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Sample records for 2d cylindrically symmetric

  1. Static cylindrically symmetric spacetimes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fjällborg, Mikael

    2007-05-01

    We prove the existence of static solutions to the cylindrically symmetric Einstein Vlasov system, and we show that the matter cylinder has finite extension in two of the three spatial dimensions. The same results are also proved for a quite general class of equations of state for perfect fluids coupled to the Einstein equations, extending the class of equations of state considered by Bicak et al (2004 Class. Quantum Grav.21 1583). We also obtain this result for the Vlasov Poisson system.

  2. Cylindrically symmetric wormholes

    SciTech Connect

    Kuhfittig, Peter K.F.

    2005-05-15

    This paper discusses traversable wormholes that differ slightly but significantly from those of the Morris-Thorne type under the assumption of cylindrical symmetry. The throat is a piecewise smooth cylindrical surface resulting in a shape function that is not differentiable at some value. It is proposed that the regular derivative be replaced by a one-sided derivative at this value. The resulting wormhole geometry satisfies the weak energy condition.

  3. 2d PDE Linear Symmetric Matrix Solver

    1983-10-01

    ICCG2 (Incomplete Cholesky factorized Conjugate Gradient algorithm for 2d symmetric problems) was developed to solve a linear symmetric matrix system arising from a 9-point discretization of two-dimensional elliptic and parabolic partial differential equations found in plasma physics applications, such as resistive MHD, spatial diffusive transport, and phase space transport (Fokker-Planck equation) problems. These problems share the common feature of being stiff and requiring implicit solution techniques. When these parabolic or elliptic PDE''s are discretized withmore » finite-difference or finite-element methods,the resulting matrix system is frequently of block-tridiagonal form. To use ICCG2, the discretization of the two-dimensional partial differential equation and its boundary conditions must result in a block-tridiagonal supermatrix composed of elementary tridiagonal matrices. The incomplete Cholesky conjugate gradient algorithm is used to solve the linear symmetric matrix equation. Loops are arranged to vectorize on the Cray1 with the CFT compiler, wherever possible. Recursive loops, which cannot be vectorized, are written for optimum scalar speed. For matrices lacking symmetry, ILUCG2 should be used. Similar methods in three dimensions are available in ICCG3 and ILUCG3. A general source containing extensions and macros, which must be processed by a pre-compiler to obtain the standard FORTRAN source, is provided along with the standard FORTRAN source because it is believed to be more readable. The pre-compiler is not included, but pre-compilation may be performed by a text editor as described in the UCRL-88746 Preprint.« less

  4. Matching a static cylindrically symmetric elastic spacetime

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brito, I.; Carot, J.; Mena, F. C.; Vaz, E. G. L. R.

    2012-07-01

    We consider a static cylindrically symmetric spacetime with elastic matter and study the matching problem of this spacetime with a suitable exterior. For the exterior, we take the Levi-Civita spacetime and its generalization including a cosmological constant, the Linet-Tian spacetime. We show that the matching is only possible with the Linet-Tian solution.

  5. Static, cylindrically symmetric strings in general relativity with cosmological constant

    SciTech Connect

    Linet, B.

    1986-07-01

    The static, cylindrically symmetric solutions to Einstein's equations with a cosmological term describing cosmic strings are determined. The discussion depends on the sign of the cosmological constant.

  6. Measuring cylindrically symmetric refractive-index profiles: a method.

    PubMed

    Gregoris, D; Iizuka, K

    1983-02-01

    This paper describes a new nondestructive method to measure cylindrically symmetric refractive-index profiles of transparent cylinders. The technique is based on the measurement of the axial displacement of rays that are refracted within the cylinder. Three different types of index profile were experimentally determined. Profile errors of better than one part in 10(3) were achieved using very modest equipment. The effects of certain experimental parameters on the profile accuracy are noted. The technique may be applied to the characterization of optical fiber preforms and graded-index rod lenses. PMID:18195804

  7. Explicit excluded volume of cylindrically symmetric convex bodies.

    PubMed

    Piastra, Marco; Virga, Epifanio G

    2015-06-01

    We represent explicitly the excluded volume V(e){B(1),B(2)} of two generic cylindrically symmetric, convex rigid bodies, B(1) and B(2), in terms of a family of shape functionals evaluated separately on B(1) and B(2). We show that V(e){B(1),B(2)} fails systematically to feature a dipolar component, thus making illusory the assignment of any shape dipole to a tapered body in this class. The method proposed here is applied to cones and validated by a shape-reconstruction algorithm. It is further applied to spheroids (ellipsoids of revolution), for which it shows how some analytic estimates already regarded as classics should indeed be emended. PMID:26172727

  8. Cylindrically symmetric Fresnel lens for high concentration photovoltaic

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hung, Yu-Ting; Su, Guo-Dung

    2009-08-01

    High concentration photovoltaic (HCPV) utilizes point-focus cost-effective plastic Fresnel lens. And a millimeter-sized Ill-V compound multi-junction solar cell is placed underneath focusing optics which can achieve cell efficiency potential of up to 40.7 %. The advantage of HCPV makes less solar cell area and higher efficiency; however, the acceptance angle of HCPV is about +/-1°, which is very small and the mechanical tracking of the sun is necessary. In order to reduce the power consumption and the angle tracking error of tracking systems, a light collector model with larger acceptance angle is designed with ZEMAX®. In this model, the original radially symmetric Fresnel lens of HCPV is replaced by cylindrically symmetric Fresnel lens and a parabolic reflective surface. Light is collected in two dimensions separately. And a couple of lenses and a light pipe are added before the solar cell chip in order to collect more light when sun light deviates from incident angle of 00. An acceptance angle of +/-10° is achieved with GCR 400.

  9. Parallel algorithms for 2-D cylindrical transport equations of Eigenvalue problem

    SciTech Connect

    Wei, J.; Yang, S.

    2013-07-01

    In this paper, aimed at the neutron transport equations of eigenvalue problem under 2-D cylindrical geometry on unstructured grid, the discrete scheme of Sn discrete ordinate and discontinuous finite is built, and the parallel computation for the scheme is realized on MPI systems. Numerical experiments indicate that the designed parallel algorithm can reach perfect speedup, it has good practicality and scalability. (authors)

  10. A cylindrically symmetric "micro-Mott" electron polarimeter.

    PubMed

    Clayburn, N B; Brunkow, E; Burtwistle, S J; Rutherford, G H; Gay, T J

    2016-05-01

    A small, novel, cylindrically symmetric Mott electron polarimeter is described. The effective Sherman function, Seff, or analyzing power, for 20 kV Au target bias with a 1.3 keV energy loss window is 0.16 ± 0.01, where uncertainty in the measurement is due primarily to uncertainty in the incident electron polarization. For an energy loss window of 0.5 keV, Seff reaches its maximum value of 0.24 ± 0.02. The device's maximum efficiency, I/Io, defined as the detected count rate divided by the incident particle rate, is 3.7 ± 0.2 × 10(-4) at 20 keV. The figure-of-merit of the device, η, is defined as Seff (2)IIo and equals 9.0 ± 1.6 × 10(-6). Potential sources of false asymmetries due to detector electronic asymmetry and beam misalignment have been investigated. The new polarimeter's performance is compared to published results for similar compact retarding-field Mott polarimeters, and it is concluded that this device has a relatively large Seff and low efficiency. SIMION(®) electron trajectory simulations and Sherman function calculations are presented to explain the differences in performance between this device and previous designs. This design has an Seff that is insensitive to spatial beam fluctuations and, for an energy loss window >0.5 keV, negligible background due to spurious ion and X-ray production at the target. PMID:27250409

  11. A cylindrically symmetric "micro-Mott" electron polarimeter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Clayburn, N. B.; Brunkow, E.; Burtwistle, S. J.; Rutherford, G. H.; Gay, T. J.

    2016-05-01

    A small, novel, cylindrically symmetric Mott electron polarimeter is described. The effective Sherman function, Seff, or analyzing power, for 20 kV Au target bias with a 1.3 keV energy loss window is 0.16 ± 0.01, where uncertainty in the measurement is due primarily to uncertainty in the incident electron polarization. For an energy loss window of 0.5 keV, Seff reaches its maximum value of 0.24 ± 0.02. The device's maximum efficiency, I/Io, defined as the detected count rate divided by the incident particle rate, is 3.7 ± 0.2 × 10-4 at 20 keV. The figure-of-merit of the device, η, is defined as Seff2I/Io and equals 9.0 ± 1.6 × 10-6. Potential sources of false asymmetries due to detector electronic asymmetry and beam misalignment have been investigated. The new polarimeter's performance is compared to published results for similar compact retarding-field Mott polarimeters, and it is concluded that this device has a relatively large Seff and low efficiency. SIMION® electron trajectory simulations and Sherman function calculations are presented to explain the differences in performance between this device and previous designs. This design has an Seff that is insensitive to spatial beam fluctuations and, for an energy loss window >0.5 keV, negligible background due to spurious ion and X-ray production at the target.

  12. Cylindrically symmetric Einstein-Yang-Mills-Higgs gauge configurations.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mondaini, R. P.

    1985-02-01

    Two solutions are obtained for coupled Einstein-Yang-Mills-Higgs fields with cylindrical symmetry and rigid rotation. The Higgs fields are responsible for the creation of singularities and infinite energy densities at the cylinder's axis.

  13. Cylindrically symmetric distributions of matter taking into account pressure

    SciTech Connect

    Dandash, N.F.

    1986-06-01

    This paper considers a non-steady-state cosmological field for describing the distribution of matter with nonzero pressure; the assumption of cylindrical symmetry is taken into consideration. A new class of non-steady-state solutions to the Einstein equations is found. A homogeneous, anisotropic universe and an analog of the Schwarzschild solution are considered as particular cases. The obtained results can be used for describing cylindrical regions in the universe, especially in the vicinity of linear mass ejection from galaxies and quasars and linear super-large-scale structures.

  14. Quantum-Carnot engine for particle confined to 2D symmetric potential well

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Belfaqih, Idrus Husin; Sutantyo, Trengginas Eka Putra; Prayitno, T. B.; Sulaksono, Anto

    2015-09-01

    Carnot model of heat engine is the most efficient cycle consisting of isothermal and adiabatic processes which are reversible. Although ideal gas usually used as a working fluid in the Carnot engine, Bender used quantum particle confined in 1D potential well as a working fluid. In this paper, by following Bender we generalize the situation to 2D symmetric potential well. The efficiency is express as the ratio of the initial length of the system to the final length of the compressed system. The result then is shown that for the same ratio, 2D potential well is more efficient than 1D potential well.

  15. Quantum-Carnot engine for particle confined to 2D symmetric potential well

    SciTech Connect

    Belfaqih, Idrus Husin Sutantyo, Trengginas Eka Putra Prayitno, T. B.; Sulaksono, Anto

    2015-09-30

    Carnot model of heat engine is the most efficient cycle consisting of isothermal and adiabatic processes which are reversible. Although ideal gas usually used as a working fluid in the Carnot engine, Bender used quantum particle confined in 1D potential well as a working fluid. In this paper, by following Bender we generalize the situation to 2D symmetric potential well. The efficiency is express as the ratio of the initial length of the system to the final length of the compressed system. The result then is shown that for the same ratio, 2D potential well is more efficient than 1D potential well.

  16. Optical theorem for two-dimensional (2D) scalar monochromatic acoustical beams in cylindrical coordinates.

    PubMed

    Mitri, F G

    2015-09-01

    The optical theorem for plane waves is recognized as one of the fundamental theorems in optical, acoustical and quantum wave scattering theory as it relates the extinction cross-section to the forward scattering complex amplitude function. Here, the optical theorem is extended and generalized in a cylindrical coordinates system for the case of 2D beams of arbitrary character as opposed to plane waves of infinite extent. The case of scalar monochromatic acoustical wavefronts is considered, and generalized analytical expressions for the extinction, absorption and scattering cross-sections are derived and extended in the framework of the scalar resonance scattering theory. The analysis reveals the presence of an interference scattering cross-section term describing the interaction between the diffracted Franz waves with the resonance elastic waves. The extended optical theorem in cylindrical coordinates is applicable to any object of arbitrary geometry in 2D located arbitrarily in the beam's path. Related investigations in optics, acoustics and quantum mechanics will benefit from this analysis in the context of wave scattering theory and other phenomena closely connected to it, such as the multiple scattering by a cloud of particles, as well as the resulting radiation force and torque.

  17. Optical theorem for two-dimensional (2D) scalar monochromatic acoustical beams in cylindrical coordinates.

    PubMed

    Mitri, F G

    2015-09-01

    The optical theorem for plane waves is recognized as one of the fundamental theorems in optical, acoustical and quantum wave scattering theory as it relates the extinction cross-section to the forward scattering complex amplitude function. Here, the optical theorem is extended and generalized in a cylindrical coordinates system for the case of 2D beams of arbitrary character as opposed to plane waves of infinite extent. The case of scalar monochromatic acoustical wavefronts is considered, and generalized analytical expressions for the extinction, absorption and scattering cross-sections are derived and extended in the framework of the scalar resonance scattering theory. The analysis reveals the presence of an interference scattering cross-section term describing the interaction between the diffracted Franz waves with the resonance elastic waves. The extended optical theorem in cylindrical coordinates is applicable to any object of arbitrary geometry in 2D located arbitrarily in the beam's path. Related investigations in optics, acoustics and quantum mechanics will benefit from this analysis in the context of wave scattering theory and other phenomena closely connected to it, such as the multiple scattering by a cloud of particles, as well as the resulting radiation force and torque. PMID:25773968

  18. Coupling 2-D cylindrical and 3-D x-y-z transport computations

    SciTech Connect

    Abu-Shumays, I.K.; Yehnert, C.E.; Pitcairn, T.N.

    1998-06-30

    This paper describes a new two-dimensional (2-D) cylindrical geometry to three-dimensional (3-D) rectangular x-y-z splice option for multi-dimensional discrete ordinates solutions to the neutron (photon) transport equation. Of particular interest are the simple transformations developed and applied in order to carry out the required spatial and angular interpolations. The spatial interpolations are linear and equivalent to those applied elsewhere. The angular interpolations are based on a high order spherical harmonics representation of the angular flux. Advantages of the current angular interpolations over previous work are discussed. An application to an intricate streaming problem is provided to demonstrate the advantages of the new method for efficient and accurate prediction of particle behavior in complex geometries.

  19. Cylindrically symmetric inhomogeneous cosmological models with viscous fluid and varying Λ

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pradhan, Anirudh; Singh, Prashant Kumar; Jotania, R. Kanti

    2006-06-01

    Cylindrically symmetric non-static cosmological models representing a bulk viscous fluid distribution have been obtained which are inhomogeneous and anisotropic. Without assuming any adhoc law, we obtain a cosmological constant as a decreasing function of time. Various physical and geometrical features of the models are also discussed.

  20. Role of 2-D periodic symmetrical nanostructures in improving efficiency of thin film solar cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Wei; Jiang, Liyong; Li, Xiangyin

    2016-01-01

    We systematically investigated several different nanostructures in crystalline silicon (c-Si) thin film solar cells and then proposed a brand-new structure with two dimensional (2-D) periodic dielectric cylinders on the top and annular metal columns on bottom surface to enhance the optical harvesting. The periodic symmetrical nanostructures affect the solar cell efficiency due to the grating diffraction effect of dielectric columns and surface plasmon polaritons (SPPs) effect induced by metal nanostructures at the dielectric-metal interface. About 52.1% more optical absorption and 33.3% more power conversion efficiency are obtained, and the maximum short current reaches to 33.24 mA/cm2.

  1. Calculations of the stress tensor under Symmetric cylindrical shock wave loading

    SciTech Connect

    Chikhradze, N. M.; Lomidze, I.; Marquis, F. D. S.; Staudhammer, Karl P.; Japaridze, L. A.; Peikrishvili, A. B.

    2001-01-01

    The calculation of the components of the stress tensor under symmetric cylindrical shock wave loading, when the pressure impulse of cylindrical symmetry is being spread uniformly along the surface of an infinite cylindrical elastic body, have been carried out. The objective of these calculations is to assess with a sufficient approximation the stress-deformed state in samples during low intensity axis-symmetric shock wave loading. The necessity of such an assessment is grounded on a wide utilization and practical applications of shock wave axis-symmetric loading used in the explosive processing of advanced materials. Tile main assumptions made at the initial stage of these calculations are: elasticity and isotropy of medium, constancy of the sound speed and Lame elasticity constants, and medium boundary conditions of cylindrical symmetry. Subsequently, the removal of some assumptions during the investigation process makes possible to take into account effects engendered by boundary conditions' asymmetry and changes in the sound speed and Lame constants These changes are caused by irreversible thermal transformations going on in the medium. Well known methods for solving differential equations, such as the Fourier method, functions of Bessel, Neumann, and Hankel, equations of Helmholtz, are used in these calculations. These calculations, assuming axial symmetry, are presented as a set of simple equations where the arguments are components of the stress tensor and the solution of this set, for this specific case, gives all the components of the stress tensor.

  2. Hawking Radiation from the Cylindrical Symmetric Black Hole via Covariant Anomaly

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zeng, Xiao-Xiong; Yang, Shu-Zheng

    2008-12-01

    Hawking radiation from the cylindrical symmetric black hole, which is asymptotically anti-de Sitter not only in the transverse direction but also in the string or membrane direction, is discussed from the anomaly point of view. We implement the covariant anomaly cancellation method, the more refined formalism that was proposed by Banerjee and Kulkarni recently than the initial work of Robinson et al., to discuss the near-horizon gauge and gravitational anomalies. Our result shows that Hawking radiation from the cylindrical configurations with horizons also can be reproduced by the anomaly cancellation method.

  3. Cylindrically symmetric, static strings with a cosmological constant in Brans-Dicke theory

    SciTech Connect

    Delice, Oezguer

    2006-12-15

    The static cylindrically symmetric vacuum solutions with a cosmological constant in the framework of the Brans-Dicke theory are investigated. Some of these solutions admitting Lorentz boost invariance along the symmetry axis correspond to local, straight cosmic strings with a cosmological constant. Some physical properties of such solutions are studied. These strings apply attractive or repulsive forces on the test particles. A smooth matching is also performed with a recently introduced interior thick string solution with a cosmological constant.

  4. Rotationally symmetric triangulation sensor with integrated object imaging using only one 2D detector

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eckstein, Johannes; Lei, Wang; Becker, Jonathan; Jun, Gao; Ott, Peter

    2006-04-01

    In this paper a distance measurement sensor is introduced, equipped with two integrated optical systems, the first one for rotationally symmetric triangulation and the second one for imaging the object while using only one 2D detector for both purposes. Rotationally symmetric triangulation, introduced in [1], eliminates some disadvantages of classical triangulation sensors, especially at steps or strong curvatures of the object, wherefore the measurement result depends not any longer on the angular orientation of the sensor. This is achieved by imaging the scattered light from an illuminated object point to a centered and sharp ring on a low cost area detector. The diameter of the ring is proportional to the distance of the object. The optical system consists of two off axis aspheric reflecting surfaces. This system allows for integrating a second optical system in order to capture images of the object at the same 2D detector. A mock-up was realized for the first time which consists of the reflecting optics for triangulation manufactured by diamond turning. A commercially available appropriate small lens system for imaging was mechanically integrated in the reflecting optics. Alternatively, some designs of retrofocus lens system for larger field of views were investigated. The optical designs allow overlying the image of the object and the ring for distance measurement in the same plane. In this plane a CCD detector is mounted, centered to the optical axis for both channels. A fast algorithm for the evaluation of the ring is implemented. The characteristics, i.e. the ring diameter versus object distance shows very linear behavior. For illumination of the object point for distance measurement, the beam of a red laser diode system is reflected by a wavelength bandpath filter on the axis of the optical system in. Additionally, the surface of the object is illuminated by LED's in the green spectrum. The LED's are located on the outside rim of the reflecting optics. The

  5. Analytic treatment of complete geodesics in a static cylindrically symmetric conformal spacetime

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hoseini, Bahareh; Saffari, Reza; Soroushfar, Saheb; Grunau, Saskia; Kunz, Jutta

    2016-08-01

    We consider the motion of test particles and light rays in a static cylindrically symmetric conformal spacetime given by Said et al. [Phys. Rev. D 85, 104054 (2012)]. We derive the equations of motion and present their analytical solutions in terms of the Weierstrass ℘ function and the Kleinian σ function. Using parametric diagrams and effective potentials, we analyze the possible orbits and characterize them in terms of the energy and the angular momentum of the test particles. Finally, we show some examples of orbits.

  6. The response of cylindrical panels fabricated from symmetrically and unsymmetrically laminated composite materials

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Carper, D. M.; Johnson, E. R.; Hyer, M. W.

    1983-01-01

    Equations are developed which govern the deflection response of long cylindrical panels subjected to a line load. The line load is directed toward the center of curvature of the panel, is located at an arbitrary point along the arc length of the panel, and is included at an arbitrary angle relative to the radial direction. Only the geometrically linear problem is considered and the spatial dependence in the problem is reduced to one independent variable, specifically, the arc length along the panel. The problem is thus solvable in closed form. Both symmetrically laminated and the less common unsymmetrically laminated simply supported panels are studied. The unsymmetrically laminated case was considered because the natural shape of an unsymmetric laminate is cylindrical. Results are presented which show the influence of the location and inclination of the line load on panel deflection. Shallow and deep panels are considered. Both the symmetric and unsymmetric panels exhibit similar behavior, the unsymmetric configurations being less stiff. Limited experimental results are presented.

  7. Acoustic transmission through a 2-D orthotropic multi-layered infinite cylindrical shell

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Blaise, A.; Lesueur, C.

    1992-05-01

    An investigation is presented of the transmission loss of two-dimensional orthotropic multilayered infinite cylindrical shells. Equations of motion are established by using a variational displacement formulation; these equations remain unchanged in form whatever the number of layers. Numerical results are presented illustrating the influence of acoustic and structural parameters on the transmission loss.

  8. Stepwise coupled mode scattering of ambient noise by a cylindrically symmetric seamount.

    PubMed

    Evans, Richard B

    2006-01-01

    The question of how underwater ambient noise, at low frequencies, interacts with seamounts is addressed. The vertical directivity of the ambient noise, with and without the seamount interaction, is of particular interest. The problem of ambient noise scattering by seamounts motivates the development of a numerical modeling procedure, based on stepwise coupled modes. The procedure is designed to analyze scattering from a cylindrically symmetric seamount. The stepwise coupled mode procedure is extended to more general boundary conditions and brought up to date in the process. An example, using the geometry of the Dickins seamount, suggests that the seamount removes energy from the steeply traveling ambient noise, for this case. The energy is not converted into angles near the horizontal; the energy is lost through bottom interaction and attenuation.

  9. Effects of CDTT model on the dynamical instability of cylindrically symmetric collapsing stars

    SciTech Connect

    Kausar, Hafiza Rizwana

    2013-01-01

    We assume cylindrically symmetric stars which begin collapsing by dissipating energy in the form of heat flux. We wish to study the effects of Carroll-Duvvuri-Trodden-Turner (CDTT) model, f(R) = R+σμ{sup 4}/R, on the range of dynamical instability. For this purpose, perturbation scheme is applied to all the metric functions, material functions and f(R) model to obtain the full set of dynamical equation which control the evolution of the physical variables at the surface of a star. It is found that instability limit involves adiabatic index Γ which depends on the density profile and immense terms of perturbed CDTT model. In addition, model is constrained by some requirement, e.g. positivity of physical quantities. We also reduce our results asymptotically as μ→0, being the GR results in both the Newtonian and post Newtonian regimes.

  10. Dynamical instability of cylindrical symmetric collapsing star in generalized teleparallel gravity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jawad, Abdul; Momeni, Davood; Rani, Shamaila; Myrzakulov, Ratbay

    2016-04-01

    This paper is devoted to an analysis of the dynamical instability of a self-gravitating object that undergoes a collapse process. We take the framework of generalized teleparallel gravity with a cylindrically symmetric gravitating object. The matter distribution is represented by a locally anisotropic energy-momentum tensor. We develop basic equations such as the dynamical equations along with the matching conditions and the Harrison-Wheeler equation of state. By applying a linear perturbation strategy, we construct a collapse equation, which is used to obtain the instability ranges in the Newtonian and post-Newtonian regimes. We find these ranges for isotropic pressure and reduce to the results in general relativity. The unstable behavior depends on matter-, metric-, mass-, and torsion-based terms.

  11. Behaviour of Magnetoacoustic Waves in the Neighbourhood of a Two-Dimensional Null Point: Initially Cylindrically Symmetric Perturbations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McLaughlin, J. A.

    2016-03-01

    The propagation of magnetoacoustic waves in the neighbourhood of a 2D null point is investigated for both β=0 and β ≠ 0 plasmas. Previous work has shown that the Alfvén speed, here v A ∝ r, plays a vital role in such systems and so a natural choice is to switch to polar coordinates. For β=0 plasma, we derive an analytical solution for the behaviour of the fast magnetoacoustic wave in terms of the Klein-Gordon equation. We also solve the system with a semi-analytical WKB approximation which shows that the β=0 wave focuses on the null and contracts around it but, due to exponential decay, never reaches the null in a finite time. For the β ≠ 0 plasma, we solve the system numerically and find the behaviour to be similar to that of the β=0 system at large radii, but completely different close to the null. We show that for an initially cylindrically-symmetric fast magnetoacoustic wave perturbation, there is a decrease in wave speed along the separatrices and so the perturbation starts to take on a quasi-diamond shape; with the corners located along the separatrices. This is due to the growth in pressure gradients that reach a maximum along the separatrices, which in turn reduces the acceleration of the fast wave along the separatrices leading to a deformation of the wave morphology.

  12. A study on symmetrization of 2D ACAR positron annihilation data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smedskjaer, L. C.; Legnini, D. G.

    1990-07-01

    The important problem of symmetrization of two-dimensional angular correlation positron annihilation data is discussed in detail. Interest in this problem is motivated by the potential for a substantial improvement of the data quality. The artefacts present in our Anger cameras have been studied experimentally, and form the basis for a quantitative discussion of the symmetrization operation. The main conclusion is that symmetrization of the two-dimensional angular correlation spectra is allowed, if the symmetry center can be defined. It is argued that the center can be defined if the instrumental artefacts are small. Finally, it is shown that it is unlikely that the instrumental artefacts interfere constructively during the symmetrization operation.

  13. 2D HYDRA Calculations of Magneto-Rayleigh-Taylor Growth and Feedthrough in Cylindrical Liners

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Weis, Matthew; Zhang, Peng; Lau, Y. Y.; Gilgenbach, Ronald; Peterson, Kyle; Hess, Mark

    2014-10-01

    Cylindrical liner implosions are susceptible to the magneto-Rayleigh-Taylor instability (MRT), along with the azimuthal current-carrying modes (sausage, kink, etc). ``Feedthrough'' of these instabilities has a strong influence on the integrity of the liner/fuel interface in the magnetized liner inertial fusion concept (MagLIF). The linearized ideal MHD equations can be solved to quantify these effects, including the presence of an effective gravity and an axial magnetic field. We investigate the potential of this field to mitigate feedthrough, due to MRT growth from various initial surface finishes (seeded, rough), throughout the implosion using our analytic results and the LLNL code, HYDRA. We will present both low and high convergence cases. Lastly, we illustrate the effect shock compression can have on feedthrough in seeded liners for various fill gases (cold and pre-heated) and magnetic field configurations. M. R. Weis was supported by the Sandia National Laboratories.

  14. Statistical abstraction of high-fidelity CO2 pressure histories in 2-D, uniform, cylindrical domains

    SciTech Connect

    Letellier, Bruce C; Sanzo, Dean L; Pawar, Rajesh J

    2010-01-01

    parameters while retaining acceptable accuracy in the key predicted qu antities. Essentially, numerical calculations can be used as data for an exploratory trend analysis just as one might regress predictive equations against laboratory measurements to determine unknown parameter values. Statistical correlations are derived here to reproduce radial overpressure as a function of time and position for CO{sub 2} injected along the centerline of cylindrical geologic domains. FEHM was used to compute two-phase pressure histories in a suite of simulations that varied (1) initial pressure, (2) vertical reservoir thickness, (3) domain radius, (4) uniform permeability, and (5) mass injection rate. The simulations include both a 50-yr injection phase and a 50-yr relaxation phase. The correlations are based on a two-step fitting paradigm that first captures the shape of an entire radial pressure profile for a given time and input condition, and then correlates the shape parameters as generalized power products of 6 dimensionless parameters. Estimated overpressures are accurate within a factor of 1.25 compared to the suite of simulated values. The correlations can be used to evaluate rapidly local temporal overpressure for any continuous values within the defined space of input parameters. Inversion of the pressure correlation is also demonstrated to determine the maximum injection rate corresponding to an assumed limiting fracture pressure.

  15. Cylindrically symmetric wormholes WhCRe : The motion of test particles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aminova, Asya V.; Brill, Dieter R.; Chumarov, Pavel I.; Shemakhin, Aleksandr Yu.

    2016-07-01

    We study the radial and nonradial motion of massive test particles and photons in a three-parameter family of cylindrically symmetric wormholes WhCRe generated by the electromagnetic, dilaton, and scalar fields, with particular attention paid to the extent to which the wormhole is traversable. The wormholes are not asymptotically flat and contain a curvature singularity at one end of the wormhole. In the case of nonradial motion with conserved energy and angular momentum along a hypersurface z =const ("planar orbits") we show that, as in the Kerr and Schwarzschild geometries, we should distinguish between orbits with impact parameters greater or less than a certain critical value Dc, which corresponds to the unstable circular orbit of radius uc. For D2>Dc2 there are two kinds of orbits: orbits of the first kind arrive from infinity and turn around at the orbit's minimum radial coordinate u ("pericenter") greater than uc, whereas orbits of the second kind turn around at maximum radial coordinate u ("apocenter") less than uc and terminate at the singularity at u =-∞ . For D =Dc orbits of the first and second kinds merge and both orbits spiral an infinite number of times toward the unstable circular orbit u =uc. For D2

  16. On the Effectiveness of Wastewater Cylindrical Reactors: an Analysis Through Steiner Symmetrization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Díaz, J. I.; Gómez-Castro, D.

    2016-03-01

    The mathematical analysis of the shape of chemical reactors is studied in this paper through the research of the optimization of its effectiveness η such as introduced by R. Aris around 1960. Although our main motivation is the consideration of reactors specially designed for the treatment of wastewaters our results are relevant also in more general frameworks. We simplify the modeling by assuming a single chemical reaction with a monotone kinetics leading to a parabolic equation with a non-necessarily differentiable function. In fact we consider here the case of a single, non-reversible catalysis reaction of chemical order q, 00). We assume the chemical reactor of cylindrical shape Ω =G× (0,H) with G and open regular set of {R}2 not necessarily symmetric. We show that among all the sections G with prescribed area the ball is the set of lowest effectiveness η (t,G). The proof uses the notions of Steiner rearrangement. Finally, we show that if the height H is small enough then the effectiveness can be made as close to 1 as desired.

  17. Stationary cylindrically symmetric spacetimes with a massless scalar field and a nonpositive cosmological constant

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Erices, Cristián; Martínez, Cristián

    2015-08-01

    The general stationary cylindrically symmetric solution of Einstein-massless scalar field system with a nonpositive cosmological constant is presented. It is shown that the general solution is characterized by four integration constants. Two of these essential parameters have a local meaning and characterize the gravitational field strength. The other two have a topological origin, as they define an improper coordinate transformation that provides the stationary solution from the static one. The Petrov scheme is considered to explore the effects of the scalar field on the algebraic classification of the solutions. In general, these spacetimes are of type I. However, the presence of the scalar field allows us to find a nonvacuum type O solution and a wider family of type D spacetimes, in comparison with the vacuum case. The mass and angular momentum of the solution are computed using the Regge-Teitelboim method in the case of a negative cosmological constant. In absence of a cosmological constant, the curvature singularities in the vacuum solutions can be removed by including a phantom scalar field, yielding nontrivial locally homogeneous spacetimes. These spacetimes are of particular interest, as they have all their curvature invariants constant.

  18. Crankshafts: using simple, flat C2h-symmetric molecules to direct the assembly of chiral 2D nanopatterns.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Hui; Wuest, James D

    2013-06-18

    Linear D2h-symmetric bisisophthalic acids 1 and 2 and related substances have well-defined flattened structures, high affinities for graphite, and strong abilities to engage in specific intermolecular interactions. Their adsorption produces characteristic nanopatterns that reveal how 2D molecular organization can be controlled by reliable interadsorbate interactions such as hydrogen bonds when properly oriented by molecular geometry. In addition, the behavior of these compounds shows how large-scale organization can be obstructed by programming molecules to associate strongly according to competing motifs that have similar stability and can coexist smoothly without creating significant defects. Analogous new bisisophthalic acids 3a and 4a have similar associative properties, and their unique C2h-symmetric crankshaft geometry gives them the added ability to probe the poorly understood effect of chirality on molecular organization. Their adsorption shows how nanopatterns composed predictably of a single enantiomer can be obtained by depositing molecules that can respect established rules of association only by accepting neighbors of the same configuration. In addition, an analysis of the adsorption of crankshaft compounds 3a and 4a and their derivatives by STM reveals directly on the molecular level how kinetics and thermodynamics compete to control the crystallization of chiral compounds. In such ways, detailed studies of the adsorption of properly designed compounds on surfaces are proving to be a powerful way to discover and test rules that broadly govern molecular organization in both 2D and 3D. PMID:23092394

  19. Computation of dispersion relations for axially symmetric guided waves in cylindrical structures by means of a spectral decomposition method.

    PubMed

    Höhne, Christian; Prager, Jens; Gravenkamp, Hauke

    2015-12-01

    In this paper, a method to determine the complex dispersion relations of axially symmetric guided waves in cylindrical structures is presented as an alternative to the currently established numerical procedures. The method is based on a spectral decomposition into eigenfunctions of the Laplace operator on the cross-section of the waveguide. This translates the calculation of real or complex wave numbers at a given frequency into solving an eigenvalue problem. Cylindrical rods and plates are treated as the asymptotic cases of cylindrical structures and used to generalize the method to the case of hollow cylinders. The presented method is superior to direct root-finding algorithms in the sense that no initial guess values are needed to determine the complex wave numbers and that neither starting at low frequencies nor subsequent mode tracking is required. The results obtained with this method are shown to be reasonably close to those calculated by other means and an estimate for the achievable accuracy is given.

  20. Design and initial results from a kilojoule level dense plasma focus with hollow anode and cylindrically symmetric gas puff

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ellsworth, J. L.; Falabella, S.; Tang, V.; Schmidt, A.; Guethlein, G.; Hawkins, S.; Rusnak, B.

    2014-01-01

    We have designed and built a Dense Plasma Focus (DPF) Z-pinch device using a kJ-level capacitor bank and a hollow anode, and fueled by a cylindrically symmetric gas puff. Using this device, we have measured peak deuteron beam energies of up to 400 keV at 0.8 kJ capacitor bank energy and pinch lengths of ˜6 mm, indicating accelerating fields greater than 50 MV/m. Neutron yields of on the order of 107 per shot were measured during deuterium operation. The cylindrical gas puff system permitted simultaneous operation of DPF with a radiofrequency quadrupole accelerator for beam-into-plasma experiments. This paper describes the machine design, the diagnostic systems, and our first results.

  1. Design and initial results from a kilojoule level Dense Plasma Focus with hollow anode and cylindrically symmetric gas puff.

    PubMed

    Ellsworth, J L; Falabella, S; Tang, V; Schmidt, A; Guethlein, G; Hawkins, S; Rusnak, B

    2014-01-01

    We have designed and built a Dense Plasma Focus (DPF) Z-pinch device using a kJ-level capacitor bank and a hollow anode, and fueled by a cylindrically symmetric gas puff. Using this device, we have measured peak deuteron beam energies of up to 400 keV at 0.8 kJ capacitor bank energy and pinch lengths of ∼6 mm, indicating accelerating fields greater than 50 MV/m. Neutron yields of on the order of 10(7) per shot were measured during deuterium operation. The cylindrical gas puff system permitted simultaneous operation of DPF with a radiofrequency quadrupole accelerator for beam-into-plasma experiments. This paper describes the machine design, the diagnostic systems, and our first results. PMID:24517762

  2. Design and initial results from a kilojoule level dense plasma focus with hollow anode and cylindrically symmetric gas puff

    SciTech Connect

    Ellsworth, J. L. Falabella, S.; Tang, V.; Schmidt, A.; Guethlein, G.; Hawkins, S.; Rusnak, B.

    2014-01-15

    We have designed and built a Dense Plasma Focus (DPF) Z-pinch device using a kJ-level capacitor bank and a hollow anode, and fueled by a cylindrically symmetric gas puff. Using this device, we have measured peak deuteron beam energies of up to 400 keV at 0.8 kJ capacitor bank energy and pinch lengths of ∼6 mm, indicating accelerating fields greater than 50 MV/m. Neutron yields of on the order of 10{sup 7} per shot were measured during deuterium operation. The cylindrical gas puff system permitted simultaneous operation of DPF with a radiofrequency quadrupole accelerator for beam-into-plasma experiments. This paper describes the machine design, the diagnostic systems, and our first results.

  3. A numerical scheme and some theoretical aspects for the cylindrically and spherically symmetric sine-Gordon equations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nguyen, Lu Trong Khiem

    2016-07-01

    A finite difference formula based on the predictor-corrector technique is presented to integrate the cylindrically and spherically symmetric sine-Gordon equations numerically. Based on various numerical observations, one property of the waves of kink type is conjectured and used to explain their returning effect. Several numerical experiments are carried out and they are in excellent agreement with the existing results. In addition, the corresponding modulation solution for the two-dimensional ring-shaped kink is extended to that in three-dimension. Both numerical and theoretical aspects are utilized to verify the reliability of the proposed numerical scheme and thus the analytical modulation solutions.

  4. Classification of Cylindrically Symmetric Static Spacetimes According to Their Killing Vector Fields in Teleparallel Theory of Gravitation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shabbir, Ghulam; Khan, Suhail

    In this paper we classify cylindrically symmetric static spacetimes according to their teleparallel Killing vector fields using direct integration technique. It turns out that the dimension of the teleparallel Killing vector fields are 3, 4, 6 or 10 which are the same in numbers as in general relativity. In case of 3, 4 or 6 the teleparallel Killing vector fields are multiple of the corresponding Killing vector fields in general relativity by some function of r. In the case of 10 Killing vector fields the spacetime becomes Minkowski spacetime and all the torsion components are zero. The Killing vector fields in this case are exactly the same as in general relativity. Here we also discuss the Lie algebra in each case. It is important to note that this classification also covers the plane symmetric static spacetimes.

  5. Ion velocity distributions in the presence of cylindrically symmetric electric field perturbations: the collision-free case

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ma, John Zhen Guo; Ma, John Zhen Guo; St-Maurice, Jean-Pierre

    Because of the strong ambient magnetic field, particularly at ionospheric altitudes, the auroral regions are flush with cylindrical structures covering an impressive range of scales which include lower hybrid cavities on decameter scales, auroral rays on km scales and vortices on tens to hundreds of km scales. In addition, a plethora of in-situ magnetic field and electric field observations and groundbased radar observations strongly suggests that very large parallel current densities are triggered in the upper ionosphere. These observations and just simple geometric considerations have motivated us to study the ion velocity distributions that would accompany strong perpendicular electric fields in a cylindrically symmetric geometry. The applications of the work have to do with the transport coefficients in such regions as well as with local instrumental observations of distribution functions with particle detectors. We have evolved a kinetic theoretical framework in which we have obtained analytical solutions for a number of important limits. We have also developed a semi-numerical method by which to obtain the ion velocity distribution under more general conditions for which analytical solutions are not possible. Our presentation will focus strongly on collision-free results, which stem from the following assumptions: (1) a perpendicular electric field is introduced initially on a time scale that is fast compared to the local ion gyrofrequency (but slow compared to electron plasma and gyrofrequencies); (2) the ion collision frequency is much smaller than the ion gyrofrequency, so that we can calculate meaningful collisionfree solutions. We will present analytical solutions for the distribution functions and their velocity moments inside regions for which the electric field can be assumed to increase linearly with distance from the axis of the cylindrical region, this for a number of initial cylindrically symmetric density distributions. We will also present our

  6. HOTCFGM-2D: A Coupled Higher-Order Theory for Cylindrical Structural Components with Bi-Directionally Components with Bi-Directionally Graded Microstructures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pindera, Marek-Jerzy; Aboudi, Jacob

    2000-01-01

    The objective of this two-year project was to develop and deliver to the NASA-Glenn Research Center a two-dimensional higher-order theory, and related computer codes, for the analysis and design of cylindrical functionally graded materials/structural components for use in advanced aircraft engines (e.g., combustor linings, rotor disks, heat shields, brisk blades). To satisfy this objective, two-dimensional version of the higher-order theory, HOTCFGM-2D, and four computer codes based on this theory, for the analysis and design of structural components functionally graded in the radial and circumferential directions were developed in the cylindrical coordinate system r-Theta-z. This version of the higher-order theory is a significant generalization of the one-dimensional theory, HOTCFGM-1D, developed during the FY97 for the analysis and design of cylindrical structural components with radially graded microstructures. The generalized theory is applicable to thin multi-phased composite shells/cylinders subjected to steady-state thermomechanical, transient thermal and inertial loading applied uniformly along the axial direction such that the overall deformation is characterized by a constant average axial strain. The reinforcement phases are uniformly distributed in the axial direction, and arbitrarily distributed in the radial and circumferential direction, thereby allowing functional grading of the internal reinforcement in the r-Theta plane. The four computer codes fgmc3dq.cylindrical.f, fgmp3dq.cylindrical.f, fgmgvips3dq.cylindrical.f, and fgmc3dq.cylindrical.transient.f are research-oriented codes for investigating the effect of functionally graded architectures, as well as the properties of the multi-phase reinforcement, in thin shells subjected to thermomechanical and inertial loading, on the internal temperature, stress and (inelastic) strain fields. The reinforcement distribution in the radial and circumferential directions is specified by the user. The thermal

  7. Integral-equation formulation for drift eigenmodes in cylindrically symmetric systems

    SciTech Connect

    Linsker, R.

    1980-12-01

    A method for solving the integral eigenmode equation for drift waves in cylindrical (or slab) geometry is presented. A leading-order kinematic effect that has been noted in the past, but incorrectly ignored in recent integral-equation calculations, is incorporated. The present method also allows electrons to be treated with a physical mass ratio (unlike earlier work that is restricted to artificially small m/sub i//m/sub e/ owing to resolution limitations). Results for the universal mode and for the ion-temperature-gradient driven mode are presented. The kinematic effect qualitatively changes the spectrum of the ion mode, and a new second region of instability for k/sub perpendicular to/rho/sub i/greater than or equal to 1 is found.

  8. A Piecewise Linear Discontinuous Finite Element Spatial Discretization of the Transport Equation in 2D Cylindrical Geometry

    SciTech Connect

    Bailey, T S; Adams, M L; Chang, J H

    2008-10-01

    We present a new spatial discretization of the discrete-ordinates transport equation in two-dimensional cylindrical (RZ) geometry for arbitrary polygonal meshes. This discretization is a discontinuous finite element method that utilizes the piecewise linear basis functions developed by Stone and Adams. We describe an asymptotic analysis that shows this method to be accurate for many problems in the thick diffusion limit on arbitrary polygons, allowing this method to be applied to radiative transfer problems with these types of meshes. We also present numerical results for multiple problems on quadrilateral grids and compare these results to the well-known bi-linear discontinuous finite element method.

  9. Mechanical analysis of an axially symmetric cylindrical phantom with a spherical heterogeneity for MR elastography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schwartz, Benjamin L.; Yin, Ziying; Magin, Richard L.

    2016-09-01

    Cylindrical homogenous phantoms for magnetic resonance (MR) elastography in biomedical research provide one way to validate an imaging systems performance, but the simplified geometry and boundary conditions can cloak complexity arising at tissue interfaces. In an effort to develop a more realistic gel tissue phantom for MRE, we have constructed a heterogenous gel phantom (a sphere centrally embedded in a cylinder). The actuation comes from the phantom container, with the mechanical waves propagating toward the center, focusing the energy and thus allowing for the visualization of high-frequency waves that would otherwise be damped. The phantom was imaged and its stiffness determined using a 9.4 T horizontal MRI with a custom build piezo-elastic MRE actuator. The phantom was vibrated at three frequencies, 250, 500, and 750 Hz. The resulting shear wave images were first used to reconstruct material stiffness maps for thin (1 mm) axial slices at each frequency, from which the complex shear moduli μ were estimated, and then compared with forward modeling using a recently developed theoretical model which took μ as inputs. The overall accuracy of the measurement process was assessed by comparing theory with experiment for selected values of the shear modulus (real and imaginary parts). Close agreement is shown between the experimentally obtained and theoretically predicted wave fields.

  10. Hydrogels with cylindrically symmetric structure at macroscopic scale by self-assembly of semi-rigid polyion complex.

    PubMed

    Wu, Zi Liang; Kurokawa, Takayuki; Liang, Songmiao; Furukawa, Hidemitsu; Gong, Jian Ping

    2010-07-28

    A hydrogel with cylindrically symmetric structure at macroscopic scale has been developed by polymerization of a cationic monomer in the presence of a small amount of semi-rigid polyanion poly(2,2'-disulfonyl-4,4'-benzidine terephthalamide) (PBDT) in a cylinder glass tube. The polyion complex radially aligns in the outer region of the synthesized cylinder gel. On the other hand, it orients in concentric and axial directions in the inner region. To the authors' knowledge, this is the first report of such millimeter-scale ordered structure developed in a polymeric hydrogel. We elucidate that homeotropic alignment on the glass wall is energetically favorable for the semi-rigid polyion complex, resulting in the radial orientation in the outer region. In the inner region, the oriented structures result from the monomer difffusion (due to the heterogeneous polymerization) that induces PBDT orientation perpendicular to the diffusion direction. The structured gels showing sensitive response of birefringence to external force are expected to find applications in optical sensors. PMID:20590113

  11. Electromagnetic characterization of an MR volume coil with multilayered cylindrical load using a 2-D analytical approach.

    PubMed

    Tiberi, Gianluigi; Costagli, Mauro; Stara, Riccardo; Cosottini, Mirco; Tropp, James; Tosetti, Michela

    2013-05-01

    We present an analytical method for the analysis of Radio Frequency (RF) volume coils for Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI), using a 2-D full wave solution with loading by multilayered cylinders. This allows the characterization of radio-frequency E, H, B1, B1(+) fields. Comparisons are provided with experimental data obtained at 7.0 T. The procedure permits us to clearly separate the solution to single line source problem (which we call the primordial solution) and the composite solution (i.e. full coil, i.e. the summations of primordial solutions according to the resonator drive configuration). The capability of separating the primordial solution and the composite one is fundamental for a thorough analysis of the phenomena of dielectric resonance, and of standing wave and multi-source interference. We show that dielectric resonance can be identified only by looking at the electromagnetic field from a single line source.

  12. On-board monitoring of 2-D spatially-resolved temperatures in cylindrical lithium-ion batteries: Part I. Low-order thermal modelling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Richardson, Robert R.; Zhao, Shi; Howey, David A.

    2016-09-01

    Estimating the temperature distribution within Li-ion batteries during operation is critical for safety and control purposes. Although existing control-oriented thermal models - such as thermal equivalent circuits (TEC) - are computationally efficient, they only predict average temperatures, and are unable to predict the spatially resolved temperature distribution throughout the cell. We present a low-order 2D thermal model of a cylindrical battery based on a Chebyshev spectral-Galerkin (SG) method, capable of predicting the full temperature distribution with a similar efficiency to a TEC. The model accounts for transient heat generation, anisotropic heat conduction, and non-homogeneous convection boundary conditions. The accuracy of the model is validated through comparison with finite element simulations, which show that the 2-D temperature field (r, z) of a large format (64 mm diameter) cell can be accurately modelled with as few as 4 states. Furthermore, the performance of the model for a range of Biot numbers is investigated via frequency analysis. For larger cells or highly transient thermal dynamics, the model order can be increased for improved accuracy. The incorporation of this model in a state estimation scheme with experimental validation against thermocouple measurements is presented in the companion contribution (http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0378775316308163)

  13. On-board monitoring of 2-D spatially-resolved temperatures in cylindrical lithium-ion batteries: Part II. State estimation via impedance-based temperature sensing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Richardson, Robert R.; Zhao, Shi; Howey, David A.

    2016-09-01

    Impedance-based temperature detection (ITD) is a promising approach for rapid estimation of internal cell temperature based on the correlation between temperature and electrochemical impedance. Previously, ITD was used as part of an Extended Kalman Filter (EKF) state-estimator in conjunction with a thermal model to enable estimation of the 1-D temperature distribution of a cylindrical lithium-ion battery. Here, we extend this method to enable estimation of the 2-D temperature field of a battery with temperature gradients in both the radial and axial directions. An EKF using a parameterised 2-D spectral-Galerkin model with ITD measurement input (the imaginary part of the impedance at 215 Hz) is shown to accurately predict the core temperature and multiple surface temperatures of a 32,113 LiFePO4 cell, using current excitation profiles based on an Artemis HEV drive cycle. The method is validated experimentally on a cell fitted with a heat sink and asymmetrically cooled via forced air convection. A novel approach to impedance-temperature calibration is also presented, which uses data from a single drive cycle, rather than measurements at multiple uniform cell temperatures as in previous studies. This greatly reduces the time required for calibration, since it overcomes the need for repeated cell thermal equalization.

  14. Dynamic pulse buckling of cylindrical shells under axial impact: A comparison of 2D and 3D finite element calculations with experimental data

    SciTech Connect

    Hoffman, E.L.; Ammerman, D.J.

    1995-04-01

    A series of tests investigating dynamic pulse buckling of a cylindrical shell under axial impact is compared to several 2D and 3D finite element simulations of the event. The purpose of the work is to investigate the performance of various analysis codes and element types on a problem which is applicable to radioactive material transport packages, and ultimately to develop a benchmark problem to qualify finite element analysis codes for the transport package design industry. Four axial impact tests were performed on 4 in-diameter, 8 in-long, 304 L stainless steel cylinders with a 3/16 in wall thickness. The cylinders were struck by a 597 lb mass with an impact velocity ranging from 42.2 to 45.1 ft/sec. During the impact event, a buckle formed at each end of the cylinder, and one of the two buckles became unstable and collapsed. The instability occurred at the top of the cylinder in three tests and at the bottom in one test. Numerical simulations of the test were performed using the following codes and element types: PRONTO2D with axisymmetric four-node quadrilaterals; PRONTO3D with both four-node shells and eight-node hexahedrons; and ABAQUS/Explicit with axisymmetric two-node shells and four-node quadrilaterals, and 3D four-node shells and eight-node hexahedrons. All of the calculations are compared to the tests with respect to deformed shape and impact load history. As in the tests, the location of the instability is not consistent in all of the calculations. However, the calculations show good agreement with impact load measurements with the exception of an initial load spike which is proven to be the dynamic response of the load cell to the impact. Finally, the PRONIT02D calculation is compared to the tests with respect to strain and acceleration histories. Accelerometer data exhibited good qualitative agreement with the calculations. The strain comparisons show that measurements are very sensitive to gage placement.

  15. Generation of cylindrically symmetric modes and orbital-angular-momentum modes with tilted optical gratings inscribed in high-numerical-aperture fibers.

    PubMed

    Fang, Liang; Jia, Hongzhi; Zhou, Hai; Liu, Baiying

    2015-01-01

    Optical fiber with high numerical aperture (NA) can efficiently relieve the degeneracy of higher-order linearly polarized modes. The degeneracy relief is investigated in two types of high-NA fibers, i.e., low-index-cladding fiber and high-index-core fiber. A naked-core fiber, as with low-index cladding, can be used theoretically to generate the orbital-angular-momentum mode (OAMM) HE21 and the cylindrically symmetric modes (CSMs) TM01 and TE01. A high-index-core fiber incorporated with high-contrast-index structure can be used similarly to obtain OAMM HE31. The generation of both CSMs and OAMMs required tilted optical gratings to couple the fundamental core mode HE11 into these modes. The tilt angle and modulation period of the grating fringes can be calculated simply and visually with the method proposed in this article.

  16. Boundary-layer phenomena for the cylindrically symmetric Navier–Stokes equations of compressible heat-conducting fluids with large data at vanishing shear viscosity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ye, Xia; Zhang, Jianwen

    2016-08-01

    This paper concerns the asymptotic behavior of the solution to an initial-boundary value problem of the cylindrically symmetric Navier–Stokes equations with large data for compressible heat-conducting ideal fluids, as the shear viscosity μ goes to zero. A suitable corrector function (the so-called boundary-layer type function) is constructed to eliminate the disparity of boundary values. As by-products, the convergence rates of the derivatives in L 2 are obtained and the boundary-layer thickness (BL-thickness) of the value O≤ft({μα}\\right) with α \\in ≤ft(0,1/2\\right) is shown by an alternative method, compared with the results proved in Jiang and Zhang (2009 SIAM J. Math. Anal. 41 237–68) and Qin et al (2015 Arch. Ration. Mech. Anal. 216 1049–86).

  17. Cylindrical wormholes

    SciTech Connect

    Bronnikov, K. A.; Lemos, Jose P. S.

    2009-05-15

    It is shown that the existence of static, cylindrically symmetric wormholes does not require violation of the weak or null energy conditions near the throat, and cylindrically symmetric wormhole geometries can appear with less exotic sources than wormholes whose throats have a spherical topology. Examples of exact wormhole solutions are given with scalar, spinor and electromagnetic fields as sources, and these fields are not necessarily phantom. In particular, there are wormhole solutions for a massless, minimally coupled scalar field in the presence of a negative cosmological constant, and for an azimuthal Maxwell electromagnetic field. All these solutions are not asymptotically flat. A no-go theorem is proved, according to which a flat (or string) asymptotic behavior on both sides of a cylindrical wormhole throat is impossible if the energy density of matter is everywhere nonnegative.

  18. A Cylindrical, Inner Volume Selecting 2D-T2-Prep Improves GRAPPA-Accelerated Image Quality in MRA of the Right Coronary Artery

    PubMed Central

    Coristine, Andrew J.; Yerly, Jerome; Stuber, Matthias

    2016-01-01

    Background Two-dimensional (2D) spatially selective radiofrequency (RF) pulses may be used to excite restricted volumes. By incorporating a "pencil beam" 2D pulse into a T2-Prep, one may create a "2D-T2-Prep" that combines T2-weighting with an intrinsic outer volume suppression. This may particularly benefit parallel imaging techniques, where artefacts typically originate from residual foldover signal. By suppressing foldover signal with a 2D-T2-Prep, image quality may therefore improve. We present numerical simulations, phantom and in vivo validations to address this hypothesis. Methods A 2D-T2-Prep and a conventional T2-Prep were used with GRAPPA-accelerated MRI (R = 1.6). The techniques were first compared in numerical phantoms, where per pixel maps of SNR (SNRmulti), noise, and g-factor were predicted for idealized sequences. Physical phantoms, with compartments doped to mimic blood, myocardium, fat, and coronary vasculature, were scanned with both T2-Preparation techniques to determine the actual SNRmulti and vessel sharpness. For in vivo experiments, the right coronary artery (RCA) was imaged in 10 healthy adults, using accelerations of R = 1,3, and 6, and vessel sharpness was measured for each. Results In both simulations and phantom experiments, the 2D-T2-Prep improved SNR relative to the conventional T2-Prep, by an amount that depended on both the acceleration factor and the degree of outer volume suppression. For in vivo images of the RCA, vessel sharpness improved most at higher acceleration factors, demonstrating that the 2D-T2-Prep especially benefits accelerated coronary MRA. Conclusion Suppressing outer volume signal with a 2D-T2-Prep improves image quality particularly well in GRAPPA-accelerated acquisitions in simulations, phantoms, and volunteers, demonstrating that it should be considered when performing accelerated coronary MRA. PMID:27736866

  19. Stability analysis of cylindrical Vlasov equilibria

    SciTech Connect

    Short, R W

    1980-02-01

    A method is presented for the fully kinetic, nonlocal stability analysis of cylindrically symmetric equilibria. Applications to the lower hybrid drift instability and the modes associated with a finite-width relativistic E-layer are discussed.

  20. Cylindrical Implosion Experiments using Laser Direct Drive

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tubbs, David

    1998-11-01

    Development of high-gain targets for the National Ignition Facility relies considerably on computational modeling, and it is important that our codes are validated against relevant experimental data in convergent geometry.(W. J. Krauser et al., Phys. Plasmas 3, 2084 (1996); D. C. Wilson et al., Phys. Plasmas 5, 1953 (1998)) In collaboration with the University of Rochester, we have begun a campaign of hydrodynamic instability experiments in cylindrical geometry using direct drive,(D. L. Tubbs et al., submitted to Laser and Particle Beams (1998); C. W. Barnes et al., submitted to Rev. Sci. Instrm. (1998)) building on our success in indirect drive.( W. W. Hsing et al., Phys. Plasmas 5, 1832 (1997); W. W. Hsing and N. M. Hoffman, Phys. Rev. Lett., 3876 (1997)) Cylindrical targets facilitate direct diagnostic access to the convergent, hydrodynamic flow. The energy advantage of direct drive and its excellent target-illumination symmetry (achieved at OMEGA through use of Distributed Phase Plates and SSD) permit more energetic implosions, larger target scale (hence greater diagnostic resolution), longer acceleration timescales, and higher convergence than were possible using indirect drive. We estimate that specific laser energy delivered to the target for direct drive at OMEGA is roughly 4 times that achieved for indirect drive at Nova. Our first experiments (January 1998) yield excellent data for the first highly symmetrical direct-drive implosions, with which we benchmark zeroth-order hydrodynamic simulations. Two-dimensional (2-D) LASNEX calculations, using as-shot laser power histories and no further physics adjustments, match measured target-implosion data within theoretical and experimental errors. In addition, 2-D LASNEX simulations of single-mode (m=28, azimuthally symmetric) perturbation growth agree well with data obtained during our first week of experiments. For 1.5-micron initial perturbation amplitude, we observe Rayleigh-Taylor growth factors of order 10

  1. Loads for pulsed power cylindrical implosion experiments

    SciTech Connect

    Anderson, W.E.; Armijo, E.V.; Barthell, B.L.; Bartos, J.J.; Bush, H.; Foreman, L.R.; Garcia, F.P.; Gobby, P.L.; Gomez, V.M.; Gurule, V.A.

    1994-07-01

    Pulse power can be used to generate high energy density conditions in convergent hollow cylindrical geometry through the use of appropriate electrode configuration and cylindrical loads. Cylindrically symmetric experiments are conducted with the Pegasus-H inductive store, capacitor energized pulse power facility at Los Alamos using both precision machined cylindrical liner loads and low mass vapor deposited cylindrical foil loads. The liner experiments investigate solid density hydrodynamic topics. Foil loads vaporize from Joule heating to generate an imploding cylindrical plasma which can be used to simulate some fluxes associated with fusion energy processes. Similar experiments are conducted with {open_quotes}Procyon{close_quotes} inductive store pulse power assemblies energized by explosively driven magnetic flux compression.

  2. Crack problems in cylindrical and spherical shells

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Erdogan, F.

    1976-01-01

    Standard plate or shell theories were used as a starting point to study the fracture problems in thin-walled cylindrical and spherical shells, assuming that the plane of the crack is perpendicular to the surface of the sheet. Since recent studies have shown that local shell curvatures may have a rather considerable effect on the stress intensity factor, the crack problem was considered in conjunction with a shell rather than a plate theory. The material was assumed to be isotropic and homogeneous, so that approximate solutions may be obtained by approximating the local shell crack geometry with an ideal shell which has a solution, namely a spherical shell with a meridional crack, a cylindrical shell with a circumferential crack, or a cylindrical shell with an axial crack. A method of solution for the specially orthotropic shells containing a crack was described; symmetric and skew-symmetric problems are considered in cylindrical shells with an axial crack.

  3. Cylindrical Brushes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schmidt

    1998-03-01

    Homopolymerization of macromonomers, i.e. polymerizable oligomers, yields macromolecules of cylindrical shape, because the main chain is considerably stretched due to the steric overcrowding of the side chains.(M. Wintermantel et al., Macromolecules 1996, 29,978.) Irrespective of the chemical nature of the macromonomer (styrene, methylmethacrylate, vinylpyridine, propylene) the chain stiffness in terms of the Kuhn statistical segment length lk lies in the range of 50 nm < lk < 200 nm. In accordance to the high degree of stiffness polymacromonomers form lyotropic liquid crystalline phases in solution and in the bulk.(M. Wintermantel et. al, Angew. Chemie 1995, 107, 1606.) Upon drying a dilute solution on mica or silicon wafer ordered monolayers are formed.(S.S. Sheiko et al., Langmuir 1997, 13, 5368.)^, (P. Dziezok et al., Angew. Chemie 1997, 00, 000.) Recently, stable monolayers of polyvinylpyridine macromonomers were successfully prepared on a Langmuir-Blodgett trough. Up to 15 monolayers were transferred onto a planar silicon wafer and characterized by x-ray reflection. The individual brush molecules within the monolayer could be visualized by atomic force microscopy. Frequently occurring hairpin formations by one molecule could not yet be explained. AFM on isolated, single molecules, however, have confirmed the cylindrical structure of polymacromonomers.

  4. Cylindrical Scanner

    1999-04-29

    The CS system is designed to provide a very fast imaging system in order to search for weapons on persons in an airport environment. The Cylindrical Scanner moves a vertical transceiver array rapidly around a person standing stationary. The software can be segmented in to three specific tasks. The first task is data acquisition and scanner control. At the operator's request, this task commands the scanner to move and the radar transceiver array to sendmore » data to the computer system in a known and well-ordered manner. The array is moved over the complete aperture in 10 to 12 seconds. At the completion of the array movement the second software task automatically reconstructs the high-resolution image from the radar data utilizing the integrated DSP boards. The third task displays the resulting images, as they become available, to the computer screen for user review and analysis.« less

  5. Defragged Binary I Ching Genetic Code Chromosomes Compared to Nirenberg’s and Transformed into Rotating 2D Circles and Squares and into a 3D 100% Symmetrical Tetrahedron Coupled to a Functional One to Discern Start From Non-Start Methionines through a Stella Octangula

    PubMed Central

    Castro-Chavez, Fernando

    2012-01-01

    Background Three binary representations of the genetic code according to the ancient I Ching of Fu-Xi will be presented, depending on their defragging capabilities by pairing based on three biochemical properties of the nucleic acids: H-bonds, Purine/Pyrimidine rings, and the Keto-enol/Amino-imino tautomerism, yielding the last pair a 32/32 single-strand self-annealed genetic code and I Ching tables. Methods Our working tool is the ancient binary I Ching's resulting genetic code chromosomes defragged by vertical and by horizontal pairing, reverse engineered into non-binaries of 2D rotating 4×4×4 circles and 8×8 squares and into one 3D 100% symmetrical 16×4 tetrahedron coupled to a functional tetrahedron with apical signaling and central hydrophobicity (codon formula: 4[1(1)+1(3)+1(4)+4(2)]; 5:5, 6:6 in man) forming a stella octangula, and compared to Nirenberg's 16×4 codon table (1965) pairing the first two nucleotides of the 64 codons in axis y. Results One horizontal and one vertical defragging had the start Met at the center. Two, both horizontal and vertical pairings produced two pairs of 2×8×4 genetic code chromosomes naturally arranged (M and I), rearranged by semi-introversion of central purines or pyrimidines (M' and I') and by clustering hydrophobic amino acids; their quasi-identity was disrupted by amino acids with odd codons (Met and Tyr pairing to Ile and TGA Stop); in all instances, the 64-grid 90° rotational ability was restored. Conclusions We defragged three I Ching representations of the genetic code while emphasizing Nirenberg's historical finding. The synthetic genetic code chromosomes obtained reflect the protective strategy of enzymes with a similar function, having both humans and mammals a biased G-C dominance of three H-bonds in the third nucleotide of their most used codons per amino acid, as seen in one chromosome of the i, M and M' genetic codes, while a two H-bond A-T dominance was found in their complementary chromosome, as seen

  6. Defragged Binary I Ching Genetic Code Chromosomes Compared to Nirenberg's and Transformed into Rotating 2D Circles and Squares and into a 3D 100% Symmetrical Tetrahedron Coupled to a Functional One to Discern Start From Non-Start Methionines through a Stella Octangula.

    PubMed

    Castro-Chavez, Fernando

    2012-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Three binary representations of the genetic code according to the ancient I Ching of Fu-Xi will be presented, depending on their defragging capabilities by pairing based on three biochemical properties of the nucleic acids: H-bonds, Purine/Pyrimidine rings, and the Keto-enol/Amino-imino tautomerism, yielding the last pair a 32/32 single-strand self-annealed genetic code and I Ching tables. METHODS: Our working tool is the ancient binary I Ching's resulting genetic code chromosomes defragged by vertical and by horizontal pairing, reverse engineered into non-binaries of 2D rotating 4×4×4 circles and 8×8 squares and into one 3D 100% symmetrical 16×4 tetrahedron coupled to a functional tetrahedron with apical signaling and central hydrophobicity (codon formula: 4[1(1)+1(3)+1(4)+4(2)]; 5:5, 6:6 in man) forming a stella octangula, and compared to Nirenberg's 16×4 codon table (1965) pairing the first two nucleotides of the 64 codons in axis y. RESULTS: One horizontal and one vertical defragging had the start Met at the center. Two, both horizontal and vertical pairings produced two pairs of 2×8×4 genetic code chromosomes naturally arranged (M and I), rearranged by semi-introversion of central purines or pyrimidines (M' and I') and by clustering hydrophobic amino acids; their quasi-identity was disrupted by amino acids with odd codons (Met and Tyr pairing to Ile and TGA Stop); in all instances, the 64-grid 90° rotational ability was restored. CONCLUSIONS: We defragged three I Ching representations of the genetic code while emphasizing Nirenberg's historical finding. The synthetic genetic code chromosomes obtained reflect the protective strategy of enzymes with a similar function, having both humans and mammals a biased G-C dominance of three H-bonds in the third nucleotide of their most used codons per amino acid, as seen in one chromosome of the i, M and M' genetic codes, while a two H-bond A-T dominance was found in their complementary chromosome, as

  7. Cylindrical magnets and ideal solenoids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Derby, Norman; Olbert, Stanislaw

    2010-03-01

    Both wire-wound solenoids and cylindrical magnets can be approximated as ideal azimuthally symmetric solenoids. We present an exact solution for the magnetic field of an ideal solenoid in an easy to use form. The field is expressed in terms of a single function that can be rapidly computed by means of a compact efficient algorithm, which can be coded as an add-in function to a spreadsheet, making field calculations accessible to introductory students. These expressions are not only accurate but are also as fast as most approximate expressions. We demonstrate their utility by simulating the dropping of a cylindrical magnet through a nonmagnetic conducting tube and comparing the calculation with data obtained from experiments suitable for an undergraduate laboratory.

  8. Aniso2D

    2005-07-01

    Aniso2d is a two-dimensional seismic forward modeling code. The earth is parameterized by an X-Z plane in which the seismic properties Can have monoclinic with x-z plane symmetry. The program uses a user define time-domain wavelet to produce synthetic seismograms anrwhere within the two-dimensional media.

  9. Towards 2D nanocomposites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jang, Hyun-Sook; Yu, Changqian; Hayes, Robert; Granick, Steve

    2015-03-01

    Polymer vesicles (``polymersomes'') are an intriguing class of soft materials, commonly used to encapsulate small molecules or particles. Here we reveal they can also effectively incorporate nanoparticles inside their polymer membrane, leading to novel ``2D nanocomposites.'' The embedded nanoparticles alter the capacity of the polymersomes to bend and to stretch upon external stimuli.

  10. Mesh2d

    2011-12-31

    Mesh2d is a Fortran90 program designed to generate two-dimensional structured grids of the form [x(i),y(i,j)] where [x,y] are grid coordinates identified by indices (i,j). The x(i) coordinates alone can be used to specify a one-dimensional grid. Because the x-coordinates vary only with the i index, a two-dimensional grid is composed in part of straight vertical lines. However, the nominally horizontal y(i,j0) coordinates along index i are permitted to undulate or otherwise vary. Mesh2d also assignsmore » an integer material type to each grid cell, mtyp(i,j), in a user-specified manner. The complete grid is specified through three separate input files defining the x(i), y(i,j), and mtyp(i,j) variations.« less

  11. Shearfree cylindrical gravitational collapse

    SciTech Connect

    Di Prisco, A.; Herrera, L.; MacCallum, M. A. H.; Santos, N. O.

    2009-09-15

    We consider diagonal cylindrically symmetric metrics, with an interior representing a general nonrotating fluid with anisotropic pressures. An exterior vacuum Einstein-Rosen spacetime is matched to this using Darmois matching conditions. We show that the matching conditions can be explicitly solved for the boundary values of metric components and their derivatives, either for the interior or exterior. Specializing to shearfree interiors, a static exterior can only be matched to a static interior, and the evolution in the nonstatic case is found to be given in general by an elliptic function of time. For a collapsing shearfree isotropic fluid, only a Robertson-Walker dust interior is possible, and we show that all such cases were included in Cocke's discussion. For these metrics, Nolan and Nolan have shown that the matching breaks down before collapse is complete, and Tod and Mena have shown that the spacetime is not asymptotically flat in the sense of Berger, Chrusciel, and Moncrief. The issues about energy that then arise are revisited, and it is shown that the exterior is not in an intrinsic gravitational or superenergy radiative state at the boundary.

  12. Use of the 'Precessions' process for prepolishing and correcting 2D & 2(1/2)D form.

    PubMed

    Walker, David D; Freeman, Richard; Morton, Roger; McCavana, Gerry; Beaucamp, Anthony

    2006-11-27

    The Precessions process polishes complex surfaces from the ground state preserving the ground-in form, and subsequently rectifies measured form errors. Our first paper introduced the technology and focused on the novel tooling. In this paper we describe the unique CNC machine tools and how they operate in polishing and correcting form. Experimental results demonstrate both the '2D' and '2(1/2)D' form-correction modes, as applied to aspheres with rotationally-symmetric target-form.

  13. Development of the Cylindrical Wire Electrical Discharge Machining Process.

    SciTech Connect

    McSpadden, SB

    2002-01-22

    Results of applying the wire Electrical Discharge Machining (EDM) process to generate precise cylindrical forms on hard, difficult-to-machine materials are presented. A precise, flexible, and corrosion-resistant underwater rotary spindle was designed and added to a conventional two-axis wire EDM machine to enable the generation of free-form cylindrical geometries. A detailed spindle error analysis identifies the major source of error at different frequency. The mathematical model for the material removal of cylindrical wire EDM process is derived. Experiments were conducted to explore the maximum material removal rate for cylindrical and 2D wire EDM of carbide and brass work-materials. Compared to the 2D wire EDM, higher maximum material removal rates may be achieved in the cylindrical wire EDM. This study also investigates the surface integrity and roundness of parts created by the cylindrical wire EDM process. For carbide parts, an arithmetic average surface roughness and roundness as low as 0.68 and 1.7 {micro}m, respectively, can be achieved. Surfaces of the cylindrical EDM parts were examined using Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM) to identify the craters, sub-surface recast layers and heat-affected zones under various process parameters. This study has demonstrated that the cylindrical wire EDM process parameters can be adjusted to achieve either high material removal rate or good surface integrity.

  14. High divergent 2D grating

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Jin; Ma, Jianyong; Zhou, Changhe

    2014-11-01

    A 3×3 high divergent 2D-grating with period of 3.842μm at wavelength of 850nm under normal incidence is designed and fabricated in this paper. This high divergent 2D-grating is designed by the vector theory. The Rigorous Coupled Wave Analysis (RCWA) in association with the simulated annealing (SA) is adopted to calculate and optimize this 2D-grating.The properties of this grating are also investigated by the RCWA. The diffraction angles are more than 10 degrees in the whole wavelength band, which are bigger than the traditional 2D-grating. In addition, the small period of grating increases the difficulties of fabrication. So we fabricate the 2D-gratings by direct laser writing (DLW) instead of traditional manufacturing method. Then the method of ICP etching is used to obtain the high divergent 2D-grating.

  15. Static Solutions of Einstein's Equations with Cylindrical Symmetry

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Trendafilova, C. S.; Fulling, S. A.

    2011-01-01

    In analogy with the standard derivation of the Schwarzschild solution, we find all static, cylindrically symmetric solutions of the Einstein field equations for vacuum. These include not only the well-known cone solution, which is locally flat, but others in which the metric coefficients are powers of the radial coordinate and the spacetime is…

  16. Double focusing ion mass spectrometer of cylindrical symmetry

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Coplan, M. A.; Moore, J. H.; Hoffman, R. A.

    1984-01-01

    A mass spectrometer consisting of an electric sector followed by a magnetic sector is described. The geometry is a cylindrically symmetric generalization of the Mattauch-Herzog spectrometer (1934). With its large annular entrance aperture and a position-sensitive detector, the instrument provides a large geometric factor and 100-percent duty factor, making it appropriate for spacecraft experiments.

  17. Cylindrical neutron generator

    DOEpatents

    Leung, Ka-Ngo

    2008-04-22

    A cylindrical neutron generator is formed with a coaxial RF-driven plasma ion source and target. A deuterium (or deuterium and tritium) plasma is produced by RF excitation in a cylindrical plasma ion generator using an RF antenna. A cylindrical neutron generating target is coaxial with the ion generator, separated by plasma and extraction electrodes which contain many slots. The plasma generator emanates ions radially over 360.degree. and the cylindrical target is thus irradiated by ions over its entire circumference. The plasma generator and target may be as long as desired. The plasma generator may be in the center and the neutron target on the outside, or the plasma generator may be on the outside and the target on the inside. In a nested configuration, several concentric targets and plasma generating regions are nested to increase the neutron flux.

  18. Cylindrical neutron generator

    DOEpatents

    Leung, Ka-Ngo

    2005-06-14

    A cylindrical neutron generator is formed with a coaxial RF-driven plasma ion source and target. A deuterium (or deuterium and tritium) plasma is produced by RF excitation in a cylindrical plasma ion generator using an RF antenna. A cylindrical neutron generating target is coaxial with the ion generator, separated by plasma and extraction electrodes which contain many slots. The plasma generator emanates ions radially over 360.degree. and the cylindrical target is thus irradiated by ions over its entire circumference. The plasma generator and target may be as long as desired. The plasma generator may be in the center and the neutron target on the outside, or the plasma generator may be on the outside and the target on the inside. In a nested configuration, several concentric targets and plasma generating regions are nested to increase the neutron flux.

  19. Cylindrical neutron generator

    DOEpatents

    Leung, Ka-Ngo

    2009-12-29

    A cylindrical neutron generator is formed with a coaxial RF-driven plasma ion source and target. A deuterium (or deuterium and tritium) plasma is produced by RF excitation in a cylindrical plasma ion generator using an RF antenna. A cylindrical neutron generating target is coaxial with the ion generator, separated by plasma and extraction electrodes which contain many slots. The plasma generator emanates ions radially over 360.degree. and the cylindrical target is thus irradiated by ions over its entire circumference. The plasma generator and target may be as long as desired. The plasma generator may be in the center and the neutron target on the outside, or the plasma generator may be on the outside and the target on the inside. In a nested configuration, several concentric targets and plasma generating regions are nested to increase the neutron flux.

  20. Ultrafast 2D IR microscopy

    PubMed Central

    Baiz, Carlos R.; Schach, Denise; Tokmakoff, Andrei

    2014-01-01

    We describe a microscope for measuring two-dimensional infrared (2D IR) spectra of heterogeneous samples with μm-scale spatial resolution, sub-picosecond time resolution, and the molecular structure information of 2D IR, enabling the measurement of vibrational dynamics through correlations in frequency, time, and space. The setup is based on a fully collinear “one beam” geometry in which all pulses propagate along the same optics. Polarization, chopping, and phase cycling are used to isolate the 2D IR signals of interest. In addition, we demonstrate the use of vibrational lifetime as a contrast agent for imaging microscopic variations in molecular environments. PMID:25089490

  1. Design of magnets inside cylindrical superconducting shields

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rigby, K. W.

    1988-01-01

    The design of magnets inside closed, cylindrical, superconducting shields is discussed. The Green function is given for the magnetic vector potential for cylindrically symmetric currents inside such a shield. The magnetic field everywhere inside the shield can be obtained from this function, which includes the effects of the induced shield currents exactly. The field is given for a thin solenoid as an example and the convergence of the series solution for this case is discussed. The shield can significantly reduce the strength and improve the homogeneity of a magnet. The improvement in homogeneity is of particular importance in the design of correction coils. These effects, and the maximum field on the shield, are examined for a typical solenoid. The results given are also useful, although not exact, for long shields with one or two open ends.

  2. On 2D bisection method for double eigenvalue problems

    SciTech Connect

    Ji, X.

    1996-06-01

    The two-dimensional bisection method presented in (SIAM J. Matrix Anal. Appl. 13(4), 1085 (1992)) is efficient for solving a class of double eigenvalue problems. This paper further extends the 2D bisection method of full matrix cases and analyses its stability. As in a single parameter case, the 2D bisection method is very stable for the tridiagonal matrix triples satisfying the symmetric-definite condition. Since the double eigenvalue problems arise from two-parameter boundary value problems, an estimate of the discretization error in eigenpairs is also given. Some numerical examples are included. 42 refs., 1 tab.

  3. AnisWave 2D

    2004-08-01

    AnisWave2D is a 2D finite-difference code for a simulating seismic wave propagation in fully anisotropic materials. The code is implemented to run in parallel over multiple processors and is fully portable. A mesh refinement algorithm has been utilized to allow the grid-spacing to be tailored to the velocity model, avoiding the over-sampling of high-velocity materials that usually occurs in fixed-grid schemes.

  4. On-line quality assurance of rotational radiotherapy treatment delivery by means of a 2D ion chamber array and the Octavius phantom

    SciTech Connect

    Esch, Ann van; Clermont, Christian; Devillers, Magali; Iori, Mauro; Huyskens, Dominique P.

    2007-10-15

    For routine pretreatment verification of innovative treatment techniques such as (intensity modulated) dynamic arc therapy and helical TomoTherapy, an on-line and reliable method would be highly desirable. The present solution proposed by TomoTherapy, Inc. (Madison, WI) relies on film dosimetry in combination with up to two simultaneous ion chamber point dose measurements. A new method is proposed using a 2D ion chamber array (Seven29, PTW, Freiburg, Germany) inserted in a dedicated octagonal phantom, called Octavius. The octagonal shape allows easy positioning for measurements in multiple planes. The directional dependence of the response of the detector was primarily investigated on a dual energy (6 and 18 MV) Clinac 21EX (Varian Medical Systems, Palo Alto, CA) as no fixed angle incidences can be calculated in the Hi-Art TPS of TomoTherapy. The array was irradiated from different gantry angles and with different arc deliveries, and the dose distributions at the level of the detector were calculated with the AAA (Analytical Anisotropic Algorithm) photon dose calculation algorithm implemented in Eclipse (Varian). For validation on the 6 MV TomoTherapy unit, rotational treatments were generated, and dose distributions were calculated with the Hi-Art TPS. Multiple cylindrical ion chamber measurements were used to cross-check the dose calculation and dose delivery in Octavius in the absence of the 2D array. To compensate for the directional dependence of the 2D array, additional prototypes of Octavius were manufactured with built-in cylindrically symmetric compensation cavities. When using the Octavius phantom with a 2 cm compensation cavity, measurements with an accuracy comparable to that of single ion chambers can be achieved. The complete Octavius solution for quality assurance of rotational treatments consists of: The 2D array, two octagonal phantoms (with and without compensation layer), an insert for nine cylindrical ion chambers, and a set of inserts of

  5. Symmetrical Brodie's abscess.

    PubMed Central

    Chambler, A. F.; Chapman-Sheath, P. J.; Pearse, M. F.; Hollingdale, J.

    1997-01-01

    Chronic recurrent multifocal osteomyelitis is often confused with symmetrical Brodie's abscess as it has a similar pathogenesis. We report an otherwise healthy 17-year-old boy presenting with a true symmetrical Brodie's abscess. We conclude that a symmetrical Brodie's abscess presenting in an otherwise healthy patient is a separate clinical condition with a different management protocol. Images Figure 1 Figure 2 PMID:9497984

  6. Symmetrical Brodie's abscess.

    PubMed

    Chambler, A F; Chapman-Sheath, P J; Pearse, M F; Hollingdale, J

    1997-10-01

    Chronic recurrent multifocal osteomyelitis is often confused with symmetrical Brodie's abscess as it has a similar pathogenesis. We report an otherwise healthy 17-year-old boy presenting with a true symmetrical Brodie's abscess. We conclude that a symmetrical Brodie's abscess presenting in an otherwise healthy patient is a separate clinical condition with a different management protocol.

  7. Microfabricated cylindrical ion trap

    DOEpatents

    Blain, Matthew G.

    2005-03-22

    A microscale cylindrical ion trap, having an inner radius of order one micron, can be fabricated using surface micromachining techniques and materials known to the integrated circuits manufacturing and microelectromechanical systems industries. Micromachining methods enable batch fabrication, reduced manufacturing costs, dimensional and positional precision, and monolithic integration of massive arrays of ion traps with microscale ion generation and detection devices. Massive arraying enables the microscale cylindrical ion trap to retain the resolution, sensitivity, and mass range advantages necessary for high chemical selectivity. The microscale CIT has a reduced ion mean free path, allowing operation at higher pressures with less expensive and less bulky vacuum pumping system, and with lower battery power than conventional- and miniature-sized ion traps. The reduced electrode voltage enables integration of the microscale cylindrical ion trap with on-chip integrated circuit-based rf operation and detection electronics (i.e., cell phone electronics). Therefore, the full performance advantages of microscale cylindrical ion traps can be realized in truly field portable, handheld microanalysis systems.

  8. Examining Cylindrical Dice

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jones, Dustin L.

    2009-01-01

    The author describes an activity where prospective mathematics teachers made hypotheses about the dimensions of a fair cylindrical die and conducted experiments with different cylinders. He also provides a model that estimates the probability that a cylinder would land on the lateral surface, depending on the height and diameter of the cylinder.…

  9. Static cylindrical matter shells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arık, Metin; Delice, Özgür

    2005-08-01

    Static cylindrical shells composed of massive particles arising from matching of two different Levi-Civita space-times are studied for the shell satisfying either an isotropic or an anisotropic equation of state. We find that these solutions satisfy the energy conditions for certain ranges of the parameters.

  10. DYNA2D96. Explicit 2-D Hydrodynamic FEM Program

    SciTech Connect

    Whirley, R.G.

    1992-04-01

    DYNA2D is a vectorized, explicit, two-dimensional, axisymmetric and plane strain finite element program for analyzing the large deformation dynamic and hydrodynamic response of inelastic solids. DYNA2D contains 13 material models and 9 equations of state (EOS) to cover a wide range of material behavior. The material models implemented in all machine versions are: elastic, orthotropic elastic, kinematic/isotropic elastic plasticity, thermoelastoplastic, soil and crushable foam, linear viscoelastic, rubber, high explosive burn, isotropic elastic-plastic, temperature-dependent elastic-plastic. The isotropic and temperature-dependent elastic-plastic models determine only the deviatoric stresses. Pressure is determined by one of 9 equations of state including linear polynomial, JWL high explosive, Sack Tuesday high explosive, Gruneisen, ratio of polynomials, linear polynomial with energy deposition, ignition and growth of reaction in HE, tabulated compaction, and tabulated.

  11. MOSS2D V1

    2001-01-31

    This software reduces the data from two-dimensional kSA MOS program, k-Space Associates, Ann Arbor, MI. Initial MOS data is recorded without headers in 38 columns, with one row of data per acquisition per lase beam tracked. The final MOSS 2d data file is reduced, graphed, and saved in a tab-delimited column format with headers that can be plotted in any graphing software.

  12. Shock initiated instabilities in underwater cylindrical structures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gupta, Sachin; Matos, Helio; LeBlanc, James M.; Shukla, Arun

    2016-10-01

    An experimental investigation to understand the mechanisms of dynamic buckling instability in cylindrical structures due to underwater explosive loadings is conducted. In particular, the effects of initial hydrostatic pressure coupled with a dynamic pressure pulse on the stability of metallic cylindrical shells are evaluated. The experiments are conducted at varying initial hydrostatic pressures, below the critical buckling pressure, to estimate the threshold after which dynamic buckling will initiate. The transient underwater full-field deformations of the structures during shock wave loading are captured using high-speed stereo photography coupled with modified 3-D Digital Image Correlation (DIC) technique. Experimental results show that increasing initial hydrostatic pressure decreases the natural vibration frequency of the structure indicating loss in structural stiffness. DIC measurements reveal that the initial structural excitations primarily consist of axisymmetric vibrations due to symmetrical shock wave loading in the experiments. Following their decay after a few longitudinal reverberations, the primary mode of vibration evolves which continues throughout later in time. At the initial hydrostatic pressures below the threshold value, these vibrations are stable in nature. The analytical solutions for the vibration frequency and the transient response of cylindrical shell are discussed in the article by accounting for both (1) the added mass effect of the surrounding water and (2) the effect of initial stress on the shell imposed by the hydrostatic pressure. The analytical solutions match reasonably well with the experimental vibration frequencies. Later, the transient response of a cylindrical shell subjected to a general underwater pressure wave loading is derived which leads to the analytical prediction of dynamic stability.

  13. Conformal approach to cylindrical DLA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Taloni, A.; Caglioti, E.; Loreto, V.; Pietronero, L.

    2006-09-01

    We extend the conformal mapping approach elaborated for the radial diffusion limited aggregation model (DLA) to cylindrical geometry. We introduce in particular a complex function which allows a cylindrical cluster to be grown using as an intermediate step a radial aggregate. The aggregate grown exhibits the same self-affine features as the original cylindrical DLA. The specific choice of the transformation allows us to study the relationship between the radial and the cylindrical geometry. In particular the cylindrical aggregate can be seen as a radial aggregate with particles of size increasing with the radius. On the other hand, the radial aggregate can be seen as a cylindrical aggregate with particles of size decreasing with the height. This framework, which shifts the point of view from the geometry to the size of the particles, can open the way to more quantitative studies on the relationship between radial and cylindrical DLA.

  14. Cylindrical laser resonator

    DOEpatents

    Casperson, Lee W.

    1976-02-24

    The properties of an improved class of lasers is presented. In one configuration of these lasers the radiation propagates radially within the amplifying medium, resulting in high fields and symmetric illumination at the resonator axis. Thus there is a strong focusing of energy at the axis of the resonator. In a second configuration the radiation propagates back and forth in a tubular region of space.

  15. Symmetrical gait descriptions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dunajewski, Adam; Dusza, Jacek J.; Rosado Muñoz, Alfredo

    2014-11-01

    The article presents a proposal for the description of human gait as a periodic and symmetric process. Firstly, the data for researches was obtained in the Laboratory of Group SATI in the School of Engineering of University of Valencia. Then, the periodical model - Mean Double Step (MDS) was made. Finally, on the basis of MDS, the symmetrical models - Left Mean Double Step and Right Mean Double Step (LMDS and RMDS) could be created. The method of various functional extensions was used. Symmetrical gait models can be used to calculate the coefficients of asymmetry at any time or phase of the gait. In this way it is possible to create asymmetry, function which better describes human gait dysfunction. The paper also describes an algorithm for calculating symmetric models, and shows exemplary results based on the experimental data.

  16. Visualization of 2-D and 3-D Tensor Fields

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hesselink, Lambertus

    1997-01-01

    In previous work we have developed a novel approach to visualizing second order symmetric 2-D tensor fields based on degenerate point analysis. At degenerate points the eigenvalues are either zero or equal to each other, and the hyper-streamlines about these points give rise to tri-sector or wedge points. These singularities and their connecting hyper-streamlines determine the topology of the tensor field. In this study we are developing new methods for analyzing and displaying 3-D tensor fields. This problem is considerably more difficult than the 2-D one, as the richness of the data set is much larger. Here we report on our progress and a novel method to find , analyze and display 3-D degenerate points. First we discuss the theory, then an application involving a 3-D tensor field, the Boussinesq problem with two forces.

  17. Visualization of 2-D and 3-D Tensor Fields

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hesselink, Lambertus

    1995-01-01

    In previous work we have developed a novel approach to visualizing second order symmetric 2-D tensor fields based on degenerate point analysis. At degenerate points the eigenvalues are either zero or equal to each other, and the hyperstreamlines about these points give rise to trisector or wedge points. These singularities and their connecting hyperstreamlines determine the topology of the tensor field. In this study we are developing new methods for analyzing and displaying 3-D tensor fields. This problem is considerably more difficult than the 2-D one, as the richness of the data set is much larger. Here we report on our progress and a novel method to find, analyze and display 3-D degenerate points. First we discuss the theory, then an application involving a 3-D tensor field, the Boussinesq problem with two forces.

  18. Unparticle example in 2D.

    PubMed

    Georgi, Howard; Kats, Yevgeny

    2008-09-26

    We discuss what can be learned about unparticle physics by studying simple quantum field theories in one space and one time dimension. We argue that the exactly soluble 2D theory of a massless fermion coupled to a massive vector boson, the Sommerfield model, is an interesting analog of a Banks-Zaks model, approaching a free theory at high energies and a scale-invariant theory with nontrivial anomalous dimensions at low energies. We construct a toy standard model coupling to the fermions in the Sommerfield model and study how the transition from unparticle behavior at low energies to free particle behavior at high energies manifests itself in interactions with the toy standard model particles.

  19. Effects of electromagnetic field on the dynamical instability of cylindrical collapse

    SciTech Connect

    Sharif, M.; Azam, M. E-mail: azammath@gmail.com

    2012-02-01

    The objective of this paper is to discuss the dynamical instability in the context of Newtonian and post Newtonian regimes. For this purpose, we consider non-viscous heat conducting charged isotropic fluid as a collapsing matter with cylindrical symmetry. Darmois junction conditions are formulated. The perturbation scheme is applied to investigate the influence of dissipation and electromagnetic field on the dynamical instability. We conclude that the adiabatic index Γ has smaller value for such a fluid in cylindrically symmetric than isotropic sphere.

  20. 2d PDE Linear Asymmetric Matrix Solver

    1983-10-01

    ILUCG2 (Incomplete LU factorized Conjugate Gradient algorithm for 2d problems) was developed to solve a linear asymmetric matrix system arising from a 9-point discretization of two-dimensional elliptic and parabolic partial differential equations found in plasma physics applications, such as plasma diffusion, equilibria, and phase space transport (Fokker-Planck equation) problems. These equations share the common feature of being stiff and requiring implicit solution techniques. When these parabolic or elliptic PDE''s are discretized with finite-difference or finite-elementmore » methods, the resulting matrix system is frequently of block-tridiagonal form. To use ILUCG2, the discretization of the two-dimensional partial differential equation and its boundary conditions must result in a block-tridiagonal supermatrix composed of elementary tridiagonal matrices. A generalization of the incomplete Cholesky conjugate gradient algorithm is used to solve the matrix equation. Loops are arranged to vectorize on the Cray1 with the CFT compiler, wherever possible. Recursive loops, which cannot be vectorized, are written for optimum scalar speed. For problems having a symmetric matrix ICCG2 should be used since it runs up to four times faster and uses approximately 30% less storage. Similar methods in three dimensions are available in ICCG3 and ILUCG3. A general source, containing extensions and macros, which must be processed by a pre-compiler to obtain the standard FORTRAN source, is provided along with the standard FORTRAN source because it is believed to be more readable. The pre-compiler is not included, but pre-compilation may be performed by a text editor as described in the UCRL-88746 Preprint.« less

  1. Naked singularity resolution in cylindrical collapse

    SciTech Connect

    Kurita, Yasunari; Nakao, Ken-ichi

    2006-03-15

    In this paper, we study the gravitational collapse of null dust in cylindrically symmetric spacetime. The naked singularity necessarily forms at the symmetry axis. We consider the situation in which null dust is emitted again from the naked singularity formed by the collapsed null dust and investigate the backreaction by this emission for the naked singularity. We show a very peculiar but physically important case in which the same amount of null dust as that of the collapsed one is emitted from the naked singularity as soon as the ingoing null dust hits the symmetry axis and forms the naked singularity. In this case, although this naked singularity satisfies the strong curvature condition by Krolak (limiting focusing condition), geodesics which hit the singularity can be extended uniquely across the singularity. Therefore, we may say that the collapsing null dust passes through the singularity formed by itself and then leaves for infinity. Finally, the singularity completely disappears and the flat spacetime remains.

  2. Cylindrical geometry hall thruster

    DOEpatents

    Raitses, Yevgeny; Fisch, Nathaniel J.

    2002-01-01

    An apparatus and method for thrusting plasma, utilizing a Hall thruster with a cylindrical geometry, wherein ions are accelerated in substantially the axial direction. The apparatus is suitable for operation at low power. It employs small size thruster components, including a ceramic channel, with the center pole piece of the conventional annular design thruster eliminated or greatly reduced. Efficient operation is accomplished through magnetic fields with a substantial radial component. The propellant gas is ionized at an optimal location in the thruster. A further improvement is accomplished by segmented electrodes, which produce localized voltage drops within the thruster at optimally prescribed locations. The apparatus differs from a conventional Hall thruster, which has an annular geometry, not well suited to scaling to small size, because the small size for an annular design has a great deal of surface area relative to the volume.

  3. Braids, shuffles and symmetrizers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Isaev, A. P.; Ogievetsky, O. V.

    2009-07-01

    Multiplicative analogues of the shuffle elements of the braid group rings are introduced; in local representations they give rise to certain graded associative algebras (b-shuffle algebras). For the Hecke and BMW algebras, the (anti)-symmetrizers have simple expressions in terms of the multiplicative shuffles. The (anti)-symmetrizers can be expressed in terms of the highest multiplicative 1-shuffles (for the Hecke and BMW algebras) and in terms of the highest additive 1-shuffles (for the Hecke algebras). The spectra and multiplicities of eigenvalues of the operators of the multiplication by the multiplicative and additive 1-shuffles are examined. Dedicated to the memory of Aleosha Zamolodchikov.

  4. Stage Cylindrical Immersive Display

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Abramyan, Lucy; Norris, Jeffrey S.; Powell, Mark W.; Mittman, David S.; Shams, Khawaja S.

    2011-01-01

    Panoramic images with a wide field of view intend to provide a better understanding of an environment by placing objects of the environment on one seamless image. However, understanding the sizes and relative positions of the objects in a panorama is not intuitive and prone to errors because the field of view is unnatural to human perception. Scientists are often faced with the difficult task of interpreting the sizes and relative positions of objects in an environment when viewing an image of the environment on computer monitors or prints. A panorama can display an object that appears to be to the right of the viewer when it is, in fact, behind the viewer. This misinterpretation can be very costly, especially when the environment is remote and/or only accessible by unmanned vehicles. A 270 cylindrical display has been developed that surrounds the viewer with carefully calibrated panoramic imagery that correctly engages their natural kinesthetic senses and provides a more accurate awareness of the environment. The cylindrical immersive display offers a more natural window to the environment than a standard cubic CAVE (Cave Automatic Virtual Environment), and the geometry allows multiple collocated users to simultaneously view data and share important decision-making tasks. A CAVE is an immersive virtual reality environment that allows one or more users to absorb themselves in a virtual environment. A common CAVE setup is a room-sized cube where the cube sides act as projection planes. By nature, all cubic CAVEs face a problem with edge matching at edges and corners of the display. Modern immersive displays have found ways to minimize seams by creating very tight edges, and rely on the user to ignore the seam. One significant deficiency of flat-walled CAVEs is that the sense of orientation and perspective within the scene is broken across adjacent walls. On any single wall, parallel lines properly converge at their vanishing point as they should, and the sense of

  5. PT-symmetric kinks

    SciTech Connect

    Souza Dutra, A. de; Santos, V. G. C. S. dos; Amaro de Faria, A. C. Jr.

    2007-06-15

    Some kinks for non-Hermitian quantum field theories in 1+1 dimensions are constructed. A class of models where the soliton energies are stable and real are found. Although these kinks are not Hermitian, they are symmetric under PT transformations.

  6. PT-symmetric strings

    SciTech Connect

    Amore, Paolo; Fernández, Francisco M.; Garcia, Javier; Gutierrez, German

    2014-04-15

    We study both analytically and numerically the spectrum of inhomogeneous strings with PT-symmetric density. We discuss an exactly solvable model of PT-symmetric string which is isospectral to the uniform string; for more general strings, we calculate exactly the sum rules Z(p)≡∑{sub n=1}{sup ∞}1/E{sub n}{sup p}, with p=1,2,… and find explicit expressions which can be used to obtain bounds on the lowest eigenvalue. A detailed numerical calculation is carried out for two non-solvable models depending on a parameter, obtaining precise estimates of the critical values where pair of real eigenvalues become complex. -- Highlights: •PT-symmetric Hamiltonians exhibit real eigenvalues when PT symmetry is unbroken. •We study PT-symmetric strings with complex density. •They exhibit regions of unbroken PT symmetry. •We calculate the critical parameters at the boundaries of those regions. •There are exact real sum rules for some particular complex densities.

  7. Cracked shells under skew-symmetric loading

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lelale, F.

    1982-01-01

    A shell containing a through crack in one of the principal planes of curvature and under general skew-symmetric loading is considered. By employing a Reissner type shell theory which takes into account the effect of transverse shear strains, all boundary conditions on the crack surfaces are satisfied separately. Consequently, unlike those obtained from the classical shell theory, the angular distributions of the stress components around the crack tips are shown to be identical to the distributions obtained from the plane and antiplane elasticity solutions. Extensive results are given for axially and circumferentially cracked cylindrical shells, spherical shells, and toroidal shells under uniform inplane shearing, out of plane shearing, and torsion. The effect of orthotropy on the results is also studied.

  8. 2-D simulation of a waveguide free electron laser having a helical undulator

    SciTech Connect

    Kim, S.K.; Lee, B.C.; Jeong, Y.U.

    1995-12-31

    We have developed a 2-D simulation code for the calculation of output power from an FEL oscillator having a helical undulator and a cylindrical waveguide. In the simulation, the current and the energy of the electron beam is 2 A and 400 keV, respectively. The parameters of the permanent-magnet helical undulator are : period = 32 mm, number of periods = 20, magnetic field = 1.3 kG. The gain per pass is 10 and the output power is calculated to be higher than 10 kW The results of the 2-D simulation are compared with those of 1-D simulation.

  9. Perspectives for spintronics in 2D materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Han, Wei

    2016-03-01

    The past decade has been especially creative for spintronics since the (re)discovery of various two dimensional (2D) materials. Due to the unusual physical characteristics, 2D materials have provided new platforms to probe the spin interaction with other degrees of freedom for electrons, as well as to be used for novel spintronics applications. This review briefly presents the most important recent and ongoing research for spintronics in 2D materials.

  10. Symmetric waterbomb origami

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Yan; Feng, Huijuan; Ma, Jiayao; Peng, Rui; You, Zhong

    2016-06-01

    The traditional waterbomb origami, produced from a pattern consisting of a series of vertices where six creases meet, is one of the most widely used origami patterns. From a rigid origami viewpoint, it generally has multiple degrees of freedom, but when the pattern is folded symmetrically, the mobility reduces to one. This paper presents a thorough kinematic investigation on symmetric folding of the waterbomb pattern. It has been found that the pattern can have two folding paths under certain circumstance. Moreover, the pattern can be used to fold thick panels. Not only do the additional constraints imposed to fold the thick panels lead to single degree of freedom folding, but the folding process is also kinematically equivalent to the origami of zero-thickness sheets. The findings pave the way for the pattern being readily used to fold deployable structures ranging from flat roofs to large solar panels.

  11. Symmetric modular torsatron

    DOEpatents

    Rome, J.A.; Harris, J.H.

    1984-01-01

    A fusion reactor device is provided in which the magnetic fields for plasma confinement in a toroidal configuration is produced by a plurality of symmetrical modular coils arranged to form a symmetric modular torsatron referred to as a symmotron. Each of the identical modular coils is helically deformed and comprise one field period of the torsatron. Helical segments of each coil are connected by means of toroidally directed windbacks which may also provide part of the vertical field required for positioning the plasma. The stray fields of the windback segments may be compensated by toroidal coils. A variety of magnetic confinement flux surface configurations may be produced by proper modulation of the winding pitch of the helical segments of the coils, as in a conventional torsatron, winding the helix on a noncircular cross section and varying the poloidal and radial location of the windbacks and the compensating toroidal ring coils.

  12. Optimization of Cylindrical Hall Thrusters

    SciTech Connect

    Yevgeny Raitses, Artem Smirnov, Erik Granstedt, and Nathaniel J. Fi

    2007-07-24

    The cylindrical Hall thruster features high ionization efficiency, quiet operation, and ion acceleration in a large volume-to-surface ratio channel with performance comparable with the state-of-the-art annular Hall thrusters. These characteristics were demonstrated in low and medium power ranges. Optimization of miniaturized cylindrical thrusters led to performance improvements in the 50-200W input power range, including plume narrowing, increased thruster efficiency, reliable discharge initiation, and stable operation. __________________________________________________

  13. Optimization of Cylindrical Hall Thrusters

    SciTech Connect

    Yevgeny Raitses, Artem Smirnov, Erik Granstedt, and Nathaniel J. Fisch

    2007-11-27

    The cylindrical Hall thruster features high ionization efficiency, quiet operation, and ion acceleration in a large volume-to-surface ratio channel with performance comparable with the state-of-the-art annular Hall thrusters. These characteristics were demonstrated in low and medium power ranges. Optimization of miniaturized cylindrical thrusters led to performance improvements in the 50-200W input power range, including plume narrowing, increased thruster efficiency, reliable discharge initiation, and stable operation.

  14. Quantitative 2D liquid-state NMR.

    PubMed

    Giraudeau, Patrick

    2014-06-01

    Two-dimensional (2D) liquid-state NMR has a very high potential to simultaneously determine the absolute concentration of small molecules in complex mixtures, thanks to its capacity to separate overlapping resonances. However, it suffers from two main drawbacks that probably explain its relatively late development. First, the 2D NMR signal is strongly molecule-dependent and site-dependent; second, the long duration of 2D NMR experiments prevents its general use for high-throughput quantitative applications and affects its quantitative performance. Fortunately, the last 10 years has witnessed an increasing number of contributions where quantitative approaches based on 2D NMR were developed and applied to solve real analytical issues. This review aims at presenting these recent efforts to reach a high trueness and precision in quantitative measurements by 2D NMR. After highlighting the interest of 2D NMR for quantitative analysis, the different strategies to determine the absolute concentrations from 2D NMR spectra are described and illustrated by recent applications. The last part of the manuscript concerns the recent development of fast quantitative 2D NMR approaches, aiming at reducing the experiment duration while preserving - or even increasing - the analytical performance. We hope that this comprehensive review will help readers to apprehend the current landscape of quantitative 2D NMR, as well as the perspectives that may arise from it.

  15. A 2.5D Computational Method to Simulate Cylindrical Fluidized Beds

    SciTech Connect

    Li, Tingwen; Benyahia, Sofiane; Dietiker, Jeff; Musser, Jordan; Sun, Xin

    2015-02-17

    In this paper, the limitations of axisymmetric and Cartesian two-dimensional (2D) simulations of cylindrical gas-solid fluidized beds are discussed. A new method has been proposed to carry out pseudo-two-dimensional (2.5D) simulations of a cylindrical fluidized bed by appropriately combining computational domains of Cartesian 2D and axisymmetric simulations. The proposed method was implemented in the open-source code MFIX and applied to the simulation of a lab-scale bubbling fluidized bed with necessary sensitivity study. After a careful grid study to ensure the numerical results are grid independent, detailed comparisons of the flow hydrodynamics were presented against axisymmetric and Cartesian 2D simulations. Furthermore, the 2.5D simulation results have been compared to the three-dimensional (3D) simulation for evaluation. This new approach yields better agreement with the 3D simulation results than with axisymmetric and Cartesian 2D simulations.

  16. Staring 2-D hadamard transform spectral imager

    DOEpatents

    Gentry, Stephen M.; Wehlburg, Christine M.; Wehlburg, Joseph C.; Smith, Mark W.; Smith, Jody L.

    2006-02-07

    A staring imaging system inputs a 2D spatial image containing multi-frequency spectral information. This image is encoded in one dimension of the image with a cyclic Hadamarid S-matrix. The resulting image is detecting with a spatial 2D detector; and a computer applies a Hadamard transform to recover the encoded image.

  17. Converging cylindrical shocks in ideal magnetohydrodynamics

    SciTech Connect

    Pullin, D. I.; Mostert, W.; Wheatley, V.; Samtaney, R.

    2014-09-15

    We consider a cylindrically symmetrical shock converging onto an axis within the framework of ideal, compressible-gas non-dissipative magnetohydrodynamics (MHD). In cylindrical polar co-ordinates we restrict attention to either constant axial magnetic field or to the azimuthal but singular magnetic field produced by a line current on the axis. Under the constraint of zero normal magnetic field and zero tangential fluid speed at the shock, a set of restricted shock-jump conditions are obtained as functions of the shock Mach number, defined as the ratio of the local shock speed to the unique magnetohydrodynamic wave speed ahead of the shock, and also of a parameter measuring the local strength of the magnetic field. For the line current case, two approaches are explored and the results compared in detail. The first is geometrical shock-dynamics where the restricted shock-jump conditions are applied directly to the equation on the characteristic entering the shock from behind. This gives an ordinary-differential equation for the shock Mach number as a function of radius which is integrated numerically to provide profiles of the shock implosion. Also, analytic, asymptotic results are obtained for the shock trajectory at small radius. The second approach is direct numerical solution of the radially symmetric MHD equations using a shock-capturing method. For the axial magnetic field case the shock implosion is of the Guderley power-law type with exponent that is not affected by the presence of a finite magnetic field. For the axial current case, however, the presence of a tangential magnetic field ahead of the shock with strength inversely proportional to radius introduces a length scale R=√(μ{sub 0}/p{sub 0}) I/(2 π) where I is the current, μ{sub 0} is the permeability, and p{sub 0} is the pressure ahead of the shock. For shocks initiated at r ≫ R, shock convergence is first accompanied by shock strengthening as for the strictly gas-dynamic implosion. The

  18. Converging cylindrical shocks in ideal magnetohydrodynamics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pullin, D. I.; Mostert, W.; Wheatley, V.; Samtaney, R.

    2014-09-01

    We consider a cylindrically symmetrical shock converging onto an axis within the framework of ideal, compressible-gas non-dissipative magnetohydrodynamics (MHD). In cylindrical polar co-ordinates we restrict attention to either constant axial magnetic field or to the azimuthal but singular magnetic field produced by a line current on the axis. Under the constraint of zero normal magnetic field and zero tangential fluid speed at the shock, a set of restricted shock-jump conditions are obtained as functions of the shock Mach number, defined as the ratio of the local shock speed to the unique magnetohydrodynamic wave speed ahead of the shock, and also of a parameter measuring the local strength of the magnetic field. For the line current case, two approaches are explored and the results compared in detail. The first is geometrical shock-dynamics where the restricted shock-jump conditions are applied directly to the equation on the characteristic entering the shock from behind. This gives an ordinary-differential equation for the shock Mach number as a function of radius which is integrated numerically to provide profiles of the shock implosion. Also, analytic, asymptotic results are obtained for the shock trajectory at small radius. The second approach is direct numerical solution of the radially symmetric MHD equations using a shock-capturing method. For the axial magnetic field case the shock implosion is of the Guderley power-law type with exponent that is not affected by the presence of a finite magnetic field. For the axial current case, however, the presence of a tangential magnetic field ahead of the shock with strength inversely proportional to radius introduces a length scale R=sqrt{μ _0/p_0} I/(2 π ) where I is the current, μ0 is the permeability, and p0 is the pressure ahead of the shock. For shocks initiated at r ≫ R, shock convergence is first accompanied by shock strengthening as for the strictly gas-dynamic implosion. The diverging magnetic field

  19. 2-D soft x-ray arrays in the EAST

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Kaiyun; Xu, Liqing; Hu, Liqun; Duan, Yanmin; Li, Xueqin; Yuan, Yi; Mao, Songtao; Sheng, Xiuli; Zhao, Jinlong

    2016-06-01

    A high spatial and temporal resolution soft x-ray (SXR) imaging diagnostic has been installed in EAST for the study of magnetohydrodynamics activities and core high-Z impurity transport. Up to 122 lines of sight view the poloidal plasma from three directions (two up-down symmetrical horizontal arrays and one vertical array), which renders the diagnostic able to provide detailed tomographic reconstructions under various conditions. Fourier-Bessel method based on flux coordinates was employed for 2-D SXR tomographic reconstruction. Examples of several events measured by SXR diagnostic in EAST are shown, namely the crash patterns of sawtooth, periodical burst of edge localized modes, and the transport of high-Z intrinsic impurities.

  20. Electrical spin injection in 2D semiconductors and topological insulators

    SciTech Connect

    Golub, L. E.; Ivchenko, E. L.

    2013-12-04

    We have developed a theory of spin orientation by electric current in 2D semiconductors. It is shown that the spin depends on the relation between the energy and spin relaxation times and can vary by a factor of two for the limiting cases of fast and slow energy relaxation. For symmetrically-doped (110)-grown semiconductor quantum wells the effect of current-induced spin orientation is shown to exist due to random spatial variation of the Rashba spin-orbit splitting. We demonstrate that the spin depends strongly on the correlation length of this random spin-orbit field. We calculate the spin orientation degree in two-dimensional topological insulators. In high electric fields when the “streaming” regime is realized, the spin orientation degree weakly depends on the electric field and can reach values about 5%.

  1. 2D materials for nanophotonic devices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Renjing; Yang, Jiong; Zhang, Shuang; Pei, Jiajie; Lu, Yuerui

    2015-12-01

    Two-dimensional (2D) materials have become very important building blocks for electronic, photonic, and phononic devices. The 2D material family has four key members, including the metallic graphene, transition metal dichalcogenide (TMD) layered semiconductors, semiconducting black phosphorous, and the insulating h-BN. Owing to the strong quantum confinements and defect-free surfaces, these atomically thin layers have offered us perfect platforms to investigate the interactions among photons, electrons and phonons. The unique interactions in these 2D materials are very important for both scientific research and application engineering. In this talk, I would like to briefly summarize and highlight the key findings, opportunities and challenges in this field. Next, I will introduce/highlight our recent achievements. We demonstrated atomically thin micro-lens and gratings using 2D MoS2, which is the thinnest optical component around the world. These devices are based on our discovery that the elastic light-matter interactions in highindex 2D materials is very strong. Also, I would like to introduce a new two-dimensional material phosphorene. Phosphorene has strongly anisotropic optical response, which creates 1D excitons in a 2D system. The strong confinement in phosphorene also enables the ultra-high trion (charged exciton) binding energies, which have been successfully measured in our experiments. Finally, I will briefly talk about the potential applications of 2D materials in energy harvesting.

  2. Internal Photoemission Spectroscopy of 2-D Materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nguyen, Nhan; Li, Mingda; Vishwanath, Suresh; Yan, Rusen; Xiao, Shudong; Xing, Huili; Cheng, Guangjun; Hight Walker, Angela; Zhang, Qin

    Recent research has shown the great benefits of using 2-D materials in the tunnel field-effect transistor (TFET), which is considered a promising candidate for the beyond-CMOS technology. The on-state current of TFET can be enhanced by engineering the band alignment of different 2D-2D or 2D-3D heterostructures. Here we present the internal photoemission spectroscopy (IPE) approach to determine the band alignments of various 2-D materials, in particular SnSe2 and WSe2, which have been proposed for new TFET designs. The metal-oxide-2-D semiconductor test structures are fabricated and characterized by IPE, where the band offsets from the 2-D semiconductor to the oxide conduction band minimum are determined by the threshold of the cube root of IPE yields as a function of photon energy. In particular, we find that SnSe2 has a larger electron affinity than most semiconductors and can be combined with other semiconductors to form near broken-gap heterojunctions with low barrier heights which can produce a higher on-state current. The details of data analysis of IPE and the results from Raman spectroscopy and spectroscopic ellipsometry measurements will also be presented and discussed.

  3. Symmetrization for redundant channels

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tulplue, Bhalchandra R. (Inventor); Collins, Robert E. (Inventor)

    1988-01-01

    A plurality of redundant channels in a system each contain a global image of all the configuration data bases in each of the channels in the system. Each global image is updated periodically from each of the other channels via cross channel data links. The global images of the local configuration data bases in each channel are separately symmetrized using a voting process to generate a system signal configuration data base which is not written into by any other routine and is available for indicating the status of the system within each channel. Equalization may be imposed on a suspect signal and a number of chances for that signal to heal itself are provided before excluding it from future votes. Reconfiguration is accomplished upon detecting a channel which is deemed invalid. A reset function is provided which permits an externally generated reset signal to permit a previously excluded channel to be reincluded within the system. The updating of global images and/or the symmetrization process may be accomplished at substantially the same time within a synchronized time frame common to all channels.

  4. 2D materials: to graphene and beyond.

    PubMed

    Mas-Ballesté, Rubén; Gómez-Navarro, Cristina; Gómez-Herrero, Julio; Zamora, Félix

    2011-01-01

    This review is an attempt to illustrate the different alternatives in the field of 2D materials. Graphene seems to be just the tip of the iceberg and we show how the discovery of alternative 2D materials is starting to show the rest of this iceberg. The review comprises the current state-of-the-art of the vast literature in concepts and methods already known for isolation and characterization of graphene, and rationalizes the quite disperse literature in other 2D materials such as metal oxides, hydroxides and chalcogenides, and metal-organic frameworks.

  5. Cylindrical acoustic levitator/concentrator

    DOEpatents

    Kaduchak, Gregory; Sinha, Dipen N.

    2002-01-01

    A low-power, inexpensive acoustic apparatus for levitation and/or concentration of aerosols and small liquid/solid samples having particulates up to several millimeters in diameter in air or other fluids is described. It is constructed from a commercially available, hollow cylindrical piezoelectric crystal which has been modified to tune the resonance frequency of the breathing mode resonance of the crystal to that of the interior cavity of the cylinder. When the resonance frequency of the interior cylindrical cavity is matched to the breathing mode resonance of the cylindrical piezoelectric transducer, the acoustic efficiency for establishing a standing wave pattern in the cavity is high. The cylinder does not require accurate alignment of a resonant cavity. Water droplets having diameters greater than 1 mm have been levitated against the force of gravity using; less than 1 W of input electrical power. Concentration of aerosol particles in air is also demonstrated.

  6. 3D surface configuration modulates 2D symmetry detection.

    PubMed

    Chen, Chien-Chung; Sio, Lok-Teng

    2015-02-01

    We investigated whether three-dimensional (3D) information in a scene can affect symmetry detection. The stimuli were random dot patterns with 15% dot density. We measured the coherence threshold, or the proportion of dots that were the mirror reflection of the other dots in the other half of the image about a central vertical axis, at 75% accuracy with a 2AFC paradigm under various 3D configurations produced by the disparity between the left and right eye images. The results showed that symmetry detection was difficult when the corresponding dots across the symmetry axis were on different frontoparallel or inclined planes. However, this effect was not due to a difference in distance, as the observers could detect symmetry on a slanted surface, where the depth of the two sides of the symmetric axis was different. The threshold was reduced for a hinge configuration where the join of two slanted surfaces coincided with the axis of symmetry. Our result suggests that the detection of two-dimensional (2D) symmetry patterns is subject to the 3D configuration of the scene; and that coplanarity across the symmetry axis and consistency between the 2D pattern and 3D structure are important factors for symmetry detection.

  7. Conformal Laplace superintegrable systems in 2D: polynomial invariant subspaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Escobar-Ruiz, M. A.; Miller, Willard, Jr.

    2016-07-01

    2nd-order conformal superintegrable systems in n dimensions are Laplace equations on a manifold with an added scalar potential and 2n-1 independent 2nd order conformal symmetry operators. They encode all the information about Helmholtz (eigenvalue) superintegrable systems in an efficient manner: there is a 1-1 correspondence between Laplace superintegrable systems and Stäckel equivalence classes of Helmholtz superintegrable systems. In this paper we focus on superintegrable systems in two-dimensions, n = 2, where there are 44 Helmholtz systems, corresponding to 12 Laplace systems. For each Laplace equation we determine the possible two-variate polynomial subspaces that are invariant under the action of the Laplace operator, thus leading to families of polynomial eigenfunctions. We also study the behavior of the polynomial invariant subspaces under a Stäckel transform. The principal new results are the details of the polynomial variables and the conditions on parameters of the potential corresponding to polynomial solutions. The hidden gl 3-algebraic structure is exhibited for the exact and quasi-exact systems. For physically meaningful solutions, the orthogonality properties and normalizability of the polynomials are presented as well. Finally, for all Helmholtz superintegrable solvable systems we give a unified construction of one-dimensional (1D) and two-dimensional (2D) quasi-exactly solvable potentials possessing polynomial solutions, and a construction of new 2D PT-symmetric potentials is established.

  8. Asymmetric 2D spatial beam filtering by photonic crystals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gailevicius, D.; Purlys, V.; Maigyte, L.; Gaizauskas, E.; Peckus, M.; Gadonas, R.; Staliunas, K.

    2016-04-01

    Spatial filtering techniques are important for improving the spatial quality of light beams. Photonic crystals (PhCs) with a selective spatial (angular) transmittance can also provide spatial filtering with the added benefit transversal symmetries, submillimeter dimensions and monolithic integration in other devices, such as micro-lasers or semiconductor lasers. Workable bandgap PhC configurations require a modulated refractive index with period lengths that are approximately less than the wavelength of radiation. This imposes technical limitations, whereby the available direct laser write (DLW) fabrication techniques are limited in resolution and refractive index depth. If, however, a deflection mechanism is chosen instead, a functional filter PhC can be produced that is operational in the visible wavelength regime. For deflection based PhCs glass is an attractive choice as it is highly stable medium. 2D and 3D PhC filter variations have already been produced on soda-lime glass. However, little is known about how to control the scattering of PhCs when approaching the smallest period values. Here we look into the internal structure of the initially symmetric geometry 2D PhCs and associating it with the resulting transmittance spectra. By varying the DLW fabrication beam parameters and scanning algorithms, we show that such PhCs contain layers that are comprised of semi-tilted structure voxels. We show the appearance of asymmetry can be compensated in order to circumvent some negative effects at the cost of potentially maximum scattering efficiency.

  9. Rotating cylindrical wormholes and energy conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bronnikov, K. A.; Krechet, V. G.

    2016-01-01

    We seek wormholes among rotating cylindrically symmetric configurations in general relativity. Exact wormhole solutions are presented with such sources of gravity as a massless scalar field, a cosmological constant, and a scalar field with an exponential potential. However, none of these solutions are asymptotically flat, which excludes the existence of wormhole entrances as local objects in our Universe. To overcome this difficulty, we try to build configurations with flat asymptotic regions using the cut-and-paste procedure: on both sides of the throat, a wormhole solution is matched to a properly chosen region of flat space-time at some surfaces Σ- and Σ+. It is shown, however, that if the source of gravity in the throat region is a scalar field with an arbitrary potential, then one or both thin shells appearing on Σ- and Σ+ inevitably violate the null energy condition. Thus, although rotating wormhole solutions are easily found without exotic matter, such matter is still necessary for obtaining asymptotic flatness.

  10. 2-d Finite Element Code Postprocessor

    1996-07-15

    ORION is an interactive program that serves as a postprocessor for the analysis programs NIKE2D, DYNA2D, TOPAZ2D, and CHEMICAL TOPAZ2D. ORION reads binary plot files generated by the two-dimensional finite element codes currently used by the Methods Development Group at LLNL. Contour and color fringe plots of a large number of quantities may be displayed on meshes consisting of triangular and quadrilateral elements. ORION can compute strain measures, interface pressures along slide lines, reaction forcesmore » along constrained boundaries, and momentum. ORION has been applied to study the response of two-dimensional solids and structures undergoing finite deformations under a wide variety of large deformation transient dynamic and static problems and heat transfer analyses.« less

  11. Matrix models of 2d gravity

    SciTech Connect

    Ginsparg, P.

    1991-01-01

    These are introductory lectures for a general audience that give an overview of the subject of matrix models and their application to random surfaces, 2d gravity, and string theory. They are intentionally 1.5 years out of date.

  12. Matrix models of 2d gravity

    SciTech Connect

    Ginsparg, P.

    1991-12-31

    These are introductory lectures for a general audience that give an overview of the subject of matrix models and their application to random surfaces, 2d gravity, and string theory. They are intentionally 1.5 years out of date.

  13. Brittle damage models in DYNA2D

    SciTech Connect

    Faux, D.R.

    1997-09-01

    DYNA2D is an explicit Lagrangian finite element code used to model dynamic events where stress wave interactions influence the overall response of the system. DYNA2D is often used to model penetration problems involving ductile-to-ductile impacts; however, with the advent of the use of ceramics in the armor-anti-armor community and the need to model damage to laser optics components, good brittle damage models are now needed in DYNA2D. This report will detail the implementation of four brittle damage models in DYNA2D, three scalar damage models and one tensor damage model. These new brittle damage models are then used to predict experimental results from three distinctly different glass damage problems.

  14. Chemical Approaches to 2D Materials.

    PubMed

    Samorì, Paolo; Palermo, Vincenzo; Feng, Xinliang

    2016-08-01

    Chemistry plays an ever-increasing role in the production, functionalization, processing and applications of graphene and other 2D materials. This special issue highlights a selection of enlightening chemical approaches to 2D materials, which nicely reflect the breadth of the field and convey the excitement of the individuals involved in it, who are trying to translate graphene and related materials from the laboratory into a real, high-impact technology. PMID:27478083

  15. Chemical Approaches to 2D Materials.

    PubMed

    Samorì, Paolo; Palermo, Vincenzo; Feng, Xinliang

    2016-08-01

    Chemistry plays an ever-increasing role in the production, functionalization, processing and applications of graphene and other 2D materials. This special issue highlights a selection of enlightening chemical approaches to 2D materials, which nicely reflect the breadth of the field and convey the excitement of the individuals involved in it, who are trying to translate graphene and related materials from the laboratory into a real, high-impact technology.

  16. Progress in 2D photonic crystal Fano resonance photonics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhou, Weidong; Zhao, Deyin; Shuai, Yi-Chen; Yang, Hongjun; Chuwongin, Santhad; Chadha, Arvinder; Seo, Jung-Hun; Wang, Ken X.; Liu, Victor; Ma, Zhenqiang; Fan, Shanhui

    2014-01-01

    In contrast to a conventional symmetric Lorentzian resonance, Fano resonance is predominantly used to describe asymmetric-shaped resonances, which arise from the constructive and destructive interference of discrete resonance states with broadband continuum states. This phenomenon and the underlying mechanisms, being common and ubiquitous in many realms of physical sciences, can be found in a wide variety of nanophotonic structures and quantum systems, such as quantum dots, photonic crystals, plasmonics, and metamaterials. The asymmetric and steep dispersion of the Fano resonance profile promises applications for a wide range of photonic devices, such as optical filters, switches, sensors, broadband reflectors, lasers, detectors, slow-light and non-linear devices, etc. With advances in nanotechnology, impressive progress has been made in the emerging field of nanophotonic structures. One of the most attractive nanophotonic structures for integrated photonics is the two-dimensional photonic crystal slab (2D PCS), which can be integrated into a wide range of photonic devices. The objective of this manuscript is to provide an in depth review of the progress made in the general area of Fano resonance photonics, focusing on the photonic devices based on 2D PCS structures. General discussions are provided on the origins and characteristics of Fano resonances in 2D PCSs. A nanomembrane transfer printing fabrication technique is also reviewed, which is critical for the heterogeneous integrated Fano resonance photonics. The majority of the remaining sections review progress made on various photonic devices and structures, such as high quality factor filters, membrane reflectors, membrane lasers, detectors and sensors, as well as structures and phenomena related to Fano resonance slow light effect, nonlinearity, and optical forces in coupled PCSs. It is expected that further advances in the field will lead to more significant advances towards 3D integrated photonics, flat

  17. Glitter in a 2D monolayer.

    PubMed

    Yang, Li-Ming; Dornfeld, Matthew; Frauenheim, Thomas; Ganz, Eric

    2015-10-21

    We predict a highly stable and robust atomically thin gold monolayer with a hexagonal close packed lattice stabilized by metallic bonding with contributions from strong relativistic effects and aurophilic interactions. We have shown that the framework of the Au monolayer can survive 10 ps MD annealing simulations up to 1400 K. The framework is also able to survive large motions out of the plane. Due to the smaller number of bonds per atom in the 2D layer compared to the 3D bulk we observe significantly enhanced energy per bond (0.94 vs. 0.52 eV per bond). This is similar to the increase in bond strength going from 3D diamond to 2D graphene. It is a non-magnetic metal, and was found to be the global minima in the 2D space. Phonon dispersion calculations demonstrate high kinetic stability with no negative modes. This 2D gold monolayer corresponds to the top monolayer of the bulk Au(111) face-centered cubic lattice. The close-packed lattice maximizes the aurophilic interactions. We find that the electrons are completely delocalized in the plane and behave as 2D nearly free electron gas. We hope that the present work can inspire the experimental fabrication of novel free standing 2D metal systems.

  18. 2d index and surface operators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gadde, Abhijit; Gukov, Sergei

    2014-03-01

    In this paper we compute the superconformal index of 2d (2, 2) supersymmetric gauge theories. The 2d superconformal index, a.k.a. flavored elliptic genus, is computed by a unitary matrix integral much like the matrix integral that computes the 4d superconformal index. We compute the 2d index explicitly for a number of examples. In the case of abelian gauge theories we see that the index is invariant under flop transition and under CY-LG correspondence. The index also provides a powerful check of the Seiberg-type duality for non-abelian gauge theories discovered by Hori and Tong. In the later half of the paper, we study half-BPS surface operators in = 2 super-conformal gauge theories. They are engineered by coupling the 2d (2, 2) supersymmetric gauge theory living on the support of the surface operator to the 4d = 2 theory, so that different realizations of the same surface operator with a given Levi type are related by a 2d analogue of the Seiberg duality. The index of this coupled system is computed by using the tools developed in the first half of the paper. The superconformal index in the presence of surface defect is expected to be invariant under generalized S-duality. We demonstrate that it is indeed the case. In doing so the Seiberg-type duality of the 2d theory plays an important role.

  19. Optimal symmetric flight studies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Weston, A. R.; Menon, P. K. A.; Bilimoria, K. D.; Cliff, E. M.; Kelley, H. J.

    1985-01-01

    Several topics in optimal symmetric flight of airbreathing vehicles are examined. In one study, an approximation scheme designed for onboard real-time energy management of climb-dash is developed and calculations for a high-performance aircraft presented. In another, a vehicle model intermediate in complexity between energy and point-mass models is explored and some quirks in optimal flight characteristics peculiar to the model uncovered. In yet another study, energy-modelling procedures are re-examined with a view to stretching the range of validity of zeroth-order approximation by special choice of state variables. In a final study, time-fuel tradeoffs in cruise-dash are examined for the consequences of nonconvexities appearing in the classical steady cruise-dash model. Two appendices provide retrospective looks at two early publications on energy modelling and related optimal control theory.

  20. Telescoping cylindrical piezoelectric fiber composite actuator assemblies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Allison, Sidney G. (Inventor); Shams, Qamar A. (Inventor); Fox, Robert L. (Inventor); Fox, legal representative, Christopher L. (Inventor); Fox Chattin, legal representative, Melanie L. (Inventor)

    2010-01-01

    A telescoping actuator assembly includes a plurality of cylindrical actuators in a concentric arrangement. Each cylindrical actuator is at least one piezoelectric fiber composite actuator having a plurality of piezoelectric fibers extending parallel to one another and to the concentric arrangement's longitudinal axis. Each cylindrical actuator is coupled to concentrically-adjacent ones of the cylindrical actuators such that the plurality of cylindrical actuators can experience telescopic movement. An electrical energy source coupled to the cylindrical actuators applies actuation energy thereto to generate the telescopic movement.

  1. Transverse vibration of trapezoidal plates of variable thickness - Symmetric trapezoids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liew, K. M.; Lim, M. K.

    1993-07-01

    A set of simple 2D polynomial functions is employed as the admissible displacement function in the Rayleigh-Ritz energy approach for the free transverse vibration analysis of symmetric trapezoidal plates with linearly varying thickness. The admissible function consists the product of a 2D polynomial function and a basic function defined by the product of the equations of the prescribed continuous piecewise boundary shape, each raised to the power of 0, 1 or 2 (corresponding to a free, simply supported, or clamped edge, respectively). The set of functions generated ensures the satisfaction of all the kinematic boundary conditions at the outset. The proposed method is applied to solve several symmetric trapezoidal plates with different combinations of boundary conditions and variable thickness. The results, for some cases, are compared with the available published values from the open literature. These new results may serve as benchmark data for the development of other numerical methods.

  2. Comparison with Analytical Solution: Generation and Radiation of Acoustic Waves from a 2-D Shear Layer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dahl, Milo D.

    2000-01-01

    An acoustic source inside of a 2-D jet excites an instability wave in the shear layer resulting in sound radiating away from the shear layer. Solve the linearized Euler equations to predict the sound radiation outside of the jet. The jet static pressure is assumed to be constant. The jet flow is parallel and symmetric about the x-axis. Use a symmetry boundary condition along the x-axis.

  3. Driven microswimmers on a 2D substrate: A stochastic towed sled model

    SciTech Connect

    Marchegiani, Giampiero; Marchesoni, Fabio

    2015-11-14

    We investigate, both numerically and analytically, the diffusion properties of a stochastic sled sliding on a substrate, subject to a constant towing force. The problem is motivated by the growing interest in controlling transport of artificial microswimmers in 2D geometries at low Reynolds numbers. We simulated both symmetric and asymmetric towed sleds. Remarkable properties of their mobilities and diffusion constants include sidewise drifts and excess diffusion peaks. We interpret our numerical findings by making use of stochastic approximation techniques.

  4. Optics Demonstrations Using Cylindrical Lenses

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ivanov, Dragia; Nikolov, Stefan

    2015-01-01

    In this paper we consider the main properties of cylindrical lenses and propose several demonstrational experiments that can be performed with them. Specifically we use simple glasses full of water to demonstrate some basic geometrical optics principles and phenomena. We also present some less standard experiments that can be performed with such…

  5. Notes on static cylindrical shells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bicák, J.; Zofka, M.

    2002-07-01

    Static cylindrical shells made of various types of matter are studied as sources of the vacuum Levi-Civita metrics. Their internal physical properties are related to the two essential parameters of the metrics outside. The total mass per unit length of the cylinders is always less than ¼. The results are illustrated by a number of figures.

  6. On Cyclically Symmetrical Spacetimes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barnes, A.

    2001-07-01

    In a recent paper Carot et al. considered the definition of cylindrical symmetry as a specialisation of the case of axial symmetry. One of their propositions states that if there is a second Killing vector, which together with the one generating the axial symmetry, forms the basis of a two-dimensional Lie algebra, then the two Killing vectors must commute, thus generating an Abelian group. In this paper a similar result, valid under considerably weaker assumptions, is derived: any two-dimensional Lie transformation group which contains a one-dimensional subgroup whose orbits are circles, must be Abelian. The method used to prove this result is extended to apply to three-dimensional Lie transformation groups. It is shown that the existence of a one-dimensional subgroup with closed orbits restricts the Bianchi type of the associated Lie algebra to be I, II, III, VIIq = 0, VIII or IX. Some results on n-dimensional Lie groups are also derived and applied to show there are severe restrictions on the structure of the allowed four-dimensional Lie transformation groups compatible with cyclic symmetry.

  7. Determining the axis orientation of cylindrical magnetic flux rope

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rong, Zhaojin; Wan, Weixing; Shen, Chao; Zhang, Tielong; Lui, Anthony; Wang, Yuming; Dunlop, malcolm; Zhang, Yongcun; Zong, Qiugang

    2013-04-01

    We develop a new simple method for inferring the orientation of a magnetic flux rope, which is assumed to be a time-independent cylindrically symmetric structure via the direct single-point analysis of magnetic field structure. The model tests demonstrate that, for the cylindrical flux rope regardless of whether it is force-free or not, the method can consistently yield the axis orientation of the flux rope with higher accuracy and stability than the minimum variance analysis of the magnetic field and the Grad-Shafranov reconstruction technique. Moreover, the radial distance to the axis center and the current density can also be estimated consistently. Application to two actual flux transfer events observed by the four satellites of the Cluster mission demonstrates that the method is more appropriate to be used for the inner part of flux rope, which might be closer to the cylindrical structure, showing good agreement with the results obtained from the optimal Grad-Shafranov reconstruction and the least squares technique of Faraday's law, but fails to produce such agreement for the outer satellite that grazes the flux rope. Therefore, the method must be used with caution.

  8. MULTI2D - a computer code for two-dimensional radiation hydrodynamics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ramis, R.; Meyer-ter-Vehn, J.; Ramírez, J.

    2009-06-01

    Simulation of radiation hydrodynamics in two spatial dimensions is developed, having in mind, in particular, target design for indirectly driven inertial confinement energy (IFE) and the interpretation of related experiments. Intense radiation pulses by laser or particle beams heat high-Z target configurations of different geometries and lead to a regime which is optically thick in some regions and optically thin in others. A diffusion description is inadequate in this situation. A new numerical code has been developed which describes hydrodynamics in two spatial dimensions (cylindrical R-Z geometry) and radiation transport along rays in three dimensions with the 4 π solid angle discretized in direction. Matter moves on a non-structured mesh composed of trilateral and quadrilateral elements. Radiation flux of a given direction enters on two (one) sides of a triangle and leaves on the opposite side(s) in proportion to the viewing angles depending on the geometry. This scheme allows to propagate sharply edged beams without ray tracing, though at the price of some lateral diffusion. The algorithm treats correctly both the optically thin and optically thick regimes. A symmetric semi-implicit (SSI) method is used to guarantee numerical stability. Program summaryProgram title: MULTI2D Catalogue identifier: AECV_v1_0 Program summary URL:http://cpc.cs.qub.ac.uk/summaries/AECV_v1_0.html Program obtainable from: CPC Program Library, Queen's University, Belfast, N. Ireland Licensing provisions: Standard CPC licence, http://cpc.cs.qub.ac.uk/licence/licence.html No. of lines in distributed program, including test data, etc.: 151 098 No. of bytes in distributed program, including test data, etc.: 889 622 Distribution format: tar.gz Programming language: C Computer: PC (32 bits architecture) Operating system: Linux/Unix RAM: 2 Mbytes Word size: 32 bits Classification: 19.7 External routines: X-window standard library (libX11.so) and corresponding heading files (X11/*.h) are

  9. {PT}-symmetric optical superlattices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Longhi, Stefano

    2014-04-01

    The spectral and localization properties of {PT}-symmetric optical superlattices, either infinitely extended or truncated at one side, are theoretically investigated, and the criteria that ensure a real energy spectrum are derived. The analysis is applied to the case of superlattices describing a complex ( {PT}-symmetric) extension of the Harper Hamiltonian in the rational case.

  10. Orthotropic Piezoelectricity in 2D Nanocellulose

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    García, Y.; Ruiz-Blanco, Yasser B.; Marrero-Ponce, Yovani; Sotomayor-Torres, C. M.

    2016-10-01

    The control of electromechanical responses within bonding regions is essential to face frontier challenges in nanotechnologies, such as molecular electronics and biotechnology. Here, we present Iβ-nanocellulose as a potentially new orthotropic 2D piezoelectric crystal. The predicted in-layer piezoelectricity is originated on a sui-generis hydrogen bonds pattern. Upon this fact and by using a combination of ab-initio and ad-hoc models, we introduce a description of electrical profiles along chemical bonds. Such developments lead to obtain a rationale for modelling the extended piezoelectric effect originated within bond scales. The order of magnitude estimated for the 2D Iβ-nanocellulose piezoelectric response, ~pm V‑1, ranks this material at the level of currently used piezoelectric energy generators and new artificial 2D designs. Such finding would be crucial for developing alternative materials to drive emerging nanotechnologies.

  11. Orthotropic Piezoelectricity in 2D Nanocellulose

    PubMed Central

    García, Y.; Ruiz-Blanco, Yasser B.; Marrero-Ponce, Yovani; Sotomayor-Torres, C. M.

    2016-01-01

    The control of electromechanical responses within bonding regions is essential to face frontier challenges in nanotechnologies, such as molecular electronics and biotechnology. Here, we present Iβ-nanocellulose as a potentially new orthotropic 2D piezoelectric crystal. The predicted in-layer piezoelectricity is originated on a sui-generis hydrogen bonds pattern. Upon this fact and by using a combination of ab-initio and ad-hoc models, we introduce a description of electrical profiles along chemical bonds. Such developments lead to obtain a rationale for modelling the extended piezoelectric effect originated within bond scales. The order of magnitude estimated for the 2D Iβ-nanocellulose piezoelectric response, ~pm V−1, ranks this material at the level of currently used piezoelectric energy generators and new artificial 2D designs. Such finding would be crucial for developing alternative materials to drive emerging nanotechnologies. PMID:27708364

  12. 2D microwave imaging reflectometer electronics

    SciTech Connect

    Spear, A. G.; Domier, C. W. Hu, X.; Muscatello, C. M.; Ren, X.; Luhmann, N. C.; Tobias, B. J.

    2014-11-15

    A 2D microwave imaging reflectometer system has been developed to visualize electron density fluctuations on the DIII-D tokamak. Simultaneously illuminated at four probe frequencies, large aperture optics image reflections from four density-dependent cutoff surfaces in the plasma over an extended region of the DIII-D plasma. Localized density fluctuations in the vicinity of the plasma cutoff surfaces modulate the plasma reflections, yielding a 2D image of electron density fluctuations. Details are presented of the receiver down conversion electronics that generate the in-phase (I) and quadrature (Q) reflectometer signals from which 2D density fluctuation data are obtained. Also presented are details on the control system and backplane used to manage the electronics as well as an introduction to the computer based control program.

  13. Optical modulators with 2D layered materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sun, Zhipei; Martinez, Amos; Wang, Feng

    2016-04-01

    Light modulation is an essential operation in photonics and optoelectronics. With existing and emerging technologies increasingly demanding compact, efficient, fast and broadband optical modulators, high-performance light modulation solutions are becoming indispensable. The recent realization that 2D layered materials could modulate light with superior performance has prompted intense research and significant advances, paving the way for realistic applications. In this Review, we cover the state of the art of optical modulators based on 2D materials, including graphene, transition metal dichalcogenides and black phosphorus. We discuss recent advances employing hybrid structures, such as 2D heterostructures, plasmonic structures, and silicon and fibre integrated structures. We also take a look at the future perspectives and discuss the potential of yet relatively unexplored mechanisms, such as magneto-optic and acousto-optic modulation.

  14. A GPU based real-time image processing for an axis-symmetrical optical laser triangulation system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Buschinelli, Pedro D. V.; Landeira, Gabriel A. B.; Kohler, Christian; Albertazzi, Armando; Teixeira da Silva, Guilherme B.

    2012-10-01

    An axis-symmetrical optical laser triangulation system was developed by the authors to measure the inner geometry of long pipes used in the oil industry. It has a special optical configuration able to acquire shape information of the inner geometry of a section of a pipe from a single image frame. It uses a radial light sheet and conical triangulation to measure the inner geometry of pipes in cylindrical coordinates. A set of equally spaced images of 1024 x 1024 pixels is acquired at 50 Hz while the device is moved along the pipe's axis. The measured geometry is analyzed to identify defects like corrosion damage. A GPU based processing algorithm has been developed to make the system able to process these images and display the geometrical/measurement result in real-time. The algorithm implements an adaptive threshold filter and a light intensity peak search using a graphic processing unit programming architecture (CUDA). Prior to the parallel algorithms (called kernels) a texture data type is used to remap the image, converting from polar to Cartesian coordinates, mapping angular and radial values in a 2D pixel data matrix. Radial lines are only scanned in a limited range (256 pixels) between a minimum and a maximum radius value. The achieved image processing frequency is about 470 frames per second (FPS) using a notebook equipped with a GTX 285m graphics card.

  15. Conformally symmetric traversable wormholes

    SciTech Connect

    Boehmer, Christian G.; Harko, Tiberiu; Lobo, Francisco S. N.

    2007-10-15

    Exact solutions of traversable wormholes are found under the assumption of spherical symmetry and the existence of a nonstatic conformal symmetry, which presents a more systematic approach in searching for exact wormhole solutions. In this work, a wide variety of solutions are deduced by considering choices for the form function, a specific linear equation of state relating the energy density and the pressure anisotropy, and various phantom wormhole geometries are explored. A large class of solutions impose that the spatial distribution of the exotic matter is restricted to the throat neighborhood, with a cutoff of the stress-energy tensor at a finite junction interface, although asymptotically flat exact solutions are also found. Using the 'volume integral quantifier', it is found that the conformally symmetric phantom wormhole geometries may, in principle, be constructed by infinitesimally small amounts of averaged null energy condition violating matter. Considering the tidal acceleration traversability conditions for the phantom wormhole geometry, specific wormhole dimensions and the traversal velocity are also deduced.

  16. Inkjet printing of 2D layered materials.

    PubMed

    Li, Jiantong; Lemme, Max C; Östling, Mikael

    2014-11-10

    Inkjet printing of 2D layered materials, such as graphene and MoS2, has attracted great interests for emerging electronics. However, incompatible rheology, low concentration, severe aggregation and toxicity of solvents constitute critical challenges which hamper the manufacturing efficiency and product quality. Here, we introduce a simple and general technology concept (distillation-assisted solvent exchange) to efficiently overcome these challenges. By implementing the concept, we have demonstrated excellent jetting performance, ideal printing patterns and a variety of promising applications for inkjet printing of 2D layered materials. PMID:25169938

  17. Inkjet printing of 2D layered materials.

    PubMed

    Li, Jiantong; Lemme, Max C; Östling, Mikael

    2014-11-10

    Inkjet printing of 2D layered materials, such as graphene and MoS2, has attracted great interests for emerging electronics. However, incompatible rheology, low concentration, severe aggregation and toxicity of solvents constitute critical challenges which hamper the manufacturing efficiency and product quality. Here, we introduce a simple and general technology concept (distillation-assisted solvent exchange) to efficiently overcome these challenges. By implementing the concept, we have demonstrated excellent jetting performance, ideal printing patterns and a variety of promising applications for inkjet printing of 2D layered materials.

  18. Focal field interactions from cylindrical vector beams

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Biss, David Paul

    In optical imaging there is always a push to improve image quality or find methods to gain new imaging information. This is apparent in the optical lithography and semiconductor inspection industries, where optical metrology and imaging systems are using larger numerical aperture systems and finding new imaging methods, such as immersion imaging, to shrink focal fields. At high numerical apertures, scalar diffraction theories break down and polarization effects play a large role in focal field interactions. With this interest in polarization, new models for local polarization effects are needed. Along with new models, cylindrically-symmetric polarized beams known as cylindrical vector (CV) beams, can provide new methods of imaging in this high NA regime. In this thesis, we examine the modeling of radially and azimuthally polarized beams focused at high numerical aperture in the presence of a planar interface. These focal fields are also modeled with primary spherical, coma, and astigmatism wavefront aberrations in the entrance pupil of the focusing system. Particular attention is given to the longitudinal field component generated by the focused radial beam, and the correlation between the magnetic and electric fields of radial and azimuthal beams. A scanning edge test using linearly polarized beams is modeled using a rigorous coupled wave (RCW) method and is compared to experimental data. The ability of the scanning edge test to predict spot asymmetry is investigated though the comparison of the RCW scanning edge model with free space vector diffraction theories. This RCW model is extended to include CV beam illumination and mode filtering of the system's exit pupil fields. This extension provides a model to accurately predict the performance of a dark-field imaging modality using radially and azimuthally polarized beams. Predictions from this model are compared to experimental results with attention given to defocus effects and the ability to accurately measure

  19. An efficient simulation method of a cyclotron sector-focusing magnet using 2D Poisson code

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gad Elmowla, Khaled Mohamed M.; Chai, Jong Seo; Yeon, Yeong H.; Kim, Sangbum; Ghergherehchi, Mitra

    2016-10-01

    In this paper we discuss design simulations of a spiral magnet using 2D Poisson code. The Independent Layers Method (ILM) is a new technique that was developed to enable the use of two-dimensional simulation code to calculate a non-symmetric 3-dimensional magnetic field. In ILM, the magnet pole is divided into successive independent layers, and the hill and valley shape around the azimuthal direction is implemented using a reference magnet. The normalization of the magnetic field in the reference magnet produces a profile that can be multiplied by the maximum magnetic field in the hill magnet, which is a dipole magnet made of the hills at the same radius. Both magnets are then calculated using the 2D Poisson SUPERFISH code. Then a fully three-dimensional magnetic field is produced using TOSCA for the original spiral magnet, and the comparison of the 2D and 3D results shows a good agreement between both.

  20. Dynamics of tilted cylindrical geometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sharif, M.; Sadiq, Sobia

    2016-09-01

    In this paper, we study the dynamics of tilted cylindrical model with imperfect matter distribution. We formulate the field equations and develop relations between tilted and non-tilted variables. We evaluate kinematical as well as dynamical quantities and discuss the inhomogeneity factor. We also obtain the Raychaudhuri equation to study evolution of expansion scalar. The solutions of field equations are also investigated for static cylinder under isotropy and conformally flat condition. Finally, we analyze some thermoinertial aspects of the system.

  1. Cylindrical Piezoelectric Fiber Composite Actuators

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Allison, Sidney G.; Shams, Qamar A.; Fox, Robert L.

    2008-01-01

    The use of piezoelectric devices has become widespread since Pierre and Jacques Curie discovered the piezoelectric effect in 1880. Examples of current applications of piezoelectric devices include ultrasonic transducers, micro-positioning devices, buzzers, strain sensors, and clocks. The invention of such lightweight, relatively inexpensive piezoceramic-fiber-composite actuators as macro fiber composite (MFC) actuators has made it possible to obtain strains and displacements greater than those that could be generated by prior actuators based on monolithic piezoceramic sheet materials. MFC actuators are flat, flexible actuators designed for bonding to structures to apply or detect strains. Bonding multiple layers of MFC actuators together could increase force capability, but not strain or displacement capability. Cylindrical piezoelectric fiber composite (CPFC) actuators have been invented as alternatives to MFC actuators for applications in which greater forces and/or strains or displacements may be required. In essence, a CPFC actuator is an MFC or other piezoceramic fiber composite actuator fabricated in a cylindrical instead of its conventional flat shape. Cylindrical is used here in the general sense, encompassing shapes that can have circular, elliptical, rectangular or other cross-sectional shapes in the planes perpendicular to their longitudinal axes.

  2. Parallel stitching of 2D materials

    DOE PAGES

    Ling, Xi; Wu, Lijun; Lin, Yuxuan; Ma, Qiong; Wang, Ziqiang; Song, Yi; Yu, Lili; Huang, Shengxi; Fang, Wenjing; Zhang, Xu; et al

    2016-01-27

    Diverse parallel stitched 2D heterostructures, including metal–semiconductor, semiconductor–semiconductor, and insulator–semiconductor, are synthesized directly through selective “sowing” of aromatic molecules as the seeds in the chemical vapor deposition (CVD) method. Lastly, the methodology enables the large-scale fabrication of lateral heterostructures, which offers tremendous potential for its application in integrated circuits.

  3. Parallel Stitching of 2D Materials.

    PubMed

    Ling, Xi; Lin, Yuxuan; Ma, Qiong; Wang, Ziqiang; Song, Yi; Yu, Lili; Huang, Shengxi; Fang, Wenjing; Zhang, Xu; Hsu, Allen L; Bie, Yaqing; Lee, Yi-Hsien; Zhu, Yimei; Wu, Lijun; Li, Ju; Jarillo-Herrero, Pablo; Dresselhaus, Mildred; Palacios, Tomás; Kong, Jing

    2016-03-23

    Diverse parallel stitched 2D heterostructures, including metal-semiconductor, semiconductor-semiconductor, and insulator-semiconductor, are synthesized directly through selective "sowing" of aromatic molecules as the seeds in the chemical vapor deposition (CVD) method. The methodology enables the large-scale fabrication of lateral heterostructures, which offers tremendous potential for its application in integrated circuits.

  4. Theoretical and Experimental Investigation of Propagation of Guide Waves in Cylindrical Pipe Filled with Fluid

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sato, Harumichi; Lebedev, Maxim; Akedo, Jun

    2006-05-01

    Cylindrical pipes are widely used in industries such as nuclear power plants and micro total analysis systems (μTAS). The nondestructive evaluation (NDE) of such pipes is therefore crucial. NDE and ultrasonic flowmeters can be used to characterize pipes filled with fluid. Lafleur and Shields [J. Acoust. Soc. Am. 97 (1995) 1435] and Pan et al. [J. Acoust. Soc. Am. 113 (2003) 3209] theoretically and experimentally investigated a pipe filled with fluid, but they only considered the axi-symmetrical mode. Commonly used ultrasonic transducer or laser ultrasonic methods, however, also generate non-axi-symmetrical mode guide waves. Here, guide waves propagating in a cylindrical pipe filled with fluid were theoretically investigated. The results were used to develop a computer program for calculating the phase velocity of guide waves. The calculation results were then compared with experimental results.

  5. A Novel Automated Method for Analyzing Cylindrical Computed Tomography Data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Roth, D. J.; Burke, E. R.; Rauser, R. W.; Martin, R. E.

    2011-01-01

    A novel software method is presented that is applicable for analyzing cylindrical and partially cylindrical objects inspected using computed tomography. This method involves unwrapping and re-slicing data so that the CT data from the cylindrical object can be viewed as a series of 2-D sheets in the vertical direction in addition to volume rendering and normal plane views provided by traditional CT software. The method is based on interior and exterior surface edge detection and under proper conditions, is FULLY AUTOMATED and requires no input from the user except the correct voxel dimension from the CT scan. The software is available from NASA in 32- and 64-bit versions that can be applied to gigabyte-sized data sets, processing data either in random access memory or primarily on the computer hard drive. Please inquire with the presenting author if further interested. This software differentiates itself in total from other possible re-slicing software solutions due to complete automation and advanced processing and analysis capabilities.

  6. 2D kinematic signatures of boxy/peanut bulges

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Iannuzzi, Francesca; Athanassoula, E.

    2015-07-01

    We study the imprints of boxy/peanut structures on the 2D line-of-sight kinematics of simulated disc galaxies. The models under study belong to a family with varying initial gas fraction and halo triaxiality, plus few other control runs with different structural parameters; the kinematic information was extracted using the Voronoi-binning technique and parametrized up to the fourth order of a Gauss-Hermite series. Building on a previous work for the long-slit case, we investigate the 2D kinematic behaviour in the edge-on projection as a function of the boxy/peanut strength and position angle; we find that for the strongest structures the highest moments show characteristic features away from the mid-plane in a range of position angles. We also discuss the masking effect of a classical bulge and the ambiguity in discriminating kinematically this spherically symmetric component from a boxy/peanut bulge seen end-on. Regarding the face-on case, we extend existing results to encompass the effect of a second buckling and find that this phenomenon spurs an additional set of even deeper minima in the fourth moment. Finally, we show how the results evolve when inclining the disc away from perfectly edge-on and face-on. The behaviour of stars born during the course of the simulations is discussed and confronted to that of the pre-existing disc. The general aim of our study is providing a handle to identify boxy/peanut structures and their properties in latest generation Integral Field Unit observations of nearby disc galaxies.

  7. Intrinsic Rotation from a Residual Stress at the Boundary of a Cylindrical Laboratory Plasma

    SciTech Connect

    Yan, Z.; Xu, M.; Mueller, S. H.; Yu, J. H.; Diamond, P. H.; Holland, C.; Tynan, G. R.

    2010-02-12

    An azimuthally symmetric radially sheared azimuthal flow is driven by a nondiffusive, or residual, turbulent stress localized to a narrow annular region at the boundary of a cylindrical magnetized helicon plasma device. A no-slip condition, imposed by ion-neutral flow damping outside the annular region, combined with a diffusive stress arising from turbulent and collisional viscous damping in the central plasma region, leads to net plasma rotation in the absence of momentum input.

  8. Application of 2D Non-Graphene Materials and 2D Oxide Nanostructures for Biosensing Technology

    PubMed Central

    Shavanova, Kateryna; Bakakina, Yulia; Burkova, Inna; Shtepliuk, Ivan; Viter, Roman; Ubelis, Arnolds; Beni, Valerio; Starodub, Nickolaj; Yakimova, Rositsa; Khranovskyy, Volodymyr

    2016-01-01

    The discovery of graphene and its unique properties has inspired researchers to try to invent other two-dimensional (2D) materials. After considerable research effort, a distinct “beyond graphene” domain has been established, comprising the library of non-graphene 2D materials. It is significant that some 2D non-graphene materials possess solid advantages over their predecessor, such as having a direct band gap, and therefore are highly promising for a number of applications. These applications are not limited to nano- and opto-electronics, but have a strong potential in biosensing technologies, as one example. However, since most of the 2D non-graphene materials have been newly discovered, most of the research efforts are concentrated on material synthesis and the investigation of the properties of the material. Applications of 2D non-graphene materials are still at the embryonic stage, and the integration of 2D non-graphene materials into devices is scarcely reported. However, in recent years, numerous reports have blossomed about 2D material-based biosensors, evidencing the growing potential of 2D non-graphene materials for biosensing applications. This review highlights the recent progress in research on the potential of using 2D non-graphene materials and similar oxide nanostructures for different types of biosensors (optical and electrochemical). A wide range of biological targets, such as glucose, dopamine, cortisol, DNA, IgG, bisphenol, ascorbic acid, cytochrome and estradiol, has been reported to be successfully detected by biosensors with transducers made of 2D non-graphene materials. PMID:26861346

  9. Application of 2D Non-Graphene Materials and 2D Oxide Nanostructures for Biosensing Technology.

    PubMed

    Shavanova, Kateryna; Bakakina, Yulia; Burkova, Inna; Shtepliuk, Ivan; Viter, Roman; Ubelis, Arnolds; Beni, Valerio; Starodub, Nickolaj; Yakimova, Rositsa; Khranovskyy, Volodymyr

    2016-01-01

    The discovery of graphene and its unique properties has inspired researchers to try to invent other two-dimensional (2D) materials. After considerable research effort, a distinct "beyond graphene" domain has been established, comprising the library of non-graphene 2D materials. It is significant that some 2D non-graphene materials possess solid advantages over their predecessor, such as having a direct band gap, and therefore are highly promising for a number of applications. These applications are not limited to nano- and opto-electronics, but have a strong potential in biosensing technologies, as one example. However, since most of the 2D non-graphene materials have been newly discovered, most of the research efforts are concentrated on material synthesis and the investigation of the properties of the material. Applications of 2D non-graphene materials are still at the embryonic stage, and the integration of 2D non-graphene materials into devices is scarcely reported. However, in recent years, numerous reports have blossomed about 2D material-based biosensors, evidencing the growing potential of 2D non-graphene materials for biosensing applications. This review highlights the recent progress in research on the potential of using 2D non-graphene materials and similar oxide nanostructures for different types of biosensors (optical and electrochemical). A wide range of biological targets, such as glucose, dopamine, cortisol, DNA, IgG, bisphenol, ascorbic acid, cytochrome and estradiol, has been reported to be successfully detected by biosensors with transducers made of 2D non-graphene materials.

  10. Symmetric Composite Laminate Stress Analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wang, T.; Smolinski, K. F.; Gellin, S.

    1985-01-01

    It is demonstrated that COSMIC/NASTRAN may be used to analyze plate and shell structures made of symmetric composite laminates. Although general composite laminates cannot be analyzed using NASTRAN, the theoretical development presented herein indicates that the integrated constitutive laws of a symmetric composite laminate resemble those of a homogeneous anisotropic plate, which can be analyzed using NASTRAN. A detailed analysis procedure is presented, as well as an illustrative example.

  11. Stochastic Inversion of 2D Magnetotelluric Data

    SciTech Connect

    Chen, Jinsong

    2010-07-01

    The algorithm is developed to invert 2D magnetotelluric (MT) data based on sharp boundary parametrization using a Bayesian framework. Within the algorithm, we consider the locations and the resistivity of regions formed by the interfaces are as unknowns. We use a parallel, adaptive finite-element algorithm to forward simulate frequency-domain MT responses of 2D conductivity structure. Those unknown parameters are spatially correlated and are described by a geostatistical model. The joint posterior probability distribution function is explored by Markov Chain Monte Carlo (MCMC) sampling methods. The developed stochastic model is effective for estimating the interface locations and resistivity. Most importantly, it provides details uncertainty information on each unknown parameter. Hardware requirements: PC, Supercomputer, Multi-platform, Workstation; Software requirements C and Fortan; Operation Systems/version is Linux/Unix or Windows

  12. Explicit 2-D Hydrodynamic FEM Program

    1996-08-07

    DYNA2D* is a vectorized, explicit, two-dimensional, axisymmetric and plane strain finite element program for analyzing the large deformation dynamic and hydrodynamic response of inelastic solids. DYNA2D* contains 13 material models and 9 equations of state (EOS) to cover a wide range of material behavior. The material models implemented in all machine versions are: elastic, orthotropic elastic, kinematic/isotropic elastic plasticity, thermoelastoplastic, soil and crushable foam, linear viscoelastic, rubber, high explosive burn, isotropic elastic-plastic, temperature-dependent elastic-plastic. Themore » isotropic and temperature-dependent elastic-plastic models determine only the deviatoric stresses. Pressure is determined by one of 9 equations of state including linear polynomial, JWL high explosive, Sack Tuesday high explosive, Gruneisen, ratio of polynomials, linear polynomial with energy deposition, ignition and growth of reaction in HE, tabulated compaction, and tabulated.« less

  13. Stochastic Inversion of 2D Magnetotelluric Data

    2010-07-01

    The algorithm is developed to invert 2D magnetotelluric (MT) data based on sharp boundary parametrization using a Bayesian framework. Within the algorithm, we consider the locations and the resistivity of regions formed by the interfaces are as unknowns. We use a parallel, adaptive finite-element algorithm to forward simulate frequency-domain MT responses of 2D conductivity structure. Those unknown parameters are spatially correlated and are described by a geostatistical model. The joint posterior probability distribution function ismore » explored by Markov Chain Monte Carlo (MCMC) sampling methods. The developed stochastic model is effective for estimating the interface locations and resistivity. Most importantly, it provides details uncertainty information on each unknown parameter. Hardware requirements: PC, Supercomputer, Multi-platform, Workstation; Software requirements C and Fortan; Operation Systems/version is Linux/Unix or Windows« less

  14. Static & Dynamic Response of 2D Solids

    1996-07-15

    NIKE2D is an implicit finite-element code for analyzing the finite deformation, static and dynamic response of two-dimensional, axisymmetric, plane strain, and plane stress solids. The code is fully vectorized and available on several computing platforms. A number of material models are incorporated to simulate a wide range of material behavior including elasto-placicity, anisotropy, creep, thermal effects, and rate dependence. Slideline algorithms model gaps and sliding along material interfaces, including interface friction, penetration and single surfacemore » contact. Interactive-graphics and rezoning is included for analyses with large mesh distortions. In addition to quasi-Newton and arc-length procedures, adaptive algorithms can be defined to solve the implicit equations using the solution language ISLAND. Each of these capabilities and more make NIKE2D a robust analysis tool.« less

  15. Static & Dynamic Response of 2D Solids

    SciTech Connect

    Lin, Jerry

    1996-07-15

    NIKE2D is an implicit finite-element code for analyzing the finite deformation, static and dynamic response of two-dimensional, axisymmetric, plane strain, and plane stress solids. The code is fully vectorized and available on several computing platforms. A number of material models are incorporated to simulate a wide range of material behavior including elasto-placicity, anisotropy, creep, thermal effects, and rate dependence. Slideline algorithms model gaps and sliding along material interfaces, including interface friction, penetration and single surface contact. Interactive-graphics and rezoning is included for analyses with large mesh distortions. In addition to quasi-Newton and arc-length procedures, adaptive algorithms can be defined to solve the implicit equations using the solution language ISLAND. Each of these capabilities and more make NIKE2D a robust analysis tool.

  16. Explicit 2-D Hydrodynamic FEM Program

    SciTech Connect

    Lin, Jerry

    1996-08-07

    DYNA2D* is a vectorized, explicit, two-dimensional, axisymmetric and plane strain finite element program for analyzing the large deformation dynamic and hydrodynamic response of inelastic solids. DYNA2D* contains 13 material models and 9 equations of state (EOS) to cover a wide range of material behavior. The material models implemented in all machine versions are: elastic, orthotropic elastic, kinematic/isotropic elastic plasticity, thermoelastoplastic, soil and crushable foam, linear viscoelastic, rubber, high explosive burn, isotropic elastic-plastic, temperature-dependent elastic-plastic. The isotropic and temperature-dependent elastic-plastic models determine only the deviatoric stresses. Pressure is determined by one of 9 equations of state including linear polynomial, JWL high explosive, Sack Tuesday high explosive, Gruneisen, ratio of polynomials, linear polynomial with energy deposition, ignition and growth of reaction in HE, tabulated compaction, and tabulated.

  17. 2D photonic-crystal optomechanical nanoresonator.

    PubMed

    Makles, K; Antoni, T; Kuhn, A G; Deléglise, S; Briant, T; Cohadon, P-F; Braive, R; Beaudoin, G; Pinard, L; Michel, C; Dolique, V; Flaminio, R; Cagnoli, G; Robert-Philip, I; Heidmann, A

    2015-01-15

    We present the optical optimization of an optomechanical device based on a suspended InP membrane patterned with a 2D near-wavelength grating (NWG) based on a 2D photonic-crystal geometry. We first identify by numerical simulation a set of geometrical parameters providing a reflectivity higher than 99.8% over a 50-nm span. We then study the limitations induced by the finite value of the optical waist and lateral size of the NWG pattern using different numerical approaches. The NWG grating, pierced in a suspended InP 265-nm thick membrane, is used to form a compact microcavity involving the suspended nanomembrane as an end mirror. The resulting cavity has a waist size smaller than 10 μm and a finesse in the 200 range. It is used to probe the Brownian motion of the mechanical modes of the nanomembrane. PMID:25679837

  18. Compact 2-D graphical representation of DNA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Randić, Milan; Vračko, Marjan; Zupan, Jure; Novič, Marjana

    2003-05-01

    We present a novel 2-D graphical representation for DNA sequences which has an important advantage over the existing graphical representations of DNA in being very compact. It is based on: (1) use of binary labels for the four nucleic acid bases, and (2) use of the 'worm' curve as template on which binary codes are placed. The approach is illustrated on DNA sequences of the first exon of human β-globin and gorilla β-globin.

  19. 2D materials: Graphene and others

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bansal, Suneev Anil; Singh, Amrinder Pal; Kumar, Suresh

    2016-05-01

    Present report reviews the recent advancements in new atomically thick 2D materials. Materials covered in this review are Graphene, Silicene, Germanene, Boron Nitride (BN) and Transition metal chalcogenides (TMC). These materials show extraordinary mechanical, electronic and optical properties which make them suitable candidates for future applications. Apart from unique properties, tune-ability of highly desirable properties of these materials is also an important area to be emphasized on.

  20. Layer Engineering of 2D Semiconductor Junctions.

    PubMed

    He, Yongmin; Sobhani, Ali; Lei, Sidong; Zhang, Zhuhua; Gong, Yongji; Jin, Zehua; Zhou, Wu; Yang, Yingchao; Zhang, Yuan; Wang, Xifan; Yakobson, Boris; Vajtai, Robert; Halas, Naomi J; Li, Bo; Xie, Erqing; Ajayan, Pulickel

    2016-07-01

    A new concept for junction fabrication by connecting multiple regions with varying layer thicknesses, based on the thickness dependence, is demonstrated. This type of junction is only possible in super-thin-layered 2D materials, and exhibits similar characteristics as p-n junctions. Rectification and photovoltaic effects are observed in chemically homogeneous MoSe2 junctions between domains of different thicknesses. PMID:27136275

  1. Realistic and efficient 2D crack simulation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yadegar, Jacob; Liu, Xiaoqing; Singh, Abhishek

    2010-04-01

    Although numerical algorithms for 2D crack simulation have been studied in Modeling and Simulation (M&S) and computer graphics for decades, realism and computational efficiency are still major challenges. In this paper, we introduce a high-fidelity, scalable, adaptive and efficient/runtime 2D crack/fracture simulation system by applying the mathematically elegant Peano-Cesaro triangular meshing/remeshing technique to model the generation of shards/fragments. The recursive fractal sweep associated with the Peano-Cesaro triangulation provides efficient local multi-resolution refinement to any level-of-detail. The generated binary decomposition tree also provides efficient neighbor retrieval mechanism used for mesh element splitting and merging with minimal memory requirements essential for realistic 2D fragment formation. Upon load impact/contact/penetration, a number of factors including impact angle, impact energy, and material properties are all taken into account to produce the criteria of crack initialization, propagation, and termination leading to realistic fractal-like rubble/fragments formation. The aforementioned parameters are used as variables of probabilistic models of cracks/shards formation, making the proposed solution highly adaptive by allowing machine learning mechanisms learn the optimal values for the variables/parameters based on prior benchmark data generated by off-line physics based simulation solutions that produce accurate fractures/shards though at highly non-real time paste. Crack/fracture simulation has been conducted on various load impacts with different initial locations at various impulse scales. The simulation results demonstrate that the proposed system has the capability to realistically and efficiently simulate 2D crack phenomena (such as window shattering and shards generation) with diverse potentials in military and civil M&S applications such as training and mission planning.

  2. 2D Spinodal Decomposition in Forced Turbulence

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fan, Xiang; Diamond, Patrick; Chacon, Luis; Li, Hui

    2015-11-01

    Spinodal decomposition is a second order phase transition for binary fluid mixture, from one thermodynamic phase to form two coexisting phases. The governing equation for this coarsening process below critical temperature, Cahn-Hilliard Equation, is very similar to 2D MHD Equation, especially the conserved quantities have a close correspondence between each other, so theories for MHD turbulence are used to study spinodal decomposition in forced turbulence. Domain size is increased with time along with the inverse cascade, and the length scale can be arrested by a forced turbulence with direct cascade. The two competing mechanisms lead to a stabilized domain size length scale, which can be characterized by Hinze Scale. The 2D spinodal decomposition in forced turbulence is studied by both theory and simulation with ``pixie2d.'' This work focuses on the relation between Hinze scale and spectra and cascades. Similarities and differences between spinodal decomposition and MHD are investigated. Also some transport properties are studied following MHD theories. This work is supported by the Department of Energy under Award Number DE-FG02-04ER54738.

  3. MAGNUM-2D computer code: user's guide

    SciTech Connect

    England, R.L.; Kline, N.W.; Ekblad, K.J.; Baca, R.G.

    1985-01-01

    Information relevant to the general use of the MAGNUM-2D computer code is presented. This computer code was developed for the purpose of modeling (i.e., simulating) the thermal and hydraulic conditions in the vicinity of a waste package emplaced in a deep geologic repository. The MAGNUM-2D computer computes (1) the temperature field surrounding the waste package as a function of the heat generation rate of the nuclear waste and thermal properties of the basalt and (2) the hydraulic head distribution and associated groundwater flow fields as a function of the temperature gradients and hydraulic properties of the basalt. MAGNUM-2D is a two-dimensional numerical model for transient or steady-state analysis of coupled heat transfer and groundwater flow in a fractured porous medium. The governing equations consist of a set of coupled, quasi-linear partial differential equations that are solved using a Galerkin finite-element technique. A Newton-Raphson algorithm is embedded in the Galerkin functional to formulate the problem in terms of the incremental changes in the dependent variables. Both triangular and quadrilateral finite elements are used to represent the continuum portions of the spatial domain. Line elements may be used to represent discrete conduits. 18 refs., 4 figs., 1 tab.

  4. Engineering light outcoupling in 2D materials.

    PubMed

    Lien, Der-Hsien; Kang, Jeong Seuk; Amani, Matin; Chen, Kevin; Tosun, Mahmut; Wang, Hsin-Ping; Roy, Tania; Eggleston, Michael S; Wu, Ming C; Dubey, Madan; Lee, Si-Chen; He, Jr-Hau; Javey, Ali

    2015-02-11

    When light is incident on 2D transition metal dichalcogenides (TMDCs), it engages in multiple reflections within underlying substrates, producing interferences that lead to enhancement or attenuation of the incoming and outgoing strength of light. Here, we report a simple method to engineer the light outcoupling in semiconducting TMDCs by modulating their dielectric surroundings. We show that by modulating the thicknesses of underlying substrates and capping layers, the interference caused by substrate can significantly enhance the light absorption and emission of WSe2, resulting in a ∼11 times increase in Raman signal and a ∼30 times increase in the photoluminescence (PL) intensity of WSe2. On the basis of the interference model, we also propose a strategy to control the photonic and optoelectronic properties of thin-layer WSe2. This work demonstrates the utilization of outcoupling engineering in 2D materials and offers a new route toward the realization of novel optoelectronic devices, such as 2D LEDs and solar cells.

  5. Supercooling Water in Cylindrical Capsules

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guzman, J. J. Milón; Braga, S. L.

    2005-11-01

    An experimental apparatus was developed to investigate the supercooling phenomenon of water inside cylindrical capsules used for a cold storage process. The coolant is a water-alcohol mixture controlled by a constant temperature bath (CTB). Temperatures varying with time are measured inside and outside the capsule. Cylinders with an internal diameter and thickness of 45 and 1.5 mm, respectively, were made from four different materials: acrylic, PVC, brass, and aluminum. The supercooling period of the water and the nucleation temperature were investigated for different coolant temperatures. The supercooling and nucleation probabilities are shown as a function of the coolant temperature for the four different materials.

  6. Multi-stable cylindrical lattices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pirrera, Alberto; Lachenal, Xavier; Daynes, Stephen; Weaver, Paul M.; Chenchiah, Isaac V.

    2013-11-01

    We present a cylindrical lattice structure that mimics the behaviour of the virus bacteriophage T4 in having two (or more) stable states which differ in their radii and length. While the virus achieves bistability through molecular mechanisms we use composite materials to exploit the interplay between pre-stress, material properties and structural geometry. We demonstrate (computationally) that multi-stability is a robust phenomenon. We also show (analytically) that it is possible to choose the design variables so that the energy is independent of the radius, thus resulting in every state of the structure being stable.

  7. ORMDIN. 2-D Nonlinear Inverse Heat Conduction

    SciTech Connect

    Bass, B.R.

    1990-05-01

    ORMDIN is a finite-element program developed for two-dimensional nonlinear inverse heat conduction analysis as part of the Oak Ridge National Laboratory Pressurized Water Reactor Blowdown Heat Transfer (BDHT) program. One of the primary objectives of the program was to determine the transient surface temperature and surface heat flux of fuel pin simulators from internal thermocouple signals obtained during a loss-of-coolant accident experiment in the Thermal-Hydraulic Test Facility (THTF). ORMDIN was designed primarily to perform a transient two-dimensional nonlinear inverse heat conduction analysis of the THTF bundle 3 heater rod; however, it can be applied to other cylindrical geometries for which the thermophysical properties are prescribed functions of temperature. The program assumes that discretized temperature histories are provided at three thermocouple locations in the interior of the cylinder. Concurrent with the two-dimensional analysis, ORMDIN also generates one-dimensional solutions for each of the three thermocouple radial planes.

  8. 2D/3D Program work summary report, [January 1988--December 1992

    SciTech Connect

    Damerell, P. S.; Simons, J. W.

    1993-06-01

    The 2D/3D Program was carried out by Germany, Japan and the United States to investigate the thermal-hydraulics of a PWR large-break LOCA. A contributory approach was utilized in which each country contributed significant effort to the program and all three countries shared the research results. Germany constructed and operated the Upper Plenum Test Facility (UPTF), and Japan constructed and operated the Cylindrical Core Test Facility (CCTF) and the Slab Core Test Facility (SCTF). The US contribution consisted of provision of advanced instrumentation to each of the three test facilities, and assessment of the TRAC computer code against the test results. Evaluations of the test results were carried out in all three countries. This report summarizes the 2D/3D Program in terms of the contributing efforts of the participants.

  9. Particle in a Uniform Magnetic Field Under the Symmetric Gauge: The Eigenfunctions and the Time Evolution of Wave Packets

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    de Brito, P. E.; Nazareno, H. N.

    2007-01-01

    In the present work we treat the problem of a particle in a uniform magnetic field along the symmetric gauge, so chosen since the wavefunctions present the required cylindrical symmetry. It is our understanding that by means of this work we can make a contribution to the teaching of the present subject, as well as encourage students to use…

  10. Traveling wave device for combining or splitting symmetric and asymmetric waves

    DOEpatents

    Möbius, Arnold; Ives, Robert Lawrence

    2005-07-19

    A traveling wave device for the combining or splitting of symmetric and asymmetric traveling wave energy includes a feed waveguide for traveling wave energy, the feed waveguide having an input port and a launching port, a reflector for coupling wave energy between the feed waveguide and a final waveguide for the collection and transport of wave energy to or from the reflector. The power combiner has a launching port for symmetrical waves which includes a cylindrical section coaxial to the feed waveguide, and a launching port for asymmetric waves which includes a sawtooth rotated about a central axis.

  11. Models of cylindrical bubble pulsation

    PubMed Central

    Ilinskii, Yurii A.; Zabolotskaya, Evgenia A.; Hay, Todd A.; Hamilton, Mark F.

    2012-01-01

    Three models are considered for describing the dynamics of a pulsating cylindrical bubble. A linear solution is derived for a cylindrical bubble in an infinite compressible liquid. The solution accounts for losses due to viscosity, heat conduction, and acoustic radiation. It reveals that radiation is the dominant loss mechanism, and that it is 22 times greater than for a spherical bubble of the same radius. The predicted resonance frequency provides a basis of comparison for limiting forms of other models. The second model considered is a commonly used equation in Rayleigh-Plesset form that requires an incompressible liquid to be finite in extent in order for bubble pulsation to occur. The radial extent of the liquid becomes a fitting parameter, and it is found that considerably different values of the parameter are required for modeling inertial motion versus acoustical oscillations. The third model was developed by V. K. Kedrinskii [Hydrodynamics of Explosion (Springer, New York, 2005), pp. 23–26] in the form of the Gilmore equation for compressible liquids of infinite extent. While the correct resonance frequency and loss factor are not recovered from this model in the linear approximation, it provides reasonable agreement with observations of inertial motion. PMID:22978863

  12. INTERDISCIPLINARY PHYSICS AND RELATED AREAS OF SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY: Polar Mixing Optical Phonon Spectra in Wurtzite GaN Cylindrical Quantum Dots: Quantum Size and Dielectric Effects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Li; Liao, Jian-Shang

    2010-05-01

    The interface-optical-propagating (IO-PR) mixing phonon modes of a quasi-zero-dimensional (QoD) wurtzite cylindrical quantum dot (QD) structure are derived and studied by employing the macroscopic dielectric continuum model. The analytical phonon states of IO-PR mixing modes are given. It is found that there are two types of IO-PR mixing phonon modes, i.e. ρ-IO/z-PR mixing modes and the z-IO/ρ-PR mixing modes existing in QoD wurtzite QDs. And each IO-PR mixing modes also have symmetrical and antisymmetrical forms. Via a standard procedure of field quantization, the Fröhlich Hamiltonians of electron-(IO-PR) mixing phonons interaction are obtained. Numerical calculations on a wurtzite GaN cylindrical QD are performed. The results reveal that both the radial-direction size and the axial-direction size as well as the dielectric matrix have great influence on the dispersive frequencies of the IO-PR mixing phonon modes. The limiting features of dispersive curves of these phonon modes are discussed in depth. The phonon modes “reducing" behavior of wurtzite quantum confined systems has been observed obviously in the structures. Moreover, the degenerating behaviors of the IO-PR mixing phonon modes in wurtzite QoD QDs to the IO modes and PR modes in wurtzite Q2D QW and Q1D QWR systems are analyzed deeply from both of the viewpoints of physics and mathematics.

  13. GBL-2D Version 1.0: a 2D geometry boolean library.

    SciTech Connect

    McBride, Cory L. (Elemental Technologies, American Fort, UT); Schmidt, Rodney Cannon; Yarberry, Victor R.; Meyers, Ray J.

    2006-11-01

    This report describes version 1.0 of GBL-2D, a geometric Boolean library for 2D objects. The library is written in C++ and consists of a set of classes and routines. The classes primarily represent geometric data and relationships. Classes are provided for 2D points, lines, arcs, edge uses, loops, surfaces and mask sets. The routines contain algorithms for geometric Boolean operations and utility functions. Routines are provided that incorporate the Boolean operations: Union(OR), XOR, Intersection and Difference. A variety of additional analytical geometry routines and routines for importing and exporting the data in various file formats are also provided. The GBL-2D library was originally developed as a geometric modeling engine for use with a separate software tool, called SummitView [1], that manipulates the 2D mask sets created by designers of Micro-Electro-Mechanical Systems (MEMS). However, many other practical applications for this type of software can be envisioned because the need to perform 2D Boolean operations can arise in many contexts.

  14. Propagation Mechanism of Cylindrical Cellular Detonation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Han, Wen-Hu; Wang, Cheng; Ning, Jian-Guo

    2012-10-01

    We investigate the evolution of cylindrical cellular detonation with different instabilities. The numerical results show that with decreasing initial temperature, detonation becomes more unstable and the cells of the cylindrical detonation tend to be irregular. For stable detonation, a divergence of cylindrical detonation cells is formed eventually due to detonation instability resulting from a curved detonation front. For mildly unstable detonation, local overdriven detonation occurs. The detonation cell diverges and its size decreases. For highly unstable detonation, locally driven detonation is more obvious and the front is highly wrinkled. As a result, the diverging cylindrical detonation cell becomes highly irregular.

  15. Periodically sheared 2D Yukawa systems

    SciTech Connect

    Kovács, Anikó Zsuzsa; Hartmann, Peter; Donkó, Zoltán

    2015-10-15

    We present non-equilibrium molecular dynamics simulation studies on the dynamic (complex) shear viscosity of a 2D Yukawa system. We have identified a non-monotonic frequency dependence of the viscosity at high frequencies and shear rates, an energy absorption maximum (local resonance) at the Einstein frequency of the system at medium shear rates, an enhanced collective wave activity, when the excitation is near the plateau frequency of the longitudinal wave dispersion, and the emergence of significant configurational anisotropy at small frequencies and high shear rates.

  16. ENERGY LANDSCAPE OF 2D FLUID FORMS

    SciTech Connect

    Y. JIANG; ET AL

    2000-04-01

    The equilibrium states of 2D non-coarsening fluid foams, which consist of bubbles with fixed areas, correspond to local minima of the total perimeter. (1) The authors find an approximate value of the global minimum, and determine directly from an image how far a foam is from its ground state. (2) For (small) area disorder, small bubbles tend to sort inwards and large bubbles outwards. (3) Topological charges of the same sign repel while charges of opposite sign attract. (4) They discuss boundary conditions and the uniqueness of the pattern for fixed topology.

  17. Extension and application of the Preissmann slot model to 2D transient mixed flows

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maranzoni, Andrea; Dazzi, Susanna; Aureli, Francesca; Mignosa, Paolo

    2015-08-01

    This paper presents an extension of the Preissmann slot concept for the modeling of highly transient two-dimensional (2D) mixed flows. The classic conservative formulation of the 2D shallow water equations for free surface flows is adapted by assuming that two fictitious vertical slots, aligned along the two Cartesian plane directions and normally intersecting, are added on the ceiling of each integration element. Accordingly, transitions between free surface and pressurized flow can be handled in a natural and straightforward way by using the same set of governing equations. The opportunity of coupling free surface and pressurized flows is actually useful not only in one-dimensional (1D) problems concerning sewer systems but also for modeling 2D flooding phenomena in which the pressurization of bridges, culverts, or other crossing hydraulic structures can be expected. Numerical simulations are performed by using a shock-capturing MUSCL-Hancock finite volume scheme combined with the FORCE (First-Order Centred) solver for the evaluation of the numerical fluxes. The validation of the mathematical model is accomplished on the basis of both exact solutions of 1D discontinuous initial value problems and reference radial solutions of idealized test cases with cylindrical symmetry. Furthermore, the capability of the model to deal with practical field-scale applications is assessed by simulating the transit of a bore under an arch bridge. Numerical results show that the proposed model is suitable for the prediction of highly transient 2D mixed flows.

  18. Holographic measurement of wave propagation in axi-symmetric shells

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Evensen, D. A.; Aprahamian, R.; Jacoby, J. L.

    1972-01-01

    The report deals with the use of pulsed, double-exposure holographic interferometry to record the propagation of transverse waves in thin-walled axi-symmetric shells. The report is subdivided into sections dealing with: (1) wave propagation in circular cylindrical shells, (2) wave propagation past cut-outs and stiffeners, and (3) wave propagation in conical shells. Several interferograms are presented herein which show the waves reflecting from the shell boundaries, from cut-outs, and from stiffening rings. The initial response of the shell was nearly axi-symmetric in all cases, but nonsymmetric modes soon appeared in the radial response. This result suggests that the axi-symmetric response of the shell may be dynamically unstable, and thus may preferentially excite certain circumferential harmonics through parametric excitation. Attempts were made throughout to correlate the experimental data with analysis. For the most part, good agreement between theory and experiment was obtained. Occasional differences were attributed primarily to simplifying assumptions used in the analysis. From the standpoint of engineering applications, it is clear that pulsed laser holography can be used to obtain quantitative engineering data. Areas of dynamic stress concentration, stress concentration factors, local anomalies, etc., can be readily determined by holography.

  19. Nonlinear dynamics of initially imperfect functionally graded circular cylindrical shell under complex loads

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Y. Z.; Hao, Y. X.; Zhang, W.; Chen, J.; Li, S. B.

    2015-07-01

    The nonlinear vibration of a simply supported FGM cylindrical shell with small initial geometric imperfection under complex loads is studied. The effects of radial harmonic excitation, compressive in-plane force combined with supersonic aerodynamic and thermal loads are considered. The small initial geometric imperfection of the cylindrical shell is characterized in the form of the sine-type trigonometric functions. The effective material properties of this FGM cylindrical shell are graded in the radial direction according to a simple power law in terms of the volume fractions. Based on Reddy's third-order shear deformation theory, von Karman-type nonlinear kinematics and Hamilton's principle, the nonlinear partial differential equation that controls the shell dynamics is derived. Both axial symmetric and driven modes of the cylindrical shell deflection pattern are included. Furthermore, the equations of motion can be reduced into a set of coupled nonlinear ordinary differential equations by applying Galerkin's method. In the study of the nonlinear dynamics responses of small initial geometric imperfect FGM cylindrical shell under complex loads, the 4th order Runge-Kutta method is used to obtain time history, phase portraits, bifurcation diagrams and Poincare maps with different parameters. The effects of external loads, geometric imperfections and volume fractions on the nonlinear dynamics of the system are discussed.

  20. WFR-2D: an analytical model for PWAS-generated 2D ultrasonic guided wave propagation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shen, Yanfeng; Giurgiutiu, Victor

    2014-03-01

    This paper presents WaveFormRevealer 2-D (WFR-2D), an analytical predictive tool for the simulation of 2-D ultrasonic guided wave propagation and interaction with damage. The design of structural health monitoring (SHM) systems and self-aware smart structures requires the exploration of a wide range of parameters to achieve best detection and quantification of certain types of damage. Such need for parameter exploration on sensor dimension, location, guided wave characteristics (mode type, frequency, wavelength, etc.) can be best satisfied with analytical models which are fast and efficient. The analytical model was constructed based on the exact 2-D Lamb wave solution using Bessel and Hankel functions. Damage effects were inserted in the model by considering the damage as a secondary wave source with complex-valued directivity scattering coefficients containing both amplitude and phase information from wave-damage interaction. The analytical procedure was coded with MATLAB, and a predictive simulation tool called WaveFormRevealer 2-D was developed. The wave-damage interaction coefficients (WDICs) were extracted from harmonic analysis of local finite element model (FEM) with artificial non-reflective boundaries (NRB). The WFR-2D analytical simulation results were compared and verified with full scale multiphysics finite element models and experiments with scanning laser vibrometer. First, Lamb wave propagation in a pristine aluminum plate was simulated with WFR-2D, compared with finite element results, and verified by experiments. Then, an inhomogeneity was machined into the plate to represent damage. Analytical modeling was carried out, and verified by finite element simulation and experiments. This paper finishes with conclusions and suggestions for future work.

  1. Microwave Assisted 2D Materials Exfoliation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Yanbin

    Two-dimensional materials have emerged as extremely important materials with applications ranging from energy and environmental science to electronics and biology. Here we report our discovery of a universal, ultrafast, green, solvo-thermal technology for producing excellent-quality, few-layered nanosheets in liquid phase from well-known 2D materials such as such hexagonal boron nitride (h-BN), graphite, and MoS2. We start by mixing the uniform bulk-layered material with a common organic solvent that matches its surface energy to reduce the van der Waals attractive interactions between the layers; next, the solutions are heated in a commercial microwave oven to overcome the energy barrier between bulk and few-layers states. We discovered the minutes-long rapid exfoliation process is highly temperature dependent, which requires precise thermal management to obtain high-quality inks. We hypothesize a possible mechanism of this proposed solvo-thermal process; our theory confirms the basis of this novel technique for exfoliation of high-quality, layered 2D materials by using an as yet unknown role of the solvent.

  2. Multienzyme Inkjet Printed 2D Arrays.

    PubMed

    Gdor, Efrat; Shemesh, Shay; Magdassi, Shlomo; Mandler, Daniel

    2015-08-19

    The use of printing to produce 2D arrays is well established, and should be relatively facile to adapt for the purpose of printing biomaterials; however, very few studies have been published using enzyme solutions as inks. Among the printing technologies, inkjet printing is highly suitable for printing biomaterials and specifically enzymes, as it offers many advantages. Formulation of the inkjet inks is relatively simple and can be adjusted to a variety of biomaterials, while providing nonharmful environment to the enzymes. Here we demonstrate the applicability of inkjet printing for patterning multiple enzymes in a predefined array in a very straightforward, noncontact method. Specifically, various arrays of the enzymes glucose oxidase (GOx), invertase (INV) and horseradish peroxidase (HP) were printed on aminated glass surfaces, followed by immobilization using glutardialdehyde after printing. Scanning electrochemical microscopy (SECM) was used for imaging the printed patterns and to ascertain the enzyme activity. The successful formation of 2D arrays consisting of enzymes was explored as a means of developing the first surface confined enzyme based logic gates. Principally, XOR and AND gates, each consisting of two enzymes as the Boolean operators, were assembled, and their operation was studied by SECM. PMID:26214072

  3. 2D and 3D ordered arrays of Co magnetic nanowires

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Garcia, J.; Prida, V. M.; Vega, V.; Rosa, W. O.; Caballero-Flores, R.; Iglesias, L.; Hernando, B.

    2015-06-01

    Cobalt nanowire arrays spatially distributed in 2D and 3D arrangements have been performed by pulsed electrodeposition into the pores of planar and cylindrical nanoporous anodic alumina membranes, respectively. Morphological characterization points out the good filling factor reached by electroplated Co nanowires in both kinds of alumina membranes exhibiting hexagonally self-ordered porous structures. Co nanowires grown in both kinds of alumina templates exhibit the same crystalline phases. DC magnetometry and First Order Reversal Curve (FORC) analysis were carried out in order to determine the overall magnetic behavior for both nanowire array geometries. It is found that when the Co nanowires of two kinds of arrays are perpendicularly magnetized, both hysteresis loops are identical, suggesting that neither the intrinsic magnetic behavior of the nanowires nor the collective one depend on the arrays geometry. FORC analysis performed along the radial direction of the Co nanowire arrays embedded in the cylindrical alumina template reveals that the contribution of each nanowire to the magnetization reversal process involves its specific orientation with respect to the applied field direction. Furthermore, the comparison between the magnetic properties for both kinds of Co nanowire arrays allows discussing about the effect of the cylindrical geometry of the template on the magnetostatic interaction among nanowires.

  4. Validation of a 2.5D CFD model for cylindrical gas–solids fluidized beds

    SciTech Connect

    Li, Tingwen

    2015-09-25

    The 2.5D model recently proposed by Li et al. (Li, T., Benyahia, S., Dietiker, J., Musser, J., and Sun, X., 2015. A 2.5D computational method to simulate cylindrical fluidized beds. Chemical Engineering Science. 123, 236-246.) was validated for two cylindrical gas-solids bubbling fluidized bed systems. Different types of particles tested under various flow conditions were simulated using the traditional 2D model and the 2.5D model. Detailed comparison against the experimental measurements on solid concentration and velocity were conducted. Comparing to the traditional Cartesian 2D flow simulation, the 2.5D model yielded better agreement with the experimental data especially for the solid velocity prediction in the column wall region.

  5. Validation of a 2.5D CFD model for cylindrical gas–solids fluidized beds

    DOE PAGES

    Li, Tingwen

    2015-09-25

    The 2.5D model recently proposed by Li et al. (Li, T., Benyahia, S., Dietiker, J., Musser, J., and Sun, X., 2015. A 2.5D computational method to simulate cylindrical fluidized beds. Chemical Engineering Science. 123, 236-246.) was validated for two cylindrical gas-solids bubbling fluidized bed systems. Different types of particles tested under various flow conditions were simulated using the traditional 2D model and the 2.5D model. Detailed comparison against the experimental measurements on solid concentration and velocity were conducted. Comparing to the traditional Cartesian 2D flow simulation, the 2.5D model yielded better agreement with the experimental data especially for the solidmore » velocity prediction in the column wall region.« less

  6. A study of refraction of a cylindrical laser beam in stratified liquid

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rinkevichyus, B. S.; Sapronov, M. V.; Pavlov, I. N.

    2016-09-01

    Refraction of a cylindrical laser beam in a transition layer at the interface of two liquids with different optical characteristics is studied theoretically and experimentally. A theoretical basis for calculations of the beam trajectory in the transition layer of stratified liquid is given. Two- and three-dimensional images (2D and 3D refractograms) of a cylindrical laser beam inside and outside the media are obtained on the basis of a tangential model of the refractive index profile. The influence of the parameters of the laser beam and media on the appearance of refractograms is studied and the optimal experimental conditions are selected with the use of computer simulation. A scheme of the setup for recording digital 2D refractogram and experimental results are presented. Algorithms for digitizing experimental images and for their comparison with calculated refractograms to determine the refractive index profile in the transition layer based on the tangential model are developed.

  7. Subthreshold swing minimization of cylindrical tunnel FET using binary metal alloy gate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dash, Sidhartha; Sahoo, Girija Shankar; Mishra, Guru Prasad

    2016-03-01

    In this work, we have developed a two-dimensional (2-D) analytical drain current model for cylindrical-gate tunnel FET structure with linearly graded binary metal alloy gate. The surface potential of the proposed model is determined using the solution of 2-D Poisson's equation with suitable boundary conditions. Further it paves way for the calculation of other analog parameters such as shortest tunneling distance, drain current, threshold voltage and subthreshold swing (SS). The introduction of linearly modulated work-function of binary alloy optimizes the subthreshold swing by ∼10 mV/decade as compared to conventional cylindrical-gate tunnel FET devices without degrading the drain current and threshold voltage performance. Also the present model shows the reduction in SS with down-scaling of gate oxide thickness and silicon pillar diameter. The analytical results are found to be synonymous with the results of Synopsys TCAD device simulator.

  8. Turbulence in the cylindrical slab

    SciTech Connect

    Gentle, K. W.; Rowan, W. L.; Williams, C. B.; Brookman, M. W.

    2014-09-15

    The cylindrical slab was the first and simplest model of intrinsically unstable microturbulence. The Helimak is an experimental realization of this model. Although finite, it is sufficiently large to escape boundary effects, with dimensionless parameters similar to those of a tokamak edge or scrape off layer. The essential drive is interchange-like, a pressure gradient with unfavorable magnetic curvature, leading to a non-linearly saturated state of large-amplitude turbulence, Δn{sub rms}/n ∼ 0.5. The nonlinear processes governing this saturation are unique, unlike any of those posited for the much weaker turbulence typical of confined plasma, e.g., in a tokamak. Neither linear stability theory, quasi-linear theory, zonal flows, nor flow shear stabilization is consistent with the observations. The mechanisms determining the non-linearly saturated state constitute an important challenge to our understanding of strongly nonlinear systems.

  9. Interpolation via symmetric exponential functions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bezubik, Agata; Pošta, Severin

    2013-11-01

    Complex valued functions on the Euclidean space Bbb Rn, symmetric or antisymmetric with respect to the permutation group Sn, are often dealt with in various branches of physics, such as quantum theory or theory of integrable systems. One often needs to approximate such functions with series consisting of various special functions which satisfy nice properties. Questions of uniform convergence of such approximations are crucial for applications. In this article a family of special functions called the symmetric exponential functions are used for such approximation and the uniform convergence of their sums is considered.

  10. 2-D or not 2-D, that is the question: A Northern California test

    SciTech Connect

    Mayeda, K; Malagnini, L; Phillips, W S; Walter, W R; Dreger, D

    2005-06-06

    Reliable estimates of the seismic source spectrum are necessary for accurate magnitude, yield, and energy estimation. In particular, how seismic radiated energy scales with increasing earthquake size has been the focus of recent debate within the community and has direct implications on earthquake source physics studies as well as hazard mitigation. The 1-D coda methodology of Mayeda et al. has provided the lowest variance estimate of the source spectrum when compared against traditional approaches that use direct S-waves, thus making it ideal for networks that have sparse station distribution. The 1-D coda methodology has been mostly confined to regions of approximately uniform complexity. For larger, more geophysically complicated regions, 2-D path corrections may be required. The complicated tectonics of the northern California region coupled with high quality broadband seismic data provides for an ideal ''apples-to-apples'' test of 1-D and 2-D path assumptions on direct waves and their coda. Using the same station and event distribution, we compared 1-D and 2-D path corrections and observed the following results: (1) 1-D coda results reduced the amplitude variance relative to direct S-waves by roughly a factor of 8 (800%); (2) Applying a 2-D correction to the coda resulted in up to 40% variance reduction from the 1-D coda results; (3) 2-D direct S-wave results, though better than 1-D direct waves, were significantly worse than the 1-D coda. We found that coda-based moment-rate source spectra derived from the 2-D approach were essentially identical to those from the 1-D approach for frequencies less than {approx}0.7-Hz, however for the high frequencies (0.7{le} f {le} 8.0-Hz), the 2-D approach resulted in inter-station scatter that was generally 10-30% smaller. For complex regions where data are plentiful, a 2-D approach can significantly improve upon the simple 1-D assumption. In regions where only 1-D coda correction is available it is still preferable over 2

  11. High speed laser shadowgraphy for electromagnetically driven cylindrical implosions

    SciTech Connect

    Rodriguez, G.; Roberts, J. P.; Echave, J. A.; Taylor, A. J.

    2001-08-01

    A laser shadowgraphy system for high-speed imaging of a convergent cylindrical shockwave generated by an electromagnetically driven solid density liner implosion in Lucite is described. The laser shadowgraphy system utilizes an advanced high-energy, long-pulse, frequency-doubled Nd:YAG laser for target illumination and a fast framing camera for multiple frame imaging of the shockwave as it radially converges and transits the Lucite. The time window resolution is 10 ns as determined by the fastest exposure time capable with the camera. Two on-axis symmetric implosions and two off-axis asymmetric implosion experiments were fielded at the Air Force Research Laboratory's Shiva Star 4.2 MJ capacitor bank z-pinch facility. For each experimental shot, the shadowgraphy system captured several frames of shadowgraph images as the shockwave moved through the Lucite. Analysis of the shockwave shadowgraph image shapes is done by fitting each shadowgraph image to a generic elliptical fit function and plotting the resultant two-dimensional image fits for comparison. For the on-axis symmetric implosion shots, a radial trajectory plot is extracted and a radial shock velocity is calculated. The Lucite shock speed is seen to increase monotonically from an initial velocity of 7.9 mm/{mu}s to a near final velocity of 13.4 mm/{mu}s as convergence effects dominate the shock speed calculated at small radii.

  12. Bending Boundary Layers in Laminated-Composite Circular Cylindrical Shells

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nemeth, Michael P.; Smeltzer, Stanley S., III

    2000-01-01

    An analytical, parametric study of the attenuation of bending boundary layers or edge effects in balanced and unbalanced, symmetrically and unsymmetrically laminated thin cylindrical shells is presented for nine contemporary material systems. The analysis is based on the linear Sanders-Koiter shell equations and specializations to the Love-Kirchhoff shell equations and Donnell's equations are included. Two nondimensional parameters are identified that characterize and quantify the effects of laminate orthotropy and laminate anisotropy on the bending boundary-layer decay length in a very general and encompassing manner. A substantial number of structural design technology results are presented for a wide range of laminated-composite cylinders. For all the laminate constructions considered, the results show that the differences between results that were obtained with the Sanders-Koiter shell equations, the Love-Kirchhoff shell equations, and Donnell's equations are negligible. The results also show that the effect of anisotropy in the form of coupling between pure bending and twisting has a negligible effect on the size of the bending boundary-layer decay length of the balanced, symmetrically laminated cylinders considered. Moreover, the results show that coupling between the various types of shell anisotropies has a negligible effect on the calculation of the bending boundary-layer decay length in most cases. The results also show that in some cases neglecting the shell anisotropy results in underestimating the bending boundary-layer decay length and in other cases it results in an overestimation.

  13. Bending Boundary Layers in Laminated-Composite Circular Cylindrical Shells

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nemeth, Michael P.; Smeltzer, Stanley S., III

    2000-01-01

    A study of the attenuation of bending boundary layers in balanced and unbalanced, symmetrically and unsymmetrically laminated cylindrical shells is presented for nine contemporary material systems. The analysis is based on the linear Sanders-Koiter shell equations and specializations to the Love-Kirchhoff shell equations and Donnell's equations are included. Two nondimensional parameters are identified that characterize the effects of laminate orthotropy and anisotropy on the bending boundary-layer decay length in a very general manner. A substantial number of structural design technology results are presented for a wide range of laminated-composite cylinders. For all laminates considered, the results show that the differences between results obtained with the Sanders-Koiter shell equations, the Love-Kirchhoff shell equations, and Donnell's equations are negligible. The results also show that the effect of anisotropy in the form of coupling between pure bending and twisting has a negligible effect on the size of the bending boundary-layer decay length of the balanced, symmetrically laminated cylinders considered. Moreover, the results show that coupling between the various types of shell anisotropies has a negligible effect on the calculation of the bending boundary-layer decay length in most cases. The results also show that, in some cases, neglecting the shell anisotropy results in underestimating the bending boundary-layer decay length and, in other cases, results in an overestimation.

  14. Experimental results for absolute cylindrical wavefront testing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reardon, Patrick J.; Alatawi, Ayshah

    2014-09-01

    Applications for Cylindrical and near-cylindrical surfaces are ever-increasing. However, fabrication of high quality cylindrical surfaces is limited by the difficulty of accurate and affordable metrology. Absolute testing of such surfaces represents a challenge to the optical testing community as cylindrical reference wavefronts are difficult to produce. In this paper, preliminary results for a new method of absolute testing of cylindrical wavefronts are presented. The method is based on the merging of the random ball test method with the fiber optic reference test. The random ball test assumes a large number of interferograms of a good quality sphere with errors that are statistically distributed such that the average of the errors goes to zero. The fiber optic reference test utilizes a specially processed optical fiber to provide a clean high quality reference wave from an incident line focus from the cylindrical wave under test. By taking measurements at different rotation and translations of the fiber, an analogous procedure can be employed to determine the quality of the converging cylindrical wavefront with high accuracy. This paper presents and discusses the results of recent tests of this method using a null optic formed by a COTS cylindrical lens and a free-form polished corrector element.

  15. Asymmetric Bulkheads for Cylindrical Pressure Vessels

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ford, Donald B.

    2007-01-01

    Asymmetric bulkheads are proposed for the ends of vertically oriented cylindrical pressure vessels. These bulkheads, which would feature both convex and concave contours, would offer advantages over purely convex, purely concave, and flat bulkheads (see figure). Intended originally to be applied to large tanks that hold propellant liquids for launching spacecraft, the asymmetric-bulkhead concept may also be attractive for terrestrial pressure vessels for which there are requirements to maximize volumetric and mass efficiencies. A description of the relative advantages and disadvantages of prior symmetric bulkhead configurations is prerequisite to understanding the advantages of the proposed asymmetric configuration: In order to obtain adequate strength, flat bulkheads must be made thicker, relative to concave and convex bulkheads; the difference in thickness is such that, other things being equal, pressure vessels with flat bulkheads must be made heavier than ones with concave or convex bulkheads. Convex bulkhead designs increase overall tank lengths, thereby necessitating additional supporting structure for keeping tanks vertical. Concave bulkhead configurations increase tank lengths and detract from volumetric efficiency, even though they do not necessitate additional supporting structure. The shape of a bulkhead affects the proportion of residual fluid in a tank that is, the portion of fluid that unavoidably remains in the tank during outflow and hence cannot be used. In this regard, a flat bulkhead is disadvantageous in two respects: (1) It lacks a single low point for optimum placement of an outlet and (2) a vortex that forms at the outlet during outflow prevents a relatively large amount of fluid from leaving the tank. A concave bulkhead also lacks a single low point for optimum placement of an outlet. Like purely concave and purely convex bulkhead configurations, the proposed asymmetric bulkhead configurations would be more mass-efficient than is the flat

  16. Modeling the drain current and its equation parameters for lightly doped symmetrical double-gate MOSFETs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bhartia, Mini; Chatterjee, Arun Kumar

    2015-04-01

    A 2D model for the potential distribution in silicon film is derived for a symmetrical double gate MOSFET in weak inversion. This 2D potential distribution model is used to analytically derive an expression for the subthreshold slope and threshold voltage. A drain current model for lightly doped symmetrical DG MOSFETs is then presented by considering weak and strong inversion regions including short channel effects, series source to drain resistance and channel length modulation parameters. These derived models are compared with the simulation results of the SILVACO (Atlas) tool for different channel lengths and silicon film thicknesses. Lastly, the effect of the fixed oxide charge on the drain current model has been studied through simulation. It is observed that the obtained analytical models of symmetrical double gate MOSFETs are in good agreement with the simulated results for a channel length to silicon film thickness ratio greater than or equal to 2.

  17. Characteristics of 2D magnetic field sensor based on magnetic sensitivity diodes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, Xiaofeng; Yang, Xianghong; Yu, Yang; Wu, Tong; Wen, Dianzhong

    2015-04-01

    A two-dimensional (2D) magnetic field sensor is proposed in this paper. It contains two Wheatstone bridges composed of four magnetic sensitivity diodes(MSDs)with similar characteristics and four loading resistances. In order to realize the axial symmetric distribution of four MSDs, two MSDs with opposite magnetic sensitive directions were located along the x and -x axes, and two with opposite magnetic sensitive directions were located along the y and -y axes. The experimental results indicate that when VDD = 5.0 V, the magnetic sensitivities of the 2D magnetic sensor can reach SxB = 544 mV/T and SyB = 498 mV/T in the x and y directions, respectively. Consequently, it is possible to measure the two-dimensional magnetic field.

  18. Canard configured aircraft with 2-D nozzle

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Child, R. D.; Henderson, W. P.

    1978-01-01

    A closely-coupled canard fighter with vectorable two-dimensional nozzle was designed for enhanced transonic maneuvering. The HiMAT maneuver goal of a sustained 8g turn at a free-stream Mach number of 0.9 and 30,000 feet was the primary design consideration. The aerodynamic design process was initiated with a linear theory optimization minimizing the zero percent suction drag including jet effects and refined with three-dimensional nonlinear potential flow techniques. Allowances were made for mutual interference and viscous effects. The design process to arrive at the resultant configuration is described, and the design of a powered 2-D nozzle model to be tested in the LRC 16-foot Propulsion Wind Tunnel is shown.

  19. 2D Electrostatic Actuation of Microshutter Arrays

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Burns, Devin E.; Oh, Lance H.; Li, Mary J.; Kelly, Daniel P.; Kutyrev, Alexander S.; Moseley, Samuel H.

    2015-01-01

    Electrostatically actuated microshutter arrays consisting of rotational microshutters (shutters that rotate about a torsion bar) were designed and fabricated through the use of models and experiments. Design iterations focused on minimizing the torsional stiffness of the microshutters, while maintaining their structural integrity. Mechanical and electromechanical test systems were constructed to measure the static and dynamic behavior of the microshutters. The torsional stiffness was reduced by a factor of four over initial designs without sacrificing durability. Analysis of the resonant behavior of the microshutters demonstrates that the first resonant mode is a torsional mode occurring around 3000 Hz. At low vacuum pressures, this resonant mode can be used to significantly reduce the drive voltage necessary for actuation requiring as little as 25V. 2D electrostatic latching and addressing was demonstrated using both a resonant and pulsed addressing scheme.

  20. 2D Electrostatic Actuation of Microshutter Arrays

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Burns, Devin E.; Oh, Lance H.; Li, Mary J.; Jones, Justin S.; Kelly, Daniel P.; Zheng, Yun; Kutyrev, Alexander S.; Moseley, Samuel H.

    2015-01-01

    An electrostatically actuated microshutter array consisting of rotational microshutters (shutters that rotate about a torsion bar) were designed and fabricated through the use of models and experiments. Design iterations focused on minimizing the torsional stiffness of the microshutters, while maintaining their structural integrity. Mechanical and electromechanical test systems were constructed to measure the static and dynamic behavior of the microshutters. The torsional stiffness was reduced by a factor of four over initial designs without sacrificing durability. Analysis of the resonant behavior of the microshutter arrays demonstrates that the first resonant mode is a torsional mode occurring around 3000 Hz. At low vacuum pressures, this resonant mode can be used to significantly reduce the drive voltage necessary for actuation requiring as little as 25V. 2D electrostatic latching and addressing was demonstrated using both a resonant and pulsed addressing scheme.

  1. 2D quantum gravity from quantum entanglement.

    PubMed

    Gliozzi, F

    2011-01-21

    In quantum systems with many degrees of freedom the replica method is a useful tool to study the entanglement of arbitrary spatial regions. We apply it in a way that allows them to backreact. As a consequence, they become dynamical subsystems whose position, form, and extension are determined by their interaction with the whole system. We analyze, in particular, quantum spin chains described at criticality by a conformal field theory. Its coupling to the Gibbs' ensemble of all possible subsystems is relevant and drives the system into a new fixed point which is argued to be that of the 2D quantum gravity coupled to this system. Numerical experiments on the critical Ising model show that the new critical exponents agree with those predicted by the formula of Knizhnik, Polyakov, and Zamolodchikov.

  2. Graphene suspensions for 2D printing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Soots, R. A.; Yakimchuk, E. A.; Nebogatikova, N. A.; Kotin, I. A.; Antonova, I. V.

    2016-04-01

    It is shown that, by processing a graphite suspension in ethanol or water by ultrasound and centrifuging, it is possible to obtain particles with thicknesses within 1-6 nm and, in the most interesting cases, 1-1.5 nm. Analogous treatment of a graphite suspension in organic solvent yields eventually thicker particles (up to 6-10 nm thick) even upon long-term treatment. Using the proposed ink based on graphene and aqueous ethanol with ethylcellulose and terpineol additives for 2D printing, thin (~5 nm thick) films with sheet resistance upon annealing ~30 MΩ/□ were obtained. With the ink based on aqueous graphene suspension, the sheet resistance was ~5-12 kΩ/□ for 6- to 15-nm-thick layers with a carrier mobility of ~30-50 cm2/(V s).

  3. Metrology for graphene and 2D materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pollard, Andrew J.

    2016-09-01

    The application of graphene, a one atom-thick honeycomb lattice of carbon atoms with superlative properties, such as electrical conductivity, thermal conductivity and strength, has already shown that it can be used to benefit metrology itself as a new quantum standard for resistance. However, there are many application areas where graphene and other 2D materials, such as molybdenum disulphide (MoS2) and hexagonal boron nitride (h-BN), may be disruptive, areas such as flexible electronics, nanocomposites, sensing and energy storage. Applying metrology to the area of graphene is now critical to enable the new, emerging global graphene commercial world and bridge the gap between academia and industry. Measurement capabilities and expertise in a wide range of scientific areas are required to address this challenge. The combined and complementary approach of varied characterisation methods for structural, chemical, electrical and other properties, will allow the real-world issues of commercialising graphene and other 2D materials to be addressed. Here, examples of metrology challenges that have been overcome through a multi-technique or new approach are discussed. Firstly, the structural characterisation of defects in both graphene and MoS2 via Raman spectroscopy is described, and how nanoscale mapping of vacancy defects in graphene is also possible using tip-enhanced Raman spectroscopy (TERS). Furthermore, the chemical characterisation and removal of polymer residue on chemical vapour deposition (CVD) grown graphene via secondary ion mass spectrometry (SIMS) is detailed, as well as the chemical characterisation of iron films used to grow large domain single-layer h-BN through CVD growth, revealing how contamination of the substrate itself plays a role in the resulting h-BN layer. In addition, the role of international standardisation in this area is described, outlining the current work ongoing in both the International Organization of Standardization (ISO) and the

  4. Prior Distributions on Symmetric Groups

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gupta, Jayanti; Damien, Paul

    2005-01-01

    Fully and partially ranked data arise in a variety of contexts. From a Bayesian perspective, attention has focused on distance-based models; in particular, the Mallows model and extensions thereof. In this paper, a class of prior distributions, the "Binary Tree," is developed on the symmetric group. The attractive features of the class are: it…

  5. CYP2D6*36 gene arrangements within the cyp2d6 locus: association of CYP2D6*36 with poor metabolizer status.

    PubMed

    Gaedigk, Andrea; Bradford, L Dianne; Alander, Sarah W; Leeder, J Steven

    2006-04-01

    Unexplained cases of CYP2D6 genotype/phenotype discordance continue to be discovered. In previous studies, several African Americans with a poor metabolizer phenotype carried the reduced function CYP2D6*10 allele in combination with a nonfunctional allele. We pursued the possibility that these alleles harbor either a known sequence variation (i.e., CYP2D6*36 carrying a gene conversion in exon 9 along the CYP2D6*10-defining 100C>T single-nucleotide polymorphism) or novel sequences variation(s). Discordant cases were evaluated by long-range polymerase chain reaction (PCR) to test for gene rearrangement events, and a 6.6-kilobase pair PCR product encompassing the CYP2D6 gene was cloned and entirely sequenced. Thereafter, allele frequencies were determined in different study populations comprising whites, African Americans, and Asians. Analyses covering the CYP2D7 to 2D6 gene region established that CYP2D6*36 did not only exist as a gene duplication (CYP2D6*36x2) or in tandem with *10 (CYP2D6*36+*10), as previously reported, but also by itself. This "single" CYP2D6*36 allele was found in nine African Americans and one Asian, but was absent in the whites tested. Ultimately, the presence of CYP2D6*36 resolved genotype/phenotype discordance in three cases. We also discovered an exon 9 conversion-positive CYP2D6*4 gene in a duplication arrangement (CYP2D6*4Nx2) and a CYP2D6*4 allele lacking 100C>T (CYP2D6*4M) in two white subjects. The discovery of an allele that carries only one CYP2D6*36 gene copy provides unequivocal evidence that both CYP2D6*36 and *36x2 are associated with a poor metabolizer phenotype. Given a combined frequency of between 0.5 and 3% in African Americans and Asians, genotyping for CYP2D6*36 should improve the accuracy of genotype-based phenotype prediction in these populations.

  6. Fast-electron transport in cylindrically laser-compressed matter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Perez, F.; Koenig, M.; Batani, D.; Baton, S. D.; Beg, F. N.; Benedetti, C.; Brambrink, E.; Chawla, S.; Dorchies, F.; Fourment, C.; Galimberti, M.; Gizzi, L. A.; Heathcote, R.; Higginson, D. P.; Hulin, S.; Jafer, R.; Koester, P.; Labate, L.; Lancaster, K.; Mac Kinnon, A. J.; McPhee, A. G.; Nazarov, W.; Nicolai, P.; Pasley, J.; Ravasio, A.; Richetta, M.; Santos, J. J.; Sgattoni, A.; Spindloe, C.; Vauzour, B.; Volpe, L.

    2009-12-01

    Experimental and theoretical results of relativistic electron transport in cylindrically compressed matter are presented. This experiment, which is a part of the HiPER roadmap, was achieved on the VULCAN laser facility (UK) using four long pulses beams (~4 × 50 J, 1 ns, at 0.53 µm) to compress a hollow plastic cylinder filled with plastic foam of three different densities (0.1, 0.3 and 1 g cm-3). 2D simulations predict a density of 2-5 g cm-3 and a plasma temperature up to 100 eV at maximum compression. A short pulse (10 ps, 160 J) beam generated fast electrons that propagate through the compressed matter by irradiating a nickel foil at an intensity of 5 × 1018 W cm-2. X-ray spectrometer and imagers were implemented in order to estimate the compressed plasma conditions and to infer the hot electron characteristics. Results are discussed and compared with simulations.

  7. Cylindrical short-pulse Child-Langmuir law

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Koh, Wee Shing

    2005-10-01

    Laser-driven short pulses have been prevalently used in photo-injectors to produce extremely high current densities. If the pulse length of the short-pulse current is less than the transit time across the gap, the space-charge-limiting (SCL) current density of the electron beam exceeds that of the classical long-pulse limit as given by the Child-Langmuir (CL) Law. The 1D short-pulse CL law for a planar electrode has been derived with verification from PIC simulation [1]. The extension to the 2D and 3D models of the short-pulse CL law has also been presented recently [2]. In the long pulse limit, the 2D and 3D CL laws for both planar and cylindrical diodes have also been developed [3]. In this paper, we will present the 1D and 2D short-pulse CL law in the coaxial cylinder configuration for both convergent and divergent flows. The analytical results will be compared with 2D PIC simulation results. [1] 'Ag'ust Valfells et. al. , ``Effects of pulse-length and emitter area in virtual cathode formation in electron guns'', Phys. Plasmas 9, 2377 (2002). [2] W. S. Koh and L. K. Ang, "Two-dimensional Short-Pulse Chid-Langmuir Law", The 32nd International Conference on Plasma Science (ICOPS), N05CH37707, 3P38, pp. 298 (2005).[3] W. S. Koh, et. al., Three-dimensional Child-Langmuir law for hot electron emission, Phys. Plasmas 12, 053107 (2005). Email: elkang@ntu.edu.sg

  8. Overtone spectroscopy of H2D+ and D2H+ using laser induced reactions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Asvany, Oskar; Hugo, Edouard; Müller, Frank; Kühnemann, Frank; Schiller, Stephan; Tennyson, Jonathan; Schlemmer, Stephan

    2007-10-01

    The method of laser induced reaction is used to obtain high-resolution IR spectra of H2D+ and D2H+ in collision with n-H2 at a nominal temperature of 17K. For this purpose three cw-laser systems have been coupled to a 22-pole ion trap apparatus, two commercial diode laser systems in the ranges of 6100-6600cm-1 and 6760-7300cm-1, respectively, and a high-power optical parametric oscillator tunable in the range of 2600-3200cm-1. In total, 27 new overtone and combination transitions have been detected for H2D + and D2H+, as well as a weak line in the ν1 vibrational band of H2D+ (220←101) at 3164.118cm-1. The line positions are compared to high accuracy ab initio calculations, showing small but mode-dependent differences, being largest for three vibrational quanta in the ν2 symmetric bending of H2D+. Within the experimental accuracy, the relative values of the ab initio predicted Einstein B coefficients are confirmed.

  9. A new inversion method for (T2, D) 2D NMR logging and fluid typing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tan, Maojin; Zou, Youlong; Zhou, Cancan

    2013-02-01

    One-dimensional nuclear magnetic resonance (1D NMR) logging technology has some significant limitations in fluid typing. However, not only can two-dimensional nuclear magnetic resonance (2D NMR) provide some accurate porosity parameters, but it can also identify fluids more accurately than 1D NMR. In this paper, based on the relaxation mechanism of (T2, D) 2D NMR in a gradient magnetic field, a hybrid inversion method that combines least-squares-based QR decomposition (LSQR) and truncated singular value decomposition (TSVD) is examined in the 2D NMR inversion of various fluid models. The forward modeling and inversion tests are performed in detail with different acquisition parameters, such as magnetic field gradients (G) and echo spacing (TE) groups. The simulated results are discussed and described in detail, the influence of the above-mentioned observation parameters on the inversion accuracy is investigated and analyzed, and the observation parameters in multi-TE activation are optimized. Furthermore, the hybrid inversion can be applied to quantitatively determine the fluid saturation. To study the effects of noise level on the hybrid method and inversion results, the numerical simulation experiments are performed using different signal-to-noise-ratios (SNRs), and the effect of different SNRs on fluid typing using three fluid models are discussed and analyzed in detail.

  10. Rotational statistics in dense granular flows of smooth cylindrical particles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Olafsen, Jeffrey; Jantzi, Jacob

    2011-03-01

    We report the results of an experiment to investigate the dissipation in the rotational degree of freedom for smooth cylindrical particles in a dense, driven granular flow. The flow is studied in a rotating drum of radius R = 30 cm for particles of radius r = 0.635 cm while the cell is rotated at speeds between 0.25 and 0.75 Hz. The 2D geometry of the experimental design allows for the measurement of two translational degrees of freedom as well as the rotation of the disks within the driven flow. The rotational velocity statistics demonstrate non-Gaussian behavior as well as a significant amount of energy being dissipated within the flow via the tangential friction between the particles. The results of this experiment are significant in that many driven granular experiments use smooth cylindrical or spherical particles to investigate granular dynamics, but the contribution from the rotational degrees of freedom are often unmeasured. A novel imaging technique is used to extract both the translational and rotational velocity statistics to a high degree of precision in the entire cell during the experiment.

  11. Growing yeast into cylindrical colonies.

    PubMed

    Vulin, Clément; Di Meglio, Jean-Marc; Lindner, Ariel B; Daerr, Adrian; Murray, Andrew; Hersen, Pascal

    2014-05-20

    Microorganisms often form complex multicellular assemblies such as biofilms and colonies. Understanding the interplay between assembly expansion, metabolic yield, and nutrient diffusion within a freely growing colony remains a challenge. Most available data on microorganisms are from planktonic cultures, due to the lack of experimental tools to control the growth of multicellular assemblies. Here, we propose a method to constrain the growth of yeast colonies into simple geometric shapes such as cylinders. To this end, we designed a simple, versatile culture system to control the location of nutrient delivery below a growing colony. Under such culture conditions, yeast colonies grow vertically and only at the locations where nutrients are delivered. Colonies increase in height at a steady growth rate that is inversely proportional to the cylinder radius. We show that the vertical growth rate of cylindrical colonies is not defined by the single-cell division rate, but rather by the colony metabolic yield. This contrasts with cells in liquid culture, in which the single-cell division rate is the only parameter that defines the population growth rate. This method also provides a direct, simple method to estimate the metabolic yield of a colony. Our study further demonstrates the importance of the shape of colonies on setting their expansion. We anticipate that our approach will be a starting point for elaborate studies of the population dynamics, evolution, and ecology of microbial colonies in complex landscapes. PMID:24853750

  12. Radiofrequency Spectroscopy and Thermodynamics of Fermi Gases in the 2D to Quasi-2D Dimensional Crossover

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cheng, Chingyun; Kangara, Jayampathi; Arakelyan, Ilya; Thomas, John

    2016-05-01

    We tune the dimensionality of a strongly interacting degenerate 6 Li Fermi gas from 2D to quasi-2D, by adjusting the radial confinement of pancake-shaped clouds to control the radial chemical potential. In the 2D regime with weak radial confinement, the measured pair binding energies are in agreement with 2D-BCS mean field theory, which predicts dimer pairing energies in the many-body regime. In the qausi-2D regime obtained with increased radial confinement, the measured pairing energy deviates significantly from 2D-BCS theory. In contrast to the pairing energy, the measured radii of the cloud profiles are not fit by 2D-BCS theory in either the 2D or quasi-2D regimes, but are fit in both regimes by a beyond mean field polaron-model of the free energy. Supported by DOE, ARO, NSF, and AFOSR.

  13. Competing coexisting phases in 2D water

    PubMed Central

    Zanotti, Jean-Marc; Judeinstein, Patrick; Dalla-Bernardina, Simona; Creff, Gaëlle; Brubach, Jean-Blaise; Roy, Pascale; Bonetti, Marco; Ollivier, Jacques; Sakellariou, Dimitrios; Bellissent-Funel, Marie-Claire

    2016-01-01

    The properties of bulk water come from a delicate balance of interactions on length scales encompassing several orders of magnitudes: i) the Hydrogen Bond (HBond) at the molecular scale and ii) the extension of this HBond network up to the macroscopic level. Here, we address the physics of water when the three dimensional extension of the HBond network is frustrated, so that the water molecules are forced to organize in only two dimensions. We account for the large scale fluctuating HBond network by an analytical mean-field percolation model. This approach provides a coherent interpretation of the different events experimentally (calorimetry, neutron, NMR, near and far infra-red spectroscopies) detected in interfacial water at 160, 220 and 250 K. Starting from an amorphous state of water at low temperature, these transitions are respectively interpreted as the onset of creation of transient low density patches of 4-HBonded molecules at 160 K, the percolation of these domains at 220 K and finally the total invasion of the surface by them at 250 K. The source of this surprising behaviour in 2D is the frustration of the natural bulk tetrahedral local geometry and the underlying very significant increase in entropy of the interfacial water molecules. PMID:27185018

  14. Phase Engineering of 2D Tin Sulfides.

    PubMed

    Mutlu, Zafer; Wu, Ryan J; Wickramaratne, Darshana; Shahrezaei, Sina; Liu, Chueh; Temiz, Selcuk; Patalano, Andrew; Ozkan, Mihrimah; Lake, Roger K; Mkhoyan, K A; Ozkan, Cengiz S

    2016-06-01

    Tin sulfides can exist in a variety of phases and polytypes due to the different oxidation states of Sn. A subset of these phases and polytypes take the form of layered 2D structures that give rise to a wide host of electronic and optical properties. Hence, achieving control over the phase, polytype, and thickness of tin sulfides is necessary to utilize this wide range of properties exhibited by the compound. This study reports on phase-selective growth of both hexagonal tin (IV) sulfide SnS2 and orthorhombic tin (II) sulfide SnS crystals with diameters of over tens of microns on SiO2 substrates through atmospheric pressure vapor-phase method in a conventional horizontal quartz tube furnace with SnO2 and S powders as the source materials. Detailed characterization of each phase of tin sulfide crystals is performed using various microscopy and spectroscopy methods, and the results are corroborated by ab initio density functional theory calculations. PMID:27099950

  15. Phase Engineering of 2D Tin Sulfides.

    PubMed

    Mutlu, Zafer; Wu, Ryan J; Wickramaratne, Darshana; Shahrezaei, Sina; Liu, Chueh; Temiz, Selcuk; Patalano, Andrew; Ozkan, Mihrimah; Lake, Roger K; Mkhoyan, K A; Ozkan, Cengiz S

    2016-06-01

    Tin sulfides can exist in a variety of phases and polytypes due to the different oxidation states of Sn. A subset of these phases and polytypes take the form of layered 2D structures that give rise to a wide host of electronic and optical properties. Hence, achieving control over the phase, polytype, and thickness of tin sulfides is necessary to utilize this wide range of properties exhibited by the compound. This study reports on phase-selective growth of both hexagonal tin (IV) sulfide SnS2 and orthorhombic tin (II) sulfide SnS crystals with diameters of over tens of microns on SiO2 substrates through atmospheric pressure vapor-phase method in a conventional horizontal quartz tube furnace with SnO2 and S powders as the source materials. Detailed characterization of each phase of tin sulfide crystals is performed using various microscopy and spectroscopy methods, and the results are corroborated by ab initio density functional theory calculations.

  16. Competing coexisting phases in 2D water

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zanotti, Jean-Marc; Judeinstein, Patrick; Dalla-Bernardina, Simona; Creff, Gaëlle; Brubach, Jean-Blaise; Roy, Pascale; Bonetti, Marco; Ollivier, Jacques; Sakellariou, Dimitrios; Bellissent-Funel, Marie-Claire

    2016-05-01

    The properties of bulk water come from a delicate balance of interactions on length scales encompassing several orders of magnitudes: i) the Hydrogen Bond (HBond) at the molecular scale and ii) the extension of this HBond network up to the macroscopic level. Here, we address the physics of water when the three dimensional extension of the HBond network is frustrated, so that the water molecules are forced to organize in only two dimensions. We account for the large scale fluctuating HBond network by an analytical mean-field percolation model. This approach provides a coherent interpretation of the different events experimentally (calorimetry, neutron, NMR, near and far infra-red spectroscopies) detected in interfacial water at 160, 220 and 250 K. Starting from an amorphous state of water at low temperature, these transitions are respectively interpreted as the onset of creation of transient low density patches of 4-HBonded molecules at 160 K, the percolation of these domains at 220 K and finally the total invasion of the surface by them at 250 K. The source of this surprising behaviour in 2D is the frustration of the natural bulk tetrahedral local geometry and the underlying very significant increase in entropy of the interfacial water molecules.

  17. Cracked shells under skew-symmetric loading. [Reissner theory

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Delale, F.

    1981-01-01

    The general problem of a shell containing a through crack in one of the principal planes of curvature and under general skew-symmetric loading is considered. By employing a Reissner type shell theory which takes into account the effect of transverse shear strains, all boundary conditions on the crack surfaces are satisfied separately. Consequently, unlike those obtained from the classical shell theory, the angular distributions of the stress components around the crack tips are shown to be identical to the distributions obtained from the plane and anti-plane elasticity solutions. Results are given for axially and circumferentially cracked cylindrical shells, spherical shells, and toroidal shells under uniform in-plane shearing, out of plane shearing, and torsion. The problem is formulated for specially orthostropic materials, therefore, the effect of orthotropy on the results is also studied.

  18. Alfvén modes in the Madison Symmetric Torus

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, M.; Breizman, B. N.; Zheng, L. J.; Lin, L.; Ding, W. X.; Brower, D. L.

    2014-08-01

    This work presents a theoretical and computational analysis of core-localized energetic particle driven modes observed near the magnetic axis in the Madison Symmetric Torus [L. Lin, W. X. Ding, D. L. Brower et al., Phys. Plasmas 20, 030701 (2013)]. Using measured safety factor and plasma pressure profiles as input, the linear ideal MHD code Adaptive EiGenfunction Independent Solution (AEGIS) [L. J. Zheng and M. Kotschenreuther, J. Comput. Phys. 211, 748 (2006)] reveals Alfvénic modes close to the measured frequencies. The AEGIS results together with a reduced analytical model demonstrate that the modes are essentially "cylindrical" and dominated by a single poloidal component (m = 1). The modes are localized at the plasma core where the magnetic shear is weak and continuum damping is minimal. Detailed analysis establishes constraints on the safety factor and plasma pressure, under which two modes can exist simultaneously.

  19. Symmetric States Requiring System Asymmetry.

    PubMed

    Nishikawa, Takashi; Motter, Adilson E

    2016-09-01

    Spontaneous synchronization has long served as a paradigm for behavioral uniformity that can emerge from interactions in complex systems. When the interacting entities are identical and their coupling patterns are also identical, the complete synchronization of the entire network is the state inheriting the system symmetry. As in other systems subject to symmetry breaking, such symmetric states are not always stable. Here, we report on the discovery of the converse of symmetry breaking-the scenario in which complete synchronization is not stable for identically coupled identical oscillators but becomes stable when, and only when, the oscillator parameters are judiciously tuned to nonidentical values, thereby breaking the system symmetry to preserve the state symmetry. Aside from demonstrating that diversity can facilitate and even be required for uniformity and consensus, this suggests a mechanism for convergent forms of pattern formation in which initially asymmetric patterns evolve into symmetric ones. PMID:27661690

  20. Symmetric States Requiring System Asymmetry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nishikawa, Takashi; Motter, Adilson E.

    2016-09-01

    Spontaneous synchronization has long served as a paradigm for behavioral uniformity that can emerge from interactions in complex systems. When the interacting entities are identical and their coupling patterns are also identical, the complete synchronization of the entire network is the state inheriting the system symmetry. As in other systems subject to symmetry breaking, such symmetric states are not always stable. Here, we report on the discovery of the converse of symmetry breaking—the scenario in which complete synchronization is not stable for identically coupled identical oscillators but becomes stable when, and only when, the oscillator parameters are judiciously tuned to nonidentical values, thereby breaking the system symmetry to preserve the state symmetry. Aside from demonstrating that diversity can facilitate and even be required for uniformity and consensus, this suggests a mechanism for convergent forms of pattern formation in which initially asymmetric patterns evolve into symmetric ones.

  1. Plethystic algebras and vector symmetric functions.

    PubMed Central

    Rota, G C; Stein, J A

    1994-01-01

    An isomorphism is established between the plethystic Hopf algebra Pleth(Super[L]) and the algebra of vector symmetric functions. The Hall inner product of symmetric function theory is extended to the Hopf algebra Pleth(Super[L]). PMID:11607504

  2. 2-D Animation's Not Just for Mickey Mouse.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weinman, Lynda

    1995-01-01

    Discusses characteristics of two-dimensional (2-D) animation; highlights include character animation, painting issues, and motion graphics. Sidebars present Silicon Graphics animations tools and 2-D animation programs for the desktop computer. (DGM)

  3. NIKE2D: a vectorized, implicit, finite-deformation, finite-element code for analyzing the static and dynamic response of 2-D solids

    SciTech Connect

    Hallquist, J.O.

    1983-02-01

    This report provides a user's manual for NIKE2D and a brief description of the implicit algorithm. Sample applications are presented including a simulation of the necking of a uniaxial tension specimen, a static analysis of an O-ring seal, and a cylindrical bar impacting a rigid wall. NIKE2D is a fully vectorized, implicit, finite-deformation, large-strain, finite-element code for analyzing the response of two-dimensional axisymmetric and plane-strain solids. A variety of loading conditions can be handled including traction boundary conditions, displacement boundary conditions, concentrated nodal point laods, body force loads due to base accelerations, and body-force loads due to spinning. Slide-lines with interface friction are available. Elastic, orthotropic-elastic-plastic, thermo-elastic-plactic, soil and crushable foam, linear viscoelastic, thermo-orthotropic elastic, and elastic-creep materials models are implemented. Nearly incompressible behavior that arises in plasticity problems and elasticity problems with Poisson's ratio approaching 0.5 is accounted for in the element formulation to preclude mesh lock-ups and associated anomalous stress states. Four-node isoparametric elements are used for the spatial discretization, and profile (bandwidth) minimization is optional.

  4. Second order symmetry-preserving conservative Lagrangian scheme for compressible Euler equations in two-dimensional cylindrical coordinates

    SciTech Connect

    Cheng, Juan; Shu, Chi-Wang

    2014-09-01

    In applications such as astrophysics and inertial confinement fusion, there are many three-dimensional cylindrical-symmetric multi-material problems which are usually simulated by Lagrangian schemes in the two-dimensional cylindrical coordinates. For this type of simulation, a critical issue for the schemes is to keep spherical symmetry in the cylindrical coordinate system if the original physical problem has this symmetry. In the past decades, several Lagrangian schemes with such symmetry property have been developed, but all of them are only first order accurate. In this paper, we develop a second order cell-centered Lagrangian scheme for solving compressible Euler equations in cylindrical coordinates, based on the control volume discretizations, which is designed to have uniformly second order accuracy and capability to preserve one-dimensional spherical symmetry in a two-dimensional cylindrical geometry when computed on an equal-angle-zoned initial grid. The scheme maintains several good properties such as conservation for mass, momentum and total energy, and the geometric conservation law. Several two-dimensional numerical examples in cylindrical coordinates are presented to demonstrate the good performance of the scheme in terms of accuracy, symmetry, non-oscillation and robustness. The advantage of higher order accuracy is demonstrated in these examples.

  5. PT-symmetric quantum theory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bender, Carl M.

    2015-07-01

    The average quantum physicist on the street would say that a quantum-mechanical Hamiltonian must be Dirac Hermitian (invariant under combined matrix transposition and complex conjugation) in order to guarantee that the energy eigenvalues are real and that time evolution is unitary. However, the Hamiltonian H = p2 + ix3, which is obviously not Dirac Hermitian, has a positive real discrete spectrum and generates unitary time evolution, and thus it defines a fully consistent and physical quantum theory. Evidently, the axiom of Dirac Hermiticity is too restrictive. While H = p2 + ix3 is not Dirac Hermitian, it is PT symmetric; that is, invariant under combined parity P (space reflection) and time reversal T. The quantum mechanics defined by a PT-symmetric Hamiltonian is a complex generalization of ordinary quantum mechanics. When quantum mechanics is extended into the complex domain, new kinds of theories having strange and remarkable properties emerge. In the past few years, some of these properties have been verified in laboratory experiments. A particularly interesting PT-symmetric Hamiltonian is H = p2 - x4, which contains an upside-down potential. This potential is discussed in detail, and it is explained in intuitive as well as in rigorous terms why the energy levels of this potential are real, positive, and discrete. Applications of PT-symmetry in quantum field theory are also discussed.

  6. Generates 2D Input for DYNA NIKE & TOPAZ

    SciTech Connect

    Hallquist, J. O.; Sanford, Larry

    1996-07-15

    MAZE is an interactive program that serves as an input and two-dimensional mesh generator for DYNA2D, NIKE2D, TOPAZ2D, and CHEMICAL TOPAZ2D. MAZE also generates a basic template for ISLAND input. MAZE has been applied to the generation of input data to study the response of two-dimensional solids and structures undergoing finite deformations under a wide variety of large deformation transient dynamic and static problems and heat transfer analyses.

  7. MAZE96. Generates 2D Input for DYNA NIKE & TOPAZ

    SciTech Connect

    Sanford, L.; Hallquist, J.O.

    1992-02-24

    MAZE is an interactive program that serves as an input and two-dimensional mesh generator for DYNA2D, NIKE2D, TOPAZ2D, and CHEMICAL TOPAZ2D. MAZE also generates a basic template for ISLAND input. MAZE has been applied to the generation of input data to study the response of two-dimensional solids and structures undergoing finite deformations under a wide variety of large deformation transient dynamic and static problems and heat transfer analyses.

  8. Position control using 2D-to-2D feature correspondences in vision guided cell micromanipulation.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yanliang; Han, Mingli; Shee, Cheng Yap; Ang, Wei Tech

    2007-01-01

    Conventional camera calibration that utilizes the extrinsic and intrinsic parameters of the camera and the objects has certain limitations for micro-level cell operations due to the presence of hardware deviations and external disturbances during the experimental process, thereby invalidating the extrinsic parameters. This invalidation is often neglected in macro-world visual servoing and affects the visual image processing quality, causing deviation from the desired position in micro-level cell operations. To increase the success rate of vision guided biological micromanipulations, a novel algorithm monitoring the changing image pattern of the manipulators including the injection micropipette and cell holder is designed and implemented based on 2 dimensional (2D)-to 2D feature correspondences and can adjust the manipulator and perform position control simultaneously. When any deviation is found, the manipulator is retracted to the initial focusing plane before continuing the operation.

  9. Design of efficient circularly symmetric two-dimensional variable digital FIR filters.

    PubMed

    Bindima, Thayyil; Elias, Elizabeth

    2016-05-01

    Circularly symmetric two-dimensional (2D) finite impulse response (FIR) filters find extensive use in image and medical applications, especially for isotropic filtering. Moreover, the design and implementation of 2D digital filters with variable fractional delay and variable magnitude responses without redesigning the filter has become a crucial topic of interest due to its significance in low-cost applications. Recently the design using fixed word length coefficients has gained importance due to the replacement of multipliers by shifters and adders, which reduces the hardware complexity. Among the various approaches to 2D design, transforming a one-dimensional (1D) filter to 2D by transformation, is reported to be an efficient technique. In this paper, 1D variable digital filters (VDFs) with tunable cut-off frequencies are designed using Farrow structure based interpolation approach, and the sub-filter coefficients in the Farrow structure are made multiplier-less using canonic signed digit (CSD) representation. The resulting performance degradation in the filters is overcome by using artificial bee colony (ABC) optimization. Finally, the optimized 1D VDFs are mapped to 2D using generalized McClellan transformation resulting in low complexity, circularly symmetric 2D VDFs with real-time tunability.

  10. Design of efficient circularly symmetric two-dimensional variable digital FIR filters

    PubMed Central

    Bindima, Thayyil; Elias, Elizabeth

    2016-01-01

    Circularly symmetric two-dimensional (2D) finite impulse response (FIR) filters find extensive use in image and medical applications, especially for isotropic filtering. Moreover, the design and implementation of 2D digital filters with variable fractional delay and variable magnitude responses without redesigning the filter has become a crucial topic of interest due to its significance in low-cost applications. Recently the design using fixed word length coefficients has gained importance due to the replacement of multipliers by shifters and adders, which reduces the hardware complexity. Among the various approaches to 2D design, transforming a one-dimensional (1D) filter to 2D by transformation, is reported to be an efficient technique. In this paper, 1D variable digital filters (VDFs) with tunable cut-off frequencies are designed using Farrow structure based interpolation approach, and the sub-filter coefficients in the Farrow structure are made multiplier-less using canonic signed digit (CSD) representation. The resulting performance degradation in the filters is overcome by using artificial bee colony (ABC) optimization. Finally, the optimized 1D VDFs are mapped to 2D using generalized McClellan transformation resulting in low complexity, circularly symmetric 2D VDFs with real-time tunability. PMID:27222739

  11. Design of efficient circularly symmetric two-dimensional variable digital FIR filters.

    PubMed

    Bindima, Thayyil; Elias, Elizabeth

    2016-05-01

    Circularly symmetric two-dimensional (2D) finite impulse response (FIR) filters find extensive use in image and medical applications, especially for isotropic filtering. Moreover, the design and implementation of 2D digital filters with variable fractional delay and variable magnitude responses without redesigning the filter has become a crucial topic of interest due to its significance in low-cost applications. Recently the design using fixed word length coefficients has gained importance due to the replacement of multipliers by shifters and adders, which reduces the hardware complexity. Among the various approaches to 2D design, transforming a one-dimensional (1D) filter to 2D by transformation, is reported to be an efficient technique. In this paper, 1D variable digital filters (VDFs) with tunable cut-off frequencies are designed using Farrow structure based interpolation approach, and the sub-filter coefficients in the Farrow structure are made multiplier-less using canonic signed digit (CSD) representation. The resulting performance degradation in the filters is overcome by using artificial bee colony (ABC) optimization. Finally, the optimized 1D VDFs are mapped to 2D using generalized McClellan transformation resulting in low complexity, circularly symmetric 2D VDFs with real-time tunability. PMID:27222739

  12. A Planar Quantum Transistor Based on 2D-2D Tunneling in Double Quantum Well Heterostructures

    SciTech Connect

    Baca, W.E.; Blount, M.A.; Hafich, M.J.; Lyo, S.K.; Moon, J.S.; Reno, J.L.; Simmons, J.A.; Wendt, J.R.

    1998-12-14

    We report on our work on the double electron layer tunneling transistor (DELTT), based on the gate-control of two-dimensional -- two-dimensional (2D-2D) tunneling in a double quantum well heterostructure. While previous quantum transistors have typically required tiny laterally-defined features, by contrast the DELTT is entirely planar and can be reliably fabricated in large numbers. We use a novel epoxy-bond-and-stop-etch (EBASE) flip-chip process, whereby submicron gating on opposite sides of semiconductor epitaxial layers as thin as 0.24 microns can be achieved. Because both electron layers in the DELTT are 2D, the resonant tunneling features are unusually sharp, and can be easily modulated with one or more surface gates. We demonstrate DELTTs with peak-to-valley ratios in the source-drain I-V curve of order 20:1 below 1 K. Both the height and position of the resonant current peak can be controlled by gate voltage over a wide range. DELTTs with larger subband energy offsets ({approximately} 21 meV) exhibit characteristics that are nearly as good at 77 K, in good agreement with our theoretical calculations. Using these devices, we also demonstrate bistable memories operating at 77 K. Finally, we briefly discuss the prospects for room temperature operation, increases in gain, and high-speed.

  13. 'Brukin2D': a 2D visualization and comparison tool for LC-MS data

    PubMed Central

    Tsagkrasoulis, Dimosthenis; Zerefos, Panagiotis; Loudos, George; Vlahou, Antonia; Baumann, Marc; Kossida, Sophia

    2009-01-01

    Background Liquid Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry (LC-MS) is a commonly used technique to resolve complex protein mixtures. Visualization of large data sets produced from LC-MS, namely the chromatogram and the mass spectra that correspond to its compounds is the focus of this work. Results The in-house developed 'Brukin2D' software, built in Matlab 7.4, which is presented here, uses the compound data that are exported from the Bruker 'DataAnalysis' program, and depicts the mean mass spectra of all the chromatogram compounds from one LC-MS run, in one 2D contour/density plot. Two contour plots from different chromatograph runs can then be viewed in the same window and automatically compared, in order to find their similarities and differences. The results of the comparison can be examined through detailed mass quantification tables, while chromatogram compound statistics are also calculated during the procedure. Conclusion 'Brukin2D' provides a user-friendly platform for quick, easy and integrated view of complex LC-MS data. The software is available at . PMID:19534737

  14. Inhibition of human cytochrome P450 2D6 (CYP2D6) by methadone.

    PubMed Central

    Wu, D; Otton, S V; Sproule, B A; Busto, U; Inaba, T; Kalow, W; Sellers, E M

    1993-01-01

    1. In microsomes prepared from three human livers, methadone competitively inhibited the O-demethylation of dextromethorphan, a marker substrate for CYP2D6. The apparent Ki value of methadone ranged from 2.5 to 5 microM. 2. Two hundred and fifty-two (252) white Caucasians, including 210 unrelated healthy volunteers and 42 opiate abusers undergoing treatment with methadone were phenotyped using dextromethorphan as the marker drug. Although the frequency of poor metabolizers was similar in both groups, the extensive metabolizers among the opiate abusers tended to have higher O-demethylation metabolic ratios and to excrete less of the dose as dextromethorphan metabolites than control extensive metabolizer subjects. These data suggest inhibition of CYP2D6 by methadone in vivo as well. 3. Because methadone is widely used in the treatment of opiate abuse, inhibition of CYP2D6 activity in these patients might contribute to exaggerated response or unexpected toxicity from drugs that are substrates of this enzyme. PMID:8448065

  15. View factors of cylindrical spiral surfaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lebedev, Vladimir A.; Solovjov, Vladimir P.

    2016-03-01

    Analytical expressions are presented for the view factors (radiative configuration factors) associated with the flat right cylindrical spiral surface. Such cylindrical spiral systems are widely applied as electrical resistance heating elements for lighting devices, electronic radio tubes, high-speed gas flow heaters, and other appliances used for scientific, industrial and domestic purposes. Derivation of the view factors is based on the invariant principles and the results presented in Lebedev (2000, 2003,1988) [1-3].

  16. Damage experiments in cylindrical geometry update

    SciTech Connect

    Kaul, Anne; Holtkamp, David; Rodriguez, George

    2009-01-01

    Using a cylindrical configuration to study spallation damage allows for a natural recollection of the damaged material under proper driving conditions. Previous experiments provided data about failure initiation in aluminum in a cylindrical geometry and the behavior of material recollected after damage from pressures in the damage initiation regime. The current series of experiments studied the behavior of material recollected after complete failure. Results from the current experiments will be presented.

  17. Designing 2D arrays for SHM of planar structures: a review

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stepinski, Tadeusz; Ambrozinski, Lukasz; Uhl, Tadeusz

    2013-04-01

    where LWs, excited by PZT transmitters of the investigated array are sensed in multiple points corresponding to the locations of the 2D array receiving elements. A virtual receiving sub-array is created in this way and the performance of various array architectures in the reception mode can be evaluated experimentally without the need of physical prototype; a change of topology requires only straightforward modification of the measurement points distribution at the tested structure. For illustration, beampatterns of three symmetrical 2D topologies, i.e., circular, star-shaped and spiralshaped, will be examined in the paper and compared in terms of their beam-width and side-lobes level. The effect of apodization applied to the array elements will be also investigated.

  18. Simulating flow and segregation of cylindrical particles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, Yongzhi; Umbanhowar, Paul B.; Lueptow, Richard M.

    2015-11-01

    Efficient and accurate simulation of cylindrical particles using discrete element method (DEM) is a challenge. Typical approaches to simulating cylindrical particle systems are based on the glued spheres method, which has low accuracy, or real shape models, which have high computational cost. In this work we utilize super-ellipsoids, which belong to super-quadrics, to model cylindrical particles in DEM simulations. Simulations of a single cylinder impacting a flat wall indicate that super-ellipsoids provide the same accuracy as real shape models and much better accuracy than the glued sphere method. Simulations of super-ellipsoid cylindrical particles in rotating tumblers result in nearly the same angle of repose as experiments and real shape simulations, demonstrating the accuracy of super-ellipsoid DEM simulations for multi-particle systems. The segregation of bidisperse cylindrical particles differing in length in a bounded heap was simulated by super-ellipsoid DEM, and the results are similar to the experiment. In spite of these advantages of using super-ellipsoid cylindrical particles, simulations of filling a box with particles indicate that the simulation times for super-ellipsoid cylinders is about an order of magnitude longer than that for the same number of spherical particles.

  19. Focus modulation of cylindrical vector beams through negative-index grating lenses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Shengming; Xu, Ji; Zhong, Yi; Ren, Rong; Lu, Yunqing; Wan, Hongdan; Wang, Jin; Ding, Jianping

    2016-08-01

    A cylindrically symmetric negative-index grating lens composed of unitary material is proposed as an effective method to modulate the focusing of cylindrical vector beams (CVBs). The grating parameters are designed to obtain an appropriate negative index, and the lens profile is tailored to realize the constructive interference. The plano-concave lens is parameterized to achieve desired focal length and the plano-cone lens is proposed to obtain large depth of focus. An optical needle is generated with radially polarized incidence, and an optical tube is achieved with incidence of azimuthal polarization. Moreover, the presented modulation methods can be applied for any arbitrary polarized CVBs. This work offers a more flexible and effective approach to design negative-index lenses for subwavelength focusing of CVBs, which has potential application value in related areas, such as optical trapping, and other nano-optics fields.

  20. Nonlinear evolution of the resistive interchange mode in the cylindrical spheromak

    SciTech Connect

    DeLucia, J.; Jardin, S.C.

    1984-02-01

    Results are presented of a study of various aspects of the single helicity nonlinear development of the resistive interchange mode in the cylindrical spheromak. A formulation of the helically symmetric resistive MHD equations that partially separates the ideal MHD characteristics is developed. Mode saturation can occur due to the quasilinear flattening of the pressure profile in the vicinity of the mode rational surface. However, this saturation process is defeated when the plasma overheats and in regions of the plasma where the shear is low. Finite fluid compression has significant, and optimistic, consequences on the long-term nonlinear behavior of this mode. For a tearing mode stable cylindrical spheromak equilibrium configuration with an axial beta value of 6%, complete overlap of the m = 1 islands occurs in about 3% of the resistive skin time for a magnetic Reynold's number of S = 10/sup 5/. For typical parameters of the S-1 device at Princeton, this time corresponds to nearly one-millisecond.

  1. Spin and orbital angular momentum and their conversion in cylindrical vector vortices.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Jiangbo; Chen, Yujie; Zhang, Yanfeng; Cai, Xinlun; Yu, Siyuan

    2014-08-01

    The generation of light beams carrying orbital angular momentum (OAM) has been greatly advanced with the emergence of the recently reported integrated optical vortex emitters. Generally, optical vortices emitted by these devices possess cylindrically symmetric states of polarization and spiral phase fronts, and they can be defined as cylindrical vector vortices (CVVs). Using the radiation of angularly arranged dipoles to model the CVVs, these beams as hybrid modes of two circularly polarized scalar vortices are theoretically demonstrated to own well-defined total angular momentum. Moreover, the effect of spin-orbit interactions of angular momentum is identified in the CVVs when the size of the emitting structure varies. This effect results in the diminishing spin component of angular momentum and purer OAM states at large structure radii.

  2. Correlated Electron Phenomena in 2D Materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lambert, Joseph G.

    In this thesis, I present experimental results on coherent electron phenomena in layered two-dimensional materials: single layer graphene and van der Waals coupled 2D TiSe2. Graphene is a two-dimensional single-atom thick sheet of carbon atoms first derived from bulk graphite by the mechanical exfoliation technique in 2004. Low-energy charge carriers in graphene behave like massless Dirac fermions, and their density can be easily tuned between electron-rich and hole-rich quasiparticles with electrostatic gating techniques. The sharp interfaces between regions of different carrier densities form barriers with selective transmission, making them behave as partially reflecting mirrors. When two of these interfaces are set at a separation distance within the phase coherence length of the carriers, they form an electronic version of a Fabry-Perot cavity. I present measurements and analysis of multiple Fabry-Perot modes in graphene with parallel electrodes spaced a few hundred nanometers apart. Transition metal dichalcogenide (TMD) TiSe2 is part of the family of materials that coined the term "materials beyond graphene". It contains van der Waals coupled trilayer stacks of Se-Ti-Se. Many TMD materials exhibit a host of interesting correlated electronic phases. In particular, TiSe2 exhibits chiral charge density waves (CDW) below TCDW ˜ 200 K. Upon doping with copper, the CDW state gets suppressed with Cu concentration, and CuxTiSe2 becomes superconducting with critical temperature of T c = 4.15 K. There is still much debate over the mechanisms governing the coexistence of the two correlated electronic phases---CDW and superconductivity. I will present some of the first conductance spectroscopy measurements of proximity coupled superconductor-CDW systems. Measurements reveal a proximity-induced critical current at the Nb-TiSe2 interfaces, suggesting pair correlations in the pure TiSe2. The results indicate that superconducting order is present concurrently with CDW in

  3. CYP2D7 Sequence Variation Interferes with TaqMan CYP2D6*15 and *35 Genotyping

    PubMed Central

    Riffel, Amanda K.; Dehghani, Mehdi; Hartshorne, Toinette; Floyd, Kristen C.; Leeder, J. Steven; Rosenblatt, Kevin P.; Gaedigk, Andrea

    2016-01-01

    TaqMan™ genotyping assays are widely used to genotype CYP2D6, which encodes a major drug metabolizing enzyme. Assay design for CYP2D6 can be challenging owing to the presence of two pseudogenes, CYP2D7 and CYP2D8, structural and copy number variation and numerous single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) some of which reflect the wild-type sequence of the CYP2D7 pseudogene. The aim of this study was to identify the mechanism causing false-positive CYP2D6*15 calls and remediate those by redesigning and validating alternative TaqMan genotype assays. Among 13,866 DNA samples genotyped by the CompanionDx® lab on the OpenArray platform, 70 samples were identified as heterozygotes for 137Tins, the key SNP of CYP2D6*15. However, only 15 samples were confirmed when tested with the Luminex xTAG CYP2D6 Kit and sequencing of CYP2D6-specific long range (XL)-PCR products. Genotype and gene resequencing of CYP2D6 and CYP2D7-specific XL-PCR products revealed a CC>GT dinucleotide SNP in exon 1 of CYP2D7 that reverts the sequence to CYP2D6 and allows a TaqMan assay PCR primer to bind. Because CYP2D7 also carries a Tins, a false-positive mutation signal is generated. This CYP2D7 SNP was also responsible for generating false-positive signals for rs769258 (CYP2D6*35) which is also located in exon 1. Although alternative CYP2D6*15 and *35 assays resolved the issue, we discovered a novel CYP2D6*15 subvariant in one sample that carries additional SNPs preventing detection with the alternate assay. The frequency of CYP2D6*15 was 0.1% in this ethnically diverse U.S. population sample. In addition, we also discovered linkage between the CYP2D7 CC>GT dinucleotide SNP and the 77G>A (rs28371696) SNP of CYP2D6*43. The frequency of this tentatively functional allele was 0.2%. Taken together, these findings emphasize that regardless of how careful genotyping assays are designed and evaluated before being commercially marketed, rare or unknown SNPs underneath primer and/or probe regions can impact

  4. CYP2D7 Sequence Variation Interferes with TaqMan CYP2D6 (*) 15 and (*) 35 Genotyping.

    PubMed

    Riffel, Amanda K; Dehghani, Mehdi; Hartshorne, Toinette; Floyd, Kristen C; Leeder, J Steven; Rosenblatt, Kevin P; Gaedigk, Andrea

    2015-01-01

    TaqMan™ genotyping assays are widely used to genotype CYP2D6, which encodes a major drug metabolizing enzyme. Assay design for CYP2D6 can be challenging owing to the presence of two pseudogenes, CYP2D7 and CYP2D8, structural and copy number variation and numerous single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) some of which reflect the wild-type sequence of the CYP2D7 pseudogene. The aim of this study was to identify the mechanism causing false-positive CYP2D6 (*) 15 calls and remediate those by redesigning and validating alternative TaqMan genotype assays. Among 13,866 DNA samples genotyped by the CompanionDx® lab on the OpenArray platform, 70 samples were identified as heterozygotes for 137Tins, the key SNP of CYP2D6 (*) 15. However, only 15 samples were confirmed when tested with the Luminex xTAG CYP2D6 Kit and sequencing of CYP2D6-specific long range (XL)-PCR products. Genotype and gene resequencing of CYP2D6 and CYP2D7-specific XL-PCR products revealed a CC>GT dinucleotide SNP in exon 1 of CYP2D7 that reverts the sequence to CYP2D6 and allows a TaqMan assay PCR primer to bind. Because CYP2D7 also carries a Tins, a false-positive mutation signal is generated. This CYP2D7 SNP was also responsible for generating false-positive signals for rs769258 (CYP2D6 (*) 35) which is also located in exon 1. Although alternative CYP2D6 (*) 15 and (*) 35 assays resolved the issue, we discovered a novel CYP2D6 (*) 15 subvariant in one sample that carries additional SNPs preventing detection with the alternate assay. The frequency of CYP2D6 (*) 15 was 0.1% in this ethnically diverse U.S. population sample. In addition, we also discovered linkage between the CYP2D7 CC>GT dinucleotide SNP and the 77G>A (rs28371696) SNP of CYP2D6 (*) 43. The frequency of this tentatively functional allele was 0.2%. Taken together, these findings emphasize that regardless of how careful genotyping assays are designed and evaluated before being commercially marketed, rare or unknown SNPs underneath primer

  5. Spherical, cylindrical and tetrahedral symmetries; hydrogenic states at high magnetic field in Si:P

    PubMed Central

    Lewis, R. A.; Bruno-Alfonso, A.; de Souza, G. V. B.; Vickers, R. E. M.; Colla, J. A.; Constable, E.

    2013-01-01

    Phosphorous donors in silicon have an electronic structure that mimics the hydrogen atom, albeit on a larger length, smaller energy and smaller magnetic field scale. While the hydrogen atom is spherically symmetric, an applied magnetic field imposes cylindrical symmetry, and the solid-state analogue involves, in addition, the symmetry of the Si crystal. For one magnetic field direction, all six conduction-band valleys of Si:P become equivalent. New experimental data to high laboratory fields (30 T), supported by new calculations, demonstrate that this high symmetry field orientation allows the most direct comparison with free hydrogen. PMID:24336145

  6. Fast Hankel transform and its application for studying the propagation of cylindrical electromagnetic fields.

    PubMed

    Zhang, D; Yuan, X; Ngo, N; Shum, P

    2002-06-17

    We present a fast Hankel transform (FHTn) method for direct numerical evaluation of electromagnetic (EM) field propagation through an axially symmetric system. Comparing with the vector-based plane-wave spectrum (VPWS) method, we present an alternative approach to implement the fast Hankel transform which does not require an additional coordinate transformation for Fourier transform. The proposed FHTn method is an efficient approach for numerical evaluation of an arbitrary integer order of the Hankel transform (HT). As an example to demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed method, we apply the FHTn technique to the analysis of cylindrical EM field propagation through a diffractive microlens.

  7. Fast Hankel transform and its application for studying the propagation of cylindrical electromagnetic fields

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, D. W.; Yuan, X.-C.; Ngo, N. Q.; Shum, P.

    2002-06-01

    We present a fast Hankel transform (FHTn) method for direct numerical evaluation of electromagnetic (EM) field propagation through an axially symmetric system. Comparing with the vector-based plane-wave spectrum (VPWS) method, we present an alternative approach to implement the fast Hankel transform which does not require an additional coordinate transformation for Fourier transform. The proposed FHTn method is an efficient approach for numerical evaluation of an arbitrary integer order of the Hankel transform (HT). As an example to demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed method, we apply the FHTn technique to the analysis of cylindrical EM field propagation through a diffractive microlens.

  8. Instability analysis of a cylindrical stellar object in Brans-Dicke gravity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sharif, M.; Manzoor, R.

    2016-05-01

    This paper investigates instability ranges of a cylindrically symmetric collapsing cosmic filamentary structure in the Brans-Dicke theory of gravity. For this purpose, we use a perturbating approach to the modified field equations as well as dynamic equations and construct a collapse equation. The collapse equation with an adiabatic index (Γ) is used to explore the instability ranges of both isotropic and anisotropic fluid in Newtonian and post-Newtonian approximations. It turns out that the instability ranges depend on the dynamic variables of collapsing filaments. We conclude that the system always remains unstable for 0 < Γ < 1, while Γ > 1 provides instability only in a special case.

  9. On the equilibrium of a cylindrical plasma supported horizontally by magnetic fields in uniform gravity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lerche, I.; Low, B. C.

    1980-01-01

    The mechanical equilibrium of a cylinder of plasma suspended horizontally by magnetic fields in uniform gravity is examined. A set of exact solutions describing the equilibrium is derived assuming the plasma distribution to be cylindrically symmetric to obtain an exact force balance between plasma pressure, the Lorentz pressure, and gravity in space. The set of solutions considers a case of uniform temperature and cases where the temperature rises from zero at the center of the plasma cylinder to reach a constant asymptotic value outside the cylinder.

  10. Symmetric spaces of exceptional groups

    SciTech Connect

    Boya, L. J.

    2010-02-15

    We address the problem of the reasons for the existence of 12 symmetric spaces with the exceptional Lie groups. The 1 + 2 cases for G{sub 2} and F{sub 4}, respectively, are easily explained from the octonionic nature of these groups. The 4 + 3 + 2 cases on the E{sub 6,7,8} series require the magic square of Freudenthal and, for the split case, an appeal to the supergravity chain in 5, 4, and 3 space-time dimensions.

  11. Multipole analysis of circular cylindrical magnetic systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Selvaggi, Jerry P.

    This thesis deals with an alternate method for computing the external magnetic field from a circular cylindrical magnetic source. The primary objective is to characterize the magnetic source in terms of its equivalent multipole distribution. This multipole distribution must be valid at points close to the cylindrical source and a spherical multipole expansion is ill-equipped to handle this problem; therefore a new method must be introduced. This method, based upon the free-space Green's function in cylindrical coordinates, is developed as an alternative to the more familiar spherical harmonic expansion. A family of special functions, called the toroidal functions or Q-functions, are found to exhibit the necessary properties for analyzing circular cylindrical geometries. In particular, the toroidal function of zeroth order, which comes from the integral formulation of the free-space Green's function in cylindrical coordinates, is employed to handle magnetic sources which exhibit circular cylindrical symmetry. The toroidal functions, also called Q-functions, are the weighting coefficients in a "Fourier series-like" expansion which represents the free-space Green's function. It is also called a toroidal expansion. This expansion can be directly employed in electrostatic, magnetostatic, and electrodynamic problems which exhibit cylindrical symmetry. Also, it is shown that they can be used as an alternative to the Elliptic integral formulation. In fact, anywhere that an Elliptic integral appears, one can replace it with its corresponding Q-function representation. A number of problems, using the toroidal expansion formulation, are analyzed and compared to existing known methods in order to validate the results. Also, the equivalent multipole distribution is found for most of the solved problems along with its corresponding physical interpretation. The main application is to characterize the external magnetic field due to a six-pole permanent magnet motor in terms of its

  12. Mechanical characterization of 2D, 2D stitched, and 3D braided/RTM materials

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Deaton, Jerry W.; Kullerd, Susan M.; Portanova, Marc A.

    1993-01-01

    Braided composite materials have potential for application in aircraft structures. Fuselage frames, floor beams, wing spars, and stiffeners are examples where braided composites could find application if cost effective processing and damage tolerance requirements are met. Another important consideration for braided composites relates to their mechanical properties and how they compare to the properties of composites produced by other textile composite processes being proposed for these applications. Unfortunately, mechanical property data for braided composites do not appear extensively in the literature. Data are presented in this paper on the mechanical characterization of 2D triaxial braid, 2D triaxial braid plus stitching, and 3D (through-the-thickness) braid composite materials. The braided preforms all had the same graphite tow size and the same nominal braid architectures, (+/- 30 deg/0 deg), and were resin transfer molded (RTM) using the same mold for each of two different resin systems. Static data are presented for notched and unnotched tension, notched and unnotched compression, and compression after impact strengths at room temperature. In addition, some static results, after environmental conditioning, are included. Baseline tension and compression fatigue results are also presented, but only for the 3D braided composite material with one of the resin systems.

  13. The Dizzying Depths of the Cylindrical Mirror

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    DeWeerd, Alan J.; Hill, S. Eric

    2005-02-01

    A typical introduction to geometrical optics treats plane and spherical mirrors. At first glance, it may be surprising that texts seldom mention the cylindrical mirror, except for the occasional reference to use in fun houses and to viewing anamorphic art.1,2 However, even a cursory treatment reveals its complexity. Holzberlein used an extended object to qualitatively illustrate that images are produced both before and behind a concave cylindrical mirror.3 He also speculated on how this extreme astigmatism results in an observer's dizziness. By considering a simple point object, we make a more detailed analysis of the cylindrical mirror and the dizziness it induces. First, we illustrate how rays from a point object reflect to form not one point image but two line images. Next, we describe how an observer perceives a likeness of the object. Finally, we suggest how confusing depth cues induce dizziness. Although we focus on the concave cylindrical mirror, the discussion is easy to generalize to the convex cylindrical mirror.

  14. Scattering cancellation by metamaterial cylindrical multilayers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tricarico, S.; Bilotti, F.; Vegni, L.

    2009-05-01

    In this paper, we present the theoretical analysis and the design of cylindrical multilayered electromagnetic cloaks based on the scattering cancellation technique. We propose at first the analysis and the design of bi-layered cylindrical shells, made of homogenous and isotropic metamaterials, in order to effectively reduce the scattered field from a dielectric cylindrical object. The single shell and the bi-layered shell cases are compared in terms of scattering reduction and loss effects. The comparison shows that the bi-layered configuration exhibits superior performances. The scattering cancellation approach, is, then, extended to the case of generic multilayered cylindrical shells, considering again homogeneous and isotropic metamaterials. The employment of the proposed technique to the case of cloaking devices working at multiple frequencies is also envisaged and discussed. Finally, some practical layouts of cylindrical electromagnetic cloaks working at optical frequencies are also proposed. In these configurations, the homogenous and isotropic metamaterials are replaced by their actual counterparts, obtained using alternating stacked plasmonic and non-plasmonic layers. The theoretical formulation and the design approaches presented throughout the paper are validated through proper full-wave numerical simulations.

  15. Antimicrobial Peptides in Toroidal and Cylindrical Pores

    PubMed Central

    Mihajlovic, Maja

    2010-01-01

    Antimicrobial peptides (AMPs) are small, usually cationic peptides, which permeabilize biological membranes. Their mechanism of action is still not well understood. Here we investigate the preference of alamethicin and melittin for pores of different shapes, using molecular dynamics (MD) simulations of the peptides in pre-formed toroidal and cylindrical pores. When an alamethicin hexamer is initially embedded in a cylindrical pore, at the end of the simulation the pore remains cylindrical or closes if glutamines in the N-termini are not located within the pore. On the other hand, when a melittin tetramer is embedded in toroidal pore or in a cylindrical pore, at the end of the simulation the pore is lined both with peptides and lipid headgroups, and, thus, can be classified as a toroidal pore. These observations agree with the prevailing views that alamethicin forms barrel-stave pores whereas melittin forms toroidal pores. Both alamethicin and melittin form amphiphilic helices in the presence of membranes, but their net charge differs; at pH ~7, the net charge of alamethicin is −1 whereas that of melittin is +5. This gives rise to stronger electrostatic interactions of melittin with membranes than those of alamethicin. The melittin tetramer interacts more strongly with lipids in the toroidal pore than in the cylindrical one, due to more favorable electrostatic interactions. PMID:20403332

  16. Modelling and simulation of subthreshold behaviour of cylindrical surrounding double gate MOSFET for enhanced electrostatic integrity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Verma, Jay Hind Kumar; Haldar, Subhasis; Gupta, R. S.; Gupta, Mridula

    2015-12-01

    In this paper, a physics based model has been presented for the Cylindrical Surrounding Double Gate (CSDG) Nano-wire MOSFET. The analytical model is based on the solution of 2-D Poisson's equation in a cylindrical coordinate system using super-position technique. CSDG MOSFET is a cylindrical version of double gate MOSFET which offers maximum gate controllability over the channel. It consists of an inner gate and an outer gate. These gates render effective charge control inside the channel and also provide excellent immunity to short channel effects. Surface potential and electric field for inner and outer gate are derived. The impact of channel length on electrical characteristics of CSDG MOSFET is analysed and verified using ATLAS device simulator. The model is also extended for threshold voltage modelling using extrapolation method in strong inversion region. Drain current and transconductance are compared with conventional Cylindrical Surrounding Gate (CSG) MOSFET. The excellent electrical performance makes CSDG MOSFET promising candidates to extend CMOS scaling roadmap beyond CSG MOSFET.

  17. Computational Screening of 2D Materials for Photocatalysis.

    PubMed

    Singh, Arunima K; Mathew, Kiran; Zhuang, Houlong L; Hennig, Richard G

    2015-03-19

    Two-dimensional (2D) materials exhibit a range of extraordinary electronic, optical, and mechanical properties different from their bulk counterparts with potential applications for 2D materials emerging in energy storage and conversion technologies. In this Perspective, we summarize the recent developments in the field of solar water splitting using 2D materials and review a computational screening approach to rapidly and efficiently discover more 2D materials that possess properties suitable for solar water splitting. Computational tools based on density-functional theory can predict the intrinsic properties of potential photocatalyst such as their electronic properties, optical absorbance, and solubility in aqueous solutions. Computational tools enable the exploration of possible routes to enhance the photocatalytic activity of 2D materials by use of mechanical strain, bias potential, doping, and pH. We discuss future research directions and needed method developments for the computational design and optimization of 2D materials for photocatalysis.

  18. Synthetic Covalent and Non-Covalent 2D Materials.

    PubMed

    Boott, Charlotte E; Nazemi, Ali; Manners, Ian

    2015-11-16

    The creation of synthetic 2D materials represents an attractive challenge that is ultimately driven by their prospective uses in, for example, electronics, biomedicine, catalysis, sensing, and as membranes for separation and filtration. This Review illustrates some recent advances in this diverse field with a focus on covalent and non-covalent 2D polymers and frameworks, and self-assembled 2D materials derived from nanoparticles, homopolymers, and block copolymers.

  19. Cylindrical electrochemical cells with a diaphragm seal

    SciTech Connect

    Georgopoulos, P.

    1993-07-13

    A cylindrical electrochemical cell is described comprising an anode, a cathode and electrolyte contained in a cylindrical container, the container having an open end and a closed end; wherein the open end of the container is sealed with a seal assembly comprising: (a) a disc-shaped seal member, made from an electrically insulative material, having an outer edge wall connected via a base to a centrally located cylindrical hub that defines an orifice; which base has a ventable diaphragm portion and a nonventable diaphragm portion that is thicker than the ventable diaphragm portion; and wherein the ventable diaphragm portion joins the hub at an interface and becomes gradually thicker in the direction away from the interface toward the outer edge wall so that the ventable diaphragm portion is thinnest at the interface; and (b) a current collector extending through the orifice defined by the hub into the cell's interior to contact one of the cell's electrodes.

  20. Laser diode assembly including a cylindrical lens

    DOEpatents

    Snyder, J.J.; Reichert, P.

    1992-01-14

    The present invention provides a diffraction limited, high numerical aperture (fast) cylindrical microlens. The method for making the microlens is adaptable to produce a cylindrical lens that has almost any shape on its optical surfaces. The cylindrical lens may have a shape, such as elliptical or hyperbolic, designed to transform some particular given input light distribution into some desired output light distribution. In the method, the desired shape is first formed in a glass preform. Then, the preform is heated to the minimum drawing temperature and a fiber is drawn from it. The cross-sectional shape of the fiber bears a direct relation to the shape of the preform from which it was drawn. During the drawing process, the surfaces become optically smooth due to fire polishing. 11 figs.

  1. Laser diode assembly including a cylindrical lens

    DOEpatents

    Snyder, James J.; Reichert, Patrick

    1992-01-01

    The present invention provides a diffraction limited, high numerical aperture (fast) cylindrical microlens. The method for making the microlens is adaptable to produce a cylindrical lens that has almost any shape on its optical surfaces. The cylindrical lens may have a shape, such as elliptical or hyperbolic, designed to transform some particular given input light distribution into some desired output light distribution. In the method, the desired shape is first formed in a glass preform. Then, the preform is heated to the minimum drawing temperature and a fiber is drawn from it. The cross-sectional shape of the fiber bears a direct relation to the shape of the preform from which it was drawn. During the drawing process, the surfaces become optically smooth due to fire polishing.

  2. Current pulse effects on cylindrical damage experiments

    SciTech Connect

    Kaul, Ann M; Rousculp, Christopher L

    2009-01-01

    A series of joint experiments between LANL and VNIIEF use a VNIIEF-designed helical generator to provide currents for driving a LANL-designed cylindrical spallation experimental load. Under proper driving conditions, a cylindrical configuration allows for a natural recollection of the damaged material. In addition, the damaged material is able to come to a complete stop due to its strength, avoiding application of further forces. Thus far, experiments have provided data about failure initiation of a well-characterized material (aluminum) in a cylindrical geometry, behavior of material recollected after damage from pressures in the damage initiation regime, and behavior of material recollected after complete failure. In addition to post-shot collection of the damaged target material for subsequent metallographic analysis, dynamic in-situ experimental diagnostics include velocimetry and transverse radial radiography. This paper will focus on the effects of tailoring the driving current pulse to obtain the desired data.

  3. A Geometric Boolean Library for 2D Objects

    2006-01-05

    The 2D Boolean Library is a collection of C++ classes -- which primarily represent 2D geometric data and relationships, and routines -- which contain algorithms for 2D geometric Boolean operations and utility functions. Classes are provided for 2D points, lines, arcs, edgeuses, loops, surfaces and mask sets. Routines are provided that incorporate the Boolean operations Union(OR), XOR, Intersection and Difference. Various analytical geometry routines and routines for importing and exporting the data in various filemore » formats, are also provided in the library.« less

  4. VizieR Online Data Catalog: The 2dF Galaxy Redshift Survey (2dFGRS) (2dFGRS Team, 1998-2003)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Colless, M.; Dalton, G.; Maddox, S.; Sutherland, W.; Norberg, P.; Cole, S.; Bland-Hawthorn, J.; Bridges, T.; Cannon, R.; Collins, C.; Couch, W.; Cross, N.; Deeley, K.; de Propris, R.; Driver, S. P.; Efstathiou, G.; Ellis, R. S.; Frenk, C. S.; Glazebrook, K.; Jackson, C.; Lahav, O.; Lewis, I.; Lumsden, S.; Madgwick, D.; Peacock, J. A.; Peterson, B. A.; Price, I.; Seaborne, M.; Taylor, K.

    2007-11-01

    The 2dF Galaxy Redshift Survey (2dFGRS) is a major spectroscopic survey taking full advantage of the unique capabilities of the 2dF facility built by the Anglo-Australian Observatory. The 2dFGRS is integrated with the 2dF QSO survey (2QZ, Cat. VII/241). The 2dFGRS obtained spectra for 245591 objects, mainly galaxies, brighter than a nominal extinction-corrected magnitude limit of bJ=19.45. Reliable (quality>=3) redshifts were obtained for 221414 galaxies. The galaxies cover an area of approximately 1500 square degrees selected from the extended APM Galaxy Survey in three regions: a North Galactic Pole (NGP) strip, a South Galactic Pole (SGP) strip, and random fields scattered around the SGP strip. Redshifts are measured from spectra covering 3600-8000 Angstroms at a two-pixel resolution of 9.0 Angstrom and a median S/N of 13 per pixel. All redshift identifications are visually checked and assigned a quality parameter Q in the range 1-5; Q>=3 redshifts are 98.4% reliable and have an rms uncertainty of 85 km/s. The overall redshift completeness for Q>=3 redshifts is 91.8% but this varies with magnitude from 99% for the brightest galaxies to 90% for objects at the survey limit. The 2dFGRS data base is available on the World Wide Web at http://www.mso.anu.edu.au/2dFGRS/. (6 data files).

  5. Klassifikation von Standardebenen in der 2D-Echokardiographie mittels 2D-3D-Bildregistrierung

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bergmeir, Christoph; Subramanian, Navneeth

    Zum Zweck der Entwicklung eines Systems, das einen unerfahrenen Anwender von Ultraschall (US) zur Aufnahme relevanter anatomischer Strukturen leitet, untersuchen wir die Machbarkeit von 2D-US zu 3D-CT Registrierung. Wir verwenden US-Aufnahmen von Standardebenen des Herzens, welche zu einem 3D-CT-Modell registriert werden. Unser Algorithmus unterzieht sowohl die US-Bilder als auch den CT-Datensatz Vorverarbeitungsschritten, welche die Daten durch Segmentierung auf wesentliche Informationen in Form von Labein für Muskel und Blut reduzieren. Anschließend werden diese Label zur Registrierung mittels der Match-Cardinality-Metrik genutzt. Durch mehrmaliges Registrieren mit verschiedenen Initialisierungen ermitteln wir die im US-Bild sichtbare Standardebene. Wir evaluierten die Methode auf sieben US-Bildern von Standardebenen. Fünf davon wurden korrekt zugeordnet.

  6. Epitaxial 2D SnSe2/ 2D WSe2 van der Waals Heterostructures.

    PubMed

    Aretouli, Kleopatra Emmanouil; Tsoutsou, Dimitra; Tsipas, Polychronis; Marquez-Velasco, Jose; Aminalragia Giamini, Sigiava; Kelaidis, Nicolaos; Psycharis, Vassilis; Dimoulas, Athanasios

    2016-09-01

    van der Waals heterostructures of 2D semiconductor materials can be used to realize a number of (opto)electronic devices including tunneling field effect devices (TFETs). It is shown in this work that high quality SnSe2/WSe2 vdW heterostructure can be grown by molecular beam epitaxy on AlN(0001)/Si(111) substrates using a Bi2Se3 buffer layer. A valence band offset of 0.8 eV matches the energy gap of SnSe2 in such a way that the VB edge of WSe2 and the CB edge of SnSe2 are lined up, making this materials combination suitable for (nearly) broken gap TFETs. PMID:27537619

  7. CVMAC 2D Program: A method of converting 3D to 2D

    SciTech Connect

    Lown, J.

    1990-06-20

    This paper presents the user with a method of converting a three- dimensional wire frame model into a technical illustration, detail, or assembly drawing. By using the 2D Program, entities can be mapped from three-dimensional model space into two-dimensional model space, as if they are being traced. Selected entities to be mapped can include circles, arcs, lines, and points. This program prompts the user to digitize the view to be mapped, specify the layers in which the new two-dimensional entities will reside, and select the entities, either by digitizing or windowing. The new two-dimensional entities are displayed in a small view which the program creates in the lower left corner of the drawing. 9 figs.

  8. Probabilistic cloning of three symmetric states

    SciTech Connect

    Jimenez, O.; Bergou, J.; Delgado, A.

    2010-12-15

    We study the probabilistic cloning of three symmetric states. These states are defined by a single complex quantity, the inner product among them. We show that three different probabilistic cloning machines are necessary to optimally clone all possible families of three symmetric states. We also show that the optimal cloning probability of generating M copies out of one original can be cast as the quotient between the success probability of unambiguously discriminating one and M copies of symmetric states.

  9. Tools for detecting entanglement between different degrees of freedom in quadrature squeezed cylindrically polarized modes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gabriel, C.; Aiello, A.; Berg-Johansen, S.; Marquardt, Ch.; Leuchs, G.

    2012-07-01

    Quadrature squeezed cylindrically polarized modes contain entanglement not only in the polarization and spatial electric field variables but also between these two degrees of freedom [C. Gabriel et al., Phys. Rev. Lett. 106, 060502 (2011)]. In this paper we present tools to generate and detect this entanglement. Experimentally we demonstrate the generation of quadrature squeezing in cylindrically polarized modes by mode transforming a squeezed Gaussian mode. Specifically, -1.2 dB ± 0.1 dB of amplitude squeezing are achieved in the radially and azimuthally polarized mode. Furthermore, theoretically it is shown how the entanglement contained within these modes can be measured and how strong the quantum correlations are, depending on the measurement scheme.

  10. Walking dynamics are symmetric (enough)

    PubMed Central

    Ankaralı, M. Mert; Sefati, Shahin; Madhav, Manu S.; Long, Andrew; Bastian, Amy J.; Cowan, Noah J.

    2015-01-01

    Many biological phenomena such as locomotion, circadian cycles and breathing are rhythmic in nature and can be modelled as rhythmic dynamical systems. Dynamical systems modelling often involves neglecting certain characteristics of a physical system as a modelling convenience. For example, human locomotion is frequently treated as symmetric about the sagittal plane. In this work, we test this assumption by examining human walking dynamics around the steady state (limit-cycle). Here, we adapt statistical cross-validation in order to examine whether there are statistically significant asymmetries and, even if so, test the consequences of assuming bilateral symmetry anyway. Indeed, we identify significant asymmetries in the dynamics of human walking, but nevertheless show that ignoring these asymmetries results in a more consistent and predictive model. In general, neglecting evident characteristics of a system can be more than a modelling convenience—it can produce a better model.

  11. Symmetric blanket nuclear fuel assembly

    SciTech Connect

    Penkrot, J.A.

    1986-08-19

    This patent describes a fuel assembly having spaced-apart fuel rods, the combination comprising: (a) a first group of the fuel rods containing natural uranium only; and (b) a second group of the fuel rods constituting the remainder therof containing enriched uranium only; (c) the fuel rods of the first group being surrounded by the fuel rods of the second group in a predetermined symmetrical relationship; (d) the first group of the fuel rods forming an inner, centrally-located, generally squared pattern wherein the only fuel rods present in the inner squared pattern are the fuel rods of the first group; (e) the second group of the fuel rods forming an outer, peripherally-located, generally squared annular pattern which surrounds the first group wherein the only fuel rods present in the outer squared pattern are the fuel rods of the second group.

  12. Self-referenced interferometer for cylindrical surfaces.

    PubMed

    Šarbort, Martin; Řeřucha, Šimon; Holá, Miroslava; Buchta, Zdeněk; Lazar, Josef

    2015-11-20

    We present a new interferometric method for shape measurement of hollow cylindrical tubes. We propose a simple and robust self-referenced interferometer where the reference and object waves are represented by the central and peripheral parts, respectively, of the conical wave generated by a single axicon lens. The interferogram detected by a digital camera is characterized by a closed-fringe pattern with a circular carrier. The interference phase is demodulated using spatial synchronous detection. The capabilities of the interferometer are experimentally tested for various hollow cylindrical tubes with lengths up to 600 mm.

  13. Free-standing silicene obtained by cooling from 2D liquid Si: structure and thermodynamic properties

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Van Hoang, Vo; Thi Cam Mi, Huynh

    2014-12-01

    The structure and various thermodynamic properties of free-standing silicene have been studied by computer simulation. Models are obtained by cooling from buckling two-dimensional (2D) liquid Si via molecular dynamics (MD) simulation with Stillinger-Weber interatomic potential. The temperature dependence of total energy, heat capacity, mean ring size and mean coordination number shows that silicenization of 2D liquid Si exhibits a first-order-like behavior. The evolution of radial distribution function upon cooling from the melt also shows that solidification occurs in the system. The final configuration of silicene is analyzed via coordination, bond-angle, interatomic distance and ring distributions or distribution of buckling in the system. 2D visualization of atomic configurations clearly demonstrated that silicene obtained ‘naturally’ by cooling from the melt exhibits various structural previously unreported behaviors. We find the formation of polycrystalline silicene with clear grain boundaries containing various defects including various vacancies, Stone-Wales defects or skew rings and multimembered rings unlike those proposed in the literature. However, atoms in the obtained silicene are mostly involved in six-fold rings, forming a buckling honeycomb structure like that found in practice. We find that buckling is not unique for all atoms in the models although the majority of atoms reveal buckling of the most stable low-buckling silicene found in the literature. The buckling distribution is broad and symmetric. Our comprehensive MD simulation of a relatively large silicene model containing 104 atoms and obtained ‘naturally’ by cooling from the melt provides original insights into the structure and thermodynamics of this important 2D material.

  14. 2D Four-Channel Perfect Reconstruction Filter Bank Realized with the 2D Lattice Filter Structure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sezen, S.; Ertüzün, A.

    2006-12-01

    A novel orthogonal 2D lattice structure is incorporated into the design of a nonseparable 2D four-channel perfect reconstruction filter bank. The proposed filter bank is obtained by using the polyphase decomposition technique which requires the design of an orthogonal 2D lattice filter. Due to constraint of perfect reconstruction, each stage of this lattice filter bank is simply parameterized by two coefficients. The perfect reconstruction property is satisfied regardless of the actual values of these parameters and of the number of the lattice stages. It is also shown that a separable 2D four-channel perfect reconstruction lattice filter bank can be constructed from the 1D lattice filter and that this is a special case of the proposed 2D lattice filter bank under certain conditions. The perfect reconstruction property of the proposed 2D lattice filter approach is verified by computer simulations.

  15. Computing symmetric colorings of the dihedral group

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zelenyuk, Yuliya

    2016-06-01

    A symmetry on a group G is a mapping G ∋ x ↦ gx-1 g ∈ G, where g ∈ G. A subset A ⊆ G is symmetric if it is invariant under some symmetry, that is, A = gA-1g. The notion of symmetry has interesting relations to enumerative combinatorics. A coloring is symmetric if χ(gx-1g) = χ(x) for some g ∈ G. We discuss an approach how to compute the number of symmetric r-colorings for any finite group. Using this approach we derive the formula for the number of symmetric r-colorings of the dihedral group D3.

  16. A comparison between soft x-ray and magnetic phase data on the Madison symmetric torus

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    VanMeter, P. D.; Franz, P.; Reusch, L. M.; Sarff, J. S.; Den Hartog, D. J.

    2016-11-01

    The Soft X-Ray (SXR) tomography system on the Madison Symmetric Torus uses four cameras to determine the emissivity structure of the plasma. This structure should directly correspond to the structure of the magnetic field; however, there is an apparent phase difference between the emissivity reconstructions and magnetic field reconstructions when using a cylindrical approximation. The difference between the phase of the dominant rotating helical mode of the magnetic field and the motion of the brightest line of sight for each SXR camera is dependent on both the camera viewing angle and the plasma conditions. Holding these parameters fixed, this phase difference is shown to be consistent over multiple measurements when only toroidal or poloidal magnetic field components are considered. These differences emerge from physical effects of the toroidal geometry which are not captured in the cylindrical approximation.

  17. Total internal reflection-based planar waveguide solar concentrator with symmetric air prisms as couplers.

    PubMed

    Xie, Peng; Lin, Huichuan; Liu, Yong; Li, Baojun

    2014-10-20

    We present a waveguide coupling approach for planar waveguide solar concentrator. In this approach, total internal reflection (TIR)-based symmetric air prisms are used as couplers to increase the coupler reflectivity and to maximize the optical efficiency. The proposed concentrator consists of a line focusing cylindrical lens array over a planar waveguide. The TIR-based couplers are located at the focal line of each lens to couple the focused sunlight into the waveguide. The optical system was modeled and simulated with a commercial ray tracing software (Zemax). Results show that the system used with optimized TIR-based couplers can achieve 70% optical efficiency at 50 × geometrical concentration ratio, resulting in a flux concentration ratio of 35 without additional secondary concentrator. An acceptance angle of ± 7.5° is achieved in the x-z plane due to the use of cylindrical lens array as the primary concentrator.

  18. Digit ratio (2D:4D) predicts facial, but not voice or body odour, attractiveness in men.

    PubMed

    Ferdenzi, Camille; Lemaître, Jean-François; Leongómez, Juan David; Roberts, S Craig

    2011-12-01

    There is growing evidence that human second-to-fourth digit ratio (or 2D:4D) is related to facial features involved in attractiveness, mediated by in utero hormonal effects. The present study extends the investigation to other phenotypic, hormone-related determinants of human attractiveness: voice and body odour. Pictures of faces with a neutral expression, recordings of voices pronouncing vowels and axillary odour samples captured on cotton pads worn for 24 h were provided by 49 adult male donors. These stimuli were rated on attractiveness and masculinity scales by two groups of 49 and 35 females, approximately half of these in each sample using hormonal contraception. Multivariate regression analyses showed that males' lower (more masculine) right 2D:4D and lower right-minus-left 2D:4D (Dr-l) were associated with a more attractive (and in some cases more symmetrical), but not more masculine, face. However, 2D:4D and Dr-l did not predict voice and body odour masculinity or attractiveness. The results were interpreted in terms of differential effects of prenatal and circulating testosterone, male facial shape being supposedly more dependent on foetal levels (reflected by 2D:4D ratio), whereas body odour and vocal characteristics could be more dependent on variation in adult circulating testosterone levels. PMID:21508034

  19. Functional characterization of CYP2D6 enhancer polymorphisms

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Danxin; Papp, Audrey C.; Sun, Xiaochun

    2015-01-01

    CYP2D6 metabolizes nearly 25% of clinically used drugs. Genetic polymorphisms cause large inter-individual variability in CYP2D6 enzyme activity and are currently used as biomarker to predict CYP2D6 metabolizer phenotype. Previously, we had identified a region 115 kb downstream of CYP2D6 as enhancer for CYP2D6, containing two completely linked single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs), rs133333 and rs5758550, associated with enhanced transcription. However, the enhancer effect on CYP2D6 expression, and the causative variant, remained to be ascertained. To characterize the CYP2D6 enhancer element, we applied chromatin conformation capture combined with the next-generation sequencing (4C assays) and chromatin immunoprecipitation with P300 antibody, in HepG2 and human primary culture hepatocytes. The results confirmed the role of the previously identified enhancer region in CYP2D6 expression, expanding the number of candidate variants to three highly linked SNPs (rs133333, rs5758550 and rs4822082). Among these, only rs5758550 demonstrated regulating enhancer activity in a reporter gene assay. Use of clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats mediated genome editing in HepG2 cells targeting suspected enhancer regions decreased CYP2D6 mRNA expression by 70%, only upon deletion of the rs5758550 region. These results demonstrate robust effects of both the enhancer element and SNP rs5758550 on CYP2D6 expression, supporting consideration of rs5758550 for CYP2D6 genotyping panels to yield more accurate phenotype prediction. PMID:25381333

  20. Reactor safety issues resolved by the 2D/3D Program. International Agreement Report

    SciTech Connect

    Damerell, P.S.; Simons, J.W.

    1993-07-01

    The 2D/3D Program studied multidimensional thermal-hydraulics in a PWR core and primary system during the end-of-blowdown and post-blowdown phases of a large-break LOCA (LBLOCA), and during selected small-break LOCA (SBLOCA) transients. The program included tests at the Cylindrical Core Test Facility (CCTF), the Slab Core Test Facility (SCTF), and the Upper Plenum Test Facility (UPTF), and computer analyses using TRAC. Tests at CCTF investigated core thermal-hydraulics and overall system behavior while tests at SCTF concentrated on multidimensional core thermal-hydraulics. The UPTF tests investigated two-phase flow behavior in the downcomer, upper plenum, tie plate region, and primary loops. TRAC analyses evaluated thermal-hydraulic behavior throughout the primary system in tests as well as in PWRs. This report summarizes the test and analysis results in each of the main areas where improved information was obtained in the 2D/3D Program. The discussion is organized in terms of the reactor safety issues investigated.

  1. Displacement Vector Measurement Using 2D Modulation by Virtual Hyperbolic Beam Forming

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kondo, Kengo; Yamakawa, Makoto; Shiina, Tsuyoshi

    For the purpose of diagnosing ischemic heart disease by detection of malfunction area and cancer tumor by detection of hard area, 3-D tissue motion must be correctly evaluated. So far various methods of measuring multidimensional displacement have been developed. Most of present techniques are restricted to one-dimensional measurement of tissue displacement such as myocardial stain-rate imaging. Although lateral modulation method enables us to attain high-accuracy measurement of lateral displacement as well as axial direction by generating lateral oscillating RF signals, the method causes distorted RF far from center of aperture. As a result, the method is not suited to sector scan which is used for myocardial examination. We propose a method to solve the problem by using 2-D modulation with the virtual hyperbolic beam forming and detection of 2-D displacement vector. The feasibilities of the proposed method were evaluated by numerically simulating the left ventricle short-axis imaging of cylindrical myocardial model. The volume strain image obtained by the proposed method clearly depicted the hard infarction area where conventional multi-beam Doppler imaging could not.

  2. An Incompressible 2D Didactic Model with Singularity and Explicit Solutions of the 2D Boussinesq Equations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chae, Dongho; Constantin, Peter; Wu, Jiahong

    2014-09-01

    We give an example of a well posed, finite energy, 2D incompressible active scalar equation with the same scaling as the surface quasi-geostrophic equation and prove that it can produce finite time singularities. In spite of its simplicity, this seems to be the first such example. Further, we construct explicit solutions of the 2D Boussinesq equations whose gradients grow exponentially in time for all time. In addition, we introduce a variant of the 2D Boussinesq equations which is perhaps a more faithful companion of the 3D axisymmetric Euler equations than the usual 2D Boussinesq equations.

  3. The vibration-rotation-tunneling levels of N2-H2O and N2-D2O.

    PubMed

    Wang, Xiao-Gang; Carrington, Tucker

    2015-07-14

    In this paper, we report vibration-rotation-tunneling levels of the van der Waals clusters N2-H2O and N2-D2O computed from an ab initio potential energy surface. The only dynamical approximation is that the monomers are rigid. We use a symmetry adapted Lanczos algorithm and an uncoupled product basis set. The pattern of the cluster's levels is complicated by splittings caused by H-H exchange tunneling (larger splitting) and N-N exchange tunneling (smaller splitting). An interesting result that emerges from our calculation is that whereas in N2-H2O, the symmetric H-H tunnelling state is below the anti-symmetric H-H tunnelling state for both K = 0 and K = 1, the order is reversed in N2-D2O for K = 1. The only experimental splitting measurements are the D-D exchange tunneling splittings reported by Zhu et al. [J. Chem. Phys. 139, 214309 (2013)] for N2-D2O in the v2 = 1 region of D2O. Due to the inverted order of the split levels, they measure the sum of the K = 0 and K = 1 tunneling splittings, which is in excellent agreement with our calculated result. Other splittings we predict, in particular those of N2-H2O, may guide future experiments. PMID:26178101

  4. The vibration-rotation-tunneling levels of N2-H2O and N2-D2O

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Xiao-Gang; Carrington, Tucker

    2015-07-01

    In this paper, we report vibration-rotation-tunneling levels of the van der Waals clusters N2-H2O and N2-D2O computed from an ab initio potential energy surface. The only dynamical approximation is that the monomers are rigid. We use a symmetry adapted Lanczos algorithm and an uncoupled product basis set. The pattern of the cluster's levels is complicated by splittings caused by H-H exchange tunneling (larger splitting) and N-N exchange tunneling (smaller splitting). An interesting result that emerges from our calculation is that whereas in N2-H2O, the symmetric H-H tunnelling state is below the anti-symmetric H-H tunnelling state for both K = 0 and K = 1, the order is reversed in N2-D2O for K = 1. The only experimental splitting measurements are the D-D exchange tunneling splittings reported by Zhu et al. [J. Chem. Phys. 139, 214309 (2013)] for N2-D2O in the v2 = 1 region of D2O. Due to the inverted order of the split levels, they measure the sum of the K = 0 and K = 1 tunneling splittings, which is in excellent agreement with our calculated result. Other splittings we predict, in particular those of N2-H2O, may guide future experiments.

  5. Adaptation algorithms for 2-D feedforward neural networks.

    PubMed

    Kaczorek, T

    1995-01-01

    The generalized weight adaptation algorithms presented by J.G. Kuschewski et al. (1993) and by S.H. Zak and H.J. Sira-Ramirez (1990) are extended for 2-D madaline and 2-D two-layer feedforward neural nets (FNNs).

  6. Integrating Mobile Multimedia into Textbooks: 2D Barcodes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Uluyol, Celebi; Agca, R. Kagan

    2012-01-01

    The major goal of this study was to empirically compare text-plus-mobile phone learning using an integrated 2D barcode tag in a printed text with three other conditions described in multimedia learning theory. The method examined in the study involved modifications of the instructional material such that: a 2D barcode was used near the text, the…

  7. Efficient Visible Quasi-2D Perovskite Light-Emitting Diodes.

    PubMed

    Byun, Jinwoo; Cho, Himchan; Wolf, Christoph; Jang, Mi; Sadhanala, Aditya; Friend, Richard H; Yang, Hoichang; Lee, Tae-Woo

    2016-09-01

    Efficient quasi-2D-structure perovskite light-emitting diodes (4.90 cd A(-1) ) are demonstrated by mixing a 3D-structured perovskite material (methyl ammonium lead bromide) and a 2D-structured perovskite material (phenylethyl ammonium lead bromide), which can be ascribed to better film uniformity, enhanced exciton confinement, and reduced trap density. PMID:27334788

  8. CYP2D6: novel genomic structures and alleles

    PubMed Central

    Kramer, Whitney E.; Walker, Denise L.; O’Kane, Dennis J.; Mrazek, David A.; Fisher, Pamela K.; Dukek, Brian A.; Bruflat, Jamie K.; Black, John L.

    2010-01-01

    Objective CYP2D6 is a polymorphic gene. It has been observed to be deleted, to be duplicated and to undergo recombination events involving the CYP2D7 pseudogene and surrounding sequences. The objective of this study was to discover the genomic structure of CYP2D6 recombinants that interfere with clinical genotyping platforms that are available today. Methods Clinical samples containing rare homozygous CYP2D6 alleles, ambiguous readouts, and those with duplication signals and two different alleles were analyzed by long-range PCR amplification of individual genes, PCR fragment analysis, allele-specific primer extension assay, and DNA sequencing to characterize alleles and genomic structure. Results Novel alleles, genomic structures, and the DNA sequence of these structures are described. Interestingly, in 49 of 50 DNA samples that had CYP2D6 gene duplications or multiplications where two alleles were detected, the chromosome containing the duplication or multiplication had identical tandem alleles. Conclusion Several new CYP2D6 alleles and genomic structures are described which will be useful for CYP2D6 genotyping. The findings suggest that the recombination events responsible for CYP2D6 duplications and multiplications are because of mechanisms other than interchromosomal crossover during meiosis. PMID:19741566

  9. Efficient Visible Quasi-2D Perovskite Light-Emitting Diodes.

    PubMed

    Byun, Jinwoo; Cho, Himchan; Wolf, Christoph; Jang, Mi; Sadhanala, Aditya; Friend, Richard H; Yang, Hoichang; Lee, Tae-Woo

    2016-09-01

    Efficient quasi-2D-structure perovskite light-emitting diodes (4.90 cd A(-1) ) are demonstrated by mixing a 3D-structured perovskite material (methyl ammonium lead bromide) and a 2D-structured perovskite material (phenylethyl ammonium lead bromide), which can be ascribed to better film uniformity, enhanced exciton confinement, and reduced trap density.

  10. 2D materials and van der Waals heterostructures.

    PubMed

    Novoselov, K S; Mishchenko, A; Carvalho, A; Castro Neto, A H

    2016-07-29

    The physics of two-dimensional (2D) materials and heterostructures based on such crystals has been developing extremely fast. With these new materials, truly 2D physics has begun to appear (for instance, the absence of long-range order, 2D excitons, commensurate-incommensurate transition, etc.). Novel heterostructure devices--such as tunneling transistors, resonant tunneling diodes, and light-emitting diodes--are also starting to emerge. Composed from individual 2D crystals, such devices use the properties of those materials to create functionalities that are not accessible in other heterostructures. Here we review the properties of novel 2D crystals and examine how their properties are used in new heterostructure devices.

  11. Van der Waals stacked 2D layered materials for optoelectronics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Wenjing; Wang, Qixing; Chen, Yu; Wang, Zhuo; Wee, Andrew T. S.

    2016-06-01

    The band gaps of many atomically thin 2D layered materials such as graphene, black phosphorus, monolayer semiconducting transition metal dichalcogenides and hBN range from 0 to 6 eV. These isolated atomic planes can be reassembled into hybrid heterostructures made layer by layer in a precisely chosen sequence. Thus, the electronic properties of 2D materials can be engineered by van der Waals stacking, and the interlayer coupling can be tuned, which opens up avenues for creating new material systems with rich functionalities and novel physical properties. Early studies suggest that van der Waals stacked 2D materials work exceptionally well, dramatically enriching the optoelectronics applications of 2D materials. Here we review recent progress in van der Waals stacked 2D materials, and discuss their potential applications in optoelectronics.

  12. Distributed neural signals on parabolic cylindrical shells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hu, S. D.; Li, H.; Tzou, H. S.

    2013-06-01

    Parabolic cylindrical shells are commonly used as key components in communication antennas, space telescopes, solar collectors, etc. This study focuses on distributed modal neural sensing signals on a flexible simply-supported parabolic cylindrical shell panel. The parabolic cylindrical shell is fully laminated with a piezoelectric layer on its outer surface and the piezoelectric layer is segmented into infinitesimal elements (neurons) to investigate the microscopic distributed neural sensing signals. Since the dominant vibration component of the shell is usually the transverse oscillation, a new transverse mode shape function is defined. Two shell cases, i.e., the ratio of the meridian height to the half span distance of a parabola at 1:4 (shallow) and 1:1 (deep), are studied to reveal the curvature effect to the neural sensing signals. Studies suggest that the membrane signal component dominates for lower natural modes and the bending signal component dominates for higher natural modes. The meridional membrane and bending signal components are mostly concentrated on the high-curvature areas, while the longitudinal bending component is mostly concentrated on the relatively flat areas. The concentration behavior becomes more prominent as the parabolic cylindrical shell deepens, primarily resulting from the enhanced membrane effect due to the increased curvature.

  13. Estrogen-Induced Cholestasis Leads to Repressed CYP2D6 Expression in CYP2D6-Humanized Mice

    PubMed Central

    Pan, Xian

    2015-01-01

    Cholestasis activates bile acid receptor farnesoid X receptor (FXR) and subsequently enhances hepatic expression of small heterodimer partner (SHP). We previously demonstrated that SHP represses the transactivation of cytochrome P450 2D6 (CYP2D6) promoter by hepatocyte nuclear factor (HNF) 4α. In this study, we investigated the effects of estrogen-induced cholestasis on CYP2D6 expression. Estrogen-induced cholestasis occurs in subjects receiving estrogen for contraception or hormone replacement, or in susceptible women during pregnancy. In CYP2D6-humanized transgenic (Tg-CYP2D6) mice, cholestasis triggered by administration of 17α-ethinylestradiol (EE2) at a high dose led to 2- to 3-fold decreases in CYP2D6 expression. This was accompanied by increased hepatic SHP expression and subsequent decreases in the recruitment of HNF4α to CYP2D6 promoter. Interestingly, estrogen-induced cholestasis also led to increased recruitment of estrogen receptor (ER) α, but not that of FXR, to Shp promoter, suggesting a predominant role of ERα in transcriptional regulation of SHP in estrogen-induced cholestasis. EE2 at a low dose (that does not cause cholestasis) also increased SHP (by ∼50%) and decreased CYP2D6 expression (by 1.5-fold) in Tg-CYP2D6 mice, the magnitude of differences being much smaller than that shown in EE2-induced cholestasis. Taken together, our data indicate that EE2-induced cholestasis increases SHP and represses CYP2D6 expression in Tg-CYP2D6 mice in part through ERα transactivation of Shp promoter. PMID:25943116

  14. Fisher-Symmetric Informationally Complete Measurements for Pure States.

    PubMed

    Li, Nan; Ferrie, Christopher; Gross, Jonathan A; Kalev, Amir; Caves, Carlton M

    2016-05-01

    We introduce a new kind of quantum measurement that is defined to be symmetric in the sense of uniform Fisher information across a set of parameters that uniquely represent pure quantum states in the neighborhood of a fiducial pure state. The measurement is locally informationally complete-i.e., it uniquely determines these parameters, as opposed to distinguishing two arbitrary quantum states-and it is maximal in the sense of a multiparameter quantum Cramér-Rao bound. For a d-dimensional quantum system, requiring only local informational completeness allows us to reduce the number of outcomes of the measurement from a minimum close to but below 4d-3, for the usual notion of global pure-state informational completeness, to 2d-1. PMID:27203310

  15. Magneto-Rayleigh-Taylor Instability: Theory and simulation in planar and cylindrical pulsed power targets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Weis, Matthew R.

    Cylindrical liner implosions in the Magnetized Liner Inertial Fusion (MagLIF) concept are susceptible to the magneto-Rayleigh-Taylor instability (MRT). The danger of MRT enters in two phases, (1) during the main implosion, the outer surface of the liner is MRT unstable, and (2) during the short time period when the liner decelerates onto hot fuel, the inner surface becomes unstable. Growth of MRT on the outer surface may also feedthrough, which may seed the inner surface leading to high MRT growth in the second phase. If MRT growth becomes large enough, confinement of the fuel is lost. To characterize MRT we solve the linearized, ideal MHD equations in both planar and cylindrical geometries, including the presence of an axial magnetic field and the effects of sausage and kink modes (present in cylindrical coordinates only). In general, the total instability growth rates in cylindrical geometry are found to be larger than those in planar geometry. MRT and feedthrough is shown to be suppressed by strong magnetic field line bending (tension). However, for the same amount of field line bending, feedthrough is the most stabilized. Application of the planar and the cylindrical model to results from the Z-machine at Sandia National Laboratories is presented. Analytic MRT growth rates for a typical magnetized MagLIF-like implosion show the kink mode to be the fastest growing early and very late in the liner implosion (during deceleration). 1D HYDRA MHD simulations are used to generate realistic, evolving profiles (in density, pressure, and magnetic field) during the implosion from which instantaneous growth rates can be computed exactly, using either the planar or cylindrical analytic formulae developed in this thesis. Sophisticated 2D HYDRA MHD simulations were also performed to compare with the analytic theory and experimental results. In 2D, highly compressed axial magnetic fields can reduce the growth of perturbations at the fuel/liner interface during the implosion

  16. Threshold voltage model of junctionless cylindrical surrounding gate MOSFETs including fringing field effects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gupta, Santosh Kumar

    2015-12-01

    2D Analytical model of the body center potential (BCP) in short channel junctionless Cylindrical Surrounding Gate (JLCSG) MOSFETs is developed using evanescent mode analysis (EMA). This model also incorporates the gate bias dependent inner and outer fringing capacitances due to the gate-source/drain fringing fields. The developed model provides results in good agreement with simulated results for variations of different physical parameters of JLCSG MOSFET viz. gate length, channel radius, doping concentration, and oxide thickness. Using the BCP, an analytical model for the threshold voltage has been derived and validated against results obtained from 3D device simulator.

  17. Continuity and Separation in Symmetric Topologies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harris, J.; Lynch, M.

    2007-01-01

    In this note, it is shown that in a symmetric topological space, the pairs of sets separated by the topology determine the topology itself. It is then shown that when the codomain is symmetric, functions which separate only those pairs of sets that are already separated are continuous, generalizing a result found by M. Lynch.

  18. Targeted fluorescence imaging enhanced by 2D materials: a comparison between 2D MoS2 and graphene oxide.

    PubMed

    Xie, Donghao; Ji, Ding-Kun; Zhang, Yue; Cao, Jun; Zheng, Hu; Liu, Lin; Zang, Yi; Li, Jia; Chen, Guo-Rong; James, Tony D; He, Xiao-Peng

    2016-08-01

    Here we demonstrate that 2D MoS2 can enhance the receptor-targeting and imaging ability of a fluorophore-labelled ligand. The 2D MoS2 has an enhanced working concentration range when compared with graphene oxide, resulting in the improved imaging of both cell and tissue samples.

  19. MHD peristaltic transport of spherical and cylindrical magneto-nanoparticles suspended in water

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abbasi, F. M.; Hayat, T.; Alsaadi, Fuad; Dobai, Abdullah M.; Gao, Huijun

    2015-07-01

    Advancements in the biomedical engineering have enhanced the usage of magnto-nanoparticles in improving the precision and efficiency of the magneto-drug delivery systems. Such systems make use of the externally applied magnetic fields to direct the drug towards a specific target in the human body. Peristalsis of magneto-nanofluids is of significant importance in such considerations. Hence peristaltic transport of Fe3O4-water nanofluid through a two-dimensional symmetric channel is analyzed in the presence of an externally applied constant magnetic field. Hamilton-Crosser's model of the thermal conductivity is utilized in the problem development. The nanofluid saturates a non-uniform porous medium in which the porosity of the porous medium varies with the distance from the channel walls. Analysis is performed for the spherical and the cylindrical nanoparticles. Resulting system of equations is numerically solved. Impacts of sundry parameters on the axial velocity, temperature, pressure gradient and heat transfer rate at the boundary are examined. Comparison between the results for spherical and cylindrical nanoparticles is also presented. Results show that the nanoparticles volume fraction and the Hartman number have increasing effect on the pressure gradient throughout the peristaltic tract. Effective heat transfer rate at the boundary tends to enhance with an increase in the nanoparticles volume fraction. Use of spherical nanoparticles results in a higher value of axial velocity and the temperature at the center of channel when compared with the case of cylindrical nanoparticles.

  20. Symmetrical thalamic lesions in infants.

    PubMed Central

    Eicke, M; Briner, J; Willi, U; Uehlinger, J; Boltshauser, E

    1992-01-01

    Clinical observations and findings on imaging are reported in six newborns with symmetrical thalamic lesions (STL). In three cases the diagnosis was confirmed by postmortem examination. Characteristic observations in this series and 17 previously reported cases include no evidence of perinatal asphyxia, high incidence of polyhydramnios, absent suck and swallow, absent primitive reflexes, appreciable spasticity at or within days of birth, lack of psychomotor development, and death within days or months. Characteristic pathological findings include loss of neurons, astrogliosis, and 'incrusted' neurons particularly in the thalamus. In two thirds of cases the basal ganglia and brain stem are involved as well. A hypoxic-ischaemic event occurring two to four weeks before birth is most likely responsible for STL. Bilateral thalamic calcification can often, but not always, be demonstrated in the newborn period by computed tomography and/or cranial ultrasound. The presence of these calcifications and the observation of spasticity at birth imply that the responsible insult occurred at least two to four weeks earlier. The small number of published cases with STL suggest that it may be easily missed. Images Figure 1 Figure 2 Figure 3 Figure 4 Figure 5 PMID:1536580

  1. Baryon symmetric big bang cosmology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stecker, F. W.

    1978-01-01

    Both the quantum theory and Einsteins theory of special relativity lead to the supposition that matter and antimatter were produced in equal quantities during the big bang. It is noted that local matter/antimatter asymmetries may be reconciled with universal symmetry by assuming (1) a slight imbalance of matter over antimatter in the early universe, annihilation, and a subsequent remainder of matter; (2) localized regions of excess for one or the other type of matter as an initial condition; and (3) an extremely dense, high temperature state with zero net baryon number; i.e., matter/antimatter symmetry. Attention is given to the third assumption, which is the simplest and the most in keeping with current knowledge of the cosmos, especially as pertains the universality of 3 K background radiation. Mechanisms of galaxy formation are discussed, whereby matter and antimatter might have collided and annihilated each other, or have coexisted (and continue to coexist) at vast distances. It is pointed out that baryon symmetric big bang cosmology could probably be proved if an antinucleus could be detected in cosmic radiation.

  2. Parity-time-symmetric teleportation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ra'di, Y.; Sounas, D. L.; Alù, A.; Tretyakov, S. A.

    2016-06-01

    We show that electromagnetic plane waves can be fully "teleported" through thin, nearly fully reflective sheets, assisted by a pair of parity-time-symmetric lossy and active sheets in front and behind the screen. The proposed structure is able to almost perfectly absorb incident waves over a wide range of frequency and incidence angles, while waves having a specific frequency and incidence angle are replicated behind the structure in synchronization with the input signal. It is shown that the proposed structure can be designed to teleport waves at any desired frequency and incidence angle. Furthermore, we generalize the proposed concept to the case of teleportation of electromagnetic waves over electrically long distances, enabling full absorption at one surface and the synthesis of the same signal at another point located electrically far away from the first surface. The physical principle behind this selective teleportation is discussed, and similarities and differences with tunneling and cloaking concepts based on PT symmetry are investigated. From the application point of view, the proposed structure works as an extremely selective filter, both in frequency and spatial domains.

  3. Efficient 2D MRI relaxometry using compressed sensing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bai, Ruiliang; Cloninger, Alexander; Czaja, Wojciech; Basser, Peter J.

    2015-06-01

    Potential applications of 2D relaxation spectrum NMR and MRI to characterize complex water dynamics (e.g., compartmental exchange) in biology and other disciplines have increased in recent years. However, the large amount of data and long MR acquisition times required for conventional 2D MR relaxometry limits its applicability for in vivo preclinical and clinical MRI. We present a new MR pipeline for 2D relaxometry that incorporates compressed sensing (CS) as a means to vastly reduce the amount of 2D relaxation data needed for material and tissue characterization without compromising data quality. Unlike the conventional CS reconstruction in the Fourier space (k-space), the proposed CS algorithm is directly applied onto the Laplace space (the joint 2D relaxation data) without compressing k-space to reduce the amount of data required for 2D relaxation spectra. This framework is validated using synthetic data, with NMR data acquired in a well-characterized urea/water phantom, and on fixed porcine spinal cord tissue. The quality of the CS-reconstructed spectra was comparable to that of the conventional 2D relaxation spectra, as assessed using global correlation, local contrast between peaks, peak amplitude and relaxation parameters, etc. This result brings this important type of contrast closer to being realized in preclinical, clinical, and other applications.

  4. Practical Algorithm For Computing The 2-D Arithmetic Fourier Transform

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reed, Irving S.; Choi, Y. Y.; Yu, Xiaoli

    1989-05-01

    Recently, Tufts and Sadasiv [10] exposed a method for computing the coefficients of a Fourier series of a periodic function using the Mobius inversion of series. They called this method of analysis the Arithmetic Fourier Transform(AFT). The advantage of the AFT over the FN 1' is that this method of Fourier analysis needs only addition operations except for multiplications by scale factors at one stage of the computation. The disadvantage of the AFT as they expressed it originally is that it could be used effectively only to compute finite Fourier coefficients of a real even function. To remedy this the AFT developed in [10] is extended in [11] to compute the Fourier coefficients of both the even and odd components of a periodic function. In this paper, the improved AFT [11] is extended to a two-dimensional(2-D) Arithmetic Fourier Transform for calculating the Fourier Transform of two-dimensional discrete signals. This new algorithm is based on both the number-theoretic method of Mobius inversion of double series and the complex conjugate property of Fourier coefficients. The advantage of this algorithm over the conventional 2-D FFT is that the corner-turning problem needed in a conventional 2-D Discrete Fourier Transform(DFT) can be avoided. Therefore, this new 2-D algorithm is readily suitable for VLSI implementation as a parallel architecture. Comparing the operations of 2-D AFT of a MxM 2-D data array with the conventional 2-D FFT, the number of multiplications is significantly reduced from (2log2M)M2 to (9/4)M2. Hence, this new algorithm is faster than the FFT algorithm. Finally, two simulation results of this new 2-D AFT algorithm for 2-D artificial and real images are given in this paper.

  5. 2D electron cyclotron emission imaging at ASDEX Upgrade (invited)

    SciTech Connect

    Classen, I. G. J.; Boom, J. E.; Vries, P. C. de; Suttrop, W.; Schmid, E.; Garcia-Munoz, M.; Schneider, P. A.; Tobias, B.; Domier, C. W.; Luhmann, N. C. Jr.; Donne, A. J. H.; Jaspers, R. J. E.; Park, H. K.; Munsat, T.

    2010-10-15

    The newly installed electron cyclotron emission imaging diagnostic on ASDEX Upgrade provides measurements of the 2D electron temperature dynamics with high spatial and temporal resolution. An overview of the technical and experimental properties of the system is presented. These properties are illustrated by the measurements of the edge localized mode and the reversed shear Alfven eigenmode, showing both the advantage of having a two-dimensional (2D) measurement, as well as some of the limitations of electron cyclotron emission measurements. Furthermore, the application of singular value decomposition as a powerful tool for analyzing and filtering 2D data is presented.

  6. Comparison of 2D and 3D gamma analyses

    SciTech Connect

    Pulliam, Kiley B.; Huang, Jessie Y.; Howell, Rebecca M.; Followill, David; Kry, Stephen F.; Bosca, Ryan; O’Daniel, Jennifer

    2014-02-15

    Purpose: As clinics begin to use 3D metrics for intensity-modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) quality assurance, it must be noted that these metrics will often produce results different from those produced by their 2D counterparts. 3D and 2D gamma analyses would be expected to produce different values, in part because of the different search space available. In the present investigation, the authors compared the results of 2D and 3D gamma analysis (where both datasets were generated in the same manner) for clinical treatment plans. Methods: Fifty IMRT plans were selected from the authors’ clinical database, and recalculated using Monte Carlo. Treatment planning system-calculated (“evaluated dose distributions”) and Monte Carlo-recalculated (“reference dose distributions”) dose distributions were compared using 2D and 3D gamma analysis. This analysis was performed using a variety of dose-difference (5%, 3%, 2%, and 1%) and distance-to-agreement (5, 3, 2, and 1 mm) acceptance criteria, low-dose thresholds (5%, 10%, and 15% of the prescription dose), and data grid sizes (1.0, 1.5, and 3.0 mm). Each comparison was evaluated to determine the average 2D and 3D gamma, lower 95th percentile gamma value, and percentage of pixels passing gamma. Results: The average gamma, lower 95th percentile gamma value, and percentage of passing pixels for each acceptance criterion demonstrated better agreement for 3D than for 2D analysis for every plan comparison. The average difference in the percentage of passing pixels between the 2D and 3D analyses with no low-dose threshold ranged from 0.9% to 2.1%. Similarly, using a low-dose threshold resulted in a difference between the mean 2D and 3D results, ranging from 0.8% to 1.5%. The authors observed no appreciable differences in gamma with changes in the data density (constant difference: 0.8% for 2D vs 3D). Conclusions: The authors found that 3D gamma analysis resulted in up to 2.9% more pixels passing than 2D analysis. It must

  7. Recent advances in 2D materials for photocatalysis.

    PubMed

    Luo, Bin; Liu, Gang; Wang, Lianzhou

    2016-04-01

    Two-dimensional (2D) materials have attracted increasing attention for photocatalytic applications because of their unique thickness dependent physical and chemical properties. This review gives a brief overview of the recent developments concerning the chemical synthesis and structural design of 2D materials at the nanoscale and their applications in photocatalytic areas. In particular, recent progress on the emerging strategies for tailoring 2D material-based photocatalysts to improve their photo-activity including elemental doping, heterostructure design and functional architecture assembly is discussed.

  8. The sound field in a finite cylindrical shell

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Junger, M. C.

    1985-01-01

    The sound field excited by vibrating boundaries in a finite cylindrical space, e.g., in a cylindrical shell, differs from the pressure distribution in an infinite cylindrical shell of comparable structural wavelength by the pressure diffracted by the end caps. The latter pressure component is comparable in magnitude to the pressure generated by the vibrating cylindrical boundary, but does not introduce additional resonances or antiresonances. Finally, a third pressure component associated with end cap vibrations is formulated.

  9. Ultrasonic Concentration in a Line-Driven Cylindrical Tube

    SciTech Connect

    Goddard, Gregory Russ

    2004-01-01

    The fractionation of particles from their suspending fluid or noninvasive micromanipulation of particles in suspension has many applications ranging from the recovery of valuable reagents from process flows to the fabrication of microelectromechanical devices. Techniques based on size, density, solubility, or electromagnetic properties exist for fulfilling these needs, but many particles have traits that preclude their use such as small size, neutral buoyancy, or uniform electromagnetic characteristics. While separation by those techniques may not be possible, often compressibility differences exist between the particle and fluid that would allow fractionation by acoustic forces. The potential of acoustic separation is known, but due to inherent difficulties in achieving and maintaining accurate alignment of the transduction system, it is rarely utilized. The objective of this project is to investigate the use of structural excitation as a potentially efficient concentration/fractionation method for particles in suspension. It is demonstrated that structural excitation of a cylindrically symmetric cavity, such as a tube, allows non-invasive, fast, and low power concentration of particles suspended in a fluid. The inherent symmetry of the system eliminates the need for careful alignment inherent in current acoustic concentration devices. Structural excitation distributes the acoustic field throughout the volume of the cavity, which also significantly reduces temperature gradients and acoustic streaming in the fluid; cavitation is no longer an issue. The lowest-order coupled modes of a long cylindrical glass tube and fluid-filled cavity, driven by a line contact, are tuned, via material properties and aspect ratio, to achieve a coupled dipolar vibration of the system, shown to generate efficient concentration of particles to the central axis of the tube. A two dimensional elastodynamic model of the system was developed and subsequently utilized to optimize particle

  10. Symmetric Monotone Venn Diagrams with Seven Curves

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cao, Tao; Mamakani, Khalegh; Ruskey, Frank

    An n-Venn diagram consists of n curves drawn in the plane in such a way that each of the 2 n possible intersections of the interiors and exteriors of the curves forms a connected non-empty region. A k-region in a diagram is a region that is in the interior of precisely k curves. A n-Venn diagram is symmetric if it has a point of rotation about which rotations of the plane by 2π/n radians leaves the diagram fixed; it is polar symmetric if it is symmetric and its stereographic projection about the infinite outer face is isomorphic to the projection about the innermost face. A Venn diagram is monotone if every k-region is adjacent to both some (k - 1)-region (if k > 0) and also to some k + 1 region (if k < n). A Venn diagram is simple if at most two curves intersect at any point. We prove that the "Grünbaum" encoding uniquely identifies monotone simple symmetric n-Venn diagrams and describe an algorithm that produces an exhaustive list of all of the monotone simple symmetric n-Venn diagrams. There are exactly 23 simple monotone symmetric 7-Venn diagrams, of which 6 are polar symmetric.

  11. The symmetric extendibility of quantum states

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nowakowski, Marcin L.

    2016-09-01

    Studies on the symmetric extendibility of quantum states have become particularly important in the context of the analysis of one-way quantum measures of entanglement, and the distillability and security of quantum protocols. In this paper we analyze composite systems containing a symmetric extendible part, with particular attention devoted to the one-way security of such systems. Further, we introduce a new one-way entanglement monotone based on the best symmetric approximation of a quantum state and the extendible number of a quantum state. We underpin these results with geometric observations about the structures of multi-party settings which posses substantial symmetric extendible components in their subspaces. The impossibility of reducing the maximal symmetric extendibility by means of the one-way local operations and classical communication method is pointed out on multiple copies. Finally, we state a conjecture linking symmetric extendibility with the one-way distillability and security of all quantum states, analyzing the behavior of a private key in the neighborhood of symmetric extendible states.

  12. Alloyed 2D Metal-Semiconductor Atomic Layer Junctions.

    PubMed

    Kim, Ah Ra; Kim, Yonghun; Nam, Jaewook; Chung, Hee-Suk; Kim, Dong Jae; Kwon, Jung-Dae; Park, Sang Won; Park, Jucheol; Choi, Sun Young; Lee, Byoung Hun; Park, Ji Hyeon; Lee, Kyu Hwan; Kim, Dong-Ho; Choi, Sung Mook; Ajayan, Pulickel M; Hahm, Myung Gwan; Cho, Byungjin

    2016-03-01

    Heterostructures of compositionally and electronically variant two-dimensional (2D) atomic layers are viable building blocks for ultrathin optoelectronic devices. We show that the composition of interfacial transition region between semiconducting WSe2 atomic layer channels and metallic NbSe2 contact layers can be engineered through interfacial doping with Nb atoms. WxNb1-xSe2 interfacial regions considerably lower the potential barrier height of the junction, significantly improving the performance of the corresponding WSe2-based field-effect transistor devices. The creation of such alloyed 2D junctions between dissimilar atomic layer domains could be the most important factor in controlling the electronic properties of 2D junctions and the design and fabrication of 2D atomic layer devices.

  13. Emerging and potential opportunities for 2D flexible nanoelectronics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhu, Weinan; Park, Saungeun; Akinwande, Deji

    2016-05-01

    The last 10 years have seen the emergence of two-dimensional (2D) nanomaterials such as graphene, transition metal dichalcogenides (TMDs), and black phosphorus (BP) among the growing portfolio of layered van der Waals thin films. Graphene, the prototypical 2D material has advanced rapidly in device, circuit and system studies that has resulted in commercial large-area applications. In this work, we provide a perspective of the emerging and potential translational applications of 2D materials including semiconductors, semimetals, and insulators that comprise the basic material set for diverse nanosystems. Applications include RF transceivers, smart systems, the so-called internet of things, and neurotechnology. We will review the DC and RF electronic performance of graphene and BP thin film transistors. 2D materials at sub-um channel length have so far enabled cut-off frequencies from baseband to 100GHz suitable for low-power RF and sub-THz concepts.

  14. 2D hexagonal quaternion Fourier transform in color image processing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grigoryan, Artyom M.; Agaian, Sos S.

    2016-05-01

    In this paper, we present a novel concept of the quaternion discrete Fourier transform on the two-dimensional hexagonal lattice, which we call the two-dimensional hexagonal quaternion discrete Fourier transform (2-D HQDFT). The concept of the right-side 2D HQDFT is described and the left-side 2-D HQDFT is similarly considered. To calculate the transform, the image on the hexagonal lattice is described in the tensor representation when the image is presented by a set of 1-D signals, or splitting-signals which can be separately processed in the frequency domain. The 2-D HQDFT can be calculated by a set of 1-D quaternion discrete Fourier transforms (QDFT) of the splitting-signals.

  15. Technical Review of the UNET2D Hydraulic Model

    SciTech Connect

    Perkins, William A.; Richmond, Marshall C.

    2009-05-18

    The Kansas City District of the US Army Corps of Engineers is engaged in a broad range of river management projects that require knowledge of spatially-varied hydraulic conditions such as velocities and water surface elevations. This information is needed to design new structures, improve existing operations, and assess aquatic habitat. Two-dimensional (2D) depth-averaged numerical hydraulic models are a common tool that can be used to provide velocity and depth information. Kansas City District is currently using a specific 2D model, UNET2D, that has been developed to meet the needs of their river engineering applications. This report documents a tech- nical review of UNET2D.

  16. Double resonance rotational spectroscopy of CH2D+

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Töpfer, Matthias; Jusko, Pavol; Schlemmer, Stephan; Asvany, Oskar

    2016-09-01

    Context. Deuterated forms of CH are thought to be responsible for deuterium enrichment in lukewarm astronomical environments. There is no unambiguous detection of CH2D+ in space to date. Aims: Four submillimetre rotational lines of CH2D+ are documented in the literature. Our aim is to present a complete dataset of highly resolved rotational lines, including millimetre (mm) lines needed for a potential detection. Methods: We used a low-temperature ion trap and applied a novel IR-mm-wave double resonance method to measure the rotational lines of CH2D+. Results: We measured 21 low-lying (J ≤ 4) rotational transitions of CH2D+ between 23 GHz and 1.1 THz with accuracies close to 2 ppb.

  17. Alloyed 2D Metal-Semiconductor Atomic Layer Junctions.

    PubMed

    Kim, Ah Ra; Kim, Yonghun; Nam, Jaewook; Chung, Hee-Suk; Kim, Dong Jae; Kwon, Jung-Dae; Park, Sang Won; Park, Jucheol; Choi, Sun Young; Lee, Byoung Hun; Park, Ji Hyeon; Lee, Kyu Hwan; Kim, Dong-Ho; Choi, Sung Mook; Ajayan, Pulickel M; Hahm, Myung Gwan; Cho, Byungjin

    2016-03-01

    Heterostructures of compositionally and electronically variant two-dimensional (2D) atomic layers are viable building blocks for ultrathin optoelectronic devices. We show that the composition of interfacial transition region between semiconducting WSe2 atomic layer channels and metallic NbSe2 contact layers can be engineered through interfacial doping with Nb atoms. WxNb1-xSe2 interfacial regions considerably lower the potential barrier height of the junction, significantly improving the performance of the corresponding WSe2-based field-effect transistor devices. The creation of such alloyed 2D junctions between dissimilar atomic layer domains could be the most important factor in controlling the electronic properties of 2D junctions and the design and fabrication of 2D atomic layer devices. PMID:26839956

  18. ORION96. 2-d Finite Element Code Postprocessor

    SciTech Connect

    Sanford, L.A.; Hallquist, J.O.

    1992-02-02

    ORION is an interactive program that serves as a postprocessor for the analysis programs NIKE2D, DYNA2D, TOPAZ2D, and CHEMICAL TOPAZ2D. ORION reads binary plot files generated by the two-dimensional finite element codes currently used by the Methods Development Group at LLNL. Contour and color fringe plots of a large number of quantities may be displayed on meshes consisting of triangular and quadrilateral elements. ORION can compute strain measures, interface pressures along slide lines, reaction forces along constrained boundaries, and momentum. ORION has been applied to study the response of two-dimensional solids and structures undergoing finite deformations under a wide variety of large deformation transient dynamic and static problems and heat transfer analyses.

  19. Finite Element Analysis of Tube Hydroforming in Non-Symmetrical Dies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nulkar, Abhishek V.; Gu, Randy; Murty, Pilaka

    2011-08-01

    Tube hydroforming has been studied intensively using commercial finite element programs. A great deal of the investigations dealt with models with symmetric cross-sections. It is known that additional constraints due to symmetry may be imposed on the model so that it is properly supported. For a non-symmetric model, these constraints become invalid and the model does not have sufficient support resulting in a singular finite element system. Majority of commercial codes have a limited capability in solving models with insufficient supports. Recently, new algorithms using penalty variable and air-like contact element (ALCE) have been developed to solve positive semi-definite finite element systems such as those in contact mechanics. In this study the ALCE algorithm is first validated by comparing its result against a commercial code using a symmetric model in which a circular tube is formed to polygonal dies with symmetric shapes. Then, the study investigates the accuracy and efficiency of using ALCE in analyzing hydroforming of tubes with various cross-sections in non-symmetrical dies in 2-D finite element settings.

  20. New 2D dilaton gravity for nonsingular black holes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kunstatter, Gabor; Maeda, Hideki; Taves, Tim

    2016-05-01

    We construct a two-dimensional action that is an extension of spherically symmetric Einstein-Lanczos-Lovelock (ELL) gravity. The action contains arbitrary functions of the areal radius and the norm squared of its gradient, but the field equations are second order and obey Birkhoff’s theorem. In complete analogy with spherically symmetric ELL gravity, the field equations admit the generalized Misner-Sharp mass as the first integral that determines the form of the vacuum solution. The arbitrary functions in the action allow for vacuum solutions that describe a larger class of interesting nonsingular black hole spacetimes than previously available.

  1. Surface superconductivity in thin cylindrical Bi nanowire.

    PubMed

    Tian, Mingliang; Wang, Jian; Ning, Wei; Mallouk, Thomas E; Chan, Moses H W

    2015-03-11

    The physical origin and the nature of superconductivity in nanostructured Bi remains puzzling. Here, we report transport measurements of individual cylindrical single-crystal Bi nanowires, 20 and 32 nm in diameter. In contrast to nonsuperconducting Bi nanoribbons with two flat surfaces, cylindrical Bi nanowires show superconductivity below 1.3 K. However, their superconducting critical magnetic fields decrease with their diameter, which is the opposite of the expected behavior for thin superconducting wires. Quasiperiodic oscillations of magnetoresistance were observed in perpendicular fields but were not seen in the parallel orientation. These results can be understood by a model of surface superconductivity with an enhanced surface-to-bulk volume in small diameter wires, where the superconductivity originates from the strained surface states of the nanowires due to the surface curvature-induced stress.

  2. Buckling optimisation of sandwich cylindrical panels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abouhamzeh, M.; Sadighi, M.

    2016-06-01

    In this paper, the buckling load optimisation is performed on sandwich cylindrical panels. A finite element program is developed in MATLAB to solve the governing differential equations of the global buckling of the structure. In order to find the optimal solution, the genetic algorithm Toolbox in MATLAB is implemented. Verifications are made for both the buckling finite element code and also the results from the genetic algorithm by comparisons to the results available in literature. Sandwich cylindrical panels are optimised for the buckling strength with isotropic or orthotropic cores with different boundary conditions. Results are presented in terms of stacking sequence of fibers in the face sheets and core to face sheet thickness ratio.

  3. Gravitational radiation from a cylindrical naked singularity

    SciTech Connect

    Nakao, Ken-ichi; Morisawa, Yoshiyuki

    2005-06-15

    We construct an approximate solution which describes the gravitational emission from a naked singularity formed by the gravitational collapse of a cylindrical thick shell composed of dust. The assumed situation is that the collapsing speed of the dust is very large. In this situation, the metric variables are obtained approximately by a kind of linear perturbation analysis in the background Morgan solution which describes the motion of cylindrical null dust. The most important problem in this study is what boundary conditions for metric and matter variables should be imposed at the naked singularity. We find a boundary condition that all the metric and matter variables are everywhere finite at least up to the first order approximation. This implies that the spacetime singularity formed by this high-speed dust collapse is very similar to that formed by the null dust and the final singularity will be a conical one. Weyl curvature is completely released from the collapsed dust.

  4. Cylindrically converging blast waves in air

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Matsuo, H.; Nakamura, Y.

    1981-07-01

    Cylindrically converging shock waves are produced by utilizing the detonation of cylindrical explosive shells. The production and the propagation of shock waves are observed by framing and streak camera photographs, and the trajectory of shock propagations is determined by using an electrical ionization probing system. The effect of the quantity of explosives on the stability, or the axial symmetry, of shock fronts and on the strength of shocks produced is investigated. It has been shown that, for practical purposes, the approximation of shock trajectories by Guderley's formulas would be sufficiently acceptable in an unexpectedly wide region near the implosion center, and that the axial symmetry of the shock front is improved by increasing the quantity of explosives, and thus, strong shocks are produced by merely increasing the quantity of explosives. The reflected diverging shock seems to be very stable. Piezoelectric elements have also been used to detect reflected diverging waves.

  5. Damage experiments in a cylindrical geometry

    SciTech Connect

    Kaul, Ann M

    2010-09-21

    Studying spallation damage with a cylindrical configuration allows for a natural recollection of the damaged material under proper driving conditions. Additionally, the damaged material can come to a complete rest without the application of further stopping forces. Specific areas of research include the damage initiation regime in convergent geometry, behavior of material recollected after damage, and effects of convergent geometry on the material response. Such experiments produce unique strain and shear stress states, motivating improvements in existing computational material models and increasing the predictive capabilities of codes. A LANL/VNIIEF joint experimental series has produced cylindrical aluminum failure initiation data and studied the behavior of material recollected after damage initiation and after complete failure. In addition to post-shot collection of the damaged target material for subsequent metallographic analysis, dynamic in-situ experimental diagnostics include velocimetry and transverse radial radiography. This paper will discuss the current experimental status.

  6. Surface superconductivity in thin cylindrical Bi nanowire.

    PubMed

    Tian, Mingliang; Wang, Jian; Ning, Wei; Mallouk, Thomas E; Chan, Moses H W

    2015-03-11

    The physical origin and the nature of superconductivity in nanostructured Bi remains puzzling. Here, we report transport measurements of individual cylindrical single-crystal Bi nanowires, 20 and 32 nm in diameter. In contrast to nonsuperconducting Bi nanoribbons with two flat surfaces, cylindrical Bi nanowires show superconductivity below 1.3 K. However, their superconducting critical magnetic fields decrease with their diameter, which is the opposite of the expected behavior for thin superconducting wires. Quasiperiodic oscillations of magnetoresistance were observed in perpendicular fields but were not seen in the parallel orientation. These results can be understood by a model of surface superconductivity with an enhanced surface-to-bulk volume in small diameter wires, where the superconductivity originates from the strained surface states of the nanowires due to the surface curvature-induced stress. PMID:25658139

  7. Multiple Bifurcations of a Cylindrical Dynamical System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Han, Ning; Cao, Qingjie

    2016-03-01

    This paper focuses on multiple bifurcations of a cylindrical dynamical system, which is evolved from a rotating pendulum with SD oscillator. The rotating pendulum system exhibits the coupling dynamics property of the bistable state and conventional pendulum with the ho- moclinic orbits of the first and second type. A double Andronov-Hopf bifurcation, two saddle-node bifurcations of periodic orbits and a pair of homoclinic bifurcations are detected by using analytical analysis and nu- merical calculation. It is found that the homoclinic orbits of the second type can bifurcate into a pair of rotational limit cycles, coexisting with the oscillating limit cycle. Additionally, the results obtained herein, are helpful to explore different types of limit cycles and the complex dynamic bifurcation of cylindrical dynamical system.

  8. Nanolaminate Membranes as Cylindrical Telescope Reflectors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dooley, Jennifer; Dragovan, Mark; Hickey, Gregory; Lih, Shyh-Shiu Lih

    2010-01-01

    A document discusses a proposal to use axially stretched metal nanolaminate membranes as lightweight parabolic cylindrical reflectors in the Dual Anamorphic Reflector Telescope (DART) - a planned spaceborne telescope in which the cylindrical reflectors would be arranged to obtain a point focus. The discussion brings together a combination of concepts reported separately in several prior NASA Tech Briefs articles, the most relevant being "Nanolaminate Mirrors With Integral Figure-Control Actuators" NPO -30221, Vol. 26, No. 5 (May 2002), page 90; and "Reflectors Made From Membranes Stretched Between Beams" NPO -30571, Vol. 33, No. 10 (October 2009), page 11a. The engineering issues receiving the greatest emphasis in the instant document are (1) the change in curvature associated with the Poisson contraction of a stretched nanolaminate reflector membrane and (2) the feasibility of using patches of poly(vinylidene fluoride) on the rear membrane surface as piezoelectric actuators to correct the surface figure for the effect of Poisson contraction and other shape errors.

  9. Omnidirectional, circularly polarized, cylindrical microstrip antenna

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stanton, Philip H. (Inventor)

    1985-01-01

    A microstrip cylindrical antenna comprised of two concentric subelements on a ground cylinder, a vertically polarized (E-field parallel to the axis of the antenna cylinder) subelement on the inside and a horizontally polarized (E-field perpendicular to the axis) subelement on the outside. The vertical subelement is a wraparound microstrip radiator. A Y-shaped microstrip patch configuration is used for the horizontally polarized radiator that is wrapped 1.5 times to provide radiating edges on opposite sides of the cylindrical antenna for improved azimuthal pattern uniformity. When these subelements are so fed that their far fields are equal in amplitude and phased 90.degree. from each other, a circularly polarized EM wave results. By stacking a plurality of like antenna elements on the ground cylinder, a linear phased array antenna is provided that can be beam steered to the desired elevation angle.

  10. Jamming of Cylindrical Grains in Vertical Channels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baxter, G. William; Spier, Gregory; Barr, Nicholas; Steel, Fiona

    2012-02-01

    We study jamming of low aspect-ratio cylindrical Delrin grains in a vertical channel. These cylindrical grains resemble antacid tablets, poker chips, or coins since their height is less than their diameter. Grains are allowed to fall through a vertical channel with a square cross section where the channel width is greater than the diameter of a grain and constant throughout the length of the channel with no obstructions or constrictions. Within this channel, grains are sometimes observed to form jams, stable structures supported by the channel walls with no support beneath them. The probability of jam occurrence and the strength or robustness of a jam is effected by the grain dimensions and channel size. We will present experimental measurements of the jamming probability and jam strength in this system and discuss the relationship of these results to other experiments and theories.

  11. Phylogenetic tree construction based on 2D graphical representation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liao, Bo; Shan, Xinzhou; Zhu, Wen; Li, Renfa

    2006-04-01

    A new approach based on the two-dimensional (2D) graphical representation of the whole genome sequence [Bo Liao, Chem. Phys. Lett., 401(2005) 196.] is proposed to analyze the phylogenetic relationships of genomes. The evolutionary distances are obtained through measuring the differences among the 2D curves. The fuzzy theory is used to construct phylogenetic tree. The phylogenetic relationships of H5N1 avian influenza virus illustrate the utility of our approach.

  12. Generating a 2D Representation of a Complex Data Structure

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    James, Mark

    2006-01-01

    A computer program, designed to assist in the development and debugging of other software, generates a two-dimensional (2D) representation of a possibly complex n-dimensional (where n is an integer >2) data structure or abstract rank-n object in that other software. The nature of the 2D representation is such that it can be displayed on a non-graphical output device and distributed by non-graphical means.

  13. Anisotropic 2D Materials for Tunable Hyperbolic Plasmonics.

    PubMed

    Nemilentsau, Andrei; Low, Tony; Hanson, George

    2016-02-12

    Motivated by the recent emergence of a new class of anisotropic 2D materials, we examine their electromagnetic modes and demonstrate that a broad class of the materials can host highly directional hyperbolic plasmons. Their propagation direction can be manipulated on the spot by gate doping, enabling hyperbolic beam reflection, refraction, and bending. The realization of these natural 2D hyperbolic media opens up a new avenue in dynamic control of hyperbolic plasmons not possible in the 3D version.

  14. A simultaneous 2D/3D autostereo workstation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chau, Dennis; McGinnis, Bradley; Talandis, Jonas; Leigh, Jason; Peterka, Tom; Knoll, Aaron; Sumer, Aslihan; Papka, Michael; Jellinek, Julius

    2012-03-01

    We present a novel immersive workstation environment that scientists can use for 3D data exploration and as their everyday 2D computer monitor. Our implementation is based on an autostereoscopic dynamic parallax barrier 2D/3D display, interactive input devices, and a software infrastructure that allows client/server software modules to couple the workstation to scientists' visualization applications. This paper describes the hardware construction and calibration, software components, and a demonstration of our system in nanoscale materials science exploration.

  15. QUENCH2D. Two-Dimensional IHCP Code

    SciTech Connect

    Osman, A.; Beck, J.V.

    1995-01-01

    QUENCH2D* is developed for the solution of general, non-linear, two-dimensional inverse heat transfer problems. This program provides estimates for the surface heat flux distribution and/or heat transfer coefficient as a function of time and space by using transient temperature measurements at appropriate interior points inside the quenched body. Two-dimensional planar and axisymmetric geometries such as turnbine disks and blades, clutch packs, and many other problems can be analyzed using QUENCH2D*.

  16. Machining Thin-Walled Cylindrical Parts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cimbak, Joe; Spagnolo, Jim; Kraus, Dan

    1988-01-01

    Cylindrical walls only few thousandths of inch thick machined accurately and without tears or punctures with aid of beryllium copper mandrel. Chilled so it contracts, then inserted in cylinder. As comes to room temperature, mandrel expands and fits snugly inside cylinder. Will not allow part to slide and provides solid backup to prevent deflection when part machined by grinding wheel. When machining finished, cylinder-and-mandrel assembly inserted in dry ice, mandrel contracts and removed from part.

  17. Electronic quantum confinement in cylindrical potential well

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baltenkov, Arkadiy S.; Msezane, Alfred Z.

    2016-04-01

    The effects of quantum confinement on the momentum distribution of electrons confined within a cylindrical potential well have been analyzed. The motivation is to understand specific features of the momentum distribution of electrons when the electron behavior is completely controlled by the parameters of a non-isotropic potential cavity. It is shown that studying the solutions of the wave equation for an electron confined in a cylindrical potential well offers the possibility to analyze the confinement behavior of an electron executing one- or two-dimensional motion in the three-dimensional space within the framework of the same mathematical model. Some low-lying electronic states with different symmetries have been considered and the corresponding wave functions have been calculated; the behavior of their nodes and their peak positions with respect to the parameters of the cylindrical well has been analyzed. Additionally, the momentum distributions of electrons in these states have been calculated. The limiting cases of the ratio of the cylinder length H and its radius R0 have been considered; when the cylinder length H significantly exceeds its radius R0 and when the cylinder radius is much greater than its length. The cylindrical quantum confinement effects on the momentum distribution of electrons in these potential wells have been analyzed. The possible application of the results obtained here for the description of the general features in the behavior of electrons in nanowires with metallic type of conductivity (or nanotubes) and ultrathin epitaxial films (or graphene sheets) are discussed. Possible experiments are suggested where the quantum confinement can be manifested. Contribution to the Topical Issue "Atomic Cluster Collisions (7th International Symposium)", edited by Gerardo Delgado Barrio, Andrey Solov'Yov, Pablo Villarreal, Rita Prosmiti.

  18. Aberrations of sphero-cylindrical ophthalmic lenses.

    PubMed

    Malacara, Z; Malacara, D

    1990-04-01

    The authors have presented in two previous articles the graphic solutions resembling Tscherning ellipses, for spherical as well as for aspherical ophthalmic lenses free of astigmatism or power error. These solutions were exact, inasmuch as they were based on exact ray tracing, and not third-order theory as frequently done. In this paper sphero-cylindrical lenses are now analyzed, also using exact ray tracing. The functional dependence of the astigmatism and the power error for these lenses is described extensively.

  19. Simulating MEMS Chevron Actuator for Strain Engineering 2D Materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vutukuru, Mounika; Christopher, Jason; Bishop, David; Swan, Anna

    2D materials pose an exciting paradigm shift in the world of electronics. These crystalline materials have demonstrated high electric and thermal conductivities and tensile strength, showing great potential as the new building blocks of basic electronic circuits. However, strain engineering 2D materials for novel devices remains a difficult experimental feat. We propose the integration of 2D materials with MEMS devices to investigate the strain dependence on material properties such as electrical and thermal conductivity, refractive index, mechanical elasticity, and band gap. MEMS Chevron actuators, provides the most accessible framework to study strain in 2D materials due to their high output force displacements for low input power. Here, we simulate Chevron actuators on COMSOL to optimize actuator design parameters and accurately capture the behavior of the devices while under the external force of a 2D material. Through stationary state analysis, we analyze the response of the device through IV characteristics, displacement and temperature curves. We conclude that the simulation precisely models the real-world device through experimental confirmation, proving that the integration of 2D materials with MEMS is a viable option for constructing novel strain engineered devices. The authors acknowledge support from NSF DMR1411008.

  20. Folding to Curved Surfaces: A Generalized Design Method and Mechanics of Origami-based Cylindrical Structures.

    PubMed

    Wang, Fei; Gong, Haoran; Chen, Xi; Chen, C Q

    2016-01-01

    Origami structures enrich the field of mechanical metamaterials with the ability to convert morphologically and systematically between two-dimensional (2D) thin sheets and three-dimensional (3D) spatial structures. In this study, an in-plane design method is proposed to approximate curved surfaces of interest with generalized Miura-ori units. Using this method, two combination types of crease lines are unified in one reprogrammable procedure, generating multiple types of cylindrical structures. Structural completeness conditions of the finite-thickness counterparts to the two types are also proposed. As an example of the design method, the kinematics and elastic properties of an origami-based circular cylindrical shell are analysed. The concept of Poisson's ratio is extended to the cylindrical structures, demonstrating their auxetic property. An analytical model of rigid plates linked by elastic hinges, consistent with numerical simulations, is employed to describe the mechanical response of the structures. Under particular load patterns, the circular shells display novel mechanical behaviour such as snap-through and limiting folding positions. By analysing the geometry and mechanics of the origami structures, we extend the design space of mechanical metamaterials and provide a basis for their practical applications in science and engineering.

  1. Folding to Curved Surfaces: A Generalized Design Method and Mechanics of Origami-based Cylindrical Structures

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Fei; Gong, Haoran; Chen, Xi; Chen, C. Q.

    2016-01-01

    Origami structures enrich the field of mechanical metamaterials with the ability to convert morphologically and systematically between two-dimensional (2D) thin sheets and three-dimensional (3D) spatial structures. In this study, an in-plane design method is proposed to approximate curved surfaces of interest with generalized Miura-ori units. Using this method, two combination types of crease lines are unified in one reprogrammable procedure, generating multiple types of cylindrical structures. Structural completeness conditions of the finite-thickness counterparts to the two types are also proposed. As an example of the design method, the kinematics and elastic properties of an origami-based circular cylindrical shell are analysed. The concept of Poisson’s ratio is extended to the cylindrical structures, demonstrating their auxetic property. An analytical model of rigid plates linked by elastic hinges, consistent with numerical simulations, is employed to describe the mechanical response of the structures. Under particular load patterns, the circular shells display novel mechanical behaviour such as snap-through and limiting folding positions. By analysing the geometry and mechanics of the origami structures, we extend the design space of mechanical metamaterials and provide a basis for their practical applications in science and engineering. PMID:27624892

  2. Folding to Curved Surfaces: A Generalized Design Method and Mechanics of Origami-based Cylindrical Structures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Fei; Gong, Haoran; Chen, Xi; Chen, C. Q.

    2016-09-01

    Origami structures enrich the field of mechanical metamaterials with the ability to convert morphologically and systematically between two-dimensional (2D) thin sheets and three-dimensional (3D) spatial structures. In this study, an in-plane design method is proposed to approximate curved surfaces of interest with generalized Miura-ori units. Using this method, two combination types of crease lines are unified in one reprogrammable procedure, generating multiple types of cylindrical structures. Structural completeness conditions of the finite-thickness counterparts to the two types are also proposed. As an example of the design method, the kinematics and elastic properties of an origami-based circular cylindrical shell are analysed. The concept of Poisson’s ratio is extended to the cylindrical structures, demonstrating their auxetic property. An analytical model of rigid plates linked by elastic hinges, consistent with numerical simulations, is employed to describe the mechanical response of the structures. Under particular load patterns, the circular shells display novel mechanical behaviour such as snap-through and limiting folding positions. By analysing the geometry and mechanics of the origami structures, we extend the design space of mechanical metamaterials and provide a basis for their practical applications in science and engineering.

  3. Generalization of the optical theorem for monochromatic electromagnetic beams of arbitrary wavefront in cylindrical coordinates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mitri, F. G.

    2015-11-01

    The optical theorem constitutes of the fundamental theorems in optical, acoustical, quantum, and gravitational wave scattering, which relates the extinction cross-section to the forward scattering complex amplitude function of plane waves. In this analysis, a generalized formalism is presented for beams of arbitrary character in cylindrical coordinates without restriction to the plane wave case of the angles of incidence and scattering. Based on the partial-wave series expansion method of cylindrical multipole, analytical expressions for the extinction, absorption, scattering cross-sections and efficiency factors are derived for an object of arbitrary shape. An "interference scattering" term arises in the cross-section (or efficiency), which describes the mutual interference between the diffracted or specularly reflected waves. Examples for plane waves and 2D scalar quasi-Gaussian focused beams are also considered, which illustrate the theory. The generalized optical theorem in cylindrical coordinates can be applied to evaluate the extinction efficiency from any object of arbitrary geometry placed on or off the axis of the incident beam. Applications in the context of wave scattering theory by a single particle or multiple particles would benefit from the results of the present study, in addition to other phenomena such as the radiation force and torque.

  4. Analytical piezoelasticity solution for vibration of piezoelectric laminated angle-ply circular cylindrical panels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kapuria, S.; Kumari, P.; Nath, J. K.

    2009-07-01

    An exact two-dimensional (2D) piezoelasticity solution is presented for free vibration and steady-state forced response of simply supported piezoelectric angle-ply laminated circular cylindrical panels in cylindrical bending under harmonic electromechanical load, with and without damping. The piezoelectric layers are polarized along radial direction to induce extension actuation/sensing mechanism. The variables are expanded layerwise in Fourier series to satisfy the boundary conditions at the simply supported ends. The governing equations get reduced to ordinary differential equations in thickness direction with variable coefficients and these are solved by the modified Frobenius method. The unknown coefficients of the solution are obtained using the transfer matrix method. Results for the natural frequency and its variation with ply angle and for steady-state response due to harmonic electromechanical excitation are presented for single layer piezoelectric panel, and hybrid multilayered inhomogeneous test, composite and sandwich panels. The numerical results presented in tabular form would serve as useful benchmark for assessing one-dimensional (1D) panel theories for free vibration and harmonic response of hybrid cylindrical panels.

  5. Folding to Curved Surfaces: A Generalized Design Method and Mechanics of Origami-based Cylindrical Structures.

    PubMed

    Wang, Fei; Gong, Haoran; Chen, Xi; Chen, C Q

    2016-01-01

    Origami structures enrich the field of mechanical metamaterials with the ability to convert morphologically and systematically between two-dimensional (2D) thin sheets and three-dimensional (3D) spatial structures. In this study, an in-plane design method is proposed to approximate curved surfaces of interest with generalized Miura-ori units. Using this method, two combination types of crease lines are unified in one reprogrammable procedure, generating multiple types of cylindrical structures. Structural completeness conditions of the finite-thickness counterparts to the two types are also proposed. As an example of the design method, the kinematics and elastic properties of an origami-based circular cylindrical shell are analysed. The concept of Poisson's ratio is extended to the cylindrical structures, demonstrating their auxetic property. An analytical model of rigid plates linked by elastic hinges, consistent with numerical simulations, is employed to describe the mechanical response of the structures. Under particular load patterns, the circular shells display novel mechanical behaviour such as snap-through and limiting folding positions. By analysing the geometry and mechanics of the origami structures, we extend the design space of mechanical metamaterials and provide a basis for their practical applications in science and engineering. PMID:27624892

  6. Martingale Rosenthal inequalities in symmetric spaces

    SciTech Connect

    Astashkin, S V

    2014-12-31

    We establish inequalities similar to the classical Rosenthal inequalities for sequences of martingale differences in general symmetric spaces; a central role is played here by the predictable quadratic characteristic of a martingale. Bibliography: 26 titles.

  7. PT-Symmetric Quantum Field Theory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bender, Carl M.

    2011-09-01

    In 1998 it was discovered that the requirement that a Hamiltonian be Dirac Hermitian (H = H†) can be weakened and generalized to the requirement that a Hamiltonian be PT symmetric ([H,PT] = 0); that is, invariant under combined space reflection and time reversal. Weakening the constraint of Hermiticity allows one to consider new kinds of physically acceptable Hamiltonians and, in effect, it amounts to extending quantum mechanics from the real (Hermitian) domain into the complex domain. Much work has been done on the analysis of various PT-symmetric quantum-mechanical models. However, only very little analysis has been done on PT-symmetric quantum-field-theoretic models. Here, we describe some of what has been done in the context of PT-symmetric quantum field theory and describe some possible fundamental applications.

  8. Origin of symmetric PMNS and CKM matrices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rodejohann, Werner; Xu, Xun-Jie

    2015-03-01

    The Pontecorvo-Maki-Nakagawa-Sakata and Cabibbo-Kobayashi-Maskawa matrices are phenomenologically close to symmetric, and a symmetric form could be used as zeroth-order approximation for both matrices. We study the possible theoretical origin of this feature in flavor symmetry models. We identify necessary geometric properties of discrete flavor symmetry groups that can lead to symmetric mixing matrices. Those properties are actually very common in discrete groups such as A4 , S4 , or Δ (96 ) . As an application of our theorem, we generate a symmetric lepton mixing scheme with θ12=θ23=36.21 ° ; θ13=12.20 ° , and δ =0 , realized with the group Δ (96 ) .

  9. Two-dimensional cylindrical thermal cloak designed by implicit transformation method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yuan, Xuebo; Lin, Guochang; Wang, Youshan

    2016-07-01

    As a new-type technology of heat management, thermal metamaterials have attracted more and more attentions recently and thermal cloak is a typical case. Thermal conductivity of thermal cloak designed by coordinate transformation method is usually featured by inhomogeneity, anisotropy and local singularity. Explicit transformation method, which is commonly used to design thermal cloak with the coordinate transformation known in advance, has insufficient flexibility, making it hard to proactively reduce the difficulty of device fabrication. In this work, we designed the thermal conductivity of two-dimensional (2D) cylindrical thermal cloak using the implicit transformation method without knowledge of the coordinate transformation in advance. With two classes of generation functions taken into consideration, this study adopted full-wave simulations to analyze the thermal cloaking performances of designed thermal cloaks. Material distributions and simulation results showed that the implicit transformation method has high flexibility. The form of coordinate transformation not only influences the homogeneity and anisotropy but also directly influences the thermal cloaking performance. An improved layered structure for 2D cylindrical thermal cloak was put forward based on the generation function g(r) = r15, which reduces the number of the kinds of constituent materials while guaranteeing good thermal cloaking performance. This work provides a beneficial guidance for reducing the fabrication difficulty of thermal cloak.

  10. Asymptotics of a Class of Solutions to the Cylindrical Toda Equations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tracy, Craig A.; Widom, Harold

    The small t asymptotics of a class of solutions to the 2D cylindrical Toda equations is computed. The solutions, , have the representation where Kk$ are integral operators. This class includes the n-periodic cylindrical Toda equations. For n=2 our results reduce to the previously computed asymptotics of the 2D radial sinh-Gordon equation and for n=3 (and with an additional symmetry constraint) they reduce to earlier results for the radial Bullough-Dodd equation. Both of these special cases are examples of Painlevé III and have arisen in various applications. The asymptotics of are derived by computing the small t asymptotics where explicit formulas are given for the quantities ak and bk. The method consists of showing that the resolvent operator of Kk has an approximation in terms of resolvents of certain Wiener-Hopf operators, for which there are explicit integral formulas.

  11. Symmetric states: Their nonlocality and entanglement

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, Zizhu; Markham, Damian

    2014-12-04

    The nonlocality of permutation symmetric states of qubits is shown via an extension of the Hardy paradox and the extension of the associated inequality. This is achieved by using the Majorana representation, which is also a powerful tool in the study of entanglement properties of symmetric states. Through the Majorana representation, different nonlocal properties can be linked to different entanglement properties of a state, which is useful in determining the usefulness of different states in different quantum information processing tasks.

  12. Observing of tree trunks and other cylindrical objects using GPR

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jezova, Jana; Lambot, Sebastien

    2016-04-01

    Trees are a part of our everyday life, hence it is important to prevent their collapse to protect people and urban infrastructures. It is also important to characterize tree wood properties for usages in construction. In order to investigate internal parts of tree trunks non-invasively, ground-penetrating radar (GPR), or in this case, ultra-wideband microwave radar as a general tool, appears to be a very promising technology. Nevertheless, tree trunk tomography using microwave radar is a complicated task due to the circular shape of the trunk and the very complex (heterogeneous and anisotropic) internal structures of the trunk. Microwave sensing of tree trunks is also complicated due to the electromagnetic properties of living wood, which strongly depend on water content, density and temperature of wood. The objective of this study is to describe tree trunk radar cross sections including specific features originating from the particular circumferential data acquisition geometry. In that respect, three experiments were performed: (1) numerical simulations using a finite-difference time-domain software, namely, gprMax 2D, (2) measurements on a simplified laboratory trunk model including plastic and cardboard pipes, sand and air, and (3) measurements over a real tree trunk. The analysis was further deepened by considering: (1) common zero-offset reflection imaging, (2) imaging with a planar perfect electrical conductor (PEC) at the opposite side of the trunk, and (3) imaging with a PEC arc at the opposite side of the trunk. Furthermore, the shape of the reflection curve of a cylindrical target was analytically derived based on the straight-ray propagation approximation. Subsequently, the total internal reflection (TIR) phenomenon occurring in cylindrical objects was observed and analytically described. Both the straight-ray reflection curve and TIR were well observed on the simulated and laboratory radar data. A comparison between all experiments and radar

  13. Real-time cylindrical curvilinear 3-D ultrasound imaging.

    PubMed

    Pua, E C; Yen, J T; Smith, S W

    2003-07-01

    In patients who are obese or exhibit signs of pulmonary disease, standard transthoracic scanning may yield poor quality cardiac images. For these conditions, two-dimensional transesophageal echocardiography (TEE) is established as an essential diagnostic tool. Current techniques in transesophageal scanning, though, are limited by incomplete visualization of cardiac structures in close proximity to the transducer. Thus, we propose a 2D curvilinear array for 3D transesophageal echocardiography in order to widen the field of view and increase visualization close to the transducer face. In this project, a 440 channel 5 MHz two-dimensional array with a 12.6 mm aperture diameter on a flexible interconnect circuit has been molded to a 4 mm radius of curvature. A 75% element yield was achieved during fabrication and an average -6dB bandwidth of 30% was observed in pulse-echo tests. Using this transducer in conjunction with modifications to the beam former delay software and scan converter display software of the our 3D scanner, we obtained cylindrical real-time curvilinear volumetric scans of tissue phantoms, including a field of view of greater than 120 degrees in the curved, azimuth direction and 65 degrees phased array sector scans in the elevation direction. These images were achieved using a stepped subaperture across the cylindrical curvilinear direction of the transducer face and phased array sector scanning in the noncurved plane. In addition, real-time volume rendered images of a tissue mimicking phantom with holes ranging from 1 cm to less than 4 mm have been obtained. 3D color flow Doppler results have also been acquired. This configuration can theoretically achieve volumes displaying 180 degrees by 120 degrees. The transducer is also capable of obtaining images through a curvilinear stepped subaperture in azimuth in conjunction with a rectilinear stepped subaperture in elevation, further increasing the field of view close to the transducer face. Future work

  14. 2D nanostructures for water purification: graphene and beyond.

    PubMed

    Dervin, Saoirse; Dionysiou, Dionysios D; Pillai, Suresh C

    2016-08-18

    Owing to their atomically thin structure, large surface area and mechanical strength, 2D nanoporous materials are considered to be suitable alternatives for existing desalination and water purification membrane materials. Recent progress in the development of nanoporous graphene based materials has generated enormous potential for water purification technologies. Progress in the development of nanoporous graphene and graphene oxide (GO) membranes, the mechanism of graphene molecular sieve action, structural design, hydrophilic nature, mechanical strength and antifouling properties and the principal challenges associated with nanopore generation are discussed in detail. Subsequently, the recent applications and performance of newly developed 2D materials such as 2D boron nitride (BN) nanosheets, graphyne, molybdenum disulfide (MoS2), tungsten chalcogenides (WS2) and titanium carbide (Ti3C2Tx) are highlighted. In addition, the challenges affecting 2D nanostructures for water purification are highlighted and their applications in the water purification industry are discussed. Though only a few 2D materials have been explored so far for water treatment applications, this emerging field of research is set to attract a great deal of attention in the near future.

  15. Ultrafast 2D-IR spectroelectrochemistry of flavin mononucleotide

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    El Khoury, Youssef; Van Wilderen, Luuk J. G. W.; Bredenbeck, Jens

    2015-06-01

    We demonstrate the coupling of ultrafast two-dimensional infrared (2D-IR) spectroscopy to electrochemistry in solution and apply it to flavin mononucleotide, an important cofactor of redox proteins. For this purpose, we designed a spectroelectrochemical cell optimized for 2D-IR measurements in reflection and measured the time-dependent 2D-IR spectra of the oxidized and reduced forms of flavin mononucleotide. The data show anharmonic coupling and vibrational energy transfer between different vibrational modes in the two redox species. Such information is inaccessible with redox-controlled steady-state FTIR spectroscopy. The wide range of applications offered by 2D-IR spectroscopy, such as sub-picosecond structure determination, IR band assignment via energy transfer, disentangling reaction mixtures through band connectivity in the 2D spectra, and the measurement of solvation dynamics and chemical exchange can now be explored under controlled redox potential. The development of this technique furthermore opens new horizons for studying the dynamics of redox proteins.

  16. Ultrafast 2D-IR spectroelectrochemistry of flavin mononucleotide.

    PubMed

    El Khoury, Youssef; Van Wilderen, Luuk J G W; Bredenbeck, Jens

    2015-06-01

    We demonstrate the coupling of ultrafast two-dimensional infrared (2D-IR) spectroscopy to electrochemistry in solution and apply it to flavin mononucleotide, an important cofactor of redox proteins. For this purpose, we designed a spectroelectrochemical cell optimized for 2D-IR measurements in reflection and measured the time-dependent 2D-IR spectra of the oxidized and reduced forms of flavin mononucleotide. The data show anharmonic coupling and vibrational energy transfer between different vibrational modes in the two redox species. Such information is inaccessible with redox-controlled steady-state FTIR spectroscopy. The wide range of applications offered by 2D-IR spectroscopy, such as sub-picosecond structure determination, IR band assignment via energy transfer, disentangling reaction mixtures through band connectivity in the 2D spectra, and the measurement of solvation dynamics and chemical exchange can now be explored under controlled redox potential. The development of this technique furthermore opens new horizons for studying the dynamics of redox proteins.

  17. Mean flow and anisotropic cascades in decaying 2D turbulence

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Chien-Chia; Cerbus, Rory; Gioia, Gustavo; Chakraborty, Pinaki

    2015-11-01

    Many large-scale atmospheric and oceanic flows are decaying 2D turbulent flows embedded in a non-uniform mean flow. Despite its importance for large-scale weather systems, the affect of non-uniform mean flows on decaying 2D turbulence remains unknown. In the absence of mean flow it is well known that decaying 2D turbulent flows exhibit the enstrophy cascade. More generally, for any 2D turbulent flow, all computational, experimental and field data amassed to date indicate that the spectrum of longitudinal and transverse velocity fluctuations correspond to the same cascade, signifying isotropy of cascades. Here we report experiments on decaying 2D turbulence in soap films with a non-uniform mean flow. We find that the flow transitions from the usual isotropic enstrophy cascade to a series of unusual and, to our knowledge, never before observed or predicted, anisotropic cascades where the longitudinal and transverse spectra are mutually independent. We discuss implications of our results for decaying geophysical turbulence.

  18. Sparse radar imaging using 2D compressed sensing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hou, Qingkai; Liu, Yang; Chen, Zengping; Su, Shaoying

    2014-10-01

    Radar imaging is an ill-posed linear inverse problem and compressed sensing (CS) has been proved to have tremendous potential in this field. This paper surveys the theory of radar imaging and a conclusion is drawn that the processing of ISAR imaging can be denoted mathematically as a problem of 2D sparse decomposition. Based on CS, we propose a novel measuring strategy for ISAR imaging radar and utilize random sub-sampling in both range and azimuth dimensions, which will reduce the amount of sampling data tremendously. In order to handle 2D reconstructing problem, the ordinary solution is converting the 2D problem into 1D by Kronecker product, which will increase the size of dictionary and computational cost sharply. In this paper, we introduce the 2D-SL0 algorithm into the reconstruction of imaging. It is proved that 2D-SL0 can achieve equivalent result as other 1D reconstructing methods, but the computational complexity and memory usage is reduced significantly. Moreover, we will state the results of simulating experiments and prove the effectiveness and feasibility of our method.

  19. Ultrafast 2D NMR: an emerging tool in analytical spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Giraudeau, Patrick; Frydman, Lucio

    2014-01-01

    Two-dimensional nuclear magnetic resonance (2D NMR) spectroscopy is widely used in chemical and biochemical analyses. Multidimensional NMR is also witnessing increased use in quantitative and metabolic screening applications. Conventional 2D NMR experiments, however, are affected by inherently long acquisition durations, arising from their need to sample the frequencies involved along their indirect domains in an incremented, scan-by-scan nature. A decade ago, a so-called ultrafast (UF) approach was proposed, capable of delivering arbitrary 2D NMR spectra involving any kind of homo- or heteronuclear correlation, in a single scan. During the intervening years, the performance of this subsecond 2D NMR methodology has been greatly improved, and UF 2D NMR is rapidly becoming a powerful analytical tool experiencing an expanded scope of applications. This review summarizes the principles and main developments that have contributed to the success of this approach and focuses on applications that have been recently demonstrated in various areas of analytical chemistry--from the real-time monitoring of chemical and biochemical processes, to extensions in hyphenated techniques and in quantitative applications. PMID:25014342

  20. 2D nanostructures for water purification: graphene and beyond.

    PubMed

    Dervin, Saoirse; Dionysiou, Dionysios D; Pillai, Suresh C

    2016-08-18

    Owing to their atomically thin structure, large surface area and mechanical strength, 2D nanoporous materials are considered to be suitable alternatives for existing desalination and water purification membrane materials. Recent progress in the development of nanoporous graphene based materials has generated enormous potential for water purification technologies. Progress in the development of nanoporous graphene and graphene oxide (GO) membranes, the mechanism of graphene molecular sieve action, structural design, hydrophilic nature, mechanical strength and antifouling properties and the principal challenges associated with nanopore generation are discussed in detail. Subsequently, the recent applications and performance of newly developed 2D materials such as 2D boron nitride (BN) nanosheets, graphyne, molybdenum disulfide (MoS2), tungsten chalcogenides (WS2) and titanium carbide (Ti3C2Tx) are highlighted. In addition, the challenges affecting 2D nanostructures for water purification are highlighted and their applications in the water purification industry are discussed. Though only a few 2D materials have been explored so far for water treatment applications, this emerging field of research is set to attract a great deal of attention in the near future. PMID:27506268

  1. Formation of interconnected morphologies via nanorod inclusion in the confined assembly of symmetric block copolymers.

    PubMed

    Park, Jay Hoon; Joo, Yong Lak

    2014-05-21

    We have investigated the effect of nanorods on the symmetry breaking of a model diblock copolymer under cylindrical confinement using coarse-grained molecular dynamics. Unlike nanoparticles, nanorods can readily be interconnected with each other and also induce connection across self-assembly domains at much lower loading than nanoparticles. Such interconnecting nanorods, when incorporated within the nanofiber confined assembled block copolymer, have great potential for providing highly conductive pathways for energy applications, such as battery electrodes and separators. Symmetric block copolymers (BCP) under cylindrical confinement with a nanorod aspect ratio (N) of 1, 5, and 10 are examined with three different types of nanorod-BCP attractions: (a) neutral nanorods, (b) A (wall-attractive phase)-attractive nanorods, and (c) B (wall-repulsive phase)-attractive nanorods. The system was studied with both selective and neutral walls, which affect the orientation of the interconnected nanorod network. Upon close examination of the BCP-nanorod self-assembly, we discovered that the ratio of the interphase distance to the nanorod aspect ratio (I/N) can be correlated to the onset of nanorod interconnectivity and formation of asymmetrical interconnected BCP morphology. By developing a phase diagram with respect to I/N, one can predict the formation of desired BCP morphology and the critical loading of nanorods for connected morphologies in cylindrical confinement. PMID:24682243

  2. Axi-symmetric patterns of active polar filaments on spherical and composite surfaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Srivastava, Pragya; Rao, Madan

    2014-03-01

    Experiments performed on Fission Yeast cells of cylindrical and spherical shapes, rod-shaped bacteria and reconstituted cylindrical liposomes suggest the influence of cell geometry on patterning of cortical actin. A theoretical model based on active hydrodynamic description of cortical actin that includes curvature-orientation coupling predicts spontaneous formation of acto-myosin rings, cables and nodes on cylindrical and spherical geometries [P. Srivastava et al, PRL 110, 168104(2013)]. Stability and dynamics of these patterns is also affected by the cellular shape and has been observed in experiments performed on Fission Yeast cells of spherical shape. Motivated by this, we study the stability and dynamics of axi-symmetric patterns of active polar filaments on the surfaces of spherical, saddle shaped and conical geometry and classify the stable steady state patterns on these surfaces. Based on the analysis of the fluorescence images of Myosin-II during ring slippage we propose a simple mechanical model for ring-sliding based on force balance and make quantitative comparison with the experiments performed on Fission Yeast cells. NSF Grant DMR-1004789 and Syracuse Soft Matter Program.

  3. Cylindrical nonlinear Schroedinger equation versus cylindrical Korteweg-de Vries equation

    SciTech Connect

    Fedele, Renato; De Nicola, Sergio; Grecu, Dan; Visinescu, Anca; Shukla, Padma K.

    2008-10-15

    A correspondence between the family of cylindrical nonlinear Schroedinger (cNLS) equations and the one of cylindrical Korteweg-de Vries (cKdV) equations is constructed. It associates non stationary solutions of the first family with the ones of the second family. This is done by using a correspondence, recently found, between the families of generalized NLS equation and generalized KdV equation, and their solutions in the form of travelling waves, respectively. In particular, non-stationary soliton-like solutions of the cNLS equation can be associated with non-stationary soliton-like solutions of cKdV equation.

  4. Graphene based 2D-materials for supercapacitors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Palaniselvam, Thangavelu; Baek, Jong-Beom

    2015-09-01

    Ever-increasing energy demands and the depletion of fossil fuels are compelling humanity toward the development of suitable electrochemical energy conversion and storage devices to attain a more sustainable society with adequate renewable energy and zero environmental pollution. In this regard, supercapacitors are being contemplated as potential energy storage devices to afford cleaner, environmentally friendly energy. Recently, a great deal of attention has been paid to two-dimensional (2D) nanomaterials, including 2D graphene and its inorganic analogues (transition metal double layer hydroxides, chalcogenides, etc), as potential electrodes for the development of supercapacitors with high electrochemical performance. This review provides an overview of the recent progress in using these graphene-based 2D materials as potential electrodes for supercapacitors. In addition, future research trends including notable challenges and opportunities are also discussed.

  5. Perception-based reversible watermarking for 2D vector maps

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Men, Chaoguang; Cao, Liujuan; Li, Xiang

    2010-07-01

    This paper presents an effective and reversible watermarking approach for digital copyright protection of 2D-vector maps. To ensure that the embedded watermark is insensitive for human perception, we only select the noise non-sensitive regions for watermark embedding by estimating vertex density within each polyline. To ensure the exact recovery of original 2D-vector map after watermark extraction, we introduce a new reversible watermarking scheme based on reversible high-frequency wavelet coefficients modification. Within the former-selected non-sensitive regions, our watermarking operates on the lower-order vertex coordinate decimals with integer wavelet transform. Such operation further reduces the visual distortion caused by watermark embedding. We have validated the effectiveness of our scheme on our real-world city river/building 2D-vector maps. We give extensive experimental comparisons with state-of-the-art methods, including embedding capability, invisibility, and robustness over watermark attacking.

  6. Secretory pathways generating immunosuppressive NKG2D ligands

    PubMed Central

    Baragaño Raneros, Aroa; Suarez-Álvarez, Beatriz; López-Larrea, Carlos

    2014-01-01

    Natural Killer Group 2 member D (NKG2D) activating receptor, present on the surface of various immune cells, plays an important role in activating the anticancer immune response by their interaction with stress-inducible NKG2D ligands (NKG2DL) on transformed cells. However, cancer cells have developed numerous mechanisms to evade the immune system via the downregulation of NKG2DL from the cell surface, including the release of NKG2DL from the cell surface in a soluble form. Here, we review the mechanisms involved in the production of soluble NKG2DL (sNKG2DL) and the potential therapeutic strategies aiming to block the release of these immunosuppressive ligands. Therapeutically enabling the NKG2D-NKG2DL interaction would promote immunorecognition of malignant cells, thus abrogating disease progression. PMID:25050215

  7. 2D bifurcations and Newtonian properties of memristive Chua's circuits

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marszalek, W.; Podhaisky, H.

    2016-01-01

    Two interesting properties of Chua's circuits are presented. First, two-parameter bifurcation diagrams of Chua's oscillatory circuits with memristors are presented. To obtain various 2D bifurcation images a substantial numerical effort, possibly with parallel computations, is needed. The numerical algorithm is described first and its numerical code for 2D bifurcation image creation is available for free downloading. Several color 2D images and the corresponding 1D greyscale bifurcation diagrams are included. Secondly, Chua's circuits are linked to Newton's law φ ''= F(t,φ,φ')/m with φ=\\text{flux} , constant m > 0, and the force term F(t,φ,φ') containing memory terms. Finally, the jounce scalar equations for Chua's circuits are also discussed.

  8. Focusing surface wave imaging with flexible 2D array

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhou, Shiyuan; Fu, Junqiang; Li, Zhe; Xu, Chunguang; Xiao, Dingguo; Wang, Shaohan

    2016-04-01

    Curved surface is widely exist in key parts of energy and power equipment, such as, turbine blade cylinder block and so on. Cycling loading and harsh working condition of enable fatigue cracks appear on the surface. The crack should be found in time to avoid catastrophic damage to the equipment. A flexible 2D array transducer was developed. 2D Phased Array focusing method (2DPA), Mode-Spatial Double Phased focusing method (MSDPF) and the imaging method using the flexible 2D array probe are studied. Experiments using these focusing and imaging method are carried out. Surface crack image is obtained with both 2DPA and MSDPF focusing method. It have been proved that MSDPF can be more adaptable for curved surface and more calculate efficient than 2DPA.

  9. Mathematical theory of cylindrical isothermal blast waves in a magnetic field. [with application to supernova remnant evolution

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lerche, I.

    1981-01-01

    An analysis is conducted regarding the properties of cylindrically symmetric self-similar blast waves propagating away from a line source into a medium whose density and magnetic field (with components in both the phi and z directions) both vary as r to the -(omega) power (with omega less than 1) ahead of the blast wave. The main results of the analysis can be divided into two classes, related to a zero azimuthal field and a zero longitudinal field. In the case of the zero longitudinal field it is found that there are no physically acceptable solutions with continuous postshock variations of flow speed and gas density.

  10. Internal voltages and currents in well-shielded cylindrical objects due to stimulated direct-strike lightning

    SciTech Connect

    Fisher, R.J.; Warne, L.K.; Kostas, J.G.

    1989-01-01

    A variety of cylindrical tests objects of generic interest were tested to simulated severe direct-strike lightning with the intent of bounding possible internal voltages due to joint leakage and currents through low-impedance loads due to diffusion. All the test objects would normally be considered to be high-quality Faraday shields. The highest voltage recorded was 21 V, which was developed across a flange-and-collar joint in a steel cylinder driven longitudinally by a test current of /approximately/160 kA peak. A simple circuit model of the symmetric diffusion process, valid over the frequency range of lightning, is given. 4 refs., 14 figs., 2 tabs.

  11. Two-stage solar concentrators based on parabolic troughs: asymmetric versus symmetric designs.

    PubMed

    Schmitz, Max; Cooper, Thomas; Ambrosetti, Gianluca; Steinfeld, Aldo

    2015-11-20

    While nonimaging concentrators can approach the thermodynamic limit of concentration, they generally suffer from poor compactness when designed for small acceptance angles, e.g., to capture direct solar irradiation. Symmetric two-stage systems utilizing an image-forming primary parabolic concentrator in tandem with a nonimaging secondary concentrator partially overcome this compactness problem, but their achievable concentration ratio is ultimately limited by the central obstruction caused by the secondary. Significant improvements can be realized by two-stage systems having asymmetric cross-sections, particularly for 2D line-focus trough designs. We therefore present a detailed analysis of two-stage line-focus asymmetric concentrators for flat receiver geometries and compare them to their symmetric counterparts. Exemplary designs are examined in terms of the key optical performance metrics, namely, geometric concentration ratio, acceptance angle, concentration-acceptance product, aspect ratio, active area fraction, and average number of reflections. Notably, we show that asymmetric designs can achieve significantly higher overall concentrations and are always more compact than symmetric systems designed for the same concentration ratio. Using this analysis as a basis, we develop novel asymmetric designs, including two-wing and nested configurations, which surpass the optical performance of two-mirror aplanats and are comparable with the best reported 2D simultaneous multiple surface designs for both hollow and dielectric-filled secondaries. PMID:26836527

  12. Two-stage solar concentrators based on parabolic troughs: asymmetric versus symmetric designs.

    PubMed

    Schmitz, Max; Cooper, Thomas; Ambrosetti, Gianluca; Steinfeld, Aldo

    2015-11-20

    While nonimaging concentrators can approach the thermodynamic limit of concentration, they generally suffer from poor compactness when designed for small acceptance angles, e.g., to capture direct solar irradiation. Symmetric two-stage systems utilizing an image-forming primary parabolic concentrator in tandem with a nonimaging secondary concentrator partially overcome this compactness problem, but their achievable concentration ratio is ultimately limited by the central obstruction caused by the secondary. Significant improvements can be realized by two-stage systems having asymmetric cross-sections, particularly for 2D line-focus trough designs. We therefore present a detailed analysis of two-stage line-focus asymmetric concentrators for flat receiver geometries and compare them to their symmetric counterparts. Exemplary designs are examined in terms of the key optical performance metrics, namely, geometric concentration ratio, acceptance angle, concentration-acceptance product, aspect ratio, active area fraction, and average number of reflections. Notably, we show that asymmetric designs can achieve significantly higher overall concentrations and are always more compact than symmetric systems designed for the same concentration ratio. Using this analysis as a basis, we develop novel asymmetric designs, including two-wing and nested configurations, which surpass the optical performance of two-mirror aplanats and are comparable with the best reported 2D simultaneous multiple surface designs for both hollow and dielectric-filled secondaries.

  13. Classical irregular blocks, Hill's equation and PT-symmetric periodic complex potentials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Piatek, Marcin; Pietrykowski, Artur R.

    2016-07-01

    The Schrödinger eigenvalue problems for the Whittaker-Hill potential {Q}_2(x) = 1/2{h}^2 cos 4x + 4hμ cos 2x and the periodic complex potential {Q}_1(x)=1/4{h}^2{e}^{-} 4ix} + 2{h}^2 cos 2x are studied using their realizations in two-dimensional conformal field theory (2dCFT). It is shown that for the weak coupling (small) h ∈ ℝ and non-integer Floquet parameter ν ∉ ℤ spectra of hamiltonians ℋi = - d2/d x 2 + Q i( x), i = 1, 2 and corresponding two linearly independent eigenfunctions are given by the classical limit of the "single flavor" and "two flavors" ( N f = 1 , 2) irregular conformal blocks. It is known that complex nonhermitian hamiltonians which are PT-symmetric (= invariant under simultaneous parity P and time reversal T transformations) can have real eigenvalues. The hamiltonian ℋ1 is PT-symmetric for h, x ∈ ℝ. It is found that ℋ1 has a real spectrum in the weak coupling region for ν ∈ ℝ ℤ. This fact in an elementary way follows from a definition of the N f = 1 classical irregular block. Thus, ℋ1 can serve as yet another new model for testing postulates of PT-symmetric quantum mechanics.

  14. Motion parallax in immersive cylindrical display systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Filliard, N.; Reymond, G.; Kemeny, A.; Berthoz, A.

    2012-03-01

    Motion parallax is a crucial visual cue produced by translations of the observer for the perception of depth and selfmotion. Therefore, tracking the observer viewpoint has become inevitable in immersive virtual (VR) reality systems (cylindrical screens, CAVE, head mounted displays) used e.g. in automotive industry (style reviews, architecture design, ergonomics studies) or in scientific studies of visual perception. The perception of a stable and rigid world requires that this visual cue be coherent with other extra-retinal (e.g. vestibular, kinesthetic) cues signaling ego-motion. Although world stability is never questioned in real world, rendering head coupled viewpoint in VR can lead to the perception of an illusory perception of unstable environments, unless a non-unity scale factor is applied on recorded head movements. Besides, cylindrical screens are usually used with static observers due to image distortions when rendering image for viewpoints different from a sweet spot. We developed a technique to compensate in real-time these non-linear visual distortions, in an industrial VR setup, based on a cylindrical screen projection system. Additionally, to evaluate the amount of discrepancies tolerated without perceptual distortions between visual and extraretinal cues, a "motion parallax gain" between the velocity of the observer's head and that of the virtual camera was introduced in this system. The influence of this artificial gain was measured on the gait stability of free-standing participants. Results indicate that, below unity, gains significantly alter postural control. Conversely, the influence of higher gains remains limited, suggesting a certain tolerance of observers to these conditions. Parallax gain amplification is therefore proposed as a possible solution to provide a wider exploration of space to users of immersive virtual reality systems.

  15. Symmetric Galerkin boundary formulations employing curved elements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kane, J. H.; Balakrishna, C.

    1993-01-01

    Accounts of the symmetric Galerkin approach to boundary element analysis (BEA) have recently been published. This paper attempts to add to the understanding of this method by addressing a series of fundamental issues associated with its potential computational efficiency. A new symmetric Galerkin theoretical formulation for both the (harmonic) heat conduction and the (biharmonic) elasticity problem that employs regularized singular and hypersingular boundary integral equations (BIEs) is presented. The novel use of regularized BIEs in the Galerkin context is shown to allow straightforward incorporation of curved, isoparametric elements. A symmetric reusable intrinsic sample point (RISP) numerical integration algorithm is shown to produce a Galerkin (i.e., double) integration strategy that is competitive with its counterpart (i.e., singular) integration procedure in the collocation BEA approach when the time saved in the symmetric equation solution phase is also taken into account. This new formulation is shown to be capable of employing hypersingular BIEs while obviating the requirement of C 1 continuity, a fact that allows the employment of the popular continuous element technology. The behavior of the symmetric Galerkin BEA method with regard to both direct and iterative equation solution operations is also addressed. A series of example problems are presented to quantify the performance of this symmetric approach, relative to the more conventional unsymmetric BEA, in terms of both accuracy and efficiency. It is concluded that appropriate implementations of the symmetric Galerkin approach to BEA indeed have the potential to be competitive with, if not superior to, collocation-based BEA, for large-scale problems.

  16. Radiative heat transfer in 2D Dirac materials.

    PubMed

    Rodriguez-López, Pablo; Tse, Wang-Kong; Dalvit, Diego A R

    2015-06-01

    We compute the radiative heat transfer between two sheets of 2D Dirac materials, including topological Chern insulators and graphene, within the framework of the local approximation for the optical response of these materials. In this approximation, which neglects spatial dispersion, we derive both numerically and analytically the short-distance asymptotic of the near-field heat transfer in these systems, and show that it scales as the inverse of the distance between the two sheets. Finally, we discuss the limitations to the validity of this scaling law imposed by spatial dispersion in 2D Dirac materials. PMID:25965703

  17. Quantum process tomography by 2D fluorescence spectroscopy

    SciTech Connect

    Pachón, Leonardo A.; Marcus, Andrew H.; Aspuru-Guzik, Alán

    2015-06-07

    Reconstruction of the dynamics (quantum process tomography) of the single-exciton manifold in energy transfer systems is proposed here on the basis of two-dimensional fluorescence spectroscopy (2D-FS) with phase-modulation. The quantum-process-tomography protocol introduced here benefits from, e.g., the sensitivity enhancement ascribed to 2D-FS. Although the isotropically averaged spectroscopic signals depend on the quantum yield parameter Γ of the doubly excited-exciton manifold, it is shown that the reconstruction of the dynamics is insensitive to this parameter. Applications to foundational and applied problems, as well as further extensions, are discussed.

  18. Design of the LRP airfoil series using 2D CFD

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zahle, Frederik; Bak, Christian; Sørensen, Niels N.; Vronsky, Tomas; Gaudern, Nicholas

    2014-06-01

    This paper describes the design and wind tunnel testing of a high-Reynolds number, high lift airfoil series designed for wind turbines. The airfoils were designed using direct gradient- based numerical multi-point optimization based on a Bezier parameterization of the shape, coupled to the 2D Navier-Stokes flow solver EllipSys2D. The resulting airfoils, the LRP2-30 and LRP2-36, achieve both higher operational lift coefficients and higher lift to drag ratios compared to the equivalent FFA-W3 airfoils.

  19. Laboratory Experiments On Continually Forced 2d Turbulence

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wells, M. G.; Clercx, H. J. H.; Van Heijst, G. J. F.

    There has been much recent interest in the advection of tracers by 2D turbulence in geophysical flows. While there is a large body of literature on decaying 2D turbulence or forced 2D turbulence in unbounded domains, there have been very few studies of forced turbulence in bounded domains. In this study we present new experimental results from a continuously forced quasi 2D turbulent field. The experiments are performed in a square Perspex tank filled with water. The flow is made quasi 2D by a steady background rotation. The rotation rate of the tank has a small (<8 %) sinusoidal perturbation which leads to the periodic formation of eddies in the corners of the tank. When the oscillation period of the perturbation is greater than an eddy roll-up time-scale, dipole structures are observed to form. The dipoles can migrate away from the walls, and the interior of the tank is continually filled with vortexs. From experimental visualizations the length scale of the vortexs appears to be largely controlled by the initial formation mechanism and large scale structures are not observed to form at large times. Thus the experiments provide a simple way of cre- ating a continuously forced 2D turbulent field. The resulting structures are in contrast with most previous laboratory experiments on 2D turbulence which have investigated decaying turbulence and have observed the formations of large scale structure. In these experiments, decaying turbulence had been produced by a variety of methods such as the decaying turbulence in the wake of a comb of rods (Massen et al 1999), organiza- tion of vortices in thin conducting liquids (Cardoso et al 1994) or in rotating systems where there are sudden changes in angular rotation rate (Konijnenberg et al 1998). Results of dye visualizations, particle tracking experiments and a direct numerical simulation will be presented and discussed in terms of their oceanographic application. Bibliography Cardoso,O. Marteau, D. &Tabeling, P

  20. EM 2dV1.0.F

    2012-01-05

    Code is for a layered electric medium with 2d structure. Includes air-earth interface at node z=2.. The electric ex and ez fields are calculated on edges of elemental grid and magnetic field hy is calculated on the face of the elemental grid. The code allows for a layered earth with 2d structures. Solutions of coupled first order Maxwell's equations are solved in the two dimensional environment using a finite- difference scheme on a staggered spationamore » and temporal grid.« less

  1. Noninvasive deep Raman detection with 2D correlation analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Hyung Min; Park, Hyo Sun; Cho, Youngho; Jin, Seung Min; Lee, Kang Taek; Jung, Young Mee; Suh, Yung Doug

    2014-07-01

    The detection of poisonous chemicals enclosed in daily necessaries is prerequisite essential for homeland security with the increasing threat of terrorism. For the detection of toxic chemicals, we combined a sensitive deep Raman spectroscopic method with 2D correlation analysis. We obtained the Raman spectra from concealed chemicals employing spatially offset Raman spectroscopy in which incident line-shaped light experiences multiple scatterings before being delivered to inner component and yielding deep Raman signal. Furthermore, we restored the pure Raman spectrum of each component using 2D correlation spectroscopic analysis with chemical inspection. Using this method, we could elucidate subsurface component under thick powder and packed contents in a bottle.

  2. Self-dual strings and 2D SYM

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hosomichi, Kazuo; Lee, Sungjay

    2015-01-01

    We study the system of M2-branes suspended between parallel M5-branes using ABJM model with a natural half-BPS boundary condition. For small separation between M5-branes, the worldvolume theory is shown to reduce to a 2D super Yang-Mills theory with some similarity to q-deformed Yang-Mills theory. The gauge coupling is related to the position of the branes in an interesting manner. The theory is considerably different from the 2D theory proposed for multiple "M-strings". We make a detailed comparison of elliptic genus of the two descriptions and find only a partial agreement.

  3. Finite temperature corrections in 2d integrable models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Caselle, M.; Hasenbusch, M.

    2002-09-01

    We study the finite size corrections for the magnetization and the internal energy of the 2d Ising model in a magnetic field by using transfer matrix techniques. We compare these corrections with the functional form recently proposed by Delfino and LeClair-Mussardo for the finite temperature behaviour of one-point functions in integrable 2d quantum field theories. We find a perfect agreement between theoretical expectations and numerical results. Assuming the proposed functional form as an input in our analysis we obtain a relevant improvement in the precision of the continuum limit estimates of both quantities.

  4. 2dF grows up: Echidna for the AAT

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McGrath, Andrew; Barden, Sam; Miziarski, Stan; Rambold, William; Smith, Greg

    2008-07-01

    We present the concept design of a new fibre positioner and spectrograph system for the Anglo-Australian Telescope, as a proposed enhancement to the Anglo-Australian Observatory's well-known 2dF facility. A four-fold multiplex enhancement is accomplished by replacing the 400-fibre 2dF fibre positioning robot with a 1600-fibre Echidna unit, feeding three clones of the AAOmega optical spectrograph. Such a facility has the capability of a redshift 1 survey of a large fraction of the southern sky, collecting five to ten thousand spectra per night for a million-galaxy survey.

  5. Radiative heat transfer in 2D Dirac materials

    DOE PAGES

    Rodriguez-López, Pablo; Tse, Wang -Kong; Dalvit, Diego A. R.

    2015-05-12

    We compute the radiative heat transfer between two sheets of 2D Dirac materials, including topological Chern insulators and graphene, within the framework of the local approximation for the optical response of these materials. In this approximation, which neglects spatial dispersion, we derive both numerically and analytically the short-distance asymptotic of the near-field heat transfer in these systems, and show that it scales as the inverse of the distance between the two sheets. In conclusion, we discuss the limitations to the validity of this scaling law imposed by spatial dispersion in 2D Dirac materials.

  6. Nomenclature for human CYP2D6 alleles.

    PubMed

    Daly, A K; Brockmöller, J; Broly, F; Eichelbaum, M; Evans, W E; Gonzalez, F J; Huang, J D; Idle, J R; Ingelman-Sundberg, M; Ishizaki, T; Jacqz-Aigrain, E; Meyer, U A; Nebert, D W; Steen, V M; Wolf, C R; Zanger, U M

    1996-06-01

    To standardize CYP2D6 allele nomenclature, and to conform with international human gene nomenclature guidelines, an alternative to the current arbitrary system is described. Based on recommendations for human genome nomenclature, we propose that alleles be designated by CYP2D6 followed by an asterisk and a combination of roman letters and arabic numerals distinct for each allele with the number specifying the key mutation and, where appropriate, a letter specifying additional mutations. Criteria for classification as a separate allele and protein nomenclature are also presented. PMID:8807658

  7. Spreading dynamics of 2D dipolar Langmuir monolayer phases.

    PubMed

    Heinig, P; Wurlitzer, S; Fischer, Th M

    2004-07-01

    We study the spreading of a liquid 2D dipolar droplet in a Langmuir monolayer. Interfacial tensions (line tensions) and microscopic contact angles depend on the scale on which they are probed and obey a scaling law. Assuming rapid equilibration of the microscopic contact angle and ideal slippage of the 2D solid/liquid and solid/gas boundary, the driving force of spreading is merely expressed by the shape-dependent long-range interaction integrals. We obtain good agreement between experiment and numerical simulations using this theory. PMID:15278693

  8. Evaluation of 2D ceramic matrix composites in aeroconvective environments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Riccitiello, Salvatore R.; Love, Wendell L.; Balter-Peterson, Aliza

    1992-01-01

    An evaluation is conducted of a novel ceramic-matrix composite (CMC) material system for use in the aeroconvective-heating environments encountered by the nose caps and wing leading edges of such aerospace vehicles as the Space Shuttle, during orbit-insertion and reentry from LEO. These CMCs are composed of an SiC matrix that is reinforced with Nicalon, Nextel, or carbon refractory fibers in a 2D architecture. The test program conducted for the 2D CMCs gave attention to their subsurface oxidation.

  9. Quantum process tomography by 2D fluorescence spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pachón, Leonardo A.; Marcus, Andrew H.; Aspuru-Guzik, Alán

    2015-06-01

    Reconstruction of the dynamics (quantum process tomography) of the single-exciton manifold in energy transfer systems is proposed here on the basis of two-dimensional fluorescence spectroscopy (2D-FS) with phase-modulation. The quantum-process-tomography protocol introduced here benefits from, e.g., the sensitivity enhancement ascribed to 2D-FS. Although the isotropically averaged spectroscopic signals depend on the quantum yield parameter Γ of the doubly excited-exciton manifold, it is shown that the reconstruction of the dynamics is insensitive to this parameter. Applications to foundational and applied problems, as well as further extensions, are discussed.

  10. Single-mode cylindrical graphene plasmon waveguide

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Jianfeng; Yang, Jingjing; Huang, Ming

    2016-08-01

    A cylindrical graphene plasmon waveguide (CGPW) which consists of two rolled graphene ribbons, a dielectric core and a dielectric interlayer is proposed. An analytical model for the single-mode condition and cutoff frequency of high-order graphene surface plasmon (GSP) modes is presented and verified by finite element method (FEM) simulations. Single-mode operation region of CGPW is identified in the frequency-radius space. By varying the separation between two graphene sheets and the Fermi level of graphene, a large tunability of the mode behavior is also demonstrated. The proposed structure may provide a new freedom to manipulate GSPs, and would lead to novel applications in optics.

  11. Cullet Manufacture Using the Cylindrical Induction Melter

    SciTech Connect

    Miller, D. H.

    2000-01-20

    The base process for vitrification of the Am/Cm solution stored in F-canyon uses 25SrABS cullet as the glass former. A small portion of the cullet used in the SRTC development work was purchased from Corning while the majority was made in the 5 inch Cylindrical Induction Melter (CIM5). Task 1.01 of TTR-NMSS/SE-006, Additional Am-Cm Process Development Studies, requested that a process for the glass former (cullet) fabrication be specified. This report provides the process details for 25SrAB cullet production thereby satisfying Task 1.01.

  12. Periodic Arrays of Interfacial Cylindrical reverse Micelles

    SciTech Connect

    Nelson,M.; Cain, N.; Ocko, B.; Gin, D.; Hammond, S.; Schwartz, D.

    2005-01-01

    We report an approach for the fabrication of periodic molecular nanostructures on surfaces. The approach involves biomimetic self-organization of synthetic wedge-shaped amphiphilic molecules into multilayer arrays of cylindrical reverse micelles. The films were characterized by atomic force microscopy and X-ray reflectivity. These nanostructured films self-assemble in solution but remain stable upon removal and exposure to ambient conditions, making them potentially suitable for a variety of dry pattern transfer methods. We illustrate the generality of this approach by using two distinct molecular systems that vary in size by a factor of 2.

  13. Liquid crystal alignment in cylindrical microcapillaries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chychłowski, M.; Yaroshchuk, O.; Kravchuk, R.; Woliński, T.

    2011-09-01

    A variety of alignment configurations of liquid crystals (LCs) inside the glassy cylindrical capillaries is realized by using alignment materials providing different anchoring. The radial configuration with central disclination line is obtained for homeotropic boundary conditions. In turn, the axial, transversal and tilted alignment structures are realized by using materials for planar anchoring. The uniformity and controlling of the latter structures were provided by photoalignment method. This approach can be further used to control LC alignment in the photonic crystal fibers recognized as advanced elements for different optical devices.

  14. Liquid crystal alignment in cylindrical microcapillaries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chychłowski, M.; Yaroshchuk, O.; Kravchuk, R.; Woliński, T.

    2012-03-01

    A variety of alignment configurations of liquid crystals (LCs) inside the glassy cylindrical capillaries is realized by using alignment materials providing different anchoring. The radial configuration with central disclination line is obtained for homeotropic boundary conditions. In turn, the axial, transversal and tilted alignment structures are realized by using materials for planar anchoring. The uniformity and controlling of the latter structures were provided by photoalignment method. This approach can be further used to control LC alignment in the photonic crystal fibers recognized as advanced elements for different optical devices.

  15. High convergence implosion symmetry in cylindrical hohlraums

    SciTech Connect

    Amendt, P A; Bradley, D K; Hammel, B A; Landen, O L; Suter, L J; Turner, R E; Wallace, R J

    1999-09-01

    High convergence, hohlraum-driven implosions will require control of time-integrated drive asymmetries to 1% levels for ignition to succeed on the NIF. We review how core imaging provides such asymmetry measurement accuracy for the lowest order asymmetry modes, and describe recent improvements in imaging techniques that should allow detection of higher order asymmetry modes. We also present a simple analytic model explaining how the sensitivity of symmetry control to beam pointing scales as we progress from single ring per side Nova cylindrical hohlraum illumination geometries to NIF-like multiple rings per side Omega hohlraum illumination geometries and ultimately to NIF-scale hohlraums.

  16. Radiation of sound from unflanged cylindrical ducts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hartharan, S. L.; Bayliss, A.

    1983-01-01

    Calculations of sound radiated from unflanged cylindrical ducts are presented. The numerical simulation models the problem of an aero-engine inlet. The time dependent linearized Euler equations are solved from a state of rest until a harmonic solution is attained. A fourth order accurate finite difference scheme is used and solutions are obtained from a fully vectorized Cyber-203 computer program. Cases of both plane waves and spin modes are treated. Spin modes model the sound generated by a turbofan engine. Boundary conditions for both plane waves and spin modes are treated. Solutions obtained are compared with experiments conducted at NASA Langley Research Center.

  17. Current to a moving cylindrical electrostatic probe

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hoegy, W. R.; Wharton, L. E.

    1972-01-01

    The current collection characteristics of a moving cylindrical Langmuir probe are evaluated for a range of probe speeds and potentials which are applicable to earth and planetary measurements. The current expressions derived include the cases of the general accelerated current, sheath area limited current, orbital motion limited current, and retarded current. For the orbital motion limited current, a simple algebraic expression is obtained which includes and generalizes the Mott-Smith and Langmuir expressions for both a stationary probe and a rapidly moving probe. For a rapidly moving probe a single formula adequately represents both the accelerated and the retarded current.

  18. 2D molybdenum disulphide (2D-MoS2) modified electrodes explored towards the oxygen reduction reaction.

    PubMed

    Rowley-Neale, Samuel J; Fearn, Jamie M; Brownson, Dale A C; Smith, Graham C; Ji, Xiaobo; Banks, Craig E

    2016-08-21

    Two-dimensional molybdenum disulphide nanosheets (2D-MoS2) have proven to be an effective electrocatalyst, with particular attention being focused on their use towards increasing the efficiency of the reactions associated with hydrogen fuel cells. Whilst the majority of research has focused on the Hydrogen Evolution Reaction (HER), herein we explore the use of 2D-MoS2 as a potential electrocatalyst for the much less researched Oxygen Reduction Reaction (ORR). We stray from literature conventions and perform experiments in 0.1 M H2SO4 acidic electrolyte for the first time, evaluating the electrochemical performance of the ORR with 2D-MoS2 electrically wired/immobilised upon several carbon based electrodes (namely; Boron Doped Diamond (BDD), Edge Plane Pyrolytic Graphite (EPPG), Glassy Carbon (GC) and Screen-Printed Electrodes (SPE)) whilst exploring a range of 2D-MoS2 coverages/masses. Consequently, the findings of this study are highly applicable to real world fuel cell applications. We show that significant improvements in ORR activity can be achieved through the careful selection of the underlying/supporting carbon materials that electrically wire the 2D-MoS2 and utilisation of an optimal mass of 2D-MoS2. The ORR onset is observed to be reduced to ca. +0.10 V for EPPG, GC and SPEs at 2D-MoS2 (1524 ng cm(-2) modification), which is far closer to Pt at +0.46 V compared to bare/unmodified EPPG, GC and SPE counterparts. This report is the first to demonstrate such beneficial electrochemical responses in acidic conditions using a 2D-MoS2 based electrocatalyst material on a carbon-based substrate (SPEs in this case). Investigation of the beneficial reaction mechanism reveals the ORR to occur via a 4 electron process in specific conditions; elsewhere a 2 electron process is observed. This work offers valuable insights for those wishing to design, fabricate and/or electrochemically test 2D-nanosheet materials towards the ORR. PMID:27448174

  19. A novel improved method for analysis of 2D diffusion-relaxation data--2D PARAFAC-Laplace decomposition.

    PubMed

    Tønning, Erik; Polders, Daniel; Callaghan, Paul T; Engelsen, Søren B

    2007-09-01

    This paper demonstrates how the multi-linear PARAFAC model can with advantage be used to decompose 2D diffusion-relaxation correlation NMR spectra prior to 2D-Laplace inversion to the T(2)-D domain. The decomposition is advantageous for better interpretation of the complex correlation maps as well as for the quantification of extracted T(2)-D components. To demonstrate the new method seventeen mixtures of wheat flour, starch, gluten, oil and water were prepared and measured with a 300 MHz nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectrometer using a pulsed gradient stimulated echo (PGSTE) pulse sequence followed by a Carr-Purcell-Meiboom-Gill (CPMG) pulse echo train. By varying the gradient strength, 2D diffusion-relaxation data were recorded for each sample. From these double exponentially decaying relaxation data the PARAFAC algorithm extracted two unique diffusion-relaxation components, explaining 99.8% of the variation in the data set. These two components were subsequently transformed to the T(2)-D domain using 2D-inverse Laplace transformation and quantitatively assigned to the oil and water components of the samples. The oil component was one distinct distribution with peak intensity at D=3 x 10(-12) m(2) s(-1) and T(2)=180 ms. The water component consisted of two broad populations of water molecules with diffusion coefficients and relaxation times centered around correlation pairs: D=10(-9) m(2) s(-1), T(2)=10 ms and D=3 x 10(-13) m(2) s(-1), T(2)=13 ms. Small spurious peaks observed in the inverse Laplace transformation of original complex data were effectively filtered by the PARAFAC decomposition and thus considered artefacts from the complex Laplace transformation. The oil-to-water ratio determined by PARAFAC followed by 2D-Laplace inversion was perfectly correlated with known oil-to-water ratio of the samples. The new method of using PARAFAC prior to the 2D-Laplace inversion proved to have superior potential in analysis of diffusion-relaxation spectra, as it

  20. 2D molybdenum disulphide (2D-MoS2) modified electrodes explored towards the oxygen reduction reaction.

    PubMed

    Rowley-Neale, Samuel J; Fearn, Jamie M; Brownson, Dale A C; Smith, Graham C; Ji, Xiaobo; Banks, Craig E

    2016-08-21

    Two-dimensional molybdenum disulphide nanosheets (2D-MoS2) have proven to be an effective electrocatalyst, with particular attention being focused on their use towards increasing the efficiency of the reactions associated with hydrogen fuel cells. Whilst the majority of research has focused on the Hydrogen Evolution Reaction (HER), herein we explore the use of 2D-MoS2 as a potential electrocatalyst for the much less researched Oxygen Reduction Reaction (ORR). We stray from literature conventions and perform experiments in 0.1 M H2SO4 acidic electrolyte for the first time, evaluating the electrochemical performance of the ORR with 2D-MoS2 electrically wired/immobilised upon several carbon based electrodes (namely; Boron Doped Diamond (BDD), Edge Plane Pyrolytic Graphite (EPPG), Glassy Carbon (GC) and Screen-Printed Electrodes (SPE)) whilst exploring a range of 2D-MoS2 coverages/masses. Consequently, the findings of this study are highly applicable to real world fuel cell applications. We show that significant improvements in ORR activity can be achieved through the careful selection of the underlying/supporting carbon materials that electrically wire the 2D-MoS2 and utilisation of an optimal mass of 2D-MoS2. The ORR onset is observed to be reduced to ca. +0.10 V for EPPG, GC and SPEs at 2D-MoS2 (1524 ng cm(-2) modification), which is far closer to Pt at +0.46 V compared to bare/unmodified EPPG, GC and SPE counterparts. This report is the first to demonstrate such beneficial electrochemical responses in acidic conditions using a 2D-MoS2 based electrocatalyst material on a carbon-based substrate (SPEs in this case). Investigation of the beneficial reaction mechanism reveals the ORR to occur via a 4 electron process in specific conditions; elsewhere a 2 electron process is observed. This work offers valuable insights for those wishing to design, fabricate and/or electrochemically test 2D-nanosheet materials towards the ORR.

  1. A novel improved method for analysis of 2D diffusion relaxation data—2D PARAFAC-Laplace decomposition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tønning, Erik; Polders, Daniel; Callaghan, Paul T.; Engelsen, Søren B.

    2007-09-01

    This paper demonstrates how the multi-linear PARAFAC model can with advantage be used to decompose 2D diffusion-relaxation correlation NMR spectra prior to 2D-Laplace inversion to the T2- D domain. The decomposition is advantageous for better interpretation of the complex correlation maps as well as for the quantification of extracted T2- D components. To demonstrate the new method seventeen mixtures of wheat flour, starch, gluten, oil and water were prepared and measured with a 300 MHz nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectrometer using a pulsed gradient stimulated echo (PGSTE) pulse sequence followed by a Carr-Purcell-Meiboom-Gill (CPMG) pulse echo train. By varying the gradient strength, 2D diffusion-relaxation data were recorded for each sample. From these double exponentially decaying relaxation data the PARAFAC algorithm extracted two unique diffusion-relaxation components, explaining 99.8% of the variation in the data set. These two components were subsequently transformed to the T2- D domain using 2D-inverse Laplace transformation and quantitatively assigned to the oil and water components of the samples. The oil component was one distinct distribution with peak intensity at D = 3 × 10 -12 m 2 s -1 and T2 = 180 ms. The water component consisted of two broad populations of water molecules with diffusion coefficients and relaxation times centered around correlation pairs: D = 10 -9 m 2 s -1, T2 = 10 ms and D = 3 × 10 -13 m 2 s -1, T2 = 13 ms. Small spurious peaks observed in the inverse Laplace transformation of original complex data were effectively filtered by the PARAFAC decomposition and thus considered artefacts from the complex Laplace transformation. The oil-to-water ratio determined by PARAFAC followed by 2D-Laplace inversion was perfectly correlated with known oil-to-water ratio of the samples. The new method of using PARAFAC prior to the 2D-Laplace inversion proved to have superior potential in analysis of diffusion-relaxation spectra, as it

  2. Acoustic scattering of a cylindrical quasi-Gaussian beam with arbitrary incidence focused on a rigid elliptical cylinder

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mitri, F. G.

    2015-11-01

    Using the partial-wave series expansion method in cylindrical coordinates, a formal analytical solution for the acoustical scattering of a 2D cylindrical quasi-Gaussian beam with an arbitrary angle of incidence θi, focused on a rigid elliptical cylinder in a non-viscous fluid, is developed. The cylindrical focused beam expression is an exact solution of the Helmholtz equation. The scattering coefficients for the elliptical cylinder are determined by forcing the expression of the total (incident + scattered) field to satisfy the Neumann boundary condition for a rigid immovable surface, and performing the product of matrices involving an inversion procedure. Computations for the matrices elements require a single numerical integration procedure for each partial-wave mode. Numerical results are performed with particular emphasis on the focusing properties of the incident beam and its angle of incidence with respect to the major axis a of the ellipse as well as the aspect ratio a/b where b is the minor axis (assuming a > b). The method is validated and verified against previous results obtained via the T-matrix for plane waves. The present analysis is the first to consider an acoustical beam on an elliptic cylinder of variable cross-section as opposed to plane waves of infinite extent. Other 2D non-spherical and Chebyshev surfaces are mentioned that may be examined throughout this analytical formalism assuming a small deformation parameter ɛ.

  3. Acoustic scattering of a cylindrical quasi-Gaussian beam with arbitrary incidence focused on a rigid elliptical cylinder

    SciTech Connect

    Mitri, F. G.

    2015-11-14

    Using the partial-wave series expansion method in cylindrical coordinates, a formal analytical solution for the acoustical scattering of a 2D cylindrical quasi-Gaussian beam with an arbitrary angle of incidence θ{sub i}, focused on a rigid elliptical cylinder in a non-viscous fluid, is developed. The cylindrical focused beam expression is an exact solution of the Helmholtz equation. The scattering coefficients for the elliptical cylinder are determined by forcing the expression of the total (incident + scattered) field to satisfy the Neumann boundary condition for a rigid immovable surface, and performing the product of matrices involving an inversion procedure. Computations for the matrices elements require a single numerical integration procedure for each partial-wave mode. Numerical results are performed with particular emphasis on the focusing properties of the incident beam and its angle of incidence with respect to the major axis a of the ellipse as well as the aspect ratio a/b where b is the minor axis (assuming a > b). The method is validated and verified against previous results obtained via the T-matrix for plane waves. The present analysis is the first to consider an acoustical beam on an elliptic cylinder of variable cross-section as opposed to plane waves of infinite extent. Other 2D non-spherical and Chebyshev surfaces are mentioned that may be examined throughout this analytical formalism assuming a small deformation parameter ε.

  4. Optimum rotationally symmetric shells for flywheel rotors

    DOEpatents

    Blake, Henry W.

    2000-01-01

    A flywheel rim support formed from two shell halves. Each of the shell halves has a disc connected to the central shaft. A first shell element connects to the disc at an interface. A second shell element connects to the first shell element. The second shell element has a plurality of meridional slits. A cylindrical shell element connects to the second shell element. The cylindrical shell element connects to the inner surface of the flywheel rim. A flywheel rim support having a disc connected an outer diameter of a shaft. Two optimally shaped shell elements connect to the optimally shaped disc at an interface. The interface defines a discontinuity in a meridional slope of said support. A cylindrical shell element connects to the two shell elements. The cylindrical shell element has an outer surface for connecting to the inner surface of the flywheel rim. A flywheel rim casing includes an annular shell connected to the central shaft. The annular shell connects to the flywheel rim. A composite shell surrounds the shaft, annular shell and flywheel rim.

  5. Self-alignment of silver nanoparticles in highly ordered 2D arrays.

    PubMed

    Rodríguez-León, Ericka; Íñiguez-Palomares, Ramón; Urrutia-Bañuelos, Efraín; Herrera-Urbina, Ronaldo; Tánori, Judith; Maldonado, Amir

    2015-01-01

    We have synthesized silver nanoparticles in the non-polar phase of non-aqueous microemulsions. The nanocrystals have been grown by reducing silver ions in the microemulsion cylindrical micelles formed by the reducing agent (ethylene glycol). By a careful deposit of the microemulsion phase on a substrate, the micelles align in a hexagonal geometry, thus forming a 2D array of parallel strings of individual silver nanoparticles on the substrate. The microemulsions are the ternary system of anionic surfactant, non-polar solvent (isooctane), and solvent polar (ethylene glycol); the size of synthesized nanoparticles is about 7 nm and they are monodisperse. The study of the microstructure was realized by transmission electron microscopy, high-resolution technique transmission electron microscopy (HR-TEM), and Fourier processing using the software Digital Micrograph for the determination of the crystalline structure of the HR-TEM images of the nanocrystals; chemical composition was determined using the energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy. Addition technique polarizing light microscopy allowed the observation of the hexagonal phase of the system. This method of synthesis and self-alignment could be useful for the preparation of patterned materials at the nanometer scale.

  6. Self-alignment of silver nanoparticles in highly ordered 2D arrays

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rodríguez-León, Ericka; Íñiguez-Palomares, Ramón; Urrutia-Bañuelos, Efraín; Herrera-Urbina, Ronaldo; Tánori, Judith; Maldonado, Amir

    2015-03-01

    We have synthesized silver nanoparticles in the non-polar phase of non-aqueous microemulsions. The nanocrystals have been grown by reducing silver ions in the microemulsion cylindrical micelles formed by the reducing agent (ethylene glycol). By a careful deposit of the microemulsion phase on a substrate, the micelles align in a hexagonal geometry, thus forming a 2D array of parallel strings of individual silver nanoparticles on the substrate. The microemulsions are the ternary system of anionic surfactant, non-polar solvent (isooctane), and solvent polar (ethylene glycol); the size of synthesized nanoparticles is about 7 nm and they are monodisperse. The study of the microstructure was realized by transmission electron microscopy, high-resolution technique transmission electron microscopy (HR-TEM), and Fourier processing using the software Digital Micrograph for the determination of the crystalline structure of the HR-TEM images of the nanocrystals; chemical composition was determined using the energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy. Addition technique polarizing light microscopy allowed the observation of the hexagonal phase of the system. This method of synthesis and self-alignment could be useful for the preparation of patterned materials at the nanometer scale.

  7. Self-alignment of silver nanoparticles in highly ordered 2D arrays.

    PubMed

    Rodríguez-León, Ericka; Íñiguez-Palomares, Ramón; Urrutia-Bañuelos, Efraín; Herrera-Urbina, Ronaldo; Tánori, Judith; Maldonado, Amir

    2015-01-01

    We have synthesized silver nanoparticles in the non-polar phase of non-aqueous microemulsions. The nanocrystals have been grown by reducing silver ions in the microemulsion cylindrical micelles formed by the reducing agent (ethylene glycol). By a careful deposit of the microemulsion phase on a substrate, the micelles align in a hexagonal geometry, thus forming a 2D array of parallel strings of individual silver nanoparticles on the substrate. The microemulsions are the ternary system of anionic surfactant, non-polar solvent (isooctane), and solvent polar (ethylene glycol); the size of synthesized nanoparticles is about 7 nm and they are monodisperse. The study of the microstructure was realized by transmission electron microscopy, high-resolution technique transmission electron microscopy (HR-TEM), and Fourier processing using the software Digital Micrograph for the determination of the crystalline structure of the HR-TEM images of the nanocrystals; chemical composition was determined using the energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy. Addition technique polarizing light microscopy allowed the observation of the hexagonal phase of the system. This method of synthesis and self-alignment could be useful for the preparation of patterned materials at the nanometer scale. PMID:25883540

  8. Shaping symmetric Airy beam through binary amplitude modulation for ultralong needle focus

    SciTech Connect

    Fang, Zhao-Xiang; Gong, Lei; Ren, Yu-Xuan; Vaveliuk, Pablo; Chen, Yue; Lu, Rong-De

    2015-11-28

    Needle-like electromagnetic field has various advantages for the applications in high-resolution imaging, Raman spectroscopy, as well as long-distance optical transportation. The realization of such field often requires high numerical aperture (NA) objective lens and the transmission masks. We demonstrate an ultralong needle-like focus in the optical range produced with an ordinary lens. This is achieved by focusing a symmetric Airy beam (SAB) generated via binary spectral modulation with a digital micromirror device. Such amplitude modulation technique is able to shape traditional Airy beams, SABs, as well as the dynamic transition modes between the one-dimensional and two-dimensional (2D) symmetric Airy modes. The created 2D SAB was characterized through measurement of the propagating fields with one of the four main lobes blocked by an opaque mask. The 2D SAB was verified to exhibit self-healing property against propagation with the obstructed major lobe reconstructed after a certain distance. We further produced an elongated focal line by concentrating the SAB via lenses with different NAs and achieved an ultralong longitudinal needle focus. The produced long needle focus will be applied in optical, chemical, and biological sciences.

  9. Optimized arrays for 2-D resistivity survey lines with a large number of electrodes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Loke, M. H.; Wilkinson, P. B.; Chambers, J. E.; Uhlemann, S. S.; Sorensen, J. P. R.

    2015-01-01

    Previous studies show that optimized arrays generated using the 'Compare R' method have significantly better resolution than conventional arrays. This method determines the optimum set of arrays by selecting those that give the maximum model resolution. The number of possible arrays (the comprehensive data set) increases with the fourth power of the number of electrodes. The optimization method faces practical limitations for 2-D survey lines with more than 60 electrodes where the number of possible arrays exceeds a million. Several techniques are proposed to reduce the calculation time for such survey lines. A single-precision version of the 'Compare R' algorithm using a new ranking function reduces the calculation time by two to eight times while providing results similar to the double-precision version. Recent improvements in computer GPU technology can reduce the calculation time by about seven times. The calculation time is reduced by half by using the fact that arrays that are symmetrical about the center of the line produce identical changes in the model resolution values. It is further reduced by more than thirty times by calculating the Sherman-Morrison update for all the possible two-electrode combinations, which are then used to calculate the model resolution values for the four-electrode arrays. The calculation time is reduced by more then ten times by using a subset of the comprehensive data set consisting of only symmetrical arrays. Tests with a synthetic model and field data set show that optimized arrays derived from this subset produce inversion models with differences of less than 10% from those derived using the full comprehensive data set. The optimized data sets produced models that are more accurate than the Wenner-Schlumberger array data sets in all the tests.

  10. Fracture mode analysis and related surface deformation during dyke intrusion: Results from 2D experimental modelling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abdelmalak, M.; Mourgues, R.; Bureau, D.

    2012-04-01

    The analysis of surface deformation in response to approaching intrusion is important for assessing volcanic hazards. In this paper, we present results from 2D scaled models of magma intrusion, in which we discuss the propagation mode and related surface deformation during dyke growth. Our experiments consist in the injection of analogue magma (Golden syrup) into cohesive fine-grained silica powder, simulating the brittle upper crust. Using an optical image correlation technique (Particle Imaging Velocimetry), we were able to follow the surface deformation, the displacements within the country rock and to calculate strains induced by the magma emplacement. We identified two kinds of intrusion morphologies resulting from different interactions between the dyke and plastic deformations occurring in the country rock near the surface. In both morphologies, the dyke is vertical at depth. Our analysis demonstrates that both hydraulic tensile opening and shear-related propagation operate during this first stage of vertical growth. At the same time, the surface lifted up and formed a smooth symmetrical dome. Both types of morphologies differ in the upper part. During a second stage of evolution, the first type of intrusion inclined at a dip between 45 to 65°. This inclination is not caused by shear deformations and is attributed to stress rotation near the tip. Closer to the surface, the growth of the inclined sheet creates shear bands which conduct the fluid toward the surface. The surface uplift becomes asymmetric. The second type of intrusion does not rotate at depth and continues its vertical propagation by catching vertical tensile cracks. The intrusion of magma in these cracks creates horizontal stresses which are responsible for the closure of fractures and the formation of reverse faults. At the surface the dome remains symmetrical. For both intrusions, the surface uplift accelerates during the second stage and it is strongly influenced by the presence or the

  11. Design parameters for rotating cylindrical filtration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schwille, John A.; Mitra, Deepanjan; Lueptow, Richard M.

    2002-01-01

    Rotating cylindrical filtration displays significantly reduced plugging of filter pores and build-up of a cake layer, but the number and range of parameters that can be adjusted complicates the design of these devices. Twelve individual parameters were investigated experimentally by measuring the build-up of particles on the rotating cylindrical filter after a fixed time of operation. The build-up of particles on the filter depends on the rotational speed, the radial filtrate flow, the particle size and the gap width. Other parameters, such as suspension concentration and total flow rate are less important. Of the four mechanisms present in rotating filters to reduce pore plugging and cake build-up, axial shear, rotational shear, centrifugal sedimentation and vortical motion, the evidence suggests rotational shear is the dominant mechanism, although the other mechanisms still play minor roles. The ratio of the shear force acting parallel to the filter surface on a particle to the Stokes drag acting normal to the filter surface on the particle due to the difference between particle motion and filtrate flow can be used as a non-dimensional parameter that predicts the degree of particle build-up on the filter surface for a wide variety of filtration conditions. c2002 Elsevier Science B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Design parameters for rotating cylindrical filtration.

    PubMed

    Schwille, John A; Mitra, Deepanjan; Lueptow, Richard M

    2002-07-15

    Rotating cylindrical filtration displays significantly reduced plugging of filter pores and build-up of a cake layer, but the number and range of parameters that can be adjusted complicates the design of these devices. Twelve individual parameters were investigated experimentally by measuring the build-up of particles on the rotating cylindrical filter after a fixed time of operation. The build-up of particles on the filter depends on the rotational speed, the radial filtrate flow, the particle size and the gap width. Other parameters, such as suspension concentration and total flow rate are less important. Of the four mechanisms present in rotating filters to reduce pore plugging and cake build-up, axial shear, rotational shear, centrifugal sedimentation and vortical motion, the evidence suggests rotational shear is the dominant mechanism, although the other mechanisms still play minor roles. The ratio of the shear force acting parallel to the filter surface on a particle to the Stokes drag acting normal to the filter surface on the particle due to the difference between particle motion and filtrate flow can be used as a non-dimensional parameter that predicts the degree of particle build-up on the filter surface for a wide variety of filtration conditions. PMID:12238523

  13. Thermal Convection in a cylindrical enclosure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shukla, K.

    The microgravity experiment in the Apollo space mission during 1973 has established the importance of the surface tension as a propulsive force on the onset of convection because surface tension varies with temperature. Any temperature gradient established across the surface of the fluid is accompanied by a gradient in surface tension. However, the surface tension driven convection experiment flown in the shuttle flight has not shown any evidence of oscillatory flow even for Marangoni number as high as 105. The paper discusses thermal convection in a cylindrical enclosure with free boundary in a microgravity environment. The surface deformation caused by g-jitter and its relation to the oscillatory flow is studied. The system to be investigated in cylindrical layers of fluid heated from beneath with upper boundary free, initially in mechanical equilibrium, but subjected to the gradient of heat. At any instant of time, in a microgravity environment, the oscillatory part of g-jitter can be as high as 10 -3 g, where g is the gravitational acceleration on the surface of the earth [1]. The instability of a Boussinesq fluid [2] is analyzed in terms of the dimensionless parameters Raleigh number, Ra, Prandtl number, Pr, Marangoni number, M and the aspect ratio, A and relative importance of these parameters is established. References [1] Bannister, T C., etal, NASA, TMX-64772, 1973 [2] Shukla, K N, Applied Mechanics Review, Vol. 54, (5), PP 391-404, 2001

  14. Scattering and radiation from cylindrically conformal antennas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kempel, Leo Charles

    Microstrip patch antennas offer considerable advantages in terms of weight, aerodynamic drag, cost, flexibility, and observability over more conventional protruding antennas. Two hybrid finite element methods are presented and are used to examine the scattering and radiation behavior of cylindrically conformal patches. In conjunction with a new divergence-free cylindrical shell element, the finite element-boundary integral method is shown to have low computational and memory requirements when compared with competing approaches. This method uses an efficient creeping wave series for the computation of the dyadic Green's function and a uniform surface mesh so that a fast Fourier transform may be used to reduce the computational and memory burden of the method. An alternative finite element-absorbing boundary condition approach incorporates a new conformal vector condition which minimizes the computational domain. The latter method is more flexible than the former because it can incorporate surface coatings and protruding antennas. Guidelines are established for minimal ABC displacement from the aperture. These two hybrid finite element methods are used to study the scattering, radiation, and input impedance of typical conformal antenna arrays. In particular, the effect of curvature and cavity size is examined for both discrete and wraparound antenna arrays.

  15. Thermal stress in high temperature cylindrical fasteners

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Blosser, Max L.

    1988-01-01

    Uninsulated structures fabricated from carbon or silicon-based materials, which are allowed to become hot during flight, are attractive for the design of some components of hypersonic vehicles. They have the potential to reduce weight and increase vehicle efficiency. Because of manufacturing contraints, these structures will consist of parts which must be fastened together. The thermal expansion mismatch between conventional metal fasteners and carbon or silicon-based structural materials may make it difficult to design a structural joint which is tight over the operational temperature range without exceeding allowable stress limits. In this study, algebraic, closed-form solutions for calculating the thermal stresses resulting from radial thermal expansion mismatch around a cylindrical fastener are developed. These solutions permit a designer to quickly evaluate many combinations of materials for the fastener and the structure. Using the algebraic equations developed, material properties and joint geometry were varied to determine their effect on thermal stresses. Finite element analyses were used to verify that the closed-form solutions derived give the correct thermal stress distribution around a cylindrical fastener and to investigate the effect of some of the simplifying assumptions made in developing the closed-form solutions for thermal stresses.

  16. Motion of a Cylindrical Dielectric Boundary.

    PubMed

    Cheng, Li-Tien; Li, Bo; White, Michael; Zhou, Shenggao

    2013-01-01

    The interplay between geometry and electrostatics contributes significantly to hydrophobic interactions of biomolecules in an aqueous solution. With an implicit solvent, such a system can be described macroscopically by the dielectric boundary that separates the high-dielectric solvent from low-dielectric solutes. This work concerns the motion of a model cylindrical dielectric boundary as the steepest descent of a free-energy functional that consists of both the surface and electrostatic energies. The effective dielectric boundary force is defined and an explicit formula of the force is obtained. It is found that such a force always points from the solvent region to solute region. In the case that the interior of a cylinder is of a lower dielectric, the motion of the dielectric boundary is initially driven dominantly by the surface force but is then driven inward quickly to the cylindrical axis by both the surface and electrostatic forces. In the case that the interior of a cylinder is of a higher dielectric, the competition between the geometrical and electrostatic contributions leads to the existence of equilibrium boundaries that are circular cylinders. Linear stability analysis is presented to show that such an equilibrium is only stable for a perturbation with a wavenumber larger than a critical value. Numerical simulations are reported for both of the cases, confirming the analysis on the role of each component of the driving force. Implications of the mathematical findings to the understanding of charged molecular systems are discussed.

  17. Optical inspection system for cylindrical objects

    DOEpatents

    Brenden, Byron B.; Peters, Timothy J.

    1989-01-01

    In the inspection of cylindrical objects, particularly O-rings, the object is translated through a field of view and a linear light trace is projected on its surface. An image of the light trace is projected on a mask, which has a size and shape corresponding to the size and shape which the image would have if the surface of the object were perfect. If there is a defect, light will pass the mask and be sensed by a detector positioned behind the mask. Preferably, two masks and associated detectors are used, one mask being convex to pass light when the light trace falls on a projection from the surface and the other concave, to pass light when the light trace falls on a depression in the surface. The light trace may be either dynamic, formed by a scanned laser beam, or static, formed by such a beam focussed by a cylindrical lens. Means are provided to automatically keep the illuminating receiving systems properly aligned.

  18. Propagation properties of cylindrical sinc Gaussian beam

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eyyuboğlu, Halil T.; Bayraktar, Mert

    2016-09-01

    We investigate the propagation properties of cylindrical sinc Gaussian beam in turbulent atmosphere. Since an analytic solution is hardly derivable, the study is carried out with the aid of random phase screens. Evolutions of the beam intensity profile, beam size and kurtosis parameter are analysed. It is found that on the source plane, cylindrical sinc Gaussian beam has a dark hollow appearance, where the side lobes also start to emerge with increase in width parameter and Gaussian source size. During propagation, beams with small width and Gaussian source size exhibit off-axis behaviour, losing the dark hollow shape, accumulating the intensity asymmetrically on one side, whereas those with large width and Gaussian source size retain dark hollow appearance even at long propagation distances. It is seen that the beams with large widths expand more in beam size than the ones with small widths. The structure constant values chosen do not seem to alter this situation. The kurtosis parameters of the beams having small widths are seen to be larger than the ones with the small widths. Again the choice of the structure constant does not change this trend.

  19. Design parameters for rotating cylindrical filtration.

    PubMed

    Schwille, John A; Mitra, Deepanjan; Lueptow, Richard M

    2002-07-15

    Rotating cylindrical filtration displays significantly reduced plugging of filter pores and build-up of a cake layer, but the number and range of parameters that can be adjusted complicates the design of these devices. Twelve individual parameters were investigated experimentally by measuring the build-up of particles on the rotating cylindrical filter after a fixed time of operation. The build-up of particles on the filter depends on the rotational speed, the radial filtrate flow, the particle size and the gap width. Other parameters, such as suspension concentration and total flow rate are less important. Of the four mechanisms present in rotating filters to reduce pore plugging and cake build-up, axial shear, rotational shear, centrifugal sedimentation and vortical motion, the evidence suggests rotational shear is the dominant mechanism, although the other mechanisms still play minor roles. The ratio of the shear force acting parallel to the filter surface on a particle to the Stokes drag acting normal to the filter surface on the particle due to the difference between particle motion and filtrate flow can be used as a non-dimensional parameter that predicts the degree of particle build-up on the filter surface for a wide variety of filtration conditions.

  20. Electron Confinement in Cylindrical Potential Well

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baltenkov, A. S.; Msezane, A. Z.

    2016-05-01

    We show that studying the solutions of the wave equation for an electron confined in a cylindrical potential well offers the possibility to analyze the confinement behavior of an electron executing one- or two-dimensional motion in the remaining three-dimensional space within the framework of the same mathematical model of the potential well. Some low-lying electronic states with different symmetries are considered and the corresponding wave functions are calculated. The behavior of their nodes and their peak positions with respect to the parameters of the cylindrical well is analyzed. Additionally, the momentum distributions of electrons in these states are calculated. The limiting cases of the ratio of the cylinder length H to its radius R0 are considered; when H significantly exceeds R0 and when R0 is much greater than H. The possible application of the results obtained here for the description of the general features in the behavior of electrons in nanowires with metallic type of conductivity (or nanotubes) and ultrathin epitaxial films (or graphene sheets) are discussed. Possible experiments are suggested as well where the quantum confinement can be manifested. Work supported by the Uzbek Foundation (ASB) and by the U.S. DOE, Division of Chemical Sciences, Geosciences and Biosciences, Office of Basic Energy Sciences, Office of Energy Research (AZM).

  1. Discrepant Results in a 2-D Marble Collision

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kalajian, Peter

    2013-01-01

    Video analysis of 2-D collisions is an excellent way to investigate conservation of linear momentum. The often-desired experimental design goal is to minimize the momentum loss in order to demonstrate the conservation law. An air table with colliding pucks is an ideal medium for this experiment, but such equipment is beyond the budget of many…

  2. THz devices based on 2D electron systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xing, Huili Grace; Yan, Rusen; Song, Bo; Encomendero, Jimy; Jena, Debdeep

    2015-05-01

    In two-dimensional electron systems with mobility on the order of 1,000 - 10,000 cm2/Vs, the electron scattering time is about 1 ps. For the THz window of 0.3 - 3 THz, the THz photon energy is in the neighborhood of 1 meV, substantially smaller than the optical phonon energy of solids where these 2D electron systems resides. These properties make the 2D electron systems interesting as a platform to realize THz devices. In this paper, I will review 3 approaches investigated in the past few years in my group toward THz devices. The first approach is the conventional high electron mobility transistor based on GaN toward THz amplifiers. The second approach is to employ the tunable intraband absorption in 2D electron systems to realize THz modulators, where I will use graphene as a model material system. The third approach is to exploit plasma wave in these 2D electron systems that can be coupled with a negative differential conductance element for THz amplifiers/sources/detectors.

  3. ELLIPT2D: A Flexible Finite Element Code Written Python

    SciTech Connect

    Pletzer, A.; Mollis, J.C.

    2001-03-22

    The use of the Python scripting language for scientific applications and in particular to solve partial differential equations is explored. It is shown that Python's rich data structure and object-oriented features can be exploited to write programs that are not only significantly more concise than their counter parts written in Fortran, C or C++, but are also numerically efficient. To illustrate this, a two-dimensional finite element code (ELLIPT2D) has been written. ELLIPT2D provides a flexible and easy-to-use framework for solving a large class of second-order elliptic problems. The program allows for structured or unstructured meshes. All functions defining the elliptic operator are user supplied and so are the boundary conditions, which can be of Dirichlet, Neumann or Robbins type. ELLIPT2D makes extensive use of dictionaries (hash tables) as a way to represent sparse matrices.Other key features of the Python language that have been widely used include: operator over loading, error handling, array slicing, and the Tkinter module for building graphical use interfaces. As an example of the utility of ELLIPT2D, a nonlinear solution of the Grad-Shafranov equation is computed using a Newton iterative scheme. A second application focuses on a solution of the toroidal Laplace equation coupled to a magnetohydrodynamic stability code, a problem arising in the context of magnetic fusion research.

  4. NKG2D ligands mediate immunosurveillance of senescent cells.

    PubMed

    Sagiv, Adi; Burton, Dominick G A; Moshayev, Zhana; Vadai, Ezra; Wensveen, Felix; Ben-Dor, Shifra; Golani, Ofra; Polic, Bojan; Krizhanovsky, Valery

    2016-02-01

    Cellular senescence is a stress response mechanism that limits tumorigenesis and tissue damage. Induction of cellular senescence commonly coincides with an immunogenic phenotype that promotes self-elimination by components of the immune system, thereby facilitating tumor suppression and limiting excess fibrosis during wound repair. The mechanisms by which senescent cells regulate their immune surveillance are not completely understood. Here we show that ligands of an activating Natural Killer (NK) cell receptor (NKG2D), MICA and ULBP2 are consistently up-regulated following induction of replicative senescence, oncogene-induced senescence and DNA damage - induced senescence. MICA and ULBP2 proteins are necessary for efficient NK-mediated cytotoxicity towards senescent fibroblasts. The mechanisms regulating the initial expression of NKG2D ligands in senescent cells are dependent on a DNA damage response, whilst continuous expression of these ligands is regulated by the ERK signaling pathway. In liver fibrosis, the accumulation of senescent activated stellate cells is increased in mice lacking NKG2D receptor leading to increased fibrosis. Overall, our results provide new insights into the mechanisms regulating the expression of immune ligands in senescent cells and reveal the importance of NKG2D receptor-ligand interaction in protecting against liver fibrosis. PMID:26878797

  5. Proteomic Profiling of Macrophages by 2D Electrophoresis

    PubMed Central

    Bouvet, Marion; Turkieh, Annie; Acosta-Martin, Adelina E.; Chwastyniak, Maggy; Beseme, Olivia; Amouyel, Philippe; Pinet, Florence

    2014-01-01

    The goal of the two-dimensional (2D) electrophoresis protocol described here is to show how to analyse the phenotype of human cultured macrophages. The key role of macrophages has been shown in various pathological disorders such as inflammatory, immunological, and infectious diseases. In this protocol, we use primary cultures of human monocyte-derived macrophages that can be differentiated into the M1 (pro-inflammatory) or the M2 (anti-inflammatory) phenotype. This in vitro model is reliable for studying the biological activities of M1 and M2 macrophages and also for a proteomic approach. Proteomic techniques are useful for comparing the phenotype and behaviour of M1 and M2 macrophages during host pathogenicity. 2D gel electrophoresis is a powerful proteomic technique for mapping large numbers of proteins or polypeptides simultaneously. We describe the protocol of 2D electrophoresis using fluorescent dyes, named 2D Differential Gel Electrophoresis (DIGE). The M1 and M2 macrophages proteins are labelled with cyanine dyes before separation by isoelectric focusing, according to their isoelectric point in the first dimension, and their molecular mass, in the second dimension. Separated protein or polypeptidic spots are then used to detect differences in protein or polypeptide expression levels. The proteomic approaches described here allows the investigation of the macrophage protein changes associated with various disorders like host pathogenicity or microbial toxins. PMID:25408153

  6. 2D signature for detection and identification of drugs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Trofimov, Vyacheslav A.; Varentsova, Svetlana A.; Shen, Jingling; Zhang, Cunlin; Zhou, Qingli; Shi, Yulei

    2011-06-01

    The method of spectral dynamics analysis (SDA-method) is used for obtaining the2D THz signature of drugs. This signature is used for the detection and identification of drugs with similar Fourier spectra by transmitted THz signal. We discuss the efficiency of SDA method for the identification problem of pure methamphetamine (MA), methylenedioxyamphetamine (MDA), 3, 4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA) and Ketamine.

  7. 2-D Imaging of Electron Temperature in Tokamak Plasmas

    SciTech Connect

    T. Munsat; E. Mazzucato; H. Park; C.W. Domier; M. Johnson; N.C. Luhmann Jr.; J. Wang; Z. Xia; I.G.J. Classen; A.J.H. Donne; M.J. van de Pol

    2004-07-08

    By taking advantage of recent developments in millimeter wave imaging technology, an Electron Cyclotron Emission Imaging (ECEI) instrument, capable of simultaneously measuring 128 channels of localized electron temperature over a 2-D map in the poloidal plane, has been developed for the TEXTOR tokamak. Data from the new instrument, detailing the MHD activity associated with a sawtooth crash, is presented.

  8. On the sensitivity of the 2D electromagnetic invisibility cloak

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kaproulias, S.; Sigalas, M. M.

    2012-10-01

    A computational study of the sensitivity of the two dimensional (2D) electromagnetic invisibility cloaks is performed with the finite element method. A circular metallic object is covered with the cloak and the effects of absorption, gain and disorder are examined. Also the effect of covering the cloak with a thin dielectric layer is studied.

  9. Rheological Properties of Quasi-2D Fluids in Microgravity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stannarius, Ralf; Trittel, Torsten; Eremin, Alexey; Harth, Kirsten; Clark, Noel; Maclennan, Joseph; Glaser, Matthew; Park, Cheol; Hall, Nancy; Tin, Padetha

    2015-01-01

    In recent years, research on complex fluids and fluids in restricted geometries has attracted much attention in the scientific community. This can be attributed not only to the development of novel materials based on complex fluids but also to a variety of important physical phenomena which have barely been explored. One example is the behavior of membranes and thin fluid films, which can be described by two-dimensional (2D) rheology behavior that is quite different from 3D fluids. In this study, we have investigated the rheological properties of freely suspended films of a thermotropic liquid crystal in microgravity experiments. This model system mimics isotropic and anisotropic quasi 2D fluids [46]. We use inkjet printing technology to dispense small droplets (inclusions) onto the film surface. The motion of these inclusions provides information on the rheological properties of the films and allows the study of a variety of flow instabilities. Flat films have been investigated on a sub-orbital rocket flight and curved films (bubbles) have been studied in the ISS project OASIS. Microgravity is essential when the films are curved in order to avoid sedimentation. The experiments yield the mobility of the droplets in the films as well as the mutual mobility of pairs of particles. Experimental results will be presented for 2D-isotropic (smectic-A) and 2D-nematic (smectic-C) phases.

  10. Influence of transverse shear on an axial crack in a cylindrical shell

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Krenk, S.

    1976-01-01

    An axial crack in a cylindrical shell is investigated by use of a 10th order shell theory, which accounts for transverse shear deformations as well as a special kind of orthotropy. The symmetric problem is formulated in terms of two coupled singular integral equations, which are solved numerically. The asymptotic membrane and bending stress fields ahead of the crack are found to be self similar. Stress intensity factors are given as a function of the shell parameter for various values of the ratio crack length to shell thickness. considerable differences from 8th order shell theory results are found for the bending stresses, while the membrane stresses of the 8th order theory seem to be a lower limit reached for very thin shells.

  11. Influence of transverse shear on an axial crack in a cylindrical shell

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Krenk, S.

    1977-01-01

    An axial crack in a cylindrical shell is investigated by use of a 10th order shell theory, which accounts for transverse shear deformations as well as a special kind of orthotropy. The symmetric problem is formulated in terms of two coupled singular integral equations, which are solved numerically. The asymptotic membrane and bending stress fields ahead of the crack are found to be self similar. Stress intensity factors are given as a function of the shell parameter for various values of the ratio crack length to shell thickness. Considerable differences from 8th order shell theory results are found for the bending stresses, while the membrane stresses of the 8th order theory seems to be a lower limit reached for very thin shells.

  12. Helical Defect Packings in a Quasi-One-Dimensional System of Cylindrically Confined Hard Spheres

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yamchi, Mahdi Zaeifi; Bowles, Richard K.

    2015-07-01

    We use a combination of analytical theory and molecular dynamics simulation to study the inherent structure landscape of a system of hard spheres confined to narrow cylindrical channels of diameter 1 +√{3 }/2 symmetrical single helix. The presence of topological defects that change the local chirality of the helix lowers the packing density and alters the local packing structure. The helical sections between defects become asymmetrical and are better described as a double helix with angular twists between the first and second nearest neighbors that are determined by the defect separation distance. Increasing the fraction of defects unwinds the two helical strands so that the least dense structure is a nonhelical packing of two zigzag chains. We also show that the packing effects of the helical section induce a long-range, entropically driven attraction between the defects.

  13. 2D molybdenum disulphide (2D-MoS2) modified electrodes explored towards the oxygen reduction reaction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rowley-Neale, Samuel J.; Fearn, Jamie M.; Brownson, Dale A. C.; Smith, Graham C.; Ji, Xiaobo; Banks, Craig E.

    2016-08-01

    Two-dimensional molybdenum disulphide nanosheets (2D-MoS2) have proven to be an effective electrocatalyst, with particular attention being focused on their use towards increasing the efficiency of the reactions associated with hydrogen fuel cells. Whilst the majority of research has focused on the Hydrogen Evolution Reaction (HER), herein we explore the use of 2D-MoS2 as a potential electrocatalyst for the much less researched Oxygen Reduction Reaction (ORR). We stray from literature conventions and perform experiments in 0.1 M H2SO4 acidic electrolyte for the first time, evaluating the electrochemical performance of the ORR with 2D-MoS2 electrically wired/immobilised upon several carbon based electrodes (namely; Boron Doped Diamond (BDD), Edge Plane Pyrolytic Graphite (EPPG), Glassy Carbon (GC) and Screen-Printed Electrodes (SPE)) whilst exploring a range of 2D-MoS2 coverages/masses. Consequently, the findings of this study are highly applicable to real world fuel cell applications. We show that significant improvements in ORR activity can be achieved through the careful selection of the underlying/supporting carbon materials that electrically wire the 2D-MoS2 and utilisation of an optimal mass of 2D-MoS2. The ORR onset is observed to be reduced to ca. +0.10 V for EPPG, GC and SPEs at 2D-MoS2 (1524 ng cm-2 modification), which is far closer to Pt at +0.46 V compared to bare/unmodified EPPG, GC and SPE counterparts. This report is the first to demonstrate such beneficial electrochemical responses in acidic conditions using a 2D-MoS2 based electrocatalyst material on a carbon-based substrate (SPEs in this case). Investigation of the beneficial reaction mechanism reveals the ORR to occur via a 4 electron process in specific conditions; elsewhere a 2 electron process is observed. This work offers valuable insights for those wishing to design, fabricate and/or electrochemically test 2D-nanosheet materials towards the ORR.Two-dimensional molybdenum disulphide nanosheets

  14. The NH2D hyperfine structure revealed by astrophysical observations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Daniel, F.; Coudert, L. H.; Punanova, A.; Harju, J.; Faure, A.; Roueff, E.; Sipilä, O.; Caselli, P.; Güsten, R.; Pon, A.; Pineda, J. E.

    2016-02-01

    Context. The 111-101 lines of ortho- and para-NH2D (o/p-NH2D) at 86 and 110 GHz, respectively, are commonly observed to provide constraints on the deuterium fractionation in the interstellar medium. In cold regions, the hyperfine structure that is due to the nitrogen (14N) nucleus is resolved. To date, this splitting is the only one that is taken into account in the NH2D column density estimates. Aims: We investigate how including the hyperfine splitting caused by the deuterium (D) nucleus affects the analysis of the rotational lines of NH2D. Methods: We present 30 m IRAM observations of the above mentioned lines and APEX o/p-NH2D observations of the 101-000 lines at 333 GHz. The hyperfine patterns of the observed lines were calculated taking into account the splitting induced by the D nucleus. The analysis then relies on line lists that either neglect or include the splitting induced by the D nucleus. Results: The hyperfine spectra are first analyzed with a line list that only includes the hyperfine splitting that is due to the 14N nucleus. We find inconsistencies between the line widths of the 101-000 and 111-101 lines, the latter being larger by a factor of ~1.6 ± 0.3. Such a large difference is unexpected because the two sets of lines probably originate from the same region. We next employed a newly computed line list for the o/p-NH2D transitions where the hyperfine structure induced by both nitrogen and deuterium nuclei was included. With this new line list, the analysis of the previous spectra leads to compatible line widths. Conclusions: Neglecting the hyperfine structure caused by D leads to overestimating the line widths of the o/p-NH2D lines at 3 mm. The error for a cold molecular core is about 50%. This error propagates directly to the column density estimate. We therefore recommend to take the hyperfine splittings caused by both the 14N and D nuclei into account in any analysis that relies on these lines. Based on observations carried out with the IRAM

  15. Note: Electrochemical etching of cylindrical nanoprobes using a vibrating electrolyte

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, Yufeng; Zeng, Yongbin Qu, Ningsong; Zhu, Di

    2015-07-15

    An electrochemical etching process using a vibrating electrolyte of potassium hydroxide to prepare tungsten cylindrical nanotips is developed. The vibrating electrolyte eases the effects of a diffusion layer and extends the etching area, which aid in the production of cylindrical nanotips. Larger amplitudes and a vibration frequency of 35 Hz are recommended for producing cylindrical nanotips. Nanotips with a tip radius of approximately 43 nm and a conical angle of arctan 0.0216 are obtained.

  16. Fast 2D FWI on a multi and many-cores workstation.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thierry, Philippe; Donno, Daniela; Noble, Mark

    2014-05-01

    Following the introduction of x86 co-processors (Xeon Phi) and the performance increase of standard 2-socket workstations using the latest 12 cores E5-v2 x86-64 CPU, we present here a MPI + OpenMP implementation of an acoustic 2D FWI (full waveform inversion) code which simultaneously runs on the CPUs and on the co-processors installed in a workstation. The main advantage of running a 2D FWI on a workstation is to be able to quickly evaluate new features such as more complicated wave equations, new cost functions, finite-difference stencils or boundary conditions. Since the co-processor is made of 61 in-order x86 cores, each of them having up to 4 threads, this many-core can be seen as a shared memory SMP (symmetric multiprocessing) machine with its own IP address. Depending on the vendor, a single workstation can handle several co-processors making the workstation as a personal cluster under the desk. The original Fortran 90 CPU version of the 2D FWI code is just recompiled to get a Xeon Phi x86 binary. This multi and many-core configuration uses standard compilers and associated MPI as well as math libraries under Linux; therefore, the cost of code development remains constant, while improving computation time. We choose to implement the code with the so-called symmetric mode to fully use the capacity of the workstation, but we also evaluate the scalability of the code in native mode (i.e running only on the co-processor) thanks to the Linux ssh and NFS capabilities. Usual care of optimization and SIMD vectorization is used to ensure optimal performances, and to analyze the application performances and bottlenecks on both platforms. The 2D FWI implementation uses finite-difference time-domain forward modeling and a quasi-Newton (with L-BFGS algorithm) optimization scheme for the model parameters update. Parallelization is achieved through standard MPI shot gathers distribution and OpenMP for domain decomposition within the co-processor. Taking advantage of the 16

  17. Half-metallicity in 2D organometallic honeycomb frameworks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sun, Hao; Li, Bin; Zhao, Jin

    2016-10-01

    Half-metallic materials with a high Curie temperature (T C) have many potential applications in spintronics. Magnetic metal free two-dimensional (2D) half-metallic materials with a honeycomb structure contain graphene-like Dirac bands with π orbitals and show excellent aspects in transport properties. In this article, by investigating a series of 2D organometallic frameworks with a honeycomb structure using first principles calculations, we study the origin of forming half-metallicity in this kind of 2D organometallic framework. Our analysis shows that charge transfer and covalent bonding are two crucial factors in the formation of half-metallicity in organometallic frameworks. (i) Sufficient charge transfer from metal atoms to the molecules is essential to form the magnetic centers. (ii) These magnetic centers need to be connected through covalent bonding, which guarantee the strong ferromagnetic (FM) coupling. As examples, the organometallic frameworks composed by (1,3,5)-benzenetricarbonitrile (TCB) molecules with noble metals (Au, Ag, Cu) show half-metallic properties with T C as high as 325 K. In these organometallic frameworks, the strong electronegative cyano-groups (CN groups) drive the charge transfer from metal atoms to the TCB molecules, forming the local magnetic centers. These magnetic centers experience strong FM coupling through the d-p covalent bonding. We propose that most of the 2D organometallic frameworks composed by molecule—CN—noble metal honeycomb structures contain similar half metallicity. This is verified by replacing TCB molecules with other organic molecules. Although the TCB-noble metal organometallic framework has not yet been synthesized, we believe the development of synthesizing techniques and facility will enable the realization of them. Our study provides new insight into the 2D half-metallic material design for the potential applications in nanotechnology.

  18. Half-metallicity in 2D organometallic honeycomb frameworks.

    PubMed

    Sun, Hao; Li, Bin; Zhao, Jin

    2016-10-26

    Half-metallic materials with a high Curie temperature (T C) have many potential applications in spintronics. Magnetic metal free two-dimensional (2D) half-metallic materials with a honeycomb structure contain graphene-like Dirac bands with π orbitals and show excellent aspects in transport properties. In this article, by investigating a series of 2D organometallic frameworks with a honeycomb structure using first principles calculations, we study the origin of forming half-metallicity in this kind of 2D organometallic framework. Our analysis shows that charge transfer and covalent bonding are two crucial factors in the formation of half-metallicity in organometallic frameworks. (i) Sufficient charge transfer from metal atoms to the molecules is essential to form the magnetic centers. (ii) These magnetic centers need to be connected through covalent bonding, which guarantee the strong ferromagnetic (FM) coupling. As examples, the organometallic frameworks composed by (1,3,5)-benzenetricarbonitrile (TCB) molecules with noble metals (Au, Ag, Cu) show half-metallic properties with T C as high as 325 K. In these organometallic frameworks, the strong electronegative cyano-groups (CN groups) drive the charge transfer from metal atoms to the TCB molecules, forming the local magnetic centers. These magnetic centers experience strong FM coupling through the d-p covalent bonding. We propose that most of the 2D organometallic frameworks composed by molecule-CN-noble metal honeycomb structures contain similar half metallicity. This is verified by replacing TCB molecules with other organic molecules. Although the TCB-noble metal organometallic framework has not yet been synthesized, we believe the development of synthesizing techniques and facility will enable the realization of them. Our study provides new insight into the 2D half-metallic material design for the potential applications in nanotechnology.

  19. Half-metallicity in 2D organometallic honeycomb frameworks.

    PubMed

    Sun, Hao; Li, Bin; Zhao, Jin

    2016-10-26

    Half-metallic materials with a high Curie temperature (T C) have many potential applications in spintronics. Magnetic metal free two-dimensional (2D) half-metallic materials with a honeycomb structure contain graphene-like Dirac bands with π orbitals and show excellent aspects in transport properties. In this article, by investigating a series of 2D organometallic frameworks with a honeycomb structure using first principles calculations, we study the origin of forming half-metallicity in this kind of 2D organometallic framework. Our analysis shows that charge transfer and covalent bonding are two crucial factors in the formation of half-metallicity in organometallic frameworks. (i) Sufficient charge transfer from metal atoms to the molecules is essential to form the magnetic centers. (ii) These magnetic centers need to be connected through covalent bonding, which guarantee the strong ferromagnetic (FM) coupling. As examples, the organometallic frameworks composed by (1,3,5)-benzenetricarbonitrile (TCB) molecules with noble metals (Au, Ag, Cu) show half-metallic properties with T C as high as 325 K. In these organometallic frameworks, the strong electronegative cyano-groups (CN groups) drive the charge transfer from metal atoms to the TCB molecules, forming the local magnetic centers. These magnetic centers experience strong FM coupling through the d-p covalent bonding. We propose that most of the 2D organometallic frameworks composed by molecule-CN-noble metal honeycomb structures contain similar half metallicity. This is verified by replacing TCB molecules with other organic molecules. Although the TCB-noble metal organometallic framework has not yet been synthesized, we believe the development of synthesizing techniques and facility will enable the realization of them. Our study provides new insight into the 2D half-metallic material design for the potential applications in nanotechnology. PMID:27541575

  20. Computationally tractable stochastic image modeling based on symmetric Markov mesh random fields.

    PubMed

    Yousefi, Siamak; Kehtarnavaz, Nasser; Cao, Yan

    2013-06-01

    In this paper, the properties of a new class of causal Markov random fields, named symmetric Markov mesh random field, are initially discussed. It is shown that the symmetric Markov mesh random fields from the upper corners are equivalent to the symmetric Markov mesh random fields from the lower corners. Based on this new random field, a symmetric, corner-independent, and isotropic image model is then derived which incorporates the dependency of a pixel on all its neighbors. The introduced image model comprises the product of several local 1D density and 2D joint density functions of pixels in an image thus making it computationally tractable and practically feasible by allowing the use of histogram and joint histogram approximations to estimate the model parameters. An image restoration application is also presented to confirm the effectiveness of the model developed. The experimental results demonstrate that this new model provides an improved tool for image modeling purposes compared to the conventional Markov random field models.

  1. On symmetric and upwind TVD schemes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yee, H. C.

    1985-01-01

    A class of explicit and implicit total variation diminishing (TVD) schemes for the compressible Euler and Navier-Stokes equations was developed. They do not generate spurious oscillations across shocks and contact discontinuities. In general, shocks can be captured within 1 to 2 grid points. For the inviscid case, these schemes are divided into upwind TVD schemes and symmetric (nonupwind) TVD schemes. The upwind TVD scheme is based on the second-order TVD scheme. The symmetric TVD scheme is a generalization of Roe's and Davis' TVD Lax-Wendroff scheme. The performance of these schemes on some viscous and inviscid airfoil steady-state calculations is investigated. The symmetric and upwind TVD schemes are compared.

  2. The Robust Assembly of Small Symmetric Nanoshells

    PubMed Central

    Wagner, Jef; Zandi, Roya

    2015-01-01

    Highly symmetric nanoshells are found in many biological systems, such as clathrin cages and viral shells. Many studies have shown that symmetric shells appear in nature as a result of the free-energy minimization of a generic interaction between their constituent subunits. We examine the physical basis for the formation of symmetric shells, and by using a minimal model, demonstrate that these structures can readily grow from the irreversible addition of identical subunits. Our model of nanoshell assembly shows that the spontaneous curvature regulates the size of the shell while the mechanical properties of the subunit determine the symmetry of the assembled structure. Understanding the minimum requirements for the formation of closed nanoshells is a necessary step toward engineering of nanocontainers, which will have far-reaching impact in both material science and medicine. PMID:26331253

  3. Radiative corrections in symmetrized classical electrodynamics

    PubMed

    Van Meter JR; Kerman; Chen; Hartemann

    2000-12-01

    The physics of radiation reaction for a point charge is discussed within the context of classical electrodynamics. The fundamental equations of classical electrodynamics are first symmetrized to include magnetic charges: a double four-potential formalism is introduced, in terms of which the field tensor and its dual are employed to symmetrize Maxwell's equations and the Lorentz force equation in covariant form. Within this framework, the symmetrized Dirac-Lorentz equation is derived, including radiation reaction (self-force) for a particle possessing both electric and magnetic charge. The connection with electromagnetic duality is outlined, and an in-depth discussion of nonlocal four-momentum conservation for the wave-particle system is given.

  4. Symmetric extension of two-qubit states

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Jianxin; Ji, Zhengfeng; Kribs, David; Lütkenhaus, Norbert; Zeng, Bei

    2014-09-01

    A bipartite state ρAB is symmetric extendible if there exists a tripartite state ρABB' whose AB and AB' marginal states are both identical to ρAB. Symmetric extendibility of bipartite states is of vital importance in quantum information because of its central role in separability tests, one-way distillation of Einstein-Podolsky-Rosen pairs, one-way distillation of secure keys, quantum marginal problems, and antidegradable quantum channels. We establish a simple analytic characterization for symmetric extendibility of any two-qubit quantum state ρAB; specifically, tr(ρB2)≥tr(ρAB2)-4√ detρAB . As a special case we solve the bosonic three-representability problem for the two-body reduced density matrix.

  5. CAST: Contraction Algorithm for Symmetric Tensors

    SciTech Connect

    Rajbhandari, Samyam; NIkam, Akshay; Lai, Pai-Wei; Stock, Kevin; Krishnamoorthy, Sriram; Sadayappan, Ponnuswamy

    2014-09-22

    Tensor contractions represent the most compute-intensive core kernels in ab initio computational quantum chemistry and nuclear physics. Symmetries in these tensor contractions makes them difficult to load balance and scale to large distributed systems. In this paper, we develop an efficient and scalable algorithm to contract symmetric tensors. We introduce a novel approach that avoids data redistribution in contracting symmetric tensors while also avoiding redundant storage and maintaining load balance. We present experimental results on two parallel supercomputers for several symmetric contractions that appear in the CCSD quantum chemistry method. We also present a novel approach to tensor redistribution that can take advantage of parallel hyperplanes when the initial distribution has replicated dimensions, and use collective broadcast when the final distribution has replicated dimensions, making the algorithm very efficient.

  6. Communication-avoiding symmetric-indefinite factorization

    SciTech Connect

    Ballard, Grey Malone; Becker, Dulcenia; Demmel, James; Dongarra, Jack; Druinsky, Alex; Peled, Inon; Schwartz, Oded; Toledo, Sivan; Yamazaki, Ichitaro

    2014-11-13

    We describe and analyze a novel symmetric triangular factorization algorithm. The algorithm is essentially a block version of Aasen's triangular tridiagonalization. It factors a dense symmetric matrix A as the product A=PLTLTPT where P is a permutation matrix, L is lower triangular, and T is block tridiagonal and banded. The algorithm is the first symmetric-indefinite communication-avoiding factorization: it performs an asymptotically optimal amount of communication in a two-level memory hierarchy for almost any cache-line size. Adaptations of the algorithm to parallel computers are likely to be communication efficient as well; one such adaptation has been recently published. As a result, the current paper describes the algorithm, proves that it is numerically stable, and proves that it is communication optimal.

  7. Communication-avoiding symmetric-indefinite factorization

    DOE PAGES

    Ballard, Grey Malone; Becker, Dulcenia; Demmel, James; Dongarra, Jack; Druinsky, Alex; Peled, Inon; Schwartz, Oded; Toledo, Sivan; Yamazaki, Ichitaro

    2014-11-13

    We describe and analyze a novel symmetric triangular factorization algorithm. The algorithm is essentially a block version of Aasen's triangular tridiagonalization. It factors a dense symmetric matrix A as the product A=PLTLTPT where P is a permutation matrix, L is lower triangular, and T is block tridiagonal and banded. The algorithm is the first symmetric-indefinite communication-avoiding factorization: it performs an asymptotically optimal amount of communication in a two-level memory hierarchy for almost any cache-line size. Adaptations of the algorithm to parallel computers are likely to be communication efficient as well; one such adaptation has been recently published. As a result,more » the current paper describes the algorithm, proves that it is numerically stable, and proves that it is communication optimal.« less

  8. Symmetric States on the Octonionic Bloch Ball

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Graydon, Matthew

    2012-02-01

    Finite-dimensional homogeneous self-dual cones arise as natural candidates for convex sets of states and effects in a variety of approaches towards understanding the foundations of quantum theory in terms of information-theoretic concepts. The positive cone of the ten-dimensional Jordan-algebraic spin factor is one particular instantiation of such a convex set in generalized frameworks for quantum theory. We consider a projection of the regular 9-simplex onto the octonionic projective line to form a highly symmetric structure of ten octonionic quantum states on the surface of the octonionic Bloch ball. A uniform subnormalization of these ten symmetric states yields a symmetric informationally complete octonionic quantum measurement. We discuss a Quantum Bayesian reformulation of octonionic quantum formalism for the description of two-dimensional physical systems. We also describe a canonical embedding of the octonionic Bloch ball into an ambient space for states in usual complex quantum theory.

  9. Interaction of an acoustical 2D-beam with an elastic cylinder with arbitrary location in a non-viscous fluid.

    PubMed

    Mitri, F G

    2015-09-01

    The classical Resonance Scattering Theory (RST) for plane waves in acoustics is generalized for the case of a 2D arbitrarily-shaped beam incident upon an elastic cylinder with arbitrary location that is immersed in a nonviscous fluid. The formulation is valid for an elastic (or viscoelastic) cylinder (or a cylindrical shell, a layered cylinder/shell, or a multilayered cylindrical shell, etc.) of any size and material. Partial-wave series expansions (PWSEs) for the incident, internal and scattered fields are derived, and numerical examples illustrate the theory. The wave-fields are expressed using a generalized PWSE involving the beam-shape coefficients (BSCs) and the scattering coefficients of the cylinder. When the beam is shifted off the center of the cylinder, the off-axial BSCs are evaluated by performing standard numerical integration. Acoustic resonance scattering directivity diagrams are calculated by subtracting an appropriate background from the expression of the scattered pressure field. The properties related to the arbitrary scattering of a zeroth-order quasi-Gaussian cylindrical beam (chosen as an example) by an elastic brass cylinder centered on the axis of wave propagation of the beam, and shifted off-axially are analyzed and discussed. Moreover, the total and resonance backscattering form function moduli are numerically computed, and the results discussed with emphasis on the contribution of the surface waves circumnavigating the cylinder circular surface to the resonance backscattering. Furthermore, the analysis is extended to derive general expressions for the axial and transverse acoustic radiation force functions for the cylinder in any 2D beam of arbitrary shape. Examples are provided for a zeroth-order quasi Gaussian cylindrical beam with different waist. Potential applications are in underwater and physical acoustics, however, ongoing research in biomedical ultrasound, non-destructive evaluation, imaging, manufacturing, instrumentation, and

  10. Symmetric extensions of normal discrete velocity models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bobylev, A. V.; Vinerean, M. C.

    2012-11-01

    In this paper we discuss a general problem related to spurious conservation laws for discrete velocity models (DVMs) of the classical (elastic) Boltzmann equation. Models with spurious conservation laws appeared already at the early stage of the development of discrete kinetic theory. The well-known theorem of uniqueness of collision invariants for the continuous velocity space very often does not hold for a set of discrete velocities. In our previous works we considered the general problem of the construction of normal DVMs, we found a general algorithm for the construction of all such models and presented a complete classification of normal DVMs with small number n of velocities (n<11). Even if we have a general method to classify all normal discrete kinetic models (and in particular DVMs), the existing method is relatively slow and the amount of possible cases to check increases rapidly with n. We remarked that many of our normal DVMs appear to be axially symmetric. In this paper we consider a connection between symmetric transformations and normal DVMs. We first develop a new inductive method that, starting with a given normal DVM, leads by symmetric extensions to a new normal DVM. This method can produce very fast many new normal DVMs with larger number of velocities, showing that the class of normal DVMs contains a large subclass of symmetric models. We finally apply the method to several normal DVMs and construct new models that are not only normal, but also symmetric relatively to more and more axes. We hope that such symmetric velocity sets can be used for DSMC methods of solving Boltzmann equation.

  11. Parallel 2D and 3D Prestack Depth Migration Using Recursive Kirchhoff Wavefield Extrapolation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Geiger, H. D.; Margrave, G. F.; Liu, K.

    2004-05-01

    Recursive Kirchhoff wavefield extrapolation in the space-frequency domain can be thought of as a simple convolutional filter that calculates a single output point at depth z+dz using a weighted summation of all input points within the extrapolator aperture at depth z. The desired velocity values for the extrapolator are the ones that provide the best approximation of the true phase (propagation time) of the seismic wavefield between the input points and the output point. Recursive Kirchhoff extrapolators can be designed to handle lateral variations in velocity in a number of ways: a PSPI-type (phase shift plus interpolation) extrapolator uses only the velocity at the output point, a NSPS-type (nonstationary phase shift) extrapolator uses the velocities at the input points; a SNPS-type (symmetric nonstationary phase shift) extrapolator incorporates two extrapolation steps of dz/2 where the first step uses the velocities at the input points (NSPS-type) and the second step uses the velocity at the output point (PSPI-type); while the Weyl-type extrapolator uses an average of the velocities between each input point and the output point. Here, we introduce the PAVG-type (slowness averaged) extrapolator, which uses velocity values calculated by an average of slowness along straight raypaths between each input point and the output point. Parallel 2D and 3D prestack depth migration algorithms have been coded in both MATLAB and C and tested on a small Linux cluster. A simple synthetic with a lateral step in velocity shows that the PAVG Kirchhoff extrapolator is very close to the exact desired response. Tests using the 2D Marmousi synthetic data set suggest that the extrapolator behaviour is only one of many considerations that must be addressed for accurate depth imaging. Other important considerations include preprocessing, aperture size, taper width, extrapolator stability, and imaging condition.

  12. Performance investigation of side-coupled interlaced symmetric-shaft-shape photonic crystal sensor arrays

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fu, Zhongyuan; Zhou, Jian; Huang, Lijun; Sun, Fujun; Tian, Huiping

    2016-12-01

    We design symmetric-shaft-shape photonic crystal sensor arrays (SSPhCSAs) which can be used in refractive index sensing, and the performance of the structure is investigated. The structure consists of four symmetric-shaft-shape photonic crystal (SSPhC) cavities side-coupled to a W1 photonic crystal (PhC) waveguide. Each cavity has slightly different cavity spacing with different resonant frequency. By using two dimensional finite-difference time-domain (2D-FDTD) method, the simulation result obtained indicates the performance of the sensor arrays. The sensitivities of the four sensor units are 178, 252, 328 and 398 nm/RIU, respectively, with the detection limit of ~10-3. The crosstalk lower than ~20 dB is obtained.

  13. Kinetic models of two-dimensional plane and axially symmetric current sheets: Group theory approach

    SciTech Connect

    Vasko, I. Y.; Artemyev, A. V.; Popov, V. Y.; Malova, H. V.

    2013-02-15

    In this paper, we present new class of solutions of Grad-Shafranov-like (GS-like) equations, describing kinetic plane and axially symmetric 2D current sheets. We show that these equations admit symmetry groups only for Maxwellian and {kappa}-distributions of charged particles. The admissible symmetry groups are used to reduce GS-like equations to ordinary differential equations for invariant solutions. We derive asymptotes of invariant solutions, while invariant solutions are found analytically for the {kappa}-distribution with {kappa}=7/2. We discuss the difference of obtained solutions from equilibria widely used in other studies. We show that {kappa} regulates the decrease rate of plasma characteristics along the current sheet and determines the spatial distribution of magnetic field components. The presented class of plane and axially symmetric (disk-like) current sheets includes solutions with the inclined neutral plane.

  14. On symmetric and upwind TVD schemes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yee, H. C.

    1986-01-01

    The performance of the upwind and symmetric total variation diminishing (TVD) schemes in viscous and inviscid airfoil steady-state calculations is considered, and the extension of the implicit second-order-accurate TVD scheme for hyperbolic systems of conservative laws in curvilinear coordinates is discussed. For two-dimensional steady-state applications, schemes are implemented in a conservative noniterative alternating direction implicit form, and results illustrate that the algorithm produces a fairly good solution for an RAE2822 airfoil calculation. The study demonstrates that the symmetric TVD scheme is as accurate as the upwind TVD scheme, while requiring less computational effort than it.

  15. Observational tests of Baryon symmetric cosmology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stecker, F. W.

    1982-01-01

    Observational evidence for Baryon symmetric (matter/antimatter) cosmology and future observational tests are reviewed. The most significant consequences of Baryon symmetric cosmology lie in the prediction of an observable cosmic background of gamma radiation from the decay of pi(0)-mesons produced in nucleon-antinucleon annihilations. Equations for the prediction of the amma ray background spectrum for the case of high redshifts are presented. The theoretical and observational plots of the background spectrum are shown to be in good agreement. Measurement of cosmic ray antiprotons and the use of high energy neutrino astronomy to look for antimatter elsewhere in the universe are also addressed.

  16. All-optical symmetric ternary logic gate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chattopadhyay, Tanay

    2010-09-01

    Symmetric ternary number (radix=3) has three logical states (1¯, 0, 1). It is very much useful in carry free arithmetical operation. Beside this, the logical operation using this type of number system is also effective in high speed computation and communication in multi-valued logic. In this literature all-optical circuits for three basic symmetrical ternary logical operations (inversion, MIN and MAX) are proposed and described. Numerical simulation verifies the theoretical model. In this present scheme the different ternary logical states are represented by different polarized state of light. Terahertz optical asymmetric demultiplexer (TOAD) based interferometric switch has been used categorically in this manuscript.

  17. The rhomboidal symmetric four-body problem

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Waldvogel, Jörg

    2012-05-01

    We consider the planar symmetric four-body problem with two equal masses m 1 = m 3 > 0 at positions (± x 1( t), 0) and two equal masses m 2 = m 4 > 0 at positions (0, ± x 2( t)) at all times t, referred to as the rhomboidal symmetric four-body problem. Owing to the simplicity of the equations of motion this problem is well suited to study regularization of the binary collisions, periodic solutions, chaotic motion, as well as the four-body collision and escape manifolds. Furthermore, resonance phenomena between the two interacting rectilinear binaries play an important role.

  18. Self-bending symmetric cusp beams

    SciTech Connect

    Gong, Lei; Liu, Wei-Wei; Lu, Yao; Li, Yin-Mei; Ren, Yu-Xuan

    2015-12-07

    A type of self-bending symmetric cusp beams with four accelerating intensity maxima is theoretically and experimentally presented. Distinguished from the reported regular polygon beams, the symmetric cusp beams simultaneously exhibit peculiar features of natural autofocusing and self-acceleration during propagation. Further, such beams take the shape of a fine longitudinal needle-like structure at the focal region and possess the strong ability of self-healing over obstacles. All these intriguing properties were verified experimentally. Particularly, the spatial profile of the reconstructed beam exhibits spatially sculpted optical structure with four siamesed curved arms. Thus, we anticipate that the structured beam will benefit optical guiding and optofluidics in surprising ways.

  19. J-integral evaluation for 2D mixed-mode crack problems employing a meshfree stabilized conforming nodal integration method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tanaka, Satoyuki; Suzuki, Hirotaka; Sadamoto, Shota; Sannomaru, Shogo; Yu, Tiantang; Bui, Tinh Quoc

    2016-08-01

    Two-dimensional (2D) in-plane mixed-mode fracture mechanics problems are analyzed employing an efficient meshfree Galerkin method based on stabilized conforming nodal integration (SCNI). In this setting, the reproducing kernel function as meshfree interpolant is taken, while employing the SCNI for numerical integration of stiffness matrix in the Galerkin formulation. The strain components are smoothed and stabilized employing Gauss divergence theorem. The path-independent integral ( J-integral) is solved based on the nodal integration by summing the smoothed physical quantities and the segments of the contour integrals. In addition, mixed-mode stress intensity factors (SIFs) are extracted from the J-integral by decomposing the displacement and stress fields into symmetric and antisymmetric parts. The advantages and features of the present formulation and discretization in evaluation of the J-integral of in-plane 2D fracture problems are demonstrated through several representative numerical examples. The mixed-mode SIFs are evaluated and compared with reference solutions. The obtained results reveal high accuracy and good performance of the proposed meshfree method in the analysis of 2D fracture problems.

  20. Investigations of Mechanic Properties of Ceramic Using Axis- Symmetrical Shock Waves

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dudin, S. N.; Kanel, G. I.; Razorenov, S. V.; Utkin, A. V.; Mintsev, V. B.; Bless, S.; Simha, C. H. M.

    1997-07-01

    Shock waves experiments provide an ability to study mechanical properties of materials under high pressure and high strain rates; however, the typical strain values are small in plane shock waves unlesss the pressure is very high. To extend the capabilities of shock-wave experiments to larger deformations, a technique of measurements at cylindrical shock loading of ceramic tube samples has been developed. In experiments, the shock loading of AD998 alumina tubes was realized in two ways: by cylindrical detonation initiated with electrical explosion of a wire and by impact of a stainless steel driver tube that was launched by the cylindrical detonation wave. VISAR measurements of the velocity profiles have been carried out with water windows. Lagrangian 1-D and 2-D AUTODYN computer codes for simulations of the shock-wave processes with axial symmetry has been used for interpretation of experimental data. A phenomenological model of the dynamic response of brittle materials has been developed. The strain range available for analysis has been extended by a factor of 2 or 3 due to the divergent character of flow.

  1. 2D-2D tunneling field-effect transistors using WSe2/SnSe2 heterostructures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roy, Tania; Tosun, Mahmut; Hettick, Mark; Ahn, Geun Ho; Hu, Chenming; Javey, Ali

    2016-02-01

    Two-dimensional materials present a versatile platform for developing steep transistors due to their uniform thickness and sharp band edges. We demonstrate 2D-2D tunneling in a WSe2/SnSe2 van der Waals vertical heterojunction device, where WSe2 is used as the gate controlled p-layer and SnSe2 is the degenerately n-type layer. The van der Waals gap facilitates the regulation of band alignment at the heterojunction, without the necessity of a tunneling barrier. ZrO2 is used as the gate dielectric, allowing the scaling of gate oxide to improve device subthreshold swing. Efficient gate control and clean interfaces yield a subthreshold swing of ˜100 mV/dec for >2 decades of drain current at room temperature, hitherto unobserved in 2D-2D tunneling devices. The subthreshold swing is independent of temperature, which is a clear signature of band-to-band tunneling at the heterojunction. A maximum switching ratio ION/IOFF of 107 is obtained. Negative differential resistance in the forward bias characteristics is observed at 77 K. This work bodes well for the possibilities of two-dimensional materials for the realization of energy-efficient future-generation electronics.

  2. Accurate coronary modeling procedure using 2D calibrated projections based on 2D centerline points on a single projection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Movassaghi, Babak; Rasche, Volker; Viergever, Max A.; Niessen, Wiro J.

    2004-05-01

    For the diagnosis of ischemic heart disease, accurate quantitative analysis of the coronary arteries is important. In coronary angiography, a number of projections is acquired from which 3D models of the coronaries can be reconstructed. A signifcant limitation of the current 3D modeling procedures is the required user interaction for defining the centerlines of the vessel structures in the 2D projections. Currently, the 3D centerlines of the coronary tree structure are calculated based on the interactively determined centerlines in two projections. For every interactively selected centerline point in a first projection the corresponding point in a second projection has to be determined interactively by the user. The correspondence is obtained based on the epipolar-geometry. In this paper a method is proposed to retrieve all the information required for the modeling procedure, by the interactive determination of the 2D centerline-points in only one projection. For every determined 2D centerline-point the corresponding 3D centerline-point is calculated by the analysis of the 1D gray value functions of the corresponding epipolarlines in space for all available 2D projections. This information is then used to build a 3D representation of the coronary arteries using coronary modeling techniques. The approach is illustrated on the analysis of calibrated phantom and calibrated coronary projection data.

  3. Consideration of a ultracold neutron source in two-dimensional cylindrical geometry by taking simulated boundaries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gheisari, R.; Firoozabadi, M. M.; Mohammadi, H.

    2014-01-01

    A new idea to calculate ultracold neutron (UCN) production by using Monte Carlo simulation method to calculate the cold neutron (CN) flux and an analytical approach to calculate the UCN production from the simulated CN flux was given. A super-thermal source (UCN source) was modeled based on an arrangement of D2O and solid D2 (sD2). The D2O was investigated as the neutron moderator, and sD2 as the converter. In order to determine the required parameters, a two-dimensional (2D) neutron balance equation written in Matlab was combined with the MCNPX simulation code. The 2D neutron-transport equation in cylindrical (ρ - z) geometry was considered for 330 neutron energy groups in the sD2. The 2D balance equation for UCN and CN was solved using simulated CN flux as boundary value. The UCN source dimensions were calculated for the development of the next UCN source. In the optimal condition, the UCN flux and the UCN production rate (averaged over the sD2 volume) equal to 6.79 × 106 cm-2s-1 and 2.20 ×105 cm-3s-1, respectively.

  4. Consideration of a ultracold neutron source in two-dimensional cylindrical geometry by taking simulated boundaries

    SciTech Connect

    Gheisari, R.; Firoozabadi, M. M.; Mohammadi, H.

    2014-01-15

    A new idea to calculate ultracold neutron (UCN) production by using Monte Carlo simulation method to calculate the cold neutron (CN) flux and an analytical approach to calculate the UCN production from the simulated CN flux was given. A super-thermal source (UCN source) was modeled based on an arrangement of D{sub 2}O and solid D{sub 2} (sD{sub 2}). The D{sub 2}O was investigated as the neutron moderator, and sD{sub 2} as the converter. In order to determine the required parameters, a two-dimensional (2D) neutron balance equation written in Matlab was combined with the MCNPX simulation code. The 2D neutron-transport equation in cylindrical (ρ − z) geometry was considered for 330 neutron energy groups in the sD{sub 2}. The 2D balance equation for UCN and CN was solved using simulated CN flux as boundary value. The UCN source dimensions were calculated for the development of the next UCN source. In the optimal condition, the UCN flux and the UCN production rate (averaged over the sD{sub 2} volume) equal to 6.79 × 10{sup 6} cm{sup −2}s{sup −1} and 2.20 ×10{sup 5} cm{sup −3}s{sup −1}, respectively.

  5. Chaotic advection and heat transfer in two similar 2-D periodic flows and in their corresponding 3-D periodic flows

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vinsard, G.; Dufour, S.; Saatdjian, E.; Mota, J. P. B.

    2016-03-01

    Chaotic advection can effectively enhance the heat transfer rate between a boundary and fluids with high Prandtl number. These fluids are usually highly viscous and thus turbulent agitation is not a viable solution since the energy required to mix the fluid would be prohibitive. Here, we analyze previously obtained results on chaotic advection and heat transfer in two similar 2-D periodic flows and on their corresponding 3-D periodic flows when an axial velocity component is superposed. The two flows studied are the flow between eccentric rotating cylinders and the flow between confocal ellipses. For both of these flows the analysis is simplified because the Stokes equations can be solved analytically to obtain a closed form solution. For both 2-D periodic flows, we show that chaotic heat transfer is enhanced by the displacement of the saddle point location during one period. Furthermore, the enhancement by chaotic advection in the elliptical geometry is approximately double that obtained in the cylindrical geometry because there are two saddle points instead of one. We also explain why, for high eccentricity ratios, there is no heat transfer enhancement in the cylindrical geometry. When an axial velocity component is added to both of these flows so that they become 3-D, previous work has shown that there is an optimum modulation frequency for which chaotic advection and heat transfer enhancement is a maximum. Here we show that the optimum modulation frequency can be derived from results without an axial flow. We also explain by physical arguments other previously unanswered questions in the published data.

  6. Propagation evolution of an off-axis high-order cylindrical vector beam.

    PubMed

    Li, Yang; Zhu, Zhuqing; Wang, Xiaolei; Gong, Liping; Wang, Ming; Nie, Shouping

    2014-11-01

    The propagation characteristics of an off-axis high-order cylindrical vector beam (OHCVB) are studied in this paper. The analytic expressions for the electric field and intensity distribution of the OHCVB propagating in free space are presented, to our knowledge for the first time. The transverse intensity of the OHCVB, different from that of the input Gaussian beam, does not have an axially symmetric distribution, owing to a slight dislocation between the polarization singularity located in the vector field generator and the center point of the Gaussian beam. Numerical results show that the intensity distribution during propagation strongly depends on the propagation distance, dislocation displacement, and topological charge. Accompanied by beam expansion, the intensity distribution of the OHCVB tends to eventually become steady, and the dark core of the vector beam will disappear gradually during the process of propagation. Moreover, with the increase of the topological charge, more energy will be transferred from the x axis to the y axis, and the annular intensity is split into two parts along the y-axis direction. The results help us to investigate the dynamic propagation behaviors of the HCVB under the off-axis condition and also guide the calibration of the off-axis high-order cylindrical vector field in practice. PMID:25401345

  7. Method for making generally cylindrical underground openings

    DOEpatents

    Routh, J.W.

    1983-05-26

    A rapid, economical and safe method for making a generally cylindrical underground opening such as a shaft or a tunnel is described. A borehole is formed along the approximate center line of where it is desired to make the underground opening. The borehole is loaded with an explodable material and the explodable material is detonated. An enlarged cavity is formed by the explosive action of the detonated explodable material forcing outward and compacting the original walls of the borehole. The enlarged cavity may be increased in size by loading it with a second explodable material, and detonating the second explodable material. The process may be repeated as required until the desired underground opening is made. The explodable material used in the method may be free-flowing, and it may be contained in a pipe.

  8. Electrochemical cell having cylindrical electrode elements

    DOEpatents

    Nelson, Paul A.; Shimotake, Hiroshi

    1982-01-01

    A secondary, high temperature electrochemical cell especially adapted for lithium alloy negative electrodes, transition metal chalcogenide positive electrodes and alkali metal halide or alkaline earth metal halide electrolyte is disclosed. The cell is held within an elongated cylindrical container in which one of the active materials is filled around the outside surfaces of a plurality of perforate tubular current collectors along the length of the container. Each of the current collector tubes contain a concentric tubular layer of electrically insulative ceramic as an interelectrode separator. The active material of opposite polarity in elongated pin shape is positioned longitudinally within the separator layer. A second electrically conductive tube with perforate walls can be swagged or otherwise bonded to the outer surface of the pin as a current collector and the electrically insulative ceramic layer can be coated or otherwise layered onto the outer surface of this second current collector. Alternatively, the central pin electrode can include an axial core as a current collector.

  9. Scattering by buried dielectric cylindrical structures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    di Vico, M.; Frezza, F.; Pajewski, L.; Schettini, G.

    2005-12-01

    An analytical-numerical technique for the solution of the two-dimensional electromagnetic plane wave scattering by a finite set of dielectric circular cylinders buried in a dielectric half-space is presented. The problem is solved for both the near- and far-field regions, for transverse magnetic and transverse electric polarizations. The scattered field is represented in terms of a superposition of cylindrical waves, and use is made of the plane wave spectrum to take into account the reflection and transmission of such waves by the interface. The validity of the approach is confirmed by comparisons with results available in the literature, with very good agreement, and by self-consistency tests. Applications of the method to objects of arbitrary cross section simulated by suitable configurations of circular cylinders are shown.

  10. Polymer translocation through a cylindrical channel

    PubMed Central

    Wong, Chiu TaiAndrew; Muthukumar, M.

    2008-01-01

    A formalism of polymer translocation through a cylindrical channel of finite diameter and length between two spherical compartments is developed. Unlike previous simplified systems, the finite diameter of the channel allows the number of polymer segments inside the channel to be adjusted during translocation according to the free energy of possible conformations. The translocation process of a Gaussian chain without excluded volume and hydrodynamic interactions is studied using exact formulas of confinement free energy under this formalism. The free energy landscape for the translocation process, the distribution of the translocation time, and the average translocation time are presented. The complex dependencies of the average translocation time on the length and diameter of the channel, the sizes of the donor and receptor compartments, and the chain length are illustrated. PMID:18433273

  11. Stresses in rotating composite cylindrical shells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, James T.-S.; Lin, Chien-Chang

    Stresses in composite cylindrical shells rotating with a constant speed about their longitudinal axis are analyzed. Each ply or ply group is treated as a separate thin layer of homogeneous and orthotropic material under the interfacial stresses as surface loading. There is no limitation on the total thickness of the shell. The circumferential stress, motivated by the conventional thin shell theory, is assumed to vary linearly through the thickness of the layer. The radial stress is determined in terms of the circumferential stress through the equilibrium condition, and an average compatibility condition through the thickness of the thin layer is used. Numerical results using the present analysis show nearly perfect agreement with the exact solution for homogeneous and isotropic cylinders. Some results for cylinders having orthotropic layers are presented for illustrative purposes.

  12. Magnetosheath effects on cylindrical Langmuir probes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Szuszczewicz, E. P.; Takacs, P. Z.

    1979-01-01

    A study of the response of cylindrical Langmuir probes in magnetoplasmas focusing on the relative magnitudes of Larmor radius and sheath size is presented. The approach results in a classification of magnetic field effects which involves the magnetic field strength and plasma parameters of density, temperature, and the applied probe potential. It is shown that a 0.25 G field can have similar effects on the current collection properties of the probe in ionospheric plasma as a 30 kG field would have in a hot, dense laboratory plasma. The data also show: (1) the effects of probe orientation on electron current collection from magnetoplasmas; (2) that these effects can be important even when the electron Larmor radius is larger than the radius of the probe; and (3) that substantial magnetic field effects occur when the probe sheath is comparable to or greater than the Larmor radius.

  13. Cathode Effects in Cylindrical Hall Thrusters

    SciTech Connect

    Granstedt, E.M.; Raitses, Y.; Fisch, N. J.

    2008-09-12

    Stable operation of a cylindrical Hall thruster (CHT) has been achieved using a hot wire cathode, which functions as a controllable electron emission source. It is shown that as the electron emission from the cathode increases with wire heating, the discharge current increases, the plasma plume angle reduces, and the ion energy distribution function shifts toward higher energies. The observed effect of cathode electron emission on thruster parameters extends and clarifies performance improvements previously obtained for the overrun discharge current regime of the same type of thruster, but using a hollow cathode-neutralizer. Once thruster discharge current saturates with wire heating, further filament heating does not affect other discharge parameters. The saturated values of thruster discharge parameters can be further enhanced by optimal placement of the cathode wire with respect to the magnetic field.

  14. Indentation of Ellipsoidal and Cylindrical Elastic Shells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vella, Dominic; Ajdari, Amin; Vaziri, Ashkan; Boudaoud, Arezki

    2012-10-01

    Thin shells are found in nature at scales ranging from viruses to hens’ eggs; the stiffness of such shells is essential for their function. We present the results of numerical simulations and theoretical analyses for the indentation of ellipsoidal and cylindrical elastic shells, considering both pressurized and unpressurized shells. We provide a theoretical foundation for the experimental findings of Lazarus et al. [following paper, Phys. Rev. Lett. 109, 144301 (2012)PRLTAO0031-9007] and for previous work inferring the turgor pressure of bacteria from measurements of their indentation stiffness; we also identify a new regime at large indentation. We show that the indentation stiffness of convex shells is dominated by either the mean or Gaussian curvature of the shell depending on the pressurization and indentation depth. Our results reveal how geometry rules the rigidity of shells.

  15. Premixed flames in closed cylindrical tubes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Metzener, Philippe; Matalon, Moshe

    2001-09-01

    We consider the propagation of a premixed flame, as a two-dimensional sheet separating unburned gas from burned products, in a closed cylindrical tube. A nonlinear evolution equation, that describes the motion of the flame front as a function of its mean position, is derived. The equation contains a destabilizing term that results from the gas motion induced by thermal expansion and has a memory term associated with vorticity generation. Numerical solutions of this equation indicate that, when diffusion is stabilizing, the flame evolves into a non-planar form whose shape, and its associated symmetry properties, are determined by the Markstein parameter, and by the initial data. In particular, we observe the development of convex axisymmetric or non-axisymmetric flames, tulip flames and cellular flames.

  16. Cylindrical spreading due to downwind refraction.

    PubMed

    Makarewicz, Rufin

    2016-04-01

    Downwind propagation is analyzed for a low level jet (LLJ). The LLJ is characterized by a wind speed maximum (at least 10-20 m/s with peak speeds up to 30 m/s) a few hundred meters above the ground. Close to an elevated point source, such as a wind turbine or an aircraft, spherical spreading results in a 6 dB decrease in sound level per doubling of the distance. Wind turbine noise measurements show that at a transition distance, the downwind propagation changes the spherical spreading into a cylindrical spreading with a 3 dB decrease. It is shown how the transition distance and sound intensity depend on the LLJ parameters. The pivotal phenomenon is the non-coherent superposition of ground reflected rays in the turbulent atmosphere. PMID:27106309

  17. Ion orbits in a cylindrical Langmuir probe

    SciTech Connect

    Taccogna, Francesco; Longo, Savino; Capitelli, Mario

    2006-04-15

    It has been suggested that in weakly collisional sheaths, potential wells and barriers could appear due to ion-neutral momentum and charge transfer collisions. These can cause the presence of repulsed and trapped ions in the region surrounding a negatively biased Langmuir probe, invalidating the commonly used orbital-motion-limited theory of ion current. This is still an open question concerning also the charging and shielding of dust grains, and at present, no fully self-consistent treatment exists. For this reason, a particle-in-cell/test-particle Monte Carlo simulation of the dynamics of an argon plasma in the region surrounding an attracting cylindrical probe at medium gas pressure has been developed. The results of the present simulation for different probe potentials and discharge pressures demonstrate the complex structure of electric potential around the probe and the failure of collisionless theories.

  18. Concentration profiles in drying cylindrical filaments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Czaputa, Klaus; Brenn, Günter; Meile, Walter

    2008-12-01

    We analyze theoretically the drying of cylindrical filaments. For modelling the mass transfer on the gas side of the liquid-gas interface of the shrinking circular cylindrical filament, we apply the model of Abramzon and Sirignano, which was originally developed for spherical geometry. As a consequence of mass transfer at constant Sherwood number, we obtain a d2-law for the shrinkage of the cylinder as in the case of the spherical geometry, which expresses that the cross-sectional area of the cylinder shrinks at a constant rate with time. For this situation, the diffusion equation for the liquid phase mixture components becomes separable upon transformation into similarity coordinates and is solved analytically to obtain the concentration profiles inside the filament as functions of time. The dependency of the profiles on the radial coordinate is determined by a series of Kummer’s functions. Applying this result, we study the evolution of the concentration profiles in the liquid phase with time as dependent on a parameter given as the ratio of rate of shrinkage of the cross-sectional area of the cylinder to liquid-phase diffusion coefficient, which was identified as relevant for the shape of the concentration profiles formed in the liquid during the drying process. As an example, we present computed results for the constant evaporation rate regime in the dry-spinning process of a polyvinyl-alcohol (PVA)-water system. Comparison of our analytical results with full numerical solutions of the diffusion equation from the literature, achieved with concentration-dependent diffusion coefficient, reveals very good agreement.

  19. Interpretation of Magnetic Phase Anomalies over 2D Tabular Bodies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Subrahmanyam, M.

    2016-05-01

    In this study, phase angle (inverse tangent of the ratio of the horizontal to vertical gradients of magnetic anomalies) profile over two-dimensional tabular bodies has been subjected to detailed analysis for determining the source parameters. Distances between certain characteristic positions on this phase curve are related to the parameters of two-dimensional tabular magnetic sources. In this paper, I have derived the mathematical expressions for these relations. It has been demonstrated here that for locating the origin of the 2D tabular source, knowledge on the type of the model (contact, sheet, dyke, and fault) is not necessary. A procedure is evolved to determine the location, depth, width and magnetization angle of the 2D sources from the mathematical expressions. The method is tested on real field data. The effect of the overlapping bodies is also discussed with two synthetic examples. The interpretation technique is developed for contact, sheet, dike and inclined fault bodies.

  20. 2-D Magnetohydrodynamic Modeling of A Pulsed Plasma Thruster

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thio, Y. C. Francis; Cassibry, J. T.; Wu, S. T.; Rodgers, Stephen L. (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    Experiments are being performed on the NASA Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) MK-1 pulsed plasma thruster. Data produced from the experiments provide an opportunity to further understand the plasma dynamics in these thrusters via detailed computational modeling. The detailed and accurate understanding of the plasma dynamics in these devices holds the key towards extending their capabilities in a number of applications, including their applications as high power (greater than 1 MW) thrusters, and their use for producing high-velocity, uniform plasma jets for experimental purposes. For this study, the 2-D MHD modeling code, MACH2, is used to provide detailed interpretation of the experimental data. At the same time, a 0-D physics model of the plasma initial phase is developed to guide our 2-D modeling studies.