Science.gov

Sample records for 2d cmut array

  1. Phase-rotation based receive-beamformer for miniaturized volumetric ultrasound imaging scanners using 2-D CMUT-on-ASIC arrays

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Bae-Hyung; Lee, Seunghun; Song, Jongkeun; Kim, Youngil; Jeon, Taeho; Cho, Kyungil

    2013-03-01

    Up-to-date capacitive micromachined ultrasonic transducer (CMUT) technologies provide us unique opportunities to minimize the size and cost of ultrasound scanners by integrating front-end circuits into CMUT arrays. We describe a design prototype of a portable ultrasound scan-head probe using 2-D phased CMUT-on-ASIC arrays of 3-MHz 250 micrometer-pitch by fabricating and integrating front-end electronics with 2-D CMUT array elements. One of the objectives of our work is to design a receive beamformer architecture for the smart probe with compact size and comparable performance. In this work, a phase-rotation based receive beamformer using the sampling frequency of 4 times the center frequency and a hybrid beamforming to reduce the channel counts of the system-side are introduced. Parallel beamforming is considered for the purpose of saving power consumption of battery (by firing fewer times per image frame). This architecture has the advantage of directly obtaining I and Q components. By using the architecture, the interleaved I/Q data from the storage is acquired and I/Q demodulation for baseband processing is directly achieved without demodulators including sin and cosine lookup tables and mixers. Currently, we are extending the presented architecture to develop a true smart probe by including lower power devices and cooling systems, and bringing wireless data transmission into consideration.

  2. An analog-digital hybrid RX beamformer chip with non-uniform sampling for ultrasound medical imaging with 2D CMUT array.

    PubMed

    Um, Ji-Yong; Kim, Yoon-Jee; Cho, Seong-Eun; Chae, Min-Kyun; Song, Jongkeun; Kim, Baehyung; Lee, Seunghun; Bang, Jihoon; Kim, Youngil; Cho, Kyungil; Kim, Byungsub; Sim, Jae-Yoon; Park, Hong-June

    2014-12-01

    To reduce the memory area, a two-stage RX beamformer (BF) chip with 64 channels is proposed for the ultrasound medical imaging with a 2D CMUT array. The chip retrieved successfully two B-mode phantom images with a steering angle from -45 (°) to +45 (°), the maximum delay range of 8 μs, and the delay resolution of 6.25 ns. An analog-digital hybrid BF (HBF) is chosen for the proposed chip to utilize the easy beamforming operation in the digital domain and also to reduce chip area by minimizing the number of ADCs. The chip consists of eight analog beamformers (ABF) for the 1st-stage and a digital beamformer (DBF) for the 2nd-stage. The two-stage architecture reduces the memory area of both ABF and DBF by around four times. The DBF circuit is divided into three steps to further reduce the digital FIFO memory area by around twice. Coupled with the non-uniform sampling scheme, the proposed two-stage HBF chip reduces the total memory area by around 40 times compared to the uniform-sampling single-stage BF chip. The chip fabricated in a 0.13- μm CMOS process occupies the area of 19.4 mm(2), and dissipates 1.14 W with the analog supply of 3.3 V and the digital supply of 1.2 V.

  3. Volumetric Flow Measurement Using an Implantable CMUT Array.

    PubMed

    Mengli Wang; Jingkuang Chen

    2011-06-01

    This paper describes volumetric-flow velocity measurement using an implantable capacitive micromachined ultrasonic transducer (CMUT) array. The array is comprised of multiple-concentric CMUT rings for ultrasound transmission and an outmost annular CMUT array for ultrasound reception. Microelectromechanical-system (MEMS) fabrication technology allows reception CMUT on this flowmeter to be implemented with a different membrane thickness and gap height than that of transmission CMUTs, optimizing the performance of these two different kinds of devices. The silicon substrate of this 2-mm-diameter CMUT ring array was bulk micromachined to approximately 80 to 100 μm thick, minimizing tissue disruption. The blood-flow velocity was detected using pulse ultrasound Doppler by comparing the demodulated echo ultrasound with the incident ultrasound. The demodulated ultrasound signal was sampled by a pulse delayed in time domain from the transmitted burst, which corresponds to detecting the signal at a specific distance. The flow tube/vessel diameter was detected through the time-flight delay difference from near and far wall reflections, which was measured from the ultrasound pulse echo. The angle between the ultrasound beam and the flow was found by using the cross-correlation from consecutive ultrasound echoes. Artificial blood flowing through three different polymer tubes was experimented with, while keeping the same volumetric flow rate. The discrepancy in flow measurement results between this CMUT meter and a calibrated laser Doppler flowmeter is less than 5%. PMID:23851472

  4. A Nonlinear Lumped Model for Ultrasound Systems Using CMUT Arrays

    PubMed Central

    Satir, Sarp; Degertekin, F. Levent

    2015-01-01

    We present a nonlinear lumped model that predicts the electrical input-output behavior of an ultrasonic system using CMUTs with arbitrary array/membrane/electrode geometry in different transmit-receive configurations and drive signals. The receive-only operation, where the electrical output signal of the CMUT array in response to incident pressure field is calculated, is included by modifying the boundary element based vibroacoustic formulation for a CMUT array in rigid baffle. Along with the accurate large signal transmit model, this formulation covers pitch-catch and pulse-echo operation when transmit and receive signals can be separated in time. In cases when this separation is not valid, such as CMUTs used in continuous wave transmit-receive mode, pulse-echo mode with a nearby hard or soft wall or in a bounded space such as in a microfluidic channel, an efficient formulation based on the method of images is used. Some of these particular applications and the overall modeling approach have been validated through comparison with finite element analysis on specific examples including CMUTs with multiple electrodes. To further demonstrate the capability of the model for imaging applications, the two-way response of a partial dual-ring intravascular ultrasound array is simulated using a parallel computing cluster, where the output currents of individual array elements are calculated for given input pulse and compared with experimental results. With its versatility, the presented model can be a useful tool for rapid iterative CMUT-based system design and simulation for a broad range of ultrasonic applications. PMID:26470049

  5. Front-end receiver electronics for high-frequency monolithic CMUT-on-CMOS imaging arrays.

    PubMed

    Gurun, Gokce; Hasler, Paul; Degertekin, F

    2011-08-01

    This paper describes the design of CMOS receiver electronics for monolithic integration with capacitive micromachined ultrasonic transducer (CMUT) arrays for highfrequency intravascular ultrasound imaging. A custom 8-inch (20-cm) wafer is fabricated in a 0.35-μm two-poly, four-metal CMOS process and then CMUT arrays are built on top of the application specific integrated circuits (ASICs) on the wafer. We discuss advantages of the single-chip CMUT-on-CMOS approach in terms of receive sensitivity and SNR. Low-noise and high-gain design of a transimpedance amplifier (TIA) optimized for a forward-looking volumetric-imaging CMUT array element is discussed as a challenging design example. Amplifier gain, bandwidth, dynamic range, and power consumption trade-offs are discussed in detail. With minimized parasitics provided by the CMUT-on-CMOS approach, the optimized TIA design achieves a 90 fA/√Hz input-referred current noise, which is less than the thermal-mechanical noise of the CMUT element. We show successful system operation with a pulseecho measurement. Transducer-noise-dominated detection in immersion is also demonstrated through output noise spectrum measurement of the integrated system at different CMUT bias voltages. A noise figure of 1.8 dB is obtained in the designed CMUT bandwidth of 10 to 20 MHz.

  6. Packaging and modular assembly of large-area and fine-pitch 2-D ultrasonic transducer arrays.

    PubMed

    Lin, Der-Song; Wodnicki, Robert; Zhuang, Xuefeng; Woychik, Charles; Thomenius, Kai E; Fisher, Rayette A; Mills, David M; Byun, Albert J; Burdick, William; Khuri-Yakub, Pierre; Bonitz, Barry; Davies, Todd; Thomas, Glen; Otto, Bernd; Töpper, Michael; Fritzsch, Thomas; Ehrmann, Oswin

    2013-07-01

    A promising transducer architecture for largearea arrays employs 2-D capacitive micromachined ultrasound transducer (CMUT) devices with backside trench-frame pillar interconnects. Reconfigurable array (RA) application-specified integrated circuits (ASICs) can provide efficient interfacing between these high-element-count transducer arrays and standard ultrasound systems. Standard electronic assembly techniques such as flip-chip and ball grid array (BGA) attachment, along with organic laminate substrate carriers, can be leveraged to create large-area arrays composed of tiled modules of CMUT chips and interface ASICs. A large-scale, fully populated and integrated 2-D CMUT array with 32 by 192 elements was developed and demonstrates the feasibility of these techniques to yield future large-area arrays. This study demonstrates a flexible and reliable integration approach by successfully combining a simple under-bump metallization (UBM) process and a stacked CMUT/interposer/ASIC module architecture. The results show high shear strength of the UBM (26.5 g for 70-μm balls), high interconnect yield, and excellent CMUT resonance uniformity (s = 0.02 MHz). A multi-row linear array was constructed using the new CMUT/interposer/ASIC process using acoustically active trench-frame CMUT devices and mechanical/ nonfunctional Si backside ASICs. Imaging results with the completed probe assembly demonstrate a functioning device based on the modular assembly architecture. PMID:25004504

  7. Design of HIFU CMUT Arrays for Treatment of Liver and Renal Cancer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wong, Serena H.; Ergun, Arif Sanli; Yaralioglu, Goksen G.; Oralkan, Omer; Kupnik, Mario; Pauly, Kim Butts; Khuri-Yakub, B. T.

    2007-05-01

    We present the development of a capacitive micromachined ultrasonic transducer (CMUT) array for noninvasive focused ultrasound ablation of lower abdominal cancers under MR-guidance. While piezoelectric transducers have been traditionally used for HIFU, recent advances in CMUT design have made them highly competitive. Not only are CMUTs cost effective, they allow fabrication flexibility and advantages in efficiency and bandwidth. Current imaging CMUTs have shown capability of HIFU operation through high power and continuous wave operation. In this paper, we will present the development of CMUT membranes designed specifically for HIFU. These membranes are piston-like membranes fabricated by placing a thick layer of silicon or gold at the center of the membrane. The width of the piston layer is usually 60-85% of the membrane width and allows the membrane mass and elasticity to be controlled independently. It also increases the average displacement and average output pressure of the membrane. We patterned these CMUT membranes into an 8 element, 3.5 cm concentric array. We simulated the heating patterns of this array to show it is capable of producing lesions of 5 mm in diameter within 20-30 seconds, which can be imaged using our MR detection software.

  8. Equivalent circuit-based analysis of CMUT cell dynamics in arrays.

    PubMed

    Oguz, H K; Atalar, Abdullah; Köymen, Hayrettin

    2013-05-01

    Capacitive micromachined ultrasonic transducers (CMUTs) are usually composed of large arrays of closely packed cells. In this work, we use an equivalent circuit model to analyze CMUT arrays with multiple cells. We study the effects of mutual acoustic interactions through the immersion medium caused by the pressure field generated by each cell acting upon the others. To do this, all the cells in the array are coupled through a radiation impedance matrix at their acoustic terminals. An accurate approximation for the mutual radiation impedance is defined between two circular cells, which can be used in large arrays to reduce computational complexity. Hence, a performance analysis of CMUT arrays can be accurately done with a circuit simulator. By using the proposed model, one can very rapidly obtain the linear frequency and nonlinear transient responses of arrays with an arbitrary number of CMUT cells. We performed several finite element method (FEM) simulations for arrays with small numbers of cells and showed that the results are very similar to those obtained by the equivalent circuit model.

  9. A low power, area efficient fpga based beamforming technique for 1-D CMUT arrays.

    PubMed

    Joseph, Bastin; Joseph, Jose; Vanjari, Siva Rama Krishna

    2015-08-01

    A low power area efficient digital beamformer targeting low frequency (2MHz) 1-D linear Capacitive Micromachined Ultrasonic Transducer (CMUT) array is developed. While designing the beamforming logic, the symmetry of the CMUT array is well exploited to reduce the area and power consumption. The proposed method is verified in Matlab by clocking an Arbitrary Waveform Generator(AWG). The architecture is successfully implemented in Xilinx Spartan 3E FPGA kit to check its functionality. The beamforming logic is implemented for 8, 16, 32, and 64 element CMUTs targeting Application Specific Integrated Circuit (ASIC) platform at Vdd 1.62V for UMC 90nm technology. It is observed that the proposed architecture consumes significantly lesser power and area (1.2895 mW power and 47134.4 μm(2) area for a 64 element digital beamforming circuit) compared to the conventional square root based algorithm.

  10. A low power, area efficient fpga based beamforming technique for 1-D CMUT arrays.

    PubMed

    Joseph, Bastin; Joseph, Jose; Vanjari, Siva Rama Krishna

    2015-08-01

    A low power area efficient digital beamformer targeting low frequency (2MHz) 1-D linear Capacitive Micromachined Ultrasonic Transducer (CMUT) array is developed. While designing the beamforming logic, the symmetry of the CMUT array is well exploited to reduce the area and power consumption. The proposed method is verified in Matlab by clocking an Arbitrary Waveform Generator(AWG). The architecture is successfully implemented in Xilinx Spartan 3E FPGA kit to check its functionality. The beamforming logic is implemented for 8, 16, 32, and 64 element CMUTs targeting Application Specific Integrated Circuit (ASIC) platform at Vdd 1.62V for UMC 90nm technology. It is observed that the proposed architecture consumes significantly lesser power and area (1.2895 mW power and 47134.4 μm(2) area for a 64 element digital beamforming circuit) compared to the conventional square root based algorithm. PMID:26737263

  11. Reconfigurable 2D cMUT-ASIC arrays for 3D ultrasound image

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Song, Jongkeun; Jung, Sungjin; Kim, Youngil; Cho, Kyungil; Kim, Baehyung; Lee, Seunghun; Na, Junseok; Yang, Ikseok; Kwon, Oh-kyong; Kim, Dongwook

    2012-03-01

    This paper describes the design and implementations of the complete 2D capacitive micromachined ultrasound transducer electronics and its analog front-end module for transmitting high voltage ultrasound pulses and receiving its echo signals to realize 3D ultrasound image. In order to minimize parasitic capacitances and ultimately improve signal-to- noise ratio (SNR), cMUT has to be integrate with Tx/Rx electronics. Additionally, in order to integrate 2D cMUT array module, significant optimized high voltage pulser circuitry, low voltage analog/digital circuit design and packaging challenges are required due to high density of elements and small pitch of each element. We designed 256(16x16)- element cMUT and reconfigurable driving ASIC composed of 120V high voltage pulser, T/R switch, low noise preamplifier and digital control block to set Tx frequency of ultrasound and pulse train in each element. Designed high voltage analog ASIC was successfully bonded with 2D cMUT array by flip-chip bonding process and it connected with analog front-end board to transmit pulse-echo signals. This implementation of reconfigurable cMUT-ASIC-AFE board enables us to produce large aperture 2D transducer array and acquire high quality of 3D ultrasound image.

  12. 3D vector flow using a row-column addressed CMUT array

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Holbek, Simon; Christiansen, Thomas Lehrmann; Engholm, Mathias; Lei, Anders; Stuart, Mathias Bo; Beers, Christopher; Moesner, Lars Nordahl; Bagge, Jan Peter; Thomsen, Erik Vilain; Jensen, Jørgen Arendt

    2016-04-01

    This paper presents an in-house developed 2-D capacitive micromachined ultrasonic transducer (CMUT) applied for 3-D blood flow estimation. The probe breaks with conventional transducers in two ways; first, the ultrasonic pressure field is generated from thousands of small vibrating micromachined cells, and second, elements are accessed by row and/or column indices. The 62+62 2-D row-column addressed prototype CMUT probe was used for vector flow estimation by transmitting focused ultrasound into a flow-rig with a fully developed parabolic flow. The beam-to-flow angle was 90°. The received data was beamformed and processed offline. A transverse oscillation (TO) velocity estimator was used to estimate the 3-D vector flow along a line originating from the center of the transducer. The estimated velocities in the lateral and axial direction were close to zero as expected. In the transverse direction a characteristic parabolic velocity profile was estimated with a peak velocity of 0.48 m/s +/- 0.02 m/s in reference to the expected 0.54 m/s. The results presented are the first 3-D vector flow estimates obtained with a row-column CMUT probe, which demonstrates that the CMUT technology is feasible for 3-D flow estimation.

  13. Design and simulation of a tactile display based on a CMUT array

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chouvardas, Vasilios G.; Hatalis, Miltiadis K.; Miliou, Amalia N.

    2012-10-01

    In this article, we present the design of a tactile display based on a CMUT-phased array. The array implements a 'pixel' of the display and is used to focus airborne ultrasound energy on the skin surface. The pressure field, generated by the focused ultrasound waves, is used to excite the mechanoreceptors under the skin and transmit tactile information. The results of Finite Element Analysis (FEA) of the Capacitive Micromachined Ultrasonic Transducer (CMUT) and the CMUT-phased array for ultrasound emission are presented. The 3D models of the device and the array were developed using a commercial FEA package. Modelling and simulations were performed using the parameters from the POLYMUMPS surface micromachining technology from MEMSCAP. During the analysis of the phased array, several parameters were studied in order to determine their importance in the design of the tactile display. The output of the array is compared with the acoustic intensity thresholds in order to prove the feasibility of the design. Taking into account the density of the mechanoreceptors in the skin, we conclude that there should be at least one receptor under the excitation area formed on the skin.

  14. A 5 meter range non-planar CMUT array for Automotive Collision Avoidance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hernandez Aguirre, Jonathan

    A discretized hyperbolic paraboloid geometry capacitive micromachined ultrasonic transducer (CMUT) array has been designed and fabricated for automotive collision avoidance. The array is designed to operate at 40 kHz, beamwidth of 40° with a maximum sidelobe intensity of -10dB. An SOI based fabrication technology has been used for the 5x5 array with 5 sensing surfaces along each x and y axis and 7 elevation levels. An assembly and packaging technique has been developed to realize the non-planar geometry in a PGA-68 package. A highly accurate mathematical method has been presented for analytical characterization of capacitive micromachined ultrasonic transducers (CMUTs) built with square diaphragms. The method uses a new two-dimensional polynomial function to more accurately predict the deflection curve of a multilayer square diaphragm subject to both mechanical and electrostatic pressure and a new capacitance model that takes into account the contribution of the fringing field capacitances.

  15. Fabrication process for CMUT arrays with polysilicon electrodes, nanometre precision cavity gaps and through-silicon vias

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Due-Hansen, J.; Midtbø, K.; Poppe, E.; Summanwar, A.; Jensen, G. U.; Breivik, L.; Wang, D. T.; Schjølberg-Henriksen, K.

    2012-07-01

    Capacitive micromachined ultrasound transducers (CMUTs) can be used to realize miniature ultrasound probes. Through-silicon vias (TSVs) allow for close integration of the CMUT and read-out electronics. A fabrication process enabling the realization of a CMUT array with TSVs is being developed. The integrated process requires the formation of highly doped polysilicon electrodes with low surface roughness. A process for polysilicon film deposition, doping, CMP, RIE and thermal annealing that resulted in a film with sheet resistance of 4.0 Ω/□ and a surface roughness of 1 nm rms has been developed. The surface roughness of the polysilicon film was found to increase with higher phosphorus concentrations. The surface roughness also increased when oxygen was present in the thermal annealing ambient. The RIE process for etching CMUT cavities in the doped polysilicon gave a mean etch depth of 59.2 ± 3.9 nm and a uniformity across the wafer ranging from 1.0 to 4.7%. The two presented processes are key processes that enable the fabrication of CMUT arrays suitable for applications in for instance intravascular cardiology and gastrointestinal imaging.

  16. Underwater Imaging Using a 1 × 16 CMUT Linear Array

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Rui; Zhang, Wendong; He, Changde; Zhang, Yongmei; Song, Jinlong; Xue, Chenyang

    2016-01-01

    A 1 × 16 capacitive micro-machined ultrasonic transducer linear array was designed, fabricated, and tested for underwater imaging in the low frequency range. The linear array was fabricated using Si-SOI bonding techniques. Underwater transmission performance was tested in a water tank, and the array has a resonant frequency of 700 kHz, with pressure amplitude 182 dB (μPa·m/V) at 1 m. The −3 dB main beam width of the designed dense linear array is approximately 5 degrees. Synthetic aperture focusing technique was applied to improve the resolution of reconstructed images, with promising results. Thus, the proposed array was shown to be suitable for underwater imaging applications. PMID:26938536

  17. Underwater Imaging Using a 1 × 16 CMUT Linear Array.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Rui; Zhang, Wendong; He, Changde; Zhang, Yongmei; Song, Jinlong; Xue, Chenyang

    2016-03-01

    A 1 × 16 capacitive micro-machined ultrasonic transducer linear array was designed, fabricated, and tested for underwater imaging in the low frequency range. The linear array was fabricated using Si-SOI bonding techniques. Underwater transmission performance was tested in a water tank, and the array has a resonant frequency of 700 kHz, with pressure amplitude 182 dB (μPa·m/V) at 1 m. The -3 dB main beam width of the designed dense linear array is approximately 5 degrees. Synthetic aperture focusing technique was applied to improve the resolution of reconstructed images, with promising results. Thus, the proposed array was shown to be suitable for underwater imaging applications.

  18. CMUT-based Volumetric Ultrasonic Imaging Array Design for Forward Looking ICE and IVUS Applications

    PubMed Central

    Zahorian, Jaime; Xu, Toby; Rashid, Muhammad W.; Satir, Sarp; Gurun, Gokce; Karaman, Mustafa; Hasler, Jennifer; Degertekin, F. Levent

    2014-01-01

    Designing a mechanically flexible catheter based volumetric ultrasonic imaging device for intravascular and intracardiac imaging is challenging due to small transducer area and limited number of cables. With a few parallel channels, synthetic phased array processing is necessary to acquire data from a large number of transducer elements. This increases the data collection time and hence reduces frame rate and causes artifacts due to tissue-transducer motion. Some of these drawbacks can be resolved by different array designs offered by CMUT-on-CMOS approach. We recently implemented a 2.1-mm diameter single chip 10 MHz dual ring CMUT-on-CMOS array for forward looking ICE with 64-transmit and 56-receive elements along with associated electronics. These volumetric arrays have the small element size required by high operating frequencies and achieve sub mm resolution, but the system would be susceptible to motion artifacts. To enable real time imaging with high SNR, we designed novel arrays consisting of multiple defocused annular rings for transmit aperture and a single ring receive array. The annular transmit rings are utilized to act as a high power element by focusing to a virtual ring shaped line behind the aperture. In this case, image reconstruction is performed by only receive beamforming, reducing total required firing steps from 896 to 14 with a trade-off in image resolution. The SNR of system is improved more than 5 dB for the same frequency and frame rate as compared to the dual ring array, which can be utilized to achieve the same resolution by increasing the operating frequency. PMID:23366605

  19. Optimization of Multi-Pulse Sequences For Nonlinear Contrast Agent Imaging Using a cMUT Array

    PubMed Central

    Novell, Anthony; Arena, Christopher B.; Kasoji, Sandeep; Dayton, Paul A.

    2015-01-01

    Capacitive micromachined ultrasonic transducer (cMUT) technology provides advantages such as wide frequency bandwidth, which can be exploited for contrast agent imaging. Nevertheless, the efficiency of traditional multi-pulse imaging schemes, such as pulse inversion (PI), remains limited because of the intrinsic nonlinear character of cMUTs. Recently, a new contrast imaging sequence, called bias voltage modulation sequence (BVM), had been specifically developed for cMUTs to suppress their unwanted nonlinear behavior. In this study, we propose to optimize contrast agent detection by combining the BVM sequence with PI and/or chirp reversal (CR). An aqueous dispersion of lipid encapsulated microbubbles was exposed to several combinations of multi-pulse imaging sequences. Approaches were evaluated in vitro using 9 inter-connected elements of a cMUT linear array (excitation frequency of 4 MHz; peak negative pressure of 100 kPa). For sequences using chirp excitations, a specific compression filter was designed to compress and extract several nonlinear components from the received microbubble responses. A satisfactory cancellation of the nonlinear signal from the source is achieved when BVM is combined with PI and CR. In comparison with PI and CR imaging modes alone, using sequences incorporating BVM increases the contrast-to-tissue ratio by 10.0 dB and 4.6 dB, respectively. Furthermore, the combination of BVM with CR and PI results in a significant increase of the contrast-to-noise ratio (+29 dB). This enhancement is attributed to the use of chirps as excitation signals and the improved preservation of several nonlinear components contained within the contrast agent response. PMID:25803232

  20. A Large Signal Model for CMUT Arrays with Arbitrary Membrane Geometries Operating in Non-Collapsed Mode

    PubMed Central

    Satir, Sarp; Zahorian, Jaime; Degertekin, F. Levent

    2014-01-01

    A large signal, transient model has been developed to predict the output characteristics of a CMUT array operated in the non-collapse mode. The model is based on separation of the nonlinear electrostatic voltage-to-force relation and the linear acoustic array response. For linear acoustic radiation and crosstalk effects, the boundary element method is used. The stiffness matrix in the vibroacoustics calculations is obtained using static finite element analysis of a single membrane which can have arbitrary geometry and boundary conditions. A lumped modeling approach is used to reduce the order of the system for modeling the transient nonlinear electrostatic actuation. To accurately capture the dynamics of the non-uniform electrostatic force distribution over the CMUT electrode during large deflections, the membrane electrode is divided into patches shaped to match higher order membrane modes, each introducing a variable to the system model. This reduced order nonlinear lumped model is solved in the time domain using Simulink. The model has two linear blocks to calculate the displacement profile of the electrode patches and the output pressure for a given force distribution over the array, respectively. The force to array displacement block uses the linear acoustic model, and the Rayleigh integral is evaluated to calculate the pressure at any field point. Using the model, the transient transmitted pressure can be simulated for different large signal drive signal configurations. The acoustic model is verified by comparison to harmonic FEA in vacuum and fluid for high and low aspect ratio membranes as well as mass-loaded membranes. The overall Simulink model is verified by comparison to transient 3D FEA and experimental results for different large drive signals; and an example for a phased array simulation is given. PMID:24158297

  1. Monolithic CMUT on CMOS Integration for Intravascular Ultrasound Applications

    PubMed Central

    Zahorian, Jaime; Hochman, Michael; Xu, Toby; Satir, Sarp; Gurun, Gokce; Karaman, Mustafa; Degertekin, F. Levent

    2012-01-01

    One of the most important promises of capacitive micromachined ultrasonic transducer (CMUT) technology is integration with electronics. This approach is required to minimize the parasitic capacitances in the receive mode, especially in catheter based volumetric imaging arrays where the elements need to be small. Furthermore, optimization of the available silicon area and minimized number of connections occurs when the CMUTs are fabricated directly above the associated electronics. Here, we describe successful fabrication and performance evaluation of CMUT arrays for intravascular imaging on custom designed CMOS receiver electronics from a commercial IC foundry. The CMUT on CMOS process starts with surface isolation and mechanical planarization of the CMOS electronics to reduce topography. The rest of the CMUT fabrication is achieved by modifying a low temperature micromachining process through the addition of a single mask and developing a dry etching step to produce sloped sidewalls for simple and reliable CMUT to CMOS interconnection. This CMUT to CMOS interconnect method reduced the parasitic capacitance by a factor of 200 when compared with a standard wire bonding method. Characterization experiments indicate that the CMUT on CMOS elements are uniform in frequency response and are similar to CMUTs simultaneously fabricated on standard silicon wafers without electronics integration. Experiments on a 1.6 mm diameter dual-ring CMUT array with a 15 MHz center frequency show that both the CMUTs and the integrated CMOS electronics are fully functional. The SNR measurements indicate that the performance is adequate for imaging CTOs located 1 cm away from the CMUT array. PMID:23443701

  2. Multienzyme Inkjet Printed 2D Arrays.

    PubMed

    Gdor, Efrat; Shemesh, Shay; Magdassi, Shlomo; Mandler, Daniel

    2015-08-19

    The use of printing to produce 2D arrays is well established, and should be relatively facile to adapt for the purpose of printing biomaterials; however, very few studies have been published using enzyme solutions as inks. Among the printing technologies, inkjet printing is highly suitable for printing biomaterials and specifically enzymes, as it offers many advantages. Formulation of the inkjet inks is relatively simple and can be adjusted to a variety of biomaterials, while providing nonharmful environment to the enzymes. Here we demonstrate the applicability of inkjet printing for patterning multiple enzymes in a predefined array in a very straightforward, noncontact method. Specifically, various arrays of the enzymes glucose oxidase (GOx), invertase (INV) and horseradish peroxidase (HP) were printed on aminated glass surfaces, followed by immobilization using glutardialdehyde after printing. Scanning electrochemical microscopy (SECM) was used for imaging the printed patterns and to ascertain the enzyme activity. The successful formation of 2D arrays consisting of enzymes was explored as a means of developing the first surface confined enzyme based logic gates. Principally, XOR and AND gates, each consisting of two enzymes as the Boolean operators, were assembled, and their operation was studied by SECM. PMID:26214072

  3. 2D Electrostatic Actuation of Microshutter Arrays

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Burns, Devin E.; Oh, Lance H.; Li, Mary J.; Jones, Justin S.; Kelly, Daniel P.; Zheng, Yun; Kutyrev, Alexander S.; Moseley, Samuel H.

    2015-01-01

    An electrostatically actuated microshutter array consisting of rotational microshutters (shutters that rotate about a torsion bar) were designed and fabricated through the use of models and experiments. Design iterations focused on minimizing the torsional stiffness of the microshutters, while maintaining their structural integrity. Mechanical and electromechanical test systems were constructed to measure the static and dynamic behavior of the microshutters. The torsional stiffness was reduced by a factor of four over initial designs without sacrificing durability. Analysis of the resonant behavior of the microshutter arrays demonstrates that the first resonant mode is a torsional mode occurring around 3000 Hz. At low vacuum pressures, this resonant mode can be used to significantly reduce the drive voltage necessary for actuation requiring as little as 25V. 2D electrostatic latching and addressing was demonstrated using both a resonant and pulsed addressing scheme.

  4. 2D Electrostatic Actuation of Microshutter Arrays

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Burns, Devin E.; Oh, Lance H.; Li, Mary J.; Kelly, Daniel P.; Kutyrev, Alexander S.; Moseley, Samuel H.

    2015-01-01

    Electrostatically actuated microshutter arrays consisting of rotational microshutters (shutters that rotate about a torsion bar) were designed and fabricated through the use of models and experiments. Design iterations focused on minimizing the torsional stiffness of the microshutters, while maintaining their structural integrity. Mechanical and electromechanical test systems were constructed to measure the static and dynamic behavior of the microshutters. The torsional stiffness was reduced by a factor of four over initial designs without sacrificing durability. Analysis of the resonant behavior of the microshutters demonstrates that the first resonant mode is a torsional mode occurring around 3000 Hz. At low vacuum pressures, this resonant mode can be used to significantly reduce the drive voltage necessary for actuation requiring as little as 25V. 2D electrostatic latching and addressing was demonstrated using both a resonant and pulsed addressing scheme.

  5. Thermal-mechanical-noise-based CMUT characterization and sensing.

    PubMed

    Gurun, Gokce; Hochman, Michael; Hasler, Paul; Degertekin, F Levent

    2012-06-01

    When capacitive micromachined ultrasonic transducers (CMUTs) are monolithically integrated with custom-designed low-noise electronics, the output noise of the system can be dominated by the CMUT thermal-mechanical noise both in air and in immersion even for devices with low capacitance. Because the thermal-mechanical noise can be related to the electrical admittance of the CMUTs, this provides an effective means of device characterization. This approach yields a novel method to test the functionality and uniformity of CMUT arrays and the integrated electronics when a direct connection to CMUT array element terminals is not available. Because these measurements can be performed in air at the wafer level, the approach is suitable for batch manufacturing and testing. We demonstrate this method on the elements of an 800-μm-diameter CMUT-on-CMOS array designed for intravascular imaging in the 10 to 20 MHz range. Noise measurements in air show the expected resonance behavior and spring softening effects. Noise measurements in immersion for the same array provide useful information on both the acoustic cross talk and radiation properties of the CMUT array elements. The good agreement between a CMUT model based on finite difference and boundary element methods and the noise measurements validates the model and indicates that the output noise is indeed dominated by thermal-mechanical noise. The measurement method can be exploited to implement CMUT-based passive sensors to measure immersion medium properties, or other parameters affecting the electro-mechanics of the CMUT structure. PMID:22718877

  6. Focusing surface wave imaging with flexible 2D array

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhou, Shiyuan; Fu, Junqiang; Li, Zhe; Xu, Chunguang; Xiao, Dingguo; Wang, Shaohan

    2016-04-01

    Curved surface is widely exist in key parts of energy and power equipment, such as, turbine blade cylinder block and so on. Cycling loading and harsh working condition of enable fatigue cracks appear on the surface. The crack should be found in time to avoid catastrophic damage to the equipment. A flexible 2D array transducer was developed. 2D Phased Array focusing method (2DPA), Mode-Spatial Double Phased focusing method (MSDPF) and the imaging method using the flexible 2D array probe are studied. Experiments using these focusing and imaging method are carried out. Surface crack image is obtained with both 2DPA and MSDPF focusing method. It have been proved that MSDPF can be more adaptable for curved surface and more calculate efficient than 2DPA.

  7. 2-D scalable optical controlled phased-array antenna system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Maggie Yihong; Howley, Brie; Wang, Xiaolong; Basile, Panoutsopoulos; Chen, Ray T.

    2006-02-01

    A novel optoelectronically-controlled wideband 2-D phased-array antenna system is demonstrated. The inclusion of WDM devices makes a highly scalable system structure. Only (M+N) delay lines are required to control a M×N array. The optical true-time delay lines are combination of polymer waveguides and optical switches, using a single polymeric platform and are monolithically integrated on a single substrate. The 16 time delays generated by the device are measured to range from 0 to 175 ps in 11.6 ps. Far-field patterns at different steering angles in X-band are measured.

  8. Antiferromagnetism in 2D arrays of superconducting rings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Davidović, D.; Kumar, S.; Reich, D. H.; Siegel, J.; Field, S. B.; Tiberio, R. C.; Hey, R.; Ploog, K.

    1996-03-01

    An array of isolated superconducting rings at Φ_0/2 applied flux is equivalent to a 2D random field Ising antiferromagnet. The quantized magnetic moments of the rings play the role of Ising spins, and small variations in the rings' areas lead to a Gaussian random field. Using SQUID magnetometry and scanning Hall probe microscopy, we studied the dynamics and antiferromagnetic correlations of arrays of micron-size Al rings, arranged on square, honeycomb, triangular, and kagomé lattices. All the arrays exhibit short range antiferromagnetic order. Spin freezing at low temperatures and the random field prevent the development of long range correlations on bipartite lattices. Effects of geometrical frustration on the triangular and kagomé lattices were also observed.

  9. 2-D soft x-ray arrays in the EAST

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Kaiyun; Xu, Liqing; Hu, Liqun; Duan, Yanmin; Li, Xueqin; Yuan, Yi; Mao, Songtao; Sheng, Xiuli; Zhao, Jinlong

    2016-06-01

    A high spatial and temporal resolution soft x-ray (SXR) imaging diagnostic has been installed in EAST for the study of magnetohydrodynamics activities and core high-Z impurity transport. Up to 122 lines of sight view the poloidal plasma from three directions (two up-down symmetrical horizontal arrays and one vertical array), which renders the diagnostic able to provide detailed tomographic reconstructions under various conditions. Fourier-Bessel method based on flux coordinates was employed for 2-D SXR tomographic reconstruction. Examples of several events measured by SXR diagnostic in EAST are shown, namely the crash patterns of sawtooth, periodical burst of edge localized modes, and the transport of high-Z intrinsic impurities.

  10. Controlling cell growth with tailorable 2D nanoholes arrays.

    PubMed

    Fragal, Vanessa H; Cellet, Thelma Sley P; Fragal, Elizângela H; Pereira, Guilherme M; Garcia, Francielle P; Nakamura, Celso V; Asefa, Tewodros; Rubira, Adley F; Silva, Rafael

    2016-03-15

    A facile and reproducible route that can lead to two-dimensional arrays of nanopores in thin polymer films is demonstrated. The formation of the pores in the polymer films involves breath figure phenomenon and occurs during the film deposition by spin coating. The formation of nanoporous thin films takes only few seconds, and the method does not require complex equipment or expensive chemicals. This method also constitutes a straightforward approach to control the size of the pores formed in thin films. Besides allowing control over the average pore size of the porous films, the use of dynamic deposition with the breath figure phenomenon causes the reduction in the pore size to nanometer scale. The nanoporous arrays obtained by the breath figure are applied as substrates for cell growth, and the effect of their nanopore size on cell growth was evaluated. Notably, it is found that cell viability is related to pore size, where 2D nanoporous structure is more beneficial for cell culture than 2D microporous structures. The change in the average pore size of the polymer films from 1.22 μm to 346 nm results in a threefold increase in cell viability. PMID:26722796

  11. Characterization of dual-electrode CMUTs: demonstration of improved receive performance and pulse echo operation with dynamic membrane shaping.

    PubMed

    Guldiken, Rasim O; Balantekin, Mujdat; Zahorian, Jaime; Degertekin, F Levent

    2008-10-01

    A 1-D dual-electrode CMUT array for intracardiac echocardiography (ICE) with a center frequency of 8 MHz has been designed, fabricated, and used to demonstrate the potential of dual-electrode CMUTs. Using a dual-electrode CMUT, 9 dB higher receive signal level is obtained over the 6 dB fractional bandwidth as compared with a conventional CMUT with an identical center electrode biased close to its collapse voltage. Because the same device shows a 7.4 dB increase in maximum pressure output, 16.4 dB overall improvement in transduction performance has been achieved as compared with conventional CMUT. A net peak output pressure of 1.6 MPa on the dual-electrode CMUT membrane with tone burst excitation at 12 MHz is also reported. The frequency response of the dual-electrode CMUT is similar to that of a conventional CMUT with the same membrane geometry with about 15% increase in the center frequency. Monostatic operation of dual-electrode CMUTs shows that the high performance of the transducer is applicable in typical pulse-echo imaging mode of operation. With dynamic shaping of the CMUT membrane to optimize the transmit-and-receive modes of operation separately during each pulse-echo cycle, dual-electrode CMUT is a highly competitive alternative to its piezoelectric counterparts. PMID:18986882

  12. 2D optoacoustic array for high resolution imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ashkenazi, S.; Witte, R. S.; Kim, K.; Huang, S.-W.; Hou, Y.; O'Donnell, M.

    2006-02-01

    An optoacoustic detector denotes the detection of acoustic signals by optical devices. Recent advances in fabrication techniques and the availability of high power tunable laser sources have greatly accelerated the development of efficient optoacoustic detectors. The unique advantages of optoacoustic technology are of special interest in applications that require high resolution imaging. For these applications optoacoustic technology enables high frequency transducer arrays with element size on the order of 10 μm. Laser generated ultrasound (photoacoustic effect) has been studied since the early observations of A.G. Bell (1880) of audible sound generated by light absorption . Modern studies have demonstrated the use of the photoacoustic effect to form a versatile imaging modality for medical and biological applications. A short laser pulse illuminates a tissue creating rapid thermal expansion and acoustic emission. Detection of the resulting acoustic field by an array enables the imaging of the tissue optical absorption using ultrasonic imaging methods. We present an integrated imaging system that employs photoacoustic sound generation and 2D optoacoustic reception. The optoacoustic receiver consists of a thin polymer Fabry-Perot etalon. The etalon is an optical resonator of a high quality factor (Q = 750). The relatively low elasticity modulus of the polymer and the high Q-factor of the resonator combine to yield high ultrasound sensitivity. The etalon thickness (10 μm) was optimized for wide bandwidth (typically above 50 MHz). An optical scanning and focusing system is used to create a large aperture and high density 2D ultrasonic receiver array. High resolution 3D images of phantom targets and biological tissue samples were obtained.

  13. Antenna coupled detectors for 2D staring focal plane arrays

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gritz, Michael A.; Kolasa, Borys; Lail, Brian; Burkholder, Robert; Chen, Leonard

    2013-06-01

    Millimeter-wave (mmW)/sub-mmW/THz region of the electro-magnetic spectrum enables imaging thru clothing and other obscurants such as fog, clouds, smoke, sand, and dust. Therefore considerable interest exists in developing low cost millimeter-wave imaging (MMWI) systems. Previous MMWI systems have evolved from crude mechanically scanned, single element receiver systems into very complex multiple receiver camera systems. Initial systems required many expensive mmW integrated-circuit low-noise amplifiers. In order to reduce the cost and complexity of the existing systems, attempts have been made to develop new mmW imaging sensors employing direct detection arrays. In this paper, we report on Raytheon's recent development of a unique focal plane array technology, which operates broadly from the mmW through the sub-mmW/THz region. Raytheon's innovative nano-antenna based detector enables low cost production of 2D staring mmW focal plane arrays (mmW FPA), which not only have equivalent sensitivity and performance to existing MMWI systems, but require no mechanical scanning.

  14. Self-leveling 2D DPN probe arrays

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Haaheim, Jason R.; Val, Vadim; Solheim, Ed; Bussan, John; Fragala, J.; Nelson, Mike

    2010-02-01

    Dip Pen Nanolithography® (DPN®) is a direct write scanning probe-based technique which operates under ambient conditions, making it suitable to deposit a wide range of biological and inorganic materials. Precision nanoscale deposition is a fundamental requirement to advance nanoscale technology in commercial applications, and tailoring chemical composition and surface structure on the sub-100 nm scale benefits researchers in areas ranging from cell adhesion to cell-signaling and biomimetic membranes. These capabilities naturally suggest a "Desktop Nanofab" concept - a turnkey system that allows a non-expert user to rapidly create high resolution, scalable nanostructures drawing upon well-characterized ink and substrate pairings. In turn, this system is fundamentally supported by a portfolio of MEMS devices tailored for microfluidic ink delivery, directed placement of nanoscale materials, and cm2 tip arrays for high-throughput nanofabrication. Massively parallel two-dimensional nanopatterning is now commercially available via NanoInk's 2D nano PrintArray™, making DPN a high-throughput (>3×107 μm2 per hour), flexible and versatile method for precision nanoscale pattern formation. However, cm2 arrays of nanoscopic tips introduce the nontrivial problem of getting them all evenly touching the surface to ensure homogeneous deposition; this requires extremely precise leveling of the array. Herein, we describe how we have made the process simple by way of a selfleveling gimbal attachment, coupled with semi-automated software leveling routines which bring the cm^2 chip to within 0.002 degrees of co-planarity. This excellent co-planarity yields highly homogeneous features across a square centimeter, with <6% feature size standard deviation. We have engineered the devices to be easy to use, wire-free, and fully integrated with both of our patterning tools: the DPN 5000, and the NLP 2000.

  15. Improved beamforming using curved sparse 2D arrays in ultrasound.

    PubMed

    Kirkebø, Jan Egil; Austeng, Andreas

    2007-05-01

    In this work we have investigated the effect of curving phase-steered sparse periodic two-dimensional arrays in one direction, and relate this effect to the geometry of the arrays. We have shown that curving is equivalent to removing some of the element periodicity, thus adding some "randomness" to the layout. Compared to flat phase-steered periodically sparse two-dimensional arrays, curving offers an even greater suppression of grating lobes located at directions along the curvature. The class of arrays yielding improved performance due to this suppression of grating lobes has been characterized. The point spread functions of some previously proposed array layouts, shown to be promising for ultrasonic imaging, have been simulated. The arrays have been simulated with various number of elements as well as various focal points, with array and field parameters typical to those in volumetric cardiac imaging. On a 48 x 48 element grid with a transducer center frequency of 3 MHz and the target at 40 mm, reductions in the peak sidelobe level of up to 12dB were recorded for some critical steering directions, without significant differences in the beamwidth. The integrated sidelobe ratio was also examined, showing an almost equivalent performance as the flat array. This study shows that, without adding any complexity to the system, the overall image quality of a volumetric imaging system can be improved significantly by curving the array in one direction. PMID:17313966

  16. Fast 2D DOA Estimation Algorithm by an Array Manifold Matching Method with Parallel Linear Arrays

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Lisheng; Liu, Sheng; Li, Dong; Jiang, Qingping; Cao, Hailin

    2016-01-01

    In this paper, the problem of two-dimensional (2D) direction-of-arrival (DOA) estimation with parallel linear arrays is addressed. Two array manifold matching (AMM) approaches, in this work, are developed for the incoherent and coherent signals, respectively. The proposed AMM methods estimate the azimuth angle only with the assumption that the elevation angles are known or estimated. The proposed methods are time efficient since they do not require eigenvalue decomposition (EVD) or peak searching. In addition, the complexity analysis shows the proposed AMM approaches have lower computational complexity than many current state-of-the-art algorithms. The estimated azimuth angles produced by the AMM approaches are automatically paired with the elevation angles. More importantly, for estimating the azimuth angles of coherent signals, the aperture loss issue is avoided since a decorrelation procedure is not required for the proposed AMM method. Numerical studies demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed approaches. PMID:26907301

  17. Fast 2D DOA Estimation Algorithm by an Array Manifold Matching Method with Parallel Linear Arrays.

    PubMed

    Yang, Lisheng; Liu, Sheng; Li, Dong; Jiang, Qingping; Cao, Hailin

    2016-01-01

    In this paper, the problem of two-dimensional (2D) direction-of-arrival (DOA) estimation with parallel linear arrays is addressed. Two array manifold matching (AMM) approaches, in this work, are developed for the incoherent and coherent signals, respectively. The proposed AMM methods estimate the azimuth angle only with the assumption that the elevation angles are known or estimated. The proposed methods are time efficient since they do not require eigenvalue decomposition (EVD) or peak searching. In addition, the complexity analysis shows the proposed AMM approaches have lower computational complexity than many current state-of-the-art algorithms. The estimated azimuth angles produced by the AMM approaches are automatically paired with the elevation angles. More importantly, for estimating the azimuth angles of coherent signals, the aperture loss issue is avoided since a decorrelation procedure is not required for the proposed AMM method. Numerical studies demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed approaches. PMID:26907301

  18. Progress in Development of HIFU CMUTs for use under MR-guidance

    SciTech Connect

    Wong, Serena H.; Kupnik, Mario; Khuri-Yakub, B. T.; Watkins, Ronald D.; Pauly, Kim Butts

    2009-04-14

    High intensity focused ultrasound (HIFU) guided by magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is a noninvasive treatment that potentially reduces patient morbidity, lowers costs, and increases treatment accessibility. Traditionally, piezoelectric transducers are used for HIFU, but capacitive micromachined ultrasonic transducers (CMUTs) have many advantages, including fabrication flexibility, low loss, and efficient transmission. We designed, fabricated, and tested HIFU CMUTs for use under MRI guidance and have demonstrated continuous wave (CW) focusing. In this paper, we demonstrate that CMUTs can be designed for therapeutic ultrasound. First, we demonstrate successful unfocused heating of a HIFU phantom to 18.6 deg. C, which was successfully monitored under MR guidance. Second, we demonstrated a focused CMUT array whose beam profile matched with simulation. In the future, we will expand the array and system for upper abdominal cancer therapy.

  19. Progress in Development of HIFU CMUTs for use under MR-guidance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wong, Serena H.; Watkins, Ronald D.; Kupnik, Mario; Pauly, Kim Butts; Khuri-Yakub, B. T.

    2009-04-01

    High intensity focused ultrasound (HIFU) guided by magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is a noninvasive treatment that potentially reduces patient morbidity, lowers costs, and increases treatment accessibility. Traditionally, piezoelectric transducers are used for HIFU, but capacitive micromachined ultrasonic transducers (CMUTs) have many advantages, including fabrication flexibility, low loss, and efficient transmission. We designed, fabricated, and tested HIFU CMUTs for use under MRI guidance and have demonstrated continuous wave (CW) focusing. In this paper, we demonstrate that CMUTs can be designed for therapeutic ultrasound. First, we demonstrate successful unfocused heating of a HIFU phantom to 18.6° C, which was successfully monitored under MR guidance. Second, we demonstrated a focused CMUT array whose beam profile matched with simulation. In the future, we will expand the array and system for upper abdominal cancer therapy.

  20. Controlling avalanche criticality in 2D nano arrays.

    PubMed

    Zohar, Y C; Yochelis, S; Dahmen, K A; Jung, G; Paltiel, Y

    2013-01-01

    Many physical systems respond to slowly changing external force through avalanches spanning broad range of sizes. Some systems crackle even without apparent external force, such as bursts of neuronal activity or charge transfer avalanches in 2D molecular layers. Advanced development of theoretical models describing disorder-induced critical phenomena calls for experiments probing the dynamics upon tuneable disorder. Here we show that isomeric structural transitions in 2D organic self-assembled monolayer (SAM) exhibit critical dynamics with experimentally tuneable disorder. The system consists of field effect transistor coupled through SAM to illuminated semiconducting nanocrystals (NCs). Charges photoinduced in NCs are transferred through SAM to the transistor surface and modulate its conductivity. Avalanches of isomeric structural transitions are revealed by measuring the current noise I(t) of the transistor. Accumulated surface traps charges reduce dipole moments of the molecules, decrease their coupling, and thus decrease the critical disorder of the SAM enabling its tuning during experiments.

  1. Synchronization of semiconductor laser arrays with 2D Bragg structures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baryshev, V. R.; Ginzburg, N. S.

    2016-08-01

    A model of a planar semiconductor multi-channel laser is developed. In this model two-dimensional (2D) Bragg mirror structures are used for synchronizing radiation of multiple laser channels. Coupling of longitudinal and transverse waves can be mentioned as the distinguishing feature of these structures. Synchronization of 20 laser channels is demonstrated with a semi-classical approach based on Maxwell-Bloch equations.

  2. Spot Weld Analysis With 2D Ultrasonic Arrays

    PubMed Central

    Denisov, A. A.; Shakarji, C. M.; Lawford, B. B.; Maev, R. Gr.; Paille, J. M.

    2004-01-01

    This paper describes a threefold method of testing the performance of an array-based ultrasonic tool for nondestructive testing of spot welds. The tool is described in its capabilities, use, and advantages over existing counterparts. Performance testing for and the results from carrying out the testing are described. The three performance testing methods include 1) the use of calibrated samples, 2) comparisons with actual spot-welds, and 3) a performance evaluation of the embedded fitting software. The test of the fitting software was carried out by a comparison of results with reference fits supplied by the National Institute of Standards and Technology. PMID:27366607

  3. 3D/2D convertible projection-type integral imaging using concave half mirror array.

    PubMed

    Hong, Jisoo; Kim, Youngmin; Park, Soon-gi; Hong, Jong-Ho; Min, Sung-Wook; Lee, Sin-Doo; Lee, Byoungho

    2010-09-27

    We propose a new method for implementing 3D/2D convertible feature in the projection-type integral imaging by using concave half mirror array. The concave half mirror array has the partially reflective characteristic to the incident light. And the reflected term is modulated by the concave mirror array structure, while the transmitted term is unaffected. With such unique characteristic, 3D/2D conversion or even the simultaneous display of 3D and 2D images is also possible. The prototype was fabricated by the aluminum coating and the polydimethylsiloxane molding process. We could experimentally verify the 3D/2D conversion and the display of 3D image on 2D background with the fabricated prototype.

  4. Quantum Simulation with 2D Arrays of Trapped Ions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Richerme, Philip

    2016-05-01

    The computational difficulty of solving fully quantum many-body spin problems is a significant obstacle to understanding the behavior of strongly correlated quantum matter. This work proposes the design and construction of a 2D quantum spin simulator to investigate the physics of frustrated materials, highly entangled states, mechanisms potentially underpinning high-temperature superconductivity, and other topics inaccessible to current 1D systems. The effective quantum spins will be encoded within the well-isolated electronic levels of trapped ions, confined in a two-dimensional planar geometry, and made to interact using phonon-mediated optical dipole forces. The system will be scalable to 100+ quantum particles, far beyond the realm of classical intractability, while maintaining individual-ion control, long quantum coherence times, and site-resolved projective spin measurements. Once constructed, the two-dimensional quantum simulator will implement a broad range of spin models on a variety of reconfigurable lattices and characterize their behavior through measurements of spin-spin correlations and entanglement. This versatile tool will serve as an important experimental resource for exploring difficult quantum many-body problems in a regime where classical methods fail.

  5. Designing 2D arrays for SHM of planar structures: a review

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stepinski, Tadeusz; Ambrozinski, Lukasz; Uhl, Tadeusz

    2013-04-01

    Monitoring structural integrity of large planar structures that aims at detecting and localizing impact or damage at any point of the structure requires normally a relatively dense network of uniformly distributed ultrasonic sensors. 2-D ultrasonic phased arrays, due to their beam-steering capability and all azimuth angle coverage are a very promising tool for structural health monitoring (SHM) of plate-like structures using Lamb waves (LW). Linear phased arrays that have been proposed for that purpose, produce mirrored image characterized by azimuth dependent resolution, which prevents unequivocal damage localization. 2D arrays do not have this drawback and they are even capable of mode selectivity when generating and receiving LWs. Performance of 2D arrays depends on their topology as well as the number of elements (transducers) used and their spacing in terms of wavelength. In this paper we propose a consistent methodology for three-step: theoretical, numerical and experimental investigation of a diversity of 2D array topologies in SHM applications. In the first step, the theoretical evaluation is performed using frequency-dependent structure transfer function (STF). STF that defines linear propagation of different LWs modes through the dispersive medium enables theoretical investigation of the particular array performance for a predefined tone-burst excitation signal. A dedicated software tool has been developed for the numerical evaluation of 2D array directional characteristics (beampattern) in a specific structure. The simulations are performed using local interaction simulation approach (LISA), implemented using NVIDIA CUDA graphical computation unit (GPU), which enables time-efficient 3D simulations of LWs propagation. Beampatterns of a 2D array can be to some extend evaluated analytically and using numerical simulations; in most cases, however, they require experimental verification. Using scanning laser vibrometer is proposed for that purpose, in a setup

  6. Inspection design using 2D phased array, TFM and cueMAP software

    SciTech Connect

    McGilp, Ailidh; Dziewierz, Jerzy; Lardner, Tim; Mackersie, John; Gachagan, Anthony

    2014-02-18

    A simulation suite, cueMAP, has been developed to facilitate the design of inspection processes and sparse 2D array configurations. At the core of cueMAP is a Total Focusing Method (TFM) imaging algorithm that enables computer assisted design of ultrasonic inspection scenarios, including the design of bespoke array configurations to match the inspection criteria. This in-house developed TFM code allows for interactive evaluation of image quality indicators of ultrasonic imaging performance when utilizing a 2D phased array working in FMC/TFM mode. The cueMAP software uses a series of TFM images to build a map of resolution, contrast and sensitivity of imaging performance of a simulated reflector, swept across the inspection volume. The software takes into account probe properties, wedge or water standoff, and effects of specimen curvature. In the validation process of this new software package, two 2D arrays have been evaluated on 304n stainless steel samples, typical of the primary circuit in nuclear plants. Thick section samples have been inspected using a 1MHz 2D matrix array. Due to the processing efficiency of the software, the data collected from these array configurations has been used to investigate the influence sub-aperture operation on inspection performance.

  7. Designing of sparse 2D arrays for Lamb wave imaging using coarray concept

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ambroziński, Łukasz; Stepinski, Tadeusz; Uhl, Tadeusz

    2015-03-01

    2D ultrasonic arrays have considerable application potential in Lamb wave based SHM systems, since they enable equivocal damage imaging and even in some cases wave-mode selection. Recently, it has been shown that the 2D arrays can be used in SHM applications in a synthetic focusing (SF) mode, which is much more effective than the classical phase array mode commonly used in NDT. The SF mode assumes a single element excitation of subsequent transmitters and off-line processing the acquired data. In the simplest implementation of the technique, only single multiplexed input and output channels are required, which results in significant hardware simplification. Application of the SF mode for 2D arrays creates additional degrees of freedom during the design of the array topology, which complicates the array design process, however, it enables sparse array designs with performance similar to that of the fully populated dense arrays. In this paper we present the coarray concept to facilitate synthesis process of an array's aperture used in the multistatic synthetic focusing approach in Lamb waves-based imaging systems. In the coherent imaging, performed in the transmit/receive mode, the sum coarray is a morphological convolution of the transmit/receive sub-arrays. It can be calculated as the set of sums of the individual sub-arrays' elements locations. The coarray framework will be presented here using a an example of a star-shaped array. The approach will be discussed in terms of beampatterns of the resulting imaging systems. Both simulated and experimental results will be included.

  8. Laser fabrication of 2D and 3D metal nanoparticle structures and arrays.

    PubMed

    Kuznetsov, A I; Kiyan, R; Chichkov, B N

    2010-09-27

    A novel method for fabrication of 2D and 3D metal nanoparticle structures and arrays is proposed. This technique is based on laser-induced transfer of molten metal nanodroplets from thin metal films. Metal nanoparticles are produced by solidification of these nanodroplets. The size of the transferred nanoparticles can be controllably changed in the range from 180 nm to 1500 nm. Several examples of complex 2D and 3D microstructures generated form gold nanoparticles are demonstrated. PMID:20941016

  9. 2D aperture synthesis for Lamb wave imaging using co-arrays

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ambrozinski, Lukasz; Stepinski, Tadeusz; Uhl, Tadeusz

    2014-03-01

    2D ultrasonic arrays in Lamb wave based SHM systems can operate in the phased array (PA) or synthetic focusing (SF) mode. In the real-time PA approach, multiple electronically delayed signals excite transmitting elements to form the desired wave-front, whereas receiving elements are used to sense scattered waves. Due to that, the PA mode requires multi channeled hardware and multiple excitations at numerous azimuths to scan the inspected region of interest. To the contrary, the SF mode, assumes a single element excitation of subsequent transmitters and off-line processing of the acquired data. In the simplest implementation of the SF technique, a single multiplexed input and output channels are required, which results in significant hardware simplification. Performance of a 2D imaging array depends on many parameters, such as, its topology, number of its transducers and their spacing in terms of wavelength as well as the type of weighting function (apodization). Moreover, it is possible to use sparse arrays, which means that not all array elements are used for transmitting and/ or receiving. In this paper the co-array concept is applied to facilitate the synthesis process of an array's aperture used in the multistatic synthetic focusing approach in Lamb waves-based imaging systems. In the coherent imaging, performed in the transmit/receive mode, the sum co-array is a morphological convolution of the transmit/receive sub-arrays. It can be calculated as the set of sums of the individual elements' locations in the sub-arrays used for imaging. The coarray framework will be presented here using two different array topologies, aID uniform linear array and a cross-shaped array that will result in a square coarray. The approach will be discussed in terms of array patterns and beam patterns of the resulting imaging systems. Both, theoretical and experimental results will be given.

  10. Dynamic photorefractive self-amplified angular-multiplex 2-D optical beam-array generation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zhou, Shaomin; Yeh, Pochi; Liu, Hua-Kuang

    1993-01-01

    A real-time 2-D angular-multiplex beam-array holographic storage and reconstruction technique using electrically-addressed spatial light modulators(E-SLM's) and photorefractive crystals is described. Using a liquid crystal television (LCTV) spatial light modulator (SLM) for beam steering and lithium niobate photorefractive crystal for holographic recording, experimental results of generating large and complicated arrays of laser beams with high diffraction efficiency and good uniformity are presented.

  11. 2D Traveling Wave Array Employing a Trapezoidal Dielectric Wedge for Beam Steering

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Host, Nicholas K.; Chen, Chi-Chih; Volakis, John L.; Miranada, Felix A.

    2014-01-01

    This presentation addresses the progress made so far in the development of an antenna array with reconfigurable transmission line feeds connecting each element in series. In particular, 2D traveling wave array employing trapezoidal Dielectric Wedge for Beam Steering will be discussed. The presentation includes current status of the effort and suggested future work. The work is being done as part of the NASA Office of the Chief Technologist's Space Technology Research Fellowship (NSTRF).

  12. 2D Array of Far-infrared Thermal Detectors: Noise Measurements and Processing Issues

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lakew, B.; Aslam, S.; Stevenson, T.

    2008-01-01

    A magnesium diboride (MgB2) detector 2D array for use in future space-based spectrometers is being developed at GSFC. Expected pixel sensitivities and comparison to current state-of-the-art infrared (IR) detectors will be discussed.

  13. High power, high efficiency, 2D laser diode arrays for pumping solid state lasers

    SciTech Connect

    Rosenberg, A.; McShea, J.C.; Bogdan, A.R.; Petheram, J.C.; Rosen, A.

    1987-11-01

    This document reports the current performance of 2D laser diode arrays operating at 770 nm and 808 nm for pumping promethium and neodymium solid state lasers, respectively. Typical power densities are in excess of 2kw/cm/sup 2/ with overall efficiencies greater than 30%.

  14. 2D biological representations with reduced speckle obtained from two perpendicular ultrasonic arrays.

    PubMed

    Rodriguez-Hernandez, Miguel A; Gomez-Sacristan, Angel; Sempere-Payá, Víctor M

    2016-04-29

    Ultrasound diagnosis is a widely used medical tool. Among the various ultrasound techniques, ultrasonic imaging is particularly relevant. This paper presents an improvement to a two-dimensional (2D) ultrasonic system using measurements taken from perpendicular planes, where digital signal processing techniques are used to combine one-dimensional (1D) A-scans were acquired by individual transducers in arrays located in perpendicular planes. An algorithm used to combine measurements is improved based on the wavelet transform, which includes a denoising step during the 2D representation generation process. The inclusion of this new denoising stage generates higher quality 2D representations with a reduced level of speckling. The paper includes different 2D representations obtained from noisy A-scans and compares the improvements obtained by including the denoising stage.

  15. 2D biological representations with reduced speckle obtained from two perpendicular ultrasonic arrays.

    PubMed

    Rodriguez-Hernandez, Miguel A; Gomez-Sacristan, Angel; Sempere-Payá, Víctor M

    2016-04-29

    Ultrasound diagnosis is a widely used medical tool. Among the various ultrasound techniques, ultrasonic imaging is particularly relevant. This paper presents an improvement to a two-dimensional (2D) ultrasonic system using measurements taken from perpendicular planes, where digital signal processing techniques are used to combine one-dimensional (1D) A-scans were acquired by individual transducers in arrays located in perpendicular planes. An algorithm used to combine measurements is improved based on the wavelet transform, which includes a denoising step during the 2D representation generation process. The inclusion of this new denoising stage generates higher quality 2D representations with a reduced level of speckling. The paper includes different 2D representations obtained from noisy A-scans and compares the improvements obtained by including the denoising stage. PMID:27163318

  16. Mirror effects and optical meta-surfaces in 2d atomic arrays

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shahmoon, Ephraim; Wild, Dominik; Lukin, Mikhail; Yelin, Susanne

    2016-05-01

    Strong optical response of natural and artificial (meta-) materials typically relies on the fact that the lattice constant that separates their constituent particles (atoms or electromagnetic resonators, respectively) is much smaller than the optical wavelength. Here we consider a single layer of a 2d atom array with a lattice constant on the order of an optical wavelength, which can be thought of as a highly dilute 2d metamaterial (meta-surface). Our theoretical analysis shows how strong scattering of resonant incoming light off the array can be controlled by choosing its lattice constant, e.g. allowing the array to operate as a perfect mirror or a retro-reflector for most incident angles of the incoming light. We discuss the prospects for quantum metasurfaces, i.e. the ability to shape the output quantum state of light by controlling the atomic states, and the possible generality of our results as a universal wave phenomena.

  17. Preliminary work of real-time ultrasound imaging system for 2-D array transducer.

    PubMed

    Li, Xu; Yang, Jiali; Ding, Mingyue; Yuchi, Ming

    2015-01-01

    Ultrasound (US) has emerged as a non-invasive imaging modality that can provide anatomical structure information in real time. To enable the experimental analysis of new 2-D array ultrasound beamforming methods, a pre-beamformed parallel raw data acquisition system was developed for 3-D data capture of 2D array transducer. The transducer interconnection adopted the row-column addressing (RCA) scheme, where the columns and rows were active in sequential for transmit and receive events, respectively. The DAQ system captured the raw data in parallel and the digitized data were fed through the field programmable gate array (FPGA) to implement the pre-beamforming. Finally, 3-D images were reconstructed through the devised platform in real-time. PMID:26405923

  18. The inspection of anisotropic single-crystal components using a 2-D ultrasonic array.

    PubMed

    Lane, Christopher J L; Dunhill, A K; Drinkwater, Bruce W; Wilcox, Paul D

    2010-12-01

    Single-crystal metal alloys are used extensively in the manufacture of jet engine components for their excellent mechanical properties at elevated temperatures. The inspection of these components using 2-D ultrasonic arrays potentially allows the detection of subsurface defects in threedimensions from one inspection location. Such methods are not currently suitable for the inspection of single-crystal components because the high elastic anisotropy of single-crystal materials causes directional variation in ultrasonic waves. In this paper, a model of wave propagation in anisotropic material is used to correct an ultrasonic imaging algorithm and is applied to a single-crystal test specimen. For this correctedalgorithm, the orientation of the crystal in a specimen must be known before the inspection. Using the same ultrasonic array to measure the orientation and perform the defect inspection offers the most practical solution. Therefore, potential crystallographic orientation methods using 2-D ultrasonic arrays are also developed and evaluated. PMID:21156370

  19. Time multiplexing super resolution using a 2D Barker-based array

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ilovitsh, Asaf; Ilovitsh, Tali; Preter, Eyal; Levanon, Nadav; Zalevsky, Zeev

    2016-03-01

    We propose the use of a two dimensional Barker-based array in order to improve the performance of the standard time multiplexing super resolution system. The Barker-based array is a 2D generalization of the standard 1D Barker code. It enables achieving a two dimensional super resolution image using only one dimensional scan, by exploiting its unique auto correlation property. A sequence of low resolution images are captured at different lateral positions of the array, and are decoded properly using the same array. In addition, we present the use of a mismatched array for the decoding process. The cross correlation between the Barker-based array and the mismatched array has a perfect peak to sidelobes ratio, making it ideal for the super resolution process. Also, we propose the projection of this array onto the object using a phase-only spatial light modulator. Projecting the array eliminates the need for printing it, mechanically shifting it, and having a direct contact with the object, which is not feasible in many imaging applications. The proposed method is presented analytically, demonstrated via numerical simulation, and validated by laboratory experiments.

  20. A row-column addressed micromachined ultrasonic transducer array for surface scanning applications.

    PubMed

    Wong, Lawrence L P; Chen, Albert I H; Li, Zhenhao; Logan, Andrew S; Yeow, John T W

    2014-12-01

    Row-column addressed arrays for ultrasonic non-destructive testing (NDT) applications are analyzed and demonstrated in this paper. Simulation and experimental results of a row-column addressed 32 by 32 capacitive micromachined ultrasonic transducer (CMUT) array are presented. The CMUT array, which was designed for medical imaging applications, has a center frequency of 5.3MHz. The CMUT array was used to perform C-scans on test objects with holes that have diameters of 1.0mm and 0.5mm. The array transducer has an aperture size of 4.8mm by 4.8mm, and it was used to scan an area of 4.0mm by 4.0mm. Compared to an N by N fully addressed 2-D array, a row-column addressed array of the same number of elements requires fewer (N instead of N(2)) pairs of interconnection and supporting electronic components such as pulsers and amplifiers. Even though the resulting field of view is limit by the aperture size, row-column addressed arrays and the row-column addressing scheme can be an alternative option of 2-D arrays for NDT applications.

  1. Chemiresistive Sensor Arrays from Conductive 2D Metal-Organic Frameworks.

    PubMed

    Campbell, Michael G; Liu, Sophie F; Swager, Timothy M; Dincă, Mircea

    2015-11-01

    Applications of porous metal-organic frameworks (MOFs) in electronic devices are rare, owing in large part to a lack of MOFs that display electrical conductivity. Here, we describe the use of conductive two-dimensional (2D) MOFs as a new class of materials for chemiresistive sensing of volatile organic compounds (VOCs). We demonstrate that a family of structurally analogous 2D MOFs can be used to construct a cross-reactive sensor array that allows for clear discrimination between different categories of VOCs. Experimental data show that multiple sensing mechanisms are operative with high degrees of orthogonality, establishing that the 2D MOFs used here are mechanistically unique and offer advantages relative to other known chemiresistor materials.

  2. Improved 2-D resistivity imaging of features in covered karst terrain with arrays of implanted electrodes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kiflu, H. G.; Kruse, S. E.; Harro, D.; Loke, M. H.; Wilkinson, P. B.

    2013-12-01

    Electrical resistivity tomography is commonly used to identify geologic features associated with sinkhole formation. In covered karst terrain, however, it can be difficult to resolve the depth to top of limestone with this method. This is due to the fact that array lengths, and hence depth of resolution, are often limited by residential or commercial lot dimensions in urban environments. Furthermore, the sediments mantling the limestone are often clay-rich and highly conductive. The resistivity method has limited sensitivity to resistive zones beneath conductive zones. This sensitivity can be improved significantly with electrodes implanted at depth in the cover sediments near the top of limestone. An array of deep electrodes is installed with direct push technology in the karst cover. When combined with a surface array in which each surface electrode is underlain by a deep electrode, the array geometry is similar to a borehole array turned on its side. This method, called the Multi-Electrode Resistivity Implant Technique (MERIT), offers the promise of significantly improved resolution of epikarst and cover collapse development zones in the overlying sediment, the limestone or at the sediment-bedrock interface in heterogeneous karst environments. With a non-traditional array design, the question of optimal array geometries arises. Optimizing array geometries is complicated by the fact that many plausible 4-electrode readings will produce negative apparent resistivity values, even in homogeneous terrain. Negative apparent resistivities cannot be used in inversions based on the logarithm of the apparent resistivity. New algorithms for seeking optimal array geometries have been developed by modifying the 'Compare R' method of Wilkinson and Loke. The optimized arrays show significantly improved resolution over basic arrays adapted from traditional 2D surface geometries. Several MERIT case study surveys have been conducted in covered karst in west-central Florida, with

  3. Optimized arrays for 2-D resistivity survey lines with a large number of electrodes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Loke, M. H.; Wilkinson, P. B.; Chambers, J. E.; Uhlemann, S. S.; Sorensen, J. P. R.

    2015-01-01

    Previous studies show that optimized arrays generated using the 'Compare R' method have significantly better resolution than conventional arrays. This method determines the optimum set of arrays by selecting those that give the maximum model resolution. The number of possible arrays (the comprehensive data set) increases with the fourth power of the number of electrodes. The optimization method faces practical limitations for 2-D survey lines with more than 60 electrodes where the number of possible arrays exceeds a million. Several techniques are proposed to reduce the calculation time for such survey lines. A single-precision version of the 'Compare R' algorithm using a new ranking function reduces the calculation time by two to eight times while providing results similar to the double-precision version. Recent improvements in computer GPU technology can reduce the calculation time by about seven times. The calculation time is reduced by half by using the fact that arrays that are symmetrical about the center of the line produce identical changes in the model resolution values. It is further reduced by more than thirty times by calculating the Sherman-Morrison update for all the possible two-electrode combinations, which are then used to calculate the model resolution values for the four-electrode arrays. The calculation time is reduced by more then ten times by using a subset of the comprehensive data set consisting of only symmetrical arrays. Tests with a synthetic model and field data set show that optimized arrays derived from this subset produce inversion models with differences of less than 10% from those derived using the full comprehensive data set. The optimized data sets produced models that are more accurate than the Wenner-Schlumberger array data sets in all the tests.

  4. 2D and 3D ordered arrays of Co magnetic nanowires

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Garcia, J.; Prida, V. M.; Vega, V.; Rosa, W. O.; Caballero-Flores, R.; Iglesias, L.; Hernando, B.

    2015-06-01

    Cobalt nanowire arrays spatially distributed in 2D and 3D arrangements have been performed by pulsed electrodeposition into the pores of planar and cylindrical nanoporous anodic alumina membranes, respectively. Morphological characterization points out the good filling factor reached by electroplated Co nanowires in both kinds of alumina membranes exhibiting hexagonally self-ordered porous structures. Co nanowires grown in both kinds of alumina templates exhibit the same crystalline phases. DC magnetometry and First Order Reversal Curve (FORC) analysis were carried out in order to determine the overall magnetic behavior for both nanowire array geometries. It is found that when the Co nanowires of two kinds of arrays are perpendicularly magnetized, both hysteresis loops are identical, suggesting that neither the intrinsic magnetic behavior of the nanowires nor the collective one depend on the arrays geometry. FORC analysis performed along the radial direction of the Co nanowire arrays embedded in the cylindrical alumina template reveals that the contribution of each nanowire to the magnetization reversal process involves its specific orientation with respect to the applied field direction. Furthermore, the comparison between the magnetic properties for both kinds of Co nanowire arrays allows discussing about the effect of the cylindrical geometry of the template on the magnetostatic interaction among nanowires.

  5. Nanohole-array-based device for 2D snapshot multispectral imaging

    PubMed Central

    Najiminaini, Mohamadreza; Vasefi, Fartash; Kaminska, Bozena; Carson, Jeffrey J. L.

    2013-01-01

    We present a two-dimensional (2D) snapshot multispectral imager that utilizes the optical transmission characteristics of nanohole arrays (NHAs) in a gold film to resolve a mixture of input colors into multiple spectral bands. The multispectral device consists of blocks of NHAs, wherein each NHA has a unique periodicity that results in transmission resonances and minima in the visible and near-infrared regions. The multispectral device was illuminated over a wide spectral range, and the transmission was spectrally unmixed using a least-squares estimation algorithm. A NHA-based multispectral imaging system was built and tested in both reflection and transmission modes. The NHA-based multispectral imager was capable of extracting 2D multispectral images representative of four independent bands within the spectral range of 662 nm to 832 nm for a variety of targets. The multispectral device can potentially be integrated into a variety of imaging sensor systems. PMID:24005065

  6. Spatially Resolved Synthetic Spectra from 2D Simulations of Stainless Steel Wire Array Implosions

    SciTech Connect

    Clark, R. W.; Giuliani, J. L.; Thornhill, J. W.; Chong, Y. K.; Dasgupta, A.; Davis, J.

    2009-01-21

    A 2D radiation MHD model has been developed to investigate stainless steel wire array implosion experiments on the Z and refurbished Z machines. This model incorporates within the Mach2 MHD code a self-consistent calculation of the non-LTE kinetics and ray trace based radiation transport. Such a method is necessary in order to account for opacity effects in conjunction with ionization kinetics of K-shell emitting plasmas. Here the model is used to investigate multi-dimensional effects of stainless steel wire implosions. In particular, we are developing techniques to produce non-LTE, axially and/or radially resolved synthetic spectra based upon snapshots of our 2D simulations. Comparisons between experimental spectra and these synthetic spectra will allow us to better determine the state of the experimental pinches.

  7. Fast Confocal Raman Imaging Using a 2-D Multifocal Array for Parallel Hyperspectral Detection.

    PubMed

    Kong, Lingbo; Navas-Moreno, Maria; Chan, James W

    2016-01-19

    We present the development of a novel confocal hyperspectral Raman microscope capable of imaging at speeds up to 100 times faster than conventional point-scan Raman microscopy under high noise conditions. The microscope utilizes scanning galvomirrors to generate a two-dimensional (2-D) multifocal array at the sample plane, generating Raman signals simultaneously at each focus of the array pattern. The signals are combined into a single beam and delivered through a confocal pinhole before being focused through the slit of a spectrometer. To separate the signals from each row of the array, a synchronized scan mirror placed in front of the spectrometer slit positions the Raman signals onto different pixel rows of the detector. We devised an approach to deconvolve the superimposed signals and retrieve the individual spectra at each focal position within a given row. The galvomirrors were programmed to scan different focal arrays following Hadamard encoding patterns. A key feature of the Hadamard detection is the reconstruction of individual spectra with improved signal-to-noise ratio. Using polystyrene beads as test samples, we demonstrated not only that our system images faster than a conventional point-scan method but that it is especially advantageous under noisy conditions, such as when the CCD detector operates at fast read-out rates and high temperatures. This is the first demonstration of multifocal confocal Raman imaging in which parallel spectral detection is implemented along both axes of the CCD detector chip. We envision this novel 2-D multifocal spectral detection technique can be used to develop faster imaging spontaneous Raman microscopes with lower cost detectors. PMID:26654100

  8. Low-voltage coded excitation utilizing a miniaturized integrated ultrasound system employing piezoelectric 2-D arrays.

    PubMed

    Triger, Simon; Saillant, Jean-Francois; Demore, Christine E M; Cochran, Sandy; Cumming, David R S

    2010-01-01

    We describe the development of an integrated, miniaturized ultrasound system designed for use with low-voltage piezoelectric transducer arrays. The technology targets low-frequency NDT and medium- to high-frequency sonar applications, at 1.2 MHz frequency. We have constructed a flexible, reconfigurable, low cost building block capable of 3-D beam forming. The tessellation of multiple building blocks permits formation of scalable 2-D macro-arrays of increased size and varying shape. This differs from conventional ultrasound solutions by integrating the entire system in a single module. No long RF cables are required to link the array elements to the electronics. The close coupling of the array and electronics assists in achieving adequate receive signal amplitudes with differential transmission voltages as low as +/- 3.3 V, although the system can be used at higher voltages. The system has been characterized by identifying flat-bottomed holes as small as 1 mm in diameter located at depths up to 190 mm in aluminum, and holes as small as 3 mm in diameter at a depth of 160 mm in cast iron. The results confirm the ability of the highly integrated system to obtain reflections from the targets despite the +/- 3.3 V excitation voltage by exploiting coding in low-voltage ultrasound.

  9. 2D array of cold-electron nanobolometers with double polarised cross-dipole antennas

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    A novel concept of the two-dimensional (2D) array of cold-electron nanobolometers (CEB) with double polarised cross-dipole antennas is proposed for ultrasensitive multimode measurements. This concept provides a unique opportunity to simultaneously measure both components of an RF signal and to avoid complicated combinations of two schemes for each polarisation. The optimal concept of the CEB includes a superconductor-insulator-normal tunnel junction and an SN Andreev contact, which provides better performance. This concept allows for better matching with the junction gate field-effect transistor (JFET) readout, suppresses charging noise related to the Coulomb blockade due to the small area of tunnel junctions and decreases the volume of a normal absorber for further improvement of the noise performance. The reliability of a 2D array is considerably increased due to the parallel and series connections of many CEBs. Estimations of the CEB noise with JFET readout give an opportunity to realise a noise equivalent power (NEP) that is less than photon noise, specifically, NEP = 4 10−19 W/Hz1/2 at 7 THz for an optical power load of 0.02 fW. PMID:22512950

  10. Large 2D-arrays of size-controllable silver nanoparticles prepared by hybrid deposition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dieu Thuy Ung, Thi; Hoa Nguyen, Thi; Liem Nguyen, Quang

    2016-09-01

    Two main results are presented in this paper. (i) Silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) with uniform size-distribution and controllability in the range of 20-50 nm were synthesized by seeding and growing at ambient conditions. The single-crystal Ag nano-seeds were created by reduction of AgNO3 in presence of citrate surfactant at 70 °C. Then, importantly, the fresh AgCl precursor was used in the presence of polyvinylpyrrolidone to adjust the reaction rate with ascorbic acid to generate Ag for growing on the surface of single-crystal Ag nano-seeds. The AgNPs size could be well-controlled by varying the amount of Ag nano-seeds while keeping the AgCl precursor concentration to be constant. (ii) The large 2D-arrays with homogeneous and dense monolayers of AgNPs were prepared on ITO substrates by hybrid method, in which the key technological point is the surface functionalization of AgNPs using mixed alkanethiols (dodecanethiol:octadecanethiol = 6:1). We have used the fabricated 2D-arrays from the 50 nm AgNPs as a surface enhanced Raman scattering substrate to take the Raman scattering spectra of rhodamine B (RhB), glucose and viral pathogen (H5N1) at very low concentrations of 10-10 M, 10-12 M and 4 ng μl-1, respectively.

  11. Electric field enhancement in a self-assembled 2D array of silver nanospheres

    SciTech Connect

    El-Khoury, Patrick Z. E-mail: wayne.hess@pnnl.gov; Gong, Yu; Joly, Alan G.; Abellan, Patricia; Browning, Nigel D.; Hess, Wayne P. E-mail: wayne.hess@pnnl.gov; Khon, Elena; Hu, Dehong; Zamkov, Mikhail; Evans, James E.

    2014-12-07

    We investigate the plasmonic properties of a self-assembled 2D array of Ag nanospheres (average particle diameter/inter-particle separation distance of 9/3.7 nm). The structures of the individual particles and their assemblies are characterized using high-resolution transmission electron microscopy (HR-TEM). The plasmonic response of the nanoparticle network is probed using two-photon photoemission electron microscopy (TP-PEEM). HR-TEM and TP-PEEM statistics reveal the structure and plasmonic response of the network to be homogeneous on average. This translates into a relatively uniform surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) response from biphenyl,4-4{sup ′}-dithiol (BPDT) molecules adsorbed onto different sites of the network. Reproducible, bright, and low-background SERS spectra are recorded and assigned on the basis of density functional theory calculations in which BPDT is chemisorbed onto the vertex of a finite tetrahedral Ag cluster consisting of 20 Ag atoms. A notable agreement between experiment and theory allows us to rigorously account for the observable vibrational states of BPDT in the ∼200–2200 cm{sup −1} region of the spectrum. Finite difference time domain simulations further reveal that physical enhancement factors on the order of 10{sup 6} are attainable at the nanogaps formed between the silver nanospheres in the 2D array. Combined with modest chemical enhancement factors, this study paves the way for reproducible single molecule signals from an easily self-assembled SERS substrate.

  12. 2D array of cold-electron nanobolometers with double polarised cross-dipole antennas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kuzmin, Leonid S.

    2012-04-01

    A novel concept of the two-dimensional (2D) array of cold-electron nanobolometers (CEB) with double polarised cross-dipole antennas is proposed for ultrasensitive multimode measurements. This concept provides a unique opportunity to simultaneously measure both components of an RF signal and to avoid complicated combinations of two schemes for each polarisation. The optimal concept of the CEB includes a superconductor-insulator-normal tunnel junction and an SN Andreev contact, which provides better performance. This concept allows for better matching with the junction gate field-effect transistor (JFET) readout, suppresses charging noise related to the Coulomb blockade due to the small area of tunnel junctions and decreases the volume of a normal absorber for further improvement of the noise performance. The reliability of a 2D array is considerably increased due to the parallel and series connections of many CEBs. Estimations of the CEB noise with JFET readout give an opportunity to realise a noise equivalent power (NEP) that is less than photon noise, specifically, NEP = 4 10-19 W/Hz1/2 at 7 THz for an optical power load of 0.02 fW.

  13. 2-D array for 3-D Ultrasound Imaging Using Synthetic Aperture Techniques

    PubMed Central

    Daher, Nadim M.; Yen, Jesse T.

    2010-01-01

    A 2-D array of 256 × 256 = 65,536 elements, with total area 4 × 4 = 16 cm2, serves as a flexible platform for developing acquisition schemes for 3-D rectilinear ultrasound imaging at 10 MHz using synthetic aperture techniques. This innovative system combines a simplified interconnect scheme and synthetic aperture techniques with a 2-D array for 3-D imaging. A row-column addressing scheme is used to access different elements for different transmit events. This addressing scheme is achieved through a simple interconnect, consisting of one top, one bottom single layer flex circuits, which, compared to multi-layer flex circuits, are simpler to design, cheaper to manufacture and thinner so their effect on the acoustic response is minimized. We present three designs that prioritize different design objectives: volume acquisiton time, resolution, and sensitivity, while maintaining acceptable figures for the other design objectives. For example, one design overlooks time acquisition requirements, assumes good noise conditions, and optimizes for resolution, achieving −6 dB and −20 dB beamwidths of less than 0.2 and 0.5 millimeters, respectively, for an F/2 aperture. Another design can acquire an entire volume in 256 transmit events, with −6dB and −20 dB beamwidths in the order of 0.4 and 0.8 millimeters, respectively. PMID:16764446

  14. Electric Field Enhancement in a Self-Assembled 2D Array of Silver Nanospheres

    SciTech Connect

    El-Khoury, Patrick Z.; Khon, Elena; Gong, Yu; Joly, Alan G.; Abellan, Patricia; Evans, James E.; Browning, Nigel D.; Hu, Dehong; Zamkov, Mikhail; Hess, Wayne P.

    2014-12-07

    We investigate the plasmonic properties of a self-assembled 2D array of Ag nanospheres (average particle diameter/inter-particle separation distance of ~9/~4 nm). The structures of the individual particles and their assemblies are characterized using high-resolution transmission electron microscopy (HR-TEM). The plasmonic response of the nanoparticle network is probed using two-photon photoemission electron microscopy (TP-PEEM). HR-TEM and TP-PEEM statistics reveal the structure and plasmonic response of the network to be homogeneous on average. This translates into a relatively uniform surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) response from biphenyl,4-4’-dithiol (BPDT) molecules adsorbed onto different sites of the network. Bright and background free SERS spectra are recorded, assigned on the basis of density 2 functional theory calculations in which BPDT is chemisorbed onto the vertex of a finitie tetrahedral Ag cluster consisting of 20 Ag atoms. A remarkable agreement between experiment and theory allows us to rigorously account for the observable vibrational states of BPDT in the ~200-2200 cm-1 region of the spectrum. Finite difference time domain simulations further reveal that physical enhancement factors on the order of 106 are attainable at the nanogaps formed between the silver nanospheres in the 2D array. Combined with modest chemical enhancement factors, this study paves the way for reproducible single molecule signals from an easily self-assembled SERS substrate.

  15. Large 2D-arrays of size-controllable silver nanoparticles prepared by hybrid deposition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dieu Thuy Ung, Thi; Hoa Nguyen, Thi; Liem Nguyen, Quang

    2016-09-01

    Two main results are presented in this paper. (i) Silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) with uniform size-distribution and controllability in the range of 20–50 nm were synthesized by seeding and growing at ambient conditions. The single-crystal Ag nano-seeds were created by reduction of AgNO3 in presence of citrate surfactant at 70 °C. Then, importantly, the fresh AgCl precursor was used in the presence of polyvinylpyrrolidone to adjust the reaction rate with ascorbic acid to generate Ag for growing on the surface of single-crystal Ag nano-seeds. The AgNPs size could be well-controlled by varying the amount of Ag nano-seeds while keeping the AgCl precursor concentration to be constant. (ii) The large 2D-arrays with homogeneous and dense monolayers of AgNPs were prepared on ITO substrates by hybrid method, in which the key technological point is the surface functionalization of AgNPs using mixed alkanethiols (dodecanethiol:octadecanethiol = 6:1). We have used the fabricated 2D-arrays from the 50 nm AgNPs as a surface enhanced Raman scattering substrate to take the Raman scattering spectra of rhodamine B (RhB), glucose and viral pathogen (H5N1) at very low concentrations of 10‑10 M, 10‑12 M and 4 ng μl‑1, respectively.

  16. Photoacoustic imaging for deep targets in the breast using a multichannel 2D array transducer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xie, Zhixing; Wang, Xueding; Morris, Richard F.; Padilla, Frederic R.; Lecarpentier, Gerald L.; Carson, Paul L.

    2011-03-01

    A photoacoustic (PA) imaging system was developed to achieve high sensitivity for the detection and characterization of vascular anomalies in the breast in the mammographic geometry. Signal detection from deep in the breast was achieved by a broadband 2D PVDF planar array that has a round shape with one side trimmed straight to improve fit near the chest wall. This array has 572 active elements and a -6dB bandwidth of 0.6-1.7 MHz. The low frequency enhances imaging depth and increases the size of vascular collections displayed without edge enhancement. The PA signals from all the elements go through low noise preamplifiers in the probe that are very close to the array elements for optimized noise control. Driven by 20 independent on-probe signal processing channels, imaging with both high sensitivity and good speed was achieved. To evaluate the imaging depth and the spatial resolution of this system,2.38mm I.D. artificial vessels embedded deeply in ex vivo breasts harvested from fresh cadavers and a 3mm I.D. tube in breast mimicking phantoms made of pork loin and fat tissues were imaged. Using near-infrared laser light with incident energy density within the ANSI safety limit, imaging depths of up to 49 mm in human breasts and 52 mm in phantoms were achieved. With a high power tunable laser working on multiple wavelengths, this system might contribute to 3D noninvasive imaging of morphological and physiological tissue features throughout the breast.

  17. Holographic method for site-resolved detection of a 2D array of ultracold atoms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hoffmann, Daniel Kai; Deissler, Benjamin; Limmer, Wolfgang; Hecker Denschlag, Johannes

    2016-08-01

    We propose a novel approach to site-resolved detection of a 2D gas of ultracold atoms in an optical lattice. A near-resonant laser beam is coherently scattered by the atomic array, and after passing a lens its interference pattern is holographically recorded by superimposing it with a reference laser beam on a CCD chip. Fourier transformation of the recorded intensity pattern reconstructs the atomic distribution in the lattice with single-site resolution. The holographic detection method requires only about two hundred scattered photons per atom in order to achieve a high reconstruction fidelity of 99.9 %. Therefore, additional cooling during detection might not be necessary even for light atomic elements such as lithium. Furthermore, first investigations suggest that small aberrations of the lens can be post-corrected in imaging processing.

  18. Quantum simulation of 2D topological physics in a 1D array of optical cavities.

    PubMed

    Luo, Xi-Wang; Zhou, Xingxiang; Li, Chuan-Feng; Xu, Jin-Shi; Guo, Guang-Can; Zhou, Zheng-Wei

    2015-07-06

    Orbital angular momentum of light is a fundamental optical degree of freedom characterized by unlimited number of available angular momentum states. Although this unique property has proved invaluable in diverse recent studies ranging from optical communication to quantum information, it has not been considered useful or even relevant for simulating nontrivial physics problems such as topological phenomena. Contrary to this misconception, we demonstrate the incredible value of orbital angular momentum of light for quantum simulation by showing theoretically how it allows to study a variety of important 2D topological physics in a 1D array of optical cavities. This application for orbital angular momentum of light not only reduces required physical resources but also increases feasible scale of simulation, and thus makes it possible to investigate important topics such as edge-state transport and topological phase transition in a small simulator ready for immediate experimental exploration.

  19. 2D electrostatic micromirror array with high field factor for high-power application

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lani, S.; Bayat, D.; Pétremand, Y.

    2013-03-01

    This paper reports the fabrication of a 20×20 micro mirror array (MMA) designed for high optical power application (5- 8kW/m2). Each pixel can attain a 2D mechanical tilt angle of +/- 4° in any arbitrary axis with an applied voltage of 150V. A novel packaging architecture is proposed to increase the ratio of mirror surface to packaging surface based on fully vertically integration process of the actuation (vertical electrodes), electrical interconnections (TSV) and signal processing (electronic). All components have a pitch smaller than the mirror surface. A detailed assessment of the fabrication process - including 3D wafer level assembly, through silicon via (TSV), electronic integration, and characterization methodology is presented with experimental results.

  20. A 2-D Array of Superconducting Magnesium Diboride (MgB2) Far-IR Thermal Detectors for Planetary Exploration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lakew, Brook

    2009-01-01

    A 2-D array of superconducting Magnesium Diboride(MgB2) far IR thermal detectors has been fabricated. Such an array is intended to be at the focal plane of future generation thermal imaging far-IR instruments that will investigate the outer planets and their icy moons. Fabrication and processing of the pixels of the array as well as noise characterization of architectured MgB2 thin films will be presented. Challenges and solutions for improving the performance of the array will be discussed.

  1. 2D-DOA estimation of noncircular signals for uniform rectangular array via NC-PARAFAC method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Licen; Lv, Weihua; Zhang, Xiaofei; Li, Shu

    2016-11-01

    In this paper, we propose a two-dimensional direction of arrival (2D-DOA) estimation algorithm for uniform rectangular array via noncircular-parallel factor (NC-PARAFAC) method. Compared to the conventional parallel factor (PARAFAC) algorithm, the proposed algorithm exploits the property of noncircular signals to double the array aperture. Therefore, the angle estimation performance of the proposed algorithm is better than the conventional PARAFAC method. The proposed algorithm achieves automatically paired two-dimensional angle estimates, and has better 2D-DOA estimation performance than some conventional algorithms, which include estimation of signal parameters via rotational invariance technique (ESPRIT), propagator method (PM), PARAFAC algorithm, noncircular-ESPRIT (NC-ESPRIT) and noncircular-PM (NC-PM). We also derive the Cramér-Rao bound for the 2D-DOA estimation of noncircular signals with uniform rectangular array. Simulation results verify the effectiveness and improvement of the proposed algorithm.

  2. Acoustic backing in 3-D integration of CMUT with front-end electronics.

    PubMed

    Berg, Sigrid; Rønnekleiv, Arne

    2012-07-01

    Capacitive micromachined ultrasonic transducers (CMUTs) have shown promising qualities for medical imaging. However, there are still some problems to be investigated, and some challenges to overcome. Acoustic backing is necessary to prevent SAWs excited in the surface of the silicon substrate from affecting the transmit pattern from the array. In addition, echoes resulting from bulk waves in the substrate must be removed. There is growing interest in integrating electronic circuits to do some of the beamforming directly below the transducer array. This may be easier to achieve for CMUTs than for traditional piezoelectric transducers. We will present simulations showing that the thickness of the silicon substrate and thicknesses and acoustic properties of the bonding material must be considered, especially when designing highfrequency transducers. Through simulations, we compare the acoustic properties of 3-D stacks bonded with three different bonding techniques; solid-liquid interdiffusion (SLID) bonding, direct fusion bonding, and anisotropic conductive adhesives (ACA). We look at a CMUT array with a center frequency of 30 MHz and three silicon wafers underneath, having a total silicon thickness of 100 μm. We find that fusion bonding is most beneficial if we want to prevent surface waves from damaging the array response, but SLID and ACA are also promising if bonding layer thicknesses can be reduced.

  3. Quality assurance of asymmetric jaw alignment using 2D diode array

    SciTech Connect

    Kim, Sun Mo; Yeung, Ivan W. T.; Moseley, Douglas J.

    2013-12-15

    Purpose: A method using a 2D diode array is proposed to measure the junction gap (or overlap) and dose with high precision for routine quality assurance of the asymmetric jaw alignment.Methods: The central axis (CAX) of the radiation field was determined with a 15 × 15 cm{sup 2} photon field at four cardinal collimator angles so that the junction gap (or overlap) can be measured with respect to the CAX. Two abutting fields having a field size of 15 cm (length along the axis parallel to the junction) × 7.5 cm (width along the axis perpendicular to the junction) were used to irradiate the 2D diode array (MapCHECK2) with 100 MU delivered at the photon energy of 6 MV. The collimator was slightly rotated at 15° with respect to the beam central axis to increase the number of diodes effective on the measurement of junction gap. The junction gap and dose measured in high spatial resolution were compared to the conventional methods using an electronic portal imaging device (EPID) and radiochromic film, respectively. In addition, the reproducibility and sensitivity of the proposed method to the measurements of junction gap and dose were investigated.Results: The junction gap (or overlap) and dose measured by MapCHECK2 agreed well to those measured by the conventional methods of EPID and film (the differences ranged from −0.01 to 0 cm and from −1.34% to 0.6% for the gap and dose, respectively). No variation in the repeat measurements of the junction gap was found whereas the measurements of junction dose were found to vary in quite a small range over the days of measurement (0.21%–0.35%). While the sensitivity of the measured junction gap to the actual junction gap applied was the ideal value of 1 cm/cm as expected, the sensitivity of the junction dose to the actual junction gap increased as the junction gap (or overlap) decreased (maximum sensitivity: 201.7%/cm).Conclusions: The initial results suggest that the method is applicable for a comprehensive quality

  4. Towards Simulating the Transverse Ising Model in a 2D Array of Trapped Ions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sawyer, Brian

    2013-05-01

    Two-dimensional Coulomb crystals provide a useful platform for large-scale quantum simulation. Penning traps enable confinement of large numbers of ions (>100) and allow for the tunable-range spin-spin interactions demonstrated in linear ion strings, facilitating simulation of quantum magnetism at a scale that is currently intractable on classical computers. We readily confine hundreds of Doppler laser-cooled 9Be+ within a Penning trap, producing a planar array of ions with self-assembled triangular order. The transverse ``drumhead'' modes of our 2D crystal along with the valence electron spin of Be+ serve as a resource for generating spin-motion and spin-spin entanglement. Applying a spin-dependent optical dipole force (ODF) to the ion array, we perform spectroscopy and thermometry of individual drumhead modes. This ODF also allows us to engineer long-range Ising spin couplings of either ferromagnetic or anti-ferromagnetic character whose approximate power-law scaling with inter-ion distance, d, may be varied continuously from 1 /d0 to 1 /d3. An effective transverse magnetic field is applied via microwave radiation at the ~124-GHz spin-flip frequency, and ground states of the effective Ising Hamiltonian may in principle be prepared adiabatically by slowly decreasing this transverse field in the presence of the induced Ising coupling. Long-range anti-ferromagnetic interactions are of particular interest due to their inherent spin frustration and resulting large, near-degenerate manifold of ground states. We acknowledge support from NIST and the DARPA-OLE program.

  5. Quantitative Verification of Dynamic Wedge Dose Distribution Using a 2D Ionization Chamber Array.

    PubMed

    Sahnoun, Tarek; Farhat, Leila; Mtibaa, Anis; Besbes, Mounir; Daoud, Jamel

    2015-10-01

    The accuracy of two calculation algorithms of the Eclipse 8.9 treatment planning system (TPS)--the anisotropic analytic algorithm (AAA) and pencil-beam convolution (PBC)--in modeling the enhanced dynamic wedge (EDW) was investigated. Measurements were carried out for 6 and 18 MV photon beams using a 2D ionization chamber array. Accuracy of the TPS was evaluated using a gamma index analysis with the following acceptance criteria for dose differences (DD) and distance to agreement (DTA): 3%/3 mm and 2%/2 mm. The TPS models the dose distribution accurately except for 20×20 cm(2) field size, 60 (°) and 45 (°) wedge angles using PBC at 6 MV photon energy. For these latter fields, the pass rate and the mean value of gamma were less than 90% and more than 0.5, respectively at the (3%/3 mm) acceptance criteria. In addition, an accuracy level of (2%/2 mm) was achieved using AAA with better agreement for 18 MV photon energy.

  6. A preliminary evaluation work on a 3D ultrasound imaging system for 2D array transducer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhong, Xiaoli; Li, Xu; Yang, Jiali; Li, Chunyu; Song, Junjie; Ding, Mingyue; Yuchi, Ming

    2016-04-01

    This paper presents a preliminary evaluation work on a pre-designed 3-D ultrasound imaging system. The system mainly consists of four parts, a 7.5MHz, 24×24 2-D array transducer, the transmit/receive circuit, power supply, data acquisition and real-time imaging module. The row-column addressing scheme is adopted for the transducer fabrication, which greatly reduces the number of active channels . The element area of the transducer is 4.6mm by 4.6mm. Four kinds of tests were carried out to evaluate the imaging performance, including the penetration depth range, axial and lateral resolution, positioning accuracy and 3-D imaging frame rate. Several strong reflection metal objects , fixed in a water tank, were selected for the purpose of imaging due to a low signal-to-noise ratio of the transducer. The distance between the transducer and the tested objects , the thickness of aluminum, and the seam width of the aluminum sheet were measured by a calibrated micrometer to evaluate the penetration depth, the axial and lateral resolution, respectively. The experiment al results showed that the imaging penetration depth range was from 1.0cm to 6.2cm, the axial and lateral resolution were 0.32mm and 1.37mm respectively, the imaging speed was up to 27 frames per second and the positioning accuracy was 9.2%.

  7. Self-alignment of silver nanoparticles in highly ordered 2D arrays.

    PubMed

    Rodríguez-León, Ericka; Íñiguez-Palomares, Ramón; Urrutia-Bañuelos, Efraín; Herrera-Urbina, Ronaldo; Tánori, Judith; Maldonado, Amir

    2015-01-01

    We have synthesized silver nanoparticles in the non-polar phase of non-aqueous microemulsions. The nanocrystals have been grown by reducing silver ions in the microemulsion cylindrical micelles formed by the reducing agent (ethylene glycol). By a careful deposit of the microemulsion phase on a substrate, the micelles align in a hexagonal geometry, thus forming a 2D array of parallel strings of individual silver nanoparticles on the substrate. The microemulsions are the ternary system of anionic surfactant, non-polar solvent (isooctane), and solvent polar (ethylene glycol); the size of synthesized nanoparticles is about 7 nm and they are monodisperse. The study of the microstructure was realized by transmission electron microscopy, high-resolution technique transmission electron microscopy (HR-TEM), and Fourier processing using the software Digital Micrograph for the determination of the crystalline structure of the HR-TEM images of the nanocrystals; chemical composition was determined using the energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy. Addition technique polarizing light microscopy allowed the observation of the hexagonal phase of the system. This method of synthesis and self-alignment could be useful for the preparation of patterned materials at the nanometer scale.

  8. Quantum information experiments with 2D arrays of hundreds of trapped ions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gilmore, Kevin; Bohnet, Justin; Sawyer, Brian; Britton, Joseph; Wall, Michael; Foss-Feig, Michael; Rey, Ana Maria; Bollinger, John

    2016-05-01

    We summarize recent experimental work with 2D arrays of hundreds of trapped 9 Be+ ions stored in a Penning trap. Penning traps utilize static magnetic and electric fields to confine ions, and enable the trapping and laser cooling of ion crystals larger than typically possible in RF ion traps. We work with single-plane ion crystals where the ions form a triangular lattice through minimization of their Coulomb potential energy. The crystals rotate, and we present numerical studies that determine optimal operating parameters for producing low temperature, stable 2-dimensional crystals with Doppler laser cooling and a rotating wall potential. Our qubit is the electron spin-flip transition in the ground state of 9 Be+ and is sensitive to magnetic field fluctuations. Through mitigation of part-per-billion, vibration-induced magnetic field fluctuations we demonstrate T2 coherence times longer than 50 ms. We engineer long-range Ising interactions with spin-dependent optical dipole forces, and summarize recent measurements that characterize the entanglement generated through single-axis twisting. Supported by: JILA-NSF-PFC-1125844, NSF-PHY-1521080, ARO, AFOSR, AFOSR-MURI.

  9. Dosimetric verification of gated delivery of electron beams using a 2D ion chamber array

    PubMed Central

    Yoganathan, S. A.; Das, K. J. Maria; Raj, D. Gowtham; Kumar, Shaleen

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to compare the dosimetric characteristics; such as beam output, symmetry and flatness between gated and non-gated electron beams. Dosimetric verification of gated delivery was carried for all electron beams available on Varian CL 2100CD medical linear accelerator. Measurements were conducted for three dose rates (100 MU/min, 300 MU/min and 600 MU/min) and two respiratory motions (breathing period of 4s and 8s). Real-time position management (RPM) system was used for the gated deliveries. Flatness and symmetry values were measured using Imatrixx 2D ion chamber array device and the beam output was measured using plane parallel ion chamber. These detector systems were placed over QUASAR motion platform which was programmed to simulate the respiratory motion of target. The dosimetric characteristics of gated deliveries were compared with non-gated deliveries. The flatness and symmetry of all the evaluated electron energies did not differ by more than 0.7 % with respect to corresponding non-gated deliveries. The beam output variation of gated electron beam was less than 0.6 % for all electron energies except for 16 MeV (1.4 %). Based on the results of this study, it can be concluded that Varian CL2100 CD is well suitable for gated delivery of non-dynamic electron beams. PMID:26170552

  10. Dosimetric verification of gated delivery of electron beams using a 2D ion chamber array.

    PubMed

    Yoganathan, S A; Das, K J Maria; Raj, D Gowtham; Kumar, Shaleen

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to compare the dosimetric characteristics; such as beam output, symmetry and flatness between gated and non-gated electron beams. Dosimetric verification of gated delivery was carried for all electron beams available on Varian CL 2100CD medical linear accelerator. Measurements were conducted for three dose rates (100 MU/min, 300 MU/min and 600 MU/min) and two respiratory motions (breathing period of 4s and 8s). Real-time position management (RPM) system was used for the gated deliveries. Flatness and symmetry values were measured using Imatrixx 2D ion chamber array device and the beam output was measured using plane parallel ion chamber. These detector systems were placed over QUASAR motion platform which was programmed to simulate the respiratory motion of target. The dosimetric characteristics of gated deliveries were compared with non-gated deliveries. The flatness and symmetry of all the evaluated electron energies did not differ by more than 0.7 % with respect to corresponding non-gated deliveries. The beam output variation of gated electron beam was less than 0.6 % for all electron energies except for 16 MeV (1.4 %). Based on the results of this study, it can be concluded that Varian CL2100 CD is well suitable for gated delivery of non-dynamic electron beams.

  11. Self-alignment of silver nanoparticles in highly ordered 2D arrays

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rodríguez-León, Ericka; Íñiguez-Palomares, Ramón; Urrutia-Bañuelos, Efraín; Herrera-Urbina, Ronaldo; Tánori, Judith; Maldonado, Amir

    2015-03-01

    We have synthesized silver nanoparticles in the non-polar phase of non-aqueous microemulsions. The nanocrystals have been grown by reducing silver ions in the microemulsion cylindrical micelles formed by the reducing agent (ethylene glycol). By a careful deposit of the microemulsion phase on a substrate, the micelles align in a hexagonal geometry, thus forming a 2D array of parallel strings of individual silver nanoparticles on the substrate. The microemulsions are the ternary system of anionic surfactant, non-polar solvent (isooctane), and solvent polar (ethylene glycol); the size of synthesized nanoparticles is about 7 nm and they are monodisperse. The study of the microstructure was realized by transmission electron microscopy, high-resolution technique transmission electron microscopy (HR-TEM), and Fourier processing using the software Digital Micrograph for the determination of the crystalline structure of the HR-TEM images of the nanocrystals; chemical composition was determined using the energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy. Addition technique polarizing light microscopy allowed the observation of the hexagonal phase of the system. This method of synthesis and self-alignment could be useful for the preparation of patterned materials at the nanometer scale.

  12. Coherent beam combining using a 2D internally sensed optical phased array.

    PubMed

    Roberts, Lyle E; Ward, Robert L; Sutton, Andrew J; Fleddermann, Roland; de Vine, Glenn; Malikides, Emmanuel A; Wuchenich, Danielle M R; McClelland, David E; Shaddock, Daniel A

    2014-08-01

    Coherent combination of multiple lasers using an optical phased array (OPA) is an effective way to scale optical intensity in the far field beyond the capabilities of single fiber lasers. Using an actively phase locked, internally sensed, 2D OPA we demonstrate over 95% fringe visibility of the interfered beam, λ/120 RMS output phase stability over a 5 Hz bandwidth, and quadratic scaling of intensity in the far field using three emitters. This paper presents a new internally sensed OPA architecture that employs a modified version of digitally enhanced heterodyne interferometry (DEHI) based on code division multiplexing to measure and control the phase of each emitter. This internally sensed architecture can be implemented with no freespace components, offering improved robustness to shock and vibration exhibited by all-fiber devices. To demonstrate the concept, a single laser is split into three channels/emitters, each independently controlled using separate electro-optic modulators. The output phase of each channel is measured using DEHI to sense the small fraction of light that is reflected back into the fiber at the OPA's glass-air interface. The relative phase between emitters is used to derive the control signals needed to stabilize their relative path lengths and maintain coherent combination in the far field.

  13. Feasibility of MatriXX 2D detector array for HDR brachytherapy planning system assessment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zeman, Jozef; Valenta, Jiri; Gabris, Frantisek; Grezdo, Jozef; Stastna, Simona

    2012-10-01

    IBA Dosimetry GmbH participated in the Joint Research Project ‘Increasing cancer treatment efficacy using 3D brachytherapy’ as a non-funded partner in the work package which was mostly dedicated to the determination of dose-to-water distribution from a high-dose-rate (HDR) brachytherapy source. The dose distribution was measured with a MatriXX (MXX) 2D detector array and compared with Dose Cube Data, calculated by treatment planning systems (TPS). All measurements and calculations were performed in cooperation with OUSA, Bratislava and FNB, Prague. The comparison has been carried out for three irradiation geometries: single source position, single line and four line motions of the source, and with the effective point of measurement in a plane at 6 mm, 10 mm and 20 mm distance from the source position. The comparison of the MXX measurements and the TPS calculations was evaluated by the commercial IBA Dosimetry software OmniPro I'mRT (1) as the difference between maximum of measured and calculated values and (2) as the maximum difference between the two-dimensional distributions of measured and calculated values. The dose distribution was evaluated by the gamma method with parameters 3 mm and 3%. All differences of comparison of the MXX measurements and TPS calculations were within the range ±10% and the γ-index was less than 1 for 96% (or 97%, respectively) of the dose distribution in the plane at 10 mm distance from the source position.

  14. Self-alignment of silver nanoparticles in highly ordered 2D arrays.

    PubMed

    Rodríguez-León, Ericka; Íñiguez-Palomares, Ramón; Urrutia-Bañuelos, Efraín; Herrera-Urbina, Ronaldo; Tánori, Judith; Maldonado, Amir

    2015-01-01

    We have synthesized silver nanoparticles in the non-polar phase of non-aqueous microemulsions. The nanocrystals have been grown by reducing silver ions in the microemulsion cylindrical micelles formed by the reducing agent (ethylene glycol). By a careful deposit of the microemulsion phase on a substrate, the micelles align in a hexagonal geometry, thus forming a 2D array of parallel strings of individual silver nanoparticles on the substrate. The microemulsions are the ternary system of anionic surfactant, non-polar solvent (isooctane), and solvent polar (ethylene glycol); the size of synthesized nanoparticles is about 7 nm and they are monodisperse. The study of the microstructure was realized by transmission electron microscopy, high-resolution technique transmission electron microscopy (HR-TEM), and Fourier processing using the software Digital Micrograph for the determination of the crystalline structure of the HR-TEM images of the nanocrystals; chemical composition was determined using the energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy. Addition technique polarizing light microscopy allowed the observation of the hexagonal phase of the system. This method of synthesis and self-alignment could be useful for the preparation of patterned materials at the nanometer scale. PMID:25883540

  15. Verification measurements of an eMC algorithm using a 2D ion chamber array.

    PubMed

    Wanklyn, Mark D; Kidane, Ghirmay; Crees, Liz

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to assess the suitability of the Im'RT MatriXX 2D ion chamber array for performing verification measurements on the Varian Eclipse electron Monte Carlo (eMC) algorithm for a range of clinical energies (6, 12, and 20 MeV) on a Varian 2100iX linear accelerator. Firstly, the suitability of the MatriXX for measuring percentage depth doses (PDD) in water was assessed, including characterization of the inherent buildup found in the MatriXX. Secondly the suitability of the MatriXX for measuring dose distributions in homogeneous and heterogeneous phantoms was assessed using gamma analysis at 3%/3 mm. It was found that after adjusting the PDD curves for the inherent buildup, that the position of R50,D measured using the MatriXX agreed to within 1 mm to the PDDs generated using the eMC algorithm for all energies used in this study. Gamma analysis at 3%/3mm showed very good agreement (> 95%) for all cases in both homogeneous and heterogeneous phantoms. It was concluded that the Im'RT MatriXX is a suitable device for performing eMC verification and could potentially be used for routine energy checks of electron beams. PMID:27685111

  16. Joint Estimation of 2D-DOA and Frequency Based on Space-Time Matrix and Conformal Array

    PubMed Central

    Wan, Liang-Tian; Liu, Lu-Tao; Si, Wei-Jian; Tian, Zuo-Xi

    2013-01-01

    Each element in the conformal array has a different pattern, which leads to the performance deterioration of the conventional high resolution direction-of-arrival (DOA) algorithms. In this paper, a joint frequency and two-dimension DOA (2D-DOA) estimation algorithm for conformal array are proposed. The delay correlation function is used to suppress noise. Both spatial and time sampling are utilized to construct the spatial-time matrix. The frequency and 2D-DOA estimation are accomplished based on parallel factor (PARAFAC) analysis without spectral peak searching and parameter pairing. The proposed algorithm needs only four guiding elements with precise positions to estimate frequency and 2D-DOA. Other instrumental elements can be arranged flexibly on the surface of the carrier. Simulation results demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed algorithm. PMID:24453856

  17. Compact optical true time delay beamformer for a 2D phased array antenna using tunable dispersive elements.

    PubMed

    Ye, Xingwei; Zhang, Fangzheng; Pan, Shilong

    2016-09-01

    A hardware-compressive optical true time delay architecture for 2D beam steering in a planar phased array antenna is proposed using fiber-Bragg-grating-based tunable dispersive elements (TDEs). For an M×N array, the proposed system utilizes N TDEs and M wavelength-fixed optical carriers to control the time delays. Both azimuth and elevation beam steering are realized by programming the settings of the TDEs. An experiment is carried out to demonstrate the delay controlling in a 2×2 array, which is fed by a wideband pulsed signal. Radiation patterns calculated from the experimentally measured waveforms at the four antennas match well with the theoretical results.

  18. Hydrates in the California Borderlands: 2D CSEM inversion results from towed and seafloor arrays

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kannberg, P. K.; Constable, S.; Key, K.

    2013-12-01

    Methane hydrate, an ice-like solid clathrate of methane and water, forms in shallow continental slope sediments, and is both a potential energy source and geologic hazard. Traditionally, methane hydrate presence is inferred from a seismically detected bathymetry tracking velocity inversion, known as the bottom-simulating reflector (BSR). However the BSR is an indicator of free gas at the base of the hydrate stability zone, and not an indicator of hydrate. As such, seismic methods are limited in their capacity to identify and quantify hydrate presence and concentration. Controlled source electromagnetic (CSEM) methods are sensitive to, and are able to directly detect, the presence of electrically resistive methane hydrate and free gas. Additionally, because shallow resistors can mimic deeper resistors in seafloor instruments, understanding the shallow sediment structure can inform deeper crustal modeling. We conducted two CSEM surveys in the San Nicolas Basin, located 150km west of San Diego where a BSR was identified from legacy seismics. Both surveys were conducted using a deep-towed EM transmitter followed by 4 towed 3-axis electric field receivers spaced every 200 m from 400-1000 m behind the transmitter. Either a half-hertz or quarter-hertz modified square wave was transmitted on a 200 ampere, 100 m dipole that was flown between 50 and 100m above the seafloor. The short transmitter-receiver offset allows resolution of shallow structure (less than 1km below seafloor), while the longer transmitter-seafloor receiver resolves deeper structure. Between the two surveys, 27 seafloor receivers were deployed and ~150km of lines were towed, including 5 transects of the basin coincident with legacy seismic lines, and a short-offset repeatability study. Initial 1D modeling showed the presence of a resistor coincident with the BSR. Further 2D inversions using the MARE2DEM inversion program were run for the towed array. These inversions show a 4 ohm-m resistor in the central

  19. Variable FOV optical illumination system with constant aspect ratio for 2-D array lasers diodes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arasa, J.; de la Fuente, M. C.; Ibañez, C.

    2008-09-01

    In this contribution we present a compact system to create an illumination distribution with a constant aspect ratio 3:4 and FOV from 0.4 to 1 degree. Besides, the system must delivery 40 W from 170 individual laser diodes placed in a regular 2-D array distribution of 10 x 20 mm. The main problem that must be solved is the high asymmetry of the individual sources; emission divergence's ratio 3:73 (0.3 vs. 7.4 degree) combined with the flux holes due to the laser's heat drain. In one axis (divergence of 0.3º) the best design strategy approach is a Galileo telescope but in the other axis a collimator configuration is the best solution. To manage both solutions at the same time is the aim of this contribution. Unfortunately for the Galileo strategy, source dimensions are too large so aspheric surfaces are needed, and the collimator configuration requires an EFL that must change from 573 to 1432 mm. The presented solution uses a set of three fixed anamorphic lenses, two of them pure cylinders, combined with a wheel of anamorphic lenses that have the function to change the FOV of the system. The most important contribution of the design is to obtain a constant final ratio 3:4 from an initial ratio of 3:73 with no losses of energy. The proposed solution produces an illumination pattern with peaks and valleys lower than 40%. This pattern distribution might be unacceptable for a standard illumination solution. However, the actual FOV is used to illuminate far away targets thus air turbulence is enough to homogenize the distribution on the target.

  20. Single-element based ultra-wideband antenna array concepts for wireless high-precision 2-D local positioning

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gardill, M.; Fischer, G.; Weigel, R.; Koelpin, A.

    2013-07-01

    We generally categorize the approaches for ultra-wideband antenna array design, and consequently propose simplified concepts for antenna arrays for a high-precision, ultra-wideband FMCW radar 2-D local positioning system to obtain robustness against multi path interference, perform angle of arrival analysis, as well as instantaneous heading estimation. We focus on low-cost and mechanical robust, industrial-application ready antennas. The antenna arrays are optimized for operation in the 5 GHz to 8 GHz frequency range and are designed towards supporting full omnidirectional 360° as well as partial half-plane direction of arrival estimation. Two different concepts for vehicle- as well as wall-mounted antenna array systems are proposed and discussed. We propose a wideband unidirectional bow-tie antenna array element having 97% impedance and 37% pattern bandwidth and a robust vehicle mounted omnidirectional antenna element having more than 85% impedance and pattern bandwidth.

  1. Construction of inorganic-organic 2D/2D WO₃/g-C₃N₄ nanosheet arrays toward efficient photoelectrochemical splitting of natural seawater.

    PubMed

    Li, Yuangang; Wei, Xiaoliang; Yan, Xiangyang; Cai, Jiangtao; Zhou, Anning; Yang, Mengru; Liu, Kaiqiang

    2016-04-21

    Hydrogen production from seawater and solar energy based on photoelectrochemical cells is extremely attractive due to earth-abundance of seawater and solar radiation. Herein, we report the successful fabrication of novel inorganic-organic 2D/2D WO3/g-C3N4 nanosheet arrays (WO3/g-C3N4 NSAs) grown on a FTO substrate via a facile hydrothermal growth and deposition-annealing process, and their application in natural seawater splitting. The results indicate that the WO3/g-C3N4 NSAs exhibit a photocurrent density of 0.73 mA cm(-2) at 1.23 V versus RHE under AM 1.5G (100 mW cm(-2)) illumination, which is 2-fold higher than that of WO3 NSAs. More importantly, the WO3/g-C3N4 NSA photoanode is quite stable during seawater splitting and the photocurrent density does not substantially decrease after continuous illumination for 3600 s. The remarkably enhanced performance originates primarily from the formation of the WO3/g-C3N4 heterojunction between WO3 and g-C3N4 nanosheets, which accelerates charge transfer and separation, and prolongs the lifetime of electrons as demonstrated by EIS and Mott-Schottky analyses. Finally, a possible mechanism for the improved performance was proposed and discussed. PMID:27022001

  2. 2D capacitive micromachined ultrasound transducer using novel tiling based on silicon frame

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Youngil; Cho, Kyungil; Kim, Baehyung; Lee, Seungheun; Jeon, Taeho; Song, Jongkeun

    2013-03-01

    In this study, we showed the new transducer and probe integration of 2D ultrasound probe using cMUT. cMUT ultrasound probe having 8192 elements is assembled with tiling frame. Flip chip bonded cMUT-ASIC tiles were arrayed along 2×8 directions to enlarge lateral aperture. Tiling gap between two tiles was under 100μm. RTV layer that has 1mm thick is used in 2-D probe system as a lens and protection layer. Thermal module is also analyzed by using the thermal network analysis, which is realized with the air fans and the fins. Designed PCB circuit for tiling module which is considered with cooling spread concept is 5cm × 5cm dimension. Uniformity and performance of tiled ultrasound transducer were tested under soybean oil at 3MHz frequency successfully. The measured 256 elements distribution has only 4.45% deviation. If we can remove the side edge error, the deviation will be under 3%. The performance after RTV lensing showed 35% attenuation in Tx and 35~45% attenuation in Rx.

  3. Application of X-Y Separable 2-D Array Beamforming for Increased Frame Rate and Energy Efficiency in Handheld Devices

    PubMed Central

    Owen, Kevin; Fuller, Michael I.; Hossack, John A.

    2015-01-01

    Two-dimensional arrays present significant beamforming computational challenges because of their high channel count and data rate. These challenges are even more stringent when incorporating a 2-D transducer array into a battery-powered hand-held device, placing significant demands on power efficiency. Previous work in sonar and ultrasound indicates that 2-D array beamforming can be decomposed into two separable line-array beamforming operations. This has been used in conjunction with frequency-domain phase-based focusing to achieve fast volume imaging. In this paper, we analyze the imaging and computational performance of approximate near-field separable beamforming for high-quality delay-and-sum (DAS) beamforming and for a low-cost, phaserotation-only beamforming method known as direct-sampled in-phase quadrature (DSIQ) beamforming. We show that when high-quality time-delay interpolation is used, separable DAS focusing introduces no noticeable imaging degradation under practical conditions. Similar results for DSIQ focusing are observed. In addition, a slight modification to the DSIQ focusing method greatly increases imaging contrast, making it comparable to that of DAS, despite having a wider main lobe and higher side lobes resulting from the limitations of phase-only time-delay interpolation. Compared with non-separable 2-D imaging, up to a 20-fold increase in frame rate is possible with the separable method. When implemented on a smart-phone-oriented processor to focus data from a 60 × 60 channel array using a 40 × 40 aperture, the frame rate per C-mode volume slice increases from 16 to 255 Hz for DAS, and from 11 to 193 Hz for DSIQ. Energy usage per frame is similarly reduced from 75 to 4.8 mJ/ frame for DAS, and from 107 to 6.3 mJ/frame for DSIQ. We also show that the separable method outperforms 2-D FFT-based focusing by a factor of 1.64 at these data sizes. This data indicates that with the optimal design choices, separable 2-D beamforming can

  4. Application of X-Y separable 2-D array beamforming for increased frame rate and energy efficiency in handheld devices.

    PubMed

    Owen, Kevin; Fuller, Michael; Hossack, John

    2012-07-01

    Two-dimensional arrays present significant beamforming computational challenges because of their high channel count and data rate. These challenges are even more stringent when incorporating a 2-D transducer array into a battery-powered hand-held device, placing significant demands on power efficiency. Previous work in sonar and ultrasound indicates that 2-D array beamforming can be decomposed into two separable line-array beamforming operations. This has been used in conjunction with frequency-domain phase-based focusing to achieve fast volume imaging. In this paper, we analyze the imaging and computational performance of approximate near-field separable beamforming for high-quality delay-and-sum (DAS) beamforming and for a low-cost, phase-rotation-only beamforming method known as direct-sampled in-phase quadrature (DSIQ) beamforming. We show that when high-quality time-delay interpolation is used, separable DAS focusing introduces no noticeable imaging degradation under practical conditions. Similar results for DSIQ focusing are observed. In addition, a slight modification to the DSIQ focusing method greatly increases imaging contrast, making it comparable to that of DAS, despite having a wider main lobe and higher side lobes resulting from the limitations of phase-only time-delay interpolation. Compared with non-separable 2-D imaging, up to a 20-fold increase in frame rate is possible with the separable method. When implemented on a smart-phone-oriented processor to focus data from a 60 x 60 channel array using a 40 x 40 aperture, the frame rate per C-mode volume slice increases from 16 to 255 Hz for DAS, and from 11 to 193 Hz for DSIQ. Energy usage per frame is similarly reduced from 75 to 4.8 mJ/ frame for DAS, and from 107 to 6.3 mJ/frame for DSIQ. We also show that the separable method outperforms 2-D FFT-based focusing by a factor of 1.64 at these data sizes. This data indicates that with the optimal design choices, separable 2-D beamforming can

  5. Guided Lamb wave based 2-D spiral phased array for structural health monitoring of thin panel structures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yoo, Byungseok

    2011-12-01

    In almost all industries of mechanical, aerospace, and civil engineering fields, structural health monitoring (SHM) technology is essentially required for providing the reliable information of structural integrity of safety-critical structures, which can help reduce the risk of unexpected and sometimes catastrophic failures, and also offer cost-effective inspection and maintenance of the structures. State of the art SHM research on structural damage diagnosis is focused on developing global and real-time technologies to identify the existence, location, extent, and type of damage. In order to detect and monitor the structural damage in plate-like structures, SHM technology based on guided Lamb wave (GLW) interrogation is becoming more attractive due to its potential benefits such as large inspection area coverage in short time, simple inspection mechanism, and sensitivity to small damage. However, the GLW method has a few critical issues such as dispersion nature, mode conversion and separation, and multiple-mode existence. Phased array technique widely used in all aspects of civil, military, science, and medical industry fields may be employed to resolve the drawbacks of the GLW method. The GLW-based phased array approach is able to effectively examine and analyze complicated structural vibration responses in thin plate structures. Because the phased sensor array operates as a spatial filter for the GLW signals, the array signal processing method can enhance a desired signal component at a specific direction while eliminating other signal components from other directions. This dissertation presents the development, the experimental validation, and the damage detection applications of an innovative signal processing algorithm based on two-dimensional (2-D) spiral phased array in conjunction with the GLW interrogation technique. It starts with general backgrounds of SHM and the associated technology including the GLW interrogation method. Then, it is focused on the

  6. 2D SQIF arrays using 20 000 YBCO high R n Josephson junctions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mitchell, E. E.; Hannam, K. E.; Lazar, J.; Leslie, K. E.; Lewis, C. J.; Grancea, A.; Keenan, S. T.; Lam, S. K. H.; Foley, C. P.

    2016-06-01

    Superconducting quantum interference filters (SQIFs) have been created using two dimensional arrays of YBCO step-edge Josephson junctions connected together in series and parallel configurations via superconducting loops with a range of loop areas and loop inductances. A SQIF response, as evidenced by a single large anti-peak at zero applied flux, is reported at 77 K for step-edge junction arrays with the junction number N = 1 000 up to 20 000. The SQIF sensitivity (slope of peak) increased linearly with N up to a maximum of 1530 V T-1. Array parameters related to geometry and average junction characteristics are investigated in order to understand and improve the SQIF performance in high temperature superconducting arrays. Initial investigations also focus on the effect of the SQUID inductance factor on the SQIF sensitivity by varying both the mean critical current and the mean inductance of the loops in the array. The RF response to a 30 MHz signal is demonstrated.

  7. 2D SQIF arrays using 20 000 YBCO high R n Josephson junctions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mitchell, E. E.; Hannam, K. E.; Lazar, J.; Leslie, K. E.; Lewis, C. J.; Grancea, A.; Keenan, S. T.; Lam, S. K. H.; Foley, C. P.

    2016-06-01

    Superconducting quantum interference filters (SQIFs) have been created using two dimensional arrays of YBCO step-edge Josephson junctions connected together in series and parallel configurations via superconducting loops with a range of loop areas and loop inductances. A SQIF response, as evidenced by a single large anti-peak at zero applied flux, is reported at 77 K for step-edge junction arrays with the junction number N = 1 000 up to 20 000. The SQIF sensitivity (slope of peak) increased linearly with N up to a maximum of 1530 V T‑1. Array parameters related to geometry and average junction characteristics are investigated in order to understand and improve the SQIF performance in high temperature superconducting arrays. Initial investigations also focus on the effect of the SQUID inductance factor on the SQIF sensitivity by varying both the mean critical current and the mean inductance of the loops in the array. The RF response to a 30 MHz signal is demonstrated.

  8. 2D to 3D crossover of the magnetic properties in ordered arrays of iron oxide nanocrystals.

    PubMed

    Faure, Bertrand; Wetterskog, Erik; Gunnarsson, Klas; Josten, Elisabeth; Hermann, Raphaël P; Brückel, Thomas; Andreasen, Jens Wenzel; Meneau, Florian; Meyer, Mathias; Lyubartsev, Alexander; Bergström, Lennart; Salazar-Alvarez, German; Svedlindh, Peter

    2013-02-01

    The magnetic 2D to 3D crossover behavior of well-ordered arrays of monodomain γ-Fe(2)O(3) spherical nanoparticles with different thicknesses has been investigated by magnetometry and Monte Carlo (MC) simulations. Using the structural information of the arrays obtained from grazing incidence small-angle X-ray scattering and scanning electron microscopy together with the experimentally determined values for the saturation magnetization and magnetic anisotropy of the nanoparticles, we show that MC simulations can reproduce the thickness-dependent magnetic behavior. The magnetic dipolar particle interactions induce a ferromagnetic coupling that increases in strength with decreasing thickness of the array. The 2D to 3D transition in the magnetic properties is mainly driven by a change in the orientation of the magnetic vortex states with increasing thickness, becoming more isotropic as the thickness of the array increases. Magnetic anisotropy prevents long-range ferromagnetic order from being established at low temperature and the nanoparticle magnetic moments instead freeze along directions defined by the distribution of easy magnetization directions.

  9. Compact optical true time delay beamformer for a 2D phased array antenna using tunable dispersive elements.

    PubMed

    Ye, Xingwei; Zhang, Fangzheng; Pan, Shilong

    2016-09-01

    A hardware-compressive optical true time delay architecture for 2D beam steering in a planar phased array antenna is proposed using fiber-Bragg-grating-based tunable dispersive elements (TDEs). For an M×N array, the proposed system utilizes N TDEs and M wavelength-fixed optical carriers to control the time delays. Both azimuth and elevation beam steering are realized by programming the settings of the TDEs. An experiment is carried out to demonstrate the delay controlling in a 2×2 array, which is fed by a wideband pulsed signal. Radiation patterns calculated from the experimentally measured waveforms at the four antennas match well with the theoretical results. PMID:27607946

  10. The Use of Geometric Properties of 2D Arrays across Development

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gibson, Brett M.; Leichtman, Michelle D.; Costa, Rachel; Bemis, Rhyannon

    2009-01-01

    Four- to 10-year-old children (n = 50) participated in a 2D search task that included geometry (with- and without lines) and feature conditions. During each of 27 trials, participants watched as a cartoon character hid behind one of three landmarks arranged in a triangle on a computer screen. During feature condition trials, participants could use…

  11. A volumetric CMUT-based ultrasound imaging system simulator with integrated reception and μ-beamforming electronics models.

    PubMed

    Matrone, Giulia; Savoia, Alessandro S; Terenzi, Marco; Caliano, Giosuè; Quaglia, Fabio; Magenes, Giovanni

    2014-05-01

    In modern ultrasound imaging devices, two-dimensional probes and electronic scanning allow volumetric imaging of anatomical structures. When dealing with the design of such complex 3-D ultrasound (US) systems, as the number of transducers and channels dramatically increases, new challenges concerning the integration of electronics and the implementation of smart micro-beamforming strategies arise. Hence, the possibility to predict the behavior of the whole system is mandatory. In this paper, we propose and describe an advanced simulation tool for ultrasound system modeling and simulation, which conjugates the US propagation and scattering, signal transduction, electronic signal conditioning, and beamforming in a single environment. In particular, we present the architecture and model of an existing 16-channel integrated receiver, which includes an amplification and micro-beamforming stage, and validate it by comparison with circuit simulations. The developed model is then used in conjunction with the transducer and US field models to perform a system simulation, aimed at estimating the performance of an example 3-D US imaging system that uses a capacitive micromachined ultrasonic transducer (CMUT) 2-D phased-array coupled to the modeled reception front-end. Results of point spread function (PSF) calculations, as well as synthetic imaging of a virtual phantom, show that this tool is actually able to model the complete US image reconstruction process, and that it could be used to quickly provide valuable system-level feedback for an optimized tuning of electronic design parameters.

  12. Conductance based characterization of structure and hopping site density in 2D molecule-nanoparticle arrays.

    PubMed

    McCold, Cliff E; Fu, Qiang; Howe, Jane Y; Hihath, Joshua

    2015-09-28

    Composite molecule-nanoparticle hybrid systems have recently emerged as important materials for applications ranging from chemical sensing to nanoscale electronics. However, creating reproducible and repeatable composite materials with precise properties has remained one of the primary challenges to the implementation of these technologies. Understanding the sources of variation that dominate the assembly and transport behavior is essential for the advancement of nanoparticle-array based devices. In this work, we use a combination of charge-transport measurements, electron microscopy, and optical characterization techniques to determine the role of morphology and structure on the charge transport properties of 2-dimensional monolayer arrays of molecularly-interlinked Au nanoparticles. Using these techniques we are able to determine the role of both assembly-dependent and particle-dependent defects on the conductivities of the films. These results demonstrate that assembly processes dominate the dispersion of conductance values, while nanoparticle and ligand features dictate the mean value of the conductance. By performing a systematic study of the conductance of these arrays as a function of nanoparticle size we are able to extract the carrier mobility for specific molecular ligands. We show that nanoparticle polydispersity correlates with the void density in the array, and that because of this correlation it is possible to accurately determine the void density within the array directly from conductance measurements. These results demonstrate that conductance-based measurements can be used to accurately and non-destructively determine the morphological and structural properties of these hybrid arrays, and thus provide a characterization platform that helps move 2-dimensional nanoparticle arrays toward robust and reproducible electronic systems.

  13. 2D Radiation MHD K-shell Modeling of Single Wire Array Stainless Steel Experiments on the Z Machine

    SciTech Connect

    Thornhill, J. W.; Giuliani, J. L.; Apruzese, J. P.; Chong, Y. K.; Davis, J.; Dasgupta, A.; Whitney, K. G.; Clark, R. W.; Jones, B.; Coverdale, C. A.; Ampleford, D. J.; Cuneo, M. E.; Deeney, C.

    2009-01-21

    Many physical effects can produce unstable plasma behavior that affect K-shell emission from arrays. Such effects include: asymmetry in the initial density profile, asymmetry in power flow, thermal conduction at the boundaries, and non-uniform wire ablation. Here we consider how asymmetry in the radiation field also contributes to the generation of multidimensional plasma behavior that affects K-shell power and yield. To model this radiation asymmetry, we have incorporated into the MACH2 r-z MHD code a self-consistent calculation of the non-LTE population kinetics based on radiation transport using multi-dimensional ray tracing. Such methodology is necessary for modeling the enhanced radiative cooling that occurs at the anode and cathode ends of the pinch during the run-in phase of the implosion. This enhanced radiative cooling is due to reduced optical depth at these locations producing an asymmetric flow of radiative energy that leads to substantial disruption of large initial diameter (>5 cm) pinches and drives 1D into 2D fluid (i.e., Rayleigh-Taylor like) flows. The impact of this 2D behavior on K-shell power and yield is investigated by comparing 1D and 2D model results with data obtained from a series of single wire array stainless steel experiments performed on the Z generator.

  14. 2D XANES-XEOL mapping: observation of enhanced band gap emission from ZnO nanowire arrays

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Zhiqiang; Guo, Xiaoxuan; Sham, Tsun-Kong

    2014-05-01

    Using 2D XANES-XEOL spectroscopy, it is found that the band gap emission of ZnO nanowire arrays is substantially enhanced i.e. that the intensity ratio between the band gap and defect emissions increases by more than an order of magnitude when the excitation energy is scanned across the O K-edge. Possible mechanisms are discussed.Using 2D XANES-XEOL spectroscopy, it is found that the band gap emission of ZnO nanowire arrays is substantially enhanced i.e. that the intensity ratio between the band gap and defect emissions increases by more than an order of magnitude when the excitation energy is scanned across the O K-edge. Possible mechanisms are discussed. Electronic supplementary information (ESI) available: XEOL spectra with different excitation energies. X-ray attenuation length vs. photon energy. Details of surface defects in ZnO NWs. The second O K-edge and Zn L-edge 2D XANES-XEOL maps. Comparison of the first and second TEY at O K-edge and Zn L-edge scans, respectively. Raman spectra of the ZnO NWs with different IBGE/IDE ratios. See DOI: 10.1039/c4nr01049c

  15. Characterization of responses of 2d array seven29 detector and its combined use with octavius phantom for the patient-specific quality assurance in rapidarc treatment delivery

    SciTech Connect

    Syamkumar, S.A.; Padmanabhan, Sriram; Sukumar, Prabakar; Nagarajan, Vivekanandan

    2012-04-01

    A commercial 2D array seven29 detector has been characterized and its performance has been evaluated. 2D array ionization chamber equipped with 729 ionization chambers uniformly arranged in a 27 Multiplication-Sign 27 matrix with an active area of 27 Multiplication-Sign 27 cm{sup 2} was used for the study. An octagon-shaped phantom (Octavius Phantom) with a central cavity is used to insert the 2D ion chamber array. All measurements were done with a linear accelerator. The detector dose linearity, reproducibility, output factors, dose rate, source to surface distance (SSD), and directional dependency has been studied. The performance of the 2D array, when measuring clinical dose maps, was also investigated. For pretreatment quality assurance, 10 different RapidArc plans conforming to the clinical standards were selected. The 2D array demonstrates an excellent short-term output reproducibility. The long-term reproducibility was found to be within {+-}1% over a period of 5 months. Output factor measurements for the central chamber of the array showed no considerable deviation from ion chamber measurements. We found that the 2D array exhibits directional dependency for static fields. Measurement of beam profiles and wedge-modulated fields with the 2D array matched very well with the ion chamber measurements in the water phantom. The study shows that 2D array seven29 is a reliable and accurate dosimeter and a useful tool for quality assurance. The combination of the 2D array with the Octavius phantom proved to be a fast and reliable method for pretreatment verification of rotational treatments.

  16. Dosimetric characteristics of the novel 2D ionization chamber array OCTAVIUS Detector 1500

    SciTech Connect

    Stelljes, T. S. Looe, H. K.; Chofor, N.; Poppe, B.; Harmeyer, A.; Reuter, J.; Harder, D.

    2015-04-15

    Purpose: The dosimetric properties of the OCTAVIUS Detector 1500 (OD1500) ionization chamber array (PTW-Freiburg, Freiburg, Germany) have been investigated. A comparative study was carried out with the OCTAVIUS Detector 729 and OCTAVIUS Detector 1000 SRS arrays. Methods: The OD1500 array is an air vented ionization chamber array with 1405 detectors in a 27 × 27 cm{sup 2} measurement area arranged in a checkerboard pattern with a chamber-to-chamber distance of 10 mm in each row. A sampling step width of 5 mm can be achieved by merging two measurements shifted by 5 mm, thus fulfilling the Nyquist theorem for intensity modulated dose distributions. The stability, linearity, and dose per pulse dependence were investigated using a Semiflex 31013 chamber (PTW-Freiburg, Freiburg, Germany) as a reference detector. The effective depth of measurement was determined by measuring TPR curves with the array and a Roos chamber type 31004 (PTW-Freiburg, Freiburg, Germany). Comparative output factor measurements were performed with the array, the Semiflex 31010 ionization chamber and the Diode 60012 (both PTW-Freiburg, Freiburg, Germany). The energy dependence of the OD1500 was measured by comparing the array’s readings to those of a Semiflex 31010 ionization chamber for varying mean photon energies at the depth of measurement, applying to the Semiflex chamber readings the correction factor k{sub NR} for nonreference conditions. The Gaussian lateral dose response function of a single array detector was determined by searching the convolution kernel suitable to convert the slit beam profiles measured with a Diode 60012 into those measured with the array’s central chamber. An intensity modulated dose distribution measured with the array was verified by comparing a OD1500 measurement to TPS calculations and film measurements. Results: The stability and interchamber sensitivity variation of the OD1500 array were within ±0.2% and ±0.58%, respectively. Dose linearity was within 1

  17. A Novel 2-D Coherent DOA Estimation Method Based on Dimension Reduction Sparse Reconstruction for Orthogonal Arrays

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Xiuhong; Mao, Xingpeng; Wang, Yiming; Zhang, Naitong; Li, Bo

    2016-01-01

    Based on sparse representations, the problem of two-dimensional (2-D) direction of arrival (DOA) estimation is addressed in this paper. A novel sparse 2-D DOA estimation method, called Dimension Reduction Sparse Reconstruction (DRSR), is proposed with pairing by Spatial Spectrum Reconstruction of Sub-Dictionary (SSRSD). By utilizing the angle decoupling method, which transforms a 2-D estimation into two independent one-dimensional (1-D) estimations, the high computational complexity induced by a large 2-D redundant dictionary is greatly reduced. Furthermore, a new angle matching scheme, SSRSD, which is less sensitive to the sparse reconstruction error with higher pair-matching probability, is introduced. The proposed method can be applied to any type of orthogonal array without requirement of a large number of snapshots and a priori knowledge of the number of signals. The theoretical analyses and simulation results show that the DRSR-SSRSD method performs well for coherent signals, which performance approaches Cramer–Rao bound (CRB), even under a single snapshot and low signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) condition. PMID:27649191

  18. A Novel 2-D Coherent DOA Estimation Method Based on Dimension Reduction Sparse Reconstruction for Orthogonal Arrays.

    PubMed

    Wang, Xiuhong; Mao, Xingpeng; Wang, Yiming; Zhang, Naitong; Li, Bo

    2016-01-01

    Based on sparse representations, the problem of two-dimensional (2-D) direction of arrival (DOA) estimation is addressed in this paper. A novel sparse 2-D DOA estimation method, called Dimension Reduction Sparse Reconstruction (DRSR), is proposed with pairing by Spatial Spectrum Reconstruction of Sub-Dictionary (SSRSD). By utilizing the angle decoupling method, which transforms a 2-D estimation into two independent one-dimensional (1-D) estimations, the high computational complexity induced by a large 2-D redundant dictionary is greatly reduced. Furthermore, a new angle matching scheme, SSRSD, which is less sensitive to the sparse reconstruction error with higher pair-matching probability, is introduced. The proposed method can be applied to any type of orthogonal array without requirement of a large number of snapshots and a priori knowledge of the number of signals. The theoretical analyses and simulation results show that the DRSR-SSRSD method performs well for coherent signals, which performance approaches Cramer-Rao bound (CRB), even under a single snapshot and low signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) condition. PMID:27649191

  19. Graphene/carbon nanotube hybrid-based transparent 2D optical array.

    PubMed

    Kim, Un Jeong; Lee, Il Ha; Bae, Jung Jun; Lee, Sangjin; Han, Gang Hee; Chae, Seung Jin; Güneş, Fethullah; Choi, Jun Hee; Baik, Chan Wook; Kim, Sun Il; Kim, Jong Min; Lee, Young Hee

    2011-09-01

    Graphene/carbon nanotube (CNT) hybrid structures are fabricated for use as optical arrays. Vertically aligned CNTs are directly synthesized on a graphene/quartz substrate using plasma-enhanced chemical vapor deposition (PECVD). Graphene preserves the transparency and resistance during CNT growth. Highly aligned single-walled CNTs show a better performance for the diffraction intensity. PMID:21769950

  20. The Octavius1500 2D ion chamber array and its associated phantoms: Dosimetric characterization of a new prototype

    SciTech Connect

    Van Esch, Ann Huyskens, Dominique P.; Basta, Katarzyna; Evrard, Marie; Ghislain, Michel; Sergent, Francois

    2014-09-15

    Purpose: The purpose of the study is to characterize the prototype of the new Octavius1500 (PTW, Freiburg, Germany) 2D ion chamber array, covering its use in different phantom setups, from the most basic solid water sandwich setup to the more complex cylindrical Octavius{sup ®} 4D (Oct4D) (PTW) phantom/detector combination. The new detector houses nearly twice the amount of ion chambers as its predecessors (Seven29 and Octavius729), thereby tackling one of the most important limitations of ion chamber (or diode) arrays, namely the limited detector density. The 0.06 cm{sup 3} cubic ion chambers are now arranged in a checkerboard pattern, leaving no lines (neither longitudinally nor laterally) without detectors. Methods: All measurements were performed on a dual energy (6 MV and 18 MV) iX Clinac (Varian Medical Systems, Palo Alto, CA) and all calculations were done in the Eclipse treatment planning system (Varian) with the Anisotropic Analytical Algorithm. First, the basic characteristics of the 2D array, such as measurement stability, dose rate dependence and dose linearity were investigated in the solid water sandwich setup. Second, the directional dependence was assessed to allow the evaluation of the new Octavius2D phantom (Oct2D{sup 1500}) for planar verification measurements of composite plans. Third, measurements were performed in the Oct4D phantom to evaluate the impact of the increased detector density on the accuracy of the volumetric dose reconstruction. Results: While showing equally good dose linearity and dose rate independence, the Octavius1500 outperforms the previous models because of its instantaneous measurement stability and its twofold active area coverage. Orthogonal field-by-field measurements immediately benefit from the increased detector density. The 3.9 cm wide compensation cavity in the new Oct2D{sup 1500} phantom prototype adequately corrects for directional dependence from the rear, resulting in good agreement within the target dose

  1. Persistent current in a 2D Josephson junction array wrapped around a cylinder

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Garanin, D. A.; Chudnovsky, E. M.

    2016-07-01

    We study persistent currents in a Josephson junction array wrapped around a cylinder. The T = 0 quantum statistical mechanics of the array is equivalent to the statistical mechanics of a classical xy spin system in 2+1 dimensions at the effective temperature T*=\\sqrt{2JU} , with J being the Josephson energy of the junction and U being the charging energy of the superconducting island. It is investigated analytically and numerically on lattices containing over one million sites. For weak disorder and T*\\ll J the dependence of the persistent current on disorder and T* computed numerically agrees quantitatively with the analytical result derived within the spin-wave approximation. The high-T* and/or strong-disorder behavior is dominated by instantons corresponding to the vortex loops in 2 + 1 dimensions. The current becomes destroyed completely at the quantum phase transition into the Cooper-pair insulating phase.

  2. Enhanced Optical Cross Section via Collective Coupling of Atomic Dipoles in a 2D Array

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bettles, Robert J.; Gardiner, Simon A.; Adams, Charles S.

    2016-03-01

    Enhancing the optical cross section is an enticing goal in light-matter interactions, due to its fundamental role in quantum and nonlinear optics. Here, we show how dipolar interactions can suppress off-axis scattering in a two-dimensional atomic array, leading to a subradiant collective mode where the optical cross section is enhanced by almost an order of magnitude. As a consequence, it is possible to attain an optical depth which implies high-fidelity extinction, from a monolayer. Using realistic experimental parameters, we also model how lattice vacancies and the atomic trapping depth affect the transmission, concluding that such high extinction should be possible, using current experimental techniques.

  3. A fast and conformal heating scheme for producing large thermal lesions using a 2D ultrasound phased array.

    PubMed

    Liu, Hao-Li; Lin, Win-Li; Chen, Yung-Yaw

    2007-02-01

    The treatment conformability and the total treatment time of large tumors are both important issues in ultrasound thermal therapy. Previous heating strategies all show their restrictions in achieving these two issues to satisfactory levels simultaneously. This work theoretically presents a new heating strategy which is capable of both increasing the treatment conformability and shortening the treatment time, when using a 2D ultrasound phased array transducer. To perform this, a set of the multiple-foci patterns (considered the basic heating units) were temporally switched to steer the beam at different focal planes with the lesion length being well-controlled. Then, to conformally cover an irregular target volume, the 2D phased array was laterally shifted by a positioning system to deposit a suitable heating unit to cover a subvolume part. Results demonstrated that the totally treatment time can be largely reduced. The heating rate can be increased up to 0.96 cm3/min compared to the previously reported 0.26 cm3/min. Also, the proposed scheme showed that the tumor regions can be completely treated with the normal tissue damage at satisfactory level. The feasibility of the proposed strategy for irregular tumor treatment was also demonstrated. This study offers useful information in large tumor treatment in ultrasound thermal therapy.

  4. Arrayed van der Waals Vertical Heterostructures Based on 2D GaSe Grown by Molecular Beam Epitaxy.

    PubMed

    Yuan, Xiang; Tang, Lei; Liu, Shanshan; Wang, Peng; Chen, Zhigang; Zhang, Cheng; Liu, Yanwen; Wang, Weiyi; Zou, Yichao; Liu, Cong; Guo, Nan; Zou, Jin; Zhou, Peng; Hu, Weida; Xiu, Faxian

    2015-05-13

    Vertically stacking two-dimensional (2D) materials can enable the design of novel electronic and optoelectronic devices and realize complex functionality. However, the fabrication of such artificial heterostructures on a wafer scale with an atomically sharp interface poses an unprecedented challenge. Here, we demonstrate a convenient and controllable approach for the production of wafer-scale 2D GaSe thin films by molecular beam epitaxy. In situ reflection high-energy electron diffraction oscillations and Raman spectroscopy reveal a layer-by-layer van der Waals epitaxial growth mode. Highly efficient photodetector arrays were fabricated, based on few-layer GaSe on Si. These photodiodes show steady rectifying characteristics and a high external quantum efficiency of 23.6%. The resultant photoresponse is super-fast and robust, with a response time of 60 μs. Importantly, the device shows no sign of degradation after 1 million cycles of operation. We also carried out numerical simulations to understand the underlying device working principles. Our study establishes a new approach to produce controllable, robust, and large-area 2D heterostructures and presents a crucial step for further practical applications.

  5. Color generation and refractive index sensing using diffraction from 2D silicon nanowire arrays.

    PubMed

    Walia, Jaspreet; Dhindsa, Navneet; Khorasaninejad, Mohammadreza; Saini, Simarjeet Singh

    2014-01-15

    Tunable structural color generation from vertical silicon nanowires arranged in different square lattices is demonstrated. The generated colors are adjustable using well-defined Bragg diffraction theory, and only depend on the lattice spacing and angles of incidence. Vivid colors spanning from bright red to blue are easily achieved. In keeping with this, a single square lattice of silicon nanowires is also able to produce different colors spanning the entire visible range. It is also shown that the 2D gratings also have a third grating direction when rotated 45 degrees. These simple and elegant solutions to color generation from silicon are used to demonstrate a cost-effective refractive index sensor. The sensor works by measuring color changes resulting from changes in the refractive index of the medium surrounding the nanowires using a trichromatic RGB decomposition. Moreover, the sensor produces linear responses in the trichromatic decomposition values versus the surrounding medium index. An index resolution of 10(-4) is achieved by performing basic image processing on the collected images, without the need for a laser or a spectrometer. Spectral analysis enables an increase in the index resolution of the sensor to a value of 10(-6) , with a sensitivity of 400 nm/RIU. PMID:23784866

  6. 2D array transducers for real-time 3D ultrasound guidance of interventional devices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Light, Edward D.; Smith, Stephen W.

    2009-02-01

    We describe catheter ring arrays for real-time 3D ultrasound guidance of devices such as vascular grafts, heart valves and vena cava filters. We have constructed several prototypes operating at 5 MHz and consisting of 54 elements using the W.L. Gore & Associates, Inc. micro-miniature ribbon cables. We have recently constructed a new transducer using a braided wiring technology from Precision Interconnect. This transducer consists of 54 elements at 4.8 MHz with pitch of 0.20 mm and typical -6 dB bandwidth of 22%. In all cases, the transducer and wiring assembly were integrated with an 11 French catheter of a Cook Medical deployment device for vena cava filters. Preliminary in vivo and in vitro testing is ongoing including simultaneous 3D ultrasound and x-ray fluoroscopy.

  7. Enhanced Optical Cross Section via Collective Coupling of Atomic Dipoles in a 2D Array.

    PubMed

    Bettles, Robert J; Gardiner, Simon A; Adams, Charles S

    2016-03-11

    Enhancing the optical cross section is an enticing goal in light-matter interactions, due to its fundamental role in quantum and nonlinear optics. Here, we show how dipolar interactions can suppress off-axis scattering in a two-dimensional atomic array, leading to a subradiant collective mode where the optical cross section is enhanced by almost an order of magnitude. As a consequence, it is possible to attain an optical depth which implies high-fidelity extinction, from a monolayer. Using realistic experimental parameters, we also model how lattice vacancies and the atomic trapping depth affect the transmission, concluding that such high extinction should be possible, using current experimental techniques. PMID:27015480

  8. Continuous catchment-scale monitoring of geomorphic processes with a 2-D seismological array

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Burtin, A.; Hovius, N.; Milodowski, D.; Chen, Y.-G.; Wu, Y.-M.; Lin, C.-W.; Chen, H.

    2012-04-01

    The monitoring of geomorphic processes during extreme climatic events is of a primary interest to estimate their impact on the landscape dynamics. However, available techniques to survey the surface activity do not provide a relevant time and/or space resolution. Furthermore, these methods hardly investigate the dynamics of the events since their detection are made a posteriori. To increase our knowledge of the landscape evolution and the influence of extreme climatic events on a catchment dynamics, we need to develop new tools and procedures. In many past works, it has been shown that seismic signals are relevant to detect and locate surface processes (landslides, debris flows). During the 2010 typhoon season, we deployed a network of 12 seismometers dedicated to monitor the surface processes of the Chenyoulan catchment in Taiwan. We test the ability of a two dimensional array and small inter-stations distances (~ 11 km) to map in continuous and at a catchment-scale the geomorphic activity. The spectral analysis of continuous records shows a high-frequency (> 1 Hz) seismic energy that is coherent with the occurrence of hillslope and river processes. Using a basic detection algorithm and a location approach running on the analysis of seismic amplitudes, we manage to locate the catchment activity. We mainly observe short-time events (> 300 occurrences) associated with debris falls and bank collapses during daily convective storms, where 69% of occurrences are coherent with the time distribution of precipitations. We also identify a couple of debris flows during a large tropical storm. In contrast, the FORMOSAT imagery does not detect any activity, which somehow reflects the lack of extreme climatic conditions during the experiment. However, high resolution pictures confirm the existence of links between most of geomorphic events and existing structures (landslide scars, gullies...). We thus conclude to an activity that is dominated by reactivation processes. It

  9. Parallel acquisition of Raman spectra from a 2D multifocal array using a modulated multifocal detection scheme

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kong, Lingbo; Chan, James W.

    2015-03-01

    A major limitation of spontaneous Raman scattering is its intrinsically weak signals, which makes Raman analysis or imaging of biological specimens slow and impractical for many applications. To address this, we report the development of a novel modulated multifocal detection scheme for simultaneous acquisition of full Raman spectra from a 2-D m × n multifocal array. A spatial light modulator (SLM), or a pair of galvo-mirrors, is used to generate m × n laser foci. Raman signals generated within each focus are projected simultaneously into a spectrometer and detected by a CCD camera. The system can resolve the Raman spectra with no crosstalk along the vertical pixels of the CCD camera, e.g., along the entrance slit of the spectrometer. However, there is significant overlap of the spectra in the horizontal pixel direction, e.g., along the dispersion direction. By modulating the excitation multifocal array (illumination modulation) or the emitted Raman signal array (detection modulation), the superimposed Raman spectra of different multifocal patterns are collected. The individual Raman spectrum from each focus is then retrieved from the superimposed spectra using a postacquisition data processing algorithm. This development leads to a significant improvement in the speed of acquiring Raman spectra. We discuss the application of this detection scheme for parallel analysis of individual cells with multifocus laser tweezers Raman spectroscopy (M-LTRS) and for rapid confocal hyperspectral Raman imaging.

  10. Mid-infrared extraordinary transmission through Ga-doped ZnO films with 2D hole arrays

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cleary, Justin W.; Nader Esfahani, Nima; Vangala, Shiva; Guo, Junpeng; Hendrickson, Joshua R.; Leedy, Kevin D.; Look, David C.

    2014-03-01

    Extraordinary optical transmission (EOT), through highly conductive ZnO films with sub-wavelength hole arrays is investigated in the long-wavelength infrared regime. EOT is facilitated by the excitation of surface plasmon polaritons (SPPs) on Ga-Doped ZnO films and can be tuned utilizing the physical parameters such as film thickness, period, hole size, and hole shape, as well as doping of the film. Analytical and finite-difference time-domain calculations are completed for 1 micron thick films with square, circular, and triangular hole arrays demonstrating SPP coupling and EOT. The fundamental plasmonic modes are observed in each of these hole shapes at wavelengths that correspond to strong EOT peaks. Doping tunability for these structures is also observed. Ga-doped ZnO films are grown via pulsed laser deposition (PLD) on silicon with plasma frequencies in the near-infrared. The sub-wavelength 2D hole arrays are fabricated in the Ga-doped ZnO films via standard lithography and etching processes. This highly conductive ZnO EOT structure may prove useful in novel integrated components such as tunable biosensors or surface plasmon coupling mechanisms.

  11. A MEMS probe card with 2D dense-arrayed 'hoe'-shaped metal tips

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Fei; Li, Xinxin; Feng, Songlin

    2008-05-01

    In this paper, we present a novel MEMS probe card with densely area-arrayed microprobes for the wafer-level test of advanced ICs. In a 4 inch silicon wafer, a total of about 110 000 probe tips can be simultaneously fabricated, with a two-dimensional tip pitch of 240 µm × 160 µm. The 'hoe-shaped' microprobe structure is composed of one or two planar arms and an up-tilted tip, both of which are high-yield fabricated with metal micromachining techniques including low-stress nickel electroplating. With micromachined cavities, the silicon wafer serves as moulds for the up-tilted metal probes. Then, the microprobes are finally flip-chip packaged to a ceramic board for further connection to automatic testing equipment (ATE). After the probe structures are formed, the silicon wafer is removed completely by using TMAH wet etching, while the probes are freed by silicon laterally etching. The measured spring constants for all the three types of probes agree well with the designed values. As both mechanical anchors and electrical interconnections, the Sn-Ag solder-bumps feature satisfactory properties. The tested contact resistance values for three different thin-film pads on dies under test are always below 0.8 Ω, while the current leakage between two adjacent probes is only about 150 pA under 3.3 V.

  12. Tumor-tracking radiotherapy of moving targets; verification using 3D polymer gel, 2D ion-chamber array and biplanar diode array

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ceberg, Sofie; Falk, Marianne; Rosenschöld, Per Munck Af; Cattell, Herbert; Gustafsson, Helen; Keall, Paul; Korreman, Stine S.; Medin, Joakim; Nordström, Fredrik; Persson, Gitte; Sawant, Amit; Svatos, Michelle; Zimmerman, Jens; Bäck, Sven ÅJ

    2010-11-01

    The aim of this study was to carry out a dosimetric verification of a dynamic multileaf collimator (DMLC)-based tumor-tracking delivery during respiratory-like motion. The advantage of tumor-tracking radiation delivery is the ability to allow a tighter margin around the target by continuously following and adapting the dose delivery to its motion. However, there are geometric and dosimetric uncertainties associated with beam delivery system constraints and output variations, and several investigations have to be accomplished before a clinical integration of this tracking technique. Two types of delivery were investigated in this study I) a single beam perpendicular to a target with a one dimensional motion parallel to the MLC moving direction, and II) an intensity modulated arc delivery (RapidArc®) with a target motion diagonal to the MLC moving direction. The feasibility study (I) was made using an 2D ionisation chamber array and a true 3D polymer gel. The arc delivery (II) was verified using polymer gel and a biplanar diode array. Good agreement in absorbed dose was found between delivery to a static target and to a moving target with DMLC tracking using all three detector systems. However, due to the limited spatial resolution of the 2D array a detailed comparison was not possible. The RapidArc® plan delivery was successfully verified using the biplanar diode array and true 3D polymer gel, and both detector systems could verify that the DMLC-based tumor-tracking delivery system has a very good ability to account for respiratory target motion.

  13. Beam perturbation characteristics of a 2D transmission silicon diode array, Magic Plate.

    PubMed

    Alrowaili, Ziyad A; Lerch, Michael L F; Petasecca, Marco; Carolan, Martin G; Metcalfe, Peter E; Rosenfeld, Anatoly B

    2016-01-01

    The main objective of this study is to demonstrate the performance characteristics of the Magic Plate (MP) system when operated upstream of the patient in trans-mission mode (MPTM). The MPTM is an essential component of a real-time QA system designed for operation during radiotherapy treatment. Of particular interest is a quantitative study into the influence of the MP on the radiation beam quality at several field sizes and linear accelerator potential differences. The impact is measured through beam perturbation effects such as changes in the skin dose and/or percentage depth dose (PDD) (both in and out of field). The MP was placed in the block tray of a Varian linac head operated at 6, 10 and 18 MV beam energy. To optimize the MPTM operational setup, two conditions were investigated and each setup was compared to the case where no MP is positioned in place (i.e., open field): (i) MPTM alone and (ii) MPTM with a thin passive contamination electron filter. The in-field and out-of-field surface doses of a solid water phantom were investigated for both setups using a Markus plane parallel (Model N23343) and Attix parallel-plate, MRI model 449 ionization chambers. In addition, the effect on the 2D dose distribution measured by the Delta4 QA system was also investi-gated. The transmission factor for both of these MPTM setups in the central axis was also investigated using a Farmer ionization chamber (Model 2571A) and an Attix ionization chamber. Measurements were performed for different irradiation field sizes of 5 × 5 cm2 and 10 × 10 cm2. The change in the surface dose relative to dmax was measured to be less than 0.5% for the 6 MV, 10 MV, and 18 MV energy beams. Transmission factors measured for both set ups (i & ii above) with 6 MV, 10 MV, and 18 MV at a depth of dmax and a depth of 10 cm were all within 1.6% of open field. The impact of both the bare MPTM and the MPTM with 1 mm buildup on 3D dose distribution in comparison to the open field investigated using

  14. A 2D ion chamber array audit of wedged and asymmetric fields in an inhomogeneous lung phantom

    SciTech Connect

    Lye, Jessica; Dunn, Leon Alves, Andrew; Kenny, John; Lehmann, Joerg; Williams, Ivan; Kron, Tomas; Cole, Andrew

    2014-10-15

    Purpose: The Australian Clinical Dosimetry Service (ACDS) has implemented a new method of a nonreference condition Level II type dosimetric audit of radiotherapy services to increase measurement accuracy and patient safety within Australia. The aim of this work is to describe the methodology, tolerances, and outcomes from the new audit. Methods: The ACDS Level II audit measures the dose delivered in 2D planes using an ionization chamber based array positioned at multiple depths. Measurements are made in rectilinear homogeneous and inhomogeneous phantoms composed of slabs of solid water and lung. Computer generated computed tomography data sets of the rectilinear phantoms are supplied to the facility prior to audit for planning of a range of cases including reference fields, asymmetric fields, and wedged fields. The audit assesses 3D planning with 6 MV photons with a static (zero degree) gantry. Scoring is performed using local dose differences between the planned and measured dose within 80% of the field width. The overall audit result is determined by the maximum dose difference over all scoring points, cases, and planes. Pass (Optimal Level) is defined as maximum dose difference ≤3.3%, Pass (Action Level) is ≤5.0%, and Fail (Out of Tolerance) is >5.0%. Results: At close of 2013, the ACDS had performed 24 Level II audits. 63% of the audits passed, 33% failed, and the remaining audit was not assessable. Of the 15 audits that passed, 3 were at Pass (Action Level). The high fail rate is largely due to a systemic issue with modeling asymmetric 60° wedges which caused a delivered overdose of 5%–8%. Conclusions: The ACDS has implemented a nonreference condition Level II type audit, based on ion chamber 2D array measurements in an inhomogeneous slab phantom. The powerful diagnostic ability of this audit has allowed the ACDS to rigorously test the treatment planning systems implemented in Australian radiotherapy facilities. Recommendations from audits have led to

  15. Constraining Polarized Foregrounds for EoR Experiments I: 2D Power Spectra from the PAPER-32 Imaging Array

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kohn, S. A.; Aguirre, J. E.; Nunhokee, C. D.; Bernardi, G.; Pober, J. C.; Ali, Z. S.; Bradley, R. F.; Carilli, C. L.; DeBoer, D. R.; Gugliucci, N. E.; Jacobs, D. C.; Klima, P.; MacMahon, D. H. E.; Manley, J. R.; Moore, D. F.; Parsons, A. R.; Stefan, I. I.; Walbrugh, W. P.

    2016-06-01

    Current generation low-frequency interferometers constructed with the objective of detecting the high-redshift 21 cm background aim to generate power spectra of the brightness temperature contrast of neutral hydrogen in primordial intergalactic medium. Two-dimensional (2D) power spectra (power in Fourier modes parallel and perpendicular to the line of sight) that formed from interferometric visibilities have been shown to delineate a boundary between spectrally smooth foregrounds (known as the wedge) and spectrally structured 21 cm background emission (the EoR window). However, polarized foregrounds are known to possess spectral structure due to Faraday rotation, which can leak into the EoR window. In this work we create and analyze 2D power spectra from the PAPER-32 imaging array in Stokes I, Q, U, and V. These allow us to observe and diagnose systematic effects in our calibration at high signal-to-noise within the Fourier space most relevant to EoR experiments. We observe well-defined windows in the Stokes visibilities, with Stokes Q, U, and V power spectra sharing a similar wedge shape to that seen in Stokes I. With modest polarization calibration, we see no evidence that polarization calibration errors move power outside the wedge in any Stokes visibility to the noise levels attained. Deeper integrations will be required to confirm that this behavior persists to the depth required for EoR detection.

  16. Combining the switched-beam and beam-steering capabilities in a 2-D phased array antenna system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tsai, Yi-Che; Chen, Yin-Bing; Hwang, Ruey-Bing

    2016-01-01

    This paper presents the development, fabrication, and measurement of a novel beam-forming system consisting of 16 subarray antennas, each containing four aperture-coupled patch antennas, and the application of this system in smart wireless communication systems. The beam patterns of each of the subarray antennas can be switched toward one of nine zones over a half space by adjusting the specific phase delay angles among the four antenna elements. Furthermore, when all subarrays are pointed at the same zone, slightly continuous beam steering in around 1° increments can be achieved by dynamically altering the progressive phase delay angle among the subarrays. Phase angle calibration was implemented by coupling each transmitter output and down converter into the in-phase/quadrature baseband to calculate the correction factor to the weight. In addition, to validate the proposed concepts and the fabricated 2-D phased array antenna system, this study measured the far-field radiation patterns of the aperture-coupled patch array integrated with feeding networks and a phase-calibration system to carefully verify its spatially switched-beam and beam-steering characteristics at a center frequency of 2.4 GHz which can cover the industrial, scientific, and medical band and some long-term evolution applications. In addition, measured results were compared with calculated results, and agreement between them was observed.

  17. In vivo liver tracking with a high volume rate 4D ultrasound scanner and a 2D matrix array probe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lediju Bell, Muyinatu A.; Byram, Brett C.; Harris, Emma J.; Evans, Philip M.; Bamber, Jeffrey C.

    2012-03-01

    The effectiveness of intensity-modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) is compromised by involuntary motion (e.g. respiration, cardiac activity). The feasibility of processing ultrasound echo data to automatically estimate 3D liver motion for real-time IMRT guidance was previously demonstrated, but performance was limited by an acquisition speed of 2 volumes per second due to hardware restrictions of a mechanical linear array probe. Utilizing a 2D matrix array probe with parallel receive beamforming offered increased acquisition speeds and an opportunity to investigate the benefits of higher volume rates. In vivo livers of three volunteers were scanned with and without respiratory motion at volume rates of 24 and 48 Hz, respectively. Respiration was suspended via voluntary breath hold. Correlation-based, phase-sensitive 3D speckle tracking was applied to consecutively acquired volumes of echo data. Volumes were omitted at fixed intervals and 3D speckle tracking was re-applied to study the effect of lower scan rates. Results revealed periodic motion that corresponded with the heart rate or breathing cycle in the absence or presence of respiration, respectively. For cardiac-induced motion, volume rates for adequate tracking ranged from 8 to 12 Hz and was limited by frequency discrepancies between tracking estimates from higher and lower frequency scan rates. Thus, the scan rate of volume data acquired without respiration was limited by the need to sample the frequency induced by the beating heart. In respiratory-dominated motion, volume rate limits ranged from 4 to 12 Hz, interpretable from the root-mean-squared deviation (RMSD) from tracking estimates at 24 Hz. While higher volume rates yielded RMSD values less than 1 mm in most cases, lower volume rates yielded RMSD values of 2-6 mm.

  18. Characterization of cMuts in rarefied gases.

    PubMed

    Davis, Lee A J; Hutchins, David A; Noble, Russell A

    2007-05-01

    The performance of capacitive micromachined ultrasonic transducers (cMUTs) was investigated at low pressures in various gases such as air, carbon dioxide, and helium. The aim was to replicate the pressure conditions likely to meet on the surface of other planets such as Mars, where ultrasonic wind velocity measurements might be possible. It is demonstrated that cMUTs are capable of operating at low pressures, and the response to pressures below terrestrial atmospheric values is observed experimentally and compared to theoretical predictions. The center frequency of operation and sensitivity are both observed to be affected by changing pressures.

  19. A Comparative Analysis for Verification of IMRT and VMAT Treatment Plans using a 2-D and 3-D Diode Array

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dance, Michael J.

    With the added complexity of current radiation treatment dose delivery modalities such as IMRT (Intensity Modulated Radiation Therapy) and VMAT (Volumetric Modulated Arc Therapy), quality assurance (QA) of these plans become multifaceted and labor intensive. To simplify the patient specific quality assurance process, 2D or 3D diode arrays are used to measure the radiation fluence for IMRT and VMAT treatments which can then be quickly and easily compared against the planned dose distribution. Because the arrays that can be used for IMRT and VMAT patient-specific quality assurance are of different geometry (planar vs. cylindrical), the same IMRT or VMAT treatment plan measured by two different arrays could lead to different measured radiation fluences, regardless of the output and performance of linear accelerator. Thus, the purpose of this study is to compare patient specific QA results as measured by the MapCHECK 2 and ArcCHECK diode arrays for the same IMRT and VMAT treatment plans to see if one diode array consistently provides a closer comparison to reference data. Six prostate and three thoracic spine IMRT treatment plans as well as three prostate and three thoracic spine VMAT treatment plans were produced. Radiotherapy plans for this study were generated using the Pinnacle TPS v9.6 (Philips Radiation Oncology Systems, Fitchburg, WI) using 6 MV, 6 MV FFF, and 10 MV x-ray beams from a Varian TrueBeam linear accelerator (Varian Medical Systems, Palo Alto, CA) with a 120-millenium multi-leaf collimator (MLC). Each IMRT and VMAT therapy plan was measured on Sun Nuclear's MapCHECK 2 and ArcCHECK diode arrays. IMRT measured data was compared with planned dose distribution using Sun Nuclear's 3DVH quality assurance software program using gamma analysis and dose-volume histograms for target volumes and critical structures comparison. VMAT arc plans measured on the MapCHECK 2 and ArcCHECK were compared using beam-by-beam analysis with the gamma evaluation method with

  20. MagicPlate-512: A 2D silicon detector array for quality assurance of stereotactic motion adaptive radiotherapy

    SciTech Connect

    Petasecca, M. Newall, M. K.; Aldosari, A. H.; Fuduli, I.; Espinoza, A. A.; Porumb, C. S.; Guatelli, S.; Metcalfe, P.; Lerch, M. L. F.; Rosenfeld, A. B.; Booth, J. T.; Colvill, E.; Duncan, M.; Cammarano, D.; Carolan, M.; Oborn, B.; Perevertaylo, V.; Keall, P. J.

    2015-06-15

    Purpose: Spatial and temporal resolutions are two of the most important features for quality assurance instrumentation of motion adaptive radiotherapy modalities. The goal of this work is to characterize the performance of the 2D high spatial resolution monolithic silicon diode array named “MagicPlate-512” for quality assurance of stereotactic body radiation therapy (SBRT) and stereotactic radiosurgery (SRS) combined with a dynamic multileaf collimator (MLC) tracking technique for motion compensation. Methods: MagicPlate-512 is used in combination with the movable platform HexaMotion and a research version of radiofrequency tracking system Calypso driving MLC tracking software. The authors reconstruct 2D dose distributions of small field square beams in three modalities: in static conditions, mimicking the temporal movement pattern of a lung tumor and tracking the moving target while the MLC compensates almost instantaneously for the tumor displacement. Use of Calypso in combination with MagicPlate-512 requires a proper radiofrequency interference shielding. Impact of the shielding on dosimetry has been simulated by GEANT4 and verified experimentally. Temporal and spatial resolutions of the dosimetry system allow also for accurate verification of segments of complex stereotactic radiotherapy plans with identification of the instant and location where a certain dose is delivered. This feature allows for retrospective temporal reconstruction of the delivery process and easy identification of error in the tracking or the multileaf collimator driving systems. A sliding MLC wedge combined with the lung motion pattern has been measured. The ability of the MagicPlate-512 (MP512) in 2D dose mapping in all three modes of operation was benchmarked by EBT3 film. Results: Full width at half maximum and penumbra of the moving and stationary dose profiles measured by EBT3 film and MagicPlate-512 confirm that motion has a significant impact on the dose distribution. Motion

  1. Characterization of a novel 2D array dosimeter for patient-specific quality assurance with volumetric arc therapy

    SciTech Connect

    Stathakis, Sotirios; Myers, Pamela; Esquivel, Carlos; Mavroidis, Panayiotis; Papanikolaou, Nikos

    2013-07-15

    Purpose: In this study, the authors are evaluating a new, commercially available 2D array that offers 3D dose reconstruction for patient specific intensity modulated radiation therapy quality assurance (IMRT QA).Methods: The OCTAVIUS 4D system and its accompanying software (VERISOFT) by PTW were evaluated for the accuracy of the dose reconstruction for patient specific pretreatment IMRT QA. OCTAVIUS 4D measures the dose plane at the linac isocenter as the phantom rotates synchronously with the gantry, maintaining perpendicularity with the beam, by means of an inclinometer and a motor. The measurements collected during a volumetric modulated arc therapy delivery (VMAT) are reconstructed into a 3D dose volume. The VERISOFT application is used to perform the analysis, by comparing the reconstructed dose against the 3D dose matrix from the treatment planning system (TPS) that is computed for the same geometry and beam arrangement as that of the measurement. In this study, the authors evaluated the 3D dose reconstruction algorithm of this new system using a series of tests. Using the Octavius 4D phantom as the patient, dose distributions for various field sizes, beam orientations, shapes, and combination of fields were calculated using the Pinnacle3, TPS, and the respective DICOMRT dose was exported to the VERISOFT analysis software. Measurements were obtained by delivering the test treatment plans and comparisons were made based on gamma index, dose profiles, and isodose distribution analysis. In addition, output factors were measured and the dose linearity of the array was assessed. Those measurements were compared against measurements in water using a single, calibrated ionization chamber as well as calculations from Pinnacle for the same delivery geometries.Results: The number of voxels that met the 3%/3 mm criteria for the volumetric 3D gamma index analysis ranged from 92.3% to 98.9% for all the patient plans that the authors evaluated. 2D gamma analysis in the

  2. SU-E-T-65: Characterization of a 2D Array for QA and Pretreatment Plan Verification

    SciTech Connect

    Anvari, A; Aghamiri, S; Mahdavi, S; Alaei, P

    2014-06-01

    Purpose: The OCTAVIUS detector729 is a 2D array of 729 air vented cubic plane parallel ion chambers used for pretreatment verification and QA. In this study we investigated dosimetric characteristics of this system for clinical photon beam dosimetry. Methods: Detector performance evaluation included determination of the location of the effective point of measurement (EPM), sensitivity, linearity, and reproducibility of detector response, as well as output factor, dose rate, and source to surface distance (SSD) dependence. Finally, assessment of wedge modulated fields was carried out. All the evaluations were performed five times for low and high photon energies. For reference measurements, a 0.6 cc ionization chamber was used. Data analysis and comparison of the OCTAVIUS detector with reference ion chamber data was performed using the VeriSoft patient plan verification software. Results: The reproducibility and stability of the measurements are excellent, the detector showed same signal with a maximum deviation of less than 0.5% in short and long term. Results of sensitivity test showed same signal with a maximum deviation of approximately 0.1%. As the detector 729 response is linear with dose and dose rate, it can be used for the measurement at regions of high dose gradient effectively. The detector agrees with the ionization chamber measurement to within 1% for SSD range of 75 to 125 cm. Also, its measured wedge modulated profiles matched very well with ion chamber dose profiles acquired in a water tank. Conclusions: As the response of the detector 729 is linear with dose and dose rate, it can be used for the measurements in the areas of dose gradients effectively. Based on the measurements and comparisons performed, this system is a reliable and accurate dosimeter for QA and pretreatment plan verification in radiotherapy.

  3. Micro-patterning of ionic reservoirs within a double bilayer lipid membrane to fabricate a 2D array of ion-channel switch based electrochemical biosensors

    SciTech Connect

    Sansinena, J. M.; Yee, C. K.; Sapuri, A.; Swanson, Basil I.; Redondo, A.; Parikh, A. N.

    2004-01-01

    We present a simple approach for the design of ionic reservoir arrays within a double phospholipid bilayer to ultimately develop a 2D array of ion-channel switch based electrochemical biosensors. As a first step, a primary bilayer lipid membrane is deposited onto an array of electrodes patterned onto a substrate surface. Subsequently, an array of microvoids is created within the bilayer by a wet photolithographic patterning of phospholipid bilayers using a deep UV light source and a quartz/chrome photomask. To ensure registry, the photomask used to pattern bilayers is designed to match up the microvoids within the primary bilayer with the array of electrodes on the substrate surface. The deposition of a secondary bilayer lipid membrane onto the primary bilayer that spans across the patterned microvoids leads to the formation of the array of ionic reservoirs within the double phospholipid bilayer. This is accomplished using giant unilamellar vesicles and by exploiting membrane electrostatics. The use of ion-channels incorporated into the secondary bilayer that covers the individual ionic reservoirs allows the construction of a 2D array of ion-channel switch based electrochemical biosensors that are able to recognize different target-agents simultaneously.

  4. Single-chip CMUT-on-CMOS front-end system for real-time volumetric IVUS and ICE imaging.

    PubMed

    Gurun, Gokce; Tekes, Coskun; Zahorian, Jaime; Xu, Toby; Satir, Sarp; Karaman, Mustafa; Hasler, Jennifer; Degertekin, F Levent

    2014-02-01

    Intravascular ultrasound (IVUS) and intracardiac echography (ICE) catheters with real-time volumetric ultrasound imaging capability can provide unique benefits to many interventional procedures used in the diagnosis and treatment of coronary and structural heart diseases. Integration of capacitive micromachined ultrasonic transducer (CMUT) arrays with front-end electronics in single-chip configuration allows for implementation of such catheter probes with reduced interconnect complexity, miniaturization, and high mechanical flexibility. We implemented a single-chip forward-looking (FL) ultrasound imaging system by fabricating a 1.4-mm-diameter dual-ring CMUT array using CMUT-on-CMOS technology on a front-end IC implemented in 0.35-μm CMOS process. The dual-ring array has 56 transmit elements and 48 receive elements on two separate concentric annular rings. The IC incorporates a 25-V pulser for each transmitter and a low-noise capacitive transimpedance amplifier (TIA) for each receiver, along with digital control and smart power management. The final shape of the silicon chip is a 1.5-mm-diameter donut with a 430-μm center hole for a guide wire. The overall front-end system requires only 13 external connections and provides 4 parallel RF outputs while consuming an average power of 20 mW. We measured RF A-scans from the integrated single- chip array which show full functionality at 20.1 MHz with 43% fractional bandwidth. We also tested and demonstrated the image quality of the system on a wire phantom and an ex vivo chicken heart sample. The measured axial and lateral point resolutions are 92 μm and 251 μm, respectively. We successfully acquired volumetric imaging data from the ex vivo chicken heart at 60 frames per second without any signal averaging. These demonstrative results indicate that single-chip CMUT-on-CMOS systems have the potential to produce realtime volumetric images with image quality and speed suitable for catheter-based clinical applications.

  5. Single-Chip CMUT-on-CMOS Front-End System for Real-Time Volumetric IVUS and ICE Imaging

    PubMed Central

    Gurun, Gokce; Tekes, Coskun; Zahorian, Jaime; Xu, Toby; Satir, Sarp; Karaman, Mustafa; Hasler, Jennifer; Degertekin, F. Levent

    2014-01-01

    Intravascular ultrasound (IVUS) and intracardiac echography (ICE) catheters with real-time volumetric ultrasound imaging capability can provide unique benefits to many interventional procedures used in the diagnosis and treatment of coronary and structural heart diseases. Integration of CMUT arrays with front-end electronics in single-chip configuration allows for implementation of such catheter probes with reduced interconnect complexity, miniaturization, and high mechanical flexibility. We implemented a single-chip forward-looking (FL) ultrasound imaging system by fabricating a 1.4-mm-diameter dual-ring CMUT array using CMUT-on-CMOS technology on a front-end IC implemented in 0.35-µm CMOS process. The dual-ring array has 56 transmit elements and 48 receive elements on two separate concentric annular rings. The IC incorporates a 25-V pulser for each transmitter and a low-noise capacitive transimpedance amplifier (TIA) for each receiver, along with digital control and smart power management. The final shape of the silicon chip is a 1.5-mm-diameter donut with a 430-µm center hole for a guide wire. The overall front-end system requires only 13 external connections and provides 4 parallel RF outputs while consuming an average power of 20 mW. We measured RF A-scans from the integrated single-chip array which show full functionality at 20.1 MHz with 43% fractional bandwidth. We also tested and demonstrated the image quality of the system on a wire phantom and an ex-vivo chicken heart sample. The measured axial and lateral point resolutions are 92 µm and 251 µm, respectively. We successfully acquired volumetric imaging data from the ex-vivo chicken heart with 60 frames per second without any signal averaging. These demonstrative results indicate that single-chip CMUT-on-CMOS systems have the potential to produce real-time volumetric images with image quality and speed suitable for catheter based clinical applications. PMID:24474131

  6. SU-E-P-35: Real-Time Patient Transit Dose Verification of Volumetric Modulated Arc Radiotherapy by a 2D Ionization Chamber Array

    SciTech Connect

    Liu, X

    2015-06-15

    Purpose: To explore the real-time dose verification method in volumetric modulated arc radiotherapy (VMAT) with a 2D array ion chamber array. Methods: The 2D ion chamber array was fixed on the panel of electronic portal imaging device (EPID). Source-detector distance (SDD)was 140cm. 8mm RW3 solid water was added to the detector panel to achieve maximum readings.The patient plans for esophageal, prostate and liver cancers were selected to deliver on the cylindrical Cheese phantom 5 times in order to validate the reproducibility of doses. Real-time patient transit dose measurements were performed at each fraction. Dose distributions wereevaluated using gamma index criteria of 3mm DTA and 3% dose difference referred to the firsttime Result. Results: The gamma index pass rate in the Cheese phantom were about 98%; The gamma index pass rate for esophageal, liver and prostate cancer patient were about 92%,94%, and 92%, respectively; Gamma pass rate for all single fraction were more than 90%. Conclusion: The 2D array is capable of monitoring the real time transit doses during VMAT delivery. It is helpful to improve the treatment accuracy.

  7. SU-D-BRE-04: Evaluating the Dose Accuracy of a 2D Ion Chamber Array in High Dose Rate Pencil Beam Scanning Proton Beam

    SciTech Connect

    Perles, L; Mascia, A; Piskulich, F; Lepage, R; Zhang, Y; Giebeler, A; Dong, L

    2014-06-01

    Purpose: To evaluate the absolute dose accuracy of the PTW Octavius 729 XDR 2D ion chamber array at a high dose rate pencil beam scanning proton therapy facility. Methods: A set of 18 plans were created in our treatment planning system, each of which comprising a unique combination of field sizes (FS), length of spread out of Bragg peaks (SOBP) and depths. The parameters used were: FS of 5×5cm{sup 2}, 10×10cm{sup 2} and 15×15cm{sup 2}; flat SOBP of 5cm and 10cm; and isocenter depths of 10cm, 15cm and 20cm, which coincides with the center of the SOBP. The 2D array detector was positioned at the machine isocenter and the appropriate amount of solid water was used to match the planned depths of 10, 15 and 20 cm water equivalent depth. Subsequently, we measured the absolute dose at isocenter using a CC04 ion chamber in a 1D water tank. Both 2D array and CC04 were previously cross calibrated. We also collected the MU rates used by our proton machine from the log files. Results: The relative differences between the CC04 and the 2D array can be summarized into two groups, one with 5 cm SOBP and another with 10 cm SOBP. Plotting these datasets against FS shows that the 2D array response for high dose rate fields (FS of 5×5cm{sup 2} and 5cm SOBP) can be up to 2% lower. Similarly, plotting them against isocenter depths reveals the detector's response can be up to 2% lower for higher energy beams (about 200MeV nominal). The MU rate found in the machine log files for 5cm SOBP's were as high as twice the MU rate for the 10cm SOBP. Conclusion: The 2D array dose response showed a dose rate effect in scanning pencil beam delivery, which needs to be corrected to achieve a better dose accuracy.

  8. Update on the Fabrication and Performance of 2-D Arrays of Superconducting Magnesium Diboride (MgB2) Thermal Detectors for Outer-Planets Exploration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lakew, Brook; Aslam, S.

    2011-01-01

    Detectors with better performance than the current thermopile detectors that operate at room temperature will be needed at the focal plane of far-infrared instruments on future planetary exploration missions. We will present an update on recent results from the 2-D array of MgB2 thermal detectors being currently developed at NASA Goddard. Noise and sensitivity results will be presented and compared to thermal detectors currently in use on planetary missions.

  9. On-line quality assurance of rotational radiotherapy treatment delivery by means of a 2D ion chamber array and the Octavius phantom

    SciTech Connect

    Esch, Ann van; Clermont, Christian; Devillers, Magali; Iori, Mauro; Huyskens, Dominique P.

    2007-10-15

    For routine pretreatment verification of innovative treatment techniques such as (intensity modulated) dynamic arc therapy and helical TomoTherapy, an on-line and reliable method would be highly desirable. The present solution proposed by TomoTherapy, Inc. (Madison, WI) relies on film dosimetry in combination with up to two simultaneous ion chamber point dose measurements. A new method is proposed using a 2D ion chamber array (Seven29, PTW, Freiburg, Germany) inserted in a dedicated octagonal phantom, called Octavius. The octagonal shape allows easy positioning for measurements in multiple planes. The directional dependence of the response of the detector was primarily investigated on a dual energy (6 and 18 MV) Clinac 21EX (Varian Medical Systems, Palo Alto, CA) as no fixed angle incidences can be calculated in the Hi-Art TPS of TomoTherapy. The array was irradiated from different gantry angles and with different arc deliveries, and the dose distributions at the level of the detector were calculated with the AAA (Analytical Anisotropic Algorithm) photon dose calculation algorithm implemented in Eclipse (Varian). For validation on the 6 MV TomoTherapy unit, rotational treatments were generated, and dose distributions were calculated with the Hi-Art TPS. Multiple cylindrical ion chamber measurements were used to cross-check the dose calculation and dose delivery in Octavius in the absence of the 2D array. To compensate for the directional dependence of the 2D array, additional prototypes of Octavius were manufactured with built-in cylindrically symmetric compensation cavities. When using the Octavius phantom with a 2 cm compensation cavity, measurements with an accuracy comparable to that of single ion chambers can be achieved. The complete Octavius solution for quality assurance of rotational treatments consists of: The 2D array, two octagonal phantoms (with and without compensation layer), an insert for nine cylindrical ion chambers, and a set of inserts of

  10. Conductive polymer-mediated 2D and 3D arrays of Mn3O4 nanoblocks and mesoporous conductive polymers as their replicas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nakagawa, Yoshitaka; Kageyama, Hiroyuki; Matsumoto, Riho; Oaki, Yuya; Imai, Hiroaki

    2015-11-01

    Orientation-controlled 2D and 3D microarrays of Mn3O4 nanocuboids that were mediated by a conductive polymer were fabricated by evaporation-induced self-assembly of the oxide nanoblocks and subsequent polymerization of pyrrole in the interparticle spaces. Free-standing mesoporous polypyrroles (PPy) having chain- and square-grid-like nanovoid arrays were obtained as replicas of the composite assemblies by dissolving the oxide nanoblocks. The PPy-mediated manganese oxide arrays exhibited stable electrochemical performance as an ultrathin anode of a lithium-ion secondary battery.Orientation-controlled 2D and 3D microarrays of Mn3O4 nanocuboids that were mediated by a conductive polymer were fabricated by evaporation-induced self-assembly of the oxide nanoblocks and subsequent polymerization of pyrrole in the interparticle spaces. Free-standing mesoporous polypyrroles (PPy) having chain- and square-grid-like nanovoid arrays were obtained as replicas of the composite assemblies by dissolving the oxide nanoblocks. The PPy-mediated manganese oxide arrays exhibited stable electrochemical performance as an ultrathin anode of a lithium-ion secondary battery. Electronic supplementary information (ESI) available. See DOI: 10.1039/c5nr05912g

  11. Super-radiant plasmon mode is more efficient for SERS than the sub-radiant mode in highly packed 2D gold nanocube arrays

    SciTech Connect

    Mahmoud, Mahmoud A.

    2015-08-21

    The field coupling in highly packed plasmonic nanoparticle arrays is not localized due to the energy transport via the sub-radiant plasmon modes, which is formed in addition to the regular super-radiant plasmon mode. Unlike the sub-radiant mode, the plasmon field of the super-radiant mode cannot extend over long distances since it decays radiatively with a shorter lifetime. The coupling of the plasmon fields of gold nanocubes (AuNCs) when organized into highly packed 2D arrays was examined experimentally. Multiple plasmon resonance optical peaks are observed for the AuNC arrays and are compared to those calculated using the discrete dipole approximation. The calculated electromagnetic plasmon fields of the arrays displayed high field intensity for the nanocubes located in the center of the arrays for the lower energy super-radiant mode, while the higher energy sub-radiant plasmon mode displayed high field intensity at the edges of the arrays. The Raman signal enhancement by the super-radiant plasmon mode was found to be one hundred fold greater than that by sub-radiant plasmon mode because the super-radiant mode has higher scattering and stronger plasmon field intensity relative to the sub-radiant mode.

  12. Super-radiant plasmon mode is more efficient for SERS than the sub-radiant mode in highly packed 2D gold nanocube arrays.

    PubMed

    Mahmoud, Mahmoud A

    2015-08-21

    The field coupling in highly packed plasmonic nanoparticle arrays is not localized due to the energy transport via the sub-radiant plasmon modes, which is formed in addition to the regular super-radiant plasmon mode. Unlike the sub-radiant mode, the plasmon field of the super-radiant mode cannot extend over long distances since it decays radiatively with a shorter lifetime. The coupling of the plasmon fields of gold nanocubes (AuNCs) when organized into highly packed 2D arrays was examined experimentally. Multiple plasmon resonance optical peaks are observed for the AuNC arrays and are compared to those calculated using the discrete dipole approximation. The calculated electromagnetic plasmon fields of the arrays displayed high field intensity for the nanocubes located in the center of the arrays for the lower energy super-radiant mode, while the higher energy sub-radiant plasmon mode displayed high field intensity at the edges of the arrays. The Raman signal enhancement by the super-radiant plasmon mode was found to be one hundred fold greater than that by sub-radiant plasmon mode because the super-radiant mode has higher scattering and stronger plasmon field intensity relative to the sub-radiant mode.

  13. SU-E-T-644: Evaluation of Angular Dependence Correction for 2D Array Detector Using for Quality Assurance of Volumetric Modulated Arc Therapy

    SciTech Connect

    Karthikeyan, N; Ganesh, K M; Vikraman, S; Shariff, MH

    2014-06-15

    Purpose: To evaluate the angular dependence correction for Matrix Evolution 2D array detector in quality assurance of volumetric modulated arc therapy(VMAT). Methods: Total ten patients comprising of different sites were planned for VMAT and taken for the study. Each plan was exposed on Matrix Evolution 2D array detector with Omnipro IMRT software based on the following three different methods using 6MV photon beams from Elekta Synergy linear accelerator. First method, VMAT plan was delivered on Matrix Evolution detector as it gantry mounted with dedicated holder with build-up of 2.3cm. Second, the VMAT plan was delivered with the static gantry angle on to the table mounted setup. Third, the VMAT plan was delivered with actual gantry angle on Matrix Evolution detector fixed in Multicube phantom with gantry angle sensor and angular dependence correction were applied to quantify the plan quality. For all these methods, the corresponding QA plans were generated in TPS and the dose verification was done for both point and 2D fluence analysis with pass criteria of 3% dose difference and 3mm distance to agreement. Results: The measured point dose variation for the first method was observed as 1.58±0.6% of mean and SD with TPS calculated. For second and third method, the mean and standard deviation(SD) was observed as 1.67±0.7% and 1.85±0.8% respectively. The 2D fluence analysis of measured and TPS calculated has the mean and SD of 97.9±1.1%, 97.88±1.2% and 97.55±1.3% for first, second and third methods respectively. The calculated two-tailed Pvalue for point dose and 2D fluence analysis shows the insignificance with values of 0.9316 and 0.9015 respectively, among the different methods of QA. Conclusion: The qualitative evaluation of angular dependence correction for Matrix Evolution 2D array detector shows its competency in accuracy of quality assurance measurement of composite dose distribution of volumetric modulated arc therapy.

  14. Realization of thermally durable close-packed 2D gold nanoparticle arrays using self-assembly and plasma etching

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sivaraman, Sankar K.; Santhanam, Venugopal

    2012-06-01

    Realization of thermally and chemically durable, ordered gold nanostructures using bottom-up self-assembly techniques are essential for applications in a wide range of areas including catalysis, energy generation, and sensing. Herein, we describe a modular process for realizing uniform arrays of gold nanoparticles, with interparticle spacings of 2 nm and above, by using RF plasma etching to remove ligands from self-assembled arrays of ligand-coated gold nanoparticles. Both nanoscale imaging and macroscale spectroscopic characterization techniques were used to determine the optimal conditions for plasma etching, namely RF power, operating pressure, duration of treatment, and type of gas. We then studied the effect of nanoparticle size, interparticle spacing, and type of substrate on the thermal durability of plasma-treated and untreated nanoparticle arrays. Plasma-treated arrays showed enhanced chemical and thermal durability, on account of the removal of ligands. To illustrate the application potential of the developed process, robust SERS (surface-enhanced Raman scattering) substrates were formed using plasma-treated arrays of silver-coated gold nanoparticles that had a silicon wafer or photopaper as the underlying support. The measured value of the average SERS enhancement factor (2 × 105) was quantitatively reproducible on both silicon and paper substrates. The silicon substrates gave quantitatively reproducible results even after thermal annealing. The paper-based SERS substrate was also used to swab and detect probe molecules deposited on a solid surface.

  15. Slow magnetic relaxation in a hydrogen-bonded 2D array of mononuclear dysprosium(III) oxamates.

    PubMed

    Fortea-Pérez, Francisco R; Vallejo, Julia; Julve, Miguel; Lloret, Francesc; De Munno, Giovanni; Armentano, Donatella; Pardo, Emilio

    2013-05-01

    The reaction of N-(2,6-dimethylphenyl)oxamic acid with dysprosium(III) ions in a controlled basic media afforded the first example of a mononuclear lanthanide oxamate complex exhibiting a field-induced slow magnetic relaxation behavior typical of single-ion magnets (SIMs). The hydrogen-bond-mediated self-assembly of this new bifunctional dysprosium(III) SIM in the solid state provides a unique example of 2D hydrogen-bonded polymer with a herringbone net topology.

  16. Large-area 2D periodic crystalline silicon nanodome arrays on nanoimprinted glass exhibiting photonic band structure effects.

    PubMed

    Becker, C; Lockau, D; Sontheimer, T; Schubert-Bischoff, P; Rudigier-Voigt, E; Bockmeyer, M; Schmidt, F; Rech, B

    2012-04-01

    Two-dimensional silicon nanodome arrays are prepared on large areas up to 50 cm² exhibiting photonic band structure effects in the near-infrared and visible wavelength region by downscaling a recently developed fabrication method based on nanoimprint-patterned glass, high-rate electron-beam evaporation of silicon, self-organized solid phase crystallization and wet-chemical etching. The silicon nanodomes, arranged in square lattice geometry with 300 nm lattice constant, are optically characterized by angular resolved reflection measurements, allowing the partial determination of the photonic band structure. This experimentally determined band structure agrees well with the outcome of three-dimensional optical finite-element simulations. A 16% photonic bandgap is predicted for an optimized geometry of the silicon nanodome arrays. By variation of the duration of the selective etching step, the geometry as well as the optical properties of the periodic silicon nanodome arrays can be controlled systematically.

  17. New aQTL SNPs for the CYP2D6 Identified by a Novel Mediation Analysis of Genome-Wide SNP Arrays, Gene Expression Arrays, and CYP2D6 Activity

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Zhiping; Boustani, Malaz; Liu, Yunlong; Skaar, Todd; Li, Lang

    2013-01-01

    Background. The genome-wide association studies (GWAS) have been successful during the last few years. A key challenge is that the interpretation of the results is not straightforward, especially for transacting SNPs. Integration of transcriptome data into GWAS may provide clues elucidating the mechanisms by which a genetic variant leads to a disease. Methods. Here, we developed a novel mediation analysis approach to identify new expression quantitative trait loci (eQTL) driving CYP2D6 activity by combining genotype, gene expression, and enzyme activity data. Results. 389,573 and 1,214,416 SNP-transcript-CYP2D6 activity trios are found strongly associated (P < 10−5, FDR = 16.6% and 11.7%) for two different genotype platforms, namely, Affymetrix and Illumina, respectively. The majority of eQTLs are trans-SNPs. A single polymorphism leads to widespread downstream changes in the expression of distant genes by affecting major regulators or transcription factors (TFs), which would be visible as an eQTL hotspot and can lead to large and consistent biological effects. Overlapped eQTL hotspots with the mediators lead to the discovery of 64 TFs. Conclusions. Our mediation analysis is a powerful approach in identifying the trans-QTL-phenotype associations. It improves our understanding of the functional genetic variations for the liver metabolism mechanisms. PMID:24232670

  18. Plasmonic spectrum on 1D and 2D periodic arrays of rod-shape metal nanoparticle pairs with different core patterns for biosensor and solar cell applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kumara, N. T. R. N.; Chou Chau, Yuan-Fong; Huang, Jin-Wei; Huang, Hung Ji; Lin, Chun-Ting; Chiang, Hai-Pang

    2016-11-01

    Simulations of surface plasmon resonance (SPR) on the near field intensity and absorption spectra of one-dimensional (1D) and two-dimensional (2D) periodic arrays of rod-shape metal nanoparticle (MNP) pairs using the finite element method (FEM) and taking into account the different core patterns for biosensor and solar cell applications are investigated. A tunable optical spectrum corresponding to the transverse SPR modes is observed. The peak resonance wavelength (λ res) can be shifted to red as the core patterns in rod-shape MNPs have been changed. We find that the 2D periodic array of core–shell MNP pairs (case 2) exhibit a red shifted SPR that can be tuned the gap enhancement and absorption efficiency simultaneously over an extended wavelength range. The tunable optical performances give us a qualitative idea of the geometrical properties of the periodic array of rod-shape MNP pairs on SPRs that can be as a promising candidate for plasmonic biosensor and solar cell applications.

  19. 2D and 3D spatially addressed arrays for high-throughput automated synthesis of combinatorial libraries.

    PubMed

    Patek, Marcel; Safar, Pavel; Smrcina, Martin; Wegrzyniak, Eric; Bjergarde, Kirsten; Weichsel, Aleksandra; Strop, Peter

    2004-01-01

    One of the key elements in the drug discovery process is the use of automation to synthesize libraries of compounds for biological screening. The "split-and-mix" approaches in combinatorial chemistry have been recognized as extremely powerful techniques to access large numbers of compounds, while requiring only few reaction steps. However, the need for effective encoding/deconvolution strategies and demands for larger amounts of compounds have somewhat limited the use of these techniques in the pharmaceutical industry. In this paper, we describe a concept of directed sort and combine synthesis with spatially arranged arrays of macroscopic supports. Such a concept attempts to balance the number of reaction steps, the confidence in compound identity, and the quantity of synthesized compounds. Using three-dimensional arrays of frames each containing a two-dimensional array of macroscopic solid supports, we have conceptualized and developed a modular semiautomated system with a capacity of up to 100 000 compounds per batch. Modularity of this system enables flexibility either to produce large diverse combinatorial libraries or to synthesize more focused smaller libraries, both as single compounds in 12-15 micromol quantities. This method using sortable and spatially addressed arrays is exemplified by the synthesis of a 15 360 compound library.

  20. Monte Carlo simulation of the dose response of a novel 2D silicon diode array for use in hybrid MRI–LINAC systems

    SciTech Connect

    Gargett, Maegan Rosenfeld, Anatoly; Oborn, Brad; Metcalfe, Peter

    2015-02-15

    Purpose: MRI-guided radiation therapy systems (MRIgRT) are being developed to improve online imaging during treatment delivery. At present, the operation of single point dosimeters and an ionization chamber array have been characterized in such systems. This work investigates a novel 2D diode array, named “magic plate,” for both single point calibration and 2D positional performance, the latter being a key element of modern radiotherapy techniques that will be delivered by these systems. Methods: GEANT4 Monte Carlo methods have been employed to study the dose response of a silicon diode array to 6 MV photon beams, in the presence of in-line and perpendicularly aligned uniform magnetic fields. The array consists of 121 silicon diodes (dimensions 1.5 × 1.5 × 0.38 mm{sup 3}) embedded in kapton substrate with 1 cm pitch, spanning a 10 × 10 cm{sup 2} area in total. A geometrically identical, water equivalent volume was simulated concurrently for comparison. The dose response of the silicon diode array was assessed for various photon beam field shapes and sizes, including an IMRT field, at 1 T. The dose response was further investigated at larger magnetic field strengths (1.5 and 3 T) for a 4 × 4 cm{sup 2} photon field size. Results: The magic plate diode array shows excellent correspondence (< ± 1%) to water dose in the in-line orientation, for all beam arrangements and magnetic field strengths investigated. The perpendicular orientation, however, exhibits a dose shift with respect to water at the high-dose-gradient beam edge of jaw-defined fields [maximum (4.3 ± 0.8)% over-response, maximum (1.8 ± 0.8)% under-response on opposing side for 1 T, uncertainty 1σ]. The trend is not evident in areas with in-field dose gradients typical of IMRT dose maps. Conclusions: A novel 121 pixel silicon diode array detector has been characterized by Monte Carlo simulation for its performance inside magnetic fields representative of current prototype and proposed MRI

  1. Accelerated short-TE 3D proton echo-planar spectroscopic imaging using 2D-SENSE with a 32-channel array coil.

    PubMed

    Otazo, Ricardo; Tsai, Shang-Yueh; Lin, Fa-Hsuan; Posse, Stefan

    2007-12-01

    MR spectroscopic imaging (MRSI) with whole brain coverage in clinically feasible acquisition times still remains a major challenge. A combination of MRSI with parallel imaging has shown promise to reduce the long encoding times and 2D acceleration with a large array coil is expected to provide high acceleration capability. In this work a very high-speed method for 3D-MRSI based on the combination of proton echo planar spectroscopic imaging (PEPSI) with regularized 2D-SENSE reconstruction is developed. Regularization was performed by constraining the singular value decomposition of the encoding matrix to reduce the effect of low-value and overlapped coil sensitivities. The effects of spectral heterogeneity and discontinuities in coil sensitivity across the spectroscopic voxels were minimized by unaliasing the point spread function. As a result the contamination from extracranial lipids was reduced 1.6-fold on average compared to standard SENSE. We show that the acquisition of short-TE (15 ms) 3D-PEPSI at 3 T with a 32 x 32 x 8 spatial matrix using a 32-channel array coil can be accelerated 8-fold (R = 4 x 2) along y-z to achieve a minimum acquisition time of 1 min. Maps of the concentrations of N-acetyl-aspartate, creatine, choline, and glutamate were obtained with moderate reduction in spatial-spectral quality. The short acquisition time makes the method suitable for volumetric metabolite mapping in clinical studies.

  2. Graphene Paper Decorated with a 2D Array of Dendritic Platinum Nanoparticles for Ultrasensitive Electrochemical Detection of Dopamine Secreted by Live Cells.

    PubMed

    Zan, Xiaoli; Bai, Hongwei; Wang, Chenxu; Zhao, Faqiong; Duan, Hongwei

    2016-04-01

    To circumvent the bottlenecks of non-flexibility, low sensitivity, and narrow workable detection range of conventional biosensors for biological molecule detection (e.g., dopamine (DA) secreted by living cells), a new hybrid flexible electrochemical biosensor has been created by decorating closely packed dendritic Pt nanoparticles (NPs) on freestanding graphene paper. This innovative structural integration of ultrathin graphene paper and uniform 2D arrays of dendritic NPs by tailored wet chemical synthesis has been achieved by a modular strategy through a facile and delicately controlled oil-water interfacial assembly method, whereby the uniform distribution of catalytic dendritic NPs on the graphene paper is maximized. In this way, the performance is improved by several orders of magnitude. The developed hybrid electrode shows a high sensitivity of 2 μA cm(-2) μM(-1), up to about 33 times higher than those of conventional sensors, a low detection limit of 5 nM, and a wide linear range of 87 nM to 100 μM. These combined features enable the ultrasensitive detection of DA released from pheochromocytoma (PC 12) cells. The unique features of this flexible sensor can be attributed to the well-tailored uniform 2D array of dendritic Pt NPs and the modular electrode assembly at the oil-water interface. Its excellent performance holds much promise for the future development of optimized flexible electrochemical sensors for a diverse range of electroactive molecules to better serve society. PMID:26918612

  3. Graphene Paper Decorated with a 2D Array of Dendritic Platinum Nanoparticles for Ultrasensitive Electrochemical Detection of Dopamine Secreted by Live Cells.

    PubMed

    Zan, Xiaoli; Bai, Hongwei; Wang, Chenxu; Zhao, Faqiong; Duan, Hongwei

    2016-04-01

    To circumvent the bottlenecks of non-flexibility, low sensitivity, and narrow workable detection range of conventional biosensors for biological molecule detection (e.g., dopamine (DA) secreted by living cells), a new hybrid flexible electrochemical biosensor has been created by decorating closely packed dendritic Pt nanoparticles (NPs) on freestanding graphene paper. This innovative structural integration of ultrathin graphene paper and uniform 2D arrays of dendritic NPs by tailored wet chemical synthesis has been achieved by a modular strategy through a facile and delicately controlled oil-water interfacial assembly method, whereby the uniform distribution of catalytic dendritic NPs on the graphene paper is maximized. In this way, the performance is improved by several orders of magnitude. The developed hybrid electrode shows a high sensitivity of 2 μA cm(-2) μM(-1), up to about 33 times higher than those of conventional sensors, a low detection limit of 5 nM, and a wide linear range of 87 nM to 100 μM. These combined features enable the ultrasensitive detection of DA released from pheochromocytoma (PC 12) cells. The unique features of this flexible sensor can be attributed to the well-tailored uniform 2D array of dendritic Pt NPs and the modular electrode assembly at the oil-water interface. Its excellent performance holds much promise for the future development of optimized flexible electrochemical sensors for a diverse range of electroactive molecules to better serve society.

  4. Long-wavelength infrared surface plasmons on Ga-doped ZnO films excited via 2D hole arrays for extraordinary optical transmission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cleary, Justin W.; Esfahani, Nima Nader; Vangala, Shivashankar; Guo, Junpeng; Hendrickson, Joshua R.; Leedy, Kevin D.; Thomson, Darren; Look, David C.

    2013-09-01

    Extraordinary optical transmission (EOT) through highly conductive ZnO films with sub-wavelength hole arrays is investigated in the long-wavelength infrared regime. EOT is facilitated by the excitation of surface plasmon polaritons (SPPs) and can be tuned utilizing the physical structure size such as period. Pulse laser deposited Ga-doped ZnO has been shown to have fluctuations in optical and electrical parameters based on fabrication techniques, providing a complimentary tuning means. The sub-wavelength 2D hole arrays are fabricated in the Ga-doped ZnO films via standard lithography and etching processes. Optical reflection measurements completed with a microscope coupled FTIR system contain absorption resonances that are in agreement with analytical theories for excitation of SPPs on 2D structures. EOT through Ga-doped ZnO is numerically demonstrated at wavelengths where SPPs are excited. This highly conductive ZnO EOT structure may prove useful in novel integrated components such as tunable biosensors or surface plasmon coupling mechanisms.

  5. Accelerated short-TE 3D proton echo-planar spectroscopic imaging using 2D-SENSE with a 32-channel array coil.

    PubMed

    Otazo, Ricardo; Tsai, Shang-Yueh; Lin, Fa-Hsuan; Posse, Stefan

    2007-12-01

    MR spectroscopic imaging (MRSI) with whole brain coverage in clinically feasible acquisition times still remains a major challenge. A combination of MRSI with parallel imaging has shown promise to reduce the long encoding times and 2D acceleration with a large array coil is expected to provide high acceleration capability. In this work a very high-speed method for 3D-MRSI based on the combination of proton echo planar spectroscopic imaging (PEPSI) with regularized 2D-SENSE reconstruction is developed. Regularization was performed by constraining the singular value decomposition of the encoding matrix to reduce the effect of low-value and overlapped coil sensitivities. The effects of spectral heterogeneity and discontinuities in coil sensitivity across the spectroscopic voxels were minimized by unaliasing the point spread function. As a result the contamination from extracranial lipids was reduced 1.6-fold on average compared to standard SENSE. We show that the acquisition of short-TE (15 ms) 3D-PEPSI at 3 T with a 32 x 32 x 8 spatial matrix using a 32-channel array coil can be accelerated 8-fold (R = 4 x 2) along y-z to achieve a minimum acquisition time of 1 min. Maps of the concentrations of N-acetyl-aspartate, creatine, choline, and glutamate were obtained with moderate reduction in spatial-spectral quality. The short acquisition time makes the method suitable for volumetric metabolite mapping in clinical studies. PMID:17968995

  6. Graphene Paper Decorated with a 2D Array of Dendritic Platinum Nanoparticles for Ultrasensitive Electrochemical Detection of Dopamine Secreted by Live Cells

    PubMed Central

    Zan, Xiaoli; Wang, Chenxu

    2016-01-01

    Abstract To circumvent the bottlenecks of non‐flexibility, low sensitivity, and narrow workable detection range of conventional biosensors for biological molecule detection (e.g., dopamine (DA) secreted by living cells), a new hybrid flexible electrochemical biosensor has been created by decorating closely packed dendritic Pt nanoparticles (NPs) on freestanding graphene paper. This innovative structural integration of ultrathin graphene paper and uniform 2D arrays of dendritic NPs by tailored wet chemical synthesis has been achieved by a modular strategy through a facile and delicately controlled oil–water interfacial assembly method, whereby the uniform distribution of catalytic dendritic NPs on the graphene paper is maximized. In this way, the performance is improved by several orders of magnitude. The developed hybrid electrode shows a high sensitivity of 2 μA cm−2 μm −1, up to about 33 times higher than those of conventional sensors, a low detection limit of 5 nm, and a wide linear range of 87 nm to 100 μm. These combined features enable the ultrasensitive detection of DA released from pheochromocytoma (PC 12) cells. The unique features of this flexible sensor can be attributed to the well‐tailored uniform 2D array of dendritic Pt NPs and the modular electrode assembly at the oil–water interface. Its excellent performance holds much promise for the future development of optimized flexible electrochemical sensors for a diverse range of electroactive molecules to better serve society. PMID:26918612

  7. VFLOW2D - A Vorte-Based Code for Computing Flow Over Elastically Supported Tubes and Tube Arrays

    SciTech Connect

    WOLFE,WALTER P.; STRICKLAND,JAMES H.; HOMICZ,GREGORY F.; GOSSLER,ALBERT A.

    2000-10-11

    A numerical flow model is developed to simulate two-dimensional fluid flow past immersed, elastically supported tube arrays. This work is motivated by the objective of predicting forces and motion associated with both deep-water drilling and production risers in the oil industry. This work has other engineering applications including simulation of flow past tubular heat exchangers or submarine-towed sensor arrays and the flow about parachute ribbons. In the present work, a vortex method is used for solving the unsteady flow field. This method demonstrates inherent advantages over more conventional grid-based computational fluid dynamics. The vortex method is non-iterative, does not require artificial viscosity for stability, displays minimal numerical diffusion, can easily treat moving boundaries, and allows a greatly reduced computational domain since vorticity occupies only a small fraction of the fluid volume. A gridless approach is used in the flow sufficiently distant from surfaces. A Lagrangian remap scheme is used near surfaces to calculate diffusion and convection of vorticity. A fast multipole technique is utilized for efficient calculation of velocity from the vorticity field. The ability of the method to correctly predict lift and drag forces on simple stationary geometries over a broad range of Reynolds numbers is presented.

  8. MCT-Based LWIR and VLWIR 2D Focal Plane Detector Arrays for Low Dark Current Applications at AIM

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hanna, S.; Eich, D.; Mahlein, K.-M.; Fick, W.; Schirmacher, W.; Thöt, R.; Wendler, J.; Figgemeier, H.

    2016-09-01

    We present our latest results on n-on- p as well as on p-on- n low dark current planar mercury cadmium telluride (MCT) photodiode technology long wavelength infrared (LWIR) and very long wavelength infrared (VLWIR) two-dimensional focal plane arrays (FPAs) with quantum efficiency (QE) cut-off wavelength >11 μm at 80 K and a 512 × 640 pixel format FPA at 20 μm pitch stitched from two 512 × 320 pixel photodiode arrays. Significantly reduced dark currents as compared with Tennant's "Rule 07" are demonstrated in both polarities while retaining good detection efficiency ≥60% for operating temperatures between 30 K and 100 K. This allows for the same dark current performance at 20 K higher operating temperature than with previous AIM INFRAROT-MODULE GmbH (AIM) technology. For p-on- n LWIR MCT FPAs, broadband photoresponse nonuniformity of only about 1.2% is achieved at 55 K with low defective pixel numbers. For an n-on- p VLWIR MCT FPA with 13.6 μm cut-off at 55 K, excellent photoresponse nonuniformity of about 3.1% is achieved at moderate defective pixel numbers. This advancement in detector technology paves the way for outstanding signal-to-noise ratio performance infrared detection, enabling cutting-edge next-generation LWIR/VLWIR detectors for space instruments and devices with higher operating temperature and low size, weight, and power for field applications.

  9. Feasibility of vibro-acoustography with a quasi-2D ultrasound array transducer for detection and localizing of permanent prostate brachytherapy seeds: A pilot ex vivo study

    SciTech Connect

    Mehrmohammadi, Mohammad; Kinnick, Randall R.; Fatemi, Mostafa; Alizad, Azra; Davis, Brian J.

    2014-09-15

    Purpose: Effective permanent prostate brachytherapy (PPB) requires precise placement of radioactive seeds in and around the prostate. The impetus for this research is to examine a new ultrasound-based imaging modality, vibro-acoustography (VA), which may serve to provide a high rate of PPB seed detection while also effecting enhanced prostate imaging. The authors investigate the ability of VA, implemented on a clinical ultrasound (US) scanner and equipped with a quasi-2D (Q2D) array US transducer, to detect and localize PPB seeds in excised prostate specimens. Methods: Nonradioactive brachytherapy seeds were implanted into four excised cadaver prostates. A clinical US scanner equipped with a Q2D array US transducer was customized to acquire both US and C-scan VA images at various depths. The VA images were then used to detect and localize the implanted seeds in prostate tissue. To validate the VA results, computed tomography (CT) images of the same tissue samples were obtained to serve as the reference by which to evaluate the performance of VA in PPB seed detection. Results: The results indicate that VA is capable of accurately identifying the presence and distribution of PPB seeds with a high imaging contrast. Moreover, a large ratio of the PPB seeds implanted into prostate tissue samples could be detected through acquired VA images. Using CT-based seed identification as the standard, VA was capable of detecting 74%–92% of the implanted seeds. Additionally, the angular independency of VA in detecting PPB seeds was demonstrated through a well-controlled phantom experiment. Conclusions: Q2DVA detected a substantial portion of the seeds by using a 2D array US transducer in excised prostate tissue specimens. While VA has inherent advantages associated with conventional US imaging, it has the additional advantage of permitting detection of PPB seeds independent of their orientation. These results suggest the potential of VA as a method for PPB imaging that

  10. Progress in the development and demonstration of a 2D-matrix phased array ultrasonic probe for under-sodium viewing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Larche, M. R.; Baldwin, D. L.; Edwards, M. K.; Mathews, R. A.; Prowant, M. S.; Diaz, A. A.

    2016-02-01

    Optically opaque liquid sodium used in liquid metal fast reactors poses a unique set of challenges for nondestructive evaluation. The opaque nature of the sodium prevents visual examinations of components within this medium, but ultrasonic waves are able to propagate through sodium so an ultrasonic testing (UT) technique can be applied for imaging objects in sodium. A UT sensor used in liquid sodium during a refueling outage must be capable of withstanding the 260°C corrosive environment and must also be able to wet (couple the ultrasonic waves) so that sound can propagate into the sodium. A multi-year iterative design effort, based on earlier work in the 1970s, has set out to improve the design and fabrication processes needed for a UT sensor technology capable of overcoming the temperature and wetting issues associated with this environment. Robust materials and improved fabrication processes have resulted in single-element sensors and two different linear-array sensors that have functioned in liquid sodium. More recent efforts have been focused on improving signal-to-noise ratio and image resolution in the highly attenuating liquid sodium. In order to accomplish this, modeling and simulation tools were used to design a 60-element 2D phased-array sensor operating at 2 MHz that features a separate transmitter and receiver. This design consists of 30 transmit elements and another 30 receive elements, each arranged in a rectangular matrix pattern that is 10 rows tall and 3 wide. The fabrication of this 2D array is currently underway and will be followed by a series of performance tests in water, hot oil, and finally in liquid sodium at 260°C. The performance testing cycle will evaluate multiple characteristics of the sensor that are crucial to performance including: transmit-uniformity, element sensitivity variations, element-to-element energy leakage, sound field dimensions, and spatial resolution. This paper will present a summary of results from the previous UT

  11. 2D silicon-based surface-normal vertical cavity photonic crystal waveguide array for high-density optical interconnects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ahn, JaeHyun; Subbaraman, Harish; Zhu, Liang; Chakravarty, Swapnajit; Tutuc, Emanuel; Chen, Ray T.

    2013-02-01

    In this paper, we present the design guidelines, fabrication challenges and device evaluation results of a surface-normal photonic crystal waveguide array for high-density optical interconnects. We utilize the slow light effect of photonic crystals to increase the effective interaction length between photons and medium, which in turn can be used to decrease the physical length and make compact devices. The effect of the structural parameters variations on the guided mode are studied in order to provide a guideline for fabrication. Photonic crystal waveguides are vertically implemented in a silicon-on insulator substrate. Our structure possesses advantages such as universal design, CMOS compatibility, and simple fabrication process, suitable for high dense on-chip applications. Transmission results show increase of power near 1.67 μm wavelength, which agrees with our simulation results.

  12. State of the art of AIM LWIR and VLWIR MCT 2D focal plane detector arrays for higher operating temperatures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Figgemeier, H.; Hanna, S.; Eich, D.; Mahlein, K.-M.; Fick, W.; Schirmacher, W.; Thöt, R.

    2016-05-01

    In this paper AIM presents its latest results on both n-on-p and p-on-n low dark current planar MCT photodiode technology LWIR and VLWIR two-dimensional focal plane detector arrays with a cut-off wavelength >11μm at 80K and a 640x512 pixel format at a 20μm pitch. Thermal dark currents significantly reduced as compared to `Tennant's Rule 07' at a yet good detection efficiency >60% as well as results from NETD and photo response performance characterization are presented. The demonstrated detector performance paces the way for a new generation of higher operating temperature LWIR MCT FPAs with a <30mK NETD up to a 110K detector operating temperature and with good operability.

  13. Optical vibration measurements of cross coupling effects in capacitive micromachined ultrasonic transducer arrays

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leirset, Erlend; Aksnes, Astrid

    2011-05-01

    Optical vibration measurement systems are excellent tools for characterizing ultrasonic transducers. This paper presents measurements on immersed arrays of capacitive ultrasonic transducers (CMUTs) using a heterodyne interferometer. The interferometer allows measurements of vibrations from DC up to 1 GHz with a noise floor of ~1pm/√Hz. Previously CMUTs have been characterized in air. The transducer is intended for intravascular use. Therefore the CMUTs were characterized in the transparent fluids kerosene and rapeseed oil that have acoustic properties closer to blood. The optical measurements on immersed CMUTs were validated by assessing the measurement errors caused by the acousto optic effects in the fluid. When immersed there is significant cross coupling between individual CMUTs within an array. Simulations presented here indicate that this causes an acoustic wave mode that is bound to the interface between the CMUTs and the fluid. This is confirmed by measurements of the phase velocity and attenuation coefficient of this wave. The measurement results indicate that the wave exists up to a maximum frequency and that the attenuation constant increases with increasing frequency. Rapeseed oil causes a significantly larger attenuation coefficient than kerosene, which most probably is due to a considerable difference in fluid viscosities. There was a mismatch between the simulated and measured phase velocity for low frequencies. It is likely that the cause of this is coupling between the fluid CMUT interface waves and Lamb waves in the substrate of the CMUT array. Measurements performed with the heterodyne interferometer have confirmed the presence of dispersive waves bound to the surface of the transducer by directly showing their propagation along the array. The setup has also characterized the bound waves by measuring dispersion relations.

  14. Phase and Amplitude Modulation Methods for Nonlinear Ultrasound Imaging With CMUTs.

    PubMed

    Satir, Sarp; Degertekin, F Levent

    2016-08-01

    Conventional amplitude and phase modulated pulse sequences for selective imaging of nonlinear tissue and ultrasound contrast agents are designed for piezoelectric transducers that behave linearly. Inherent nonlinearity of capacitive micromachined ultrasonic transducers (CMUTs), especially during large-signal operation, renders these methods inapplicable. In this paper, we present different pulse sequences for nonlinear imaging that are valid for small- and large-signal CMUT operations. For small-signal operation, two-pulse amplitude and phase modulation methods for microbubble and tissue harmonic imaging are presented, where CMUT nonlinearity is compensated via subharmonic excitation. In the large-signal regime, using a nonlinear model, we first show that there is a simple linear relationship between the phases of each harmonic distortion component generated and the input drive signal. Based on this observation, we demonstrate a pulse sequence using N+1 consecutive phase modulated transmit events to extract N harmonics of the nonlinear contrast agent echo content uncorrupted by CMUT nonlinearity. The proposed methods assume no apriori information about the transducer and, therefore, are applicable to any CMUT. The phase modulation method is also valid for piezoelectric transducers and systems with nonlinearities described by Taylor series where the same phase relationship between the input signal and the harmonic content is valid. The proof of principle experiments using a commercial contrast agent validates the phase modulated pulse sequences for CMUTs, operating in a highly nonlinear collapse-snapback mode and for piezoelectric transducers. PMID:27116737

  15. Air damping effect on the air-based CMUT operation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cha, Bu-Sang; Kanashima, Takeshi; Lee, Seung-Mok; Okuyama, Masanori

    2015-08-01

    The vibration amplitude, damping ratio and viscous damping force in capacitive micromachinedultrasonic transducers (CMUTs) with a perforated membrane have been calculated theoretically and compared with the experimental data on its vibration behavior. The electrical bias of the DC and the AC voltages and the operation frequency conditions influence the damping effect because leads to variations in the gap height and the vibration velocity of the membrane. We propose a new estimation method to determine the damping ratio by the decay rate of the vibration amplitudes of the perforated membrane plate are measured using a laser vibrometer at each frequency, and the damping ratios were calculated from those results. The influences of the vibration frequency and the electrostatic force on the damping effect under the various operation conditions have been studied.

  16. Time-resolved dosimetric verification of respiratory-gated radiotherapy exposures using a high-resolution 2D ionisation chamber array.

    PubMed

    King, R B; Agnew, C E; O'Connell, B F; Prise, K M; Hounsell, A R; McGarry, C K

    2016-08-01

    The aim of this work was to track and verify the delivery of respiratory-gated irradiations, performed with three versions of TrueBeam linac, using a novel phantom arrangement that combined the OCTAVIUS(®) SRS 1000 array with a moving platform. The platform was programmed to generate sinusoidal motion of the array. This motion was tracked using the real-time position management (RPM) system and four amplitude gating options were employed to interrupt MV beam delivery when the platform was not located within set limits. Time-resolved spatial information extracted from analysis of x-ray fluences measured by the array was compared to the programmed motion of the platform and to the trace recorded by the RPM system during the delivery of the x-ray field. Temporal data recorded by the phantom and the RPM system were validated against trajectory log files, recorded by the linac during the irradiation, as well as oscilloscope waveforms recorded from the linac target signal. Gamma analysis was employed to compare time-integrated 2D x-ray dose fluences with theoretical fluences derived from the probability density function for each of the gating settings applied, where gamma criteria of 2%/2 mm, 1%/1 mm and 0.5%/0.5 mm were used to evaluate the limitations of the RPM system. Excellent agreement was observed in the analysis of spatial information extracted from the SRS 1000 array measurements. Comparisons of the average platform position with the expected position indicated absolute deviations of  <0.5 mm for all four gating settings. Differences were observed when comparing time-resolved beam-on data stored in the RPM files and trajectory logs to the true target signal waveforms. Trajectory log files underestimated the cycle time between consecutive beam-on windows by 10.0  ±  0.8 ms. All measured fluences achieved 100% pass-rates using gamma criteria of 2%/2 mm and 50% of the fluences achieved pass-rates  >90% when criteria of 0.5%/0.5

  17. Time-resolved dosimetric verification of respiratory-gated radiotherapy exposures using a high-resolution 2D ionisation chamber array.

    PubMed

    King, R B; Agnew, C E; O'Connell, B F; Prise, K M; Hounsell, A R; McGarry, C K

    2016-08-01

    The aim of this work was to track and verify the delivery of respiratory-gated irradiations, performed with three versions of TrueBeam linac, using a novel phantom arrangement that combined the OCTAVIUS(®) SRS 1000 array with a moving platform. The platform was programmed to generate sinusoidal motion of the array. This motion was tracked using the real-time position management (RPM) system and four amplitude gating options were employed to interrupt MV beam delivery when the platform was not located within set limits. Time-resolved spatial information extracted from analysis of x-ray fluences measured by the array was compared to the programmed motion of the platform and to the trace recorded by the RPM system during the delivery of the x-ray field. Temporal data recorded by the phantom and the RPM system were validated against trajectory log files, recorded by the linac during the irradiation, as well as oscilloscope waveforms recorded from the linac target signal. Gamma analysis was employed to compare time-integrated 2D x-ray dose fluences with theoretical fluences derived from the probability density function for each of the gating settings applied, where gamma criteria of 2%/2 mm, 1%/1 mm and 0.5%/0.5 mm were used to evaluate the limitations of the RPM system. Excellent agreement was observed in the analysis of spatial information extracted from the SRS 1000 array measurements. Comparisons of the average platform position with the expected position indicated absolute deviations of  <0.5 mm for all four gating settings. Differences were observed when comparing time-resolved beam-on data stored in the RPM files and trajectory logs to the true target signal waveforms. Trajectory log files underestimated the cycle time between consecutive beam-on windows by 10.0  ±  0.8 ms. All measured fluences achieved 100% pass-rates using gamma criteria of 2%/2 mm and 50% of the fluences achieved pass-rates  >90% when criteria of 0.5%/0.5

  18. Time-resolved dosimetric verification of respiratory-gated radiotherapy exposures using a high-resolution 2D ionisation chamber array

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    King, R. B.; Agnew, C. E.; O'Connell, B. F.; Prise, K. M.; Hounsell, A. R.; McGarry, C. K.

    2016-08-01

    The aim of this work was to track and verify the delivery of respiratory-gated irradiations, performed with three versions of TrueBeam linac, using a novel phantom arrangement that combined the OCTAVIUS® SRS 1000 array with a moving platform. The platform was programmed to generate sinusoidal motion of the array. This motion was tracked using the real-time position management (RPM) system and four amplitude gating options were employed to interrupt MV beam delivery when the platform was not located within set limits. Time-resolved spatial information extracted from analysis of x-ray fluences measured by the array was compared to the programmed motion of the platform and to the trace recorded by the RPM system during the delivery of the x-ray field. Temporal data recorded by the phantom and the RPM system were validated against trajectory log files, recorded by the linac during the irradiation, as well as oscilloscope waveforms recorded from the linac target signal. Gamma analysis was employed to compare time-integrated 2D x-ray dose fluences with theoretical fluences derived from the probability density function for each of the gating settings applied, where gamma criteria of 2%/2 mm, 1%/1 mm and 0.5%/0.5 mm were used to evaluate the limitations of the RPM system. Excellent agreement was observed in the analysis of spatial information extracted from the SRS 1000 array measurements. Comparisons of the average platform position with the expected position indicated absolute deviations of  <0.5 mm for all four gating settings. Differences were observed when comparing time-resolved beam-on data stored in the RPM files and trajectory logs to the true target signal waveforms. Trajectory log files underestimated the cycle time between consecutive beam-on windows by 10.0  ±  0.8 ms. All measured fluences achieved 100% pass-rates using gamma criteria of 2%/2 mm and 50% of the fluences achieved pass-rates  >90% when criteria of 0.5%/0.5 mm were

  19. Hybrid plan verification for intensity-modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) using the 2D ionization chamber array I'mRT MatriXX--a feasibility study.

    PubMed

    Dobler, Barbara; Streck, Natalia; Klein, Elisabeth; Loeschel, Rainer; Haertl, Petra; Koelbl, Oliver

    2010-01-21

    The 2D ionization chamber array I'mRT MatriXX (IBA, Schwarzenbruck, Germany) has been developed for absolute 2D dosimetry and verification of intensity-modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) for perpendicular beam incidence. The aim of this study is to evaluate the applicability of I'mRT MatriXX for oblique beam incidence and hybrid plan verification of IMRT with original gantry angles. For the assessment of angular dependence, open fields with gantry angles in steps of 10 degrees were calculated on a CT scan of I'mRT MatriXX. For hybrid plan verification, 17 clinical IMRT plans and one rotational plan were used. Calculations were performed with pencil beam (PB), collapsed cone (CC) and Monte Carlo (MC) methods, which had been previously validated. Measurements were conducted on an Elekta SynergyS linear accelerator. To assess the potential and limitations of the system, gamma evaluation was performed with different dose tolerances and distances to agreement. Hybrid plan verification passed the gamma test with 4% dose tolerance and 3 mm distance to agreement in all cases, in 82-88% of the cases for tolerances of 3%/3 mm, and in 59-76% of the cases if 3%/2 mm were used. Separate evaluation of the low dose and high dose regions showed that I'mRT MatriXX can be used for hybrid plan verification of IMRT plans within 3% dose tolerance and 3 mm distance to agreement with a relaxed dose tolerance of 4% in the low dose region outside the multileaf collimator (MLC).

  20. CMUTs with high-K atomic layer deposition dielectric material insulation layer.

    PubMed

    Xu, Toby; Tekes, Coskun; Degertekin, F

    2014-12-01

    Use of high-κ dielectric, atomic layer deposition (ALD) materials as an insulation layer material for capacitive micromachined ultrasonic transducers (CMUTs) is investigated. The effect of insulation layer material and thickness on CMUT performance is evaluated using a simple parallel plate model. The model shows that both high dielectric constant and the electrical breakdown strength are important for the dielectric material, and significant performance improvement can be achieved, especially as the vacuum gap thickness is reduced. In particular, ALD hafnium oxide (HfO2) is evaluated and used as an improvement over plasma-enhanced chemical vapor deposition (PECVD) silicon nitride (Six)Ny)) for CMUTs fabricated by a low-temperature, complementary metal oxide semiconductor transistor-compatible, sacrificial release method. Relevant properties of ALD HfO2) such as dielectric constant and breakdown strength are characterized to further guide CMUT design. Experiments are performed on parallel fabricated test CMUTs with 50-nm gap and 16.5-MHz center frequency to measure and compare pressure output and receive sensitivity for 200-nm PECVD Six)Ny) and 100-nm HfO2) insulation layers. Results for this particular design show a 6-dB improvement in receiver output with the collapse voltage reduced by one-half; while in transmit mode, half the input voltage is needed to achieve the same maximum output pressure.

  1. CMUTs with High-K Atomic Layer Deposition Dielectric Material Insulation Layer

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Toby; Tekes, Coskun; Degertekin, F. Levent

    2014-01-01

    Use of high-κ dielectric, atomic layer deposition (ALD) materials as an insulation layer material for capacitive micromachined ultrasonic transducers (CMUTs) is investigated. The effect of insulation layer material and thickness on CMUT performance is evaluated using a simple parallel plate model. The model shows that both high dielectric constant and the electrical breakdown strength are important for the dielectric material, and significant performance improvement can be achieved, especially as the vacuum gap thickness is reduced. In particular, ALD hafnium oxide (HfO2) is evaluated and used as an improvement over plasma-enhanced chemical vapor deposition (PECVD) silicon nitride (SixNy) for CMUTs fabricated by a low-temperature, complementary metal oxide semiconductor transistor-compatible, sacrificial release method. Relevant properties of ALD HfO2 such as dielectric constant and breakdown strength are characterized to further guide CMUT design. Experiments are performed on parallel fabricated test CMUTs with 50-nm gap and 16.5-MHz center frequency to measure and compare pressure output and receive sensitivity for 200-nm PECVD SixNy and 100-nm HfO2 insulation layers. Results for this particular design show a 6-dB improvement in receiver output with the collapse voltage reduced by one-half; while in transmit mode, half the input voltage is needed to achieve the same maximum output pressure. PMID:25474786

  2. Evaluation of wafer bonded CMUTs with rectangular membranes featuring high fill factor.

    PubMed

    Wong, Serena H; Kupnik, Mario; Zhuang, Xuefeng; Lin, Der-Song; Butts-Pauly, Kim; Khuri-Yakub, Butrus T

    2008-09-01

    Increasing fill factor is one design approach used to increase average output displacement, output pressure, and sensitivity of capacitive micromachined ultrasonic transducers (CMUTs). For rectangular cells, the cell-to-cell spacing and the aspect ratio determine the fill factor. In this paper, we explore the effects of these parameters on performance, in particular the nonuniformity of collapse voltage between neighboring cells and presence of higher order modes in air or immersed operation. We used a white light interferometer to measure nonuniformity in deflection between neighboring cells. We found that reducing the cell-to-cell spacing could cause bending of the center support post, which amplifies nonuniformities in collapse voltage to 18.4% between neighboring cells. Using a 2-D finite element model (FEM), we found that for our designs, increasing the support post width to 1.67 times the membrane thickness alleviated the post bending problem. Using impedance and interferometer measurements to observe the effects of aspect ratio on higher order modes, we found that the (1,3) modal frequency approached the (1,1) modal frequency as the aspect ratio of the rectangles increased. In air operation, under continuous wave (CW) excitation at the center frequency, the rectangular cells behaved in the (1,1) mode. In immersion, because of dispersive guided modes, these cells operated in a higher order mode when excited with a CW signal at the center frequency. This contributed to a loss of output pressure; for this reason our rectangular design was unsuitable for CW operation in immersion.

  3. The evaluation of a 2D diode array in “magic phantom” for use in high dose rate brachytherapy pretreatment quality assurance

    SciTech Connect

    Espinoza, A.; Petasecca, M.; Fuduli, I.; Lerch, M. L. F.; Rosenfeld, A. B.; Howie, A.; Bucci, J.; Corde, S.; Jackson, M.

    2015-02-15

    Purpose: High dose rate (HDR) brachytherapy is a treatment method that is used increasingly worldwide. The development of a sound quality assurance program for the verification of treatment deliveries can be challenging due to the high source activity utilized and the need for precise measurements of dwell positions and times. This paper describes the application of a novel phantom, based on a 2D 11 × 11 diode array detection system, named “magic phantom” (MPh), to accurately measure plan dwell positions and times, compare them directly to the treatment plan, determine errors in treatment delivery, and calculate absorbed dose. Methods: The magic phantom system was CT scanned and a 20 catheter plan was generated to simulate a nonspecific treatment scenario. This plan was delivered to the MPh and, using a custom developed software suite, the dwell positions and times were measured and compared to the plan. The original plan was also modified, with changes not disclosed to the primary authors, and measured again using the device and software to determine the modifications. A new metric, the “position–time gamma index,” was developed to quantify the quality of a treatment delivery when compared to the treatment plan. The MPh was evaluated to determine the minimum measurable dwell time and step size. The incorporation of the TG-43U1 formalism directly into the software allows for dose calculations to be made based on the measured plan. The estimated dose distributions calculated by the software were compared to the treatment plan and to calibrated EBT3 film, using the 2D gamma analysis method. Results: For the original plan, the magic phantom system was capable of measuring all dwell points and dwell times and the majority were found to be within 0.93 mm and 0.25 s, respectively, from the plan. By measuring the altered plan and comparing it to the unmodified treatment plan, the use of the position–time gamma index showed that all modifications made could be

  4. Long-term decoding stability of local field potentials from silicon arrays in primate motor cortex during a 2D center out task

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Dong; Zhang, Qiaosheng; Li, Yue; Wang, Yiwen; Zhu, Junming; Zhang, Shaomin; Zheng, Xiaoxiang

    2014-06-01

    Objective. Many serious concerns exist in the long-term stability of brain-machine interfaces (BMIs) based on spike signals (single unit activity, SUA; multi unit activity, MUA). Some studies showed local field potentials (LFPs) could offer a stable decoding performance. However, the decoding stability of LFPs was examined only when high quality spike signals were recorded. Here we aim to examine the long-term decoding stability of LFPs over a larger time scale when the quality of spike signals was from good to poor or even no spike was recorded. Approach. Neural signals were collected from motor cortex of three monkeys via silicon arrays over 230, 290 and 690 days post-implantation when they performed 2D center out task. To compare long-term stability between LFPs and spike signals, we examined them in neural signals characteristics, directional tuning properties and offline decoding performance, respectively. Main results. We observed slow decreasing trends in the number of LFP channels recorded and mean LFP power in different frequency bands when spike signals quality decayed over time. The number of significantly directional tuning LFP channels decreased more slowly than that of tuning SUA and MUA. The variable preferred directions for the same signal features across sessions indicated non-stationarity of neural activity. We also found that LFPs achieved better decoding performance than SUA and MUA in retrained decoder when the quality of spike signals seriously decayed. Especially, when no spike was recorded in one monkey after 671 days post-implantation, LFPs still provided some kinematic information. In addition, LFPs outperformed MUA in long-term decoding stability in a static decoder. Significance. Our results suggested that LFPs were more durable and could provide better decoding performance when spike signals quality seriously decayed. It might be due to their resistance to recording degradation and their high redundancy among channels.

  5. Imaging transverse isotropic properties of muscle by monitoring acoustic radiation force induced shear waves using a 2-D matrix ultrasound array.

    PubMed

    Wang, Michael; Byram, Brett; Palmeri, Mark; Rouze, Ned; Nightingale, Kathryn

    2013-09-01

    A 2-D matrix ultrasound array is used to monitor acoustic radiation force impulse (ARFI) induced shear wave propagation in 3-D in excised canine muscle. From a single acquisition, both the shear wave phase and group velocity can be calculated to estimate the shear wave speed (SWS) along and across the fibers, as well as the fiber orientation in 3-D. The true fiber orientation found using the 3-D radon transform on B-mode volumes of the muscle was used to verify the fiber direction estimated from shear wave data. For the simplified imaging case when the ARFI push can be oriented perpendicular to the fibers, the error in estimating the fiber orientation using phase and group velocity measurements was 3.5 ± 2.6° and 3.4 ± 1.4° (mean ± standard deviation), respectively, over six acquisitions in different muscle samples. For the more general case when the push is oblique to the fibers, the angle between the push and the fibers is found using the dominant orientation of the shear wave displacement magnitude. In 30 acquisitions on six different muscle samples with oblique push angles up to 40°, the error in the estimated fiber orientation using phase and group velocity measurements was 5.4 ± 2.9° and 5.3 ± 3.2°, respectively, after estimating and accounting for the additional unknown push angle. Either the phase or group velocity measurements can be used to estimate fiber orientation and SWS along and across the fibers. Although it is possible to perform these measurements when the push is not perpendicular to the fibers, highly oblique push angles induce lower shear wave amplitudes which can cause inaccurate SWS measurements.

  6. SU-E-T-35: An Investigation of the Accuracy of Cervical IMRT Dose Distribution Using 2D/3D Ionization Chamber Arrays System and Monte Carlo Simulation

    SciTech Connect

    Zhang, Y; Yang, J; Liu, H; Liu, D

    2014-06-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this work is to compare the verification results of three solutions (2D/3D ionization chamber arrays measurement and Monte Carlo simulation), the results will help make a clinical decision as how to do our cervical IMRT verification. Methods: Seven cervical cases were planned with Pinnacle 8.0m to meet the clinical acceptance criteria. The plans were recalculated in the Matrixx and Delta4 phantom with the accurate plans parameters. The plans were also recalculated by Monte Carlo using leaf sequences and MUs for individual plans of every patient, Matrixx and Delta4 phantom. All plans of Matrixx and Delta4 phantom were delivered and measured. The dose distribution of iso slice, dose profiles, gamma maps of every beam were used to evaluate the agreement. Dose-volume histograms were also compared. Results: The dose distribution of iso slice and dose profiles from Pinnacle calculation were in agreement with the Monte Carlo simulation, Matrixx and Delta4 measurement. A 95.2%/91.3% gamma pass ratio was obtained between the Matrixx/Delta4 measurement and Pinnacle distributions within 3mm/3% gamma criteria. A 96.4%/95.6% gamma pass ratio was obtained between the Matrixx/Delta4 measurement and Monte Carlo simulation within 2mm/2% gamma criteria, almost 100% gamma pass ratio within 3mm/3% gamma criteria. The DVH plot have slightly differences between Pinnacle and Delta4 measurement as well as Pinnacle and Monte Carlo simulation, but have excellent agreement between Delta4 measurement and Monte Carlo simulation. Conclusion: It was shown that Matrixx/Delta4 and Monte Carlo simulation can be used very efficiently to verify cervical IMRT delivery. In terms of Gamma value the pass ratio of Matrixx was little higher, however, Delta4 showed more problem fields. The primary advantage of Delta4 is the fact it can measure true 3D dosimetry while Monte Carlo can simulate in patients CT images but not in phantom.

  7. Capacitive Micromachined Ultrasonic Transducer Arrays for Integrated Diagnostic/Therapeutic Catheters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wong, Serena H.; Wygant, Ira O.; Yeh, David T.; Zhuang, Xuefeng; Bayram, Baris; Kupnik, Mario; Oralkan, Omer; Ergun, A. Sanli; Yaralioglu, Goksen G.; Khuri-Yakub, Butrus T.

    2006-05-01

    In recent years, medical procedures have become increasingly non-invasive. These include endoscopic procedures and intracardiac interventions (e.g., pulmonary vein isolation for treatment of atrial fibrillation and plaque ablation for treatment of arteriosclerosis). However, current tools suffer from poor visualization and difficult coordination of multiple therapeutic and imaging devices. Dual-mode (imaging and therapeutic) ultrasound arrays provide a solution to these challenges. A dual-mode transducer can provide focused, noncontact ultrasound suitable for therapy and can be used to provide high quality real-time images for navigation and monitoring of the procedure. In the last decade, capacitive micromachined ultrasonic transducers (CMUTs), have become an attractive option for ultrasonic imaging systems due to their fabrication flexibility, improved bandwidth, and integration with electronics. The CMUT's potential in therapeutic applications has also been demonstrated by surface output pressures as high as 1MPa peak to peak and continuous wave (CW) operation. This paper reviews existing interventional CMUT arrays, demonstrates the feasibility of CMUTs for high intensity focused ultrasound (HIFU), and presents a design for the next-generation CMUTs for integrated imaging and HIFU endoscopic catheters.

  8. Electrostatic and Small-Signal Analysis of CMUTs With Circular and Square Anisotropic Plates.

    PubMed

    Funding la Cour, Mette; Christiansen, Thomas Lehrmann; Jensen, Jørgen Arendt; Thomsen, Erik Vilain

    2015-08-01

    Traditionally, capacitive micromachined ultrasonic transducers (CMUTs) are modeled using the isotropic plate equation, and this leads to deviations between analytical calculations and finite element modeling (FEM). In this paper, the deflection is calculated for both circular and square plates using the full anisotropic plate equation. It is shown that the anisotropic calculations match excellently with FEM, whereas an isotropic approach causes up to 10% deviations in deflection. For circular plates, an exact solution can be found. For square plates using the Galerkin method, and utilizing the symmetry of the silicon crystal, a compact and accurate expression for the deflection can be obtained. The deviation from FEM in center deflection is <0.1%. The theory of multilayer plates is also applied to the CMUT. The deflection of a square plate was measured on fabricated CMUTs using a white light interferometer. Fitting the plate parameter for the anisotropic calculated deflection to the measurement, a deviation of 0.07% is seen. Electrostatic and small-signal dynamic analysis are performed using energy considerations including anisotropy. The stable position, effective spring constant, pullin distance, and pull-in voltage are found for both circular and square anisotropic plates, and the pressure dependence is included by comparison with the corresponding analysis for a parallel plate. Measurements on fabricated devices with both circular and square plates subjected to increasing bias voltage are performed, and it is observed that the models including anisotropic effects are within the uncertainty interval of the measurements. Finally, a lumped element small-signal model for both circular and square anisotropic plates is derived to describe the dynamics of the CMUT.

  9. Electrostatic and Small-Signal Analysis of CMUTs With Circular and Square Anisotropic Plates.

    PubMed

    Funding la Cour, Mette; Christiansen, Thomas Lehrmann; Jensen, Jørgen Arendt; Thomsen, Erik Vilain

    2015-08-01

    Traditionally, capacitive micromachined ultrasonic transducers (CMUTs) are modeled using the isotropic plate equation, and this leads to deviations between analytical calculations and finite element modeling (FEM). In this paper, the deflection is calculated for both circular and square plates using the full anisotropic plate equation. It is shown that the anisotropic calculations match excellently with FEM, whereas an isotropic approach causes up to 10% deviations in deflection. For circular plates, an exact solution can be found. For square plates using the Galerkin method, and utilizing the symmetry of the silicon crystal, a compact and accurate expression for the deflection can be obtained. The deviation from FEM in center deflection is <0.1%. The theory of multilayer plates is also applied to the CMUT. The deflection of a square plate was measured on fabricated CMUTs using a white light interferometer. Fitting the plate parameter for the anisotropic calculated deflection to the measurement, a deviation of 0.07% is seen. Electrostatic and small-signal dynamic analysis are performed using energy considerations including anisotropy. The stable position, effective spring constant, pullin distance, and pull-in voltage are found for both circular and square anisotropic plates, and the pressure dependence is included by comparison with the corresponding analysis for a parallel plate. Measurements on fabricated devices with both circular and square plates subjected to increasing bias voltage are performed, and it is observed that the models including anisotropic effects are within the uncertainty interval of the measurements. Finally, a lumped element small-signal model for both circular and square anisotropic plates is derived to describe the dynamics of the CMUT. PMID:26492637

  10. Progresses in cMUT device fabrication using low temperature processes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bahette, E.; Michaud, J. F.; Certon, D.; Gross, D.; Alquier, D.

    2014-04-01

    In this paper, we present an original fabrication process of capacitive micromachined ultrasonic transducers (cMUTs) using a low temperature method for high frequency medical imaging applications. The process, which is limited to 400 °C, is based on surface micromachining. The material choices are adapted in order to respect the thermal specifications allowing monolithic integration. Thus, we have found alternative methods to replace the usual high temperature steps in cMUT elaboration. In this way, a nickel silicide layer, presenting good physical and electrical characteristics, is used as a bottom electrode. The membrane, silicon nitride, is deposited using a 200 °C PECVD process. Then, a metallic layer is chosen as a sacrificial layer, in order to achieve the cavity. For that, nickel has been chosen due to its low roughness and its high etching selectivity during the excavation. After their fabrication, the transducers have been tested to verify their functionality and, thus, to validate this low temperature process. Device physical properties have been determined by electrical and optical measurement in air. We evaluated resonance frequency, collapse voltage and electromechanical coupling coefficient in accordance with the simulation. Eventually, low charging effects and low initial deflections can predict good long-term use and ageing of the cMUTs.

  11. Reconstruction of 2D seismic wavefield from Long-Period Seismogram and Short-Period Seismogram Envelope by Seismic Gradiometry applied to the Hi-net Array

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maeda, Takuto; Nishida, Kiwamu; Takagi, Ryota; Obara, Kazushige

    2016-04-01

    The high-sensitive seismograph network (Hi-net) operated by National Research Institute for Earth Science and Disaster Prevention (NIED) has about 800 stations with average separation of 20 km all over the Japanese archipelago. Although it is equipped with short-period seismometers, we also can observe long-period seismic wave up to 100 s in periods for significantly large earthquakes. In this case, we may treat long-period seismic waves as a 2D wavefield with station separations shorter than wavelength rather than individual traces at stations. In this study, we attempt to reconstruct 2D wavefield and obtain its propagation properties from seismic gradiometry (SG) method. The SG estimates the wave amplitude and its spatial derivative coefficients from discrete station record by the Taylor series approximation with an inverse problem. By using spatial derivatives in horizontal directions, we can obtain properties of propagating wave packet such as the arrival direction, slowness, geometrical spreading and radiation pattern. In addition, by using spatial derivatives together with free-surface boundary condition, we may decompose the vector elastic 2D wavefield estimated by the SG into divergence and rotation components. First, we applied the seismic gradiometry to a synthetic long-period (20-50 s) seismogram dataset computed by numerical simulation in realistic 3D medium at the Hi-net station layout as a feasibility test. We confirmed that the wave amplitude and its spatial derivatives are very well reproduced with average correlation coefficients higher than 0.99 in this period range. Applications to a real large earthquakes show that the amplitude and phase of the wavefield are well reconstructed with additional information of arrival direction and its slowness. The reconstructed wavefield contained a clear contrast in slowness between body and surface waves, regional non-great-circle-path wave propagation which may be attributed to scattering. Slowness

  12. Evaluation of the ability of a 2D ionisation chamber array and an EPID to detect systematic delivery errors in IMRT plans

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bawazeer, Omemh; Gray, Alison; Arumugam, Sankar; Vial, Philip; Thwaites, David; Descallar, Joseph; Holloway, Lois

    2014-03-01

    Two clinical intensity modulated radiotherapy plans were selected. Eleven plan variations were created with systematic errors introduced: Multi-Leaf Collimator (MLC) positional errors with all leaf pairs shifted in the same or the opposite direction, and collimator rotation offsets. Plans were measured using an Electronic Portal Imaging Device (EPID) and an ionisation chamber array. The plans were evaluated using gamma analysis with different criteria. The gamma pass rates remained around 95% or higher for most cases with MLC positional errors of 1 mm and 2 mm with 3%/3mm criteria. The ability of both devices to detect delivery errors was similar.

  13. Transceiver Design for CMUT-Based Super-Resolution Ultrasound Imaging.

    PubMed

    Behnamfar, Parisa; Molavi, Reza; Mirabbasi, Shahriar

    2016-04-01

    A recently introduced structure for the capacitive micromachined ultrasonic transducers (CMUTs) has focused on the applications of the asymmetric mode of vibration and has shown promising results in construction of super-resolution ultrasound images. This paper presents the first implementation and experimental results of a transceiver circuit to interface such CMUT structures. The multiple input/multiple output receiver in this work supports both fundamental and asymmetric modes of operation and includes transimpedance amplifiers and low-power variable-gain stages. These circuit blocks are designed considering the trade-offs between gain, input impedance, noise, linearity and power consumption. The high-voltage transmitter can generate pulse voltages up to 60 V while occupying a considerably small area. The overall circuit is designed and laid out in a 0.35 μm CMOS process and a four-channel transceiver occupies 0.86 × 0.38 mm(2). The prototype chip is characterized in both electrical and mechanical domains. Measurement results show that each receiver channel has a nominal gain of 110 dBΩ with a 3 dB bandwidth of 9 MHz while consuming 1.02 mW from a 3.3 V supply. The receiver is also highly linear, with 1 dB compression point of minimum 1.05 V which is considerably higher than the previously reported designs. The transmitter consumes 98.1 mW from a 30 V supply while generating 1.38 MHz, 30 V pulses. The CMOS-CMUT system is tested in the transmit mode and shows full functionality in air medium. PMID:25974944

  14. Cu-PDC-bpa solid coordination frameworks (PDC=2,5-pyrindinedicarboxylate; bpa=1,2-DI(4-pyridil)ethane)): 2D and 3D structural flexibility producing a 3-c herringbone array next to ideal

    SciTech Connect

    Llano-Tomé, Francisco; Bazán, Begoña; Urtiaga, Miren-Karmele; Barandika, Gotzone; Antonia Señarís-Rodríguez, M.; and others

    2015-10-15

    Combination of polycarboxylate anions and dipyridyl ligands is an effective strategy to produce solid coordination frameworks (SCF) which are crystalline materials based on connections between metal ions through organic ligands. In this context, this work is focused on two novel Cu{sup II}-based SCFs exhibiting PDC (2,5-pyridinedicarboxylate) and bpa (1,2-di(4-pyridyl)ethane), being the first structures reported in literature containing both ligands. Chemical formula are [Cu{sub 2}[(PDC){sub 2}(bpa)(H{sub 2}O){sub 2}]·3H{sub 2}O·DMF (1), and [Cu{sub 2}(PDC){sub 2}(bpa)(H{sub 2}O){sub 2}]·7H{sub 2}O (2), where DMF is dimethylformamide. Compounds 1 and 2 have been characterized by means of X-ray diffraction (XRD), infrared spectroscopy (IR), thermogravimetric (TG) analysis, differential thermal analysis (DTA) and dielectric measurements. The crystallographic analysis revealed that compounds 1 and 2 can be described as herringbone-type layers formed by helicoidal Cu-PDC-Cu chains connected through bpa ligands. Solvent molecules are crystallized between the layers, providing the inter-layer connections through hydrogen bonds. Differences between both compounds are attributable to the flexibility of bpa (in 2D) as well as to the 3D packing of the layers which is solvent dependent. This fact results in the fact that compound 2 is the most regular 3-c herringbone array reported so far. The structural dynamism of these networks is responsible for the crystalline to-amorphous to-crystalline (CAC) transformation from compound 1 to compound 2. Crystallochemical features for both compounds have also been studied and compared to similar 3-connected herringbone-arrays. - Graphical abstract: Cu-PDC-bpa 3-c herringbone arrays. - Highlights: • The most ideal herringbone array reported so far is a Cu-PDC-bpa SCF. • Conformational freedom of bpa results in 2D and 3D flexibility of the SCFs. • The flexibility of the SCFs is related to a phase transformation. • Dielectric

  15. Cu-PDC-bpa solid coordination frameworks (PDC=2,5-pyrindinedicarboxylate; bpa=1,2-DI(4-pyridil)ethane)): 2D and 3D structural flexibility producing a 3-c herringbone array next to ideal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Llano-Tomé, Francisco; Bazán, Begoña; Urtiaga, Miren-Karmele; Barandika, Gotzone; Antonia Señarís-Rodríguez, M.; Sánchez-Andújar, Manuel; Arriortua, María-Isabel

    2015-10-01

    Combination of polycarboxylate anions and dipyridyl ligands is an effective strategy to produce solid coordination frameworks (SCF) which are crystalline materials based on connections between metal ions through organic ligands. In this context, this work is focused on two novel CuII-based SCFs exhibiting PDC (2,5-pyridinedicarboxylate) and bpa (1,2-di(4-pyridyl)ethane), being the first structures reported in literature containing both ligands. Chemical formula are [Cu2[(PDC)2(bpa)(H2O)2]·3H2O·DMF (1), and [Cu2(PDC)2(bpa)(H2O)2]·7H2O (2), where DMF is dimethylformamide. Compounds 1 and 2 have been characterized by means of X-ray diffraction (XRD), infrared spectroscopy (IR), thermogravimetric (TG) analysis, differential thermal analysis (DTA) and dielectric measurements. The crystallographic analysis revealed that compounds 1 and 2 can be described as herringbone-type layers formed by helicoidal Cu-PDC-Cu chains connected through bpa ligands. Solvent molecules are crystallized between the layers, providing the inter-layer connections through hydrogen bonds. Differences between both compounds are attributable to the flexibility of bpa (in 2D) as well as to the 3D packing of the layers which is solvent dependent. This fact results in the fact that compound 2 is the most regular 3-c herringbone array reported so far. The structural dynamism of these networks is responsible for the crystalline to-amorphous to-crystalline (CAC) transformation from compound 1 to compound 2. Crystallochemical features for both compounds have also been studied and compared to similar 3-connected herringbone-arrays.

  16. Acoustic Doppler velocity measurement system using capacitive micromachined ultrasound transducer array technology.

    PubMed

    Shin, Minchul; Krause, Joshua S; DeBitetto, Paul; White, Robert D

    2013-08-01

    This paper describes the design, fabrication, modeling, and characterization of a small (1 cm(2) transducer chip) acoustic Doppler velocity measurement system using microelectromechanical systems capacitive micromachined ultrasound transducer (cMUT) array technology. The cMUT sensor has a 185 kHz resonant frequency to achieve a 13° beam width for a 1 cm aperture. A model for the cMUT and the acoustic system which includes electrical, mechanical, and acoustic components is provided. Furthermore, this paper shows characterization of the cMUT sensor with a variety of testing procedures including Laser Doppler Vibrometry (LDV), beampattern measurement, reflection testing, and velocity testing. LDV measurements demonstrate that the membrane displacement at the center point is 0.4 nm/V(2) at 185 kHz. The maximum range of the sensor is 60 cm (30 cm out and 30 cm back). A velocity sled was constructed and used to demonstrate measureable Doppler shifts at velocities from 0.2 to 1.0 m/s. The Doppler shifts agree well with the expected frequency shifts over this range.

  17. Acoustic Doppler velocity measurement system using capacitive micromachined ultrasound transducer array technology.

    PubMed

    Shin, Minchul; Krause, Joshua S; DeBitetto, Paul; White, Robert D

    2013-08-01

    This paper describes the design, fabrication, modeling, and characterization of a small (1 cm(2) transducer chip) acoustic Doppler velocity measurement system using microelectromechanical systems capacitive micromachined ultrasound transducer (cMUT) array technology. The cMUT sensor has a 185 kHz resonant frequency to achieve a 13° beam width for a 1 cm aperture. A model for the cMUT and the acoustic system which includes electrical, mechanical, and acoustic components is provided. Furthermore, this paper shows characterization of the cMUT sensor with a variety of testing procedures including Laser Doppler Vibrometry (LDV), beampattern measurement, reflection testing, and velocity testing. LDV measurements demonstrate that the membrane displacement at the center point is 0.4 nm/V(2) at 185 kHz. The maximum range of the sensor is 60 cm (30 cm out and 30 cm back). A velocity sled was constructed and used to demonstrate measureable Doppler shifts at velocities from 0.2 to 1.0 m/s. The Doppler shifts agree well with the expected frequency shifts over this range. PMID:23927100

  18. Design of broadband linear micromachined ultrasonic transducer arrays by means of boundary element method coupled with normal mode theory.

    PubMed

    Boulmé, Audren; Certon, Dominique

    2015-09-01

    In view of the maturity of fabrication processes for capacitive micromachined ultrasonic transducers (cMUTs), engineers and researchers now need efficient and accurate modeling tools to design linear arrays according to a set of technological specifications, such as sensitivity, bandwidth, and directivity pattern. A simplified modeling tool was developed to meet this requirement. It consists of modeling one element as a set of cMUT columns, each being a 1-D periodic array of cMUTs. Model description and assessment of simulation results are given in the first part of the paper. The approach is based on the theory of linear systems so the output data are linked to input data through a large matrix, known as an admittance matrix. In the second part of the paper, we propose reorganization of matrix equations by applying the normal mode theory. From the modal decomposition, two categories of eigenmodes are highlighted, one for which all cMUTs vibrate in phase (the fundamental mode) and the others, which correspond to localized subwavelength resonances, known as baffle modes. The last part of the paper focuses mainly on the fundamental mode and gives several design strategies to optimize the frequency response of an element.

  19. Aniso2D

    2005-07-01

    Aniso2d is a two-dimensional seismic forward modeling code. The earth is parameterized by an X-Z plane in which the seismic properties Can have monoclinic with x-z plane symmetry. The program uses a user define time-domain wavelet to produce synthetic seismograms anrwhere within the two-dimensional media.

  20. Towards 2D nanocomposites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jang, Hyun-Sook; Yu, Changqian; Hayes, Robert; Granick, Steve

    2015-03-01

    Polymer vesicles (``polymersomes'') are an intriguing class of soft materials, commonly used to encapsulate small molecules or particles. Here we reveal they can also effectively incorporate nanoparticles inside their polymer membrane, leading to novel ``2D nanocomposites.'' The embedded nanoparticles alter the capacity of the polymersomes to bend and to stretch upon external stimuli.

  1. Mesh2d

    2011-12-31

    Mesh2d is a Fortran90 program designed to generate two-dimensional structured grids of the form [x(i),y(i,j)] where [x,y] are grid coordinates identified by indices (i,j). The x(i) coordinates alone can be used to specify a one-dimensional grid. Because the x-coordinates vary only with the i index, a two-dimensional grid is composed in part of straight vertical lines. However, the nominally horizontal y(i,j0) coordinates along index i are permitted to undulate or otherwise vary. Mesh2d also assignsmore » an integer material type to each grid cell, mtyp(i,j), in a user-specified manner. The complete grid is specified through three separate input files defining the x(i), y(i,j), and mtyp(i,j) variations.« less

  2. High divergent 2D grating

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Jin; Ma, Jianyong; Zhou, Changhe

    2014-11-01

    A 3×3 high divergent 2D-grating with period of 3.842μm at wavelength of 850nm under normal incidence is designed and fabricated in this paper. This high divergent 2D-grating is designed by the vector theory. The Rigorous Coupled Wave Analysis (RCWA) in association with the simulated annealing (SA) is adopted to calculate and optimize this 2D-grating.The properties of this grating are also investigated by the RCWA. The diffraction angles are more than 10 degrees in the whole wavelength band, which are bigger than the traditional 2D-grating. In addition, the small period of grating increases the difficulties of fabrication. So we fabricate the 2D-gratings by direct laser writing (DLW) instead of traditional manufacturing method. Then the method of ICP etching is used to obtain the high divergent 2D-grating.

  3. CYP2D7 Sequence Variation Interferes with TaqMan CYP2D6*15 and *35 Genotyping

    PubMed Central

    Riffel, Amanda K.; Dehghani, Mehdi; Hartshorne, Toinette; Floyd, Kristen C.; Leeder, J. Steven; Rosenblatt, Kevin P.; Gaedigk, Andrea

    2016-01-01

    TaqMan™ genotyping assays are widely used to genotype CYP2D6, which encodes a major drug metabolizing enzyme. Assay design for CYP2D6 can be challenging owing to the presence of two pseudogenes, CYP2D7 and CYP2D8, structural and copy number variation and numerous single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) some of which reflect the wild-type sequence of the CYP2D7 pseudogene. The aim of this study was to identify the mechanism causing false-positive CYP2D6*15 calls and remediate those by redesigning and validating alternative TaqMan genotype assays. Among 13,866 DNA samples genotyped by the CompanionDx® lab on the OpenArray platform, 70 samples were identified as heterozygotes for 137Tins, the key SNP of CYP2D6*15. However, only 15 samples were confirmed when tested with the Luminex xTAG CYP2D6 Kit and sequencing of CYP2D6-specific long range (XL)-PCR products. Genotype and gene resequencing of CYP2D6 and CYP2D7-specific XL-PCR products revealed a CC>GT dinucleotide SNP in exon 1 of CYP2D7 that reverts the sequence to CYP2D6 and allows a TaqMan assay PCR primer to bind. Because CYP2D7 also carries a Tins, a false-positive mutation signal is generated. This CYP2D7 SNP was also responsible for generating false-positive signals for rs769258 (CYP2D6*35) which is also located in exon 1. Although alternative CYP2D6*15 and *35 assays resolved the issue, we discovered a novel CYP2D6*15 subvariant in one sample that carries additional SNPs preventing detection with the alternate assay. The frequency of CYP2D6*15 was 0.1% in this ethnically diverse U.S. population sample. In addition, we also discovered linkage between the CYP2D7 CC>GT dinucleotide SNP and the 77G>A (rs28371696) SNP of CYP2D6*43. The frequency of this tentatively functional allele was 0.2%. Taken together, these findings emphasize that regardless of how careful genotyping assays are designed and evaluated before being commercially marketed, rare or unknown SNPs underneath primer and/or probe regions can impact

  4. CYP2D7 Sequence Variation Interferes with TaqMan CYP2D6 (*) 15 and (*) 35 Genotyping.

    PubMed

    Riffel, Amanda K; Dehghani, Mehdi; Hartshorne, Toinette; Floyd, Kristen C; Leeder, J Steven; Rosenblatt, Kevin P; Gaedigk, Andrea

    2015-01-01

    TaqMan™ genotyping assays are widely used to genotype CYP2D6, which encodes a major drug metabolizing enzyme. Assay design for CYP2D6 can be challenging owing to the presence of two pseudogenes, CYP2D7 and CYP2D8, structural and copy number variation and numerous single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) some of which reflect the wild-type sequence of the CYP2D7 pseudogene. The aim of this study was to identify the mechanism causing false-positive CYP2D6 (*) 15 calls and remediate those by redesigning and validating alternative TaqMan genotype assays. Among 13,866 DNA samples genotyped by the CompanionDx® lab on the OpenArray platform, 70 samples were identified as heterozygotes for 137Tins, the key SNP of CYP2D6 (*) 15. However, only 15 samples were confirmed when tested with the Luminex xTAG CYP2D6 Kit and sequencing of CYP2D6-specific long range (XL)-PCR products. Genotype and gene resequencing of CYP2D6 and CYP2D7-specific XL-PCR products revealed a CC>GT dinucleotide SNP in exon 1 of CYP2D7 that reverts the sequence to CYP2D6 and allows a TaqMan assay PCR primer to bind. Because CYP2D7 also carries a Tins, a false-positive mutation signal is generated. This CYP2D7 SNP was also responsible for generating false-positive signals for rs769258 (CYP2D6 (*) 35) which is also located in exon 1. Although alternative CYP2D6 (*) 15 and (*) 35 assays resolved the issue, we discovered a novel CYP2D6 (*) 15 subvariant in one sample that carries additional SNPs preventing detection with the alternate assay. The frequency of CYP2D6 (*) 15 was 0.1% in this ethnically diverse U.S. population sample. In addition, we also discovered linkage between the CYP2D7 CC>GT dinucleotide SNP and the 77G>A (rs28371696) SNP of CYP2D6 (*) 43. The frequency of this tentatively functional allele was 0.2%. Taken together, these findings emphasize that regardless of how careful genotyping assays are designed and evaluated before being commercially marketed, rare or unknown SNPs underneath primer

  5. Ultrafast 2D IR microscopy

    PubMed Central

    Baiz, Carlos R.; Schach, Denise; Tokmakoff, Andrei

    2014-01-01

    We describe a microscope for measuring two-dimensional infrared (2D IR) spectra of heterogeneous samples with μm-scale spatial resolution, sub-picosecond time resolution, and the molecular structure information of 2D IR, enabling the measurement of vibrational dynamics through correlations in frequency, time, and space. The setup is based on a fully collinear “one beam” geometry in which all pulses propagate along the same optics. Polarization, chopping, and phase cycling are used to isolate the 2D IR signals of interest. In addition, we demonstrate the use of vibrational lifetime as a contrast agent for imaging microscopic variations in molecular environments. PMID:25089490

  6. AnisWave 2D

    2004-08-01

    AnisWave2D is a 2D finite-difference code for a simulating seismic wave propagation in fully anisotropic materials. The code is implemented to run in parallel over multiple processors and is fully portable. A mesh refinement algorithm has been utilized to allow the grid-spacing to be tailored to the velocity model, avoiding the over-sampling of high-velocity materials that usually occurs in fixed-grid schemes.

  7. DYNA2D96. Explicit 2-D Hydrodynamic FEM Program

    SciTech Connect

    Whirley, R.G.

    1992-04-01

    DYNA2D is a vectorized, explicit, two-dimensional, axisymmetric and plane strain finite element program for analyzing the large deformation dynamic and hydrodynamic response of inelastic solids. DYNA2D contains 13 material models and 9 equations of state (EOS) to cover a wide range of material behavior. The material models implemented in all machine versions are: elastic, orthotropic elastic, kinematic/isotropic elastic plasticity, thermoelastoplastic, soil and crushable foam, linear viscoelastic, rubber, high explosive burn, isotropic elastic-plastic, temperature-dependent elastic-plastic. The isotropic and temperature-dependent elastic-plastic models determine only the deviatoric stresses. Pressure is determined by one of 9 equations of state including linear polynomial, JWL high explosive, Sack Tuesday high explosive, Gruneisen, ratio of polynomials, linear polynomial with energy deposition, ignition and growth of reaction in HE, tabulated compaction, and tabulated.

  8. MOSS2D V1

    2001-01-31

    This software reduces the data from two-dimensional kSA MOS program, k-Space Associates, Ann Arbor, MI. Initial MOS data is recorded without headers in 38 columns, with one row of data per acquisition per lase beam tracked. The final MOSS 2d data file is reduced, graphed, and saved in a tab-delimited column format with headers that can be plotted in any graphing software.

  9. Practical Algorithm For Computing The 2-D Arithmetic Fourier Transform

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reed, Irving S.; Choi, Y. Y.; Yu, Xiaoli

    1989-05-01

    Recently, Tufts and Sadasiv [10] exposed a method for computing the coefficients of a Fourier series of a periodic function using the Mobius inversion of series. They called this method of analysis the Arithmetic Fourier Transform(AFT). The advantage of the AFT over the FN 1' is that this method of Fourier analysis needs only addition operations except for multiplications by scale factors at one stage of the computation. The disadvantage of the AFT as they expressed it originally is that it could be used effectively only to compute finite Fourier coefficients of a real even function. To remedy this the AFT developed in [10] is extended in [11] to compute the Fourier coefficients of both the even and odd components of a periodic function. In this paper, the improved AFT [11] is extended to a two-dimensional(2-D) Arithmetic Fourier Transform for calculating the Fourier Transform of two-dimensional discrete signals. This new algorithm is based on both the number-theoretic method of Mobius inversion of double series and the complex conjugate property of Fourier coefficients. The advantage of this algorithm over the conventional 2-D FFT is that the corner-turning problem needed in a conventional 2-D Discrete Fourier Transform(DFT) can be avoided. Therefore, this new 2-D algorithm is readily suitable for VLSI implementation as a parallel architecture. Comparing the operations of 2-D AFT of a MxM 2-D data array with the conventional 2-D FFT, the number of multiplications is significantly reduced from (2log2M)M2 to (9/4)M2. Hence, this new algorithm is faster than the FFT algorithm. Finally, two simulation results of this new 2-D AFT algorithm for 2-D artificial and real images are given in this paper.

  10. Unparticle example in 2D.

    PubMed

    Georgi, Howard; Kats, Yevgeny

    2008-09-26

    We discuss what can be learned about unparticle physics by studying simple quantum field theories in one space and one time dimension. We argue that the exactly soluble 2D theory of a massless fermion coupled to a massive vector boson, the Sommerfield model, is an interesting analog of a Banks-Zaks model, approaching a free theory at high energies and a scale-invariant theory with nontrivial anomalous dimensions at low energies. We construct a toy standard model coupling to the fermions in the Sommerfield model and study how the transition from unparticle behavior at low energies to free particle behavior at high energies manifests itself in interactions with the toy standard model particles.

  11. Interconnection of nanoparticles within 2D superlattices of PbS/oleic acid thin films.

    PubMed

    Simon, Paul; Bahrig, Lydia; Baburin, Igor A; Formanek, Petr; Röder, Falk; Sickmann, Jan; Hickey, Stephen G; Eychmüller, Alexander; Lichte, Hannes; Kniep, Rüdiger; Rosseeva, Elena

    2014-05-21

    Make it connected! 2D close-packed layers of inorganic nanoparticles are interconnected by organic fibrils of oleic acid as clearly visualized by electron holography. These fibrils can be mineralised by PbS to transform an organic-inorganic framework to a completely interconnected inorganic semiconducting 2D array.

  12. A 2-D ECE Imaging Diagnostic for TEXTOR

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, J.; Deng, B. H.; Domier, C. W.; Luhmann, H. Lu, Jr.

    2002-11-01

    A true 2-D extension to the UC Davis ECE Imaging (ECEI) concept is under development for installation on the TEXTOR tokamak in 2003. This combines the use of linear arrays with multichannel conventional wideband heterodyne ECE radiometers to provide a true 2-D imaging system. This is in contrast to current 1-D ECEI systems in which 2-D images are obtained through the use of multiple plasma discharges (varying the scanned emission frequency each discharge). Here, each array element of the 20 channel mixer array measures plasma emission at 16 simultaneous frequencies to form a 16x20 image of the plasma electron temperature Te. Correlation techniques can then be applied to any pair of the 320 image elements to study both radial and poloidal characteristics of turbulent Te fluctuations. The system relies strongly on the development of low cost, wideband (2-18 GHz) IF detection electronics for use in both ECE Imaging as well as conventional heterodyne ECE radiometry. System details, with a strong focus on the wideband IF electronics development, will be presented. *Supported by U.S. DoE Contracts DE-FG03-95ER54295 and DE-FG03-99ER54531.

  13. On the current drive capability of low dimensional semiconductors: 1D versus 2D

    DOE PAGES

    Zhu, Y.; Appenzeller, J.

    2015-10-29

    Low-dimensional electronic systems are at the heart of many scaling approaches currently pursuit for electronic applications. Here, we present a comparative study between an array of one-dimensional (1D) channels and its two-dimensional (2D) counterpart in terms of current drive capability. Lastly, our findings from analytical expressions derived in this article reveal that under certain conditions an array of 1D channels can outperform a 2D field-effect transistor because of the added degree of freedom to adjust the threshold voltage in an array of 1D devices.

  14. On the Current Drive Capability of Low Dimensional Semiconductors: 1D versus 2D.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Y; Appenzeller, J

    2015-12-01

    Low-dimensional electronic systems are at the heart of many scaling approaches currently pursuit for electronic applications. Here, we present a comparative study between an array of one-dimensional (1D) channels and its two-dimensional (2D) counterpart in terms of current drive capability. Our findings from analytical expressions derived in this article reveal that under certain conditions an array of 1D channels can outperform a 2D field-effect transistor because of the added degree of freedom to adjust the threshold voltage in an array of 1D devices.

  15. Capacitive micromachined ultrasonic transducers for medical imaging and therapy

    PubMed Central

    Khuri-Yakub, Butrus T.; Oralkan, Ömer

    2011-01-01

    Capacitive micromachined ultrasonic transducers (CMUTs) have been subject to extensive research for the last two decades. Although they were initially developed for air-coupled applications, today their main application space is medical imaging and therapy. This paper first presents a brief description of CMUTs, their basic structure, and operating principles. Our progression of developing several generations of fabrication processes is discussed with an emphasis on the advantages and disadvantages of each process. Monolithic and hybrid approaches for integrating CMUTs with supporting integrated circuits are surveyed. Several prototype transducer arrays with integrated frontend electronic circuits we developed and their use for 2-D and 3-D, anatomical and functional imaging, and ablative therapies are described. The presented results prove the CMUT as a MEMS technology for many medical diagnostic and therapeutic applications. PMID:21860542

  16. Perspectives for spintronics in 2D materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Han, Wei

    2016-03-01

    The past decade has been especially creative for spintronics since the (re)discovery of various two dimensional (2D) materials. Due to the unusual physical characteristics, 2D materials have provided new platforms to probe the spin interaction with other degrees of freedom for electrons, as well as to be used for novel spintronics applications. This review briefly presents the most important recent and ongoing research for spintronics in 2D materials.

  17. Quantitative 2D liquid-state NMR.

    PubMed

    Giraudeau, Patrick

    2014-06-01

    Two-dimensional (2D) liquid-state NMR has a very high potential to simultaneously determine the absolute concentration of small molecules in complex mixtures, thanks to its capacity to separate overlapping resonances. However, it suffers from two main drawbacks that probably explain its relatively late development. First, the 2D NMR signal is strongly molecule-dependent and site-dependent; second, the long duration of 2D NMR experiments prevents its general use for high-throughput quantitative applications and affects its quantitative performance. Fortunately, the last 10 years has witnessed an increasing number of contributions where quantitative approaches based on 2D NMR were developed and applied to solve real analytical issues. This review aims at presenting these recent efforts to reach a high trueness and precision in quantitative measurements by 2D NMR. After highlighting the interest of 2D NMR for quantitative analysis, the different strategies to determine the absolute concentrations from 2D NMR spectra are described and illustrated by recent applications. The last part of the manuscript concerns the recent development of fast quantitative 2D NMR approaches, aiming at reducing the experiment duration while preserving - or even increasing - the analytical performance. We hope that this comprehensive review will help readers to apprehend the current landscape of quantitative 2D NMR, as well as the perspectives that may arise from it.

  18. ELLIPT2D: A Flexible Finite Element Code Written Python

    SciTech Connect

    Pletzer, A.; Mollis, J.C.

    2001-03-22

    The use of the Python scripting language for scientific applications and in particular to solve partial differential equations is explored. It is shown that Python's rich data structure and object-oriented features can be exploited to write programs that are not only significantly more concise than their counter parts written in Fortran, C or C++, but are also numerically efficient. To illustrate this, a two-dimensional finite element code (ELLIPT2D) has been written. ELLIPT2D provides a flexible and easy-to-use framework for solving a large class of second-order elliptic problems. The program allows for structured or unstructured meshes. All functions defining the elliptic operator are user supplied and so are the boundary conditions, which can be of Dirichlet, Neumann or Robbins type. ELLIPT2D makes extensive use of dictionaries (hash tables) as a way to represent sparse matrices.Other key features of the Python language that have been widely used include: operator over loading, error handling, array slicing, and the Tkinter module for building graphical use interfaces. As an example of the utility of ELLIPT2D, a nonlinear solution of the Grad-Shafranov equation is computed using a Newton iterative scheme. A second application focuses on a solution of the toroidal Laplace equation coupled to a magnetohydrodynamic stability code, a problem arising in the context of magnetic fusion research.

  19. Staring 2-D hadamard transform spectral imager

    DOEpatents

    Gentry, Stephen M.; Wehlburg, Christine M.; Wehlburg, Joseph C.; Smith, Mark W.; Smith, Jody L.

    2006-02-07

    A staring imaging system inputs a 2D spatial image containing multi-frequency spectral information. This image is encoded in one dimension of the image with a cyclic Hadamarid S-matrix. The resulting image is detecting with a spatial 2D detector; and a computer applies a Hadamard transform to recover the encoded image.

  20. 2D materials for nanophotonic devices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Renjing; Yang, Jiong; Zhang, Shuang; Pei, Jiajie; Lu, Yuerui

    2015-12-01

    Two-dimensional (2D) materials have become very important building blocks for electronic, photonic, and phononic devices. The 2D material family has four key members, including the metallic graphene, transition metal dichalcogenide (TMD) layered semiconductors, semiconducting black phosphorous, and the insulating h-BN. Owing to the strong quantum confinements and defect-free surfaces, these atomically thin layers have offered us perfect platforms to investigate the interactions among photons, electrons and phonons. The unique interactions in these 2D materials are very important for both scientific research and application engineering. In this talk, I would like to briefly summarize and highlight the key findings, opportunities and challenges in this field. Next, I will introduce/highlight our recent achievements. We demonstrated atomically thin micro-lens and gratings using 2D MoS2, which is the thinnest optical component around the world. These devices are based on our discovery that the elastic light-matter interactions in highindex 2D materials is very strong. Also, I would like to introduce a new two-dimensional material phosphorene. Phosphorene has strongly anisotropic optical response, which creates 1D excitons in a 2D system. The strong confinement in phosphorene also enables the ultra-high trion (charged exciton) binding energies, which have been successfully measured in our experiments. Finally, I will briefly talk about the potential applications of 2D materials in energy harvesting.

  1. Internal Photoemission Spectroscopy of 2-D Materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nguyen, Nhan; Li, Mingda; Vishwanath, Suresh; Yan, Rusen; Xiao, Shudong; Xing, Huili; Cheng, Guangjun; Hight Walker, Angela; Zhang, Qin

    Recent research has shown the great benefits of using 2-D materials in the tunnel field-effect transistor (TFET), which is considered a promising candidate for the beyond-CMOS technology. The on-state current of TFET can be enhanced by engineering the band alignment of different 2D-2D or 2D-3D heterostructures. Here we present the internal photoemission spectroscopy (IPE) approach to determine the band alignments of various 2-D materials, in particular SnSe2 and WSe2, which have been proposed for new TFET designs. The metal-oxide-2-D semiconductor test structures are fabricated and characterized by IPE, where the band offsets from the 2-D semiconductor to the oxide conduction band minimum are determined by the threshold of the cube root of IPE yields as a function of photon energy. In particular, we find that SnSe2 has a larger electron affinity than most semiconductors and can be combined with other semiconductors to form near broken-gap heterojunctions with low barrier heights which can produce a higher on-state current. The details of data analysis of IPE and the results from Raman spectroscopy and spectroscopic ellipsometry measurements will also be presented and discussed.

  2. 2D materials: to graphene and beyond.

    PubMed

    Mas-Ballesté, Rubén; Gómez-Navarro, Cristina; Gómez-Herrero, Julio; Zamora, Félix

    2011-01-01

    This review is an attempt to illustrate the different alternatives in the field of 2D materials. Graphene seems to be just the tip of the iceberg and we show how the discovery of alternative 2D materials is starting to show the rest of this iceberg. The review comprises the current state-of-the-art of the vast literature in concepts and methods already known for isolation and characterization of graphene, and rationalizes the quite disperse literature in other 2D materials such as metal oxides, hydroxides and chalcogenides, and metal-organic frameworks.

  3. 2-d Finite Element Code Postprocessor

    1996-07-15

    ORION is an interactive program that serves as a postprocessor for the analysis programs NIKE2D, DYNA2D, TOPAZ2D, and CHEMICAL TOPAZ2D. ORION reads binary plot files generated by the two-dimensional finite element codes currently used by the Methods Development Group at LLNL. Contour and color fringe plots of a large number of quantities may be displayed on meshes consisting of triangular and quadrilateral elements. ORION can compute strain measures, interface pressures along slide lines, reaction forcesmore » along constrained boundaries, and momentum. ORION has been applied to study the response of two-dimensional solids and structures undergoing finite deformations under a wide variety of large deformation transient dynamic and static problems and heat transfer analyses.« less

  4. Matrix models of 2d gravity

    SciTech Connect

    Ginsparg, P.

    1991-01-01

    These are introductory lectures for a general audience that give an overview of the subject of matrix models and their application to random surfaces, 2d gravity, and string theory. They are intentionally 1.5 years out of date.

  5. Matrix models of 2d gravity

    SciTech Connect

    Ginsparg, P.

    1991-12-31

    These are introductory lectures for a general audience that give an overview of the subject of matrix models and their application to random surfaces, 2d gravity, and string theory. They are intentionally 1.5 years out of date.

  6. Brittle damage models in DYNA2D

    SciTech Connect

    Faux, D.R.

    1997-09-01

    DYNA2D is an explicit Lagrangian finite element code used to model dynamic events where stress wave interactions influence the overall response of the system. DYNA2D is often used to model penetration problems involving ductile-to-ductile impacts; however, with the advent of the use of ceramics in the armor-anti-armor community and the need to model damage to laser optics components, good brittle damage models are now needed in DYNA2D. This report will detail the implementation of four brittle damage models in DYNA2D, three scalar damage models and one tensor damage model. These new brittle damage models are then used to predict experimental results from three distinctly different glass damage problems.

  7. Chemical Approaches to 2D Materials.

    PubMed

    Samorì, Paolo; Palermo, Vincenzo; Feng, Xinliang

    2016-08-01

    Chemistry plays an ever-increasing role in the production, functionalization, processing and applications of graphene and other 2D materials. This special issue highlights a selection of enlightening chemical approaches to 2D materials, which nicely reflect the breadth of the field and convey the excitement of the individuals involved in it, who are trying to translate graphene and related materials from the laboratory into a real, high-impact technology. PMID:27478083

  8. Chemical Approaches to 2D Materials.

    PubMed

    Samorì, Paolo; Palermo, Vincenzo; Feng, Xinliang

    2016-08-01

    Chemistry plays an ever-increasing role in the production, functionalization, processing and applications of graphene and other 2D materials. This special issue highlights a selection of enlightening chemical approaches to 2D materials, which nicely reflect the breadth of the field and convey the excitement of the individuals involved in it, who are trying to translate graphene and related materials from the laboratory into a real, high-impact technology.

  9. Equivalent Circuit Models for Large Arrays of Curved and Flat Piezoelectric Micromachined Ultrasonic Transducers.

    PubMed

    Akhbari, Sina; Sammoura, Firas; Lin, Liwei

    2016-03-01

    Equivalent circuit models of large arrays of curved (spherical shape) and flat piezoelectric micromachined ultrasonic transducers (pMUTs) have been developed for complex pMUT arrays design and analysis. The exact solutions for circuit parameters in the electromechanical domain, such as mechanical admittance, input electrical impedance, and electromechanical transformer ratio, were analytically derived. By utilizing the array solution methods previously established for the thickness-mode piezoelectric devices and capacitive micromachined ultrasonic transducers (cMUTs), the single pMUT circuit model can be extended to models for array structures. The array model includes both the self- and mutual-acoustic radiation impedances of individual transducers in the acoustic medium. Volumetric displacement, induced piezoelectric current, and pressure field can be derived with respect to the input voltage matrix, material, and geometrical properties of each individual transducer and the array structure. As such, the analytical models presented here can be used as a guideline for analyses and design evaluations of large arrays of curved and flat pMUTs efficiently and can be further generalized to evaluate other pMUT architectures in the form of single devices or arrays. PMID:26863658

  10. Equivalent Circuit Models for Large Arrays of Curved and Flat Piezoelectric Micromachined Ultrasonic Transducers.

    PubMed

    Akhbari, Sina; Sammoura, Firas; Lin, Liwei

    2016-03-01

    Equivalent circuit models of large arrays of curved (spherical shape) and flat piezoelectric micromachined ultrasonic transducers (pMUTs) have been developed for complex pMUT arrays design and analysis. The exact solutions for circuit parameters in the electromechanical domain, such as mechanical admittance, input electrical impedance, and electromechanical transformer ratio, were analytically derived. By utilizing the array solution methods previously established for the thickness-mode piezoelectric devices and capacitive micromachined ultrasonic transducers (cMUTs), the single pMUT circuit model can be extended to models for array structures. The array model includes both the self- and mutual-acoustic radiation impedances of individual transducers in the acoustic medium. Volumetric displacement, induced piezoelectric current, and pressure field can be derived with respect to the input voltage matrix, material, and geometrical properties of each individual transducer and the array structure. As such, the analytical models presented here can be used as a guideline for analyses and design evaluations of large arrays of curved and flat pMUTs efficiently and can be further generalized to evaluate other pMUT architectures in the form of single devices or arrays.

  11. Wide-Field H2D+ Observations of Starless Cores

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Di Francesco, James; Friesen, R.; Caselli, P.; Myers, P. C.; van der Tak, F. F. S.; Ceccarelli, C.

    2009-01-01

    In recent years, isolated starless cores have been revealed to have significant chemical differentiation with very low abundances of carbon-bearing molecules (such as CO and its isotopologues) in their cold, dense interiors. The inner regions of such cores, however, may be quite interesting, e.g., if contraction or collapse begins there. To explore these regions, we present detections of six isolated starless cores in the 110-111 line of H2D+ at 372 GHz using the new HARP instrument at the James Clerk Maxwell Telescope. Since the detection of this line requires very dry conditions on Mauna Kea (i.e., κ(225 GHz) < 0.05), only a multi-beam receiver system like the 4 X 4 HARP array can locate H2D+ emission across such cores in a practical amount of observing time. In all cases, the brightest line emission is coincident with the local peak of submillimeter continuum emission, but significant H2D+ emission is detected offset from the continuum peak in some. In addition, we describe the thermal and turbulent velocity fields in these cores revealed by these lines.

  12. Glitter in a 2D monolayer.

    PubMed

    Yang, Li-Ming; Dornfeld, Matthew; Frauenheim, Thomas; Ganz, Eric

    2015-10-21

    We predict a highly stable and robust atomically thin gold monolayer with a hexagonal close packed lattice stabilized by metallic bonding with contributions from strong relativistic effects and aurophilic interactions. We have shown that the framework of the Au monolayer can survive 10 ps MD annealing simulations up to 1400 K. The framework is also able to survive large motions out of the plane. Due to the smaller number of bonds per atom in the 2D layer compared to the 3D bulk we observe significantly enhanced energy per bond (0.94 vs. 0.52 eV per bond). This is similar to the increase in bond strength going from 3D diamond to 2D graphene. It is a non-magnetic metal, and was found to be the global minima in the 2D space. Phonon dispersion calculations demonstrate high kinetic stability with no negative modes. This 2D gold monolayer corresponds to the top monolayer of the bulk Au(111) face-centered cubic lattice. The close-packed lattice maximizes the aurophilic interactions. We find that the electrons are completely delocalized in the plane and behave as 2D nearly free electron gas. We hope that the present work can inspire the experimental fabrication of novel free standing 2D metal systems.

  13. 2d index and surface operators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gadde, Abhijit; Gukov, Sergei

    2014-03-01

    In this paper we compute the superconformal index of 2d (2, 2) supersymmetric gauge theories. The 2d superconformal index, a.k.a. flavored elliptic genus, is computed by a unitary matrix integral much like the matrix integral that computes the 4d superconformal index. We compute the 2d index explicitly for a number of examples. In the case of abelian gauge theories we see that the index is invariant under flop transition and under CY-LG correspondence. The index also provides a powerful check of the Seiberg-type duality for non-abelian gauge theories discovered by Hori and Tong. In the later half of the paper, we study half-BPS surface operators in = 2 super-conformal gauge theories. They are engineered by coupling the 2d (2, 2) supersymmetric gauge theory living on the support of the surface operator to the 4d = 2 theory, so that different realizations of the same surface operator with a given Levi type are related by a 2d analogue of the Seiberg duality. The index of this coupled system is computed by using the tools developed in the first half of the paper. The superconformal index in the presence of surface defect is expected to be invariant under generalized S-duality. We demonstrate that it is indeed the case. In doing so the Seiberg-type duality of the 2d theory plays an important role.

  14. Orthotropic Piezoelectricity in 2D Nanocellulose

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    García, Y.; Ruiz-Blanco, Yasser B.; Marrero-Ponce, Yovani; Sotomayor-Torres, C. M.

    2016-10-01

    The control of electromechanical responses within bonding regions is essential to face frontier challenges in nanotechnologies, such as molecular electronics and biotechnology. Here, we present Iβ-nanocellulose as a potentially new orthotropic 2D piezoelectric crystal. The predicted in-layer piezoelectricity is originated on a sui-generis hydrogen bonds pattern. Upon this fact and by using a combination of ab-initio and ad-hoc models, we introduce a description of electrical profiles along chemical bonds. Such developments lead to obtain a rationale for modelling the extended piezoelectric effect originated within bond scales. The order of magnitude estimated for the 2D Iβ-nanocellulose piezoelectric response, ~pm V‑1, ranks this material at the level of currently used piezoelectric energy generators and new artificial 2D designs. Such finding would be crucial for developing alternative materials to drive emerging nanotechnologies.

  15. Orthotropic Piezoelectricity in 2D Nanocellulose

    PubMed Central

    García, Y.; Ruiz-Blanco, Yasser B.; Marrero-Ponce, Yovani; Sotomayor-Torres, C. M.

    2016-01-01

    The control of electromechanical responses within bonding regions is essential to face frontier challenges in nanotechnologies, such as molecular electronics and biotechnology. Here, we present Iβ-nanocellulose as a potentially new orthotropic 2D piezoelectric crystal. The predicted in-layer piezoelectricity is originated on a sui-generis hydrogen bonds pattern. Upon this fact and by using a combination of ab-initio and ad-hoc models, we introduce a description of electrical profiles along chemical bonds. Such developments lead to obtain a rationale for modelling the extended piezoelectric effect originated within bond scales. The order of magnitude estimated for the 2D Iβ-nanocellulose piezoelectric response, ~pm V−1, ranks this material at the level of currently used piezoelectric energy generators and new artificial 2D designs. Such finding would be crucial for developing alternative materials to drive emerging nanotechnologies. PMID:27708364

  16. 2D microwave imaging reflectometer electronics

    SciTech Connect

    Spear, A. G.; Domier, C. W. Hu, X.; Muscatello, C. M.; Ren, X.; Luhmann, N. C.; Tobias, B. J.

    2014-11-15

    A 2D microwave imaging reflectometer system has been developed to visualize electron density fluctuations on the DIII-D tokamak. Simultaneously illuminated at four probe frequencies, large aperture optics image reflections from four density-dependent cutoff surfaces in the plasma over an extended region of the DIII-D plasma. Localized density fluctuations in the vicinity of the plasma cutoff surfaces modulate the plasma reflections, yielding a 2D image of electron density fluctuations. Details are presented of the receiver down conversion electronics that generate the in-phase (I) and quadrature (Q) reflectometer signals from which 2D density fluctuation data are obtained. Also presented are details on the control system and backplane used to manage the electronics as well as an introduction to the computer based control program.

  17. Optical modulators with 2D layered materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sun, Zhipei; Martinez, Amos; Wang, Feng

    2016-04-01

    Light modulation is an essential operation in photonics and optoelectronics. With existing and emerging technologies increasingly demanding compact, efficient, fast and broadband optical modulators, high-performance light modulation solutions are becoming indispensable. The recent realization that 2D layered materials could modulate light with superior performance has prompted intense research and significant advances, paving the way for realistic applications. In this Review, we cover the state of the art of optical modulators based on 2D materials, including graphene, transition metal dichalcogenides and black phosphorus. We discuss recent advances employing hybrid structures, such as 2D heterostructures, plasmonic structures, and silicon and fibre integrated structures. We also take a look at the future perspectives and discuss the potential of yet relatively unexplored mechanisms, such as magneto-optic and acousto-optic modulation.

  18. High density pixel array

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wiener-Avnear, Eliezer (Inventor); McFall, James Earl (Inventor)

    2004-01-01

    A pixel array device is fabricated by a laser micro-milling method under strict process control conditions. The device has an array of pixels bonded together with an adhesive filling the grooves between adjacent pixels. The array is fabricated by moving a substrate relative to a laser beam of predetermined intensity at a controlled, constant velocity along a predetermined path defining a set of grooves between adjacent pixels so that a predetermined laser flux per unit area is applied to the material, and repeating the movement for a plurality of passes of the laser beam until the grooves are ablated to a desired depth. The substrate is of an ultrasonic transducer material in one example for fabrication of a 2D ultrasonic phase array transducer. A substrate of phosphor material is used to fabricate an X-ray focal plane array detector.

  19. Inkjet printing of 2D layered materials.

    PubMed

    Li, Jiantong; Lemme, Max C; Östling, Mikael

    2014-11-10

    Inkjet printing of 2D layered materials, such as graphene and MoS2, has attracted great interests for emerging electronics. However, incompatible rheology, low concentration, severe aggregation and toxicity of solvents constitute critical challenges which hamper the manufacturing efficiency and product quality. Here, we introduce a simple and general technology concept (distillation-assisted solvent exchange) to efficiently overcome these challenges. By implementing the concept, we have demonstrated excellent jetting performance, ideal printing patterns and a variety of promising applications for inkjet printing of 2D layered materials. PMID:25169938

  20. Inkjet printing of 2D layered materials.

    PubMed

    Li, Jiantong; Lemme, Max C; Östling, Mikael

    2014-11-10

    Inkjet printing of 2D layered materials, such as graphene and MoS2, has attracted great interests for emerging electronics. However, incompatible rheology, low concentration, severe aggregation and toxicity of solvents constitute critical challenges which hamper the manufacturing efficiency and product quality. Here, we introduce a simple and general technology concept (distillation-assisted solvent exchange) to efficiently overcome these challenges. By implementing the concept, we have demonstrated excellent jetting performance, ideal printing patterns and a variety of promising applications for inkjet printing of 2D layered materials.

  1. 2D to 3D transition of polymeric carbon nitride nanosheets

    SciTech Connect

    Chamorro-Posada, Pedro; Vázquez-Cabo, José; Martín-Ramos, Pablo; Martín-Gil, Jesús; Navas-Gracia, Luis M.; Dante, Roberto C.

    2014-11-15

    The transition from a prevalent turbostratic arrangement with low planar interactions (2D) to an array of polymeric carbon nitride nanosheets with stronger interplanar interactions (3D), occurring for samples treated above 650 °C, was detected by terahertz-time domain spectroscopy (THz-TDS). The simulated 3D material made of stacks of shifted quasi planar sheets composed of zigzagged polymer ribbons, delivered a XRD simulated pattern in relatively good agreement with the experimental one. The 2D to 3D transition was also supported by the simulation of THz-TDS spectra obtained from quantum chemistry calculations, in which the same broad bands around 2 THz and 1.5 THz were found for 2D and 3D arrays, respectively. This transition was also in accordance with the tightening of the interplanar distance probably due to an interplanar π bond contribution, as evidenced also by a broad absorption around 2.6 eV in the UV–vis spectrum, which appeared in the sample treated at 650 °C, and increased in the sample treated at 700 °C. The band gap was calculated for 1D and 2D cases. The value of 3.374 eV for the 2D case is, within the model accuracy and precision, in a relative good agreement with the value of 3.055 eV obtained from the experimental results. - Graphical abstract: 2D lattice mode vibrations and structural changes correlated with the so called “2D to 3D transition”. - Highlights: • A 2D to 3D transition has been detected for polymeric carbon nitride. • THz-TDS allowed us to discover and detect the 2D to 3D transition of polymeric carbon nitride. • We propose a structure for polymeric carbon nitride confirming it with THz-TDS.

  2. Parallel stitching of 2D materials

    DOE PAGES

    Ling, Xi; Wu, Lijun; Lin, Yuxuan; Ma, Qiong; Wang, Ziqiang; Song, Yi; Yu, Lili; Huang, Shengxi; Fang, Wenjing; Zhang, Xu; et al

    2016-01-27

    Diverse parallel stitched 2D heterostructures, including metal–semiconductor, semiconductor–semiconductor, and insulator–semiconductor, are synthesized directly through selective “sowing” of aromatic molecules as the seeds in the chemical vapor deposition (CVD) method. Lastly, the methodology enables the large-scale fabrication of lateral heterostructures, which offers tremendous potential for its application in integrated circuits.

  3. Parallel Stitching of 2D Materials.

    PubMed

    Ling, Xi; Lin, Yuxuan; Ma, Qiong; Wang, Ziqiang; Song, Yi; Yu, Lili; Huang, Shengxi; Fang, Wenjing; Zhang, Xu; Hsu, Allen L; Bie, Yaqing; Lee, Yi-Hsien; Zhu, Yimei; Wu, Lijun; Li, Ju; Jarillo-Herrero, Pablo; Dresselhaus, Mildred; Palacios, Tomás; Kong, Jing

    2016-03-23

    Diverse parallel stitched 2D heterostructures, including metal-semiconductor, semiconductor-semiconductor, and insulator-semiconductor, are synthesized directly through selective "sowing" of aromatic molecules as the seeds in the chemical vapor deposition (CVD) method. The methodology enables the large-scale fabrication of lateral heterostructures, which offers tremendous potential for its application in integrated circuits.

  4. areaDetector: Software for 2-D Detectors in EPICS

    SciTech Connect

    Rivers, M.

    2011-09-23

    areaDetector is a new EPICS module designed to support 2-D detectors. It is modular C++ code that greatly simplifies the task of writing support for a new detector. It also supports plugins, which receive detector data from the driver and process it in some way. Existing plugins perform Region-Of-Interest extraction and analysis, file saving (in netCDF, HDF, TIFF and JPEG formats), color conversion, and export to EPICS records for image display in clients like ImageJ and IDL. Drivers have now been written for many of the detectors commonly used at synchrotron beamlines, including CCDs, pixel array and amorphous silicon detectors, and online image plates.

  5. areaDetector: Software for 2-D Detectors in EPICS

    SciTech Connect

    Rivers, Mark L.

    2010-06-23

    areaDetector is a new EPICS module designed to support 2-D detectors. It is modular C++ code that greatly simplifies the task of writing support for a new detector. It also supports plugins, which receive detector data from the driver and process it in some way. Existing plugins perform Region-Of-Interest extraction and analysis, file saving (in netCDF, HDF, TIFF and JPEG formats), color conversion, and export to EPICS records for image display in clients like ImageJ and IDL. Drivers have now been written for many of the detectors commonly used at synchrotron beamlines, including CCDs, pixel array and amorphous silicon detectors, and online image plates.

  6. Application of 2D Non-Graphene Materials and 2D Oxide Nanostructures for Biosensing Technology

    PubMed Central

    Shavanova, Kateryna; Bakakina, Yulia; Burkova, Inna; Shtepliuk, Ivan; Viter, Roman; Ubelis, Arnolds; Beni, Valerio; Starodub, Nickolaj; Yakimova, Rositsa; Khranovskyy, Volodymyr

    2016-01-01

    The discovery of graphene and its unique properties has inspired researchers to try to invent other two-dimensional (2D) materials. After considerable research effort, a distinct “beyond graphene” domain has been established, comprising the library of non-graphene 2D materials. It is significant that some 2D non-graphene materials possess solid advantages over their predecessor, such as having a direct band gap, and therefore are highly promising for a number of applications. These applications are not limited to nano- and opto-electronics, but have a strong potential in biosensing technologies, as one example. However, since most of the 2D non-graphene materials have been newly discovered, most of the research efforts are concentrated on material synthesis and the investigation of the properties of the material. Applications of 2D non-graphene materials are still at the embryonic stage, and the integration of 2D non-graphene materials into devices is scarcely reported. However, in recent years, numerous reports have blossomed about 2D material-based biosensors, evidencing the growing potential of 2D non-graphene materials for biosensing applications. This review highlights the recent progress in research on the potential of using 2D non-graphene materials and similar oxide nanostructures for different types of biosensors (optical and electrochemical). A wide range of biological targets, such as glucose, dopamine, cortisol, DNA, IgG, bisphenol, ascorbic acid, cytochrome and estradiol, has been reported to be successfully detected by biosensors with transducers made of 2D non-graphene materials. PMID:26861346

  7. Application of 2D Non-Graphene Materials and 2D Oxide Nanostructures for Biosensing Technology.

    PubMed

    Shavanova, Kateryna; Bakakina, Yulia; Burkova, Inna; Shtepliuk, Ivan; Viter, Roman; Ubelis, Arnolds; Beni, Valerio; Starodub, Nickolaj; Yakimova, Rositsa; Khranovskyy, Volodymyr

    2016-01-01

    The discovery of graphene and its unique properties has inspired researchers to try to invent other two-dimensional (2D) materials. After considerable research effort, a distinct "beyond graphene" domain has been established, comprising the library of non-graphene 2D materials. It is significant that some 2D non-graphene materials possess solid advantages over their predecessor, such as having a direct band gap, and therefore are highly promising for a number of applications. These applications are not limited to nano- and opto-electronics, but have a strong potential in biosensing technologies, as one example. However, since most of the 2D non-graphene materials have been newly discovered, most of the research efforts are concentrated on material synthesis and the investigation of the properties of the material. Applications of 2D non-graphene materials are still at the embryonic stage, and the integration of 2D non-graphene materials into devices is scarcely reported. However, in recent years, numerous reports have blossomed about 2D material-based biosensors, evidencing the growing potential of 2D non-graphene materials for biosensing applications. This review highlights the recent progress in research on the potential of using 2D non-graphene materials and similar oxide nanostructures for different types of biosensors (optical and electrochemical). A wide range of biological targets, such as glucose, dopamine, cortisol, DNA, IgG, bisphenol, ascorbic acid, cytochrome and estradiol, has been reported to be successfully detected by biosensors with transducers made of 2D non-graphene materials.

  8. Using dispersive medium to control excitons in 2D materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Klots, Andrey; Bolotin, Kirill I.

    Excitons in 2D materials (2DMs) are known to be sensitive to the surrounding environment. This makes it possible to modify 2D excitons by depositing materials with controlled dielectric constant on top of 2DMs. This possibility becomes especially interesting if we consider materials with dielectric permittivity ɛ that depends both on wavevector k (this happens if the medium is spatially non-uniform) and frequency ω. Here, we develop platforms to control ɛ (k , ω) and explore resulting changes in light-matter interactions of 2DMs. To examine the effect of wavevector-dependent permittivity of the medium, we study absorption/photoluminescence of graphene and MoS2 in the vicinity of highly non-uniform medium - an array of metal nanoparticles, 3-5 nm in diameter. In this case absorption of light can lead to creation of excitons with non-zero momentum. These dark states are not accessible via regular absorption spectroscopy. We study the case of frequency-dependent permittivity by surrounding MoS2 by a highly-dispersive media (e.g. dielectric liquids, graphene and VO2) . We demonstrate non-trivial frequency-dependent renormalization of the quasiparticle bandgap and exciton binding energies.

  9. Stochastic Inversion of 2D Magnetotelluric Data

    SciTech Connect

    Chen, Jinsong

    2010-07-01

    The algorithm is developed to invert 2D magnetotelluric (MT) data based on sharp boundary parametrization using a Bayesian framework. Within the algorithm, we consider the locations and the resistivity of regions formed by the interfaces are as unknowns. We use a parallel, adaptive finite-element algorithm to forward simulate frequency-domain MT responses of 2D conductivity structure. Those unknown parameters are spatially correlated and are described by a geostatistical model. The joint posterior probability distribution function is explored by Markov Chain Monte Carlo (MCMC) sampling methods. The developed stochastic model is effective for estimating the interface locations and resistivity. Most importantly, it provides details uncertainty information on each unknown parameter. Hardware requirements: PC, Supercomputer, Multi-platform, Workstation; Software requirements C and Fortan; Operation Systems/version is Linux/Unix or Windows

  10. Explicit 2-D Hydrodynamic FEM Program

    1996-08-07

    DYNA2D* is a vectorized, explicit, two-dimensional, axisymmetric and plane strain finite element program for analyzing the large deformation dynamic and hydrodynamic response of inelastic solids. DYNA2D* contains 13 material models and 9 equations of state (EOS) to cover a wide range of material behavior. The material models implemented in all machine versions are: elastic, orthotropic elastic, kinematic/isotropic elastic plasticity, thermoelastoplastic, soil and crushable foam, linear viscoelastic, rubber, high explosive burn, isotropic elastic-plastic, temperature-dependent elastic-plastic. Themore » isotropic and temperature-dependent elastic-plastic models determine only the deviatoric stresses. Pressure is determined by one of 9 equations of state including linear polynomial, JWL high explosive, Sack Tuesday high explosive, Gruneisen, ratio of polynomials, linear polynomial with energy deposition, ignition and growth of reaction in HE, tabulated compaction, and tabulated.« less

  11. Stochastic Inversion of 2D Magnetotelluric Data

    2010-07-01

    The algorithm is developed to invert 2D magnetotelluric (MT) data based on sharp boundary parametrization using a Bayesian framework. Within the algorithm, we consider the locations and the resistivity of regions formed by the interfaces are as unknowns. We use a parallel, adaptive finite-element algorithm to forward simulate frequency-domain MT responses of 2D conductivity structure. Those unknown parameters are spatially correlated and are described by a geostatistical model. The joint posterior probability distribution function ismore » explored by Markov Chain Monte Carlo (MCMC) sampling methods. The developed stochastic model is effective for estimating the interface locations and resistivity. Most importantly, it provides details uncertainty information on each unknown parameter. Hardware requirements: PC, Supercomputer, Multi-platform, Workstation; Software requirements C and Fortan; Operation Systems/version is Linux/Unix or Windows« less

  12. Static & Dynamic Response of 2D Solids

    1996-07-15

    NIKE2D is an implicit finite-element code for analyzing the finite deformation, static and dynamic response of two-dimensional, axisymmetric, plane strain, and plane stress solids. The code is fully vectorized and available on several computing platforms. A number of material models are incorporated to simulate a wide range of material behavior including elasto-placicity, anisotropy, creep, thermal effects, and rate dependence. Slideline algorithms model gaps and sliding along material interfaces, including interface friction, penetration and single surfacemore » contact. Interactive-graphics and rezoning is included for analyses with large mesh distortions. In addition to quasi-Newton and arc-length procedures, adaptive algorithms can be defined to solve the implicit equations using the solution language ISLAND. Each of these capabilities and more make NIKE2D a robust analysis tool.« less

  13. Static & Dynamic Response of 2D Solids

    SciTech Connect

    Lin, Jerry

    1996-07-15

    NIKE2D is an implicit finite-element code for analyzing the finite deformation, static and dynamic response of two-dimensional, axisymmetric, plane strain, and plane stress solids. The code is fully vectorized and available on several computing platforms. A number of material models are incorporated to simulate a wide range of material behavior including elasto-placicity, anisotropy, creep, thermal effects, and rate dependence. Slideline algorithms model gaps and sliding along material interfaces, including interface friction, penetration and single surface contact. Interactive-graphics and rezoning is included for analyses with large mesh distortions. In addition to quasi-Newton and arc-length procedures, adaptive algorithms can be defined to solve the implicit equations using the solution language ISLAND. Each of these capabilities and more make NIKE2D a robust analysis tool.

  14. Explicit 2-D Hydrodynamic FEM Program

    SciTech Connect

    Lin, Jerry

    1996-08-07

    DYNA2D* is a vectorized, explicit, two-dimensional, axisymmetric and plane strain finite element program for analyzing the large deformation dynamic and hydrodynamic response of inelastic solids. DYNA2D* contains 13 material models and 9 equations of state (EOS) to cover a wide range of material behavior. The material models implemented in all machine versions are: elastic, orthotropic elastic, kinematic/isotropic elastic plasticity, thermoelastoplastic, soil and crushable foam, linear viscoelastic, rubber, high explosive burn, isotropic elastic-plastic, temperature-dependent elastic-plastic. The isotropic and temperature-dependent elastic-plastic models determine only the deviatoric stresses. Pressure is determined by one of 9 equations of state including linear polynomial, JWL high explosive, Sack Tuesday high explosive, Gruneisen, ratio of polynomials, linear polynomial with energy deposition, ignition and growth of reaction in HE, tabulated compaction, and tabulated.

  15. 2D photonic-crystal optomechanical nanoresonator.

    PubMed

    Makles, K; Antoni, T; Kuhn, A G; Deléglise, S; Briant, T; Cohadon, P-F; Braive, R; Beaudoin, G; Pinard, L; Michel, C; Dolique, V; Flaminio, R; Cagnoli, G; Robert-Philip, I; Heidmann, A

    2015-01-15

    We present the optical optimization of an optomechanical device based on a suspended InP membrane patterned with a 2D near-wavelength grating (NWG) based on a 2D photonic-crystal geometry. We first identify by numerical simulation a set of geometrical parameters providing a reflectivity higher than 99.8% over a 50-nm span. We then study the limitations induced by the finite value of the optical waist and lateral size of the NWG pattern using different numerical approaches. The NWG grating, pierced in a suspended InP 265-nm thick membrane, is used to form a compact microcavity involving the suspended nanomembrane as an end mirror. The resulting cavity has a waist size smaller than 10 μm and a finesse in the 200 range. It is used to probe the Brownian motion of the mechanical modes of the nanomembrane. PMID:25679837

  16. Compact 2-D graphical representation of DNA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Randić, Milan; Vračko, Marjan; Zupan, Jure; Novič, Marjana

    2003-05-01

    We present a novel 2-D graphical representation for DNA sequences which has an important advantage over the existing graphical representations of DNA in being very compact. It is based on: (1) use of binary labels for the four nucleic acid bases, and (2) use of the 'worm' curve as template on which binary codes are placed. The approach is illustrated on DNA sequences of the first exon of human β-globin and gorilla β-globin.

  17. 2D materials: Graphene and others

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bansal, Suneev Anil; Singh, Amrinder Pal; Kumar, Suresh

    2016-05-01

    Present report reviews the recent advancements in new atomically thick 2D materials. Materials covered in this review are Graphene, Silicene, Germanene, Boron Nitride (BN) and Transition metal chalcogenides (TMC). These materials show extraordinary mechanical, electronic and optical properties which make them suitable candidates for future applications. Apart from unique properties, tune-ability of highly desirable properties of these materials is also an important area to be emphasized on.

  18. Layer Engineering of 2D Semiconductor Junctions.

    PubMed

    He, Yongmin; Sobhani, Ali; Lei, Sidong; Zhang, Zhuhua; Gong, Yongji; Jin, Zehua; Zhou, Wu; Yang, Yingchao; Zhang, Yuan; Wang, Xifan; Yakobson, Boris; Vajtai, Robert; Halas, Naomi J; Li, Bo; Xie, Erqing; Ajayan, Pulickel

    2016-07-01

    A new concept for junction fabrication by connecting multiple regions with varying layer thicknesses, based on the thickness dependence, is demonstrated. This type of junction is only possible in super-thin-layered 2D materials, and exhibits similar characteristics as p-n junctions. Rectification and photovoltaic effects are observed in chemically homogeneous MoSe2 junctions between domains of different thicknesses. PMID:27136275

  19. Realistic and efficient 2D crack simulation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yadegar, Jacob; Liu, Xiaoqing; Singh, Abhishek

    2010-04-01

    Although numerical algorithms for 2D crack simulation have been studied in Modeling and Simulation (M&S) and computer graphics for decades, realism and computational efficiency are still major challenges. In this paper, we introduce a high-fidelity, scalable, adaptive and efficient/runtime 2D crack/fracture simulation system by applying the mathematically elegant Peano-Cesaro triangular meshing/remeshing technique to model the generation of shards/fragments. The recursive fractal sweep associated with the Peano-Cesaro triangulation provides efficient local multi-resolution refinement to any level-of-detail. The generated binary decomposition tree also provides efficient neighbor retrieval mechanism used for mesh element splitting and merging with minimal memory requirements essential for realistic 2D fragment formation. Upon load impact/contact/penetration, a number of factors including impact angle, impact energy, and material properties are all taken into account to produce the criteria of crack initialization, propagation, and termination leading to realistic fractal-like rubble/fragments formation. The aforementioned parameters are used as variables of probabilistic models of cracks/shards formation, making the proposed solution highly adaptive by allowing machine learning mechanisms learn the optimal values for the variables/parameters based on prior benchmark data generated by off-line physics based simulation solutions that produce accurate fractures/shards though at highly non-real time paste. Crack/fracture simulation has been conducted on various load impacts with different initial locations at various impulse scales. The simulation results demonstrate that the proposed system has the capability to realistically and efficiently simulate 2D crack phenomena (such as window shattering and shards generation) with diverse potentials in military and civil M&S applications such as training and mission planning.

  20. 2D Spinodal Decomposition in Forced Turbulence

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fan, Xiang; Diamond, Patrick; Chacon, Luis; Li, Hui

    2015-11-01

    Spinodal decomposition is a second order phase transition for binary fluid mixture, from one thermodynamic phase to form two coexisting phases. The governing equation for this coarsening process below critical temperature, Cahn-Hilliard Equation, is very similar to 2D MHD Equation, especially the conserved quantities have a close correspondence between each other, so theories for MHD turbulence are used to study spinodal decomposition in forced turbulence. Domain size is increased with time along with the inverse cascade, and the length scale can be arrested by a forced turbulence with direct cascade. The two competing mechanisms lead to a stabilized domain size length scale, which can be characterized by Hinze Scale. The 2D spinodal decomposition in forced turbulence is studied by both theory and simulation with ``pixie2d.'' This work focuses on the relation between Hinze scale and spectra and cascades. Similarities and differences between spinodal decomposition and MHD are investigated. Also some transport properties are studied following MHD theories. This work is supported by the Department of Energy under Award Number DE-FG02-04ER54738.

  1. MAGNUM-2D computer code: user's guide

    SciTech Connect

    England, R.L.; Kline, N.W.; Ekblad, K.J.; Baca, R.G.

    1985-01-01

    Information relevant to the general use of the MAGNUM-2D computer code is presented. This computer code was developed for the purpose of modeling (i.e., simulating) the thermal and hydraulic conditions in the vicinity of a waste package emplaced in a deep geologic repository. The MAGNUM-2D computer computes (1) the temperature field surrounding the waste package as a function of the heat generation rate of the nuclear waste and thermal properties of the basalt and (2) the hydraulic head distribution and associated groundwater flow fields as a function of the temperature gradients and hydraulic properties of the basalt. MAGNUM-2D is a two-dimensional numerical model for transient or steady-state analysis of coupled heat transfer and groundwater flow in a fractured porous medium. The governing equations consist of a set of coupled, quasi-linear partial differential equations that are solved using a Galerkin finite-element technique. A Newton-Raphson algorithm is embedded in the Galerkin functional to formulate the problem in terms of the incremental changes in the dependent variables. Both triangular and quadrilateral finite elements are used to represent the continuum portions of the spatial domain. Line elements may be used to represent discrete conduits. 18 refs., 4 figs., 1 tab.

  2. Engineering light outcoupling in 2D materials.

    PubMed

    Lien, Der-Hsien; Kang, Jeong Seuk; Amani, Matin; Chen, Kevin; Tosun, Mahmut; Wang, Hsin-Ping; Roy, Tania; Eggleston, Michael S; Wu, Ming C; Dubey, Madan; Lee, Si-Chen; He, Jr-Hau; Javey, Ali

    2015-02-11

    When light is incident on 2D transition metal dichalcogenides (TMDCs), it engages in multiple reflections within underlying substrates, producing interferences that lead to enhancement or attenuation of the incoming and outgoing strength of light. Here, we report a simple method to engineer the light outcoupling in semiconducting TMDCs by modulating their dielectric surroundings. We show that by modulating the thicknesses of underlying substrates and capping layers, the interference caused by substrate can significantly enhance the light absorption and emission of WSe2, resulting in a ∼11 times increase in Raman signal and a ∼30 times increase in the photoluminescence (PL) intensity of WSe2. On the basis of the interference model, we also propose a strategy to control the photonic and optoelectronic properties of thin-layer WSe2. This work demonstrates the utilization of outcoupling engineering in 2D materials and offers a new route toward the realization of novel optoelectronic devices, such as 2D LEDs and solar cells.

  3. ISS Solar Array Management

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Williams, James P.; Martin, Keith D.; Thomas, Justin R.; Caro, Samuel

    2010-01-01

    The International Space Station (ISS) Solar Array Management (SAM) software toolset provides the capabilities necessary to operate a spacecraft with complex solar array constraints. It monitors spacecraft telemetry and provides interpretations of solar array constraint data in an intuitive manner. The toolset provides extensive situational awareness to ensure mission success by analyzing power generation needs, array motion constraints, and structural loading situations. The software suite consists of several components including samCS (constraint set selector), samShadyTimers (array shadowing timers), samWin (visualization GUI), samLock (array motion constraint computation), and samJet (attitude control system configuration selector). It provides high availability and uptime for extended and continuous mission support. It is able to support two-degrees-of-freedom (DOF) array positioning and supports up to ten simultaneous constraints with intuitive 1D and 2D decision support visualizations of constraint data. Display synchronization is enabled across a networked control center and multiple methods for constraint data interpolation are supported. Use of this software toolset increases flight safety, reduces mission support effort, optimizes solar array operation for achieving mission goals, and has run for weeks at a time without issues. The SAM toolset is currently used in ISS real-time mission operations.

  4. Defect formation and coarsening in hexagonal 2D curved crystals.

    PubMed

    García, Nicolás A; Pezzutti, Aldo D; Register, Richard A; Vega, Daniel A; Gómez, Leopoldo R

    2015-02-01

    In this work we study the processes of defect formation and coarsening of two-dimensional (2D) curved crystal structures. These processes are found to strongly deviate from their counterparts in flat systems. In curved backgrounds the process of defect formation is deeply affected by the curvature, and at the onset of a phase transition the early density of defects becomes highly inhomogeneous. We observe that even a single growing crystal can produce varying densities of defects depending on its initial position and local orientation with regard to the substrate. This process is completely different from flat space, where grain boundaries are formed due to the impingement of different propagating crystals. Quenching the liquid into the crystal phase leads to the formation of a curved polycrystalline structure, characterized by complex arrays of defects. During annealing, mechanisms of geodesic curvature-driven grain boundary motion and defect annihilation lead to increasing crystalline order. Linear arrays of defects diffuse to regions of high curvature, where they are absorbed by disclinations. At the early stage of coarsening the density of dislocations is insensitive to the geometry while the population of isolated disclinations is deeply affected by curvature. The regions with high curvature act as traps for the diffusion of different structures of defects, including disclinations and domain walls.

  5. 2D Doppler backscattering using synthetic aperture microwave imaging of MAST edge plasmas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thomas, D. A.; Brunner, K. J.; Freethy, S. J.; Huang, B. K.; Shevchenko, V. F.; Vann, R. G. L.

    2016-02-01

    Doppler backscattering (DBS) is already established as a powerful diagnostic; its extension to 2D enables imaging of turbulence characteristics from an extended region of the cut-off surface. The Synthetic Aperture Microwave Imaging (SAMI) diagnostic has conducted proof-of-principle 2D DBS experiments of MAST edge plasma. SAMI actively probes the plasma edge using a wide (±40° vertical and horizontal) and tuneable (10-34.5 GHz) beam. The Doppler backscattered signal is digitised in vector form using an array of eight Vivaldi PCB antennas. This allows the receiving array to be focused in any direction within the field of view simultaneously to an angular range of 6-24° FWHM at 10-34.5 GHz. This capability is unique to SAMI and is a novel way of conducting DBS experiments. In this paper the feasibility of conducting 2D DBS experiments is explored. Initial observations of phenomena previously measured by conventional DBS experiments are presented; such as momentum injection from neutral beams and an abrupt change in power and turbulence velocity coinciding with the onset of H-mode. In addition, being able to carry out 2D DBS imaging allows a measurement of magnetic pitch angle to be made; preliminary results are presented. Capabilities gained through steering a beam using a phased array and the limitations of this technique are discussed.

  6. GBL-2D Version 1.0: a 2D geometry boolean library.

    SciTech Connect

    McBride, Cory L. (Elemental Technologies, American Fort, UT); Schmidt, Rodney Cannon; Yarberry, Victor R.; Meyers, Ray J.

    2006-11-01

    This report describes version 1.0 of GBL-2D, a geometric Boolean library for 2D objects. The library is written in C++ and consists of a set of classes and routines. The classes primarily represent geometric data and relationships. Classes are provided for 2D points, lines, arcs, edge uses, loops, surfaces and mask sets. The routines contain algorithms for geometric Boolean operations and utility functions. Routines are provided that incorporate the Boolean operations: Union(OR), XOR, Intersection and Difference. A variety of additional analytical geometry routines and routines for importing and exporting the data in various file formats are also provided. The GBL-2D library was originally developed as a geometric modeling engine for use with a separate software tool, called SummitView [1], that manipulates the 2D mask sets created by designers of Micro-Electro-Mechanical Systems (MEMS). However, many other practical applications for this type of software can be envisioned because the need to perform 2D Boolean operations can arise in many contexts.

  7. Periodically sheared 2D Yukawa systems

    SciTech Connect

    Kovács, Anikó Zsuzsa; Hartmann, Peter; Donkó, Zoltán

    2015-10-15

    We present non-equilibrium molecular dynamics simulation studies on the dynamic (complex) shear viscosity of a 2D Yukawa system. We have identified a non-monotonic frequency dependence of the viscosity at high frequencies and shear rates, an energy absorption maximum (local resonance) at the Einstein frequency of the system at medium shear rates, an enhanced collective wave activity, when the excitation is near the plateau frequency of the longitudinal wave dispersion, and the emergence of significant configurational anisotropy at small frequencies and high shear rates.

  8. ENERGY LANDSCAPE OF 2D FLUID FORMS

    SciTech Connect

    Y. JIANG; ET AL

    2000-04-01

    The equilibrium states of 2D non-coarsening fluid foams, which consist of bubbles with fixed areas, correspond to local minima of the total perimeter. (1) The authors find an approximate value of the global minimum, and determine directly from an image how far a foam is from its ground state. (2) For (small) area disorder, small bubbles tend to sort inwards and large bubbles outwards. (3) Topological charges of the same sign repel while charges of opposite sign attract. (4) They discuss boundary conditions and the uniqueness of the pattern for fixed topology.

  9. A Cartesian grid finite-difference method for 2D incompressible viscous flows in irregular geometries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sanmiguel-Rojas, Enrique; Ortega-Casanova, Joaquin; del Pino, Carlos; Fernandez-Feria, Ramon

    2004-11-01

    A method for generating a non-uniform cartesian grid for irregular two-dimensional (2D) geometries such that all the boundary points are regular mesh points is given. The resulting non-uniform grid is used to discretize the Navier-Stokes equations for 2D incompressible viscous flows using finite difference approximations. To that end, finite-difference approximations of the derivatives on a non-uniform mesh are given. We test the method with two different examples: the shallow water flow on a lake with irregular contour, and the pressure driven flow through an irregular array of circular cylinders.

  10. WFR-2D: an analytical model for PWAS-generated 2D ultrasonic guided wave propagation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shen, Yanfeng; Giurgiutiu, Victor

    2014-03-01

    This paper presents WaveFormRevealer 2-D (WFR-2D), an analytical predictive tool for the simulation of 2-D ultrasonic guided wave propagation and interaction with damage. The design of structural health monitoring (SHM) systems and self-aware smart structures requires the exploration of a wide range of parameters to achieve best detection and quantification of certain types of damage. Such need for parameter exploration on sensor dimension, location, guided wave characteristics (mode type, frequency, wavelength, etc.) can be best satisfied with analytical models which are fast and efficient. The analytical model was constructed based on the exact 2-D Lamb wave solution using Bessel and Hankel functions. Damage effects were inserted in the model by considering the damage as a secondary wave source with complex-valued directivity scattering coefficients containing both amplitude and phase information from wave-damage interaction. The analytical procedure was coded with MATLAB, and a predictive simulation tool called WaveFormRevealer 2-D was developed. The wave-damage interaction coefficients (WDICs) were extracted from harmonic analysis of local finite element model (FEM) with artificial non-reflective boundaries (NRB). The WFR-2D analytical simulation results were compared and verified with full scale multiphysics finite element models and experiments with scanning laser vibrometer. First, Lamb wave propagation in a pristine aluminum plate was simulated with WFR-2D, compared with finite element results, and verified by experiments. Then, an inhomogeneity was machined into the plate to represent damage. Analytical modeling was carried out, and verified by finite element simulation and experiments. This paper finishes with conclusions and suggestions for future work.

  11. Microwave Assisted 2D Materials Exfoliation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Yanbin

    Two-dimensional materials have emerged as extremely important materials with applications ranging from energy and environmental science to electronics and biology. Here we report our discovery of a universal, ultrafast, green, solvo-thermal technology for producing excellent-quality, few-layered nanosheets in liquid phase from well-known 2D materials such as such hexagonal boron nitride (h-BN), graphite, and MoS2. We start by mixing the uniform bulk-layered material with a common organic solvent that matches its surface energy to reduce the van der Waals attractive interactions between the layers; next, the solutions are heated in a commercial microwave oven to overcome the energy barrier between bulk and few-layers states. We discovered the minutes-long rapid exfoliation process is highly temperature dependent, which requires precise thermal management to obtain high-quality inks. We hypothesize a possible mechanism of this proposed solvo-thermal process; our theory confirms the basis of this novel technique for exfoliation of high-quality, layered 2D materials by using an as yet unknown role of the solvent.

  12. 2-D or not 2-D, that is the question: A Northern California test

    SciTech Connect

    Mayeda, K; Malagnini, L; Phillips, W S; Walter, W R; Dreger, D

    2005-06-06

    Reliable estimates of the seismic source spectrum are necessary for accurate magnitude, yield, and energy estimation. In particular, how seismic radiated energy scales with increasing earthquake size has been the focus of recent debate within the community and has direct implications on earthquake source physics studies as well as hazard mitigation. The 1-D coda methodology of Mayeda et al. has provided the lowest variance estimate of the source spectrum when compared against traditional approaches that use direct S-waves, thus making it ideal for networks that have sparse station distribution. The 1-D coda methodology has been mostly confined to regions of approximately uniform complexity. For larger, more geophysically complicated regions, 2-D path corrections may be required. The complicated tectonics of the northern California region coupled with high quality broadband seismic data provides for an ideal ''apples-to-apples'' test of 1-D and 2-D path assumptions on direct waves and their coda. Using the same station and event distribution, we compared 1-D and 2-D path corrections and observed the following results: (1) 1-D coda results reduced the amplitude variance relative to direct S-waves by roughly a factor of 8 (800%); (2) Applying a 2-D correction to the coda resulted in up to 40% variance reduction from the 1-D coda results; (3) 2-D direct S-wave results, though better than 1-D direct waves, were significantly worse than the 1-D coda. We found that coda-based moment-rate source spectra derived from the 2-D approach were essentially identical to those from the 1-D approach for frequencies less than {approx}0.7-Hz, however for the high frequencies (0.7{le} f {le} 8.0-Hz), the 2-D approach resulted in inter-station scatter that was generally 10-30% smaller. For complex regions where data are plentiful, a 2-D approach can significantly improve upon the simple 1-D assumption. In regions where only 1-D coda correction is available it is still preferable over 2

  13. Models Ion Trajectories in 2D and 3D Electrostatic and Magnetic Fields

    2000-02-21

    SIMION3D7.0REV is a C based ion optics simulation program that can model complex problems using Laplace equation solutions for potential fields. The program uses an ion optics workbench that can hold up to 200 2D and/or 3D electrostatic/magnetic potential arrays. Arrays can have up to 50,000,000 points. SIMION3D7.0''s 32 bit virtual Graphics User Interface provides a highly interactive advanced user environment. All potential arrays are visualized as 3D objects that the user can cut awaymore » to inspect ion trajectories and potential energy surfaces. User programs allow the user to customize the program for specific simulations. A geometry file option supports the definition of highly complex array geometry. Algorithm modifications have improved this version''s computational speed and accuracy.« less

  14. Canard configured aircraft with 2-D nozzle

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Child, R. D.; Henderson, W. P.

    1978-01-01

    A closely-coupled canard fighter with vectorable two-dimensional nozzle was designed for enhanced transonic maneuvering. The HiMAT maneuver goal of a sustained 8g turn at a free-stream Mach number of 0.9 and 30,000 feet was the primary design consideration. The aerodynamic design process was initiated with a linear theory optimization minimizing the zero percent suction drag including jet effects and refined with three-dimensional nonlinear potential flow techniques. Allowances were made for mutual interference and viscous effects. The design process to arrive at the resultant configuration is described, and the design of a powered 2-D nozzle model to be tested in the LRC 16-foot Propulsion Wind Tunnel is shown.

  15. 2D quantum gravity from quantum entanglement.

    PubMed

    Gliozzi, F

    2011-01-21

    In quantum systems with many degrees of freedom the replica method is a useful tool to study the entanglement of arbitrary spatial regions. We apply it in a way that allows them to backreact. As a consequence, they become dynamical subsystems whose position, form, and extension are determined by their interaction with the whole system. We analyze, in particular, quantum spin chains described at criticality by a conformal field theory. Its coupling to the Gibbs' ensemble of all possible subsystems is relevant and drives the system into a new fixed point which is argued to be that of the 2D quantum gravity coupled to this system. Numerical experiments on the critical Ising model show that the new critical exponents agree with those predicted by the formula of Knizhnik, Polyakov, and Zamolodchikov.

  16. Graphene suspensions for 2D printing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Soots, R. A.; Yakimchuk, E. A.; Nebogatikova, N. A.; Kotin, I. A.; Antonova, I. V.

    2016-04-01

    It is shown that, by processing a graphite suspension in ethanol or water by ultrasound and centrifuging, it is possible to obtain particles with thicknesses within 1-6 nm and, in the most interesting cases, 1-1.5 nm. Analogous treatment of a graphite suspension in organic solvent yields eventually thicker particles (up to 6-10 nm thick) even upon long-term treatment. Using the proposed ink based on graphene and aqueous ethanol with ethylcellulose and terpineol additives for 2D printing, thin (~5 nm thick) films with sheet resistance upon annealing ~30 MΩ/□ were obtained. With the ink based on aqueous graphene suspension, the sheet resistance was ~5-12 kΩ/□ for 6- to 15-nm-thick layers with a carrier mobility of ~30-50 cm2/(V s).

  17. Metrology for graphene and 2D materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pollard, Andrew J.

    2016-09-01

    The application of graphene, a one atom-thick honeycomb lattice of carbon atoms with superlative properties, such as electrical conductivity, thermal conductivity and strength, has already shown that it can be used to benefit metrology itself as a new quantum standard for resistance. However, there are many application areas where graphene and other 2D materials, such as molybdenum disulphide (MoS2) and hexagonal boron nitride (h-BN), may be disruptive, areas such as flexible electronics, nanocomposites, sensing and energy storage. Applying metrology to the area of graphene is now critical to enable the new, emerging global graphene commercial world and bridge the gap between academia and industry. Measurement capabilities and expertise in a wide range of scientific areas are required to address this challenge. The combined and complementary approach of varied characterisation methods for structural, chemical, electrical and other properties, will allow the real-world issues of commercialising graphene and other 2D materials to be addressed. Here, examples of metrology challenges that have been overcome through a multi-technique or new approach are discussed. Firstly, the structural characterisation of defects in both graphene and MoS2 via Raman spectroscopy is described, and how nanoscale mapping of vacancy defects in graphene is also possible using tip-enhanced Raman spectroscopy (TERS). Furthermore, the chemical characterisation and removal of polymer residue on chemical vapour deposition (CVD) grown graphene via secondary ion mass spectrometry (SIMS) is detailed, as well as the chemical characterisation of iron films used to grow large domain single-layer h-BN through CVD growth, revealing how contamination of the substrate itself plays a role in the resulting h-BN layer. In addition, the role of international standardisation in this area is described, outlining the current work ongoing in both the International Organization of Standardization (ISO) and the

  18. CYP2D6*36 gene arrangements within the cyp2d6 locus: association of CYP2D6*36 with poor metabolizer status.

    PubMed

    Gaedigk, Andrea; Bradford, L Dianne; Alander, Sarah W; Leeder, J Steven

    2006-04-01

    Unexplained cases of CYP2D6 genotype/phenotype discordance continue to be discovered. In previous studies, several African Americans with a poor metabolizer phenotype carried the reduced function CYP2D6*10 allele in combination with a nonfunctional allele. We pursued the possibility that these alleles harbor either a known sequence variation (i.e., CYP2D6*36 carrying a gene conversion in exon 9 along the CYP2D6*10-defining 100C>T single-nucleotide polymorphism) or novel sequences variation(s). Discordant cases were evaluated by long-range polymerase chain reaction (PCR) to test for gene rearrangement events, and a 6.6-kilobase pair PCR product encompassing the CYP2D6 gene was cloned and entirely sequenced. Thereafter, allele frequencies were determined in different study populations comprising whites, African Americans, and Asians. Analyses covering the CYP2D7 to 2D6 gene region established that CYP2D6*36 did not only exist as a gene duplication (CYP2D6*36x2) or in tandem with *10 (CYP2D6*36+*10), as previously reported, but also by itself. This "single" CYP2D6*36 allele was found in nine African Americans and one Asian, but was absent in the whites tested. Ultimately, the presence of CYP2D6*36 resolved genotype/phenotype discordance in three cases. We also discovered an exon 9 conversion-positive CYP2D6*4 gene in a duplication arrangement (CYP2D6*4Nx2) and a CYP2D6*4 allele lacking 100C>T (CYP2D6*4M) in two white subjects. The discovery of an allele that carries only one CYP2D6*36 gene copy provides unequivocal evidence that both CYP2D6*36 and *36x2 are associated with a poor metabolizer phenotype. Given a combined frequency of between 0.5 and 3% in African Americans and Asians, genotyping for CYP2D6*36 should improve the accuracy of genotype-based phenotype prediction in these populations.

  19. Addressable, large-field second harmonic generation microscopy based on 2D acousto-optical deflector and spatial light modulator

    PubMed Central

    Shao, Yonghong; Liu, Honghai; Qin, Wan; Qu, Junle; Peng, Xiang; Niu, Hanben

    2013-01-01

    We present an addressable, large-field second harmonic generation microscope by combining a 2D acousto-optical deflector with a spatial light modulator. The SLM shapes an incoming mode-locked, near-infrared Ti:Sapphire laser beam into a multifocus array, which can be rapidly scanned by changing the incident angle of the laser beam using a 2D acousto-optical deflector. Compared to the single-beam-scan technique, the multifocus array scan can increase the scanning rate and the field-of-view size with the multi-region imaging ability. PMID:24307756

  20. A new inversion method for (T2, D) 2D NMR logging and fluid typing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tan, Maojin; Zou, Youlong; Zhou, Cancan

    2013-02-01

    One-dimensional nuclear magnetic resonance (1D NMR) logging technology has some significant limitations in fluid typing. However, not only can two-dimensional nuclear magnetic resonance (2D NMR) provide some accurate porosity parameters, but it can also identify fluids more accurately than 1D NMR. In this paper, based on the relaxation mechanism of (T2, D) 2D NMR in a gradient magnetic field, a hybrid inversion method that combines least-squares-based QR decomposition (LSQR) and truncated singular value decomposition (TSVD) is examined in the 2D NMR inversion of various fluid models. The forward modeling and inversion tests are performed in detail with different acquisition parameters, such as magnetic field gradients (G) and echo spacing (TE) groups. The simulated results are discussed and described in detail, the influence of the above-mentioned observation parameters on the inversion accuracy is investigated and analyzed, and the observation parameters in multi-TE activation are optimized. Furthermore, the hybrid inversion can be applied to quantitatively determine the fluid saturation. To study the effects of noise level on the hybrid method and inversion results, the numerical simulation experiments are performed using different signal-to-noise-ratios (SNRs), and the effect of different SNRs on fluid typing using three fluid models are discussed and analyzed in detail.

  1. 2-D Reflectometer Modeling for Optimizing the ITER Low-field Side Reflectometer System

    SciTech Connect

    Kramer, G.J.; Nazikian, R.; Valeo, E.J.; Budny, R.V.; Kessel, C.; Johnson, D.

    2005-09-02

    The response of a low-field side reflectometer system for ITER is simulated with a 2?D reflectometer code using a realistic plasma equilibrium. It is found that the reflected beam will often miss its launch point by as much as 40 cm and that a vertical array of receiving antennas is essential in order to observe a reflection on the low-field side of ITER.

  2. Seeded growth of robust SERS-active 2D Au@Ag nanoparticulate films

    SciTech Connect

    Baker, Gary A; Dai, Sheng; Hagaman, Edward {Ed} W; Mahurin, Shannon Mark; Zhu, Haoguo; Bao, Lili

    2008-01-01

    We demonstrate herein a novel and versatile solution-based methodology for fabricating self-organized two-dimensional (2D) Au nanoparticle arrays on glass using in situ nucleation at an aminosilane monolayer followed by seeded, electroless growth; subsequent deposition of Ag produced Au{at}Ag core-shell nanoparticulate films which proved highly promising as surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) platforms.

  3. Magnetic arrays

    DOEpatents

    Trumper, David L.; Kim, Won-jong; Williams, Mark E.

    1997-05-20

    Electromagnet arrays which can provide selected field patterns in either two or three dimensions, and in particular, which can provide single-sided field patterns in two or three dimensions. These features are achieved by providing arrays which have current densities that vary in the windings both parallel to the array and in the direction of array thickness.

  4. Magnetic arrays

    DOEpatents

    Trumper, D.L.; Kim, W.; Williams, M.E.

    1997-05-20

    Electromagnet arrays are disclosed which can provide selected field patterns in either two or three dimensions, and in particular, which can provide single-sided field patterns in two or three dimensions. These features are achieved by providing arrays which have current densities that vary in the windings both parallel to the array and in the direction of array thickness. 12 figs.

  5. Responsive ionic liquid-polymer 2D photonic crystal gas sensors.

    PubMed

    Smith, Natasha L; Hong, Zhenmin; Asher, Sanford A

    2014-12-21

    We developed novel air-stable 2D polymerized photonic crystal (2DPC) sensing materials for visual detection of gas phase analytes such as water and ammonia by utilizing a new ionic liquid, ethylguanidine perchlorate (EGP) as the mobile phase. Because of the negligible ionic liquid vapor pressure these 2DPC sensors are indefinitely air stable and, therefore, can be used to sense atmospheric analytes. 2D arrays of ~640 nm polystyrene nanospheres were attached to the surface of crosslinked poly(hydroxyethyl methacrylate) (pHEMA)-based polymer networks dispersed in EGP. The wavelength of the bright 2D photonic crystal diffraction depends sensitively on the 2D array particle spacing. The volume phase transition response of the EGP-pHEMA system to water vapor or gaseous ammonia changes the 2DPC particle spacing, enabling the visual determination of the analyte concentration. Water absorbed by EGP increases the Flory-Huggins interaction parameter, which shrinks the polymer network and causes a blue shift in the diffracted light. Ammonia absorbed by the EGP deprotonates the pHEMA-co-acrylic acid carboxyl groups, swelling the polymer which red shifts the diffracted light.

  6. Radiofrequency Spectroscopy and Thermodynamics of Fermi Gases in the 2D to Quasi-2D Dimensional Crossover

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cheng, Chingyun; Kangara, Jayampathi; Arakelyan, Ilya; Thomas, John

    2016-05-01

    We tune the dimensionality of a strongly interacting degenerate 6 Li Fermi gas from 2D to quasi-2D, by adjusting the radial confinement of pancake-shaped clouds to control the radial chemical potential. In the 2D regime with weak radial confinement, the measured pair binding energies are in agreement with 2D-BCS mean field theory, which predicts dimer pairing energies in the many-body regime. In the qausi-2D regime obtained with increased radial confinement, the measured pairing energy deviates significantly from 2D-BCS theory. In contrast to the pairing energy, the measured radii of the cloud profiles are not fit by 2D-BCS theory in either the 2D or quasi-2D regimes, but are fit in both regimes by a beyond mean field polaron-model of the free energy. Supported by DOE, ARO, NSF, and AFOSR.

  7. Competing coexisting phases in 2D water

    PubMed Central

    Zanotti, Jean-Marc; Judeinstein, Patrick; Dalla-Bernardina, Simona; Creff, Gaëlle; Brubach, Jean-Blaise; Roy, Pascale; Bonetti, Marco; Ollivier, Jacques; Sakellariou, Dimitrios; Bellissent-Funel, Marie-Claire

    2016-01-01

    The properties of bulk water come from a delicate balance of interactions on length scales encompassing several orders of magnitudes: i) the Hydrogen Bond (HBond) at the molecular scale and ii) the extension of this HBond network up to the macroscopic level. Here, we address the physics of water when the three dimensional extension of the HBond network is frustrated, so that the water molecules are forced to organize in only two dimensions. We account for the large scale fluctuating HBond network by an analytical mean-field percolation model. This approach provides a coherent interpretation of the different events experimentally (calorimetry, neutron, NMR, near and far infra-red spectroscopies) detected in interfacial water at 160, 220 and 250 K. Starting from an amorphous state of water at low temperature, these transitions are respectively interpreted as the onset of creation of transient low density patches of 4-HBonded molecules at 160 K, the percolation of these domains at 220 K and finally the total invasion of the surface by them at 250 K. The source of this surprising behaviour in 2D is the frustration of the natural bulk tetrahedral local geometry and the underlying very significant increase in entropy of the interfacial water molecules. PMID:27185018

  8. Phase Engineering of 2D Tin Sulfides.

    PubMed

    Mutlu, Zafer; Wu, Ryan J; Wickramaratne, Darshana; Shahrezaei, Sina; Liu, Chueh; Temiz, Selcuk; Patalano, Andrew; Ozkan, Mihrimah; Lake, Roger K; Mkhoyan, K A; Ozkan, Cengiz S

    2016-06-01

    Tin sulfides can exist in a variety of phases and polytypes due to the different oxidation states of Sn. A subset of these phases and polytypes take the form of layered 2D structures that give rise to a wide host of electronic and optical properties. Hence, achieving control over the phase, polytype, and thickness of tin sulfides is necessary to utilize this wide range of properties exhibited by the compound. This study reports on phase-selective growth of both hexagonal tin (IV) sulfide SnS2 and orthorhombic tin (II) sulfide SnS crystals with diameters of over tens of microns on SiO2 substrates through atmospheric pressure vapor-phase method in a conventional horizontal quartz tube furnace with SnO2 and S powders as the source materials. Detailed characterization of each phase of tin sulfide crystals is performed using various microscopy and spectroscopy methods, and the results are corroborated by ab initio density functional theory calculations. PMID:27099950

  9. Phase Engineering of 2D Tin Sulfides.

    PubMed

    Mutlu, Zafer; Wu, Ryan J; Wickramaratne, Darshana; Shahrezaei, Sina; Liu, Chueh; Temiz, Selcuk; Patalano, Andrew; Ozkan, Mihrimah; Lake, Roger K; Mkhoyan, K A; Ozkan, Cengiz S

    2016-06-01

    Tin sulfides can exist in a variety of phases and polytypes due to the different oxidation states of Sn. A subset of these phases and polytypes take the form of layered 2D structures that give rise to a wide host of electronic and optical properties. Hence, achieving control over the phase, polytype, and thickness of tin sulfides is necessary to utilize this wide range of properties exhibited by the compound. This study reports on phase-selective growth of both hexagonal tin (IV) sulfide SnS2 and orthorhombic tin (II) sulfide SnS crystals with diameters of over tens of microns on SiO2 substrates through atmospheric pressure vapor-phase method in a conventional horizontal quartz tube furnace with SnO2 and S powders as the source materials. Detailed characterization of each phase of tin sulfide crystals is performed using various microscopy and spectroscopy methods, and the results are corroborated by ab initio density functional theory calculations.

  10. Competing coexisting phases in 2D water

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zanotti, Jean-Marc; Judeinstein, Patrick; Dalla-Bernardina, Simona; Creff, Gaëlle; Brubach, Jean-Blaise; Roy, Pascale; Bonetti, Marco; Ollivier, Jacques; Sakellariou, Dimitrios; Bellissent-Funel, Marie-Claire

    2016-05-01

    The properties of bulk water come from a delicate balance of interactions on length scales encompassing several orders of magnitudes: i) the Hydrogen Bond (HBond) at the molecular scale and ii) the extension of this HBond network up to the macroscopic level. Here, we address the physics of water when the three dimensional extension of the HBond network is frustrated, so that the water molecules are forced to organize in only two dimensions. We account for the large scale fluctuating HBond network by an analytical mean-field percolation model. This approach provides a coherent interpretation of the different events experimentally (calorimetry, neutron, NMR, near and far infra-red spectroscopies) detected in interfacial water at 160, 220 and 250 K. Starting from an amorphous state of water at low temperature, these transitions are respectively interpreted as the onset of creation of transient low density patches of 4-HBonded molecules at 160 K, the percolation of these domains at 220 K and finally the total invasion of the surface by them at 250 K. The source of this surprising behaviour in 2D is the frustration of the natural bulk tetrahedral local geometry and the underlying very significant increase in entropy of the interfacial water molecules.

  11. 2-D Inhomogeneous Modeling of the Solar CO Bands

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ayres, T. R.

    1996-05-01

    The recent discovery of off-limb emissions in the mid-IR ( ~ 5 mu m) vibration-rotation bands of solar carbon monoxide (CO) has sparked new interest in the formation of the molecular lines, and their ability to diagnose thermal conditions at high altitudes. The off-limb extensions of the strong CO lines indicate the penetration of cool material (T ~ 3500 K) several hundred kilometers into the otherwise hot (T ~ 6000 K) chromosphere. The origin of the cool gas, and its role in the thermal energy balance, remain controversial. The interpretation of the CO observations must rely heavily upon numerical modeling, in particular highly-inhomogeneous thermal structures arrayed in a 2-D scheme that can properly treat the geometry of the grazing rays at the solar limb. The radiation transport, itself, is especially simple for the CO off-limb emissions, because the fundamental bands form quite close to LTE (high collision rates; low spontaneous decay rates) and the background continuum is purely thermal as well (f--f transitions in H(-) and H). Thus, the geometrical aspects of the problem can be treated in considerably more detail than would be practical for typical NLTE scattering lines. I describe the recent modeling efforts, and the diagnostic potential of the CO bands for future observational studies of inhomogeneous surface structure on the Sun, and on other stars of late spectral type. This work was supported by NSF grant AST-9218063 to the University of Colorado.

  12. Application specific serial arithmetic arrays

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Winters, K.; Mathews, D.; Thompson, T.

    1990-01-01

    High performance systolic arrays of serial-parallel multiplier elements may be rapidly constructed for specific applications by applying hardware description language techniques to a library of full-custom CMOS building blocks. Single clock pre-charged circuits have been implemented for these arrays at clock rates in excess of 100 Mhz using economical 2-micron (minimum feature size) CMOS processes, which may be quickly configured for a variety of applications. A number of application-specific arrays are presented, including a 2-D convolver for image processing, an integer polynomial solver, and a finite-field polynomial solver.

  13. VizieR Online Data Catalog: c2d Spitzer final data release (DR4) (Evans+, 2003)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Evans, N. J., II; Allen, L. E.; Blake, G. A.; Boogert, A. C. A.; Bourke, T.; Harvey, P. M.; Kessler, J. E.; Koerner, D. W.; Lee, C. W.; Mundy, L. G.; Myers, P. C.; Padgett, D. L.; Pontoppidan, K.; Sargent, A. I.; Stapelfeldt, K. R.; van Dishoeck, E. F.; Young, C. H.; Young, K. E.

    2014-05-01

    This is the final delivery (DR4, Fall 2006 and Fall 2007) of the Spitzer Space Telescope "From Molecular Cores to Planet-Forming Disks" (c2d) Legacy Project. The data are also available as Enhanced Products from the Spitzer Science Center (SSC). c2d has delivered 867 catalogs. IRSA has merged these delivered catalogs into four groups - Clouds, Off-Cloud, Cores, Stars - and serves them through the general catalog search engine Gator. Many of the delivered catalogs, images and spectra are accessible through IRSA's general search service, Atlas. As a service to its users, the CDS has downloaded a dataset containing most of the c2d data (but not all columns) from the IRSA archive. The individual catalogs are listed below: C2D Fall '07 Full CLOUDS Catalog (CHA_II, LUP, OPH, PER, SER) C2D Fall '07 High Reliability (HREL) CLOUDS Catalog (CHA_II, LUP, OPH, PER, SER) C2D Fall '07 candidate Young Stellar Objects (YSO) CLOUDS Catalog (CHA_II, LUP, OPH, PER, SER) C2D Fall '07 Full OFF-CLOUD Catalog (CHA_II, LUP, OPH, PER, SER) C2D Fall '07 candidate Young Stellar Objects (YSO) OFF-CLOUD Catalog (CHA_II, LUP, OPH, PER, SER) C2D Fall '07 Full CORES Catalog C2D Fall '07 candidate Young Stellar Objects (YSO) CORES Catalog C2D Fall '07 Full STARS Catalog C2D Fall '07 candidate Young Stellar Objects (YSO) STARS Catalog These tables have been merged into a single table at CDS. All three SIRTF instruments (Infrared Array Camera [IRAC], Multiband Imaging Photometer for SIRTF [MIPS], and Infrared Spectrograph [IRS]) were used to observe sources that span the evolutionary sequence from molecular cores to protoplanetary disks, encompassing a wide range of cloud masses, stellar masses, and star-forming environments. (1 data file).

  14. 2-D Animation's Not Just for Mickey Mouse.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weinman, Lynda

    1995-01-01

    Discusses characteristics of two-dimensional (2-D) animation; highlights include character animation, painting issues, and motion graphics. Sidebars present Silicon Graphics animations tools and 2-D animation programs for the desktop computer. (DGM)

  15. Generates 2D Input for DYNA NIKE & TOPAZ

    SciTech Connect

    Hallquist, J. O.; Sanford, Larry

    1996-07-15

    MAZE is an interactive program that serves as an input and two-dimensional mesh generator for DYNA2D, NIKE2D, TOPAZ2D, and CHEMICAL TOPAZ2D. MAZE also generates a basic template for ISLAND input. MAZE has been applied to the generation of input data to study the response of two-dimensional solids and structures undergoing finite deformations under a wide variety of large deformation transient dynamic and static problems and heat transfer analyses.

  16. MAZE96. Generates 2D Input for DYNA NIKE & TOPAZ

    SciTech Connect

    Sanford, L.; Hallquist, J.O.

    1992-02-24

    MAZE is an interactive program that serves as an input and two-dimensional mesh generator for DYNA2D, NIKE2D, TOPAZ2D, and CHEMICAL TOPAZ2D. MAZE also generates a basic template for ISLAND input. MAZE has been applied to the generation of input data to study the response of two-dimensional solids and structures undergoing finite deformations under a wide variety of large deformation transient dynamic and static problems and heat transfer analyses.

  17. Design of easily testable and reconfigurable systolic arrays

    SciTech Connect

    Kim, J.H.

    1987-01-01

    Systolic arrays are considered to be preferred architectures for executing linear algebraic operations. In this thesis, easily testable and reconfigurable (ETAR) systolic arrays are studied to achieve the yield enhancement. New 2-D systolic arrays that lend themselves to easy reconfiguration as well as efficient implementations of algorithms are proposed. The 2-D bidirectional and unidirectional systolic arrays proposed are often better architectures than the rectangular and hexagonal systolic arrays proposed earlier, if one considers area, time and reconfigurability. Methods to design linear and 2-D ETAR systolic arrays are proposed. Procedures to design linear and 2-D unidirectional and bidirectional systolic arrays are given. The main feature of the proposed designs is that the COMUs of the PEs in the linear array can all be tested simultaneously. Another feature is that the throughputs of the reconfigured linear unidirectional as well as bidirectional arrays can remain to be equal to those of the fault-free linear arrays. A reconfiguration algorithm for 2-D systolic arrays is also proposed.

  18. Offering an Array of Improvements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2001-01-01

    Sensors Unlimited, Inc., with SBIR funding from NASA's Langley Research Center, Goddard Space Flight Center, Marshall Space Flight Center, and the Jet Propulsion Laboratory, developed a monolithic focal plane array for near-infrared imaging. The company developed one- (1- D) and two-dimensional (2-D) imaging arrays consisting of a highly reliable InGaAs p-I-n diode as a photodetector for monitoring a variety of applications, including single element device applications in receivers. The InGaAs 1-D and 2-D arrays have many applications. For example, they monitor the performance of dense wavelength division multiplexing (DWDM) systems- the process of packaging many channels into a single fiber-optic cable. Sensors Unlimited commercially offers its LXTM and LYTM Series InGaAs linear arrays for reliable DWDM performance monitoring. The LX and LY arrays enable instrument module designs with no moving parts, which provides for superior uniformity, and fast, linear outputs that remain stable over a wide temperature range. Innovative technologies derived from the monolithic focal plane array have enabled telecommunication companies to optimize existing bandwidth in their fiber-optic networks in order to support a high volume of network traffic. At the same time, the technologies obtained from the array have the potential for reducing costs, while increasing performance from Sensors Unlimited's current product lines.

  19. 2d PDE Linear Symmetric Matrix Solver

    1983-10-01

    ICCG2 (Incomplete Cholesky factorized Conjugate Gradient algorithm for 2d symmetric problems) was developed to solve a linear symmetric matrix system arising from a 9-point discretization of two-dimensional elliptic and parabolic partial differential equations found in plasma physics applications, such as resistive MHD, spatial diffusive transport, and phase space transport (Fokker-Planck equation) problems. These problems share the common feature of being stiff and requiring implicit solution techniques. When these parabolic or elliptic PDE''s are discretized withmore » finite-difference or finite-element methods,the resulting matrix system is frequently of block-tridiagonal form. To use ICCG2, the discretization of the two-dimensional partial differential equation and its boundary conditions must result in a block-tridiagonal supermatrix composed of elementary tridiagonal matrices. The incomplete Cholesky conjugate gradient algorithm is used to solve the linear symmetric matrix equation. Loops are arranged to vectorize on the Cray1 with the CFT compiler, wherever possible. Recursive loops, which cannot be vectorized, are written for optimum scalar speed. For matrices lacking symmetry, ILUCG2 should be used. Similar methods in three dimensions are available in ICCG3 and ILUCG3. A general source containing extensions and macros, which must be processed by a pre-compiler to obtain the standard FORTRAN source, is provided along with the standard FORTRAN source because it is believed to be more readable. The pre-compiler is not included, but pre-compilation may be performed by a text editor as described in the UCRL-88746 Preprint.« less

  20. 2d PDE Linear Asymmetric Matrix Solver

    1983-10-01

    ILUCG2 (Incomplete LU factorized Conjugate Gradient algorithm for 2d problems) was developed to solve a linear asymmetric matrix system arising from a 9-point discretization of two-dimensional elliptic and parabolic partial differential equations found in plasma physics applications, such as plasma diffusion, equilibria, and phase space transport (Fokker-Planck equation) problems. These equations share the common feature of being stiff and requiring implicit solution techniques. When these parabolic or elliptic PDE''s are discretized with finite-difference or finite-elementmore » methods, the resulting matrix system is frequently of block-tridiagonal form. To use ILUCG2, the discretization of the two-dimensional partial differential equation and its boundary conditions must result in a block-tridiagonal supermatrix composed of elementary tridiagonal matrices. A generalization of the incomplete Cholesky conjugate gradient algorithm is used to solve the matrix equation. Loops are arranged to vectorize on the Cray1 with the CFT compiler, wherever possible. Recursive loops, which cannot be vectorized, are written for optimum scalar speed. For problems having a symmetric matrix ICCG2 should be used since it runs up to four times faster and uses approximately 30% less storage. Similar methods in three dimensions are available in ICCG3 and ILUCG3. A general source, containing extensions and macros, which must be processed by a pre-compiler to obtain the standard FORTRAN source, is provided along with the standard FORTRAN source because it is believed to be more readable. The pre-compiler is not included, but pre-compilation may be performed by a text editor as described in the UCRL-88746 Preprint.« less

  1. Position control using 2D-to-2D feature correspondences in vision guided cell micromanipulation.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yanliang; Han, Mingli; Shee, Cheng Yap; Ang, Wei Tech

    2007-01-01

    Conventional camera calibration that utilizes the extrinsic and intrinsic parameters of the camera and the objects has certain limitations for micro-level cell operations due to the presence of hardware deviations and external disturbances during the experimental process, thereby invalidating the extrinsic parameters. This invalidation is often neglected in macro-world visual servoing and affects the visual image processing quality, causing deviation from the desired position in micro-level cell operations. To increase the success rate of vision guided biological micromanipulations, a novel algorithm monitoring the changing image pattern of the manipulators including the injection micropipette and cell holder is designed and implemented based on 2 dimensional (2D)-to 2D feature correspondences and can adjust the manipulator and perform position control simultaneously. When any deviation is found, the manipulator is retracted to the initial focusing plane before continuing the operation.

  2. Elastic behavior of Bi2Se3 2D nanosheets grown by van der Waals epitaxy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yan, Haoming; Vajner, Cooper; Kuhlman, Michael; Guo, Lingling; Li, Lin; Araujo, Paulo T.; Wang, Hung-Ta

    2016-07-01

    Elastic properties of bismuth selenite (Bi2Se3) two-dimensional (2D) nanosheets were investigated using atomic force microscope (AFM) nanoindentations. Bi2Se3 2D nanosheets were synthesized by van der Waals epitaxy and subsequently transferred on SiO2/Si substrates containing pre-fabricated hole arrays. The suspension of 2D nanosheets was confirmed via the distinct optical contrast characteristics and AFM. In nanoindentations, the correlation between a point force load and the elastic response in the deformation depth was found being thickness-dependent, between 7 and 12 quintuple layers. The Young's modulus, E = 17.86-25.45 GPa (fitted value = 20.67 GPa), and the pretension, T = 0.0218-0.0417 N/m, acquired according to the bending plate regime are consistent with ones from the stretching membrane regime. Furthermore, these Bi2Se3 2D nanosheets could elastically endure a 4.0%-8.3% strain before being ruptured with AFM tips. Compliant and robust elastic properties of Bi2Se3 2D nanosheets, as observed, provide a feasible way for exploring the topological phase transition.

  3. A Planar Quantum Transistor Based on 2D-2D Tunneling in Double Quantum Well Heterostructures

    SciTech Connect

    Baca, W.E.; Blount, M.A.; Hafich, M.J.; Lyo, S.K.; Moon, J.S.; Reno, J.L.; Simmons, J.A.; Wendt, J.R.

    1998-12-14

    We report on our work on the double electron layer tunneling transistor (DELTT), based on the gate-control of two-dimensional -- two-dimensional (2D-2D) tunneling in a double quantum well heterostructure. While previous quantum transistors have typically required tiny laterally-defined features, by contrast the DELTT is entirely planar and can be reliably fabricated in large numbers. We use a novel epoxy-bond-and-stop-etch (EBASE) flip-chip process, whereby submicron gating on opposite sides of semiconductor epitaxial layers as thin as 0.24 microns can be achieved. Because both electron layers in the DELTT are 2D, the resonant tunneling features are unusually sharp, and can be easily modulated with one or more surface gates. We demonstrate DELTTs with peak-to-valley ratios in the source-drain I-V curve of order 20:1 below 1 K. Both the height and position of the resonant current peak can be controlled by gate voltage over a wide range. DELTTs with larger subband energy offsets ({approximately} 21 meV) exhibit characteristics that are nearly as good at 77 K, in good agreement with our theoretical calculations. Using these devices, we also demonstrate bistable memories operating at 77 K. Finally, we briefly discuss the prospects for room temperature operation, increases in gain, and high-speed.

  4. 'Brukin2D': a 2D visualization and comparison tool for LC-MS data

    PubMed Central

    Tsagkrasoulis, Dimosthenis; Zerefos, Panagiotis; Loudos, George; Vlahou, Antonia; Baumann, Marc; Kossida, Sophia

    2009-01-01

    Background Liquid Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry (LC-MS) is a commonly used technique to resolve complex protein mixtures. Visualization of large data sets produced from LC-MS, namely the chromatogram and the mass spectra that correspond to its compounds is the focus of this work. Results The in-house developed 'Brukin2D' software, built in Matlab 7.4, which is presented here, uses the compound data that are exported from the Bruker 'DataAnalysis' program, and depicts the mean mass spectra of all the chromatogram compounds from one LC-MS run, in one 2D contour/density plot. Two contour plots from different chromatograph runs can then be viewed in the same window and automatically compared, in order to find their similarities and differences. The results of the comparison can be examined through detailed mass quantification tables, while chromatogram compound statistics are also calculated during the procedure. Conclusion 'Brukin2D' provides a user-friendly platform for quick, easy and integrated view of complex LC-MS data. The software is available at . PMID:19534737

  5. Inhibition of human cytochrome P450 2D6 (CYP2D6) by methadone.

    PubMed Central

    Wu, D; Otton, S V; Sproule, B A; Busto, U; Inaba, T; Kalow, W; Sellers, E M

    1993-01-01

    1. In microsomes prepared from three human livers, methadone competitively inhibited the O-demethylation of dextromethorphan, a marker substrate for CYP2D6. The apparent Ki value of methadone ranged from 2.5 to 5 microM. 2. Two hundred and fifty-two (252) white Caucasians, including 210 unrelated healthy volunteers and 42 opiate abusers undergoing treatment with methadone were phenotyped using dextromethorphan as the marker drug. Although the frequency of poor metabolizers was similar in both groups, the extensive metabolizers among the opiate abusers tended to have higher O-demethylation metabolic ratios and to excrete less of the dose as dextromethorphan metabolites than control extensive metabolizer subjects. These data suggest inhibition of CYP2D6 by methadone in vivo as well. 3. Because methadone is widely used in the treatment of opiate abuse, inhibition of CYP2D6 activity in these patients might contribute to exaggerated response or unexpected toxicity from drugs that are substrates of this enzyme. PMID:8448065

  6. Correlated Electron Phenomena in 2D Materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lambert, Joseph G.

    In this thesis, I present experimental results on coherent electron phenomena in layered two-dimensional materials: single layer graphene and van der Waals coupled 2D TiSe2. Graphene is a two-dimensional single-atom thick sheet of carbon atoms first derived from bulk graphite by the mechanical exfoliation technique in 2004. Low-energy charge carriers in graphene behave like massless Dirac fermions, and their density can be easily tuned between electron-rich and hole-rich quasiparticles with electrostatic gating techniques. The sharp interfaces between regions of different carrier densities form barriers with selective transmission, making them behave as partially reflecting mirrors. When two of these interfaces are set at a separation distance within the phase coherence length of the carriers, they form an electronic version of a Fabry-Perot cavity. I present measurements and analysis of multiple Fabry-Perot modes in graphene with parallel electrodes spaced a few hundred nanometers apart. Transition metal dichalcogenide (TMD) TiSe2 is part of the family of materials that coined the term "materials beyond graphene". It contains van der Waals coupled trilayer stacks of Se-Ti-Se. Many TMD materials exhibit a host of interesting correlated electronic phases. In particular, TiSe2 exhibits chiral charge density waves (CDW) below TCDW ˜ 200 K. Upon doping with copper, the CDW state gets suppressed with Cu concentration, and CuxTiSe2 becomes superconducting with critical temperature of T c = 4.15 K. There is still much debate over the mechanisms governing the coexistence of the two correlated electronic phases---CDW and superconductivity. I will present some of the first conductance spectroscopy measurements of proximity coupled superconductor-CDW systems. Measurements reveal a proximity-induced critical current at the Nb-TiSe2 interfaces, suggesting pair correlations in the pure TiSe2. The results indicate that superconducting order is present concurrently with CDW in

  7. Magnetically actuated microshutter arrays

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mott, David B.; Aslam, Shahid; Blumenstock, Kenneth A.; Fettig, Rainer K.; Franz, David E.; Kutyrev, Alexander S.; Li, Mary J.; Monroy, Carlos J.; Moseley, S. Harvey; Schwinger, David S.

    2001-10-01

    Two-dimensional microshutter arrays are being developed at NASA Goddard Space Flight Center (GSFC) for the Next Generation Space Telescope (NGST) for use in the near-infrared region. Functioning as focal plane object selection devices, the microshutter arrays are 2-D programmable masks with high efficiency and high contrast. The NGST environment requires cryogenic operation at 45 K. Arrays are close-packed silicon nitride membranes with a unit cell size of 100x100 micrometer. Individual shutters are patterned with a torsion flexure permitting shutters to open 90 degrees with minimized mechanical stress concentration. The mechanical shutter arrays are fabricated with MEMS technologies. The processing includes a RIE front-etch to form shutters out of the nitride membrane, an anisotropic back-etch for wafer thinning, and a deep RIE (DRIE) back-etch down to the nitride shutter membrane to form frames and to relieve the shutters from the silicon substrate. A layer of magnetic material is deposited onto each shutter. Onto the side-wall of the support structure a metal layer is deposited that acts as a vertical hold electrode. Shutters are rotated into the support structure by means of an external magnet that is swept across the shutter array for opening. Addressing is performed through a scheme using row and column address lines on each chip and external addressing electronics.

  8. Kokkos Array

    SciTech Connect

    Edwards Daniel Sunderland, Harold Carter

    2012-09-12

    The Kokkos Array library implements shared-memory array data structures and parallel task dispatch interfaces for data-parallel computational kernels that are performance-portable to multicore-CPU and manycore-accelerator (e.g., GPGPU) devices.

  9. Differential Analysis of 2D NMR Spectra: New Natural Products from a Pilot-Scale Fungal Extract Library

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Using a newly developed protocol for the differential analysis of arrays of 2D NMR spectra, we were able to rapidly identify two previously unreported indole alkaloids from a library of unfractionated fungal extracts. Differential analyses of NMR spectra thus constitute an effective tool for the non...

  10. Systolic arrays

    SciTech Connect

    Moore, W.R.; McCabe, A.P.H.; Vrquhart, R.B.

    1987-01-01

    Selected Contents of this book are: Efficient Systolic Arrays for the Solution of Toeplitz Systems, The Derivation and Utilization of Bit Level Systolic Array Architectures, an Efficient Systolic Array for Distance Computation Required in a Video-Codec Based Motion-Detection, On Realizations of Least-Squares Estimation and Kalman Filtering by Systolic Arrays, and Comparison of Systolic and SIMD Architectures for Computer Vision Computations.

  11. Nanocylinder arrays

    DOEpatents

    Tuominen, Mark; Schotter, Joerg; Thurn-Albrecht, Thomas; Russell, Thomas P.

    2009-08-11

    Pathways to rapid and reliable fabrication of nanocylinder arrays are provided. Simple methods are described for the production of well-ordered arrays of nanopores, nanowires, and other materials. This is accomplished by orienting copolymer films and removing a component from the film to produce nanopores, that in turn, can be filled with materials to produce the arrays. The resulting arrays can be used to produce nanoscale media, devices, and systems.

  12. Nanocylinder arrays

    DOEpatents

    Tuominen, Mark; Schotter, Joerg; Thurn-Albrecht, Thomas; Russell, Thomas P.

    2007-03-13

    Pathways to rapid and reliable fabrication of nanocylinder arrays are provided. Simple methods are described for the production of well-ordered arrays of nanopores, nanowires, and other materials. This is accomplished by orienting copolymer films and removing a component from the film to produce nanopores, that in turn, can be filled with materials to produce the arrays. The resulting arrays can be used to produce nanoscale media, devices, and systems.

  13. Mechanical characterization of 2D, 2D stitched, and 3D braided/RTM materials

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Deaton, Jerry W.; Kullerd, Susan M.; Portanova, Marc A.

    1993-01-01

    Braided composite materials have potential for application in aircraft structures. Fuselage frames, floor beams, wing spars, and stiffeners are examples where braided composites could find application if cost effective processing and damage tolerance requirements are met. Another important consideration for braided composites relates to their mechanical properties and how they compare to the properties of composites produced by other textile composite processes being proposed for these applications. Unfortunately, mechanical property data for braided composites do not appear extensively in the literature. Data are presented in this paper on the mechanical characterization of 2D triaxial braid, 2D triaxial braid plus stitching, and 3D (through-the-thickness) braid composite materials. The braided preforms all had the same graphite tow size and the same nominal braid architectures, (+/- 30 deg/0 deg), and were resin transfer molded (RTM) using the same mold for each of two different resin systems. Static data are presented for notched and unnotched tension, notched and unnotched compression, and compression after impact strengths at room temperature. In addition, some static results, after environmental conditioning, are included. Baseline tension and compression fatigue results are also presented, but only for the 3D braided composite material with one of the resin systems.

  14. Computational Screening of 2D Materials for Photocatalysis.

    PubMed

    Singh, Arunima K; Mathew, Kiran; Zhuang, Houlong L; Hennig, Richard G

    2015-03-19

    Two-dimensional (2D) materials exhibit a range of extraordinary electronic, optical, and mechanical properties different from their bulk counterparts with potential applications for 2D materials emerging in energy storage and conversion technologies. In this Perspective, we summarize the recent developments in the field of solar water splitting using 2D materials and review a computational screening approach to rapidly and efficiently discover more 2D materials that possess properties suitable for solar water splitting. Computational tools based on density-functional theory can predict the intrinsic properties of potential photocatalyst such as their electronic properties, optical absorbance, and solubility in aqueous solutions. Computational tools enable the exploration of possible routes to enhance the photocatalytic activity of 2D materials by use of mechanical strain, bias potential, doping, and pH. We discuss future research directions and needed method developments for the computational design and optimization of 2D materials for photocatalysis.

  15. Synthetic Covalent and Non-Covalent 2D Materials.

    PubMed

    Boott, Charlotte E; Nazemi, Ali; Manners, Ian

    2015-11-16

    The creation of synthetic 2D materials represents an attractive challenge that is ultimately driven by their prospective uses in, for example, electronics, biomedicine, catalysis, sensing, and as membranes for separation and filtration. This Review illustrates some recent advances in this diverse field with a focus on covalent and non-covalent 2D polymers and frameworks, and self-assembled 2D materials derived from nanoparticles, homopolymers, and block copolymers.

  16. A Geometric Boolean Library for 2D Objects

    2006-01-05

    The 2D Boolean Library is a collection of C++ classes -- which primarily represent 2D geometric data and relationships, and routines -- which contain algorithms for 2D geometric Boolean operations and utility functions. Classes are provided for 2D points, lines, arcs, edgeuses, loops, surfaces and mask sets. Routines are provided that incorporate the Boolean operations Union(OR), XOR, Intersection and Difference. Various analytical geometry routines and routines for importing and exporting the data in various filemore » formats, are also provided in the library.« less

  17. Protein structure validation and identification from unassigned residual dipolar coupling data using 2D-PDPA.

    PubMed

    Fahim, Arjang; Mukhopadhyay, Rishi; Yandle, Ryan; Prestegard, James H; Valafar, Homayoun

    2013-08-22

    More than 90% of protein structures submitted to the PDB each year are homologous to some previously characterized protein structure. The extensive resources that are required for structural characterization of proteins can be justified for the 10% of the novel structures, but not for the remaining 90%. This report presents the 2D-PDPA method, which utilizes unassigned residual dipolar coupling in order to address the economics of structure determination of routine proteins by reducing the data acquisition and processing time. 2D-PDPA has been demonstrated to successfully identify the correct structure of an array of proteins that range from 46 to 445 residues in size from a library of 619 decoy structures by using unassigned simulated RDC data. When using experimental data, 2D-PDPA successfully identified the correct NMR structures from the same library of decoy structures. In addition, the most homologous X-ray structure was also identified as the second best structural candidate. Finally, success of 2D-PDPA in identifying and evaluating the most appropriate structure from a set of computationally predicted structures in the case of a previously uncharacterized protein Pf2048.1 has been demonstrated. This protein exhibits less than 20% sequence identity to any protein with known structure and therefore presents a compelling and practical application of our proposed work.

  18. Protein structure validation and identification from unassigned residual dipolar coupling data using 2D-PDPA.

    PubMed

    Fahim, Arjang; Mukhopadhyay, Rishi; Yandle, Ryan; Prestegard, James H; Valafar, Homayoun

    2013-01-01

    More than 90% of protein structures submitted to the PDB each year are homologous to some previously characterized protein structure. The extensive resources that are required for structural characterization of proteins can be justified for the 10% of the novel structures, but not for the remaining 90%. This report presents the 2D-PDPA method, which utilizes unassigned residual dipolar coupling in order to address the economics of structure determination of routine proteins by reducing the data acquisition and processing time. 2D-PDPA has been demonstrated to successfully identify the correct structure of an array of proteins that range from 46 to 445 residues in size from a library of 619 decoy structures by using unassigned simulated RDC data. When using experimental data, 2D-PDPA successfully identified the correct NMR structures from the same library of decoy structures. In addition, the most homologous X-ray structure was also identified as the second best structural candidate. Finally, success of 2D-PDPA in identifying and evaluating the most appropriate structure from a set of computationally predicted structures in the case of a previously uncharacterized protein Pf2048.1 has been demonstrated. This protein exhibits less than 20% sequence identity to any protein with known structure and therefore presents a compelling and practical application of our proposed work. PMID:23973992

  19. Protein Structure Validation and Identification from Unassigned Residual Dipolar Coupling Data Using 2D-PDPA

    PubMed Central

    Fahim, Arjang; Mukhopadhyay, Rishi; Yandle, Ryan; Prestegard, James H.; Valafar, Homayoun

    2014-01-01

    More than 90% of protein structures submitted to the PDB each year are homologous to some previously characterized protein structure. The extensive resources that are required for structural characterization of proteins can be justified for the 10% of the novel structures, but not for the remaining 90%. This report presents the 2D-PDPA method, which utilizes unassigned residual dipolar coupling in order to address the economics of structure determination of routine proteins by reducing the data acquisition and processing time. 2D-PDPA has been demonstrated to successfully identify the correct structure of an array of proteins that range from 46 to 445 residues in size from a library of 619 decoy structures by using unassigned simulated RDC data. When using experimental data, 2D-PDPA successfully identified the correct NMR structures from the same library of decoy structures. In addition, the most homologous X-ray structure was also identified as the second best structural candidate. Finally, success of 2D-PDPA in identifying and evaluating the most appropriate structure from a set of computationally predicted structures in the case of a previously uncharacterized protein Pf2048.1 has been demonstrated. This protein exhibits less than 20% sequence identity to any protein with known structure and therefore presents a compelling and practical application of our proposed work. PMID:23973992

  20. DETECTION OF N{sub 2}D{sup +} IN A PROTOPLANETARY DISK

    SciTech Connect

    Huang, Jane; Öberg, Karin I.

    2015-08-20

    Observations of deuterium fractionation in the solar system, and in interstellar and circumstellar material, are commonly used to constrain the formation environment of volatiles. Toward protoplanetary disks, this approach has been limited by the small number of detected deuterated molecules, i.e., DCO{sup +} and DCN. Based on ALMA Cycle 2 observations toward the disk around the T Tauri star AS 209, we report the first detection of N{sub 2}D{sup +} (J = 3–2) in a protoplanetary disk. These data are used together with previous Submillimeter Array observations of N{sub 2}H{sup +} (J = 3–2) to estimate a disk-averaged D/H ratio of 0.3–0.5, an order of magnitude higher than disk-averaged ratios previously derived for DCN/HCN and DCO{sup +}/HCO{sup +} around other young stars. The high fractionation in N{sub 2}H{sup +} is consistent with model predictions. The presence of abundant N{sub 2}D{sup +} toward AS 209 also suggests that N{sub 2}D{sup +} and the N{sub 2}D{sup +}/N{sub 2}H{sup +} ratio can be developed into effective probes of deuterium chemistry, kinematics, and ionization processes outside the CO snow line of disks.

  1. VizieR Online Data Catalog: The 2dF Galaxy Redshift Survey (2dFGRS) (2dFGRS Team, 1998-2003)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Colless, M.; Dalton, G.; Maddox, S.; Sutherland, W.; Norberg, P.; Cole, S.; Bland-Hawthorn, J.; Bridges, T.; Cannon, R.; Collins, C.; Couch, W.; Cross, N.; Deeley, K.; de Propris, R.; Driver, S. P.; Efstathiou, G.; Ellis, R. S.; Frenk, C. S.; Glazebrook, K.; Jackson, C.; Lahav, O.; Lewis, I.; Lumsden, S.; Madgwick, D.; Peacock, J. A.; Peterson, B. A.; Price, I.; Seaborne, M.; Taylor, K.

    2007-11-01

    The 2dF Galaxy Redshift Survey (2dFGRS) is a major spectroscopic survey taking full advantage of the unique capabilities of the 2dF facility built by the Anglo-Australian Observatory. The 2dFGRS is integrated with the 2dF QSO survey (2QZ, Cat. VII/241). The 2dFGRS obtained spectra for 245591 objects, mainly galaxies, brighter than a nominal extinction-corrected magnitude limit of bJ=19.45. Reliable (quality>=3) redshifts were obtained for 221414 galaxies. The galaxies cover an area of approximately 1500 square degrees selected from the extended APM Galaxy Survey in three regions: a North Galactic Pole (NGP) strip, a South Galactic Pole (SGP) strip, and random fields scattered around the SGP strip. Redshifts are measured from spectra covering 3600-8000 Angstroms at a two-pixel resolution of 9.0 Angstrom and a median S/N of 13 per pixel. All redshift identifications are visually checked and assigned a quality parameter Q in the range 1-5; Q>=3 redshifts are 98.4% reliable and have an rms uncertainty of 85 km/s. The overall redshift completeness for Q>=3 redshifts is 91.8% but this varies with magnitude from 99% for the brightest galaxies to 90% for objects at the survey limit. The 2dFGRS data base is available on the World Wide Web at http://www.mso.anu.edu.au/2dFGRS/. (6 data files).

  2. Klassifikation von Standardebenen in der 2D-Echokardiographie mittels 2D-3D-Bildregistrierung

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bergmeir, Christoph; Subramanian, Navneeth

    Zum Zweck der Entwicklung eines Systems, das einen unerfahrenen Anwender von Ultraschall (US) zur Aufnahme relevanter anatomischer Strukturen leitet, untersuchen wir die Machbarkeit von 2D-US zu 3D-CT Registrierung. Wir verwenden US-Aufnahmen von Standardebenen des Herzens, welche zu einem 3D-CT-Modell registriert werden. Unser Algorithmus unterzieht sowohl die US-Bilder als auch den CT-Datensatz Vorverarbeitungsschritten, welche die Daten durch Segmentierung auf wesentliche Informationen in Form von Labein für Muskel und Blut reduzieren. Anschließend werden diese Label zur Registrierung mittels der Match-Cardinality-Metrik genutzt. Durch mehrmaliges Registrieren mit verschiedenen Initialisierungen ermitteln wir die im US-Bild sichtbare Standardebene. Wir evaluierten die Methode auf sieben US-Bildern von Standardebenen. Fünf davon wurden korrekt zugeordnet.

  3. Epitaxial 2D SnSe2/ 2D WSe2 van der Waals Heterostructures.

    PubMed

    Aretouli, Kleopatra Emmanouil; Tsoutsou, Dimitra; Tsipas, Polychronis; Marquez-Velasco, Jose; Aminalragia Giamini, Sigiava; Kelaidis, Nicolaos; Psycharis, Vassilis; Dimoulas, Athanasios

    2016-09-01

    van der Waals heterostructures of 2D semiconductor materials can be used to realize a number of (opto)electronic devices including tunneling field effect devices (TFETs). It is shown in this work that high quality SnSe2/WSe2 vdW heterostructure can be grown by molecular beam epitaxy on AlN(0001)/Si(111) substrates using a Bi2Se3 buffer layer. A valence band offset of 0.8 eV matches the energy gap of SnSe2 in such a way that the VB edge of WSe2 and the CB edge of SnSe2 are lined up, making this materials combination suitable for (nearly) broken gap TFETs. PMID:27537619

  4. CVMAC 2D Program: A method of converting 3D to 2D

    SciTech Connect

    Lown, J.

    1990-06-20

    This paper presents the user with a method of converting a three- dimensional wire frame model into a technical illustration, detail, or assembly drawing. By using the 2D Program, entities can be mapped from three-dimensional model space into two-dimensional model space, as if they are being traced. Selected entities to be mapped can include circles, arcs, lines, and points. This program prompts the user to digitize the view to be mapped, specify the layers in which the new two-dimensional entities will reside, and select the entities, either by digitizing or windowing. The new two-dimensional entities are displayed in a small view which the program creates in the lower left corner of the drawing. 9 figs.

  5. 2D Four-Channel Perfect Reconstruction Filter Bank Realized with the 2D Lattice Filter Structure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sezen, S.; Ertüzün, A.

    2006-12-01

    A novel orthogonal 2D lattice structure is incorporated into the design of a nonseparable 2D four-channel perfect reconstruction filter bank. The proposed filter bank is obtained by using the polyphase decomposition technique which requires the design of an orthogonal 2D lattice filter. Due to constraint of perfect reconstruction, each stage of this lattice filter bank is simply parameterized by two coefficients. The perfect reconstruction property is satisfied regardless of the actual values of these parameters and of the number of the lattice stages. It is also shown that a separable 2D four-channel perfect reconstruction lattice filter bank can be constructed from the 1D lattice filter and that this is a special case of the proposed 2D lattice filter bank under certain conditions. The perfect reconstruction property of the proposed 2D lattice filter approach is verified by computer simulations.

  6. Electrochemical fabrication of 2D and 3D nickel nanowires using porous anodic alumina templates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mebed, A. M.; Abd-Elnaiem, Alaa M.; Al-Hosiny, Najm M.

    2016-06-01

    Mechanically stable nickel (Ni) nanowires array and nanowires network were synthesized by pulse electrochemical deposition using 2D and 3D porous anodic alumina (PAA) templates. The structures and morphologies of as-prepared films were characterized by X-ray diffraction and scanning electron microscopy, respectively. The grown Ni nanowire using 3D PAA revealed more strength and larger surface area than has grown Ni use 2D PAA template. The prepared nanowires have a face-centered cubic crystal structure with average grain size 15 nm, and the preferred orientation of the nucleation of the nanowires is (111). The diameter of the nanowires is about 50-70 nm with length 3 µm. The resulting 3D Ni nanowire lattice, which provides enhanced mechanical stability and an increased surface area, benefits energy storage and many other applications which utilize the large surface area.

  7. Functional characterization of CYP2D6 enhancer polymorphisms

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Danxin; Papp, Audrey C.; Sun, Xiaochun

    2015-01-01

    CYP2D6 metabolizes nearly 25% of clinically used drugs. Genetic polymorphisms cause large inter-individual variability in CYP2D6 enzyme activity and are currently used as biomarker to predict CYP2D6 metabolizer phenotype. Previously, we had identified a region 115 kb downstream of CYP2D6 as enhancer for CYP2D6, containing two completely linked single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs), rs133333 and rs5758550, associated with enhanced transcription. However, the enhancer effect on CYP2D6 expression, and the causative variant, remained to be ascertained. To characterize the CYP2D6 enhancer element, we applied chromatin conformation capture combined with the next-generation sequencing (4C assays) and chromatin immunoprecipitation with P300 antibody, in HepG2 and human primary culture hepatocytes. The results confirmed the role of the previously identified enhancer region in CYP2D6 expression, expanding the number of candidate variants to three highly linked SNPs (rs133333, rs5758550 and rs4822082). Among these, only rs5758550 demonstrated regulating enhancer activity in a reporter gene assay. Use of clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats mediated genome editing in HepG2 cells targeting suspected enhancer regions decreased CYP2D6 mRNA expression by 70%, only upon deletion of the rs5758550 region. These results demonstrate robust effects of both the enhancer element and SNP rs5758550 on CYP2D6 expression, supporting consideration of rs5758550 for CYP2D6 genotyping panels to yield more accurate phenotype prediction. PMID:25381333

  8. An Incompressible 2D Didactic Model with Singularity and Explicit Solutions of the 2D Boussinesq Equations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chae, Dongho; Constantin, Peter; Wu, Jiahong

    2014-09-01

    We give an example of a well posed, finite energy, 2D incompressible active scalar equation with the same scaling as the surface quasi-geostrophic equation and prove that it can produce finite time singularities. In spite of its simplicity, this seems to be the first such example. Further, we construct explicit solutions of the 2D Boussinesq equations whose gradients grow exponentially in time for all time. In addition, we introduce a variant of the 2D Boussinesq equations which is perhaps a more faithful companion of the 3D axisymmetric Euler equations than the usual 2D Boussinesq equations.

  9. Adaptation algorithms for 2-D feedforward neural networks.

    PubMed

    Kaczorek, T

    1995-01-01

    The generalized weight adaptation algorithms presented by J.G. Kuschewski et al. (1993) and by S.H. Zak and H.J. Sira-Ramirez (1990) are extended for 2-D madaline and 2-D two-layer feedforward neural nets (FNNs).

  10. Integrating Mobile Multimedia into Textbooks: 2D Barcodes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Uluyol, Celebi; Agca, R. Kagan

    2012-01-01

    The major goal of this study was to empirically compare text-plus-mobile phone learning using an integrated 2D barcode tag in a printed text with three other conditions described in multimedia learning theory. The method examined in the study involved modifications of the instructional material such that: a 2D barcode was used near the text, the…

  11. Efficient Visible Quasi-2D Perovskite Light-Emitting Diodes.

    PubMed

    Byun, Jinwoo; Cho, Himchan; Wolf, Christoph; Jang, Mi; Sadhanala, Aditya; Friend, Richard H; Yang, Hoichang; Lee, Tae-Woo

    2016-09-01

    Efficient quasi-2D-structure perovskite light-emitting diodes (4.90 cd A(-1) ) are demonstrated by mixing a 3D-structured perovskite material (methyl ammonium lead bromide) and a 2D-structured perovskite material (phenylethyl ammonium lead bromide), which can be ascribed to better film uniformity, enhanced exciton confinement, and reduced trap density. PMID:27334788

  12. CYP2D6: novel genomic structures and alleles

    PubMed Central

    Kramer, Whitney E.; Walker, Denise L.; O’Kane, Dennis J.; Mrazek, David A.; Fisher, Pamela K.; Dukek, Brian A.; Bruflat, Jamie K.; Black, John L.

    2010-01-01

    Objective CYP2D6 is a polymorphic gene. It has been observed to be deleted, to be duplicated and to undergo recombination events involving the CYP2D7 pseudogene and surrounding sequences. The objective of this study was to discover the genomic structure of CYP2D6 recombinants that interfere with clinical genotyping platforms that are available today. Methods Clinical samples containing rare homozygous CYP2D6 alleles, ambiguous readouts, and those with duplication signals and two different alleles were analyzed by long-range PCR amplification of individual genes, PCR fragment analysis, allele-specific primer extension assay, and DNA sequencing to characterize alleles and genomic structure. Results Novel alleles, genomic structures, and the DNA sequence of these structures are described. Interestingly, in 49 of 50 DNA samples that had CYP2D6 gene duplications or multiplications where two alleles were detected, the chromosome containing the duplication or multiplication had identical tandem alleles. Conclusion Several new CYP2D6 alleles and genomic structures are described which will be useful for CYP2D6 genotyping. The findings suggest that the recombination events responsible for CYP2D6 duplications and multiplications are because of mechanisms other than interchromosomal crossover during meiosis. PMID:19741566

  13. Efficient Visible Quasi-2D Perovskite Light-Emitting Diodes.

    PubMed

    Byun, Jinwoo; Cho, Himchan; Wolf, Christoph; Jang, Mi; Sadhanala, Aditya; Friend, Richard H; Yang, Hoichang; Lee, Tae-Woo

    2016-09-01

    Efficient quasi-2D-structure perovskite light-emitting diodes (4.90 cd A(-1) ) are demonstrated by mixing a 3D-structured perovskite material (methyl ammonium lead bromide) and a 2D-structured perovskite material (phenylethyl ammonium lead bromide), which can be ascribed to better film uniformity, enhanced exciton confinement, and reduced trap density.

  14. 2D materials and van der Waals heterostructures.

    PubMed

    Novoselov, K S; Mishchenko, A; Carvalho, A; Castro Neto, A H

    2016-07-29

    The physics of two-dimensional (2D) materials and heterostructures based on such crystals has been developing extremely fast. With these new materials, truly 2D physics has begun to appear (for instance, the absence of long-range order, 2D excitons, commensurate-incommensurate transition, etc.). Novel heterostructure devices--such as tunneling transistors, resonant tunneling diodes, and light-emitting diodes--are also starting to emerge. Composed from individual 2D crystals, such devices use the properties of those materials to create functionalities that are not accessible in other heterostructures. Here we review the properties of novel 2D crystals and examine how their properties are used in new heterostructure devices.

  15. Van der Waals stacked 2D layered materials for optoelectronics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Wenjing; Wang, Qixing; Chen, Yu; Wang, Zhuo; Wee, Andrew T. S.

    2016-06-01

    The band gaps of many atomically thin 2D layered materials such as graphene, black phosphorus, monolayer semiconducting transition metal dichalcogenides and hBN range from 0 to 6 eV. These isolated atomic planes can be reassembled into hybrid heterostructures made layer by layer in a precisely chosen sequence. Thus, the electronic properties of 2D materials can be engineered by van der Waals stacking, and the interlayer coupling can be tuned, which opens up avenues for creating new material systems with rich functionalities and novel physical properties. Early studies suggest that van der Waals stacked 2D materials work exceptionally well, dramatically enriching the optoelectronics applications of 2D materials. Here we review recent progress in van der Waals stacked 2D materials, and discuss their potential applications in optoelectronics.

  16. Monte Carlo simulations of a novel Micromegas 2D array for proton dosimetry.

    PubMed

    Dolney, D; Ainsley, C; Hollebeek, R; Maughan, R

    2016-02-21

    Modern proton therapy affords control of the delivery of radiotherapeutic dose on fine length and temporal scales. The authors have developed a novel detector technology based on Micromesh Gaseous Structure (Micromegas) that is uniquely tailored for applications using therapeutic proton beams. An implementation of a prototype Micromegas detector for Monte Carlo using Geant4 is presented here. Comparison of simulation results with measurements demonstrates agreement in relative dose along the proton longitudinal dose profile to be 1%. The effect of a radioactive calibration source embedded in the chamber gas is demonstrated by measurements and reproduced by simulations, also at the 1% level. Our Monte Carlo simulations are shown to reproduce the time structure of ionization pulses produced by a double-scattering delivery system.

  17. Monte Carlo simulations of a novel Micromegas 2D array for proton dosimetry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dolney, D.; Ainsley, C.; Hollebeek, R.; Maughan, R.

    2016-02-01

    Modern proton therapy affords control of the delivery of radiotherapeutic dose on fine length and temporal scales. The authors have developed a novel detector technology based on Micromesh Gaseous Structure (Micromegas) that is uniquely tailored for applications using therapeutic proton beams. An implementation of a prototype Micromegas detector for Monte Carlo using Geant4 is presented here. Comparison of simulation results with measurements demonstrates agreement in relative dose along the proton longitudinal dose profile to be 1%. The effect of a radioactive calibration source embedded in the chamber gas is demonstrated by measurements and reproduced by simulations, also at the 1% level. Our Monte Carlo simulations are shown to reproduce the time structure of ionization pulses produced by a double-scattering delivery system.

  18. MEAN FLOW AND TURBULENCE MEASUREMENTS AROUND A 2-D ARRAY OF BUILDINGS IN A WIND TUNNEL

    EPA Science Inventory

    In order to predict the dispersion of harmful materials released in or near an urban environment, it is important to first understand the complex flow patterns which result from the interaction of the wind with buildings and, more commonly, clusters of buildings. Recent advanc...

  19. Optimized 2D array of thin silicon pillars for efficient antireflective coatings in the visible spectrum.

    PubMed

    Proust, Julien; Fehrembach, Anne-Laure; Bedu, Frédéric; Ozerov, Igor; Bonod, Nicolas

    2016-04-25

    Light reflection occuring at the surface of silicon wafers is drastically diminished by etching square pillars of height 110 nm and width 140 nm separated by a 100 nm gap distance in a square lattice. The design of the nanostructure is optimized to widen the spectral tolerance of the antireflective coatings over the visible spectrum for both fundamental polarizations. Angle and polarized resolved optical measurements report a light reflection remaining under 5% when averaged in the visible spectrum for both polarizations in a wide angular range. Light reflection remains almost insensitive to the light polarization even in oblique incidence.

  20. Optimized 2D array of thin silicon pillars for efficient antireflective coatings in the visible spectrum

    PubMed Central

    Proust, Julien; Fehrembach, Anne-Laure; Bedu, Frédéric; Ozerov, Igor; Bonod, Nicolas

    2016-01-01

    Light reflection occuring at the surface of silicon wafers is drastically diminished by etching square pillars of height 110 nm and width 140 nm separated by a 100 nm gap distance in a square lattice. The design of the nanostructure is optimized to widen the spectral tolerance of the antireflective coatings over the visible spectrum for both fundamental polarizations. Angle and polarized resolved optical measurements report a light reflection remaining under 5% when averaged in the visible spectrum for both polarizations in a wide angular range. Light reflection remains almost insensitive to the light polarization even in oblique incidence. PMID:27109643

  1. Estrogen-Induced Cholestasis Leads to Repressed CYP2D6 Expression in CYP2D6-Humanized Mice

    PubMed Central

    Pan, Xian

    2015-01-01

    Cholestasis activates bile acid receptor farnesoid X receptor (FXR) and subsequently enhances hepatic expression of small heterodimer partner (SHP). We previously demonstrated that SHP represses the transactivation of cytochrome P450 2D6 (CYP2D6) promoter by hepatocyte nuclear factor (HNF) 4α. In this study, we investigated the effects of estrogen-induced cholestasis on CYP2D6 expression. Estrogen-induced cholestasis occurs in subjects receiving estrogen for contraception or hormone replacement, or in susceptible women during pregnancy. In CYP2D6-humanized transgenic (Tg-CYP2D6) mice, cholestasis triggered by administration of 17α-ethinylestradiol (EE2) at a high dose led to 2- to 3-fold decreases in CYP2D6 expression. This was accompanied by increased hepatic SHP expression and subsequent decreases in the recruitment of HNF4α to CYP2D6 promoter. Interestingly, estrogen-induced cholestasis also led to increased recruitment of estrogen receptor (ER) α, but not that of FXR, to Shp promoter, suggesting a predominant role of ERα in transcriptional regulation of SHP in estrogen-induced cholestasis. EE2 at a low dose (that does not cause cholestasis) also increased SHP (by ∼50%) and decreased CYP2D6 expression (by 1.5-fold) in Tg-CYP2D6 mice, the magnitude of differences being much smaller than that shown in EE2-induced cholestasis. Taken together, our data indicate that EE2-induced cholestasis increases SHP and represses CYP2D6 expression in Tg-CYP2D6 mice in part through ERα transactivation of Shp promoter. PMID:25943116

  2. Understanding the interaction between energetic ions and freestanding graphene towards practical 2D perforation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Buchheim, Jakob; Wyss, Roman M.; Shorubalko, Ivan; Park, Hyung Gyu

    2016-04-01

    We report experimentally and theoretically the behavior of freestanding graphene subjected to bombardment of energetic ions, investigating the capability of large-scale patterning of freestanding graphene with nanometer sized features by focused ion beam technology. A precise control over the He+ and Ga+ irradiation offered by focused ion beam techniques enables investigating the interaction of the energetic particles and graphene suspended with no support and allows determining sputter yields of the 2D lattice. We found a strong dependency of the 2D sputter yield on the species and kinetic energy of the incident ion beams. Freestanding graphene shows material semi-transparency to He+ at high energies (10-30 keV) allowing the passage of >97% He+ particles without creating destructive lattice vacancy. Large Ga+ ions (5-30 keV), in contrast, collide far more often with the graphene lattice to impart a significantly higher sputter yield of ~50%. Binary collision theory applied to monolayer and few-layer graphene can successfully elucidate this collision mechanism, in great agreement with experiments. Raman spectroscopy analysis corroborates the passage of a large fraction of He+ ions across graphene without much damaging the lattice whereas several colliding ions create single vacancy defects. Physical understanding of the interaction between energetic particles and suspended graphene can practically lead to reproducible and efficient pattern generation of unprecedentedly small features on 2D materials by design, manifested by our perforation of sub-5 nm pore arrays. This capability of nanometer-scale precision patterning of freestanding 2D lattices shows the practical applicability of focused ion beam technology to 2D material processing for device fabrication and integration.We report experimentally and theoretically the behavior of freestanding graphene subjected to bombardment of energetic ions, investigating the capability of large-scale patterning of

  3. Spectroscopy and Thermometry of Drumhead Modes in a Mesoscopic 2D Coulomb Crystal of ^9Be^+

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sawyer, Brian; Britton, Joseph; Teale, Carson; Keith, Adam; Wang, Joseph; Freericks, James; Bollinger, John

    2013-04-01

    We demonstrate spectroscopy and thermometry of individual motional modes in a mesoscopic 2D ion array using entanglement between ion valence electron spins and collective motion. Our system is a ˜400 μm-diameter planar crystal of several hundred ^9Be^+ ions exhibiting complex drumhead modes in the confining potential of a Penning trap. Exploiting precise control over the ^9Be^+ valence electron spins, we apply a homogeneous spin-dependent optical dipole force to excite arbitrary transverse modes with wavelengths ranging from the array diameter to the interparticle spacing of ˜20 μm. In addition to temperature measurements, this spin-motion entanglement induced by the spin-dependent optical dipole force allows for extremely sensitive detection of external forces (˜100 yN) acting on the ion crystal. Characterization of mode frequencies and temperatures is critical for quantum simulation experiments that make use of the ion spins.

  4. Ultra-slim 2D- and depth-imaging camera modules for mobile imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brückner, Andreas; Oberdörster, Alexander; Dunkel, Jens; Reimann, Andreas; Wippermann, Frank

    2016-03-01

    In this contribution, a microoptical imaging system is demonstrated that is inspired by the insect compound eye. The array camera module achieves HD resolution with a z-height of 2.0 mm, which is about 50% compared to traditional cameras with comparable parameters. The FOV is segmented by multiple optical channels imaging in parallel. The partial images are stitched together to form a final image of the whole FOV by image processing software. The system is able to acquire depth maps along with the 2D video and it includes light field imaging features such as software refocusing. The microlens arrays are realized by microoptical technologies on wafer-level which are suitable for a potential fabrication in high volume.

  5. Influence of lattice defects on the ferromagnetic resonance behaviour of 2D magnonic crystals

    PubMed Central

    Manzin, Alessandra; Barrera, Gabriele; Celegato, Federica; Coïsson, Marco; Tiberto, Paola

    2016-01-01

    This paper studies, from a modelling point of view, the influence of randomly distributed lattice defects (non-patterned areas and variable hole size) on the ferromagnetic resonance behaviour and spin wave mode profiles of 2D magnonic crystals based on Ni80Fe20 antidot arrays with hexagonal lattice. A reference sample is first defined via the comparison of experimental and simulated hysteresis loops and magnetoresistive curves of patterned films, prepared by self-assembly of polystyrene nanospheres. Second, a parametric analysis of the dynamic response is performed, investigating how edge, quasi-uniform and localized modes are affected by alterations of the lattice geometry and bias field amplitude. Finally, some results about the possible use of magnetic antidot arrays in frequency-based sensors for magnetic bead detection are presented, highlighting the need for an accurate control of microstructural features. PMID:26911336

  6. Simplified and economical 2D IR spectrometer design using a dual acousto-optic modulator.

    PubMed

    Skoff, David R; Laaser, Jennifer E; Mukherjee, Sudipta S; Middleton, Chris T; Zanni, Martin T

    2013-08-30

    Over the last decade two-dimensional infrared (2D IR) spectroscopy has proven to be a very useful extension of infrared spectroscopy, yet the technique remains restricted to a small group of specialized researchers because of its experimental complexity and high equipment cost. We report on a spectrometer that is compact, mechanically robust, and is much less expensive than previous designs because it uses a single pixel MCT detector rather than an array detector. Moreover, each axis of the spectrum can be collected in either the time or frequency domain via computer programming. We discuss pulse sequences for scanning the probe axis, which were not previously possible. We present spectra on metal carbonyl compounds at 5 µm and a model peptide at 6 µm. Data collection with a single pixel MCT takes longer than using an array detector, but publishable quality data are still achieved with only a few minutes of averaging.

  7. Simplified and economical 2D IR spectrometer design using a dual acousto-optic modulator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Skoff, David R.; Laaser, Jennifer E.; Mukherjee, Sudipta S.; Middleton, Chris T.; Zanni, Martin T.

    2013-08-01

    Over the last decade two-dimensional infrared (2D IR) spectroscopy has proven to be a very useful extension of infrared spectroscopy, yet the technique remains restricted to a small group of specialized researchers because of its experimental complexity and high equipment cost. We report on a spectrometer that is compact, mechanically robust, and is much less expensive than previous designs because it uses a single pixel MCT detector rather than an array detector. Moreover, each axis of the spectrum can be collected in either the time or frequency domain via computer programming. We discuss pulse sequences for scanning the probe axis, which were not previously possible. We present spectra on metal carbonyl compounds at 5 μm and a model peptide at 6 μm. Data collection with a single pixel MCT takes longer than using an array detector, but publishable quality data are still achieved with only a few minutes of averaging.

  8. Inelastic electron transport in granular arrays

    SciTech Connect

    Altland, A.; Glazman, L.I.; Kamenev, A.; Meyer, J.S. . E-mail: jmeyer@mps.ohio-state.edu

    2006-11-15

    Transport properties of granular systems are governed by Coulomb blockade effects caused by the discreteness of the electron charge. We show that, in the limit of vanishing mean level spacing on the grains, the low-temperature behavior of 1d and 2d arrays is insulating at any inter-grain coupling (characterized by a dimensionless conductance g). In 2d and g >> 1, there is a sharp Berezinskii-Kosterlitz-Thouless crossover to the conducting phase at a certain temperature, T {sub BKT}. These results are obtained by applying an instanton analysis to map the conventional 'phase' description of granular arrays onto the dual 'charge' representation.

  9. Inelastic electron transport in granular arrays.

    SciTech Connect

    Altland, A.; Glazman, L. I.; Kamenev, A.; Meyer, J. S.; Materials Science Division; Univ. zu Koln; Univ. Minnesota; Ohio State Univ.

    2006-01-01

    Transport properties of granular systems are governed by Coulomb blockade effects caused by the discreteness of the electron charge. We show that, in the limit of vanishing mean level spacing on the grains, the low-temperature behavior of 1d and 2d arrays is insulating at any inter-grain coupling (characterized by a dimensionless conductance g). In 2d and g 1, there is a sharp Berezinskii-Kosterlitz-Thouless crossover to the conducting phase at a certain temperature, T{sub BKT}. These results are obtained by applying an instanton analysis to map the conventional 'phase' description of granular arrays onto the dual 'charge' representation.

  10. Synthesis of zeolite as ordered multicrystal arrays.

    PubMed

    Lee, Jin Seok; Lee, Yun-Jo; Tae, Eunju Lee; Park, Yong Soo; Yoon, Kyung Byung

    2003-08-01

    Zeolites are crystalline nanoporous aluminosilicates widely used in industry. In order for zeolites to find applications as innovative materials, they need to be organized into large two- and three-dimensional (2D and 3D) arrays. We report that uniformly aligned polyurethane films can serve as templates for the synthesis of uniformly aligned 2D and possibly 3D arrays of silicalite-1 crystals, in which the orientations of the crystals are controlled by the nature of the polymers. We propose that the supramolecularly organized organic-inorganic composites that consist of the hydrolyzed organic products and the seed crystals are responsible for this phenomenon.

  11. Understanding the interaction between energetic ions and freestanding graphene towards practical 2D perforation.

    PubMed

    Buchheim, Jakob; Wyss, Roman M; Shorubalko, Ivan; Park, Hyung Gyu

    2016-04-21

    We report experimentally and theoretically the behavior of freestanding graphene subjected to bombardment of energetic ions, investigating the capability of large-scale patterning of freestanding graphene with nanometer sized features by focused ion beam technology. A precise control over the He(+) and Ga(+) irradiation offered by focused ion beam techniques enables investigating the interaction of the energetic particles and graphene suspended with no support and allows determining sputter yields of the 2D lattice. We found a strong dependency of the 2D sputter yield on the species and kinetic energy of the incident ion beams. Freestanding graphene shows material semi-transparency to He(+) at high energies (10-30 keV) allowing the passage of >97% He(+) particles without creating destructive lattice vacancy. Large Ga(+) ions (5-30 keV), in contrast, collide far more often with the graphene lattice to impart a significantly higher sputter yield of ∼50%. Binary collision theory applied to monolayer and few-layer graphene can successfully elucidate this collision mechanism, in great agreement with experiments. Raman spectroscopy analysis corroborates the passage of a large fraction of He(+) ions across graphene without much damaging the lattice whereas several colliding ions create single vacancy defects. Physical understanding of the interaction between energetic particles and suspended graphene can practically lead to reproducible and efficient pattern generation of unprecedentedly small features on 2D materials by design, manifested by our perforation of sub-5 nm pore arrays. This capability of nanometer-scale precision patterning of freestanding 2D lattices shows the practical applicability of focused ion beam technology to 2D material processing for device fabrication and integration.

  12. Targeted fluorescence imaging enhanced by 2D materials: a comparison between 2D MoS2 and graphene oxide.

    PubMed

    Xie, Donghao; Ji, Ding-Kun; Zhang, Yue; Cao, Jun; Zheng, Hu; Liu, Lin; Zang, Yi; Li, Jia; Chen, Guo-Rong; James, Tony D; He, Xiao-Peng

    2016-08-01

    Here we demonstrate that 2D MoS2 can enhance the receptor-targeting and imaging ability of a fluorophore-labelled ligand. The 2D MoS2 has an enhanced working concentration range when compared with graphene oxide, resulting in the improved imaging of both cell and tissue samples.

  13. Efficient 2D MRI relaxometry using compressed sensing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bai, Ruiliang; Cloninger, Alexander; Czaja, Wojciech; Basser, Peter J.

    2015-06-01

    Potential applications of 2D relaxation spectrum NMR and MRI to characterize complex water dynamics (e.g., compartmental exchange) in biology and other disciplines have increased in recent years. However, the large amount of data and long MR acquisition times required for conventional 2D MR relaxometry limits its applicability for in vivo preclinical and clinical MRI. We present a new MR pipeline for 2D relaxometry that incorporates compressed sensing (CS) as a means to vastly reduce the amount of 2D relaxation data needed for material and tissue characterization without compromising data quality. Unlike the conventional CS reconstruction in the Fourier space (k-space), the proposed CS algorithm is directly applied onto the Laplace space (the joint 2D relaxation data) without compressing k-space to reduce the amount of data required for 2D relaxation spectra. This framework is validated using synthetic data, with NMR data acquired in a well-characterized urea/water phantom, and on fixed porcine spinal cord tissue. The quality of the CS-reconstructed spectra was comparable to that of the conventional 2D relaxation spectra, as assessed using global correlation, local contrast between peaks, peak amplitude and relaxation parameters, etc. This result brings this important type of contrast closer to being realized in preclinical, clinical, and other applications.

  14. 2D electron cyclotron emission imaging at ASDEX Upgrade (invited)

    SciTech Connect

    Classen, I. G. J.; Boom, J. E.; Vries, P. C. de; Suttrop, W.; Schmid, E.; Garcia-Munoz, M.; Schneider, P. A.; Tobias, B.; Domier, C. W.; Luhmann, N. C. Jr.; Donne, A. J. H.; Jaspers, R. J. E.; Park, H. K.; Munsat, T.

    2010-10-15

    The newly installed electron cyclotron emission imaging diagnostic on ASDEX Upgrade provides measurements of the 2D electron temperature dynamics with high spatial and temporal resolution. An overview of the technical and experimental properties of the system is presented. These properties are illustrated by the measurements of the edge localized mode and the reversed shear Alfven eigenmode, showing both the advantage of having a two-dimensional (2D) measurement, as well as some of the limitations of electron cyclotron emission measurements. Furthermore, the application of singular value decomposition as a powerful tool for analyzing and filtering 2D data is presented.

  15. Comparison of 2D and 3D gamma analyses

    SciTech Connect

    Pulliam, Kiley B.; Huang, Jessie Y.; Howell, Rebecca M.; Followill, David; Kry, Stephen F.; Bosca, Ryan; O’Daniel, Jennifer

    2014-02-15

    Purpose: As clinics begin to use 3D metrics for intensity-modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) quality assurance, it must be noted that these metrics will often produce results different from those produced by their 2D counterparts. 3D and 2D gamma analyses would be expected to produce different values, in part because of the different search space available. In the present investigation, the authors compared the results of 2D and 3D gamma analysis (where both datasets were generated in the same manner) for clinical treatment plans. Methods: Fifty IMRT plans were selected from the authors’ clinical database, and recalculated using Monte Carlo. Treatment planning system-calculated (“evaluated dose distributions”) and Monte Carlo-recalculated (“reference dose distributions”) dose distributions were compared using 2D and 3D gamma analysis. This analysis was performed using a variety of dose-difference (5%, 3%, 2%, and 1%) and distance-to-agreement (5, 3, 2, and 1 mm) acceptance criteria, low-dose thresholds (5%, 10%, and 15% of the prescription dose), and data grid sizes (1.0, 1.5, and 3.0 mm). Each comparison was evaluated to determine the average 2D and 3D gamma, lower 95th percentile gamma value, and percentage of pixels passing gamma. Results: The average gamma, lower 95th percentile gamma value, and percentage of passing pixels for each acceptance criterion demonstrated better agreement for 3D than for 2D analysis for every plan comparison. The average difference in the percentage of passing pixels between the 2D and 3D analyses with no low-dose threshold ranged from 0.9% to 2.1%. Similarly, using a low-dose threshold resulted in a difference between the mean 2D and 3D results, ranging from 0.8% to 1.5%. The authors observed no appreciable differences in gamma with changes in the data density (constant difference: 0.8% for 2D vs 3D). Conclusions: The authors found that 3D gamma analysis resulted in up to 2.9% more pixels passing than 2D analysis. It must

  16. Recent advances in 2D materials for photocatalysis.

    PubMed

    Luo, Bin; Liu, Gang; Wang, Lianzhou

    2016-04-01

    Two-dimensional (2D) materials have attracted increasing attention for photocatalytic applications because of their unique thickness dependent physical and chemical properties. This review gives a brief overview of the recent developments concerning the chemical synthesis and structural design of 2D materials at the nanoscale and their applications in photocatalytic areas. In particular, recent progress on the emerging strategies for tailoring 2D material-based photocatalysts to improve their photo-activity including elemental doping, heterostructure design and functional architecture assembly is discussed.

  17. Linear-array ultrasonic waveguide transducer for under sodium viewing.

    SciTech Connect

    Sheen, S. H.; Chien, H. T.; Wang, K.; Lawrence, W. P.; Engel, D.; Nuclear Engineering Division

    2010-09-01

    In this report, we first present the basic design of a low-noise waveguide and its performance followed by a review of the array transducer technology. The report then presents the concept and basic designs of arrayed waveguide transducers that can apply to under-sodium viewing for in-service inspection of fast reactors. Depending on applications, the basic waveguide arrays consist of designs for sideway and downward viewing. For each viewing application, two array geometries, linear and circular, are included in design analysis. Methods to scan a 2-D target using a linear array waveguide transducer are discussed. Future plan to develop a laboratory array waveguide prototype is also presented.

  18. Effects of 2D small-scale sedimentary basins on strong ground motion characteristics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Movahedasl, R.; Ghayamghamian, M. R.

    2015-08-01

    A lot of research on the 2D or 3D effects of large-scale basins (within several kilometers depth) have been conducted in the past. However, different 2D aspects of small-scale sedimentary basins (within tens of meters depth) remain in the developing stage. Here, an attempt is made to analyze different aspects of small-scale basins using both numerical and empirical investigations. In the first step, the 2D effects of small-scale basins on strong motion characteristics are numerically examined both in the time and frequency domains. In addition, the effects of input motion are also explained by the results of model excitation in different orthogonal directions. Then, the numerical outcomes are verified by the analysis of actual earthquake data recorded at a downhole array in the Fujisawa small basin, Japan. In the second step, since available recorded earthquake data in small basins with a clear understanding of subsurface geology are very limited, different 2D aspects of the small basin are parametrically investigated. For this purpose, extensive parametrical studies are carried out on the main features of a small basin such as slope angle, shape, infill soil properties, and basin thickness by using the finite difference numerical method. The horizontal and vertical peak ground accelerations of 2D with respect to 1D ones are defined as the horizontal and vertical aggravation factors (AGH and AGV). The AGH and AGV factors show large sensitivity to infill soil properties, shape and thickness, and small sensitivity to slope angle. The values of AGH and AGV factors vary in the range of 0.5-2 with large variations around small basin edges due to wave coupling, conversion, scattering and focusing in the vicinity of small basin edges. These cause a complicated pattern of 2D de-amplification and amplification, which mostly affect the motion in the high frequency range (>1 Hz). Finally, the outcomes provide numerical and field evidence on the 2D effects of small basins

  19. Alloyed 2D Metal-Semiconductor Atomic Layer Junctions.

    PubMed

    Kim, Ah Ra; Kim, Yonghun; Nam, Jaewook; Chung, Hee-Suk; Kim, Dong Jae; Kwon, Jung-Dae; Park, Sang Won; Park, Jucheol; Choi, Sun Young; Lee, Byoung Hun; Park, Ji Hyeon; Lee, Kyu Hwan; Kim, Dong-Ho; Choi, Sung Mook; Ajayan, Pulickel M; Hahm, Myung Gwan; Cho, Byungjin

    2016-03-01

    Heterostructures of compositionally and electronically variant two-dimensional (2D) atomic layers are viable building blocks for ultrathin optoelectronic devices. We show that the composition of interfacial transition region between semiconducting WSe2 atomic layer channels and metallic NbSe2 contact layers can be engineered through interfacial doping with Nb atoms. WxNb1-xSe2 interfacial regions considerably lower the potential barrier height of the junction, significantly improving the performance of the corresponding WSe2-based field-effect transistor devices. The creation of such alloyed 2D junctions between dissimilar atomic layer domains could be the most important factor in controlling the electronic properties of 2D junctions and the design and fabrication of 2D atomic layer devices.

  20. Emerging and potential opportunities for 2D flexible nanoelectronics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhu, Weinan; Park, Saungeun; Akinwande, Deji

    2016-05-01

    The last 10 years have seen the emergence of two-dimensional (2D) nanomaterials such as graphene, transition metal dichalcogenides (TMDs), and black phosphorus (BP) among the growing portfolio of layered van der Waals thin films. Graphene, the prototypical 2D material has advanced rapidly in device, circuit and system studies that has resulted in commercial large-area applications. In this work, we provide a perspective of the emerging and potential translational applications of 2D materials including semiconductors, semimetals, and insulators that comprise the basic material set for diverse nanosystems. Applications include RF transceivers, smart systems, the so-called internet of things, and neurotechnology. We will review the DC and RF electronic performance of graphene and BP thin film transistors. 2D materials at sub-um channel length have so far enabled cut-off frequencies from baseband to 100GHz suitable for low-power RF and sub-THz concepts.

  1. 2D hexagonal quaternion Fourier transform in color image processing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grigoryan, Artyom M.; Agaian, Sos S.

    2016-05-01

    In this paper, we present a novel concept of the quaternion discrete Fourier transform on the two-dimensional hexagonal lattice, which we call the two-dimensional hexagonal quaternion discrete Fourier transform (2-D HQDFT). The concept of the right-side 2D HQDFT is described and the left-side 2-D HQDFT is similarly considered. To calculate the transform, the image on the hexagonal lattice is described in the tensor representation when the image is presented by a set of 1-D signals, or splitting-signals which can be separately processed in the frequency domain. The 2-D HQDFT can be calculated by a set of 1-D quaternion discrete Fourier transforms (QDFT) of the splitting-signals.

  2. Technical Review of the UNET2D Hydraulic Model

    SciTech Connect

    Perkins, William A.; Richmond, Marshall C.

    2009-05-18

    The Kansas City District of the US Army Corps of Engineers is engaged in a broad range of river management projects that require knowledge of spatially-varied hydraulic conditions such as velocities and water surface elevations. This information is needed to design new structures, improve existing operations, and assess aquatic habitat. Two-dimensional (2D) depth-averaged numerical hydraulic models are a common tool that can be used to provide velocity and depth information. Kansas City District is currently using a specific 2D model, UNET2D, that has been developed to meet the needs of their river engineering applications. This report documents a tech- nical review of UNET2D.

  3. Double resonance rotational spectroscopy of CH2D+

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Töpfer, Matthias; Jusko, Pavol; Schlemmer, Stephan; Asvany, Oskar

    2016-09-01

    Context. Deuterated forms of CH are thought to be responsible for deuterium enrichment in lukewarm astronomical environments. There is no unambiguous detection of CH2D+ in space to date. Aims: Four submillimetre rotational lines of CH2D+ are documented in the literature. Our aim is to present a complete dataset of highly resolved rotational lines, including millimetre (mm) lines needed for a potential detection. Methods: We used a low-temperature ion trap and applied a novel IR-mm-wave double resonance method to measure the rotational lines of CH2D+. Results: We measured 21 low-lying (J ≤ 4) rotational transitions of CH2D+ between 23 GHz and 1.1 THz with accuracies close to 2 ppb.

  4. Alloyed 2D Metal-Semiconductor Atomic Layer Junctions.

    PubMed

    Kim, Ah Ra; Kim, Yonghun; Nam, Jaewook; Chung, Hee-Suk; Kim, Dong Jae; Kwon, Jung-Dae; Park, Sang Won; Park, Jucheol; Choi, Sun Young; Lee, Byoung Hun; Park, Ji Hyeon; Lee, Kyu Hwan; Kim, Dong-Ho; Choi, Sung Mook; Ajayan, Pulickel M; Hahm, Myung Gwan; Cho, Byungjin

    2016-03-01

    Heterostructures of compositionally and electronically variant two-dimensional (2D) atomic layers are viable building blocks for ultrathin optoelectronic devices. We show that the composition of interfacial transition region between semiconducting WSe2 atomic layer channels and metallic NbSe2 contact layers can be engineered through interfacial doping with Nb atoms. WxNb1-xSe2 interfacial regions considerably lower the potential barrier height of the junction, significantly improving the performance of the corresponding WSe2-based field-effect transistor devices. The creation of such alloyed 2D junctions between dissimilar atomic layer domains could be the most important factor in controlling the electronic properties of 2D junctions and the design and fabrication of 2D atomic layer devices. PMID:26839956

  5. ORION96. 2-d Finite Element Code Postprocessor

    SciTech Connect

    Sanford, L.A.; Hallquist, J.O.

    1992-02-02

    ORION is an interactive program that serves as a postprocessor for the analysis programs NIKE2D, DYNA2D, TOPAZ2D, and CHEMICAL TOPAZ2D. ORION reads binary plot files generated by the two-dimensional finite element codes currently used by the Methods Development Group at LLNL. Contour and color fringe plots of a large number of quantities may be displayed on meshes consisting of triangular and quadrilateral elements. ORION can compute strain measures, interface pressures along slide lines, reaction forces along constrained boundaries, and momentum. ORION has been applied to study the response of two-dimensional solids and structures undergoing finite deformations under a wide variety of large deformation transient dynamic and static problems and heat transfer analyses.

  6. Design of the 2D electron cyclotron emission imaging instrument for the J-TEXT tokamak

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pan, X. M.; Yang, Z. J.; Ma, X. D.; Zhu, Y. L.; Luhmann, N. C.; Domier, C. W.; Ruan, B. W.; Zhuang, G.

    2016-11-01

    A new 2D Electron Cyclotron Emission Imaging (ECEI) diagnostic is being developed for the J-TEXT tokamak. It will provide the 2D electron temperature information with high spatial, temporal, and temperature resolution. The new ECEI instrument is being designed to support fundamental physics investigations on J-TEXT including MHD, disruption prediction, and energy transport. The diagnostic contains two dual dipole antenna arrays corresponding to F band (90-140 GHz) and W band (75-110 GHz), respectively, and comprises a total of 256 channels. The system can observe the same magnetic surface at both the high field side and low field side simultaneously. An advanced optical system has been designed which permits the two arrays to focus on a wide continuous region or two radially separate regions with high imaging spatial resolution. It also incorporates excellent field curvature correction with field curvature adjustment lenses. An overview of the diagnostic and the technical progress including the new remote control technique are presented.

  7. Phylogenetic tree construction based on 2D graphical representation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liao, Bo; Shan, Xinzhou; Zhu, Wen; Li, Renfa

    2006-04-01

    A new approach based on the two-dimensional (2D) graphical representation of the whole genome sequence [Bo Liao, Chem. Phys. Lett., 401(2005) 196.] is proposed to analyze the phylogenetic relationships of genomes. The evolutionary distances are obtained through measuring the differences among the 2D curves. The fuzzy theory is used to construct phylogenetic tree. The phylogenetic relationships of H5N1 avian influenza virus illustrate the utility of our approach.

  8. Generating a 2D Representation of a Complex Data Structure

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    James, Mark

    2006-01-01

    A computer program, designed to assist in the development and debugging of other software, generates a two-dimensional (2D) representation of a possibly complex n-dimensional (where n is an integer >2) data structure or abstract rank-n object in that other software. The nature of the 2D representation is such that it can be displayed on a non-graphical output device and distributed by non-graphical means.

  9. Anisotropic 2D Materials for Tunable Hyperbolic Plasmonics.

    PubMed

    Nemilentsau, Andrei; Low, Tony; Hanson, George

    2016-02-12

    Motivated by the recent emergence of a new class of anisotropic 2D materials, we examine their electromagnetic modes and demonstrate that a broad class of the materials can host highly directional hyperbolic plasmons. Their propagation direction can be manipulated on the spot by gate doping, enabling hyperbolic beam reflection, refraction, and bending. The realization of these natural 2D hyperbolic media opens up a new avenue in dynamic control of hyperbolic plasmons not possible in the 3D version.

  10. A simultaneous 2D/3D autostereo workstation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chau, Dennis; McGinnis, Bradley; Talandis, Jonas; Leigh, Jason; Peterka, Tom; Knoll, Aaron; Sumer, Aslihan; Papka, Michael; Jellinek, Julius

    2012-03-01

    We present a novel immersive workstation environment that scientists can use for 3D data exploration and as their everyday 2D computer monitor. Our implementation is based on an autostereoscopic dynamic parallax barrier 2D/3D display, interactive input devices, and a software infrastructure that allows client/server software modules to couple the workstation to scientists' visualization applications. This paper describes the hardware construction and calibration, software components, and a demonstration of our system in nanoscale materials science exploration.

  11. QUENCH2D. Two-Dimensional IHCP Code

    SciTech Connect

    Osman, A.; Beck, J.V.

    1995-01-01

    QUENCH2D* is developed for the solution of general, non-linear, two-dimensional inverse heat transfer problems. This program provides estimates for the surface heat flux distribution and/or heat transfer coefficient as a function of time and space by using transient temperature measurements at appropriate interior points inside the quenched body. Two-dimensional planar and axisymmetric geometries such as turnbine disks and blades, clutch packs, and many other problems can be analyzed using QUENCH2D*.

  12. Ultrathin 2D Photodetectors Utilizing Chemical Vapor Deposition Grown WS2 With Graphene Electrodes.

    PubMed

    Tan, Haijie; Fan, Ye; Zhou, Yingqiu; Chen, Qu; Xu, Wenshuo; Warner, Jamie H

    2016-08-23

    In this report, graphene (Gr) is used as a 2D electrode and monolayer WS2 as the active semiconductor in ultrathin photodetector devices. All of the 2D materials are grown by chemical vapor deposition (CVD) and thus pose as a viable route to scalability. The monolayer thickness of both electrode and semiconductor gives these photodetectors ∼2 nm thickness. We show that graphene is different to conventional metal (Au) electrodes due to the finite density of states from the Dirac cones of the valence and conduction bands, which enables the photoresponsivity to be modulated by electrostatic gating and light input control. We demonstrate lateral Gr-WS2-Gr photodetectors with photoresponsivities reaching 3.5 A/W under illumination power densities of 2.5 × 10(7) mW/cm(2). The performance of monolayer WS2 is compared to bilayer WS2 in photodetectors and we show that increased photoresponsivity is achieved in the thicker bilayer WS2 crystals due to increased optical absorption. This approach of incorporating graphene electrodes in lateral TMD based devices provides insights on the contact engineering in 2D optoelectronics, which is crucial for the development of high performing ultrathin photodetector arrays for versatile applications.

  13. Ultrathin 2D Photodetectors Utilizing Chemical Vapor Deposition Grown WS2 With Graphene Electrodes.

    PubMed

    Tan, Haijie; Fan, Ye; Zhou, Yingqiu; Chen, Qu; Xu, Wenshuo; Warner, Jamie H

    2016-08-23

    In this report, graphene (Gr) is used as a 2D electrode and monolayer WS2 as the active semiconductor in ultrathin photodetector devices. All of the 2D materials are grown by chemical vapor deposition (CVD) and thus pose as a viable route to scalability. The monolayer thickness of both electrode and semiconductor gives these photodetectors ∼2 nm thickness. We show that graphene is different to conventional metal (Au) electrodes due to the finite density of states from the Dirac cones of the valence and conduction bands, which enables the photoresponsivity to be modulated by electrostatic gating and light input control. We demonstrate lateral Gr-WS2-Gr photodetectors with photoresponsivities reaching 3.5 A/W under illumination power densities of 2.5 × 10(7) mW/cm(2). The performance of monolayer WS2 is compared to bilayer WS2 in photodetectors and we show that increased photoresponsivity is achieved in the thicker bilayer WS2 crystals due to increased optical absorption. This approach of incorporating graphene electrodes in lateral TMD based devices provides insights on the contact engineering in 2D optoelectronics, which is crucial for the development of high performing ultrathin photodetector arrays for versatile applications. PMID:27440384

  14. Development of 2D band-target entropy minimization and application to the deconvolution of multicomponent 2D nuclear magnetic resonance spectra.

    PubMed

    Guo, Liangfeng; Wiesmath, Anette; Sprenger, Peter; Garland, Marc

    2005-03-15

    Spectral reconstruction from multicomponent spectroscopic data is the frequent primary goal in chemical system identification and exploratory chemometric studies. Various methods and techniques have been reported in the literature. However, few algorithms/methods have been devised for spectral recovery without the use of any a priori information. In the present studies, a higher dimensional entropy minimization method based on the BTEM algorithm (Widjaja, E.; Li, C.; Garland, M. Organometallics 2002, 21, 1991-1997.) and related techniques were extended to large-scale arrays, namely, 2D NMR spectroscopy. The performance of this novel method had been successfully verified on various real experimental mixture spectra from a series of randomized 2D NMR mixtures (COSY NMR and HSQC NMR). With the new algorithm and raw multicomponent NMR alone, it was possible to reconstruct the pure spectroscopic patterns and calculate the relative concentration of each species without recourse to any libraries or any other a priori information. The potential advantages of this novel algorithm and its implications for general chemical system identification of unknown mixtures are discussed. PMID:15762569

  15. Planar arrangement of eukaryotic cells in merged hydrogels combines the advantages of 3-D and 2-D cultures.

    PubMed

    Gordeev, Alexander A; Chetverina, Helena V; Chetverin, Alexander B

    2012-05-01

    We report an unordered 2-D array of eukaryotic cells completely embedded in a 3-D matrix. Every cell is located at the same distance from the gel surface, which ensures uniformity of growth conditions and ease of observation characteristic of a 2-D culture. Each cell is firmly immobilized, and each has a unique address in the array. The cells can be rapidly screened, individually monitored during extended time periods, and cultured with the formation of spheroid microcolonies characteristic of a 3-D culture. Individual microcolonies can be extracted from the gel and further propagated, thus enabling isolation of pure cell clones from rather dense cell populations and rapid drug-free generation of stable cell lines.

  16. Simulating MEMS Chevron Actuator for Strain Engineering 2D Materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vutukuru, Mounika; Christopher, Jason; Bishop, David; Swan, Anna

    2D materials pose an exciting paradigm shift in the world of electronics. These crystalline materials have demonstrated high electric and thermal conductivities and tensile strength, showing great potential as the new building blocks of basic electronic circuits. However, strain engineering 2D materials for novel devices remains a difficult experimental feat. We propose the integration of 2D materials with MEMS devices to investigate the strain dependence on material properties such as electrical and thermal conductivity, refractive index, mechanical elasticity, and band gap. MEMS Chevron actuators, provides the most accessible framework to study strain in 2D materials due to their high output force displacements for low input power. Here, we simulate Chevron actuators on COMSOL to optimize actuator design parameters and accurately capture the behavior of the devices while under the external force of a 2D material. Through stationary state analysis, we analyze the response of the device through IV characteristics, displacement and temperature curves. We conclude that the simulation precisely models the real-world device through experimental confirmation, proving that the integration of 2D materials with MEMS is a viable option for constructing novel strain engineered devices. The authors acknowledge support from NSF DMR1411008.

  17. Closed-loop control of a 2-D mems micromirror with sidewall electrodes for a laser scanning microscope system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Hui; Chen, Albert; Jie Sun, Wei; Sun, Zhen Dong; Yeow, John TW

    2016-01-01

    This article presents the development and implementation of a robust nonlinear control scheme for a 2-D micromirror-based laser scanning microscope system. The presented control scheme, built around sliding mode control approach and augmented an adaptive algorithm, is proposed to improve the tracking accuracy in presence of cross-axis effect. The closed-loop controlled imaging system is developed through integrating a 2-D micromirror with sidewall electrodes (SW), a laser source, NI field-programmable gate array (FPGA) hardware, the optics, position sensing detector (PSD) and photo detector (PD). The experimental results demonstrated that the proposed scheme is able to achieve accurate tracking of a reference triangular signal. Compared with open-loop control, the scanning performance is significantly improved, and a better 2-D image is obtained using the micromirror with the proposed scheme.

  18. Use of the 'Precessions' process for prepolishing and correcting 2D & 2(1/2)D form.

    PubMed

    Walker, David D; Freeman, Richard; Morton, Roger; McCavana, Gerry; Beaucamp, Anthony

    2006-11-27

    The Precessions process polishes complex surfaces from the ground state preserving the ground-in form, and subsequently rectifies measured form errors. Our first paper introduced the technology and focused on the novel tooling. In this paper we describe the unique CNC machine tools and how they operate in polishing and correcting form. Experimental results demonstrate both the '2D' and '2(1/2)D' form-correction modes, as applied to aspheres with rotationally-symmetric target-form.

  19. Analysis of 2D hyperbolic metamaterial dispersion by elementary excitation coupling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vaianella, Fabio; Maes, Bjorn

    2016-04-01

    Hyperbolic metamaterials are examined for many applications thanks to the large density of states and extreme confinement of light they provide. For classical hyperbolic metal/dielectric multilayer structures, it was demon- strated that the properties originate from a specific coupling of the surface plasmon polaritons between the metal/dielectric interfaces. We show a similar analysis for 2D hyperbolic arrays of square (or rectangular) silver nanorods in a TiO2 host. In this case the properties derive from a specific coupling of the plasmons carried by the corners of the nanorods. The dispersion can be seen as the coupling of single rods for a through-metal connection of the corners, as the coupling of structures made of four semi-infinite metallic blocks separated by dielectric for a through-dielectric connection, or as the coupling of two semi-infinite rods for a through-metal and through-dielectric situation. For arrays of small square nanorods the elementary structure that explains the dispersion of the array is the single rod, and for arrays of large square nanorods it is four metallic corners. The medium size square nanorod case is more complicated, because the elementary structure can be one of the three basic designs, depending on the frequency and symmetry of the modes. Finally, we show that for arrays of rectangular nanorods the dispersion is explained by coupling of the two coupled rod structure. This work opens the way for a better understanding of a wide class of metamaterials via their elementary excitations.

  20. Microlens arrays

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hutley, Michael C.; Stevens, Richard F.; Daly, Daniel J.

    1992-04-01

    Microlenses have been with us for a long time as indeed the very word lens reminds us. Many early lenses,including those made by Hooke and Leeuwenhoek in the 17th century were small and resembled lentils. Many languages use the same word for both (French tilentillelt and German "Linse") and the connection is only obscure in English because we use the French word for the vegetable and the German for the optic. Many of the applications for arrays of inicrolenses are also well established. Lippmann's work on integral photography at the turn of the century required lens arrays and stimulated an interest that is very much alive today. At one stage, lens arrays played an important part in high speed photography and various schemes have been put forward to take advantage of the compact imaging properties of combinations of lens arrays. The fact that many of these ingenious schemes have not been developed to their full potential has to a large degree been due to the absence of lens arrays of a suitable quality and cost.

  1. Computation of optimized arrays for 3-D electrical imaging surveys

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Loke, M. H.; Wilkinson, P. B.; Uhlemann, S. S.; Chambers, J. E.; Oxby, L. S.

    2014-12-01

    3-D electrical resistivity surveys and inversion models are required to accurately resolve structures in areas with very complex geology where 2-D models might suffer from artefacts. Many 3-D surveys use a grid where the number of electrodes along one direction (x) is much greater than in the perpendicular direction (y). Frequently, due to limitations in the number of independent electrodes in the multi-electrode system, the surveys use a roll-along system with a small number of parallel survey lines aligned along the x-direction. The `Compare R' array optimization method previously used for 2-D surveys is adapted for such 3-D surveys. Offset versions of the inline arrays used in 2-D surveys are included in the number of possible arrays (the comprehensive data set) to improve the sensitivity to structures in between the lines. The array geometric factor and its relative error are used to filter out potentially unstable arrays in the construction of the comprehensive data set. Comparisons of the conventional (consisting of dipole-dipole and Wenner-Schlumberger arrays) and optimized arrays are made using a synthetic model and experimental measurements in a tank. The tests show that structures located between the lines are better resolved with the optimized arrays. The optimized arrays also have significantly better depth resolution compared to the conventional arrays.

  2. 2D nanostructures for water purification: graphene and beyond.

    PubMed

    Dervin, Saoirse; Dionysiou, Dionysios D; Pillai, Suresh C

    2016-08-18

    Owing to their atomically thin structure, large surface area and mechanical strength, 2D nanoporous materials are considered to be suitable alternatives for existing desalination and water purification membrane materials. Recent progress in the development of nanoporous graphene based materials has generated enormous potential for water purification technologies. Progress in the development of nanoporous graphene and graphene oxide (GO) membranes, the mechanism of graphene molecular sieve action, structural design, hydrophilic nature, mechanical strength and antifouling properties and the principal challenges associated with nanopore generation are discussed in detail. Subsequently, the recent applications and performance of newly developed 2D materials such as 2D boron nitride (BN) nanosheets, graphyne, molybdenum disulfide (MoS2), tungsten chalcogenides (WS2) and titanium carbide (Ti3C2Tx) are highlighted. In addition, the challenges affecting 2D nanostructures for water purification are highlighted and their applications in the water purification industry are discussed. Though only a few 2D materials have been explored so far for water treatment applications, this emerging field of research is set to attract a great deal of attention in the near future.

  3. Ultrafast 2D-IR spectroelectrochemistry of flavin mononucleotide

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    El Khoury, Youssef; Van Wilderen, Luuk J. G. W.; Bredenbeck, Jens

    2015-06-01

    We demonstrate the coupling of ultrafast two-dimensional infrared (2D-IR) spectroscopy to electrochemistry in solution and apply it to flavin mononucleotide, an important cofactor of redox proteins. For this purpose, we designed a spectroelectrochemical cell optimized for 2D-IR measurements in reflection and measured the time-dependent 2D-IR spectra of the oxidized and reduced forms of flavin mononucleotide. The data show anharmonic coupling and vibrational energy transfer between different vibrational modes in the two redox species. Such information is inaccessible with redox-controlled steady-state FTIR spectroscopy. The wide range of applications offered by 2D-IR spectroscopy, such as sub-picosecond structure determination, IR band assignment via energy transfer, disentangling reaction mixtures through band connectivity in the 2D spectra, and the measurement of solvation dynamics and chemical exchange can now be explored under controlled redox potential. The development of this technique furthermore opens new horizons for studying the dynamics of redox proteins.

  4. Ultrafast 2D-IR spectroelectrochemistry of flavin mononucleotide.

    PubMed

    El Khoury, Youssef; Van Wilderen, Luuk J G W; Bredenbeck, Jens

    2015-06-01

    We demonstrate the coupling of ultrafast two-dimensional infrared (2D-IR) spectroscopy to electrochemistry in solution and apply it to flavin mononucleotide, an important cofactor of redox proteins. For this purpose, we designed a spectroelectrochemical cell optimized for 2D-IR measurements in reflection and measured the time-dependent 2D-IR spectra of the oxidized and reduced forms of flavin mononucleotide. The data show anharmonic coupling and vibrational energy transfer between different vibrational modes in the two redox species. Such information is inaccessible with redox-controlled steady-state FTIR spectroscopy. The wide range of applications offered by 2D-IR spectroscopy, such as sub-picosecond structure determination, IR band assignment via energy transfer, disentangling reaction mixtures through band connectivity in the 2D spectra, and the measurement of solvation dynamics and chemical exchange can now be explored under controlled redox potential. The development of this technique furthermore opens new horizons for studying the dynamics of redox proteins.

  5. Mean flow and anisotropic cascades in decaying 2D turbulence

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Chien-Chia; Cerbus, Rory; Gioia, Gustavo; Chakraborty, Pinaki

    2015-11-01

    Many large-scale atmospheric and oceanic flows are decaying 2D turbulent flows embedded in a non-uniform mean flow. Despite its importance for large-scale weather systems, the affect of non-uniform mean flows on decaying 2D turbulence remains unknown. In the absence of mean flow it is well known that decaying 2D turbulent flows exhibit the enstrophy cascade. More generally, for any 2D turbulent flow, all computational, experimental and field data amassed to date indicate that the spectrum of longitudinal and transverse velocity fluctuations correspond to the same cascade, signifying isotropy of cascades. Here we report experiments on decaying 2D turbulence in soap films with a non-uniform mean flow. We find that the flow transitions from the usual isotropic enstrophy cascade to a series of unusual and, to our knowledge, never before observed or predicted, anisotropic cascades where the longitudinal and transverse spectra are mutually independent. We discuss implications of our results for decaying geophysical turbulence.

  6. Sparse radar imaging using 2D compressed sensing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hou, Qingkai; Liu, Yang; Chen, Zengping; Su, Shaoying

    2014-10-01

    Radar imaging is an ill-posed linear inverse problem and compressed sensing (CS) has been proved to have tremendous potential in this field. This paper surveys the theory of radar imaging and a conclusion is drawn that the processing of ISAR imaging can be denoted mathematically as a problem of 2D sparse decomposition. Based on CS, we propose a novel measuring strategy for ISAR imaging radar and utilize random sub-sampling in both range and azimuth dimensions, which will reduce the amount of sampling data tremendously. In order to handle 2D reconstructing problem, the ordinary solution is converting the 2D problem into 1D by Kronecker product, which will increase the size of dictionary and computational cost sharply. In this paper, we introduce the 2D-SL0 algorithm into the reconstruction of imaging. It is proved that 2D-SL0 can achieve equivalent result as other 1D reconstructing methods, but the computational complexity and memory usage is reduced significantly. Moreover, we will state the results of simulating experiments and prove the effectiveness and feasibility of our method.

  7. Ultrafast 2D NMR: an emerging tool in analytical spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Giraudeau, Patrick; Frydman, Lucio

    2014-01-01

    Two-dimensional nuclear magnetic resonance (2D NMR) spectroscopy is widely used in chemical and biochemical analyses. Multidimensional NMR is also witnessing increased use in quantitative and metabolic screening applications. Conventional 2D NMR experiments, however, are affected by inherently long acquisition durations, arising from their need to sample the frequencies involved along their indirect domains in an incremented, scan-by-scan nature. A decade ago, a so-called ultrafast (UF) approach was proposed, capable of delivering arbitrary 2D NMR spectra involving any kind of homo- or heteronuclear correlation, in a single scan. During the intervening years, the performance of this subsecond 2D NMR methodology has been greatly improved, and UF 2D NMR is rapidly becoming a powerful analytical tool experiencing an expanded scope of applications. This review summarizes the principles and main developments that have contributed to the success of this approach and focuses on applications that have been recently demonstrated in various areas of analytical chemistry--from the real-time monitoring of chemical and biochemical processes, to extensions in hyphenated techniques and in quantitative applications. PMID:25014342

  8. 2D nanostructures for water purification: graphene and beyond.

    PubMed

    Dervin, Saoirse; Dionysiou, Dionysios D; Pillai, Suresh C

    2016-08-18

    Owing to their atomically thin structure, large surface area and mechanical strength, 2D nanoporous materials are considered to be suitable alternatives for existing desalination and water purification membrane materials. Recent progress in the development of nanoporous graphene based materials has generated enormous potential for water purification technologies. Progress in the development of nanoporous graphene and graphene oxide (GO) membranes, the mechanism of graphene molecular sieve action, structural design, hydrophilic nature, mechanical strength and antifouling properties and the principal challenges associated with nanopore generation are discussed in detail. Subsequently, the recent applications and performance of newly developed 2D materials such as 2D boron nitride (BN) nanosheets, graphyne, molybdenum disulfide (MoS2), tungsten chalcogenides (WS2) and titanium carbide (Ti3C2Tx) are highlighted. In addition, the challenges affecting 2D nanostructures for water purification are highlighted and their applications in the water purification industry are discussed. Though only a few 2D materials have been explored so far for water treatment applications, this emerging field of research is set to attract a great deal of attention in the near future. PMID:27506268

  9. Graphene based 2D-materials for supercapacitors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Palaniselvam, Thangavelu; Baek, Jong-Beom

    2015-09-01

    Ever-increasing energy demands and the depletion of fossil fuels are compelling humanity toward the development of suitable electrochemical energy conversion and storage devices to attain a more sustainable society with adequate renewable energy and zero environmental pollution. In this regard, supercapacitors are being contemplated as potential energy storage devices to afford cleaner, environmentally friendly energy. Recently, a great deal of attention has been paid to two-dimensional (2D) nanomaterials, including 2D graphene and its inorganic analogues (transition metal double layer hydroxides, chalcogenides, etc), as potential electrodes for the development of supercapacitors with high electrochemical performance. This review provides an overview of the recent progress in using these graphene-based 2D materials as potential electrodes for supercapacitors. In addition, future research trends including notable challenges and opportunities are also discussed.

  10. Perception-based reversible watermarking for 2D vector maps

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Men, Chaoguang; Cao, Liujuan; Li, Xiang

    2010-07-01

    This paper presents an effective and reversible watermarking approach for digital copyright protection of 2D-vector maps. To ensure that the embedded watermark is insensitive for human perception, we only select the noise non-sensitive regions for watermark embedding by estimating vertex density within each polyline. To ensure the exact recovery of original 2D-vector map after watermark extraction, we introduce a new reversible watermarking scheme based on reversible high-frequency wavelet coefficients modification. Within the former-selected non-sensitive regions, our watermarking operates on the lower-order vertex coordinate decimals with integer wavelet transform. Such operation further reduces the visual distortion caused by watermark embedding. We have validated the effectiveness of our scheme on our real-world city river/building 2D-vector maps. We give extensive experimental comparisons with state-of-the-art methods, including embedding capability, invisibility, and robustness over watermark attacking.

  11. Secretory pathways generating immunosuppressive NKG2D ligands

    PubMed Central

    Baragaño Raneros, Aroa; Suarez-Álvarez, Beatriz; López-Larrea, Carlos

    2014-01-01

    Natural Killer Group 2 member D (NKG2D) activating receptor, present on the surface of various immune cells, plays an important role in activating the anticancer immune response by their interaction with stress-inducible NKG2D ligands (NKG2DL) on transformed cells. However, cancer cells have developed numerous mechanisms to evade the immune system via the downregulation of NKG2DL from the cell surface, including the release of NKG2DL from the cell surface in a soluble form. Here, we review the mechanisms involved in the production of soluble NKG2DL (sNKG2DL) and the potential therapeutic strategies aiming to block the release of these immunosuppressive ligands. Therapeutically enabling the NKG2D-NKG2DL interaction would promote immunorecognition of malignant cells, thus abrogating disease progression. PMID:25050215

  12. 2D bifurcations and Newtonian properties of memristive Chua's circuits

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marszalek, W.; Podhaisky, H.

    2016-01-01

    Two interesting properties of Chua's circuits are presented. First, two-parameter bifurcation diagrams of Chua's oscillatory circuits with memristors are presented. To obtain various 2D bifurcation images a substantial numerical effort, possibly with parallel computations, is needed. The numerical algorithm is described first and its numerical code for 2D bifurcation image creation is available for free downloading. Several color 2D images and the corresponding 1D greyscale bifurcation diagrams are included. Secondly, Chua's circuits are linked to Newton's law φ ''= F(t,φ,φ')/m with φ=\\text{flux} , constant m > 0, and the force term F(t,φ,φ') containing memory terms. Finally, the jounce scalar equations for Chua's circuits are also discussed.

  13. Structural and Functional Analysis of JMJD2D Reveals Molecular Basis for Site-Specific Demethylation among JMJD2 Demethylases

    SciTech Connect

    Krishnan, Swathi; Trievel, Raymond C.

    2013-01-08

    We found that JMJD2 lysine demethylases (KDMs) participate in diverse genomic processes. Most JMJD2 homologs display dual selectivity toward H3K9me3 and H3K36me3, with the exception of JMJD2D, which is specific for H3K9me3. Here, we report the crystal structures of the JMJD2D•2-oxoglutarate•H3K9me3 ternary complex and JMJD2D apoenzyme. Utilizing structural alignments with JMJD2A, molecular docking, and kinetic analysis with an array of histone peptide substrates, we elucidate the specific signatures that permit efficient recognition of H3K9me3 by JMJD2A and JMJD2D, and the residues in JMJD2D that occlude H3K36me3 demethylation. Surprisingly, these results reveal that JMJD2A and JMJD2D exhibit subtle yet important differences in H3K9me3 recognition, despite the overall similarity in the substrate-binding conformation. Further, we show that H3T11 phosphorylation abrogates demethylation by JMJD2 KDMs. These studies reveal the molecular basis for JMJD2 site specificity and provide a framework for structure-based design of selective inhibitors of JMJD2 KDMs implicated in disease.

  14. Antibacterial activity of ordered gold nanorod arrays.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Yuejing; Ramasamy, Mohankandhasamy; Yi, Dong Kee

    2014-09-10

    Well-packed two- and three-dimensional (2D and 3D) gold nanorod (AuNR) arrays were fabricated using confined convective arraying techniques. The array density could be controlled by changing the concentration of the gold nanorods solution, the velocity of the moving substrate, and the environment air-temperature. The hydrophilic behavior of glass substrates before and after surface modification was studied through contact angle measurements. The affinity and alignment of the AuNR arrays with varying nanorod concentrations and the resulting different array densities were studied using field emission scanning electron microscopy (FE-SEM). Under stable laser intensity irradiation, the photothermal response of the prepared arrays was measured using a thermocouple and the results were analyzed quantitatively. Synthesized AuNR arrays were added to Escherichia coli (E. coli) suspensions and evaluated for photothermal bactericidal activity before and after laser irradiation. The results showed promising bactericidal effect. The severity of pathogen destruction was measured and quantified using fluorescence microscopy, bioatomic force microscopy (Bio-AFM) and flow cytometry techniques. These results indicated that the fabricated AuNR arrays at higher concentrations were highly capable of complete bacterial destruction by photothermal effect compared to the low concentration AuNR arrays. Subsequent laser irradiation of the AuNR arrays resulted in rapid photoheating with remarkable bactericidal activity, which could be used for water treatment to produce microbe-free water. PMID:25148531

  15. Radiative heat transfer in 2D Dirac materials.

    PubMed

    Rodriguez-López, Pablo; Tse, Wang-Kong; Dalvit, Diego A R

    2015-06-01

    We compute the radiative heat transfer between two sheets of 2D Dirac materials, including topological Chern insulators and graphene, within the framework of the local approximation for the optical response of these materials. In this approximation, which neglects spatial dispersion, we derive both numerically and analytically the short-distance asymptotic of the near-field heat transfer in these systems, and show that it scales as the inverse of the distance between the two sheets. Finally, we discuss the limitations to the validity of this scaling law imposed by spatial dispersion in 2D Dirac materials. PMID:25965703

  16. Quantum process tomography by 2D fluorescence spectroscopy

    SciTech Connect

    Pachón, Leonardo A.; Marcus, Andrew H.; Aspuru-Guzik, Alán

    2015-06-07

    Reconstruction of the dynamics (quantum process tomography) of the single-exciton manifold in energy transfer systems is proposed here on the basis of two-dimensional fluorescence spectroscopy (2D-FS) with phase-modulation. The quantum-process-tomography protocol introduced here benefits from, e.g., the sensitivity enhancement ascribed to 2D-FS. Although the isotropically averaged spectroscopic signals depend on the quantum yield parameter Γ of the doubly excited-exciton manifold, it is shown that the reconstruction of the dynamics is insensitive to this parameter. Applications to foundational and applied problems, as well as further extensions, are discussed.

  17. On 2D bisection method for double eigenvalue problems

    SciTech Connect

    Ji, X.

    1996-06-01

    The two-dimensional bisection method presented in (SIAM J. Matrix Anal. Appl. 13(4), 1085 (1992)) is efficient for solving a class of double eigenvalue problems. This paper further extends the 2D bisection method of full matrix cases and analyses its stability. As in a single parameter case, the 2D bisection method is very stable for the tridiagonal matrix triples satisfying the symmetric-definite condition. Since the double eigenvalue problems arise from two-parameter boundary value problems, an estimate of the discretization error in eigenpairs is also given. Some numerical examples are included. 42 refs., 1 tab.

  18. Design of the LRP airfoil series using 2D CFD

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zahle, Frederik; Bak, Christian; Sørensen, Niels N.; Vronsky, Tomas; Gaudern, Nicholas

    2014-06-01

    This paper describes the design and wind tunnel testing of a high-Reynolds number, high lift airfoil series designed for wind turbines. The airfoils were designed using direct gradient- based numerical multi-point optimization based on a Bezier parameterization of the shape, coupled to the 2D Navier-Stokes flow solver EllipSys2D. The resulting airfoils, the LRP2-30 and LRP2-36, achieve both higher operational lift coefficients and higher lift to drag ratios compared to the equivalent FFA-W3 airfoils.

  19. Laboratory Experiments On Continually Forced 2d Turbulence

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wells, M. G.; Clercx, H. J. H.; Van Heijst, G. J. F.

    There has been much recent interest in the advection of tracers by 2D turbulence in geophysical flows. While there is a large body of literature on decaying 2D turbulence or forced 2D turbulence in unbounded domains, there have been very few studies of forced turbulence in bounded domains. In this study we present new experimental results from a continuously forced quasi 2D turbulent field. The experiments are performed in a square Perspex tank filled with water. The flow is made quasi 2D by a steady background rotation. The rotation rate of the tank has a small (<8 %) sinusoidal perturbation which leads to the periodic formation of eddies in the corners of the tank. When the oscillation period of the perturbation is greater than an eddy roll-up time-scale, dipole structures are observed to form. The dipoles can migrate away from the walls, and the interior of the tank is continually filled with vortexs. From experimental visualizations the length scale of the vortexs appears to be largely controlled by the initial formation mechanism and large scale structures are not observed to form at large times. Thus the experiments provide a simple way of cre- ating a continuously forced 2D turbulent field. The resulting structures are in contrast with most previous laboratory experiments on 2D turbulence which have investigated decaying turbulence and have observed the formations of large scale structure. In these experiments, decaying turbulence had been produced by a variety of methods such as the decaying turbulence in the wake of a comb of rods (Massen et al 1999), organiza- tion of vortices in thin conducting liquids (Cardoso et al 1994) or in rotating systems where there are sudden changes in angular rotation rate (Konijnenberg et al 1998). Results of dye visualizations, particle tracking experiments and a direct numerical simulation will be presented and discussed in terms of their oceanographic application. Bibliography Cardoso,O. Marteau, D. &Tabeling, P

  20. EM 2dV1.0.F

    2012-01-05

    Code is for a layered electric medium with 2d structure. Includes air-earth interface at node z=2.. The electric ex and ez fields are calculated on edges of elemental grid and magnetic field hy is calculated on the face of the elemental grid. The code allows for a layered earth with 2d structures. Solutions of coupled first order Maxwell's equations are solved in the two dimensional environment using a finite- difference scheme on a staggered spationamore » and temporal grid.« less

  1. Noninvasive deep Raman detection with 2D correlation analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Hyung Min; Park, Hyo Sun; Cho, Youngho; Jin, Seung Min; Lee, Kang Taek; Jung, Young Mee; Suh, Yung Doug

    2014-07-01

    The detection of poisonous chemicals enclosed in daily necessaries is prerequisite essential for homeland security with the increasing threat of terrorism. For the detection of toxic chemicals, we combined a sensitive deep Raman spectroscopic method with 2D correlation analysis. We obtained the Raman spectra from concealed chemicals employing spatially offset Raman spectroscopy in which incident line-shaped light experiences multiple scatterings before being delivered to inner component and yielding deep Raman signal. Furthermore, we restored the pure Raman spectrum of each component using 2D correlation spectroscopic analysis with chemical inspection. Using this method, we could elucidate subsurface component under thick powder and packed contents in a bottle.

  2. Self-dual strings and 2D SYM

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hosomichi, Kazuo; Lee, Sungjay

    2015-01-01

    We study the system of M2-branes suspended between parallel M5-branes using ABJM model with a natural half-BPS boundary condition. For small separation between M5-branes, the worldvolume theory is shown to reduce to a 2D super Yang-Mills theory with some similarity to q-deformed Yang-Mills theory. The gauge coupling is related to the position of the branes in an interesting manner. The theory is considerably different from the 2D theory proposed for multiple "M-strings". We make a detailed comparison of elliptic genus of the two descriptions and find only a partial agreement.

  3. Finite temperature corrections in 2d integrable models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Caselle, M.; Hasenbusch, M.

    2002-09-01

    We study the finite size corrections for the magnetization and the internal energy of the 2d Ising model in a magnetic field by using transfer matrix techniques. We compare these corrections with the functional form recently proposed by Delfino and LeClair-Mussardo for the finite temperature behaviour of one-point functions in integrable 2d quantum field theories. We find a perfect agreement between theoretical expectations and numerical results. Assuming the proposed functional form as an input in our analysis we obtain a relevant improvement in the precision of the continuum limit estimates of both quantities.

  4. 2dF grows up: Echidna for the AAT

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McGrath, Andrew; Barden, Sam; Miziarski, Stan; Rambold, William; Smith, Greg

    2008-07-01

    We present the concept design of a new fibre positioner and spectrograph system for the Anglo-Australian Telescope, as a proposed enhancement to the Anglo-Australian Observatory's well-known 2dF facility. A four-fold multiplex enhancement is accomplished by replacing the 400-fibre 2dF fibre positioning robot with a 1600-fibre Echidna unit, feeding three clones of the AAOmega optical spectrograph. Such a facility has the capability of a redshift 1 survey of a large fraction of the southern sky, collecting five to ten thousand spectra per night for a million-galaxy survey.

  5. Radiative heat transfer in 2D Dirac materials

    DOE PAGES

    Rodriguez-López, Pablo; Tse, Wang -Kong; Dalvit, Diego A. R.

    2015-05-12

    We compute the radiative heat transfer between two sheets of 2D Dirac materials, including topological Chern insulators and graphene, within the framework of the local approximation for the optical response of these materials. In this approximation, which neglects spatial dispersion, we derive both numerically and analytically the short-distance asymptotic of the near-field heat transfer in these systems, and show that it scales as the inverse of the distance between the two sheets. In conclusion, we discuss the limitations to the validity of this scaling law imposed by spatial dispersion in 2D Dirac materials.

  6. Nomenclature for human CYP2D6 alleles.

    PubMed

    Daly, A K; Brockmöller, J; Broly, F; Eichelbaum, M; Evans, W E; Gonzalez, F J; Huang, J D; Idle, J R; Ingelman-Sundberg, M; Ishizaki, T; Jacqz-Aigrain, E; Meyer, U A; Nebert, D W; Steen, V M; Wolf, C R; Zanger, U M

    1996-06-01

    To standardize CYP2D6 allele nomenclature, and to conform with international human gene nomenclature guidelines, an alternative to the current arbitrary system is described. Based on recommendations for human genome nomenclature, we propose that alleles be designated by CYP2D6 followed by an asterisk and a combination of roman letters and arabic numerals distinct for each allele with the number specifying the key mutation and, where appropriate, a letter specifying additional mutations. Criteria for classification as a separate allele and protein nomenclature are also presented. PMID:8807658

  7. Spreading dynamics of 2D dipolar Langmuir monolayer phases.

    PubMed

    Heinig, P; Wurlitzer, S; Fischer, Th M

    2004-07-01

    We study the spreading of a liquid 2D dipolar droplet in a Langmuir monolayer. Interfacial tensions (line tensions) and microscopic contact angles depend on the scale on which they are probed and obey a scaling law. Assuming rapid equilibration of the microscopic contact angle and ideal slippage of the 2D solid/liquid and solid/gas boundary, the driving force of spreading is merely expressed by the shape-dependent long-range interaction integrals. We obtain good agreement between experiment and numerical simulations using this theory. PMID:15278693

  8. Evaluation of 2D ceramic matrix composites in aeroconvective environments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Riccitiello, Salvatore R.; Love, Wendell L.; Balter-Peterson, Aliza

    1992-01-01

    An evaluation is conducted of a novel ceramic-matrix composite (CMC) material system for use in the aeroconvective-heating environments encountered by the nose caps and wing leading edges of such aerospace vehicles as the Space Shuttle, during orbit-insertion and reentry from LEO. These CMCs are composed of an SiC matrix that is reinforced with Nicalon, Nextel, or carbon refractory fibers in a 2D architecture. The test program conducted for the 2D CMCs gave attention to their subsurface oxidation.

  9. Quantum process tomography by 2D fluorescence spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pachón, Leonardo A.; Marcus, Andrew H.; Aspuru-Guzik, Alán

    2015-06-01

    Reconstruction of the dynamics (quantum process tomography) of the single-exciton manifold in energy transfer systems is proposed here on the basis of two-dimensional fluorescence spectroscopy (2D-FS) with phase-modulation. The quantum-process-tomography protocol introduced here benefits from, e.g., the sensitivity enhancement ascribed to 2D-FS. Although the isotropically averaged spectroscopic signals depend on the quantum yield parameter Γ of the doubly excited-exciton manifold, it is shown that the reconstruction of the dynamics is insensitive to this parameter. Applications to foundational and applied problems, as well as further extensions, are discussed.

  10. 2D molybdenum disulphide (2D-MoS2) modified electrodes explored towards the oxygen reduction reaction.

    PubMed

    Rowley-Neale, Samuel J; Fearn, Jamie M; Brownson, Dale A C; Smith, Graham C; Ji, Xiaobo; Banks, Craig E

    2016-08-21

    Two-dimensional molybdenum disulphide nanosheets (2D-MoS2) have proven to be an effective electrocatalyst, with particular attention being focused on their use towards increasing the efficiency of the reactions associated with hydrogen fuel cells. Whilst the majority of research has focused on the Hydrogen Evolution Reaction (HER), herein we explore the use of 2D-MoS2 as a potential electrocatalyst for the much less researched Oxygen Reduction Reaction (ORR). We stray from literature conventions and perform experiments in 0.1 M H2SO4 acidic electrolyte for the first time, evaluating the electrochemical performance of the ORR with 2D-MoS2 electrically wired/immobilised upon several carbon based electrodes (namely; Boron Doped Diamond (BDD), Edge Plane Pyrolytic Graphite (EPPG), Glassy Carbon (GC) and Screen-Printed Electrodes (SPE)) whilst exploring a range of 2D-MoS2 coverages/masses. Consequently, the findings of this study are highly applicable to real world fuel cell applications. We show that significant improvements in ORR activity can be achieved through the careful selection of the underlying/supporting carbon materials that electrically wire the 2D-MoS2 and utilisation of an optimal mass of 2D-MoS2. The ORR onset is observed to be reduced to ca. +0.10 V for EPPG, GC and SPEs at 2D-MoS2 (1524 ng cm(-2) modification), which is far closer to Pt at +0.46 V compared to bare/unmodified EPPG, GC and SPE counterparts. This report is the first to demonstrate such beneficial electrochemical responses in acidic conditions using a 2D-MoS2 based electrocatalyst material on a carbon-based substrate (SPEs in this case). Investigation of the beneficial reaction mechanism reveals the ORR to occur via a 4 electron process in specific conditions; elsewhere a 2 electron process is observed. This work offers valuable insights for those wishing to design, fabricate and/or electrochemically test 2D-nanosheet materials towards the ORR. PMID:27448174

  11. A novel improved method for analysis of 2D diffusion-relaxation data--2D PARAFAC-Laplace decomposition.

    PubMed

    Tønning, Erik; Polders, Daniel; Callaghan, Paul T; Engelsen, Søren B

    2007-09-01

    This paper demonstrates how the multi-linear PARAFAC model can with advantage be used to decompose 2D diffusion-relaxation correlation NMR spectra prior to 2D-Laplace inversion to the T(2)-D domain. The decomposition is advantageous for better interpretation of the complex correlation maps as well as for the quantification of extracted T(2)-D components. To demonstrate the new method seventeen mixtures of wheat flour, starch, gluten, oil and water were prepared and measured with a 300 MHz nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectrometer using a pulsed gradient stimulated echo (PGSTE) pulse sequence followed by a Carr-Purcell-Meiboom-Gill (CPMG) pulse echo train. By varying the gradient strength, 2D diffusion-relaxation data were recorded for each sample. From these double exponentially decaying relaxation data the PARAFAC algorithm extracted two unique diffusion-relaxation components, explaining 99.8% of the variation in the data set. These two components were subsequently transformed to the T(2)-D domain using 2D-inverse Laplace transformation and quantitatively assigned to the oil and water components of the samples. The oil component was one distinct distribution with peak intensity at D=3 x 10(-12) m(2) s(-1) and T(2)=180 ms. The water component consisted of two broad populations of water molecules with diffusion coefficients and relaxation times centered around correlation pairs: D=10(-9) m(2) s(-1), T(2)=10 ms and D=3 x 10(-13) m(2) s(-1), T(2)=13 ms. Small spurious peaks observed in the inverse Laplace transformation of original complex data were effectively filtered by the PARAFAC decomposition and thus considered artefacts from the complex Laplace transformation. The oil-to-water ratio determined by PARAFAC followed by 2D-Laplace inversion was perfectly correlated with known oil-to-water ratio of the samples. The new method of using PARAFAC prior to the 2D-Laplace inversion proved to have superior potential in analysis of diffusion-relaxation spectra, as it

  12. 2D molybdenum disulphide (2D-MoS2) modified electrodes explored towards the oxygen reduction reaction.

    PubMed

    Rowley-Neale, Samuel J; Fearn, Jamie M; Brownson, Dale A C; Smith, Graham C; Ji, Xiaobo; Banks, Craig E

    2016-08-21

    Two-dimensional molybdenum disulphide nanosheets (2D-MoS2) have proven to be an effective electrocatalyst, with particular attention being focused on their use towards increasing the efficiency of the reactions associated with hydrogen fuel cells. Whilst the majority of research has focused on the Hydrogen Evolution Reaction (HER), herein we explore the use of 2D-MoS2 as a potential electrocatalyst for the much less researched Oxygen Reduction Reaction (ORR). We stray from literature conventions and perform experiments in 0.1 M H2SO4 acidic electrolyte for the first time, evaluating the electrochemical performance of the ORR with 2D-MoS2 electrically wired/immobilised upon several carbon based electrodes (namely; Boron Doped Diamond (BDD), Edge Plane Pyrolytic Graphite (EPPG), Glassy Carbon (GC) and Screen-Printed Electrodes (SPE)) whilst exploring a range of 2D-MoS2 coverages/masses. Consequently, the findings of this study are highly applicable to real world fuel cell applications. We show that significant improvements in ORR activity can be achieved through the careful selection of the underlying/supporting carbon materials that electrically wire the 2D-MoS2 and utilisation of an optimal mass of 2D-MoS2. The ORR onset is observed to be reduced to ca. +0.10 V for EPPG, GC and SPEs at 2D-MoS2 (1524 ng cm(-2) modification), which is far closer to Pt at +0.46 V compared to bare/unmodified EPPG, GC and SPE counterparts. This report is the first to demonstrate such beneficial electrochemical responses in acidic conditions using a 2D-MoS2 based electrocatalyst material on a carbon-based substrate (SPEs in this case). Investigation of the beneficial reaction mechanism reveals the ORR to occur via a 4 electron process in specific conditions; elsewhere a 2 electron process is observed. This work offers valuable insights for those wishing to design, fabricate and/or electrochemically test 2D-nanosheet materials towards the ORR.

  13. A novel improved method for analysis of 2D diffusion relaxation data—2D PARAFAC-Laplace decomposition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tønning, Erik; Polders, Daniel; Callaghan, Paul T.; Engelsen, Søren B.

    2007-09-01

    This paper demonstrates how the multi-linear PARAFAC model can with advantage be used to decompose 2D diffusion-relaxation correlation NMR spectra prior to 2D-Laplace inversion to the T2- D domain. The decomposition is advantageous for better interpretation of the complex correlation maps as well as for the quantification of extracted T2- D components. To demonstrate the new method seventeen mixtures of wheat flour, starch, gluten, oil and water were prepared and measured with a 300 MHz nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectrometer using a pulsed gradient stimulated echo (PGSTE) pulse sequence followed by a Carr-Purcell-Meiboom-Gill (CPMG) pulse echo train. By varying the gradient strength, 2D diffusion-relaxation data were recorded for each sample. From these double exponentially decaying relaxation data the PARAFAC algorithm extracted two unique diffusion-relaxation components, explaining 99.8% of the variation in the data set. These two components were subsequently transformed to the T2- D domain using 2D-inverse Laplace transformation and quantitatively assigned to the oil and water components of the samples. The oil component was one distinct distribution with peak intensity at D = 3 × 10 -12 m 2 s -1 and T2 = 180 ms. The water component consisted of two broad populations of water molecules with diffusion coefficients and relaxation times centered around correlation pairs: D = 10 -9 m 2 s -1, T2 = 10 ms and D = 3 × 10 -13 m 2 s -1, T2 = 13 ms. Small spurious peaks observed in the inverse Laplace transformation of original complex data were effectively filtered by the PARAFAC decomposition and thus considered artefacts from the complex Laplace transformation. The oil-to-water ratio determined by PARAFAC followed by 2D-Laplace inversion was perfectly correlated with known oil-to-water ratio of the samples. The new method of using PARAFAC prior to the 2D-Laplace inversion proved to have superior potential in analysis of diffusion-relaxation spectra, as it

  14. Global Arrays

    2006-02-23

    The Global Arrays (GA) toolkit provides an efficient and portable “shared-memory” programming interface for distributed-memory computers. Each process in a MIMD parallel program can asynchronously access logical blocks of physically distributed dense multi-dimensional arrays, without need for explicit cooperation by other processes. Unlike other shared-memory environments, the GA model exposes to the programmer the non-uniform memory access (NUMA) characteristics of the high performance computers and acknowledges that access to a remote portion of the sharedmore » data is slower than to the local portion. The locality information for the shared data is available, and a direct access to the local portions of shared data is provided. Global Arrays have been designed to complement rather than substitute for the message-passing programming model. The programmer is free to use both the shared-memory and message-passing paradigms in the same program, and to take advantage of existing message-passing software libraries. Global Arrays are compatible with the Message Passing Interface (MPI).« less

  15. Pacific Array

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kawakatsu, H.; Takeo, A.; Isse, T.; Nishida, K.; Shiobara, H.; Suetsugu, D.

    2014-12-01

    Based on our recent results on broadband ocean bottom seismometry, we propose a next generation large-scale array experiment in the ocean. Recent advances in ocean bottom broadband seismometry (e.g., Suetsugu & Shiobara, 2014, Annual Review EPS), together with advances in the seismic analysis methodology, have now enabled us to resolve the regional 1-D structure of the entire lithosphere/asthenosphere system, including seismic anisotropy (both radial and azimuthal), with deployments of ~10-15 broadband ocean bottom seismometers (BBOBSs) (namely "ocean-bottom broadband dispersion survey"; Takeo et al., 2013, JGR; Kawakatsu et al., 2013, AGU; Takeo, 2014, Ph.D. Thesis; Takeo et al., 2014, JpGU). Having ~15 BBOBSs as an array unit for 2-year deployment, and repeating such deployments in a leap-frog way (an array of arrays) for a decade or so would enable us to cover a large portion of the Pacific basin. Such efforts, not only by giving regional constraints on the 1-D structure, but also by sharing waveform data for global scale waveform tomography, would drastically increase our knowledge of how plate tectonics works on this planet, as well as how it worked for the past 150 million years. International collaborations might be sought.

  16. Micromachining techniques in developing high-frequency piezoelectric composite ultrasonic array transducers.

    PubMed

    Liu, Changgeng; Djuth, Frank T; Zhou, Qifa; Shung, K Kirk

    2013-12-01

    Several micromachining techniques for the fabrication of high-frequency piezoelectric composite ultrasonic array transducers are described in this paper. A variety of different techniques are used in patterning the active piezoelectric material, attaching backing material to the transducer, and assembling an electronic interconnection board for transmission and reception from the array. To establish the feasibility of the process flow, a hybrid test ultrasound array transducer consisting of a 2-D array having an 8 × 8 element pattern and a 5-element annular array was designed, fabricated, and assessed. The arrays are designed for a center frequency of ~60 MHz. The 2-D array elements are 105 × 105 μm in size with 5-μm kerfs between elements. The annular array surrounds the square 2-D array and provides the option of transmitting from the annular array and receiving with the 2-D array. Each annular array element has an area of 0.71 mm(2) with a 16-μm kerf between elements. The active piezoelectric material is (1 - x) Pb(Mg1/3Nb2/3)O3-xPbTiO3 (PMN-PT)/epoxy 1-3 composite with a PMN-PT pillar lateral dimension of 8 μm and an average gap width of ~4 μm, which was produced by deep reactive ion etching (DRIE) dry etching techniques. A novel electric interconnection strategy for high-density, small-size array elements was proposed. After assembly, the array transducer was tested and characterized. The capacitance, pulse-echo responses, and crosstalk were measured for each array element. The desired center frequency of ~60 MHz was achieved and the -6-dB bandwidth of the received signal was ~50%. At the center frequency, the crosstalk between adjacent 2-D array elements was about -33 dB. The techniques described herein can be used to build larger arrays containing smaller elements. PMID:24297027

  17. Advanced ultrasound probes for medical imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wildes, Douglas G.; Smith, L. Scott

    2012-05-01

    New medical ultrasound probe architectures and materials build upon established 1D phased array technology and provide improved imaging performance and clinical value. Technologies reviewed include 1.25D and 1.5D arrays for elevation slice thickness control; electro-mechanical and 2D array probes for real-time 3D imaging; catheter probes for imaging during minimally-invasive procedures; single-crystal piezoelectric materials for greater frequency bandwidth; and cMUT arrays using silicon MEMS in place of piezo materials.

  18. Discrepant Results in a 2-D Marble Collision

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kalajian, Peter

    2013-01-01

    Video analysis of 2-D collisions is an excellent way to investigate conservation of linear momentum. The often-desired experimental design goal is to minimize the momentum loss in order to demonstrate the conservation law. An air table with colliding pucks is an ideal medium for this experiment, but such equipment is beyond the budget of many…

  19. THz devices based on 2D electron systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xing, Huili Grace; Yan, Rusen; Song, Bo; Encomendero, Jimy; Jena, Debdeep

    2015-05-01

    In two-dimensional electron systems with mobility on the order of 1,000 - 10,000 cm2/Vs, the electron scattering time is about 1 ps. For the THz window of 0.3 - 3 THz, the THz photon energy is in the neighborhood of 1 meV, substantially smaller than the optical phonon energy of solids where these 2D electron systems resides. These properties make the 2D electron systems interesting as a platform to realize THz devices. In this paper, I will review 3 approaches investigated in the past few years in my group toward THz devices. The first approach is the conventional high electron mobility transistor based on GaN toward THz amplifiers. The second approach is to employ the tunable intraband absorption in 2D electron systems to realize THz modulators, where I will use graphene as a model material system. The third approach is to exploit plasma wave in these 2D electron systems that can be coupled with a negative differential conductance element for THz amplifiers/sources/detectors.

  20. NKG2D ligands mediate immunosurveillance of senescent cells.

    PubMed

    Sagiv, Adi; Burton, Dominick G A; Moshayev, Zhana; Vadai, Ezra; Wensveen, Felix; Ben-Dor, Shifra; Golani, Ofra; Polic, Bojan; Krizhanovsky, Valery

    2016-02-01

    Cellular senescence is a stress response mechanism that limits tumorigenesis and tissue damage. Induction of cellular senescence commonly coincides with an immunogenic phenotype that promotes self-elimination by components of the immune system, thereby facilitating tumor suppression and limiting excess fibrosis during wound repair. The mechanisms by which senescent cells regulate their immune surveillance are not completely understood. Here we show that ligands of an activating Natural Killer (NK) cell receptor (NKG2D), MICA and ULBP2 are consistently up-regulated following induction of replicative senescence, oncogene-induced senescence and DNA damage - induced senescence. MICA and ULBP2 proteins are necessary for efficient NK-mediated cytotoxicity towards senescent fibroblasts. The mechanisms regulating the initial expression of NKG2D ligands in senescent cells are dependent on a DNA damage response, whilst continuous expression of these ligands is regulated by the ERK signaling pathway. In liver fibrosis, the accumulation of senescent activated stellate cells is increased in mice lacking NKG2D receptor leading to increased fibrosis. Overall, our results provide new insights into the mechanisms regulating the expression of immune ligands in senescent cells and reveal the importance of NKG2D receptor-ligand interaction in protecting against liver fibrosis. PMID:26878797

  1. Proteomic Profiling of Macrophages by 2D Electrophoresis

    PubMed Central

    Bouvet, Marion; Turkieh, Annie; Acosta-Martin, Adelina E.; Chwastyniak, Maggy; Beseme, Olivia; Amouyel, Philippe; Pinet, Florence

    2014-01-01

    The goal of the two-dimensional (2D) electrophoresis protocol described here is to show how to analyse the phenotype of human cultured macrophages. The key role of macrophages has been shown in various pathological disorders such as inflammatory, immunological, and infectious diseases. In this protocol, we use primary cultures of human monocyte-derived macrophages that can be differentiated into the M1 (pro-inflammatory) or the M2 (anti-inflammatory) phenotype. This in vitro model is reliable for studying the biological activities of M1 and M2 macrophages and also for a proteomic approach. Proteomic techniques are useful for comparing the phenotype and behaviour of M1 and M2 macrophages during host pathogenicity. 2D gel electrophoresis is a powerful proteomic technique for mapping large numbers of proteins or polypeptides simultaneously. We describe the protocol of 2D electrophoresis using fluorescent dyes, named 2D Differential Gel Electrophoresis (DIGE). The M1 and M2 macrophages proteins are labelled with cyanine dyes before separation by isoelectric focusing, according to their isoelectric point in the first dimension, and their molecular mass, in the second dimension. Separated protein or polypeptidic spots are then used to detect differences in protein or polypeptide expression levels. The proteomic approaches described here allows the investigation of the macrophage protein changes associated with various disorders like host pathogenicity or microbial toxins. PMID:25408153

  2. 2D signature for detection and identification of drugs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Trofimov, Vyacheslav A.; Varentsova, Svetlana A.; Shen, Jingling; Zhang, Cunlin; Zhou, Qingli; Shi, Yulei

    2011-06-01

    The method of spectral dynamics analysis (SDA-method) is used for obtaining the2D THz signature of drugs. This signature is used for the detection and identification of drugs with similar Fourier spectra by transmitted THz signal. We discuss the efficiency of SDA method for the identification problem of pure methamphetamine (MA), methylenedioxyamphetamine (MDA), 3, 4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA) and Ketamine.

  3. 2-D Imaging of Electron Temperature in Tokamak Plasmas

    SciTech Connect

    T. Munsat; E. Mazzucato; H. Park; C.W. Domier; M. Johnson; N.C. Luhmann Jr.; J. Wang; Z. Xia; I.G.J. Classen; A.J.H. Donne; M.J. van de Pol

    2004-07-08

    By taking advantage of recent developments in millimeter wave imaging technology, an Electron Cyclotron Emission Imaging (ECEI) instrument, capable of simultaneously measuring 128 channels of localized electron temperature over a 2-D map in the poloidal plane, has been developed for the TEXTOR tokamak. Data from the new instrument, detailing the MHD activity associated with a sawtooth crash, is presented.

  4. On the sensitivity of the 2D electromagnetic invisibility cloak

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kaproulias, S.; Sigalas, M. M.

    2012-10-01

    A computational study of the sensitivity of the two dimensional (2D) electromagnetic invisibility cloaks is performed with the finite element method. A circular metallic object is covered with the cloak and the effects of absorption, gain and disorder are examined. Also the effect of covering the cloak with a thin dielectric layer is studied.

  5. Rheological Properties of Quasi-2D Fluids in Microgravity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stannarius, Ralf; Trittel, Torsten; Eremin, Alexey; Harth, Kirsten; Clark, Noel; Maclennan, Joseph; Glaser, Matthew; Park, Cheol; Hall, Nancy; Tin, Padetha

    2015-01-01

    In recent years, research on complex fluids and fluids in restricted geometries has attracted much attention in the scientific community. This can be attributed not only to the development of novel materials based on complex fluids but also to a variety of important physical phenomena which have barely been explored. One example is the behavior of membranes and thin fluid films, which can be described by two-dimensional (2D) rheology behavior that is quite different from 3D fluids. In this study, we have investigated the rheological properties of freely suspended films of a thermotropic liquid crystal in microgravity experiments. This model system mimics isotropic and anisotropic quasi 2D fluids [46]. We use inkjet printing technology to dispense small droplets (inclusions) onto the film surface. The motion of these inclusions provides information on the rheological properties of the films and allows the study of a variety of flow instabilities. Flat films have been investigated on a sub-orbital rocket flight and curved films (bubbles) have been studied in the ISS project OASIS. Microgravity is essential when the films are curved in order to avoid sedimentation. The experiments yield the mobility of the droplets in the films as well as the mutual mobility of pairs of particles. Experimental results will be presented for 2D-isotropic (smectic-A) and 2D-nematic (smectic-C) phases.

  6. 2D molybdenum disulphide (2D-MoS2) modified electrodes explored towards the oxygen reduction reaction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rowley-Neale, Samuel J.; Fearn, Jamie M.; Brownson, Dale A. C.; Smith, Graham C.; Ji, Xiaobo; Banks, Craig E.

    2016-08-01

    Two-dimensional molybdenum disulphide nanosheets (2D-MoS2) have proven to be an effective electrocatalyst, with particular attention being focused on their use towards increasing the efficiency of the reactions associated with hydrogen fuel cells. Whilst the majority of research has focused on the Hydrogen Evolution Reaction (HER), herein we explore the use of 2D-MoS2 as a potential electrocatalyst for the much less researched Oxygen Reduction Reaction (ORR). We stray from literature conventions and perform experiments in 0.1 M H2SO4 acidic electrolyte for the first time, evaluating the electrochemical performance of the ORR with 2D-MoS2 electrically wired/immobilised upon several carbon based electrodes (namely; Boron Doped Diamond (BDD), Edge Plane Pyrolytic Graphite (EPPG), Glassy Carbon (GC) and Screen-Printed Electrodes (SPE)) whilst exploring a range of 2D-MoS2 coverages/masses. Consequently, the findings of this study are highly applicable to real world fuel cell applications. We show that significant improvements in ORR activity can be achieved through the careful selection of the underlying/supporting carbon materials that electrically wire the 2D-MoS2 and utilisation of an optimal mass of 2D-MoS2. The ORR onset is observed to be reduced to ca. +0.10 V for EPPG, GC and SPEs at 2D-MoS2 (1524 ng cm-2 modification), which is far closer to Pt at +0.46 V compared to bare/unmodified EPPG, GC and SPE counterparts. This report is the first to demonstrate such beneficial electrochemical responses in acidic conditions using a 2D-MoS2 based electrocatalyst material on a carbon-based substrate (SPEs in this case). Investigation of the beneficial reaction mechanism reveals the ORR to occur via a 4 electron process in specific conditions; elsewhere a 2 electron process is observed. This work offers valuable insights for those wishing to design, fabricate and/or electrochemically test 2D-nanosheet materials towards the ORR.Two-dimensional molybdenum disulphide nanosheets

  7. The NH2D hyperfine structure revealed by astrophysical observations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Daniel, F.; Coudert, L. H.; Punanova, A.; Harju, J.; Faure, A.; Roueff, E.; Sipilä, O.; Caselli, P.; Güsten, R.; Pon, A.; Pineda, J. E.

    2016-02-01

    Context. The 111-101 lines of ortho- and para-NH2D (o/p-NH2D) at 86 and 110 GHz, respectively, are commonly observed to provide constraints on the deuterium fractionation in the interstellar medium. In cold regions, the hyperfine structure that is due to the nitrogen (14N) nucleus is resolved. To date, this splitting is the only one that is taken into account in the NH2D column density estimates. Aims: We investigate how including the hyperfine splitting caused by the deuterium (D) nucleus affects the analysis of the rotational lines of NH2D. Methods: We present 30 m IRAM observations of the above mentioned lines and APEX o/p-NH2D observations of the 101-000 lines at 333 GHz. The hyperfine patterns of the observed lines were calculated taking into account the splitting induced by the D nucleus. The analysis then relies on line lists that either neglect or include the splitting induced by the D nucleus. Results: The hyperfine spectra are first analyzed with a line list that only includes the hyperfine splitting that is due to the 14N nucleus. We find inconsistencies between the line widths of the 101-000 and 111-101 lines, the latter being larger by a factor of ~1.6 ± 0.3. Such a large difference is unexpected because the two sets of lines probably originate from the same region. We next employed a newly computed line list for the o/p-NH2D transitions where the hyperfine structure induced by both nitrogen and deuterium nuclei was included. With this new line list, the analysis of the previous spectra leads to compatible line widths. Conclusions: Neglecting the hyperfine structure caused by D leads to overestimating the line widths of the o/p-NH2D lines at 3 mm. The error for a cold molecular core is about 50%. This error propagates directly to the column density estimate. We therefore recommend to take the hyperfine splittings caused by both the 14N and D nuclei into account in any analysis that relies on these lines. Based on observations carried out with the IRAM

  8. Half-metallicity in 2D organometallic honeycomb frameworks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sun, Hao; Li, Bin; Zhao, Jin

    2016-10-01

    Half-metallic materials with a high Curie temperature (T C) have many potential applications in spintronics. Magnetic metal free two-dimensional (2D) half-metallic materials with a honeycomb structure contain graphene-like Dirac bands with π orbitals and show excellent aspects in transport properties. In this article, by investigating a series of 2D organometallic frameworks with a honeycomb structure using first principles calculations, we study the origin of forming half-metallicity in this kind of 2D organometallic framework. Our analysis shows that charge transfer and covalent bonding are two crucial factors in the formation of half-metallicity in organometallic frameworks. (i) Sufficient charge transfer from metal atoms to the molecules is essential to form the magnetic centers. (ii) These magnetic centers need to be connected through covalent bonding, which guarantee the strong ferromagnetic (FM) coupling. As examples, the organometallic frameworks composed by (1,3,5)-benzenetricarbonitrile (TCB) molecules with noble metals (Au, Ag, Cu) show half-metallic properties with T C as high as 325 K. In these organometallic frameworks, the strong electronegative cyano-groups (CN groups) drive the charge transfer from metal atoms to the TCB molecules, forming the local magnetic centers. These magnetic centers experience strong FM coupling through the d-p covalent bonding. We propose that most of the 2D organometallic frameworks composed by molecule—CN—noble metal honeycomb structures contain similar half metallicity. This is verified by replacing TCB molecules with other organic molecules. Although the TCB-noble metal organometallic framework has not yet been synthesized, we believe the development of synthesizing techniques and facility will enable the realization of them. Our study provides new insight into the 2D half-metallic material design for the potential applications in nanotechnology.

  9. Half-metallicity in 2D organometallic honeycomb frameworks.

    PubMed

    Sun, Hao; Li, Bin; Zhao, Jin

    2016-10-26

    Half-metallic materials with a high Curie temperature (T C) have many potential applications in spintronics. Magnetic metal free two-dimensional (2D) half-metallic materials with a honeycomb structure contain graphene-like Dirac bands with π orbitals and show excellent aspects in transport properties. In this article, by investigating a series of 2D organometallic frameworks with a honeycomb structure using first principles calculations, we study the origin of forming half-metallicity in this kind of 2D organometallic framework. Our analysis shows that charge transfer and covalent bonding are two crucial factors in the formation of half-metallicity in organometallic frameworks. (i) Sufficient charge transfer from metal atoms to the molecules is essential to form the magnetic centers. (ii) These magnetic centers need to be connected through covalent bonding, which guarantee the strong ferromagnetic (FM) coupling. As examples, the organometallic frameworks composed by (1,3,5)-benzenetricarbonitrile (TCB) molecules with noble metals (Au, Ag, Cu) show half-metallic properties with T C as high as 325 K. In these organometallic frameworks, the strong electronegative cyano-groups (CN groups) drive the charge transfer from metal atoms to the TCB molecules, forming the local magnetic centers. These magnetic centers experience strong FM coupling through the d-p covalent bonding. We propose that most of the 2D organometallic frameworks composed by molecule-CN-noble metal honeycomb structures contain similar half metallicity. This is verified by replacing TCB molecules with other organic molecules. Although the TCB-noble metal organometallic framework has not yet been synthesized, we believe the development of synthesizing techniques and facility will enable the realization of them. Our study provides new insight into the 2D half-metallic material design for the potential applications in nanotechnology.

  10. Half-metallicity in 2D organometallic honeycomb frameworks.

    PubMed

    Sun, Hao; Li, Bin; Zhao, Jin

    2016-10-26

    Half-metallic materials with a high Curie temperature (T C) have many potential applications in spintronics. Magnetic metal free two-dimensional (2D) half-metallic materials with a honeycomb structure contain graphene-like Dirac bands with π orbitals and show excellent aspects in transport properties. In this article, by investigating a series of 2D organometallic frameworks with a honeycomb structure using first principles calculations, we study the origin of forming half-metallicity in this kind of 2D organometallic framework. Our analysis shows that charge transfer and covalent bonding are two crucial factors in the formation of half-metallicity in organometallic frameworks. (i) Sufficient charge transfer from metal atoms to the molecules is essential to form the magnetic centers. (ii) These magnetic centers need to be connected through covalent bonding, which guarantee the strong ferromagnetic (FM) coupling. As examples, the organometallic frameworks composed by (1,3,5)-benzenetricarbonitrile (TCB) molecules with noble metals (Au, Ag, Cu) show half-metallic properties with T C as high as 325 K. In these organometallic frameworks, the strong electronegative cyano-groups (CN groups) drive the charge transfer from metal atoms to the TCB molecules, forming the local magnetic centers. These magnetic centers experience strong FM coupling through the d-p covalent bonding. We propose that most of the 2D organometallic frameworks composed by molecule-CN-noble metal honeycomb structures contain similar half metallicity. This is verified by replacing TCB molecules with other organic molecules. Although the TCB-noble metal organometallic framework has not yet been synthesized, we believe the development of synthesizing techniques and facility will enable the realization of them. Our study provides new insight into the 2D half-metallic material design for the potential applications in nanotechnology. PMID:27541575

  11. Multiple Frequency Contrast Source Inversion Method for Vertical Electromagnetic Profiling: 2D Simulation Results and Analyses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Jinghe; Song, Linping; Liu, Qing Huo

    2016-02-01

    A simultaneous multiple frequency contrast source inversion (CSI) method is applied to reconstructing hydrocarbon reservoir targets in a complex multilayered medium in two dimensions. It simulates the effects of a salt dome sedimentary formation in the context of reservoir monitoring. In this method, the stabilized biconjugate-gradient fast Fourier transform (BCGS-FFT) algorithm is applied as a fast solver for the 2D volume integral equation for the forward computation. The inversion technique with CSI combines the efficient FFT algorithm to speed up the matrix-vector multiplication and the stable convergence of the simultaneous multiple frequency CSI in the iteration process. As a result, this method is capable of making quantitative conductivity image reconstruction effectively for large-scale electromagnetic oil exploration problems, including the vertical electromagnetic profiling (VEP) survey investigated here. A number of numerical examples have been demonstrated to validate the effectiveness and capacity of the simultaneous multiple frequency CSI method for a limited array view in VEP.

  12. 2D label-free imaging of resonant grating biochips in ultraviolet.

    PubMed

    Bougot-Robin, K; Reverchon, J-L; Fromant, M; Mugherli, L; Plateau, P; Benisty, H

    2010-05-24

    2D images of label-free biochips exploiting resonant waveguide grating (RWG) are presented. They indicate sensitivities on the order of 1 pg/mm2 for proteins in air, and hence 10 pg/mm2 in water can be safely expected. A 320x256 pixels Aluminum-Gallium-Nitride-based sensor array is used, with an intrinsic narrow spectral window centered at 280 nm. The additional role of characteristic biological layer absorption at this wavelength is calculated, and regimes revealing its impact are discussed. Experimentally, the resonance of a chip coated with protein is revealed and the sensitivity evaluated through angular spectroscopy and imaging. In addition to a sensitivity similar to surface plasmon resonance (SPR), the RWGs resonance can be flexibly tailored to gain spatial, biochemical, or spectral sensitivity.

  13. Adaptive reorganization of 2D molecular nanoporous network induced by coadsorbed guest molecule.

    PubMed

    Zheng, Qing-Na; Wang, Lei; Zhong, Yu-Wu; Liu, Xuan-He; Chen, Ting; Yan, Hui-Juan; Wang, Dong; Yao, Jian-Nian; Wan, Li-Jun

    2014-03-25

    The ordered array of nanovoids in nanoporous networks, such as honeycomb, Kagome, and square, provides a molecular template for the accommodation of "guest molecules". Compared with the commonly studied guest molecules featuring high symmetry evenly incorporated into the template, guest molecules featuring lower symmetry are rare to report. Herein, we report the formation of a distinct patterned superlattice of guest molecules by selective trapping of guest molecules into the honeycomb network of trimesic acid (TMA). Two distinct surface patterns have been achieved by the guest inclusion induced adaptive reconstruction of a 2D molecular nanoporous network. The honeycomb networks can synergetically tune the arrangement upon inclusion of the guest molecules with different core size but similar peripherals groups, resulting in a trihexagonal Kagome or triangular patterns.

  14. Creeping motion and deformation of liquid drops in flow through 2D model porous media

    SciTech Connect

    Fong, I. )

    1988-01-01

    The motion, deformation and breakup of immiscible drops suspended in low Reynolds number flow through cylinder arrays has been studied experimentally to assess the applicability of the 2D model as a prototype for 2-phase flow through porous media. Both Newtonian and non-Newtonian fluid systems are considered. The relationship between key flow and geometric parameters and the critical condition for breakup, the resulting drop site distribution and the drop mobility is investigated. It is observed that the headon impact of a drop with a cylinder is an effective precursor to severe drop deformation and even breakup. The sequence of flow leading to impact is also important in determining the effectiveness of impact to result in breakup. When many drops fragments are present, the interaction between nearby drops strongly influences the final disposition of the fragments. Fluid elasticity appears to enhance the elongation of drops to form strands, but also to stabilize the strand against breakup.

  15. Optical Signatures from Magnetic 2-D Electron Gases in High Magnetic Fields to 60 Tesla

    SciTech Connect

    Crooker, S.A.; Kikkawa, J.M.; Awschalom, D.D.; Smorchikova, I.P.; Samarth, N.

    1998-11-08

    We present experiments in the 60 Tesla Long-Pulse magnet at the Los Alamos National High Magnetic Field Lab (NHMFL) focusing on the high-field, low temperature photoluminescence (PL) from modulation-doped ZnSe/Zn(Cd,Mn)Se single quantum wells. High-speed charge-coupled array detectors and the long (2 second) duration of the magnet pulse permit continuous acquisition of optical spectra throughout a single magnet shot. High-field PL studies of the magnetic 2D electron gases at temperatures down to 350mK reveal clear intensity oscillations corresponding to integer quantum Hall filling factors, from which we determine the density of the electron gas. At very high magnetic fields, steps in the PL energy are observed which correspond to the partial unlocking of antiferromagnetically bound pairs of Mn2+ spins.

  16. Numerical Study of Microwave Reflectometry in Plasmas with 2D Turbulent Fluctuations

    SciTech Connect

    E. Mazzucato

    1998-02-01

    This paper describes a numerical study of the role played by 2D turbulent fluctuations in microwave reflectometry -- a radar technique for density measurements using the reflection of electromagnetic waves from a plasma cutoff. The results indicate that, if the amplitude of fluctuations is below a threshold which is set by the spectrum of poloidal wavenumbers, the measured backward field appears to originate from a virtual location behind the reflecting layer, and to arise from the phase modulation of the probing wave, with an amplitude given by 1D geometric optics. These results suggest a possible scheme for turbulence measurements in tokamaks, where the backward field is collected with a wide aperture antenna, and the virtual reflecting layer is imaged onto the plane of an array of detectors. Such a scheme should be capable of providing additional information on the nature of the short-scale turbulence observed in tokamaks, which still remains one of the unresolved issues in fusion research.

  17. [Modeling and simulation of responses from ultrasonic linear phased array].

    PubMed

    He, Wenjing; Zhu, Yuanzhong; Wang, Yufeng; He, Lingli; Lai, Siyu

    2012-10-01

    Phased array transducers are very attractive because the beam generated by the arrays can be electronically focused and steered. The present work characterizes far-field 2D properties of phased array system by functions that are deduced from rectangle source, rectangle line array and phased array based on point source. Results are presented for the distribution of ultrasound intensity on plane xoz and on x-axis by simulation using numerical calculation. It is shown that the shape of response of rectangle line array is modulated by the single array element. It is also demonstrated that the delay time of phased array is the key to steer the beam, sacrificing the value of main lobe and increasing the number of side lobes.

  18. 2D-2D tunneling field-effect transistors using WSe2/SnSe2 heterostructures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roy, Tania; Tosun, Mahmut; Hettick, Mark; Ahn, Geun Ho; Hu, Chenming; Javey, Ali

    2016-02-01

    Two-dimensional materials present a versatile platform for developing steep transistors due to their uniform thickness and sharp band edges. We demonstrate 2D-2D tunneling in a WSe2/SnSe2 van der Waals vertical heterojunction device, where WSe2 is used as the gate controlled p-layer and SnSe2 is the degenerately n-type layer. The van der Waals gap facilitates the regulation of band alignment at the heterojunction, without the necessity of a tunneling barrier. ZrO2 is used as the gate dielectric, allowing the scaling of gate oxide to improve device subthreshold swing. Efficient gate control and clean interfaces yield a subthreshold swing of ˜100 mV/dec for >2 decades of drain current at room temperature, hitherto unobserved in 2D-2D tunneling devices. The subthreshold swing is independent of temperature, which is a clear signature of band-to-band tunneling at the heterojunction. A maximum switching ratio ION/IOFF of 107 is obtained. Negative differential resistance in the forward bias characteristics is observed at 77 K. This work bodes well for the possibilities of two-dimensional materials for the realization of energy-efficient future-generation electronics.

  19. Accurate coronary modeling procedure using 2D calibrated projections based on 2D centerline points on a single projection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Movassaghi, Babak; Rasche, Volker; Viergever, Max A.; Niessen, Wiro J.

    2004-05-01

    For the diagnosis of ischemic heart disease, accurate quantitative analysis of the coronary arteries is important. In coronary angiography, a number of projections is acquired from which 3D models of the coronaries can be reconstructed. A signifcant limitation of the current 3D modeling procedures is the required user interaction for defining the centerlines of the vessel structures in the 2D projections. Currently, the 3D centerlines of the coronary tree structure are calculated based on the interactively determined centerlines in two projections. For every interactively selected centerline point in a first projection the corresponding point in a second projection has to be determined interactively by the user. The correspondence is obtained based on the epipolar-geometry. In this paper a method is proposed to retrieve all the information required for the modeling procedure, by the interactive determination of the 2D centerline-points in only one projection. For every determined 2D centerline-point the corresponding 3D centerline-point is calculated by the analysis of the 1D gray value functions of the corresponding epipolarlines in space for all available 2D projections. This information is then used to build a 3D representation of the coronary arteries using coronary modeling techniques. The approach is illustrated on the analysis of calibrated phantom and calibrated coronary projection data.

  20. Reconfigurable site-selective manipulation of atomic quantum systems in two-dimensional arrays of dipole traps

    SciTech Connect

    Kruse, J.; Gierl, C.; Schlosser, M.; Birkl, G.

    2010-06-15

    We trap atoms in versatile two-dimensional (2D) arrays of optical potentials, prepare flexible 2D spin configurations, perform site-selective coherent manipulation, and demonstrate the implementation of simultaneous measurements of different system properties, such as dephasing and decoherence. This approach for the flexible manipulation of atomic quantum systems is based on the combination of 2D arrays of microlenses and 2D arrays of liquid crystal light modulators. This offers extended types of control for the investigation of quantum degenerate gases, quantum information processing, and quantum simulations.

  1. SU-E-T-05: A 2D EPID Transit Dosimetry Model Based On An Empirical Quadratic Formalism

    SciTech Connect

    Tan, Y; Metwaly, M; Glegg, M; Baggarley, S; Elliott, A

    2014-06-01

    Purpose: To describe a 2D electronic portal imaging device (EPID) transit dosimetry model, based on an empirical quadratic formalism, that can predict either EPID or in-phantom dose distribution for comparisons with EPID captured image or treatment planning system (TPS) dose respectively. Methods: A quadratic equation can be used to relate the reduction in intensity of an exit beam to the equivalent path length of the attenuator. The calibration involved deriving coefficients from a set of dose planes measured for homogeneous phantoms with known thicknesses under reference conditions. In this study, calibration dose planes were measured with EPID and ionisation chamber (IC) in water for the same reference beam (6MV, 100mu, 20×20cm{sup 2}) and set of thicknesses (0–30cm). Since the same calibration conditions were used, the EPID and IC measurements can be related through the quadratic equation. Consequently, EPID transit dose can be predicted from TPS exported dose planes and in-phantom dose can be predicted using EPID distribution captured during treatment as an input. The model was tested with 4 open fields, 6 wedge fields, and 7 IMRT fields on homogeneous and heterogeneous phantoms. Comparisons were done using 2D absolute gamma (3%/3mm) and results were validated against measurements with a commercial 2D array device. Results: The gamma pass rates for comparisons between EPID measured and predicted ranged from 93.6% to 100.0% for all fields and phantoms tested. Results from this study agreed with 2D array measurements to within 3.1%. Meanwhile, comparisons in-phantom between TPS computed and predicted ranged from 91.6% to 100.0%. Validation with 2D array device was not possible for inphantom comparisons. Conclusion: A 2D EPID transit dosimetry model for treatment verification was described and proven to be accurate. The model has the advantage of being generic and allows comparisons at the EPID plane as well as multiple planes in-phantom.

  2. 2-D inner-shelf current observations from a single VHF WEllen RAdar (WERA) station

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Voulgaris, G.; Kumar, N.; Gurgel, K.-W.; Warner, J.C.; List, J.H.

    2011-01-01

    The majority of High Frequency (HF) radars used worldwide operate at medium to high frequencies (8 to 30 MHz) providing spatial resolutions ranging from 3 to 1.5 km and ranges from 150 to 50 km. This paper presents results from the deployment of a single Very High Frequency (VHF, 48 MHz) WEllen RAdar (WERA) radar with spatial resolution of 150 m and range 10-15 km, used in the nearshore off Cape Hatteras, NC, USA. It consisted of a linear array of 12 antennas operating in beam forming mode. Radial velocities were estimated from radar backscatter for a variety of wind and nearshore wave conditions. A methodology similar to that used for converting acoustically derived beam velocities to an orthogonal system is presented for obtaining 2-D current fields from a single station. The accuracy of the VHF radar-derived radial velocities is examined using a new statistical technique that evaluates the system over the range of measured velocities. The VHF radar velocities showed a bias of 3 to 7 cm/s over the experimental period explainable by the differences in radar penetration and in-situ measurement height. The 2-D current field shows good agreement with the in-situ measurements. Deviations and inaccuracies are well explained by the geometric dilution analysis. ?? 2011 IEEE.

  3. Dataset of differentially expressed genes from SOX9 over-expressing NT2/D1 cells.

    PubMed

    Ludbrook, Louisa; Alankarage, Dimuthu; Bagheri-Fam, Stefan; Harley, Vincent

    2016-12-01

    The data presents the genes that are differentially up-regulated or down-regulated in response to SOX9 in a human Sertoli-like cell line, NT2/D1. The dataset includes genes that may be implicated in gonad development and are further explored in our associated article, "SOX9 Regulates Expression of the Male Fertility Gene Ets Variant Factor 5 (ETV5) during Mammalian Sex Development" (D. lankarage, R. Lavery, T. Svingen, S. Kelly, L.M. Ludbrook, S. Bagheri-Fam, et al., 2016) [1]. The necessity of SOX9 for male sex development is evident in instances where SOX9 is lost, as in 46, XY DSD where patients are sex reversed or in mouse knock-out models, where mice lacking Sox9 are sex reversed. Despite the crucial nature of this transcriptional activator, downstream target genes of SOX9 remain largely undiscovered. Here, we have utilized NT2/D1 cells to transiently over-express SOX9 and performed microarray analysis of the RNA. Microarray data are available in the ArrayExpress database (www.ebi.ac.uk/arrayexpress) under accession number E-MTAB-3378. PMID:27656672

  4. Strain-induced Fermi contour anisotropy of GaAs (311)A 2D holes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shabani, Javad; Shayegan, Mansour; Winkler, Roland

    2008-03-01

    There is considerable current interest in electronic properties of two-dimensional (2D) carriers whose energy bands are spin-split at finite values of in-plane wave vector, thanks to the spin-orbit interaction and the lack of inversion symmetry. We report experimental and theoretical results revealing that the spin-subband Fermi contours of the heavy and light heavy-holes (HHh and HHl) can be tuned in high mobility GaAs (311)A 2D hole systems via the application of symmetry-breaking in-plane strain. Our calculations show that the HHl spin-subband Fermi contour is circular but the HHh spin-subband Fermi contour is distorted. Experimentally, we probe the Fermi contour anisotropy by measuring the magneto-resistance commensurability peaks induced by square arrays of antidots. When the spin splitting is sufficiently large, the magneto-resistance trace exhibits two peaks, providing clear evidence for spin-resolved ballistic transport. The experimental results are in good agreement with the calculations, and confirm that the majority spin-subband (HHh) has a severely distorted Fermi contour whose anisotropy can be tuned with strain while Fermi contour of the minority spin-subband (HHl) remains nearly isotropic.

  5. Microdischarge arrays

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shi, Wenhui

    Microhollow cathode discharges (MHCDs) are DC or pulsed gas discharges between two electrodes, separated by a dielectric, and containing a concentric hole. The diameter of the hole, in this hollow cathode configuration, is in the hundred-micrometer range. MHCDs satisfy the two conditions necessary for an efficient excimer radiation sources: (1) high energy electrons which are required to provide a high concentration of excited or ionized rare gas atoms; (2) high pressure operation which favors excimer formation (a three-body process). Flat panel excimer sources require parallel operation of MHCDs. Based on the current-voltage characteristics of MHCD discharges, which have positive slopes in the low current (Townsend) mode and in the abnormal glow mode, stable arrays of MHCD discharges in argon and xenon could be generated in these current ranges without ballasting each MHCD separately. In the Townsend range, these arrays could be operated up to pressures of 400 Torr. In the abnormal glow mode, discharge arrays were found to be stable up to atmospheric pressure. By using semi-insulating silicon as the anode material, the stable operation of MHCD arrays could be extended to the current range with constant voltage (normal glow) and also that with negative differential conductance (hollow cathode discharge region). Experiments with a cathode geometry without microholes, i.e. excluding the hollow cathode phase, revealed that stable operation of discharges over an extended area were possible. The discharge structure in this configuration reduces to only the cathode fall and negative glow, with the negative glow plasma serving to conduct the discharge current radially to the circular anode. With decreasing current, a transition from homogenous plasma to self-organized plasma filaments is observed. Array formation was not only studied with discharges in parallel, but also with MHCD discharges in series. By using a sandwich electrode configuration, a tandem discharge was

  6. H{sub 2}D{sup +} IN THE HIGH-MASS STAR-FORMING REGION CYGNUS X

    SciTech Connect

    Pillai, T.; Lis, D. C.; Caselli, P.; Kauffmann, J.; Zhang, Q.; Thompson, M. A.

    2012-06-01

    H{sub 2}D{sup +} is a primary ion that dominates the gas-phase chemistry of cold dense gas. Therefore, it is hailed as a unique tool in probing the earliest, prestellar phase of star formation. Observationally, its abundance and distribution is, however, just beginning to be understood in low-mass prestellar and cluster-forming cores. In high-mass star-forming regions, H{sub 2}D{sup +} has been detected only in two cores, and its spatial distribution remains unknown. Here, we present the first map of the ortho-H{sub 2}D{sup +} J{sub k{sup +},k{sup -}} = 1{sub 1,0} {yields} 1{sub 1,1} and N{sub 2}H{sup +} 4-3 transition in the DR21 filament of Cygnus X with the James Clerk Maxwell Telescope, and N{sub 2}D{sup +} 3-2 and dust continuum with the Submillimeter Array. We have discovered five very extended ({<=}34, 000 AU diameter) weak structures in H{sub 2}D{sup +} in the vicinity of, but distinctly offset from, embedded protostars. More surprisingly, the H{sub 2}D{sup +} peak is not associated with either a dust continuum or N{sub 2}D{sup +} peak. We have therefore uncovered extended massive cold dense gas that was undetected with previous molecular line and dust continuum surveys of the region. This work also shows that our picture of the structure of cores is too simplistic for cluster-forming cores and needs to be refined: neither dust continuum with existing capabilities nor emission in tracers like N{sub 2}D{sup +} can provide a complete census of the total prestellar gas in such regions. Sensitive H{sub 2}D{sup +} mapping of the entire DR21 filament is likely to discover more of such cold quiescent gas reservoirs in an otherwise active high-mass star-forming region.

  7. De-Li-DAQ-2D - a new data acquisition system for position-sensitive neutron detectors with delay-line readout

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Levchanovskiy, F. V.; Murashkevich, S. M.

    2016-09-01

    Software for a data acquisition system of modern one- and two-dimensional position-sensitive detectors with delay-line readout, which includes a software interface to a new electronic module De-Li-DAQ-2D with a USB interface, is presented. The new system after successful tests on the stand and on several spectrometers of the IBR-2 reactor has been integrated into the software complex SONIX+ [1]. The De-Li- DAQ-2D module [2] contains an 8-channel time-code converter (TDC-GPX) with a time resolution of 80 ps, field programmable gate array (FPGA), 1 Gbyte histogram memory and high-speed interface with a fiber-optic communication line. A real count rate is no less than 106 events/s. The De-Li-DAQ-2D module is implemented in the NIM standard. The De-Li-DAQ-2D module can operate in two modes: histogram mode and list mode.

  8. Interpretation of Magnetic Phase Anomalies over 2D Tabular Bodies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Subrahmanyam, M.

    2016-05-01

    In this study, phase angle (inverse tangent of the ratio of the horizontal to vertical gradients of magnetic anomalies) profile over two-dimensional tabular bodies has been subjected to detailed analysis for determining the source parameters. Distances between certain characteristic positions on this phase curve are related to the parameters of two-dimensional tabular magnetic sources. In this paper, I have derived the mathematical expressions for these relations. It has been demonstrated here that for locating the origin of the 2D tabular source, knowledge on the type of the model (contact, sheet, dyke, and fault) is not necessary. A procedure is evolved to determine the location, depth, width and magnetization angle of the 2D sources from the mathematical expressions. The method is tested on real field data. The effect of the overlapping bodies is also discussed with two synthetic examples. The interpretation technique is developed for contact, sheet, dike and inclined fault bodies.

  9. 2-D Magnetohydrodynamic Modeling of A Pulsed Plasma Thruster

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thio, Y. C. Francis; Cassibry, J. T.; Wu, S. T.; Rodgers, Stephen L. (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    Experiments are being performed on the NASA Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) MK-1 pulsed plasma thruster. Data produced from the experiments provide an opportunity to further understand the plasma dynamics in these thrusters via detailed computational modeling. The detailed and accurate understanding of the plasma dynamics in these devices holds the key towards extending their capabilities in a number of applications, including their applications as high power (greater than 1 MW) thrusters, and their use for producing high-velocity, uniform plasma jets for experimental purposes. For this study, the 2-D MHD modeling code, MACH2, is used to provide detailed interpretation of the experimental data. At the same time, a 0-D physics model of the plasma initial phase is developed to guide our 2-D modeling studies.

  10. Continuum Nonsimple Loops and 2D Critical Percolation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Camia, Federico; Newman, Charles M.

    2004-08-01

    Substantial progress has been made in recent years on the 2D critical percolation scaling limit and its conformal invariance properties. In particular, chordal SLE 6(the Stochastic Loewner Evolution with parameter κ=6) was, in the work of Schramm and of Smirnov, identified as the scaling limit of the critical percolation "exploration process." In this paper we use that and other results to construct what we argue is the fullscaling limit of the collection of allclosed contours surrounding the critical percolation clusters on the 2D triangular lattice. This random process or gas of continuum nonsimple loops in Bbb R2is constructed inductively by repeated use of chordal SLE 6. These loops do not cross but do touch each other—indeed, any two loops are connected by a finite "path" of touching loops.

  11. Functionalized 2D atomic sheets with new properties

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sun, Qiang; Zhou, Jian; Wang, Qian; Jena, Puru

    2011-03-01

    Due to the unique atomic structure and novel physical and chemical properties, graphene has sparked tremendous theoretical and experimental efforts to explore other 2D atomic sheets like B-N, Al-N, and Zn-O, where the two components offer much more complexities and flexibilities in surface modifications. Using First principles calculations based on density functional theory, we have systematically studied the semi- and fully-decorated 2D sheets with H and F and Cl. We have found that the electronic structures and magnetic properties can be effectively tuned, and the system can be a direct or an indirect semiconductor or even a half-metal, and the system can be made ferromagnetic, antiferromagnetic, or magnetically degenerate depending upon how the surface is functionalized. Discussions are made for the possible device applications.

  12. A Better 2-D Mechanical Energy Conservation Experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Paesler, Michael

    2012-02-01

    A variety of simple classical mechanics energy conservation experiments are used in teaching laboratories. Typical one-dimensional (1-D) setups may involve falling balls or oscillating springs. Many of these can be quite satisfying in that students can confirm—within a few percent—that mechanical energy is conserved. Students generally have little trouble identifying discrepancies such as the loss of a few percent of the gravitational potential energy due to air friction encountered by a falling ball. Two-dimensional (2-D) systems can require more sophisticated analysis for higher level laboratories, but such systems often incorporate complicating components that can make the exercise academically incomplete and experimentally less accurate. The following describes a simple 2-D energy conservation experiment based on the popular "Newton's Cradle" toy that allows students to account for nearly all of the mechanical energy in the system in an academically complete analysis.

  13. Critical Dynamics in Quenched 2D Atomic Gases

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Larcher, F.; Dalfovo, F.; Proukakis, N. P.

    2016-05-01

    Non-equilibrium dynamics across phase transitions is a subject of intense investigations in diverse physical systems. One of the key issues concerns the validity of the Kibble-Zurek (KZ) scaling law for spontaneous defect creation. The KZ mechanism has been recently studied in cold atoms experiments. Interesting open questions arise in the case of 2D systems, due to the distinct nature of the Berezinskii-Kosterlitz-Thouless (BKT) transition. Our studies rely on the stochastic Gross-Pitaevskii equation. We perform systematic numerical simulations of the spontaneous emergence and subsequent dynamics of vortices in a uniform 2D Bose gas, which is quenched across the BKT phase transition in a controlled manner, focusing on dynamical scaling and KZ-type effects. By varying the transverse confinement, we also look at the extent to which such features can be seen in current experiments. Financial support from EPSRC and Provincia Autonoma di Trento.

  14. Defect Dynamics in Active 2D Nematic Liquid Crystals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Decamp, Stephen; Redner, Gabriel; Hagan, Michael; Dogic, Zvonimir

    2014-03-01

    Active materials are assemblies of animate, energy-consuming objects that exhibit continuous dynamics. As such, they have properties that are dramatically different from those found in conventional materials made of inanimate objects. We present a 2D active nematic liquid crystal composed of bundled microtubules and kinesin motor proteins that exists in a dynamic steady-state far from equilibrium. The active nematic exhibits spontaneous binding and unbinding of charge +1/2 and -1/2 disclination defects as well as streaming of +1/2 defects. By tuning ATP concentration, we precisely control the amount of activity, a key parameter of the system. We characterize the dynamics of streaming defects on a large, flat, 2D interface using quantitative polarization light microscopy. We report fundamental characteristics of the active nematics such as defect velocities, defect creation and annihilation rates, and emergent length scales in the system.

  15. Visualization of 2-D and 3-D Tensor Fields

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hesselink, Lambertus

    1997-01-01

    In previous work we have developed a novel approach to visualizing second order symmetric 2-D tensor fields based on degenerate point analysis. At degenerate points the eigenvalues are either zero or equal to each other, and the hyper-streamlines about these points give rise to tri-sector or wedge points. These singularities and their connecting hyper-streamlines determine the topology of the tensor field. In this study we are developing new methods for analyzing and displaying 3-D tensor fields. This problem is considerably more difficult than the 2-D one, as the richness of the data set is much larger. Here we report on our progress and a novel method to find , analyze and display 3-D degenerate points. First we discuss the theory, then an application involving a 3-D tensor field, the Boussinesq problem with two forces.

  16. Visualization of 2-D and 3-D Tensor Fields

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hesselink, Lambertus

    1995-01-01

    In previous work we have developed a novel approach to visualizing second order symmetric 2-D tensor fields based on degenerate point analysis. At degenerate points the eigenvalues are either zero or equal to each other, and the hyperstreamlines about these points give rise to trisector or wedge points. These singularities and their connecting hyperstreamlines determine the topology of the tensor field. In this study we are developing new methods for analyzing and displaying 3-D tensor fields. This problem is considerably more difficult than the 2-D one, as the richness of the data set is much larger. Here we report on our progress and a novel method to find, analyze and display 3-D degenerate points. First we discuss the theory, then an application involving a 3-D tensor field, the Boussinesq problem with two forces.

  17. 2D FEM Heat Transfer & E&M Field Code

    SciTech Connect

    1992-04-02

    TOPAZ and TOPAZ2D are two-dimensional implicit finite element computer codes for heat transfer analysis. TOPAZ2D can also be used to solve electrostatic and magnetostatic problems. The programs solve for the steady-state or transient temperature or electrostatic and magnetostatic potential field on two-dimensional planar or axisymmetric geometries. Material properties may be temperature or potential-dependent and either isotropic or orthotropic. A variety of time and temperature-dependent boundary conditions can be specified including temperature, flux, convection, and radiation. By implementing the user subroutine feature, users can model chemical reaction kinetics and allow for any type of functional representation of boundary conditions and internal heat generation. The programs can solve problems of diffuse and specular band radiation in an enclosure coupled with conduction in the material surrounding the enclosure. Additional features include thermal contact resistance across an interface, bulk fluids, phase change, and energy balances.

  18. 2D ice from first principles: structures and phase transitions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Ji; Schusteritsch, Georg; Pickard, Chris J.; Salzmann, Christoph G.; Michaelides, Angelos

    Despite relevance to disparate areas such as cloud microphysics and tribology, major gaps in the understanding of the structures and phase transitions of low-dimensional water ice remain. Here we report a first principles study of confined 2D ice as a function of pressure. We find that at ambient pressure hexagonal and pentagonal monolayer structures are the two lowest enthalpy phases identified. Upon mild compression the pentagonal structure becomes the most stable and persists up to ca. 2 GPa at which point square and rhombic phases are stable. The square phase agrees with recent experimental observations of square ice confined within graphene sheets. We also find a double layer AA stacked square ice phase, which clarifies the difference between experimental observations and earlier force field simulations. This work provides a fresh perspective on 2D confined ice, highlighting the sensitivity of the structures observed to both the confining pressure and width.

  19. 2D FEM Heat Transfer & E&M Field Code

    1992-04-02

    TOPAZ and TOPAZ2D are two-dimensional implicit finite element computer codes for heat transfer analysis. TOPAZ2D can also be used to solve electrostatic and magnetostatic problems. The programs solve for the steady-state or transient temperature or electrostatic and magnetostatic potential field on two-dimensional planar or axisymmetric geometries. Material properties may be temperature or potential-dependent and either isotropic or orthotropic. A variety of time and temperature-dependent boundary conditions can be specified including temperature, flux, convection, and radiation.more » By implementing the user subroutine feature, users can model chemical reaction kinetics and allow for any type of functional representation of boundary conditions and internal heat generation. The programs can solve problems of diffuse and specular band radiation in an enclosure coupled with conduction in the material surrounding the enclosure. Additional features include thermal contact resistance across an interface, bulk fluids, phase change, and energy balances.« less

  20. FPCAS2D user's guide, version 1.0

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bakhle, Milind A.

    1994-12-01

    The FPCAS2D computer code has been developed for aeroelastic stability analysis of bladed disks such as those in fans, compressors, turbines, propellers, or propfans. The aerodynamic analysis used in this code is based on the unsteady two-dimensional full potential equation which is solved for a cascade of blades. The structural analysis is based on a two degree-of-freedom rigid typical section model for each blade. Detailed explanations of the aerodynamic analysis, the numerical algorithms, and the aeroelastic analysis are not given in this report. This guide can be used to assist in the preparation of the input data required by the FPCAS2D code. A complete description of the input data is provided in this report. In addition, four test cases, including inputs and outputs, are provided.

  1. Report of the 1988 2-D Intercomparison Workshop, chapter 3

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jackman, Charles H.; Brasseur, Guy; Soloman, Susan; Guthrie, Paul D.; Garcia, Rolando; Yung, Yuk L.; Gray, Lesley J.; Tung, K. K.; Ko, Malcolm K. W.; Isaken, Ivar

    1989-01-01

    Several factors contribute to the errors encountered. With the exception of the line-by-line model, all of the models employ simplifying assumptions that place fundamental limits on their accuracy and range of validity. For example, all 2-D modeling groups use the diffusivity factor approximation. This approximation produces little error in tropospheric H2O and CO2 cooling rates, but can produce significant errors in CO2 and O3 cooling rates at the stratopause. All models suffer from fundamental uncertainties in shapes and strengths of spectral lines. Thermal flux algorithms being used in 2-D tracer tranport models produce cooling rates that differ by as much as 40 percent for the same input model atmosphere. Disagreements of this magnitude are important since the thermal cooling rates must be subtracted from the almost-equal solar heating rates to derive the net radiative heating rates and the 2-D model diabatic circulation. For much of the annual cycle, the net radiative heating rates are comparable in magnitude to the cooling rate differences described. Many of the models underestimate the cooling rates in the middle and lower stratosphere. The consequences of these errors for the net heating rates and the diabatic circulation will depend on their meridional structure, which was not tested here. Other models underestimate the cooling near 1 mbar. Suchs errors pose potential problems for future interactive ozone assessment studies, since they could produce artificially-high temperatures and increased O3 destruction at these levels. These concerns suggest that a great deal of work is needed to improve the performance of thermal cooling rate algorithms used in the 2-D tracer transport models.

  2. NASA High-Speed 2D Photogrammetric Measurement System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dismond, Harriett R.

    2012-01-01

    The object of this report is to provide users of the NASA high-speed 2D photogrammetric measurement system with procedures required to obtain drop-model trajectory and impact data for full-scale and sub-scale models. This guide focuses on use of the system for vertical drop testing at the NASA Langley Landing and Impact Research (LandIR) Facility.

  3. Valley and electric photocurrents in 2D silicon and graphene

    SciTech Connect

    Tarasenko, S. A.; Ivchenko, E. L.; Olbrich, P.; Ganichev, S. D.

    2013-12-04

    We show that the optical excitation of multi-valley systems leads to valley currents which depend on the light polarization. The net electric current, determined by the vector sum of single-valley contributions, vanishes for some peculiar distributions of carriers in the valley and momentum spaces forming a pure valley current. We report on the study of this phenomenon, both experimental and theoretical, for graphene and 2D electron channels on the silicon surface.

  4. Flow transitions in a 2D directional solidification model

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Larroude, Philippe; Ouazzani, Jalil; Alexander, J. Iwan D.

    1992-01-01

    Flow transitions in a Two Dimensional (2D) model of crystal growth were examined using the Bridgman-Stockbarger me thod. Using a pseudo-spectral Chebyshev collocation method, the governing equations yield solutions which exhibit a symmetry breaking flow tansition and oscillatory behavior indicative of a Hopf bifurcation at higher values of Ra. The results are discussed from fluid dynamic viewpoint, and broader implications for process models are also addressed.

  5. Improving VERITAS sensitivity by fitting 2D Gaussian image parameters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Christiansen, Jodi; VERITAS Collaboration

    2012-12-01

    Our goal is to improve the acceptance and angular resolution of VERITAS by implementing a camera image-fitting algorithm. Elliptical image parameters are extracted from 2D Gaussian distribution fits using a χ2 minimization instead of the standard technique based on the principle moments of an island of pixels above threshold. We optimize the analysis cuts and then characterize the improvements using simulations. We find an improvement of 20% less observing time to reach 5-sigma for weak point sources.

  6. Fermi liquid parameters of a 2D 3He film

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lusher, C. P.; Saunders, J.; Cowan, B. P.

    1990-08-01

    A temperature independent magnetic susceptibility has been observed for the second layer of 3He on graphite for second layer surface densities less than 0.055 Å -2, consistent with 2D Fermi liquid behaviour. The Landau parameter Foa is determined using known values of m ∗/m. The relative dependence of these two parameters is in good agreement with almost localised Fermion theory, as is the case in bulk liquid 3He.

  7. Energy level transitions of gas in a 2D nanopore

    SciTech Connect

    Grinyaev, Yurii V.; Chertova, Nadezhda V.; Psakhie, Sergei G.

    2015-10-27

    An analytical study of gas behavior in a 2D nanopore was performed. It is shown that the temperature dependence of gas energy can be stepwise due to transitions from one size-quantized subband to another. Taking into account quantum size effects results in energy level transitions governed by the nanopore size, temperature and gas density. This effect leads to an abrupt change of gas heat capacity in the nanopore at the above varying system parameters.

  8. CBEAM. 2-D: a two-dimensional beam field code

    SciTech Connect

    Dreyer, K.A.

    1985-05-01

    CBEAM.2-D is a two-dimensional solution of Maxwell's equations for the case of an electron beam propagating through an air medium. Solutions are performed in the beam-retarded time frame. Conductivity is calculated self-consistently with field equations, allowing sophisticated dependence of plasma parameters to be handled. A unique feature of the code is that it is implemented on an IBM PC microcomputer in the BASIC language. Consequently, it should be available to a wide audience.

  9. An inverse design method for 2D airfoil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liang, Zhi-Yong; Cui, Peng; Zhang, Gen-Bao

    2010-03-01

    The computational method for aerodynamic design of aircraft is applied more universally than before, in which the design of an airfoil is a hot problem. The forward problem is discussed by most relative papers, but inverse method is more useful in practical designs. In this paper, the inverse design of 2D airfoil was investigated. A finite element method based on the variational principle was used for carrying out. Through the simulation, it was shown that the method was fit for the design.

  10. The Kubo-Greenwood expression and 2d MIT transport

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Castner, Theodore

    2010-03-01

    The 2d MIT in GaAs heterostructures (p- and n-type)features a mobility that drops continuously as the reduced density x= n/nc-1 is decreased. The Kubo-Greenwood result [1] predicts μ = (eɛh/hnc)α^2(x) where α is a normalized DOS. α(x)is obtained from the data [p-type, Gao et al. [2]; n-type Lilly et al. [3

  11. 2D and 3D Traveling Salesman Problem

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Haxhimusa, Yll; Carpenter, Edward; Catrambone, Joseph; Foldes, David; Stefanov, Emil; Arns, Laura; Pizlo, Zygmunt

    2011-01-01

    When a two-dimensional (2D) traveling salesman problem (TSP) is presented on a computer screen, human subjects can produce near-optimal tours in linear time. In this study we tested human performance on a real and virtual floor, as well as in a three-dimensional (3D) virtual space. Human performance on the real floor is as good as that on a…

  12. F-theory and 2d (0, 2) theories

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schäfer-Nameki, Sakura; Weigand, Timo

    2016-05-01

    F-theory compactified on singular, elliptically fibered Calabi-Yau five-folds gives rise to two-dimensional gauge theories preserving N = (0 , 2) supersymmetry. In this paper we initiate the study of such compactifications and determine the dictionary between the geometric data of the elliptic fibration and the 2d gauge theory such as the matter content in terms of (0 , 2) superfields and their supersymmetric couplings. We study this setup both from a gauge-theoretic point of view, in terms of the partially twisted 7-brane theory, and provide a global geometric description based on the structure of the elliptic fibration and its singularities. Global consistency conditions are determined and checked against the dual M-theory compactification to one dimension. This includes a discussion of gauge anomalies, the structure of the Green-Schwarz terms and the Chern-Simons couplings in the dual M-theory supersymmetric quantum mechanics. Furthermore, by interpreting the resulting 2d (0 , 2) theories as heterotic worldsheet theories, we propose a correspondence between the geometric data of elliptically fibered Calabi-Yau five-folds and the target space of a heterotic gauged linear sigma-model (GLSM). In particular the correspondence between the Landau-Ginsburg and sigma-model phase of a 2d (0 , 2) GLSM is realized via different T-branes or gluing data in F-theory.

  13. Dopamine D2/D3 receptor availability and venturesomeness.

    PubMed

    Bernow, Nina; Yakushev, Igor; Landvogt, Christian; Buchholz, Hans-Georg; Smolka, Michael N; Bartenstein, Peter; Lieb, Klaus; Gründer, Gerhard; Vernaleken, Ingo; Schreckenberger, Mathias; Fehr, Christoph

    2011-08-30

    The construct of impulsivity is considered as a major trait of personality. There is growing evidence that the mesolimbic dopamine system plays an important role in the modulation of impulsivity and venturesomeness, the two key components within the impulsivity-construct. The aim of the present study was to explore an association between trait impulsivity measured with self-assessment and the dopaminergic neurotransmission as measured by positron emission tomography (PET) in a cohort of healthy male subjects. In vivo D2/D3 receptor availability was determined with [(18)F]fallypride PET in 18 non-smoking healthy subjects. The character trait impulsivity was measured using the Impulsiveness-Venturesomeness-Empathy questionnaire (I7). Image processing and statistical analysis was performed on a voxel-by-voxel basis using statistical parametric mapping (SPM) software. The I7 subscale venturesomeness correlated positively with the D2/D3 receptor availability within the left temporal cortex and the thalamus. Measures on the I7 subscale impulsiveness and empathy did not correlate with the D2/D3 receptor availability in any brain region investigated. Our results suggest the involvement of extrastriatal dopaminergic neurotransmission in venturesomeness, a component of impulsivity. PMID:21689908

  14. Photonic crystal based 2D integrating cell for sensing applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fohrmann, Lena Simone; Petrov, Alexander Y.; Sommer, Gerrit; Krauss, Thomas; Eich, Manfred

    2016-04-01

    We present a concept of a silicon slab based 2D integrating cell where photonic crystal (PhC) reflectors are used in order to confine light in a two-dimensional area to acquire a long propagation length. The evanescent field of the guided wave can be used for sensing applications. We use FDTD simulations to investigate the dependence of the reflectivity of photonic crystal mirrors with a hexagonal lattice. The reflectivity in ΓM direction demonstrates reduced vertical losses compared to the ΓK direction and can be further improved by adiabatically tapering the hole radii of the photonic crystal. A small hexagonal 2D integrating cell was studied with PhC boundaries oriented in ΓM and ΓK direction. It is shown that average reflectivities of 99% can be obtained in a rectangular 2D cell with optimized reflector design, limited only by residual vertical scattering losses at the PhC boundary. This reflectivity is already comparable to the best metallic reflectors.

  15. Broadband THz Spectroscopy of 2D Nanoscale Materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Lu; Tripathi, Shivendra; Huang, Mengchen; Hsu, Jen-Feng; D'Urso, Brian; Lee, Hyungwoo; Eom, Chang-Beom; Irvin, Patrick; Levy, Jeremy

    Two-dimensional (2D) materials such as graphene and transition-metal dichalcogenides (TMDC) have attracted intense research interest in the past decade. Their unique electronic and optical properties offer the promise of novel optoelectronic applications in the terahertz regime. Recently, generation and detection of broadband terahertz (10 THz bandwidth) emission from 10-nm-scale LaAlO3/SrTiO3 nanostructures created by conductive atomic force microscope (c-AFM) lithography has been demonstrated . This unprecedented control of THz emission at 10 nm length scales creates a pathway toward hybrid THz functionality in 2D-material/LaAlO3/SrTiO3 heterostructures. Here we report initial efforts in THz spectroscopy of 2D nanoscale materials with resolution comparable to the dimensions of the nanowire (10 nm). Systems under investigation include graphene, single-layer molybdenum disulfide (MoS2), and tungsten diselenide (WSe2) nanoflakes. 1. Y. Ma, et al., Nano Lett. 13, 2884 (2013). We gratefully acknowledge financial support from the following agencies and grants: AFOSR (FA9550-12-1-0268 (JL, PRI), FA9550-12-1-0342 (CBE)), ONR (N00014-13-1-0806 (JL, CBE), N00014-15-1-2847 (JL)), NSF DMR-1124131 (JL, CBE) and DMR-1234096 (CBE).

  16. An Intercomparison of 2-D Models Within a Common Framework

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Weisenstein, Debra K.; Ko, Malcolm K. W.; Scott, Courtney J.; Jackman, Charles H.; Fleming, Eric L.; Considine, David B.; Kinnison, Douglas E.; Connell, Peter S.; Rotman, Douglas A.; Bhartia, P. K. (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    A model intercomparison among the Atmospheric and Environmental Research (AER) 2-D model, the Goddard Space Flight Center (GSFC) 2-D model, and the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory 2-D model allows us to separate differences due to model transport from those due to the model's chemical formulation. This is accomplished by constructing two hybrid models incorporating the transport parameters of the GSFC and LLNL models within the AER model framework. By comparing the results from the native models (AER and e.g. GSFC) with those from the hybrid model (e.g. AER chemistry with GSFC transport), differences due to chemistry and transport can be identified. For the analysis, we examined an inert tracer whose emission pattern is based on emission from a High Speed Civil Transport (HSCT) fleet; distributions of trace species in the 2015 atmosphere; and the response of stratospheric ozone to an HSCT fleet. Differences in NO(y) in the upper stratosphere are found between models with identical transport, implying different model representations of atmospheric chemical processes. The response of O3 concentration to HSCT aircraft emissions differs in the models from both transport-dominated differences in the HSCT-induced perturbations of H2O and NO(y) as well as from differences in the model represent at ions of O3 chemical processes. The model formulations of cold polar processes are found to be the most significant factor in creating large differences in the calculated ozone perturbations

  17. Design Application Translates 2-D Graphics to 3-D Surfaces

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2007-01-01

    Fabric Images Inc., specializing in the printing and manufacturing of fabric tension architecture for the retail, museum, and exhibit/tradeshow communities, designed software to translate 2-D graphics for 3-D surfaces prior to print production. Fabric Images' fabric-flattening design process models a 3-D surface based on computer-aided design (CAD) specifications. The surface geometry of the model is used to form a 2-D template, similar to a flattening process developed by NASA's Glenn Research Center. This template or pattern is then applied in the development of a 2-D graphic layout. Benefits of this process include 11.5 percent time savings per project, less material wasted, and the ability to improve upon graphic techniques and offer new design services. Partners include Exhibitgroup/Giltspur (end-user client: TAC Air, a division of Truman Arnold Companies Inc.), Jack Morton Worldwide (end-user client: Nickelodeon), as well as 3D Exhibits Inc., and MG Design Associates Corp.

  18. Time multiplexing super resolution using a Barker-based array.

    PubMed

    Ilovitsh, Asaf; Preter, Eyal; Levanon, Nadav; Zalevsky, Zeev

    2015-01-15

    We propose the use of a new encoding mask in order to improve the performance of the conventional time multiplexing super resolution method. The resolution improvement is obtained using a 2D Barker-based array that is placed upon the object and shifted laterally. The Barker-based array is a 2D generalization of the standard 1D Barker code. The Barker-based array has stable autocorrelation sidelobes, making it ideal for the encoding process. A sequence of low resolution images are captured at different positions of the array, and are decoded properly using the same array. After removing the low resolution image from the resulting reconstruction, a high resolution image is established. The proposed method is presented analytically, demonstrated via numerical simulation, and validated by laboratory experiment.

  19. Time multiplexing super resolution using a Barker-based array.

    PubMed

    Ilovitsh, Asaf; Preter, Eyal; Levanon, Nadav; Zalevsky, Zeev

    2015-01-15

    We propose the use of a new encoding mask in order to improve the performance of the conventional time multiplexing super resolution method. The resolution improvement is obtained using a 2D Barker-based array that is placed upon the object and shifted laterally. The Barker-based array is a 2D generalization of the standard 1D Barker code. The Barker-based array has stable autocorrelation sidelobes, making it ideal for the encoding process. A sequence of low resolution images are captured at different positions of the array, and are decoded properly using the same array. After removing the low resolution image from the resulting reconstruction, a high resolution image is established. The proposed method is presented analytically, demonstrated via numerical simulation, and validated by laboratory experiment. PMID:25679834

  20. Cytochrome P450-2D6 Screening Among Elderly Using Antidepressants (CYSCE)

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2016-10-24

    Depression; Depressive Disorder; Poor Metabolizer Due to Cytochrome P450 CYP2D6 Variant; Intermediate Metabolizer Due to Cytochrome P450 CYP2D6 Variant; Ultrarapid Metabolizer Due to Cytochrome P450 CYP2D6 Variant

  1. Simulation of 2D Fields of Raindrop Size Distributions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Berne, A.; Schleiss, M.; Uijlenhoet, R.

    2008-12-01

    The raindrop size distribution (DSD hereafter) is of primary importance for quantitative applications of weather radar measurements. The radar reflectivity~Z (directly measured by radar) is related to the power backscattered by the ensemble of hydrometeors within the radar sampling volume. However, the rain rate~R (the flux of water to the surface) is the variable of interest for many applications (hydrology, weather forecasting, air traffic for example). Usually, radar reflectivity is converted into rain rate using a power law such as Z=aRb. The coefficients a and b of the Z-R relationship depend on the DSD. The variability of the DSD in space and time has to be taken into account to improve radar rain rate estimates. Therefore, the ability to generate a large number of 2D fields of DSD which are statistically homogeneous provides a very useful simulation framework that nicely complements experimental approaches based on DSD data, in order to investigate radar beam propagation through rain as well as radar retrieval techniques. The proposed approach is based on geostatistics for structural analysis and stochastic simulation. First, the DSD is assumed to follow a gamma distribution. Hence a 2D field of DSDs can be adequately described as a 2D field of a multivariate random function consisting of the three DSD parameters. Such fields are simulated by combining a Gaussian anamorphosis and a multivariate Gaussian random field simulation algorithm. Using the (cross-)variogram models fitted on data guaranties that the spatial structure of the simulated fields is consistent with the observed one. To assess its validity, the proposed method is applied to data collected during intense Mediterranean rainfall. As only time series are available, Taylor's hypothesis is assumed to convert time series in 1D range profile. Moreover, DSD fields are assumed to be isotropic so that the 1D structure can be used to simulate 2D fields. A large number of 2D fields of DSD parameters are

  2. Global Arrays

    SciTech Connect

    Krishnamoorthy, Sriram; Daily, Jeffrey A.; Vishnu, Abhinav; Palmer, Bruce J.

    2015-11-01

    Global Arrays (GA) is a distributed-memory programming model that allows for shared-memory-style programming combined with one-sided communication, to create a set of tools that combine high performance with ease-of-use. GA exposes a relatively straightforward programming abstraction, while supporting fully-distributed data structures, locality of reference, and high-performance communication. GA was originally formulated in the early 1990’s to provide a communication layer for the Northwest Chemistry (NWChem) suite of chemistry modeling codes that was being developed concurrently.

  3. 2D photonic crystal complete band gap search using a cyclic cellular automaton refination

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    González-García, R.; Castañón, G.; Hernández-Figueroa, H. E.

    2014-11-01

    We present a refination method based on a cyclic cellular automaton (CCA) that simulates a crystallization-like process, aided with a heuristic evolutionary method called differential evolution (DE) used to perform an ordered search of full photonic band gaps (FPBGs) in a 2D photonic crystal (PC). The solution is proposed as a combinatorial optimization of the elements in a binary array. These elements represent the existence or absence of a dielectric material surrounded by air, thus representing a general geometry whose search space is defined by the number of elements in such array. A block-iterative frequency-domain method was used to compute the FPBGs on a PC, when present. DE has proved to be useful in combinatorial problems and we also present an implementation feature that takes advantage of the periodic nature of PCs to enhance the convergence of this algorithm. Finally, we used this methodology to find a PC structure with a 19% bandgap-to-midgap ratio without requiring previous information of suboptimal configurations and we made a statistical study of how it is affected by disorder in the borders of the structure compared with a previous work that uses a genetic algorithm.

  4. High-resolution medical ultrasound arrays using smart materials technology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bridger, Keith; Caldwell, Paul J.; Kuhn, Phillip; Winzer, Stephen R.

    1996-05-01

    Current ultrasound images have relatively low contrast (high levels of clutter) and resolution. Image quality could be dramatically improved if 2D ultrasound transducer arrays were available to perform the scans. These improvements would come from reducing clutter by eliminating target echoes that the beam width of a 1D array causes to be superimposed on a scan plane, and enhancing resolution by enabling the use of algorithms which correct the wavefront distortion introduced by propagation through tissue. The advent of 2D arrays would also enable 3D images to be displayed--eventually in real time. The fabrication of 2D ultrasound arrays is, however, very difficult. This stems from the acoustic requirements of the array (aperture, pitch and element size) which combine together to dictate large numbers (> 1000) of very-low capacitance (< 10 pF) elements. The technology problems revolve around interconnecting the elements and reducing signal losses due to stray capacitance and impedance mismatch. This paper will show how the development of composite smart materials involving the integration of electromechanical elements with electronics is being extended to the development of relatively-inexpensive high-sensitivity 2D ultrasound arrays.

  5. 2D OR NOT 2D: THE EFFECT OF DIMENSIONALITY ON THE DYNAMICS OF FINGERING CONVECTION AT LOW PRANDTL NUMBER

    SciTech Connect

    Garaud, Pascale; Brummell, Nicholas

    2015-12-10

    Fingering convection (otherwise known as thermohaline convection) is an instability that occurs in stellar radiative interiors in the presence of unstable compositional gradients. Numerical simulations have been used in order to estimate the efficiency of mixing induced by this instability. However, fully three-dimensional (3D) computations in the parameter regime appropriate for stellar astrophysics (i.e., low Prandtl number) are prohibitively expensive. This raises the question of whether two-dimensional (2D) simulations could be used instead to achieve the same goals. In this work, we address this issue by comparing the outcome of 2D and 3D simulations of fingering convection at low Prandtl number. We find that 2D simulations are never appropriate. However, we also find that the required 3D computational domain does not have to be very wide: the third dimension only needs to contain a minimum of two wavelengths of the fastest-growing linearly unstable mode to capture the essentially 3D dynamics of small-scale fingering. Narrow domains, however, should still be used with caution since they could limit the subsequent development of any large-scale dynamics typically associated with fingering convection.

  6. Solution conformation of 2-aminopurine (2-AP) dinucleotide determined by ultraviolet 2D fluorescence spectroscopy (UV-2D FS)

    PubMed Central

    Widom, Julia R.; Johnson, Neil P.; von Hippel, Peter H.; Marcus, Andrew H.

    2013-01-01

    We have observed the conformation-dependent electronic coupling between the monomeric subunits of a dinucleotide of 2-aminopurine (2-AP), a fluorescent analog of the nucleic acid base adenine. This was accomplished by extending two-dimensional fluorescence spectroscopy (2D FS) – a fluorescence-detected variation of 2D electronic spectroscopy – to excite molecular transitions in the ultraviolet (UV) regime. A collinear sequence of four ultrafast laser pulses centered at 323 nm was used to resonantly excite the coupled transitions of 2-AP dinucleotide. The phases of the optical pulses were continuously swept at kilohertz frequencies, and the ensuing nonlinear fluorescence was phase-synchronously detected at 370 nm. Upon optimization of a point-dipole coupling model to our data, we found that in aqueous buffer the 2-AP dinucleotide adopts an average conformation in which the purine bases are non-helically stacked (center-to-center distance R12 = 3.5 Å ± 0.5 Å, twist angle θ12 = 5° ± 5°), which differs from the conformation of such adjacent bases in duplex DNA. These experiments establish UV-2D FS as a method for examining the local conformations of an adjacent pair of fluorescent nucleotides substituted into specific DNA or RNA constructs, which will serve as a powerful probe to interpret, in structural terms, biologically significant local conformational changes within the nucleic acid framework of protein-nucleic acid complexes. PMID:24223491

  7. 2D or Not 2D: The Effect of Dimensionality on the Dynamics of Fingering Convection at Low Prandtl Number

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Garaud, Pascale; Brummell, Nicholas

    2015-12-01

    Fingering convection (otherwise known as thermohaline convection) is an instability that occurs in stellar radiative interiors in the presence of unstable compositional gradients. Numerical simulations have been used in order to estimate the efficiency of mixing induced by this instability. However, fully three-dimensional (3D) computations in the parameter regime appropriate for stellar astrophysics (i.e., low Prandtl number) are prohibitively expensive. This raises the question of whether two-dimensional (2D) simulations could be used instead to achieve the same goals. In this work, we address this issue by comparing the outcome of 2D and 3D simulations of fingering convection at low Prandtl number. We find that 2D simulations are never appropriate. However, we also find that the required 3D computational domain does not have to be very wide: the third dimension only needs to contain a minimum of two wavelengths of the fastest-growing linearly unstable mode to capture the essentially 3D dynamics of small-scale fingering. Narrow domains, however, should still be used with caution since they could limit the subsequent development of any large-scale dynamics typically associated with fingering convection.

  8. Perfect 2-d quadrupole fields from permanent magnets

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, E.P.; Vella, M.

    1996-04-01

    Consider the 13-beam channel array shown in Figure 1. It is asserted that, under mathematically ideal assumptions, a pure quadrupole field is centered in each of the 13 beam channel boxes. An identical quadrupole field (for {bar H}, not {bar B}) is also centered in each of the 4 boxes containing 4 magnetic wedges located near the center of the system. An iron yoke ({mu} = {infinity}) with the displayed zig-zag shape provides a boundary condition (H{sub {parallel}} = 0) that makes the 13 channels equivalent to a portion of an infinite array. A similar array can be readily drawn for any number of beams. The quadrupole gradient in the beam channels is B{prime} = M{sub o}/2b, where M{sub o} is the remnant field of the magnetic wedges, and the channel diameter (wedge-to-wedge) is 2b. Note that a unit cell of the array, containing one beam, has diameter 2{radical}2 b (viewed from 45{degree} tilt) so its area is 8 b{sup 2}. A significant advantage of this design over those using dipolar blocks is the large fraction of cross section devoted to beam channels (50% vs 25%). Application to a heavy ion fusion driver is discussed.

  9. On the design of fault-tolerant two-dimensional systolic arrays for yield enhancement

    SciTech Connect

    Kim, J.H.; Reddy, S.M.

    1989-04-01

    The continuing growth of interest in systolic arrays poses the problem of ensuring an acceptable yield. In this paper, the authors propose a unified approach to the design of fault-tolerant systolic arrays incorporating design for testability, a testing scheme, a reconfiguration algorithm, time complexity analysis of the proposed reconfiguration algorithm, and yield analysis. A main feature of the proposed designs is that multiple PE's in a 2-D array can be tested simultaneously, thus reducing the testing time significantly. Another feature is that with introduction of delay registers, the proposed reconfiguration algorithm reconfigures a faulty 2-D systolic array into a fault-free array without reducing throughput. The overall aim of this paper is to provide a design for a 2-D systolic array that produces high yield in VLSI/WSI implementations.

  10. Two-Dimensional Planar Lightwave Circuit Integrated Spatial Filter Array and Method of Use Thereof

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ai, Jun (Inventor); Dimov, Fedor (Inventor)

    2015-01-01

    A large coherent two-dimensional (2D) spatial filter array (SFA), 30 by 30 or larger, is produced by coupling a 2D planar lightwave circuit (PLC) array with a pair of lenslet arrays at the input and output side. The 2D PLC array is produced by stacking a plurality of chips, each chip with a plural number of straight PLC waveguides. A pupil array is coated onto the focal plane of the lenslet array. The PLC waveguides are produced by deposition of a plural number of silica layers on the silicon wafer, followed by photolithography and reactive ion etching (RIE) processes. A plural number of mode filters are included in the silica-on-silicon waveguide such that the PLC waveguide is transparent to the fundamental mode but higher order modes are attenuated by 40 dB or more.

  11. High density pixel array and laser micro-milling method for fabricating array

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wiener-Avnear, Eliezer (Inventor); McFall, James Earl (Inventor)

    2003-01-01

    A pixel array device is fabricated by a laser micro-milling method under strict process control conditions. The device has an array of pixels bonded together with an adhesive filling the grooves between adjacent pixels. The array is fabricated by moving a substrate relative to a laser beam of predetermined intensity at a controlled, constant velocity along a predetermined path defining a set of grooves between adjacent pixels so that a predetermined laser flux per unit area is applied to the material, and repeating the movement for a plurality of passes of the laser beam until the grooves are ablated to a desired depth. The substrate is of an ultrasonic transducer material in one example for fabrication of a 2D ultrasonic phase array transducer. A substrate of phosphor material is used to fabricate an X-ray focal plane array detector.

  12. Cloning and characterization of a novel human phosphatidic acid phosphatase type 2, PAP2d, with two different transcripts PAP2d_v1 and PAP2d_v2.

    PubMed

    Sun, Liyun; Gu, Shaohua; Sun, Yaqiong; Zheng, Dan; Wu, Qihan; Li, Xin; Dai, Jianfeng; Dai, Jianliang; Ji, Chaoneng; Xie, Yi; Mao, Yumin

    2005-04-01

    This study reports the cloning and characterization of a novel human phosphatidic acid phosphatase type 2 isoform cDNAs (PAP2d) from the foetal brain cDNA library. The PAP2d gene is localized on chromosome 1p21.3. It contains six exons and spans 112 kb of the genomic DNA. By large-scale cDNA sequencing we found two splice variants of PAP2d, PAP2d_v1 and PAP2d_v2. The PAP2d_v1 cDNA is 1722 bp in length and spans an open reading frame from nucleotide 56 to 1021, encoding a 321aa protein. The PAP2d_v2 cDNA is 1707 bp in length encoding a 316aa protein from nucleotide 56-1006. The PAP2d_v1 cDNA is 15 bp longer than the PAP2d_v2 cDNA in the terminal of the fifth exon and it creates different ORF. Both of the proteins contain a well-conserved PAP2 motif. The PAP2d_v1 is mainly expressed in human brain, lung, kidney, testis and colon, while PAP2d_v2 is restricted to human placenta, skeletal muscle, and kidney. The two splice variants are co-expressed only in kidney. PMID:16010976

  13. Cloning and characterization of a novel human phosphatidic acid phosphatase type 2, PAP2d, with two different transcripts PAP2d_v1 and PAP2d_v2.

    PubMed

    Sun, Liyun; Gu, Shaohua; Sun, Yaqiong; Zheng, Dan; Wu, Qihan; Li, Xin; Dai, Jianfeng; Dai, Jianliang; Ji, Chaoneng; Xie, Yi; Mao, Yumin

    2005-04-01

    This study reports the cloning and characterization of a novel human phosphatidic acid phosphatase type 2 isoform cDNAs (PAP2d) from the foetal brain cDNA library. The PAP2d gene is localized on chromosome 1p21.3. It contains six exons and spans 112 kb of the genomic DNA. By large-scale cDNA sequencing we found two splice variants of PAP2d, PAP2d_v1 and PAP2d_v2. The PAP2d_v1 cDNA is 1722 bp in length and spans an open reading frame from nucleotide 56 to 1021, encoding a 321aa protein. The PAP2d_v2 cDNA is 1707 bp in length encoding a 316aa protein from nucleotide 56-1006. The PAP2d_v1 cDNA is 15 bp longer than the PAP2d_v2 cDNA in the terminal of the fifth exon and it creates different ORF. Both of the proteins contain a well-conserved PAP2 motif. The PAP2d_v1 is mainly expressed in human brain, lung, kidney, testis and colon, while PAP2d_v2 is restricted to human placenta, skeletal muscle, and kidney. The two splice variants are co-expressed only in kidney.

  14. Novel low-cost 2D/3D switchable autostereoscopic system for notebook computers and other portable devices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eichenlaub, Jesse B.

    1995-03-01

    Mounting a lenticular lens in front of a flat panel display is a well known, inexpensive, and easy way to create an autostereoscopic system. Such a lens produces half resolution 3D images because half the pixels on the LCD are seen by the left eye and half by the right eye. This may be acceptable for graphics, but it makes full resolution text, as displayed by common software, nearly unreadable. Very fine alignment tolerances normally preclude the possibility of removing and replacing the lens in order to switch between 2D and 3D applications. Lenticular lens based displays are therefore limited to use as dedicated 3D devices. DTI has devised a technique which removes this limitation, allowing switching between full resolution 2D and half resolution 3D imaging modes. A second element, in the form of a concave lenticular lens array whose shape is exactly the negative of the first lens, is mounted on a hinge so that it can be swung down over the first lens array. When so positioned the two lenses cancel optically, allowing the user to see full resolution 2D for text or numerical applications. The two lenses, having complementary shapes, naturally tend to nestle together and snap into perfect alignment when pressed together--thus obviating any need for user operated alignment mechanisms. This system represents an ideal solution for laptop and notebook computer applications. It was devised to meet the stringent requirements of a laptop computer manufacturer including very compact size, very low cost, little impact on existing manufacturing or assembly procedures, and compatibility with existing full resolution 2D text- oriented software as well as 3D graphics. Similar requirements apply to high and electronic calculators, several models of which now use LCDs for the display of graphics.

  15. 2D Seismic Reflection Data across Central Illinois

    SciTech Connect

    Smith, Valerie; Leetaru, Hannes

    2014-09-30

    In a continuing collaboration with the Midwest Geologic Sequestration Consortium (MGSC) on the Evaluation of the Carbon Sequestration Potential of the Cambro-Ordovician Strata of the Illinois and Michigan Basins project, Schlumberger Carbon Services and WesternGeco acquired two-dimensional (2D) seismic data in the Illinois Basin. This work included the design, acquisition and processing of approximately 125 miles of (2D) seismic reflection surveys running west to east in the central Illinois Basin. Schlumberger Carbon Services and WesternGeco oversaw the management of the field operations (including a pre-shoot planning, mobilization, acquisition and de-mobilization of the field personnel and equipment), procurement of the necessary permits to conduct the survey, post-shoot closure, processing of the raw data, and provided expert consultation as needed in the interpretation of the delivered product. Three 2D seismic lines were acquired across central Illinois during November and December 2010 and January 2011. Traversing the Illinois Basin, this 2D seismic survey was designed to image the stratigraphy of the Cambro-Ordovician sections and also to discern the basement topography. Prior to this survey, there were no regionally extensive 2D seismic data spanning this section of the Illinois Basin. Between the NW side of Morgan County and northwestern border of Douglas County, these seismic lines ran through very rural portions of the state. Starting in Morgan County, Line 101 was the longest at 93 miles in length and ended NE of Decatur, Illinois. Line 501 ran W-E from the Illinois Basin – Decatur Project (IBDP) site to northwestern Douglas County and was 25 miles in length. Line 601 was the shortest and ran N-S past the IBDP site and connected lines 101 and 501. All three lines are correlated to well logs at the IBDP site. Originally processed in 2011, the 2D seismic profiles exhibited a degradation of signal quality below ~400 millisecond (ms) which made

  16. Progress in 2D photonic crystal Fano resonance photonics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhou, Weidong; Zhao, Deyin; Shuai, Yi-Chen; Yang, Hongjun; Chuwongin, Santhad; Chadha, Arvinder; Seo, Jung-Hun; Wang, Ken X.; Liu, Victor; Ma, Zhenqiang; Fan, Shanhui

    2014-01-01

    In contrast to a conventional symmetric Lorentzian resonance, Fano resonance is predominantly used to describe asymmetric-shaped resonances, which arise from the constructive and destructive interference of discrete resonance states with broadband continuum states. This phenomenon and the underlying mechanisms, being common and ubiquitous in many realms of physical sciences, can be found in a wide variety of nanophotonic structures and quantum systems, such as quantum dots, photonic crystals, plasmonics, and metamaterials. The asymmetric and steep dispersion of the Fano resonance profile promises applications for a wide range of photonic devices, such as optical filters, switches, sensors, broadband reflectors, lasers, detectors, slow-light and non-linear devices, etc. With advances in nanotechnology, impressive progress has been made in the emerging field of nanophotonic structures. One of the most attractive nanophotonic structures for integrated photonics is the two-dimensional photonic crystal slab (2D PCS), which can be integrated into a wide range of photonic devices. The objective of this manuscript is to provide an in depth review of the progress made in the general area of Fano resonance photonics, focusing on the photonic devices based on 2D PCS structures. General discussions are provided on the origins and characteristics of Fano resonances in 2D PCSs. A nanomembrane transfer printing fabrication technique is also reviewed, which is critical for the heterogeneous integrated Fano resonance photonics. The majority of the remaining sections review progress made on various photonic devices and structures, such as high quality factor filters, membrane reflectors, membrane lasers, detectors and sensors, as well as structures and phenomena related to Fano resonance slow light effect, nonlinearity, and optical forces in coupled PCSs. It is expected that further advances in the field will lead to more significant advances towards 3D integrated photonics, flat

  17. 2D to 3D conversion implemented in different hardware

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ramos-Diaz, Eduardo; Gonzalez-Huitron, Victor; Ponomaryov, Volodymyr I.; Hernandez-Fragoso, Araceli

    2015-02-01

    Conversion of available 2D data for release in 3D content is a hot topic for providers and for success of the 3D applications, in general. It naturally completely relies on virtual view synthesis of a second view given by original 2D video. Disparity map (DM) estimation is a central task in 3D generation but still follows a very difficult problem for rendering novel images precisely. There exist different approaches in DM reconstruction, among them manually and semiautomatic methods that can produce high quality DMs but they demonstrate hard time consuming and are computationally expensive. In this paper, several hardware implementations of designed frameworks for an automatic 3D color video generation based on 2D real video sequence are proposed. The novel framework includes simultaneous processing of stereo pairs using the following blocks: CIE L*a*b* color space conversions, stereo matching via pyramidal scheme, color segmentation by k-means on an a*b* color plane, and adaptive post-filtering, DM estimation using stereo matching between left and right images (or neighboring frames in a video), adaptive post-filtering, and finally, the anaglyph 3D scene generation. Novel technique has been implemented on DSP TMS320DM648, Matlab's Simulink module over a PC with Windows 7, and using graphic card (NVIDIA Quadro K2000) demonstrating that the proposed approach can be applied in real-time processing mode. The time values needed, mean Similarity Structural Index Measure (SSIM) and Bad Matching Pixels (B) values for different hardware implementations (GPU, Single CPU, and DSP) are exposed in this paper.

  18. Human erythrocytes analyzed by generalized 2D Raman correlation spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wesełucha-Birczyńska, Aleksandra; Kozicki, Mateusz; Czepiel, Jacek; Łabanowska, Maria; Nowak, Piotr; Kowalczyk, Grzegorz; Kurdziel, Magdalena; Birczyńska, Malwina; Biesiada, Grażyna; Mach, Tomasz; Garlicki, Aleksander

    2014-07-01

    The most numerous elements of the blood cells, erythrocytes, consist mainly of two components: homogeneous interior filled with hemoglobin and closure which is the cell membrane. To gain insight into their specific properties we studied the process of disintegration, considering these two constituents, and comparing the natural aging process of human healthy blood cells. MicroRaman spectra of hemoglobin within the single RBC were recorded using 514.5, and 785 nm laser lines. The generalized 2D correlation method was applied to analyze the collected spectra. The time passed from blood donation was regarded as an external perturbation. The time was no more than 40 days according to the current storage limit of blood banks, although, the average RBC life span is 120 days. An analysis of the prominent synchronous and asynchronous cross peaks allow us to get insight into the mechanism of hemoglobin decomposition. Appearing asynchronous cross-peaks point towards globin and heme separation from each other, while synchronous shows already broken globin into individual amino acids. Raman scattering analysis of hemoglobin “wrapping”, i.e. healthy erythrocyte ghosts, allows for the following peculiarity of their behavior. The increasing power of the excitation laser induced alterations in the assemblage of membrane lipids. 2D correlation maps, obtained with increasing laser power recognized as an external perturbation, allows for the consideration of alterations in the erythrocyte membrane structure and composition, which occurs first in the proteins. Cross-peaks were observed indicating an asynchronous correlation between the senescent-cell antigen (SCA) and heme or proteins vibrations. The EPR spectra of the whole blood was analyzed regarding time as an external stimulus. The 2D correlation spectra points towards participation of the selected metal ion centers in the disintegration process.

  19. Recent update of the RPLUS2D/3D codes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tsai, Y.-L. Peter

    1991-01-01

    The development of the RPLUS2D/3D codes is summarized. These codes utilize LU algorithms to solve chemical non-equilibrium flows in a body-fitted coordinate system. The motivation behind the development of these codes is the need to numerically predict chemical non-equilibrium flows for the National AeroSpace Plane Program. Recent improvements include vectorization method, blocking algorithms for geometric flexibility, out-of-core storage for large-size problems, and an LU-SW/UP combination for CPU-time efficiency and solution quality.

  20. Topology-Preserving Rigid Transformation of 2D Digital Images.

    PubMed

    Ngo, Phuc; Passat, Nicolas; Kenmochi, Yukiko; Talbot, Hugues

    2014-02-01

    We provide conditions under which 2D digital images preserve their topological properties under rigid transformations. We consider the two most common digital topology models, namely dual adjacency and well-composedness. This paper leads to the proposal of optimal preprocessing strategies that ensure the topological invariance of images under arbitrary rigid transformations. These results and methods are proved to be valid for various kinds of images (binary, gray-level, label), thus providing generic and efficient tools, which can be used in particular in the context of image registration and warping.