
We calculate axisymmetric toroidal modes of magnetized neutron stars with a solid crust in the general relativistic Cowling approximation. We assume that the interior of the star is threaded by a poloidal magnetic field, which is continuous at the surface with an outside dipole field. We examine the cases of the field strength B{sub S} ∼ 10{sup 16} G at the surface. Since separation of variables is not possible for the oscillations of magnetized stars, we employ finite series expansions for the perturbations using spherical harmonic functions. We find discrete normal toroidal modes of odd parity, but no toroidal modes of even parity are found. The frequencies of the toroidal modes form distinct mode sequences and the frequency in a given mode sequence gradually decreases as the number of radial nodes of the eigenfunction increases. From the frequency spectra computed for neutron stars of different masses, we find that the frequency is almost exactly proportional to B{sub S} and is well represented by a linear function of R/M for a given B{sub S}, where M and R are the mass and radius of the star. The toroidal mode frequencies for B{sub S} ∼ 10{sup 15} G are in the frequency range of the quasi-periodic oscillations (QPOs) detected in the soft-gamma-ray repeaters, but we find that the toroidal normal modes cannot explain all the detected QPO frequencies.
Kinetic axisymmetric gravitational equilibria in collisionless accretion disk plasmas
Cremaschini, Claudio; Miller, John C.; Tessarotto, Massimo
2010-07-15
A theoretical treatment is presented of kinetic equilibria in accretion disks (AD) around compact objects, for cases where the plasma can be considered as collisionless. The plasma is assumed to be axisymmetric and to be acted on by gravitational and electromagnetic fields; in this paper, the particular case is considered where the magnetic field admits a family of toroidal magnetic surfaces, which are locally mutually nested and closed. It is pointed out that there exist asymptotic kinetic equilibria represented by generalized bi-Maxwellian distribution functions and characterized by primarily toroidal differential rotation and temperature anisotropy. It is conjectured that kinetic equilibria of this type can exist which are able to sustain both toroidal and poloidal electric current densities, the latter being produced via finite Larmor-radius effects associated with the temperature anisotropy. This leads to the possibility of existence of a new kinetic effect - referred to here as a 'kinetic dynamo effect - resulting in the self-generation of toroidal magnetic field even by a stationary plasma, without any net radial accretion flow being required. The conditions for these equilibria to occur, their basic theoretical features, and their physical properties are all discussed in detail.
Axisymmetric Time-Dependent Computations of Expansion Tube Flow
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Wilson, Gregory J.; Arnold, James O. (Technical Monitor)
1994-01-01
The goal of this work is to add insight about the flow within expansion tubes by using computational fluid dynamics. This is accomplished by comparing the results of axisymmetric numerical simulations with finite-rate chemistry to data from the HYPULSE expansion tube facility which was previously the NASA Langley expansion tube. The numerical simulations begin at the opening of the primary diaphragm and compute the flow throughout the whole facility and, thus, are able to follow and assess the effect of many of the flow features created during operation of the facility. One particular issue that will be investigated is the effect of boundary layer formation in the acceleration tube on the test gas volume and test gas conditions. Both laminar and turbulent boundary layers will be implemented. The effect of momentary shock reflection off the secondary diaphragm will also be investigated. There is concern that such a reflection will stagnate the test gas and create high levels of dissociated molecules. This is particularly important in propulsion experiments where a freestream composition different from flight conditions may influence ignition and burning data. Several different models of diaphragm rupture will be implemented in order to help understand the importance of this issue.
Suppression of the first flute mode in a long axisymmetric mirror system
Arsenin, V.V.
1982-05-01
The lowest mode of the flute instability of a plasma with ..beta..<<1 in a confinement system with a simple mirror field: the displacement of the plasma as a whole: can be suppressed if the confinement system is connected with another plasma-filled, axisymmetric, annular confinement system, so that there is a sharp maximum in B beyond the outer boundary of the bell-shaped plasma in the annular system. If the simple mirror is so long that all the other flute modes are stabilized by the finite-Larmor-radius effect, the plasma proves stable with respect to flute perturbations.
Magnetic-divertor stabilization of an axisymmetric plasma with anisotropic temperature
Sasagawa, Y.; Katanuma, I.; Mizoguchi, Y.; Cho, T.; Pastukhov, V. P.
2006-12-15
Magnetohydrodynamic stabilization of an axisymmetric mirror plasma with a magnetic divertor is studied. An equation is found for the flute modes, which includes the stabilizing influence of ion temperature anisotropy and nonparaxial magnetic fields, as well as a finite ion Larmor radius. It is shown that if the density profile is sufficiently gentle, then the nonparaxial configuration can stabilize all modes as long as ion temperature is radially uniform. This can be demonstrated even when the density vanishes on the separatrix and even for small ion Larmor radii. It is found, however, that the ion temperature gradient makes the unstable region wider; high ion temperature is required to stabilize the flute mode.
Antenna design for microwave hepatic ablation using an axisymmetric electromagnetic model
Bertram, John M; Yang, Deshan; Converse, Mark C; Webster, John G; Mahvi, David M
2006-01-01
Background An axisymmetric finite element method (FEM) model was employed to demonstrate important techniques used in the design of antennas for hepatic microwave ablation (MWA). To effectively treat deep-seated hepatic tumors, these antennas should produce a highly localized specific absorption rate (SAR) pattern and be efficient radiators at approved generator frequencies. Methods and results As an example, a double slot choked antenna for hepatic MWA was designed and implemented using FEMLAB™ 3.0. Discussion This paper emphasizes the importance of factors that can affect simulation accuracy, which include boundary conditions, the dielectric properties of liver tissue, and mesh resolution. PMID:16504153
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Pittman, C. M.; Howser, L. M.
1972-01-01
The differential equations governing the transient response of the char layer of an ablating axisymmetric body, internal pyrolysis gas flow effects being considered, have been derived. These equations have been expanded into finite difference form and programed for numerical solution on a digital computer. Numerical results compare favorably with simplified exact solutions. The complete numerical analysis was used to obtain solutions for two representative body shapes subjected to a typical entry heating environment. Pronounced effects of the lateral flow of pyrolysis gases on the mass flow field within the char layer and the associated surface and pyrolysis interface recession rates are shown.
Annotated Bibliography of EDGE2D Use
J.D. Strachan and G. Corrigan
2005-06-24
This annotated bibliography is intended to help EDGE2D users, and particularly new users, find existing published literature that has used EDGE2D. Our idea is that a person can find existing studies which may relate to his intended use, as well as gain ideas about other possible applications by scanning the attached tables.
Staring 2-D hadamard transform spectral imager
Gentry, Stephen M.; Wehlburg, Christine M.; Wehlburg, Joseph C.; Smith, Mark W.; Smith, Jody L.
2006-02-07
A staring imaging system inputs a 2D spatial image containing multi-frequency spectral information. This image is encoded in one dimension of the image with a cyclic Hadamarid S-matrix. The resulting image is detecting with a spatial 2D detector; and a computer applies a Hadamard transform to recover the encoded image.
Axisymmetric Numerical Modeling of Pulse Detonation Rocket Engines
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Morris, Christopher I.
2005-01-01
Pulse detonation rocket engines (PDREs) have generated research interest in recent years as a chemical propulsion system potentially offering improved performance and reduced complexity compared to conventional rocket engines. The detonative mode of combustion employed by these devices offers a thermodynamic advantage over the constant-pressure deflagrative combustion mode used in conventional rocket engines and gas turbines. However, while this theoretical advantage has spurred considerable interest in building PDRE devices, the unsteady blowdown process intrinsic to the PDRE has made realistic estimates of the actual propulsive performance problematic. The recent review article by Kailasanath highlights some of the progress that has been made in comparing the available experimental measurements with analytical and numerical models. In recent work by the author, a quasi-one-dimensional, finite rate chemistry CFD model was utilized to study the gasdynamics and performance characteristics of PDREs over a range of blowdown pressure ratios from 1-1000. Models of this type are computationally inexpensive, and enable first-order parametric studies of the effect of several nozzle and extension geometries on PDRE performance over a wide range of conditions. However, the quasi-one-dimensional approach is limited in that it cannot properly capture the multidimensional blast wave and flow expansion downstream of the PDRE, nor can it resolve nozzle flow separation if present. Moreover, the previous work was limited to single-pulse calculations. In this paper, an axisymmetric finite rate chemistry model is described and utilized to study these issues in greater detail. Example Mach number contour plots showing the multidimensional blast wave and nozzle exhaust plume are shown. The performance results are compared with the quasi-one-dimensional results from the previous paper. Both Euler and Navier-Stokes solutions are calculated in order to determine the effect of viscous
Resonances of piezoelectric plate with embedded 2D electron system
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Suslov, A. V.
2009-02-01
A thin GaAs/AlGaAs plate was studied by the resonant ultrasound spectroscopy (RUS) in the temperature range 0.3-10 K and in magnetic fields of up to 18 T. The resonance frequencies and linewidths were measured. Quantum oscillations of both these values were observed and were associated with the quantum Hall effect occurred in the 2D electron system. For an analysis the sample was treated as a dielectric piezoelectric plate covered on one side by a film with a field dependent conductivity. Screening of the strain-driven electric field was changed due to the variation of the electron relaxation time in the vicinity of the metal-dielectric transitions caused by the magnetic field in the 2D system. The dielectric film does not affect properties of GaAs and thus the resonance frequencies are defined only by the elastic, piezoelectric and dielectric constants of GaAs. A metallic 2D sheet effectively screens the parallel electric field, so the ultrasound wave velocities and resonance frequencies decrease when the sheet conductivity increases. Oscillations of the resonance linewidth reflect the influence of the 2D system on the ultrasound attenuation, which is proportional to the linewidth. A metallic film as well as a dielectric one does not affect this attenuation but at some finite nonzero value of the conductivity the linewidth approaches a maximum. In high magnetic field each oscillation of the conductivity produces one oscillation of a resonance frequency and two linewidth peaks. The observed phenomena can be described by the relaxation type equations and the resonant ultrasound spectroscopy opens another opportunity for contactless studies on 2D electron systems.
Toward automatic finite element analysis
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Kela, Ajay; Perucchio, Renato; Voelcker, Herbert
1987-01-01
Two problems must be solved if the finite element method is to become a reliable and affordable blackbox engineering tool. Finite element meshes must be generated automatically from computer aided design databases and mesh analysis must be made self-adaptive. The experimental system described solves both problems in 2-D through spatial and analytical substructuring techniques that are now being extended into 3-D.
Finite element analysis of wrinkling membranes
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Miller, R. K.; Hedgepeth, J. M.; Weingarten, V. I.; Das, P.; Kahyai, S.
1984-01-01
The development of a nonlinear numerical algorithm for the analysis of stresses and displacements in partly wrinkled flat membranes, and its implementation on the SAP VII finite-element code are described. A comparison of numerical results with exact solutions of two benchmark problems reveals excellent agreement, with good convergence of the required iterative procedure. An exact solution of a problem involving axisymmetric deformations of a partly wrinkled shallow curved membrane is also reported.
Turbulent dynamo action in axisymmetric linear machine
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kabantsev, A. A.; Reva, V. B.; Sokolov, V. G.
1997-11-01
Generation of large-scale magnetic fields by turbulent motion of an electrically conducting fluids plays an important role not only for astrophysical applications, but also for magnetic fusion confinement phenomena. The well-studied turbulent dynamo α-effect comes from helical properties of turbulent motion. Under this dynamo the mean electric current is produced in the direction parallel or antiparallel to the mean magnetic field. In particular, the α-effect leads to the generation of plasma current along the magnetic field in reversed field pinches. We have shown that the α-effect takes place also in axisymmetric linear machines. In axisymmetric mirror traps AMBAL-M and MAL (BINP) the electrostatic turbulence, having mean helicity h≈ 6\\cdot 10^6 m/s^2, caused as a result of unstable differential rotation of plasma column in crossed E×B fields. By manipulating the trap's magnetic and plasma conditions, we can obtain both the parallel and the antiparallel B electric current to the order of 100 A/cm^2 (total current up to 6 kA) in the plasma. The measured mean electromotive force F_em= has linear growth with turbulent diffusion coefficient DT and reaches up to 50 V/m.
Classification of Stellar Orbits in Axisymmetric Galaxies
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Li, Baile; Holley-Bockelmann, Kelly; Khan, Fazeel Mahmood
2015-09-01
It is known that two supermassive black holes (SMBHs) cannot merge in a spherical galaxy within a Hubble time; an emerging picture is that galaxy geometry, rotation, and large potential perturbations may usher the SMBH binary through the critical three-body scattering phase and ultimately drive the SMBH to coalesce. We explore the orbital content within an N-body model of a mildly flattened, non-rotating, SMBH-embedded elliptical galaxy. When used as the foundation for a study on the SMBH binary coalescence, the black holes bypassed the binary stalling often seen within spherical galaxies and merged on gigayear timescales. Using both frequency-mapping and angular momentum criteria, we identify a wealth of resonant orbits in the axisymmetric model, including saucers, that are absent from an otherwise identical spherical system and that can potentially interact with the binary. We quantified the set of orbits that could be scattered by the SMBH binary, and found that the axisymmetric model contained nearly six times the number of these potential loss cone orbits compared to our equivalent spherical model. In this flattened model, the mass of these orbits is more than three times that of the SMBH, which is consistent with what the SMBH binary needs to scatter to transition into the gravitational wave regime.
Vortexons in axisymmetric Poiseuille pipe flows
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Fedele, F.; Dutykh, D.
2013-02-01
We present a study on the nonlinear dynamics of small long-wave disturbances to the laminar state in non-rotating axisymmetric Poiseuille pipe flows. At high Reynolds numbers, the associated Navier-Stokes equations can be reduced to a set of coupled Korteweg-de Vries-type (KdV) equations that support inviscid and smooth travelling waves numerically computed using the Petviashvili method. In physical space they correspond to localized toroidal vortices concentrated near the pipe boundaries (wall vortexons) or that wrap around the pipe axis (centre vortexons), in agreement with the analytical soliton solutions derived by Fedele (Fluid Dyn. Res., 44 (2012) 45509). The KdV dynamics of a perturbation is also investigated by means of a high accurate Fourier-based numerical scheme. We observe that an initial vortical patch splits into a centre vortexon radiating patches of vorticity near the wall. These can undergo further splitting leading to a proliferation of centre vortexons that eventually decay due to viscous effects. The splitting process originates from a radial flux of azimuthal vorticity from the wall to the pipe axis in agreement with the inverse cascade of cross-stream vorticity identified in channel flows by Eyink (Plysica D, 237 (2008) 1956). The inviscid vortexon most likely is unstable to non-axisymmetric disturbances and may be a precursor to puffs and slug flow formation.
Linear lateral vibration of axisymmetric liquid briges
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ferrera, C.; Montanero, J. M.; Cabezas, M. G.
A liquid bridge is a mass of liquid sustained by the action of the surface tension force between two parallel supporting disks Apart from their basic scientific interest a liquid bridge can be considered as the simplest idealization of the configuration appearing in the floating zone technique used for crystal growth and purification of high melting point materials footnote Messeguer et al emph Crystal Growth Res bf 5 27 1999 This has conferred considerable interest on the study of liquid bridges not only in fluid mechanics but also in the field of material engineering The axisymmetric dynamics of an isothermal liquid bridge has been frequently analysed over the past years The studies have considered different phenomena such as free oscillations footnote Montanero emph E J Mech B Fluids bf 22 169 2003 footnote Acero and Montanero emph Phys Fluids bf 17 078105 2005 forced vibrations footnote Perales and Messeguer emph Phys Fluids A bf 4 1110 1992 g-jitter effects footnote Messeguer and Perales emph Phys Fluids A bf 3 2332 1991 extensional deformation footnote Zhang et al emph J Fluid Mech bf 329 207 1996 and breakup process footnote Espino et al emph Phys Fluids bf 14 3710 2002 among others Works considering the nonaxisymmetric dynamical behaviour of a liquid bridge has been far less common footnote Sanz and Diez emph J Fluid Mech bf 205 503 1989 In the present study the linear vibration of an axisymmetric liquid
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Gnoffo, Peter A.; Berry, Scott A.; VanNorman, John W.
2011-01-01
This paper is one of a series of five papers in a special session organized by the NASA Fundamental Aeronautics Program that addresses uncertainty assessments for CFD simulations in hypersonic flow. Simulations of a shock emanating from a compression corner and interacting with a fully developed turbulent boundary layer are evaluated herein. Mission relevant conditions at Mach 7 and Mach 14 are defined for a pre-compression ramp of a scramjet powered vehicle. Three compression angles are defined, the smallest to avoid separation losses and the largest to force a separated flow engaging more complicated flow physics. The Baldwin-Lomax and the Cebeci-Smith algebraic models, the one-equation Spalart-Allmaras model with the Catrix-Aupoix compressibility modification and two-equation models including Menter SST, Wilcox k-omega 98, and Wilcox k-omega 06 turbulence models are evaluated. Each model is fully defined herein to preclude any ambiguity regarding model implementation. Comparisons are made to existing experimental data and Van Driest theory to provide preliminary assessment of model form uncertainty. A set of coarse grained uncertainty metrics are defined to capture essential differences among turbulence models. Except for the inability of algebraic models to converge for some separated flows there is no clearly superior model as judged by these metrics. A preliminary metric for the numerical component of uncertainty in shock-turbulent-boundary-layer interactions at compression corners sufficiently steep to cause separation is defined as 55%. This value is a median of differences with experimental data averaged for peak pressure and heating and for extent of separation captured in new, grid-converged solutions presented here. This value is consistent with existing results in a literature review of hypersonic shock-turbulent-boundary-layer interactions by Roy and Blottner and with more recent computations of MacLean.
Installed Transonic 2D Nozzle Nacelle Boattail Drag Study
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Malone, Michael B.; Peavey, Charles C.
1999-01-01
The Transonic Nozzle Boattail Drag Study was initiated in 1995 to develop an understanding of how external nozzle transonic aerodynamics effect airplane performance and how strongly those effects are dependent on nozzle configuration (2D vs. axisymmetric). MDC analyzed the axisymmetric nozzle. Boeing subcontracted Northrop-Grumman to analyze the 2D nozzle. AU participants analyzed the AGARD nozzle as a check-out and validation case. Once the codes were checked out and the gridding resolution necessary for modeling the separated flow in this region determined, the analysis moved to the installed wing/body/nacelle/diverter cases. The boat tail drag validation case was the AGARD B.4 rectangular nozzle. This test case offered both test data and previous CFD analyses for comparison. Results were obtained for test cases B.4.1 (M=0.6) and B.4.2 (M=0.938) and compared very well with the experimental data. Once the validation was complete a CFD grid was constructed for the full Ref. H configuration (wing/body/nacelle/diverter) using a combination of patched and overlapped (Chimera) grids. This was done to ensure that the grid topologies and density would be adequate for the full model. The use of overlapped grids allowed the same grids from the full configuration model to be used for the wing/body alone cases, thus eliminating the risk of grid differences affecting the determination of the installation effects. Once the full configuration model was run and deemed to be suitable the nacelle/diverter grids were removed and the wing/body analysis performed. Reference H wing/body results were completed for M=0.9 (a=0.0, 2.0, 4.0, 6.0 and 8.0), M=1.1 (a=4.0 and 6.0) and M=2.4 (a=0.0, 2.0, 4.4, 6.0 and 8.0). Comparisons of the M=0.9 and M=2.4 cases were made with available wind tunnel data and overall comparisons were good. The axi-inlet/2D nozzle nacelle was analyzed isolated. The isolated nacelle data coupled with the wing/body result enabled the interference effects of the
Local currents in a 2D topological insulator
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Dang, Xiaoqian; Burton, J. D.; Tsymbal, Evgeny Y.
2015-12-01
Symmetry protected edge states in 2D topological insulators are interesting both from the fundamental point of view as well as from the point of view of potential applications in nanoelectronics as perfectly conducting 1D channels and functional elements of circuits. Here using a simple tight-binding model and the Landauer-Büttiker formalism we explore local current distributions in a 2D topological insulator focusing on effects of non-magnetic impurities and vacancies as well as finite size effects. For an isolated edge state, we show that the local conductance decays into the bulk in an oscillatory fashion as explained by the complex band structure of the bulk topological insulator. We demonstrate that although the net conductance of the edge state is topologically protected, impurity scattering leads to intricate local current patterns. In the case of vacancies we observe vortex currents of certain chirality, originating from the scattering of current-carrying electrons into states localized at the edges of hollow regions. For finite size strips of a topological insulator we predict the formation of an oscillatory band gap in the spectrum of the edge states, the emergence of Friedel oscillations caused by an open channel for backscattering from an impurity and antiresonances in conductance when the Fermi energy matches the energy of the localized state created by an impurity.
Light field morphing using 2D features.
Wang, Lifeng; Lin, Stephen; Lee, Seungyong; Guo, Baining; Shum, Heung-Yeung
2005-01-01
We present a 2D feature-based technique for morphing 3D objects represented by light fields. Existing light field morphing methods require the user to specify corresponding 3D feature elements to guide morph computation. Since slight errors in 3D specification can lead to significant morphing artifacts, we propose a scheme based on 2D feature elements that is less sensitive to imprecise marking of features. First, 2D features are specified by the user in a number of key views in the source and target light fields. Then the two light fields are warped view by view as guided by the corresponding 2D features. Finally, the two warped light fields are blended together to yield the desired light field morph. Two key issues in light field morphing are feature specification and warping of light field rays. For feature specification, we introduce a user interface for delineating 2D features in key views of a light field, which are automatically interpolated to other views. For ray warping, we describe a 2D technique that accounts for visibility changes and present a comparison to the ideal morphing of light fields. Light field morphing based on 2D features makes it simple to incorporate previous image morphing techniques such as nonuniform blending, as well as to morph between an image and a light field. PMID:15631126
2D materials for nanophotonic devices
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Xu, Renjing; Yang, Jiong; Zhang, Shuang; Pei, Jiajie; Lu, Yuerui
2015-12-01
Two-dimensional (2D) materials have become very important building blocks for electronic, photonic, and phononic devices. The 2D material family has four key members, including the metallic graphene, transition metal dichalcogenide (TMD) layered semiconductors, semiconducting black phosphorous, and the insulating h-BN. Owing to the strong quantum confinements and defect-free surfaces, these atomically thin layers have offered us perfect platforms to investigate the interactions among photons, electrons and phonons. The unique interactions in these 2D materials are very important for both scientific research and application engineering. In this talk, I would like to briefly summarize and highlight the key findings, opportunities and challenges in this field. Next, I will introduce/highlight our recent achievements. We demonstrated atomically thin micro-lens and gratings using 2D MoS2, which is the thinnest optical component around the world. These devices are based on our discovery that the elastic light-matter interactions in highindex 2D materials is very strong. Also, I would like to introduce a new two-dimensional material phosphorene. Phosphorene has strongly anisotropic optical response, which creates 1D excitons in a 2D system. The strong confinement in phosphorene also enables the ultra-high trion (charged exciton) binding energies, which have been successfully measured in our experiments. Finally, I will briefly talk about the potential applications of 2D materials in energy harvesting.
Inertial solvation in femtosecond 2D spectra
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Hybl, John; Albrecht Ferro, Allison; Farrow, Darcie; Jonas, David
2001-03-01
We have used 2D Fourier transform spectroscopy to investigate polar solvation. 2D spectroscopy can reveal molecular lineshapes beneath ensemble averaged spectra and freeze molecular motions to give an undistorted picture of the microscopic dynamics of polar solvation. The transition from "inhomogeneous" to "homogeneous" 2D spectra is governed by both vibrational relaxation and solvent motion. Therefore, the time dependence of the 2D spectrum directly reflects the total response of the solvent-solute system. IR144, a cyanine dye with a dipole moment change upon electronic excitation, was used to probe inertial solvation in methanol and propylene carbonate. Since the static Stokes' shift of IR144 in each of these solvents is similar, differences in the 2D spectra result from solvation dynamics. Initial results indicate that the larger propylene carbonate responds more slowly than methanol, but appear to be inconsistent with rotational estimates of the inertial response. To disentangle intra-molecular vibrations from solvent motion, the 2D spectra of IR144 will be compared to the time-dependent 2D spectra of the structurally related nonpolar cyanine dye HDITCP.
Internal Photoemission Spectroscopy of 2-D Materials
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Nguyen, Nhan; Li, Mingda; Vishwanath, Suresh; Yan, Rusen; Xiao, Shudong; Xing, Huili; Cheng, Guangjun; Hight Walker, Angela; Zhang, Qin
Recent research has shown the great benefits of using 2-D materials in the tunnel field-effect transistor (TFET), which is considered a promising candidate for the beyond-CMOS technology. The on-state current of TFET can be enhanced by engineering the band alignment of different 2D-2D or 2D-3D heterostructures. Here we present the internal photoemission spectroscopy (IPE) approach to determine the band alignments of various 2-D materials, in particular SnSe2 and WSe2, which have been proposed for new TFET designs. The metal-oxide-2-D semiconductor test structures are fabricated and characterized by IPE, where the band offsets from the 2-D semiconductor to the oxide conduction band minimum are determined by the threshold of the cube root of IPE yields as a function of photon energy. In particular, we find that SnSe2 has a larger electron affinity than most semiconductors and can be combined with other semiconductors to form near broken-gap heterojunctions with low barrier heights which can produce a higher on-state current. The details of data analysis of IPE and the results from Raman spectroscopy and spectroscopic ellipsometry measurements will also be presented and discussed.
Stabilization of the vertical instability by non-axisymmetric coils
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Turnbull, A. D.; Reiman, A. H.; Lao, L. L.; Cooper, W. A.; Ferraro, N. M.; Buttery, R. J.
2016-08-01
In a published Physical Review Letter (Reiman 2007 Phys. Rev. Lett. 99 135007), it was shown that axisymmetric (or vertical) stability can be improved by placing a set of parallelogram coils above and below the plasma oriented at an angle to the constant toroidal planes. The physics of this stabilization can be understood as providing an effective additional positive stability index. The original work was based on a simplified model of a straight tokamak and is not straightforwardly applicable to a finite aspect ratio, strongly shaped plasma such as in DIII-D. Numerical calculations were performed in a real DIII-D -like configuration to provide a proof of principal that 3-D fields can, in fact raise the elongation limits as predicted. A four field period trapezioid-shaped coil set was developed in toroidal geometry and 3D equilibria were computed using trapezium coil currents of 10 kA , 100 kA , and 500 kA . The ideal magnetohydrodynamics growth rates were computed as a function of the conformal wall position for the n = 0 symmetry-preserving family. The results show an insignificant relative improvement in the stabilizing wall location for the two lower coil current cases, of the order of 10‑3 and less. In contrast, the marginal wall position is increased by 7% as the coil current is increased to 500 kA , confirming the main prediction from the original study in a real geometry case. In DIII-D the shift in marginal wall position of 7% would correspond to being able to move the existing wall outward by 5 to 10 cm. While the predicted effect on the axisymmetric stability is real, it appears to require higher coil currents than could be provided in an upgrade to existing facilities. Additional optimization over the pitch of the coils, the number of field periods and the coil positions, as well as plasma parameters, such as the internal inductivity {{\\ell}\\text{i}} , β , and {{q}95} would mitigate this but seem unlikely to change the conclusion.
Impingement of supersonic jets on an axisymmetric deflector
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Prasad, J. K.; Mehta, R. C.; Sreekanth, A. K.
1994-07-01
Experimental and numerical studies are carried out to investigate impingement flowfield produced on a typical axisymmetric jet deflector. The experiments consisted of schlieren flow visualization and measurements of pressure. The present study will be useful for the design of a typical axisymmetric jet deflector during the liftoff phase of a rocket.
Optimal design of 2D digital filters based on neural networks
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Wang, Xiao-hua; He, Yi-gang; Zheng, Zhe-zhao; Zhang, Xu-hong
2005-02-01
Two-dimensional (2-D) digital filters are widely useful in image processing and other 2-D digital signal processing fields,but designing 2-D filters is much more difficult than designing one-dimensional (1-D) ones.In this paper, a new design approach for designing linear-phase 2-D digital filters is described,which is based on a new neural networks algorithm (NNA).By using the symmetry of the given 2-D magnitude specification,a compact express for the magnitude response of a linear-phase 2-D finite impulse response (FIR) filter is derived.Consequently,the optimal problem of designing linear-phase 2-D FIR digital filters is turned to approximate the desired 2-D magnitude response by using the compact express.To solve the problem,a new NNA is presented based on minimizing the mean-squared error,and the convergence theorem is presented and proved to ensure the designed 2-D filter stable.Three design examples are also given to illustrate the effectiveness of the NNA-based design approach.
Ginsparg, P.
1991-01-01
These are introductory lectures for a general audience that give an overview of the subject of matrix models and their application to random surfaces, 2d gravity, and string theory. They are intentionally 1.5 years out of date.
Ginsparg, P.
1991-12-31
These are introductory lectures for a general audience that give an overview of the subject of matrix models and their application to random surfaces, 2d gravity, and string theory. They are intentionally 1.5 years out of date.
2D electronic materials for army applications
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
O'Regan, Terrance; Perconti, Philip
2015-05-01
The record electronic properties achieved in monolayer graphene and related 2D materials such as molybdenum disulfide and hexagonal boron nitride show promise for revolutionary high-speed and low-power electronic devices. Heterogeneous 2D-stacked materials may create enabling technology for future communication and computation applications to meet soldier requirements. For instance, transparent, flexible and even wearable systems may become feasible. With soldier and squad level electronic power demands increasing, the Army is committed to developing and harnessing graphene-like 2D materials for compact low size-weight-and-power-cost (SWAP-C) systems. This paper will review developments in 2D electronic materials at the Army Research Laboratory over the last five years and discuss directions for future army applications.
Chemical Approaches to 2D Materials.
Samorì, Paolo; Palermo, Vincenzo; Feng, Xinliang
2016-08-01
Chemistry plays an ever-increasing role in the production, functionalization, processing and applications of graphene and other 2D materials. This special issue highlights a selection of enlightening chemical approaches to 2D materials, which nicely reflect the breadth of the field and convey the excitement of the individuals involved in it, who are trying to translate graphene and related materials from the laboratory into a real, high-impact technology. PMID:27478083
Extended 2D generalized dilaton gravity theories
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
de Mello, R. O.
2008-09-01
We show that an anomaly-free description of matter in (1+1) dimensions requires a deformation of the 2D relativity principle, which introduces a non-trivial centre in the 2D Poincaré algebra. Then we work out the reduced phase space of the anomaly-free 2D relativistic particle, in order to show that it lives in a noncommutative 2D Minkowski space. Moreover, we build a Gaussian wave packet to show that a Planck length is well defined in two dimensions. In order to provide a gravitational interpretation for this noncommutativity, we propose to extend the usual 2D generalized dilaton gravity models by a specific Maxwell component, which guages the extra symmetry associated with the centre of the 2D Poincaré algebra. In addition, we show that this extension is a high energy correction to the unextended dilaton theories that can affect the topology of spacetime. Further, we couple a test particle to the general extended dilaton models with the purpose of showing that they predict a noncommutativity in curved spacetime, which is locally described by a Moyal star product in the low energy limit. We also conjecture a probable generalization of this result, which provides strong evidence that the noncommutativity is described by a certain star product which is not of the Moyal type at high energies. Finally, we prove that the extended dilaton theories can be formulated as Poisson Sigma models based on a nonlinear deformation of the extended Poincaré algebra.
Compact neutron imaging system using axisymmetric mirrors
Khaykovich, Boris; Moncton, David E; Gubarev, Mikhail V; Ramsey, Brian D; Engelhaupt, Darell E
2014-05-27
A dispersed release of neutrons is generated from a source. A portion of this dispersed neutron release is reflected by surfaces of a plurality of nested, axisymmetric mirrors in at least an inner mirror layer and an outer mirror layer, wherein the neutrons reflected by the inner mirror layer are incident on at least one mirror surface of the inner mirror layer N times, wherein N is an integer, and wherein neutrons reflected by the outer mirror are incident on a plurality of mirror surfaces of the outer layer N+i times, where i is a positive integer, to redirect the neutrons toward a target. The mirrors can be formed by a periodically reversed pulsed-plating process.
A Compact Quasi-axisymmetric Stellarator Reactor
L.P. Ku; the ARIES-CS Team
2003-10-20
We report the progress made in assessing the potential of compact, quasi-axisymmetric stellarators as power-producing reactors. Using an aspect ratio A=4.5 configuration derived from NCSX and optimized with respect to the quasi-axisymmetry and MHD stability in the linear regime as an example, we show that a reactor of 1 GW(e) maybe realizable with a major radius *8 m. This is significantly smaller than the designs of stellarator reactors attempted before. We further show the design of modular coils and discuss the optimization of coil aspect ratios in order to accommodate the blanket for tritium breeding and radiation shielding for coil protection. In addition, we discuss the effects of coil aspect ratio on the peak magnetic field in the coils.
Axisymmetric supersonic flow in rotating impellers
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Goldstein, Arthur W
1952-01-01
General equations are developed for isentropic, frictionless, axisymmetric flow in rotating impellers with blade thickness taken into account and with blade forces eliminated in favor of the blade-surface function. It is shown that the total energy of the gas relative to the rotating coordinate system is dependent on the stream function only, and that if the flow upstream of the impeller is vortex-free, a velocity potential exists which is a function of only the radial and axial distances in the impeller. The characteristic equations for supersonic flow are developed and used to investigate flows in several configurations in order to ascertain the effect of variations of the boundary conditions on the internal flow and the work input. Conditions varied are prerotation of the gas, blade turning rate, gas velocity at the blade tips, blade thickness, and sweep of the leading edge.
Ideal ballooning modes in axisymmetric mirror machines
Baldwin, D.E.; McNamara, B.; Willmann, P.
1980-12-15
A simple code is described that finds marginally stable (..omega../sup 2/ = 0) ballooning-type MHD modes, localized about a field line in an axisymmetric, open-ended, plasma confinement device. The equations are based on a lower bound for the perturbed energy delta W, derived by W. Newcomb from the ideal MHD energy principle, and are cast in the form of a Ricatti equation for the first derivative of the eigenfunction, with the open boundary conditions that this derivative vanish at the plasma boundary down each field line. The input to the code is the two-dimensional shape of a field line, the field strength B(s), and parameters to define pressure profiles throughout the system. The objective is to find the highest plasma pressures for which the given line is MHD-stable.
The evolution of swirling axisymmetric vortex rings
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Gargan-Shingles, C.; Rudman, M.; Ryan, K.
2015-08-01
Swirling vortex rings form in any turbulent flow where a swirling component is present, such as in combustion chambers or the downwash of helicopter blades. Instabilities on initially non-swirling vortex rings result in a localized swirl velocity being generated within the core. The presence of a swirl component of velocity in a vortex ring modifies the relaxation and evolution of numerical Gaussian cores in a manner that is currently unknown. The evolution of Gaussian axisymmetric vortex rings of size 0.2 < Λ < 0.5, with Gaussian swirls of magnitude 0.0 < W < 0.5, is analyzed with reference to the governing equations. A relaxation time, at which the initial Gaussian approximation has minimal influence on the subsequent evolution, has been estimated for each case. An axial vortex forms along the axis of the ring and is responsible for the growth of a shear layer that is found to form at the leading edge. The circulation based Reynolds number is set at 10 000 to encourage the growth of shear layer instabilities from within this region. Secondary vortex rings are subsequently shown to evolve from the Kelvin-Helmholtz instability for shear layers of sufficient strength and are convected around the original ring and shed from the system. It is shown that complete settling of the strain rate within the core does not occur until all sheddings have ceased. Increasing the swirl magnitude past that considered in this paper is expected to result in the original ring losing its structure before the instability can occur. The evolution is found to be qualitatively similar to that of a piston generated axisymmetric vortex ring with swirl, with both cases eventually reaching a similar quasi-steady state.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Wang, Jin-Yan; Sun, Ji-Xian; Chen, Jun
2005-08-01
In most FEM codes, the isotropic-elastic & transversely anisotropic-elastoplastic model using Hill's yield function has been widely adopted in 3D shell elements (modified to meet the plane-stress condition) and 3D solid elements. However, when the 4-node quadrilateral axisymmetric element is used for 2D sheet metal forming simulation, the above transversely anisotropic model is not available in FEM code LS-DYNA3D. A novel approach for the explicit analysis of transversely anisotropic and axisymmetric sheet metal forming using 6-component Barlat yield function is elaborated in detail in this paper. The related formula and parameters are derived directly. Numerical results obtained using the new model fit well with the Hill solution.
Li, Xiaofan; Nie, Qing
2015-01-01
Many applications in materials involve surface diffusion of elastically stressed solids. Study of singularity formation and long-time behavior of such solid surfaces requires accurate simulations in both space and time. Here we present a high-order boundary integral method for an elastically stressed solid with axi-symmetry due to surface diffusions. In this method, the boundary integrals for isotropic elasticity in axi-symmetric geometry are approximated through modified alternating quadratures along with an extrapolation technique, leading to an arbitrarily high-order quadrature; in addition, a high-order (temporal) integration factor method, based on explicit representation of the mean curvature, is used to reduce the stability constraint on time-step. To apply this method to a periodic (in axial direction) and axi-symmetric elastically stressed cylinder, we also present a fast and accurate summation method for the periodic Green’s functions of isotropic elasticity. Using the high-order boundary integral method, we demonstrate that in absence of elasticity the cylinder surface pinches in finite time at the axis of the symmetry and the universal cone angle of the pinching is found to be consistent with the previous studies based on a self-similar assumption. In the presence of elastic stress, we show that a finite time, geometrical singularity occurs well before the cylindrical solid collapses onto the axis of symmetry, and the angle of the corner singularity on the cylinder surface is also estimated. PMID:26487788
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
van Driel, Martin; Nissen-Meyer, Tarje; Stähler, Simon; Waszek, Lauren; Hempel, Stefanie; Auer, Ludwig; Deuss, Arwen
2014-05-01
We present a numerical method to compute high-frequency 3D elastic waves in fully anisotropic axisymmetric media. The method is based on a decomposition of the wavefield into a series of uncoupled 2D equations, for which the dependence of the wavefield on the azimuth can be solved analytically. The remaining 2D problems are then solved using a spectral element method (AxiSEM). AxiSEM was recently published open-source (Nissen-Meyer et al. 2014) as a production ready code capable to compute global seismic wave propagation up to frequencies of ~2Hz. It accurately models visco-elastic dissipation and anisotropy (van Driel et al., submitted to GJI) and runs efficiently on HPC resources using up to 10K cores. At very short period, the Fresnel Zone of body waves is narrow and sensitivity is focused around the geometrical ray. In cases where the azimuthal variations of structural heterogeneity exhibit long spatial wavelengths, so called 2.5D simulations (3D wavefields in 2D models) provide a good approximation. In AxiSEM, twodimensional variations in the source-receiver plane are effectively modelled as ringlike structures extending in the out-of-plane direction. In contrast to ray-theory, which is widely used in high-frequency applications, AxiSEM provides complete waveforms, thus giving access to frequency dependency, amplitude variations, and peculiar wave effects such as diffraction and caustics. Here we focus on the practical implications of the inherent axisymmetric geometry and show how the 2.5D-features of our method method can be used to model realistic anisotropic structures, by applying it to problems such as the D" region and the inner core.
Axisymmetric Plume Simulations with NASA's DSMC Analysis Code
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Stewart, B. D.; Lumpkin, F. E., III
2012-01-01
A comparison of axisymmetric Direct Simulation Monte Carlo (DSMC) Analysis Code (DAC) results to analytic and Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) solutions in the near continuum regime and to 3D DAC solutions in the rarefied regime for expansion plumes into a vacuum is performed to investigate the validity of the newest DAC axisymmetric implementation. This new implementation, based on the standard DSMC axisymmetric approach where the representative molecules are allowed to move in all three dimensions but are rotated back to the plane of symmetry by the end of the move step, has been fully integrated into the 3D-based DAC code and therefore retains all of DAC s features, such as being able to compute flow over complex geometries and to model chemistry. Axisymmetric DAC results for a spherically symmetric isentropic expansion are in very good agreement with a source flow analytic solution in the continuum regime and show departure from equilibrium downstream of the estimated breakdown location. Axisymmetric density contours also compare favorably against CFD results for the R1E thruster while temperature contours depart from equilibrium very rapidly away from the estimated breakdown surface. Finally, axisymmetric and 3D DAC results are in very good agreement over the entire plume region and, as expected, this new axisymmetric implementation shows a significant reduction in computer resources required to achieve accurate simulations for this problem over the 3D simulations.
Potentially singular solutions of the 3D axisymmetric Euler equations
Luo, Guo; Hou, Thomas Y.
2014-01-01
The question of finite-time blowup of the 3D incompressible Euler equations is numerically investigated in a periodic cylinder with solid boundaries. Using rotational symmetry, the equations are discretized in the (2D) meridian plane on an adaptive (moving) mesh and is integrated in time with adaptively chosen time steps. The vorticity is observed to develop a ring-singularity on the solid boundary with a growth proportional to ∼(ts − t)−2.46, where ts ∼ 0.0035056 is the estimated singularity time. A local analysis also suggests the existence of a self-similar blowup. The simulations stop at τ2 = 0.003505 at which time the vorticity amplifies by more than (3 × 108)-fold and the maximum mesh resolution exceeds (3 × 1012)2. The vorticity vector is observed to maintain four significant digits throughout the computations. PMID:25157172
Parallel algorithms for 2-D cylindrical transport equations of Eigenvalue problem
Wei, J.; Yang, S.
2013-07-01
In this paper, aimed at the neutron transport equations of eigenvalue problem under 2-D cylindrical geometry on unstructured grid, the discrete scheme of Sn discrete ordinate and discontinuous finite is built, and the parallel computation for the scheme is realized on MPI systems. Numerical experiments indicate that the designed parallel algorithm can reach perfect speedup, it has good practicality and scalability. (authors)
Analysis of vegetation effect on waves using a vertical 2-D RANS model
Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)
A vertical two-dimensional (2-D) model has been applied in the simulation of wave propagation through vegetated water bodies. The model is based on an existing model SOLA-VOF which solves the Reynolds-Averaged Navier-Stokes (RANS) equations with the finite difference method on a staggered rectangula...
The field lines of an axisymmetric magnetic field
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Backus, George E.
1988-01-01
The equations of Willis and Young (1987) for the field lines of an arbitrary axisymmetric multipole are generalized to an arbitrary linear combination of multipoles, i.e., to an arbitrary axisymmetric magnetic field B outside a sphere of radius a, S(a), centered on the origin, and containing all the sources of B. For this field, axisymmetric Stokes stream function is expressed in terms of the Gauss coefficients. It is shown that if only one Gauss coefficient is nonzero, the field line equations are identical to those obtained by Willis and Young.
Non-Axisymmetric Wave Focusing in Pipe Inspection
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Sun, Zongqi; Rose, Joseph L.; Song, Won-Joon; Hayashi, Takahiro
2003-03-01
Non-axisymmetric guided waves have been applied to pipe inspection recently. Due to the non-axisymmetric characteristics of the waves, the circumferential displacement distribution is non-axisymmetric. It shows a natural focusing phenomenon. With the aid of a circumferential transducer array, we developed an algorithm to focus wave energy at arbitrary locations. The algorithm is based on applying different amplitude and time delay to each of the excitation elements. A series of experiments were carried out to show the focusing effect.
Optical modulators with 2D layered materials
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Sun, Zhipei; Martinez, Amos; Wang, Feng
2016-04-01
Light modulation is an essential operation in photonics and optoelectronics. With existing and emerging technologies increasingly demanding compact, efficient, fast and broadband optical modulators, high-performance light modulation solutions are becoming indispensable. The recent realization that 2D layered materials could modulate light with superior performance has prompted intense research and significant advances, paving the way for realistic applications. In this Review, we cover the state of the art of optical modulators based on 2D materials, including graphene, transition metal dichalcogenides and black phosphorus. We discuss recent advances employing hybrid structures, such as 2D heterostructures, plasmonic structures, and silicon and fibre integrated structures. We also take a look at the future perspectives and discuss the potential of yet relatively unexplored mechanisms, such as magneto-optic and acousto-optic modulation.
Large Area Synthesis of 2D Materials
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Vogel, Eric
Transition metal dichalcogenides (TMDs) have generated significant interest for numerous applications including sensors, flexible electronics, heterostructures and optoelectronics due to their interesting, thickness-dependent properties. Despite recent progress, the synthesis of high-quality and highly uniform TMDs on a large scale is still a challenge. In this talk, synthesis routes for WSe2 and MoS2 that achieve monolayer thickness uniformity across large area substrates with electrical properties equivalent to geological crystals will be described. Controlled doping of 2D semiconductors is also critically required. However, methods established for conventional semiconductors, such as ion implantation, are not easily applicable to 2D materials because of their atomically thin structure. Redox-active molecular dopants will be demonstrated which provide large changes in carrier density and workfunction through the choice of dopant, treatment time, and the solution concentration. Finally, several applications of these large-area, uniform 2D materials will be described including heterostructures, biosensors and strain sensors.
2D microwave imaging reflectometer electronics
Spear, A. G.; Domier, C. W. Hu, X.; Muscatello, C. M.; Ren, X.; Luhmann, N. C.; Tobias, B. J.
2014-11-15
A 2D microwave imaging reflectometer system has been developed to visualize electron density fluctuations on the DIII-D tokamak. Simultaneously illuminated at four probe frequencies, large aperture optics image reflections from four density-dependent cutoff surfaces in the plasma over an extended region of the DIII-D plasma. Localized density fluctuations in the vicinity of the plasma cutoff surfaces modulate the plasma reflections, yielding a 2D image of electron density fluctuations. Details are presented of the receiver down conversion electronics that generate the in-phase (I) and quadrature (Q) reflectometer signals from which 2D density fluctuation data are obtained. Also presented are details on the control system and backplane used to manage the electronics as well as an introduction to the computer based control program.
2D microwave imaging reflectometer electronics
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Spear, A. G.; Domier, C. W.; Hu, X.; Muscatello, C. M.; Ren, X.; Tobias, B. J.; Luhmann, N. C.
2014-11-01
A 2D microwave imaging reflectometer system has been developed to visualize electron density fluctuations on the DIII-D tokamak. Simultaneously illuminated at four probe frequencies, large aperture optics image reflections from four density-dependent cutoff surfaces in the plasma over an extended region of the DIII-D plasma. Localized density fluctuations in the vicinity of the plasma cutoff surfaces modulate the plasma reflections, yielding a 2D image of electron density fluctuations. Details are presented of the receiver down conversion electronics that generate the in-phase (I) and quadrature (Q) reflectometer signals from which 2D density fluctuation data are obtained. Also presented are details on the control system and backplane used to manage the electronics as well as an introduction to the computer based control program.
2D microwave imaging reflectometer electronics.
Spear, A G; Domier, C W; Hu, X; Muscatello, C M; Ren, X; Tobias, B J; Luhmann, N C
2014-11-01
A 2D microwave imaging reflectometer system has been developed to visualize electron density fluctuations on the DIII-D tokamak. Simultaneously illuminated at four probe frequencies, large aperture optics image reflections from four density-dependent cutoff surfaces in the plasma over an extended region of the DIII-D plasma. Localized density fluctuations in the vicinity of the plasma cutoff surfaces modulate the plasma reflections, yielding a 2D image of electron density fluctuations. Details are presented of the receiver down conversion electronics that generate the in-phase (I) and quadrature (Q) reflectometer signals from which 2D density fluctuation data are obtained. Also presented are details on the control system and backplane used to manage the electronics as well as an introduction to the computer based control program. PMID:25430247
2D-Crystal-Based Functional Inks.
Bonaccorso, Francesco; Bartolotta, Antonino; Coleman, Jonathan N; Backes, Claudia
2016-08-01
The possibility to produce and process graphene, related 2D crystals, and heterostructures in the liquid phase makes them promising materials for an ever-growing class of applications as composite materials, sensors, in flexible optoelectronics, and energy storage and conversion. In particular, the ability to formulate functional inks with on-demand rheological and morphological properties, i.e., lateral size and thickness of the dispersed 2D crystals, is a step forward toward the development of industrial-scale, reliable, inexpensive printing/coating processes, a boost for the full exploitation of such nanomaterials. Here, the exfoliation strategies of graphite and other layered crystals are reviewed, along with the advances in the sorting of lateral size and thickness of the exfoliated sheets together with the formulation of functional inks and the current development of printing/coating processes of interest for the realization of 2D-crystal-based devices. PMID:27273554
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Clark, J. H.; Kalinowski, A. J.; Wagner, C. A.
1983-01-01
An analysis is given using finite element techniques which addresses the propagaton of a uniform incident pressure wave through a finite diameter axisymmetric tapered plate immersed in a fluid. The approach utilized in developing a finite element solution to this problem is based upon a technique for axisymmetric fluid structure interaction problems. The problem addressed is that of a 10 inch diameter axisymmetric fixed plate totally immersed in a fluid. The plate increases in thickness from approximately 0.01 inches thick at the center to 0.421 inches thick at a radius of 5 inches. Against each face of the tapered plate a cylindrical fluid volume was represented extending five wavelengths off the plate in the axial direction. The outer boundary of the fluid and plate regions were represented as a rigid encasement cylinder as was nearly the case in the physical problem. The primary objective of the analysis is to determine the form of the transmitted pressure distribution on the downstream side of the plate.
The 2D lingual appliance system.
Cacciafesta, Vittorio
2013-09-01
The two-dimensional (2D) lingual bracket system represents a valuable treatment option for adult patients seeking a completely invisible orthodontic appliance. The ease of direct or simplified indirect bonding of 2D lingual brackets in combination with low friction mechanics makes it possible to achieve a good functional and aesthetic occlusion, even in the presence of a severe malocclusion. The use of a self-ligating bracket significantly reduces chair-side time for the orthodontist, and the low-profile bracket design greatly improves patient comfort. PMID:24005953
Inkjet printing of 2D layered materials.
Li, Jiantong; Lemme, Max C; Östling, Mikael
2014-11-10
Inkjet printing of 2D layered materials, such as graphene and MoS2, has attracted great interests for emerging electronics. However, incompatible rheology, low concentration, severe aggregation and toxicity of solvents constitute critical challenges which hamper the manufacturing efficiency and product quality. Here, we introduce a simple and general technology concept (distillation-assisted solvent exchange) to efficiently overcome these challenges. By implementing the concept, we have demonstrated excellent jetting performance, ideal printing patterns and a variety of promising applications for inkjet printing of 2D layered materials. PMID:25169938
Measurement of 2D birefringence distribution
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Noguchi, Masato; Ishikawa, Tsuyoshi; Ohno, Masahiro; Tachihara, Satoru
1992-10-01
A new measuring method of 2-D birefringence distribution has been developed. It has not been an easy job to get a birefringence distribution in an optical element with conventional ellipsometry because of its lack of scanning means. Finding an analogy between the rotating analyzer method in ellipsometry and the phase-shifting method in recently developed digital interferometry, we have applied the phase-shifting algorithm to ellipsometry, and have developed a new method that makes the measurement of 2-D birefringence distribution easy and possible. The system contains few moving parts, assuring reliability, and measures a large area of a sample at one time, making the measuring time very short.
Stability of galactic discs: finite arm-inclination and finite-thickness effects
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Griv, Evgeny; Gedalin, Michael
2012-05-01
A modified theory of the Lin-Shu density waves, studied in connection with the problem of spiral pattern of rapidly and differentially rotating disc galaxies, is presented for both the axisymmetric and non-axisymmetric structures in highly flattened galaxies resulted from the classical Jeans instability of small gravity perturbations (e.g. those produced by a spontaneous disturbance). A new method is provided for the analytical solution of the self-consistent system of the gas-dynamic equations and the Poisson equation describing the stability of a three-dimensional galactic disc composed of stars or gaseous clouds. In order to apply the method, the modifications introduced for the properties of the gravitationally unstable, that is to say, amplitude-growing density waves are considered by removing the often used assumptions that the gravity perturbations are axisymmetric and the disc is infinitesimally thin. In contrast to previous studies, in this paper these two effects - the non-axial symmetry effect and the finite thickness effect - are simultaneously taken into account. We show that non-axisymmetric perturbations developing in a differentially rotating disc are more unstable than the axisymmetric ones. We also show that destabilizing self-gravity is far more 'dangerous' in thin discs than in thick discs. The primary effect of small but finite thickness is a reduction of the growth rate of the gravitational Jeans instability and a shift in the threshold of instability towards a longer wavelength (and larger wavelength will include more mass). The results of this paper are in qualitative agreement with previous analytical and numerical estimations of the effects. The extent to which our results on the disc's stability can have a bearing on observable spiral galaxies, including the Milky Way, is also discussed.
TOPAZ2D validation status report, August 1990
Davis, B.
1990-08-01
Analytic solutions to two heat transfer problems were used to partially evaluate the performance TOPAZ, and LLNL finite element heat transfer code. The two benchmark analytic solutions were for: 2D steady state slab, with constant properties, constant uniform temperature boundary conditions on three sides, and constant temperature distribution according to a sine function on the fourth side; 1D transient non-linear, with temperature dependent conductivity and specific heat (varying such that the thermal diffusivity remained constant), constant heat flux on the front face and adiabatic conditions on the other face. The TOPAZ solution converged to the analytic solution in both the transient and the steady state problem. Consistent mass matrix type of analysis yielded best performance for the transient problem, in the late-time response; but notable unnatural anomalies were observed in the early-time temperature response at nodal locations near the front face. 5 refs., 22 figs.
Numerical simulations of rotating axisymmetric sunspots
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Botha, G. J. J.; Busse, F. H.; Hurlburt, N. E.; Rucklidge, A. M.
2008-07-01
A numerical model of axisymmetric convection in the presence of a vertical magnetic flux bundle and rotation about the axis is presented. The model contains a compressible plasma described by the non-linear MHD equations, with density and temperature gradients simulating the upper layer of the Sun's convection zone. The solutions exhibit a central magnetic flux tube in a cylindrical numerical domain, with convection cells forming collar flows around the tube. When the numerical domain is rotated with a constant angular velocity, the plasma forms a Rankine vortex, with the plasma rotating as a rigid body where the magnetic field is strong, as in the flux tube, while experiencing sheared azimuthal flow in the surrounding convection cells, forming a free vortex. As a result, the azimuthal velocity component has its maximum value close to the outer edge of the flux tube. The azimuthal flow inside the magnetic flux tube and the vortex flow is prograde relative to the rotating cylindrical reference frame. A retrograde flow appears at the outer wall. The most significant convection cell outside the flux tube is the location for the maximum value of the azimuthal magnetic field component. The azimuthal flow and magnetic structure are not generated spontaneously, but decay exponentially in the absence of any imposed rotation of the cylindrical domain.
Axisymmetric inlet minimum weight design method
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Nadell, Shari-Beth
1995-01-01
An analytical method for determining the minimum weight design of an axisymmetric supersonic inlet has been developed. The goal of this method development project was to improve the ability to predict the weight of high-speed inlets in conceptual and preliminary design. The initial model was developed using information that was available from inlet conceptual design tools (e.g., the inlet internal and external geometries and pressure distributions). Stiffened shell construction was assumed. Mass properties were computed by analyzing a parametric cubic curve representation of the inlet geometry. Design loads and stresses were developed at analysis stations along the length of the inlet. The equivalent minimum structural thicknesses for both shell and frame structures required to support the maximum loads produced by various load conditions were then determined. Preliminary results indicated that inlet hammershock pressures produced the critical design load condition for a significant portion of the inlet. By improving the accuracy of inlet weight predictions, the method will improve the fidelity of propulsion and vehicle design studies and increase the accuracy of weight versus cost studies.
Axisymmetric, Ventilated Supercavitation in Unsteady, Horizontal Flow
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kawakami, Ellison; Lee, Seung-Jae; Arndt, Roger
2012-11-01
Drag reduction and/or speed augmentation of marine vehicles by means of supercavitation is a topic of great interest. During the initial launch of a supercavitating vehicle, an artificial supercavity is required until the vehicle can reach conditions at which a natural supercavity can be sustained. Previous studies at Saint Anthony Falls Laboratory (SAFL) focused on the behavior of ventilated supercavities in steady horizontal flows. In open waters, vehicles can encounter unsteady flows, especially when traveling under waves. A study has been carried out at SAFL to investigate the effects of unsteady flow on axisymmetric supercavities. An attempt is made to duplicate sea states seen in open waters. In an effort to track cavity dimensions throughout a wave cycle, an automated cavity tracking script has been developed. Using a high speed camera and the proper software, it is possible to synchronize cavity dimensions with pressure measurements taken inside the cavity. Results regarding supercavity shape, ventilation demand, cavitation parameters and closure methods are presented. It was found that flow unsteadiness caused a decrease in the overall length of the supercavity while having only a minimal effect on the maximum diameter. The supercavity volume varied with cavitation number and a possible relationship between the two is being explored. (Supported by ONR)
Four motional invariants in axisymmetric tori equilibria
A ring gren, O.; Moiseenko, V.E.
2006-05-15
In addition to the standard set ({epsilon},{mu},p{sub {phi}}) of three invariants in axisymmetric tori, there exists a fourth independent radial drift invariant I{sub r}. For confined particles, the net radial drift has to be zero, whereby the drift orbit average I{sub r}=
Transient, hypervelocity flow in an axisymmetric nozzle
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Jacobs, P. A.
1991-01-01
The performance of an axisymmetric nozzle was examined which was designed to produce uniform, parallel flow with a nominal Mach number of 8. A free-piston driven shock tube was used to supply the nozzle with high-temperature, high-pressure test gas. Performance was assessed by measuring Pitot pressures across the exit plane of the nozzle and, over the range of operating conditions examined, the nozzle produced satisfactory test flows. However, there were flow disturbances that persisted for significant times after flow initiation. The detailed starting process of the nozzle was also investigated by performing numerical simulations at several nominal test conditions. The classical description of the starting process, based on a quasi-one-dimensional model, provided a reasonable approximation and was used to demonstrate that the starting process could consume a significant fraction of the otherwise usable test gas. This was especially important at high operating enthalpies where nozzle supply conditions were maintained for shorter times. Multidimensional simulations illustrated a mechanism by which the starting process in the actual nozzle could take longer than that predicted by the quasi-one-dimensional analysis. However, the cause of the persistent disturbances observed in the experimental calibration was not identified.
EXACT VECTORIAL LAW FOR AXISYMMETRIC MAGNETOHYDRODYNAMICS TURBULENCE
Galtier, S.
2009-10-20
Three-dimensional incompressible magnetohydrodynamics turbulence is investigated under the assumptions of homogeneity and axisymmetry. We demonstrate that previous works of Chandrasekhar may be improved significantly by using a different formalism for the representation of two-point correlation tensors. From this axisymmetric kinematics, the equations a la von Karman-Howarth are derived from which an exact relation is found in terms of measurable correlations. The relation is then analyzed in the particular case of a medium permeated by an imposed magnetic field B{sub 0} . We make the ansatz that the development of anisotropy implies an algebraic relation between the axial and the radial components of the separation vector r and we derive an exact vectorial law which is parameterized by the intensity of anisotropy. The critical balance proposed by Goldreich and Sridhar is used to fix this parameter and to obtain a unique exact expression; the particular limits of correlations transverse and parallel to B{sub 0} are given for which simple expressions are found. Predictions for the energy spectra are also proposed by a straightforward dimensional analysis of the exact law; it gives a stronger theoretical background to the heuristic spectra previously proposed in the context of the critical balance. We also discuss the wave turbulence limit of an asymptotically large external magnetic field which appears as a natural limit of the vectorial relation. A new interpretation of the anisotropic solar wind observations is eventually discussed.
Magnetic surfaces in an axisymmetric torus
Skovoroda, A. A.
2013-04-15
A method is developed for specifying the boundary equilibrium magnetic surface in an axially symmetric torus by using the absolute values of the magnetic field B = B{sub s}({theta}) and the gradient of the poloidal flux vertical bar vertical bar {nabla}{Psi} vertical bar = vertical bar {nabla}{Psi} vertical bar {sub s}({theta}) in a special flux coordinate system. By setting two surface constants (e.g., the safety factor q and dp/d{Psi}) and matching the absolute values of the magnetic field and the flux gradient on a closed magnetic surface, it is possible to find all equilibrium magnetic functions (including n {center_dot} {nabla} ln B and the local shear s) and all constants (including the toroidal current J and the shear d{mu}/d{Psi}) on this surface. Such a non-traditional formulation of the boundary conditions in solving the stability problem in an axisymmetric torus allows one to impose intentional conditions on plasma confinement and MHD stability at the periphery of the system.
Parallel stitching of 2D materials
Ling, Xi; Wu, Lijun; Lin, Yuxuan; Ma, Qiong; Wang, Ziqiang; Song, Yi; Yu, Lili; Huang, Shengxi; Fang, Wenjing; Zhang, Xu; et al
2016-01-27
Diverse parallel stitched 2D heterostructures, including metal–semiconductor, semiconductor–semiconductor, and insulator–semiconductor, are synthesized directly through selective “sowing” of aromatic molecules as the seeds in the chemical vapor deposition (CVD) method. Lastly, the methodology enables the large-scale fabrication of lateral heterostructures, which offers tremendous potential for its application in integrated circuits.
Parallel Stitching of 2D Materials.
Ling, Xi; Lin, Yuxuan; Ma, Qiong; Wang, Ziqiang; Song, Yi; Yu, Lili; Huang, Shengxi; Fang, Wenjing; Zhang, Xu; Hsu, Allen L; Bie, Yaqing; Lee, Yi-Hsien; Zhu, Yimei; Wu, Lijun; Li, Ju; Jarillo-Herrero, Pablo; Dresselhaus, Mildred; Palacios, Tomás; Kong, Jing
2016-03-01
Diverse parallel stitched 2D heterostructures, including metal-semiconductor, semiconductor-semiconductor, and insulator-semiconductor, are synthesized directly through selective "sowing" of aromatic molecules as the seeds in the chemical vapor deposition (CVD) method. The methodology enables the large-scale fabrication of lateral heterostructures, which offers tremendous potential for its application in integrated circuits. PMID:26813882
Baby universes in 2d quantum gravity
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ambjørn, Jan; Jain, Sanjay; Thorleifsson, Gudmar
1993-06-01
We investigate the fractal structure of 2d quantum gravity, both for pure gravity and for gravity coupled to multiple gaussian fields and for gravity coupled to Ising spins. The roughness of the surfaces is described in terms of baby universes and using numerical simulations we measure their distribution which is related to the string susceptibility exponent γstring.
The motion of axisymmetric satellite with drag and radiation pressure
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Elshaboury, S. M.; Mostafa, A.
2014-08-01
The axisymmetric satellite problem including radiation pressure and drag is treated. The equations of motion of the satellite are derived. The energy-like and Laplace-like invariants of motion have been derived for a general drag force function of the polar angle, and the Laplace-like invariant is used to find the orbit equation in the case of a spherical satellite. Then using the small parameter, the orbit of the satellite is determined for an axisymmetric satellite.
Three-bosons in 2D with a magnetic field
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Rittenhouse, Seth; Johnson, Brad; Wray, Andrew; D'Incao, Jose
2016-05-01
Systems of interacting particles in reduced dimensions in the presence of external fields can exhibit a number of surprising behaviors, for instance the emergence of the fractional quantum Hall effect. Examining few-body interactions and effects can lead to significant insights within these systems. In this talk we examine a system of three bosons confined to two dimensions in the presence of a perpendicular magnetic field within the framework of the adiabatic hyperspherical method. For the case of zero-range, regularized pseudo-potential interactions, we find that the system is nearly separable in hyperspherical coordinates and that, away from a set of narrow avoided crossings, the full energy eigenspectrum as a function of the 2D s-wave scattering length is well described by ignoring coupling between adiabatic hyperradial potentials. In the case of weak attractive or repulsive interactions, we find the lowest three-body energy states exhibit even/odd parity oscillations as a function of total internal 2D angular momentum and that for weak repulsive interactions, the universal lowest energy interacting state has an internal angular momentum of M=3. We also discuss the effect of including finite range and higher partial-wave interactions.
Brink, Jeandrew
2010-01-15
The problem of obtaining an explicit representation for the fourth invariant of geodesic motion (generalized Carter constant) of an arbitrary stationary axisymmetric vacuum spacetime generated from an Ernst potential is considered. The coupling between the nonlocal curvature content of the spacetime as encoded in the Weyl tensor, and the existence of a Killing tensor is explored and a constructive, algebraic test for a fourth-order Killing tensor suggested. The approach used exploits the variables defined for the Baecklund transformations to clarify the relationship between Weyl curvature, constants of geodesic motion, expressed as Killing tensors, and the solution-generation techniques. A new symmetric noncovariant formulation of the Killing equations is given. This formulation transforms the problem of looking for fourth-order Killing tensors in 4D into one of looking for four interlocking two-manifolds admitting fourth-order Killing tensors in 2D.
Equilibrium of non-neutral plasmas with weak axisymmetric magnetic perturbations
Rome, M.; Kotelnikov, I.; Kabantsev, A.
2006-10-18
The effect of weak external axisymmetric magnetic and electrostatic perturbations on the equilibrium of a non-neutral plasma confined in a Malmberg-Penning trap is analyzed. A semi-analytic solution for the potential variations inside the trap is found in a paraxial limit of the perturbations for the case of global thermal equilibrium. The populations of magnetically and electrostatically trapped particles created by the external perturbations are characterized, and their fractions are calculated explicitly for a bi-Maxwellian distribution function. 2D numerical simulations of the thermal equilibrium of a pure electron plasma in the presence of axial magnetic field perturbations are performed to check the limits of validity of the analytical 1D approximation.
Application of 2D Non-Graphene Materials and 2D Oxide Nanostructures for Biosensing Technology
Shavanova, Kateryna; Bakakina, Yulia; Burkova, Inna; Shtepliuk, Ivan; Viter, Roman; Ubelis, Arnolds; Beni, Valerio; Starodub, Nickolaj; Yakimova, Rositsa; Khranovskyy, Volodymyr
2016-01-01
The discovery of graphene and its unique properties has inspired researchers to try to invent other two-dimensional (2D) materials. After considerable research effort, a distinct “beyond graphene” domain has been established, comprising the library of non-graphene 2D materials. It is significant that some 2D non-graphene materials possess solid advantages over their predecessor, such as having a direct band gap, and therefore are highly promising for a number of applications. These applications are not limited to nano- and opto-electronics, but have a strong potential in biosensing technologies, as one example. However, since most of the 2D non-graphene materials have been newly discovered, most of the research efforts are concentrated on material synthesis and the investigation of the properties of the material. Applications of 2D non-graphene materials are still at the embryonic stage, and the integration of 2D non-graphene materials into devices is scarcely reported. However, in recent years, numerous reports have blossomed about 2D material-based biosensors, evidencing the growing potential of 2D non-graphene materials for biosensing applications. This review highlights the recent progress in research on the potential of using 2D non-graphene materials and similar oxide nanostructures for different types of biosensors (optical and electrochemical). A wide range of biological targets, such as glucose, dopamine, cortisol, DNA, IgG, bisphenol, ascorbic acid, cytochrome and estradiol, has been reported to be successfully detected by biosensors with transducers made of 2D non-graphene materials. PMID:26861346
Application of 2D Non-Graphene Materials and 2D Oxide Nanostructures for Biosensing Technology.
Shavanova, Kateryna; Bakakina, Yulia; Burkova, Inna; Shtepliuk, Ivan; Viter, Roman; Ubelis, Arnolds; Beni, Valerio; Starodub, Nickolaj; Yakimova, Rositsa; Khranovskyy, Volodymyr
2016-01-01
The discovery of graphene and its unique properties has inspired researchers to try to invent other two-dimensional (2D) materials. After considerable research effort, a distinct "beyond graphene" domain has been established, comprising the library of non-graphene 2D materials. It is significant that some 2D non-graphene materials possess solid advantages over their predecessor, such as having a direct band gap, and therefore are highly promising for a number of applications. These applications are not limited to nano- and opto-electronics, but have a strong potential in biosensing technologies, as one example. However, since most of the 2D non-graphene materials have been newly discovered, most of the research efforts are concentrated on material synthesis and the investigation of the properties of the material. Applications of 2D non-graphene materials are still at the embryonic stage, and the integration of 2D non-graphene materials into devices is scarcely reported. However, in recent years, numerous reports have blossomed about 2D material-based biosensors, evidencing the growing potential of 2D non-graphene materials for biosensing applications. This review highlights the recent progress in research on the potential of using 2D non-graphene materials and similar oxide nanostructures for different types of biosensors (optical and electrochemical). A wide range of biological targets, such as glucose, dopamine, cortisol, DNA, IgG, bisphenol, ascorbic acid, cytochrome and estradiol, has been reported to be successfully detected by biosensors with transducers made of 2D non-graphene materials. PMID:26861346
GEO2D - Two-Dimensional Computer Model of a Ground Source Heat Pump System
James Menart
2013-06-07
This file contains a zipped file that contains many files required to run GEO2D. GEO2D is a computer code for simulating ground source heat pump (GSHP) systems in two-dimensions. GEO2D performs a detailed finite difference simulation of the heat transfer occurring within the working fluid, the tube wall, the grout, and the ground. Both horizontal and vertical wells can be simulated with this program, but it should be noted that the vertical wall is modeled as a single tube. This program also models the heat pump in conjunction with the heat transfer occurring. GEO2D simulates the heat pump and ground loop as a system. Many results are produced by GEO2D as a function of time and position, such as heat transfer rates, temperatures and heat pump performance. On top of this information from an economic comparison between the geothermal system simulated and a comparable air heat pump systems or a comparable gas, oil or propane heating systems with a vapor compression air conditioner. The version of GEO2D in the attached file has been coupled to the DOE heating and cooling load software called ENERGYPLUS. This is a great convenience for the user because heating and cooling loads are an input to GEO2D. GEO2D is a user friendly program that uses a graphical user interface for inputs and outputs. These make entering data simple and they produce many plotted results that are easy to understand. In order to run GEO2D access to MATLAB is required. If this program is not available on your computer you can download the program MCRInstaller.exe, the 64 bit version, from the MATLAB website or from this geothermal depository. This is a free download which will enable you to run GEO2D..
P-Finite-Element Program For Analysis Of Plates
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Smith, James P.
1995-01-01
BUCKY is p-finite-element computer program for highly accurate analysis of structures. Used to analyze buckling, bending, and in-plane stress-and-strain behaviors of plates. Provides elastic-plastic solutions for isotropic plates in states of plane stress, and axisymmetric solution sequence used to treat three-dimensional problems. Computes response of plate to variety of loading and boundary conditions by use of higher-order displacement function in p-finite-element method. Enables user to obtain results more accurate than obtained by use of traditional h-finite elements. Written in FORTRAN 77.
The axisymmetric stellar wind of AG Carinae
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Schulte-Ladbeck, Regina E.; Clayton, Geoffrey C.; Hillier, D. John; Harries, Tim J.; Howarth, Ian D.
1994-01-01
We present optical linear spectropolarimetry of the Luminous Blue Variable AG Carinae obtained after a recent visual brightness increase. The absence of He II lambda 4686 emission, together with the weakening of the He I spectrum and the appearance of Fe lines in the region around 5300 A, confirm that AG Car has started a new excursion across the HR diagram. The H alpha line profile exhibits very extended line wings that are polarized differently in both amount and position angle from either the continuum or the line core. The polarization changes across H alpha, together with variable continuum polarization, indicate the presence of intrinsic polarization. Coexistence of the line-wing polarization with extended flux-line wings evidences that both are formed by electron scattering in a dense wind. The position angle rotates across the line profiles, in a way that presently available models suggest is due to rotation and expansion of the scattering material. AG Car displays very large variations of its linear polarization with time, Delta P approximately 1.2%, indicating significant variations in envelope opacity. We find that the polarization varies along a preferred position angle of approximately 145 deg (with a scatter of +/- 10 deg) which we interpret as a symmetry axis of the stellar wind (with an ambiguity of 90 deg). This position angle is co-aligned with the major axis of the AG Car ring nebula and perpendicular to the AG Car jet. Our observations thus suggest that the axisymmetric geometry seen in the resolved circumstellar environment at various distances already exists within a few stellar radii of AG Car. From the H alpha polarization profile we deduce an interstellar polarization of Q = 0.31%, U = -1.15% at H alpha. The inferred interstellar polarization implies that the intrinsic polarization is not always of the same sign. This indicates either significant temporal changes in the envelope geometry, or it may arise from effects of multiple scattering
Axisymmetric Control in Alcator C-Mod
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Tinios, Gerasimos
1995-01-01
This thesis investigates the degree to which linear axisymmetric modeling of the response of a tokamak plasma can reproduce observed experimental behavior. The emphasis is on the vertical instability. The motivation for this work lies in the fact that, once dependable models have been developed, modern control theory methods can be used to design feedback laws for more effective and efficient tokamak control. The models are tested against experimental data from the Alcator C-Mod tokamak. A linear model for each subsystem of the closed-loop system constituting an Alcator C-Mod discharge under feedback control has been constructed. A non-rigid, approximately flux-conserving, perturbed equilibrium plasma response model is used in the comparison to experiment. A detailed toroidally symmetric model of the vacuum vessel and the supporting superstructure is used. Modeling of the power supplies feeding the active coils has been included. Experiments have been conducted with vertically unstable plasmas where the feedback was turned off and the plasma response was observed in an open -loop configuration. The closed-loop behavior has been examined by injecting step perturbations into the desired vertical position of the plasma. The agreement between theory and experiment in the open-loop configuration was very satisfactory, proving that the perturbed equilibrium plasma response model and a toroidally symmetric electromagnetic model of the vacuum vessel and the structure can be trusted for the purpose of calculations for control law design. When the power supplies and the feedback computer hardware are added to the system, however, as they are in the closed-loop configuration, they introduce nonlinearities that make it difficult to explain observed behavior with linear theory. Nonlinear simulation of the time evolution of the closed-loop experiments was able to account for the discrepancies between linear theory and experiment. (Copies available exclusively from MIT Libraries
Schottky diodes from 2D germanane
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Sahoo, Nanda Gopal; Esteves, Richard J.; Punetha, Vinay Deep; Pestov, Dmitry; Arachchige, Indika U.; McLeskey, James T.
2016-07-01
We report on the fabrication and characterization of a Schottky diode made using 2D germanane (hydrogenated germanene). When compared to germanium, the 2D structure has higher electron mobility, an optimal band-gap, and exceptional stability making germanane an outstanding candidate for a variety of opto-electronic devices. One-atom-thick sheets of hydrogenated puckered germanium atoms have been synthesized from a CaGe2 framework via intercalation and characterized by XRD, Raman, and FTIR techniques. The material was then used to fabricate Schottky diodes by suspending the germanane in benzonitrile and drop-casting it onto interdigitated metal electrodes. The devices demonstrate significant rectifying behavior and the outstanding potential of this material.
Layer Engineering of 2D Semiconductor Junctions.
He, Yongmin; Sobhani, Ali; Lei, Sidong; Zhang, Zhuhua; Gong, Yongji; Jin, Zehua; Zhou, Wu; Yang, Yingchao; Zhang, Yuan; Wang, Xifan; Yakobson, Boris; Vajtai, Robert; Halas, Naomi J; Li, Bo; Xie, Erqing; Ajayan, Pulickel
2016-07-01
A new concept for junction fabrication by connecting multiple regions with varying layer thicknesses, based on the thickness dependence, is demonstrated. This type of junction is only possible in super-thin-layered 2D materials, and exhibits similar characteristics as p-n junctions. Rectification and photovoltaic effects are observed in chemically homogeneous MoSe2 junctions between domains of different thicknesses. PMID:27136275
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Smith, Greg; Lankshear, Allan
1998-07-01
2dF is a multi-object instrument mounted at prime focus at the AAT capable of spectroscopic analysis of 400 objects in a single 2 degree field. It also prepares a second 2 degree 400 object field while the first field is being observed. At its heart is a high precision robotic positioner that places individual fiber end magnetic buttons on one of two field plates. The button gripper is carried on orthogonal gantries powered by linear synchronous motors and contains a TV camera which precisely locates backlit buttons to allow placement in user defined locations to 10 (mu) accuracy. Fiducial points on both plates can also be observed by the camera to allow repeated checks on positioning accuracy. Field plates rotate to follow apparent sky rotation. The spectrographs both analyze light from the 200 observing fibers each and back- illuminate the 400 fibers being re-positioned during the observing run. The 2dF fiber position and spectrograph system is a large and complex instrument located at the prime focus of the Anglo Australian Telescope. The mechanical design has departed somewhat from the earlier concepts of Gray et al, but still reflects the audacity of those first ideas. The positioner is capable of positioning 400 fibers on a field plate while another 400 fibers on another plate are observing at the focus of the telescope and feeding the twin spectrographs. When first proposed it must have seemed like ingenuity unfettered by caution. Yet now it works, and works wonderfully well. 2dF is a system which functions as the result of the combined and coordinated efforts of the astronomers, the mechanical designers and tradespeople, the electronic designers, the programmers, the support staff at the telescope, and the manufacturing subcontractors. The mechanical design of the 2dF positioner and spectrographs was carried out by the mechanical engineering staff of the AAO and the majority of the manufacture was carried out in the AAO workshops.
Realistic and efficient 2D crack simulation
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Yadegar, Jacob; Liu, Xiaoqing; Singh, Abhishek
2010-04-01
Although numerical algorithms for 2D crack simulation have been studied in Modeling and Simulation (M&S) and computer graphics for decades, realism and computational efficiency are still major challenges. In this paper, we introduce a high-fidelity, scalable, adaptive and efficient/runtime 2D crack/fracture simulation system by applying the mathematically elegant Peano-Cesaro triangular meshing/remeshing technique to model the generation of shards/fragments. The recursive fractal sweep associated with the Peano-Cesaro triangulation provides efficient local multi-resolution refinement to any level-of-detail. The generated binary decomposition tree also provides efficient neighbor retrieval mechanism used for mesh element splitting and merging with minimal memory requirements essential for realistic 2D fragment formation. Upon load impact/contact/penetration, a number of factors including impact angle, impact energy, and material properties are all taken into account to produce the criteria of crack initialization, propagation, and termination leading to realistic fractal-like rubble/fragments formation. The aforementioned parameters are used as variables of probabilistic models of cracks/shards formation, making the proposed solution highly adaptive by allowing machine learning mechanisms learn the optimal values for the variables/parameters based on prior benchmark data generated by off-line physics based simulation solutions that produce accurate fractures/shards though at highly non-real time paste. Crack/fracture simulation has been conducted on various load impacts with different initial locations at various impulse scales. The simulation results demonstrate that the proposed system has the capability to realistically and efficiently simulate 2D crack phenomena (such as window shattering and shards generation) with diverse potentials in military and civil M&S applications such as training and mission planning.
Compact 2-D graphical representation of DNA
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Randić, Milan; Vračko, Marjan; Zupan, Jure; Novič, Marjana
2003-05-01
We present a novel 2-D graphical representation for DNA sequences which has an important advantage over the existing graphical representations of DNA in being very compact. It is based on: (1) use of binary labels for the four nucleic acid bases, and (2) use of the 'worm' curve as template on which binary codes are placed. The approach is illustrated on DNA sequences of the first exon of human β-globin and gorilla β-globin.
2D materials: Graphene and others
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Bansal, Suneev Anil; Singh, Amrinder Pal; Kumar, Suresh
2016-05-01
Present report reviews the recent advancements in new atomically thick 2D materials. Materials covered in this review are Graphene, Silicene, Germanene, Boron Nitride (BN) and Transition metal chalcogenides (TMC). These materials show extraordinary mechanical, electronic and optical properties which make them suitable candidates for future applications. Apart from unique properties, tune-ability of highly desirable properties of these materials is also an important area to be emphasized on.
Tomosynthesis imaging with 2D scanning trajectories
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Khare, Kedar; Claus, Bernhard E. H.; Eberhard, Jeffrey W.
2011-03-01
Tomosynthesis imaging in chest radiography provides volumetric information with the potential for improved diagnostic value when compared to the standard AP or LAT projections. In this paper we explore the image quality benefits of 2D scanning trajectories when coupled with advanced image reconstruction approaches. It is intuitively clear that 2D trajectories provide projection data that is more complete in terms of Radon space filling, when compared with conventional tomosynthesis using a linearly scanned source. Incorporating this additional information for obtaining improved image quality is, however, not a straightforward problem. The typical tomosynthesis reconstruction algorithms are based on direct inversion methods e.g. Filtered Backprojection (FBP) or iterative algorithms that are variants of the Algebraic Reconstruction Technique (ART). The FBP approach is fast and provides high frequency details in the image but at the same time introduces streaking artifacts degrading the image quality. The iterative methods can reduce the image artifacts by using image priors but suffer from a slow convergence rate, thereby producing images lacking high frequency details. In this paper we propose using a fast converging optimal gradient iterative scheme that has advantages of both the FBP and iterative methods in that it produces images with high frequency details while reducing the image artifacts. We show that using favorable 2D scanning trajectories along with the proposed reconstruction method has the advantage of providing improved depth information for structures such as the spine and potentially producing images with more isotropic resolution.
Engineering light outcoupling in 2D materials.
Lien, Der-Hsien; Kang, Jeong Seuk; Amani, Matin; Chen, Kevin; Tosun, Mahmut; Wang, Hsin-Ping; Roy, Tania; Eggleston, Michael S; Wu, Ming C; Dubey, Madan; Lee, Si-Chen; He, Jr-Hau; Javey, Ali
2015-02-11
When light is incident on 2D transition metal dichalcogenides (TMDCs), it engages in multiple reflections within underlying substrates, producing interferences that lead to enhancement or attenuation of the incoming and outgoing strength of light. Here, we report a simple method to engineer the light outcoupling in semiconducting TMDCs by modulating their dielectric surroundings. We show that by modulating the thicknesses of underlying substrates and capping layers, the interference caused by substrate can significantly enhance the light absorption and emission of WSe2, resulting in a ∼11 times increase in Raman signal and a ∼30 times increase in the photoluminescence (PL) intensity of WSe2. On the basis of the interference model, we also propose a strategy to control the photonic and optoelectronic properties of thin-layer WSe2. This work demonstrates the utilization of outcoupling engineering in 2D materials and offers a new route toward the realization of novel optoelectronic devices, such as 2D LEDs and solar cells. PMID:25602462
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
2015-10-01
The world has agreed on 17 Sustainable Development Goals, to be adopted this week. This is great progress towards acknowledging that the planet's finite resources need to be managed carefully in the face of humanity's unlimited aspirations.
Pressure limits of an axisymmetric torus
Yoshikawa, S.
1986-03-01
In order to clarify the pressure limit of a toroidal plasma equilibrium in a three-dimensional geometry, an azimuthally symmetric toroidal plasma was considered. In a tokamak-like plasma, the net toroidal current is necessary for a finite ..beta.. plasma equilibrium. If external conductors are used to provide the rotational transform, iota, the plasma pressure is limited to ..beta.. = (iota/2..pi..)/sup 2//2A, where A is the aspect ratio.
Calculations of axisymmetric vortex sheet roll-up using a panel and a filament model
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Kantelis, J. P.; Widnall, S. E.
1986-01-01
A method for calculating the self-induced motion of a vortex sheet using discrete vortex elements is presented. Vortex panels and vortex filaments are used to simulate two-dimensional and axisymmetric vortex sheet roll-up. A straight forward application using vortex elements to simulate the motion of a disk of vorticity with an elliptic circulation distribution yields unsatisfactroy results where the vortex elements move in a chaotic manner. The difficulty is assumed to be due to the inability of a finite number of discrete vortex elements to model the singularity at the sheet edge and due to large velocity calculation errors which result from uneven sheet stretching. A model of the inner portion of the spiral is introduced to eliminate the difficulty with the sheet edge singularity. The model replaces the outermost portion of the sheet with a single vortex of equivalent circulation and a number of higher order terms which account for the asymmetry of the spiral. The resulting discrete vortex model is applied to both two-dimensional and axisymmetric sheets. The two-dimensional roll-up is compared to the solution for a semi-infinite sheet with good results.
A Method for Optimizing Non-Axisymmetric Liners for Multimodal Sound Sources
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Watson, W. R.; Jones, M. G.; Parrott, T. L.; Sobieski, J.
2002-01-01
Central processor unit times and memory requirements for a commonly used solver are compared to that of a state-of-the-art, parallel, sparse solver. The sparse solver is then used in conjunction with three constrained optimization methodologies to assess the relative merits of non-axisymmetric versus axisymmetric liner concepts for improving liner acoustic suppression. This assessment is performed with a multimodal noise source (with equal mode amplitudes and phases) in a finite-length rectangular duct without flow. The sparse solver is found to reduce memory requirements by a factor of five and central processing time by a factor of eleven when compared with the commonly used solver. Results show that the optimum impedance of the uniform liner is dominated by the least attenuated mode, whose attenuation is maximized by the Cremer optimum impedance. An optimized, four-segmented liner with impedance segments in a checkerboard arrangement is found to be inferior to an optimized spanwise segmented liner. This optimized spanwise segmented liner is shown to attenuate substantially more sound than the optimized uniform liner and tends to be more effective at the higher frequencies. The most important result of this study is the discovery that when optimized, a spanwise segmented liner with two segments gives attenuations equal to or substantially greater than an optimized axially segmented liner with the same number of segments.
Stability of the laminar wake behind spinning axisymmetric bluff bodies: sensitivity and control
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Jimenez-Gonzalez, Jose Ignacio; Martinez-Bazan, Carlos; Coenen, Wilfried; Manglano, Carlos; Sevilla, Alejandro
2014-11-01
We carry out direct and adjoint global stability analyses of the laminar wake behind several spinning axisymmetric bluff bodies, i.e. sphere, hemisphere, bullet-shaped bodies of ellipsoidal nose and spherical nose respectively; for moderate Reynolds numbers (Re <= 450) and values of the spin parameter (Ω <= 1), defined as the ratio between the azimuthal velocity at the outer body surface and the free-stream velocity. Both the axisymmetric base flow computations and the assembling of the eigenvalue problems are tackled by means of the finite element solver FreeFEM + + , computing finally the eigenmodes with an Arnoldi algorithm in Matlab. We show that spin acts as a stabilization mechanism for the wake behind bodies with a cylindrical trailing part, while it destabilizes the wake of the other geometries. The computation of the adjoint modes and the identification of the wavemaker allow us to discuss the nature of the different unstable modes found and understand the differences in the stabilizing or destabilizing effect of rotation due to the base flow modifications. The controllability of the unstable regimes by means of base bleed is also addressed. Supported by the Spanish MINECO, Junta de Andalucía and EU Funds under Projects DPI2011-28356-C03-03 and P11-TEP7495.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Myrabo, Leik N.; Cassenti, Brice N.
2005-04-01
An axisymmetric finite element (FEM) structural analysis has been performed on a 20-m diameter hyper-energetic lightcraft designed to transport 6-12 occupants around the planet or directly to low Earth orbit — without resorting to refueling or staging. As proposed, the lenticular double-hull of this super-pressure, balloon-type craft is fabricated from microwave-transparent silicon carbide films of superior strength, inflated with 2-atm of helium. A perimeter toriodal tube, serving as the primary structural `backbone,' is pressurized to 25-atm. The remote beam-energized MHD propulsion system (with directed-energy airspike) is intimately integrated with the craft's tensile-type structure and is not distinguishable as an item separate from the vehicle, as in conventional spacecraft. The design assumption of liquid immersion G-suits, individualized escape pods, and (optional) partial liquid ventilation, assures super-human levels of crew survivability, enabling accelerations of 25 to 50 Gs, or more. The vehicle dry mass is 1200-kg; payload is 1200-kg (crew and escape pods); expendable coolant is 2400-kg of ultra-pure, deionized water (for waste heat rejection from rectenna arrays, during orbital boosts). For simplicity, payload is assumed `distributed' as a thin circular disc directly below the central rectenna. Preliminary findings of this axisymmetric FEM structural analysis are encouraging, and suggest that such craft may indeed be feasible within a generation — perhaps by 2025.
Optical tomography of Kerr electro-optic measurements with axisymmetric electric field
Uestuendag, A.; Zahn, M.
1996-12-31
Dielectrics become birefringent (Kerr effect) when stressed by high electric fields so that incident linearly or circularly polarized light propagating through the medium becomes elliptically polarized. Most past experimental work has been limited to cases where the electric field magnitude and direction have been constant along the light path, while recent analysis and point/plane electrode measurements have developed the Abel transformation which describes Kerr effect measurements when an axisymmetric electric field has magnitude but not direction varying along the light path. The present work develops the governing Kerr effect differential equations for an axisymmetric electric field for the case when both magnitude and direction vary along the light path. The specific case of point/plane electrodes are studied where analytical electric field solutions are used for the space charge free case and finite element computer analyses are used to calculate the electric field distribution for postulated space charge injection from the point electrode. The authors then calculate the Kerr electro optic fringe patterns that would result. They use the onion peeling method previously used for photoelastic analysis to calculate the electric field magnitude and direction from computer-simulated optical measurements.
Perturbed particle orbits and kinetic plasma response in non-axisymmetric tokamaks
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kim, Kimin; Park, J.-K.; Boozer, A. H.; Logan, N. C.; Wang, Z. R.; Menard, J. E.
2014-10-01
Non-axisymmetric magnetic fields interact with the drift trajectories of ions and electrons to create an anisotropic plasma pressure. The force produced by the gradient of this anisotropic pressure produces a torque, the Neoclassical Toroidal Viscosity (NTV), which tends to relax the plasma rotation to a specific offset rotation, and modifies the energy required to perturb the plasma. Complexities, such as resonances of the ExB drift with particle bounce frequencies, finite orbit width, and full collisional effects, require full numerical simulation to determine the NTV and the perturbation energy. The POCA delta-f drift kinetic particle code has been used to: (1) demonstrate the existence of the bounce resonances with the ExB drift and show that they often dominate the magnitude of the NTV, (2) show the NTV of perturbations with different toroidal mode numbers are generally decoupled, and (3) verify a quadratic NTV dependence on the asymmetric magnetic field. Such results imply the pressure anisotropy is linear in the magnetic perturbation and can produce a significant change in the applied non-axisymmetric field. Progress on integrating this pressure anisotropy into a perturbed equilibrium solver to obtain self-consistent solutions is presented. This work was supported by US DOE Contract DE-AC02-09CH11466.
2D superconductivity by ionic gating
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Iwasa, Yoshi
2D superconductivity is attracting a renewed interest due to the discoveries of new highly crystalline 2D superconductors in the past decade. Superconductivity at the oxide interfaces triggered by LaAlO3/SrTiO3 has become one of the promising routes for creation of new 2D superconductors. Also, the MBE grown metallic monolayers including FeSe are also offering a new platform of 2D superconductors. In the last two years, there appear a variety of monolayer/bilayer superconductors fabricated by CVD or mechanical exfoliation. Among these, electric field induced superconductivity by electric double layer transistor (EDLT) is a unique platform of 2D superconductivity, because of its ability of high density charge accumulation, and also because of the versatility in terms of materials, stemming from oxides to organics and layered chalcogenides. In this presentation, the following issues of electric filed induced superconductivity will be addressed; (1) Tunable carrier density, (2) Weak pinning, (3) Absence of inversion symmetry. (1) Since the sheet carrier density is quasi-continuously tunable from 0 to the order of 1014 cm-2, one is able to establish an electronic phase diagram of superconductivity, which will be compared with that of bulk superconductors. (2) The thickness of superconductivity can be estimated as 2 - 10 nm, dependent on materials, and is much smaller than the in-plane coherence length. Such a thin but low resistance at normal state results in extremely weak pinning beyond the dirty Boson model in the amorphous metallic films. (3) Due to the electric filed, the inversion symmetry is inherently broken in EDLT. This feature appears in the enhancement of Pauli limit of the upper critical field for the in-plane magnetic fields. In transition metal dichalcogenide with a substantial spin-orbit interactions, we were able to confirm the stabilization of Cooper pair due to its spin-valley locking. This work has been supported by Grant-in-Aid for Specially
Topological evolutionary computing in the optimal design of 2D and 3D structures
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Burczynski, T.; Poteralski, A.; Szczepanik, M.
2007-10-01
An application of evolutionary algorithms and the finite-element method to the topology optimization of 2D structures (plane stress, bending plates, and shells) and 3D structures is described. The basis of the topological evolutionary optimization is the direct control of the density material distribution (or thickness for 2D structures) by the evolutionary algorithm. The structures are optimized for stress, mass, and compliance criteria. The numerical examples demonstrate that this method is an effective technique for solving problems in computer-aided optimal design.
REVIEW ARTICLE: Control of non-axisymmetric toroidal plasmas
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Boozer, Allen H.
2010-10-01
The control of non-axisymmetric toroidal plasmas, stellarators, has a different character than the control of tokamaks for two reasons. Non-axisymmetric magnetic fields (1) can provide an arbitrarily large fraction of the poloidal magnetic field and (2) can strongly center the plasma in the chamber making it impossible to lose position control. The focus of stellarator design is on plasmas that are stable without feedback, need little or no change in the external magnetic field as the plasma evolves, and require no external power to maintain the desired magnetic configuration. The physics of non-axisymmetric fields is the same whether in a tokamak or a stellarator and whether introduced intentionally or accidentally. Fundamental physics indicates that plasma shape, which is controlled by the distribution of the external magnetic field that is normal to the plasma surface, is the primary control for fusion plasmas. The importance of non-axisymmetric control is set by the importance of toroidal plasma physics. Informed decisions on the development strategy of tokamaks, as well as magnetic fusion in general, require an understanding of the capabilities and difficulties of plasma control at various levels of non-axisymmetric shaping.
GBL-2D Version 1.0: a 2D geometry boolean library.
McBride, Cory L. (Elemental Technologies, American Fort, UT); Schmidt, Rodney Cannon; Yarberry, Victor R.; Meyers, Ray J.
2006-11-01
This report describes version 1.0 of GBL-2D, a geometric Boolean library for 2D objects. The library is written in C++ and consists of a set of classes and routines. The classes primarily represent geometric data and relationships. Classes are provided for 2D points, lines, arcs, edge uses, loops, surfaces and mask sets. The routines contain algorithms for geometric Boolean operations and utility functions. Routines are provided that incorporate the Boolean operations: Union(OR), XOR, Intersection and Difference. A variety of additional analytical geometry routines and routines for importing and exporting the data in various file formats are also provided. The GBL-2D library was originally developed as a geometric modeling engine for use with a separate software tool, called SummitView [1], that manipulates the 2D mask sets created by designers of Micro-Electro-Mechanical Systems (MEMS). However, many other practical applications for this type of software can be envisioned because the need to perform 2D Boolean operations can arise in many contexts.
Axisymmetric Tandem Mirrors: Stabilization and Confinement Studies
Post, R F; Fowler, T K; Bulmer, R; Byers, J; Hua, D; Tung, L
2004-07-15
The 'Kinetic Stabilizer' has been proposed as a means of MHD stabilizing an axisymmetric tandem mirror system. The K-S concept is based on theoretical studies by Ryutov, confirmed experimentally in the Gas Dynamic Trap experiment in Novosibirsk. In the K-S beams of ions are directed into the end of an 'expander' region outside the outer mirror of a tandem mirror. These ions, slowed, stagnated, and reflected as they move up the magnetic gradient, produce a low-density stabilizing plasma. At the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory we have been conducting theoretical and computational studies of the K-S Tandem Mirror. These studies have employed a low-beta code written especially to analyze the beam injection/stabilization process, and a new code SYMTRAN (by Hua and Fowler) that solves the coupled radial and axial particle and energy transport in a K-S TM. Also, a 'legacy' MHD stability code, FLORA, has been upgraded and employed to benchmark the injection/stabilization code and to extend its results to high beta values. The FLORA code studies so far have confirmed the effectiveness of the K-S in stabilizing high-beta (40%) plasmas with stabilizer plasmas the peak pressures of which are several orders of magnitude smaller than those of the confined plasma. Also the SYMTRAN code has shown D-T plasma ignition from alpha particle energy deposition in T-M regimes with strong end plugging. Our studies have confirmed the viability of the K-S-T-M concept with respect to MHD stability and radial and axial confinement. We are continuing these studies in order to optimize the parameters and to examine means for the stabilization of possible residual instability modes, such as drift modes and 'trapped-particle' modes. These modes may in principle be controlled by tailoring the stabilizer plasma distribution and/or the radial potential distribution. In the paper the results to date of our studies are summarized and projected to scope out possible fusion-power versions of the K
Axisymmetric Tandem Mirrors: Stabilization and Confinement Studies
Post, R.F.; Fowler, T.K.; Bulmer, R.; Byers, J.; Hua, D.; Tung, L.
2005-01-15
The 'Kinetic Stabilizer' has been proposed as a means of MHD stabilizing an axisymmetric tandem mirror system. The K-S concept is based on theoretical studies by Ryutov, confirmed experimentally in the Gas Dynamic Trap experiment in Novosibirsk. In the K-S beams of ions are directed into the end of an 'expander' region outside the outer mirror of a tandem mirror. These ions, slowed, stagnated, and reflected as they move up the magnetic gradient, produce a low-density stabilizing plasma.At the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory we have been conducting theoretical and computational studies of the K-S Tandem Mirror. These studies have employed a low-beta code written especially to analyze the beam injection/stabilization process,and a new code SYMTRAN (by Hua and Fowler)that solves the coupled radial and axial particle and energy transport in a K-S T-M. Also, a 'legacy' MHD stability code, FLORA, has been upgraded and employed to benchmark the injection/stabilization code and to extend its results to high beta values.The FLORA code studies so far have confirmed the effectiveness of the K-S in stabilizing high-beta (40%) plasmas with stabilizer plasmas the peak pressures of which are several orders of magnitude smaller than those of the confined plasma.Also the SYMTRAN code has shown D-T plasma ignition from alpha particle energy deposition in T-M regimes with strong end plugging.Our studies have confirmed the viability of the K-S T-M concept with respect to MHD stability and radial and axial confinement. We are continuing these studies in order to optimize the parameters and to examine means for the stabilization of possible residual instability modes, such as drift modes and 'trapped-particle' modes. These modes may in principle be controlled by tailoring the stabilizer plasma distribution and/or the radial potential distribution.In the paper the results to date of our studies are summarized and projected to scope out possible fusion-power versions of the K-S T-M.
Non-axisymmetric viscous lower-branch modes in axisymmetric supersonic flows
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Duck, Peter W.; Hall, Philip
1990-01-01
A previous paper by Duck and Hall (1989) considered the weakly nonlinear interaction of a pair of axisymmetric lower-branch Tollmien-Schlichting instabilities in cylindrical supersonic flows. Here, the possibility that nonaxisymmetric modes might also exist is investigated. In fact, it is found that such modes do exist and, on the basis of linear theory, it appears that these modes are the most important. The nonaxisymmetric modes are found to exist for flows around cylinders with nondimensional radius a less than some critical value a(c). This critical value a(c) is found to increase monotonically with the azimuthal wavenumber n of the disturbance, and it is found that unstable modes always occur in pairs. It is shown that, in general, instability in the form of lower-branch Tollmien-Schlichting waves will occur first for nonaxisymmetric modes and that, in the unstable regime, the largest growth rates correspond to the latter modes.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Albers, J. A.; Gregg, J. L.
1974-01-01
A finite-difference program is described for calculating the viscous compressible boundary layer flow over either planar or axisymmetric surfaces. The flow may be initially laminar and progress through a transitional zone to fully turbulent flow, or it may remain laminar, depending on the imposed boundary conditions, laws of viscosity, and numerical solution of the momentum and energy equations. The flow may also be forced into a turbulent flow at a chosen spot by the data input. The input may contain the factors of arbitrary Reynolds number, free-stream Mach number, free-stream turbulence, wall heating or cooling, longitudinal wall curvature, wall suction or blowing, and wall roughness. The solution may start from an initial Falkner-Skan similarity profile, an approximate equilibrium turbulent profile, or an initial arbitrary input profile.
Hydromagnetic plane and axisymmetric flow near a stagnation point with heat generation
Chamkha, A.J.
1998-02-01
The steady, laminar, forced convection flow of an electrically-conducting and heat-generating/absorbing fluid at the stagnation point of an isothermal two-dimensional porous body and an axisymmetric body in the presence of a uniform applied magnetic field has been studied. The governing equations are transformed into ordinary differential equations using similarity variables. The obtained results are solved numerically by an implicit finite-difference method. A parametric study of all the physical parameters involved in the problem has been performed and graphical results for the velocity and temperature profiles as well as the skin-friction coefficient and the wall heat transfer are presented and discussed. This flow and heat transfer process occurs in many industrial applications such as heat exchangers design, cooling of nuclear reactors, and others.
Cutanda-Henríquez, Vicente; Juhl, Peter Møller
2013-11-01
The formulation presented in this paper is based on the boundary element method (BEM) and implements Kirchhoff's decomposition into viscous, thermal, and acoustic components, which can be treated independently everywhere in the domain except on the boundaries. The acoustic variables with losses are solved using extended boundary conditions that assume (i) negligible temperature fluctuations at the boundary and (ii) normal and tangential matching of the boundary's particle velocity. The proposed model does not require constructing a special mesh for the viscous and thermal boundary layers as is the case with the existing finite element method (FEM) implementations with losses. The suitability of this approach is demonstrated using an axisymmetrical BEM and two test cases where the numerical results are compared with analytical solutions. PMID:24180751
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Evans, C. R., II
A method is presented which allows fully self-consistent numerical simulation of asymptotically flat axisymmetric nonrotating general relativistic systems. These techniques have been developed to model and understand resulting relativistic effects in gravitational core collapse and gravitational radiation generation. Both vacuum (Brill) spacetimes and matter-filled configurations can be treated. The (3 + 1) decomposition of Arnowitt, Deser and Misner is used to write general relativity in a dynamical form. The conformal approach, including the transverse-traceless decomposition of extrinsic curvature due to York, is used to solve the initial value problem. In addition, these techniques are extended to provide a fully constrained evolution scheme. Several new boundary conditions, applied at large but finite radius, are derived for the elliptic constraint equations. This method uses a simplifying three-gauge, placing the metric in quasi-isotropic form.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Rhodes, D. L.; Lilley, D. G.
1985-01-01
Numerical predictions, flow visualization experiments and time-mean velocity measurements were obtained for six basic nonreacting flowfields (with inlet swirl vane angles of 0 (swirler removed), 45 and 70 degrees and sidewall expansion angles of 90 and 45 degrees) in an idealized axisymmetric combustor geometry. A flowfield prediction computer program was developed which solves appropriate finite difference equations including a conventional two equation k-epsilon eddy viscosity turbulence model. The wall functions employed were derived from previous swirling flow measurements, and the stairstep approximation was employed to represent the sloping wall at the inlet to the test chamber. Recirculation region boundaries have been sketched from the entire flow visualization photograph collection. Tufts, smoke, and neutrally buoyant helium filled soap bubbles were employed as flow tracers. A five hole pitot probe was utilized to measure the axial, radial, and swirl time mean velocity components.
Relaxation solutions for inviscid axisymmetric transonic flow over blunt or pointed bodies.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
South, J. C., Jr.; Jameson, A.
1973-01-01
A finite-difference relaxation method is presented for numerical solution of the full potential equation and exact boundary conditions for general axisymmetric bodies is inviscid, steady transonic flow. Body-normal coordinates are used in the nose region and sheared cylindrical coordinates are used on the afterbody to accommodate corners such as boattails and flares. An improved difference scheme is used which does not require that the flow be nearly alined with a coordinate direction in supersonic regions, and which treats either subsonic or supersonic free streams. Numerical results are illustrated for some simple classical shapes such as spheres and ellipsoids, and for more practical shapes like tangent-ogives with boattails. Special attention is given to bodies which have been studied for area-rule applications. Agreement with available experimental results is good in cases where viscous effects and wind-tunnel wall interference are not important.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Lilley, D. G.; Rhode, D. L.
1982-01-01
A primitive pressure-velocity variable finite difference computer code was developed to predict swirling recirculating inert turbulent flows in axisymmetric combustors in general, and for application to a specific idealized combustion chamber with sudden or gradual expansion. The technique involves a staggered grid system for axial and radial velocities, a line relaxation procedure for efficient solution of the equations, a two-equation k-epsilon turbulence model, a stairstep boundary representation of the expansion flow, and realistic accommodation of swirl effects. A user's manual, dealing with the computational problem, showing how the mathematical basis and computational scheme may be translated into a computer program is presented. A flow chart, FORTRAN IV listing, notes about various subroutines and a user's guide are supplied as an aid to prospective users of the code.
Weatherby, J.R.
1987-09-01
Results of axisymmetric structural analyses of a 1:6 scale model of a reinforced concrete nuclear containment building are presented. Both a finite element shell analysis and a simplified membrane analysis were made to predict the structural response and ultimate pressure capacity of the model. Analytical results indicate that the model will fail at an internal pressure of 187 psig when the stress level in the hoop reinforcement at the midsection of the cylinder exceeds the ultimate strength of the bar splices. 5 refs., 34 figs., 6 tabs.
2-d Collapsed Polymers on a Cylinder
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Hsu, Hsiao-Ping; Grassberger, Peter
2002-08-01
Partially confined collapsed polymers with attractive interactions are studied in two dimensions. They are described by self-avoiding random walks with nearest-neighbour attractions on the surface of an infinitely long cylinder. We employ the pruned-enriched-Rosenbluth method (PERM) to study this model with different cylinder circumference h, to understand the properties of collapsed polymers affected by confining geometries. The cases of free polymers and of polymers confined to finite volumes were discussed already in [Phys. Rev. E 65, 031807 (2002)] by Grassberger and Hsu. There, we had verified the existence of a surface term in the infinite volume free energy, and a T-dependent bulk chemical potential. Here we present further results on the surface tension and it's T-dependence. We also show that the chemical potential has, in the limit of very long chains, a minimum at a finite value of h.
Axisymmetric computational fluid dynamics analysis of Saturn V/S1-C/F1 nozzle and plume
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Ruf, Joseph H.
1993-01-01
An axisymmetric single engine Computational Fluid Dynamics calculation of the Saturn V/S 1-C vehicle base region and F1 engine plume is described. There were two objectives of this work, the first was to calculate an axisymmetric approximation of the nozzle, plume and base region flow fields of S1-C/F1, relate/scale this to flight data and apply this scaling factor to a NLS/STME axisymmetric calculations from a parallel effort. The second was to assess the differences in F1 and STME plume shear layer development and concentration of combustible gases. This second piece of information was to be input/supporting data for assumptions made in NLS2 base temperature scaling methodology from which the vehicle base thermal environments were being generated. The F1 calculations started at the main combustion chamber faceplate and incorporated the turbine exhaust dump/nozzle film coolant. The plume and base region calculations were made for ten thousand feet and 57 thousand feet altitude at vehicle flight velocity and in stagnant freestream. FDNS was implemented with a 14 species, 28 reaction finite rate chemistry model plus a soot burning model for the RP-1/LOX chemistry. Nozzle and plume flow fields are shown, the plume shear layer constituents are compared to a STME plume. Conclusions are made about the validity and status of the analysis and NLS2 vehicle base thermal environment definition methodology.
Axisymmetric scattering of scalar waves by spheroids.
Lekner, John; Boyack, Rufus
2011-06-01
A phase shift formulation of scattering by oblate and prolate spheroids is presented, in parallel with the partial-wave theory of scattering by spherical obstacles. The crucial step is application of a finite Legendre transform to the Helmholtz equation in spheroidal coordinates. In the long-wavelength limit the spheroidal analog of the spherical scattering length immediately gives the cross section. Analytical results are readily obtained for scattering of Schrödinger particle waves by impenetrable spheroids, and for scattering of sound waves by acoustically soft spheroidal objects. The method is restricted to scattering by spheroids whose symmetry axis is coincident with the direction of the incident plane wave. PMID:21682372
Interparticle Attraction in 2D Complex Plasmas
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kompaneets, Roman; Morfill, Gregor E.; Ivlev, Alexei V.
2016-03-01
Complex (dusty) plasmas allow experimental studies of various physical processes occurring in classical liquids and solids by directly observing individual microparticles. A major problem is that the interaction between microparticles is generally not molecularlike. In this Letter, we propose how to achieve a molecularlike interaction potential in laboratory 2D complex plasmas. We argue that this principal aim can be achieved by using relatively small microparticles and properly adjusting discharge parameters. If experimentally confirmed, this will make it possible to employ complex plasmas as a model system with an interaction potential resembling that of conventional liquids.
Periodically sheared 2D Yukawa systems
Kovács, Anikó Zsuzsa; Hartmann, Peter; Donkó, Zoltán
2015-10-15
We present non-equilibrium molecular dynamics simulation studies on the dynamic (complex) shear viscosity of a 2D Yukawa system. We have identified a non-monotonic frequency dependence of the viscosity at high frequencies and shear rates, an energy absorption maximum (local resonance) at the Einstein frequency of the system at medium shear rates, an enhanced collective wave activity, when the excitation is near the plateau frequency of the longitudinal wave dispersion, and the emergence of significant configurational anisotropy at small frequencies and high shear rates.
ENERGY LANDSCAPE OF 2D FLUID FORMS
Y. JIANG; ET AL
2000-04-01
The equilibrium states of 2D non-coarsening fluid foams, which consist of bubbles with fixed areas, correspond to local minima of the total perimeter. (1) The authors find an approximate value of the global minimum, and determine directly from an image how far a foam is from its ground state. (2) For (small) area disorder, small bubbles tend to sort inwards and large bubbles outwards. (3) Topological charges of the same sign repel while charges of opposite sign attract. (4) They discuss boundary conditions and the uniqueness of the pattern for fixed topology.
A scalable 2-D parallel sparse solver
Kothari, S.C.; Mitra, S.
1995-12-01
Scalability beyond a small number of processors, typically 32 or less, is known to be a problem for existing parallel general sparse (PGS) direct solvers. This paper presents a parallel general sparse PGS direct solver for general sparse linear systems on distributed memory machines. The algorithm is based on the well-known sequential sparse algorithm Y12M. To achieve efficient parallelization, a 2-D scattered decomposition of the sparse matrix is used. The proposed algorithm is more scalable than existing parallel sparse direct solvers. Its scalability is evaluated on a 256 processor nCUBE2s machine using Boeing/Harwell benchmark matrices.
2D stepping drive for hyperspectral systems
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Endrödy, Csaba; Mehner, Hannes; Grewe, Adrian; Sinzinger, Stefan; Hoffmann, Martin
2015-07-01
We present the design, fabrication and characterization of a compact 2D stepping microdrive for pinhole array positioning. The miniaturized solution enables a highly integrated compact hyperspectral imaging system. Based on the geometry of the pinhole array, an inch-worm drive with electrostatic actuators was designed resulting in a compact (1 cm2) positioning system featuring a step size of about 15 µm in a 170 µm displacement range. The high payload (20 mg) as required for the pinhole array and the compact system design exceed the known electrostatic inch-worm-based microdrives.
Combined global 2D-local 3D modeling of the industrial Czochralski silicon crystal growth process
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Jung, T.; Seebeck, J.; Friedrich, J.
2013-04-01
A global, axisymmetric thermal model of a Czochralski furnace is coupled to an external, local, 3D, time-dependent flow model of the melt via the inclusion of turbulent heat fluxes, extracted from the 3D melt model, into the 2D furnace model. Boundary conditions of the 3D model are updated using results from the 2D model. In the 3D model the boundary layers are resolved by aggressive mesh refinement towards the walls, and the Large Eddy Simulation approach is used to model the turbulent flow in the melt volume on a relatively coarse mesh to minimize calculation times. It is shown that by using this approach it is possible to reproduce fairly good results from Direct Numerical Simulations obtained on much finer meshes, as well as experimental results for interface shape and oxygen concentration in the case of growth of silicon crystals with 210 mm diameter for photovoltaics by the Czochralski method.
Steady-state axisymmetric nonlinear magnetohydrodynamic solutions with various boundary conditions
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Wang, Lile; Lou, Yu-Qing
2014-04-01
Axisymmetric magnetohydrodynamics (MHD) can be invoked for describing astrophysical magnetized flows and formulated to model stellar magnetospheres including main-sequence stars (e.g. the Sun), compact stellar objects [e.g. magnetic white dwarfs (MWDs), radio pulsars, anomalous X-ray pulsars, magnetars, isolated neutron stars, etc.] and planets as a major step forward towards a full three-dimensional model construction. Using powerful and reliable numerical solvers based on two distinct finite-difference method and finite-element method schemes of algorithm, we examine axisymmetric steady-state or stationary MHD models in Throumoulopoulos & Tasso, finding that their separable semi-analytic non-linear solutions are actually not unique given their specific selection of several free functionals and chosen boundary conditions. Similar situations of multiple non-linear solutions with the same boundary conditions actually also happen to force-free magnetic field models of Low & Lou. The multiplicity of non-linear steady MHD solutions gives rise to differences in the total energies contained in the magnetic fields and flow velocity fields as well as in the asymptotic behaviours approaching infinity, which may in turn explain why numerical solvers tend to converge to a non-linear solution with a lower energy than the corresponding separable semi-analytic one. By properly adjusting model parameters, we invoke semi-analytic and numerical solutions to describe different kinds of scenarios, including nearly parallel case and the situation in which the misalignment between the plasma flow and magnetic field is considerable. We propose that these MHD models are capable of describing the magnetospheres of MWDs as examples of applications with moderate conditions (including magnetic field) where the typical values of several important parameters are consistent with observations. Physical parameters can also be estimated based on such MHD models directly. We discuss the challenges
Microwave Assisted 2D Materials Exfoliation
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Wang, Yanbin
Two-dimensional materials have emerged as extremely important materials with applications ranging from energy and environmental science to electronics and biology. Here we report our discovery of a universal, ultrafast, green, solvo-thermal technology for producing excellent-quality, few-layered nanosheets in liquid phase from well-known 2D materials such as such hexagonal boron nitride (h-BN), graphite, and MoS2. We start by mixing the uniform bulk-layered material with a common organic solvent that matches its surface energy to reduce the van der Waals attractive interactions between the layers; next, the solutions are heated in a commercial microwave oven to overcome the energy barrier between bulk and few-layers states. We discovered the minutes-long rapid exfoliation process is highly temperature dependent, which requires precise thermal management to obtain high-quality inks. We hypothesize a possible mechanism of this proposed solvo-thermal process; our theory confirms the basis of this novel technique for exfoliation of high-quality, layered 2D materials by using an as yet unknown role of the solvent.
Photocurrent spectroscopy of 2D materials
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Cobden, David
Confocal photocurrent measurements provide a powerful means of studying many aspects of the optoelectronic and electrical properties of a 2D device or material. At a diffraction-limited point they can provide a detailed absorption spectrum, and they can probe local symmetry, ultrafast relaxation rates and processes, electron-electron interaction strengths, and transport coefficients. We illustrate this with several examples, once being the photo-Nernst effect. In gapless 2D materials, such as graphene, in a perpendicular magnetic field a photocurrent antisymmetric in the field is generated near to the free edges, with opposite sign at opposite edges. Its origin is the transverse thermoelectric current associated with the laser-induced electron temperature gradient. This effect provides an unambiguous demonstration of the Shockley-Ramo nature of long-range photocurrent generation in gapless materials. It also provides a means of investigating quasiparticle properties. For example, in the case of graphene on hBN, it can be used to probe the Lifshitz transition that occurs due to the minibands formed by the Moire superlattice. We also observe and discuss photocurrent generated in other semimetallic (WTe2) and semiconducting (WSe2) monolayers. Work supported by DoE BES and NSF EFRI grants.
Multienzyme Inkjet Printed 2D Arrays.
Gdor, Efrat; Shemesh, Shay; Magdassi, Shlomo; Mandler, Daniel
2015-08-19
The use of printing to produce 2D arrays is well established, and should be relatively facile to adapt for the purpose of printing biomaterials; however, very few studies have been published using enzyme solutions as inks. Among the printing technologies, inkjet printing is highly suitable for printing biomaterials and specifically enzymes, as it offers many advantages. Formulation of the inkjet inks is relatively simple and can be adjusted to a variety of biomaterials, while providing nonharmful environment to the enzymes. Here we demonstrate the applicability of inkjet printing for patterning multiple enzymes in a predefined array in a very straightforward, noncontact method. Specifically, various arrays of the enzymes glucose oxidase (GOx), invertase (INV) and horseradish peroxidase (HP) were printed on aminated glass surfaces, followed by immobilization using glutardialdehyde after printing. Scanning electrochemical microscopy (SECM) was used for imaging the printed patterns and to ascertain the enzyme activity. The successful formation of 2D arrays consisting of enzymes was explored as a means of developing the first surface confined enzyme based logic gates. Principally, XOR and AND gates, each consisting of two enzymes as the Boolean operators, were assembled, and their operation was studied by SECM. PMID:26214072
Biphasic Finite Element Contact Analysis of the Knee Joint using an Augmented Lagrangian Method
Guo, Hongqiang; Maher, Suzanne A.; Spilker, Robert L.
2013-01-01
Biphasic contact analysis is essential to obtain a more complete understanding of soft tissue biomechanics; however, only a limited number of studies have addressed these types of problems. In this paper, a theoretically consistent biphasic finite element solution of the 2D axisymmetric human knee was developed, and an augmented Lagrangian method was used to enforce the biphasic continuity across the contact interface. The interaction between the fluid and solid matrices of the soft tissues of the knee joint, the stress and strain distributions within the meniscus, and the changes in stress and strain distributions in the articular cartilage of the femur and tibia after complete meniscectomy were investigated. It was found that (i) the fluid phase carries more than 60% of the load, which reinforces the need for the biphasic model for knee biomechanics; (ii) the inner third and outer two-thirds of the meniscus had different strain distributions; and (iii) the distributions of both maximum shear stress and maximum principal strain in articular cartilage changed after complete meniscectomy - with peak values increasing by over 350%. PMID:23498852
Ion temperature gradient turbulence in helical and axisymmetric RFP plasmas
Predebon, I.; Xanthopoulos, P.
2015-05-15
Turbulence induced by the ion temperature gradient (ITG) is investigated in the helical and axisymmetric plasma states of a reversed field pinch device by means of gyrokinetic calculations. The two magnetic configurations are systematically compared, both linearly and nonlinearly, in order to evaluate the impact of the geometry on the instability and its ensuing transport, as well as on the production of zonal flows. Despite its enhanced confinement, the high-current helical state demonstrates a lower ITG stability threshold compared to the axisymmetric state, and ITG turbulence is expected to become an important contributor to the total heat transport.
Ion temperature gradient turbulence in helical and axisymmetric RFP plasmas
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Predebon, I.; Xanthopoulos, P.
2015-05-01
Turbulence induced by the ion temperature gradient (ITG) is investigated in the helical and axisymmetric plasma states of a reversed field pinch device by means of gyrokinetic calculations. The two magnetic configurations are systematically compared, both linearly and nonlinearly, in order to evaluate the impact of the geometry on the instability and its ensuing transport, as well as on the production of zonal flows. Despite its enhanced confinement, the high-current helical state demonstrates a lower ITG stability threshold compared to the axisymmetric state, and ITG turbulence is expected to become an important contributor to the total heat transport.
Potential flow past axisymmetric bodies at angle of attack
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Kuhlman, J. M.; Shu, J.-Y.
1984-01-01
The Karamcheti (1966) suggestion concerning the use of higher order singularity techniques has been developed for the calculation of incompressible flow past an axisymmetric body at angle of attack. Attention is given to the results of a convergence study using this axial singularity method, where solution accuracy has been investigated for ellipsoids of slenderness ratio in the 1-10 range for both axial and inclined flow. Effects of singularity type, element number and size distribution, and singularity line inset distance, are noted, and a paneling scheme is developed which yields accurate results for the class of axisymmetric bodies having continuous body slopes with discontinuous curvature jumps.
Stationary axisymmetric fields in a teleparallel theory of gravitation
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Saez, D.
1984-12-01
The stationary axisymmetric field in the tetrad theory of gravitation of Moller (1978) and hence (as shown by Meyre, 1982) in the teleparallel limit of the gauge theory of Hehl et al. (1978) is investigated analytically. A set of tetrads satisfying the Moller equations and giving a Kerr metric is defined, and its existence is proved. It is suggested that the introduction of suitable conditions could reduce the number of tetrads in the Kerr case to one or a small number, and that the present analytical techniques could be applied to other stationary axisymmetric metrics of general relativity.
Impingement of supersonic jets on an axisymmetric deflector
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Prasad, J. K.; Mehta, R. C.; Sreekanth, A. K.
1994-07-01
The phenomenon of supersonic jets and their interaction with solid surfaces is found in many engineering applications such as impingement of exhaust from launch vehicles during the liftoff phase, during stage separation of multistage rockets, and VTOL/STOL operation of aircraft, etc. In this paper, experimental and numerical studies are carried out to investigate impingement flowfield produced on a typical axisymmetric jet deflector. The experiments consisted of schlieren flow visualization and measurements of pressure. The present study will be useful for the design of a typical axisymmetric jet deflector during the liftoff phase of a rocket.
2-D or not 2-D, that is the question: A Northern California test
Mayeda, K; Malagnini, L; Phillips, W S; Walter, W R; Dreger, D
2005-06-06
Reliable estimates of the seismic source spectrum are necessary for accurate magnitude, yield, and energy estimation. In particular, how seismic radiated energy scales with increasing earthquake size has been the focus of recent debate within the community and has direct implications on earthquake source physics studies as well as hazard mitigation. The 1-D coda methodology of Mayeda et al. has provided the lowest variance estimate of the source spectrum when compared against traditional approaches that use direct S-waves, thus making it ideal for networks that have sparse station distribution. The 1-D coda methodology has been mostly confined to regions of approximately uniform complexity. For larger, more geophysically complicated regions, 2-D path corrections may be required. The complicated tectonics of the northern California region coupled with high quality broadband seismic data provides for an ideal ''apples-to-apples'' test of 1-D and 2-D path assumptions on direct waves and their coda. Using the same station and event distribution, we compared 1-D and 2-D path corrections and observed the following results: (1) 1-D coda results reduced the amplitude variance relative to direct S-waves by roughly a factor of 8 (800%); (2) Applying a 2-D correction to the coda resulted in up to 40% variance reduction from the 1-D coda results; (3) 2-D direct S-wave results, though better than 1-D direct waves, were significantly worse than the 1-D coda. We found that coda-based moment-rate source spectra derived from the 2-D approach were essentially identical to those from the 1-D approach for frequencies less than {approx}0.7-Hz, however for the high frequencies (0.7{le} f {le} 8.0-Hz), the 2-D approach resulted in inter-station scatter that was generally 10-30% smaller. For complex regions where data are plentiful, a 2-D approach can significantly improve upon the simple 1-D assumption. In regions where only 1-D coda correction is available it is still preferable over 2
ADAM: An Axisymmetric Duct Aeroacoustic Modeling system
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Abrahamson, A. L.
1983-01-01
An interconnected system of computer programs for analyzing the propagation and attenuation of sound in aeroengine ducts containing realistic compressible subsonic mean flows, ADAM was developed primarily for research directed towards the reduction of noise emitted from turbofan aircraft engines. The two basic components are a streamtube curvature program for determination of the mean flow, and a finite element code for solution of the acoustic propagation problem. The system, which has been specifically tailored for ease of use, is presently installed at NASA Langley Reseach Center on a Control Data Cyber 175 Computer under the NOS Operating system employing a Tektronix terminal for interactive graphics. The scope and organization of the ADAM system is described. A users guide, examples of input data, and results for selected cases are included.
FRANC2D: A two-dimensional crack propagation simulator. Version 2.7: User's guide
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Wawrzynek, Paul; Ingraffea, Anthony
1994-01-01
FRANC 2D (FRacture ANalysis Code, 2 Dimensions) is a menu driven, interactive finite element computer code that performs fracture mechanics analyses of 2-D structures. The code has an automatic mesh generator for triangular and quadrilateral elements. FRANC2D calculates the stress intensity factor using linear elastic fracture mechanics and evaluates crack extension using several methods that may be selected by the user. The code features a mesh refinement and adaptive mesh generation capability that is automatically developed according to the predicted crack extension direction and length. The code also has unique features that permit the analysis of layered structure with load transfer through simulated mechanical fasteners or bonded joints. The code was written for UNIX workstations with X-windows graphics and may be executed on the following computers: DEC DecStation 3000 and 5000 series, IBM RS/6000 series, Hewlitt-Packard 9000/700 series, SUN Sparc stations, and most Silicon Graphics models.
Numerical Evaluation of 2D Ground States
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kolkovska, Natalia
2016-02-01
A ground state is defined as the positive radial solution of the multidimensional nonlinear problem
Canard configured aircraft with 2-D nozzle
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Child, R. D.; Henderson, W. P.
1978-01-01
A closely-coupled canard fighter with vectorable two-dimensional nozzle was designed for enhanced transonic maneuvering. The HiMAT maneuver goal of a sustained 8g turn at a free-stream Mach number of 0.9 and 30,000 feet was the primary design consideration. The aerodynamic design process was initiated with a linear theory optimization minimizing the zero percent suction drag including jet effects and refined with three-dimensional nonlinear potential flow techniques. Allowances were made for mutual interference and viscous effects. The design process to arrive at the resultant configuration is described, and the design of a powered 2-D nozzle model to be tested in the LRC 16-foot Propulsion Wind Tunnel is shown.
2D Electrostatic Actuation of Microshutter Arrays
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Burns, Devin E.; Oh, Lance H.; Li, Mary J.; Jones, Justin S.; Kelly, Daniel P.; Zheng, Yun; Kutyrev, Alexander S.; Moseley, Samuel H.
2015-01-01
An electrostatically actuated microshutter array consisting of rotational microshutters (shutters that rotate about a torsion bar) were designed and fabricated through the use of models and experiments. Design iterations focused on minimizing the torsional stiffness of the microshutters, while maintaining their structural integrity. Mechanical and electromechanical test systems were constructed to measure the static and dynamic behavior of the microshutters. The torsional stiffness was reduced by a factor of four over initial designs without sacrificing durability. Analysis of the resonant behavior of the microshutter arrays demonstrates that the first resonant mode is a torsional mode occurring around 3000 Hz. At low vacuum pressures, this resonant mode can be used to significantly reduce the drive voltage necessary for actuation requiring as little as 25V. 2D electrostatic latching and addressing was demonstrated using both a resonant and pulsed addressing scheme.
2D Electrostatic Actuation of Microshutter Arrays
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Burns, Devin E.; Oh, Lance H.; Li, Mary J.; Kelly, Daniel P.; Kutyrev, Alexander S.; Moseley, Samuel H.
2015-01-01
Electrostatically actuated microshutter arrays consisting of rotational microshutters (shutters that rotate about a torsion bar) were designed and fabricated through the use of models and experiments. Design iterations focused on minimizing the torsional stiffness of the microshutters, while maintaining their structural integrity. Mechanical and electromechanical test systems were constructed to measure the static and dynamic behavior of the microshutters. The torsional stiffness was reduced by a factor of four over initial designs without sacrificing durability. Analysis of the resonant behavior of the microshutters demonstrates that the first resonant mode is a torsional mode occurring around 3000 Hz. At low vacuum pressures, this resonant mode can be used to significantly reduce the drive voltage necessary for actuation requiring as little as 25V. 2D electrostatic latching and addressing was demonstrated using both a resonant and pulsed addressing scheme.
Graphene suspensions for 2D printing
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Soots, R. A.; Yakimchuk, E. A.; Nebogatikova, N. A.; Kotin, I. A.; Antonova, I. V.
2016-04-01
It is shown that, by processing a graphite suspension in ethanol or water by ultrasound and centrifuging, it is possible to obtain particles with thicknesses within 1-6 nm and, in the most interesting cases, 1-1.5 nm. Analogous treatment of a graphite suspension in organic solvent yields eventually thicker particles (up to 6-10 nm thick) even upon long-term treatment. Using the proposed ink based on graphene and aqueous ethanol with ethylcellulose and terpineol additives for 2D printing, thin (~5 nm thick) films with sheet resistance upon annealing ~30 MΩ/□ were obtained. With the ink based on aqueous graphene suspension, the sheet resistance was ~5-12 kΩ/□ for 6- to 15-nm-thick layers with a carrier mobility of ~30-50 cm2/(V s).
Metrology for graphene and 2D materials
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Pollard, Andrew J.
2016-09-01
The application of graphene, a one atom-thick honeycomb lattice of carbon atoms with superlative properties, such as electrical conductivity, thermal conductivity and strength, has already shown that it can be used to benefit metrology itself as a new quantum standard for resistance. However, there are many application areas where graphene and other 2D materials, such as molybdenum disulphide (MoS2) and hexagonal boron nitride (h-BN), may be disruptive, areas such as flexible electronics, nanocomposites, sensing and energy storage. Applying metrology to the area of graphene is now critical to enable the new, emerging global graphene commercial world and bridge the gap between academia and industry. Measurement capabilities and expertise in a wide range of scientific areas are required to address this challenge. The combined and complementary approach of varied characterisation methods for structural, chemical, electrical and other properties, will allow the real-world issues of commercialising graphene and other 2D materials to be addressed. Here, examples of metrology challenges that have been overcome through a multi-technique or new approach are discussed. Firstly, the structural characterisation of defects in both graphene and MoS2 via Raman spectroscopy is described, and how nanoscale mapping of vacancy defects in graphene is also possible using tip-enhanced Raman spectroscopy (TERS). Furthermore, the chemical characterisation and removal of polymer residue on chemical vapour deposition (CVD) grown graphene via secondary ion mass spectrometry (SIMS) is detailed, as well as the chemical characterisation of iron films used to grow large domain single-layer h-BN through CVD growth, revealing how contamination of the substrate itself plays a role in the resulting h-BN layer. In addition, the role of international standardisation in this area is described, outlining the current work ongoing in both the International Organization of Standardization (ISO) and the
Hirobe, Tomohisa; Ito, Shosuke; Wakamatsu, Kazumasa
2013-09-01
The novel mutation named ru2(d) /Hps5(ru2-d) , characterized by light-colored coats and ruby-eyes, prohibits differentiation of melanocytes by inhibiting tyrosinase (Tyr) activity, expression of Tyr, Tyr-related protein 1 (Tyrp1), Tyrp2, and Kit. However, it is not known whether the ru2(d) allele affects pheomelanin synthesis in recessive yellow (e/Mc1r(e) ) or in pheomelanic stage in agouti (A) mice. In this study, effects of the ru2(d) allele on pheomelanin synthesis were investigated by chemical analysis of melanin present in dorsal hairs of 5-week-old mice from F2 generation between C57BL/10JHir (B10)-co-isogenic ruby-eye 2(d) and B10-congenic recessive yellow or agouti. Eumelanin content was decreased in ruby-eye 2(d) and ruby-eye 2(d) agouti mice, whereas pheomelanin content in ruby-eye 2(d) recessive yellow and ruby-eye 2(d) agouti mice did not differ from the corresponding Ru2(d) /- mice, suggesting that the ru2(d) allele inhibits eumelanin but not pheomelanin synthesis. PMID:23672590
CAS2D- NONROTATING BLADE-TO-BLADE, STEADY, POTENTIAL TRANSONIC CASCADE FLOW ANALYSIS CODE
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Dulikravich, D. S.
1994-01-01
An exact, full-potential-equation model for the steady, irrotational, homoentropic, and homoenergetic flow of a compressible, inviscid fluid through a two-dimensional planar cascade together with its appropriate boundary conditions has been derived. The CAS2D computer program numerically solves an artificially time-dependent form of the actual full-potential-equation, providing a nonrotating blade-to-blade, steady, potential transonic cascade flow analysis code. Comparisons of results with test data and theoretical solutions indicate very good agreement. In CAS2D, the governing equation is discretized by using type-dependent, rotated finite differencing and the finite area technique. The flow field is discretized by providing a boundary-fitted, nonuniform computational mesh. This mesh is generated by using a sequence of conformal mapping, nonorthogonal coordinate stretching, and local, isoparametric, bilinear mapping functions. The discretized form of the full-potential equation is solved iteratively by using successive line over relaxation. Possible isentropic shocks are captured by the explicit addition of an artificial viscosity in a conservative form. In addition, a four-level, consecutive, mesh refinement feature makes CAS2D a reliable and fast algorithm for the analysis of transonic, two-dimensional cascade flows. The results from CAS2D are not directly applicable to three-dimensional, potential, rotating flows through a cascade of blades because CAS2D does not consider the effects of the Coriolis force that would be present in the three-dimensional case. This program is written in FORTRAN IV for batch execution and has been implemented on an IBM 370 series computer with a central memory requirement of approximately 200K of 8 bit bytes. The CAS2D program was developed in 1980.
Non-axisymmetric equilibrium reconstruction for stellarators, reversed field pinches and tokamaks
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Hanson, J. D.; Anderson, D. T.; Cianciosa, M.; Franz, P.; Harris, J. H.; Hartwell, G. H.; Hirshman, S. P.; Knowlton, S. F.; Lao, L. L.; Lazarus, E. A.; Marrelli, L.; Maurer, D. A.; Schmitt, J. C.; Sontag, A. C.; Stevenson, B. A.; Terranova, D.
2013-08-01
Axisymmetric equilibrium reconstruction using magnetohydrodynamic equilibrium solutions to the Grad-Shafranov equation has long been an important tool for interpreting tokamak experiments. This paper describes recent results in non-axisymmetric (three-dimensional) equilibrium reconstruction of nominally axisymmetric plasmas (tokamaks and reversed field pinches (RFPs)), and fully non-axisymmetric plasmas (stellarators). Results from applying the V3FIT code to CTH and HSX stellarator plasmas, RFX-mod RFP plasmas and the DIII-D tokamak are presented.
Non-Axisymmetric Shaping of Tokamaks Preserving Quasi-Axisymmetry
Long-Poe Ku and Allen H. Boozer
2009-06-05
If quasi-axisymmetry is preserved, non-axisymmetric shaping can be used to design tokamaks that do not require current drive, are resilient to disruptions, and have robust plasma stability without feedback. Suggestions for addressing the critical issues of tokamaks can only be validated when presented with sufficient specificity that validating experiments can be designed. The purpose of this paper is provide that specificity for non-axisymmetric shaping. To our knowledge, no other suggestions for the solution of a number of tokamak issues, such as disruptions, have reached this level of specificity. Sequences of three-field-period quasi-axisymmetric plasmas are studied. These sequences address the questions: (1) What can be achieved at various levels of non-axisymmetric shaping? (2) What simplifications to the coils can be achieved by going to a larger aspect ratio? (3) What range of shaping can be achieved in a single experimental facility? The sequences of plasmas found in this study provide a set of interesting and potentially important configurations.
Stability of a compound sessile drop at the axisymmetric configuration.
Zhang, Ying; Chatain, Dominique; Anna, Shelley L; Garoff, Stephen
2016-01-15
The equilibrium configuration of compound sessile drops has been calculated previously in the absence of gravity. Using the Laplace equations, we establish seven dimensionless parameters describing the axisymmetric configuration in the presence of gravity. The equilibrium axisymmetric configuration can be either stable or unstable depending on the fluid properties. A stability criterion is established by calculating forces on a perturbed Laplacian shape. In the zero Bond number limit, the stability criterion depends on the density ratio, two ratios of interfacial tensions, the volume ratio of the two drops, and the contact angle. We use Surface Evolver to examine the stability of compound sessile drops at small and large Bond numbers and compare with the zero Bond number approximation. Experimentally, we realize a stable axisymmetric compound sessile drop in air, where the buoyancy force exerted by the air is negligible. Finally, using a pair of fluids in which the density ratio can be tuned nearly independently of the interfacial tensions, the stability transition is verified for the axisymmetric configuration. Even though the perturbations are different for the theory, simulations and experiments, both simulations and experiments agree closely with the zero Bond number approximation, exhibiting a small discrepancy at large Bond number. PMID:26433481
Consistent lattice Boltzmann methods for incompressible axisymmetric flows.
Zhang, Liangqi; Yang, Shiliang; Zeng, Zhong; Yin, Linmao; Zhao, Ya; Chew, Jia Wei
2016-08-01
In this work, consistent lattice Boltzmann (LB) methods for incompressible axisymmetric flows are developed based on two efficient axisymmetric LB models available in the literature. In accord with their respective original models, the proposed axisymmetric models evolve within the framework of the standard LB method and the source terms contain no gradient calculations. Moreover, the incompressibility conditions are realized with the Hermite expansion, thus the compressibility errors arising in the existing models are expected to be reduced by the proposed incompressible models. In addition, an extra relaxation parameter is added to the Bhatnagar-Gross-Krook collision operator to suppress the effect of the ghost variable and thus the numerical stability of the present models is significantly improved. Theoretical analyses, based on the Chapman-Enskog expansion and the equivalent moment system, are performed to derive the macroscopic equations from the LB models and the resulting truncation terms (i.e., the compressibility errors) are investigated. In addition, numerical validations are carried out based on four well-acknowledged benchmark tests and the accuracy and applicability of the proposed incompressible axisymmetric LB models are verified. PMID:27627407
Non-axisymmetric flow characteristics in centrifugal compressor
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Wang, Leilei; Lao, Dazhong; Liu, Yixiong; Yang, Ce
2015-06-01
The flow field distribution in centrifugal compressor is significantly affected by the non-axisymmetric geometry structure of the volute. The experimental and numerical simulation methods were adopted in this work to study the compressor flow field distribution with different flow conditions. The results show that the pressure distributionin volute is characterized by the circumferential non-uniform phenomenon and the pressure fluctuation on the high static pressure zone propagates reversely to upstream, which results in the non-axisymmetric flow inside the compressor. The non-uniform level of pressure distribution in large flow condition is higher than that in small flow condition, its effect on the upstream flow field is also stronger. Additionally, the non-uniform circumferential pressure distribution in volute brings the non-axisymmetric flow at impeller outlet. In different flow conditions,the circumferential variation of the absolute flow angle at impeller outlet is also different. Meanwhile, the non-axisymmetric flow characteristics in internal impeller can be also reflected by the distribution of the mass flow. The high static pressure region of the volute corresponds to the decrease of mass flow in upstream blade channel, while the low static pressure zone of the volute corresponds to the increase of the mass flow. In small flow condition, the mass flow difference in the blade channel is bigger than that in the large flow condition.
Non-Linear Lessons from Axisymmetric Vortex Rings
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Shariff, Karim; Mansour, Nagi (Technical Monitor)
2001-01-01
For presentation at Northwestern University, May 14-28, 2001, the talk will present two types of phenomena, both recognizable to students of nonlinearity, that are exhibited by axisymmetric vortex rings in numerical and laboratory experiments. (1) The first type of phenomenon is reminiscent of inelastic solitons.
Consistent lattice Boltzmann methods for incompressible axisymmetric flows
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Zhang, Liangqi; Yang, Shiliang; Zeng, Zhong; Yin, Linmao; Zhao, Ya; Chew, Jia Wei
2016-08-01
In this work, consistent lattice Boltzmann (LB) methods for incompressible axisymmetric flows are developed based on two efficient axisymmetric LB models available in the literature. In accord with their respective original models, the proposed axisymmetric models evolve within the framework of the standard LB method and the source terms contain no gradient calculations. Moreover, the incompressibility conditions are realized with the Hermite expansion, thus the compressibility errors arising in the existing models are expected to be reduced by the proposed incompressible models. In addition, an extra relaxation parameter is added to the Bhatnagar-Gross-Krook collision operator to suppress the effect of the ghost variable and thus the numerical stability of the present models is significantly improved. Theoretical analyses, based on the Chapman-Enskog expansion and the equivalent moment system, are performed to derive the macroscopic equations from the LB models and the resulting truncation terms (i.e., the compressibility errors) are investigated. In addition, numerical validations are carried out based on four well-acknowledged benchmark tests and the accuracy and applicability of the proposed incompressible axisymmetric LB models are verified.
Distortion of homogeneous turbulence by axisymmetric strain and dilatation
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Lee, Moon Joo
1989-01-01
Rapid distortion theory is applied to study distortion of homogeneous turbulence subject to two different axisymmetric strain modes: the axisymmetric contraction (AC, nozzle-type flow), and the axisymmetric expansion (AE, diffuser-type flow). The paper explores the differences in effects of the two axisymmetric strain modes on the anisotropy of correlations and structures of turbulence; examines the effect of dilatation on the distortion of turbulence; and provides a theoretical background for turbulence model development. It is found that velocity and vorticity fluctuations are enhanced more efficiently by contraction than by expansion; contraction produces much higher anisotropy in velocity and vorticity than expansion; root-mean-square pressure is slightly reduced during contraction, whereas it increases rapidly during expansion; and vortical structures of rodlike shape develop in a contraction flow, while disklike structures develop in an expansion flow. A simple model that reflects the dependence of turbulence evolution on structural parameters such as the Reynolds-stress anisotropy and total strain is proposed, and is shown to outperform all other models for all cases examined, regardless of the mean strain rate.
Non-axisymmetric instabilities in discs with imposed zonal flows
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Vanon, R.; Ogilvie, G. I.
2016-09-01
We conduct a linear stability calculation of an ideal Keplerian flow on which a sinusoidal zonal flow is imposed. The analysis uses the shearing sheet model and is carried out both in isothermal and adiabatic conditions, with and without self-gravity (SG). In the non-SG regime a structure in the potential vorticity (PV) leads to a non-axisymmetric Kelvin-Helmholtz (KH) instability; in the short-wavelength limit its growth rate agrees with the incompressible calculation by Lithwick (2007), which only considers perturbations elongated in the streamwise direction. The instability's strength is analysed as a function of the structure's properties, and zonal flows are found to be stable if their wavelength is ≳ 8H, where H is the disc's scale height, regardless of the value of the adiabatic index γ. The non-axisymmetric KH instability can operate in Rayleigh-stable conditions, and it therefore represents the limiting factor to the structure's properties. Introducing SG triggers a second non-axisymmetric instability, which is found to be located around a PV maximum, while the KH instability is linked to a PV minimum, as expected. In the adiabatic regime, the same gravitational instability is detected even when the structure is present only in the entropy (not in the PV) and the instability spreads to weaker SG conditions as the entropy structure's amplitude is increased. This eventually yields a non-axisymmetric instability in the non-SG regime, albeit of weak strength, localised around an entropy maximum.
Generation and Properties of Large-Scale Non-axisymmetric Magnetic Fields by Solar Dynamo
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Pipin, Valery; Kosovichev, Alexander
2015-08-01
Large-scale non-axisymmetric magnetic fields generated by the solar dynamo, and presumably responsible for the phenomenon of "active longitudes", play an important role in the distribution of solar activity and flares. By calculating 3D mean-field dynamo models, we show that nonlinear coupling between axisymmetric and non-axisymmetric modes, e.g. due to the magnetic feedback on the alpha-effect (see, e.g., [1]), can maintain a large-scale non-axisymmetric dynamo process. Non-axisymmetric random fluctuations of dynamo parameters can be another source for the non-axisymmetric magnetic fields on the Sun. Such fluctuations can provide a mechanism of the magnetic energy transfer from the global field to the non-axisymmetric modes. It is shown that the rotational periods of the non-axisymmetric field correspond to the dynamo process operating in the subsurface shear layer which is located in the range of depths 0.85-0.95R. We find that the magnetic helicity conservation quenches generation of the non-axisymmetric dynamo modes as well as it does for the axisymmetric dynamo. It is concluded that the 3D mean-field non-axisymmetric dynamo models can potentially explain the observed distribution of the solar magnetic activity.1. Moss, D.,Non-axisymmetric solar magnetic fields, 1999, MNRAS, 306, 300On 3/18/2015 2:29 PM, Valery Pipin wrote:
Effects of Agent's Repulsion in 2d Flocking Models
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Moussa, Najem; Tarras, Iliass; Mazroui, M'hammed; Boughaleb, Yahya
In nature many animal groups, such as fish schools or bird flocks, clearly display structural order and appear to move as a single coherent entity. In order to understand the complex behavior of these systems, many models have been proposed and tested so far. This paper deals with an extension of the Vicsek model, by including a second zone of repulsion, where each agent attempts to maintain a minimum distance from the others. The consideration of this zone in our study seems to play an important role during the travel of agents in the two-dimensional (2D) flocking models. Our numerical investigations show that depending on the basic ingredients such as repulsion radius (R1), effect of density of agents (ρ) and noise (η), our nonequilibrium system can undergo a kinetic phase transition from no transport to finite net transport. For different values of ρ, kinetic phase diagrams in the plane (η ,R1) are found. Implications of these findings are discussed.
2-D Model for Normal and Sickle Cell Blood Microcirculation
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Tekleab, Yonatan; Harris, Wesley
2011-11-01
Sickle cell disease (SCD) is a genetic disorder that alters the red blood cell (RBC) structure and function such that hemoglobin (Hb) cannot effectively bind and release oxygen. Previous computational models have been designed to study the microcirculation for insight into blood disorders such as SCD. Our novel 2-D computational model represents a fast, time efficient method developed to analyze flow dynamics, O2 diffusion, and cell deformation in the microcirculation. The model uses a finite difference, Crank-Nicholson scheme to compute the flow and O2 concentration, and the level set computational method to advect the RBC membrane on a staggered grid. Several sets of initial and boundary conditions were tested. Simulation data indicate a few parameters to be significant in the perturbation of the blood flow and O2 concentration profiles. Specifically, the Hill coefficient, arterial O2 partial pressure, O2 partial pressure at 50% Hb saturation, and cell membrane stiffness are significant factors. Results were found to be consistent with those of Le Floch [2010] and Secomb [2006].
Numerical simulation of rock cutting using 2D AUTODYN
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Woldemichael, D. E.; Rani, A. M. Abdul; Lemma, T. A.; Altaf, K.
2015-12-01
In a drilling process for oil and gas exploration, understanding of the interaction between the cutting tool and the rock is important for optimization of the drilling process using polycrystalline diamond compact (PDC) cutters. In this study the finite element method in ANSYS AUTODYN-2D is used to simulate the dynamics of cutter rock interaction, rock failure, and fragmentation. A two-dimensional single PDC cutter and rock model were used to simulate the orthogonal cutting process and to investigate the effect of different parameters such as depth of cut, and back rake angle on two types of rocks (sandstone and limestone). In the simulation, the cutting tool was dragged against stationary rock at predetermined linear velocity and the depth of cut (1,2, and 3 mm) and the back rake angles(-10°, 0°, and +10°) were varied. The simulation result shows that the +10° back rake angle results in higher rate of penetration (ROP). Increasing depth of cut leads to higher ROP at the cost of higher cutting force.
Numerical modeling of seismogram envelopes in 2-D random media
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Fehler, Michael
2002-11-01
Several portions of seismograms recorded from regional earthquakes cannot be easily explained as resulting from waves propagating along deterministic paths within the Earth. For example, seismic coda, which is the tail portion of the seismogram of an earthquake recorded at distances of less than 100 km, is considered as resulting from waves that are multiply scattered from random heterogeneities in the Earth's lithosphere. At greater distances, observations that the duration of the initial arriving wave packet is much longer than the source-time duration is explained as being due to multiple forward scattering along the path between the source and the receiver. To investigate these phenomena, we use a finite difference method to numerically simulate 2-D scalar-waves that propagate through random media characterized by a von Karman autocorrelation function. Such media are considered to be appropriate models for the random component of the structure of the Earth's lithosphere. We investigate the characteristics of the resulting wavefields and compare them with those of observed seismograms.
2-D stationary gas dynamics in a barred galaxy
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Mulder, W. A.
2015-06-01
A code for solving the 2-D isothermal Euler equations of gas dynamics in a rotating disc is presented. The gravitational potential represents a weak bar and controls the flow. A damped Newton method solves the second-order upwind discretisation of the equations for a steady-state solution, using a consistent linearisation and a direct solver. Successive grid refinement, starting from a finite-volume grid with 8 by 8 cells, is applied to find solutions on subsequently finer meshes. On coarser meshes, a first-order spatial discretisation is used. The method obtains quadratic convergence once the solution approaches the steady state. The initial search is quick with the first-order scheme and slower with the second-order discretisation, up to 256 by 256 cells. Beyond, with 512 by 512 cells, the number of iterations becomes too large to be of practical use. Potential causes are discussed. The code can be applied as a tool for generating flow models if used on not too fine meshes.
Quantum geometry of 2D gravity coupled to unitary matter
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ambjørn, J.; Anagnostopoulos, K. N.
1997-02-01
We show that there exists a divergent correlation length in 2D quantum gravity for the matter fields close to the critical point provided one uses the invariant geodesic distance as the measure of distance. The corresponding reparameterization invariant two-point functions satisfy all scaling relations known from the ordinary theory of critical phenomena and the KPZ exponents are determined by the power-like fall-off of these two-point functions. The only difference compared to flat space is the appearance of a dynamically generated fractal dimension d h in the scaling relations. We analyze numerically the fractal properties of space-time for the Ising and three-states Potts model coupled to two-dimensional quantum gravity using finite size scaling as well as small distance scaling of invariant correlation functions. Our data are consistent with dh = 4, but we cannot rule out completely the conjecture dH = -2 α1/ α-1, where α- n is the gravitational dressing exponent of a spinless primary field of conformal weight ( n + 1, n + 1). We compute the moments < L> and the loop-length distribution function and show that the fractal properties associated with these observables are identical, with good accuracy, to the pure gravity case.
Steady propagation of Bingham plugs in 2D channels
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Zamankhan, Parsa; Takayama, Shuichi; Grotberg, James
2009-11-01
The displacement of the yield-stress liquid plugs in channels and tubes occur in many biological systems and industrial processes. Among them is the propagation of mucus plugs in the respiratory tracts as may occur in asthma, cystic fibrosis, or emphysema. In this work the steady propagation of mucus plugs in a 2D channel is studied numerically, assuming that the mucus is a pure Bingham fluid. The governing equations are solved by a mixed-discontinuous finite element formulation and the free surface is resolved with the method of spines. The constitutive equation for a pure Bingham fluid is modeled by a regularization method. Fluid inertia is neglected, so the controlling parameters in a steady displacement are; the capillary number, Ca, Bingham number ,Bn, and the plug length. According to the numerical results, the yield stress behavior of the plug modifies the plug shape, the pattern of the streamlines and the distribution of stresses in the plug domain and along the walls in a significant way. The distribution along the walls is a major factor in studying cell injuries. This work is supported through the grant NIH HL84370.
A new inversion method for (T2, D) 2D NMR logging and fluid typing
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Tan, Maojin; Zou, Youlong; Zhou, Cancan
2013-02-01
One-dimensional nuclear magnetic resonance (1D NMR) logging technology has some significant limitations in fluid typing. However, not only can two-dimensional nuclear magnetic resonance (2D NMR) provide some accurate porosity parameters, but it can also identify fluids more accurately than 1D NMR. In this paper, based on the relaxation mechanism of (T2, D) 2D NMR in a gradient magnetic field, a hybrid inversion method that combines least-squares-based QR decomposition (LSQR) and truncated singular value decomposition (TSVD) is examined in the 2D NMR inversion of various fluid models. The forward modeling and inversion tests are performed in detail with different acquisition parameters, such as magnetic field gradients (G) and echo spacing (TE) groups. The simulated results are discussed and described in detail, the influence of the above-mentioned observation parameters on the inversion accuracy is investigated and analyzed, and the observation parameters in multi-TE activation are optimized. Furthermore, the hybrid inversion can be applied to quantitatively determine the fluid saturation. To study the effects of noise level on the hybrid method and inversion results, the numerical simulation experiments are performed using different signal-to-noise-ratios (SNRs), and the effect of different SNRs on fluid typing using three fluid models are discussed and analyzed in detail.
Comparisons of linear and nonlinear plasma response models for non-axisymmetric perturbationsa)
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Turnbull, A. D.; Ferraro, N. M.; Izzo, V. A.; Lazarus, E. A.; Park, J.-K.; Cooper, W. A.; Hirshman, S. P.; Lao, L. L.; Lanctot, M. J.; Lazerson, S.; Liu, Y. Q.; Reiman, A.; Turco, F.
2013-05-01
With the installation of non-axisymmetric coil systems on major tokamaks for the purpose of studying the prospects of ELM-free operation, understanding the plasma response to the applied fields is a crucial issue. Application of different response models, using standard tools, to DIII-D discharges with applied non-axisymmetric fields from internal coils, is shown to yield qualitatively different results. The plasma response can be treated as an initial value problem, following the system dynamically from an initial unperturbed state, or from a nearby perturbed equilibrium approach, and using both linear and nonlinear models [A. D. Turnbull, Nucl. Fusion 52, 054016 (2012)]. Criteria are discussed under which each of the approaches can yield a valid response. In the DIII-D cases studied, these criteria show a breakdown in the linear theory despite the small 10-3 relative magnitude of the applied magnetic field perturbations in this case. For nonlinear dynamical evolution simulations to reach a saturated nonlinear steady state, appropriate damping mechanisms need to be provided for each normal mode comprising the response. Other issues arise in the technical construction of perturbed flux surfaces from a displacement and from the presence of near nullspace normal modes. For the nearby equilibrium approach, in the absence of a full 3D equilibrium reconstruction with a controlled comparison, constraints relating the 2D system profiles to the final profiles in the 3D system also need to be imposed to assure accessibility. The magnetic helicity profile has been proposed as an appropriate input to a 3D equilibrium calculation and tests of this show the anticipated qualitative behavior.
Field simulation of axisymmetric plasma screw pinches by alternating-direction-implicit methods
Lambert, M.A.
1996-06-01
An axisymmetric plasma screw pinch is an axisymmetric column of ionized gaseous plasma radially confined by forces from axial and azimuthal currents driven in the plasma and its surroundings. This dissertation is a contribution to detailed, high resolution computer simulation of dynamic plasma screw pinches in 2-d {ital rz}-coordinates. The simulation algorithm combines electron fluid and particle-in-cell (PIC) ion models to represent the plasma in a hybrid fashion. The plasma is assumed to be quasineutral; along with the Darwin approximation to the Maxwell equations, this implies application of Ampere`s law without displacement current. Electron inertia is assumed negligible so that advective terms in the electron momentum equation are ignored. Electrons and ions have separate scalar temperatures, and a scalar plasma electrical resistivity is assumed. Altemating-direction-implicit (ADI) methods are used to advance the electron fluid drift velocity and the magnetic fields in the simulation. The ADI methods allow time steps larger than allowed by explicit methods. Spatial regions where vacuum field equations have validity are determined by a cutoff density that invokes the quasineutral vacuum Maxwell equations (Darwin approximation). In this dissertation, the algorithm was first checked against ideal MM stability theory, and agreement was nicely demonstrated. However, such agreement is not a new contribution to the research field. Contributions to the research field include new treatments of the fields in vacuum regions of the pinch simulation. The new treatments predict a level of magnetohydrodynamic turbulence near the bulk plasma surface that is higher than predicted by other methods.
Compressible seal flow analysis using the finite element method with Galerkin solution technique
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Zuk, J.
1974-01-01
A finite element method with a Galerkin solution (FEMGS) technique is formulated for the solution of nonlinear problems in high-pressure compressible seal flow analyses. An example of a three-dimensional axisymmetric flow having nonlinearities, due to compressibility, area expansion, and convective inertia, is used for illustrating the application of the technique.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Cheng, Chingyun; Kangara, Jayampathi; Arakelyan, Ilya; Thomas, John
2016-05-01
We tune the dimensionality of a strongly interacting degenerate 6 Li Fermi gas from 2D to quasi-2D, by adjusting the radial confinement of pancake-shaped clouds to control the radial chemical potential. In the 2D regime with weak radial confinement, the measured pair binding energies are in agreement with 2D-BCS mean field theory, which predicts dimer pairing energies in the many-body regime. In the qausi-2D regime obtained with increased radial confinement, the measured pairing energy deviates significantly from 2D-BCS theory. In contrast to the pairing energy, the measured radii of the cloud profiles are not fit by 2D-BCS theory in either the 2D or quasi-2D regimes, but are fit in both regimes by a beyond mean field polaron-model of the free energy. Supported by DOE, ARO, NSF, and AFOSR.
Competing coexisting phases in 2D water
Zanotti, Jean-Marc; Judeinstein, Patrick; Dalla-Bernardina, Simona; Creff, Gaëlle; Brubach, Jean-Blaise; Roy, Pascale; Bonetti, Marco; Ollivier, Jacques; Sakellariou, Dimitrios; Bellissent-Funel, Marie-Claire
2016-01-01
The properties of bulk water come from a delicate balance of interactions on length scales encompassing several orders of magnitudes: i) the Hydrogen Bond (HBond) at the molecular scale and ii) the extension of this HBond network up to the macroscopic level. Here, we address the physics of water when the three dimensional extension of the HBond network is frustrated, so that the water molecules are forced to organize in only two dimensions. We account for the large scale fluctuating HBond network by an analytical mean-field percolation model. This approach provides a coherent interpretation of the different events experimentally (calorimetry, neutron, NMR, near and far infra-red spectroscopies) detected in interfacial water at 160, 220 and 250 K. Starting from an amorphous state of water at low temperature, these transitions are respectively interpreted as the onset of creation of transient low density patches of 4-HBonded molecules at 160 K, the percolation of these domains at 220 K and finally the total invasion of the surface by them at 250 K. The source of this surprising behaviour in 2D is the frustration of the natural bulk tetrahedral local geometry and the underlying very significant increase in entropy of the interfacial water molecules. PMID:27185018
2D Radiative Processes Near Cloud Edges
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Varnai, T.
2012-01-01
Because of the importance and complexity of dynamical, microphysical, and radiative processes taking place near cloud edges, the transition zone between clouds and cloud free air has been the subject of intense research both in the ASR program and in the wider community. One challenge in this research is that the one-dimensional (1D) radiative models widely used in both remote sensing and dynamical simulations become less accurate near cloud edges: The large horizontal gradients in particle concentrations imply that accurate radiative calculations need to consider multi-dimensional radiative interactions among areas that have widely different optical properties. This study examines the way the importance of multidimensional shortwave radiative interactions changes as we approach cloud edges. For this, the study relies on radiative simulations performed for a multiyear dataset of clouds observed over the NSA, SGP, and TWP sites. This dataset is based on Microbase cloud profiles as well as wind measurements and ARM cloud classification products. The study analyzes the way the difference between 1D and 2D simulation results increases near cloud edges. It considers both monochromatic radiances and broadband radiative heating, and it also examines the influence of factors such as cloud type and height, and solar elevation. The results provide insights into the workings of radiative processes and may help better interpret radiance measurements and better estimate the radiative impacts of this critical region.
Simulation of Yeast Cooperation in 2D.
Wang, M; Huang, Y; Wu, Z
2016-03-01
Evolution of cooperation has been an active research area in evolutionary biology in decades. An important type of cooperation is developed from group selection, when individuals form spatial groups to prevent them from foreign invasions. In this paper, we study the evolution of cooperation in a mixed population of cooperating and cheating yeast strains in 2D with the interactions among the yeast cells restricted to their small neighborhoods. We conduct a computer simulation based on a game theoretic model and show that cooperation is increased when the interactions are spatially restricted, whether the game is of a prisoner's dilemma, snow drifting, or mutual benefit type. We study the evolution of homogeneous groups of cooperators or cheaters and describe the conditions for them to sustain or expand in an opponent population. We show that under certain spatial restrictions, cooperator groups are able to sustain and expand as group sizes become large, while cheater groups fail to expand and keep them from collapse. PMID:26988702
Phase Engineering of 2D Tin Sulfides.
Mutlu, Zafer; Wu, Ryan J; Wickramaratne, Darshana; Shahrezaei, Sina; Liu, Chueh; Temiz, Selcuk; Patalano, Andrew; Ozkan, Mihrimah; Lake, Roger K; Mkhoyan, K A; Ozkan, Cengiz S
2016-06-01
Tin sulfides can exist in a variety of phases and polytypes due to the different oxidation states of Sn. A subset of these phases and polytypes take the form of layered 2D structures that give rise to a wide host of electronic and optical properties. Hence, achieving control over the phase, polytype, and thickness of tin sulfides is necessary to utilize this wide range of properties exhibited by the compound. This study reports on phase-selective growth of both hexagonal tin (IV) sulfide SnS2 and orthorhombic tin (II) sulfide SnS crystals with diameters of over tens of microns on SiO2 substrates through atmospheric pressure vapor-phase method in a conventional horizontal quartz tube furnace with SnO2 and S powders as the source materials. Detailed characterization of each phase of tin sulfide crystals is performed using various microscopy and spectroscopy methods, and the results are corroborated by ab initio density functional theory calculations. PMID:27099950
Ion Transport in 2-D Graphene Nanochannels
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Xie, Quan; Foo, Elbert; Duan, Chuanhua
2015-11-01
Graphene membranes have recently attracted wide attention due to its great potential in water desalination and selective molecular sieving. Further developments of these membranes, including enhancing their mass transport rate and/or molecular selectivity, rely on the understanding of fundamental transport mechanisms through graphene membranes, which has not been studied experimentally before due to fabrication and measurement difficulties. Herein we report the fabrication of the basic constituent of graphene membranes, i.e. 2-D single graphene nanochannels (GNCs) and the study of ion transport in these channels. A modified bonding technique was developed to form GNCs with well-defined geometry and uniform channel height. Ion transport in such GNCs was studied using DC conductance measurement. Our preliminary results showed that the ion transport in GNCs is still governed by surface charge at low concentrations (10-6M to 10-4M). However, GNCs exhibits much higher ionic conductances than silica nanochannels with the same geometries in the surface-charge-governed regime. This conductance enhancement can be attributed to the pre-accumulation of charges on graphene surfaces. The work is supported by the Faculty Startup Fund (Boston University, USA).
Parallel map analysis on 2-D grids
Berry, M.; Comiskey, J.; Minser, K.
1993-12-31
In landscape ecology, computer modeling is used to assess habitat fragmentation and its ecological iMPLications. Specifically, maps (2-D grids) of habitat clusters must be analyzed to determine number, sizes and geometry of clusters. Models prior to this study relied upon sequential Fortran-77 programs which limited the sizes of maps and densities of clusters which could be analyzed. In this paper, we present more efficient computer models which can exploit recursion or parallelism. Significant improvements over the original Fortran-77 programs have been achieved using both recursive and nonrecursive C implementations on a variety of workstations such as the Sun Sparc 2, IBM RS/6000-350, and HP 9000-750. Parallel implementations on a 4096-processor MasPar MP-1 and a 32-processor CM-5 are also studied. Preliminary experiments suggest that speed improvements for the parallel model on the MasPar MP-1 (written in MPL) and on the CM-5 (written in C using CMMD) can be as much as 39 and 34 times faster, respectively, than the most efficient sequential C program on a Sun Sparc 2 for a 512 map. An important goal in this research effort is to produce a scalable map analysis algorithm for the identification and characterization of clusters for relatively large maps on massively-parallel computers.
2D Turbulence with Complicated Boundaries
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Roullet, G.; McWilliams, J. C.
2014-12-01
We examine the consequences of lateral viscous boundary layers on the 2D turbulence that arises in domains with complicated boundaries (headlands, bays etc). The study is carried out numerically with LES. The numerics are carefully designed to ensure all global conservation laws, proper boundary conditions and a minimal range of dissipation scales. The turbulence dramatically differs from the classical bi-periodic case. Boundary layer separations lead to creation of many small vortices and act as a continuing energy source exciting the inverse cascade of energy throughout the domain. The detachments are very intermittent in time. In free decay, the final state depends on the effective numerical resolution: laminar with a single dominant vortex for low Re and turbulent with many vortices for large enough Re. After very long time, the turbulent end-state exhibits a striking tendency for the emergence of shielded vortices which then interact almost elastically. In the forced case, the boundary layers allow the turbulence to reach a statistical steady state without any artificial hypo-viscosity or other large-scale dissipation. Implications are discussed for the oceanic mesoscale and submesoscale turbulence.
Competing coexisting phases in 2D water
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Zanotti, Jean-Marc; Judeinstein, Patrick; Dalla-Bernardina, Simona; Creff, Gaëlle; Brubach, Jean-Blaise; Roy, Pascale; Bonetti, Marco; Ollivier, Jacques; Sakellariou, Dimitrios; Bellissent-Funel, Marie-Claire
2016-05-01
The properties of bulk water come from a delicate balance of interactions on length scales encompassing several orders of magnitudes: i) the Hydrogen Bond (HBond) at the molecular scale and ii) the extension of this HBond network up to the macroscopic level. Here, we address the physics of water when the three dimensional extension of the HBond network is frustrated, so that the water molecules are forced to organize in only two dimensions. We account for the large scale fluctuating HBond network by an analytical mean-field percolation model. This approach provides a coherent interpretation of the different events experimentally (calorimetry, neutron, NMR, near and far infra-red spectroscopies) detected in interfacial water at 160, 220 and 250 K. Starting from an amorphous state of water at low temperature, these transitions are respectively interpreted as the onset of creation of transient low density patches of 4-HBonded molecules at 160 K, the percolation of these domains at 220 K and finally the total invasion of the surface by them at 250 K. The source of this surprising behaviour in 2D is the frustration of the natural bulk tetrahedral local geometry and the underlying very significant increase in entropy of the interfacial water molecules.
Competing coexisting phases in 2D water.
Zanotti, Jean-Marc; Judeinstein, Patrick; Dalla-Bernardina, Simona; Creff, Gaëlle; Brubach, Jean-Blaise; Roy, Pascale; Bonetti, Marco; Ollivier, Jacques; Sakellariou, Dimitrios; Bellissent-Funel, Marie-Claire
2016-01-01
The properties of bulk water come from a delicate balance of interactions on length scales encompassing several orders of magnitudes: i) the Hydrogen Bond (HBond) at the molecular scale and ii) the extension of this HBond network up to the macroscopic level. Here, we address the physics of water when the three dimensional extension of the HBond network is frustrated, so that the water molecules are forced to organize in only two dimensions. We account for the large scale fluctuating HBond network by an analytical mean-field percolation model. This approach provides a coherent interpretation of the different events experimentally (calorimetry, neutron, NMR, near and far infra-red spectroscopies) detected in interfacial water at 160, 220 and 250 K. Starting from an amorphous state of water at low temperature, these transitions are respectively interpreted as the onset of creation of transient low density patches of 4-HBonded molecules at 160 K, the percolation of these domains at 220 K and finally the total invasion of the surface by them at 250 K. The source of this surprising behaviour in 2D is the frustration of the natural bulk tetrahedral local geometry and the underlying very significant increase in entropy of the interfacial water molecules. PMID:27185018
2-D wavelet with position controlled resolution
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Walczak, Andrzej; Puzio, Leszek
2005-09-01
Wavelet transformation localizes all irregularities in the scene. It is most effective in the case when intensities in the scene have no sharp details. It is the case often present in a medical imaging. To identify the shape one has to extract it from the scene as typical irregularity. When the scene does not contain sharp changes then common differential filters are not efficient tool for a shape extraction. The new 2-D wavelet for such task has been proposed. Described wavelet transform is axially symmetric and has varied scale in dependence on the distance from the centre of the wavelet symmetry. The analytical form of the wavelet has been presented as well as its application for details extraction in the scene. Most important feature of the wavelet transform is that it gives a multi-scale transformation, and if zoom is on the wavelet selectivity varies proportionally to the zoom step. As a result, the extracted shape does not change during zoom operation. What is more the wavelet selectivity can be fit to the local intensity gradient properly to obtain best extraction of the irregularities.
Fast 2D flood modelling using GPU technology - recent applications and new developments
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Crossley, Amanda; Lamb, Rob; Waller, Simon; Dunning, Paul
2010-05-01
In recent years there has been considerable interest amongst scientists and engineers in exploiting the potential of commodity graphics hardware for desktop parallel computing. The Graphics Processing Units (GPUs) that are used in PC graphics cards have now evolved into powerful parallel co-processors that can be used to accelerate the numerical codes used for floodplain inundation modelling. We report in this paper on experience over the past two years in developing and applying two dimensional (2D) flood inundation models using GPUs to achieve significant practical performance benefits. Starting with a solution scheme for the 2D diffusion wave approximation to the 2D Shallow Water Equations (SWEs), we have demonstrated the capability to reduce model run times in ‘real-world' applications using GPU hardware and programming techniques. We then present results from a GPU-based 2D finite volume SWE solver. A series of numerical test cases demonstrate that the model produces outputs that are accurate and consistent with reference results published elsewhere. In comparisons conducted for a real world test case, the GPU-based SWE model was over 100 times faster than the CPU version. We conclude with some discussion of practical experience in using the GPU technology for flood mapping applications, and for research projects investigating use of Monte Carlo simulation methods for the analysis of uncertainty in 2D flood modelling.
2-D Animation's Not Just for Mickey Mouse.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Weinman, Lynda
1995-01-01
Discusses characteristics of two-dimensional (2-D) animation; highlights include character animation, painting issues, and motion graphics. Sidebars present Silicon Graphics animations tools and 2-D animation programs for the desktop computer. (DGM)
Investigation of Methods for the Structural Weight Analysis of a Mach 2.4 Axisymmetric Inlet
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Nadell, Shari-Beth
1994-01-01
Structural design and analysis tools appropriate for estimating the structural weight of an axisymmetric inlet designed for Mach 2.4 cruise were evaluated. Little information regarding the inlet mechanical design is available in the preliminary design phase, so it is necessary to first develop a reasonable structural design before estimating the inlet weight. The Internally Pressurized Structure Synthesis and Optimization (IPSSO) program, employing an analytical approach, was chosen for evaluation due to its combined design and analysis capabilities. The inlet design produced by IPSSO was then analyzed using the NASTRAN finite element program. The finite element analysis was performed to help identify the limitations of the analytically based code as well as to evaluate NASTRAN for this application. Comparison between the IPSSO inlet weight and that of a similar inlet developed by the Boeing Commercial Airplane Group was also made. Program evaluation concluded that the combined use of IPSSO to create an initial design and NASTRAN to perform a numerical analysis would provide the capability to evaluate a limited number of inlet design The development of a new tool for the minimum weight design and analysis of inlet structures would be required for greater flexibility in evaluating inlet conceptual designs.
On 2D graphical representation of DNA sequence of nondegeneracy
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Zhang, Yusen; Liao, Bo; Ding, Kequan
2005-08-01
Some two-dimensional (2D) graphical representations of DNA sequences have been given by Gates, Nandy, Leong and Mogenthaler, Randić, and Liao et al., which give visual characterizations of DNA sequences. In this Letter, we introduce a nondegeneracy 2D graphical representation of DNA sequence, which is different from Randić's novel 2D representation and Liao's 2D representation. We also present the nondegeneracy forms corresponding to the representations of Gates, Nandy, Leong and Mogenthaler.
Study of the electrical conductivity at finite temperature in 2D Si- MOSFETs
Limouny, L. Kaaouachi, A. El Tata, O.; Daoudi, E.; Errai, M.; Dlimi, S.; Idrissi, H. El; Zatni, A.
2014-01-27
We investigate the low temperature density dependent conductivity of two dimensional electron systems in zero magnetic field for sample Si-15 MOSFETs. The first purpose of this paper is to establish that the knee of the conductivity σ{sub 0} (σ{sub 0} is the T = 0.3 conductivity obtained by linear extrapolation of the curves of σ (T) for different values of electron density, n{sub s}) as a function of the carrier densities n{sub s} for T = 0.3 K, observed by Lai et al. and Limouny et al. in previous work for two different samples, is independent of temperature. The second aim is the determination of the critical density, n{sub c}, of the metal-insulator transition. Many methods are used in this investigation of n{sub c} which have been already used for other samples. The motivation behind this last study is the observation of many values of n{sub c} that have been obtained from different methods and that are slightly different. We will use in this study three methods with the intention to infer which one is more appropriate to obtain n{sub c}.
A Coupled Finite-Volume Model for 2-D Surface and 3-D Subsurface Flows
Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)
Surface-subsurface interactions are an intrinsic component of the hydrologic response within a watershed; therefore, hydrologic modeling tools should consider these interactions to provide reliable predictions, especially during rainfall-runoff processes. This paper presents a fully implicit coupled...
Parallel Finite Element Electron-Photon Transport Analysis on 2-D Unstructured Mesh
Drumm, C.R.
1999-01-01
A computer code has been developed to solve the linear Boltzmann transport equation on an unstructured mesh of triangles, from a Pro/E model. An arbitriwy arrangement of distinct material regions is allowed. Energy dependence is handled by solving over an arbitrary number of discrete energy groups. Angular de- pendence is treated by Legendre-polynomial expansion of the particle cross sections and a discrete ordinates treatment of the particle fluence. The resulting linear system is solved in parallel with a preconditioned conjugate-gradients method. The solution method is unique, in that the space-angle dependence is solved si- multaneously, eliminating the need for the usual inner iterations. Electron cross sections are obtained from a Goudsrnit-Saunderson modifed version of the CEPXS code. A one-dimensional version of the code has also been develop@ for testing and development purposes.
Edge gradients evaluation for 2D hybrid finite volume method model
Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)
In this study, a two-dimensional depth-integrated hydrodynamic model was developed using FVM on a hybrid unstructured collocated mesh system. To alleviate the negative effects of mesh irregularity and non-uniformity, a conservative evaluation method for edge gradients based on the second-order Tayl...
High Order Finite Difference Methods with Subcell Resolution for 2D Detonation Waves
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Wang, W.; Shu, C. W.; Yee, H. C.; Sjogreen, B.
2012-01-01
In simulating hyperbolic conservation laws in conjunction with an inhomogeneous stiff source term, if the solution is discontinuous, spurious numerical results may be produced due to different time scales of the transport part and the source term. This numerical issue often arises in combustion and high speed chemical reacting flows.
A simple adaptive mesh generator for 2-D finite element calculations
Fernandez, F.A.; Yong, Y.C.; Ettinger, R.D. )
1993-03-01
A strategy for adaptive mesh generation is proposed. The method consists of the use of a suitably defined density function', which can either be defined by the user or be calculated from a previous approximate solution, to guide the generation of a new mesh. This new mesh is built starting from a minimal number of triangular elements which are then in several sweeps, repeatedly refined according to the density function. The Delaunay algorithm is used in each stage to keep the shape of the triangles as equilateral as possible.
Ultrasonic 2D matrix PVDF transducer
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ptchelintsev, A.; Maev, R. Gr.
2000-05-01
During the past decade a substantial amount of work has been done in the area of ultrasonic imaging technology using 2D arrays. The main problems arising for the two-dimensional matrix transducers at megahertz frequencies are small size and huge count of the elements, high electrical impedance, low sensitivity, bad SNR and slower data acquisition rate. The major technological difficulty remains the high density of the interconnect. To solve these problems numerous approaches have been suggested. In the present work, a 24×24 elements (24 transmit+24 receive) matrix and a switching board were developed. The transducer consists of two 52 μm PVDF layers each representing a linear array of 24 elements placed one on the top of the other. Electrodes in these two layers are perpendicular and form the grid of 0.5×0.5 mm pitch. The layers are bonded together with the ground electrode being monolithic and located between the layers. The matrix is backed from the rear surface with an epoxy composition. During the emission, a linear element from the emitting layer generates a longitudinal wave pulse propagating inside the test object. Reflected pulses are picked-up by the receiving layer. During one transmit-receive cycle one transmit element and one receive element are selected by corresponding multiplexers. These crossed elements emulate a small element formed by their intersection. The present design presents the following advantages: minimizes number of active channels and density of the interconnect; reduces the electrical impedance of the element improving electrical matching; enables the transmit-receive mode; due to the efficient backing provides bandwidth and good time resolution; and, significantly reduces the electronics complexity. The matrix can not be used for the beam steering and focusing. Owing to this impossibility of focusing, the penetration depth is limited as well by the diffraction phenomena.
Complete analyticity for 2D Ising completed
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Schonmann, Roberto H.; Shlosman, Senya B.
1995-06-01
We study the behavior of the two-dimensional nearest neighbor ferromagnetic Ising model under an external magnetic field h. We extend to every subcritical value of the temperature a result previously proven by Martirosyan at low enough temperature, and which roughly states that for finite systems with — boundary conditions under a positive external field, the boundary effect dominates in the bulk if the linear size of the system is of order B/h with B small enough, while if B is large enough, then the external field dominates in the bulk. As a consequence we are able to complete the proof that “complete analyticity for nice sets” holds for every value of the temperature and external field in the interior of the uniqueness region in the phase diagram of the model. The main tools used are the results and techniques developed to study large deviations for the block magnetization in the absence of the magnetic field, and recently extended to all temperatures below the critical one by Ioffe.
Spin splitting in 2D monochalcogenide semiconductors
Do, Dat T.; Mahanti, Subhendra D.; Lai, Chih Wei
2015-01-01
We report ab initio calculations of the spin splitting of the uppermost valence band (UVB) and the lowermost conduction band (LCB) in bulk and atomically thin GaS, GaSe, GaTe, and InSe. These layered monochalcogenides appear in four major polytypes depending on the stacking order, except for the monoclinic GaTe. Bulk and few-layer ε-and γ -type, and odd-number β-type GaS, GaSe, and InSe crystals are noncentrosymmetric. The spin splittings of the UVB and the LCB near the Γ-point in the Brillouin zone are finite, but still smaller than those in a zinc-blende semiconductor such as GaAs. On the other hand, the spin splitting is zero in centrosymmetric bulk and even-number few-layer β-type GaS, GaSe, and InSe, owing to the constraint of spatial inversion symmetry. By contrast, GaTe exhibits zero spin splitting because it is centrosymmetric down to a single layer. In these monochalcogenide semiconductors, the separation of the non-degenerate conduction and valence bands from adjacent bands results in the suppression of Elliot-Yafet spin relaxation mechanism. Therefore, the electron- and hole-spin relaxation times in these systems with zero or minimal spin splittings are expected to exceed those in GaAs when the D’yakonov-Perel’ spin relaxation mechanism is also suppressed. PMID:26596907
Spin splitting in 2D monochalcogenide semiconductors
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Do, Dat T.; Mahanti, Subhendra D.; Lai, Chih Wei
2015-11-01
We report ab initio calculations of the spin splitting of the uppermost valence band (UVB) and the lowermost conduction band (LCB) in bulk and atomically thin GaS, GaSe, GaTe, and InSe. These layered monochalcogenides appear in four major polytypes depending on the stacking order, except for the monoclinic GaTe. Bulk and few-layer ε-and γ -type, and odd-number β-type GaS, GaSe, and InSe crystals are noncentrosymmetric. The spin splittings of the UVB and the LCB near the Γ-point in the Brillouin zone are finite, but still smaller than those in a zinc-blende semiconductor such as GaAs. On the other hand, the spin splitting is zero in centrosymmetric bulk and even-number few-layer β-type GaS, GaSe, and InSe, owing to the constraint of spatial inversion symmetry. By contrast, GaTe exhibits zero spin splitting because it is centrosymmetric down to a single layer. In these monochalcogenide semiconductors, the separation of the non-degenerate conduction and valence bands from adjacent bands results in the suppression of Elliot-Yafet spin relaxation mechanism. Therefore, the electron- and hole-spin relaxation times in these systems with zero or minimal spin splittings are expected to exceed those in GaAs when the D’yakonov-Perel’ spin relaxation mechanism is also suppressed.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Flock, M.; Ruge, J. P.; Dzyurkevich, N.; Henning, Th.; Klahr, H.; Wolf, S.
2015-02-01
Aims: Recent observations by the Atacama Large Millimeter/submillimeter Array (ALMA) of disks around young stars revealed distinct asymmetries in the dust continuum emission. In this work we wish to study axisymmetric and non-axisymmetric structures that are generated by the magneto-rotational instability in the outer regions of protoplanetary disks. We combine the results of state-of-the-art numerical simulations with post-processing radiative transfer (RT) to generate synthetic maps and predictions for ALMA. Methods: We performed non-ideal global 3D magneto-hydrodynamic (MHD) stratified simulations of the dead-zone outer edge using the FARGO MHD code PLUTO. The stellar and disk parameters were taken from a parameterized disk model applied for fitting high-angular resolution multi-wavelength observations of various circumstellar disks. We considered a stellar mass of M∗ = 0.5 M⊙ and a total disk mass of about 0.085 M∗. The 2D initial temperature and density profiles were calculated consistently from a given surface density profile and Monte Carlo radiative transfer. The 2D Ohmic resistivity profile was calculated using a dust chemistry model. We considered two values for the dust-to-gas mass ratio, 10-2 and 10-4, which resulted in two different levels of magnetic coupling. The initial magnetic field was a vertical net flux field. The radiative transfer simulations were performed with the Monte Carlo-based 3D continuum RT code MC3D. The resulting dust reemission provided the basis for the simulation of observations with ALMA. Results: All models quickly turned into a turbulent state. The fiducial model with a dust-to-gas mass ratio of 10-2 developed a large gap followed by a jump in surface density located at the dead-zone outer edge. The jump in density and pressure was strong enough to stop the radial drift of particles at this location. In addition, we observed the generation of vortices by the Rossby wave instability at the jump location close to 60 AU
A Planar Quantum Transistor Based on 2D-2D Tunneling in Double Quantum Well Heterostructures
Baca, W.E.; Blount, M.A.; Hafich, M.J.; Lyo, S.K.; Moon, J.S.; Reno, J.L.; Simmons, J.A.; Wendt, J.R.
1998-12-14
We report on our work on the double electron layer tunneling transistor (DELTT), based on the gate-control of two-dimensional -- two-dimensional (2D-2D) tunneling in a double quantum well heterostructure. While previous quantum transistors have typically required tiny laterally-defined features, by contrast the DELTT is entirely planar and can be reliably fabricated in large numbers. We use a novel epoxy-bond-and-stop-etch (EBASE) flip-chip process, whereby submicron gating on opposite sides of semiconductor epitaxial layers as thin as 0.24 microns can be achieved. Because both electron layers in the DELTT are 2D, the resonant tunneling features are unusually sharp, and can be easily modulated with one or more surface gates. We demonstrate DELTTs with peak-to-valley ratios in the source-drain I-V curve of order 20:1 below 1 K. Both the height and position of the resonant current peak can be controlled by gate voltage over a wide range. DELTTs with larger subband energy offsets ({approximately} 21 meV) exhibit characteristics that are nearly as good at 77 K, in good agreement with our theoretical calculations. Using these devices, we also demonstrate bistable memories operating at 77 K. Finally, we briefly discuss the prospects for room temperature operation, increases in gain, and high-speed.
Modular Finite Element Methods Library Version: 1.0
2010-06-22
MFEM is a general, modular library for finite element methods. It provides a variety of finite element spaces and bilinear/linear forms in 2D and 3D. MFEM also includes classes for dealing with various types of meshes and their refinement.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Meyer, V.; Maxit, L.; Guyader, J.-L.; Leissing, T.
2016-01-01
The vibroacoustic behavior of axisymmetric stiffened shells immersed in water has been intensively studied in the past. On the contrary, little attention has been paid to the modeling of these shells coupled to non-axisymmetric internal frames. Indeed, breaking the axisymmetry couples the circumferential orders of the Fourier series and considerably increases the computational costs. In order to tackle this issue, we propose a sub-structuring approach called the Condensed Transfer Function (CTF) method that will allow assembling a model of axisymmetric stiffened shell with models of non-axisymmetric internal frames. The CTF method is developed in the general case of mechanical subsystems coupled along curves. A set of orthonormal functions called condensation functions, which depend on the curvilinear abscissa along the coupling line, is considered. This set is then used as a basis for approximating and decomposing the displacements and the applied forces at the line junctions. Thanks to the definition and calculation of condensed transfer functions for each uncoupled subsystem and by using the superposition principle for passive linear systems, the behavior of the coupled subsystems can be deduced. A plane plate is considered as a test case to study the convergence of the method with respect to the type and the number of condensation functions taken into account. The CTF method is then applied to couple a submerged non-periodically stiffened shell described using the Circumferential Admittance Approach (CAA) with internal substructures described by Finite Element Method (FEM). The influence of non-axisymmetric internal substructures can finally be studied and it is shown that it tends to increase the radiation efficiency of the shell and can modify the vibrational and acoustic energy distribution.
Correlated Electron Phenomena in 2D Materials
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Lambert, Joseph G.
In this thesis, I present experimental results on coherent electron phenomena in layered two-dimensional materials: single layer graphene and van der Waals coupled 2D TiSe2. Graphene is a two-dimensional single-atom thick sheet of carbon atoms first derived from bulk graphite by the mechanical exfoliation technique in 2004. Low-energy charge carriers in graphene behave like massless Dirac fermions, and their density can be easily tuned between electron-rich and hole-rich quasiparticles with electrostatic gating techniques. The sharp interfaces between regions of different carrier densities form barriers with selective transmission, making them behave as partially reflecting mirrors. When two of these interfaces are set at a separation distance within the phase coherence length of the carriers, they form an electronic version of a Fabry-Perot cavity. I present measurements and analysis of multiple Fabry-Perot modes in graphene with parallel electrodes spaced a few hundred nanometers apart. Transition metal dichalcogenide (TMD) TiSe2 is part of the family of materials that coined the term "materials beyond graphene". It contains van der Waals coupled trilayer stacks of Se-Ti-Se. Many TMD materials exhibit a host of interesting correlated electronic phases. In particular, TiSe2 exhibits chiral charge density waves (CDW) below TCDW ˜ 200 K. Upon doping with copper, the CDW state gets suppressed with Cu concentration, and CuxTiSe2 becomes superconducting with critical temperature of T c = 4.15 K. There is still much debate over the mechanisms governing the coexistence of the two correlated electronic phases---CDW and superconductivity. I will present some of the first conductance spectroscopy measurements of proximity coupled superconductor-CDW systems. Measurements reveal a proximity-induced critical current at the Nb-TiSe2 interfaces, suggesting pair correlations in the pure TiSe2. The results indicate that superconducting order is present concurrently with CDW in
Non-axisymmetric instability of core-annular flow
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Hu, Howard H.; Patankar, Neelesh
1995-05-01
Stability of core-annular flow of water and oil in a vertical circular pipe is studied with respect to non-axisymmetric disturbances. Results show that when the oil core is thin, the flow is most unstable to the asymmetric sinuous mode of disturbance, and the core moves in the form of corkscrew waves as observed in experiments. The asymmetric mode of disturbance is the most dangerous mode for quite a wide range of material and flow parameters. This asymmetric mode persists in vertical pipes with upward and downward flows and in horizontal pipes. The analysis also applies to the instability of freely rising axisymmetric cigarette smoke or a thermal plume. The study predicts a unique wavelength for the asymmetric meandering waves.
Modeling the Orion nebula as an axisymmetric blister
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Rubin, R. H.; Simpson, J. P.; Haas, M. R.; Erickson, E. F.
1991-01-01
The ionized gas in the Orion nebula is examined by means of axisymmetric modeling that is based on observational data from the ionized, neutral, and molecular regions. Nonsymmetrical features are omitted, radial dependence from the Trapezium is assumed, and azimuthal symmetry in the plane of the sky is used. Stellar properties and abundances of certain elements are described, and these data are used to compare the present axisymmetric-blister model to a previous spherical model. Strong singly-ionized emission that are visible near the Trapezium are found to originate in the ionization-bounded region in the dense Trapezium zone. The model can be more tightly constrained by adding near-IR data on noncentral zones for (Ar II), (AR III), (Ne II), and (S IV). The quadrant with the 'bar' creates an nonsymmetry that influences the observational data, and the model can therefore be improved with the additional data.
Design optimization of axisymmetric bodies in nonuniform transonic flow
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Lan, C. Edward
1989-01-01
An inviscid transonic code capable of designing an axisymmetric body in a uniform or nonuniform flow was developed. The design was achieved by direct optimiation by coupling an analysis code with an optimizer. Design examples were provided for axisymmetric bodies with fineness ratios of 8.33 and 5 at different Mach numbers. It was shown that by reducing the nose radius and increasing the afterbody thickness of initial shapes obtained from symmetric NACA four-digit airfoil contours, wave drag could be reduced by 29 percent for a body of fineness ratio 8.33 in a nonuniform transonic flow of M = 0.98 to 0.995. The reduction was 41 percent for a body of fineness ratio 5 in a uniform transonic flow of M = 0.925 and 65 percent for the same body but in a nonuniform transonic flow of M = 0.90 to 0.95.
CYP2D7 Sequence Variation Interferes with TaqMan CYP2D6*15 and *35 Genotyping
Riffel, Amanda K.; Dehghani, Mehdi; Hartshorne, Toinette; Floyd, Kristen C.; Leeder, J. Steven; Rosenblatt, Kevin P.; Gaedigk, Andrea
2016-01-01
TaqMan™ genotyping assays are widely used to genotype CYP2D6, which encodes a major drug metabolizing enzyme. Assay design for CYP2D6 can be challenging owing to the presence of two pseudogenes, CYP2D7 and CYP2D8, structural and copy number variation and numerous single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) some of which reflect the wild-type sequence of the CYP2D7 pseudogene. The aim of this study was to identify the mechanism causing false-positive CYP2D6*15 calls and remediate those by redesigning and validating alternative TaqMan genotype assays. Among 13,866 DNA samples genotyped by the CompanionDx® lab on the OpenArray platform, 70 samples were identified as heterozygotes for 137Tins, the key SNP of CYP2D6*15. However, only 15 samples were confirmed when tested with the Luminex xTAG CYP2D6 Kit and sequencing of CYP2D6-specific long range (XL)-PCR products. Genotype and gene resequencing of CYP2D6 and CYP2D7-specific XL-PCR products revealed a CC>GT dinucleotide SNP in exon 1 of CYP2D7 that reverts the sequence to CYP2D6 and allows a TaqMan assay PCR primer to bind. Because CYP2D7 also carries a Tins, a false-positive mutation signal is generated. This CYP2D7 SNP was also responsible for generating false-positive signals for rs769258 (CYP2D6*35) which is also located in exon 1. Although alternative CYP2D6*15 and *35 assays resolved the issue, we discovered a novel CYP2D6*15 subvariant in one sample that carries additional SNPs preventing detection with the alternate assay. The frequency of CYP2D6*15 was 0.1% in this ethnically diverse U.S. population sample. In addition, we also discovered linkage between the CYP2D7 CC>GT dinucleotide SNP and the 77G>A (rs28371696) SNP of CYP2D6*43. The frequency of this tentatively functional allele was 0.2%. Taken together, these findings emphasize that regardless of how careful genotyping assays are designed and evaluated before being commercially marketed, rare or unknown SNPs underneath primer and/or probe regions can impact
CYP2D7 Sequence Variation Interferes with TaqMan CYP2D6 (*) 15 and (*) 35 Genotyping.
Riffel, Amanda K; Dehghani, Mehdi; Hartshorne, Toinette; Floyd, Kristen C; Leeder, J Steven; Rosenblatt, Kevin P; Gaedigk, Andrea
2015-01-01
TaqMan™ genotyping assays are widely used to genotype CYP2D6, which encodes a major drug metabolizing enzyme. Assay design for CYP2D6 can be challenging owing to the presence of two pseudogenes, CYP2D7 and CYP2D8, structural and copy number variation and numerous single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) some of which reflect the wild-type sequence of the CYP2D7 pseudogene. The aim of this study was to identify the mechanism causing false-positive CYP2D6 (*) 15 calls and remediate those by redesigning and validating alternative TaqMan genotype assays. Among 13,866 DNA samples genotyped by the CompanionDx® lab on the OpenArray platform, 70 samples were identified as heterozygotes for 137Tins, the key SNP of CYP2D6 (*) 15. However, only 15 samples were confirmed when tested with the Luminex xTAG CYP2D6 Kit and sequencing of CYP2D6-specific long range (XL)-PCR products. Genotype and gene resequencing of CYP2D6 and CYP2D7-specific XL-PCR products revealed a CC>GT dinucleotide SNP in exon 1 of CYP2D7 that reverts the sequence to CYP2D6 and allows a TaqMan assay PCR primer to bind. Because CYP2D7 also carries a Tins, a false-positive mutation signal is generated. This CYP2D7 SNP was also responsible for generating false-positive signals for rs769258 (CYP2D6 (*) 35) which is also located in exon 1. Although alternative CYP2D6 (*) 15 and (*) 35 assays resolved the issue, we discovered a novel CYP2D6 (*) 15 subvariant in one sample that carries additional SNPs preventing detection with the alternate assay. The frequency of CYP2D6 (*) 15 was 0.1% in this ethnically diverse U.S. population sample. In addition, we also discovered linkage between the CYP2D7 CC>GT dinucleotide SNP and the 77G>A (rs28371696) SNP of CYP2D6 (*) 43. The frequency of this tentatively functional allele was 0.2%. Taken together, these findings emphasize that regardless of how careful genotyping assays are designed and evaluated before being commercially marketed, rare or unknown SNPs underneath primer
Toroidal angular momentum transport with non-axisymmetric magnetic fields
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Seol, J.; Park, B. H.
2016-05-01
In this study, we calculate the radial transport of the toroidal angular momentum in the presence of non-axisymmetric magnetic fields. It is shown that the radial transport of the toroidal angular momentum, R 2 ∇ ζ . V , is proportional to the first order of gyro-radius. This implies that the neoclassical toroidal viscosity caused by asymmetric magnetic fields can change the toroidal rotation significantly.
Resonant Absorption of Axisymmetric Modes in Twisted Magnetic Flux Tubes
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Giagkiozis, I.; Goossens, M.; Verth, G.; Fedun, V.; Van Doorsselaere, T.
2016-06-01
It has been shown recently that magnetic twist and axisymmetric MHD modes are ubiquitous in the solar atmosphere, and therefore the study of resonant absorption for these modes has become a pressing issue because it can have important consequences for heating magnetic flux tubes in the solar atmosphere and the observed damping. In this investigation, for the first time, we calculate the damping rate for axisymmetric MHD waves in weakly twisted magnetic flux tubes. Our aim is to investigate the impact of resonant damping of these modes for solar atmospheric conditions. This analytical study is based on an idealized configuration of a straight magnetic flux tube with a weak magnetic twist inside as well as outside the tube. By implementing the conservation laws derived by Sakurai et al. and the analytic solutions for weakly twisted flux tubes obtained recently by Giagkiozis et al. we derive a dispersion relation for resonantly damped axisymmetric modes in the spectrum of the Alfvén continuum. We also obtain an insightful analytical expression for the damping rate in the long wavelength limit. Furthermore, it is shown that both the longitudinal magnetic field and the density, which are allowed to vary continuously in the inhomogeneous layer, have a significant impact on the damping time. Given the conditions in the solar atmosphere, resonantly damped axisymmetric modes are highly likely to be ubiquitous and play an important role in energy dissipation. We also suggest that, given the character of these waves, it is likely that they have already been observed in the guise of Alfvén waves.
Axisymmetric MHD Instabilities in Solar/Stellar Tachoclines
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Dikpati, Mausumi; Gilman, Peter A.; Cally, Paul S.; Miesch, Mark S.
2009-02-01
Extensive studies over the past decade showed that HD and MHD nonaxisymmetric instabilities exist in the solar tachocline for a wide range of toroidal field profiles, amplitudes, and latitude locations. Axisymmetric instabilities (m = 0) do not exist in two dimensions, and are excited in quasi-three-dimensional shallow-water systems only for very high field strengths (2 mG). We investigate here MHD axisymmetric instabilities in a three-dimensional thin-shell model of the solar/stellar tachocline, employing a hydrostatic, non-Boussinesq system of equations. We deduce a number of general properties of the instability by use of an integral theorem, as well as finding detailed numerical solutions for unstable modes. Toroidal bands become unstable to axisymmetric perturbations for solar-like field strengths (100 kG). The e-folding time can be months down to a few hours if the field strength is 1 mG or higher, which might occur in the solar core, white dwarfs, or neutron stars. These instabilities exist without rotation, with rotation, and with differential rotation, although both rotation and differential rotation have stabilizing effects. Broad toroidal fields are stable. The instability for modes with m = 0 is driven from the poleward shoulder of banded profiles by a perturbation magnetic curvature stress that overcomes the stabilizing Coriolis force. The nonaxisymmetric instability tips or deforms a band; with axisymmetric instability, the fluid can roll in latitude and radius, and can convert bands into tubes stacked in radius. The velocity produced by this instability in the case of low-latitude bands crosses the equator, and hence can provide a mechanism for interhemispheric coupling.
Small Engine Technology (SET) - Task 14 Axisymmetric Engine Simulation Environment
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Miller, Max J.
1999-01-01
As part of the NPSS (Numerical Propulsion Simulation System) project, NASA Lewis has a goal of developing an U.S. industry standard for an axisymmetric engine simulation environment. In this program, AlliedSignal Engines (AE) contributed to this goal by evaluating the ENG20 software and developing support tools. ENG20 is a NASA developed axisymmetric engine simulation tool. The project was divided into six subtasks which are summarized below: Evaluate the capabilities of the ENG20 code using an existing test case to see how this procedure can capture the component interactions for a full engine. Link AE's compressor and turbine axisymmetric streamline curvature codes (UD0300M and TAPS) with ENG20, which will provide the necessary boundary conditions for an ENG20 engine simulation. Evaluate GE's Global Data System (GDS), attempt to use GDS to do the linking of codes described in Subtask 2 above. Use a turbofan engine test case to evaluate various aspects of the system, including the linkage of UD0300M and TAPS with ENG20 and the GE data storage system. Also, compare the solution results with cycle deck results, axisymmetric solutions (UD0300M and TAPS), and test data to determine the accuracy of the solution. Evaluate the order of accuracy and the convergence time for the solution. Provide a monthly status report and a final formal report documenting AE's evaluation of ENG20. Provide the developed interfaces that link UD0300M and TAPS with ENG20, to NASA. The interface that links UD0300M with ENG20 will be compatible with the industr,, version of UD0300M.
Axisymmetric Implementation for 3D-Based DSMC Codes
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Stewart, Benedicte; Lumpkin, F. E.; LeBeau, G. J.
2011-01-01
The primary objective in developing NASA s DSMC Analysis Code (DAC) was to provide a high fidelity modeling tool for 3D rarefied flows such as vacuum plume impingement and hypersonic re-entry flows [1]. The initial implementation has been expanded over time to offer other capabilities including a novel axisymmetric implementation. Because of the inherently 3D nature of DAC, this axisymmetric implementation uses a 3D Cartesian domain and 3D surfaces. Molecules are moved in all three dimensions but their movements are limited by physical walls to a small wedge centered on the plane of symmetry (Figure 1). Unfortunately, far from the axis of symmetry, the cell size in the direction perpendicular to the plane of symmetry (the Z-direction) may become large compared to the flow mean free path. This frequently results in inaccuracies in these regions of the domain. A new axisymmetric implementation is presented which aims to solve this issue by using Bird s approach for the molecular movement while preserving the 3D nature of the DAC software [2]. First, the computational domain is similar to that previously used such that a wedge must still be used to define the inflow surface and solid walls within the domain. As before molecules are created inside the inflow wedge triangles but they are now rotated back to the symmetry plane. During the move step, molecules are moved in 3D but instead of interacting with the wedge walls, the molecules are rotated back to the plane of symmetry at the end of the move step. This new implementation was tested for multiple flows over axisymmetric shapes, including a sphere, a cone, a double cone and a hollow cylinder. Comparisons to previous DSMC solutions and experiments, when available, are made.
Validation of a 2-D semi-coupled numerical model for fluid-structure-seabed interaction
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ye, Jianhong; Jeng, Dongsheng; Wang, Ren; Zhu, Changqi
2013-10-01
A 2-D semi-coupled model PORO-WSSI 2D (also be referred as FSSI-CAS 2D) for the Fluid-Structure-Seabed Interaction (FSSI) has been developed by employing RANS equations for wave motion in fluid domain, VARANS equations for porous flow in porous structures; and taking the dynamic Biot's equations (known as "u - p" approximation) for soil as the governing equations. The finite difference two-step projection method and the forward time difference method are adopted to solve the RANS, VARANS equations; and the finite element method is adopted to solve the "u - p" approximation. A data exchange port is developed to couple the RANS, VARANS equations and the dynamic Biot's equations together. The analytical solution proposed by Hsu and Jeng (1994) and some experiments conducted in wave flume or geotechnical centrifuge in which various waves involved are used to validate the developed semi-coupled numerical model. The sandy bed involved in these experiments is poro-elastic or poro-elastoplastic. The inclusion of the interaction between fluid, marine structures and poro-elastoplastic seabed foundation is a special point and highlight in this paper, which is essentially different with other previous coupled models The excellent agreement between the numerical results and the experiment data indicates that the developed coupled model is highly reliablefor the FSSI problem.
On Classical Solutions to 2D Shallow Water Equations with Degenerate Viscosities
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Li, Yachun; Pan, Ronghua; Zhu, Shengguo
2016-07-01
2D shallow water equations have degenerate viscosities proportional to surface height, which vanishes in many physical considerations, say, when the initial total mass, or energy are finite. Such a degeneracy is a highly challenging obstacle for development of well-posedness theory, even local-in-time theory remains open for a long time. In this paper, we will address this open problem with some new perspectives, independent of the celebrated BD-entropy (Bresch et al in Commun Math Phys 238:211-223, 2003, Commun Part Differ Eqs 28:843-868, 2003, Analysis and Simulation of Fluid Dynamics, 2007). After exploring some interesting structures of most models of 2D shallow water equations, we introduced a proper notion of solution class, called regular solutions, and identified a class of initial data with finite total mass and energy, and established the local-in-time well-posedness of this class of smooth solutions. The theory is applicable to most relatively physical shallow water models, broader than those with BD-entropy structures. We remark that our theory is on the local strong solutions, while the BD entropy is an essential tool for the global weak solutions. Later, a Beale-Kato-Majda type blow-up criterion is also established. This paper is mainly based on our early preprint (Li et al. in 2D compressible Navier-Stokes equations with degenerate viscosities and far field vacuum, preprint. arXiv:1407.8471, 2014).
Holographic measurement of wave propagation in axi-symmetric shells
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Evensen, D. A.; Aprahamian, R.; Jacoby, J. L.
1972-01-01
The report deals with the use of pulsed, double-exposure holographic interferometry to record the propagation of transverse waves in thin-walled axi-symmetric shells. The report is subdivided into sections dealing with: (1) wave propagation in circular cylindrical shells, (2) wave propagation past cut-outs and stiffeners, and (3) wave propagation in conical shells. Several interferograms are presented herein which show the waves reflecting from the shell boundaries, from cut-outs, and from stiffening rings. The initial response of the shell was nearly axi-symmetric in all cases, but nonsymmetric modes soon appeared in the radial response. This result suggests that the axi-symmetric response of the shell may be dynamically unstable, and thus may preferentially excite certain circumferential harmonics through parametric excitation. Attempts were made throughout to correlate the experimental data with analysis. For the most part, good agreement between theory and experiment was obtained. Occasional differences were attributed primarily to simplifying assumptions used in the analysis. From the standpoint of engineering applications, it is clear that pulsed laser holography can be used to obtain quantitative engineering data. Areas of dynamic stress concentration, stress concentration factors, local anomalies, etc., can be readily determined by holography.
Transition and mixing in axisymmetric jets and vortex rings
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Allen, G. A., Jr.; Cantwell, B. J.
1986-01-01
A class of impulsively started, axisymmetric, laminar jets produced by a time dependent joint source of momentum are considered. These jets are different flows, each initially at rest in an unbounded fluid. The study is conducted at three levels of detail. First, a generalized set of analytic creeping flow solutions are derived with a method of flow classification. Second, from this set, three specific creeping flow solutions are studied in detail: the vortex ring, the round jet, and the ramp jet. This study involves derivation of vorticity, stream function, entrainment diagrams, and evolution of time lines through computer animation. From entrainment diagrams, critical points are derived and analyzed. The flow geometry is dictated by the properties and location of critical points which undergo bifurcation and topological transformation (a form of transition) with changing Reynolds number. Transition Reynolds numbers were calculated. A state space trajectory was derived describing the topological behavior of these critical points. This state space derivation yielded three states of motion which are universal for all axisymmetric jets. Third, the axisymmetric round jet is solved numerically using the unsteady laminar Navier Stokes equations. These equations were shown to be self similar for the round jet. Numerical calculations were performed up to a Reynolds number of 30 for a 60x60 point mesh. Animations generated from numerical solution showed each of the three states of motion for the round jet, including the Re = 30 case.
Options for axisymmetric operation of MFTF-B
Fenstermacher, M.E.; Devoto, R.S.; Thomassen, K.I.
1986-03-30
The flexibility of MFTF-B for axisymmetric experiments has been investigated. Interhcanging the axicell coils and increasing their separation results in an axisymmetric plug cell with 12:1 and 6:1 inner and outer mirror ratios, respectively. For axisymmetric operation, the sloshing-ion neutral beams, ECRH gyrotrons, and the pumping system would be moved to the axicell. Stabilization by E-rings could be explored in this configuration. With the addition of octopole magnets, off-axis multipole stabilization could also be tested. Operating points for octopole and E-ring-stabilized configurations with properties similar to those of the quadrupole MFTF-B, namely T/sub ic/ = 10 - 15 keV and n/sub c/ approx. = 3 x 10/sup 13/ cm/sup -3/, have been obtained. Because of the negligible radial transport of central-cell ions, the required neutral-beam power in the central cell has been dramatically reduced. In addition, because MHD stabilization is achieved by off-axis hot electrons in both cases, much lower barrier beta is possible, which aids in reducing the barrier ECRH power. Total ECRH power in the end cell is projected to be approx. =1 MW. Possible operating points for both octopole and E-ring configurations are described along with the stability considerations involved.
Three-Dimensional Electromagnetic High Frequency Axisymmetric Cavity Scars.
Warne, Larry K.; Jorgenson, Roy E.
2014-10-01
This report examines the localization of high frequency electromagnetic fi elds in three-dimensional axisymmetric cavities along periodic paths between opposing sides of the cavity. The cases where these orbits lead to unstable localized modes are known as scars. This report treats both the case where the opposing sides, or mirrors, are convex, where there are no interior foci, and the case where they are concave, leading to interior foci. The scalar problem is treated fi rst but the approximations required to treat the vector fi eld components are also examined. Particular att ention is focused on the normalization through the electromagnetic energy theorem. Both projections of the fi eld along the scarred orbit as well as point statistics are examined. Statistical comparisons are m ade with a numerical calculation of the scars run with an axisymmetric simulation. This axisymmetric cas eformstheoppositeextreme(wherethetwomirror radii at each end of the ray orbit are equal) from the two -dimensional solution examined previously (where one mirror radius is vastly di ff erent from the other). The enhancement of the fi eldontheorbitaxiscanbe larger here than in the two-dimensional case. Intentionally Left Blank
Energy and energy flux in axisymmetric slow and fast waves
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Moreels, M. G.; Van Doorsselaere, T.; Grant, S. D. T.; Jess, D. B.; Goossens, M.
2015-06-01
Aims: We aim to calculate the kinetic, magnetic, thermal, and total energy densities and the flux of energy in axisymmetric sausage modes. The resulting equations should contain as few parameters as possible to facilitate applicability for different observations. Methods: The background equilibrium is a one-dimensional cylindrical flux tube model with a piecewise constant radial density profile. This enables us to use linearised magnetohydrodynamic equations to calculate the energy densities and the flux of energy for axisymmetric sausage modes. Results: The equations used to calculate the energy densities and the flux of energy in axisymmetric sausage modes depend on the radius of the flux tube, the equilibrium sound and Alfvén speeds, the density of the plasma, the period and phase speed of the wave, and the radial or longitudinal components of the Lagrangian displacement at the flux tube boundary. Approximate relations for limiting cases of propagating slow and fast sausage modes are also obtained. We also obtained the dispersive first-order correction term to the phase speed for both the fundamental slow body mode under coronal conditions and the slow surface mode under photospheric conditions. Appendix A is available in electronic form at http://www.aanda.org
Two-dimensional axisymmetric Child-Langmuir scaling law
Ragan-Kelley, Benjamin; Verboncoeur, John; Feng Yang
2009-10-15
The classical one-dimensional (1D) Child-Langmuir law was previously extended to two dimensions by numerical calculation in planar geometries. By considering an axisymmetric cylindrical system with axial emission from a circular cathode of radius r, outer drift tube radius R>r, and gap length L, we further examine the space charge limit in two dimensions. Simulations were done with no applied magnetic field as well as with a large (100 T) longitudinal magnetic field to restrict motion of particles to 1D. The ratio of the observed current density limit J{sub CL2} to the theoretical 1D value J{sub CL1} is found to be a monotonically decreasing function of the ratio of emission radius to gap separation r/L. This result is in agreement with the planar results, where the emission area is proportional to the cathode width W. The drift tube in axisymmetric systems is shown to have a small but measurable effect on the space charge limit. Strong beam edge effects are observed with J(r)/J(0) approaching 3.5. Two-dimensional axisymmetric electrostatic particle-in-cell simulations were used to produce these results.
Upscaling of upward CO2 migration in 2D system
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Behzadi, Hamid; Alvarado, Vladimir
2012-09-01
A procedure for upscaling CO2 buoyancy driven upward migration in finite-difference simulation models is presented in this work. This upscaling procedure accounts for capillary and buoyancy forces to enable CO2 upward migration modeling in coarser grids while accounting for dominant fine-scaled geological effects. The developed method is applied to 2D domains with no-flow boundary conditions. The absolute permeability field is correlated in the horizontal direction, with zero correlation in the vertical direction. Capillary pressure is parameterized using a Leveret J-function. A Dykstra-Parsons coefficient of 0.7 was used to generate a relatively heterogeneous absolute permeability field and hence test the developed algorithm under more stringent conditions. Multiphase flow upscaling is improved by accounting for spatial connectivity (percolation), which enables us to obtain more realistic rock-fluid pseudo-functions and capture effects of local capillary trapping at the fine scale (meso-scale trapping). The upscaling method and estimation of rock-fluid functions are numerically tested and compared with currently accepted single and multiphase flow upscaling methods. Results show that single-phase flow upscaling is insufficient, because it fails to adequately predict mobility and residual saturation, and hence multiphase flow upscaling should be employed. Significant improvement in gas travel time (representative of mobility) and trapped CO2 saturation (representative of trapped saturation) are observed when spatial connectivity (percolation) is included. The simulation execution time reduces 17-fold through upscaling. This speedup will enable simulating 3D CO2 sequestration simulation scenarios.
Goswami, A.; Sing Babu, P.; Pandit, V. S.
2012-12-15
This paper describes the dynamics of space charge dominated beam through a Glaser magnet which is often used to focus charged particle beams in the low energy section of accelerators and in many other devices. Various beam optical properties of the magnet and emittance evolution that results from the coupling between the two transverse planes are studied. We have derived ten independent first order differential equations for the beam sigma matrix elements assuming the linear space-charge force consistent with the assumption of the canonically transformed KV like distribution. In addition, the feasibility of using a Glaser magnet doublet in a low energy beam injection line to match an initial non-axisymmetric high intensity beam with net angular momentum to an axisymmetric system to suppress effective emittance growth after transition back to an uncoupled system, has also been studied.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Goswami, A.; Sing Babu, P.; Pandit, V. S.
2012-12-01
This paper describes the dynamics of space charge dominated beam through a Glaser magnet which is often used to focus charged particle beams in the low energy section of accelerators and in many other devices. Various beam optical properties of the magnet and emittance evolution that results from the coupling between the two transverse planes are studied. We have derived ten independent first order differential equations for the beam sigma matrix elements assuming the linear space-charge force consistent with the assumption of the canonically transformed KV like distribution. In addition, the feasibility of using a Glaser magnet doublet in a low energy beam injection line to match an initial non-axisymmetric high intensity beam with net angular momentum to an axisymmetric system to suppress effective emittance growth after transition back to an uncoupled system, has also been studied.
A fully nonlinear, mixed spectral and finite difference model for thermally driven, rotating flows
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Miller, Timothy L.; Lu, Huei-Iin; Butler, Karen A.
1992-01-01
Finite difference in time and the meridional plane, in conjunction with a spectral technique in the azimuthal direction, are used to approximate the Navier-Stokes equations in a model that can simulate a variety of thermally driven rotating flows in cylindrical and spherical geometries. Axisymmetric flow, linearized waves relative to a fixed or changing axisymmetric flow, nonlinear waves without wave-wave interaction, and fully nonlinear 3D flow, can in this way be calculated. A reexamination is conducted of the steady baroclinic wave case previously treated by Williams (1971) and Quon (1976).
Differential CYP 2D6 Metabolism Alters Primaquine Pharmacokinetics
Potter, Brittney M. J.; Xie, Lisa H.; Vuong, Chau; Zhang, Jing; Zhang, Ping; Duan, Dehui; Luong, Thu-Lan T.; Bandara Herath, H. M. T.; Dhammika Nanayakkara, N. P.; Tekwani, Babu L.; Walker, Larry A.; Nolan, Christina K.; Sciotti, Richard J.; Zottig, Victor E.; Smith, Philip L.; Paris, Robert M.; Read, Lisa T.; Li, Qigui; Pybus, Brandon S.; Sousa, Jason C.; Reichard, Gregory A.
2015-01-01
Primaquine (PQ) metabolism by the cytochrome P450 (CYP) 2D family of enzymes is required for antimalarial activity in both humans (2D6) and mice (2D). Human CYP 2D6 is highly polymorphic, and decreased CYP 2D6 enzyme activity has been linked to decreased PQ antimalarial activity. Despite the importance of CYP 2D metabolism in PQ efficacy, the exact role that these enzymes play in PQ metabolism and pharmacokinetics has not been extensively studied in vivo. In this study, a series of PQ pharmacokinetic experiments were conducted in mice with differential CYP 2D metabolism characteristics, including wild-type (WT), CYP 2D knockout (KO), and humanized CYP 2D6 (KO/knock-in [KO/KI]) mice. Plasma and liver pharmacokinetic profiles from a single PQ dose (20 mg/kg of body weight) differed significantly among the strains for PQ and carboxy-PQ. Additionally, due to the suspected role of phenolic metabolites in PQ efficacy, these were probed using reference standards. Levels of phenolic metabolites were highest in mice capable of metabolizing CYP 2D6 substrates (WT and KO/KI 2D6 mice). PQ phenolic metabolites were present in different quantities in the two strains, illustrating species-specific differences in PQ metabolism between the human and mouse enzymes. Taking the data together, this report furthers understanding of PQ pharmacokinetics in the context of differential CYP 2D metabolism and has important implications for PQ administration in humans with different levels of CYP 2D6 enzyme activity. PMID:25645856
Gan, K F; Ahn, J-W; Park, J-W; Maingi, R; McLean, A G; Gray, T K; Gong, X; Zhang, X D
2013-02-01
The divertor heat flux footprint in tokamaks is often observed to be non-axisymmetric due to intrinsic error fields, applied 3D magnetic fields or during transients such as edge localized modes. Typically, only 1D radial heat flux profiles are analyzed; however, analysis of the full 2D divertor measurements provides opportunities to study the asymmetric nature of the deposited heat flux. To accomplish this an improved 3D Fourier analysis method has been successfully applied in a heat conduction solver (TACO) to determine the 2D heat flux distribution at the lower divertor surface in the National Spherical Torus Experiment (NSTX) tokamak. This advance enables study of helical heat deposition onto the divertor. In order to account for heat transmission through poorly adhered surface layers on the divertor plate, a heat transmission coefficient, defined as the surface layer thermal conductivity divided by the thickness of the layer, was introduced to the solution of heat conduction equation. This coefficient is denoted as α and a range of values were tested in the model to ensure a reliable heat flux calculation until a specific value of α led to the constant total deposited energy in the numerical solution after the end of discharge. A comparison between 1D heat flux profiles from TACO and from a 2D heat flux calculation code, THEODOR, shows good agreement. Advantages of 2D heat flux distribution over the conventional 1D heat flux profile are also discussed, and examples of 2D data analysis in the study of striated heat deposition pattern as well as the toroidal degree of asymmetry of peak heat flux and heat flux width are demonstrated. PMID:23464209
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Gan, K. F.; Ahn, J.-W.; Park, J.-W.; Maingi, R.; McLean, A. G.; Gray, T. K.; Gong, X.; Zhang, X. D.
2013-02-01
The divertor heat flux footprint in tokamaks is often observed to be non-axisymmetric due to intrinsic error fields, applied 3D magnetic fields or during transients such as edge localized modes. Typically, only 1D radial heat flux profiles are analyzed; however, analysis of the full 2D divertor measurements provides opportunities to study the asymmetric nature of the deposited heat flux. To accomplish this an improved 3D Fourier analysis method has been successfully applied in a heat conduction solver (TACO) to determine the 2D heat flux distribution at the lower divertor surface in the National Spherical Torus Experiment (NSTX) tokamak. This advance enables study of helical heat deposition onto the divertor. In order to account for heat transmission through poorly adhered surface layers on the divertor plate, a heat transmission coefficient, defined as the surface layer thermal conductivity divided by the thickness of the layer, was introduced to the solution of heat conduction equation. This coefficient is denoted as α and a range of values were tested in the model to ensure a reliable heat flux calculation until a specific value of α led to the constant total deposited energy in the numerical solution after the end of discharge. A comparison between 1D heat flux profiles from TACO and from a 2D heat flux calculation code, THEODOR, shows good agreement. Advantages of 2D heat flux distribution over the conventional 1D heat flux profile are also discussed, and examples of 2D data analysis in the study of striated heat deposition pattern as well as the toroidal degree of asymmetry of peak heat flux and heat flux width are demonstrated.
2D to 3D to 2D Dimensionality Crossovers in Thin BSCCO Films
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Williams, Gary A.
2003-03-01
With increasing temperature the superfluid fraction in very thin BSCCO films undergoes a series of dimensionality crossovers. At low temperatures the strong anisotropy causes the thermal excitations to be 2D pancake-antipancake pairs in uncoupled layers. At higher temperatures where the c-axis correlation length becomes larger than a layer there is a crossover to 3D vortex loops. These are initially elliptical, but as the 3D Tc is approached they become more circular as the anisotropy scales away, as modeled by Shenoy and Chattopadhyay [1]. Close to Tc when the correlation length becomes comparable to the film thickness there is a further crossover to a 2D Kosterlitz-Thouless transition, with a drop of the superfluid fraction to zero at T_KT which can be of the order of 1 K below T_c. Good agreement with this model is found for experiments on thin BSCCO 2212 films [2]. 1. S. R. Shenoy and B. Chattopadhyay, Phys. Rev. B 51, 9129 (1995). 2. K. Osborn et al., cond-mat/0204417.
Mechanical characterization of 2D, 2D stitched, and 3D braided/RTM materials
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Deaton, Jerry W.; Kullerd, Susan M.; Portanova, Marc A.
1993-01-01
Braided composite materials have potential for application in aircraft structures. Fuselage frames, floor beams, wing spars, and stiffeners are examples where braided composites could find application if cost effective processing and damage tolerance requirements are met. Another important consideration for braided composites relates to their mechanical properties and how they compare to the properties of composites produced by other textile composite processes being proposed for these applications. Unfortunately, mechanical property data for braided composites do not appear extensively in the literature. Data are presented in this paper on the mechanical characterization of 2D triaxial braid, 2D triaxial braid plus stitching, and 3D (through-the-thickness) braid composite materials. The braided preforms all had the same graphite tow size and the same nominal braid architectures, (+/- 30 deg/0 deg), and were resin transfer molded (RTM) using the same mold for each of two different resin systems. Static data are presented for notched and unnotched tension, notched and unnotched compression, and compression after impact strengths at room temperature. In addition, some static results, after environmental conditioning, are included. Baseline tension and compression fatigue results are also presented, but only for the 3D braided composite material with one of the resin systems.
2 D patterns of soil gas diffusivity , soil respiration, and methane oxidation in a soil profile
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Maier, Martin; Schack-Kirchner, Helmer; Lang, Friederike
2015-04-01
The apparent gas diffusion coefficient in soil (DS) is an important parameter describing soil aeration, which makes it a key parameter for root growth and gas production and consumption. Horizontal homogeneity in soil profiles is assumed in most studies for soil properties - including DS. This assumption, however, is not valid, even in apparently homogeneous soils, as we know from studies using destructive sampling methods. Using destructive methods may allow catching a glimpse, but a large uncertainty remains, since locations between the sampling positions cannot be analyzed, and measurements cannot be repeated. We developed a new method to determine in situ the apparent soil gas diffusion coefficient in order to examine 2 D pattern of DS and methane oxidation in a soil profile. Different tracer gases (SF6, CF4, C2H6) were injected continuously into the subsoil and measured at several locations in the soil profile. These data allow for modelling inversely the 2 D patterns of DS using Finite Element Modeling. The 2D DS patterns were then combined with naturally occurring CH4 and CO2 concentrations sampled at the same locations to derive the 2D pattern of soil respiration and methane oxidation in the soil profile. We show that methane oxidation and soil respiration zones shift within the soil profile while the gas fluxes at the surface remain rather stable during a the 3 week campaign.
Extension and application of the Preissmann slot model to 2D transient mixed flows
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Maranzoni, Andrea; Dazzi, Susanna; Aureli, Francesca; Mignosa, Paolo
2015-08-01
This paper presents an extension of the Preissmann slot concept for the modeling of highly transient two-dimensional (2D) mixed flows. The classic conservative formulation of the 2D shallow water equations for free surface flows is adapted by assuming that two fictitious vertical slots, aligned along the two Cartesian plane directions and normally intersecting, are added on the ceiling of each integration element. Accordingly, transitions between free surface and pressurized flow can be handled in a natural and straightforward way by using the same set of governing equations. The opportunity of coupling free surface and pressurized flows is actually useful not only in one-dimensional (1D) problems concerning sewer systems but also for modeling 2D flooding phenomena in which the pressurization of bridges, culverts, or other crossing hydraulic structures can be expected. Numerical simulations are performed by using a shock-capturing MUSCL-Hancock finite volume scheme combined with the FORCE (First-Order Centred) solver for the evaluation of the numerical fluxes. The validation of the mathematical model is accomplished on the basis of both exact solutions of 1D discontinuous initial value problems and reference radial solutions of idealized test cases with cylindrical symmetry. Furthermore, the capability of the model to deal with practical field-scale applications is assessed by simulating the transit of a bore under an arch bridge. Numerical results show that the proposed model is suitable for the prediction of highly transient 2D mixed flows.
Wall surface temperature calculation in the SolEdge2D-EIRENE transport code
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Denis, J.; Pégourié, B.; Bucalossi, J.; Bufferand, H.; Ciraolo, G.; Gardarein, J.-L.; Gaspar, J.; Grisolia, C.; Hodille, E.; Missirlian, M.; Serre, E.; Tamain, P.
2016-02-01
A thermal wall model is developed for the SolEdge2D-EIRENE edge transport code for calculating the surface temperature of the actively-cooled vessel components in interaction with the plasma. This is a first step towards a self-consistent evaluation of the recycling of particles, which depends on the wall surface temperature. The proposed thermal model is built to match both steady-state temperature and time constant of actively-cooled plasma facing components. A benchmark between this model and the Finite Element Modelling code CAST3M is performed in the case of an ITER-like monoblock. An example of application is presented for a SolEdge2D-EIRENE simulation of a medium-power discharge in the WEST tokamak, showing the steady-state wall temperature distribution and the temperature cycling due to an imposed Edge Localised Mode-like event.
Thermal Conductivity and Thermopower near the 2D Metal-Insulator transition, Final Technical Report
SARACHIK, MYRIAM P
2015-02-20
STUDIES OF STRONGLY-INTERACTING 2D ELECTRON SYSTEMS – There is a great deal of current interest in the properties of systems in which the interaction between electrons (their potential energy) is large compared to their kinetic energy. We have investigated an apparent, unexpected metal-insulator transition inferred from the behavior of the temperature-dependence of the resistivity; moreover, detailed analysis of the behavior of the magnetoresistance suggests that the electrons’ effective mass diverges, supporting this scenario. Whether this is a true phase transition or crossover behavior has been strenuously debated over the past 20 years. Our measurements have now shown that the thermoelectric power of these 2D materials diverges at a finite density, providing clear evidence that this is, in fact, a phase transition to a new low-density phase which may be a precursor or a direct transition to the long sought-after electronic crystal predicted by Eugene Wigner in 1934.
Breakdown of Dynamical Scaling for Dilute Polymer Solutions in 2D?
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Falck, Emma; Punkkinen, Olli; Ala-Nissila, Tapio; Vattulainen, Ilpo
2004-03-01
The breakdown of dynamical scaling for a dilute polymer solution in 2D has been suggested by Shannon and Choy [1]. However, we show here through extensive computer simulations that dynamical scaling holds when the relevant dynamical quantities are properly extracted from finite systems. To verify dynamical scaling, we present results based on mesoscopic simulations in 2D for a polymer chain in a good solvent with full hydrodynamic interactions. We also present analytical arguments for the size-dependence of the diffusion coefficient and find excellent agreement with the present large-scale simulations. 1. S. R. Shannon and T. C. Choy, Phys. Rev. Lett. 79, 1455 (1997). 2. E. Falck et al., Phys. Rev. E 68, 050102 (2003).
A Neural-FEM tool for the 2-D magnetic hysteresis modeling
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Cardelli, E.; Faba, A.; Laudani, A.; Lozito, G. M.; Riganti Fulginei, F.; Salvini, A.
2016-04-01
The aim of this work is to present a new tool for the analysis of magnetic field problems considering 2-D magnetic hysteresis. In particular, this tool makes use of the Finite Element Method to solve the magnetic field problem in real device, and fruitfully exploits a neural network (NN) for the modeling of 2-D magnetic hysteresis of materials. The NS has as input the magnetic inductions components B at the k-th simulation step and returns as output the corresponding values of the magnetic field H corresponding to the input pattern. It is trained by vector measurements performed on the magnetic material to be modeled. This input/output scheme is directly implemented in a FEM code employing the magnetic potential vector A formulation. Validations through measurements on a real device have been performed.
Thermal stability effects on the separated flow over a steep 2-D hill
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Zhang, W.; Porte-Agel, F.
2012-12-01
Transport of momentum and scalars in turbulent boundary-layer flows over complex topography has been of great interest in the atmospheric sciences and wind engineering communities. Applications include but are not limited to weather forecasting, air pollution dispersion, aviation safety control, and wind energy project planning. Linear models have been well accepted to predict boundary-layer flows over topography with gentle slope. However, once the slope of the topography is sufficientlyo steep that flow separation occurs, linear models are not applicable. Modeling the turbulent transport of momentum and scalars in such flows has to be achieved through non-linear models, such as Reynolds-averaged Navier-Stokes solvers and large-eddy simulations (LES). Dynamics of the separated boundary-layer flows over steep topography is affected by the shape and size of the topography, surface characteristics (e.g., roughness and temperature) and atmospheric thermal stability. Most wind-tunnel experiments of boundary-layer flows over idealized topography (e.g. 2-D or 3-D hills, axisymmetric bumps) do not take thermal stability effects into account due to difficulty of physical simulation. We conducted comprehensive experimental investigation of stably- and unstably- stratified boundary layers over a steep 2-D hill in the thermally-controlled boundary-layer wind tunnel at the Saint Anthony Falls Laboratory. The 2-D model hill has a steepest slope of 0.73 and its shape follows a cosine square function: h=Hcos^2 (πx/L) for -L/2 ≤ x ≤ L/2 , where the maximum height H is 7 cm and the total width L is 15 cm. High-resolution Particle Image Velocimetry (PIV) provides dynamic information of the separated shear layer, the recirculation zone and flow reattachment. Turbulent momentum and scalar (heat) fluxes were characterized up to the top of the thermal boundary layer using a triple-wire (cross-wire and cold-wire) anemometer. Results indicate that promoted and suppressed turbulence
Dynamics and Central Black Hole of NGC 3377 Based on Sauron and Oasis 2D Spectroscopic Observations
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Copin, Y.; Cretton, N.; Emsellem, E.; Bacon, R.; Davies, R.; de Zeeuw, T.
2002-01-01
We have constrained the central black hole mass and dynamical structure of the E6 galaxy NGC 3377, using axisymmetric dynamical models based on Schwarzschild's orbit method. These models fit simultaneously two sets of 2D-kinematic constraints: i) 475 SAURON spectra, covering the inner 41" x 33" at a spatial resolution of 0.95" and ii) 153 OASIS spectra, covering the inner 4" x 2" at 0.25" resolution. The large radii constraints of SAURON help to fix the dynamical structure of NGC 3377's main body, whereas the higher resolution data from OASIS pin down the black hole mass. I will also describe what kind of improvement in the models is needed to satisfy the increased number of data (compared to the "classical" long-slit spectroscopy).
Nonlinear analysis of structures. [within framework of finite element method
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Armen, H., Jr.; Levine, H.; Pifko, A.; Levy, A.
1974-01-01
The development of nonlinear analysis techniques within the framework of the finite-element method is reported. Although the emphasis is concerned with those nonlinearities associated with material behavior, a general treatment of geometric nonlinearity, alone or in combination with plasticity is included, and applications presented for a class of problems categorized as axisymmetric shells of revolution. The scope of the nonlinear analysis capabilities includes: (1) a membrane stress analysis, (2) bending and membrane stress analysis, (3) analysis of thick and thin axisymmetric bodies of revolution, (4) a general three dimensional analysis, and (5) analysis of laminated composites. Applications of the methods are made to a number of sample structures. Correlation with available analytic or experimental data range from good to excellent.
Differential Cytochrome P450 2D Metabolism Alters Tafenoquine Pharmacokinetics
Vuong, Chau; Xie, Lisa H.; Potter, Brittney M. J.; Zhang, Jing; Zhang, Ping; Duan, Dehui; Nolan, Christina K.; Sciotti, Richard J.; Zottig, Victor E.; Nanayakkara, N. P. Dhammika; Tekwani, Babu L.; Walker, Larry A.; Smith, Philip L.; Paris, Robert M.; Read, Lisa T.; Li, Qigui; Pybus, Brandon S.; Sousa, Jason C.; Reichard, Gregory A.; Smith, Bryan
2015-01-01
Cytochrome P450 (CYP) 2D metabolism is required for the liver-stage antimalarial efficacy of the 8-aminoquinoline molecule tafenoquine in mice. This could be problematic for Plasmodium vivax radical cure, as the human CYP 2D ortholog (2D6) is highly polymorphic. Diminished CYP 2D6 enzyme activity, as in the poor-metabolizer phenotype, could compromise radical curative efficacy in humans. Despite the importance of CYP 2D metabolism for tafenoquine liver-stage efficacy, the exact role that CYP 2D metabolism plays in the metabolism and pharmacokinetics of tafenoquine and other 8-aminoquinoline molecules has not been extensively studied. In this study, a series of tafenoquine pharmacokinetic experiments were conducted in mice with different CYP 2D metabolism statuses, including wild-type (WT) (reflecting extensive metabolizers for CYP 2D6 substrates) and CYPmouse 2D knockout (KO) (reflecting poor metabolizers for CYP 2D6 substrates) mice. Plasma and liver pharmacokinetic profiles from a single 20-mg/kg of body weight dose of tafenoquine differed between the strains; however, the differences were less striking than previous results obtained for primaquine in the same model. Additionally, the presence of a 5,6-ortho-quinone tafenoquine metabolite was examined in both mouse strains. The 5,6-ortho-quinone species of tafenoquine was observed, and concentrations of the metabolite were highest in the WT extensive-metabolizer phenotype. Altogether, this study indicates that CYP 2D metabolism in mice affects tafenoquine pharmacokinetics and could have implications for human tafenoquine pharmacokinetics in polymorphic CYP 2D6 human populations. PMID:25870069
A Geometric Boolean Library for 2D Objects
2006-01-05
The 2D Boolean Library is a collection of C++ classes -- which primarily represent 2D geometric data and relationships, and routines -- which contain algorithms for 2D geometric Boolean operations and utility functions. Classes are provided for 2D points, lines, arcs, edgeuses, loops, surfaces and mask sets. Routines are provided that incorporate the Boolean operations Union(OR), XOR, Intersection and Difference. Various analytical geometry routines and routines for importing and exporting the data in various filemore » formats, are also provided in the library.« less
A Geometric Boolean Library for 2D Objects
McBride, Corey L.; Yarberry, Victor; Jorgensen, Craig
2006-01-05
The 2D Boolean Library is a collection of C++ classes -- which primarily represent 2D geometric data and relationships, and routines -- which contain algorithms for 2D geometric Boolean operations and utility functions. Classes are provided for 2D points, lines, arcs, edgeuses, loops, surfaces and mask sets. Routines are provided that incorporate the Boolean operations Union(OR), XOR, Intersection and Difference. Various analytical geometry routines and routines for importing and exporting the data in various file formats, are also provided in the library.
Hall-Effect Thruster Simulations with 2-D Electron Transport and Hydrodynamic Ions
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Mikellides, Ioannis G.; Katz, Ira; Hofer, Richard H.; Goebel, Dan M.
2009-01-01
A computational approach that has been used extensively in the last two decades for Hall thruster simulations is to solve a diffusion equation and energy conservation law for the electrons in a direction that is perpendicular to the magnetic field, and use discrete-particle methods for the heavy species. This "hybrid" approach has allowed for the capture of bulk plasma phenomena inside these thrusters within reasonable computational times. Regions of the thruster with complex magnetic field arrangements (such as those near eroded walls and magnets) and/or reduced Hall parameter (such as those near the anode and the cathode plume) challenge the validity of the quasi-one-dimensional assumption for the electrons. This paper reports on the development of a computer code that solves numerically the 2-D axisymmetric vector form of Ohm's law, with no assumptions regarding the rate of electron transport in the parallel and perpendicular directions. The numerical challenges related to the large disparity of the transport coefficients in the two directions are met by solving the equations in a computational mesh that is aligned with the magnetic field. The fully-2D approach allows for a large physical domain that extends more than five times the thruster channel length in the axial direction, and encompasses the cathode boundary. Ions are treated as an isothermal, cold (relative to the electrons) fluid, accounting for charge-exchange and multiple-ionization collisions in the momentum equations. A first series of simulations of two Hall thrusters, namely the BPT-4000 and a 6-kW laboratory thruster, quantifies the significance of ion diffusion in the anode region and the importance of the extended physical domain on studies related to the impact of the transport coefficients on the electron flow field.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Morrison, Graeme; Fearn, David R.
2000-01-01
This study assesses the influence of different prescribed parameters on the solutions of a 2- 1/2 D hydromagnetic dynamo model. The numerical solution is fully resolved in r and θ, but severely truncated in φ so that only a single, prescribed value of the azimuthal wavenumber, m, is included in addition to the axisymmetric ( m=0) part of the problem. This model is ideally suited for such a study since it is a self-consistent, convectively driven dynamo, capable of reproducing qualitatively similar axisymmetric magnetic fields to those of a Boussinesq 3D model, but at considerably lower computational effort. We have chosen to vary the Rayleigh number, Ra, for m=2 and m=4, and we find that the solution is dependent on the choice of both Ra and m. This means that the 2- 1/2 D model is too severely truncated in φ, and suggests that caution should be exercised when interpreting the results from a single run of any convectively driven numerical dynamo model, at a particular value of Ra. For m=2, and all other parameters fixed, we have also investigated the effect of varying the inner core radius, giving some insight into possible effects of the growth of an inner core on magnetic field generation in planetary bodies. A stabilising effect on the magnetic field is unexpectedly observed for sufficiently small inner core radii. The anticipated stabilising effect is observed as our inner core radius increases from about its present value, until the dynamo shuts off for a radius ratio, χ, of about a half, for our fixed value of Ra.
Optical properties of GaAs 2D hexagonal and cubic photonic crystal
Arab, F. Assali, A.; Grain, R.; Kanouni, F.
2015-03-30
In this paper we present our theoretical study of 2D hexagonal and cubic rods GaAs in air, with plan wave expansion (PWE) and finite difference time domain (FDTD) by using BandSOLVE and FullWAVE of Rsoft photonic CAD package. In order to investigate the effect of symmetry and radius, we performed calculations of the band structures for both TM and TE polarization, contour and electromagnetic propagation and transmission spectra. Our calculations show that the hexagonal structure gives a largest band gaps compare to cubic one for a same filling factor.
Numerical computation of 2D Sommerfeld integrals - Decomposition of the angular integral
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Dvorak, Steven L.; Kuester, Edward F.
1992-02-01
The computational efficiency of the 2D Sommerfeld integrals is shown to undergo improvement through the discovery of novel ways to compute the inner angular integral in polar representations. It is shown that the angular integral can be decomposed into a finite number of incomplete Lipschitz-Hankel integrals; these can in turn be calculated through a series of expansions, so that the angular integral can be computed by summing a series rather than applying a standard numerical integration algorithm. The technique is most efficient and accurate when piecewise-sinusoidal basis functions are employed to analyze a printed strip-dipole antenna in a layered medium.
Construction of 2D quasi-periodic Rauzy tiling by similarity transformation
Zhuravlev, V. G.; Maleev, A. V.
2009-05-15
A new approach to constructing self-similar fractal tilings is proposed based on the construction of semigroups generated by a finite set of similarity transformations. The Rauzy tiling-a 2D analog of 1D Fibonacci tiling generated by the golden mean-is used as an example to illustrate this approach. It is shown that the Rauzy torus development and the elementary fractal boundary of Rauzy tiling can be constructed in the form of a set of centers of similarity semigroups generated by two and three similarity transformations, respectively. A centrosymmetric tiling, locally dual to the Rauzy tiling, is constructed for the first time and its parameterization is developed.
3D hydrodynamic interactions lead to divergences in 2D diffusion.
Bleibel, Johannes; Domínguez, Alvaro; Oettel, Martin
2015-05-20
We investigate the influence of 3D hydrodynamic interactions on confined colloidal suspensions, where only the colloids are restricted to one or two dimensions. In the absence of static interactions among the colloids, i.e., an ideal gas of colloidal particles with a finite hydrodynamic radius, we find a divergent collective diffusion coefficient. The origin of the divergence is traced back to the dimensional mismatch of 3D hydrodynamic interactions and the colloidal particles moving only in 1D or 2D. Our results from theory are confirmed by Stokesian dynamics simulations and supported by light scattering observational data for particles at a fluid interface. PMID:25923320
3D hydrodynamic interactions lead to divergences in 2D diffusion
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Bleibel, Johannes; Domínguez, Alvaro; Oettel, Martin
2015-05-01
We investigate the influence of 3D hydrodynamic interactions on confined colloidal suspensions, where only the colloids are restricted to one or two dimensions. In the absence of static interactions among the colloids, i.e., an ideal gas of colloidal particles with a finite hydrodynamic radius, we find a divergent collective diffusion coefficient. The origin of the divergence is traced back to the dimensional mismatch of 3D hydrodynamic interactions and the colloidal particles moving only in 1D or 2D. Our results from theory are confirmed by Stokesian dynamics simulations and supported by light scattering observational data for particles at a fluid interface.
Dispersion properties of a 2D magnetized plasma metallic photonic crystal
Fu, T.; Yang, Z.; Shi, Z.; Lan, F.; Li, D.; Gao, X.
2013-02-15
This is a study on a 2D magnetized plasma-filled metal photonic crystal (PMPC). We analyze the dispersion relation of the magnetized PMPC by using the finite-difference time-domain method. Results show a cutoff frequency for the PMPC, and two flat bands and new forbidden band gaps appear due to the external magnetic field. Adjusting the external magnetic field can control the positions of the flat bands, cutoff frequency, and location and width of the local gap. These results provide theoretical basis for designing tunable photonic crystal devices.
Thermochemical Nonequilibrium 2D Modeling of Nitrogen Inductively Coupled Plasma Flow
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Yu, Minghao; Yusuke, Takahashi; Hisashi, Kihara; Ken-ichi, Abe; Kazuhiko, Yamada; Takashi, Abe; Satoshi, Miyatani
2015-09-01
Two-dimensional (2D) numerical simulations of thermochemical nonequilibrium inductively coupled plasma (ICP) flows inside a 10-kW inductively coupled plasma wind tunnel (ICPWT) were carried out with nitrogen as the working gas. Compressible axisymmetric Navier-Stokes (N-S) equations coupled with magnetic vector potential equations were solved. A four-temperature model including an improved electron-vibration relaxation time was used to model the internal energy exchange between electron and heavy particles. The third-order accuracy electron transport properties (3rd AETP) were applied to the simulations. A hybrid chemical kinetic model was adopted to model the chemical nonequilibrium process. The flow characteristics such as thermal nonequilibrium, inductive discharge, effects of Lorentz force were made clear through the present study. It was clarified that the thermal nonequilibrium model played an important role in properly predicting the temperature field. The prediction accuracy can be improved by applying the 3rd AETP to the simulation for this ICPWT. supported by Grant-in-Aid for Scientific Research (No. 23560954), sponsored by the Japan Society for the Promotion of Science
Klassifikation von Standardebenen in der 2D-Echokardiographie mittels 2D-3D-Bildregistrierung
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Bergmeir, Christoph; Subramanian, Navneeth
Zum Zweck der Entwicklung eines Systems, das einen unerfahrenen Anwender von Ultraschall (US) zur Aufnahme relevanter anatomischer Strukturen leitet, untersuchen wir die Machbarkeit von 2D-US zu 3D-CT Registrierung. Wir verwenden US-Aufnahmen von Standardebenen des Herzens, welche zu einem 3D-CT-Modell registriert werden. Unser Algorithmus unterzieht sowohl die US-Bilder als auch den CT-Datensatz Vorverarbeitungsschritten, welche die Daten durch Segmentierung auf wesentliche Informationen in Form von Labein für Muskel und Blut reduzieren. Anschließend werden diese Label zur Registrierung mittels der Match-Cardinality-Metrik genutzt. Durch mehrmaliges Registrieren mit verschiedenen Initialisierungen ermitteln wir die im US-Bild sichtbare Standardebene. Wir evaluierten die Methode auf sieben US-Bildern von Standardebenen. Fünf davon wurden korrekt zugeordnet.
Functional characterization of CYP2D6 enhancer polymorphisms
Wang, Danxin; Papp, Audrey C.; Sun, Xiaochun
2015-01-01
CYP2D6 metabolizes nearly 25% of clinically used drugs. Genetic polymorphisms cause large inter-individual variability in CYP2D6 enzyme activity and are currently used as biomarker to predict CYP2D6 metabolizer phenotype. Previously, we had identified a region 115 kb downstream of CYP2D6 as enhancer for CYP2D6, containing two completely linked single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs), rs133333 and rs5758550, associated with enhanced transcription. However, the enhancer effect on CYP2D6 expression, and the causative variant, remained to be ascertained. To characterize the CYP2D6 enhancer element, we applied chromatin conformation capture combined with the next-generation sequencing (4C assays) and chromatin immunoprecipitation with P300 antibody, in HepG2 and human primary culture hepatocytes. The results confirmed the role of the previously identified enhancer region in CYP2D6 expression, expanding the number of candidate variants to three highly linked SNPs (rs133333, rs5758550 and rs4822082). Among these, only rs5758550 demonstrated regulating enhancer activity in a reporter gene assay. Use of clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats mediated genome editing in HepG2 cells targeting suspected enhancer regions decreased CYP2D6 mRNA expression by 70%, only upon deletion of the rs5758550 region. These results demonstrate robust effects of both the enhancer element and SNP rs5758550 on CYP2D6 expression, supporting consideration of rs5758550 for CYP2D6 genotyping panels to yield more accurate phenotype prediction. PMID:25381333
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Takiwaki, Tomoya; Kotake, Kei; Suwa, Yudai
2016-09-01
We report results from a series of three-dimensional (3D) rotational core-collapse simulations for 11.2 and 27 M⊙ stars employing neutrino transport scheme by the isotropic diffusion source approximation. By changing the initial strength of rotation systematically, we find a rotation-assisted explosion for the 27 M⊙ progenitor , which fails in the absence of rotation. The unique feature was not captured in previous two-dimensional (2D) self-consistent rotating models because the growing non-axisymmetric instabilities play a key role. In the rapidly rotating case, strong spiral flows generated by the so-called low T/|W| instability enhance the energy transport from the proto-neutron star (PNS) to the gain region, which makes the shock expansion more energetic. The explosion occurs more strongly in the direction perpendicular to the rotational axis, which is different from previous 2D predictions.
Particle trajectory computer program for icing analysis of axisymmetric bodies
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Frost, Walter; Chang, Ho-Pen; Kimble, Kenneth R.
1982-01-01
General aviation aircraft and helicopters exposed to an icing environment can accumulate ice resulting in a sharp increase in drag and reduction of maximum lift causing hazardous flight conditions. NASA Lewis Research Center (LeRC) is conducting a program to examine, with the aid of high-speed computer facilities, how the trajectories of particles contribute to the ice accumulation on airfoils and engine inlets. This study, as part of the NASA/LeRC research program, develops a computer program for the calculation of icing particle trajectories and impingement limits relative to axisymmetric bodies in the leeward-windward symmetry plane. The methodology employed in the current particle trajectory calculation is to integrate the governing equations of particle motion in a flow field computed by the Douglas axisymmetric potential flow program. The three-degrees-of-freedom (horizontal, vertical, and pitch) motion of the particle is considered. The particle is assumed to be acted upon by aerodynamic lift and drag forces, gravitational forces, and for nonspherical particles, aerodynamic moments. The particle momentum equation is integrated to determine the particle trajectory. Derivation of the governing equations and the method of their solution are described in Section 2.0. General features, as well as input/output instructions for the particle trajectory computer program, are described in Section 3.0. The details of the computer program are described in Section 4.0. Examples of the calculation of particle trajectories demonstrating application of the trajectory program to given axisymmetric inlet test cases are presented in Section 5.0. For the examples presented, the particles are treated as spherical water droplets. In Section 6.0, limitations of the program relative to excessive computer time and recommendations in this regard are discussed.
Constants of motion in stationary axisymmetric gravitational fields
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Markakis, C.
2014-07-01
The motion of test particles in stationary axisymmetric gravitational fields is generally non-integrable unless a non-trivial constant of motion, in addition to energy and angular momentum along the symmetry axis, exists. The Carter constant in Kerr-de Sitter space-time is the only example known to date. Proposed astrophysical tests of the black hole no-hair theorem have often involved integrable gravitational fields more general than the Kerr family, but the existence of such fields has been a matter of debate. To elucidate this problem, we treat its Newtonian analogue by systematically searching for non-trivial constants of motion polynomial in the momenta and obtain two theorems. First, solving a set of quadratic integrability conditions, we establish the existence and uniqueness of the family of stationary axisymmetric potentials admitting a quadratic constant. As in Kerr-de Sitter space-time, the mass moments of this class satisfy a `no-hair' recursion relation M2l +2 = a2M2l, and the constant is Noether related to a second-order Killing-Stäckel tensor. Second, solving a new set of quartic integrability conditions, we establish non-existence of quartic constants. Remarkably, a subset of these conditions is satisfied when the mass moments obey a generalized `no-hair' recursion relation M2l +4 = (a2 + b2)M2l +2 - a2b2M2l. The full set of quartic integrability conditions, however, cannot be satisfied non-trivially by any stationary axisymmetric vacuum potential.
Stability of perturbed geodesics in nD axisymmetric spacetimes
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Coimbra-Araújo, C. H.; Anjos, R. C.
2016-09-01
The effect of self-gravity of a disk matter is evaluated by the simplest modes of oscillation frequencies for perturbed circular geodesics. We plotted the radial profiles of free oscillations of an equatorial circular geodesic perturbed within the orbital plane or in the vertical direction. The calculation is carried out to geodesics of an axisymmetric n-dimensional spacetime. The profiles are computed by examples of disks embeded in five-dimensional or six-dimensional spacetime, where we studied the motion of free test particles for three axisymmetric cases: (i) the Newtonian limit of a general proposed 5D and 6D axisymmetric spacetime; (ii) a simple Randall–Sundrum (RS) 5D spacetime; (iii) general 5D and 6D RS spacetime. The equation of motion of such particles is derived and the stability study is computed for both horizontal and vertical directions, to see how extra dimensions could affect the system. In particular, we investigate a disk constructed from Miyamoto–Nagai and Chazy–Curzon with a cut parameter to generate a disk potential. Those solutions have a simple extension for extra dimensions in case (i), and by solving vacuum Einstein field equations for a kind of RS–Weyl metric in cases (ii) and (iii). We find that it is possible to compute a range of possible solutions where such perturbed geodesics are stable. Basically, the stable solutions appear, for the radial direction, in special cases when the system has 5D and in all cases when the system has 6D and, for the axial direction, in all cases when the system has both 5D or 6D.
Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)
Axisymmetric finite element (FE) method was developed using a commercial computer program to simulate cone penetration process in layered granular soil. Soil was considered as a non-linear elastic plastic material which was modeled using variable elastic parameters of Young’s Modulus and Poisson’s r...
Axisymmetric flows from fluid injection into a confined porous medium
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Guo, Bo; Zheng, Zhong; Celia, Michael A.; Stone, Howard A.
2016-02-01
We study the axisymmetric flows generated from fluid injection into a horizontal confined porous medium that is originally saturated with another fluid of different density and viscosity. Neglecting the effects of surface tension and fluid mixing, we use the lubrication approximation to obtain a nonlinear advection-diffusion equation that describes the time evolution of the sharp fluid-fluid interface. The flow behaviors are controlled by two dimensionless groups: M, the viscosity ratio of displaced fluid relative to injected fluid, and Γ, which measures the relative importance of buoyancy and fluid injection. For this axisymmetric geometry, the similarity solution involving R2/T (where R is the dimensionless radial coordinate and T is the dimensionless time) is an exact solution to the nonlinear governing equation for all times. Four analytical expressions are identified as asymptotic approximations (two of which are new solutions): (i) injection-driven flow with the injected fluid being more viscous than the displaced fluid (Γ ≪ 1 and M < 1) where we identify a self-similar solution that indicates a parabolic interface shape; (ii) injection-driven flow with injected and displaced fluids of equal viscosity (Γ ≪ 1 and M = 1), where we find a self-similar solution that predicts a distinct parabolic interface shape; (iii) injection-driven flow with a less viscous injected fluid (Γ ≪ 1 and M > 1) for which there is a rarefaction wave solution, assuming that the Saffman-Taylor instability does not occur at the reservoir scale; and (iv) buoyancy-driven flow (Γ ≫ 1) for which there is a well-known self-similar solution corresponding to gravity currents in an unconfined porous medium [S. Lyle et al. "Axisymmetric gravity currents in a porous medium," J. Fluid Mech. 543, 293-302 (2005)]. The various axisymmetric flows are summarized in a Γ-M regime diagram with five distinct dynamic behaviors including the four asymptotic regimes and an intermediate regime
Marginally stable circular orbits in stationary axisymmetric spacetimes
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Beheshti, Shabnam; Gasperín, Edgar
2016-07-01
We derive necessary and sufficient conditions for the existence of marginally stable circular orbits (MSCOs) of test particles in a stationary axisymmetric (SAS) spacetime which possesses a reflection symmetry with respect to the equatorial plane; photon orbits and marginally bound orbits (MBOs) are also addressed. Energy and angular momentum are shown to decouple from metric quantities, rendering a purely geometric characterization of circular orbits for this general class of metrics. The subsequent system is analyzed using resultants, providing an algorithmic approach for finding MSCO conditions. MSCOs, photon orbits and MBOs are explicitly calculated for concrete examples of physical interest.
Axisymmetric Turbulent Wakes with New Nonequilibrium Similarity Scalings
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Nedić, J.; Vassilicos, J. C.; Ganapathisubramani, B.
2013-10-01
The recently discovered nonequilibrium turbulence dissipation law implies the existence of axisymmetric turbulent wake regions where the mean flow velocity deficit decays as the inverse of the distance from the wake-generating body and the wake width grows as the square root of that distance. This behavior is different from any documented boundary-free turbulent shear flow to date. Its existence is confirmed in wind tunnel experiments of wakes generated by plates with irregular edges placed normal to an incoming free stream. The wake characteristics of irregular bodies such as buildings, bridges, mountains, trees, coral reefs, and wind turbines are critical in many areas of environmental engineering and fluid mechanics.
Axisymmetric model of the ionized gas in the Orion Nebula
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Rubin, R. H.; Simpson, J. P.; Haas, M. R.; Erickson, E. F.
1991-01-01
New ionization and thermal equilibrium models for the ionized gas in the Orion Nebula with an axisymmetric two-dimensional 'blister' geometry/density distribution are presented. The HII region is represented more realistically than in previous models, while the physical detail of the microphysics and radiative transfer of the earlier spherical modeling is maintained. The predicted surface brightnesses are compared with observations for a large set of lines at different positions to determine the best-fitting physical parameters. The model explains the strong singly ionized line emission along the lines of sight near the Trapezium.
The inviscid stability of supersonic flow past axisymmetric bodies
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Duck, Peter W.
1990-01-01
The supersonic flow past a sharp cone is studied. The associated boundary layer flow (i.e., the velocity and temperature field) is computed. The inviscid linear temporal stability of axisymmetric boundary layers in general is considered, and in particular, a so-called 'triply generalized' inflection condition for 'subsonic' nonaxisymmetric neutral modes is presented. Preliminary numerical results for the stability of the cone boundary layer are presented for a freestream Mach number of 3.8. In particular, a new inviscid mode of instability is seen to occur in certain regimes, and this is shown to be related to a viscous mode found by Duck and Hall (1988).
Computed and measured turbulence in axisymmetric reciprocating engines
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Grasso, F.; Bracco, F. V.
1983-01-01
The turbulent flowfield of a spark-ignition engine affects strongly the combustion characteristics of the engine. The flowfield depends on the design of the combustion chamber and the intake system. The present investigation is concerned with the effect of chamber design, and engine operating conditions on top dead center turbulence prior to ignition. It is shown that many of the trends which were identified in earlier studies can be obtained from a single model. The employed model takes into account a two-dimensional axisymmetric flowfield. Attention is given to governing equations, boundary and initial conditions, a comparison of the computed results with measurements, and the effect of swirl and squish.
Fusion-product transport in axisymmetric tokamaks: losses and thermalization
Hively, L.M.
1980-01-01
High-energy fusion-product losses from an axisymmetric tokamak plasma are studied. Prompt-escape loss fluxes (i.e. prior to slowing down) are calculated including the non-separable dependence of flux as a function of poloidal angle and local angle-of-incidence at the first wall. Fusion-product (fp) thermalization and heating are calculated assuming classical slowing down. The present analytical model describes fast ion orbits and their distribution function in realistic, high-..beta.., non-circular tokamak equilibria. First-orbit losses, trapping effects, and slowing-down drifts are also treated.
Axisymmetric vibrations of laminated composite conical shells with varying thickness
Shikanai, G.; Suzuki, K.; Kojima, M.
1995-11-01
An exact solution procedure is presented for solving axisymmetric free vibrations of laminated composite conical shells with varying thickness. Based on the classical lamination theory neglecting shear deformation and rotary inertia, equations of motion and boundary conditions are obtained from the stationary conditions of the Lagrangian. The equations of motion are solved exactly by using a power series expansion for symmetrically laminated, cross-ply conical shells. Numerical studies are made for conical shells having both ends clamped to show the effects of the number of laminae, stacking sequences and other parameters upon the frequencies.
Vortex motion in axisymmetric piston-cylinder configurations
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Shih, T. I. P.; Smith, G. E.; Springer, G. S.
1982-01-01
By using the Beam and Warming implicit-factored method of solution of the Navier-Stokes equations, velocities were calculated inside axisymmetric piston cylinder configurations during the intake and compression strokes. Results are presented in graphical form which show the formation, growth and breakup of those vortices which form during the intake stroke by the jet issuing from the valve. It is shown that at bore-to-stroke ratio of less than unity, the vortices may breakup during the intake stroke. It is also shown that vortices which do not breakup during the intake stroke coalesce during the compression stroke.
Axisymmetric inviscid swirling flows produced by bellmouth and centerbody
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Nakamura, Y.; Yasuhara, M.; Hama, T.
1982-01-01
The effect of large deformation in the flow between the bellmouth and centerbody is considered analytically for application to studies of vortex breakdown in a pipe. Basic equations are defined for axisymmetric inviscid swirling flows at the inflow and outflow sections. Axial and circumferential velocity component profiles are presented, and comparisons are made with trials involving vane angles of 42 deg and Re of 2300. Axial components of the prediction matched well in the inner half of the pipe radius and not well with the outer, while circumferential predictions were good only at the axis. A lack of viscosity was concluded to result in the inaccuracies near the wall.
Axisymmetric inviscid swirling flows produced by bellmouth and centerbody
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Nakamura, Y.; Yasuhara, M.; Hama, T.
1982-04-01
The effect of large deformation in the flow between the bellmouth and centerbody is considered analytically for application to studies of vortex breakdown in a pipe. Basic equations are defined for axisymmetric inviscid swirling flows at the inflow and outflow sections. Axial and circumferential velocity component profiles are presented, and comparisons are made with trials involving vane angles of 42 deg and Re of 2300. Axial components of the prediction matched well in the inner half of the pipe radius and not well with the outer, while circumferential predictions were good only at the axis. A lack of viscosity was concluded to result in the inaccuracies near the wall.
Ballooning stability of axisymmetric plasmas with sheared equilibrium flows
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Bhattacharjee, A.; Iacono, R.; Milovich, J. L.; Paranicas, C.
1989-01-01
A WKB theory is formulated for large-n ballooning modes in axisymmetric, toroidal plasmas with sheared equilibrium flows. The validity of the standard ballooning respresentation is severely restricted in the presence of sheared toroidal flow, despite the fact that to leading order in (1/n), where n is the azimuthal number, the eigenmode equation contains only derivatives along a field line. Necessary and sufficient conditions for stability are obtained in a high-beta ordering for rigid toroidal rotation as well as field-aligned flows.
Numerical boundary condition procedure for the transonic axisymmetric inverse problem
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Shankar, V.
1981-01-01
Two types of boundary condition procedures for the axisymmetric inverse problem are described. One is a Neumann type boundary condition (analogous to the analysis problem) and the other is a Dirichlet type boundary conditon, both requiring special treatments to make the inverse scheme numerically stable. The dummy point concept is utilized in implementing both. Results indicate the Dirichlet type inverse boundary condition is more robust and conceptually simpler to implement than the Neumann type procedure. A few results demonstrating the powerful capability of the newly developed inverse method that can handle both shocked as well as shockless body design are included.
Constant Density Approximations for the Flow Behind Axisymmetric Shock Waves
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Munson, Albert G.
1961-01-01
The incompressible rotational flow equations are used to obtain solutions for the flow behind axisymmetric shock waves with conic longitudinal sections. The nonlinear part of the term due to rotation is retained in the analysis. Numerical results for standoff distance and stagnation point velocity gradient are presented for the case in which the shock wave is a paraboloid, a sphere, or an oblate or prolate ellipsoid. A similarity parameter is proposed which correlates approximately the flow behind geometrically similar shock waves at different free-stream conditions.
Macroscopic analysis of axisymmetric functionally gradient material under thermal loading
Kwon, P.; Dharan, C.K.H.; Ferrari, M. )
1994-06-01
The axisymmetric functionally gradient materials (FGMs) subject to nonuniform temperature variations were studied with the combined use of homogenization and inhomogeneous eigenstrained media analysis. The material properties and the temperature variations were assumed to depend on the radial coordinate only. The inhomogeneous material properties of the FGM cylinder can be obtained by modulating the concentration level of spherical alumina particles in an aluminum matrix. The resulting stresses due to the temperature variation are presented for numerous distribution functions of alumina particles. It is shown that the particle distribution extensively influences the intensity and profile of the thermal stresses.
Quasi-static axisymmetric eversion hemispherical domes made of elastomers
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kabrits, Sergey A.; Kolpak, Eugeny P.
2016-06-01
The paper considers numerical solution for the problem of quasi-static axisymmetric eversion of a spherical shell (hemisphere) under action of external pressure. Results based on the general nonlinear theory of shells made of elastomers, proposed by K. F. Chernykh. It is used two models of shells based on the hypotheses of the Kirchhoff and Timoshenko, modified K.F. Chernykh for the case of hyperelastic rubber-like material. The article presents diagrams of equilibrium states of eversion hemispheres for both models as well as the shape of the shell at different points in the diagram.
Efficient Visible Quasi-2D Perovskite Light-Emitting Diodes.
Byun, Jinwoo; Cho, Himchan; Wolf, Christoph; Jang, Mi; Sadhanala, Aditya; Friend, Richard H; Yang, Hoichang; Lee, Tae-Woo
2016-09-01
Efficient quasi-2D-structure perovskite light-emitting diodes (4.90 cd A(-1) ) are demonstrated by mixing a 3D-structured perovskite material (methyl ammonium lead bromide) and a 2D-structured perovskite material (phenylethyl ammonium lead bromide), which can be ascribed to better film uniformity, enhanced exciton confinement, and reduced trap density. PMID:27334788
Integrating Mobile Multimedia into Textbooks: 2D Barcodes
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Uluyol, Celebi; Agca, R. Kagan
2012-01-01
The major goal of this study was to empirically compare text-plus-mobile phone learning using an integrated 2D barcode tag in a printed text with three other conditions described in multimedia learning theory. The method examined in the study involved modifications of the instructional material such that: a 2D barcode was used near the text, the…
Wave Propagation in Axi-Symmetrical Magmatic Conduits Due to an Internal Source
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
De Negri, R. S.; Sanchez-Sesma, F. J.; Arciniega-Ceballos, A.
2014-12-01
The classical Trefftz's method is implemented to simulate wave propagation in and around axi-symmetrical magmatic conduits. In this fluid-solid system the fluid (magma) is confined by an elastic unbounded medium that represents the surrounding rock. Our aim is to associate wave behavior with mechanical and geometrical conduit characteristics. The source is assumed to be at a point along the conduit centered axis medium are constructed in both cases as linear combinations of particular solutions.Within the fluid such solutions are spherical standing waves that are smooth at the origins. In the elastic solid region the field is constructed with monopoles and dipoles for the P waves and spheroidal dipoles for SV waves. The particular solutions satisfy the elastodynamic equations that govern the wave motion at those media and are associated to origins (selected points) distributed along the conduit axis. For the surrounding rock the solutions are sources that satisfy Sommerfeld's radiation condition. These sets of solutions are assumed to be complete. This conjecture is exact in 2D acoustic problems. The conduit can be closed or open at the ends and the surrounding elastic domain is unbounded. In order to find the coefficients of Trefftz's wave expansions, boundary conditions at the fluid-solid interface (null shear and continuity of pressures and normal velocities) are satisfied in the least squares sense. The solution is obtained in the frequency domain and the source time function can be introduced using Fourier analysis.Regardless the low order of the formulation our results display a rich variety of behaviors. For a uniform infinite cylinder we reproduced the exact analytical solution. In addition, this approach allows identifying some important effects of the conduit geometry, including changes of sections. Lateral and longitudinal resonances of irregular axi-symmetric conduits are well resolved. The stiffness of the solid domain with respect to the fluid
Mixing enhancement of an axisymmetric jet using flaplets with zero mass-flux excitation
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Müller-Vahl, Hanns; Nayeri, Christian Navid; Paschereit, Christian Oliver; Greenblatt, David
2015-02-01
A novel active control concept aimed at mixing enhancement of an axisymmetric incompressible jet was investigated experimentally. The lip of the jet was equipped with evenly distributed small flaps, or flaplets, deflected away from the stream at an angle of 30°. Controlled attachment of the jet's boundary layer to the flaps was achieved by introducing zero mass-flux perturbations through control slots located at the base of the flaps, yielding a radial deflection of the shear layer. As a result, pairs of strong streamwise vortices of a finite length were periodically generated and shed in phase with the control signal. At a Strouhal number of 0.3 based on the nozzle diameter, the perturbations also regulated the shedding of spanwise vortex rings. Hot-wire measurements in the vicinity of the flaplets as well as phase-averaged stereoscopic PIV measurements at various streamwise locations were employed to elucidate the mechanism of controlled attachment and to map the evolution of the coherent structures. The strength of axial vorticity was strongly dependent upon the control frequency. A semiempirical framework adopted to quantify the overall effect of control predicted a significant increase in mixing in the region close to the nozzle.
Collisionless kinetic regimes for quasi-stationary axisymmetric accretion disc plasmas
Cremaschini, C.; Tessarotto, M.
2012-08-15
This paper is concerned with the kinetic treatment of quasi-stationary axisymmetric collisionless accretion disc plasmas. The conditions of validity of the kinetic description for non-relativistic magnetized and gravitationally bound plasmas of this type are discussed. A classification of the possible collisionless plasma regimes which can arise in these systems is proposed, which can apply to accretion discs around both stellar-mass compact objects and galactic-center black holes. Two different classifications are determined, which are referred to, respectively, as energy-based and magnetic field-based classifications. Different regimes are pointed out for each plasma species, depending both on the relative magnitudes of kinetic and potential energies and the magnitude of the magnetic field. It is shown that in all cases, there can be quasi-stationary Maxwellian-like solutions of the Vlasov equation. The perturbative approach outlined here permits unique analytical determination of the functional form for the distribution function consistent, in each kinetic regime, with the explicit inclusion of finite Larmor radius-diamagnetic and/or energy-correction effects.
Cremaschini, Claudio; Miller, John C.; Tessarotto, Massimo
2011-06-15
A kinetic treatment is developed for collisionless magnetized plasmas occurring in high-temperature, low-density astrophysical accretion disks, such as are thought to be present in some radiatively inefficient accretion flows onto black holes. Quasi-stationary configurations are investigated, within the framework of a Vlasov-Maxwell description. The plasma is taken to be axisymmetric and subject to the action of slowly time-varying gravitational and electromagnetic fields. The magnetic field is assumed to be characterized by a family of locally nested but open magnetic surfaces. The slow collisionless dynamics of these plasmas is investigated, yielding a reduced gyrokinetic Vlasov equation for the kinetic distribution function. For doing this, an asymptotic quasi-stationary solution is first determined, represented by a generalized bi-Maxwellian distribution expressed in terms of the relevant adiabatic invariants. The existence of the solution is shown to depend on having suitable kinetic constraints and conditions leading to particle trapping phenomena. With this solution, one can treat temperature anisotropy, toroidal and poloidal flow velocities, and finite Larmor-radius effects. An asymptotic expansion for the distribution function permits analytic evaluation of all the relevant fluid fields. Basic theoretical features of the solution and their astrophysical implications are discussed. As an application, the possibility of describing the dynamics of slowly time-varying accretion flows and the self-generation of magnetic field by means of a ''kinetic dynamo effect'' are discussed. Both effects are shown to be related to intrinsically kinetic physical mechanisms.