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Sample records for 2d domain decomposition

  1. A pseudo-spectral method for the simulation of poro-elastic seismic wave propagation in 2D polar coordinates using domain decomposition

    SciTech Connect

    Sidler, Rolf; Carcione, José M.; Holliger, Klaus

    2013-02-15

    We present a novel numerical approach for the comprehensive, flexible, and accurate simulation of poro-elastic wave propagation in 2D polar coordinates. An important application of this method and its extensions will be the modeling of complex seismic wave phenomena in fluid-filled boreholes, which represents a major, and as of yet largely unresolved, computational problem in exploration geophysics. In view of this, we consider a numerical mesh, which can be arbitrarily heterogeneous, consisting of two or more concentric rings representing the fluid in the center and the surrounding porous medium. The spatial discretization is based on a Chebyshev expansion in the radial direction and a Fourier expansion in the azimuthal direction and a Runge–Kutta integration scheme for the time evolution. A domain decomposition method is used to match the fluid–solid boundary conditions based on the method of characteristics. This multi-domain approach allows for significant reductions of the number of grid points in the azimuthal direction for the inner grid domain and thus for corresponding increases of the time step and enhancements of computational efficiency. The viability and accuracy of the proposed method has been rigorously tested and verified through comparisons with analytical solutions as well as with the results obtained with a corresponding, previously published, and independently benchmarked solution for 2D Cartesian coordinates. Finally, the proposed numerical solution also satisfies the reciprocity theorem, which indicates that the inherent singularity associated with the origin of the polar coordinate system is adequately handled.

  2. Optimal domain decomposition strategies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yoon, Yonghyun; Soni, Bharat K.

    1995-01-01

    The primary interest of the authors is in the area of grid generation, in particular, optimal domain decomposition about realistic configurations. A grid generation procedure with optimal blocking strategies has been developed to generate multi-block grids for a circular-to-rectangular transition duct. The focus of this study is the domain decomposition which optimizes solution algorithm/block compatibility based on geometrical complexities as well as the physical characteristics of flow field. The progress realized in this study is summarized in this paper.

  3. A novel improved method for analysis of 2D diffusion relaxation data—2D PARAFAC-Laplace decomposition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tønning, Erik; Polders, Daniel; Callaghan, Paul T.; Engelsen, Søren B.

    2007-09-01

    This paper demonstrates how the multi-linear PARAFAC model can with advantage be used to decompose 2D diffusion-relaxation correlation NMR spectra prior to 2D-Laplace inversion to the T2- D domain. The decomposition is advantageous for better interpretation of the complex correlation maps as well as for the quantification of extracted T2- D components. To demonstrate the new method seventeen mixtures of wheat flour, starch, gluten, oil and water were prepared and measured with a 300 MHz nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectrometer using a pulsed gradient stimulated echo (PGSTE) pulse sequence followed by a Carr-Purcell-Meiboom-Gill (CPMG) pulse echo train. By varying the gradient strength, 2D diffusion-relaxation data were recorded for each sample. From these double exponentially decaying relaxation data the PARAFAC algorithm extracted two unique diffusion-relaxation components, explaining 99.8% of the variation in the data set. These two components were subsequently transformed to the T2- D domain using 2D-inverse Laplace transformation and quantitatively assigned to the oil and water components of the samples. The oil component was one distinct distribution with peak intensity at D = 3 × 10 -12 m 2 s -1 and T2 = 180 ms. The water component consisted of two broad populations of water molecules with diffusion coefficients and relaxation times centered around correlation pairs: D = 10 -9 m 2 s -1, T2 = 10 ms and D = 3 × 10 -13 m 2 s -1, T2 = 13 ms. Small spurious peaks observed in the inverse Laplace transformation of original complex data were effectively filtered by the PARAFAC decomposition and thus considered artefacts from the complex Laplace transformation. The oil-to-water ratio determined by PARAFAC followed by 2D-Laplace inversion was perfectly correlated with known oil-to-water ratio of the samples. The new method of using PARAFAC prior to the 2D-Laplace inversion proved to have superior potential in analysis of diffusion-relaxation spectra, as it

  4. Domain Decomposition for the SPN Solver MINOS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jamelot, Erell; Baudron, Anne-Marie; Lautard, Jean-Jacques

    2012-12-01

    In this article we present a domain decomposition method for the mixed SPN equations, discretized with Raviart-Thomas-Nédélec finite elements. This domain decomposition is based on the iterative Schwarz algorithm with Robin interface conditions to handle communications. After having described this method, we give details on how to optimize the convergence. Finally, we give some numerical results computed in a realistic 3D domain. The computations are done with the MINOS solver of the APOLLO3® code.

  5. Domain decomposition for the SPN solver MINOS

    SciTech Connect

    Jamelot, Erell; Baudron, Anne-Marie; Lautard, Jean-Jacques

    2012-07-01

    In this article we present a domain decomposition method for the mixed SPN equations, discretized with Raviart-Thomas-Nedelec finite elements. This domain decomposition is based on the iterative Schwarz algorithm with Robin interface conditions to handle communications. After having described this method, we give details on how to optimize the convergence. Finally, we give some numerical results computed in a realistic 3D domain. The computations are done with the MINOS solver of the APOLLO3 (R) code. (authors)

  6. Bose symmetry and chiral decomposition of 2D fermionic determinants

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abreu, E. M. C.; Banerjee, R.; Wotzasek, C.

    1998-01-01

    We show in a precise way, either in the fermionic or its bosonized version, that Bose symmetry provides a systematic way to carry out the chiral decomposition of the two-dimensional fermionic determinant. Interpreted properly, we show that there is no obstruction of this decomposition to gauge invariance, as is usually claimed. Finally, a new way of interpreting the Polyakov-Wiegman identity is proposed.

  7. Domain decomposition algorithms and computational fluid dynamics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chan, Tony F.

    1988-01-01

    Some of the new domain decomposition algorithms are applied to two model problems in computational fluid dynamics: the two-dimensional convection-diffusion problem and the incompressible driven cavity flow problem. First, a brief introduction to the various approaches of domain decomposition is given, and a survey of domain decomposition preconditioners for the operator on the interface separating the subdomains is then presented. For the convection-diffusion problem, the effect of the convection term and its discretization on the performance of some of the preconditioners is discussed. For the driven cavity problem, the effectiveness of a class of boundary probe preconditioners is examined.

  8. Extreme Growth of Enstrophy on 2D Bounded Domains

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Protas, Bartosz; Sliwiak, Adam

    2016-11-01

    We study the vortex states responsible for the largest instantaneous growth of enstrophy possible in viscous incompressible flow on 2D bounded domain. The goal is to compare these results with estimates obtained using mathematical analysis. This problem is closely related to analogous questions recently considered in the periodic setting on 1D, 2D and 3D domains. In addition to systematically characterizing the most extreme behavior, these problems are also closely related to the open question of the finite-time singularity formation in the 3D Navier-Stokes system. We demonstrate how such extreme vortex states can be found as solutions of constrained variational optimization problems which in the limit of small enstrophy reduce to eigenvalue problems. Computational results will be presented for circular and square domains emphasizing the effect of geometric singularities (corners of the domain) on the structure of the extreme vortex states. Supported by an NSERC (Canada) Discovery Grant.

  9. Parallel CE/SE Computations via Domain Decomposition

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Himansu, Ananda; Jorgenson, Philip C. E.; Wang, Xiao-Yen; Chang, Sin-Chung

    2000-01-01

    This paper describes the parallelization strategy and achieved parallel efficiency of an explicit time-marching algorithm for solving conservation laws. The Space-Time Conservation Element and Solution Element (CE/SE) algorithm for solving the 2D and 3D Euler equations is parallelized with the aid of domain decomposition. The parallel efficiency of the resultant algorithm on a Silicon Graphics Origin 2000 parallel computer is checked.

  10. Multilevel domain decomposition for electronic structure calculations

    SciTech Connect

    Barrault, M. . E-mail: maxime.barrault@edf.fr; Cances, E. . E-mail: cances@cermics.enpc.fr; Hager, W.W. . E-mail: hager@math.ufl.edu; Le Bris, C. . E-mail: lebris@cermics.enpc.fr

    2007-03-01

    We introduce a new multilevel domain decomposition method (MDD) for electronic structure calculations within semi-empirical and density functional theory (DFT) frameworks. This method iterates between local fine solvers and global coarse solvers, in the spirit of domain decomposition methods. Using this approach, calculations have been successfully performed on several linear polymer chains containing up to 40,000 atoms and 200,000 atomic orbitals. Both the computational cost and the memory requirement scale linearly with the number of atoms. Additional speed-up can easily be obtained by parallelization. We show that this domain decomposition method outperforms the density matrix minimization (DMM) method for poor initial guesses. Our method provides an efficient preconditioner for DMM and other linear scaling methods, variational in nature, such as the orbital minimization (OM) procedure.

  11. Layer tracking, asymptotics, and domain decomposition

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brown, D. L.; Chin, R. C. Y.; Hedstrom, G. W.; Manteuffel, T. A.

    1991-01-01

    A preliminary report is presented on the work on the tracking of internal layers in a singularly-perturbed convection-diffusion equation. It is shown why such tracking may be desirable, and it is also shown how to do it using domain decomposition based on asymptotic analysis.

  12. A study of two domain decomposition preconditioners.

    SciTech Connect

    Dohrmann, Clark R.

    2003-12-01

    Large-scale finite element analysis often requires the iterative solution of equations with many unknowns. Preconditioners based on domain decomposition concepts have proven effective at accelerating the convergence of iterative methods like conjugate gradients for such problems. A study of two new domain decomposition preconditioners is presented here. The first is based on a substructuring approach and can viewed as a primal counterpart of the dual-primal variant of the finite element tearing and interconnecting method called FETI-DP. The second uses an algebraic approach to construct a coarse problem for a classic overlapping Schwarz method. The numerical properties of both preconditioners are shown to scale well with problem size. Although developed primarily for structural mechanics applications, the preconditioners are also useful for other problems types. Detailed descriptions of the two preconditioners along with numerical results are included.

  13. Domain decomposition for implicit solvation models.

    PubMed

    Cancès, Eric; Maday, Yvon; Stamm, Benjamin

    2013-08-07

    This article is the first of a series of papers dealing with domain decomposition algorithms for implicit solvent models. We show that, in the framework of the COSMO model, with van der Waals molecular cavities and classical charge distributions, the electrostatic energy contribution to the solvation energy, usually computed by solving an integral equation on the whole surface of the molecular cavity, can be computed more efficiently by using an integral equation formulation of Schwarz's domain decomposition method for boundary value problems. In addition, the so-obtained potential energy surface is smooth, which is a critical property to perform geometry optimization and molecular dynamics simulations. The purpose of this first article is to detail the methodology, set up the theoretical foundations of the approach, and study the accuracies and convergence rates of the resulting algorithms. The full efficiency of the method and its applicability to large molecular systems of biological interest is demonstrated elsewhere.

  14. Domain decomposition multigrid for unstructured grids

    SciTech Connect

    Shapira, Yair

    1997-01-01

    A two-level preconditioning method for the solution of elliptic boundary value problems using finite element schemes on possibly unstructured meshes is introduced. It is based on a domain decomposition and a Galerkin scheme for the coarse level vertex unknowns. For both the implementation and the analysis, it is not required that the curves of discontinuity in the coefficients of the PDE match the interfaces between subdomains. Generalizations to nonmatching or overlapping grids are made.

  15. Domain decomposition methods for mortar finite elements

    SciTech Connect

    Widlund, O.

    1996-12-31

    In the last few years, domain decomposition methods, previously developed and tested for standard finite element methods and elliptic problems, have been extended and modified to work for mortar and other nonconforming finite element methods. A survey will be given of work carried out jointly with Yves Achdou, Mario Casarin, Maksymilian Dryja and Yvon Maday. Results on the p- and h-p-version finite elements will also be discussed.

  16. Thermocapillary bubble dynamics in a 2D axis swirl domain

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alhendal, Yousuf; Turan, Ali

    2014-09-01

    The lack of significant buoyancy effects in zero-gravity conditions poses an issue with fluid transfer in a stagnant liquid. In this paper, bubble movement in a stagnant liquid is analysed and presented numerically using a computational fluid dynamics approach. The governing continuum and conservation equations for two-phase flow are solved using the commercial software package Ansys-Fluent v.13. The volume of fluid method is used to track the liquid/gas interface in 2D and 3D domains, which has been found to be a valuable tool for studying the phenomenon of gas-liquid interaction, and the validation results are in reasonable agreement with earlier experimental observations. The flow is driven via Marangoni influence induced by the temperature difference, which in turn drives the bubble from the cold to the hot region. The results indicate that the inherent velocity of bubbles decreases with an increase in Marangoni number; this is in agreement with the results of previous experiments conducted in Kang et al. (Microgravity Sci Technol 20:67-71, 2008). Some three-dimensional simulations will also be performed to compare and examine the results with two-dimensional simulations. The thermocapillary bubble flow in a 2D swirl axisymmetry driven by the rotation of the walls was also carried out for different angular velocities in zero gravity. The bubble migration speed was found to decrease with increasing angular velocity. This occurrence is due to an increase in the pressure gradient between the cylinder's outer wall and the axis of rotation, which forces the lowest pressure region to shift from the sides of the bubble to the axis of rotation. A deformation of the bubble and the formation of the two vortices inside the bubble are also observed. These new and original findings aim to help support research into space applications.

  17. Thermocapillary bubble dynamics in a 2D axis swirl domain

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alhendal, Yousuf; Turan, Ali

    2015-04-01

    The lack of significant buoyancy effects in zero-gravity conditions poses an issue with fluid transfer in a stagnant liquid. In this paper, bubble movement in a stagnant liquid is analysed and presented numerically using a computational fluid dynamics approach. The governing continuum and conservation equations for two-phase flow are solved using the commercial software package Ansys-Fluent v.13. The volume of fluid method is used to track the liquid/gas interface in 2D and 3D domains, which has been found to be a valuable tool for studying the phenomenon of gas-liquid interaction, and the validation results are in reasonable agreement with earlier experimental observations. The flow is driven via Marangoni influence induced by the temperature difference, which in turn drives the bubble from the cold to the hot region. The results indicate that the inherent velocity of bubbles decreases with an increase in Marangoni number; this is in agreement with the results of previous experiments conducted in Kang et al. (Microgravity Sci Technol 20:67-71, 2008). Some three-dimensional simulations will also be performed to compare and examine the results with two-dimensional simulations. The thermocapillary bubble flow in a 2D swirl axisymmetry driven by the rotation of the walls was also carried out for different angular velocities in zero gravity. The bubble migration speed was found to decrease with increasing angular velocity. This occurrence is due to an increase in the pressure gradient between the cylinder's outer wall and the axis of rotation, which forces the lowest pressure region to shift from the sides of the bubble to the axis of rotation. A deformation of the bubble and the formation of the two vortices inside the bubble are also observed. These new and original findings aim to help support research into space applications.

  18. Layout decomposition of self-aligned double patterning for 2D random logic patterning

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ban, Yongchan; Miloslavsky, Alex; Lucas, Kevin; Choi, Soo-Han; Park, Chul-Hong; Pan, David Z.

    2011-04-01

    Self-aligned double pattering (SADP) has been adapted as a promising solution for sub-30nm technology nodes due to its lower overlay problem and better process tolerance. SADP is in production use for 1D dense patterns with good pitch control such as NAND Flash memory applications, but it is still challenging to apply SADP to 2D random logic patterns. The favored type of SADP for complex logic interconnects is a two mask approach using a core mask and a trim mask. In this paper, we first describe layout decomposition methods of spacer-type double patterning lithography, then report a type of SADP compliant layouts, and finally report SADP applications on Samsung 22nm SRAM layout. For SADP decomposition, we propose several SADP-aware layout coloring algorithms and a method of generating lithography-friendly core mask patterns. Experimental results on 22nm node designs show that our proposed layout decomposition for SADP effectively decomposes any given layouts.

  19. Combinatorial geometry domain decomposition strategies for Monte Carlo simulations

    SciTech Connect

    Li, G.; Zhang, B.; Deng, L.; Mo, Z.; Liu, Z.; Shangguan, D.; Ma, Y.; Li, S.; Hu, Z.

    2013-07-01

    Analysis and modeling of nuclear reactors can lead to memory overload for a single core processor when it comes to refined modeling. A method to solve this problem is called 'domain decomposition'. In the current work, domain decomposition algorithms for a combinatorial geometry Monte Carlo transport code are developed on the JCOGIN (J Combinatorial Geometry Monte Carlo transport INfrastructure). Tree-based decomposition and asynchronous communication of particle information between domains are described in the paper. Combination of domain decomposition and domain replication (particle parallelism) is demonstrated and compared with that of MERCURY code. A full-core reactor model is simulated to verify the domain decomposition algorithms using the Monte Carlo particle transport code JMCT (J Monte Carlo Transport Code), which has being developed on the JCOGIN infrastructure. Besides, influences of the domain decomposition algorithms to tally variances are discussed. (authors)

  20. Domain decomposition methods in computational fluid dynamics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gropp, William D.; Keyes, David E.

    1991-01-01

    The divide-and-conquer paradigm of iterative domain decomposition, or substructuring, has become a practical tool in computational fluid dynamic applications because of its flexibility in accommodating adaptive refinement through locally uniform (or quasi-uniform) grids, its ability to exploit multiple discretizations of the operator equations, and the modular pathway it provides towards parallelism. These features are illustrated on the classic model problem of flow over a backstep using Newton's method as the nonlinear iteration. Multiple discretizations (second-order in the operator and first-order in the preconditioner) and locally uniform mesh refinement pay dividends separately, and they can be combined synergistically. Sample performance results are included from an Intel iPSC/860 hypercube implementation.

  1. Domain decomposition algorithms and computation fluid dynamics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chan, Tony F.

    1988-01-01

    In the past several years, domain decomposition was a very popular topic, partly motivated by the potential of parallelization. While a large body of theory and algorithms were developed for model elliptic problems, they are only recently starting to be tested on realistic applications. The application of some of these methods to two model problems in computational fluid dynamics are investigated. Some examples are two dimensional convection-diffusion problems and the incompressible driven cavity flow problem. The construction and analysis of efficient preconditioners for the interface operator to be used in the iterative solution of the interface solution is described. For the convection-diffusion problems, the effect of the convection term and its discretization on the performance of some of the preconditioners is discussed. For the driven cavity problem, the effectiveness of a class of boundary probe preconditioners is discussed.

  2. Domain Decomposition By the Advancing-Partition Method

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pirzadeh, Shahyar Z.

    2008-01-01

    A new method of domain decomposition has been developed for generating unstructured grids in subdomains either sequentially or using multiple computers in parallel. Domain decomposition is a crucial and challenging step for parallel grid generation. Prior methods are generally based on auxiliary, complex, and computationally intensive operations for defining partition interfaces and usually produce grids of lower quality than those generated in single domains. The new technique, referred to as "Advancing Partition," is based on the Advancing-Front method, which partitions a domain as part of the volume mesh generation in a consistent and "natural" way. The benefits of this approach are: 1) the process of domain decomposition is highly automated, 2) partitioning of domain does not compromise the quality of the generated grids, and 3) the computational overhead for domain decomposition is minimal. The new method has been implemented in NASA's unstructured grid generation code VGRID.

  3. Dynamic load balancing algorithm for molecular dynamics based on Voronoi cells domain decompositions

    SciTech Connect

    Fattebert, J.-L.; Richards, D.F.; Glosli, J.N.

    2012-12-01

    We present a new algorithm for automatic parallel load balancing in classical molecular dynamics. It assumes a spatial domain decomposition of particles into Voronoi cells. It is a gradient method which attempts to minimize a cost function by displacing Voronoi sites associated with each processor/sub-domain along steepest descent directions. Excellent load balance has been obtained for quasi-2D and 3D practical applications, with up to 440·106 particles on 65,536 MPI tasks.

  4. Interface conditions for domain decomposition with radical grid refinement

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Scroggs, Jeffrey S.

    1991-01-01

    Interface conditions for coupling the domains in a physically motivated domain decomposition method are discussed. The domain decomposition is based on an asymptotic-induced method for the numerical solution of hyperbolic conservation laws with small viscosity. The method consists of multiple stages. The first stage is to obtain a first approximation using a first-order method, such as the Godunov scheme. Subsequent stages of the method involve solving internal-layer problem via a domain decomposition. The method is derived and justified via singular perturbation techniques.

  5. Domain decomposition: A bridge between nature and parallel computers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Keyes, David E.

    1992-01-01

    Domain decomposition is an intuitive organizing principle for a partial differential equation (PDE) computation, both physically and architecturally. However, its significance extends beyond the readily apparent issues of geometry and discretization, on one hand, and of modular software and distributed hardware, on the other. Engineering and computer science aspects are bridged by an old but recently enriched mathematical theory that offers the subject not only unity, but also tools for analysis and generalization. Domain decomposition induces function-space and operator decompositions with valuable properties. Function-space bases and operator splittings that are not derived from domain decompositions generally lack one or more of these properties. The evolution of domain decomposition methods for elliptically dominated problems has linked two major algorithmic developments of the last 15 years: multilevel and Krylov methods. Domain decomposition methods may be considered descendants of both classes with an inheritance from each: they are nearly optimal and at the same time efficiently parallelizable. Many computationally driven application areas are ripe for these developments. A progression is made from a mathematically informal motivation for domain decomposition methods to a specific focus on fluid dynamics applications. To be introductory rather than comprehensive, simple examples are provided while convergence proofs and algorithmic details are left to the original references; however, an attempt is made to convey their most salient features, especially where this leads to algorithmic insight.

  6. Domain decomposition for aerodynamic and aeroacoustic analyses, and optimization

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Baysal, Oktay

    1995-01-01

    The overarching theme was the domain decomposition, which intended to improve the numerical solution technique for the partial differential equations at hand; in the present study, those that governed either the fluid flow, or the aeroacoustic wave propagation, or the sensitivity analysis for a gradient-based optimization. The role of the domain decomposition extended beyond the original impetus of discretizing geometrical complex regions or writing modular software for distributed-hardware computers. It induced function-space decompositions and operator decompositions that offered the valuable property of near independence of operator evaluation tasks. The objectives have gravitated about the extensions and implementations of either the previously developed or concurrently being developed methodologies: (1) aerodynamic sensitivity analysis with domain decomposition (SADD); (2) computational aeroacoustics of cavities; and (3) dynamic, multibody computational fluid dynamics using unstructured meshes.

  7. Parallel Domain Decomposition Preconditioning for Computational Fluid Dynamics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Barth, Timothy J.; Chan, Tony F.; Tang, Wei-Pai; Kutler, Paul (Technical Monitor)

    1998-01-01

    This viewgraph presentation gives an overview of the parallel domain decomposition preconditioning for computational fluid dynamics. Details are given on some difficult fluid flow problems, stabilized spatial discretizations, and Newton's method for solving the discretized flow equations. Schur complement domain decomposition is described through basic formulation, simplifying strategies (including iterative subdomain and Schur complement solves, matrix element dropping, localized Schur complement computation, and supersparse computations), and performance evaluation.

  8. Singular value decomposition-based 2D image reconstruction for computed tomography.

    PubMed

    Liu, Rui; He, Lu; Luo, Yan; Yu, Hengyong

    2017-01-01

    Singular value decomposition (SVD)-based 2D image reconstruction methods are developed and evaluated for a broad class of inverse problems for which there are no analytical solutions. The proposed methods are fast and accurate for reconstructing images in a non-iterative fashion. The multi-resolution strategy is adopted to reduce the size of the system matrix to reconstruct large images using limited memory capacity. A modified high-contrast Shepp-Logan phantom, a low-contrast FORBILD head phantom, and a physical phantom are employed to evaluate the proposed methods with different system configurations. The results show that the SVD methods can accurately reconstruct images from standard scan and interior scan projections and that they outperform other benchmark methods. The general SVD method outperforms the other SVD methods. The truncated SVD and Tikhonov regularized SVD methods accurately reconstruct a region-of-interest (ROI) from an internal scan with a known sub-region inside the ROI. Furthermore, the SVD methods are much faster and more flexible than the benchmark algorithms, especially in the ROI reconstructions in our experiments.

  9. A New Domain Decomposition Approach for the Gust Response Problem

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Scott, James R.; Atassi, Hafiz M.; Susan-Resiga, Romeo F.

    2002-01-01

    A domain decomposition method is developed for solving the aerodynamic/aeroacoustic problem of an airfoil in a vortical gust. The computational domain is divided into inner and outer regions wherein the governing equations are cast in different forms suitable for accurate computations in each region. Boundary conditions which ensure continuity of pressure and velocity are imposed along the interface separating the two regions. A numerical study is presented for reduced frequencies ranging from 0.1 to 3.0. It is seen that the domain decomposition approach in providing robust and grid independent solutions.

  10. A Domain Decomposition Parallelization of the Fast Marching Method

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Herrmann, M.

    2003-01-01

    In this paper, the first domain decomposition parallelization of the Fast Marching Method for level sets has been presented. Parallel speedup has been demonstrated in both the optimal and non-optimal domain decomposition case. The parallel performance of the proposed method is strongly dependent on load balancing separately the number of nodes on each side of the interface. A load imbalance of nodes on either side of the domain leads to an increase in communication and rollback operations. Furthermore, the amount of inter-domain communication can be reduced by aligning the inter-domain boundaries with the interface normal vectors. In the case of optimal load balancing and aligned inter-domain boundaries, the proposed parallel FMM algorithm is highly efficient, reaching efficiency factors of up to 0.98. Future work will focus on the extension of the proposed parallel algorithm to higher order accuracy. Also, to further enhance parallel performance, the coupling of the domain decomposition parallelization to the G(sub 0)-based parallelization will be investigated.

  11. C2D Spitzer-IRS spectra of disks around T Tauri stars. V. Spectral decomposition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Olofsson, J.; Augereau, J.-C.; van Dishoeck, E. F.; Merín, B.; Grosso, N.; Ménard, F.; Blake, G. A.; Monin, J.-L.

    2010-09-01

    Context. Dust particles evolve in size and lattice structure in protoplanetary disks, due to coagulation, fragmentation and crystallization, and are radially and vertically mixed in disks due to turbulent diffusion and wind/radiation pressure forces. Aims: This paper aims at determining the mineralogical composition and size distribution of the dust grains in planet forming regions of disks around a statistical sample of 58 T Tauri stars observed with Spitzer/IRS as part of the Cores to Disks (c2d) Legacy Program. Methods: We present a spectral decomposition model, named “B2C”, that reproduces the IRS spectra over the full spectral range (5-35 μm). The model assumes two dust populations: a warm component responsible for the 10 μm emission arising from the disk inner regions (≲1 AU) and a colder component responsible for the 20-30 μm emission, arising from more distant regions (≲10 AU). The fitting strategy relies on a random exploration of parameter space coupled with a Bayesian inference method. Results: We show evidence for a significant size distribution flattening in the atmospheres of disks compared to the typical MRN distribution, providing an explanation for the usual flat, boxy 10 μm feature profile generally observed in T Tauri star spectra. We reexamine the crystallinity paradox, observationally identified by Olofsson et al. (2009 , A&A, 507, 327), and we find a simultaneous enrichment of the crystallinity in both the warm and cold regions, while grain sizes in both components are uncorrelated. We show that flat disks tend to have larger grains than flared disk. Finally our modeling results do not show evidence for any correlations between the crystallinity and either the star spectral type, or the X-ray luminosity (for a subset of the sample). Conclusions: The size distribution flattening may suggests that grain coagulation is a slightly more effective process than fragmentation (helped by turbulent diffusion) in disk atmospheres, and that

  12. A multilevel preconditioner for domain decomposition boundary systems

    SciTech Connect

    Bramble, J.H.; Pasciak, J.E.; Xu, Jinchao.

    1991-12-11

    In this note, we consider multilevel preconditioning of the reduced boundary systems which arise in non-overlapping domain decomposition methods. It will be shown that the resulting preconditioned systems have condition numbers which be bounded in the case of multilevel spaces on the whole domain and grow at most proportional to the number of levels in the case of multilevel boundary spaces without multilevel extensions into the interior.

  13. Concurrent DSMC Method Using Dynamic Domain Decomposition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, J.-S.; Tseng, K.-C.

    2003-05-01

    In the current study, a parallel two-dimensional direct simulation Monte Carlo method is reported, which incorporates a multi-level graph-partitioning technique to dynamically decompose the computational domain. The current DSMC method is implemented on an unstructured mesh using particle ray-tracing technique, which takes the advantages of the cell connectivity information. Standard Message Passage Interface (MPI) is used to communicate data between processors. In addition, different strategies applying the Stop at Rise (SAR) [7] scheme is utilized to determine when to adapt the workload distribution among processors. Corresponding analysis of parallel performance is reported using the results of a high-speed driven cavity flow on IBM-SP2 parallel machines (memory-distributed, CPU 160 MHz, RAM 256 MB each) up to 64 processors. Small, medium and large problems, based on the number of particles and cells, are simulated. Results, applying SAR scheme every two time steps, show that parallel efficiency is 57%, 90% and 107% for small, medium and large problems, respectively, at 64 processors. In general, benefits of applying SAR scheme at larger periods decrease gradually with increasing problem size. Detailed time analysis shows that degree of imbalance levels off very rapidly at a relatively low value (30%˜40%) with increasing number of processors applying dynamic load balancing, while it, at a value of 5˜6 times larger, increases with increasing number of processors without dynamic load balancing. At the end, the completed code is applied to compute a near-continuum gas flow to demonstrate its superior computational capability.

  14. Domain decomposition methods for solving an image problem

    SciTech Connect

    Tsui, W.K.; Tong, C.S.

    1994-12-31

    The domain decomposition method is a technique to break up a problem so that ensuing sub-problems can be solved on a parallel computer. In order to improve the convergence rate of the capacitance systems, pre-conditioned conjugate gradient methods are commonly used. In the last decade, most of the efficient preconditioners are based on elliptic partial differential equations which are particularly useful for solving elliptic partial differential equations. In this paper, the authors apply the so called covering preconditioner, which is based on the information of the operator under investigation. Therefore, it is good for various kinds of applications, specifically, they shall apply the preconditioned domain decomposition method for solving an image restoration problem. The image restoration problem is to extract an original image which has been degraded by a known convolution process and additive Gaussian noise.

  15. Separation Surfaces in the Spectral TV Domain for Texture Decomposition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Horesh, Dikla; Gilboa, Guy

    2016-09-01

    In this paper we introduce a novel notion of separation surfaces for image decomposition. A surface is embedded in the spectral total-variation (TV) three dimensional domain and encodes a spatially-varying separation scale. The method allows good separation of textures with gradually varying pattern-size, pattern-contrast or illumination. The recently proposed total variation spectral framework is used to decompose the image into a continuum of textural scales. A desired texture, within a scale range, is found by fitting a surface to the local maximal responses in the spectral domain. A band above and below the surface, referred to as the \\textit{Texture Stratum}, defines for each pixel the adaptive scale-range of the texture. Based on the decomposition an application is proposed which can attenuate or enhance textures in the image in a very natural and visually convincing manner.

  16. A domain decomposition scheme for Eulerian shock physics codes

    SciTech Connect

    Bell, R.L.; Hertel, E.S. Jr.

    1994-08-01

    A new algorithm which allows for complex domain decomposition in Eulerian codes was developed at Sandia National Laboratories. This new feature allows a user to customize the zoning for each portion of a calculation and to refine volumes of the computational space of particular interest This option is available in one, two, and three dimensions. The new technique will be described in detail and several examples of the effectiveness of this technique will also be discussed.

  17. Modeling Tear Film Dynamics on a 2-D Eye-shaped Domain

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Longfei; Braun, Richard; Maki, Kara; Henshaw, William

    2012-11-01

    We study tear film dynamics on a 2-D eye-shaped domain using a lubrication model. Time dependent flux boundary conditions that model the lacrimal gland tear supply and punctal drainage are imposed. We solved the model equations with Overture computational framework. Results reveals our model captures the hydraulic connectivity and other key physics of human tear film observed in vivo. Comparisons are made with existing models and experiments. Should time permit, osmolarity dynamics (salt ion concentration) will be included.

  18. Higher order statistical frequency domain decomposition for operational modal analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nita, G. M.; Mahgoub, M. A.; Sharyatpanahi, S. G.; Cretu, N. C.; El-Fouly, T. M.

    2017-02-01

    Experimental methods based on modal analysis under ambient vibrational excitation are often employed to detect structural damages of mechanical systems. Many of such frequency domain methods, such as Basic Frequency Domain (BFD), Frequency Domain Decomposition (FFD), or Enhanced Frequency Domain Decomposition (EFFD), use as first step a Fast Fourier Transform (FFT) estimate of the power spectral density (PSD) associated with the response of the system. In this study it is shown that higher order statistical estimators such as Spectral Kurtosis (SK) and Sample to Model Ratio (SMR) may be successfully employed not only to more reliably discriminate the response of the system against the ambient noise fluctuations, but also to better identify and separate contributions from closely spaced individual modes. It is shown that a SMR-based Maximum Likelihood curve fitting algorithm may improve the accuracy of the spectral shape and location of the individual modes and, when combined with the SK analysis, it provides efficient means to categorize such individual spectral components according to their temporal dynamics as coherent or incoherent system responses to unknown ambient excitations.

  19. Iterative image-domain decomposition for dual-energy CT

    SciTech Connect

    Niu, Tianye; Dong, Xue; Petrongolo, Michael; Zhu, Lei

    2014-04-15

    Purpose: Dual energy CT (DECT) imaging plays an important role in advanced imaging applications due to its capability of material decomposition. Direct decomposition via matrix inversion suffers from significant degradation of image signal-to-noise ratios, which reduces clinical values of DECT. Existing denoising algorithms achieve suboptimal performance since they suppress image noise either before or after the decomposition and do not fully explore the noise statistical properties of the decomposition process. In this work, the authors propose an iterative image-domain decomposition method for noise suppression in DECT, using the full variance-covariance matrix of the decomposed images. Methods: The proposed algorithm is formulated in the form of least-square estimation with smoothness regularization. Based on the design principles of a best linear unbiased estimator, the authors include the inverse of the estimated variance-covariance matrix of the decomposed images as the penalty weight in the least-square term. The regularization term enforces the image smoothness by calculating the square sum of neighboring pixel value differences. To retain the boundary sharpness of the decomposed images, the authors detect the edges in the CT images before decomposition. These edge pixels have small weights in the calculation of the regularization term. Distinct from the existing denoising algorithms applied on the images before or after decomposition, the method has an iterative process for noise suppression, with decomposition performed in each iteration. The authors implement the proposed algorithm using a standard conjugate gradient algorithm. The method performance is evaluated using an evaluation phantom (Catphan©600) and an anthropomorphic head phantom. The results are compared with those generated using direct matrix inversion with no noise suppression, a denoising method applied on the decomposed images, and an existing algorithm with similar formulation as the

  20. Domain Decomposition Methods for Problems in H(curl)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Calvo, Juan Gabriel

    Two domain decomposition methods for solving vector field problems posed in H(curl) and discretized with Nedelec finite elements are considered. These finite elements are conforming in H(curl). A two-level overlapping Schwarz algorithm in two dimensions is analyzed, where the subdomains are only assumed to be uniform in the sense of Peter Jones. The coarse space is based on energy minimization and its dimension equals the number of interior subdomain edges. Local direct solvers are based on the overlapping subdomains. The bound for the condition number depends only on a few geometric parameters of the decomposition. This bound is independent of jumps in the coefficients across the interface between the subdomains for most of the different cases considered. A bound is also obtained for the condition number of a balancing domain decomposition by constraints (BDDC) algorithm in two dimensions, with Jones subdomains. For the primal variable space, a continuity constraint for the tangential average over each interior subdomain edge is imposed. For the averaging operator, a new technique named deluxe scaling is used. The optimal bound is independent of jumps in the coefficients across the interface between the subdomains. Furthermore, a new coarse function for problems in three dimensions is introduced, with only one degree of freedom per subdomain edge. In all the cases, it is established that the algorithms are scalable. Numerical results that verify the results are provided, including some with subdomains with fractal edges and others obtained by a mesh partitioner.

  1. A Parallel Non-Overlapping Domain-Decomposition Algorithm for Compressible Fluid Flow Problems on Triangulated Domains

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Barth, Timothy J.; Chan, Tony F.; Tang, Wei-Pai

    1998-01-01

    This paper considers an algebraic preconditioning algorithm for hyperbolic-elliptic fluid flow problems. The algorithm is based on a parallel non-overlapping Schur complement domain-decomposition technique for triangulated domains. In the Schur complement technique, the triangulation is first partitioned into a number of non-overlapping subdomains and interfaces. This suggests a reordering of triangulation vertices which separates subdomain and interface solution unknowns. The reordering induces a natural 2 x 2 block partitioning of the discretization matrix. Exact LU factorization of this block system yields a Schur complement matrix which couples subdomains and the interface together. The remaining sections of this paper present a family of approximate techniques for both constructing and applying the Schur complement as a domain-decomposition preconditioner. The approximate Schur complement serves as an algebraic coarse space operator, thus avoiding the known difficulties associated with the direct formation of a coarse space discretization. In developing Schur complement approximations, particular attention has been given to improving sequential and parallel efficiency of implementations without significantly degrading the quality of the preconditioner. A computer code based on these developments has been tested on the IBM SP2 using MPI message passing protocol. A number of 2-D calculations are presented for both scalar advection-diffusion equations as well as the Euler equations governing compressible fluid flow to demonstrate performance of the preconditioning algorithm.

  2. Heterogeneous domain decomposition for singularly perturbed elliptic boundary value problems

    SciTech Connect

    Garbey, M.; Kaper, H.G.

    1995-04-14

    A heterogeneous domain-decomposition method is presented for the numerical solution of singularly perturbed elliptic boundary value problem. The method, which is parallelizable at various levels, uses several ideas of asymptotic analysis. The sub-domains match the domains of validity of the local ({open_quotes}inner{close_quotes} and {open_quotes}outer{close_quotes}) asymptotic expansions, and cut-off functions are used to match solutions in neighboring subdomains. The positions of the interfaces, as well as the mesh widths, depend on the small parameter, {epsilon}. On the subdomains, iterative solution techniques are used, which may vary from one subdomain to another. The global convergence rate depends on {epsilon}; it generally increases like some power of (log({epsilon}{sup -1})){sup -1} as {epsilon} {down_arrow} 0. The method is illustrated on several two-dimensional singular perturbation problems.

  3. Recursive anisotropic 2-D Gaussian filtering based on a triple-axis decomposition.

    PubMed

    Lam, Stanley Yiu Man; Shi, Bertram E

    2007-07-01

    We describe a recursive algorithm for anisotropic 2-D Gaussian filtering, based on separating the filter into the cascade of three, rather two, 1-D filters. The filters operate along axes obtained by integer horizontal and/or vertical pixel shifts. This eliminates interpolation, which removes spatial inhomogeneity in the filter, and produces more elliptically shaped kernels. It also results in a more regular filter structure, which facilitates implementation in DSP chips. Finally, it improves matching between filters with the same eccentricity and width, but different orientations. Our analysis and experiments indicate that the computational complexity is similar to an algorithm that operates along two axes (<11 ms for a 512 x 512 image using a 3.2-GHz Pentium 4 PC). On the other hand, given a limited set of basis filter axes, there is an orientation dependent lower bound on the achievable aspect ratios.

  4. MAST solution of irrotational flow problems in 2D domains with strongly unstructured triangular meshes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tucciarelli, T.

    2012-12-01

    A new methodology for the solution of irrotational 2D flow problems in domains with strongly unstructured meshes is presented. A fractional time step procedure is applied to the original governing equations, solving consecutively a convective prediction system and a diffusive corrective system. The non linear components of the problem are concentrated in the prediction step, while the correction step leads to the solution of a linear system, of the order of the number of computational cells. A MArching in Space and Time (MAST) approach is applied for the solution of the convective prediction step. The major advantages of the model, as well as its ability to maintain the solution monotonicity even in strongly irregular meshes, are briefly described. The algorithm is applied to the solution of diffusive shallow water equations in a simple domain.

  5. Segmented Domain Decomposition Multigrid For 3-D Turbomachinery Flows

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Celestina, M. L.; Adamczyk, J. J.; Rubin, S. G.

    2001-01-01

    A Segmented Domain Decomposition Multigrid (SDDMG) procedure was developed for three-dimensional viscous flow problems as they apply to turbomachinery flows. The procedure divides the computational domain into a coarse mesh comprised of uniformly spaced cells. To resolve smaller length scales such as the viscous layer near a surface, segments of the coarse mesh are subdivided into a finer mesh. This is repeated until adequate resolution of the smallest relevant length scale is obtained. Multigrid is used to communicate information between the different grid levels. To test the procedure, simulation results will be presented for a compressor and turbine cascade. These simulations are intended to show the ability of the present method to generate grid independent solutions. Comparisons with data will also be presented. These comparisons will further demonstrate the usefulness of the present work for they allow an estimate of the accuracy of the flow modeling equations independent of error attributed to numerical discretization.

  6. Simplified approaches to some nonoverlapping domain decomposition methods

    SciTech Connect

    Xu, Jinchao

    1996-12-31

    An attempt will be made in this talk to present various domain decomposition methods in a way that is intuitively clear and technically coherent and concise. The basic framework used for analysis is the {open_quotes}parallel subspace correction{close_quotes} or {open_quotes}additive Schwarz{close_quotes} method, and other simple technical tools include {open_quotes}local-global{close_quotes} and {open_quotes}global-local{close_quotes} techniques, the formal one is for constructing subspace preconditioner based on a preconditioner on the whole space whereas the later one for constructing preconditioner on the whole space based on a subspace preconditioner. The domain decomposition methods discussed in this talk fall into two major categories: one, based on local Dirichlet problems, is related to the {open_quotes}substructuring method{close_quotes} and the other, based on local Neumann problems, is related to the {open_quotes}Neumann-Neumann method{close_quotes} and {open_quotes}balancing method{close_quotes}. All these methods will be presented in a systematic and coherent manner and the analysis for both two and three dimensional cases are carried out simultaneously. In particular, some intimate relationship between these algorithms are observed and some new variants of the algorithms are obtained.

  7. A mixed finite element domain decomposition method for nearly elastic wave equations in the frequency domain

    SciTech Connect

    Feng, Xiaobing

    1996-12-31

    A non-overlapping domain decomposition iterative method is proposed and analyzed for mixed finite element methods for a sequence of noncoercive elliptic systems with radiation boundary conditions. These differential systems describe the motion of a nearly elastic solid in the frequency domain. The convergence of the iterative procedure is demonstrated and the rate of convergence is derived for the case when the domain is decomposed into subdomains in which each subdomain consists of an individual element associated with the mixed finite elements. The hybridization of mixed finite element methods plays a important role in the construction of the discrete procedure.

  8. Stable spins in the zero temperature spinodal decomposition of 2D Potts models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Derrida, B.; de Oliveira, P. M. C.; Stauffer, D.

    1996-02-01

    We present the results of zero temperature Monte Carlo simulations of the q-state Potts model on a square lattice with either four or eight neighbors, and for the triangular lattice with six neighbors. In agreement with previous works, we observe that the domain growth process gets blocked for the nearest-neighbor square lattice when q is large enough, whereas for the eight neighbor square lattice and for the triangular lattice no blocking is observed. Our simulations indicate that the number of spins which never flipped from the beginning of the simulation up to time t follows a power law as a function of the energy, even in the case of blocking. The exponent of this power law varies from less than {sol1}/{2} for the Ising case (1 q = 2) to 2 for q → ∞ and seems to be universal. The effect of blocking on this exponent is invisible at least up to q = 7.

  9. 2D Seismic Imaging of Elastic Parameters by Frequency Domain Full Waveform Inversion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brossier, R.; Virieux, J.; Operto, S.

    2008-12-01

    Thanks to recent advances in parallel computing, full waveform inversion is today a tractable seismic imaging method to reconstruct physical parameters of the earth interior at different scales ranging from the near- surface to the deep crust. We present a massively parallel 2D frequency-domain full-waveform algorithm for imaging visco-elastic media from multi-component seismic data. The forward problem (i.e. the resolution of the frequency-domain 2D PSV elastodynamics equations) is based on low-order Discontinuous Galerkin (DG) method (P0 and/or P1 interpolations). Thanks to triangular unstructured meshes, the DG method allows accurate modeling of both body waves and surface waves in case of complex topography for a discretization of 10 to 15 cells per shear wavelength. The frequency-domain DG system is solved efficiently for multiple sources with the parallel direct solver MUMPS. The local inversion procedure (i.e. minimization of residuals between observed and computed data) is based on the adjoint-state method which allows to efficiently compute the gradient of the objective function. Applying the inversion hierarchically from the low frequencies to the higher ones defines a multiresolution imaging strategy which helps convergence towards the global minimum. In place of expensive Newton algorithm, the combined use of the diagonal terms of the approximate Hessian matrix and optimization algorithms based on quasi-Newton methods (Conjugate Gradient, LBFGS, ...) allows to improve the convergence of the iterative inversion. The distribution of forward problem solutions over processors driven by a mesh partitioning performed by METIS allows to apply most of the inversion in parallel. We shall present the main features of the parallel modeling/inversion algorithm, assess its scalability and illustrate its performances with realistic synthetic case studies.

  10. Domain decomposition methods for the parallel computation of reacting flows

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Keyes, David E.

    1988-01-01

    Domain decomposition is a natural route to parallel computing for partial differential equation solvers. Subdomains of which the original domain of definition is comprised are assigned to independent processors at the price of periodic coordination between processors to compute global parameters and maintain the requisite degree of continuity of the solution at the subdomain interfaces. In the domain-decomposed solution of steady multidimensional systems of PDEs by finite difference methods using a pseudo-transient version of Newton iteration, the only portion of the computation which generally stands in the way of efficient parallelization is the solution of the large, sparse linear systems arising at each Newton step. For some Jacobian matrices drawn from an actual two-dimensional reacting flow problem, comparisons are made between relaxation-based linear solvers and also preconditioned iterative methods of Conjugate Gradient and Chebyshev type, focusing attention on both iteration count and global inner product count. The generalized minimum residual method with block-ILU preconditioning is judged the best serial method among those considered, and parallel numerical experiments on the Encore Multimax demonstrate for it approximately 10-fold speedup on 16 processors.

  11. Fast marching over the 2D Gabor magnitude domain for tongue body segmentation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cui, Zhenchao; Zhang, Hongzhi; Zhang, David; Li, Naimin; Zuo, Wangmeng

    2013-12-01

    Tongue body segmentation is a prerequisite to tongue image analysis and has recently received considerable attention. The existing tongue body segmentation methods usually involve two key steps: edge detection and active contour model (ACM)-based segmentation. However, conventional edge detectors cannot faithfully detect the contour of the tongue body, and the initialization of ACM suffers from the edge discontinuity problem. To address these issues, we proposed a novel tongue body segmentation method, GaborFM, which initializes ACM by performing fast marching over the two-dimensional (2D) Gabor magnitude domain of the tongue images. For the enhancement of the contour of the tongue body, we used the 2D Gabor magnitude-based detector. To cope with the edge discontinuity problem, the fast marching method was utilized to connect the discontinuous contour segments, resulting in a closed and continuous tongue body contour for subsequent ACM-based segmentation. Qualitative and quantitative results showed that GaborFM is superior to the other methods for tongue body segmentation.

  12. 2D Inversion of DCR and Time Domain IP data: an example from ore exploration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Adrian, J.; Tezkan, B.

    2015-12-01

    Ore deposits often appear as disseminated sulfidic materials. Exploring these deposits with the Direct Current Resistivity (DCR) method alone is challenging because the resistivity signatures caused by disseminated material is often hard to detect. The Time-domain Induced Polarization (TDIP) method, on the other hand, is qualified to detect areas with disseminated sulfidic ores due to large electrode polarization effects which result in large chargeability anomalies. By employing both methods we gain information about both, the resistivity and the chargeability distribution of the subsurface.On the poster we present the current state of the development of a 2D smoothness constraint inversion algorithm for DCR and TDIP data. The implemented forward algorithm uses a Finite Element approach with an unstructured mesh. The model parameters resistivity and chargeability are connected by either a simple conductivity pertubation approach or a complex conductivity approach.As a case study, the 2D inversion results of DCR/TDIP and RMT data obtained during a survey on a sulfidic copper ore deposit in Turkey are presented. The presence of an ore deposit is indicated by areas with low resistivity and significantly high chargeability in the inversion models.This work is part of the BMBF/TUEBITAK funded project ``Two-dimensional joint interpretation of Radiomagnetotellurics (RMT), Direct Current Resistivity (DCR) and Induced Polarization (IP) data: an example from ore exploration''.

  13. Resolving spectral information from time domain induced polarization data through 2-D inversion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fiandaca, Gianluca; Ramm, James; Binley, Andrew; Gazoty, Aurélie; Christiansen, Anders Vest; Auken, Esben

    2013-02-01

    Field-based time domain (TD) induced polarization (IP) surveys are usually modelled by taking into account only the integral chargeability, thus disregarding spectral content. Furthermore, the effect of the transmitted waveform is commonly neglected, biasing inversion results. Given these limitations of conventional approaches, a new 2-D inversion algorithm has been developed using the full voltage decay of the IP response, together with an accurate description of the transmitter waveform and receiver transfer function. This allows reconstruction of the spectral information contained in the TD decay series. The inversion algorithm is based around a 2-D complex conductivity kernel that is computed over a range of frequencies and converted to the TD through a fast Hankel transform. Two key points in the implementation ensure that computation times are minimized. First, the speed of the Jacobian computation, time transformed from frequency domain through the same transformation adopted for the forward response is optimized. Secondly, the reduction of the number of frequencies where the forward response and Jacobian are calculated: cubic splines are used to interpolate the responses to the frequency sampling necessary in the fast Hankel transform. These features, together with parallel computation, ensure inversion times comparable with those of direct current algorithms. The algorithm has been developed in a laterally constrained inversion scheme, and handles both smooth and layered inversions; the latter being helpful in sedimentary environments, where quasi-layered models often represent the actual geology more accurately than smooth minimum-structure models. In the layered inversion approach, a general method to derive the thickness derivative from the complex conductivity Jacobian is also proposed. One synthetic example of layered inversion and one field example of smooth inversion show the capability of the algorithm and illustrates a complete uncertainty

  14. Traffic simulations on parallel computers using domain decomposition techniques

    SciTech Connect

    Hanebutte, U.R.; Tentner, A.M.

    1995-12-31

    Large scale simulations of Intelligent Transportation Systems (ITS) can only be achieved by using the computing resources offered by parallel computing architectures. Domain decomposition techniques are proposed which allow the performance of traffic simulations with the standard simulation package TRAF-NETSIM on a 128 nodes IBM SPx parallel supercomputer as well as on a cluster of SUN workstations. Whilst this particular parallel implementation is based on NETSIM, a microscopic traffic simulation model, the presented strategy is applicable to a broad class of traffic simulations. An outer iteration loop must be introduced in order to converge to a global solution. A performance study that utilizes a scalable test network that consist of square-grids is presented, which addresses the performance penalty introduced by the additional iteration loop.

  15. Efficient variants of the vertex space domain decomposition algorithm

    SciTech Connect

    Chan, T.F.; Shao, J.P. . Dept. of Mathematics); Mathew, T.P. . Dept. of Mathematics)

    1994-11-01

    Several variants of the vertex space algorithm of Smith for two-dimensional elliptic problems are described. The vertex space algorithm is a domain decomposition method based on nonoverlapping subregions, in which the reduced Schur complement system on the interface is solved using a generalized block Jacobi-type preconditioner, with the blocks corresponding to the vertex space, edges, and a coarse grid. Two kinds of approximations are considered for the edge and vertex space subblocks, one based on Fourier approximation, and another based on an algebraic probing technique in which sparse approximations to these subblocks are computed. The motivation is to improve the efficiency of the algorithm without sacrificing the optimal convergence rate. Numerical and theoretical results on the performance of these algorithms, including variants of an algorithm of Bramble, Pasciak, and Schatz are presented.

  16. Analysis of generalized Schwarz alternating procedure for domain decomposition

    SciTech Connect

    Engquist, B.; Zhao, Hongkai

    1996-12-31

    The Schwartz alternating method(SAM) is the theoretical basis for domain decomposition which itself is a powerful tool both for parallel computation and for computing in complicated domains. The convergence rate of the classical SAM is very sensitive to the overlapping size between each subdomain, which is not desirable for most applications. We propose a generalized SAM procedure which is an extension of the modified SAM proposed by P.-L. Lions. Instead of using only Dirichlet data at the artificial boundary between subdomains, we take a convex combination of u and {partial_derivative}u/{partial_derivative}n, i.e. {partial_derivative}u/{partial_derivative}n + {Lambda}u, where {Lambda} is some {open_quotes}positive{close_quotes} operator. Convergence of the modified SAM without overlapping in a quite general setting has been proven by P.-L.Lions using delicate energy estimates. The important questions remain for the generalized SAM. (1) What is the most essential mechanism for convergence without overlapping? (2) Given the partial differential equation, what is the best choice for the positive operator {Lambda}? (3) In the overlapping case, is the generalized SAM superior to the classical SAM? (4) What is the convergence rate and what does it depend on? (5) Numerically can we obtain an easy to implement operator {Lambda} such that the convergence is independent of the mesh size. To analyze the convergence of the generalized SAM we focus, for simplicity, on the Poisson equation for two typical geometry in two subdomain case.

  17. Composite structured mesh generation with automatic domain decomposition in complex geometries

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This paper presents a novel automatic domain decomposition method to generate quality composite structured meshes in complex domains with arbitrary shapes, in which quality structured mesh generation still remains a challenge. The proposed decomposition algorithm is based on the analysis of an initi...

  18. Domain Decomposition By the Advancing-Partition Method for Parallel Unstructured Grid Generation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pirzadeh, Shahyar Z.; Zagaris, George

    2009-01-01

    A new method of domain decomposition has been developed for generating unstructured grids in subdomains either sequentially or using multiple computers in parallel. Domain decomposition is a crucial and challenging step for parallel grid generation. Prior methods are generally based on auxiliary, complex, and computationally intensive operations for defining partition interfaces and usually produce grids of lower quality than those generated in single domains. The new technique, referred to as "Advancing Partition," is based on the Advancing-Front method, which partitions a domain as part of the volume mesh generation in a consistent and "natural" way. The benefits of this approach are: 1) the process of domain decomposition is highly automated, 2) partitioning of domain does not compromise the quality of the generated grids, and 3) the computational overhead for domain decomposition is minimal. The new method has been implemented in NASA's unstructured grid generation code VGRID.

  19. A physics-motivated Centroidal Voronoi Particle domain decomposition method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fu, Lin; Hu, Xiangyu Y.; Adams, Nikolaus A.

    2017-04-01

    In this paper, we propose a novel domain decomposition method for large-scale simulations in continuum mechanics by merging the concepts of Centroidal Voronoi Tessellation (CVT) and Voronoi Particle dynamics (VP). The CVT is introduced to achieve a high-level compactness of the partitioning subdomains by the Lloyd algorithm which monotonically decreases the CVT energy. The number of computational elements between neighboring partitioning subdomains, which scales the communication effort for parallel simulations, is optimized implicitly as the generated partitioning subdomains are convex and simply connected with small aspect-ratios. Moreover, Voronoi Particle dynamics employing physical analogy with a tailored equation of state is developed, which relaxes the particle system towards the target partition with good load balance. Since the equilibrium is computed by an iterative approach, the partitioning subdomains exhibit locality and the incremental property. Numerical experiments reveal that the proposed Centroidal Voronoi Particle (CVP) based algorithm produces high-quality partitioning with high efficiency, independently of computational-element types. Thus it can be used for a wide range of applications in computational science and engineering.

  20. Parallel Finite Element Domain Decomposition for Structural/Acoustic Analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nguyen, Duc T.; Tungkahotara, Siroj; Watson, Willie R.; Rajan, Subramaniam D.

    2005-01-01

    A domain decomposition (DD) formulation for solving sparse linear systems of equations resulting from finite element analysis is presented. The formulation incorporates mixed direct and iterative equation solving strategics and other novel algorithmic ideas that are optimized to take advantage of sparsity and exploit modern computer architecture, such as memory and parallel computing. The most time consuming part of the formulation is identified and the critical roles of direct sparse and iterative solvers within the framework of the formulation are discussed. Experiments on several computer platforms using several complex test matrices are conducted using software based on the formulation. Small-scale structural examples are used to validate thc steps in the formulation and large-scale (l,000,000+ unknowns) duct acoustic examples are used to evaluate the ORIGIN 2000 processors, and a duster of 6 PCs (running under the Windows environment). Statistics show that the formulation is efficient in both sequential and parallel computing environmental and that the formulation is significantly faster and consumes less memory than that based on one of the best available commercialized parallel sparse solvers.

  1. Investigation on Accelerating Dust Storm Simulation via Domain Decomposition Methods

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yu, M.; Gui, Z.; Yang, C. P.; Xia, J.; Chen, S.

    2014-12-01

    Dust storm simulation is a data and computing intensive process, which requires high efficiency and adequate computing resources. To speed up the process, high performance computing is widely adopted. By partitioning a large study area into small subdomains according to their geographic location and executing them on different computing nodes in a parallel fashion, the computing performance can be significantly improved. However, it is still a question worthy of consideration that how to allocate these subdomain processes into computing nodes without introducing imbalanced task loads and unnecessary communications among computing nodes. Here we propose a domain decomposition and allocation framework that can carefully leverage the computing cost and communication cost for each computing node to minimize total execution time and reduce overall communication cost for the entire system. The framework is tested in the NMM (Nonhydrostatic Mesoscale Model)-dust model, where a 72-hour processes of the dust load are simulated. Performance result using the proposed scheduling method is compared with the one using default scheduling methods of MPI. Results demonstrate that the system improves the performance of simulation by 20% up to 80%.

  2. The domain interface method in non-conforming domain decomposition multifield problems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lloberas-Valls, O.; Cafiero, M.; Cante, J.; Ferrer, A.; Oliver, J.

    2017-04-01

    The Domain Interface Method (DIM) is extended in this contribution for the case of mixed fields as encountered in multiphysics problems. The essence of the non-conforming domain decomposition technique consists in a discretization of a fictitious zero-thickness interface as in the original methodology and continuity of the solution fields across the domains is satisfied by incorporating the corresponding Lagrange Multipliers. The multifield DIM inherits the advantages of its irreducible version in the sense that the connections between non-matching meshes, with possible geometrically non-conforming interfaces, is accounted by the automatic Delaunay interface discretization without considering master and slave surfaces or intermediate surface projections as done in many established techniques, e.g. mortar methods. The multifield enhancement identifies the Lagrange multiplier field and incorporates its contribution in the weak variational form accounting for the corresponding consistent stabilization term based on a Nitsche method. This type of constraint enforcement circumvents the appearance of instabilities when the Ladyzhenskaya-Babu\\vska-Brezzi (LBB) condition is not fulfilled by the chosen discretization. The domain decomposition framework is assessed in a large deformation setting for mixed displacement/pressure formulations and coupled thermomechanical problems. The continuity of the mixed field is studied in well selected benchmark problems for both mixed formulations and the objectivity of the response is compared to reference monolithic solutions. Results suggest that the presented strategy shows sufficient potential to be a valuable tool in situations where the evolving physics at particular domains require the use of different spatial discretizations or field interpolations.

  3. The domain interface method in non-conforming domain decomposition multifield problems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lloberas-Valls, O.; Cafiero, M.; Cante, J.; Ferrer, A.; Oliver, J.

    2016-12-01

    The Domain Interface Method (DIM) is extended in this contribution for the case of mixed fields as encountered in multiphysics problems. The essence of the non-conforming domain decomposition technique consists in a discretization of a fictitious zero-thickness interface as in the original methodology and continuity of the solution fields across the domains is satisfied by incorporating the corresponding Lagrange Multipliers. The multifield DIM inherits the advantages of its irreducible version in the sense that the connections between non-matching meshes, with possible geometrically non-conforming interfaces, is accounted by the automatic Delaunay interface discretization without considering master and slave surfaces or intermediate surface projections as done in many established techniques, e.g. mortar methods. The multifield enhancement identifies the Lagrange multiplier field and incorporates its contribution in the weak variational form accounting for the corresponding consistent stabilization term based on a Nitsche method. This type of constraint enforcement circumvents the appearance of instabilities when the Ladyzhenskaya-Babu\\vska-Brezzi (LBB) condition is not fulfilled by the chosen discretization. The domain decomposition framework is assessed in a large deformation setting for mixed displacement/pressure formulations and coupled thermomechanical problems. The continuity of the mixed field is studied in well selected benchmark problems for both mixed formulations and the objectivity of the response is compared to reference monolithic solutions. Results suggest that the presented strategy shows sufficient potential to be a valuable tool in situations where the evolving physics at particular domains require the use of different spatial discretizations or field interpolations.

  4. A General Method for Evaluation of 2D and 3D Domain Integrals Without Domain Discretization and its Application in BEM

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hematiyan, M. R.

    2007-03-01

    A robust method is presented to evaluate 2D and 3D domain integrals without domain discretization. Each domain integral is transformed into a double integral, a boundary integral and a 1D integral. Both integrals are evaluated by adaptive Simpson quadrature method. The method can be used to evaluate domain integrals over simply or multiply connected regions with any arbitrary form of integrands. As an application of the method, domain integrals produced in boundary element formulation of potential and elastostatic problems are analyzed. Several examples are provided to show the validity and accuracy of the method.

  5. Problem decomposition and domain-based parallelism via group theoretic principles

    SciTech Connect

    Makai, M.; Orechwa, Y.

    1997-10-01

    A systematic approach based on group theoretic principles, is presented for the decomposition of the solution algorithm of boundary value problems specified over symmetric domains, which is amenable to implementation for parallel computation. The principles are applied to the linear transport equation in general, and the decomposition is demonstrated for a square node in particular.

  6. Preconditioned domain decomposition scheme for three-dimensional aerodynamic sensitivity analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Eleshaky, Mohammed E.; Baysal, Oktay

    1993-01-01

    A preconditioned domain decomposition scheme is introduced for the solution of the 3D aerodynamic sensitivity equation. This scheme uses the iterative GMRES procedure to solve the effective sensitivity equation of the boundary-interface cells in the sensitivity analysis domain-decomposition scheme. Excluding the dense matrices and the effect of cross terms between boundary-interfaces is found to produce an efficient preconditioning matrix.

  7. On domain decomposition preconditioner of BPS type for finite element discretizations of 3D elliptic equations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Korneev, V. G.

    2012-09-01

    BPS is a well known an efficient and rather general domain decomposition Dirichlet-Dirichlet type preconditioner, suggested in the famous series of papers Bramble, Pasciak and Schatz (1986-1989). Since then, it has been serving as the origin for the whole family of domain decomposition Dirichlet-Dirichlet type preconditioners-solvers as for h so hp discretizations of elliptic problems. For its original version, designed for h discretizations, the named authors proved the bound O(1 + log2 H/ h) for the relative condition number under some restricting conditions on the domain decomposition and finite element discretization. Here H/ h is the maximal relation of the characteristic size H of a decomposition subdomain to the mesh parameter h of its discretization. It was assumed that subdomains are images of the reference unite cube by trilinear mappings. Later similar bounds related to h discretizations were proved for more general domain decompositions, defined by means of coarse tetrahedral meshes. These results, accompanied by the development of some special tools of analysis aimed at such type of decompositions, were summarized in the book of Toselli and Widlund (2005). This paper is also confined to h discretizations. We further expand the range of admissible domain decompositions for constructing BPS preconditioners, in which decomposition subdomains can be convex polyhedrons, satisfying some conditions of shape regularity. We prove the bound for the relative condition number with the same dependence on H/ h as in the bound given above. Along the way to this result, we simplify the proof of the so called abstract bound for the relative condition number of the domain decomposition preconditioner. In the part, related to the analysis of the interface sub-problem preconditioning, our technical tools are generalization of those used by Bramble, Pasciak and Schatz.

  8. A fundamental approach to the problem of domain decomposition in structured grid generation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Piperni, Pasquale

    2003-10-01

    A new approach is presented for the automation of structured grid generation in multiply-connected domains. In this approach, the domain decomposition problem is cast as a classical boundary value problem in which the mesh topology is defined through the imposition of appropriate boundary conditions on the domain boundaries. The automation of the domain decomposition process is achieved by transferring it from the physical space to the topological space, where it is amenable to a rigorous solution. Once the domain is decomposed in the topological space, the mesh is generated in the physical space via the solution of a non-linear elliptic partial differential operator which takes into account the curvature of the physical space. The forms of the decomposition surfaces are obtained as part of the solution of the differential operator. The latter is solved iteratively in a system of overlapping sub-domains in which the decomposition surfaces are left floating, and in which only the shape of the domain boundaries and the point distribution thereon influence the form of the final mesh. It is shown that the proper representation of domain curvature is an essential element to the success of the domain decomposition strategy. In any curved space, the curvature of the decomposition surfaces must closely mirror the curvature of the space in order to yield a high quality mesh. Since the decomposition of the multiply-connected domain is done in the topological space, the curvature of the physical space must be re-injected into the system through the solution of an appropriate differential operator. A new mathematical formulation is derived for this purpose and takes the form of a new forcing function in the elliptic grid generation equations. This new Curvature term is completely general and can be applied to both two- and three-dimensional domains of arbitrary shape. The combination of the new grid generation equations and the domain decomposition strategy provides a

  9. FWT2D: A massively parallel program for frequency-domain full-waveform tomography of wide-aperture seismic data—Part 1: Algorithm

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sourbier, Florent; Operto, Stéphane; Virieux, Jean; Amestoy, Patrick; L'Excellent, Jean-Yves

    2009-03-01

    This is the first paper in a two-part series that describes a massively parallel code that performs 2D frequency-domain full-waveform inversion of wide-aperture seismic data for imaging complex structures. Full-waveform inversion methods, namely quantitative seismic imaging methods based on the resolution of the full wave equation, are computationally expensive. Therefore, designing efficient algorithms which take advantage of parallel computing facilities is critical for the appraisal of these approaches when applied to representative case studies and for further improvements. Full-waveform modelling requires the resolution of a large sparse system of linear equations which is performed with the massively parallel direct solver MUMPS for efficient multiple-shot simulations. Efficiency of the multiple-shot solution phase (forward/backward substitutions) is improved by using the BLAS3 library. The inverse problem relies on a classic local optimization approach implemented with a gradient method. The direct solver returns the multiple-shot wavefield solutions distributed over the processors according to a domain decomposition driven by the distribution of the LU factors. The domain decomposition of the wavefield solutions is used to compute in parallel the gradient of the objective function and the diagonal Hessian, this latter providing a suitable scaling of the gradient. The algorithm allows one to test different strategies for multiscale frequency inversion ranging from successive mono-frequency inversion to simultaneous multifrequency inversion. These different inversion strategies will be illustrated in the following companion paper. The parallel efficiency and the scalability of the code will also be quantified.

  10. Valence-bond-solid domain walls in a 2D quantum magnet

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shao, Hui; Guo, Wenan; Sandvik, Anders

    sing quantum Monte Carlo simulations, we study properties of domain walls in a square-lattice S=1/2 Heisenberg model with additional interactions which can drive the system from an antiferromagnetic (AFM) ground state to a valence-bond solid (VBS). We study the finite-size scaling of the domain-wall energy at the putative ''deconfined'' critical AFM-VBS point, which gives access to the critical exponent governing the domain-wall width. This length-scale diverges faster than the correlation length and also is related to the scale of spinon deconfinement. Our results show additional evidence of deconfied quantum criticality and are compatible with critical exponents extracted from finite-size scaling of other quantities. NSFC Grant No. 11175018, NSF Grant No. DMR-1410126.

  11. Global existence of solutions for semilinear damped wave equation in 2-D exterior domain

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ikehata, Ryo

    We consider a mixed problem of a damped wave equation utt-Δ u+ ut=| u| p in the two dimensional exterior domain case. Small global in time solutions can be constructed in the case when the power p on the nonlinear term | u| p satisfies p ∗=2domain. A new device developed in Ikehata-Matsuyama (Sci. Math. Japon. 55 (2002) 33) plays an effective role.

  12. Domain Decomposition and Load Balancing in the Amtran Neutron Transport Code

    SciTech Connect

    Compton, J; Clouse, C

    2003-07-07

    Effective spatial domain decomposition for discrete ordinate (Sn) neutron transport calculations has been critical for exploiting massively parallel architectures typified by the ASCI White computer at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory. A combination of geometrical and computational constraints has posed a unique challenge as problems have been scaled up to several thousand processors. Carefully scripted decomposition and corresponding execution algorithms have been developed to handle a range of geometrical and hardware configurations.

  13. Accurate 2D/3D electromagnetic modeling for time-domain airborne EM systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yin, C.; Hodges, G.

    2012-12-01

    The existing industry software cannot deliver correct results for 3D time-domain airborne EM responses. In this paper, starting from the Fourier transform and convolution, we compare the stability of different modeling techniques and analyze the reason for instable calculations of the time-domain airborne EM responses. We find that the singularity of the impulse responses of EM systems at very early time that are used in the convolution is responsible for the instability of the modeling (Fig.1). Based on this finding, we put forward an algorithm that uses step response rather than impulse response of the airborne EM system for the convolution and create a stable algorithm that delivers precise results and maintains well the integral/derivative relationship between the magnetic field B and the magnetic induction dB/dt. A three-step transformation procedure for the modeling is proposed: 1) output the frequency-domain EM response data from the existing software; 2) transform into step-response by digital Fourier/Hankel transform; 3) convolve the step response with the transmitting current or its derivatives. The method has proved to be working very well (Fig. 2). The algorithm can be extended to the modeling of other time-domain ground and airborne EM system responses.Fig. 1: Comparison of impulse and step responses for an airborne EM system Fig. 2: Bz and dBz/dt calculated from step (middle panel) and impulse responses (lower panel) for the same 3D model as in Fig.1.

  14. Non-conformal domain decomposition methods for time-harmonic Maxwell equations

    PubMed Central

    Shao, Yang; Peng, Zhen; Lim, Kheng Hwee; Lee, Jin-Fa

    2012-01-01

    We review non-conformal domain decomposition methods (DDMs) and their applications in solving electrically large and multi-scale electromagnetic (EM) radiation and scattering problems. In particular, a finite-element DDM, together with a finite-element tearing and interconnecting (FETI)-like algorithm, incorporating Robin transmission conditions and an edge corner penalty term, are discussed in detail. We address in full the formulations, and subsequently, their applications to problems with significant amounts of repetitions. The non-conformal DDM approach has also been extended into surface integral equation methods. We elucidate a non-conformal integral equation domain decomposition method and a generalized combined field integral equation method for modelling EM wave scattering from non-penetrable and penetrable targets, respectively. Moreover, a plane wave scattering from a composite mockup fighter jet has been simulated using the newly developed multi-solver domain decomposition method. PMID:22870061

  15. Lattice QCD with Domain Decomposition on Intel Xeon Phi Co-Processors

    SciTech Connect

    Heybrock, Simon; Joo, Balint; Kalamkar, Dhiraj D; Smelyanskiy, Mikhail; Vaidyanathan, Karthikeyan; Wettig, Tilo; Dubey, Pradeep

    2014-12-01

    The gap between the cost of moving data and the cost of computing continues to grow, making it ever harder to design iterative solvers on extreme-scale architectures. This problem can be alleviated by alternative algorithms that reduce the amount of data movement. We investigate this in the context of Lattice Quantum Chromodynamics and implement such an alternative solver algorithm, based on domain decomposition, on Intel Xeon Phi co-processor (KNC) clusters. We demonstrate close-to-linear on-chip scaling to all 60 cores of the KNC. With a mix of single- and half-precision the domain-decomposition method sustains 400-500 Gflop/s per chip. Compared to an optimized KNC implementation of a standard solver [1], our full multi-node domain-decomposition solver strong-scales to more nodes and reduces the time-to-solution by a factor of 5.

  16. Fast structural design and analysis via hybrid domain decomposition on massively parallel processors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Farhat, Charbel

    1993-01-01

    A hybrid domain decomposition framework for static, transient and eigen finite element analyses of structural mechanics problems is presented. Its basic ingredients include physical substructuring and /or automatic mesh partitioning, mapping algorithms, 'gluing' approximations for fast design modifications and evaluations, and fast direct and preconditioned iterative solvers for local and interface subproblems. The overall methodology is illustrated with the structural design of a solar viewing payload that is scheduled to fly in March 1993. This payload has been entirely designed and validated by a group of undergraduate students at the University of Colorado using the proposed hybrid domain decomposition approach on a massively parallel processor. Performance results are reported on the CRAY Y-MP/8 and the iPSC-860/64 Touchstone systems, which represent both extreme parallel architectures. The hybrid domain decomposition methodology is shown to outperform leading solution algorithms and to exhibit an excellent parallel scalability.

  17. Non-conformal domain decomposition methods for time-harmonic Maxwell equations.

    PubMed

    Shao, Yang; Peng, Zhen; Lim, Kheng Hwee; Lee, Jin-Fa

    2012-09-08

    We review non-conformal domain decomposition methods (DDMs) and their applications in solving electrically large and multi-scale electromagnetic (EM) radiation and scattering problems. In particular, a finite-element DDM, together with a finite-element tearing and interconnecting (FETI)-like algorithm, incorporating Robin transmission conditions and an edge corner penalty term, are discussed in detail. We address in full the formulations, and subsequently, their applications to problems with significant amounts of repetitions. The non-conformal DDM approach has also been extended into surface integral equation methods. We elucidate a non-conformal integral equation domain decomposition method and a generalized combined field integral equation method for modelling EM wave scattering from non-penetrable and penetrable targets, respectively. Moreover, a plane wave scattering from a composite mockup fighter jet has been simulated using the newly developed multi-solver domain decomposition method.

  18. An efficient stabilized boundary element formulation for 2D time-domain acoustics and elastodynamics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Soares, D.; Mansur, W. J.

    2007-07-01

    The present paper describes a procedure that improves efficiency, stability and reduces artificial energy dissipation of the standard time-domain direct boundary element method (BEM) for acoustics and elastodynamics. Basically, the developed procedure modifies the boundary element convolution-related vector, being very easy to implement into existing codes. A stabilization parameter is introduced into the recent-in-time convolution operations and the operations related to the distant-in-time convolution contributions are approximated by matrix interpolations. As it is shown in the numerical examples presented at the end of the text, the proposed formulation substantially reduces the BEM computational cost, as well as its numerical instabilities.

  19. Domain decomposition for a mixed finite element method in three dimensions

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Cai, Z.; Parashkevov, R.R.; Russell, T.F.; Wilson, J.D.; Ye, X.

    2003-01-01

    We consider the solution of the discrete linear system resulting from a mixed finite element discretization applied to a second-order elliptic boundary value problem in three dimensions. Based on a decomposition of the velocity space, these equations can be reduced to a discrete elliptic problem by eliminating the pressure through the use of substructures of the domain. The practicality of the reduction relies on a local basis, presented here, for the divergence-free subspace of the velocity space. We consider additive and multiplicative domain decomposition methods for solving the reduced elliptic problem, and their uniform convergence is established.

  20. Unusual Domain Structure and Filamentary Superfluidity for 2D Hard-Core Bosons in Insulating Charge-Ordered Phase

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Panov, Yu. D.; Moskvin, A. S.; Rybakov, F. N.; Borisov, A. B.

    2016-12-01

    We made use of a special algorithm for compute unified device architecture for NVIDIA graphics cards, a nonlinear conjugate-gradient method to minimize energy functional, and Monte-Carlo technique to directly observe the forming of the ground state configuration for the 2D hard-core bosons by lowering the temperature and its evolution with deviation away from half-filling. The novel technique allowed us to examine earlier implications and uncover novel features of the phase transitions, in particular, look upon the nucleation of the odd domain structure, emergence of filamentary superfluidity nucleated at the antiphase domain walls of the charge-ordered phase, and nucleation and evolution of different topological structures.

  1. Statistical CT noise reduction with multiscale decomposition and penalized weighted least squares in the projection domain

    SciTech Connect

    Tang Shaojie; Tang Xiangyang

    2012-09-15

    Purposes: The suppression of noise in x-ray computed tomography (CT) imaging is of clinical relevance for diagnostic image quality and the potential for radiation dose saving. Toward this purpose, statistical noise reduction methods in either the image or projection domain have been proposed, which employ a multiscale decomposition to enhance the performance of noise suppression while maintaining image sharpness. Recognizing the advantages of noise suppression in the projection domain, the authors propose a projection domain multiscale penalized weighted least squares (PWLS) method, in which the angular sampling rate is explicitly taken into consideration to account for the possible variation of interview sampling rate in advanced clinical or preclinical applications. Methods: The projection domain multiscale PWLS method is derived by converting an isotropic diffusion partial differential equation in the image domain into the projection domain, wherein a multiscale decomposition is carried out. With adoption of the Markov random field or soft thresholding objective function, the projection domain multiscale PWLS method deals with noise at each scale. To compensate for the degradation in image sharpness caused by the projection domain multiscale PWLS method, an edge enhancement is carried out following the noise reduction. The performance of the proposed method is experimentally evaluated and verified using the projection data simulated by computer and acquired by a CT scanner. Results: The preliminary results show that the proposed projection domain multiscale PWLS method outperforms the projection domain single-scale PWLS method and the image domain multiscale anisotropic diffusion method in noise reduction. In addition, the proposed method can preserve image sharpness very well while the occurrence of 'salt-and-pepper' noise and mosaic artifacts can be avoided. Conclusions: Since the interview sampling rate is taken into account in the projection domain

  2. Statistical CT noise reduction with multiscale decomposition and penalized weighted least squares in the projection domain

    PubMed Central

    Tang, Shaojie; Tang, Xiangyang

    2012-01-01

    Purposes: The suppression of noise in x-ray computed tomography (CT) imaging is of clinical relevance for diagnostic image quality and the potential for radiation dose saving. Toward this purpose, statistical noise reduction methods in either the image or projection domain have been proposed, which employ a multiscale decomposition to enhance the performance of noise suppression while maintaining image sharpness. Recognizing the advantages of noise suppression in the projection domain, the authors propose a projection domain multiscale penalized weighted least squares (PWLS) method, in which the angular sampling rate is explicitly taken into consideration to account for the possible variation of interview sampling rate in advanced clinical or preclinical applications. Methods: The projection domain multiscale PWLS method is derived by converting an isotropic diffusion partial differential equation in the image domain into the projection domain, wherein a multiscale decomposition is carried out. With adoption of the Markov random field or soft thresholding objective function, the projection domain multiscale PWLS method deals with noise at each scale. To compensate for the degradation in image sharpness caused by the projection domain multiscale PWLS method, an edge enhancement is carried out following the noise reduction. The performance of the proposed method is experimentally evaluated and verified using the projection data simulated by computer and acquired by a CT scanner. Results: The preliminary results show that the proposed projection domain multiscale PWLS method outperforms the projection domain single-scale PWLS method and the image domain multiscale anisotropic diffusion method in noise reduction. In addition, the proposed method can preserve image sharpness very well while the occurrence of “salt-and-pepper” noise and mosaic artifacts can be avoided. Conclusions: Since the interview sampling rate is taken into account in the projection domain

  3. MAST-2D diffusive model for flood prediction on domains with triangular Delaunay unstructured meshes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aricò, C.; Sinagra, M.; Begnudelli, L.; Tucciarelli, T.

    2011-11-01

    A new methodology for the solution of the 2D diffusive shallow water equations over Delaunay unstructured triangular meshes is presented. Before developing the new algorithm, the following question is addressed: it is worth developing and using a simplified shallow water model, when well established algorithms for the solution of the complete one do exist? The governing Partial Differential Equations are discretized using a procedure similar to the linear conforming Finite Element Galerkin scheme, with a different flux formulation and a special flux treatment that requires Delaunay triangulation but entire solution monotonicity. A simple mesh adjustment is suggested, that attains the Delaunay condition for all the triangle sides without changing the original nodes location and also maintains the internal boundaries. The original governing system is solved applying a fractional time step procedure, that solves consecutively a convective prediction system and a diffusive correction system. The non linear components of the problem are concentrated in the prediction step, while the correction step leads to the solution of a linear system of the order of the number of computational cells. A semi-analytical procedure is applied for the solution of the prediction step. The discretized formulation of the governing equations allows to handle also wetting and drying processes without any additional specific treatment. Local energy dissipations, mainly the effect of vertical walls and hydraulic jumps, can be easily included in the model. Several numerical experiments have been carried out in order to test (1) the stability of the proposed model with regard to the size of the Courant number and to the mesh irregularity, (2) its computational performance, (3) the convergence order by means of mesh refinement. The model results are also compared with the results obtained by a fully dynamic model. Finally, the application to a real field case with a Venturi channel is presented.

  4. Encrypting 2D/3D image using improved lensless integral imaging in Fresnel domain

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Xiao-Wei; Wang, Qiong-Hua; Kim, Seok-Tae; Lee, In-Kwon

    2016-12-01

    We propose a new image encryption technique, for the first time to our knowledge, combined Fresnel transform with the improved lensless integral imaging technique. In this work, before image encryption, the input image is first recorded into an elemental image array (EIA) by using the improved lensless integral imaging technique. The recorded EIA is encrypted into random noise by use of two phase masks located in the Fresnel domain. The positions of phase masks and operation wavelength, as well as the integral imaging system parameters are used as encryption keys that can ensure security. Compared with previous works, the main novelty of this proposed method resides in the fact that the elemental images possess distributed memory characteristic, which greatly improved the robustness of the image encryption algorithm. Meanwhile, the proposed pixel averaging algorithm can effectively address the overlapping problem existing in the computational integral imaging reconstruction process. Numerical simulations are presented to demonstrate the feasibility and effectiveness of the proposed method. Results also indicate the high robustness against data loss attacks.

  5. Domain decomposition by the advancing-partition method for parallel unstructured grid generation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pirzadeh, Shahyar Z. (Inventor); Banihashemi, legal representative, Soheila (Inventor)

    2012-01-01

    In a method for domain decomposition for generating unstructured grids, a surface mesh is generated for a spatial domain. A location of a partition plane dividing the domain into two sections is determined. Triangular faces on the surface mesh that intersect the partition plane are identified. A partition grid of tetrahedral cells, dividing the domain into two sub-domains, is generated using a marching process in which a front comprises only faces of new cells which intersect the partition plane. The partition grid is generated until no active faces remain on the front. Triangular faces on each side of the partition plane are collected into two separate subsets. Each subset of triangular faces is renumbered locally and a local/global mapping is created for each sub-domain. A volume grid is generated for each sub-domain. The partition grid and volume grids are then merged using the local-global mapping.

  6. TU-F-18A-02: Iterative Image-Domain Decomposition for Dual-Energy CT

    SciTech Connect

    Niu, T; Dong, X; Petrongolo, M; Zhu, L

    2014-06-15

    Purpose: Dual energy CT (DECT) imaging plays an important role in advanced imaging applications due to its material decomposition capability. Direct decomposition via matrix inversion suffers from significant degradation of image signal-to-noise ratios, which reduces clinical value. Existing de-noising algorithms achieve suboptimal performance since they suppress image noise either before or after the decomposition and do not fully explore the noise statistical properties of the decomposition process. We propose an iterative image-domain decomposition method for noise suppression in DECT, using the full variance-covariance matrix of the decomposed images. Methods: The proposed algorithm is formulated in the form of least-square estimation with smoothness regularization. It includes the inverse of the estimated variance-covariance matrix of the decomposed images as the penalty weight in the least-square term. Performance is evaluated using an evaluation phantom (Catphan 600) and an anthropomorphic head phantom. Results are compared to those generated using direct matrix inversion with no noise suppression, a de-noising method applied on the decomposed images, and an existing algorithm with similar formulation but with an edge-preserving regularization term. Results: On the Catphan phantom, our method retains the same spatial resolution as the CT images before decomposition while reducing the noise standard deviation of decomposed images by over 98%. The other methods either degrade spatial resolution or achieve less low-contrast detectability. Also, our method yields lower electron density measurement error than direct matrix inversion and reduces error variation by over 97%. On the head phantom, it reduces the noise standard deviation of decomposed images by over 97% without blurring the sinus structures. Conclusion: We propose an iterative image-domain decomposition method for DECT. The method combines noise suppression and material decomposition into an iterative

  7. Non-overlapping domain decomposition method for a variational inequality with gradient constraints

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lapin, A.; Laitinen, E.; Lapin, S.

    2016-11-01

    Non-overlapping domain decomposition method is applied to a variational inequality with nonlinear diffusion-convection operator and gradient constraints. The method is based on the initial approximation of the problem and its subsequent splitting into subproblems. For the resulting constrained saddle point problem block relaxation-Uzawa iterative solution method is applied.

  8. A domain decomposition algorithm for solving large elliptic problems

    SciTech Connect

    Nolan, M.P.

    1991-01-01

    AN algorithm which efficiently solves large systems of equations arising from the discretization of a single second-order elliptic partial differential equation is discussed. The global domain is partitioned into not necessarily disjoint subdomains which are traversed using the Schwarz Alternating Procedure. On each subdomain the multigrid method is used to advance the solution. The algorithm has the potential to decrease solution time when data is stored across multiple levels of a memory hierarchy. Results are presented for a virtual memory, vector multiprocessor architecture. A study of choice of inner iteration procedure and subdomain overlap is presented for a model problem, solved with two and four subdomains, sequentially and in parallel. Microtasking multiprocessing results are reported for multigrid on the Alliant FX-8 vector-multiprocessor. A convergence proof for a class of matrix splittings for the two-dimensional Helmholtz equation is given. 70 refs., 3 figs., 20 tabs.

  9. Transverse Strains in Muscle Fascicles during Voluntary Contraction: A 2D Frequency Decomposition of B-Mode Ultrasound Images

    PubMed Central

    Wakeling, James M.

    2014-01-01

    When skeletal muscle fibres shorten, they must increase in their transverse dimensions in order to maintain a constant volume. In pennate muscle, this transverse expansion results in the fibres rotating to greater pennation angle, with a consequent reduction in their contractile velocity in a process known as gearing. Understanding the nature and extent of this transverse expansion is necessary to understand the mechanisms driving the changes in internal geometry of whole muscles during contraction. Current methodologies allow the fascicle lengths, orientations, and curvatures to be quantified, but not the transverse expansion. The purpose of this study was to develop and validate techniques for quantifying transverse strain in skeletal muscle fascicles during contraction from B-mode ultrasound images. Images were acquired from the medial and lateral gastrocnemii during cyclic contractions, enhanced using multiscale vessel enhancement filtering and the spatial frequencies resolved using 2D discrete Fourier transforms. The frequency information was resolved into the fascicle orientations that were validated against manually digitized values. The transverse fascicle strains were calculated from their wavelengths within the images. These methods showed that the transverse strain increases while the longitudinal fascicle length decreases; however, the extent of these strains was smaller than expected. PMID:25328509

  10. Multi-Zone Liquid Thrust Chamber Performance Code with Domain Decomposition for Parallel Processing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Navaz, Homayun K.

    2002-01-01

    Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) has considerably evolved in the last decade. There are many computer programs that can perform computations on viscous internal or external flows with chemical reactions. CFD has become a commonly used tool in the design and analysis of gas turbines, ramjet combustors, turbo-machinery, inlet ducts, rocket engines, jet interaction, missile, and ramjet nozzles. One of the problems of interest to NASA has always been the performance prediction for rocket and air-breathing engines. Due to the complexity of flow in these engines it is necessary to resolve the flowfield into a fine mesh to capture quantities like turbulence and heat transfer. However, calculation on a high-resolution grid is associated with a prohibitively increasing computational time that can downgrade the value of the CFD for practical engineering calculations. The Liquid Thrust Chamber Performance (LTCP) code was developed for NASA/MSFC (Marshall Space Flight Center) to perform liquid rocket engine performance calculations. This code is a 2D/axisymmetric full Navier-Stokes (NS) solver with fully coupled finite rate chemistry and Eulerian treatment of liquid fuel and/or oxidizer droplets. One of the advantages of this code has been the resemblance of its input file to the JANNAF (Joint Army Navy NASA Air Force Interagency Propulsion Committee) standard TDK code, and its automatic grid generation for JANNAF defined combustion chamber wall geometry. These options minimize the learning effort for TDK users, and make the code a good candidate for performing engineering calculations. Although the LTCP code was developed for liquid rocket engines, it is a general-purpose code and has been used for solving many engineering problems. However, the single zone formulation of the LTCP has limited the code to be applicable to problems with complex geometry. Furthermore, the computational time becomes prohibitively large for high-resolution problems with chemistry, two

  11. Image characterization by fractal descriptors in variational mode decomposition domain: Application to brain magnetic resonance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lahmiri, Salim

    2016-08-01

    The main purpose of this work is to explore the usefulness of fractal descriptors estimated in multi-resolution domains to characterize biomedical digital image texture. In this regard, three multi-resolution techniques are considered: the well-known discrete wavelet transform (DWT) and the empirical mode decomposition (EMD), and; the newly introduced; variational mode decomposition mode (VMD). The original image is decomposed by the DWT, EMD, and VMD into different scales. Then, Fourier spectrum based fractal descriptors is estimated at specific scales and directions to characterize the image. The support vector machine (SVM) was used to perform supervised classification. The empirical study was applied to the problem of distinguishing between normal and abnormal brain magnetic resonance images (MRI) affected with Alzheimer disease (AD). Our results demonstrate that fractal descriptors estimated in VMD domain outperform those estimated in DWT and EMD domains; and also those directly estimated from the original image.

  12. 2D Covalent Metals: A New Materials Domain of Electrochemical CO2 Conversion with Broken Scaling Relationship.

    PubMed

    Shin, Hyeyoung; Ha, Yoonhoo; Kim, Hyungjun

    2016-10-04

    Toward a sustainable carbon cycle, electrochemical conversion of CO2 into valuable fuels has drawn much attention. However, sluggish kinetics and a substantial overpotential, originating from the strong correlation between the adsorption energies of intermediates and products, are key obstacles of electrochemical CO2 conversion. Here we show that 2D covalent metals with a zero band gap can overcome the intrinsic limitation of conventional metals and metal alloys and thereby substantially decrease the overpotential for CO2 reduction because of their covalent characteristics. From first-principles-based high-throughput screening results on 61 2D covalent metals, we find that the strong correlation between the adsorption energies of COOH and CO can be entirely broken. This leads to the computational design of CO2-to-CO and CO2-to-CH4 conversion catalysts in addition to hydrogen-evolution-reaction catalysts. Toward efficient electrochemical catalysts for CO2 reduction, this work suggests a new materials domain having two contradictory properties in a single material: covalent nature and electrical conductance.

  13. Acquisition of a single EZH2 D1 domain mutation confers acquired resistance to EZH2-targeted inhibitors

    PubMed Central

    Baker, Theresa; Nerle, Sujata; Pritchard, Justin; Zhao, Boyang; Rivera, Victor M.

    2015-01-01

    Although targeted therapies have revolutionized cancer treatment, overcoming acquired resistance remains a major clinical challenge. EZH2 inhibitors (EZH2i), EPZ-6438 and GSK126, are currently in the early stages of clinical evaluation and the first encouraging signs of efficacy have recently emerged in the clinic. To anticipate mechanisms of resistance to EZH2i, we used a forward genetic platform combining a mutagenesis screen with next generation sequencing technology and identified a hotspot of secondary mutations in the EZH2 D1 domain (Y111 and I109). Y111D mutation within the WT or A677G EZH2 allele conferred robust resistance to both EPZ-6438 and GSK126, but it only drove a partial resistance within the Y641F allele. EZH2 mutants required histone methyltransferase (HMT) catalytic activity and the polycomb repressive complex 2 (PRC2) components, SUZ12 and EED, to drive drug resistance. Furthermore, D1 domain mutations not only blocked the ability of EZH2i to bind to WT and A677G mutant, but also abrogated drug binding to the Y641F mutant. These data provide the first cellular validation of the mechanistic model underpinning the oncogenic function of WT and mutant EZH2. Importantly, our findings suggest that acquired-resistance to EZH2i may arise in WT and mutant EZH2 patients through a single mutation that remains targetable by second generation EZH2i. PMID:26360609

  14. Sapphire decomposition and inversion domains in N-polar aluminum nitride

    SciTech Connect

    Hussey, Lindsay White, Ryan M.; Kirste, Ronny; Bryan, Isaac; Guo, Wei; Osterman, Katherine; Haidet, Brian; Bryan, Zachary; Bobea, Milena; Collazo, Ramón; Sitar, Zlatko; Mita, Seiji

    2014-01-20

    Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) techniques and potassium hydroxide (KOH) etching confirmed that inversion domains in the N-polar AlN grown on c-plane sapphire were due to the decomposition of sapphire in the presence of hydrogen. The inversion domains were found to correspond to voids at the AlN and sapphire interface, and transmission electron microscopy results showed a V-shaped, columnar inversion domain with staggered domain boundary sidewalls. Voids were also observed in the simultaneously grown Al-polar AlN, however no inversion domains were present. The polarity of AlN grown above the decomposed regions of the sapphire substrate was confirmed to be Al-polar by KOH etching and TEM.

  15. Multitasking domain decomposition fast Poisson solvers on the Cray Y-MP

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chan, Tony F.; Fatoohi, Rod A.

    1990-01-01

    The results of multitasking implementation of a domain decomposition fast Poisson solver on eight processors of the Cray Y-MP are presented. The object of this research is to study the performance of domain decomposition methods on a Cray supercomputer and to analyze the performance of different multitasking techniques using highly parallel algorithms. Two implementations of multitasking are considered: macrotasking (parallelism at the subroutine level) and microtasking (parallelism at the do-loop level). A conventional FFT-based fast Poisson solver is also multitasked. The results of different implementations are compared and analyzed. A speedup of over 7.4 on the Cray Y-MP running in a dedicated environment is achieved for all cases.

  16. Parallel domain decomposition method with non-blocking communication for flow through porous media

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lemmer, Andreas; Hilfer, Rudolf

    2015-01-01

    This paper introduces a domain decomposition method for numerically solving the Stokes equation for very large, complex geometries. Examples arise from realistic porous media. The computational method is based on the SIMPLE (Semi-Implicit Method for Pressure Linked Equations) algorithm which uses a finite-differences approach for discretizing the underlying equations. It achieves comparable speed and efficiency as lattice Boltzmann methods. The domain decomposition method splits a large three-dimensional region into slices that can be processed in parallel on multi-processor computation environments with only minimal communication between the computation nodes. With this method, the flow through a porous medium with grid sizes up to 20483 voxel has been calculated.

  17. On the relation between traditional iterative methods and modern multilevel/domain decomposition methods

    SciTech Connect

    Griebel, M.

    1994-12-31

    In recent years, it has turned out that many modern iterative algorithms (multigrid schemes, multilevel preconditioners, domain decomposition methods etc.) for solving problems resulting from the discretization of PDEs can be interpreted as additive (Jacobi-like) or multiplicative (Gauss-Seidel-like) subspace correction methods. The key to their analysis is the study of certain metric properties of the underlying splitting of the discretization space V into a sum of subspaces V{sub j}, j = 1{hor_ellipsis}, J resp. of the variational problem on V into auxiliary problems on these subspaces. Here, the author proposes a modified approach to the abstract convergence theory of these additive and multiplicative Schwarz iterative methods, that makes the relation to traditional iteration methods more explicit. To this end he introduces the enlarged Hilbert space V = V{sub 0} x {hor_ellipsis} x V{sub j} which is nothing else but the usual construction of the Cartesian product of the Hilbert spaces V{sub j} and use it now in the discretization process. This results in an enlarged, semidefinite linear system to be solved instead of the usual definite system. Then, modern multilevel methods as well as domain decomposition methods simplify to just traditional (block-) iteration methods. Now, the convergence analysis can be carried out directly for these traditional iterations on the enlarged system, making convergence proofs of multilevel and domain decomposition methods more clear, or, at least, more classical. The terms that enter the convergence proofs are exactly the ones of the classical iterative methods. It remains to estimate them properly. The convergence proof itself follow basically line by line the old proofs of the respective traditional iterative methods. Additionally, new multilevel/domain decomposition methods are constructed straightforwardly by now applying just other old and well known traditional iterative methods to the enlarged system.

  18. Scaling of domain size during spinodal decomposition : dislocation discreteness and mobility effects.

    SciTech Connect

    Provatas, Nikolas; Leonard, Francois Leonard; Mahon, Jennifer; Haataja, Mikko

    2005-06-01

    In this letter, we examine the effects of discrete mobile dislocations on spinodal decomposition kinetics in lattice mismatched binary alloys. By employing a novel continuum model, we demonstrate that the effects of dislocation mobility on domain coarsening kinetics can be expressed in a unified manner through a scaling function, describing a crossover from t{sup 1/2} to t{sup 1/3} behavior.

  19. An Efficient Solver of Elasto-plastic Problems in Mechanics Based on TFETI Domain Decomposition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Čermák, M.; Kozubek, T.; Markopoulos, A.

    2011-09-01

    This paper illustrates how to implement efficiently solvers for elasto-plastic problems. We consider the time step problems formulated by nonlinear variational equations in terms of displacements. To treat nonlinearity and nonsmoothnes we use semismooth Newton method. In each Newton iteration we have to solve linear system of algebraic equations and for its numerical solution we use TFETI domain decomposition method. In our benchmark we demonstrate our approach on von Mises plasticity with isotropic hardening using the return mapping concept.

  20. Algebraic multigrid domain and range decomposition (AMG-DD / AMG-RD)*

    SciTech Connect

    Bank, R.; Falgout, R. D.; Jones, T.; Manteuffel, T. A.; McCormick, S. F.; Ruge, J. W.

    2015-10-29

    In modern large-scale supercomputing applications, algebraic multigrid (AMG) is a leading choice for solving matrix equations. However, the high cost of communication relative to that of computation is a concern for the scalability of traditional implementations of AMG on emerging architectures. This paper introduces two new algebraic multilevel algorithms, algebraic multigrid domain decomposition (AMG-DD) and algebraic multigrid range decomposition (AMG-RD), that replace traditional AMG V-cycles with a fully overlapping domain decomposition approach. While the methods introduced here are similar in spirit to the geometric methods developed by Brandt and Diskin [Multigrid solvers on decomposed domains, in Domain Decomposition Methods in Science and Engineering, Contemp. Math. 157, AMS, Providence, RI, 1994, pp. 135--155], Mitchell [Electron. Trans. Numer. Anal., 6 (1997), pp. 224--233], and Bank and Holst [SIAM J. Sci. Comput., 22 (2000), pp. 1411--1443], they differ primarily in that they are purely algebraic: AMG-RD and AMG-DD trade communication for computation by forming global composite “grids” based only on the matrix, not the geometry. (As is the usual AMG convention, “grids” here should be taken only in the algebraic sense, regardless of whether or not it corresponds to any geometry.) Another important distinguishing feature of AMG-RD and AMG-DD is their novel residual communication process that enables effective parallel computation on composite grids, avoiding the all-to-all communication costs of the geometric methods. The main purpose of this paper is to study the potential of these two algebraic methods as possible alternatives to existing AMG approaches for future parallel machines. As a result, this paper develops some theoretical properties of these methods and reports on serial numerical tests of their convergence properties over a spectrum of problem parameters.

  1. Algebraic multigrid domain and range decomposition (AMG-DD / AMG-RD)*

    DOE PAGES

    Bank, R.; Falgout, R. D.; Jones, T.; ...

    2015-10-29

    In modern large-scale supercomputing applications, algebraic multigrid (AMG) is a leading choice for solving matrix equations. However, the high cost of communication relative to that of computation is a concern for the scalability of traditional implementations of AMG on emerging architectures. This paper introduces two new algebraic multilevel algorithms, algebraic multigrid domain decomposition (AMG-DD) and algebraic multigrid range decomposition (AMG-RD), that replace traditional AMG V-cycles with a fully overlapping domain decomposition approach. While the methods introduced here are similar in spirit to the geometric methods developed by Brandt and Diskin [Multigrid solvers on decomposed domains, in Domain Decomposition Methods inmore » Science and Engineering, Contemp. Math. 157, AMS, Providence, RI, 1994, pp. 135--155], Mitchell [Electron. Trans. Numer. Anal., 6 (1997), pp. 224--233], and Bank and Holst [SIAM J. Sci. Comput., 22 (2000), pp. 1411--1443], they differ primarily in that they are purely algebraic: AMG-RD and AMG-DD trade communication for computation by forming global composite “grids” based only on the matrix, not the geometry. (As is the usual AMG convention, “grids” here should be taken only in the algebraic sense, regardless of whether or not it corresponds to any geometry.) Another important distinguishing feature of AMG-RD and AMG-DD is their novel residual communication process that enables effective parallel computation on composite grids, avoiding the all-to-all communication costs of the geometric methods. The main purpose of this paper is to study the potential of these two algebraic methods as possible alternatives to existing AMG approaches for future parallel machines. As a result, this paper develops some theoretical properties of these methods and reports on serial numerical tests of their convergence properties over a spectrum of problem parameters.« less

  2. Solving radiative transfer problems in highly heterogeneous media via domain decomposition and convergence acceleration techniques.

    PubMed

    Previti, Alberto; Furfaro, Roberto; Picca, Paolo; Ganapol, Barry D; Mostacci, Domiziano

    2011-08-01

    This paper deals with finding accurate solutions for photon transport problems in highly heterogeneous media fastly, efficiently and with modest memory resources. We propose an extended version of the analytical discrete ordinates method, coupled with domain decomposition-derived algorithms and non-linear convergence acceleration techniques. Numerical performances are evaluated using a challenging case study available in the literature. A study of accuracy versus computational time and memory requirements is reported for transport calculations that are relevant for remote sensing applications.

  3. A frequency-spatial domain decomposition (FSDD) method for operational modal analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Lingmi; Wang, Tong; Tamura, Yukio

    2010-07-01

    Following a brief review of the development of operational modal identification techniques, we describe a new method named frequency-spatial domain decomposition (FSDD), with theoretical background, formulation and algorithm. Three typical applications to civil engineering structures are presented to demonstrate the procedure and features of the method: a large-span stadium roof for finite-element model verification, a highway bridge for damage detection and a long-span cable-stayed bridge for structural health monitoring.

  4. Phase image encryption in the fractional Hartley domain using Arnold transform and singular value decomposition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Singh, Phool; Yadav, A. K.; Singh, Kehar

    2017-04-01

    A novel scheme for image encryption of phase images is proposed, using fractional Hartley transform followed by Arnold transform and singular value decomposition in the frequency domain. Since the plaintext is a phase image, the mask used in the spatial domain is a random amplitude mask. The proposed scheme has been validated for grayscale images and is sensitive to the encryption parameters such as the order of the Arnold transform and the fractional orders of the Hartley transform. We have also evaluated the scheme's resistance to the well-known noise and occlusion attacks.

  5. Representation of discrete Steklov-Poincare operator arising in domain decomposition methods in wavelet basis

    SciTech Connect

    Jemcov, A.; Matovic, M.D.

    1996-12-31

    This paper examines the sparse representation and preconditioning of a discrete Steklov-Poincare operator which arises in domain decomposition methods. A non-overlapping domain decomposition method is applied to a second order self-adjoint elliptic operator (Poisson equation), with homogeneous boundary conditions, as a model problem. It is shown that the discrete Steklov-Poincare operator allows sparse representation with a bounded condition number in wavelet basis if the transformation is followed by thresholding and resealing. These two steps combined enable the effective use of Krylov subspace methods as an iterative solution procedure for the system of linear equations. Finding the solution of an interface problem in domain decomposition methods, known as a Schur complement problem, has been shown to be equivalent to the discrete form of Steklov-Poincare operator. A common way to obtain Schur complement matrix is by ordering the matrix of discrete differential operator in subdomain node groups then block eliminating interface nodes. The result is a dense matrix which corresponds to the interface problem. This is equivalent to reducing the original problem to several smaller differential problems and one boundary integral equation problem for the subdomain interface.

  6. Magnetic resonance image reconstruction using trained geometric directions in 2D redundant wavelets domain and non-convex optimization.

    PubMed

    Ning, Bende; Qu, Xiaobo; Guo, Di; Hu, Changwei; Chen, Zhong

    2013-11-01

    Reducing scanning time is significantly important for MRI. Compressed sensing has shown promising results by undersampling the k-space data to speed up imaging. Sparsity of an image plays an important role in compressed sensing MRI to reduce the image artifacts. Recently, the method of patch-based directional wavelets (PBDW) which trains geometric directions from undersampled data has been proposed. It has better performance in preserving image edges than conventional sparsifying transforms. However, obvious artifacts are presented in the smooth region when the data are highly undersampled. In addition, the original PBDW-based method does not hold obvious improvement for radial and fully 2D random sampling patterns. In this paper, the PBDW-based MRI reconstruction is improved from two aspects: 1) An efficient non-convex minimization algorithm is modified to enhance image quality; 2) PBDW are extended into shift-invariant discrete wavelet domain to enhance the ability of transform on sparsifying piecewise smooth image features. Numerical simulation results on vivo magnetic resonance images demonstrate that the proposed method outperforms the original PBDW in terms of removing artifacts and preserving edges.

  7. Decomposition

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Middleton, Beth A.

    2014-01-01

    A cornerstone of ecosystem ecology, decomposition was recognized as a fundamental process driving the exchange of energy in ecosystems by early ecologists such as Lindeman 1942 and Odum 1960). In the history of ecology, studies of decomposition were incorporated into the International Biological Program in the 1960s to compare the nature of organic matter breakdown in various ecosystem types. Such studies still have an important role in ecological studies of today. More recent refinements have brought debates on the relative role microbes, invertebrates and environment in the breakdown and release of carbon into the atmosphere, as well as how nutrient cycling, production and other ecosystem processes regulated by decomposition may shift with climate change. Therefore, this bibliography examines the primary literature related to organic matter breakdown, but it also explores topics in which decomposition plays a key supporting role including vegetation composition, latitudinal gradients, altered ecosystems, anthropogenic impacts, carbon storage, and climate change models. Knowledge of these topics is relevant to both the study of ecosystem ecology as well projections of future conditions for human societies.

  8. GRID2D/3D: A computer program for generating grid systems in complex-shaped two- and three-dimensional spatial domains. Part 1: Theory and method

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shih, T. I.-P.; Bailey, R. T.; Nguyen, H. L.; Roelke, R. J.

    1990-01-01

    An efficient computer program, called GRID2D/3D was developed to generate single and composite grid systems within geometrically complex two- and three-dimensional (2- and 3-D) spatial domains that can deform with time. GRID2D/3D generates single grid systems by using algebraic grid generation methods based on transfinite interpolation in which the distribution of grid points within the spatial domain is controlled by stretching functions. All single grid systems generated by GRID2D/3D can have grid lines that are continuous and differentiable everywhere up to the second-order. Also, grid lines can intersect boundaries of the spatial domain orthogonally. GRID2D/3D generates composite grid systems by patching together two or more single grid systems. The patching can be discontinuous or continuous. For continuous composite grid systems, the grid lines are continuous and differentiable everywhere up to the second-order except at interfaces where different single grid systems meet. At interfaces where different single grid systems meet, the grid lines are only differentiable up to the first-order. For 2-D spatial domains, the boundary curves are described by using either cubic or tension spline interpolation. For 3-D spatial domains, the boundary surfaces are described by using either linear Coon's interpolation, bi-hyperbolic spline interpolation, or a new technique referred to as 3-D bi-directional Hermite interpolation. Since grid systems generated by algebraic methods can have grid lines that overlap one another, GRID2D/3D contains a graphics package for evaluating the grid systems generated. With the graphics package, the user can generate grid systems in an interactive manner with the grid generation part of GRID2D/3D. GRID2D/3D is written in FORTRAN 77 and can be run on any IBM PC, XT, or AT compatible computer. In order to use GRID2D/3D on workstations or mainframe computers, some minor modifications must be made in the graphics part of the program; no

  9. Convergence analysis of a balalncing domain decomposition method for solving interior Helmholtz equations

    SciTech Connect

    Li,Jing; Tu, Xuemin

    2008-12-10

    A variant of balancing domain decomposition method by constraints (BDDC) is proposed for solving a class of indefinite system of linear equations, which arises from the finite element discretization of the Helmholtz equation of time-harmonic wave propagation in a bounded interior domain. The proposed BDDC algorithm is closely related to the dual-primal finite element tearing and interconnecting algorithm for solving Helmholtz equations (FETI-DPH). Under the condition that the diameters of the subdomains are small enough, the rate of convergence is established which depends polylogarithmically on the dimension of the individual subdomain problems and which improves with the decrease of the subdomain diameters. These results are supported by numerical experiments of solving a Helmholtz equation on a two-dimensional square domain.

  10. Multi-resolution flow simulations by smoothed particle hydrodynamics via domain decomposition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bian, Xin; Li, Zhen; Karniadakis, George Em

    2015-09-01

    We present a methodology to concurrently couple particle-based methods via a domain decomposition (DD) technique for simulating viscous flows. In particular, we select two resolutions of the smoothed particle hydrodynamics (SPH) method as demonstration. Within the DD framework, a simulation domain is decomposed into two (or more) overlapping sub-domains, each of which has an individual particle scale determined by the local flow physics. Consistency of the two sub-domains is achieved in the overlap region by matching the two independent simulations based on Lagrangian interpolation of state variables and fluxes. The domain decomposition based SPH method (DD-SPH) employs different spatial and temporal resolutions, and hence, each sub-domain has its own smoothing length and time step. As a consequence, particle refinement and de-refinement are performed asynchronously according to individual time advancement of each sub-domain. The proposed strategy avoids SPH force interactions between different resolutions on purpose, so that coupling, in principle, can go beyond SPH-SPH, and may allow SPH to be coupled with other mesoscopic or microscopic particle methods. The DD-SPH method is validated first for a transient Couette flow, where simulation results based on proper coupling of spatial-temporal scales agree well with analytical solutions. In particular, we find that the size of the overlap region should be at least rc,1 + 2rc,2, where rc,1 and rc,2 are cut off radii in the two sub-domains with rc,1 ≤rc,2. Subsequently, a perturbation wave is considered traveling either parallel or perpendicular to the hybrid interface. Compressibility is significant if transient behavior at short sonic-time-scale is relevant, while the fluid can be treated as quasi-incompressible at sufficiently long time scale. To this end, we propose a coupling of density fields from the two sub-domains. Finally, a steady Wannier flow is simulated, where a rotating cylinder is placed next to a

  11. Domain decomposition methods for a class of integro-partial differential equations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Califano, Giovanna; Conte, Dajana

    2016-10-01

    This paper deals with the construction of Schwarz Waveform Relaxation (SWR) methods for fractional diffusion-wave equations. SWR methods are a class of domain decomposition algorithms to solve evolution problems in parallel and have been mainly developed and analysed for several kinds of PDEs. We first analyse the convergence behaviour of the classical SWR method applied to fractional diffusion-wave equations, showing that Dirichlet boundary conditions at the artificial interfaces slow down the convergence of the method. Then, we construct optimal SWR methods, by providing the transmission conditions which assure convergence in two iterations.

  12. Domain Decomposition Algorithms for First-Order System Least Squares Methods

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pavarino, Luca F.

    1996-01-01

    Least squares methods based on first-order systems have been recently proposed and analyzed for second-order elliptic equations and systems. They produce symmetric and positive definite discrete systems by using standard finite element spaces, which are not required to satisfy the inf-sup condition. In this paper, several domain decomposition algorithms for these first-order least squares methods are studied. Some representative overlapping and substructuring algorithms are considered in their additive and multiplicative variants. The theoretical and numerical results obtained show that the classical convergence bounds (on the iteration operator) for standard Galerkin discretizations are also valid for least squares methods.

  13. Domain decomposition methods for nonconforming finite element spaces of Lagrange-type

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cowsar, Lawrence C.

    1993-01-01

    In this article, we consider the application of three popular domain decomposition methods to Lagrange-type nonconforming finite element discretizations of scalar, self-adjoint, second order elliptic equations. The additive Schwarz method of Dryja and Widlund, the vertex space method of Smith, and the balancing method of Mandel applied to nonconforming elements are shown to converge at a rate no worse than their applications to the standard conforming piecewise linear Galerkin discretization. Essentially, the theory for the nonconforming elements is inherited from the existing theory for the conforming elements with only modest modification by constructing an isomorphism between the nonconforming finite element space and a space of continuous piecewise linear functions.

  14. An efficient discontinuous Galerkin finite element method with nested domain decomposition for simulations of microresistivity imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Jiefu

    2015-03-01

    A discontinuous Galerkin finite element method is employed to study the responses of microresistivity imaging tools used in the oil and gas exploration industry. The multiscale structure of an imaging problem is decomposed into several nested subdomains based on its geometric characteristics. Each subdomain is discretized independently, and numerical flux is used to couple all subdomains together. The nested domain decomposition scheme will lead to a block tridiagonal linear system, and the block Thomas algorithm is utilized here to eliminate the subdomain based iteration in the step of solving the linear system. Numerical results demonstrate the validity and efficiency of this method.

  15. A domain decomposition method for two-phase transport model in the cathode of a polymer electrolyte fuel cell

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sun, Pengtao; Xue, Guangri; Wang, Chao-yang; Xu, Jinchao

    2009-09-01

    Using Kirchhoff transformation, we develop a Dirichlet- Neumann alternating iterative domain decomposition method for a 2D steady-state two-phase model for the cathode of a polymer electrolyte fuel cell (PEFC) which contains a channel and a gas diffusion layer (GDL). This two-phase PEFC model is represented by a nonlinear coupled system which typically includes a modified Navier-Stokes equation with Darcy's drag as an additional source term of the momentum equation, and a convection-diffusion equation for the water concentration with discontinuous and degenerate diffusivity. For both cases of dry and wet gas channel, we employ Kirchhoff transformation and Dirichlet- Neumann alternating iteration with appropriate interfacial conditions on the GDL/channel interface to treat the jump nonlinearities in the water equation. Numerical experiments demonstrate that fast convergence as well as accurate numerical solutions are obtained simultaneously owing to the implementation of the above-described numerical techniques along with a combined finite element-upwind finite volume discretization to automatically control the dominant convection terms arising in the gas channel.

  16. Multiple color-image authentication system using HSI color space and QR decomposition in gyrator domains

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rafiq Abuturab, Muhammad

    2016-06-01

    A new multiple color-image authentication system based on HSI (Hue-Saturation-Intensity) color space and QR decomposition in gyrator domains is proposed. In this scheme, original color images are converted from RGB (Red-Green-Blue) color spaces to HSI color spaces, divided into their H, S, and I components, and then obtained corresponding phase-encoded components. All the phase-encoded H, S, and I components are individually multiplied, and then modulated by random phase functions. The modulated H, S, and I components are convoluted into a single gray image with asymmetric cryptosystem. The resulting image is segregated into Q and R parts by QR decomposition. Finally, they are independently gyrator transformed to get their encoded parts. The encoded Q and R parts should be gathered without missing anyone for decryption. The angles of gyrator transform afford sensitive keys. The protocol based on QR decomposition of encoded matrix and getting back decoded matrix after multiplying matrices Q and R, enhances the security level. The random phase keys, individual phase keys, and asymmetric phase keys provide high robustness to the cryptosystem. Numerical simulation results demonstrate that this scheme is the superior than the existing techniques.

  17. Modal identification using the frequency-scale domain decomposition technique of ambient vibration responses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Le, Thien-Phu; Argoul, Pierre

    2016-12-01

    This paper proposes a new modal identification method of ambient vibration responses. The application of the singular value decomposition to continuous wavelet transform of power spectral density matrix gives singular values and singular vectors in frequency-scale domain. Analytical development shows a direct relation between local maxima in frequency-scale representation of singular values and modal parameters. This relation is then carried on for the identification of modal parameters via a complete practical procedure. The main novelties of this work involve the new formulation in frequency-scale domain and the capacity for the identification of modal parameters without the step of ridges extraction in comparison with previous wavelet-based modal identification methods.

  18. Parallel Domain Decomposition Formulation and Software for Large-Scale Sparse Symmetrical/Unsymmetrical Aeroacoustic Applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nguyen, D. T.; Watson, Willie R. (Technical Monitor)

    2005-01-01

    The overall objectives of this research work are to formulate and validate efficient parallel algorithms, and to efficiently design/implement computer software for solving large-scale acoustic problems, arised from the unified frameworks of the finite element procedures. The adopted parallel Finite Element (FE) Domain Decomposition (DD) procedures should fully take advantages of multiple processing capabilities offered by most modern high performance computing platforms for efficient parallel computation. To achieve this objective. the formulation needs to integrate efficient sparse (and dense) assembly techniques, hybrid (or mixed) direct and iterative equation solvers, proper pre-conditioned strategies, unrolling strategies, and effective processors' communicating schemes. Finally, the numerical performance of the developed parallel finite element procedures will be evaluated by solving series of structural, and acoustic (symmetrical and un-symmetrical) problems (in different computing platforms). Comparisons with existing "commercialized" and/or "public domain" software are also included, whenever possible.

  19. Domain decomposition method of stochastic PDEs: a two-level scalable preconditioner

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Subber, Waad; Sarkar, Abhijit

    2012-02-01

    For uncertainty quantification in many practical engineering problems, the stochastic finite element method (SFEM) may be computationally challenging. In SFEM, the size of the algebraic linear system grows rapidly with the spatial mesh resolution and the order of the stochastic dimension. In this paper, we describe a non-overlapping domain decomposition method, namely the iterative substructuring method to tackle the large-scale linear system arising in the SFEM. The SFEM is based on domain decomposition in the geometric space and a polynomial chaos expansion in the probabilistic space. In particular, a two-level scalable preconditioner is proposed for the iterative solver of the interface problem for the stochastic systems. The preconditioner is equipped with a coarse problem which globally connects the subdomains both in the geometric and probabilistic spaces via their corner nodes. This coarse problem propagates the information quickly across the subdomains leading to a scalable preconditioner. For numerical illustrations, a two-dimensional stochastic elliptic partial differential equation (SPDE) with spatially varying non-Gaussian random coefficients is considered. The numerical scalability of the the preconditioner is investigated with respect to the mesh size, subdomain size, fixed problem size per subdomain and order of polynomial chaos expansion. The numerical experiments are performed on a Linux cluster using MPI and PETSc parallel libraries.

  20. Spatiotemporal Domain Decomposition for Massive Parallel Computation of Space-Time Kernel Density

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hohl, A.; Delmelle, E. M.; Tang, W.

    2015-07-01

    Accelerated processing capabilities are deemed critical when conducting analysis on spatiotemporal datasets of increasing size, diversity and availability. High-performance parallel computing offers the capacity to solve computationally demanding problems in a limited timeframe, but likewise poses the challenge of preventing processing inefficiency due to workload imbalance between computing resources. Therefore, when designing new algorithms capable of implementing parallel strategies, careful spatiotemporal domain decomposition is necessary to account for heterogeneity in the data. In this study, we perform octtree-based adaptive decomposition of the spatiotemporal domain for parallel computation of space-time kernel density. In order to avoid edge effects near subdomain boundaries, we establish spatiotemporal buffers to include adjacent data-points that are within the spatial and temporal kernel bandwidths. Then, we quantify computational intensity of each subdomain to balance workloads among processors. We illustrate the benefits of our methodology using a space-time epidemiological dataset of Dengue fever, an infectious vector-borne disease that poses a severe threat to communities in tropical climates. Our parallel implementation of kernel density reaches substantial speedup compared to sequential processing, and achieves high levels of workload balance among processors due to great accuracy in quantifying computational intensity. Our approach is portable of other space-time analytical tests.

  1. Two-level time-domain decomposition based distributed method for numerical solutions of pharmacokinetic models.

    PubMed

    Liu, Li; Lai, Choi-Hong; Zhou, Shao-Dan; Xie, Fen; Rui, Lu

    2011-04-01

    In order to predict variations of drug concentration during a given period of time, numerical solutions of pharmacokinetic models need to be obtained efficiently. Analytical solutions of linear pharmacokinetic models are usually obtained using the Laplace transform and inverse Laplace tables. The derivations of solutions to complex nonlinear models are tedious, and such solution process may be difficult to implement as a robust software code. For nonlinear models, the fourth-order Runge-Kutta (RK4) is the most classical numerical method in obtaining approximate numerical solutions, which is impossible to be implemented in distributed computing environments without much modification. The reason is that numerical solutions obtained by using RK4 can only be computed in sequential time steps. In this paper, time-domain decomposition methods are adapted for nonlinear pharmacokinetic models. The numerical Inverse Laplace method for PharmacoKinetic models (ILPK) is implemented to solve pharmacokinetic models with iterative inverse Laplace transform in each time interval. The distributed ILPK algorithm, which is based on a two-level time-domain decomposition concept, is proposed to improve its efficiency. Solutions on the coarser temporal mesh at the top level are obtained one by one, and then those on the finer temporal mesh at the bottom level are calculated concurrently by using those initial solutions that have been obtained at the top level decomposition. Accuracy and efficiency of the proposed algorithm and its distributed equivalent are investigated by using several test models. Results indicate that the ILPK algorithm and its distributed equivalent are good candidates for both linear and nonlinear pharmacokinetic models.

  2. Massively parallel implementation of a high order domain decomposition equatorial ocean model

    SciTech Connect

    Ma, H.; McCaffrey, J.W.; Piacsek, S.

    1999-06-01

    The present work is about the algorithms and parallel constructs of a spectral element equatorial ocean model. It shows that high order domain decomposition ocean models can be efficiently implemented on massively parallel architectures, such as the Connection Machine Model CM5. The optimized computational efficiency of the parallel spectral element ocean model comes not only from the exponential convergence of the numerical solution, but also from the work-intensive, medium-grained, geometry-based data parallelism. The data parallelism is created to efficiently implement the spectral element ocean model on the distributed-memory massively parallel computer, which minimizes communication among processing nodes. Computational complexity analysis is given for the parallel algorithm of the spectral element ocean model, and the model's parallel performance on the CM5 is evaluated. Lastly, results from a simulation of wind-driven circulation in low-latitude Atlantic Ocean are described.

  3. MASSIVELY PARALLEL IMPLEMENTATION OF A HIGH ORDER DOMAIN DECOMPOSITION EQUATORIAL OCEAN MODEL

    SciTech Connect

    MA,H.; MCCAFFREY,J.W.; PIACSEK,S.

    1998-07-15

    The present work is about the algorithms and parallel constructs of a spectral element equatorial ocean model. It shows that high order domain decomposition ocean models can be efficiently implemented on massively parallel architectures, such as the Connection Machine Model CM5. The optimized computational efficiency of the parallel spectral element ocean model comes not only from the exponential convergence of the numerical solution, but also from the work-intensive, medium-grained, geometry-based data parallelism. The data parallelism is created to efficiently implement the spectral element ocean model on the distributed-memory massively parallel computer, which minimizes communication among processing nodes. Computational complexity analysis is given for the parallel algorithm of the spectral element ocean model, and the model's parallel performance on the CM5 is evaluated. Lastly, results from a simulation of wind-driven circulation in low-latitude Atlantic ocean are described.

  4. Preprocessed cumulative reconstructor with domain decomposition: a fast wavefront reconstruction method for pyramid wavefront sensor.

    PubMed

    Shatokhina, Iuliia; Obereder, Andreas; Rosensteiner, Matthias; Ramlau, Ronny

    2013-04-20

    We present a fast method for the wavefront reconstruction from pyramid wavefront sensor (P-WFS) measurements. The method is based on an analytical relation between pyramid and Shack-Hartmann sensor (SH-WFS) data. The algorithm consists of two steps--a transformation of the P-WFS data to SH data, followed by the application of cumulative reconstructor with domain decomposition, a wavefront reconstructor from SH-WFS measurements. The closed loop simulations confirm that our method provides the same quality as the standard matrix vector multiplication method. A complexity analysis as well as speed tests confirm that the method is very fast. Thus, the method can be used on extremely large telescopes, e.g., for eXtreme adaptive optics systems.

  5. Frequency-domain method based on the singular value decomposition for frequency-selective NMR spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Stoica, Petre; Sandgren, Niclas; Selén, Yngve; Vanhamme, Leentje; Van Huffel, Sabine

    2003-11-01

    In several applications of NMR spectroscopy the user is interested only in the components lying in a small frequency band of the spectrum. A frequency selective analysis deals precisely with this kind of NMR spectroscopy: parameter estimation of only those spectroscopic components that lie in a preselected frequency band of the NMR data spectrum, with as little interference as possible from the out-of-band components and in a computationally efficient way. In this paper we introduce a frequency-domain singular value decomposition (SVD)-based method for frequency selective spectroscopy that is computationally simple, statistically accurate, and which has a firm theoretical basis. To illustrate the good performance of the proposed method we present a number of numerical examples for both simulated and in vitro NMR data.

  6. Models for Turbulent Plane Couette Flow Using the Proper Orthogonal Decomposition: Moderate Aspect Ratio Domain

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moehlis, Jeff; Smith, Troy; Holmes, Philip; Faisst, Holger

    2002-11-01

    We model turbulent plane Couette flow for a moderate aspect ratio domain by expanding the velocity field as a sum of optimal modes calculated via the proper orthogonal decomposition from numerical data. Ordinary differential equations are obtained by Galerkin projection of the Navier-Stokes equations onto these modes. For a minimal truncation including only the most energetic modes having no streamwise variation, we show under quite general conditions the existence of linearly stable nontrivial fixed points, corresponding to a state in which the mean flow is coupled to streamwise vortices and their associated streaks. When the two next most energetic modes, still lacking streamwise variations, are included, chaos and heteroclinic cycles associated with the fixed points are found. The attractors involve repeated visits near unstable fixed points and periodic orbits corresponding to steady and periodically varying vortices, and account for a self-sustaining process in which vortices interact with the mean flow.

  7. Final Report, DE-FG01-06ER25718 Domain Decomposition and Parallel Computing

    SciTech Connect

    Widlund, Olof B.

    2015-06-09

    The goal of this project is to develop and improve domain decomposition algorithms for a variety of partial differential equations such as those of linear elasticity and electro-magnetics.These iterative methods are designed for massively parallel computing systems and allow the fast solution of the very large systems of algebraic equations that arise in large scale and complicated simulations. A special emphasis is placed on problems arising from Maxwell's equation. The approximate solvers, the preconditioners, are combined with the conjugate gradient method and must always include a solver of a coarse model in order to have a performance which is independent of the number of processors used in the computer simulation. A recent development allows for an adaptive construction of this coarse component of the preconditioner.

  8. Denoising NMR time-domain signal by singular-value decomposition accelerated by graphics processing units.

    PubMed

    Man, Pascal P; Bonhomme, Christian; Babonneau, Florence

    2014-01-01

    We present a post-processing method that decreases the NMR spectrum noise without line shape distortion. As a result the signal-to-noise (S/N) ratio of a spectrum increases. This method is called Cadzow enhancement procedure that is based on the singular-value decomposition of time-domain signal. We also provide software whose execution duration is a few seconds for typical data when it is executed in modern graphic-processing unit. We tested this procedure not only on low sensitive nucleus (29)Si in hybrid materials but also on low gyromagnetic ratio, quadrupole nucleus (87)Sr in reference sample Sr(NO3)2. Improving the spectrum S/N ratio facilitates the determination of T/Q ratio of hybrid materials. It is also applicable to simulated spectrum, resulting shorter simulation duration for powder averaging. An estimation of the number of singular values needed for denoising is also provided.

  9. Fast non-overlapping Schwarz domain decomposition methods for solving the neutron diffusion equation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jamelot, Erell; Ciarlet, Patrick

    2013-05-01

    Studying numerically the steady state of a nuclear core reactor is expensive, in terms of memory storage and computational time. In order to address both requirements, one can use a domain decomposition method, implemented on a parallel computer. We present here such a method for the mixed neutron diffusion equations, discretized with Raviart-Thomas-Nédélec finite elements. This method is based on the Schwarz iterative algorithm with Robin interface conditions to handle communications. We analyse this method from the continuous point of view to the discrete point of view, and we give some numerical results in a realistic highly heterogeneous 3D configuration. Computations are carried out with the MINOS solver of the APOLLO3® neutronics code. APOLLO3 is a registered trademark in France.

  10. An iterative finite-element collocation method for parabolic problems using domain decomposition

    SciTech Connect

    Curran, M.C.

    1992-01-01

    Advection-dominated flows occur widely in the transport of groundwater contaminants, the movements of fluids in enhanced oil recovery projects, and many other contexts. In numerical models of such flows, adaptive local grid refinement is a conceptually attractive approach for resolving the sharp fronts or layers that tend to characterize the solutions. However, this approach can be difficult to implement in practice. A domain decomposition method developed by Bramble, Ewing, Pasciak, and Schatz, known as the BEPS method, overcomes many of the difficulties. We demonstrate the applicability of the iterative BEPS ideas to finite-element collocation on trial spaces of piecewise Hermite bicubics. The resulting scheme allows one to refine selected parts of a spatial grid without destroying algebraic efficiencies associated with the original coarse grid. We apply the method to two dimensional time-dependent advection-diffusion problems.

  11. An iterative finite-element collocation method for parabolic problems using domain decomposition

    SciTech Connect

    Curran, M.C.

    1992-11-01

    Advection-dominated flows occur widely in the transport of groundwater contaminants, the movements of fluids in enhanced oil recovery projects, and many other contexts. In numerical models of such flows, adaptive local grid refinement is a conceptually attractive approach for resolving the sharp fronts or layers that tend to characterize the solutions. However, this approach can be difficult to implement in practice. A domain decomposition method developed by Bramble, Ewing, Pasciak, and Schatz, known as the BEPS method, overcomes many of the difficulties. We demonstrate the applicability of the iterative BEPS ideas to finite-element collocation on trial spaces of piecewise Hermite bicubics. The resulting scheme allows one to refine selected parts of a spatial grid without destroying algebraic efficiencies associated with the original coarse grid. We apply the method to two dimensional time-dependent advection-diffusion problems.

  12. FETI Prime Domain Decomposition base Parallel Iterative Solver Library Ver.1.0

    SciTech Connect

    2003-09-15

    FETI Prime is a library for the iterative solution of linear equations in solid and structural mechanics. The algorithm employs preconditioned conjugate gradients, with a domain decomposition-based preconditioner. The software is written in C++ and is designed for use with massively parallel computers, using MPI. The algorithm is based on the FETI-DP method, with additional capabilities for handling constraint equations, as well as interfacing with the Salinas structural dynamics code and the Finite Element Interface (FEI) library. Practical Application: FETI Prime is designed for use with finite element-based simulation codes for solid and structural mechanics. The solver uses element matrices, connectivity information, nodal information, and force vectors computed by the host code and provides back the solution to the linear system of equations, to the user specified level of accuracy, The library is compiled with the host code and becomes an integral part of the host code executable.

  13. Wavefront reconstruction for extremely large telescopes via CuRe with domain decomposition.

    PubMed

    Rosensteiner, Matthias

    2012-11-01

    The Cumulative Reconstructor is an accurate, extremely fast reconstruction algorithm for Shack-Hartmann wavefront sensor data. But it has shown an unacceptable high noise propagation for large apertures. Therefore, in this paper we describe a domain decomposition approach to deal with this drawback. We show that this adaptation of the algorithm gives the same reconstruction quality as the original algorithm and leads to a significant improvement with respect to noise propagation. The method is combined with an integral control and compared to the classical matrix vector multiplication algorithm on an end-to-end simulation of a single conjugate adaptive optics system. The reconstruction time is 20n (number of subapertures), and the method is parallelizable.

  14. Domain decomposition method for nonconforming finite element approximations of anisotropic elliptic problems on nonmatching grids

    SciTech Connect

    Maliassov, S.Y.

    1996-12-31

    An approach to the construction of an iterative method for solving systems of linear algebraic equations arising from nonconforming finite element discretizations with nonmatching grids for second order elliptic boundary value problems with anisotropic coefficients is considered. The technique suggested is based on decomposition of the original domain into nonoverlapping subdomains. The elliptic problem is presented in the macro-hybrid form with Lagrange multipliers at the interfaces between subdomains. A block diagonal preconditioner is proposed which is spectrally equivalent to the original saddle point matrix and has the optimal order of arithmetical complexity. The preconditioner includes blocks for preconditioning subdomain and interface problems. It is shown that constants of spectral equivalence axe independent of values of coefficients and mesh step size.

  15. Image denoising in bidimensional empirical mode decomposition domain: the role of Student's probability distribution function

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Hybridisation of the bi-dimensional empirical mode decomposition (BEMD) with denoising techniques has been proposed in the literature as an effective approach for image denoising. In this Letter, the Student's probability density function is introduced in the computation of the mean envelope of the data during the BEMD sifting process to make it robust to values that are far from the mean. The resulting BEMD is denoted tBEMD. In order to show the effectiveness of the tBEMD, several image denoising techniques in tBEMD domain are employed; namely, fourth order partial differential equation (PDE), linear complex diffusion process (LCDP), non-linear complex diffusion process (NLCDP), and the discrete wavelet transform (DWT). Two biomedical images and a standard digital image were considered for experiments. The original images were corrupted with additive Gaussian noise with three different levels. Based on peak-signal-to-noise ratio, the experimental results show that PDE, LCDP, NLCDP, and DWT all perform better in the tBEMD than in the classical BEMD domain. It is also found that tBEMD is faster than classical BEMD when the noise level is low. When it is high, the computational cost in terms of processing time is similar. The effectiveness of the presented approach makes it promising for clinical applications. PMID:27222723

  16. Singular Value Decomposition-Based Modeling of Time Domain Signals in Broadband Microwave Spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Minei, A. J.; Cooke, S. A.

    2013-06-01

    A singular value decomposition (SVD) signal processing method is newly applied to molecular free induction decays (FIDs) obtained using a time domain, broadband rotational spectrometer. It is demonstrated that for the strongest spectral transitions the SVD method can determine transition frequencies with a precision matching that of the fast Fourier transform method. Furthermore, the SVD-based analysis produces information concerning transition phase, amplitude, damping, and frequency for the strongest molecular signals. These parameters are shown as useful in regards to time-domain signal filtering. The computational expense of the SVD method is high and therefore this approach has the disadvantage that with our present computers the full molecular FID must be considerably truncated. The effects of FID truncation on the determined transition frequencies have been examined. Conversely, this truncation method illustrates that broadband spectra may be recovered from fragments as small as 1 % of the complete FID. The success of the SVD-based method is further examined in regards to weak signal detection, and frequency dependent detection. The pure rotational spectrum of 1H,1H,2H-perfluorocyclobutane is used for illustrative purposes in this study.

  17. A tightly-coupled domain-decomposition approach for highly nonlinear stochastic multiphysics systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Taverniers, Søren; Tartakovsky, Daniel M.

    2017-02-01

    Multiphysics simulations often involve nonlinear components that are driven by internally generated or externally imposed random fluctuations. When used with a domain-decomposition (DD) algorithm, such components have to be coupled in a way that both accurately propagates the noise between the subdomains and lends itself to a stable and cost-effective temporal integration. We develop a conservative DD approach in which tight coupling is obtained by using a Jacobian-free Newton-Krylov (JfNK) method with a generalized minimum residual iterative linear solver. This strategy is tested on a coupled nonlinear diffusion system forced by a truncated Gaussian noise at the boundary. Enforcement of path-wise continuity of the state variable and its flux, as opposed to continuity in the mean, at interfaces between subdomains enables the DD algorithm to correctly propagate boundary fluctuations throughout the computational domain. Reliance on a single Newton iteration (explicit coupling), rather than on the fully converged JfNK (implicit) coupling, may increase the solution error by an order of magnitude. Increase in communication frequency between the DD components reduces the explicit coupling's error, but makes it less efficient than the implicit coupling at comparable error levels for all noise strengths considered. Finally, the DD algorithm with the implicit JfNK coupling resolves temporally-correlated fluctuations of the boundary noise when the correlation time of the latter exceeds some multiple of an appropriately defined characteristic diffusion time.

  18. Image denoising in bidimensional empirical mode decomposition domain: the role of Student's probability distribution function.

    PubMed

    Lahmiri, Salim

    2016-03-01

    Hybridisation of the bi-dimensional empirical mode decomposition (BEMD) with denoising techniques has been proposed in the literature as an effective approach for image denoising. In this Letter, the Student's probability density function is introduced in the computation of the mean envelope of the data during the BEMD sifting process to make it robust to values that are far from the mean. The resulting BEMD is denoted tBEMD. In order to show the effectiveness of the tBEMD, several image denoising techniques in tBEMD domain are employed; namely, fourth order partial differential equation (PDE), linear complex diffusion process (LCDP), non-linear complex diffusion process (NLCDP), and the discrete wavelet transform (DWT). Two biomedical images and a standard digital image were considered for experiments. The original images were corrupted with additive Gaussian noise with three different levels. Based on peak-signal-to-noise ratio, the experimental results show that PDE, LCDP, NLCDP, and DWT all perform better in the tBEMD than in the classical BEMD domain. It is also found that tBEMD is faster than classical BEMD when the noise level is low. When it is high, the computational cost in terms of processing time is similar. The effectiveness of the presented approach makes it promising for clinical applications.

  19. High-resolution 2-D Bragg diffraction reveal heterogeneous domain transformation behavior in a bulk relaxor ferroelectric

    DOE PAGES

    Pramanick, Abhijit; Stoica, Alexandru D.; An, Ke

    2016-09-02

    In-situ measurement of fine-structure of neutron Bragg diffraction peaks from a relaxor single-crystal using a time-of-flight instrument reveals highly heterogeneous mesoscale domain transformation behavior under applied electric fields. We observed that only 25% of domains undergo reorienta- tion or phase transition contributing to large average strains, while at least 40% remain invariant and exhibit microstrains. Such insights could be central for designing new relaxor materials with better performance and longevity. The current experimental technique can also be applied to resolve com- plex mesoscale phenomena in other functional materials.

  20. A fast algorithm based on the domain decomposition method for scattering analysis of electrically large objects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yin, Lei; Hong, Wei

    2002-01-01

    By combining the finite difference (FD) method with the domain decomposition method (DDM), a fast and rigorous algorithm is presented in this paper for the scattering analysis of extremely large objects. Unlike conventional methods, such as the method of moments (MOM) and FD method, etc., the new algorithm decomposes an original large domain into small subdomains and chooses the most efficient method to solve the electromagnetic (EM) equations on each subdomain individually. Therefore the computational complexity and scale are substantially reduced. The iterative procedure of the algorithm and the implementation of virtual boundary conditions are discussed in detail. During scattering analysis of an electrically large cylinder, the conformal band computational domain along the circumference of the cylinder is decomposed into sections, which results in a series of band matrices with very narrow band. Compared with the traditional FD method, it decreases the consumption of computer memory and CPU time from O(N2) to O(N/m) and O(N), respectively, where m is the number of subdomains and Nis the number of nodes or unknowns. Furthermore, this method can be easily applied for the analysis of arbitrary shaped cylinders because the subdomains can be divided into any possible form. On the other hand, increasing the number of subdomains will hardly increase the computing time, which makes it possible to analyze the EM scattering problems of extremely large cylinders only on a PC. The EM scattering by two-dimensional cylinders with maximum perimeter of 100,000 wavelengths is analyzed. Moreover, this method is very suitable for parallel computation, which can further promote the computational efficiency.

  1. Unsteady Flow Simulations about Moving Boundary Configurations Using Dynamic Domain Decomposition Techniques.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yen, Guan-Wei

    1994-01-01

    A computational method is developed to solve the coupled governing equations of an unsteady flowfield and those of rigid-body dynamics in six degrees-of-freedom (6-DOF). This method is capable of simulating the unsteady flowfields around multiple component configurations with at least one of the components in relative motion with respect to the others. Two of the important phenomena that such analyses can help us to understand are the unsteady aerodynamic interference and the boundary-induced component of such a flowfield. By hybridizing two dynamic domain decomposition techniques, the grid generation task is simplified, the computer memory requirement is reduced, and the governing equations of the rigid-body dynamics are simplified with certain assumptions. Three dimensional, unsteady Navier -Stokes equations are solved on each of the subdomains by a fully-vectorized, finite-volume, upwind-biased, and approximately -factored method. These equations are solved on the composite meshes of hybrid subdomain grids that can move with respect to each other. Hence, the present method combines the advantages of an efficient, geometrically conservative, minimally and automatically dissipative algorithm with the advantages and flexibility of the domain decomposition techniques. Several measures that reduce the numerical error are studied and compared with the exact solution of a moving normal shock in a tube. This solution compares very well with the analytic solution of the isentropic equations. It is concluded, that as a minimum measure, the connectivity of nonconservative overlapped scheme needs to be second-order accurate for spatial and temporal discretizations, as well as for the moving subdomain interpolations. Furthermore, the CFL numbers should be restricted to below unity, if affordable, for flows with high flow gradients. The method is further scrutinized by simulating the flow past a sinusoidally pitching airfoil, and the flow past a sinusoidally pitching and

  2. Global Regularity and Long-time Behavior of the Solutions to the 2D Boussinesq Equations without Diffusivity in a Bounded Domain

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ju, Ning

    2017-03-01

    New results are obtained for global regularity and long-time behavior of the solutions to the 2D Boussinesq equations for the flow of an incompressible fluid with positive viscosity and zero diffusivity in a smooth bounded domain. Our first result for global boundedness of the solution {(u, θ)} in {D(A)× H^1} improves considerably the main result of the recent article (Hu et al. in J Math Phys 54(8):081507, 2013). Our second result on global boundedness of the solution {(u, θ)} in {V× H^1} for both bounded domain and the whole space R2 is a new one. It has been open and also seems much more challenging than the first result. Global regularity of the solution {(u, θ)} in {D(A)× H2} is also proved.

  3. Accurate and efficient velocity estimation using Transmission matrix formalism based on the domain decomposition method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Benfeng; Jakobsen, Morten; Wu, Ru-Shan; Lu, Wenkai; Chen, Xiaohong

    2017-03-01

    Full waveform inversion (FWI) has been regarded as an effective tool to build the velocity model for the following pre-stack depth migration. Traditional inversion methods are built on Born approximation and are initial model dependent, while this problem can be avoided by introducing Transmission matrix (T-matrix), because the T-matrix includes all orders of scattering effects. The T-matrix can be estimated from the spatial aperture and frequency bandwidth limited seismic data using linear optimization methods. However the full T-matrix inversion method (FTIM) is always required in order to estimate velocity perturbations, which is very time consuming. The efficiency can be improved using the previously proposed inverse thin-slab propagator (ITSP) method, especially for large scale models. However, the ITSP method is currently designed for smooth media, therefore the estimation results are unsatisfactory when the velocity perturbation is relatively large. In this paper, we propose a domain decomposition method (DDM) to improve the efficiency of the velocity estimation for models with large perturbations, as well as guarantee the estimation accuracy. Numerical examples for smooth Gaussian ball models and a reservoir model with sharp boundaries are performed using the ITSP method, the proposed DDM and the FTIM. The estimated velocity distributions, the relative errors and the elapsed time all demonstrate the validity of the proposed DDM.

  4. Parallel computation of a highly nonlinear Boussinesq equation model through domain decomposition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sitanggang, Khairil Irfan; Lynett, Patrick

    2005-09-01

    Implementations of the Boussinesq wave model to calculate free surface wave evolution in large basins are, in general, computationally very expensive, requiring huge amounts of CPU time and memory. For large scale problems, it is either not affordable or practical to run on a single PC. To facilitate such extensive computations, a parallel Boussinesq wave model is developed using the domain decomposition technique in conjunction with the message passing interface (MPI). The published and well-tested numerical scheme used by the serial model, a high-order finite difference method, is identical to that employed in the parallel model. Parallelization of the tridiagonal matrix systems included in the serial scheme is the most challenging aspect of the work, and is accomplished using a parallel matrix solver combined with an efficient data transfer scheme. Numerical tests on a distributed-memory super-computer show that the performance of the current parallel model in simulating wave evolution is very satisfactory. A linear speedup is gained as the number of processors increases. These tests showed that the CPU time efficiency of the model is about 75-90%.

  5. Putting domain decomposition at the heart of a mesh-based simulation process

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chow, Peter; Addison, Clifford

    2002-12-01

    In computational mechanics analyses such as those in computational fluid dynamics and computational structure mechanics, some 60-90% of total modelling time is taken by specifying and creating the model of the geometry and mesh. The rest of the time is spent in actual analyses and interpreting the results. This is especially true for industries such as aerospace and electronics, where 3D geometrically complex models with multiple physical processes are common. Advances in computational hardware and software have tended to increase the proportion of time spent in model creation, partly because such advances have made it feasible to solve hard and complex geometry problems in a timely fashion. This paper shows one way to exploit the advances in computation to reduce the model creation time and potentially the overall modelling time, namely the use of domain decomposition to define consistent and coherent global models based on existing component geometry and mesh models. In keeping with existing modelling processes the re-engineering cost for the process is minimal.

  6. Semi-automated 2D Bruch's membrane shape analysis in papilledema using spectral-domain optical coherence tomography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Jui-Kai; Sibony, Patrick A.; Kardon, Randy H.; Kupersmith, Mark J.; Garvin, Mona K.

    2015-03-01

    Recent studies have shown that the Bruch's membrane (BM) and retinal pigment epithelium (RPE), visualized on spectral-domain optical coherence tomography (SD-OCT), is deformed anteriorly towards the vitreous in patients with intracranial hypertension and papilledema. The BM/RPE shape has been quantified using a statistical-shape-model approach; however, to date, the approach has involved the tedious and time-consuming manual placement of landmarks and correspondingly, only the shape (and shape changes) of a limited number of patients has been studied. In this work, we first present a semi-automated approach for the extraction of 20 landmarks along the BM from an optic-nerve-head (ONH) centered OCT slice from each patient. In the approach, after the manual placement of the two Bruch's membrane opening (BMO) points, the remaining 18 landmarks are automatically determined using a graph-based segmentation approach. We apply the approach to the OCT scans of 116 patients (at baseline) enrolled in the Idiopathic Intracranial Hypertension Treatment Trial and generate a statistical shape model using principal components analysis. Using the resulting shape model, the coefficient (shape measure) corresponding to the second principal component (eigenvector) for each set of landmarks indicates the degree of the BM/RPE is oriented away from the vitreous. Using a subset of 20 patients, we compare the shape measure computed using this semi-automated approach with the resulting shape measure when (1) all landmarks are specified manually (Experiment I); and (2) a different expert specifies the two BMO points (Experiment II). In each case, a correlation coefficient >= 0.99 is obtained.

  7. Unsteady flow simulations about moving boundary configurations using dynamic domain decomposition techniques

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yen, Guan-Wei

    A computational method is developed to solve the coupled governing equations of an unsteady flowfield and those of rigid-body dynamics in six degrees-of-freedom (6-DOF). This method is capable of simulating the unsteady flowfields around multiple component configurations with at least one of the components in relative motion with respect to the others. Two of the important phenomena that such analyses can help us to understand are the unsteady aerodynamic interference and the boundary-induced component of such a flowfield. By hybridizing two dynamic domain decomposition techniques, the grid generation task is simplified, the computer memory requirement is reduced, and the governing equations of the rigid-body dynamics are simplified with certain assumptions. Three dimensional, unsteady Navier-Stokes equations are solved on each of the subdomains by a fully-vectorized, finite-volume, upwind-biased, and approximately-factored method. These equations are solved on the composite meshes of hybrid subdomain grids that can move with respect to each other. Hence, the present method combines the advantages of an efficient, geometrically conservative, minimally and automatically dissipative algorithm with the advantages and flexibility of the domain decomposition techniques. Several measures that reduce the numerical error are studied and compared with the exact solution of a moving normal shock in a tube. This solution compares very well with the analytic solution of the isentropic equations. It is concluded, that as a minimum measure, the connectivity of nonconservative overlapped scheme needs to be second-order accurate for spatial and temporal discretizations, as well as for the moving subdomain interpolations. Furthermore, the CFL numbers should be restricted to below unity, if affordable, for flows with high flow gradients. The method is further scrutinized by simulating the flow past a sinusoidally pitching airfoil, and the flow past a sinusoidally pitching and

  8. Pyrrolo[3,2-d]pyrimidine derivatives as type II kinase insert domain receptor (KDR) inhibitors: CoMFA and CoMSIA studies.

    PubMed

    Wu, Xiao-Yun; Chen, Wen-Hua; Wu, Shu-Guang; Tian, Yuan-Xin; Zhang, Jia-Jie

    2012-01-01

    Kinase insert domain receptor (KDR) inhibitors have been proved to be very effective anticancer agents. Molecular docking, 3D-QSAR methods, CoMFA and CoMSIA were performed on pyrrolo[3,2-d]pyrimidine derivatives as non-ATP competitive KDR inhibitors (type II). The bioactive conformation was explored by docking one potent compound 20 into the active site of KDR in its DFG-out inactive conformation. The constructed CoMFA and CoMSIA models produced statistically significant results with the cross-validated correlation coefficients q(2) of 0.542 and 0.552, non-cross-validated correlation coefficients r(2) of 0.912 and 0.955, and predicted correction coefficients r(2) (pred) of 0.913 and 0.897, respectively. These results ensure the CoMFA and CoMSIA models as a tool to guide the design of a series of new potent KDR inhibitors.

  9. Singular value decomposition as a denoising tool for airborne time domain electromagnetic data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reninger, P.-A.; Martelet, G.; Deparis, J.; Perrin, J.; Chen, Y.

    2011-10-01

    Airborne time domain electromagnetic (TDEM) surveys are increasingly carried out in anthropized areas as part of environmental studies. In such areas, noise arises mainly from either natural sources, such as spherics, or cultural sources, such as couplings with man-made installations. This results in various distortions on the measured decays, which make the EM noise spectrum complex and may lead to erroneous inversion and subsequent misinterpretations. Thresholding and stacking standard techniques, commonly used to filter TDEM data, are less efficient in such environment, requiring a time-consuming and subjective manual editing. The aim of this study was therefore to propose an alternative fast and efficient user-assisted filtering approach. This was achieved using the singular value decomposition (SVD). The SVD method uses the principal component analysis to extract into components the dominant shapes from a series of raw input curves. EM decays can then be reconstructed with particular components only. To do so, we had to adapt and implement the SVD, firstly, to separate clearly and so identify easily the components containing the geological signal, and then to denoise properly TDEM data. The reconstructed decays were used to detect noisy gates on their corresponding measured decays. This denoising step allowed rejecting efficiently mainly spikes and oscillations. Then, we focused on couplings with man-made installations, which may result in artifacts on the inverted models. An analysis of the map of weights of the selected "noisy components" highlighted high correlations with man-made installations localized by the flight video. We had therefore a tool to cull most likely decays biased by capacitive coupling noises. Finally, rejection of decays affected by galvanic coupling noises was also possible locating them through the analysis of specific SVD components. This SVD procedure was applied on airborne TDEM data surveyed by SkyTEM Aps. over an anthropized area

  10. Fictitious domain decomposition methods for a class of partially axisymmetric problems: Application to the scattering of acoustic waves

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hetmaniuk, Ulrich Ladislas

    directly or with an iterative algorithm based on domain decomposition. Numerical experiments for a submarine application give accurate results. They also demonstrate a significant reduction in the computational cost.

  11. Full waveform time domain solutions for source and induced magnetotelluric and controlled-source electromagnetic fields using quasi-equivalent time domain decomposition and GPU parallelization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Imamura, N.; Schultz, A.

    2015-12-01

    Recently, a full waveform time domain solution has been developed for the magnetotelluric (MT) and controlled-source electromagnetic (CSEM) methods. The ultimate goal of this approach is to obtain a computationally tractable direct waveform joint inversion for source fields and earth conductivity structure in three and four dimensions. This is desirable on several grounds, including the improved spatial resolving power expected from use of a multitude of source illuminations of non-zero wavenumber, the ability to operate in areas of high levels of source signal spatial complexity and non-stationarity, etc. This goal would not be obtainable if one were to adopt the finite difference time-domain (FDTD) approach for the forward problem. This is particularly true for the case of MT surveys, since an enormous number of degrees of freedom are required to represent the observed MT waveforms across the large frequency bandwidth. It means that for FDTD simulation, the smallest time steps should be finer than that required to represent the highest frequency, while the number of time steps should also cover the lowest frequency. This leads to a linear system that is computationally burdensome to solve. We have implemented our code that addresses this situation through the use of a fictitious wave domain method and GPUs to speed up the computation time. We also substantially reduce the size of the linear systems by applying concepts from successive cascade decimation, through quasi-equivalent time domain decomposition. By combining these refinements, we have made good progress toward implementing the core of a full waveform joint source field/earth conductivity inverse modeling method. From results, we found the use of previous generation of CPU/GPU speeds computations by an order of magnitude over a parallel CPU only approach. In part, this arises from the use of the quasi-equivalent time domain decomposition, which shrinks the size of the linear system dramatically.

  12. A new scheme for the Navier-Stokes equations employing alternating-direction operator splitting and domain decomposition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Spyropoulos, John T.

    This thesis extends earlier research in numerical analysis and computational fluid dynamics (CFD) to obtain a novel finite element method for the transient, 3-D, incompressible Navier-Stokes equations, along with efficient, parallelizable algorithms to carry out an implementation of the method in such a fashion as to be useful in mainstream industrial settings. This new finite element procedure employs alternating-direction operator splittings to model problems of increasing complexity in a step-by-step and natural manner. The scheme employs a characteristic-Galerkin method for the numerical treatment of the nonlinear advection operator. Non-overlapping domain decomposition schemes are employed for the solution of linear Stokes-type subproblems and for the matching of the inviscid and viscous solutions in different subdomains. These problems are solved by Bramble-Pasciak-Schatz wirebasket domain decomposition methods in a stabilized mixed finite element method formulation. The scheme is coupled to an existing grid generator code that provides globally unstructured, but locally structured grids, within each subdomain. Numerical results obtained include incompressible viscous flows over a backward facing steps at various Reynolds numbers and show very good to excellent agreement with experiments as well as other published numerical results.

  13. DOMAIN DECOMPOSITION METHOD APPLIED TO A FLOW PROBLEM Norberto C. Vera Guzmán Institute of Geophysics, UNAM

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vera, N. C.; GMMC

    2013-05-01

    In this paper we present the results of macrohybrid mixed Darcian flow in porous media in a general three-dimensional domain. The global problem is solved as a set of local subproblems which are posed using a domain decomposition method. Unknown fields of local problems, velocity and pressure are approximated using mixed finite elements. For this application, a general three-dimensional domain is considered which is discretized using tetrahedra. The discrete domain is decomposed into subdomains and reformulated the original problem as a set of subproblems, communicated through their interfaces. To solve this set of subproblems, we use finite element mixed and parallel computing. The parallelization of a problem using this methodology can, in principle, to fully exploit a computer equipment and also provides results in less time, two very important elements in modeling. Referencias G.Alduncin and N.Vera-Guzmán Parallel proximal-point algorithms for mixed _nite element models of _ow in the subsurface, Commun. Numer. Meth. Engng 2004; 20:83-104 (DOI: 10.1002/cnm.647) Z. Chen, G.Huan and Y. Ma Computational Methods for Multiphase Flows in Porous Media, SIAM, Society for Industrial and Applied Mathematics, Philadelphia, 2006. A. Quarteroni and A. Valli, Numerical Approximation of Partial Differential Equations, Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 1994. Brezzi F, Fortin M. Mixed and Hybrid Finite Element Methods. Springer: New York, 1991.

  14. GRID2D/3D: A computer program for generating grid systems in complex-shaped two- and three-dimensional spatial domains. Part 2: User's manual and program listing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bailey, R. T.; Shih, T. I.-P.; Nguyen, H. L.; Roelke, R. J.

    1990-01-01

    An efficient computer program, called GRID2D/3D, was developed to generate single and composite grid systems within geometrically complex two- and three-dimensional (2- and 3-D) spatial domains that can deform with time. GRID2D/3D generates single grid systems by using algebraic grid generation methods based on transfinite interpolation in which the distribution of grid points within the spatial domain is controlled by stretching functions. All single grid systems generated by GRID2D/3D can have grid lines that are continuous and differentiable everywhere up to the second-order. Also, grid lines can intersect boundaries of the spatial domain orthogonally. GRID2D/3D generates composite grid systems by patching together two or more single grid systems. The patching can be discontinuous or continuous. For continuous composite grid systems, the grid lines are continuous and differentiable everywhere up to the second-order except at interfaces where different single grid systems meet. At interfaces where different single grid systems meet, the grid lines are only differentiable up to the first-order. For 2-D spatial domains, the boundary curves are described by using either cubic or tension spline interpolation. For 3-D spatial domains, the boundary surfaces are described by using either linear Coon's interpolation, bi-hyperbolic spline interpolation, or a new technique referred to as 3-D bi-directional Hermite interpolation. Since grid systems generated by algebraic methods can have grid lines that overlap one another, GRID2D/3D contains a graphics package for evaluating the grid systems generated. With the graphics package, the user can generate grid systems in an interactive manner with the grid generation part of GRID2D/3D. GRID2D/3D is written in FORTRAN 77 and can be run on any IBM PC, XT, or AT compatible computer. In order to use GRID2D/3D on workstations or mainframe computers, some minor modifications must be made in the graphics part of the program; no

  15. A parallel algorithm for 2D visco-acoustic frequency-domain full-waveform inversion: application to a dense OBS data set

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sourbier, F.; Operto, S.; Virieux, J.

    2006-12-01

    We present a distributed-memory parallel algorithm for 2D visco-acoustic full-waveform inversion of wide-angle seismic data. Our code is written in fortran90 and use MPI for parallelism. The algorithm was applied to real wide-angle data set recorded by 100 OBSs with a 1-km spacing in the eastern-Nankai trough (Japan) to image the deep structure of the subduction zone. Full-waveform inversion is applied sequentially to discrete frequencies by proceeding from the low to the high frequencies. The inverse problem is solved with a classic gradient method. Full-waveform modeling is performed with a frequency-domain finite-difference method. In the frequency-domain, solving the wave equation requires resolution of a large unsymmetric system of linear equations. We use the massively parallel direct solver MUMPS (http://www.enseeiht.fr/irit/apo/MUMPS) for distributed-memory computer to solve this system. The MUMPS solver is based on a multifrontal method for the parallel factorization. The MUMPS algorithm is subdivided in 3 main steps: a symbolic analysis step that performs re-ordering of the matrix coefficients to minimize the fill-in of the matrix during the subsequent factorization and an estimation of the assembly tree of the matrix. Second, the factorization is performed with dynamic scheduling to accomodate numerical pivoting and provides the LU factors distributed over all the processors. Third, the resolution is performed for multiple sources. To compute the gradient of the cost function, 2 simulations per shot are required (one to compute the forward wavefield and one to back-propagate residuals). The multi-source resolutions can be performed in parallel with MUMPS. In the end, each processor stores in core a sub-domain of all the solutions. These distributed solutions can be exploited to compute in parallel the gradient of the cost function. Since the gradient of the cost function is a weighted stack of the shot and residual solutions of MUMPS, each processor

  16. A Linked-Cell Domain Decomposition Method for Molecular Dynamics Simulation on a Scalable Multiprocessor

    DOE PAGES

    Yang, L. H.; Brooks III, E. D.; Belak, J.

    1992-01-01

    A molecular dynamics algorithm for performing large-scale simulations using the Parallel C Preprocessor (PCP) programming paradigm on the BBN TC2000, a massively parallel computer, is discussed. The algorithm uses a linked-cell data structure to obtain the near neighbors of each atom as time evoles. Each processor is assigned to a geometric domain containing many subcells and the storage for that domain is private to the processor. Within this scheme, the interdomain (i.e., interprocessor) communication is minimized.

  17. A non-overlapping domain decomposition method with non-matching grids for modeling large finite antenna arrays

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Seung-Cheol; Vouvakis, Marinos N.; Lee, Jin-Fa

    2005-02-01

    A non-overlapping domain decomposition method (DDM) is proposed herein to solve Maxwell equations in R3. In this work, the Maxwell equations are discretized using a vector finite element method with hierarchical H(curl) vector basis functions. There are two major ingredients in the proposed non-overlapping DDM: (a) A proper 1st order transmission condition to enforce field continuity across domain boundaries and (b) A cement technique to allow non-matching grids for neighboring domains. Moreover, a detail Fourier analysis of the transmission condition for a canonical half-space example is presented. The analysis provides significant insights into the convergence behavior of the proposed non-overlapping DDM for solving electromagnetic radiation problems, such as the large finite antenna arrays. Particularly for the antenna arrays, the proposed non-overlapping DDM is extremely efficient since the formulation can easily incorporate geometrical repetitions. Exponentially tapered notch (Vivaldi) antenna arrays with size up to 100 × 100 elements are solved on a common PC to validate the proposed non-overlapping DDM.

  18. NON-CONFORMING FINITE ELEMENTS; MESH GENERATION, ADAPTIVITY AND RELATED ALGEBRAIC MULTIGRID AND DOMAIN DECOMPOSITION METHODS IN MASSIVELY PARALLEL COMPUTING ENVIRONMENT

    SciTech Connect

    Lazarov, R; Pasciak, J; Jones, J

    2002-02-01

    Construction, analysis and numerical testing of efficient solution techniques for solving elliptic PDEs that allow for parallel implementation have been the focus of the research. A number of discretization and solution methods for solving second order elliptic problems that include mortar and penalty approximations and domain decomposition methods for finite elements and finite volumes have been investigated and analyzed. Techniques for parallel domain decomposition algorithms in the framework of PETC and HYPRE have been studied and tested. Hierarchical parallel grid refinement and adaptive solution methods have been implemented and tested on various model problems. A parallel code implementing the mortar method with algebraically constructed multiplier spaces was developed.

  19. An asymptotic preserving automatic domain decomposition method for the Vlasov–Poisson–BGK system with applications to plasmas

    SciTech Connect

    Dimarco, Giacomo; Mieussens, Luc; Rispoli, Vittorio

    2014-10-01

    In this work we present an efficient strategy to deal with plasma physics simulations in which localized departures from thermodynamical equilibrium are present. The method is based on the introduction of intermediate regions which allows smooth transitions between kinetic and fluid zones. In this paper we extend Domain Decomposition techniques, obtained through dynamic coupling and buffer zones, to the study of plasmas and, moreover, we combine them with Asymptotic Preserving and Asymptotically Accurate strategies for the time integration. We use a hybrid scheme in which both kinetic and fluid descriptions are considered and coupled together while the kinetic model is solved by asymptotic preserving and accurate methods, in order to guarantee high efficiency and accuracy in all regimes. The numerical scheme is validated and its performances are analyzed by numerical simulations.

  20. An efficient, robust, domain-decomposition algorithm for particle Monte Carlo

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brunner, Thomas A.; Brantley, Patrick S.

    2009-06-01

    A previously described algorithm [T.A. Brunner, T.J. Urbatsch, T.M. Evans, N.A. Gentile, Comparison of four parallel algorithms for domain decomposed implicit Monte Carlo, Journal of Computational Physics 212 (2) (2006) 527-539] for doing domain decomposed particle Monte Carlo calculations in the context of thermal radiation transport has been improved. It has been extended to support cases where the number of particles in a time step are unknown at the beginning of the time step. This situation arises when various physical processes, such as neutron transport, can generate additional particles during the time step, or when particle splitting is used for variance reduction. Additionally, several race conditions that existed in the previous algorithm and could cause code hangs have been fixed. This new algorithm is believed to be robust against all race conditions. The parallel scalability of the new algorithm remains excellent.

  1. Multidisciplinary design optimization with collaboration pursuing and domain decomposition: Application to aircraft design

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Dapeng

    Multidisciplinary Design Optimization (MDO) has emerged as a new technology dealing with the design of complex systems. This thesis focuses on development of an effective and efficient collaboration mechanism for coordinating coupled disciplines, as couplings are dominant issues in MDO. In this thesis, an innovative collaboration model is developed to handle these couplings. Based on this newly proposed collaboration model, two novel methods are developed for solving MDO problems. The first method is named the Boundary Search and Simplex Decomposition Method (BSSDM). It proposes a new methodology to geometrically depict the coupling information. Difficulties encountered with the couplings are alleviated through the obtained geometric information by the BSSDM. The second method is named the Collaboration Pursuing Method (CPM). It is a sampling-based MDO method, which aims to deal with relatively large-scale MDO problems. Both new methods are successfully tested. A conceptual aircraft design is implemented with the CPM and the results show that the CPM is competitively efficient as compared with other MDO methods. Limitations of the newly proposed MDO methods are discussed, along with suggestions for future work.

  2. Time Domain Strain/Stress Reconstruction Based on Empirical Mode Decomposition: Numerical Study and Experimental Validation

    PubMed Central

    He, Jingjing; Zhou, Yibin; Guan, Xuefei; Zhang, Wei; Zhang, Weifang; Liu, Yongming

    2016-01-01

    Structural health monitoring has been studied by a number of researchers as well as various industries to keep up with the increasing demand for preventive maintenance routines. This work presents a novel method for reconstruct prompt, informed strain/stress responses at the hot spots of the structures based on strain measurements at remote locations. The structural responses measured from usage monitoring system at available locations are decomposed into modal responses using empirical mode decomposition. Transformation equations based on finite element modeling are derived to extrapolate the modal responses from the measured locations to critical locations where direct sensor measurements are not available. Then, two numerical examples (a two-span beam and a 19956-degree of freedom simplified airfoil) are used to demonstrate the overall reconstruction method. Finally, the present work investigates the effectiveness and accuracy of the method through a set of experiments conducted on an aluminium alloy cantilever beam commonly used in air vehicle and spacecraft. The experiments collect the vibration strain signals of the beam via optical fiber sensors. Reconstruction results are compared with theoretical solutions and a detailed error analysis is also provided. PMID:27537889

  3. Photoacoustic tomography from weak and noisy signals by using a pulse decomposition algorithm in the time-domain.

    PubMed

    Liu, Liangbing; Tao, Chao; Liu, XiaoJun; Deng, Mingxi; Wang, Senhua; Liu, Jun

    2015-10-19

    Photoacoustic tomography is a promising and rapidly developed methodology of biomedical imaging. It confronts an increasing urgent problem to reconstruct the image from weak and noisy photoacoustic signals, owing to its high benefit in extending the imaging depth and decreasing the dose of laser exposure. Based on the time-domain characteristics of photoacoustic signals, a pulse decomposition algorithm is proposed to reconstruct a photoacoustic image from signals with low signal-to-noise ratio. In this method, a photoacoustic signal is decomposed as the weighted summation of a set of pulses in the time-domain. Images are reconstructed from the weight factors, which are directly related to the optical absorption coefficient. Both simulation and experiment are conducted to test the performance of the method. Numerical simulations show that when the signal-to-noise ratio is -4 dB, the proposed method decreases the reconstruction error to about 17%, in comparison with the conventional back-projection method. Moreover, it can produce acceptable images even when the signal-to-noise ratio is decreased to -10 dB. Experiments show that, when the laser influence level is low, the proposed method achieves a relatively clean image of a hair phantom with some well preserved pattern details. The proposed method demonstrates imaging potential of photoacoustic tomography in expanding applications.

  4. One-way domain decomposition method with exact radiation condition and fast GMRES solver for the solution of Maxwell's equations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stupfel, Bruno; Lecouvez, Matthieu

    2016-10-01

    For the solution of the time-harmonic electromagnetic scattering problem by inhomogeneous 3-D objects, a one-way domain decomposition method (DDM) is considered: the computational domain is partitioned into concentric subdomains on the interfaces of which Robin-type transmission conditions (TCs) are prescribed; an integral representation of the electromagnetic fields on the outer boundary constitutes an exact radiation condition. The global system obtained after discretization of the finite element (FE) formulations is solved via a Krylov subspace iterative method (GMRES). It is preconditioned in such a way that, essentially, only the solution of the FE subsystems in each subdomain is required. This is made possible by a computationally cheap H (curl)- H (div) transformation performed on the interfaces that separate the two outermost subdomains. The eigenvalues of the preconditioned matrix of the system are bounded by two, and optimized values of the coefficients involved in the local TCs on the interfaces are determined so as to maximize the minimum eigenvalue. Numerical experiments are presented that illustrate the numerical accuracy of this technique, its fast convergence, and legitimate the choices made for the optimized coefficients.

  5. Domain decomposition based iterative methods for nonlinear elliptic finite element problems

    SciTech Connect

    Cai, X.C.

    1994-12-31

    The class of overlapping Schwarz algorithms has been extensively studied for linear elliptic finite element problems. In this presentation, the author considers the solution of systems of nonlinear algebraic equations arising from the finite element discretization of some nonlinear elliptic equations. Several overlapping Schwarz algorithms, including the additive and multiplicative versions, with inexact Newton acceleration will be discussed. The author shows that the convergence rate of the Newton`s method is independent of the mesh size used in the finite element discretization, and also independent of the number of subdomains into which the original domain in decomposed. Numerical examples will be presented.

  6. 2D-ELDOR study of heterogeneity and domain structure changes in plasma membrane vesicles upon cross-linking of receptors.

    PubMed

    Chiang, Yun-Wei; Costa-Filho, Antonio J; Baird, Barbara; Freed, Jack H

    2011-09-08

    2D electron-electron double resonance (2D-ELDOR) with the "full Sc-" method of analysis is applied to the study of plasma membrane vesicles. Membrane structural changes upon antigen cross-linking of IgE receptors (IgE-FcεRI) in plasma membrane vesicles (PMVs) isolated from RBL-2H3 mast cells are investigated, for the first time, by means of these 2D-ELDOR techniques. Spectra of 1-palmitoyl-2-(16-doxyl stearoyl) phosphatidylcholine (16-PC) from PMVs before and after this stimulation at several temperatures are reported. The results demonstrate a coexistence of liquid-ordered (L(o)) and liquid-disordered (L(d)) components. We find that upon cross-linking, the membrane environment is remodeled to become more disordered, as shown by a moderate increase in the population of the L(d) component. This change in the relative amount of the L(o) versus L(d) components upon cross-linking is consistent with a model wherein the IgE receptors, which when clustered by antigen to cause cell stimulation, lead to more disordered lipids, and their dynamic and structural properties are slightly altered. This study demonstrates that 2D-ELDOR, analyzed by the full Sc- method, is a powerful approach for capturing the molecular dynamics in biological membranes. This is a particular case showing how 2D-ELDOR can be applied to study physical processes in complex systems that yield subtle changes.

  7. A domain decomposition method for pseudo-spectral electromagnetic simulations of plasmas

    SciTech Connect

    Vay, Jean-Luc; Haber, Irving; Godfrey, Brendan B.

    2013-06-15

    Pseudo-spectral electromagnetic solvers (i.e. representing the fields in Fourier space) have extraordinary precision. In particular, Haber et al. presented in 1973 a pseudo-spectral solver that integrates analytically the solution over a finite time step, under the usual assumption that the source is constant over that time step. Yet, pseudo-spectral solvers have not been widely used, due in part to the difficulty for efficient parallelization owing to global communications associated with global FFTs on the entire computational domains. A method for the parallelization of electromagnetic pseudo-spectral solvers is proposed and tested on single electromagnetic pulses, and on Particle-In-Cell simulations of the wakefield formation in a laser plasma accelerator. The method takes advantage of the properties of the Discrete Fourier Transform, the linearity of Maxwell’s equations and the finite speed of light for limiting the communications of data within guard regions between neighboring computational domains. Although this requires a small approximation, test results show that no significant error is made on the test cases that have been presented. The proposed method opens the way to solvers combining the favorable parallel scaling of standard finite-difference methods with the accuracy advantages of pseudo-spectral methods.

  8. A 2D domain decomposition, a customized immersed boundary method and a zest of numerical dissipation: a successful cocktail to tackle turbulence on HPC systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Laizet, Sylvain; Lamballais, Eric; Vassilicos, J. Christos

    2015-11-01

    Incompact3d is a high-order flow solver dedicated to Direct and Large Eddy Simulations (DNS/LES) using High Performance Computing (HPC) systems which isdevoted to turbulent flows at the interface between academic research and upstream industrial R&D. It is originating from the University of Poitiers (France) and was developed there as well as, more recently, in the Turbulence, Mixing and Flow Control Group at Imperial College London (UK). This high-order flow solver can reconcile accuracy, efficiency, versatility and scalability using a simple Cartesian mesh and up to one million computational cores. The three key ingredients of this successful cocktail to tackle turbulence on HPC systemswill be given in this talkfollowed by various applications such as fractal-generated turbulence, gravity currents in an open basin, impinging jets on a heated plate and a micro-jet device to control a turbulent jet.

  9. Domain decomposition methods for systems of conservation laws: Spectral collocation approximations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Quarteroni, Alfio

    1989-01-01

    Hyperbolic systems of conversation laws are considered which are discretized in space by spectral collocation methods and advanced in time by finite difference schemes. At any time-level a domain deposition method based on an iteration by subdomain procedure was introduced yielding at each step a sequence of independent subproblems (one for each subdomain) that can be solved simultaneously. The method is set for a general nonlinear problem in several space variables. The convergence analysis, however, is carried out only for a linear one-dimensional system with continuous solutions. A precise form of the error reduction factor at each iteration is derived. Although the method is applied here to the case of spectral collocation approximation only, the idea is fairly general and can be used in a different context as well. For instance, its application to space discretization by finite differences is straight forward.

  10. Intermittent dynamics and logarithmic domain growth during the spinodal decomposition of a glass-forming liquid.

    PubMed

    Testard, Vincent; Berthier, Ludovic; Kob, Walter

    2014-04-28

    We use large-scale molecular dynamics simulations of a simple glass-forming system to investigate how its liquid-gas phase separation kinetics depends on temperature. A shallow quench leads to a fully demixed liquid-gas system whereas a deep quench makes the dense phase undergo a glass transition and become an amorphous solid. This glass has a gel-like bicontinuous structure that evolves very slowly with time and becomes fully arrested in the limit where thermal fluctuations become negligible. We show that the phase separation kinetics changes qualitatively with temperature, the microscopic dynamics evolving from a surface tension-driven diffusive motion at high temperature to a strongly intermittent, heterogeneous, and thermally activated dynamics at low temperature, with a logarithmically slow growth of the typical domain size. These results elucidate the microscopic mechanisms underlying a specific class of viscoelastic phase separation.

  11. Frequency Domain Decomposition performed on the strain data obtained from the aluminium model of an offshore support structure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mieloszyk, M.; Opoka, S.; Ostachowicz, W.

    2015-07-01

    This paper presents an application of Fibre Bragg Grating (FBG) sensors for Structural Health Monitoring (SHM) of offshore wind energy support structure model. The analysed structure is a tripod equipped with 16 FBG sensors. From a wide variety of Operational Modal Analysis (OMA) methods Frequency Domain Decomposition (FDD) technique is used in this paper under assumption that the input loading is similar to a white noise excitation. The FDD method can be applied using different sets of sensors, i.e. the one which contains all FBG sensors and the other set of sensors localised only on a particular tripod's leg. The cases considered during investigation were as follows: damaged and undamaged scenarios, different support conditions. The damage was simulated as an dismantled flange on an upper brace in one of the tripod legs. First the model was fixed to an antishaker table and investigated in the air under impulse excitations. Next the tripod was submerged into water basin in order to check the quality of the measurement set-up in different environmental condition. In this case the model was excited by regular waves.

  12. Using edge-preserving algorithm with non-local mean for significantly improved image-domain material decomposition in dual-energy CT

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, Wei; Niu, Tianye; Xing, Lei; Xie, Yaoqin; Xiong, Guanglei; Elmore, Kimberly; Zhu, Jun; Wang, Luyao; Min, James K.

    2016-02-01

    Increased noise is a general concern for dual-energy material decomposition. Here, we develop an image-domain material decomposition algorithm for dual-energy CT (DECT) by incorporating an edge-preserving filter into the Local HighlY constrained backPRojection reconstruction (HYPR-LR) framework. With effective use of the non-local mean, the proposed algorithm, which is referred to as HYPR-NLM, reduces the noise in dual-energy decomposition while preserving the accuracy of quantitative measurement and spatial resolution of the material-specific dual-energy images. We demonstrate the noise reduction and resolution preservation of the algorithm with an iodine concentrate numerical phantom by comparing the HYPR-NLM algorithm to the direct matrix inversion, HYPR-LR and iterative image-domain material decomposition (Iter-DECT). We also show the superior performance of the HYPR-NLM over the existing methods by using two sets of cardiac perfusing imaging data. The DECT material decomposition comparison study shows that all four algorithms yield acceptable quantitative measurements of iodine concentrate. Direct matrix inversion yields the highest noise level, followed by HYPR-LR and Iter-DECT. HYPR-NLM in an iterative formulation significantly reduces image noise and the image noise is comparable to or even lower than that generated using Iter-DECT. For the HYPR-NLM method, there are marginal edge effects in the difference image, suggesting the high-frequency details are well preserved. In addition, when the search window size increases from 11× 11 to 19× 19 , there are no significant changes or marginal edge effects in the HYPR-NLM difference images. The reference drawn from the comparison study includes: (1) HYPR-NLM significantly reduces the DECT material decomposition noise while preserving quantitative measurements and high-frequency edge information, and (2) HYPR-NLM is robust with respect to parameter selection.

  13. Multi-grid domain decomposition approach for solution of Navier-Stokes equations in primitive variable form

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ku, Hwar-Ching; Ramaswamy, Bala

    1993-01-01

    The new multigrid (or adaptive) pseudospectral element method was carried out for the solution of incompressible flow in terms of primitive variable formulation. The desired features of the proposed method include the following: (1) the ability to treat complex geometry; (2) high resolution adapted in the interesting areas; (3) requires minimal working space; and (4) effective in a multiprocessing environment. The approach for flow problems, complex geometry or not, is to first divide the computational domain into a number of fine-grid and coarse-grid subdomains with the inter-overlapping area. Next, it is necessary to implement the Schwarz alternating procedure (SAP) to exchange the data among subdomains, where the coarse-grid correction is used to remove the high frequency error that occurs when the data interpolation from the fine-grid subdomain to the coarse-grid subdomain is conducted. The strategy behind the coarse-grid correction is to adopt the operator of the divergence of the velocity field, which intrinsically links the pressure equation, into this process. The solution of each subdomain can be efficiently solved by the direct (or iterative) eigenfunction expansion technique with the least storage requirement, i.e. O(N(exp 3)) in 3-D and O(N(exp 2)) in 2-D. Numerical results of both driven cavity and jet flow will be presented in the paper to account for the versatility of the proposed method.

  14. Massive parallelization of a 3D finite difference electromagnetic forward solution using domain decomposition methods on multiple CUDA enabled GPUs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schultz, A.

    2010-12-01

    describe our ongoing efforts to achieve massive parallelization on a novel hybrid GPU testbed machine currently configured with 12 Intel Westmere Xeon CPU cores (or 24 parallel computational threads) with 96 GB DDR3 system memory, 4 GPU subsystems which in aggregate contain 960 NVidia Tesla GPU cores with 16 GB dedicated DDR3 GPU memory, and a second interleved bank of 4 GPU subsystems containing in aggregate 1792 NVidia Fermi GPU cores with 12 GB dedicated DDR5 GPU memory. We are applying domain decomposition methods to a modified version of Weiss' (2001) 3D frequency domain full physics EM finite difference code, an open source GPL licensed f90 code available for download from www.OpenEM.org. This will be the core of a new hybrid 3D inversion that parallelizes frequencies across CPUs and individual forward solutions across GPUs. We describe progress made in modifying the code to use direct solvers in GPU cores dedicated to each small subdomain, iteratively improving the solution by matching adjacent subdomain boundary solutions, rather than iterative Krylov space sparse solvers as currently applied to the whole domain.

  15. 2D time domain spectral phase encoding/wavelength hopping coherent DPSK-OCDMA system using fiber Bragg gratings and phase modulator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gao, Zhensen; Dai, Bo; Wang, Xu; Kataoka, Nobuyuki; Wada, Naoya

    2010-12-01

    We propose and experimentally demonstrate a reconfigurable two-dimensional (temporal-spectral) time domain spectral phase encoding (SPE) scheme for coherent optical code-division-multiple-access (OCDMA) application. The time-domain SPE scheme is robust to wavelength drift of the light source and is very flexible and compatible with the fiber optical system. In the proposed scheme, the ultra-short optical pulse is stretched by dispersive device and the SPE is done in time domain using high speed phase modulator. A Fiber Bragg Gratings array is used for generating the two-dimensional wavelength hopping pattern while the high speed phase modulator is used for generating the spectral phase pattern. The proposed scheme can enable simultaneous generation of the time domain spectral phase encoding and DPSK data modulation using only a single phase modulator. In the experiment, the two-dimensional SPE codes have been generated and modulated with 2.5-Gb/s DPSK data using a single phase modulator. Transmission of the 2.5-Gb/s DPSK data over 49km fiber with BER<10-9 has been demonstrated successfully. The proposed scheme exhibits the potential to simplify the architecture and improve the security of the OCDMA system.

  16. Introduction of temporal sub-stepping in the Multi-Level Multi-Domain semi-implicit Particle-In-Cell code Parsek2D-MLMD

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Innocenti, M. E.; Beck, A.; Ponweiser, T.; Markidis, S.; Lapenta, G.

    2015-04-01

    In this paper, the introduction of temporal sub-stepping in Multi-Level Multi-Domain (MLMD) simulations of plasmas is discussed. The MLMD method addresses the multi-scale nature of space plasmas by simulating a problem at different levels of resolution. A large-domain "coarse grid" is simulated with low resolution to capture large-scale, slow processes. Smaller scale, local processes are obtained through a "refined grid" which uses higher resolution. Very high jumps in the resolution used at the different levels can be achieved thanks to the Implicit Moment Method and appropriate grid interlocking operations. Up to now, the same time step was used at all the levels. Now, with temporal sub-stepping, the different levels can also benefit from the use of different temporal resolutions. This saves further resources with respect to "traditional" simulations done using the same spatial and temporal stepping on the entire domain. It also prevents the levels from working at the limits of the stability condition of the Implicit Moment Method. The temporal sub-stepping is tested with simulations of magnetic reconnection in space. It is shown that, thanks to the reduced costs of MLMD simulations with respect to single-level simulations, it becomes possible to verify with realistic mass ratios scaling laws previously verified only for reduced mass ratios. Performance considerations are also provided.

  17. Simulation of seismic wave propagation in 2-D poroelastic media using weighted-averaging finite difference stencils in the frequency-space domain

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Qingjie; Mao, Weijian

    2017-01-01

    The poroelastodynamic equations are used to describe the dynamic solid-fluid interaction in the reservoir. To obtain the intrinsic properties of reservoir rocks from geophysical data measured in both laboratory and field, we need an accurate solution of the wave propagation in porous media. At present, the poroelastic wave equations are mostly solved in the time domain, which involves a difficult and complicated time convolution. In order to avoid the issues caused by the time convolution, we propose a frequency-space domain method. The poroelastic wave equations are composed of a linear system in the frequency domain, which easily takes into account the effects of all frequencies on the dispersion and attenuation of seismic wave. A 25-point weighted-averaging finite different scheme is proposed to discretize the equations. For the finite model, the perfectly matched layer technique is applied at the model boundaries. We validated the proposed algorithm by testing three numerical examples of poroelastic models, which are homogenous, two-layered and heterogeneous with different fluids, respectively. The testing results are encouraging in the aspects of both computational accuracy and efficiency.

  18. Numerical modeling of the 2D time-domain transient electromagnetic secondary field of the line source of the current excitation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Yun; Wang, Xu-Ben; Wang, Yun

    2013-06-01

    To effectively minimize the electromagnetic field response in the total field solution, we propose a numerical modeling method for the two-dimensional (2D) timedomain transient electromagnetic secondary field of the line source based on the DuFort-Frankel finite-difference method. In the proposed method, we included the treatment of the earth-air boundary conductivity, calculated the normalized partial derivative of the induced electromotive force (Emf), and determined the forward time step. By extending upward the earth-air interface to the air grid nodes and the zero-value boundary conditions, not only we have a method that is more efficient but also simpler than the total field solution. We computed and analyzed the homogeneous half-space model and the flat layered model with high precision—the maximum relative error is less than 0.01% between our method and the analytical method—and the solution speed is roughly three times faster than the total-field solution. Lastly, we used the model of a thin body embedded in a homogeneous half-space at different delay times to depict the downward and upward spreading characteristics of the induced eddy current, and the physical interaction processes between the electromagnetic field and the underground low-resistivity body.

  19. A parallel domain decomposition-based implicit method for the Cahn-Hilliard-Cook phase-field equation in 3D

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zheng, Xiang; Yang, Chao; Cai, Xiao-Chuan; Keyes, David

    2015-03-01

    We present a numerical algorithm for simulating the spinodal decomposition described by the three dimensional Cahn-Hilliard-Cook (CHC) equation, which is a fourth-order stochastic partial differential equation with a noise term. The equation is discretized in space and time based on a fully implicit, cell-centered finite difference scheme, with an adaptive time-stepping strategy designed to accelerate the progress to equilibrium. At each time step, a parallel Newton-Krylov-Schwarz algorithm is used to solve the nonlinear system. We discuss various numerical and computational challenges associated with the method. The numerical scheme is validated by a comparison with an explicit scheme of high accuracy (and unreasonably high cost). We present steady state solutions of the CHC equation in two and three dimensions. The effect of the thermal fluctuation on the spinodal decomposition process is studied. We show that the existence of the thermal fluctuation accelerates the spinodal decomposition process and that the final steady morphology is sensitive to the stochastic noise. We also show the evolution of the energies and statistical moments. In terms of the parallel performance, it is found that the implicit domain decomposition approach scales well on supercomputers with a large number of processors.

  20. A parallel domain decomposition-based implicit method for the Cahn–Hilliard–Cook phase-field equation in 3D

    SciTech Connect

    Zheng, Xiang; Yang, Chao; Cai, Xiao-Chuan; Keyes, David

    2015-03-15

    We present a numerical algorithm for simulating the spinodal decomposition described by the three dimensional Cahn–Hilliard–Cook (CHC) equation, which is a fourth-order stochastic partial differential equation with a noise term. The equation is discretized in space and time based on a fully implicit, cell-centered finite difference scheme, with an adaptive time-stepping strategy designed to accelerate the progress to equilibrium. At each time step, a parallel Newton–Krylov–Schwarz algorithm is used to solve the nonlinear system. We discuss various numerical and computational challenges associated with the method. The numerical scheme is validated by a comparison with an explicit scheme of high accuracy (and unreasonably high cost). We present steady state solutions of the CHC equation in two and three dimensions. The effect of the thermal fluctuation on the spinodal decomposition process is studied. We show that the existence of the thermal fluctuation accelerates the spinodal decomposition process and that the final steady morphology is sensitive to the stochastic noise. We also show the evolution of the energies and statistical moments. In terms of the parallel performance, it is found that the implicit domain decomposition approach scales well on supercomputers with a large number of processors.

  1. Magnetic structure and domain conversion of the quasi-2D frustrated antiferromagnet CuCrO{sub 2} probed by NMR

    SciTech Connect

    Sakhratov, Yu. A.; Svistov, L. E.; Kuhns, P. L.; Zhou, H. D.; Reyes, A. P.

    2014-11-15

    We have carried out {sup 63,65}Cu NMR spectra measurements in a magnetic field up to about 15.5 T on a single crystal of the multiferroic triangular-lattice antiferromagnet CuCrO{sub 2}. The measurements were performed for perpendicular and parallel orientations of the magnetic field with respect to the c axis of the crystal, and the detailed angle dependence of the spectra on the magnetic field direction in the ab plane was studied. The shape of the spectra can be well described in the model of spiral spin structure proposed by recent neutron diffraction experiments. When the field is rotated perpendicular to the crystal c axis, we observed, directly for the first time, a remarkable reorientation of the spin plane simultaneous with rotation of the incommensurate wavevector, by quantitatively deducing the conversion of the energetically less favorable domain to a more favorable one. At high enough fields parallel to the c axis, the data are consistent with either a field-induced commensurate spiral magnetic structure or an incommensurate spiral magnetic structure with a disorder in the c direction, suggesting that high fields may have influence on interplanar ordering.

  2. Combined iterative reconstruction and image-domain decomposition for dual energy CT using total-variation regularization

    SciTech Connect

    Dong, Xue; Niu, Tianye; Zhu, Lei

    2014-05-15

    Purpose: Dual-energy CT (DECT) is being increasingly used for its capability of material decomposition and energy-selective imaging. A generic problem of DECT, however, is that the decomposition process is unstable in the sense that the relative magnitude of decomposed signals is reduced due to signal cancellation while the image noise is accumulating from the two CT images of independent scans. Direct image decomposition, therefore, leads to severe degradation of signal-to-noise ratio on the resultant images. Existing noise suppression techniques are typically implemented in DECT with the procedures of reconstruction and decomposition performed independently, which do not explore the statistical properties of decomposed images during the reconstruction for noise reduction. In this work, the authors propose an iterative approach that combines the reconstruction and the signal decomposition procedures to minimize the DECT image noise without noticeable loss of resolution. Methods: The proposed algorithm is formulated as an optimization problem, which balances the data fidelity and total variation of decomposed images in one framework, and the decomposition step is carried out iteratively together with reconstruction. The noise in the CT images from the proposed algorithm becomes well correlated even though the noise of the raw projections is independent on the two CT scans. Due to this feature, the proposed algorithm avoids noise accumulation during the decomposition process. The authors evaluate the method performance on noise suppression and spatial resolution using phantom studies and compare the algorithm with conventional denoising approaches as well as combined iterative reconstruction methods with different forms of regularization. Results: On the Catphan©600 phantom, the proposed method outperforms the existing denoising methods on preserving spatial resolution at the same level of noise suppression, i.e., a reduction of noise standard deviation by one

  3. MO-FG-204-03: Using Edge-Preserving Algorithm for Significantly Improved Image-Domain Material Decomposition in Dual Energy CT

    SciTech Connect

    Zhao, W; Niu, T; Xing, L; Xiong, G; Elmore, K; Min, J; Zhu, J; Wang, L

    2015-06-15

    Purpose: To significantly improve dual energy CT (DECT) imaging by establishing a new theoretical framework of image-domain material decomposition with incorporation of edge-preserving techniques. Methods: The proposed algorithm, HYPR-NLM, combines the edge-preserving non-local mean filter (NLM) with the HYPR-LR (Local HighlY constrained backPRojection Reconstruction) framework. Image denoising using HYPR-LR framework depends on the noise level of the composite image which is the average of the different energy images. For DECT, the composite image is the average of high- and low-energy images. To further reduce noise, one may want to increase the window size of the filter of the HYPR-LR, leading resolution degradation. By incorporating the NLM filtering and the HYPR-LR framework, HYPR-NLM reduces the boost material decomposition noise using energy information redundancies as well as the non-local mean. We demonstrate the noise reduction and resolution preservation of the algorithm with both iodine concentration numerical phantom and clinical patient data by comparing the HYPR-NLM algorithm to the direct matrix inversion, HYPR-LR and iterative image-domain material decomposition (Iter-DECT). Results: The results show iterative material decomposition method reduces noise to the lowest level and provides improved DECT images. HYPR-NLM significantly reduces noise while preserving the accuracy of quantitative measurement and resolution. For the iodine concentration numerical phantom, the averaged noise levels are about 2.0, 0.7, 0.2 and 0.4 for direct inversion, HYPR-LR, Iter- DECT and HYPR-NLM, respectively. For the patient data, the noise levels of the water images are about 0.36, 0.16, 0.12 and 0.13 for direct inversion, HYPR-LR, Iter-DECT and HYPR-NLM, respectively. Difference images of both HYPR-LR and Iter-DECT show edge effect, while no significant edge effect is shown for HYPR-NLM, suggesting spatial resolution is well preserved for HYPR-NLM. Conclusion: HYPR

  4. Parallelization of PANDA discrete ordinates code using spatial decomposition

    SciTech Connect

    Humbert, P.

    2006-07-01

    We present the parallel method, based on spatial domain decomposition, implemented in the 2D and 3D versions of the discrete Ordinates code PANDA. The spatial mesh is orthogonal and the spatial domain decomposition is Cartesian. For 3D problems a 3D Cartesian domain topology is created and the parallel method is based on a domain diagonal plane ordered sweep algorithm. The parallel efficiency of the method is improved by directions and octants pipelining. The implementation of the algorithm is straightforward using MPI blocking point to point communications. The efficiency of the method is illustrated by an application to the 3D-Ext C5G7 benchmark of the OECD/NEA. (authors)

  5. How localized is ``local?'' Efficiency vs. accuracy of O(N) domain decomposition in local orbital based all-electron electronic structure theory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Havu, Vile; Blum, Volker; Scheffler, Matthias

    2007-03-01

    Numeric atom-centered local orbitals (NAO) are efficient basis sets for all-electron electronic structure theory. The locality of NAO's can be exploited to render (in principle) all operations of the self-consistency cycle O(N). This is straightforward for 3D integrals using domain decomposition into spatially close subsets of integration points, enabling critical computational savings that are effective from ˜tens of atoms (no significant overhead for smaller systems) and make large systems (100s of atoms) computationally feasible. Using a new all-electron NAO-based code,^1 we investigate the quantitative impact of exploiting this locality on two distinct classes of systems: Large light-element molecules [Alanine-based polypeptide chains (Ala)n], and compact transition metal clusters. Strict NAO locality is achieved by imposing a cutoff potential with an onset radius rc, and exploited by appropriately shaped integration domains (subsets of integration points). Conventional tight rc<= 3å have no measurable accuracy impact in (Ala)n, but introduce inaccuracies of 20-30 meV/atom in Cun. The domain shape impacts the computational effort by only 10-20 % for reasonable rc. ^1 V. Blum, R. Gehrke, P. Havu, V. Havu, M. Scheffler, The FHI Ab Initio Molecular Simulations (aims) Project, Fritz-Haber-Institut, Berlin (2006).

  6. Frozen Gaussian approximation based domain decomposition methods for the linear Schrödinger equation beyond the semi-classical regime

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lorin, E.; Yang, X.; Antoine, X.

    2016-06-01

    The paper is devoted to develop efficient domain decomposition methods for the linear Schrödinger equation beyond the semiclassical regime, which does not carry a small enough rescaled Planck constant for asymptotic methods (e.g. geometric optics) to produce a good accuracy, but which is too computationally expensive if direct methods (e.g. finite difference) are applied. This belongs to the category of computing middle-frequency wave propagation, where neither asymptotic nor direct methods can be directly used with both efficiency and accuracy. Motivated by recent works of the authors on absorbing boundary conditions (Antoine et al. (2014) [13] and Yang and Zhang (2014) [43]), we introduce Semiclassical Schwarz Waveform Relaxation methods (SSWR), which are seamless integrations of semiclassical approximation to Schwarz Waveform Relaxation methods. Two versions are proposed respectively based on Herman-Kluk propagation and geometric optics, and we prove the convergence and provide numerical evidence of efficiency and accuracy of these methods.

  7. A domain decomposition approach to implementing fault slip in finite-element models of quasi-static and dynamic crustal deformation

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Aagaard, B.T.; Knepley, M.G.; Williams, C.A.

    2013-01-01

    We employ a domain decomposition approach with Lagrange multipliers to implement fault slip in a finite-element code, PyLith, for use in both quasi-static and dynamic crustal deformation applications. This integrated approach to solving both quasi-static and dynamic simulations leverages common finite-element data structures and implementations of various boundary conditions, discretization schemes, and bulk and fault rheologies. We have developed a custom preconditioner for the Lagrange multiplier portion of the system of equations that provides excellent scalability with problem size compared to conventional additive Schwarz methods. We demonstrate application of this approach using benchmarks for both quasi-static viscoelastic deformation and dynamic spontaneous rupture propagation that verify the numerical implementation in PyLith.

  8. Vertical 2D Heterostructures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lotsch, Bettina V.

    2015-07-01

    Graphene's legacy has become an integral part of today's condensed matter science and has equipped a whole generation of scientists with an armory of concepts and techniques that open up new perspectives for the postgraphene area. In particular, the judicious combination of 2D building blocks into vertical heterostructures has recently been identified as a promising route to rationally engineer complex multilayer systems and artificial solids with intriguing properties. The present review highlights recent developments in the rapidly emerging field of 2D nanoarchitectonics from a materials chemistry perspective, with a focus on the types of heterostructures available, their assembly strategies, and their emerging properties. This overview is intended to bridge the gap between two major—yet largely disjunct—developments in 2D heterostructures, which are firmly rooted in solid-state chemistry or physics. Although the underlying types of heterostructures differ with respect to their dimensions, layer alignment, and interfacial quality, there is common ground, and future synergies between the various assembly strategies are to be expected.

  9. 2D semiconductor optoelectronics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Novoselov, Kostya

    The advent of graphene and related 2D materials has recently led to a new technology: heterostructures based on these atomically thin crystals. The paradigm proved itself extremely versatile and led to rapid demonstration of tunnelling diodes with negative differential resistance, tunnelling transistors, photovoltaic devices, etc. By taking the complexity and functionality of such van der Waals heterostructures to the next level we introduce quantum wells engineered with one atomic plane precision. Light emission from such quantum wells, quantum dots and polaritonic effects will be discussed.

  10. Influence of a threonine residue in the S2 ligand binding domain in determining agonist potency and deactivation rate of recombinant NR1a/NR2D NMDA receptors.

    PubMed

    Chen, Philip E; Johnston, Alexander R; Mok, M H Selina; Schoepfer, Ralf; Wyllie, David J A

    2004-07-01

    NR1/NR2D NMDA receptors display unusually slow deactivation kinetics which may be critical for their role as extrasynaptic receptors. A threonine to alanine point mutation has been inserted at amino acid position 692 of the NR2D subunit (T692A). Recombinant NR1a/NR2D(T692A) NMDA receptors have been expressed in Xenopus laevis oocytes and their pharmacological and single-channel properties examined using two-electrode voltage-clamp and patch-clamp recording techniques. Glutamate dose-response curves from NR1a/NR2D(T692A) receptor channels produced an approximately 1600-fold reduction in glutamate potency compared to wild-type NR1a/NR2D receptors. There was no change in Hill slopes or gross reduction in mean maximal currents recorded in oocytes expressing either wild-type or mutant receptors. The mutation did not affect the potency of the co-agonist glycine. The shifts in potency produced by NR2D(T692A) containing receptors when activated by other glutamate-site agonists such as aspartate or NMDA were 30- to 60-fold compared to wild-type. Single-channel conductance levels of NR1a/NR2D(T692A) mutant receptors were indistinguishable from wild-type NR2D-containing channels. Additionally NR1a/NR2D(T692A) receptors showed the transitional asymmetry that is characteristic of NR2D-containing NMDA receptors. Rapid applications of glutamate on outside-out patches containing NR1a/NR2D(T692A) receptors produced macroscopic current deactivations that were about 60-fold faster than wild-type NR1a/NR2D receptors. Our results suggest that this conserved threonine residue plays a crucial role in ligand binding to NMDA NR2 receptor subunits and supports the idea that the slow decay kinetics associated with NR1a/NR2D NMDA receptors can be explained by the slow dissociation of glutamate from this NMDA receptor subtype.

  11. On the Hodge-type decomposition and cohomology groups of k-Cauchy-Fueter complexes over domains in the quaternionic space

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chang, Der-Chen; Markina, Irina; Wang, Wei

    2016-09-01

    The k-Cauchy-Fueter operator D0(k) on one dimensional quaternionic space H is the Euclidean version of spin k / 2 massless field operator on the Minkowski space in physics. The k-Cauchy-Fueter equation for k ≥ 2 is overdetermined and its compatibility condition is given by the k-Cauchy-Fueter complex. In quaternionic analysis, these complexes play the role of Dolbeault complex in several complex variables. We prove that a natural boundary value problem associated to this complex is regular. Then by using the theory of regular boundary value problems, we show the Hodge-type orthogonal decomposition, and the fact that the non-homogeneous k-Cauchy-Fueter equation D0(k) u = f on a smooth domain Ω in H is solvable if and only if f satisfies the compatibility condition and is orthogonal to the set ℋ(k)1 (Ω) of Hodge-type elements. This set is isomorphic to the first cohomology group of the k-Cauchy-Fueter complex over Ω, which is finite dimensional, while the second cohomology group is always trivial.

  12. Application of 2D Non-Graphene Materials and 2D Oxide Nanostructures for Biosensing Technology

    PubMed Central

    Shavanova, Kateryna; Bakakina, Yulia; Burkova, Inna; Shtepliuk, Ivan; Viter, Roman; Ubelis, Arnolds; Beni, Valerio; Starodub, Nickolaj; Yakimova, Rositsa; Khranovskyy, Volodymyr

    2016-01-01

    The discovery of graphene and its unique properties has inspired researchers to try to invent other two-dimensional (2D) materials. After considerable research effort, a distinct “beyond graphene” domain has been established, comprising the library of non-graphene 2D materials. It is significant that some 2D non-graphene materials possess solid advantages over their predecessor, such as having a direct band gap, and therefore are highly promising for a number of applications. These applications are not limited to nano- and opto-electronics, but have a strong potential in biosensing technologies, as one example. However, since most of the 2D non-graphene materials have been newly discovered, most of the research efforts are concentrated on material synthesis and the investigation of the properties of the material. Applications of 2D non-graphene materials are still at the embryonic stage, and the integration of 2D non-graphene materials into devices is scarcely reported. However, in recent years, numerous reports have blossomed about 2D material-based biosensors, evidencing the growing potential of 2D non-graphene materials for biosensing applications. This review highlights the recent progress in research on the potential of using 2D non-graphene materials and similar oxide nanostructures for different types of biosensors (optical and electrochemical). A wide range of biological targets, such as glucose, dopamine, cortisol, DNA, IgG, bisphenol, ascorbic acid, cytochrome and estradiol, has been reported to be successfully detected by biosensors with transducers made of 2D non-graphene materials. PMID:26861346

  13. Application of 2D Non-Graphene Materials and 2D Oxide Nanostructures for Biosensing Technology.

    PubMed

    Shavanova, Kateryna; Bakakina, Yulia; Burkova, Inna; Shtepliuk, Ivan; Viter, Roman; Ubelis, Arnolds; Beni, Valerio; Starodub, Nickolaj; Yakimova, Rositsa; Khranovskyy, Volodymyr

    2016-02-06

    The discovery of graphene and its unique properties has inspired researchers to try to invent other two-dimensional (2D) materials. After considerable research effort, a distinct "beyond graphene" domain has been established, comprising the library of non-graphene 2D materials. It is significant that some 2D non-graphene materials possess solid advantages over their predecessor, such as having a direct band gap, and therefore are highly promising for a number of applications. These applications are not limited to nano- and opto-electronics, but have a strong potential in biosensing technologies, as one example. However, since most of the 2D non-graphene materials have been newly discovered, most of the research efforts are concentrated on material synthesis and the investigation of the properties of the material. Applications of 2D non-graphene materials are still at the embryonic stage, and the integration of 2D non-graphene materials into devices is scarcely reported. However, in recent years, numerous reports have blossomed about 2D material-based biosensors, evidencing the growing potential of 2D non-graphene materials for biosensing applications. This review highlights the recent progress in research on the potential of using 2D non-graphene materials and similar oxide nanostructures for different types of biosensors (optical and electrochemical). A wide range of biological targets, such as glucose, dopamine, cortisol, DNA, IgG, bisphenol, ascorbic acid, cytochrome and estradiol, has been reported to be successfully detected by biosensors with transducers made of 2D non-graphene materials.

  14. Automatic sleep staging using empirical mode decomposition, discrete wavelet transform, time-domain, and nonlinear dynamics features of heart rate variability signals.

    PubMed

    Ebrahimi, Farideh; Setarehdan, Seyed-Kamaledin; Ayala-Moyeda, Jose; Nazeran, Homer

    2013-10-01

    The conventional method for sleep staging is to analyze polysomnograms (PSGs) recorded in a sleep lab. The electroencephalogram (EEG) is one of the most important signals in PSGs but recording and analysis of this signal presents a number of technical challenges, especially at home. Instead, electrocardiograms (ECGs) are much easier to record and may offer an attractive alternative for home sleep monitoring. The heart rate variability (HRV) signal proves suitable for automatic sleep staging. Thirty PSGs from the Sleep Heart Health Study (SHHS) database were used. Three feature sets were extracted from 5- and 0.5-min HRV segments: time-domain features, nonlinear-dynamics features and time-frequency features. The latter was achieved by using empirical mode decomposition (EMD) and discrete wavelet transform (DWT) methods. Normalized energies in important frequency bands of HRV signals were computed using time-frequency methods. ANOVA and t-test were used for statistical evaluations. Automatic sleep staging was based on HRV signal features. The ANOVA followed by a post hoc Bonferroni was used for individual feature assessment. Most features were beneficial for sleep staging. A t-test was used to compare the means of extracted features in 5- and 0.5-min HRV segments. The results showed that the extracted features means were statistically similar for a small number of features. A separability measure showed that time-frequency features, especially EMD features, had larger separation than others. There was not a sizable difference in separability of linear features between 5- and 0.5-min HRV segments but separability of nonlinear features, especially EMD features, decreased in 0.5-min HRV segments. HRV signal features were classified by linear discriminant (LD) and quadratic discriminant (QD) methods. Classification results based on features from 5-min segments surpassed those obtained from 0.5-min segments. The best result was obtained from features using 5-min HRV

  15. E-2D Advanced Hawkeye Aircraft (E-2D AHE)

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-12-01

    Selected Acquisition Report (SAR) RCS: DD-A&T(Q&A)823-364 E-2D Advanced Hawkeye Aircraft (E-2D AHE) As of FY 2017 President’s Budget Defense...Office Estimate RDT&E - Research, Development, Test, and Evaluation SAR - Selected Acquisition Report SCP - Service Cost Position TBD - To Be Determined

  16. Realistic and efficient 2D crack simulation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yadegar, Jacob; Liu, Xiaoqing; Singh, Abhishek

    2010-04-01

    Although numerical algorithms for 2D crack simulation have been studied in Modeling and Simulation (M&S) and computer graphics for decades, realism and computational efficiency are still major challenges. In this paper, we introduce a high-fidelity, scalable, adaptive and efficient/runtime 2D crack/fracture simulation system by applying the mathematically elegant Peano-Cesaro triangular meshing/remeshing technique to model the generation of shards/fragments. The recursive fractal sweep associated with the Peano-Cesaro triangulation provides efficient local multi-resolution refinement to any level-of-detail. The generated binary decomposition tree also provides efficient neighbor retrieval mechanism used for mesh element splitting and merging with minimal memory requirements essential for realistic 2D fragment formation. Upon load impact/contact/penetration, a number of factors including impact angle, impact energy, and material properties are all taken into account to produce the criteria of crack initialization, propagation, and termination leading to realistic fractal-like rubble/fragments formation. The aforementioned parameters are used as variables of probabilistic models of cracks/shards formation, making the proposed solution highly adaptive by allowing machine learning mechanisms learn the optimal values for the variables/parameters based on prior benchmark data generated by off-line physics based simulation solutions that produce accurate fractures/shards though at highly non-real time paste. Crack/fracture simulation has been conducted on various load impacts with different initial locations at various impulse scales. The simulation results demonstrate that the proposed system has the capability to realistically and efficiently simulate 2D crack phenomena (such as window shattering and shards generation) with diverse potentials in military and civil M&S applications such as training and mission planning.

  17. Toward an Efficient Icing CFD Process Using an Interactive Software Toolkit: Smagglce 2D

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vickerman, Mary B.; Choo, Yung K.; Schilling, Herbert W.; Baez, Marivell; Braun, Donald C.; Cotton, Barbara J.

    2001-01-01

    Two-dimensional CID analysis for iced airfoils can be a labor-intensive task. The software toolkit SmaggIce 2D is being developed to help streamline the CID process and provide the unique features needed for icing. When complete, it will include a combination of partially automated and fully interactive tools for all aspects of the tasks leading up to the flow analysis: geometry preparation, domain decomposition. block boundary demoralization. gridding, and linking with a flow solver. It also includes tools to perform ice shape characterization, an important aid in determining the relationship between ice characteristics and their effects on aerodynamic performance. Completed tools, work-in-progress, and planned features of the software toolkit are presented here.

  18. Toward an Efficient Icing CFD Process Using an Interactive Software Toolkit--SmaggIce 2D

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vickerman, Mary B.; Choo, Yung K.; Schilling, Herbert W.; Baez, Marivell; Braun, Donald C.; Cotton, Barbara J.

    2002-01-01

    Two-dimensional CFD analysis for iced airfoils can be a labor-intensive task. The software toolkit SmaggIce 2D is being developed to help streamline the CFD process and provide the unique features needed for icing. When complete, it will include a combination of partially automated and fully interactive tools for all aspects of the tasks leading up to the flow analysis: geometry preparation, domain decomposition, block boundary discretization. gridding, and linking with a flow solver. It also includes tools to perform ice shape characterization, an important aid in determining the relationship between ice characteristics and their effects on aerodynamic performance. Completed tools, work-in-progress, and planned features of the software toolkit are presented here.

  19. A 2D-QSAR and Grid-Independent Molecular Descriptor (GRIND) Analysis of Quinoline-Type Inhibitors of Akt2: Exploration of the Binding Mode in the Pleckstrin Homology (PH) Domain

    PubMed Central

    Akhtar, Noreen; Jabeen, Ishrat

    2016-01-01

    Protein kinase B-β (PKBβ/Akt2) is a serine/threonine-specific protein kinase that has emerged as one of the most important regulators of cell growth, differentiation, and division. Upregulation of Akt2 in various human carcinomas, including ovarian, breast, and pancreatic, is a well-known tumorigenesis phenomenon. Early on, the concept of the simultaneous administration of anticancer drugs with inhibitors of Akt2 was advocated to overcome cell proliferation in the chemotherapeutic treatment of cancer. However, clinical studies have not lived up to the high expectations, and several phase II and phase III clinical studies have been terminated prematurely because of severe side effects related to the non-selective isomeric inhibition of Akt2. The notion that the sequence identity of pleckstrin homology (PH) domains within Akt-isoforms is less than 30% might indicate the possibility of the development of selective antagonists against the Akt2 PH domain. Therefore, in this study, various in silico tools were utilized to explore the hypothesis that quinoline-type inhibitors bind in the Akt2 PH domain. A Grid-Independent Molecular Descriptor (GRIND) analysis indicated that two hydrogen bond acceptors, two hydrogen bond donors and one hydrophobic feature at a certain distance from each other were important for the selective inhibition of Akt2. Our docking results delineated the importance of Lys30 as an anchor point for mapping the distances of important amino acid residues in the binding pocket, including Lys14, Glu17, Arg25, Asn53, Asn54 and Arg86. The binding regions identified complement the GRIND-based pharmacophoric features. PMID:28036396

  20. Ozone decomposition.

    PubMed

    Batakliev, Todor; Georgiev, Vladimir; Anachkov, Metody; Rakovsky, Slavcho; Zaikov, Gennadi E

    2014-06-01

    Catalytic ozone decomposition is of great significance because ozone is a toxic substance commonly found or generated in human environments (aircraft cabins, offices with photocopiers, laser printers, sterilizers). Considerable work has been done on ozone decomposition reported in the literature. This review provides a comprehensive summary of the literature, concentrating on analysis of the physico-chemical properties, synthesis and catalytic decomposition of ozone. This is supplemented by a review on kinetics and catalyst characterization which ties together the previously reported results. Noble metals and oxides of transition metals have been found to be the most active substances for ozone decomposition. The high price of precious metals stimulated the use of metal oxide catalysts and particularly the catalysts based on manganese oxide. It has been determined that the kinetics of ozone decomposition is of first order importance. A mechanism of the reaction of catalytic ozone decomposition is discussed, based on detailed spectroscopic investigations of the catalytic surface, showing the existence of peroxide and superoxide surface intermediates.

  1. Ozone decomposition

    PubMed Central

    Batakliev, Todor; Georgiev, Vladimir; Anachkov, Metody; Rakovsky, Slavcho

    2014-01-01

    Catalytic ozone decomposition is of great significance because ozone is a toxic substance commonly found or generated in human environments (aircraft cabins, offices with photocopiers, laser printers, sterilizers). Considerable work has been done on ozone decomposition reported in the literature. This review provides a comprehensive summary of the literature, concentrating on analysis of the physico-chemical properties, synthesis and catalytic decomposition of ozone. This is supplemented by a review on kinetics and catalyst characterization which ties together the previously reported results. Noble metals and oxides of transition metals have been found to be the most active substances for ozone decomposition. The high price of precious metals stimulated the use of metal oxide catalysts and particularly the catalysts based on manganese oxide. It has been determined that the kinetics of ozone decomposition is of first order importance. A mechanism of the reaction of catalytic ozone decomposition is discussed, based on detailed spectroscopic investigations of the catalytic surface, showing the existence of peroxide and superoxide surface intermediates. PMID:26109880

  2. Optoelectronics with 2D semiconductors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mueller, Thomas

    2015-03-01

    Two-dimensional (2D) atomic crystals, such as graphene and layered transition-metal dichalcogenides, are currently receiving a lot of attention for applications in electronics and optoelectronics. In this talk, I will review our research activities on electrically driven light emission, photovoltaic energy conversion and photodetection in 2D semiconductors. In particular, WSe2 monolayer p-n junctions formed by electrostatic doping using a pair of split gate electrodes, type-II heterojunctions based on MoS2/WSe2 and MoS2/phosphorene van der Waals stacks, 2D multi-junction solar cells, and 3D/2D semiconductor interfaces will be presented. Upon optical illumination, conversion of light into electrical energy occurs in these devices. If an electrical current is driven, efficient electroluminescence is obtained. I will present measurements of the electrical characteristics, the optical properties, and the gate voltage dependence of the device response. In the second part of my talk, I will discuss photoconductivity studies of MoS2 field-effect transistors. We identify photovoltaic and photoconductive effects, which both show strong photoconductive gain. A model will be presented that reproduces our experimental findings, such as the dependence on optical power and gate voltage. We envision that the efficient photon conversion and light emission, combined with the advantages of 2D semiconductors, such as flexibility, high mechanical stability and low costs of production, could lead to new optoelectronic technologies.

  3. GRID3D-v2: An updated version of the GRID2D/3D computer program for generating grid systems in complex-shaped three-dimensional spatial domains

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Steinthorsson, E.; Shih, T. I-P.; Roelke, R. J.

    1991-01-01

    In order to generate good quality systems for complicated three-dimensional spatial domains, the grid-generation method used must be able to exert rather precise controls over grid-point distributions. Several techniques are presented that enhance control of grid-point distribution for a class of algebraic grid-generation methods known as the two-, four-, and six-boundary methods. These techniques include variable stretching functions from bilinear interpolation, interpolating functions based on tension splines, and normalized K-factors. The techniques developed in this study were incorporated into a new version of GRID3D called GRID3D-v2. The usefulness of GRID3D-v2 was demonstrated by using it to generate a three-dimensional grid system in the coolent passage of a radial turbine blade with serpentine channels and pin fins.

  4. Some nonlinear space decomposition algorithms

    SciTech Connect

    Tai, Xue-Cheng; Espedal, M.

    1996-12-31

    Convergence of a space decomposition method is proved for a general convex programming problem. The space decomposition refers to methods that decompose a space into sums of subspaces, which could be a domain decomposition or a multigrid method for partial differential equations. Two algorithms are proposed. Both can be used for linear as well as nonlinear elliptic problems and they reduce to the standard additive and multiplicative Schwarz methods for linear elliptic problems. Two {open_quotes}hybrid{close_quotes} algorithms are also presented. They converge faster than the additive one and have better parallelism than the multiplicative method. Numerical tests with a two level domain decomposition for linear, nonlinear and interface elliptic problems are presented for the proposed algorithms.

  5. Decomposition techniques

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Chao, T.T.; Sanzolone, R.F.

    1992-01-01

    Sample decomposition is a fundamental and integral step in the procedure of geochemical analysis. It is often the limiting factor to sample throughput, especially with the recent application of the fast and modern multi-element measurement instrumentation. The complexity of geological materials makes it necessary to choose the sample decomposition technique that is compatible with the specific objective of the analysis. When selecting a decomposition technique, consideration should be given to the chemical and mineralogical characteristics of the sample, elements to be determined, precision and accuracy requirements, sample throughput, technical capability of personnel, and time constraints. This paper addresses these concerns and discusses the attributes and limitations of many techniques of sample decomposition along with examples of their application to geochemical analysis. The chemical properties of reagents as to their function as decomposition agents are also reviewed. The section on acid dissolution techniques addresses the various inorganic acids that are used individually or in combination in both open and closed systems. Fluxes used in sample fusion are discussed. The promising microwave-oven technology and the emerging field of automation are also examined. A section on applications highlights the use of decomposition techniques for the determination of Au, platinum group elements (PGEs), Hg, U, hydride-forming elements, rare earth elements (REEs), and multi-elements in geological materials. Partial dissolution techniques used for geochemical exploration which have been treated in detail elsewhere are not discussed here; nor are fire-assaying for noble metals and decomposition techniques for X-ray fluorescence or nuclear methods be discussed. ?? 1992.

  6. A secure double-image sharing scheme based on Shamir's three-pass protocol and 2D Sine Logistic modulation map in discrete multiple-parameter fractional angular transform domain

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sui, Liansheng; Duan, Kuaikuai; Liang, Junli

    2016-05-01

    A secure double-image sharing scheme is proposed by using the Shamir's three-pass protocol in the discrete multiple-parameter fractional angular transform domain. First, an enlarged image is formed by assembling two plain images successively in the horizontal direction and scrambled in the chaotic permutation process, in which the sequences of chaotic pairs are generated by the two-dimensional Sine Logistic modulation map. Second, the scrambled image is divided into two components which are used to constitute a complex image. One component is normalized and regarded as the phase part of the complex image as well as other is considered as the amplitude part. Finally, the complex image is shared between the sender and the receiver by using the Shamir's three-pass protocol, in which the discrete multiple-parameter fractional angular transform is used as the encryption function due to its commutative property. The proposed double-image sharing scheme has an obvious advantage that the key management is convenient without distributing the random phase mask keys in advance. Moreover, the security of the image sharing scheme is enhanced with the help of extra parameters of the discrete multiple-parameter fractional angular transform. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report on integrating the Shamir's three-pass protocol with double-image sharing scheme in the information security field. Simulation results and security analysis verify the feasibility and effectiveness of the proposed scheme.

  7. Highly crystalline 2D superconductors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saito, Yu; Nojima, Tsutomu; Iwasa, Yoshihiro

    2016-12-01

    Recent advances in materials fabrication have enabled the manufacturing of ordered 2D electron systems, such as heterogeneous interfaces, atomic layers grown by molecular beam epitaxy, exfoliated thin flakes and field-effect devices. These 2D electron systems are highly crystalline, and some of them, despite their single-layer thickness, exhibit a sheet resistance more than an order of magnitude lower than that of conventional amorphous or granular thin films. In this Review, we explore recent developments in the field of highly crystalline 2D superconductors and highlight the unprecedented physical properties of these systems. In particular, we explore the quantum metallic state (or possible metallic ground state), the quantum Griffiths phase observed in out-of-plane magnetic fields and the superconducting state maintained in anomalously large in-plane magnetic fields. These phenomena are examined in the context of weakened disorder and/or broken spatial inversion symmetry. We conclude with a discussion of how these unconventional properties make highly crystalline 2D systems promising platforms for the exploration of new quantum physics and high-temperature superconductors.

  8. Extensions of 2D gravity

    SciTech Connect

    Sevrin, A.

    1993-06-01

    After reviewing some aspects of gravity in two dimensions, I show that non-trivial embeddings of sl(2) in a semi-simple (super) Lie algebra give rise to a very large class of extensions of 2D gravity. The induced action is constructed as a gauged WZW model and an exact expression for the effective action is given.

  9. Woodland Decomposition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Napier, J.

    1988-01-01

    Outlines the role of the main organisms involved in woodland decomposition and discusses some of the variables affecting the rate of nutrient cycling. Suggests practical work that may be of value to high school students either as standard practice or long-term projects. (CW)

  10. An analysis of scatter decomposition

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nicol, David M.; Saltz, Joel H.

    1990-01-01

    A formal analysis of a powerful mapping technique known as scatter decomposition is presented. Scatter decomposition divides an irregular computational domain into a large number of equal sized pieces, and distributes them modularly among processors. A probabilistic model of workload in one dimension is used to formally explain why, and when scatter decomposition works. The first result is that if correlation in workload is a convex function of distance, then scattering a more finely decomposed domain yields a lower average processor workload variance. The second result shows that if the workload process is stationary Gaussian and the correlation function decreases linearly in distance until becoming zero and then remains zero, scattering a more finely decomposed domain yields a lower expected maximum processor workload. Finally it is shown that if the correlation function decreases linearly across the entire domain, then among all mappings that assign an equal number of domain pieces to each processor, scatter decomposition minimizes the average processor workload variance. The dependence of these results on the assumption of decreasing correlation is illustrated with situations where a coarser granularity actually achieves better load balance.

  11. Sparse radar imaging using 2D compressed sensing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hou, Qingkai; Liu, Yang; Chen, Zengping; Su, Shaoying

    2014-10-01

    Radar imaging is an ill-posed linear inverse problem and compressed sensing (CS) has been proved to have tremendous potential in this field. This paper surveys the theory of radar imaging and a conclusion is drawn that the processing of ISAR imaging can be denoted mathematically as a problem of 2D sparse decomposition. Based on CS, we propose a novel measuring strategy for ISAR imaging radar and utilize random sub-sampling in both range and azimuth dimensions, which will reduce the amount of sampling data tremendously. In order to handle 2D reconstructing problem, the ordinary solution is converting the 2D problem into 1D by Kronecker product, which will increase the size of dictionary and computational cost sharply. In this paper, we introduce the 2D-SL0 algorithm into the reconstruction of imaging. It is proved that 2D-SL0 can achieve equivalent result as other 1D reconstructing methods, but the computational complexity and memory usage is reduced significantly. Moreover, we will state the results of simulating experiments and prove the effectiveness and feasibility of our method.

  12. Alloyed 2D Metal-Semiconductor Atomic Layer Junctions.

    PubMed

    Kim, Ah Ra; Kim, Yonghun; Nam, Jaewook; Chung, Hee-Suk; Kim, Dong Jae; Kwon, Jung-Dae; Park, Sang Won; Park, Jucheol; Choi, Sun Young; Lee, Byoung Hun; Park, Ji Hyeon; Lee, Kyu Hwan; Kim, Dong-Ho; Choi, Sung Mook; Ajayan, Pulickel M; Hahm, Myung Gwan; Cho, Byungjin

    2016-03-09

    Heterostructures of compositionally and electronically variant two-dimensional (2D) atomic layers are viable building blocks for ultrathin optoelectronic devices. We show that the composition of interfacial transition region between semiconducting WSe2 atomic layer channels and metallic NbSe2 contact layers can be engineered through interfacial doping with Nb atoms. WxNb1-xSe2 interfacial regions considerably lower the potential barrier height of the junction, significantly improving the performance of the corresponding WSe2-based field-effect transistor devices. The creation of such alloyed 2D junctions between dissimilar atomic layer domains could be the most important factor in controlling the electronic properties of 2D junctions and the design and fabrication of 2D atomic layer devices.

  13. 2D quasiperiodic plasmonic crystals

    PubMed Central

    Bauer, Christina; Kobiela, Georg; Giessen, Harald

    2012-01-01

    Nanophotonic structures with irregular symmetry, such as quasiperiodic plasmonic crystals, have gained an increasing amount of attention, in particular as potential candidates to enhance the absorption of solar cells in an angular insensitive fashion. To examine the photonic bandstructure of such systems that determines their optical properties, it is necessary to measure and model normal and oblique light interaction with plasmonic crystals. We determine the different propagation vectors and consider the interaction of all possible waveguide modes and particle plasmons in a 2D metallic photonic quasicrystal, in conjunction with the dispersion relations of a slab waveguide. Using a Fano model, we calculate the optical properties for normal and inclined light incidence. Comparing measurements of a quasiperiodic lattice to the modelled spectra for angle of incidence variation in both azimuthal and polar direction of the sample gives excellent agreement and confirms the predictive power of our model. PMID:23209871

  14. Valleytronics in 2D materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schaibley, John R.; Yu, Hongyi; Clark, Genevieve; Rivera, Pasqual; Ross, Jason S.; Seyler, Kyle L.; Yao, Wang; Xu, Xiaodong

    2016-11-01

    Semiconductor technology is currently based on the manipulation of electronic charge; however, electrons have additional degrees of freedom, such as spin and valley, that can be used to encode and process information. Over the past several decades, there has been significant progress in manipulating electron spin for semiconductor spintronic devices, motivated by potential spin-based information processing and storage applications. However, experimental progress towards manipulating the valley degree of freedom for potential valleytronic devices has been limited until very recently. We review the latest advances in valleytronics, which have largely been enabled by the isolation of 2D materials (such as graphene and semiconducting transition metal dichalcogenides) that host an easily accessible electronic valley degree of freedom, allowing for dynamic control.

  15. Unparticle example in 2D.

    PubMed

    Georgi, Howard; Kats, Yevgeny

    2008-09-26

    We discuss what can be learned about unparticle physics by studying simple quantum field theories in one space and one time dimension. We argue that the exactly soluble 2D theory of a massless fermion coupled to a massive vector boson, the Sommerfield model, is an interesting analog of a Banks-Zaks model, approaching a free theory at high energies and a scale-invariant theory with nontrivial anomalous dimensions at low energies. We construct a toy standard model coupling to the fermions in the Sommerfield model and study how the transition from unparticle behavior at low energies to free particle behavior at high energies manifests itself in interactions with the toy standard model particles.

  16. Quantum coherence selective 2D Raman–2D electronic spectroscopy

    PubMed Central

    Spencer, Austin P.; Hutson, William O.; Harel, Elad

    2017-01-01

    Electronic and vibrational correlations report on the dynamics and structure of molecular species, yet revealing these correlations experimentally has proved extremely challenging. Here, we demonstrate a method that probes correlations between states within the vibrational and electronic manifold with quantum coherence selectivity. Specifically, we measure a fully coherent four-dimensional spectrum which simultaneously encodes vibrational–vibrational, electronic–vibrational and electronic–electronic interactions. By combining near-impulsive resonant and non-resonant excitation, the desired fifth-order signal of a complex organic molecule in solution is measured free of unwanted lower-order contamination. A critical feature of this method is electronic and vibrational frequency resolution, enabling isolation and assignment of individual quantum coherence pathways. The vibronic structure of the system is then revealed within an otherwise broad and featureless 2D electronic spectrum. This method is suited for studying elusive quantum effects in which electronic transitions strongly couple to phonons and vibrations, such as energy transfer in photosynthetic pigment–protein complexes. PMID:28281541

  17. Quantum coherence selective 2D Raman-2D electronic spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Spencer, Austin P.; Hutson, William O.; Harel, Elad

    2017-03-01

    Electronic and vibrational correlations report on the dynamics and structure of molecular species, yet revealing these correlations experimentally has proved extremely challenging. Here, we demonstrate a method that probes correlations between states within the vibrational and electronic manifold with quantum coherence selectivity. Specifically, we measure a fully coherent four-dimensional spectrum which simultaneously encodes vibrational-vibrational, electronic-vibrational and electronic-electronic interactions. By combining near-impulsive resonant and non-resonant excitation, the desired fifth-order signal of a complex organic molecule in solution is measured free of unwanted lower-order contamination. A critical feature of this method is electronic and vibrational frequency resolution, enabling isolation and assignment of individual quantum coherence pathways. The vibronic structure of the system is then revealed within an otherwise broad and featureless 2D electronic spectrum. This method is suited for studying elusive quantum effects in which electronic transitions strongly couple to phonons and vibrations, such as energy transfer in photosynthetic pigment-protein complexes.

  18. Quantum coherence selective 2D Raman-2D electronic spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Spencer, Austin P; Hutson, William O; Harel, Elad

    2017-03-10

    Electronic and vibrational correlations report on the dynamics and structure of molecular species, yet revealing these correlations experimentally has proved extremely challenging. Here, we demonstrate a method that probes correlations between states within the vibrational and electronic manifold with quantum coherence selectivity. Specifically, we measure a fully coherent four-dimensional spectrum which simultaneously encodes vibrational-vibrational, electronic-vibrational and electronic-electronic interactions. By combining near-impulsive resonant and non-resonant excitation, the desired fifth-order signal of a complex organic molecule in solution is measured free of unwanted lower-order contamination. A critical feature of this method is electronic and vibrational frequency resolution, enabling isolation and assignment of individual quantum coherence pathways. The vibronic structure of the system is then revealed within an otherwise broad and featureless 2D electronic spectrum. This method is suited for studying elusive quantum effects in which electronic transitions strongly couple to phonons and vibrations, such as energy transfer in photosynthetic pigment-protein complexes.

  19. Metrology for graphene and 2D materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pollard, Andrew J.

    2016-09-01

    The application of graphene, a one atom-thick honeycomb lattice of carbon atoms with superlative properties, such as electrical conductivity, thermal conductivity and strength, has already shown that it can be used to benefit metrology itself as a new quantum standard for resistance. However, there are many application areas where graphene and other 2D materials, such as molybdenum disulphide (MoS2) and hexagonal boron nitride (h-BN), may be disruptive, areas such as flexible electronics, nanocomposites, sensing and energy storage. Applying metrology to the area of graphene is now critical to enable the new, emerging global graphene commercial world and bridge the gap between academia and industry. Measurement capabilities and expertise in a wide range of scientific areas are required to address this challenge. The combined and complementary approach of varied characterisation methods for structural, chemical, electrical and other properties, will allow the real-world issues of commercialising graphene and other 2D materials to be addressed. Here, examples of metrology challenges that have been overcome through a multi-technique or new approach are discussed. Firstly, the structural characterisation of defects in both graphene and MoS2 via Raman spectroscopy is described, and how nanoscale mapping of vacancy defects in graphene is also possible using tip-enhanced Raman spectroscopy (TERS). Furthermore, the chemical characterisation and removal of polymer residue on chemical vapour deposition (CVD) grown graphene via secondary ion mass spectrometry (SIMS) is detailed, as well as the chemical characterisation of iron films used to grow large domain single-layer h-BN through CVD growth, revealing how contamination of the substrate itself plays a role in the resulting h-BN layer. In addition, the role of international standardisation in this area is described, outlining the current work ongoing in both the International Organization of Standardization (ISO) and the

  20. Scale-free behavior of a 2D complex plasma during rapid cooling.

    PubMed

    Knapek, C A; Durniak, C; Samsonov, D; Morfill, G E

    2013-01-18

    Experimental evidence is presented for a scale-free transition from an unordered to an ordered state in a 2D complex plasma that differs from the KTHNY theory of phase transitions in 2D systems. The transition is characterized by the formation and growth of ordered domains. A fractal relationship is found between the domain areas and domain boundary lengths, which can be explained by a recent theoretical model. The experimental findings are supported by a molecular dynamics simulation of a 2D particle system.

  1. Laboratory Experiments On Continually Forced 2d Turbulence

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wells, M. G.; Clercx, H. J. H.; Van Heijst, G. J. F.

    There has been much recent interest in the advection of tracers by 2D turbulence in geophysical flows. While there is a large body of literature on decaying 2D turbulence or forced 2D turbulence in unbounded domains, there have been very few studies of forced turbulence in bounded domains. In this study we present new experimental results from a continuously forced quasi 2D turbulent field. The experiments are performed in a square Perspex tank filled with water. The flow is made quasi 2D by a steady background rotation. The rotation rate of the tank has a small (<8 %) sinusoidal perturbation which leads to the periodic formation of eddies in the corners of the tank. When the oscillation period of the perturbation is greater than an eddy roll-up time-scale, dipole structures are observed to form. The dipoles can migrate away from the walls, and the interior of the tank is continually filled with vortexs. From experimental visualizations the length scale of the vortexs appears to be largely controlled by the initial formation mechanism and large scale structures are not observed to form at large times. Thus the experiments provide a simple way of cre- ating a continuously forced 2D turbulent field. The resulting structures are in contrast with most previous laboratory experiments on 2D turbulence which have investigated decaying turbulence and have observed the formations of large scale structure. In these experiments, decaying turbulence had been produced by a variety of methods such as the decaying turbulence in the wake of a comb of rods (Massen et al 1999), organiza- tion of vortices in thin conducting liquids (Cardoso et al 1994) or in rotating systems where there are sudden changes in angular rotation rate (Konijnenberg et al 1998). Results of dye visualizations, particle tracking experiments and a direct numerical simulation will be presented and discussed in terms of their oceanographic application. Bibliography Cardoso,O. Marteau, D. &Tabeling, P

  2. Competing coexisting phases in 2D water

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zanotti, Jean-Marc; Judeinstein, Patrick; Dalla-Bernardina, Simona; Creff, Gaëlle; Brubach, Jean-Blaise; Roy, Pascale; Bonetti, Marco; Ollivier, Jacques; Sakellariou, Dimitrios; Bellissent-Funel, Marie-Claire

    2016-05-01

    The properties of bulk water come from a delicate balance of interactions on length scales encompassing several orders of magnitudes: i) the Hydrogen Bond (HBond) at the molecular scale and ii) the extension of this HBond network up to the macroscopic level. Here, we address the physics of water when the three dimensional extension of the HBond network is frustrated, so that the water molecules are forced to organize in only two dimensions. We account for the large scale fluctuating HBond network by an analytical mean-field percolation model. This approach provides a coherent interpretation of the different events experimentally (calorimetry, neutron, NMR, near and far infra-red spectroscopies) detected in interfacial water at 160, 220 and 250 K. Starting from an amorphous state of water at low temperature, these transitions are respectively interpreted as the onset of creation of transient low density patches of 4-HBonded molecules at 160 K, the percolation of these domains at 220 K and finally the total invasion of the surface by them at 250 K. The source of this surprising behaviour in 2D is the frustration of the natural bulk tetrahedral local geometry and the underlying very significant increase in entropy of the interfacial water molecules.

  3. Competing coexisting phases in 2D water

    PubMed Central

    Zanotti, Jean-Marc; Judeinstein, Patrick; Dalla-Bernardina, Simona; Creff, Gaëlle; Brubach, Jean-Blaise; Roy, Pascale; Bonetti, Marco; Ollivier, Jacques; Sakellariou, Dimitrios; Bellissent-Funel, Marie-Claire

    2016-01-01

    The properties of bulk water come from a delicate balance of interactions on length scales encompassing several orders of magnitudes: i) the Hydrogen Bond (HBond) at the molecular scale and ii) the extension of this HBond network up to the macroscopic level. Here, we address the physics of water when the three dimensional extension of the HBond network is frustrated, so that the water molecules are forced to organize in only two dimensions. We account for the large scale fluctuating HBond network by an analytical mean-field percolation model. This approach provides a coherent interpretation of the different events experimentally (calorimetry, neutron, NMR, near and far infra-red spectroscopies) detected in interfacial water at 160, 220 and 250 K. Starting from an amorphous state of water at low temperature, these transitions are respectively interpreted as the onset of creation of transient low density patches of 4-HBonded molecules at 160 K, the percolation of these domains at 220 K and finally the total invasion of the surface by them at 250 K. The source of this surprising behaviour in 2D is the frustration of the natural bulk tetrahedral local geometry and the underlying very significant increase in entropy of the interfacial water molecules. PMID:27185018

  4. NKG2D ligands as therapeutic targets

    PubMed Central

    Spear, Paul; Wu, Ming-Ru; Sentman, Marie-Louise; Sentman, Charles L.

    2013-01-01

    The Natural Killer Group 2D (NKG2D) receptor plays an important role in protecting the host from infections and cancer. By recognizing ligands induced on infected or tumor cells, NKG2D modulates lymphocyte activation and promotes immunity to eliminate ligand-expressing cells. Because these ligands are not widely expressed on healthy adult tissue, NKG2D ligands may present a useful target for immunotherapeutic approaches in cancer. Novel therapies targeting NKG2D ligands for the treatment of cancer have shown preclinical success and are poised to enter into clinical trials. In this review, the NKG2D receptor and its ligands are discussed in the context of cancer, infection, and autoimmunity. In addition, therapies targeting NKG2D ligands in cancer are also reviewed. PMID:23833565

  5. 2D Orthogonal Locality Preserving Projection for Image Denoising.

    PubMed

    Shikkenawis, Gitam; Mitra, Suman K

    2016-01-01

    Sparse representations using transform-domain techniques are widely used for better interpretation of the raw data. Orthogonal locality preserving projection (OLPP) is a linear technique that tries to preserve local structure of data in the transform domain as well. Vectorized nature of OLPP requires high-dimensional data to be converted to vector format, hence may lose spatial neighborhood information of raw data. On the other hand, processing 2D data directly, not only preserves spatial information, but also improves the computational efficiency considerably. The 2D OLPP is expected to learn the transformation from 2D data itself. This paper derives mathematical foundation for 2D OLPP. The proposed technique is used for image denoising task. Recent state-of-the-art approaches for image denoising work on two major hypotheses, i.e., non-local self-similarity and sparse linear approximations of the data. Locality preserving nature of the proposed approach automatically takes care of self-similarity present in the image while inferring sparse basis. A global basis is adequate for the entire image. The proposed approach outperforms several state-of-the-art image denoising approaches for gray-scale, color, and texture images.

  6. A novel hybrid motion detection algorithm based on 2D histogram

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Su, Xiaomeng; Wang, Haiying

    2015-03-01

    This article proposes a novel hybrid motion detection algorithm based on 2-D (2-Dimensional) spatio-temporal states histogram. The new algorithm combines the idea of image change detection based on 2-D histogram and spatio-temporal entropy image segmentation. It quantifies the continuity of pixel state in time and space domain which are called TDF (Time Domain Filter) and SDF (Space Domain Filter) respectively. After this, put both channels of output data from TDF and SDF into a 2-D histogram. In the 2-D histogram, a curve division method helps to separate the foreground state points and the background ones more accurately. Innovatively, the new algorithm converts the video sequence to its histogram sequence, and transforms the difference of pixel's value in the video sequence into the difference of pixel's position in the 2-D histogram. Experimental results on different types of scenes added Gaussian noise shows that the proposed technique has strong ability of detecting moving objects.

  7. Quantitative 2D liquid-state NMR.

    PubMed

    Giraudeau, Patrick

    2014-06-01

    Two-dimensional (2D) liquid-state NMR has a very high potential to simultaneously determine the absolute concentration of small molecules in complex mixtures, thanks to its capacity to separate overlapping resonances. However, it suffers from two main drawbacks that probably explain its relatively late development. First, the 2D NMR signal is strongly molecule-dependent and site-dependent; second, the long duration of 2D NMR experiments prevents its general use for high-throughput quantitative applications and affects its quantitative performance. Fortunately, the last 10 years has witnessed an increasing number of contributions where quantitative approaches based on 2D NMR were developed and applied to solve real analytical issues. This review aims at presenting these recent efforts to reach a high trueness and precision in quantitative measurements by 2D NMR. After highlighting the interest of 2D NMR for quantitative analysis, the different strategies to determine the absolute concentrations from 2D NMR spectra are described and illustrated by recent applications. The last part of the manuscript concerns the recent development of fast quantitative 2D NMR approaches, aiming at reducing the experiment duration while preserving - or even increasing - the analytical performance. We hope that this comprehensive review will help readers to apprehend the current landscape of quantitative 2D NMR, as well as the perspectives that may arise from it.

  8. Mode decomposition evolution equations

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Yang; Wei, Guo-Wei; Yang, Siyang

    2011-01-01

    Partial differential equation (PDE) based methods have become some of the most powerful tools for exploring the fundamental problems in signal processing, image processing, computer vision, machine vision and artificial intelligence in the past two decades. The advantages of PDE based approaches are that they can be made fully automatic, robust for the analysis of images, videos and high dimensional data. A fundamental question is whether one can use PDEs to perform all the basic tasks in the image processing. If one can devise PDEs to perform full-scale mode decomposition for signals and images, the modes thus generated would be very useful for secondary processing to meet the needs in various types of signal and image processing. Despite of great progress in PDE based image analysis in the past two decades, the basic roles of PDEs in image/signal analysis are only limited to PDE based low-pass filters, and their applications to noise removal, edge detection, segmentation, etc. At present, it is not clear how to construct PDE based methods for full-scale mode decomposition. The above-mentioned limitation of most current PDE based image/signal processing methods is addressed in the proposed work, in which we introduce a family of mode decomposition evolution equations (MoDEEs) for a vast variety of applications. The MoDEEs are constructed as an extension of a PDE based high-pass filter (Europhys. Lett., 59(6): 814, 2002) by using arbitrarily high order PDE based low-pass filters introduced by Wei (IEEE Signal Process. Lett., 6(7): 165, 1999). The use of arbitrarily high order PDEs is essential to the frequency localization in the mode decomposition. Similar to the wavelet transform, the present MoDEEs have a controllable time-frequency localization and allow a perfect reconstruction of the original function. Therefore, the MoDEE operation is also called a PDE transform. However, modes generated from the present approach are in the spatial or time domain and can be

  9. Tiling Models for Spatial Decomposition in AMTRAN

    SciTech Connect

    Compton, J C; Clouse, C J

    2005-05-27

    Effective spatial domain decomposition for discrete ordinate (S{sub n}) neutron transport calculations has been critical for exploiting massively parallel architectures typified by the ASCI White computer at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory. A combination of geometrical and computational constraints has posed a unique challenge as problems have been scaled up to several thousand processors. Carefully scripted decomposition and corresponding execution algorithms have been developed to handle a range of geometrical and hardware configurations.

  10. Annotated Bibliography of EDGE2D Use

    SciTech Connect

    J.D. Strachan and G. Corrigan

    2005-06-24

    This annotated bibliography is intended to help EDGE2D users, and particularly new users, find existing published literature that has used EDGE2D. Our idea is that a person can find existing studies which may relate to his intended use, as well as gain ideas about other possible applications by scanning the attached tables.

  11. Staring 2-D hadamard transform spectral imager

    DOEpatents

    Gentry, Stephen M.; Wehlburg, Christine M.; Wehlburg, Joseph C.; Smith, Mark W.; Smith, Jody L.

    2006-02-07

    A staring imaging system inputs a 2D spatial image containing multi-frequency spectral information. This image is encoded in one dimension of the image with a cyclic Hadamarid S-matrix. The resulting image is detecting with a spatial 2D detector; and a computer applies a Hadamard transform to recover the encoded image.

  12. Fast 2D FWI on a multi and many-cores workstation.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thierry, Philippe; Donno, Daniela; Noble, Mark

    2014-05-01

    Following the introduction of x86 co-processors (Xeon Phi) and the performance increase of standard 2-socket workstations using the latest 12 cores E5-v2 x86-64 CPU, we present here a MPI + OpenMP implementation of an acoustic 2D FWI (full waveform inversion) code which simultaneously runs on the CPUs and on the co-processors installed in a workstation. The main advantage of running a 2D FWI on a workstation is to be able to quickly evaluate new features such as more complicated wave equations, new cost functions, finite-difference stencils or boundary conditions. Since the co-processor is made of 61 in-order x86 cores, each of them having up to 4 threads, this many-core can be seen as a shared memory SMP (symmetric multiprocessing) machine with its own IP address. Depending on the vendor, a single workstation can handle several co-processors making the workstation as a personal cluster under the desk. The original Fortran 90 CPU version of the 2D FWI code is just recompiled to get a Xeon Phi x86 binary. This multi and many-core configuration uses standard compilers and associated MPI as well as math libraries under Linux; therefore, the cost of code development remains constant, while improving computation time. We choose to implement the code with the so-called symmetric mode to fully use the capacity of the workstation, but we also evaluate the scalability of the code in native mode (i.e running only on the co-processor) thanks to the Linux ssh and NFS capabilities. Usual care of optimization and SIMD vectorization is used to ensure optimal performances, and to analyze the application performances and bottlenecks on both platforms. The 2D FWI implementation uses finite-difference time-domain forward modeling and a quasi-Newton (with L-BFGS algorithm) optimization scheme for the model parameters update. Parallelization is achieved through standard MPI shot gathers distribution and OpenMP for domain decomposition within the co-processor. Taking advantage of the 16

  13. Multiple-Parameter Estimation Method Based on Spatio-Temporal 2-D Processing for Bistatic MIMO Radar.

    PubMed

    Yang, Shouguo; Li, Yong; Zhang, Kunhui; Tang, Weiping

    2015-12-14

    A novel spatio-temporal 2-dimensional (2-D) processing method that can jointly estimate the transmitting-receiving azimuth and Doppler frequency for bistatic multiple-input multiple-output (MIMO) radar in the presence of spatial colored noise and an unknown number of targets is proposed. In the temporal domain, the cross-correlation of the matched filters' outputs for different time-delay sampling is used to eliminate the spatial colored noise. In the spatial domain, the proposed method uses a diagonal loading method and subspace theory to estimate the direction of departure (DOD) and direction of arrival (DOA), and the Doppler frequency can then be accurately estimated through the estimation of the DOD and DOA. By skipping target number estimation and the eigenvalue decomposition (EVD) of the data covariance matrix estimation and only requiring a one-dimensional search, the proposed method achieves low computational complexity. Furthermore, the proposed method is suitable for bistatic MIMO radar with an arbitrary transmitted and received geometrical configuration. The correction and efficiency of the proposed method are verified by computer simulation results.

  14. Multiple-Parameter Estimation Method Based on Spatio-Temporal 2-D Processing for Bistatic MIMO Radar

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Shouguo; Li, Yong; Zhang, Kunhui; Tang, Weiping

    2015-01-01

    A novel spatio-temporal 2-dimensional (2-D) processing method that can jointly estimate the transmitting-receiving azimuth and Doppler frequency for bistatic multiple-input multiple-output (MIMO) radar in the presence of spatial colored noise and an unknown number of targets is proposed. In the temporal domain, the cross-correlation of the matched filters’ outputs for different time-delay sampling is used to eliminate the spatial colored noise. In the spatial domain, the proposed method uses a diagonal loading method and subspace theory to estimate the direction of departure (DOD) and direction of arrival (DOA), and the Doppler frequency can then be accurately estimated through the estimation of the DOD and DOA. By skipping target number estimation and the eigenvalue decomposition (EVD) of the data covariance matrix estimation and only requiring a one-dimensional search, the proposed method achieves low computational complexity. Furthermore, the proposed method is suitable for bistatic MIMO radar with an arbitrary transmitted and received geometrical configuration. The correction and efficiency of the proposed method are verified by computer simulation results. PMID:26694385

  15. 2D OR NOT 2D: THE EFFECT OF DIMENSIONALITY ON THE DYNAMICS OF FINGERING CONVECTION AT LOW PRANDTL NUMBER

    SciTech Connect

    Garaud, Pascale; Brummell, Nicholas

    2015-12-10

    Fingering convection (otherwise known as thermohaline convection) is an instability that occurs in stellar radiative interiors in the presence of unstable compositional gradients. Numerical simulations have been used in order to estimate the efficiency of mixing induced by this instability. However, fully three-dimensional (3D) computations in the parameter regime appropriate for stellar astrophysics (i.e., low Prandtl number) are prohibitively expensive. This raises the question of whether two-dimensional (2D) simulations could be used instead to achieve the same goals. In this work, we address this issue by comparing the outcome of 2D and 3D simulations of fingering convection at low Prandtl number. We find that 2D simulations are never appropriate. However, we also find that the required 3D computational domain does not have to be very wide: the third dimension only needs to contain a minimum of two wavelengths of the fastest-growing linearly unstable mode to capture the essentially 3D dynamics of small-scale fingering. Narrow domains, however, should still be used with caution since they could limit the subsequent development of any large-scale dynamics typically associated with fingering convection.

  16. Optimizing sparse sampling for 2D electronic spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roeding, Sebastian; Klimovich, Nikita; Brixner, Tobias

    2017-02-01

    We present a new data acquisition concept using optimized non-uniform sampling and compressed sensing reconstruction in order to substantially decrease the acquisition times in action-based multidimensional electronic spectroscopy. For this we acquire a regularly sampled reference data set at a fixed population time and use a genetic algorithm to optimize a reduced non-uniform sampling pattern. We then apply the optimal sampling for data acquisition at all other population times. Furthermore, we show how to transform two-dimensional (2D) spectra into a joint 4D time-frequency von Neumann representation. This leads to increased sparsity compared to the Fourier domain and to improved reconstruction. We demonstrate this approach by recovering transient dynamics in the 2D spectrum of a cresyl violet sample using just 25% of the originally sampled data points.

  17. Micro-structural Fluctuations in 2D Dusty Plasma Liquids

    SciTech Connect

    I Lin; Huang, Y.-H.; Teng, L.-W.

    2007-07-13

    We address structural fluctuations in a cold 2D dusty plasma liquid which is self-organized through the strong Coulomb coupling of the negatively charged micro-meter sized dust particles suspending in weakly ionized discharges. The 2D liquids consist of triangular type ordered domains surrounded by defect clusters, which can be reorganized through avalanche type hopping under the interplay of strong Coulomb coupling and thermal fluctuations. The spatio-temporal evolutions of the local bond-orientational order are directly tracked through digital optical microscopy. The power law scaling of the temporal persistence length of fluctuations is obtained for the cold liquid. The measurement of the conditional probability of the persistence lengths of the successive fluctuating cycles suggests certain types of the persistence length combinations are more preferred. The memory of persistence lasts a few fluctuating cycles.

  18. Matrix models of 2d gravity

    SciTech Connect

    Ginsparg, P.

    1991-01-01

    These are introductory lectures for a general audience that give an overview of the subject of matrix models and their application to random surfaces, 2d gravity, and string theory. They are intentionally 1.5 years out of date.

  19. Matrix models of 2d gravity

    SciTech Connect

    Ginsparg, P.

    1991-12-31

    These are introductory lectures for a general audience that give an overview of the subject of matrix models and their application to random surfaces, 2d gravity, and string theory. They are intentionally 1.5 years out of date.

  20. Brittle damage models in DYNA2D

    SciTech Connect

    Faux, D.R.

    1997-09-01

    DYNA2D is an explicit Lagrangian finite element code used to model dynamic events where stress wave interactions influence the overall response of the system. DYNA2D is often used to model penetration problems involving ductile-to-ductile impacts; however, with the advent of the use of ceramics in the armor-anti-armor community and the need to model damage to laser optics components, good brittle damage models are now needed in DYNA2D. This report will detail the implementation of four brittle damage models in DYNA2D, three scalar damage models and one tensor damage model. These new brittle damage models are then used to predict experimental results from three distinctly different glass damage problems.

  1. 2D/3D switchable displays

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dekker, T.; de Zwart, S. T.; Willemsen, O. H.; Hiddink, M. G. H.; IJzerman, W. L.

    2006-02-01

    A prerequisite for a wide market acceptance of 3D displays is the ability to switch between 3D and full resolution 2D. In this paper we present a robust and cost effective concept for an auto-stereoscopic switchable 2D/3D display. The display is based on an LCD panel, equipped with switchable LC-filled lenticular lenses. We will discuss 3D image quality, with the focus on display uniformity. We show that slanting the lenticulars in combination with a good lens design can minimize non-uniformities in our 20" 2D/3D monitors. Furthermore, we introduce fractional viewing systems as a very robust concept to further improve uniformity in the case slanting the lenticulars and optimizing the lens design are not sufficient. We will discuss measurements and numerical simulations of the key optical characteristics of this display. Finally, we discuss 2D image quality, the switching characteristics and the residual lens effect.

  2. 2-d Finite Element Code Postprocessor

    SciTech Connect

    Sanford, L. A.; Hallquist, J. O.

    1996-07-15

    ORION is an interactive program that serves as a postprocessor for the analysis programs NIKE2D, DYNA2D, TOPAZ2D, and CHEMICAL TOPAZ2D. ORION reads binary plot files generated by the two-dimensional finite element codes currently used by the Methods Development Group at LLNL. Contour and color fringe plots of a large number of quantities may be displayed on meshes consisting of triangular and quadrilateral elements. ORION can compute strain measures, interface pressures along slide lines, reaction forces along constrained boundaries, and momentum. ORION has been applied to study the response of two-dimensional solids and structures undergoing finite deformations under a wide variety of large deformation transient dynamic and static problems and heat transfer analyses.

  3. Chemical Approaches to 2D Materials.

    PubMed

    Samorì, Paolo; Palermo, Vincenzo; Feng, Xinliang

    2016-08-01

    Chemistry plays an ever-increasing role in the production, functionalization, processing and applications of graphene and other 2D materials. This special issue highlights a selection of enlightening chemical approaches to 2D materials, which nicely reflect the breadth of the field and convey the excitement of the individuals involved in it, who are trying to translate graphene and related materials from the laboratory into a real, high-impact technology.

  4. Reconstruction of a 2D seismic wavefield by seismic gradiometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maeda, Takuto; Nishida, Kiwamu; Takagi, Ryota; Obara, Kazushige

    2016-12-01

    We reconstructed a 2D seismic wavefield and obtained its propagation properties by using the seismic gradiometry method together with dense observations of the Hi-net seismograph network in Japan. The seismic gradiometry method estimates the wave amplitude and its spatial derivative coefficients at any location from a discrete station record by using a Taylor series approximation. From the spatial derivatives in horizontal directions, the properties of a propagating wave packet, including the arrival direction, slowness, geometrical spreading, and radiation pattern can be obtained. In addition, by using spatial derivatives together with free-surface boundary conditions, the 2D vector elastic wavefield can be decomposed into divergence and rotation components. First, as a feasibility test, we performed an analysis with a synthetic seismogram dataset computed by a numerical simulation for a realistic 3D medium and the actual Hi-net station layout. We confirmed that the wave amplitude and its spatial derivatives were very well-reproduced for period bands longer than 25 s. Applications to a real large earthquake showed that the amplitude and phase of the wavefield were well reconstructed, along with slowness vector. The slowness of the reconstructed wavefield showed a clear contrast between body and surface waves and regional non-great-circle-path wave propagation, possibly owing to scattering. Slowness vectors together with divergence and rotation decomposition are expected to be useful for determining constituents of observed wavefields in inhomogeneous media.

  5. Parallel decomposition methods for the solution of electromagnetic scattering problems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cwik, Tom

    1992-01-01

    This paper contains a overview of the methods used in decomposing solutions to scattering problems onto coarse-grained parallel processors. Initially, a short summary of relevant computer architecture is presented as background to the subsequent discussion. After the introduction of a programming model for problem decomposition, specific decompositions of finite difference time domain, finite element, and integral equation solutions to Maxwell's equations are presented. The paper concludes with an outline of possible software-assisted decomposition methods and a summary.

  6. Efficient 2d full waveform inversion using Fortran coarray

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ryu, Donghyun; Kim, ahreum; Ha, Wansoo

    2016-04-01

    We developed a time-domain seismic inversion program using the coarray feature of the Fortran 2008 standard to parallelize the algorithm. We converted a 2d acoustic parallel full waveform inversion program with Message Passing Interface (MPI) to a coarray program and examined performance of the two inversion programs. The results show that the speed of the waveform inversion program using the coarray is slightly faster than that of the MPI version. The standard coarray lacks features for collective communication; however, it can be improved in following standards since it is introduced recently. The parallel algorithm can be applied for 3D seismic data processing.

  7. Human erythrocytes analyzed by generalized 2D Raman correlation spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wesełucha-Birczyńska, Aleksandra; Kozicki, Mateusz; Czepiel, Jacek; Łabanowska, Maria; Nowak, Piotr; Kowalczyk, Grzegorz; Kurdziel, Magdalena; Birczyńska, Malwina; Biesiada, Grażyna; Mach, Tomasz; Garlicki, Aleksander

    2014-07-01

    The most numerous elements of the blood cells, erythrocytes, consist mainly of two components: homogeneous interior filled with hemoglobin and closure which is the cell membrane. To gain insight into their specific properties we studied the process of disintegration, considering these two constituents, and comparing the natural aging process of human healthy blood cells. MicroRaman spectra of hemoglobin within the single RBC were recorded using 514.5, and 785 nm laser lines. The generalized 2D correlation method was applied to analyze the collected spectra. The time passed from blood donation was regarded as an external perturbation. The time was no more than 40 days according to the current storage limit of blood banks, although, the average RBC life span is 120 days. An analysis of the prominent synchronous and asynchronous cross peaks allow us to get insight into the mechanism of hemoglobin decomposition. Appearing asynchronous cross-peaks point towards globin and heme separation from each other, while synchronous shows already broken globin into individual amino acids. Raman scattering analysis of hemoglobin "wrapping", i.e. healthy erythrocyte ghosts, allows for the following peculiarity of their behavior. The increasing power of the excitation laser induced alterations in the assemblage of membrane lipids. 2D correlation maps, obtained with increasing laser power recognized as an external perturbation, allows for the consideration of alterations in the erythrocyte membrane structure and composition, which occurs first in the proteins. Cross-peaks were observed indicating an asynchronous correlation between the senescent-cell antigen (SCA) and heme or proteins vibrations. The EPR spectra of the whole blood was analyzed regarding time as an external stimulus. The 2D correlation spectra points towards participation of the selected metal ion centers in the disintegration process.

  8. Orthotropic Piezoelectricity in 2D Nanocellulose

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    García, Y.; Ruiz-Blanco, Yasser B.; Marrero-Ponce, Yovani; Sotomayor-Torres, C. M.

    2016-10-01

    The control of electromechanical responses within bonding regions is essential to face frontier challenges in nanotechnologies, such as molecular electronics and biotechnology. Here, we present Iβ-nanocellulose as a potentially new orthotropic 2D piezoelectric crystal. The predicted in-layer piezoelectricity is originated on a sui-generis hydrogen bonds pattern. Upon this fact and by using a combination of ab-initio and ad-hoc models, we introduce a description of electrical profiles along chemical bonds. Such developments lead to obtain a rationale for modelling the extended piezoelectric effect originated within bond scales. The order of magnitude estimated for the 2D Iβ-nanocellulose piezoelectric response, ~pm V‑1, ranks this material at the level of currently used piezoelectric energy generators and new artificial 2D designs. Such finding would be crucial for developing alternative materials to drive emerging nanotechnologies.

  9. Orthotropic Piezoelectricity in 2D Nanocellulose

    PubMed Central

    García, Y.; Ruiz-Blanco, Yasser B.; Marrero-Ponce, Yovani; Sotomayor-Torres, C. M.

    2016-01-01

    The control of electromechanical responses within bonding regions is essential to face frontier challenges in nanotechnologies, such as molecular electronics and biotechnology. Here, we present Iβ-nanocellulose as a potentially new orthotropic 2D piezoelectric crystal. The predicted in-layer piezoelectricity is originated on a sui-generis hydrogen bonds pattern. Upon this fact and by using a combination of ab-initio and ad-hoc models, we introduce a description of electrical profiles along chemical bonds. Such developments lead to obtain a rationale for modelling the extended piezoelectric effect originated within bond scales. The order of magnitude estimated for the 2D Iβ-nanocellulose piezoelectric response, ~pm V−1, ranks this material at the level of currently used piezoelectric energy generators and new artificial 2D designs. Such finding would be crucial for developing alternative materials to drive emerging nanotechnologies. PMID:27708364

  10. Orthotropic Piezoelectricity in 2D Nanocellulose.

    PubMed

    García, Y; Ruiz-Blanco, Yasser B; Marrero-Ponce, Yovani; Sotomayor-Torres, C M

    2016-10-06

    The control of electromechanical responses within bonding regions is essential to face frontier challenges in nanotechnologies, such as molecular electronics and biotechnology. Here, we present Iβ-nanocellulose as a potentially new orthotropic 2D piezoelectric crystal. The predicted in-layer piezoelectricity is originated on a sui-generis hydrogen bonds pattern. Upon this fact and by using a combination of ab-initio and ad-hoc models, we introduce a description of electrical profiles along chemical bonds. Such developments lead to obtain a rationale for modelling the extended piezoelectric effect originated within bond scales. The order of magnitude estimated for the 2D Iβ-nanocellulose piezoelectric response, ~pm V(-1), ranks this material at the level of currently used piezoelectric energy generators and new artificial 2D designs. Such finding would be crucial for developing alternative materials to drive emerging nanotechnologies.

  11. 2D microwave imaging reflectometer electronics

    SciTech Connect

    Spear, A. G.; Domier, C. W. Hu, X.; Muscatello, C. M.; Ren, X.; Luhmann, N. C.; Tobias, B. J.

    2014-11-15

    A 2D microwave imaging reflectometer system has been developed to visualize electron density fluctuations on the DIII-D tokamak. Simultaneously illuminated at four probe frequencies, large aperture optics image reflections from four density-dependent cutoff surfaces in the plasma over an extended region of the DIII-D plasma. Localized density fluctuations in the vicinity of the plasma cutoff surfaces modulate the plasma reflections, yielding a 2D image of electron density fluctuations. Details are presented of the receiver down conversion electronics that generate the in-phase (I) and quadrature (Q) reflectometer signals from which 2D density fluctuation data are obtained. Also presented are details on the control system and backplane used to manage the electronics as well as an introduction to the computer based control program.

  12. Large Area Synthesis of 2D Materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vogel, Eric

    Transition metal dichalcogenides (TMDs) have generated significant interest for numerous applications including sensors, flexible electronics, heterostructures and optoelectronics due to their interesting, thickness-dependent properties. Despite recent progress, the synthesis of high-quality and highly uniform TMDs on a large scale is still a challenge. In this talk, synthesis routes for WSe2 and MoS2 that achieve monolayer thickness uniformity across large area substrates with electrical properties equivalent to geological crystals will be described. Controlled doping of 2D semiconductors is also critically required. However, methods established for conventional semiconductors, such as ion implantation, are not easily applicable to 2D materials because of their atomically thin structure. Redox-active molecular dopants will be demonstrated which provide large changes in carrier density and workfunction through the choice of dopant, treatment time, and the solution concentration. Finally, several applications of these large-area, uniform 2D materials will be described including heterostructures, biosensors and strain sensors.

  13. 2D microwave imaging reflectometer electronics.

    PubMed

    Spear, A G; Domier, C W; Hu, X; Muscatello, C M; Ren, X; Tobias, B J; Luhmann, N C

    2014-11-01

    A 2D microwave imaging reflectometer system has been developed to visualize electron density fluctuations on the DIII-D tokamak. Simultaneously illuminated at four probe frequencies, large aperture optics image reflections from four density-dependent cutoff surfaces in the plasma over an extended region of the DIII-D plasma. Localized density fluctuations in the vicinity of the plasma cutoff surfaces modulate the plasma reflections, yielding a 2D image of electron density fluctuations. Details are presented of the receiver down conversion electronics that generate the in-phase (I) and quadrature (Q) reflectometer signals from which 2D density fluctuation data are obtained. Also presented are details on the control system and backplane used to manage the electronics as well as an introduction to the computer based control program.

  14. Assessing 2D electrophoretic mobility spectroscopy (2D MOSY) for analytical applications.

    PubMed

    Fang, Yuan; Yushmanov, Pavel V; Furó, István

    2016-12-08

    Electrophoretic displacement of charged entity phase modulates the spectrum acquired in electrophoretic NMR experiments, and this modulation can be presented via 2D FT as 2D mobility spectroscopy (MOSY) spectra. We compare in various mixed solutions the chemical selectivity provided by 2D MOSY spectra with that provided by 2D diffusion-ordered spectroscopy (DOSY) spectra and demonstrate, under the conditions explored, a superior performance of the former method. 2D MOSY compares also favourably with closely related LC-NMR methods. The shape of 2D MOSY spectra in complex mixtures is strongly modulated by the pH of the sample, a feature that has potential for areas such as in drug discovery and metabolomics. Copyright © 2016 The Authors. Magnetic Resonance in Chemistry published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd. StartCopTextCopyright © 2016 The Authors. Magnetic Resonance in Chemistry published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  15. Comparison of Analysis Results Between 2D/1D Synthesis and RAPTOR-M3G in the Korea Standard Nuclear Plant (KSNP)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Joung Lim, Mi; Maeng, Young Jae; Fero, Arnold H.; Anderson, Stanwood L.

    2016-02-01

    The 2D/1D synthesis methodology has been used to calculate the fast neutron (E > 1.0 MeV) exposure to the beltline region of the reactor pressure vessel. This method uses the DORT 3.1 discrete ordinates code and the BUGLE-96 cross-section library based on ENDF/B-VI. RAPTOR-M3G (RApid Parallel Transport Of Radiation-Multiple 3D Geometries) which performs full 3D calculations was developed and is based on domain decomposition algorithms, where the spatial and angular domains are allocated and processed on multi-processor computer architecture. As compared to traditional single-processor applications, this approach reduces the computational load as well as the memory requirement per processor. Both methods are applied to surveillance test results for the Korea Standard Nuclear Plant (KSNP)-OPR (Optimized Power Reactor) 1000 MW. The objective of this paper is to compare the results of the KSNP surveillance program between 2D/1D synthesis and RAPTOR-M3G. Each operating KSNP has a reactor vessel surveillance program consisting of six surveillance capsules located between the core and the reactor vessel in the downcomer region near the reactor vessel wall. In addition to the In-Vessel surveillance program, an Ex-Vessel Neutron Dosimetry (EVND) program has been implemented. In order to estimate surveillance test results, cycle-specific forward transport calculations were performed by 2D/1D synthesis and by RAPTOR-M3G. The ratio between measured and calculated (M/C) reaction rates will be discussed. The current plan is to install an EVND system in all of the Korea PWRs including the new reactor type, APR (Advanced Power Reactor) 1400 MW. This work will play an important role in establishing a KSNP-specific database of surveillance test results and will employ RAPTOR-M3G for surveillance dosimetry location as well as positions in the KSNP reactor vessel.

  16. 2D Distributed Sensing Via TDR

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-11-02

    plate VEGF CompositeSensor Experimental Setup Air 279 mm 61 78 VARTM profile: slope RTM profile: rectangle 22 1 Jul 2003© 2003 University of Delaware...2003 University of Delaware All rights reserved Vision: Non-contact 2D sensing ü VARTM setup constructed within TL can be sensed by its EM field: 2D...300.0 mm/ns. 1 2 1 Jul 2003© 2003 University of Delaware All rights reserved Model Validation “ RTM Flow” TDR Response to 139 mm VEGC

  17. Inkjet printing of 2D layered materials.

    PubMed

    Li, Jiantong; Lemme, Max C; Östling, Mikael

    2014-11-10

    Inkjet printing of 2D layered materials, such as graphene and MoS2, has attracted great interests for emerging electronics. However, incompatible rheology, low concentration, severe aggregation and toxicity of solvents constitute critical challenges which hamper the manufacturing efficiency and product quality. Here, we introduce a simple and general technology concept (distillation-assisted solvent exchange) to efficiently overcome these challenges. By implementing the concept, we have demonstrated excellent jetting performance, ideal printing patterns and a variety of promising applications for inkjet printing of 2D layered materials.

  18. Parallel Stitching of 2D Materials.

    PubMed

    Ling, Xi; Lin, Yuxuan; Ma, Qiong; Wang, Ziqiang; Song, Yi; Yu, Lili; Huang, Shengxi; Fang, Wenjing; Zhang, Xu; Hsu, Allen L; Bie, Yaqing; Lee, Yi-Hsien; Zhu, Yimei; Wu, Lijun; Li, Ju; Jarillo-Herrero, Pablo; Dresselhaus, Mildred; Palacios, Tomás; Kong, Jing

    2016-03-23

    Diverse parallel stitched 2D heterostructures, including metal-semiconductor, semiconductor-semiconductor, and insulator-semiconductor, are synthesized directly through selective "sowing" of aromatic molecules as the seeds in the chemical vapor deposition (CVD) method. The methodology enables the large-scale fabrication of lateral heterostructures, which offers tremendous potential for its application in integrated circuits.

  19. The basics of 2D DIGE.

    PubMed

    Beckett, Phil

    2012-01-01

    The technique of two-dimensional (2D) gel electrophoresis is a powerful tool for separating complex mixtures of proteins, but since its inception in the mid 1970s, it acquired the stigma of being a very difficult application to master and was generally used to its best effect by experts. The introduction of commercially available immobilized pH gradients in the early 1990s provided enhanced reproducibility and easier protocols, leading to a pronounced increase in popularity of the technique. However gel-to-gel variation was still difficult to control without the use of technical replicates. In the mid 1990s (at the same time as the birth of "proteomics"), the concept of multiplexing fluorescently labeled proteins for 2D gel separation was realized by Jon Minden's group and has led to the ability to design experiments to virtually eliminate gel-to-gel variation, resulting in biological replicates being used for statistical analysis with the ability to detect very small changes in relative protein abundance. This technology is referred to as 2D difference gel electrophoresis (2D DIGE).

  20. Parallel stitching of 2D materials

    DOE PAGES

    Ling, Xi; Wu, Lijun; Lin, Yuxuan; ...

    2016-01-27

    Diverse parallel stitched 2D heterostructures, including metal–semiconductor, semiconductor–semiconductor, and insulator–semiconductor, are synthesized directly through selective “sowing” of aromatic molecules as the seeds in the chemical vapor deposition (CVD) method. Lastly, the methodology enables the large-scale fabrication of lateral heterostructures, which offers tremendous potential for its application in integrated circuits.

  1. Development of LGA & LBE 2D Parallel Programs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ujita, Hiroshi; Nagata, Satoru; Akiyama, Minoru; Naitoh, Masanori; Ohashi, Hirotada

    A lattice-gas Automata two-dimensional program was developed for analysis of single and two-phase flow behaviors, to support the development of integrated software modules for Nuclear Power Plant mechanistic simulations. The program has single-color, which includes FHP I, II, and III models, two-color (Immiscible lattice gas), and two-velocity methods including a gravity effect model. Parameter surveys have been performed for Karman vortex street, two-phase separation for understanding flow regimes, and natural circulation flow for demonstrating passive reactor safety due to the chimney structure vessel. In addition, lattice-Boltzmann Equation two-dimensional programs were also developed. For analyzing single-phase flow behavior, a lattice-Boltzmann-BGK program was developed, which has multi-block treatments. A Finite Differential lattice-Boltzmann Equation program of parallelized version was introduced to analyze boiling two-phase flow behaviors. Parameter surveys have been performed for backward facing flow, Karman vortex street, bent piping flow with/without obstacles for piping system applications, flow in the porous media for demonstrating porous debris coolability, Couette flow, and spinodal decomposition to understand basic phase separation mechanisms. Parallelization was completed by using a domain decomposition method for all of the programs. An increase in calculation speed of at least 25 times, by parallel processing on 32 processors, demonstrated high parallelization efficiency. Application fields for microscopic model simulation to hypothetical severe conditions in large plants were also discussed.

  2. Application of 2D-Nonlinear Shallow Water Model of Tsunami by using Adomian Decomposition Method

    SciTech Connect

    Waewcharoen, Sribudh; Boonyapibanwong, Supachai; Koonprasert, Sanoe

    2008-09-01

    One of the most important questions in tsunami modeling is the estimation of tsunami run-up heights at different points along a coastline. Methods for numerical simulation of tsunami wave propagation in deep and shallow seas are well developed and have been widely used by many scientists (2001-2008). In this paper, we consider a two-dimensional nonlinear shallow water model of tsunami given by Tivon Jacobson is work [1]. u{sub t}+uu{sub x}+{nu}u{sub y} -c{sup 2}(h{sub x}+(h{sub b}){sub x}) {nu}{sub t}+u{nu}{sub x}+{nu}{nu}{sub y} = -c{sup 2}(h{sub y}+(h{sub b}){sub y}) h{sub t}+(hu){sub x}+(h{nu}){sub y} = 0 g-shore, h is surface elevation and s, t is time, u is velocity of cross-shore, {nu} is velocity of along-shore, h is surface elevation and h{sub b} is function of shore. This is a nondimensionalized model with the gravity g and constant reference depth H factored into c = {radical}(gH). We apply the Adomian Decompostion Method (ADM) to solve the tsunami model. This powerful method has been used to obtain explicit and numerical solutions of three types of diffusion-convection-reaction (DECR) equations. The ADM results for the tsunami model yield analytical solutions in terms of a rapidly convergent infinite power series. Symbolic computation, numerical results and graphs of solutions are obtained by Maple program.

  3. Aircraft target identification based on 2D ISAR images using multiresolution analysis wavelet

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fu, Qiang; Xiao, Huaitie; Hu, Xiangjiang

    2001-09-01

    The formation of 2D ISAR images for radar target identification hold much promise for additional distinguish- ability between targets. Since an image contains important information is a wide range of scales, and this information is often independent from one scale to another, wavelet analysis provides a method of identifying the spatial frequency content of an image and the local regions within the image where those spatial frequencies exist. In this paper, a multiresolution analysis wavelet method based on 2D ISAR images was proposed for use in aircraft radar target identification under the wide band high range resolution radar background. The proposed method was performed in three steps; first, radar backscatter signals were processed in the form of 2D ISAR images, then, Mallat's wavelet algorithm was used in the decomposition of images, finally, a three layer perceptron neural net was used as classifier. The result of experiments demonstrated that the feasibility of using multiresolution analysis wavelet for target identification.

  4. The Freud-1/CC2D1A family: transcriptional regulators implicated in mental retardation.

    PubMed

    Rogaeva, Anastasia; Galaraga, Kimberly; Albert, Paul R

    2007-10-01

    The CC2D1A gene family consists of two homologous genes, Freud-1/CC2D1A and Freud-2/CC2D1B, that share conserved domains, including several DM14 domains that are specific to this protein family, a C-terminal helix-loop-helix domain, and a C2 calcium-dependent phospholipid binding domain. Although the function of Freud-2 is unknown, Freud-1 has been shown to function as a transcriptional repressor of the serotonin-1A receptor gene that binds to a novel DNA element (FRE, 5'-repressor element). The DNA binding and repressor activities of Freud-1 are inhibited by calcium-calmodulin-dependent protein kinase. Recently, a deletion in the CC2D1A gene has been linked to nonsyndromic mental retardation. This deletion results in the truncation of the helix-loop-helix DNA binding and the C2 domains, crucial for Freud-1 repressor activity, and hence is predicted to generate an inactive or weakly dominant negative protein. The possible mechanisms by which inactivation of Freud-1 could lead to abnormal cortical development and cognitive impairment and the potential roles of Freud-1 gene targets are discussed.

  5. Decomposition of Sodium Tetraphenylborate

    SciTech Connect

    Barnes, M.J.

    1998-11-20

    The chemical decomposition of aqueous alkaline solutions of sodium tetraphenylborate (NaTPB) has been investigated. The focus of the investigation is on the determination of additives and/or variables which influence NaTBP decomposition. This document describes work aimed at providing better understanding into the relationship of copper (II), solution temperature, and solution pH to NaTPB stability.

  6. Compatible embedding for 2D shape animation.

    PubMed

    Baxter, William V; Barla, Pascal; Anjyo, Ken-Ichi

    2009-01-01

    We present new algorithms for the compatible embedding of 2D shapes. Such embeddings offer a convenient way to interpolate shapes having complex, detailed features. Compared to existing techniques, our approach requires less user input, and is faster, more robust, and simpler to implement, making it ideal for interactive use in practical applications. Our new approach consists of three parts. First, our boundary matching algorithm locates salient features using the perceptually motivated principles of scale-space and uses these as automatic correspondences to guide an elastic curve matching algorithm. Second, we simplify boundaries while maintaining their parametric correspondence and the embedding of the original shapes. Finally, we extend the mapping to shapes' interiors via a new compatible triangulation algorithm. The combination of our algorithms allows us to demonstrate 2D shape interpolation with instant feedback. The proposed algorithms exhibit a combination of simplicity, speed, and accuracy that has not been achieved in previous work.

  7. Schottky diodes from 2D germanane

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sahoo, Nanda Gopal; Esteves, Richard J.; Punetha, Vinay Deep; Pestov, Dmitry; Arachchige, Indika U.; McLeskey, James T.

    2016-07-01

    We report on the fabrication and characterization of a Schottky diode made using 2D germanane (hydrogenated germanene). When compared to germanium, the 2D structure has higher electron mobility, an optimal band-gap, and exceptional stability making germanane an outstanding candidate for a variety of opto-electronic devices. One-atom-thick sheets of hydrogenated puckered germanium atoms have been synthesized from a CaGe2 framework via intercalation and characterized by XRD, Raman, and FTIR techniques. The material was then used to fabricate Schottky diodes by suspending the germanane in benzonitrile and drop-casting it onto interdigitated metal electrodes. The devices demonstrate significant rectifying behavior and the outstanding potential of this material.

  8. Extrinsic Cation Selectivity of 2D Membranes

    PubMed Central

    2017-01-01

    From a systematic study of the concentration driven diffusion of positive and negative ions across porous 2D membranes of graphene and hexagonal boron nitride (h-BN), we prove their cation selectivity. Using the current–voltage characteristics of graphene and h-BN monolayers separating reservoirs of different salt concentrations, we calculate the reversal potential as a measure of selectivity. We tune the Debye screening length by exchanging the salt concentrations and demonstrate that negative surface charge gives rise to cation selectivity. Surprisingly, h-BN and graphene membranes show similar characteristics, strongly suggesting a common origin of selectivity in aqueous solvents. For the first time, we demonstrate that the cation flux can be increased by using ozone to create additional pores in graphene while maintaining excellent selectivity. We discuss opportunities to exploit our scalable method to use 2D membranes for applications including osmotic power conversion. PMID:28157333

  9. Static & Dynamic Response of 2D Solids

    SciTech Connect

    Lin, Jerry

    1996-07-15

    NIKE2D is an implicit finite-element code for analyzing the finite deformation, static and dynamic response of two-dimensional, axisymmetric, plane strain, and plane stress solids. The code is fully vectorized and available on several computing platforms. A number of material models are incorporated to simulate a wide range of material behavior including elasto-placicity, anisotropy, creep, thermal effects, and rate dependence. Slideline algorithms model gaps and sliding along material interfaces, including interface friction, penetration and single surface contact. Interactive-graphics and rezoning is included for analyses with large mesh distortions. In addition to quasi-Newton and arc-length procedures, adaptive algorithms can be defined to solve the implicit equations using the solution language ISLAND. Each of these capabilities and more make NIKE2D a robust analysis tool.

  10. Explicit 2-D Hydrodynamic FEM Program

    SciTech Connect

    Lin, Jerry

    1996-08-07

    DYNA2D* is a vectorized, explicit, two-dimensional, axisymmetric and plane strain finite element program for analyzing the large deformation dynamic and hydrodynamic response of inelastic solids. DYNA2D* contains 13 material models and 9 equations of state (EOS) to cover a wide range of material behavior. The material models implemented in all machine versions are: elastic, orthotropic elastic, kinematic/isotropic elastic plasticity, thermoelastoplastic, soil and crushable foam, linear viscoelastic, rubber, high explosive burn, isotropic elastic-plastic, temperature-dependent elastic-plastic. The isotropic and temperature-dependent elastic-plastic models determine only the deviatoric stresses. Pressure is determined by one of 9 equations of state including linear polynomial, JWL high explosive, Sack Tuesday high explosive, Gruneisen, ratio of polynomials, linear polynomial with energy deposition, ignition and growth of reaction in HE, tabulated compaction, and tabulated.

  11. Quasiparticle interference in unconventional 2D systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Lan; Cheng, Peng; Wu, Kehui

    2017-03-01

    At present, research of 2D systems mainly focuses on two kinds of materials: graphene-like materials and transition-metal dichalcogenides (TMDs). Both of them host unconventional 2D electronic properties: pseudospin and the associated chirality of electrons in graphene-like materials, and spin-valley-coupled electronic structures in the TMDs. These exotic electronic properties have attracted tremendous interest for possible applications in nanodevices in the future. Investigation on the quasiparticle interference (QPI) in 2D systems is an effective way to uncover these properties. In this review, we will begin with a brief introduction to 2D systems, including their atomic structures and electronic bands. Then, we will discuss the formation of Friedel oscillation due to QPI in constant energy contours of electron bands, and show the basic concept of Fourier-transform scanning tunneling microscopy/spectroscopy (FT-STM/STS), which can resolve Friedel oscillation patterns in real space and consequently obtain the QPI patterns in reciprocal space. In the next two parts, we will summarize some pivotal results in the investigation of QPI in graphene and silicene, in which systems the low-energy quasiparticles are described by the massless Dirac equation. The FT-STM experiments show there are two different interference channels (intervalley and intravalley scattering) and backscattering suppression, which associate with the Dirac cones and the chirality of quasiparticles. The monolayer and bilayer graphene on different substrates (SiC and metal surfaces), and the monolayer and multilayer silicene on a Ag(1 1 1) surface will be addressed. The fifth part will introduce the FT-STM research on QPI in TMDs (monolayer and bilayer of WSe2), which allow us to infer the spin texture of both conduction and valence bands, and present spin-valley coupling by tracking allowed and forbidden scattering channels.

  12. Compact 2-D graphical representation of DNA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Randić, Milan; Vračko, Marjan; Zupan, Jure; Novič, Marjana

    2003-05-01

    We present a novel 2-D graphical representation for DNA sequences which has an important advantage over the existing graphical representations of DNA in being very compact. It is based on: (1) use of binary labels for the four nucleic acid bases, and (2) use of the 'worm' curve as template on which binary codes are placed. The approach is illustrated on DNA sequences of the first exon of human β-globin and gorilla β-globin.

  13. 2D Metals by Repeated Size Reduction.

    PubMed

    Liu, Hanwen; Tang, Hao; Fang, Minghao; Si, Wenjie; Zhang, Qinghua; Huang, Zhaohui; Gu, Lin; Pan, Wei; Yao, Jie; Nan, Cewen; Wu, Hui

    2016-10-01

    A general and convenient strategy for manufacturing freestanding metal nanolayers is developed on large scale. By the simple process of repeatedly folding and calendering stacked metal sheets followed by chemical etching, free-standing 2D metal (e.g., Ag, Au, Fe, Cu, and Ni) nanosheets are obtained with thicknesses as small as 1 nm and with sizes of the order of several micrometers.

  14. Engineering light outcoupling in 2D materials.

    PubMed

    Lien, Der-Hsien; Kang, Jeong Seuk; Amani, Matin; Chen, Kevin; Tosun, Mahmut; Wang, Hsin-Ping; Roy, Tania; Eggleston, Michael S; Wu, Ming C; Dubey, Madan; Lee, Si-Chen; He, Jr-Hau; Javey, Ali

    2015-02-11

    When light is incident on 2D transition metal dichalcogenides (TMDCs), it engages in multiple reflections within underlying substrates, producing interferences that lead to enhancement or attenuation of the incoming and outgoing strength of light. Here, we report a simple method to engineer the light outcoupling in semiconducting TMDCs by modulating their dielectric surroundings. We show that by modulating the thicknesses of underlying substrates and capping layers, the interference caused by substrate can significantly enhance the light absorption and emission of WSe2, resulting in a ∼11 times increase in Raman signal and a ∼30 times increase in the photoluminescence (PL) intensity of WSe2. On the basis of the interference model, we also propose a strategy to control the photonic and optoelectronic properties of thin-layer WSe2. This work demonstrates the utilization of outcoupling engineering in 2D materials and offers a new route toward the realization of novel optoelectronic devices, such as 2D LEDs and solar cells.

  15. Irreversibility-inversions in 2D turbulence

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bragg, Andrew; de Lillo, Filippo; Boffetta, Guido

    2016-11-01

    We consider a recent theoretical prediction that for inertial particles in 2D turbulence, the nature of the irreversibility of their pair dispersion inverts when the particle inertia exceeds a certain value. In particular, when the particle Stokes number, St , is below a certain value, the forward-in-time (FIT) dispersion should be faster than the backward-in-time (BIT) dispersion, but for St above this value, this should invert so that BIT becomes faster than FIT dispersion. This non-trivial behavior arises because of the competition between two physically distinct irreversibility mechanisms that operate in different regimes of St . In 3D turbulence, both mechanisms act to produce faster BIT than FIT dispersion, but in 2D, the two mechanisms have opposite effects because of the inverse energy cascade in the turbulent velocity field. We supplement the qualitative argument given by Bragg et al. by deriving quantitative predictions of this effect in the short-time dispersion limit. These predictions are then confirmed by results of inertial particle dispersion in a direct numerical simulation of 2D turbulence.

  16. 2D superconductivity by ionic gating

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Iwasa, Yoshi

    2D superconductivity is attracting a renewed interest due to the discoveries of new highly crystalline 2D superconductors in the past decade. Superconductivity at the oxide interfaces triggered by LaAlO3/SrTiO3 has become one of the promising routes for creation of new 2D superconductors. Also, the MBE grown metallic monolayers including FeSe are also offering a new platform of 2D superconductors. In the last two years, there appear a variety of monolayer/bilayer superconductors fabricated by CVD or mechanical exfoliation. Among these, electric field induced superconductivity by electric double layer transistor (EDLT) is a unique platform of 2D superconductivity, because of its ability of high density charge accumulation, and also because of the versatility in terms of materials, stemming from oxides to organics and layered chalcogenides. In this presentation, the following issues of electric filed induced superconductivity will be addressed; (1) Tunable carrier density, (2) Weak pinning, (3) Absence of inversion symmetry. (1) Since the sheet carrier density is quasi-continuously tunable from 0 to the order of 1014 cm-2, one is able to establish an electronic phase diagram of superconductivity, which will be compared with that of bulk superconductors. (2) The thickness of superconductivity can be estimated as 2 - 10 nm, dependent on materials, and is much smaller than the in-plane coherence length. Such a thin but low resistance at normal state results in extremely weak pinning beyond the dirty Boson model in the amorphous metallic films. (3) Due to the electric filed, the inversion symmetry is inherently broken in EDLT. This feature appears in the enhancement of Pauli limit of the upper critical field for the in-plane magnetic fields. In transition metal dichalcogenide with a substantial spin-orbit interactions, we were able to confirm the stabilization of Cooper pair due to its spin-valley locking. This work has been supported by Grant-in-Aid for Specially

  17. Effective Hamiltonians of 2D Spin Glass Clusters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Clement, Colin; Liarte, Danilo; Middleton, Alan; Sethna, James

    2015-03-01

    We have a method for directly identifying the clusters which are thought to dominate the dynamics of spin glasses. We also have a method for generating an effective Hamiltonian treating each cluster as an individual spin. We used these methods on a 2D Ising spin glass with Gaussian bonds. We study these systems by generating samples and correlation functions using a combination of Monte Carlo and high-performance numerically exact Pfaffian methods. With effective cluster Hamiltonians we can calculate the free energy asymmetry of the original clusters and perform a scaling analysis. The scaling exponents found are consistent with Domain-Wall Renormalization Group methods, and probe all length scales. We can also study the flow of these effective Hamiltonians by clustering the clustered spins, and we find that our hard spin Hamiltonians at high temperature retain accurate low-temperature fluctuations when compared to their parent models.

  18. CFD code comparison for 2D airfoil flows

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sørensen, Niels N.; Méndez, B.; Muñoz, A.; Sieros, G.; Jost, E.; Lutz, T.; Papadakis, G.; Voutsinas, S.; Barakos, G. N.; Colonia, S.; Baldacchino, D.; Baptista, C.; Ferreira, C.

    2016-09-01

    The current paper presents the effort, in the EU AVATAR project, to establish the necessary requirements to obtain consistent lift over drag ratios among seven CFD codes. The flow around a 2D airfoil case is studied, for both transitional and fully turbulent conditions at Reynolds numbers of 3 × 106 and 15 × 106. The necessary grid resolution, domain size, and iterative convergence criteria to have consistent results are discussed, and suggestions are given for best practice. For the fully turbulent results four out of seven codes provide consistent results. For the laminar-turbulent transitional results only three out of seven provided results, and the agreement is generally lower than for the fully turbulent case.

  19. Facial biometrics based on 2D vector geometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Malek, Obaidul; Venetsanopoulos, Anastasios; Androutsos, Dimitrios

    2014-05-01

    The main challenge of facial biometrics is its robustness and ability to adapt to changes in position orientation, facial expression, and illumination effects. This research addresses the predominant deficiencies in this regard and systematically investigates a facial authentication system in the Euclidean domain. In the proposed method, Euclidean geometry in 2D vector space is being constructed for features extraction and the authentication method. In particular, each assigned point of the candidates' biometric features is considered to be a 2D geometrical coordinate in the Euclidean vector space. Algebraic shapes of the extracted candidate features are also computed and compared. The proposed authentication method is being tested on images from the public "Put Face Database". The performance of the proposed method is evaluated based on Correct Recognition (CRR), False Acceptance (FAR), and False Rejection (FRR) rates. The theoretical foundation of the proposed method along with the experimental results are also presented in this paper. The experimental results demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed method.

  20. Periodically sheared 2D Yukawa systems

    SciTech Connect

    Kovács, Anikó Zsuzsa; Hartmann, Peter; Donkó, Zoltán

    2015-10-15

    We present non-equilibrium molecular dynamics simulation studies on the dynamic (complex) shear viscosity of a 2D Yukawa system. We have identified a non-monotonic frequency dependence of the viscosity at high frequencies and shear rates, an energy absorption maximum (local resonance) at the Einstein frequency of the system at medium shear rates, an enhanced collective wave activity, when the excitation is near the plateau frequency of the longitudinal wave dispersion, and the emergence of significant configurational anisotropy at small frequencies and high shear rates.

  1. ENERGY LANDSCAPE OF 2D FLUID FORMS

    SciTech Connect

    Y. JIANG; ET AL

    2000-04-01

    The equilibrium states of 2D non-coarsening fluid foams, which consist of bubbles with fixed areas, correspond to local minima of the total perimeter. (1) The authors find an approximate value of the global minimum, and determine directly from an image how far a foam is from its ground state. (2) For (small) area disorder, small bubbles tend to sort inwards and large bubbles outwards. (3) Topological charges of the same sign repel while charges of opposite sign attract. (4) They discuss boundary conditions and the uniqueness of the pattern for fixed topology.

  2. Codon Constraints on Closed 2D Shapes,

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-09-26

    19843$ CODON CONSTRAINTS ON CLOSED 2D SHAPES Go Whitman Richards "I Donald D. Hoffman’ D T 18 Abstract: Codons are simple primitives for describing plane...RSONAL AUT"ORtIS) Richards, Whitman & Hoffman, Donald D. 13&. TYPE OF REPORT 13b. TIME COVERED N/A P8 AT F RRrT t~r. Ago..D,) is, PlE COUNT Reprint...outlines, if figure and ground are ignored. Later, we will address the problem of indexing identical codon descriptors that have different figure

  3. ELRIS2D: A MATLAB Package for the 2D Inversion of DC Resistivity/IP Data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Akca, Irfan

    2016-04-01

    ELRIS2D is an open source code written in MATLAB for the two-dimensional inversion of direct current resistivity (DCR) and time domain induced polarization (IP) data. The user interface of the program is designed for functionality and ease of use. All available settings of the program can be reached from the main window. The subsurface is discre-tized using a hybrid mesh generated by the combination of structured and unstructured meshes, which reduces the computational cost of the whole inversion procedure. The inversion routine is based on the smoothness constrained least squares method. In order to verify the program, responses of two test models and field data sets were inverted. The models inverted from the synthetic data sets are consistent with the original test models in both DC resistivity and IP cases. A field data set acquired in an archaeological site is also used for the verification of outcomes of the program in comparison with the excavation results.

  4. Epitaxial Growth of Ternary Topological Insulator Bi2 Te2 Se 2D Crystals on Mica.

    PubMed

    Liu, Yujing; Tang, Min; Meng, Mengmeng; Wang, Mingzhan; Wu, Jinxiong; Yin, Jianbo; Zhou, Yubing; Guo, Yunfan; Tan, Congwei; Dang, Wenhui; Huang, Shaoyun; Xu, H Q; Wang, Yong; Peng, Hailin

    2017-03-06

    Nanostructures of ternary topological insulator (TI) Bi2 Te2 Se are, in principle, advantageous to the manifestation of topologically nontrivial surface states, due to significantly enhanced surface-to-volume ratio compared with its bulk crystals counterparts. Herein, the synthesis of 2D Bi2 Te2 Se crystals on mica via the van der Waals epitaxy method is explored and systematically the growth behaviors during the synthesis process are investigated. Accordingly, 2D Bi2 Te2 Se crystals with domain size up to 50 µm large and thickness down to 2 nm are obtained. A pronounced weak antilocalization effect is clearly observed in the 2D Bi2 Te2 Se crystals at 2 K. The method for epitaxial growth of 2D ternary Bi2 Te2 Se crystals may inspire materials engineering toward enhanced manifestation of the subtle surface states of TIs and thereby facilitate their potential applications in next-generation spintronics.

  5. Remarks on thermalization in 2D CFT

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Boer, Jan; Engelhardt, Dalit

    2016-12-01

    We revisit certain aspects of thermalization in 2D conformal field theory (CFT). In particular, we consider similarities and differences between the time dependence of correlation functions in various states in rational and non-rational CFTs. We also consider the distinction between global and local thermalization and explain how states obtained by acting with a diffeomorphism on the ground state can appear locally thermal, and we review why the time-dependent expectation value of the energy-momentum tensor is generally a poor diagnostic of global thermalization. Since all 2D CFTs have an infinite set of commuting conserved charges, generic initial states might be expected to give rise to a generalized Gibbs ensemble rather than a pure thermal ensemble at late times. We construct the holographic dual of the generalized Gibbs ensemble and show that, to leading order, it is still described by a Banados-Teitelboim-Zanelli black hole. The extra conserved charges, while rendering c <1 theories essentially integrable, therefore seem to have little effect on large-c conformal field theories.

  6. Microwave Assisted 2D Materials Exfoliation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Yanbin

    Two-dimensional materials have emerged as extremely important materials with applications ranging from energy and environmental science to electronics and biology. Here we report our discovery of a universal, ultrafast, green, solvo-thermal technology for producing excellent-quality, few-layered nanosheets in liquid phase from well-known 2D materials such as such hexagonal boron nitride (h-BN), graphite, and MoS2. We start by mixing the uniform bulk-layered material with a common organic solvent that matches its surface energy to reduce the van der Waals attractive interactions between the layers; next, the solutions are heated in a commercial microwave oven to overcome the energy barrier between bulk and few-layers states. We discovered the minutes-long rapid exfoliation process is highly temperature dependent, which requires precise thermal management to obtain high-quality inks. We hypothesize a possible mechanism of this proposed solvo-thermal process; our theory confirms the basis of this novel technique for exfoliation of high-quality, layered 2D materials by using an as yet unknown role of the solvent.

  7. Dominant modal decomposition method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dombovari, Zoltan

    2017-03-01

    The paper deals with the automatic decomposition of experimental frequency response functions (FRF's) of mechanical structures. The decomposition of FRF's is based on the Green function representation of free vibratory systems. After the determination of the impulse dynamic subspace, the system matrix is formulated and the poles are calculated directly. By means of the corresponding eigenvectors, the contribution of each element of the impulse dynamic subspace is determined and the sufficient decomposition of the corresponding FRF is carried out. With the presented dominant modal decomposition (DMD) method, the mode shapes, the modal participation vectors and the modal scaling factors are identified using the decomposed FRF's. Analytical example is presented along with experimental case studies taken from machine tool industry.

  8. Algorithms for the Markov entropy decomposition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ferris, Andrew J.; Poulin, David

    2013-05-01

    The Markov entropy decomposition (MED) is a recently proposed, cluster-based simulation method for finite temperature quantum systems with arbitrary geometry. In this paper, we detail numerical algorithms for performing the required steps of the MED, principally solving a minimization problem with a preconditioned Newton's algorithm, as well as how to extract global susceptibilities and thermal responses. We demonstrate the power of the method with the spin-1/2 XXZ model on the 2D square lattice, including the extraction of critical points and details of each phase. Although the method shares some qualitative similarities with exact diagonalization, we show that the MED is both more accurate and significantly more flexible.

  9. 2-D or not 2-D, that is the question: A Northern California test

    SciTech Connect

    Mayeda, K; Malagnini, L; Phillips, W S; Walter, W R; Dreger, D

    2005-06-06

    Reliable estimates of the seismic source spectrum are necessary for accurate magnitude, yield, and energy estimation. In particular, how seismic radiated energy scales with increasing earthquake size has been the focus of recent debate within the community and has direct implications on earthquake source physics studies as well as hazard mitigation. The 1-D coda methodology of Mayeda et al. has provided the lowest variance estimate of the source spectrum when compared against traditional approaches that use direct S-waves, thus making it ideal for networks that have sparse station distribution. The 1-D coda methodology has been mostly confined to regions of approximately uniform complexity. For larger, more geophysically complicated regions, 2-D path corrections may be required. The complicated tectonics of the northern California region coupled with high quality broadband seismic data provides for an ideal ''apples-to-apples'' test of 1-D and 2-D path assumptions on direct waves and their coda. Using the same station and event distribution, we compared 1-D and 2-D path corrections and observed the following results: (1) 1-D coda results reduced the amplitude variance relative to direct S-waves by roughly a factor of 8 (800%); (2) Applying a 2-D correction to the coda resulted in up to 40% variance reduction from the 1-D coda results; (3) 2-D direct S-wave results, though better than 1-D direct waves, were significantly worse than the 1-D coda. We found that coda-based moment-rate source spectra derived from the 2-D approach were essentially identical to those from the 1-D approach for frequencies less than {approx}0.7-Hz, however for the high frequencies (0.7{le} f {le} 8.0-Hz), the 2-D approach resulted in inter-station scatter that was generally 10-30% smaller. For complex regions where data are plentiful, a 2-D approach can significantly improve upon the simple 1-D assumption. In regions where only 1-D coda correction is available it is still preferable over 2

  10. Transition to turbulence: 2D directed percolation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chantry, Matthew; Tuckerman, Laurette; Barkley, Dwight

    2016-11-01

    The transition to turbulence in simple shear flows has been studied for well over a century, yet in the last few years has seen major leaps forward. In pipe flow, this transition shows the hallmarks of (1 + 1) D directed percolation, a universality class of continuous phase transitions. In spanwisely confined Taylor-Couette flow the same class is found, suggesting the phenomenon is generic to shear flows. However in plane Couette flow the largest simulations and experiments to-date find evidence for a discrete transition. Here we study a planar shear flow, called Waleffe flow, devoid of walls yet showing the fundamentals of planar transition to turbulence. Working with a quasi-2D yet Navier-Stokes derived model of this flow we are able to attack the (2 + 1) D transition problem. Going beyond the system sizes previously possible we find all of the required scalings of directed percolation and thus establish planar shears flow in this class.

  11. 2D quantum gravity from quantum entanglement.

    PubMed

    Gliozzi, F

    2011-01-21

    In quantum systems with many degrees of freedom the replica method is a useful tool to study the entanglement of arbitrary spatial regions. We apply it in a way that allows them to backreact. As a consequence, they become dynamical subsystems whose position, form, and extension are determined by their interaction with the whole system. We analyze, in particular, quantum spin chains described at criticality by a conformal field theory. Its coupling to the Gibbs' ensemble of all possible subsystems is relevant and drives the system into a new fixed point which is argued to be that of the 2D quantum gravity coupled to this system. Numerical experiments on the critical Ising model show that the new critical exponents agree with those predicted by the formula of Knizhnik, Polyakov, and Zamolodchikov.

  12. Simulation of Yeast Cooperation in 2D.

    PubMed

    Wang, M; Huang, Y; Wu, Z

    2016-03-01

    Evolution of cooperation has been an active research area in evolutionary biology in decades. An important type of cooperation is developed from group selection, when individuals form spatial groups to prevent them from foreign invasions. In this paper, we study the evolution of cooperation in a mixed population of cooperating and cheating yeast strains in 2D with the interactions among the yeast cells restricted to their small neighborhoods. We conduct a computer simulation based on a game theoretic model and show that cooperation is increased when the interactions are spatially restricted, whether the game is of a prisoner's dilemma, snow drifting, or mutual benefit type. We study the evolution of homogeneous groups of cooperators or cheaters and describe the conditions for them to sustain or expand in an opponent population. We show that under certain spatial restrictions, cooperator groups are able to sustain and expand as group sizes become large, while cheater groups fail to expand and keep them from collapse.

  13. 2D Electrostatic Actuation of Microshutter Arrays

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Burns, Devin E.; Oh, Lance H.; Li, Mary J.; Jones, Justin S.; Kelly, Daniel P.; Zheng, Yun; Kutyrev, Alexander S.; Moseley, Samuel H.

    2015-01-01

    An electrostatically actuated microshutter array consisting of rotational microshutters (shutters that rotate about a torsion bar) were designed and fabricated through the use of models and experiments. Design iterations focused on minimizing the torsional stiffness of the microshutters, while maintaining their structural integrity. Mechanical and electromechanical test systems were constructed to measure the static and dynamic behavior of the microshutters. The torsional stiffness was reduced by a factor of four over initial designs without sacrificing durability. Analysis of the resonant behavior of the microshutter arrays demonstrates that the first resonant mode is a torsional mode occurring around 3000 Hz. At low vacuum pressures, this resonant mode can be used to significantly reduce the drive voltage necessary for actuation requiring as little as 25V. 2D electrostatic latching and addressing was demonstrated using both a resonant and pulsed addressing scheme.

  14. Graphene suspensions for 2D printing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Soots, R. A.; Yakimchuk, E. A.; Nebogatikova, N. A.; Kotin, I. A.; Antonova, I. V.

    2016-04-01

    It is shown that, by processing a graphite suspension in ethanol or water by ultrasound and centrifuging, it is possible to obtain particles with thicknesses within 1-6 nm and, in the most interesting cases, 1-1.5 nm. Analogous treatment of a graphite suspension in organic solvent yields eventually thicker particles (up to 6-10 nm thick) even upon long-term treatment. Using the proposed ink based on graphene and aqueous ethanol with ethylcellulose and terpineol additives for 2D printing, thin (~5 nm thick) films with sheet resistance upon annealing ~30 MΩ/□ were obtained. With the ink based on aqueous graphene suspension, the sheet resistance was ~5-12 kΩ/□ for 6- to 15-nm-thick layers with a carrier mobility of ~30-50 cm2/(V s).

  15. Canard configured aircraft with 2-D nozzle

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Child, R. D.; Henderson, W. P.

    1978-01-01

    A closely-coupled canard fighter with vectorable two-dimensional nozzle was designed for enhanced transonic maneuvering. The HiMAT maneuver goal of a sustained 8g turn at a free-stream Mach number of 0.9 and 30,000 feet was the primary design consideration. The aerodynamic design process was initiated with a linear theory optimization minimizing the zero percent suction drag including jet effects and refined with three-dimensional nonlinear potential flow techniques. Allowances were made for mutual interference and viscous effects. The design process to arrive at the resultant configuration is described, and the design of a powered 2-D nozzle model to be tested in the LRC 16-foot Propulsion Wind Tunnel is shown.

  16. Numerical Evaluation of 2D Ground States

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kolkovska, Natalia

    2016-02-01

    A ground state is defined as the positive radial solution of the multidimensional nonlinear problem \\varepsilon propto k_ bot 1 - ξ with the function f being either f(u) =a|u|p-1u or f(u) =a|u|pu+b|u|2pu. The numerical evaluation of ground states is based on the shooting method applied to an equivalent dynamical system. A combination of fourth order Runge-Kutta method and Hermite extrapolation formula is applied to solving the resulting initial value problem. The efficiency of this procedure is demonstrated in the 1D case, where the maximal difference between the exact and numerical solution is ≈ 10-11 for a discretization step 0:00025. As a major application, we evaluate numerically the critical energy constant. This constant is defined as a functional of the ground state and is used in the study of the 2D Boussinesq equations.

  17. Multi-material decomposition using statistical image reconstruction for spectral CT.

    PubMed

    Long, Yong; Fessler, Jeffrey A

    2014-08-01

    Spectral computed tomography (CT) provides information on material characterization and quantification because of its ability to separate different basis materials. Dual-energy (DE) CT provides two sets of measurements at two different source energies. In principle, two materials can be accurately decomposed from DECT measurements. However, many clinical and industrial applications require three or more material images. For triple-material decomposition, a third constraint, such as volume conservation, mass conservation or both, is required to solve three sets of unknowns from two sets of measurements. The recently proposed flexible image-domain (ID) multi-material decomposition) method assumes each pixel contains at most three materials out of several possible materials and decomposes a mixture pixel by pixel. We propose a penalized-likelihood (PL) method with edge-preserving regularizers for each material to reconstruct multi-material images using a similar constraint from sinogram data. We develop an optimization transfer method with a series of pixel-wise separable quadratic surrogate (PWSQS) functions to monotonically decrease the complicated PL cost function. The PWSQS algorithm separates pixels to allow simultaneous update of all pixels, but keeps the basis materials coupled to allow faster convergence rate than our previous proposed material- and pixel-wise SQS algorithms. Comparing with the ID method using 2-D fan-beam simulations, the PL method greatly reduced noise, streak and cross-talk artifacts in the reconstructed basis component images, and achieved much smaller root mean square errors.

  18. 2D to 3D transition of polymeric carbon nitride nanosheets

    SciTech Connect

    Chamorro-Posada, Pedro; Vázquez-Cabo, José; Martín-Ramos, Pablo; Martín-Gil, Jesús; Navas-Gracia, Luis M.; Dante, Roberto C.

    2014-11-15

    The transition from a prevalent turbostratic arrangement with low planar interactions (2D) to an array of polymeric carbon nitride nanosheets with stronger interplanar interactions (3D), occurring for samples treated above 650 °C, was detected by terahertz-time domain spectroscopy (THz-TDS). The simulated 3D material made of stacks of shifted quasi planar sheets composed of zigzagged polymer ribbons, delivered a XRD simulated pattern in relatively good agreement with the experimental one. The 2D to 3D transition was also supported by the simulation of THz-TDS spectra obtained from quantum chemistry calculations, in which the same broad bands around 2 THz and 1.5 THz were found for 2D and 3D arrays, respectively. This transition was also in accordance with the tightening of the interplanar distance probably due to an interplanar π bond contribution, as evidenced also by a broad absorption around 2.6 eV in the UV–vis spectrum, which appeared in the sample treated at 650 °C, and increased in the sample treated at 700 °C. The band gap was calculated for 1D and 2D cases. The value of 3.374 eV for the 2D case is, within the model accuracy and precision, in a relative good agreement with the value of 3.055 eV obtained from the experimental results. - Graphical abstract: 2D lattice mode vibrations and structural changes correlated with the so called “2D to 3D transition”. - Highlights: • A 2D to 3D transition has been detected for polymeric carbon nitride. • THz-TDS allowed us to discover and detect the 2D to 3D transition of polymeric carbon nitride. • We propose a structure for polymeric carbon nitride confirming it with THz-TDS.

  19. 2D water layer enclathrated between Mn(II)-Ni(CN){sub 4} coordination frameworks

    SciTech Connect

    Ray, Ambarish; Bhowmick, Indrani; Sheldrick, William S.; Jana, Atish Dipankar; Ali, Mahammed

    2009-10-15

    A [Ni(CN){sub 4}]{sup 2-}based two-dimensional Mn(II) coordination polymer {l_brace}Mn(H{sub 2}O){sub 2}[NiCN]{sub 4}.4H{sub 2}O{r_brace}, in which the coordination layers are stacked on top of each other sandwiching 2D water layer of boat-shaped hexagonal water clusters has been synthesized. The complex exhibits high thermal decomposition temperature and reversible water absorption, which were clearly demonstrated by thermal and PXRD studies on the parent and rehydrated complex after dehydration. - Abstract: A coordination polymer, {l_brace}Mn(H{sub 2}O){sub 2}[NiCN]{sub 4}.4H{sub 2}O{r_brace}{sub n}, showed that the coordination layers are stacked on top of each other sandwiching 2D ice layer of boat-shaped hexagonal water clusters . Display Omitted

  20. Accelerating Dynamic Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) for Lung Tumor Tracking Based on Low-Rank Decomposition in the Spatial–Temporal Domain: A Feasibility Study Based on Simulation and Preliminary Prospective Undersampled MRI

    SciTech Connect

    Sarma, Manoj; Hu, Peng; Rapacchi, Stanislas; Ennis, Daniel; Thomas, Albert; Lee, Percy; Kupelian, Patrick; Sheng, Ke

    2014-03-01

    Purpose: To evaluate a low-rank decomposition method to reconstruct down-sampled k-space data for the purpose of tumor tracking. Methods and Materials: Seven retrospective lung cancer patients were included in the simulation study. The fully-sampled k-space data were first generated from existing 2-dimensional dynamic MR images and then down-sampled by 5 × -20 × before reconstruction using a Cartesian undersampling mask. Two methods, a low-rank decomposition method using combined dynamic MR images (k-t SLR based on sparsity and low-rank penalties) and a total variation (TV) method using individual dynamic MR frames, were used to reconstruct images. The tumor trajectories were derived on the basis of autosegmentation of the resultant images. To further test its feasibility, k-t SLR was used to reconstruct prospective data of a healthy subject. An undersampled balanced steady-state free precession sequence with the same undersampling mask was used to acquire the imaging data. Results: In the simulation study, higher imaging fidelity and low noise levels were achieved with the k-t SLR compared with TV. At 10 × undersampling, the k-t SLR method resulted in an average normalized mean square error <0.05, as opposed to 0.23 by using the TV reconstruction on individual frames. Less than 6% showed tracking errors >1 mm with 10 × down-sampling using k-t SLR, as opposed to 17% using TV. In the prospective study, k-t SLR substantially reduced reconstruction artifacts and retained anatomic details. Conclusions: Magnetic resonance reconstruction using k-t SLR on highly undersampled dynamic MR imaging data results in high image quality useful for tumor tracking. The k-t SLR was superior to TV by better exploiting the intrinsic anatomic coherence of the same patient. The feasibility of k-t SLR was demonstrated by prospective imaging acquisition and reconstruction.

  1. Decomposing Nekrasov decomposition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Morozov, A.; Zenkevich, Y.

    2016-02-01

    AGT relations imply that the four-point conformal block admits a decomposition into a sum over pairs of Young diagrams of essentially rational Nekrasov functions — this is immediately seen when conformal block is represented in the form of a matrix model. However, the q-deformation of the same block has a deeper decomposition — into a sum over a quadruple of Young diagrams of a product of four topological vertices. We analyze the interplay between these two decompositions, their properties and their generalization to multi-point conformal blocks. In the latter case we explain how Dotsenko-Fateev all-with-all (star) pair "interaction" is reduced to the quiver model nearest-neighbor (chain) one. We give new identities for q-Selberg averages of pairs of generalized Macdonald polynomials. We also translate the slicing invariance of refined topological strings into the language of conformal blocks and interpret it as abelianization of generalized Macdonald polynomials.

  2. Stochastic 2-D Navier-Stokes Equation

    SciTech Connect

    Menaldi, J.L. Sritharan, S.S.

    2002-10-01

    In this paper we prove the existence and uniqueness of strong solutions for the stochastic Navier-Stokes equation in bounded and unbounded domains. These solutions are stochastic analogs of the classical Lions-Prodi solutions to the deterministic Navier-Stokes equation. Local monotonicity of the nonlinearity is exploited to obtain the solutions in a given probability space and this significantly improves the earlier techniques for obtaining strong solutions, which depended on pathwise solutions to the Navier-Stokes martingale problem where the probability space is also obtained as a part of the solution.

  3. The generalized triangular decomposition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jiang, Yi; Hager, William W.; Li, Jian

    2008-06-01

    Given a complex matrix mathbf{H} , we consider the decomposition mathbf{H} = mathbf{QRP}^* , where mathbf{R} is upper triangular and mathbf{Q} and mathbf{P} have orthonormal columns. Special instances of this decomposition include the singular value decomposition (SVD) and the Schur decomposition where mathbf{R} is an upper triangular matrix with the eigenvalues of mathbf{H} on the diagonal. We show that any diagonal for mathbf{R} can be achieved that satisfies Weyl's multiplicative majorization conditions: prod_{iD1}^k \\vert r_{i}\\vert le prod_{iD1}^k sigma_i, ; ; 1 le k < K, quad prod_{iD1}^K \\vert r_{i}\\vert = prod_{iD1}^K sigma_i, where K is the rank of mathbf{H} , sigma_i is the i -th largest singular value of mathbf{H} , and r_{i} is the i -th largest (in magnitude) diagonal element of mathbf{R} . Given a vector mathbf{r} which satisfies Weyl's conditions, we call the decomposition mathbf{H} = mathbf{QRP}^* , where mathbf{R} is upper triangular with prescribed diagonal mathbf{r} , the generalized triangular decomposition (GTD). A direct (nonrecursive) algorithm is developed for computing the GTD. This algorithm starts with the SVD and applies a series of permutations and Givens rotations to obtain the GTD. The numerical stability of the GTD update step is established. The GTD can be used to optimize the power utilization of a communication channel, while taking into account quality of service requirements for subchannels. Another application of the GTD is to inverse eigenvalue problems where the goal is to construct matrices with prescribed eigenvalues and singular values.

  4. Persistence Measures for 2d Soap Froth

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Feng, Y.; Ruskin, H. J.; Zhu, B.

    Soap froths as typical disordered cellular structures, exhibiting spatial and temporal evolution, have been studied through their distributions and topological properties. Recently, persistence measures, which permit representation of the froth as a two-phase system, have been introduced to study froth dynamics at different length scales. Several aspects of the dynamics may be considered and cluster persistence has been observed through froth experiment. Using a direct simulation method, we have investigated persistent properties in 2D froth both by monitoring the persistence of survivor cells, a topologically independent measure, and in terms of cluster persistence. It appears that the area fraction behavior for both survivor and cluster persistence is similar for Voronoi froth and uniform froth (with defects). Survivor and cluster persistent fractions are also similar for a uniform froth, particularly when geometries are constrained, but differences observed for the Voronoi case appear to be attributable to the strong topological dependency inherent in cluster persistence. Survivor persistence, on the other hand, depends on the number rather than size and position of remaining bubbles and does not exhibit the characteristic decay to zero.

  5. SEM signal emulation for 2D patterns

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sukhov, Evgenii; Muelders, Thomas; Klostermann, Ulrich; Gao, Weimin; Braylovska, Mariya

    2016-03-01

    The application of accurate and predictive physical resist simulation is seen as one important use model for fast and efficient exploration of new patterning technology options, especially if fully qualified OPC models are not yet available at an early pre-production stage. The methodology of using a top-down CD-SEM metrology to extract the 3D resist profile information, such as the critical dimension (CD) at various resist heights, has to be associated with a series of presumptions which may introduce such small, but systematic CD errors. Ideally, the metrology effects should be carefully minimized during measurement process, or if possible be taken into account through proper metrology modeling. In this paper we discuss the application of a fast SEM signal emulation describing the SEM image formation. The algorithm is applied to simulated resist 3D profiles and produces emulated SEM image results for 1D and 2D patterns. It allows estimating resist simulation quality by comparing CDs which were extracted from the emulated and from the measured SEM images. Moreover, SEM emulation is applied for resist model calibration to capture subtle error signatures through dose and defocus. Finally, it should be noted that our SEM emulation methodology is based on the approximation of physical phenomena which are taking place in real SEM image formation. This approximation allows achieving better speed performance compared to a fully physical model.

  6. Methods for 2-D and 3-D Endobronchial Ultrasound Image Segmentation.

    PubMed

    Zang, Xiaonan; Bascom, Rebecca; Gilbert, Christopher; Toth, Jennifer; Higgins, William

    2016-07-01

    Endobronchial ultrasound (EBUS) is now commonly used for cancer-staging bronchoscopy. Unfortunately, EBUS is challenging to use and interpreting EBUS video sequences is difficult. Other ultrasound imaging domains, hampered by related difficulties, have benefited from computer-based image-segmentation methods. Yet, so far, no such methods have been proposed for EBUS. We propose image-segmentation methods for 2-D EBUS frames and 3-D EBUS sequences. Our 2-D method adapts the fast-marching level-set process, anisotropic diffusion, and region growing to the problem of segmenting 2-D EBUS frames. Our 3-D method builds upon the 2-D method while also incorporating the geodesic level-set process for segmenting EBUS sequences. Tests with lung-cancer patient data showed that the methods ran fully automatically for nearly 80% of test cases. For the remaining cases, the only user-interaction required was the selection of a seed point. When compared to ground-truth segmentations, the 2-D method achieved an overall Dice index = 90.0% ±4.9%, while the 3-D method achieved an overall Dice index = 83.9 ± 6.0%. In addition, the computation time (2-D, 0.070 s/frame; 3-D, 0.088 s/frame) was two orders of magnitude faster than interactive contour definition. Finally, we demonstrate the potential of the methods for EBUS localization in a multimodal image-guided bronchoscopy system.

  7. Radiofrequency Spectroscopy and Thermodynamics of Fermi Gases in the 2D to Quasi-2D Dimensional Crossover

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cheng, Chingyun; Kangara, Jayampathi; Arakelyan, Ilya; Thomas, John

    2016-05-01

    We tune the dimensionality of a strongly interacting degenerate 6 Li Fermi gas from 2D to quasi-2D, by adjusting the radial confinement of pancake-shaped clouds to control the radial chemical potential. In the 2D regime with weak radial confinement, the measured pair binding energies are in agreement with 2D-BCS mean field theory, which predicts dimer pairing energies in the many-body regime. In the qausi-2D regime obtained with increased radial confinement, the measured pairing energy deviates significantly from 2D-BCS theory. In contrast to the pairing energy, the measured radii of the cloud profiles are not fit by 2D-BCS theory in either the 2D or quasi-2D regimes, but are fit in both regimes by a beyond mean field polaron-model of the free energy. Supported by DOE, ARO, NSF, and AFOSR.

  8. 2D nearly orthogonal mesh generation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Yaoxin; Jia, Yafei; Wang, Sam S. Y.

    2004-11-01

    The Ryskin and Leal (RL) system is the most widely used mesh generation system for the orthogonal mapping. However, when this system is used in domains with complex geometry, particularly in those with sharp corners and strong curvatures, serious distortion or overlapping of mesh lines may occur and an acceptable solution may not be possible. In the present study, two methods are proposed to generate nearly orthogonal meshes with the smoothness control. In the first method, the original RL system is modified by introducing smoothness control functions, which are formulated through the blending of the conformal mapping and the orthogonal mapping; while in the second method, the RL system is modified by introducing the contribution factors. A hybrid system of both methods is also developed. The proposed methods are illustrated by several test examples. Applications of these methods in a natural river channel are demonstrated. It is shown that the modified RL systems are capable of producing meshes with an adequate balance between the orthogonality and the smoothness for complex computational domains without mesh distortions and overlapping.

  9. 2D discrete Fourier transform on sliding windows.

    PubMed

    Park, Chun-Su

    2015-03-01

    Discrete Fourier transform (DFT) is the most widely used method for determining the frequency spectra of digital signals. In this paper, a 2D sliding DFT (2D SDFT) algorithm is proposed for fast implementation of the DFT on 2D sliding windows. The proposed 2D SDFT algorithm directly computes the DFT bins of the current window using the precalculated bins of the previous window. Since the proposed algorithm is designed to accelerate the sliding transform process of a 2D input signal, it can be directly applied to computer vision and image processing applications. The theoretical analysis shows that the computational requirement of the proposed 2D SDFT algorithm is the lowest among existing 2D DFT algorithms. Moreover, the output of the 2D SDFT is mathematically equivalent to that of the traditional DFT at all pixel positions.

  10. MAGNUM2D. Radionuclide Transport Porous Media

    SciTech Connect

    Langford, D.W.; Baca, R.G.

    1989-03-01

    MAGNUM2D was developed to analyze thermally driven fluid motion in the deep basalts below the Paco Basin at the Westinghouse Hanford Site. Has been used in the Basalt Waste Isolation Project to simulate nonisothermal groundwater flow in a heterogeneous anisotropic medium and heat transport in a water/rock system near a high level nuclear waste repository. Allows three representations of the hydrogeologic system: an equivalent porous continuum, a system of discrete, unfilled, and interconnecting fractures separated by impervious rock mass, and a low permeability porous continuum with several discrete, unfilled fractures traversing the medium. The calculations assume local thermodynamic equilibrium between the rock and groundwater, nonisothermal Darcian flow in the continuum portions of the rock, and nonisothermal Poiseuille flow in discrete unfilled fractures. In addition, the code accounts for thermal loading within the elements, zero normal gradient and fixed boundary conditions for both temperature and hydraulic head, and simulation of the temperature and flow independently. The Q2DGEOM preprocessor was developed to generate, modify, plot and verify quadratic two dimensional finite element geometries. The BCGEN preprocessor generates the boundary conditions for head and temperature and ICGEN generates the initial conditions. The GRIDDER postprocessor interpolates nonregularly spaced nodal flow and temperature data onto a regular rectangular grid. CONTOUR plots and labels contour lines for a function of two variables and PARAM plots cross sections and time histories for a function of time and one or two spatial variables. NPRINT generates data tables that display the data along horizontal or vertical cross sections. VELPLT differentiates the hydraulic head and buoyancy data and plots the velocity vectors. The PATH postprocessor plots flow paths and computes the corresponding travel times.

  11. MAGNUM2D. Radionuclide Transport Porous Media

    SciTech Connect

    Langford, D.W.; Baca, R.G.

    1988-08-01

    MAGNUM2D was developed to analyze thermally driven fluid motion in the deep basalts below the Paco Basin at the Westinghouse Hanford Site. Has been used in the Basalt Waste Isolation Project to simulate nonisothermal groundwater flow in a heterogeneous anisotropic medium and heat transport in a water/rock system near a high level nuclear waste repository. Allows three representations of the hydrogeologic system: an equivalent porous continuum, a system of discrete, unfilled, and interconnecting fractures separated by impervious rock mass, and a low permeability porous continuum with several discrete, unfilled fractures traversing the medium. The calculation assumes local thermodynamic equilibrium between the rock and groundwater, nonisothermal Darcian flow in the continuum portions of the rock, and nonisothermal Poiseuille flow in discrete unfilled fractures. In addition, the code accounts for thermal loading within the elements, zero normal gradient and fixed boundary conditions for both temperature and hydraulic head, and simulation of the temperature and flow independently. The Q2DGEOM preprocessor was developed to generate, modify, plot and verify quadratic two dimensional finite element geometries. The BCGEN preprocessor generates the boundary conditions for head and temperature and ICGEN generates the initial conditions. The GRIDDER postprocessor interpolates nonregularly spaced nodal flow and temperature data onto a regular rectangular grid. CONTOUR plots and labels contour lines for a function of two variables and PARAM plots cross sections and time histories for a function of time and one or two spatial variables. NPRINT generates data tables that display the data along horizontal or vertical cross sections. VELPLT differentiates the hydraulic head and buoyancy data and plots the velocity vectors. The PATH postprocessor plots flow paths and computes the corresponding travel times.

  12. The H-super(anti)magic decompositions of antiprism graphs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hendy

    2016-02-01

    Let H and G be two simple graphs. The concept of an H-magic decomposition of G arises from the combination between graph decompositions and graph labeling. A family 𝔹 = {G1, G2, …, Gt } of subgraphs of G is an H-decomposition of G, if all subgraphs are isomorphic to graph H, E(Gi) ∩ E(G j) = Ø for i ≠ j, and ∪i=1t E (Gi)=E (G ) . The graph G is said to be H-magic, if there exists a bijection f : V (G) ∪ E(G) → {1, 2,…, |V (G) ∪ E(G)|} such that the sum of labels of all edges and vertices of each copy of H in a decomposition is constant. The graph G is said to be (a, d)H-anti magic, if there exists a bijection f : V (G) ∪ E(G) → {1, 2, …, |V (G) ∪ E(G)|} such that the sum of labels of all edges and vertices of each copy of H in a decomposition is element of {a, a + d, a + 2d,…, a + (k - 1)d}. In this paper we show that the Antiprism graph, An, for n ≥ 3 are H- decomposable, where H isomorf with sun graph, S(Cn), 3-cycle with a pendant, L, and path with length two, P2. Also we show that for n ≥ 3, the Antiprism graph An, has super magic S(Cn)-decompositions, super edge magic L-decompositions and super edge magic P2-decompositions. In addition we show that for n ≥ 3, the Antiprism graph An, has super antimagic (8n2 + 2n, 4n2)- S(Cn)- decompositions.

  13. Generates 2D Input for DYNA NIKE & TOPAZ

    SciTech Connect

    Hallquist, J. O.; Sanford, Larry

    1996-07-15

    MAZE is an interactive program that serves as an input and two-dimensional mesh generator for DYNA2D, NIKE2D, TOPAZ2D, and CHEMICAL TOPAZ2D. MAZE also generates a basic template for ISLAND input. MAZE has been applied to the generation of input data to study the response of two-dimensional solids and structures undergoing finite deformations under a wide variety of large deformation transient dynamic and static problems and heat transfer analyses.

  14. MAZE96. Generates 2D Input for DYNA NIKE & TOPAZ

    SciTech Connect

    Sanford, L.; Hallquist, J.O.

    1992-02-24

    MAZE is an interactive program that serves as an input and two-dimensional mesh generator for DYNA2D, NIKE2D, TOPAZ2D, and CHEMICAL TOPAZ2D. MAZE also generates a basic template for ISLAND input. MAZE has been applied to the generation of input data to study the response of two-dimensional solids and structures undergoing finite deformations under a wide variety of large deformation transient dynamic and static problems and heat transfer analyses.

  15. NIKE2D96. Static & Dynamic Response of 2D Solids

    SciTech Connect

    Raboin, P.; Engelmann, B.; Halquist, J.O.

    1992-01-24

    NIKE2D is an implicit finite-element code for analyzing the finite deformation, static and dynamic response of two-dimensional, axisymmetric, plane strain, and plane stress solids. The code is fully vectorized and available on several computing platforms. A number of material models are incorporated to simulate a wide range of material behavior including elasto-placicity, anisotropy, creep, thermal effects, and rate dependence. Slideline algorithms model gaps and sliding along material interfaces, including interface friction, penetration and single surface contact. Interactive-graphics and rezoning is included for analyses with large mesh distortions. In addition to quasi-Newton and arc-length procedures, adaptive algorithms can be defined to solve the implicit equations using the solution language ISLAND. Each of these capabilities and more make NIKE2D a robust analysis tool.

  16. Hydrazine decomposition and other reactions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Armstrong, Warren E. (Inventor); La France, Donald S. (Inventor); Voge, Hervey H. (Inventor)

    1978-01-01

    This invention relates to the catalytic decomposition of hydrazine, catalysts useful for this decomposition and other reactions, and to reactions in hydrogen atmospheres generally using carbon-containing catalysts.

  17. ULBP4 is a novel ligand for human NKG2D.

    PubMed

    Chalupny, N Jan; Sutherland, Claire L; Lawrence, William A; Rein-Weston, Annie; Cosman, David

    2003-05-23

    The ULBPs are a family of MHC class I-related molecules. We have previously shown that ULBPs 1, 2, and 3 are functional ligands of the NKG2D/DAP10 receptor complex on human natural killer (NK) cells. Here, we describe a new member of the ULBP family, ULBP4, which contains predicted transmembrane and cytoplasmic domains, unlike the other ULBPs, which are GPI-linked proteins. Transduction of ULBP4 into EL4 cells confers the ability to bind recombinant NKG2D and mediates increased cytotoxic activity by human NK cells, consistent with the role of ULBPs as ligands for the NKG2D/DAP10 activating receptors. Tissue expression of ULBP4 differs from other members of the family, in that it is expressed predominantly in the skin.

  18. 2-D magnetotelluric modeling using finite element method incorporating unstructured quadrilateral elements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sarakorn, Weerachai

    2017-04-01

    In this research, the finite element (FE) method incorporating quadrilateral elements for solving 2-D MT modeling was presented. The finite element software was developed, employing a paving algorithm to generate the unstructured quadrilateral mesh. The accuracy, efficiency, reliability, and flexibility of our FE forward modeling are presented, compared and discussed. The numerical results indicate that our FE codes using an unstructured quadrilateral mesh provide good accuracy when the local mesh refinement is applied around sites and in the area of interest, with superior results when compared to other FE methods. The reliability of the developed codes was also confirmed when comparing both analytical solutions and COMMEMI2D model. Furthermore, our developed FE codes incorporating an unstructured quadrilateral mesh showed useful and powerful features such as handling irregular and complex subregions and providing local refinement of the mesh for a 2-D domain as closely as unstructured triangular mesh but it requires less number of elements in a mesh.

  19. Defect formation and coarsening in hexagonal 2D curved crystals.

    PubMed

    García, Nicolás A; Pezzutti, Aldo D; Register, Richard A; Vega, Daniel A; Gómez, Leopoldo R

    2015-02-07

    In this work we study the processes of defect formation and coarsening of two-dimensional (2D) curved crystal structures. These processes are found to strongly deviate from their counterparts in flat systems. In curved backgrounds the process of defect formation is deeply affected by the curvature, and at the onset of a phase transition the early density of defects becomes highly inhomogeneous. We observe that even a single growing crystal can produce varying densities of defects depending on its initial position and local orientation with regard to the substrate. This process is completely different from flat space, where grain boundaries are formed due to the impingement of different propagating crystals. Quenching the liquid into the crystal phase leads to the formation of a curved polycrystalline structure, characterized by complex arrays of defects. During annealing, mechanisms of geodesic curvature-driven grain boundary motion and defect annihilation lead to increasing crystalline order. Linear arrays of defects diffuse to regions of high curvature, where they are absorbed by disclinations. At the early stage of coarsening the density of dislocations is insensitive to the geometry while the population of isolated disclinations is deeply affected by curvature. The regions with high curvature act as traps for the diffusion of different structures of defects, including disclinations and domain walls.

  20. Vorticity Generation by Rough Walls in 2D Decaying Turbulence

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tóth, Gábor; Jánosi, Imre M.

    2015-12-01

    In this work we present Lattice Boltzmann simulations of a decaying vortex array in a 2D rectangular domain, which is bounded by a random rough wall from one side. In order to separate the effects of the collisions with the rough wall, the opposite (smooth) rigid wall is placed at a larger distance from the center of the vortex array. Periodic boundary condition is imposed in the perpendicular direction. Well defined random roughness is generated by the widely studied Wolf-Villain surface growth algorithm. The main finding is that collisions with a rough wall generate excess vorticity compared with a smooth boundary, while the kinetic energy decreases monotonously. A proper measure is the integrated excess enstrophy, which exhibits an apparent maximum at an "optimal" roughness range. Numerical values of the excess enstrophy are very sensitive to a particular configuration (wall shape and vortex lattice randomization), however the "optimal" roughness exhibits surface features of similar characteristic sizes than that of the decaying vortices.

  1. Nonlinear standing waves in 2-D acoustic resonators.

    PubMed

    Cervenka, Milan; Bednarik, Michal

    2006-12-22

    This paper deals with 2-D simulation of finite-amplitude standing waves behavior in rectangular acoustic resonators. Set of three partial differential equations in third approximation formulated in conservative form is derived from fundamental equations of gas dynamics. These equations form a closed set for two components of acoustic velocity vector and density, the equations account for external driving force, gas dynamic nonlinearities and thermoviscous dissipation. Pressure is obtained from solution of the set by means of an analytical formula. The equations are formulated in the Cartesian coordinate system. The model equations set is solved numerically in time domain using a central semi-discrete difference scheme developed for integration of sets of convection-diffusion equations with two or more spatial coordinates. Numerical results show various patterns of acoustic field in resonators driven using vibrating piston with spatial distribution of velocity. Excitation of lateral shock-wave mode is observed when resonant conditions are fulfilled for longitudinal as well as for transversal direction along the resonator cavity.

  2. Steady propagation of Bingham plugs in 2D channels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zamankhan, Parsa; Takayama, Shuichi; Grotberg, James

    2009-11-01

    The displacement of the yield-stress liquid plugs in channels and tubes occur in many biological systems and industrial processes. Among them is the propagation of mucus plugs in the respiratory tracts as may occur in asthma, cystic fibrosis, or emphysema. In this work the steady propagation of mucus plugs in a 2D channel is studied numerically, assuming that the mucus is a pure Bingham fluid. The governing equations are solved by a mixed-discontinuous finite element formulation and the free surface is resolved with the method of spines. The constitutive equation for a pure Bingham fluid is modeled by a regularization method. Fluid inertia is neglected, so the controlling parameters in a steady displacement are; the capillary number, Ca, Bingham number ,Bn, and the plug length. According to the numerical results, the yield stress behavior of the plug modifies the plug shape, the pattern of the streamlines and the distribution of stresses in the plug domain and along the walls in a significant way. The distribution along the walls is a major factor in studying cell injuries. This work is supported through the grant NIH HL84370.

  3. Chaotic advection in 2D anisotropic porous media

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Varghese, Stephen; Speetjens, Michel; Trieling, Ruben; Toschi, Federico

    2015-11-01

    Traditional methods for heat recovery from underground geothermal reservoirs employ a static system of injector-producer wells. Recent studies in literature have shown that using a well-devised pumping scheme, through actuation of multiple injector-producer wells, can dramatically enhance production rates due to the increased scalar / heat transport by means of chaotic advection. However the effect of reservoir anisotropy on kinematic mixing and heat transport is unknown and has to be incorporated and studied for practical deployment in the field. As a first step, we numerically investigate the effect of anisotropy (both magnitude and direction) on (chaotic) advection of passive tracers in a time-periodic Darcy flow within a 2D circular domain driven by periodically reoriented diametrically opposite source-sink pairs. Preliminary results indicate that anisotropy has a significant impact on the location, shape and size of coherent structures in the Poincare sections. This implies that the optimal operating parameters (well spacing, time period of well actuation) may vary strongly and must be carefully chosen so as to enhance subsurface transport. This work is part of the research program of the Foundation for Fundamental Research on Matter (FOM), which is part of Netherlands Organisation for Scientific Research (NWO). This research program is co-financed by Shell Global Solutions International B.V.

  4. CYP2D7 Sequence Variation Interferes with TaqMan CYP2D6*15 and *35 Genotyping

    PubMed Central

    Riffel, Amanda K.; Dehghani, Mehdi; Hartshorne, Toinette; Floyd, Kristen C.; Leeder, J. Steven; Rosenblatt, Kevin P.; Gaedigk, Andrea

    2016-01-01

    TaqMan™ genotyping assays are widely used to genotype CYP2D6, which encodes a major drug metabolizing enzyme. Assay design for CYP2D6 can be challenging owing to the presence of two pseudogenes, CYP2D7 and CYP2D8, structural and copy number variation and numerous single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) some of which reflect the wild-type sequence of the CYP2D7 pseudogene. The aim of this study was to identify the mechanism causing false-positive CYP2D6*15 calls and remediate those by redesigning and validating alternative TaqMan genotype assays. Among 13,866 DNA samples genotyped by the CompanionDx® lab on the OpenArray platform, 70 samples were identified as heterozygotes for 137Tins, the key SNP of CYP2D6*15. However, only 15 samples were confirmed when tested with the Luminex xTAG CYP2D6 Kit and sequencing of CYP2D6-specific long range (XL)-PCR products. Genotype and gene resequencing of CYP2D6 and CYP2D7-specific XL-PCR products revealed a CC>GT dinucleotide SNP in exon 1 of CYP2D7 that reverts the sequence to CYP2D6 and allows a TaqMan assay PCR primer to bind. Because CYP2D7 also carries a Tins, a false-positive mutation signal is generated. This CYP2D7 SNP was also responsible for generating false-positive signals for rs769258 (CYP2D6*35) which is also located in exon 1. Although alternative CYP2D6*15 and *35 assays resolved the issue, we discovered a novel CYP2D6*15 subvariant in one sample that carries additional SNPs preventing detection with the alternate assay. The frequency of CYP2D6*15 was 0.1% in this ethnically diverse U.S. population sample. In addition, we also discovered linkage between the CYP2D7 CC>GT dinucleotide SNP and the 77G>A (rs28371696) SNP of CYP2D6*43. The frequency of this tentatively functional allele was 0.2%. Taken together, these findings emphasize that regardless of how careful genotyping assays are designed and evaluated before being commercially marketed, rare or unknown SNPs underneath primer and/or probe regions can impact

  5. CYP2D7 Sequence Variation Interferes with TaqMan CYP2D6 (*) 15 and (*) 35 Genotyping.

    PubMed

    Riffel, Amanda K; Dehghani, Mehdi; Hartshorne, Toinette; Floyd, Kristen C; Leeder, J Steven; Rosenblatt, Kevin P; Gaedigk, Andrea

    2015-01-01

    TaqMan™ genotyping assays are widely used to genotype CYP2D6, which encodes a major drug metabolizing enzyme. Assay design for CYP2D6 can be challenging owing to the presence of two pseudogenes, CYP2D7 and CYP2D8, structural and copy number variation and numerous single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) some of which reflect the wild-type sequence of the CYP2D7 pseudogene. The aim of this study was to identify the mechanism causing false-positive CYP2D6 (*) 15 calls and remediate those by redesigning and validating alternative TaqMan genotype assays. Among 13,866 DNA samples genotyped by the CompanionDx® lab on the OpenArray platform, 70 samples were identified as heterozygotes for 137Tins, the key SNP of CYP2D6 (*) 15. However, only 15 samples were confirmed when tested with the Luminex xTAG CYP2D6 Kit and sequencing of CYP2D6-specific long range (XL)-PCR products. Genotype and gene resequencing of CYP2D6 and CYP2D7-specific XL-PCR products revealed a CC>GT dinucleotide SNP in exon 1 of CYP2D7 that reverts the sequence to CYP2D6 and allows a TaqMan assay PCR primer to bind. Because CYP2D7 also carries a Tins, a false-positive mutation signal is generated. This CYP2D7 SNP was also responsible for generating false-positive signals for rs769258 (CYP2D6 (*) 35) which is also located in exon 1. Although alternative CYP2D6 (*) 15 and (*) 35 assays resolved the issue, we discovered a novel CYP2D6 (*) 15 subvariant in one sample that carries additional SNPs preventing detection with the alternate assay. The frequency of CYP2D6 (*) 15 was 0.1% in this ethnically diverse U.S. population sample. In addition, we also discovered linkage between the CYP2D7 CC>GT dinucleotide SNP and the 77G>A (rs28371696) SNP of CYP2D6 (*) 43. The frequency of this tentatively functional allele was 0.2%. Taken together, these findings emphasize that regardless of how careful genotyping assays are designed and evaluated before being commercially marketed, rare or unknown SNPs underneath primer

  6. Applicability extent of 2-D heat equation for numerical analysis of a multiphysics problem

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khawaja, H.

    2017-01-01

    This work focuses on thermal problems, solvable using the heat equation. The fundamental question being answered here is: what are the limits of the dimensions that will allow a 3-D thermal problem to be accurately modelled using a 2-D Heat Equation? The presented work solves 2-D and 3-D heat equations using the Finite Difference Method, also known as the Forward-Time Central-Space (FTCS) method, in MATLAB®. For this study, a cuboidal shape domain with a square cross-section is assumed. The boundary conditions are set such that there is a constant temperature at its center and outside its boundaries. The 2-D and 3-D heat equations are solved in a time dimension to develop a steady state temperature profile. The method is tested for its stability using the Courant-Friedrichs-Lewy (CFL) criteria. The results are compared by varying the thickness of the 3-D domain. The maximum error is calculated, and recommendations are given on the applicability of the 2-D heat equation.

  7. 2D Arrays of Hexagonal Plasmonic Necklaces for Enhanced Second Harmonic Generation.

    PubMed

    Gómez-Tornero, Alejandro; Tserkezis, Christos; Mateos, Luis; Bausá, Luisa E; Ramírez, Mariola O

    2017-02-10

    Hexagonal plasmonic necklaces of silver nanoparticles organized in 2D superlattices on functional ferroelectric templates are fabricated in large-scale spatial regions by using a surfactant-free photo-deposition process. The plasmonic necklaces support broad radiative plasmonic resonances allowing the enhancement of second harmonic generation (SHG) at the ferroelectric domain boundaries. A 400-fold SHG enhancement is achieved at the near-UV spectral region with subsequent interest for technological applications.

  8. Image encryption using P-Fibonacci transform and decomposition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhou, Yicong; Panetta, Karen; Agaian, Sos; Chen, C. L. Philip

    2012-03-01

    Image encryption is an effective method to protect images or videos by transferring them into unrecognizable formats for different security purposes. To improve the security level of bit-plane decomposition based encryption approaches, this paper introduces a new image encryption algorithm by using a combination of parametric bit-plane decomposition along with bit-plane shuffling and resizing, pixel scrambling and data mapping. The algorithm utilizes the Fibonacci P-code for image bit-plane decomposition and the 2D P-Fibonacci transform for image encryption because they are parameter dependent. Any new or existing method can be used for shuffling the order of the bit-planes. Simulation analysis and comparisons are provided to demonstrate the algorithm's performance for image encryption. Security analysis shows the algorithm's ability against several common attacks. The algorithm can be used to encrypt images, biometrics and videos.

  9. Single-scan 2D NMR: An Emerging Tool in Analytical Spectroscopy

    PubMed Central

    Giraudeau, Patrick; Frydman, Lucio

    2016-01-01

    Two-dimensional Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (2D NMR) spectroscopy is widely used in chemical and biochemical analyses. Multidimensional NMR is also witnessing an increased use in quantitative and metabolic screening applications. Conventional 2D NMR experiments, however, are affected by inherently long acquisition durations, arising from their need to sample the frequencies involved along their indirect domains in an incremented, scan-by-scan nature. A decade ago a so-called “ultrafast” (UF) approach was proposed, capable to deliver arbitrary 2D NMR spectra involving any kind of homo- or hetero-nuclear correlations, in a single scan. During the intervening years the performance of this sub-second 2D NMR methodology has been greatly improved, and UF 2D NMR is rapidly becoming a powerful analytical tool witnessing an expanded scope of applications. The present reviews summarizes the principles and the main developments which have contributed to the success of this approach, and focuses on applications which have been recently demonstrated in various areas of analytical chemistry –from the real time monitoring of chemical and biochemical processes, to extensions in hyphenated techniques and in quantitative applications. PMID:25014342

  10. Molecular beam epitaxy of 2D-layered gallium selenide on GaN substrates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Choong Hee; Krishnamoorthy, Sriram; O'Hara, Dante J.; Brenner, Mark R.; Johnson, Jared M.; Jamison, John S.; Myers, Roberto C.; Kawakami, Roland K.; Hwang, Jinwoo; Rajan, Siddharth

    2017-03-01

    Large area epitaxy of two-dimensional (2D) layered materials with high material quality is a crucial step in realizing novel device applications based on 2D materials. In this work, we report high-quality, crystalline, large-area gallium selenide (GaSe) films grown on bulk substrates such as c-plane sapphire and gallium nitride (GaN) using a valved cracker source for Se. (002)-Oriented GaSe with random in-plane orientation of domains was grown on sapphire and GaN substrates at a substrate temperature of 350-450 °C with complete surface coverage. Higher growth temperature (575 °C) resulted in the formation of single-crystalline ɛ-GaSe triangular domains with six-fold symmetry confirmed by in-situ reflection high electron energy diffraction and off-axis x-ray diffraction. A two-step growth method involving high temperature nucleation of single crystalline domains and low temperature growth to enhance coalescence was adopted to obtain continuous (002)-oriented GaSe with an epitaxial relationship with the substrate. While six-fold symmetry was maintained in the two step growth, β-GaSe phase was observed in addition to the dominant ɛ-GaSe in cross-sectional scanning transmission electron microscopy images. This work demonstrates the potential of growing high quality 2D-layered materials using molecular beam epitaxy and can be extended to the growth of other transition metal chalcogenides.

  11. Multicriteria approximation through decomposition

    SciTech Connect

    Burch, C.; Krumke, S.; Marathe, M.; Phillips, C.; Sundberg, E.

    1998-06-01

    The authors propose a general technique called solution decomposition to devise approximation algorithms with provable performance guarantees. The technique is applicable to a large class of combinatorial optimization problems that can be formulated as integer linear programs. Two key ingredients of their technique involve finding a decomposition of a fractional solution into a convex combination of feasible integral solutions and devising generic approximation algorithms based on calls to such decompositions as oracles. The technique is closely related to randomized rounding. Their method yields as corollaries unified solutions to a number of well studied problems and it provides the first approximation algorithms with provable guarantees for a number of new problems. The particular results obtained in this paper include the following: (1) the authors demonstrate how the technique can be used to provide more understanding of previous results and new algorithms for classical problems such as Multicriteria Spanning Trees, and Suitcase Packing; (2) they also show how the ideas can be extended to apply to multicriteria optimization problems, in which they wish to minimize a certain objective function subject to one or more budget constraints. As corollaries they obtain first non-trivial multicriteria approximation algorithms for problems including the k-Hurdle and the Network Inhibition problems.

  12. Multicriteria approximation through decomposition

    SciTech Connect

    Burch, C. |; Krumke, S.; Marathe, M.; Phillips, C.; Sundberg, E. |

    1997-12-01

    The authors propose a general technique called solution decomposition to devise approximation algorithms with provable performance guarantees. The technique is applicable to a large class of combinatorial optimization problems that can be formulated as integer linear programs. Two key ingredients of the technique involve finding a decomposition of a fractional solution into a convex combination of feasible integral solutions and devising generic approximation algorithms based on calls to such decompositions as oracles. The technique is closely related to randomized rounding. The method yields as corollaries unified solutions to a number of well studied problems and it provides the first approximation algorithms with provable guarantees for a number of new problems. The particular results obtained in this paper include the following: (1) The authors demonstrate how the technique can be used to provide more understanding of previous results and new algorithms for classical problems such as Multicriteria Spanning Trees, and Suitcase Packing. (2) They show how the ideas can be extended to apply to multicriteria optimization problems, in which they wish to minimize a certain objective function subject to one or more budget constraints. As corollaries they obtain first non-trivial multicriteria approximation algorithms for problems including the k-Hurdle and the Network Inhibition problems.

  13. Residual lens effects in 2D mode of auto-stereoscopic lenticular-based switchable 2D/3D displays

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sluijter, M.; IJzerman, W. L.; de Boer, D. K. G.; de Zwart, S. T.

    2006-04-01

    We discuss residual lens effects in multi-view switchable auto-stereoscopic lenticular-based 2D/3D displays. With the introduction of a switchable lenticular, it is possible to switch between a 2D mode and a 3D mode. The 2D mode displays conventional content, whereas the 3D mode provides the sensation of depth to the viewer. The uniformity of a display in the 2D mode is quantified by the quality parameter modulation depth. In order to reduce the modulation depth in the 2D mode, birefringent lens plates are investigated analytically and numerically, by ray tracing. We can conclude that the modulation depth in the 2D mode can be substantially decreased by using birefringent lens plates with a perfect index match between lens material and lens plate. Birefringent lens plates do not disturb the 3D performance of a switchable 2D/3D display.

  14. Differential CYP 2D6 metabolism alters primaquine pharmacokinetics.

    PubMed

    Potter, Brittney M J; Xie, Lisa H; Vuong, Chau; Zhang, Jing; Zhang, Ping; Duan, Dehui; Luong, Thu-Lan T; Bandara Herath, H M T; Dhammika Nanayakkara, N P; Tekwani, Babu L; Walker, Larry A; Nolan, Christina K; Sciotti, Richard J; Zottig, Victor E; Smith, Philip L; Paris, Robert M; Read, Lisa T; Li, Qigui; Pybus, Brandon S; Sousa, Jason C; Reichard, Gregory A; Marcsisin, Sean R

    2015-04-01

    Primaquine (PQ) metabolism by the cytochrome P450 (CYP) 2D family of enzymes is required for antimalarial activity in both humans (2D6) and mice (2D). Human CYP 2D6 is highly polymorphic, and decreased CYP 2D6 enzyme activity has been linked to decreased PQ antimalarial activity. Despite the importance of CYP 2D metabolism in PQ efficacy, the exact role that these enzymes play in PQ metabolism and pharmacokinetics has not been extensively studied in vivo. In this study, a series of PQ pharmacokinetic experiments were conducted in mice with differential CYP 2D metabolism characteristics, including wild-type (WT), CYP 2D knockout (KO), and humanized CYP 2D6 (KO/knock-in [KO/KI]) mice. Plasma and liver pharmacokinetic profiles from a single PQ dose (20 mg/kg of body weight) differed significantly among the strains for PQ and carboxy-PQ. Additionally, due to the suspected role of phenolic metabolites in PQ efficacy, these were probed using reference standards. Levels of phenolic metabolites were highest in mice capable of metabolizing CYP 2D6 substrates (WT and KO/KI 2D6 mice). PQ phenolic metabolites were present in different quantities in the two strains, illustrating species-specific differences in PQ metabolism between the human and mouse enzymes. Taking the data together, this report furthers understanding of PQ pharmacokinetics in the context of differential CYP 2D metabolism and has important implications for PQ administration in humans with different levels of CYP 2D6 enzyme activity.

  15. Mechanical characterization of 2D, 2D stitched, and 3D braided/RTM materials

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Deaton, Jerry W.; Kullerd, Susan M.; Portanova, Marc A.

    1993-01-01

    Braided composite materials have potential for application in aircraft structures. Fuselage frames, floor beams, wing spars, and stiffeners are examples where braided composites could find application if cost effective processing and damage tolerance requirements are met. Another important consideration for braided composites relates to their mechanical properties and how they compare to the properties of composites produced by other textile composite processes being proposed for these applications. Unfortunately, mechanical property data for braided composites do not appear extensively in the literature. Data are presented in this paper on the mechanical characterization of 2D triaxial braid, 2D triaxial braid plus stitching, and 3D (through-the-thickness) braid composite materials. The braided preforms all had the same graphite tow size and the same nominal braid architectures, (+/- 30 deg/0 deg), and were resin transfer molded (RTM) using the same mold for each of two different resin systems. Static data are presented for notched and unnotched tension, notched and unnotched compression, and compression after impact strengths at room temperature. In addition, some static results, after environmental conditioning, are included. Baseline tension and compression fatigue results are also presented, but only for the 3D braided composite material with one of the resin systems.

  16. Toward High Performance 2D/2D Hybrid Photocatalyst by Electrostatic Assembly of Rationally Modified Carbon Nitride on Reduced Graphene Oxide

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Jian; Xu, Xiaochan; Li, Tao; Pandiselvi, Kannusamy; Wang, Jingyu

    2016-11-01

    Efficient metal-free visible photocatalysts with high stability are highly desired for sufficient utilization of solar energy. In this work, the popular carbon nitride (CN) photocatalyst is rationally modified by acid exfoliation of molecular grafted CN, achieving improved visible-light utilization and charge carriers mobility. Moreover, the modification process tuned the surface electrical property of CN, which enabled it to be readily coupled with the oppositely charged graphene oxide during the following photo-assisted electrostatic assembly. Detailed characterizations indicate the formation of well-contacted 2D/2D heterostructure with strong interfacial interaction between the modified CN nanosheets (CNX-NSs) and reduced graphene oxide (RGO). The optimized hybrid (with a RGO ratio of 20%) exhibits the best photocatalytic performance toward MB degradation, which is almost 12.5 and 7.0 times of CN under full spectrum and visible-light irradiation, respectively. In addition, the hybrid exhibits high stability after five successive cycles with no obvious change in efficiency. Unlike pure CNX-NSs, the dye decomposition mostly depends on the H2O2 generation by a two-electron process due to the electron reservoir property of RGO. Thus the enhancement in photocatalytic activity could be ascribed to the improved light utilization and increased charge transfer ability across the interface of CNX-NSs/RGO heterostructure.

  17. Toward High Performance 2D/2D Hybrid Photocatalyst by Electrostatic Assembly of Rationally Modified Carbon Nitride on Reduced Graphene Oxide

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Jian; Xu, Xiaochan; Li, Tao; Pandiselvi, Kannusamy; Wang, Jingyu

    2016-01-01

    Efficient metal-free visible photocatalysts with high stability are highly desired for sufficient utilization of solar energy. In this work, the popular carbon nitride (CN) photocatalyst is rationally modified by acid exfoliation of molecular grafted CN, achieving improved visible-light utilization and charge carriers mobility. Moreover, the modification process tuned the surface electrical property of CN, which enabled it to be readily coupled with the oppositely charged graphene oxide during the following photo-assisted electrostatic assembly. Detailed characterizations indicate the formation of well-contacted 2D/2D heterostructure with strong interfacial interaction between the modified CN nanosheets (CNX-NSs) and reduced graphene oxide (RGO). The optimized hybrid (with a RGO ratio of 20%) exhibits the best photocatalytic performance toward MB degradation, which is almost 12.5 and 7.0 times of CN under full spectrum and visible-light irradiation, respectively. In addition, the hybrid exhibits high stability after five successive cycles with no obvious change in efficiency. Unlike pure CNX-NSs, the dye decomposition mostly depends on the H2O2 generation by a two-electron process due to the electron reservoir property of RGO. Thus the enhancement in photocatalytic activity could be ascribed to the improved light utilization and increased charge transfer ability across the interface of CNX-NSs/RGO heterostructure. PMID:27853309

  18. Computational Screening of 2D Materials for Photocatalysis.

    PubMed

    Singh, Arunima K; Mathew, Kiran; Zhuang, Houlong L; Hennig, Richard G

    2015-03-19

    Two-dimensional (2D) materials exhibit a range of extraordinary electronic, optical, and mechanical properties different from their bulk counterparts with potential applications for 2D materials emerging in energy storage and conversion technologies. In this Perspective, we summarize the recent developments in the field of solar water splitting using 2D materials and review a computational screening approach to rapidly and efficiently discover more 2D materials that possess properties suitable for solar water splitting. Computational tools based on density-functional theory can predict the intrinsic properties of potential photocatalyst such as their electronic properties, optical absorbance, and solubility in aqueous solutions. Computational tools enable the exploration of possible routes to enhance the photocatalytic activity of 2D materials by use of mechanical strain, bias potential, doping, and pH. We discuss future research directions and needed method developments for the computational design and optimization of 2D materials for photocatalysis.

  19. Synthetic Covalent and Non-Covalent 2D Materials.

    PubMed

    Boott, Charlotte E; Nazemi, Ali; Manners, Ian

    2015-11-16

    The creation of synthetic 2D materials represents an attractive challenge that is ultimately driven by their prospective uses in, for example, electronics, biomedicine, catalysis, sensing, and as membranes for separation and filtration. This Review illustrates some recent advances in this diverse field with a focus on covalent and non-covalent 2D polymers and frameworks, and self-assembled 2D materials derived from nanoparticles, homopolymers, and block copolymers.

  20. Epitaxial 2D SnSe2/ 2D WSe2 van der Waals Heterostructures.

    PubMed

    Aretouli, Kleopatra Emmanouil; Tsoutsou, Dimitra; Tsipas, Polychronis; Marquez-Velasco, Jose; Aminalragia Giamini, Sigiava; Kelaidis, Nicolaos; Psycharis, Vassilis; Dimoulas, Athanasios

    2016-09-07

    van der Waals heterostructures of 2D semiconductor materials can be used to realize a number of (opto)electronic devices including tunneling field effect devices (TFETs). It is shown in this work that high quality SnSe2/WSe2 vdW heterostructure can be grown by molecular beam epitaxy on AlN(0001)/Si(111) substrates using a Bi2Se3 buffer layer. A valence band offset of 0.8 eV matches the energy gap of SnSe2 in such a way that the VB edge of WSe2 and the CB edge of SnSe2 are lined up, making this materials combination suitable for (nearly) broken gap TFETs.

  1. 2D Potential theory using complex functions and conformal mapping

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Le Maire, Pauline; Munschy, Marc

    2016-04-01

    For infinitely horizontally extended bodies, functions that describe potential and field equations (gravity and magnetics) outside bodies are 2D and harmonic. The consequence of this property is that potential and field equations can be written as complex analytic functions. We define these complex functions whose real part is the commonly used real function and imaginary part is its Hilbert transform. Using data or synthetic cases the transformation is easily performed in the Fourier domain by setting to zero all values for negative frequencies. Written as complex functions of the complex variable, equations of potential and field in gravity and magnetics for different kinds of geometries are simple and correspond to powers of the inverse of the distance. For example, it is easily shown that for a tilted dyke, the dip and the apparent inclination have the same effect on the function and consequently that it is not possible, with data, to compute one of both values without knowing the other. Conformal mapping is an original way to display potential field functions. Considering that the complex variable corresponds to the real axis, complex potential field functions resume to a limaçon, a curve formed by the path of the point fixed to a circle when that circle rolls around the outside of another circle. For example, the point corresponding to the maximum distance to the origin of the complex magnetic field due to a cylinder, corresponds to the maximum of the analytic signal as defined by Nabighan in 1972 and its phase corresponds to the apparent inclination. Several applications are shown in different geological contexts using aeromagnetic data.

  2. Hydrogen peroxide catalytic decomposition

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Parrish, Clyde F. (Inventor)

    2010-01-01

    Nitric oxide in a gaseous stream is converted to nitrogen dioxide using oxidizing species generated through the use of concentrated hydrogen peroxide fed as a monopropellant into a catalyzed thruster assembly. The hydrogen peroxide is preferably stored at stable concentration levels, i.e., approximately 50%-70% by volume, and may be increased in concentration in a continuous process preceding decomposition in the thruster assembly. The exhaust of the thruster assembly, rich in hydroxyl and/or hydroperoxy radicals, may be fed into a stream containing oxidizable components, such as nitric oxide, to facilitate their oxidation.

  3. Nonlinear vibrating system identification via Hilbert decomposition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Feldman, Michael; Braun, Simon

    2017-02-01

    This paper deals with the identification of nonlinear vibration systems, based on measured signals for free and forced vibration regimes. Two categories of time domain signal are analyzed, one of a fast inter-modulation signal and a second as composed of several mono-components. To some extent, this attempts to imitate analytic studies of such systems, with its two major analysis groups - the perturbation and the harmonic balance methods. Two appropriate signal processing methods are then investigated, one based on demodulation and the other on signal decomposition. The Hilbert Transform (HT) has been shown to enable effective and simple methods of analysis. We show that precise identification of the nonlinear parameters can be obtained, contrary to other average HT based methods where only approximation parameters are obtained. The effectiveness of the proposed methods is demonstrated for the precise nonlinear system identification, using both the signal demodulation and the signal decomposition methods. Following the exposition of the tools used, both the signal demodulation as well as decomposition are applied to classical examples of nonlinear systems. Cases of nonlinear stiffness and damping forces are analyzed. These include, among other, an asymmetric Helmholtz oscillator, a backlash with nonlinear turbulent square friction, and a Duffing oscillator with dry friction.

  4. Circular photogalvanic effect caused by the transitions between edge and 2D states in a 2D topological insulator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Magarill, L. I.; Entin, M. V.

    2016-12-01

    The electron absorption and the edge photocurrent of a 2D topological insulator are studied for transitions between edge states to 2D states. The circular polarized light is found to produce the edge photocurrent, the direction of which is determined by light polarization and edge orientation. It is shown that the edge-state current is found to exceed the 2D current owing to the topological protection of the edge states.

  5. Protein kinase A RII-like (R2D2) proteins exhibit differential localization and AKAP interaction.

    PubMed

    Newell, Amy E Hanlon; Fiedler, Sarah E; Ruan, Jenny M; Pan, Jieyan; Wang, P Jeremy; Deininger, Jutta; Corless, Christopher L; Carr, Daniel W

    2008-07-01

    A-kinase anchoring proteins (AKAPs) bind to protein kinase A (PKA) via an amphipathic helix domain that interacts with a dimerization/docking domain on the regulatory (R) subunit of PKA. Four other mammalian proteins (ROPN1, ASP, SP17, and CABYR) also contain a highly conserved RII dimerization/docking (R2D2) domain, suggesting all four proteins may interact with all AKAPs in a manner similar to RII. All four of these proteins were originally detected in the flagellum of mammalian sperm. In this report, we demonstrate that all four R2D2 proteins are expressed in a wide variety of tissues and three of the proteins SP17, CABYR, and ASP are located in motile cilia of human bronchus and fallopian tubes. In addition, we detect SP17 in primary cilia. We also provide evidence that ROPN1 and ASP bind to a variety of AKAPs and this interaction can be disrupted with anchoring inhibitor peptides. The interaction of SP17 and CABYR with AKAPs appears to be much more limited. None of the R2D2 proteins appears to bind cAMP, a fundamental characteristic of the regulatory subunits of PKA. These observations suggest that R2D2 proteins utilize docking interactions with AKAPs to accomplish their function of regulating cilia and flagella. Based on location, affinity for AKAPs and lack of affinity for cAMP, it appears that each R2D2 protein has a unique role in this process.

  6. Process characteristics and layout decomposition of self-aligned sextuple patterning

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kang, Weiling; Chen, Yijian

    2013-03-01

    Self-aligned sextuple patterning (SASP) is a promising technique to scale down the half pitch of IC features to sub- 10nm region. In this paper, the process characteristics and decomposition methods of both positive-tone (pSASP) and negative-tone SASP (nSASP) techniques are discussed, and a variety of decomposition rules are studied. By using a node-grouping method, nSASP layout conflicting graph can be significantly simplified. Graph searching and coloring algorithm is developed for feature/color assignment. We demonstrate that by generating assisting mandrels, nSASP layout decomposition can be degenerated into an nSADP decomposition problem. The proposed decomposition algorithm is successfully verified with several commonly used 2-D layout examples.

  7. Energy Efficiency of D2D Multi-User Cooperation.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Zufan; Wang, Lu; Zhang, Jie

    2017-03-28

    The Device-to-Device (D2D) communication system is an important part of heterogeneous networks. It has great potential to improve spectrum efficiency, throughput and energy efficiency cooperation of multiple D2D users with the advantage of direct communication. When cooperating, D2D users expend extraordinary energy to relay data to other D2D users. Hence, the remaining energy of D2D users determines the life of the system. This paper proposes a cooperation scheme for multiple D2D users who reuse the orthogonal spectrum and are interested in the same data by aiming to solve the energy problem of D2D users. Considering both energy availability and the Signal to Noise Ratio (SNR) of each D2D user, the Kuhn-Munkres algorithm is introduced in the cooperation scheme to solve relay selection problems. Thus, the cooperation issue is transformed into a maximum weighted matching (MWM) problem. In order to enhance energy efficiency without the deterioration of Quality of Service (QoS), the link outage probability is derived according to the Shannon Equation by considering the data rate and delay. The simulation studies the relationships among the number of cooperative users, the length of shared data, the number of data packets and energy efficiency.

  8. Integrating Mobile Multimedia into Textbooks: 2D Barcodes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Uluyol, Celebi; Agca, R. Kagan

    2012-01-01

    The major goal of this study was to empirically compare text-plus-mobile phone learning using an integrated 2D barcode tag in a printed text with three other conditions described in multimedia learning theory. The method examined in the study involved modifications of the instructional material such that: a 2D barcode was used near the text, the…

  9. Efficient Visible Quasi-2D Perovskite Light-Emitting Diodes.

    PubMed

    Byun, Jinwoo; Cho, Himchan; Wolf, Christoph; Jang, Mi; Sadhanala, Aditya; Friend, Richard H; Yang, Hoichang; Lee, Tae-Woo

    2016-09-01

    Efficient quasi-2D-structure perovskite light-emitting diodes (4.90 cd A(-1) ) are demonstrated by mixing a 3D-structured perovskite material (methyl ammonium lead bromide) and a 2D-structured perovskite material (phenylethyl ammonium lead bromide), which can be ascribed to better film uniformity, enhanced exciton confinement, and reduced trap density.

  10. Adaptation algorithms for 2-D feedforward neural networks.

    PubMed

    Kaczorek, T

    1995-01-01

    The generalized weight adaptation algorithms presented by J.G. Kuschewski et al. (1993) and by S.H. Zak and H.J. Sira-Ramirez (1990) are extended for 2-D madaline and 2-D two-layer feedforward neural nets (FNNs).

  11. The Wavelet Element Method. Part 2; Realization and Additional Features in 2D and 3D

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Canuto, Claudio; Tabacco, Anita; Urban, Karsten

    1998-01-01

    The Wavelet Element Method (WEM) provides a construction of multiresolution systems and biorthogonal wavelets on fairly general domains. These are split into subdomains that are mapped to a single reference hypercube. Tensor products of scaling functions and wavelets defined on the unit interval are used on the reference domain. By introducing appropriate matching conditions across the interelement boundaries, a globally continuous biorthogonal wavelet basis on the general domain is obtained. This construction does not uniquely define the basis functions but rather leaves some freedom for fulfilling additional features. In this paper we detail the general construction principle of the WEM to the 1D, 2D and 3D cases. We address additional features such as symmetry, vanishing moments and minimal support of the wavelet functions in each particular dimension. The construction is illustrated by using biorthogonal spline wavelets on the interval.

  12. Hydrogen iodide decomposition

    DOEpatents

    O'Keefe, Dennis R.; Norman, John H.

    1983-01-01

    Liquid hydrogen iodide is decomposed to form hydrogen and iodine in the presence of water using a soluble catalyst. Decomposition is carried out at a temperature between about 350.degree. K. and about 525.degree. K. and at a corresponding pressure between about 25 and about 300 atmospheres in the presence of an aqueous solution which acts as a carrier for the homogeneous catalyst. Various halides of the platinum group metals, particularly Pd, Rh and Pt, are used, particularly the chlorides and iodides which exhibit good solubility. After separation of the H.sub.2, the stream from the decomposer is countercurrently extracted with nearly dry HI to remove I.sub.2. The wet phase contains most of the catalyst and is recycled directly to the decomposition step. The catalyst in the remaining almost dry HI-I.sub.2 phase is then extracted into a wet phase which is also recycled. The catalyst-free HI-I.sub.2 phase is finally distilled to separate the HI and I.sub.2. The HI is recycled to the reactor; the I.sub.2 is returned to a reactor operating in accordance with the Bunsen equation to create more HI.

  13. Regulation of ligands for the NKG2D activating receptor

    PubMed Central

    Raulet, David H.; Gasser, Stephan; Gowen, Benjamin G.; Deng, Weiwen; Jung, Heiyoun

    2014-01-01

    NKG2D is an activating receptor expressed by all NK cells and subsets of T cells. It serves as a major recognition receptor for detection and elimination of transformed and infected cells and participates in the genesis of several inflammatory diseases. The ligands for NKG2D are self-proteins that are induced by pathways that are active in certain pathophysiological states. NKG2D ligands are regulated transcriptionally, at the level of mRNA and protein stability, and by cleavage from the cell surface. In some cases, ligand induction can be attributed to pathways that are activated specifically in cancer cells or infected cells. We review the numerous pathways that have been implicated in the regulation of NKG2D ligands, discuss the pathologic states in which those pathways are likely to act, and attempt to synthesize the findings into general schemes of NKG2D ligand regulation in NK cell responses to cancer and infection. PMID:23298206

  14. 2D materials and van der Waals heterostructures.

    PubMed

    Novoselov, K S; Mishchenko, A; Carvalho, A; Castro Neto, A H

    2016-07-29

    The physics of two-dimensional (2D) materials and heterostructures based on such crystals has been developing extremely fast. With these new materials, truly 2D physics has begun to appear (for instance, the absence of long-range order, 2D excitons, commensurate-incommensurate transition, etc.). Novel heterostructure devices--such as tunneling transistors, resonant tunneling diodes, and light-emitting diodes--are also starting to emerge. Composed from individual 2D crystals, such devices use the properties of those materials to create functionalities that are not accessible in other heterostructures. Here we review the properties of novel 2D crystals and examine how their properties are used in new heterostructure devices.

  15. New generation transistor technologies enabled by 2D crystals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jena, D.

    2013-05-01

    The discovery of graphene opened the door to 2D crystal materials. The lack of a bandgap in 2D graphene makes it unsuitable for electronic switching transistors in the conventional field-effect sense, though possible techniques exploiting the unique bandstructure and nanostructures are being explored. The transition metal dichalcogenides have 2D crystal semiconductors, which are well-suited for electronic switching. We experimentally demonstrate field effect transistors with current saturation and carrier inversion made from layered 2D crystal semiconductors such as MoS2, WS2, and the related family. We also evaluate the feasibility of such semiconducting 2D crystals for tunneling field effect transistors for low-power digital logic. The article summarizes the current state of new generation transistor technologies either proposed, or demonstrated, with a commentary on the challenges and prospects moving forward.

  16. Investigation on wide-band scattering of a 2-D target above 1-D randomly rough surface by FDTD method.

    PubMed

    Li, Juan; Guo, Li-Xin; Jiao, Yong-Chang; Li, Ke

    2011-01-17

    Finite-difference time-domain (FDTD) algorithm with a pulse wave excitation is used to investigate the wide-band composite scattering from a two-dimensional(2-D) infinitely long target with arbitrary cross section located above a one-dimensional(1-D) randomly rough surface. The FDTD calculation is performed with a pulse wave incidence, and the 2-D representative time-domain scattered field in the far zone is obtained directly by extrapolating the currently calculated data on the output boundary. Then the 2-D wide-band scattering result is acquired by transforming the representative time-domain field to the frequency domain with a Fourier transform. Taking the composite scattering of an infinitely long cylinder above rough surface as an example, the wide-band response in the far zone by FDTD with the pulsed excitation is computed and it shows a good agreement with the numerical result by FDTD with the sinusoidal illumination. Finally, the normalized radar cross section (NRCS) from a 2-D target above 1-D rough surface versus the incident frequency, and the representative scattered fields in the far zone versus the time are analyzed in detail.

  17. Estrogen-Induced Cholestasis Leads to Repressed CYP2D6 Expression in CYP2D6-Humanized Mice.

    PubMed

    Pan, Xian; Jeong, Hyunyoung

    2015-07-01

    Cholestasis activates bile acid receptor farnesoid X receptor (FXR) and subsequently enhances hepatic expression of small heterodimer partner (SHP). We previously demonstrated that SHP represses the transactivation of cytochrome P450 2D6 (CYP2D6) promoter by hepatocyte nuclear factor (HNF) 4α. In this study, we investigated the effects of estrogen-induced cholestasis on CYP2D6 expression. Estrogen-induced cholestasis occurs in subjects receiving estrogen for contraception or hormone replacement, or in susceptible women during pregnancy. In CYP2D6-humanized transgenic (Tg-CYP2D6) mice, cholestasis triggered by administration of 17α-ethinylestradiol (EE2) at a high dose led to 2- to 3-fold decreases in CYP2D6 expression. This was accompanied by increased hepatic SHP expression and subsequent decreases in the recruitment of HNF4α to CYP2D6 promoter. Interestingly, estrogen-induced cholestasis also led to increased recruitment of estrogen receptor (ER) α, but not that of FXR, to Shp promoter, suggesting a predominant role of ERα in transcriptional regulation of SHP in estrogen-induced cholestasis. EE2 at a low dose (that does not cause cholestasis) also increased SHP (by ∼ 50%) and decreased CYP2D6 expression (by 1.5-fold) in Tg-CYP2D6 mice, the magnitude of differences being much smaller than that shown in EE2-induced cholestasis. Taken together, our data indicate that EE2-induced cholestasis increases SHP and represses CYP2D6 expression in Tg-CYP2D6 mice in part through ERα transactivation of Shp promoter.

  18. Ferroelectricity, Antiferroelectricity and Ultrathin 2D Electron/Hole Gas in Multifunctional Monolayer MXene.

    PubMed

    Chandrasekaran, Anand; Mishra, Avanish; Singh, Abhishek Kumar

    2017-04-04

    Presence of ferroelectric polarization in 2D materials is extremely rare due to the effect of the surface depolarizing field. Here, we use first-principles calculations to show the largest out-of-plane polarization observed in a monolayer in functionalized MXenes (Sc2CO2). The switching of polarization in this new class of ferroelectric materials occurs through an previously unknown intermediate antiferroelectric structure thus establishing three states for applications in low-dimensional non-volatile memory. We show that the armchair domain-interface acts as an 1D metallic nanowire separating two insulating domains. In the case of the van-der-Waals bilayer we observe, interestingly, the presence of an ultrathin 2D electron/hole gas (2DEG) on the top/bottom layers, respectively, due to the redistrubution of charge carriers. The 2DEG is non-degenerate due to spin-orbit-coupling, thus paving the way for spin-orbitronic devices. The coexistence of ferroelectricity, antiferroelectricity, 2DEG and spin-orbit splitting in this system suggests that such 2D polar materials possess high potential for device application in a multitude of fields ranging from nanoelectronics to photovoltaics.

  19. Interplay between Ferroelastic and Metal-Insulator Phase Transitions in Strained Quasi-2D VO[subscript 2] Nanoplatelets

    SciTech Connect

    Tselev, Alexander; Strelcov, Evgheni; Luk’yanchuk, Igor A.; Budai, John D.; Tischler, Jonathan Z.; Ivanov, Ilia N.; Jones, Keith; Proksch, Roger; Kalinin, Sergei V.; Kolmakov, Aandrei

    2010-07-06

    Formation of ferroelastic twin domains in vanadium dioxide (VO{sub 2}) nanosystems can strongly affect local strain distributions, and hence couple to the strain-controlled metal-insulator transition. Here we report polarized-light optical and scanning microwave microscopy studies of interrelated ferroelastic and metal-insulator transitions in single-crystalline VO{sub 2} quasi-two-dimensional (quasi-2D) nanoplatelets (NPls). In contrast to quasi-1D single-crystalline nanobeams, the 2D geometric frustration results in emergence of several possible families of ferroelastic domains in NPls, thus allowing systematic studies of strain-controlled transitions in the presence of geometrical frustration. We demonstrate the possibility of controlling the ferroelastic domain population by the strength of the NPl-substrate interaction, mechanical stress, and by the NPl lateral size. Ferroelastic domain species and domain walls are identified based on standard group-theoretical considerations. Using variable temperature microscopy, we imaged the development of domains of metallic and semiconducting phases during the metal-insulator phase transition and nontrivial strain-driven reentrant domain formation. A long-range reconstruction of ferroelastic structures accommodating metal-insulator domain formation has been observed. These studies illustrate that a complete picture of the phase transitions in single-crystalline and disordered VO{sub 2} structures can be drawn only if both ferroelastic and metal-insulator strain effects are taken into consideration and understood.

  20. Interplay between Ferroelastic and Metal-Insulator Phase Transitions in Strained Quasi-2D VO[subscript 2] Nanoplatelets

    SciTech Connect

    Tselev, Alexander; Strelcov, Evgheni; Luk’yanchuk, Igor A.; Budai, John D.; Tischler, Jonathan Z.; Ivanov, Ilia N.; Jones, Keith; Proksch, Roger; Kalinin, Sergei V.; Kolmakov, Andrei

    2011-08-09

    Formation of ferroelastic twin domains in vanadium dioxide (VO{sub 2}) nanosystems can strongly affect local strain distributions, and hence couple to the strain-controlled metal-insulator transition. Here we report polarized-light optical and scanning microwave microscopy studies of interrelated ferroelastic and metal-insulator transitions in single-crystalline VO{sub 2} quasi-two-dimensional (quasi-2D) nanoplatelets (NPls). In contrast to quasi-1D single-crystalline nanobeams, the 2D geometric frustration results in emergence of several possible families of ferroelastic domains in NPls, thus allowing systematic studies of strain-controlled transitions in the presence of geometrical frustration. We demonstrate the possibility of controlling the ferroelastic domain population by the strength of the NPl-substrate interaction, mechanical stress, and by the NPl lateral size. Ferroelastic domain species and domain walls are identified based on standard group-theoretical considerations. Using variable temperature microscopy, we imaged the development of domains of metallic and semiconducting phases during the metal-insulator phase transition and nontrivial strain-driven reentrant domain formation. A long-range reconstruction of ferroelastic structures accommodating metal-insulator domain formation has been observed. These studies illustrate that a complete picture of the phase transitions in single-crystalline and disordered VO{sub 2} structures can be drawn only if both ferroelastic and metal-insulator strain effects are taken into consideration and understood.

  1. 2D-3D hybrid stabilized finite element method for tsunami runup simulations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Takase, S.; Moriguchi, S.; Terada, K.; Kato, J.; Kyoya, T.; Kashiyama, K.; Kotani, T.

    2016-09-01

    This paper presents a two-dimensional (2D)-three-dimensional (3D) hybrid stabilized finite element method that enables us to predict a propagation process of tsunami generated in a hypocentral region, which ranges from offshore propagation to runup to urban areas, with high accuracy and relatively low computational costs. To be more specific, the 2D shallow water equation is employed to simulate the propagation of offshore waves, while the 3D Navier-Stokes equation is employed for the runup in urban areas. The stabilized finite element method is utilized for numerical simulations for both of the 2D and 3D domains that are independently discretized with unstructured meshes. The multi-point constraint and transmission methods are applied to satisfy the continuity of flow velocities and pressures at the interface between the resulting 2D and 3D meshes, since neither their spatial dimensions nor node arrangements are consistent. Numerical examples are presented to demonstrate the performance of the proposed hybrid method to simulate tsunami behavior, including offshore propagation and runup to urban areas, with substantially lower computation costs in comparison with full 3D computations.

  2. Theoretical study of the thermal decomposition of dimethyl disulfide.

    PubMed

    Vandeputte, Aäron G; Reyniers, Marie-Françoise; Marin, Guy B

    2010-10-07

    Despite its use in a wide variety of industrially important thermochemical processes, little is known about the thermal decomposition mechanism of dimethyl disulfide (DMDS). To obtain more insight, the radical decomposition mechanism of DMDS is studied theoretically and a kinetic model is developed accounting for the formation of all the decomposition products observed in the experimental studies available in literature. Thermochemical data and rate coefficients are obtained using the high-level CBS-QB3 composite method. Among five methods tested (BMK/6-311G(2d,d,p), MPW1PW91/6-311G(2d,d,p), G3, G3B3, and CBS-QB3), the CBS-QB3 method was found to reproduce most accurately the experimental standard enthalpies of formation for a set of 17 small organosulfur compounds and the bond dissociation energies for a set of 10 sulfur bonds. Enthalpies of formation were predicted within 4 kJ mol(-1) while the mean absolute deviation on the bond dissociation enthalpies amounts to 7 kJ mol(-1). From the theoretical study, a new reaction path is identified for the formation of carbon disulfide via dithiirane (CH(2)S(2)). A reaction mechanism was constructed containing 36 reactions among 25 species accounting for the formation of all the decomposition products reported in literature. High-pressure limit rate coefficients for the 36 reactions in the reaction mechanism are presented. The kinetic model is able to grasp the experimental observations. With the recombination of thiyl radicals treated as being in the low-pressure limit, the experimentally reported first-order rate coefficients for the decomposition of DMDS are reproduced within 1 order of magnitude, while the observed product selectivities of most compounds are reproduced satisfactory. Simulations indicate that at high conversions most of the carbon disulfide forms according to the newly identified reaction path involving the formation of dithiirane.

  3. Targeted fluorescence imaging enhanced by 2D materials: a comparison between 2D MoS2 and graphene oxide.

    PubMed

    Xie, Donghao; Ji, Ding-Kun; Zhang, Yue; Cao, Jun; Zheng, Hu; Liu, Lin; Zang, Yi; Li, Jia; Chen, Guo-Rong; James, Tony D; He, Xiao-Peng

    2016-08-04

    Here we demonstrate that 2D MoS2 can enhance the receptor-targeting and imaging ability of a fluorophore-labelled ligand. The 2D MoS2 has an enhanced working concentration range when compared with graphene oxide, resulting in the improved imaging of both cell and tissue samples.

  4. Fast 2D DOA Estimation Algorithm by an Array Manifold Matching Method with Parallel Linear Arrays

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Lisheng; Liu, Sheng; Li, Dong; Jiang, Qingping; Cao, Hailin

    2016-01-01

    In this paper, the problem of two-dimensional (2D) direction-of-arrival (DOA) estimation with parallel linear arrays is addressed. Two array manifold matching (AMM) approaches, in this work, are developed for the incoherent and coherent signals, respectively. The proposed AMM methods estimate the azimuth angle only with the assumption that the elevation angles are known or estimated. The proposed methods are time efficient since they do not require eigenvalue decomposition (EVD) or peak searching. In addition, the complexity analysis shows the proposed AMM approaches have lower computational complexity than many current state-of-the-art algorithms. The estimated azimuth angles produced by the AMM approaches are automatically paired with the elevation angles. More importantly, for estimating the azimuth angles of coherent signals, the aperture loss issue is avoided since a decorrelation procedure is not required for the proposed AMM method. Numerical studies demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed approaches. PMID:26907301

  5. Efficient 2D MRI relaxometry using compressed sensing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bai, Ruiliang; Cloninger, Alexander; Czaja, Wojciech; Basser, Peter J.

    2015-06-01

    Potential applications of 2D relaxation spectrum NMR and MRI to characterize complex water dynamics (e.g., compartmental exchange) in biology and other disciplines have increased in recent years. However, the large amount of data and long MR acquisition times required for conventional 2D MR relaxometry limits its applicability for in vivo preclinical and clinical MRI. We present a new MR pipeline for 2D relaxometry that incorporates compressed sensing (CS) as a means to vastly reduce the amount of 2D relaxation data needed for material and tissue characterization without compromising data quality. Unlike the conventional CS reconstruction in the Fourier space (k-space), the proposed CS algorithm is directly applied onto the Laplace space (the joint 2D relaxation data) without compressing k-space to reduce the amount of data required for 2D relaxation spectra. This framework is validated using synthetic data, with NMR data acquired in a well-characterized urea/water phantom, and on fixed porcine spinal cord tissue. The quality of the CS-reconstructed spectra was comparable to that of the conventional 2D relaxation spectra, as assessed using global correlation, local contrast between peaks, peak amplitude and relaxation parameters, etc. This result brings this important type of contrast closer to being realized in preclinical, clinical, and other applications.

  6. 2D vs. 3D mammography observer study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fernandez, James Reza F.; Hovanessian-Larsen, Linda; Liu, Brent

    2011-03-01

    Breast cancer is the most common type of non-skin cancer in women. 2D mammography is a screening tool to aid in the early detection of breast cancer, but has diagnostic limitations of overlapping tissues, especially in dense breasts. 3D mammography has the potential to improve detection outcomes by increasing specificity, and a new 3D screening tool with a 3D display for mammography aims to improve performance and efficiency as compared to 2D mammography. An observer study using a mammography phantom was performed to compare traditional 2D mammography with this ne 3D mammography technique. In comparing 3D and 2D mammography there was no difference in calcification detection, and mass detection was better in 2D as compared to 3D. There was a significant decrease in reading time for masses, calcifications, and normals in 3D compared to 2D, however, as well as more favorable confidence levels in reading normal cases. Given the limitations of the mammography phantom used, however, a clearer picture in comparing 3D and 2D mammography may be better acquired with the incorporation of human studies in the future.

  7. Joint 2D and 3D phase processing for quantitative susceptibility mapping: application to 2D echo-planar imaging.

    PubMed

    Wei, Hongjiang; Zhang, Yuyao; Gibbs, Eric; Chen, Nan-Kuei; Wang, Nian; Liu, Chunlei

    2017-04-01

    Quantitative susceptibility mapping (QSM) measures tissue magnetic susceptibility and typically relies on time-consuming three-dimensional (3D) gradient-echo (GRE) MRI. Recent studies have shown that two-dimensional (2D) multi-slice gradient-echo echo-planar imaging (GRE-EPI), which is commonly used in functional MRI (fMRI) and other dynamic imaging techniques, can also be used to produce data suitable for QSM with much shorter scan times. However, the production of high-quality QSM maps is difficult because data obtained by 2D multi-slice scans often have phase inconsistencies across adjacent slices and strong susceptibility field gradients near air-tissue interfaces. To address these challenges in 2D EPI-based QSM studies, we present a new data processing procedure that integrates 2D and 3D phase processing. First, 2D Laplacian-based phase unwrapping and 2D background phase removal are performed to reduce phase inconsistencies between slices and remove in-plane harmonic components of the background phase. This is followed by 3D background phase removal for the through-plane harmonic components. The proposed phase processing was evaluated with 2D EPI data obtained from healthy volunteers, and compared against conventional 3D phase processing using the same 2D EPI datasets. Our QSM results were also compared with QSM values from time-consuming 3D GRE data, which were taken as ground truth. The experimental results show that this new 2D EPI-based QSM technique can produce quantitative susceptibility measures that are comparable with those of 3D GRE-based QSM across different brain regions (e.g. subcortical iron-rich gray matter, cortical gray and white matter). This new 2D EPI QSM reconstruction method is implemented within STI Suite, which is a comprehensive shareware for susceptibility imaging and quantification. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  8. Art of spin decomposition

    SciTech Connect

    Chen Xiangsong; Sun Weimin; Wang Fan; Goldman, T.

    2011-04-01

    We analyze the problem of spin decomposition for an interacting system from a natural perspective of constructing angular-momentum eigenstates. We split, from the total angular-momentum operator, a proper part which can be separately conserved for a stationary state. This part commutes with the total Hamiltonian and thus specifies the quantum angular momentum. We first show how this can be done in a gauge-dependent way, by seeking a specific gauge in which part of the total angular-momentum operator vanishes identically. We then construct a gauge-invariant operator with the desired property. Our analysis clarifies what is the most pertinent choice among the various proposals for decomposing the nucleon spin. A similar analysis is performed for extracting a proper part from the total Hamiltonian to construct energy eigenstates.

  9. The Vector Decomposition Problem

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yoshida, Maki; Mitsunari, Shigeo; Fujiwara, Toru

    This paper introduces a new computational problem on a two-dimensional vector space, called the vector decomposition problem (VDP), which is mainly defined for designing cryptosystems using pairings on elliptic curves. We first show a relation between the VDP and the computational Diffie-Hellman problem (CDH). Specifically, we present a sufficient condition for the VDP on a two-dimensional vector space to be at least as hard as the CDH on a one-dimensional subspace. We also present a sufficient condition for the VDP with a fixed basis to have a trapdoor. We then give an example of vector spaces which satisfy both sufficient conditions and on which the CDH is assumed to be hard in previous work. In this sense, the intractability of the VDP is a reasonable assumption as that of the CDH.

  10. NKG2D receptor and its ligands in host defense

    PubMed Central

    Lanier, Lewis L.

    2015-01-01

    NKG2D is an activating receptor expressed on the surface of natural killer (NK) cells, CD8+ T cells, and subsets of CD4+ T cells, iNKT cells, and γδ T cells. In humans NKG2D transmits signals by its association with the DAP10 adapter subunit and in mice alternatively spliced isoforms transmit signals either using DAP10 or DAP12 adapter subunits. Although NKG2D is encoded by a highly conserved gene (KLRK1) with limited polymorphism, the receptor recognizes an extensive repertoire of ligands, encoded by at least 8 genes in humans (MICA, MICB, RAET1E, RAET1G, RAET1H, RAET1I, RAET1L, and RAET1N), some with extensive allelic polymorphism. Expression of the NKG2D ligands is tightly regulated at the level of transcription, translation, and post-translation. In general healthy adult tissues do not express NKG2D glycoproteins on the cell surface, but these ligands can be induced by hyper-proliferation and transformation, as well as when cells are infected by pathogens. Thus, the NKG2D pathway serves a mechanism for the immune system to detect and eliminate cells that have undergone “stress”. Viruses and tumor cells have devised numerous strategies to evade detection by the NKG2D surveillance system and diversification of the NKG2D ligand genes likely has been driven by selective pressures imposed by pathogens. NKG2D provides an attractive target for therapeutics in the treatment of infectious diseases, cancer, and autoimmune diseases. PMID:26041808

  11. NKG2D Receptor and Its Ligands in Host Defense.

    PubMed

    Lanier, Lewis L

    2015-06-01

    NKG2D is an activating receptor expressed on the surface of natural killer (NK) cells, CD8(+) T cells, and subsets of CD4(+) T cells, invariant NKT cells (iNKT), and γδ T cells. In humans, NKG2D transmits signals by its association with the DAP10 adapter subunit, and in mice alternatively spliced isoforms transmit signals either using DAP10 or DAP12 adapter subunits. Although NKG2D is encoded by a highly conserved gene (KLRK1) with limited polymorphism, the receptor recognizes an extensive repertoire of ligands, encoded by at least eight genes in humans (MICA, MICB, RAET1E, RAET1G, RAET1H, RAET1I, RAET1L, and RAET1N), some with extensive allelic polymorphism. Expression of the NKG2D ligands is tightly regulated at the level of transcription, translation, and posttranslation. In general, healthy adult tissues do not express NKG2D glycoproteins on the cell surface, but these ligands can be induced by hyperproliferation and transformation, as well as when cells are infected by pathogens. Thus, the NKG2D pathway serves as a mechanism for the immune system to detect and eliminate cells that have undergone "stress." Viruses and tumor cells have devised numerous strategies to evade detection by the NKG2D surveillance system, and diversification of the NKG2D ligand genes likely has been driven by selective pressures imposed by pathogens. NKG2D provides an attractive target for therapeutics in the treatment of infectious diseases, cancer, and autoimmune diseases.

  12. 2-D Versus 3-D Magnetotelluric Data Interpretation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ledo, Juanjo

    2005-09-01

    In recent years, the number of publications dealing with the mathematical and physical 3-D aspects of the magnetotelluric method has increased drastically. However, field experiments on a grid are often impractical and surveys are frequently restricted to single or widely separated profiles. So, in many cases we find ourselves with the following question: is the applicability of the 2-D hypothesis valid to extract geoelectric and geological information from real 3-D environments? The aim of this paper is to explore a few instructive but general situations to understand the basics of a 2-D interpretation of 3-D magnetotelluric data and to determine which data subset (TE-mode or TM-mode) is best for obtaining the electrical conductivity distribution of the subsurface using 2-D techniques. A review of the mathematical and physical fundamentals of the electromagnetic fields generated by a simple 3-D structure allows us to prioritise the choice of modes in a 2-D interpretation of responses influenced by 3-D structures. This analysis is corroborated by numerical results from synthetic models and by real data acquired by other authors. One important result of this analysis is that the mode most unaffected by 3-D effects depends on the position of the 3-D structure with respect to the regional 2-D strike direction. When the 3-D body is normal to the regional strike, the TE-mode is affected mainly by galvanic effects, while the TM-mode is affected by galvanic and inductive effects. In this case, a 2-D interpretation of the TM-mode is prone to error. When the 3-D body is parallel to the regional 2-D strike the TE-mode is affected by galvanic and inductive effects and the TM-mode is affected mainly by galvanic effects, making it more suitable for 2-D interpretation. In general, a wise 2-D interpretation of 3-D magnetotelluric data can be a guide to a reasonable geological interpretation.

  13. Direct Sum Decomposition of Groups

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thaheem, A. B.

    2005-01-01

    Direct sum decomposition of Abelian groups appears in almost all textbooks on algebra for undergraduate students. This concept plays an important role in group theory. One simple example of this decomposition is obtained by using the kernel and range of a projection map on an Abelian group. The aim in this pedagogical note is to establish a direct…

  14. Two human ULBP/RAET1 molecules with transmembrane regions are ligands for NKG2D.

    PubMed

    Bacon, Louise; Eagle, Robert A; Meyer, Martina; Easom, Nicholas; Young, Neil T; Trowsdale, John

    2004-07-15

    We characterized two novel members of the RAET1/ULBP gene cluster, RAET1E and RAET1G. The encoded proteins were similar to the ULBP in their class I-like alpha1 and alpha2 domains, but differed in that, instead of being GPI-anchored, their sequences were type 1 membrane-spanning molecules. Both proteins were capable of being expressed at the cell surface. Both proteins bound the activating receptor NKG2D, and RAET1G bound the human CMV protein UL16. The expression of diverse NKG2D-binding molecules in different tissues and with different properties is consistent with multiple modes of infection- or stress-induced activation.

  15. gpuSPHASE-A shared memory caching implementation for 2D SPH using CUDA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Winkler, Daniel; Meister, Michael; Rezavand, Massoud; Rauch, Wolfgang

    2017-04-01

    Smoothed particle hydrodynamics (SPH) is a meshless Lagrangian method that has been successfully applied to computational fluid dynamics (CFD), solid mechanics and many other multi-physics problems. Using the method to solve transport phenomena in process engineering requires the simulation of several days to weeks of physical time. Based on the high computational demand of CFD such simulations in 3D need a computation time of years so that a reduction to a 2D domain is inevitable. In this paper gpuSPHASE, a new open-source 2D SPH solver implementation for graphics devices, is developed. It is optimized for simulations that must be executed with thousands of frames per second to be computed in reasonable time. A novel caching algorithm for Compute Unified Device Architecture (CUDA) shared memory is proposed and implemented. The software is validated and the performance is evaluated for the well established dambreak test case.

  16. Building a symbolic computer algebra toolbox to compute 2D Fourier transforms in polar coordinates.

    PubMed

    Dovlo, Edem; Baddour, Natalie

    2015-01-01

    The development of a symbolic computer algebra toolbox for the computation of two dimensional (2D) Fourier transforms in polar coordinates is presented. Multidimensional Fourier transforms are widely used in image processing, tomographic reconstructions and in fact any application that requires a multidimensional convolution. By examining a function in the frequency domain, additional information and insights may be obtained. The advantages of our method include: •The implementation of the 2D Fourier transform in polar coordinates within the toolbox via the combination of two significantly simpler transforms.•The modular approach along with the idea of lookup tables implemented help avoid the issue of indeterminate results which may occur when attempting to directly evaluate the transform.•The concept also helps prevent unnecessary computation of already known transforms thereby saving memory and processing time.

  17. Metal-organic extended 2D structures: Fe-PTCDA on Au(111).

    PubMed

    Alvarez, Lucía; Peláez, Samuel; Caillard, Renaud; Serena, Pedro A; Martín-Gago, José A; Méndez, Javier

    2010-07-30

    In this work we combine organic molecules of 3,4,9,10-perylenetetracarboxylic dianhydride (PTCDA) with iron atoms on an Au (111) substrate in ultra-high vacuum conditions at different temperatures. By means of scanning tunnelling microscopy (STM) we study the formation of stable 2D metal-organic structures. We show that at certain growth conditions (temperature, time and coverage) stable 'ladder-like' nanostructures are obtained. These are the result of connecting together two metal-organic chains through PTCDA molecules placed perpendicularly, as rungs of a ladder. These structures, stable up to 450 K, can be extended in a 2D layer covering the entire surface and presenting different rotation domains. STM images at both polarities show a contrast reversal between the two molecules at the unit cell. By means of density functional theory (DFT) calculations, we confirm the stability of these structures and that their molecular orbitals are placed separately at the different molecules.

  18. Mach number validation of a new zonal CFD method (ZAP2D) for airfoil simulations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Strash, Daniel J.; Summa, Michael; Yoo, Sungyul

    1991-01-01

    A closed-loop overlapped velocity coupling procedure has been utilized to combine a two-dimensional potential-flow panel code and a Navier-Stokes code. The fully coupled two-zone code (ZAP2D) has been used to compute the flow past a NACA 0012 airfoil at Mach numbers ranging from 0.3 to 0.84 near the two-dimensional airfoil C(lmax) point for a Reynolds number of 3 million. For these cases, the grid domain size can be reduced to 3 chord lengths with less than 3-percent loss in accuracy for freestream Mach numbers through 0.8. Earlier validation work with ZAP2D has demonstrated a reduction in the required Navier-Stokes computation time by a factor of 4 for subsonic Mach numbers. For this more challenging condition of high lift and Mach number, the saving in CPU time is reduced to a factor of 2.

  19. Recent advances in 2D materials for photocatalysis.

    PubMed

    Luo, Bin; Liu, Gang; Wang, Lianzhou

    2016-04-07

    Two-dimensional (2D) materials have attracted increasing attention for photocatalytic applications because of their unique thickness dependent physical and chemical properties. This review gives a brief overview of the recent developments concerning the chemical synthesis and structural design of 2D materials at the nanoscale and their applications in photocatalytic areas. In particular, recent progress on the emerging strategies for tailoring 2D material-based photocatalysts to improve their photo-activity including elemental doping, heterostructure design and functional architecture assembly is discussed.

  20. Comparison of 2D and 3D gamma analyses

    SciTech Connect

    Pulliam, Kiley B.; Huang, Jessie Y.; Howell, Rebecca M.; Followill, David; Kry, Stephen F.; Bosca, Ryan; O’Daniel, Jennifer

    2014-02-15

    Purpose: As clinics begin to use 3D metrics for intensity-modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) quality assurance, it must be noted that these metrics will often produce results different from those produced by their 2D counterparts. 3D and 2D gamma analyses would be expected to produce different values, in part because of the different search space available. In the present investigation, the authors compared the results of 2D and 3D gamma analysis (where both datasets were generated in the same manner) for clinical treatment plans. Methods: Fifty IMRT plans were selected from the authors’ clinical database, and recalculated using Monte Carlo. Treatment planning system-calculated (“evaluated dose distributions”) and Monte Carlo-recalculated (“reference dose distributions”) dose distributions were compared using 2D and 3D gamma analysis. This analysis was performed using a variety of dose-difference (5%, 3%, 2%, and 1%) and distance-to-agreement (5, 3, 2, and 1 mm) acceptance criteria, low-dose thresholds (5%, 10%, and 15% of the prescription dose), and data grid sizes (1.0, 1.5, and 3.0 mm). Each comparison was evaluated to determine the average 2D and 3D gamma, lower 95th percentile gamma value, and percentage of pixels passing gamma. Results: The average gamma, lower 95th percentile gamma value, and percentage of passing pixels for each acceptance criterion demonstrated better agreement for 3D than for 2D analysis for every plan comparison. The average difference in the percentage of passing pixels between the 2D and 3D analyses with no low-dose threshold ranged from 0.9% to 2.1%. Similarly, using a low-dose threshold resulted in a difference between the mean 2D and 3D results, ranging from 0.8% to 1.5%. The authors observed no appreciable differences in gamma with changes in the data density (constant difference: 0.8% for 2D vs 3D). Conclusions: The authors found that 3D gamma analysis resulted in up to 2.9% more pixels passing than 2D analysis. It must

  1. Partial differential equation-based approach for empirical mode decomposition: application on image analysis.

    PubMed

    Niang, Oumar; Thioune, Abdoulaye; El Gueirea, Mouhamed Cheikh; Deléchelle, Eric; Lemoine, Jacques

    2012-09-01

    The major problem with the empirical mode decomposition (EMD) algorithm is its lack of a theoretical framework. So, it is difficult to characterize and evaluate this approach. In this paper, we propose, in the 2-D case, the use of an alternative implementation to the algorithmic definition of the so-called "sifting process" used in the original Huang's EMD method. This approach, especially based on partial differential equations (PDEs), was presented by Niang in previous works, in 2005 and 2007, and relies on a nonlinear diffusion-based filtering process to solve the mean envelope estimation problem. In the 1-D case, the efficiency of the PDE-based method, compared to the original EMD algorithmic version, was also illustrated in a recent paper. Recently, several 2-D extensions of the EMD method have been proposed. Despite some effort, 2-D versions for EMD appear poorly performing and are very time consuming. So in this paper, an extension to the 2-D space of the PDE-based approach is extensively described. This approach has been applied in cases of both signal and image decomposition. The obtained results confirm the usefulness of the new PDE-based sifting process for the decomposition of various kinds of data. Some results have been provided in the case of image decomposition. The effectiveness of the approach encourages its use in a number of signal and image applications such as denoising, detrending, or texture analysis.

  2. Obtaining identical results on varying numbers of processors in domain decomposed particle Monte Carlo simulations.

    SciTech Connect

    Brunner, Thomas A.; Kalos, Malvin H.; Gentile, Nicholas A.

    2005-03-01

    Domain decomposed Monte Carlo codes, like other domain-decomposed codes, are difficult to debug. Domain decomposition is prone to error, and interactions between the domain decomposition code and the rest of the algorithm often produces subtle bugs. These bugs are particularly difficult to find in a Monte Carlo algorithm, in which the results have statistical noise. Variations in the results due to statistical noise can mask errors when comparing the results to other simulations or analytic results.

  3. Double resonance rotational spectroscopy of CH2D+

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Töpfer, Matthias; Jusko, Pavol; Schlemmer, Stephan; Asvany, Oskar

    2016-09-01

    Context. Deuterated forms of CH are thought to be responsible for deuterium enrichment in lukewarm astronomical environments. There is no unambiguous detection of CH2D+ in space to date. Aims: Four submillimetre rotational lines of CH2D+ are documented in the literature. Our aim is to present a complete dataset of highly resolved rotational lines, including millimetre (mm) lines needed for a potential detection. Methods: We used a low-temperature ion trap and applied a novel IR-mm-wave double resonance method to measure the rotational lines of CH2D+. Results: We measured 21 low-lying (J ≤ 4) rotational transitions of CH2D+ between 23 GHz and 1.1 THz with accuracies close to 2 ppb.

  4. Recovering 3D particle size distributions from 2D sections

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cuzzi, Jeffrey N.; Olson, Daniel M.

    2017-03-01

    We discuss different ways to convert observed, apparent particle size distributions from 2D sections (thin sections, SEM maps on planar surfaces, etc.) into true 3D particle size distributions. We give a simple, flexible, and practical method to do this; show which of these techniques gives the most faithful conversions; and provide (online) short computer codes to calculate both 2D-3D recoveries and simulations of 2D observations by random sectioning. The most important systematic bias of 2D sectioning, from the standpoint of most chondrite studies, is an overestimate of the abundance of the larger particles. We show that fairly good recoveries can be achieved from observed size distributions containing 100-300 individual measurements of apparent particle diameter.

  5. Phonon thermal conduction in novel 2D materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Xiangfan; Chen, Jie; Li, Baowen

    2016-12-01

    Recently, there has been increasing interest in phonon thermal transport in low-dimensional materials, due to the crucial importance of dissipating and managing heat in micro- and nano-electronic devices. Significant progress has been achieved for one-dimensional (1D) systems, both theoretically and experimentally. However, the study of heat conduction in two-dimensional (2D) systems is still in its infancy due to the limited availability of 2D materials and the technical challenges of fabricating suspended samples that are suitable for thermal measurements. In this review, we outline different experimental techniques and theoretical approaches for phonon thermal transport in 2D materials, discuss the problems and challenges of phonon thermal transport measurements and provide a comparison between existing experimental data. Special attention will be given to the effects of size, dimensionality, anisotropy and mode contributions in novel 2D systems, including graphene, boron nitride, MoS2, black phosphorous and silicene.

  6. Recent developments in 2D layered inorganic nanomaterials for sensing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kannan, Padmanathan Karthick; Late, Dattatray J.; Morgan, Hywel; Rout, Chandra Sekhar

    2015-08-01

    Two dimensional layered inorganic nanomaterials (2D-LINs) have recently attracted huge interest because of their unique thickness dependent physical and chemical properties and potential technological applications. The properties of these layered materials can be tuned via both physical and chemical processes. Some 2D layered inorganic nanomaterials like MoS2, WS2 and SnS2 have been recently developed and employed in various applications, including new sensors because of their layer-dependent electrical properties. This article presents a comprehensive overview of recent developments in the application of 2D layered inorganic nanomaterials as sensors. Some of the salient features of 2D materials for different sensing applications are discussed, including gas sensing, electrochemical sensing, SERS and biosensing, SERS sensing and photodetection. The working principles of the sensors are also discussed together with examples.

  7. Phonon thermal conduction in novel 2D materials.

    PubMed

    Xu, Xiangfan; Chen, Jie; Li, Baowen

    2016-12-07

    Recently, there has been increasing interest in phonon thermal transport in low-dimensional materials, due to the crucial importance of dissipating and managing heat in micro- and nano-electronic devices. Significant progress has been achieved for one-dimensional (1D) systems, both theoretically and experimentally. However, the study of heat conduction in two-dimensional (2D) systems is still in its infancy due to the limited availability of 2D materials and the technical challenges of fabricating suspended samples that are suitable for thermal measurements. In this review, we outline different experimental techniques and theoretical approaches for phonon thermal transport in 2D materials, discuss the problems and challenges of phonon thermal transport measurements and provide a comparison between existing experimental data. Special attention will be given to the effects of size, dimensionality, anisotropy and mode contributions in novel 2D systems, including graphene, boron nitride, MoS2, black phosphorous and silicene.

  8. Exact Solution of Ising Model in 2d Shortcut Network

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shanker, O.

    We give the exact solution to the Ising model in the shortcut network in the 2D limit. The solution is found by mapping the model to the square lattice model with Brascamp and Kunz boundary conditions.

  9. Technical Review of the UNET2D Hydraulic Model

    SciTech Connect

    Perkins, William A.; Richmond, Marshall C.

    2009-05-18

    The Kansas City District of the US Army Corps of Engineers is engaged in a broad range of river management projects that require knowledge of spatially-varied hydraulic conditions such as velocities and water surface elevations. This information is needed to design new structures, improve existing operations, and assess aquatic habitat. Two-dimensional (2D) depth-averaged numerical hydraulic models are a common tool that can be used to provide velocity and depth information. Kansas City District is currently using a specific 2D model, UNET2D, that has been developed to meet the needs of their river engineering applications. This report documents a tech- nical review of UNET2D.

  10. Reconstruction-based 3D/2D image registration.

    PubMed

    Tomazevic, Dejan; Likar, Bostjan; Pernus, Franjo

    2005-01-01

    In this paper we present a novel 3D/2D registration method, where first, a 3D image is reconstructed from a few 2D X-ray images and next, the preoperative 3D image is brought into the best possible spatial correspondence with the reconstructed image by optimizing a similarity measure. Because the quality of the reconstructed image is generally low, we introduce a novel asymmetric mutual information similarity measure, which is able to cope with low image quality as well as with different imaging modalities. The novel 3D/2D registration method has been evaluated using standardized evaluation methodology and publicly available 3D CT, 3DRX, and MR and 2D X-ray images of two spine phantoms, for which gold standard registrations were known. In terms of robustness, reliability and capture range the proposed method outperformed the gradient-based method and the method based on digitally reconstructed radiographs (DRRs).

  11. Dominant 2D magnetic turbulence in the solar wind

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bieber, John W.; Wanner, Wolfgang; Matthaeus, William H.

    1995-01-01

    There have been recent suggestions that solar wind magnetic turbulence may be a composite of slab geometry (wavevector aligned with the mean magnetic field) and 2D geometry (wavevectors perpendicular to the mean field). We report results of two new tests of this hypothesis using Helios measurements of inertial ranged magnetic spectra in the solar wind. The first test is based upon a characteristic difference between perpendicular and parallel reduced power spectra which is expected for the 2D component but not for the slab component. The second test examines the dependence of power spectrum density upon the magnetic field angle (i.e., the angle between the mean magnetic field and the radial direction), a relationship which is expected to be in opposite directions for the slab and 2D components. Both tests support the presence of a dominant (approximately 85 percent by energy) 2D component in solar wind magnetic turbulence.

  12. Studying Zeolite Catalysts with a 2D Model System

    SciTech Connect

    Boscoboinik, Anibal

    2016-12-07

    Anibal Boscoboinik, a materials scientist at Brookhaven’s Center for Functional Nanomaterials, discusses the surface-science tools and 2D model system he uses to study catalysis in nanoporous zeolites, which catalyze reactions in many industrial processes.

  13. ORION96. 2-d Finite Element Code Postprocessor

    SciTech Connect

    Sanford, L.A.; Hallquist, J.O.

    1992-02-02

    ORION is an interactive program that serves as a postprocessor for the analysis programs NIKE2D, DYNA2D, TOPAZ2D, and CHEMICAL TOPAZ2D. ORION reads binary plot files generated by the two-dimensional finite element codes currently used by the Methods Development Group at LLNL. Contour and color fringe plots of a large number of quantities may be displayed on meshes consisting of triangular and quadrilateral elements. ORION can compute strain measures, interface pressures along slide lines, reaction forces along constrained boundaries, and momentum. ORION has been applied to study the response of two-dimensional solids and structures undergoing finite deformations under a wide variety of large deformation transient dynamic and static problems and heat transfer analyses.

  14. Emerging and potential opportunities for 2D flexible nanoelectronics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhu, Weinan; Park, Saungeun; Akinwande, Deji

    2016-05-01

    The last 10 years have seen the emergence of two-dimensional (2D) nanomaterials such as graphene, transition metal dichalcogenides (TMDs), and black phosphorus (BP) among the growing portfolio of layered van der Waals thin films. Graphene, the prototypical 2D material has advanced rapidly in device, circuit and system studies that has resulted in commercial large-area applications. In this work, we provide a perspective of the emerging and potential translational applications of 2D materials including semiconductors, semimetals, and insulators that comprise the basic material set for diverse nanosystems. Applications include RF transceivers, smart systems, the so-called internet of things, and neurotechnology. We will review the DC and RF electronic performance of graphene and BP thin film transistors. 2D materials at sub-um channel length have so far enabled cut-off frequencies from baseband to 100GHz suitable for low-power RF and sub-THz concepts.

  15. Anisotropic 2D Materials for Tunable Hyperbolic Plasmonics.

    PubMed

    Nemilentsau, Andrei; Low, Tony; Hanson, George

    2016-02-12

    Motivated by the recent emergence of a new class of anisotropic 2D materials, we examine their electromagnetic modes and demonstrate that a broad class of the materials can host highly directional hyperbolic plasmons. Their propagation direction can be manipulated on the spot by gate doping, enabling hyperbolic beam reflection, refraction, and bending. The realization of these natural 2D hyperbolic media opens up a new avenue in dynamic control of hyperbolic plasmons not possible in the 3D version.

  16. RNA folding pathways and kinetics using 2D energy landscapes.

    PubMed

    Senter, Evan; Dotu, Ivan; Clote, Peter

    2015-01-01

    RNA folding pathways play an important role in various biological processes, such as (i) the hok/sok (host-killing/suppression of killing) system in E. coli to check for sufficient plasmid copy number, (ii) the conformational switch in spliced leader (SL) RNA from Leptomonas collosoma, which controls trans splicing of a portion of the '5 exon, and (iii) riboswitches--portions of the 5' untranslated region of messenger RNA that regulate genes by allostery. Since RNA folding pathways are determined by the energy landscape, we describe a novel algorithm, FFTbor2D, which computes the 2D projection of the energy landscape for a given RNA sequence. Given two metastable secondary structures A, B for a given RNA sequence, FFTbor2D computes the Boltzmann probability p(x, y) = Z(x,y)/Z that a secondary structure has base pair distance x from A and distance y from B. Using polynomial interpolationwith the fast Fourier transform,we compute p(x, y) in O(n(5)) time and O(n(2)) space, which is an improvement over an earlier method, which runs in O(n(7)) time and O(n(4)) space. FFTbor2D has potential applications in synthetic biology, where one might wish to design bistable switches having target metastable structures A, B with favorable pathway kinetics. By inverting the transition probability matrix determined from FFTbor2D output, we show that L. collosoma spliced leader RNA has larger mean first passage time from A to B on the 2D energy landscape, than 97.145% of 20,000 sequences, each having metastable structures A, B. Source code and binaries are freely available for download at http://bioinformatics.bc.edu/clotelab/FFTbor2D. The program FFTbor2D is implemented in C++, with optional OpenMP parallelization primitives.

  17. Supported and Free-Standing 2D Semimetals

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-01-15

    of this effort on focusing on rare- earth arsenides (RE-A), although not a van der Waals 2D solid, nonetheless, exhibits substantial 2D quantum size...this effort on focusing on rare- earth arsenides (RE- A), although not a van der Waals 20 solid, nonetheless, exhibits substantial 20 quantum size...Brongersma and S.R. Bank, "Rare- earth monopnictide alloys for tunable, epitaxial metals" in preparation. iii. S. Rahimi, E. M. Krivoy, J. Lee, M. E

  18. Application of 2-D graphical representation of DNA sequence

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liao, Bo; Tan, Mingshu; Ding, Kequan

    2005-10-01

    Recently, we proposed a 2-D graphical representation of DNA sequence [Bo Liao, A 2-D graphical representation of DNA sequence, Chem. Phys. Lett. 401 (2005) 196-199]. Based on this representation, we consider properties of mutations and compute the similarities among 11 mitochondrial sequences belonging to different species. The elements of the similarity matrix are used to construct phylogenic tree. Unlike most existing phylogeny construction methods, the proposed method does not require multiple alignment.

  19. phase_space_cosmo_fisher: Fisher matrix 2D contours

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stark, Alejo

    2016-11-01

    phase_space_cosmo_fisher produces Fisher matrix 2D contours from which the constraints on cosmological parameters can be derived. Given a specified redshift array and cosmological case, 2D marginalized contours of cosmological parameters are generated; the code can also plot the derivatives used in the Fisher matrix. In addition, this package can generate 3D plots of qH^2 and other cosmological quantities as a function of redshift and cosmology.

  20. A simultaneous 2D/3D autostereo workstation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chau, Dennis; McGinnis, Bradley; Talandis, Jonas; Leigh, Jason; Peterka, Tom; Knoll, Aaron; Sumer, Aslihan; Papka, Michael; Jellinek, Julius

    2012-03-01

    We present a novel immersive workstation environment that scientists can use for 3D data exploration and as their everyday 2D computer monitor. Our implementation is based on an autostereoscopic dynamic parallax barrier 2D/3D display, interactive input devices, and a software infrastructure that allows client/server software modules to couple the workstation to scientists' visualization applications. This paper describes the hardware construction and calibration, software components, and a demonstration of our system in nanoscale materials science exploration.

  1. Phylogenetic tree construction based on 2D graphical representation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liao, Bo; Shan, Xinzhou; Zhu, Wen; Li, Renfa

    2006-04-01

    A new approach based on the two-dimensional (2D) graphical representation of the whole genome sequence [Bo Liao, Chem. Phys. Lett., 401(2005) 196.] is proposed to analyze the phylogenetic relationships of genomes. The evolutionary distances are obtained through measuring the differences among the 2D curves. The fuzzy theory is used to construct phylogenetic tree. The phylogenetic relationships of H5N1 avian influenza virus illustrate the utility of our approach.

  2. A Domain Decomposition Parallelization of the Fast Marching Method

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2003-12-01

    Furthermore, the following attribute of the Fast Marching Method can be discerned: ATTRIBUTE 2. The sequential loop steps ( c )-(f) sort all accepted nodes...process #1. (Cm) Perform sequential FMM algorithm steps ( c )-(f). (Em) Receive results for nodes G,°k < Go from process #0 and results for nodes Gt°k...Go = min(GDo...0 N), and mark it as accepted. If Go E Vi, go to next step, else go to step (F). (D) Perform sequential FMM algorithm steps ( c )-(e

  3. Multigrid and multilevel domain decomposition for unstructured grids

    SciTech Connect

    Chan, T.; Smith, B.

    1994-12-31

    Multigrid has proven itself to be a very versatile method for the iterative solution of linear and nonlinear systems of equations arising from the discretization of PDES. In some applications, however, no natural multilevel structure of grids is available, and these must be generated as part of the solution procedure. In this presentation the authors will consider the problem of generating a multigrid algorithm when only a fine, unstructured grid is given. Their techniques generate a sequence of coarser grids by first forming an approximate maximal independent set of the vertices and then applying a Cavendish type algorithm to form the coarser triangulation. Numerical tests indicate that convergence using this approach can be as fast as standard multigrid on a structured mesh, at least in two dimensions.

  4. Domain decomposition in time for PDE-constrained optimization

    SciTech Connect

    Barker, Andrew T.; Stoll, Martin

    2015-08-28

    Here, PDE-constrained optimization problems have a wide range of applications, but they lead to very large and ill-conditioned linear systems, especially if the problems are time dependent. In this paper we outline an approach for dealing with such problems by decomposing them in time and applying an additive Schwarz preconditioner in time, so that we can take advantage of parallel computers to deal with the very large linear systems. We then illustrate the performance of our method on a variety of problems.

  5. Domain decomposition preconditioners for the spectral collocation method

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Quarteroni, Alfio; Sacchilandriani, Giovanni

    1988-01-01

    Several block iteration preconditioners are proposed and analyzed for the solution of elliptic problems by spectral collocation methods in a region partitioned into several rectangles. It is shown that convergence is achieved with a rate which does not depend on the polynomial degree of the spectral solution. The iterative methods here presented can be effectively implemented on multiprocessor systems due to their high degree of parallelism.

  6. Pulse Propagation Effects in Optical 2D Fourier-Transform Spectroscopy: Theory.

    PubMed

    Spencer, Austin P; Li, Hebin; Cundiff, Steven T; Jonas, David M

    2015-04-30

    A solution to Maxwell's equations in the three-dimensional frequency domain is used to calculate rephasing two-dimensional Fourier transform (2DFT) spectra of the D2 line of atomic rubidium vapor in argon buffer gas. Experimental distortions from the spatial propagation of pulses through the sample are simulated in 2DFT spectra calculated for the homogeneous Bloch line shape model. Spectral features that appear at optical densities of up to 3 are investigated. As optical density increases, absorptive and dispersive distortions start with peak shape broadening, progress to peak splitting, and ultimately result in a previously unexplored coherent transient twisting of the split peaks. In contrast to the low optical density limit, where the 2D peak shape for the Bloch model depends only on the total dephasing time, these distortions of the 2D peak shape at finite optical density vary with the waiting time and the excited state lifetime through coherent transient effects. Experiment-specific conditions are explored, demonstrating the effects of varying beam overlap within the sample and of pseudo-time domain filtering. For beam overlap starting at the sample entrance, decreasing the length of beam overlap reduces the line width along the ωτ axis but also reduces signal intensity. A pseudo-time domain filter, where signal prior to the center of the last excitation pulse is excluded from the FID-referenced 2D signal, reduces propagation distortions along the ωt axis. It is demonstrated that 2DFT rephasing spectra cannot take advantage of an excitation-detection transformation that can eliminate propagation distortions in 2DFT relaxation spectra. Finally, the high optical density experimental 2DFT spectrum of rubidium vapor in argon buffer gas [J. Phys. Chem. A 2013, 117, 6279-6287] is quantitatively compared, in line width, in depth of peak splitting, and in coherent transient peak twisting, to a simulation with optical density higher than that reported.

  7. Reduced-order model for underwater target identification using proper orthogonal decomposition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ramesh, Sai Sudha; Lim, Kian Meng

    2017-03-01

    Research on underwater acoustics has seen major development over the past decade due to its widespread applications in domains such as underwater communication/navigation (SONAR), seismic exploration and oceanography. In particular, acoustic signatures from partially or fully buried targets can be used in the identification of buried mines for mine counter measures (MCM). Although there exist several techniques to identify target properties based on SONAR images and acoustic signatures, these methods first employ a feature extraction method to represent the dominant characteristics of a data set, followed by the use of an appropriate classifier based on neural networks or the relevance vector machine. The aim of the present study is to demonstrate the applications of proper orthogonal decomposition (POD) technique in capturing dominant features of a set of scattered pressure signals, and subsequent use of the POD modes and coefficients in the identification of partially buried underwater target parameters such as its location, size and material density. Several numerical examples are presented to demonstrate the performance of the system identification method based on POD. Although the present study is based on 2D acoustic model, the method can be easily extended to 3D models and thereby enables cost-effective representations of large-scale data.

  8. Full-waveform inversion in 2D VTI media

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kamath, Nishant

    Full-waveform inversion (FWI) is a technique designed to produce a high-resolution model of the subsurface by using information contained in entire seismic waveforms. This thesis presents a methodology for FWI in elastic VTI (transversely isotropic with a vertical axis of symmetry) media and discusses synthetic results for heterogeneous VTI models. First, I develop FWI for multicomponent data from a horizontally layered VTI model. The reflectivity method, which permits computation of only PP reflections or a combination of PP and PSV events, is employed to model the data. The Gauss-Newton technique is used to invert for the interval Thomsen parameters, while keeping the densities fixed at the correct values. Eigenvalue/eigenvector decompostion of the Hessian matrix helps analyze the sensitivity of the objective function to the model parameters. Whereas PP data alone are generally sufficient to constrain all four Thomsen parameters even for conventional spreads, including PS reflections provides better constraints, especially for the deeper part of the model. Next, I derive the gradients of the FWI objective function with respect to the stiffness coefficients of arbitrarily anisotropic media by employing the adjoint-state method. From these expressions, it is straightforward to compute the gradients for parameters of 2D heterogeneous VTI media. FWI is implemented in the time domain with the steepest-descent method used to iteratively update the model. The algorithm is tested on transmitted multicomponent data generated for Gaussian anomalies in Thomsen parameters embedded in homogeneous VTI media. To test the sensitivity of the objective function to different model parameters, I derive an an- alytic expression for the Frechet kernel of FWI for arbitrary anisotropic symmetry by using the Born approximation and asymptotic Green's functions. The amplitude of the kernel, which represents the radiation pattern of a secondary source (that source describes a perturbation

  9. Structural and magnetic properties of DyMn(2)D(6) synthesized under high deuterium pressure.

    PubMed

    Paul-Boncour, V; Filipek, S M; Wierzbicki, R; André, G; Bourée, F; Guillot, M

    2009-01-07

    DyMn(2)D(6) has been prepared by applying high gaseous deuterium pressure on DyMn(2). This phase is isostructural with other RMn(2)D(6) (R = Y, Er) compounds and crystallizes with a K(2)PtCl(6) type structure having an ordered anion and a partially disordered cation arrangement because Dy and half the Mn atoms are randomly substituted in the same 8c site. The reverse susceptibility follows a Curie-Weiss law with an effective moment of 10 μ(B) similar to that of DyMn(2). Short range magnetic order, corresponding to ferromagnetic correlations, is observed in the neutron patterns up to 10 K and can be attributed to Dy-Dy interactions. The decomposition of the deuteride into Mn and DyD(2), studied by thermal gravimetric analysis, occurs between 470 and 650 K. A further deuterium desorption takes place above 920 K.

  10. Robust 2D principal component analysis: a structured sparsity regularized approach.

    PubMed

    Yipeng Sun; Xiaoming Tao; Yang Li; Jianhua Lu

    2015-08-01

    Principal component analysis (PCA) is widely used to extract features and reduce dimensionality in various computer vision and image/video processing tasks. Conventional approaches either lack robustness to outliers and corrupted data or are designed for one-dimensional signals. To address this problem, we propose a robust PCA model for two-dimensional images incorporating structured sparse priors, referred to as structured sparse 2D-PCA. This robust model considers the prior of structured and grouped pixel values in two dimensions. As the proposed formulation is jointly nonconvex and nonsmooth, which is difficult to tackle by joint optimization, we develop a two-stage alternating minimization approach to solve the problem. This approach iteratively learns the projection matrices by bidirectional decomposition and utilizes the proximal method to obtain the structured sparse outliers. By considering the structured sparsity prior, the proposed model becomes less sensitive to noisy data and outliers in two dimensions. Moreover, the computational cost indicates that the robust two-dimensional model is capable of processing quarter common intermediate format video in real time, as well as handling large-size images and videos, which is often intractable with other robust PCA approaches that involve image-to-vector conversion. Experimental results on robust face reconstruction, video background subtraction data set, and real-world videos show the effectiveness of the proposed model compared with conventional 2D-PCA and other robust PCA algorithms.

  11. In situ fluid typing and quantification with 1D and 2D NMR logging.

    PubMed

    Sun, Boqin

    2007-05-01

    In situ nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) fluid typing has recently gained momentum due to data acquisition and inversion algorithm enhancement of NMR logging tools. T(2) distributions derived from NMR logging contain information on bulk fluids and pore size distributions. However, the accuracy of fluid typing is greatly overshadowed by the overlap between T(2) peaks arising from different fluids with similar apparent T(2) relaxation times. Nevertheless, the shapes of T(2) distributions from different fluid components are often different and can be predetermined. Inversion with predetermined T(2) distributions allows us to perform fluid component decomposition to yield individual fluid volume ratios. Another effective method for in situ fluid typing is two-dimensional (2D) NMR logging, which results in proton population distribution as a function of T(2) relaxation time and fluid diffusion coefficient (or T(1) relaxation time). Since diffusion coefficients (or T(1) relaxation time) for different fluid components can be very different, it is relatively easy to separate oil (especially heavy oil) from water signal in a 2D NMR map and to perform accurate fluid typing. Combining NMR logging with resistivity and/or neutron/density logs provides a third method for in situ fluid typing. We shall describe these techniques with field examples.

  12. Regulation of NKG2D ligand gene expression.

    PubMed

    Eagle, Robert A; Traherne, James A; Ashiru, Omodele; Wills, Mark R; Trowsdale, John

    2006-03-01

    The activating immunoreceptor NKG2D has seven known host ligands encoded by the MHC class I chain-related MIC and ULBP/RAET genes. Why there is such diversity of NKG2D ligands is not known but one hypothesis is that they are differentially expressed in different tissues in response to different stresses. To explore this, we compared expression patterns and promoters of NKG2D ligand genes. ULBP/RAET genes were transcribed independent of each other in a panel of cell lines. ULBP/RAET gene expression was upregulated on infection with human cytomegalovirus; however, a clinical strain, Toledo, induced expression more slowly than did a laboratory strain, AD169. ULBP4/RAET1E was not induced by infection with either strain. To investigate the mechanisms behind the similarities and differences in NKG2D ligand gene expression a comparative sequence analysis of NKG2D ligand gene putative promoter regions was conducted. Sequence alignments demonstrated that there was significant sequence diversity; however, one region of high similarity between most of the genes is evident. This region contains a number of potential transcription factor binding sites, including those involved in shock responses and sites for retinoic acid-induced factors. Promoters of some NKG2D ligand genes are polymorphic and several sequence alterations in these alleles abolished putative transcription factor binding.

  13. CYP2D6 variability in populations from Venezuela.

    PubMed

    Moreno, Nancy; Flores-Angulo, Carlos; Villegas, Cecilia; Mora, Yuselin

    2016-12-01

    CYP2D6 is an important cytochrome P450 enzyme that plays an important role in the metabolism of about 25% of currently prescribed drugs. The presence of polymorphisms in the CYP2D6 gene may modulate enzyme level and activity, thereby affecting individual responses to pharmacological treatments. The most prevalent diseases in the admixed population from Venezuela are cardiovascular and cancer, whereas viral, bacterial and parasitic diseases, particularly malaria, are prevalent in Amerindian populations; in the treatment of these diseases, several drugs that are metabolized by CYP2D6 are used. In this work, we reviewed the data on CYP2D6 variability and predicted metabolizer phenotypes, in healthy volunteers of two admixed and five Amerindian populations from Venezuela. The Venezuelan population is very heterogeneous as a result of the genetic admixture of three major ethnical components: Europeans, Africans and Amerindians. There are noticeable inter-regional and inter-population differences in the process of mixing of this population. Hitherto, there are few published studies in Venezuela on CYP2D6; therefore, it is necessary to increase research in this regard, in particular to develop studies with a larger sample size. There is a considerable amount of work remaining before CYP2D6 is integrated into clinical practice in Venezuela.

  14. 2D microscopic model of graphene fracture properties

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hess, Peter

    2015-05-01

    An analytical two-dimensional (2D) microscopic fracture model based on Morse-type interaction is derived containing no adjustable parameter. From the 2D Young’s moduli and 2D intrinsic strengths of graphene measured by nanoindentation based on biaxial tension and calculated by density functional theory for uniaxial tension the widely unknown breaking force, line or edge energy, surface energy, fracture toughness, and strain energy release rate were determined. The simulated line energy agrees well with ab initio calculations and the fracture toughness of perfect graphene sheets is in good agreement with molecular dynamics simulations and the fracture toughness evaluated for defective graphene using the Griffith relation. Similarly, the estimated critical strain energy release rate agrees well with result of various theoretical approaches based on the J-integral and surface energy. The 2D microscopic model, connecting 2D and three-dimensional mechanical properties in a consistent way, provides a versatile relationship to easily access all relevant fracture properties of pristine 2D solids.

  15. Pullback Asymptotic Behavior of Solutions for a 2D Non-autonomous Non-Newtonian Fluid

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Guowei

    2016-10-01

    This paper studies the pullback asymptotic behavior of solutions for the non-autonomous incompressible non-Newtonian fluid in 2D bounded domains. Firstly, with a little high regularity of the force, the semigroup method and ɛ -regularity method are used to establish the existence of compact pullback absorbing sets. Then, with a minimal regularity of the force, by verifying the flattening property also known as the "Condition (C)", the author proves the existence of pullback attractors for the universe of fixed bounded sets and for the another universe given by a tempered condition. Furthermore, the regularity of pullback attractors is given.

  16. Optical properties of GaAs 2D hexagonal and cubic photonic crystal

    SciTech Connect

    Arab, F. Assali, A.; Grain, R.; Kanouni, F.

    2015-03-30

    In this paper we present our theoretical study of 2D hexagonal and cubic rods GaAs in air, with plan wave expansion (PWE) and finite difference time domain (FDTD) by using BandSOLVE and FullWAVE of Rsoft photonic CAD package. In order to investigate the effect of symmetry and radius, we performed calculations of the band structures for both TM and TE polarization, contour and electromagnetic propagation and transmission spectra. Our calculations show that the hexagonal structure gives a largest band gaps compare to cubic one for a same filling factor.

  17. Simulations of two-particle interactions with 2D quantum walks in time

    SciTech Connect

    Schreiber, A.; Laiho, K.; Silberhorn, C.; Rohde, P. P.; Štefaňak, M.; Potoček, V.; Hamilton, C.; Jex, I.

    2014-12-04

    We present the experimental implementation of a quantum walk on a two-dimensional lattice and show how to employ the optical system to simulate the quantum propagation of two interacting particles. Our quantum walk in time transfers the spatial spread of a quantum walk into the time domain, which guarantees a high stability and scalability of the setup. We present with our device quantum walks over 12 steps on a 2D lattice. By changing the properties of the driving quantum coin, we investigate different kinds of two-particle interactions and reveal their impact on the occurring quantum propagation.

  18. Nonlinear soil-structure interaction calculations simulating the SIMQUAKE experiment using STEALTH 2D

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tang, H. T.; Hofmann, R.; Yee, G.; Vaughan, D. K.

    1980-01-01

    Transient, nonlinear soil-structure interaction simulations of an Electric Power Research Institute, SIMQUAKE experiment were performed using the large strain, time domain STEALTH 2D code and a cyclic, kinematically hardening cap soil model. Results from the STEALTH simulations were compared to identical simulations performed with the TRANAL code and indicate relatively good agreement between all the STEALTH and TRANAL calculations. The differences that are seen can probably be attributed to: (1) large (STEALTH) vs. small (TRANAL) strain formulation and/or (2) grid discretization differences.

  19. Decomposition in northern Minnesota peatlands

    SciTech Connect

    Farrish, K.W.

    1985-01-01

    Decomposition in peatlands was investigated in northern Minnesota. Four sites, an ombrotrophic raised bog, an ombrotrophic perched bog and two groundwater minerotrophic fens, were studied. Decomposition rates of peat and paper were estimated using mass-loss techniques. Environmental and substrate factors that were most likely to be responsible for limiting decomposition were monitored. Laboratory incubation experiments complemented the field work. Mass-loss over one year in one of the bogs, ranged from 11 percent in the upper 10 cm of hummocks to 1 percent at 60 to 100 cm depth in hollows. Regression analysis of the data for that bog predicted no mass-loss below 87 cm. Decomposition estimates on an area basis were 2720 and 6460 km/ha yr for the two bogs; 17,000 and 5900 kg/ha yr for the two fens. Environmental factors found to limit decomposition in these peatlands were reducing/anaerobic conditions below the water table and cool peat temperatures. Substrate factors found to limit decomposition were low pH, high content of resistant organics such as lignin, and shortages of available N and K. Greater groundwater influence was found to favor decomposition through raising the pH and perhaps by introducing limited amounts of dissolved oxygen.

  20. 2D Hexagonal Boron Nitride (2D-hBN) Explored for the Electrochemical Sensing of Dopamine.

    PubMed

    Khan, Aamar F; Brownson, Dale A C; Randviir, Edward P; Smith, Graham C; Banks, Craig E

    2016-10-04

    Crystalline 2D hexagonal boron nitride (2D-hBN) nanosheets are explored as a potential electrocatalyst toward the electroanalytical sensing of dopamine (DA). The 2D-hBN nanosheets are electrically wired via a drop-casting modification process onto a range of commercially available carbon supporting electrodes, including glassy carbon (GC), boron-doped diamond (BDD), and screen-printed graphitic electrodes (SPEs). 2D-hBN has not previously been explored toward the electrochemical detection/electrochemical sensing of DA. We critically evaluate the potential electrocatalytic performance of 2D-hBN modified electrodes, the effect of supporting carbon electrode platforms, and the effect of "mass coverage" (which is commonly neglected in the 2D material literature) toward the detection of DA. The response of 2D-hBN modified electrodes is found to be largely dependent upon the interaction between 2D-hBN and the underlying supporting electrode material. For example, in the case of SPEs, modification with 2D-hBN (324 ng) improves the electrochemical response, decreasing the electrochemical oxidation potential of DA by ∼90 mV compared to an unmodified SPE. Conversely, modification of a GC electrode with 2D-hBN (324 ng) resulted in an increased oxidation potential of DA by ∼80 mV when compared to the unmodified electrode. We explore the underlying mechanisms of the aforementioned examples and infer that electrode surface interactions and roughness factors are critical considerations. 2D-hBN is utilized toward the sensing of DA in the presence of the common interferents ascorbic acid (AA) and uric acid (UA). 2D-hBN is found to be an effective electrocatalyst in the simultaneous detection of DA and UA at both pH 5.0 and 7.4. The peak separations/resolution between DA and UA increases by ∼70 and 50 mV (at pH 5.0 and 7.4, respectively, when utilizing 108 ng of 2D-hBN) compared to unmodified SPEs, with a particularly favorable response evident in pH 5.0, giving rise to a

  1. A 2-D Interface Element for Coupled Analysis of Independently Modeled 3-D Finite Element Subdomains

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kandil, Osama A.

    1998-01-01

    Over the past few years, the development of the interface technology has provided an analysis framework for embedding detailed finite element models within finite element models which are less refined. This development has enabled the use of cascading substructure domains without the constraint of coincident nodes along substructure boundaries. The approach used for the interface element is based on an alternate variational principle often used in deriving hybrid finite elements. The resulting system of equations exhibits a high degree of sparsity but gives rise to a non-positive definite system which causes difficulties with many of the equation solvers in general-purpose finite element codes. Hence the global system of equations is generally solved using, a decomposition procedure with pivoting. The research reported to-date for the interface element includes the one-dimensional line interface element and two-dimensional surface interface element. Several large-scale simulations, including geometrically nonlinear problems, have been reported using the one-dimensional interface element technology; however, only limited applications are available for the surface interface element. In the applications reported to-date, the geometry of the interfaced domains exactly match each other even though the spatial discretization within each domain may be different. As such, the spatial modeling of each domain, the interface elements and the assembled system is still laborious. The present research is focused on developing a rapid modeling procedure based on a parametric interface representation of independently defined subdomains which are also independently discretized.

  2. Structural optimization by multilevel decomposition

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sobieszczanski-Sobieski, J.; James, B.; Dovi, A.

    1983-01-01

    A method is described for decomposing an optimization problem into a set of subproblems and a coordination problem which preserves coupling between the subproblems. The method is introduced as a special case of multilevel, multidisciplinary system optimization and its algorithm is fully described for two level optimization for structures assembled of finite elements of arbitrary type. Numerical results are given for an example of a framework to show that the decomposition method converges and yields results comparable to those obtained without decomposition. It is pointed out that optimization by decomposition should reduce the design time by allowing groups of engineers, using different computers to work concurrently on the same large problem.

  3. Perfluoropolyalkylether decomposition on catalytic aluminas

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Morales, Wilfredo

    1994-01-01

    The decomposition of Fomblin Z25, a commercial perfluoropolyalkylether liquid lubricant, was studied using the Penn State Micro-oxidation Test, and a thermal gravimetric/differential scanning calorimetry unit. The micro-oxidation test was conducted using 440C stainless steel and pure iron metal catalyst specimens, whereas the thermal gravimetric/differential scanning calorimetry tests were conducted using catalytic alumina pellets. Analysis of the thermal data, high pressure liquid chromatography data, and x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy data support evidence that there are two different decomposition mechanisms for Fomblin Z25, and that reductive sites on the catalytic surfaces are responsible for the decomposition of Fomblin Z25.

  4. Self-adaptive image denoising based on bidimensional empirical mode decomposition (BEMD).

    PubMed

    Guo, Song; Luan, Fangjun; Song, Xiaoyu; Li, Changyou

    2014-01-01

    To better analyze images with the Gaussian white noise, it is necessary to remove the noise before image processing. In this paper, we propose a self-adaptive image denoising method based on bidimensional empirical mode decomposition (BEMD). Firstly, normal probability plot confirms that 2D-IMF of Gaussian white noise images decomposed by BEMD follow the normal distribution. Secondly, energy estimation equation of the ith 2D-IMF (i=2,3,4,......) is proposed referencing that of ith IMF (i=2,3,4,......) obtained by empirical mode decomposition (EMD). Thirdly, the self-adaptive threshold of each 2D-IMF is calculated. Eventually, the algorithm of the self-adaptive image denoising method based on BEMD is described. From the practical perspective, this is applied for denoising of the magnetic resonance images (MRI) of the brain. And the results show it has a better denoising performance compared with other methods.

  5. AUTONOMOUS GAUSSIAN DECOMPOSITION

    SciTech Connect

    Lindner, Robert R.; Vera-Ciro, Carlos; Murray, Claire E.; Stanimirović, Snežana; Babler, Brian; Heiles, Carl; Hennebelle, Patrick; Dickey, John

    2015-04-15

    We present a new algorithm, named Autonomous Gaussian Decomposition (AGD), for automatically decomposing spectra into Gaussian components. AGD uses derivative spectroscopy and machine learning to provide optimized guesses for the number of Gaussian components in the data, and also their locations, widths, and amplitudes. We test AGD and find that it produces results comparable to human-derived solutions on 21 cm absorption spectra from the 21 cm SPectral line Observations of Neutral Gas with the EVLA (21-SPONGE) survey. We use AGD with Monte Carlo methods to derive the H i line completeness as a function of peak optical depth and velocity width for the 21-SPONGE data, and also show that the results of AGD are stable against varying observational noise intensity. The autonomy and computational efficiency of the method over traditional manual Gaussian fits allow for truly unbiased comparisons between observations and simulations, and for the ability to scale up and interpret the very large data volumes from the upcoming Square Kilometer Array and pathfinder telescopes.

  6. Autonomous Gaussian Decomposition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lindner, Robert R.; Vera-Ciro, Carlos; Murray, Claire E.; Stanimirović, Snežana; Babler, Brian; Heiles, Carl; Hennebelle, Patrick; Goss, W. M.; Dickey, John

    2015-04-01

    We present a new algorithm, named Autonomous Gaussian Decomposition (AGD), for automatically decomposing spectra into Gaussian components. AGD uses derivative spectroscopy and machine learning to provide optimized guesses for the number of Gaussian components in the data, and also their locations, widths, and amplitudes. We test AGD and find that it produces results comparable to human-derived solutions on 21 cm absorption spectra from the 21 cm SPectral line Observations of Neutral Gas with the EVLA (21-SPONGE) survey. We use AGD with Monte Carlo methods to derive the H i line completeness as a function of peak optical depth and velocity width for the 21-SPONGE data, and also show that the results of AGD are stable against varying observational noise intensity. The autonomy and computational efficiency of the method over traditional manual Gaussian fits allow for truly unbiased comparisons between observations and simulations, and for the ability to scale up and interpret the very large data volumes from the upcoming Square Kilometer Array and pathfinder telescopes.

  7. Delivery of human NKG2D-IL-15 fusion gene by chitosan nanoparticles to enhance antitumor immunity

    SciTech Connect

    Yan, Chen; Jie, Leng; Yongqi, Wang; Weiming, Xiao; Juqun, Xi; Yanbing, Ding; Li, Qian; Xingyuan, Pan; Mingchun, Ji; Weijuan, Gong

    2015-07-31

    Nanoparticles are becoming promising carriers for gene delivery because of their high capacity in gene loading and low cell cytotoxicity. In this study, a chitosan-based nanoparticle encapsulated within a recombinant pcDNA3.1-dsNKG2D-IL-15 plasmid was generated. The fused dsNKG2D-IL-15 gene fragment consisted of double extracellular domains of NKG2D with IL-15 gene at downstream. The average diameter of the gene nanoparticles ranged from 200 nm to 400 nm, with mean zeta potential value of 53.8 ± 6.56 mV. The nanoparticles which were loaded with the dsNKG2D-IL-15 gene were uptaken by tumor cells with low cytotoxicity. Tumor cells pre-transfected by gene nanopartilces stimulated NK and T cells in vitro. Intramuscular injection of gene nanoparticles suppressed tumor growth and prolonged survival of tumor-bearing mice through activation of NK and CD8{sup +} T cells. Thus, chitosan-based nanoparticle delivery of dsNKG2D-IL-15 gene vaccine can be potentially used for tumor therapy. - Highlights: • Generation of a nanoparticle for delivery of dsNKG2D-IL-15 gene. • Characterization of the gene nanoparticle. • Antitumor activity mediated by the gene nanoparticle.

  8. Catalyst for sodium chlorate decomposition

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wydeven, T.

    1972-01-01

    Production of oxygen by rapid decomposition of cobalt oxide and sodium chlorate mixture is discussed. Cobalt oxide serves as catalyst to accelerate reaction. Temperature conditions and chemical processes involved are described.

  9. Embedding color watermarks in color images based on Schur decomposition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Su, Qingtang; Niu, Yugang; Liu, Xianxi; Zhu, Yu

    2012-04-01

    In this paper, a blind dual color image watermarking scheme based on Schur decomposition is introduced. This is the first time to use Schur decomposition to embed color image watermark in color host image, which is different from using the binary image as watermark. By analyzing the 4 × 4 unitary matrix U via Schur decomposition, we can find that there is a strong correlation between the second row first column element and the third row first column element. This property can be explored for embedding watermark and extracting watermark in the blind manner. Since Schur decomposition is an intermediate step in SVD decomposition, the proposed method requires less number of computations. Experimental results show that the proposed scheme is robust against most common attacks including JPEG lossy compression, JPEG 2000 compression, low-pass filtering, cropping, noise addition, blurring, rotation, scaling and sharpening et al. Moreover, the proposed algorithm outperforms the closely related SVD-based algorithm and the spatial-domain algorithm.

  10. Pressure-induced decomposition of indium hydroxide.

    PubMed

    Gurlo, Aleksander; Dzivenko, Dmytro; Andrade, Miria; Riedel, Ralf; Lauterbach, Stefan; Kleebe, Hans-Joachim

    2010-09-15

    A static pressure-induced decomposition of indium hydroxide into metallic indium that takes place at ambient temperature is reported. The lattice parameter of c-In(OH)(3) decreased upon compression from 7.977(2) to approximately 7.45 A at 34 GPa, corresponding to a decrease in specific volume of approximately 18%. Fitting the second-order Birch-Murnaghan equation of state to the obtained compression data gave a bulk modulus of 99 +/- 3 GPa for c-In(OH)(3). The c-In(OH)(3) crystals with a size of approximately 100 nm are comminuted upon compression, as indicated by the grain-size reduction reflected in broadening of the diffraction reflections and the appearance of smaller (approximately 5 nm) incoherently oriented domains in TEM. The rapid decompression of compressed c-In(OH)(3) leads to partial decomposition of indium hydroxide into metallic indium, mainly as a result of localized stress gradients caused by relaxation of the highly disordered indium sublattice in indium hydroxide. This partial decomposition of indium hydroxide into metallic indium is irreversible, as confirmed by angle-dispersive X-ray diffraction, transmission electron microscopy imaging, Raman scattering, and FTIR spectroscopy. Recovered c-In(OH)(3) samples become completely black and nontransparent and show typical features of metals, i.e., a falling absorption in the 100-250 cm(-1) region accompanied by a featureless spectrum in the 250-2500 cm(-1) region in the Raman spectrum and Drude-like absorption of free electrons in the region of 4000-8000 cm(-1) in the FTIR spectrum. These features were not observed in the initial c-In(OH)(3), which is a typical white wide-band-gap semiconductor.

  11. Regulation of ligands for the activating receptor NKG2D

    PubMed Central

    Mistry, Anita R; O'Callaghan, Chris A

    2007-01-01

    The outcome of an encounter between a cytotoxic cell and a potential target cell depends on the balance of signals from inhibitory and activating receptors. Natural Killer group 2D (NKG2D) has recently emerged as a major activating receptor on T lymphocytes and natural killer cells. In both humans and mice, multiple different genes encode ligands for NKG2D, and these ligands are non-classical major histocompatibility complex class I molecules. The NKG2D–ligand interaction triggers an activating signal in the cell expressing NKG2D and this promotes cytotoxic lysis of the cell expressing the ligand. Most normal tissues do not express ligands for NKG2D, but ligand expression has been documented in tumour and virus-infected cells, leading to lysis of these cells. Tight regulation of ligand expression is important. If there is inappropriate expression in normal tissues, this will favour autoimmune processes, whilst failure to up-regulate the ligands in pathological conditions would favour cancer development or dissemination of intracellular infection. PMID:17614877

  12. Rotation invariance principles in 2D/3D registration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Birkfellner, Wolfgang; Wirth, Joachim; Burgstaller, Wolfgang; Baumann, Bernard; Staedele, Harald; Hammer, Beat; Gellrich, Niels C.; Jacob, Augustinus L.; Regazzoni, Pietro; Messmer, Peter

    2003-05-01

    2D/3D patient-to-computed tomography (CT) registration is a method to determine a transformation that maps two coordinate systems by comparing a projection image rendered from CT to a real projection image. Applications include exact patient positioning in radiation therapy, calibration of surgical robots, and pose estimation in computer-aided surgery. One of the problems associated with 2D/3D registration is the fast that finding a registration includes sovling a minimization problem in six degrees-of-freedom in motion. This results in considerable time expenses since for each iteration step at least one volume rendering has to be computed. We show that by choosing an appropriate world coordinate system and by applying a 2D/2D registration method in each iteration step, the number of iterations can be grossly reduced from n6 to n5. Here, n is the number of discrete variations aroudn a given coordinate. Depending on the configuration of the optimization algorithm, this reduces the total number of iterations necessary to at least 1/3 of its original value. The method was implemented and extensively tested on simulated x-ray images of a pelvis. We conclude that this hardware-indepenent optimization of 2D/3D registration is a step towards increasing the acceptance of this promising method for a wide number of clinical applications.

  13. 2D nanostructures for water purification: graphene and beyond.

    PubMed

    Dervin, Saoirse; Dionysiou, Dionysios D; Pillai, Suresh C

    2016-08-18

    Owing to their atomically thin structure, large surface area and mechanical strength, 2D nanoporous materials are considered to be suitable alternatives for existing desalination and water purification membrane materials. Recent progress in the development of nanoporous graphene based materials has generated enormous potential for water purification technologies. Progress in the development of nanoporous graphene and graphene oxide (GO) membranes, the mechanism of graphene molecular sieve action, structural design, hydrophilic nature, mechanical strength and antifouling properties and the principal challenges associated with nanopore generation are discussed in detail. Subsequently, the recent applications and performance of newly developed 2D materials such as 2D boron nitride (BN) nanosheets, graphyne, molybdenum disulfide (MoS2), tungsten chalcogenides (WS2) and titanium carbide (Ti3C2Tx) are highlighted. In addition, the challenges affecting 2D nanostructures for water purification are highlighted and their applications in the water purification industry are discussed. Though only a few 2D materials have been explored so far for water treatment applications, this emerging field of research is set to attract a great deal of attention in the near future.

  14. 2D Materials for Optical Modulation: Challenges and Opportunities.

    PubMed

    Yu, Shaoliang; Wu, Xiaoqin; Wang, Yipei; Guo, Xin; Tong, Limin

    2017-02-21

    Owing to their atomic layer thickness, strong light-material interaction, high nonlinearity, broadband optical response, fast relaxation, controllable optoelectronic properties, and high compatibility with other photonic structures, 2D materials, including graphene, transition metal dichalcogenides and black phosphorus, have been attracting increasing attention for photonic applications. By tuning the carrier density via electrical or optical means that modifies their physical properties (e.g., Fermi level or nonlinear absorption), optical response of the 2D materials can be instantly changed, making them versatile nanostructures for optical modulation. Here, up-to-date 2D material-based optical modulation in three categories is reviewed: free-space, fiber-based, and on-chip configurations. By analysing cons and pros of different modulation approaches from material and mechanism aspects, the challenges faced by using these materials for device applications are presented. In addition, thermal effects (e.g., laser induced damage) in 2D materials, which are critical to practical applications, are also discussed. Finally, the outlook for future opportunities of these 2D materials for optical modulation is given.

  15. 2D DIGE saturation labeling for minute sample amounts.

    PubMed

    Arnold, Georg J; Fröhlich, Thomas

    2012-01-01

    The 2D DIGE technique, based on fluorophores covalently linked to amino acid side chain residues and the concept of an internal standard, has significantly improved reproducibility, sensitivity, and the dynamic range of protein quantification. In saturation DIGE, sulfhydryl groups of cysteines are labeled with cyanine dyes to completion, providing a so far unraveled sensitivity for protein detection and quantification in 2D gel-based proteomic experiments. Only a few micrograms of protein per 2D gel facilitate the analysis of about 2,000 analytes from complex mammalian cell or tissue samples. As a consequence, 2D saturation DIGE is the method of choice when only minute sample amounts are available for quantitative proteome analysis at the level of proteins rather than peptides. Since very low amounts of samples have to be handled in a reproducible manner, saturation DIGE-based proteomic experiments are technically demanding. Moreover, successful saturation DIGE approaches require a strict adherence to adequate reaction conditions at each step. This chapter is dedicated to colleagues already experienced in 2D PAGE protein separation and intends to support the establishment of this ultrasensitive technique in proteomic workgroups. We provide basic guidelines for the experimental design and discuss crucial aspects concerning labeling chemistry, sample preparation, and pitfalls caused by labeling artifacts. A detailed step-by-step protocol comprises all aspects from initial sample preparation to image analysis and statistical evaluation. Furthermore, we describe the generation of preparative saturation DIGE gels necessary for mass spectrometry-based spot identification.

  16. Mermin–Wagner fluctuations in 2D amorphous solids

    PubMed Central

    Illing, Bernd; Fritschi, Sebastian; Kaiser, Herbert; Klix, Christian L.; Maret, Georg; Keim, Peter

    2017-01-01

    In a recent commentary, J. M. Kosterlitz described how D. Thouless and he got motivated to investigate melting and suprafluidity in two dimensions [Kosterlitz JM (2016) J Phys Condens Matter 28:481001]. It was due to the lack of broken translational symmetry in two dimensions—doubting the existence of 2D crystals—and the first computer simulations foretelling 2D crystals (at least in tiny systems). The lack of broken symmetries proposed by D. Mermin and H. Wagner is caused by long wavelength density fluctuations. Those fluctuations do not only have structural impact, but additionally a dynamical one: They cause the Lindemann criterion to fail in 2D in the sense that the mean squared displacement of atoms is not limited. Comparing experimental data from 3D and 2D amorphous solids with 2D crystals, we disentangle Mermin–Wagner fluctuations from glassy structural relaxations. Furthermore, we demonstrate with computer simulations the logarithmic increase of displacements with system size: Periodicity is not a requirement for Mermin–Wagner fluctuations, which conserve the homogeneity of space on long scales. PMID:28137872

  17. Mean flow and anisotropic cascades in decaying 2D turbulence

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Chien-Chia; Cerbus, Rory; Gioia, Gustavo; Chakraborty, Pinaki

    2015-11-01

    Many large-scale atmospheric and oceanic flows are decaying 2D turbulent flows embedded in a non-uniform mean flow. Despite its importance for large-scale weather systems, the affect of non-uniform mean flows on decaying 2D turbulence remains unknown. In the absence of mean flow it is well known that decaying 2D turbulent flows exhibit the enstrophy cascade. More generally, for any 2D turbulent flow, all computational, experimental and field data amassed to date indicate that the spectrum of longitudinal and transverse velocity fluctuations correspond to the same cascade, signifying isotropy of cascades. Here we report experiments on decaying 2D turbulence in soap films with a non-uniform mean flow. We find that the flow transitions from the usual isotropic enstrophy cascade to a series of unusual and, to our knowledge, never before observed or predicted, anisotropic cascades where the longitudinal and transverse spectra are mutually independent. We discuss implications of our results for decaying geophysical turbulence.

  18. 2-D Clinostat for Simulated Microgravity Experiments with Arabidopsis Seedlings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Hui; Li, Xugang; Krause, Lars; Görög, Mark; Schüler, Oliver; Hauslage, Jens; Hemmersbach, Ruth; Kircher, Stefan; Lasok, Hanna; Haser, Thomas; Rapp, Katja; Schmidt, Jürgen; Yu, Xin; Pasternak, Taras; Aubry-Hivet, Dorothée; Tietz, Olaf; Dovzhenko, Alexander; Palme, Klaus; Ditengou, Franck Anicet

    2016-04-01

    Ground-based simulators of microgravity such as fast rotating 2-D clinostats are valuable tools to study gravity related processes. We describe here a versatile g-value-adjustable 2-D clinostat that is suitable for plant analysis. To avoid seedling adaptation to 1 g after clinorotation, we designed chambers that allow rapid fixation. A detailed protocol for fixation, RNA isolation and the analysis of selected genes is described. Using this clinostat we show that mRNA levels of LONG HYPOCOTYL 5 (HY5), MIZU-KUSSEI 1 (MIZ1) and microRNA MIR163 are down-regulated in 5-day-old Arabidopsis thaliana roots after 3 min and 6 min of clinorotation using a maximal reduced g-force of 0.02 g, hence demonstrating that this 2-D clinostat enables the characterization of early transcriptomic events during root response to microgravity. We further show that this 2-D clinostat is able to compensate the action of gravitational force as both gravitropic-dependent statolith sedimentation and subsequent auxin redistribution (monitoring D R5 r e v :: G F P reporter) are abolished when plants are clinorotated. Our results demonstrate that 2-D clinostats equipped with interchangeable growth chambers and tunable rotation velocity are suitable for studying how plants perceive and respond to simulated microgravity.

  19. Numeric Modified Adomian Decomposition Method for Power System Simulations

    SciTech Connect

    Dimitrovski, Aleksandar D; Simunovic, Srdjan; Pannala, Sreekanth

    2016-01-01

    This paper investigates the applicability of numeric Wazwaz El Sayed modified Adomian Decomposition Method (WES-ADM) for time domain simulation of power systems. WESADM is a numerical method based on a modified Adomian decomposition (ADM) technique. WES-ADM is a numerical approximation method for the solution of nonlinear ordinary differential equations. The non-linear terms in the differential equations are approximated using Adomian polynomials. In this paper WES-ADM is applied to time domain simulations of multimachine power systems. WECC 3-generator, 9-bus system and IEEE 10-generator, 39-bus system have been used to test the applicability of the approach. Several fault scenarios have been tested. It has been found that the proposed approach is faster than the trapezoidal method with comparable accuracy.

  20. 2D-pattern matching image and video compression: theory, algorithms, and experiments.

    PubMed

    Alzina, Marc; Szpankowski, Wojciech; Grama, Ananth

    2002-01-01

    In this paper, we propose a lossy data compression framework based on an approximate two-dimensional (2D) pattern matching (2D-PMC) extension of the Lempel-Ziv (1977, 1978) lossless scheme. This framework forms the basis upon which higher level schemes relying on differential coding, frequency domain techniques, prediction, and other methods can be built. We apply our pattern matching framework to image and video compression and report on theoretical and experimental results. Theoretically, we show that the fixed database model used for video compression leads to suboptimal but computationally efficient performance. The compression ratio of this model is shown to tend to the generalized entropy. For image compression, we use a growing database model for which we provide an approximate analysis. The implementation of 2D-PMC is a challenging problem from the algorithmic point of view. We use a range of techniques and data structures such as k-d trees, generalized run length coding, adaptive arithmetic coding, and variable and adaptive maximum distortion level to achieve good compression ratios at high compression speeds. We demonstrate bit rates in the range of 0.25-0.5 bpp for high-quality images and data rates in the range of 0.15-0.5 Mbps for a baseline video compression scheme that does not use any prediction or interpolation. We also demonstrate that this asymmetric compression scheme is capable of extremely fast decompression making it particularly suitable for networked multimedia applications.

  1. Reflection high-energy electron diffraction measurements of reciprocal space structure of 2D materials.

    PubMed

    Xiang, Y; Guo, F-W; Lu, T-M; Wang, G-C

    2016-12-02

    Knowledge on the symmetry and perfection of a 2D material deposited or transferred to a surface is very important and valuable. We demonstrate a method to map the reciprocal space structure of 2D materials using reflection high energy diffraction (RHEED). RHEED from a 2D material gives rise to 'streaks' patterns. It is shown that from these streaks patterns at different azimuthal rotation angles that the reciprocal space intensity distribution can be constructed as a function of momentum transfer parallel to the surface. To illustrate the principle, we experimentally constructed the reciprocal space structure of a commercial graphene/SiO2/Si sample in which the graphene layer was transferred to the SiO2/Si substrate after it was deposited on a Cu foil by chemical vapor deposition. The result reveals a 12-fold symmetry of the graphene layer which is a result of two dominant orientation domains with 30° rotation relative to each other. We show that the graphene can serve as a template to grow other materials such as a SnS film that follows the symmetry of graphene.

  2. Fast Threshold image segmentation based on 2D Fuzzy Fisher and Random Local Optimized QPSO.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Chunming; Xie, Yongchun; Liu, Da; Wang, Li

    2016-10-26

    In the paper, a real-time segmentation method which separates the target signal from the navigation image is proposed. In the approaching docking stage, the navigation image is composed of target and nontarget signal, which are separately bright spot and space vehicle itself. Since the non-target signals is the main part of the navigation image, the traditional entropy-related criterions and Ostu-related criterions will bring inadequate segmentation, while the mere 2D Fisher criterion will causes over-segmentation, all the methods show their shortages in dealing with this kind of case. To guarantee a precise image segmentation, a revised 2D fuzzy Fisher is proposed in the paper to make a trade-off between positioning target regions and retaining target fuzzy boundaries. Firstly, to reduce redundant computations in finding the threshold pair, a 2D fuzzy Fisher criterion based integral image is established by way of simplifying the corresponding fuzzy domains. And then, to quicken the convergence, a random orthogonal component is added in its quasioptimum particle to enhance its local searching capacity in each iteration. Experimental results show its competence of quick segmentation.

  3. Digital Transfer Growth of Patterned 2D Metal Chalcogenides by Confined Nanoparticle Evaporation

    SciTech Connect

    Mahjouri-Samani, Masoud; Tian, Mengkun; Wang, Kai; Boulesbaa, Abdelaziz; Rouleau, Christopher M.; Puretzky, Alexander A.; McGuire, Michael A.; Srijanto, Bernadeta R.; Xiao, Kai; Eres, Gyula; Duscher, Gerd; Geohegan, David B.

    2014-10-19

    Developing methods for the facile synthesis of two-dimensional (2D) metal chalcogenides and other layered materials is crucial for emerging applications in functional devices. Controlling the stoichiometry, number of the layers, crystallite size, growth location, and areal uniformity is challenging in conventional vapor phase synthesis. Here, we demonstrate a new route to control these parameters in the growth of metal chalcogenide (GaSe) and dichalcogenide (MoSe2) 2D crystals by precisely defining the mass and location of the source materials in a confined transfer growth system. A uniform and precise amount of stoichiometric nanoparticles are first synthesized and deposited onto a substrate by pulsed laser deposition (PLD) at room temperature. This source substrate is then covered with a receiver substrate to form a confined vapor transport growth (VTG) system. By simply heating the source substrate in an inert background gas, a natural temperature gradient is formed that evaporates the confined nanoparticles to grow large, crystalline 2D nanosheets on the cooler receiver substrate, the temperature of which is controlled by the background gas pressure. Large monolayer crystalline domains (~ 100 m lateral sizes) of GaSe and MoSe2 are demonstrated, as well as continuous monolayer films through the deposition of additional precursor materials. This novel PLD-VTG synthesis and processing method offers a unique approach for the controlled growth of large-area, metal chalcogenides with a controlled number of layers in patterned growth locations for optoelectronics and energy related applications.

  4. A multiple digital watermarking algorithm based on 1D and 2D chaotic sequences

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ji, Zhen; Jiang, Lai; Jin, Jing; Zhang, Jihong

    2003-09-01

    Multiple digital watermarking is attracting more and more researchers because it is more valuable in the practical applications than single watermarking. In this paper, a multiple watermarking algorithm based on 1-D and 2-D chaotic sequences is proposed. The chaotic sequences have the advantages of massive, high security, and weakest correlation. The massive and independent digital watermark signals are generated through 1-D chaotic maps, which are determined by different initial conditions and parameters. The chaotic digital watermark signals effectively resolve the construction of massive watermarks with good performance. The embedding of multiple watermakrs is more complex than the single watermarking scheme. In this paper, each watermark is added to the middle frequency coefficients of wavelet domain randomly by exploiting 2-D chaotic system, so the embedding and extracting of each watermark would not disturb each other. Considering the parameters of 2-D chaotic systsem as the key to embedding procedure can prevent the watermarks to be removed maliciously, therefore the performance of security is better. The capacity of the multiple watermarking is also analyzed in this paper. The experimental results demonstrate that this proposed watermarking algorithm is robust to many common attacks and it is a reliable copyright protection for multiple legal owners.

  5. The inner structure of empirical mode decomposition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Yung-Hung; Young, Hsu-Wen Vincent; Lo, Men-Tzung

    2016-11-01

    The empirical mode decomposition (EMD) is a nonlinear method that is truly adaptive with good localization property in the time domain for analyzing non-stationary complex data. The EMD has been proven useful in a wide range of applications. However, due to the nonlinear and complex nature of the sifting process, the most essential step of the EMD, a firm mathematical foundation or a transparent physical description are still lacked for EMD. Here, we embark on constructing a mathematical theory of the sifting operator. We first show that the sifting operator can be expressed as the data plus the sum of the responses to the impulses (multiplied by the data value) at the extrema. Such an expression of the sifting operator is then used to investigate the adaptive nature and the localizing effect of the EMD. Alternatively, the sifting operator can also be represented by a sifting matrix, which depends nonlinearly on the extrema distribution. Based on the eigen-decomposition of the sifting matrix, the transfer function of the sifting process is analyzed. Finally we answer what an intrinsic mode function (IMF) is from the wave perspective by exploring the physical basis of the IMFs.

  6. Secretory pathways generating immunosuppressive NKG2D ligands

    PubMed Central

    Baragaño Raneros, Aroa; Suarez-Álvarez, Beatriz; López-Larrea, Carlos

    2014-01-01

    Natural Killer Group 2 member D (NKG2D) activating receptor, present on the surface of various immune cells, plays an important role in activating the anticancer immune response by their interaction with stress-inducible NKG2D ligands (NKG2DL) on transformed cells. However, cancer cells have developed numerous mechanisms to evade the immune system via the downregulation of NKG2DL from the cell surface, including the release of NKG2DL from the cell surface in a soluble form. Here, we review the mechanisms involved in the production of soluble NKG2DL (sNKG2DL) and the potential therapeutic strategies aiming to block the release of these immunosuppressive ligands. Therapeutically enabling the NKG2D-NKG2DL interaction would promote immunorecognition of malignant cells, thus abrogating disease progression. PMID:25050215

  7. Splashing transients of 2D plasmons launched by swift electrons

    PubMed Central

    Lin, Xiao; Kaminer, Ido; Shi, Xihang; Gao, Fei; Yang, Zhaoju; Gao, Zhen; Buljan, Hrvoje; Joannopoulos, John D.; Soljačić, Marin; Chen, Hongsheng; Zhang, Baile

    2017-01-01

    Launching of plasmons by swift electrons has long been used in electron energy–loss spectroscopy (EELS) to investigate the plasmonic properties of ultrathin, or two-dimensional (2D), electron systems. However, the question of how a swift electron generates plasmons in space and time has never been answered. We address this issue by calculating and demonstrating the spatial-temporal dynamics of 2D plasmon generation in graphene. We predict a jet-like rise of excessive charge concentration that delays the generation of 2D plasmons in EELS, exhibiting an analog to the hydrodynamic Rayleigh jet in a splashing phenomenon before the launching of ripples. The photon radiation, analogous to the splashing sound, accompanies the plasmon emission and can be understood as being shaken off by the Rayleigh jet–like charge concentration. Considering this newly revealed process, we argue that previous estimates on the yields of graphene plasmons in EELS need to be reevaluated. PMID:28138546

  8. Available information in 2D motional Stark effect imaging.

    PubMed

    Creese, Mathew; Howard, John

    2010-10-01

    Recent advances in imaging techniques have allowed the extension of the standard polarimetric 1D motional Stark effect (MSE) diagnostic to 2D imaging of the internal magnetic field of fusion devices [J. Howard, Plasma Phys. Controlled Fusion 50, 125003 (2008)]. This development is met with the challenge of identifying and extracting the new information, which can then be used to increase the accuracy of plasma equilibrium and current density profile determinations. This paper develops a 2D analysis of the projected MSE polarization orientation and Doppler phase shift. It is found that, for a standard viewing position, the 2D MSE imaging system captures sufficient information to allow imaging of the internal vertical magnetic field component B(Z)(r,z) in a tokamak.

  9. Perception-based reversible watermarking for 2D vector maps

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Men, Chaoguang; Cao, Liujuan; Li, Xiang

    2010-07-01

    This paper presents an effective and reversible watermarking approach for digital copyright protection of 2D-vector maps. To ensure that the embedded watermark is insensitive for human perception, we only select the noise non-sensitive regions for watermark embedding by estimating vertex density within each polyline. To ensure the exact recovery of original 2D-vector map after watermark extraction, we introduce a new reversible watermarking scheme based on reversible high-frequency wavelet coefficients modification. Within the former-selected non-sensitive regions, our watermarking operates on the lower-order vertex coordinate decimals with integer wavelet transform. Such operation further reduces the visual distortion caused by watermark embedding. We have validated the effectiveness of our scheme on our real-world city river/building 2D-vector maps. We give extensive experimental comparisons with state-of-the-art methods, including embedding capability, invisibility, and robustness over watermark attacking.

  10. Microscale 2D separation systems for proteomic analysis

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Xin; Liu, Ke; Fan, Z. Hugh

    2012-01-01

    Microscale 2D separation systems have been implemented in capillaries and microfabricated channels. They offer advantages of faster analysis, higher separation efficiency and less sample consumption than the conventional methods, such as liquid chromatography (LC) in a column and slab gel electrophoresis. In this article, we review their recent advancement, focusing on three types of platforms, including 2D capillary electrophoresis (CE), CE coupling with capillary LC, and microfluidic devices. A variety of CE and LC modes have been employed to construct 2D separation systems via sophistically designed interfaces. Coupling of different separation modes has also been realized in a number of microfluidic devices. These separation systems have been applied for the proteomic analysis of various biological samples, ranging from a single cell to tumor tissues. PMID:22462786

  11. 2D materials for photon conversion and nanophotonics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tahersima, Mohammad H.; Sorger, Volker J.

    2015-09-01

    The field of two-dimensional (2D) materials has the potential to enable unique applications across a wide range of the electromagnetic spectrum. While 2D-layered materials hold promise for next-generation photon-conversion intrinsic limitations and challenges exist that shall be overcome. Here we discuss the intrinsic limitations as well as application opportunities of this new class of materials, and is sponsored by the NSF program Designing Materials to Revolutionize and Engineer our Future (DMREF) program, which links to the President's Materials Genome Initiative. We present general material-related details for photon conversion, and show that taking advantage of the mechanical flexibility of 2D materials by rolling MoS2/graphene/hexagonal boron nitride stack to a spiral solar cell allows for solar absorption up to 90%.

  12. Rapid-scan coherent 2D fluorescence spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Draeger, Simon; Roeding, Sebastian; Brixner, Tobias

    2017-02-20

    We developed pulse-shaper-assisted coherent two-dimensional (2D) electronic spectroscopy in liquids using fluorescence detection. A customized pulse shaper facilitates shot-to-shot modulation at 1 kHz and is employed for rapid scanning over all time delays. A full 2D spectrum with 15 × 15 pixels is obtained in approximately 6 s of measurement time (plus further averaging if needed). Coherent information is extracted from the incoherent fluorescence signal via 27-step phase cycling. We exemplify the technique on cresyl violet in ethanol and recover literature-known oscillations as a function of population time. Signal-to-noise behavior is analyzed as a function of the amount of averaging. Rapid scanning provides a 2D spectrum with a root-mean-square error of < 0.05 after 1 min of measurement time.

  13. 2D-3D transition of gold cluster anions resolved

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Johansson, Mikael P.; Lechtken, Anne; Schooss, Detlef; Kappes, Manfred M.; Furche, Filipp

    2008-05-01

    Small gold cluster anions Aun- are known for their unusual two-dimensional (2D) structures, giving rise to properties very different from those of bulk gold. Previous experiments and calculations disagree about the number of gold atoms nc where the transition to 3D structures occurs. We combine trapped ion electron diffraction and state of the art electronic structure calculations to resolve this puzzle and establish nc=12 . It is shown that theoretical studies using traditional generalized gradient functionals are heavily biased towards 2D structures. For a correct prediction of the 2D-3D crossover point it is crucial to use density functionals yielding accurate jellium surface energies, such as the Tao-Perdew-Staroverov-Scuseria (TPSS) functional or the Perdew-Burke-Ernzerhof functional modified for solids (PBEsol). Further, spin-orbit effects have to be included, and large, flexible basis sets employed. This combined theoretical-experimental approach is promising for larger gold and other metal clusters.

  14. IUPAP Award: Ion transport in 2D materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bao, Wenzhong

    Intercalation in 2D materials drastically influences both physical and chemical properties, which leads to a new degree of freedom for fundamental studies and expands the potential applications of 2D materials. In this talk, I will discuss our work in the past two years related to ion intercalation of 2D materials, including insertion of Li and Na ions in graphene and MoS2. We focused on both fundamental mechanism and potential application, e.g. we measured in-situ optical transmittance spectra and electrical transport properties of few-layer graphene (FLG) nanostructures upon electrochemical lithiation/delithiation. By observing a simultaneous increase of both optical transmittance and DC conductivity, strikingly different from other materials, we proposed its application as a next generation transparent electrode.

  15. 2d-retrieval For Mipas-envisat

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Steck, T.; von Clarmann, T.; Grabowski, U.; Höpfner, M.

    Limb sounding of the Earth's atmosphere provides vertically high resolved profiles of geophysical parameters. The long ray path through the atmosphere makes limb sounders sensitive to even little abundant species. On the other hand, horizontal in- homogeneities, if not taken into account properly, can cause systematic errors within the retrieval process. Especially for limb emission measurements in the mid IR, at- mopheric temperature gradients result in considerable vmr retrieval errors if they are neglected. We present a dedicated method of taking full 2D fields of state parameters (indepen- dent of tangent points) into account in the forward model and in the retrieval. The basic idea is that the 2D state vector is updated sequentially for each limb scan. This method is applied to the 2D retrieval of temperature and vmr for simulated radiances as expected from MIPAS-ENVISAT.

  16. Genetics, genomics, and evolutionary biology of NKG2D ligands.

    PubMed

    Carapito, Raphael; Bahram, Seiamak

    2015-09-01

    Human and mouse NKG2D ligands (NKG2DLs) are absent or only poorly expressed by most normal cells but are upregulated by cell stress, hence, alerting the immune system in case of malignancy or infection. Although these ligands are numerous and highly variable (at genetic, genomic, structural, and biochemical levels), they all belong to the major histocompatibility complex class I gene superfamily and bind to a single, invariant, receptor: NKG2D. NKG2D (CD314) is an activating receptor expressed on NK cells and subsets of T cells that have a key role in the recognition and lysis of infected and tumor cells. Here, we review the molecular diversity of NKG2DLs, discuss the increasing appreciation of their roles in a variety of medical conditions, and propose several explanations for the evolutionary force(s) that seem to drive the multiplicity and diversity of NKG2DLs while maintaining their interaction with a single invariant receptor.

  17. Graphene based 2D-materials for supercapacitors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Palaniselvam, Thangavelu; Baek, Jong-Beom

    2015-09-01

    Ever-increasing energy demands and the depletion of fossil fuels are compelling humanity toward the development of suitable electrochemical energy conversion and storage devices to attain a more sustainable society with adequate renewable energy and zero environmental pollution. In this regard, supercapacitors are being contemplated as potential energy storage devices to afford cleaner, environmentally friendly energy. Recently, a great deal of attention has been paid to two-dimensional (2D) nanomaterials, including 2D graphene and its inorganic analogues (transition metal double layer hydroxides, chalcogenides, etc), as potential electrodes for the development of supercapacitors with high electrochemical performance. This review provides an overview of the recent progress in using these graphene-based 2D materials as potential electrodes for supercapacitors. In addition, future research trends including notable challenges and opportunities are also discussed.

  18. Chemical vapour deposition: Transition metal carbides go 2D

    DOE PAGES

    Gogotsi, Yury

    2015-08-17

    Here, the research community has been steadily expanding the family of few-atom-thick crystals beyond graphene, discovering new materials or producing known materials in a 2D state and demonstrating their unique properties1, 2. Recently, nanometre-thin 2D transition metal carbides have also joined this family3. Writing in Nature Materials, Chuan Xu and colleagues now report a significant advance in the field, showing the synthesis of large-area, high-quality, nanometre-thin crystals of molybdenum carbide that demonstrate low-temperature 2D superconductivity4. Moreover, they also show that other ultrathin carbide crystals, such as tungsten and tantalum carbides, can be grown by chemical vapour deposition with a highmore » crystallinity and very low defect concentration.« less

  19. Optoelectronics based on 2D TMDs and heterostructures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huo, Nengjie; Yang, Yujue; Li, Jingbo

    2017-03-01

    2D materials including graphene and TMDs have proven interesting physical properties and promising optoelectronic applications. We reviewed the growth, characterization and optoelectronics based on 2D TMDs and their heterostructures, and demonstrated their unique and high quality of performances. For example, we observed the large mobility, fast response and high photo-responsivity in MoS2, WS2 and WSe2 phototransistors, as well as the novel performances in vdW heterostructures such as the strong interlayer coupling, am-bipolar and rectifying behaviour, and the obvious photovoltaic effect. It is being possible that 2D family materials could play an increasingly important role in the future nano- and opto-electronics, more even than traditional semiconductors such as silicon.

  20. Applications of Doppler Tomography in 2D and 3D

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Richards, M.; Budaj, J.; Agafonov, M.; Sharova, O.

    2010-12-01

    Over the past few years, the applications of Doppler tomography have been extended beyond the usual calculation of 2D velocity images of circumstellar gas flows. This technique has now been used with the new Shellspec spectrum synthesis code to demonstrate the effective modeling of the accretion disk and gas stream in the TT Hya Algol binary. The 2D tomography procedure projects all sources of emission onto a single central (Vx, Vy) velocity plane even though the gas is expected to flow beyond that plane. So, new 3D velocity images were derived with the Radioastronomical Approach method by assuming a grid of Vz values transverse to the central 2D plane. The 3D approach has been applied to the U CrB and RS Vul Algol-type binaries to reveal substantial flow structures beyond the central velocity plane.

  1. Chemical vapour deposition: Transition metal carbides go 2D

    SciTech Connect

    Gogotsi, Yury

    2015-08-17

    Here, the research community has been steadily expanding the family of few-atom-thick crystals beyond graphene, discovering new materials or producing known materials in a 2D state and demonstrating their unique properties1, 2. Recently, nanometre-thin 2D transition metal carbides have also joined this family3. Writing in Nature Materials, Chuan Xu and colleagues now report a significant advance in the field, showing the synthesis of large-area, high-quality, nanometre-thin crystals of molybdenum carbide that demonstrate low-temperature 2D superconductivity4. Moreover, they also show that other ultrathin carbide crystals, such as tungsten and tantalum carbides, can be grown by chemical vapour deposition with a high crystallinity and very low defect concentration.

  2. Formation of metastable phases by spinodal decomposition

    PubMed Central

    Alert, Ricard; Tierno, Pietro; Casademunt, Jaume

    2016-01-01

    Metastable phases may be spontaneously formed from other metastable phases through nucleation. Here we demonstrate the spontaneous formation of a metastable phase from an unstable equilibrium by spinodal decomposition, which leads to a transient coexistence of stable and metastable phases. This phenomenon is generic within the recently introduced scenario of the landscape-inversion phase transitions, which we experimentally realize as a structural transition in a colloidal crystal. This transition exhibits a rich repertoire of new phase-ordering phenomena, including the coexistence of two equilibrium phases connected by two physically different interfaces. In addition, this scenario enables the control of sizes and lifetimes of metastable domains. Our findings open a new setting that broadens the fundamental understanding of phase-ordering kinetics, and yield new prospects of applications in materials science. PMID:27713406

  3. Formation of metastable phases by spinodal decomposition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alert, Ricard; Tierno, Pietro; Casademunt, Jaume

    2016-10-01

    Metastable phases may be spontaneously formed from other metastable phases through nucleation. Here we demonstrate the spontaneous formation of a metastable phase from an unstable equilibrium by spinodal decomposition, which leads to a transient coexistence of stable and metastable phases. This phenomenon is generic within the recently introduced scenario of the landscape-inversion phase transitions, which we experimentally realize as a structural transition in a colloidal crystal. This transition exhibits a rich repertoire of new phase-ordering phenomena, including the coexistence of two equilibrium phases connected by two physically different interfaces. In addition, this scenario enables the control of sizes and lifetimes of metastable domains. Our findings open a new setting that broadens the fundamental understanding of phase-ordering kinetics, and yield new prospects of applications in materials science.

  4. Real-time 2-D temperature imaging using ultrasound.

    PubMed

    Liu, Dalong; Ebbini, Emad S

    2010-01-01

    We have previously introduced methods for noninvasive estimation of temperature change using diagnostic ultrasound. The basic principle was validated both in vitro and in vivo by several groups worldwide. Some limitations remain, however, that have prevented these methods from being adopted in monitoring and guidance of minimally invasive thermal therapies, e.g., RF ablation and high-intensity-focused ultrasound (HIFU). In this letter, we present first results from a real-time system for 2-D imaging of temperature change using pulse-echo ultrasound. The front end of the system is a commercially available scanner equipped with a research interface, which allows the control of imaging sequence and access to the RF data in real time. A high-frame-rate 2-D RF acquisition mode, M2D, is used to capture the transients of tissue motion/deformations in response to pulsed HIFU. The M2D RF data is streamlined to the back end of the system, where a 2-D temperature imaging algorithm based on speckle tracking is implemented on a graphics processing unit. The real-time images of temperature change are computed on the same spatial and temporal grid of the M2D RF data, i.e., no decimation. Verification of the algorithm was performed by monitoring localized HIFU-induced heating of a tissue-mimicking elastography phantom. These results clearly demonstrate the repeatability and sensitivity of the algorithm. Furthermore, we present in vitro results demonstrating the possible use of this algorithm for imaging changes in tissue parameters due to HIFU-induced lesions. These results clearly demonstrate the value of the real-time data streaming and processing in monitoring, and guidance of minimally invasive thermotherapy.

  5. Towards functional assembly of 3D and 2D nanomaterials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jacobs, Christopher B.; Wang, Kai; Ievlev, Anton V.; Muckley, Eric S.; Ivanov, Ilia N.

    2016-09-01

    Functional assemblies of materials can be realized by tuning the work function and band gap of nanomaterials by rational material selection and design. Here we demonstrate the structural assembly of 2D and 3D nanomaterials and show that layering a 2D material monolayer on a 3D metal oxide leads to substantial alteration of both the surface potential and optical properties of the 3D material. A 40 nm thick film of polycrystalline NiO was produced by room temperature rf-sputtering, resulting in a 3D nanoparticle assembly. Chemical vapor deposition (CVD) grown 10-30 μm WS2 flakes (2D material) were placed on the NiO surface using a PDMS stamp transfer technique. The 2D/3D WS2/NiO assembly was characterized using confocal micro Raman spectroscopy to evaluate the vibrational properties and using Kelvin probe force microscopy (KPFM) to evaluate the surface potential. Raman maps of the 2D/3D assembly show spatial non-uniformity of the A1g mode ( 418 cm-1) and the disorder-enhanced longitudinal acoustic mode, 2LA(M) ( 350 cm-1), suggesting that the WS2 exists in a strained condition on when transferred onto 3D polycrystalline NiO. KPFM measurements show that single layer WS2 on SiO2 has a surface potential 75 mV lower than that of SiO2, whereas the surface potential of WS2 on NiO is 15 mV higher than NiO, indicating that WS2 could act as electron donor or acceptor depending on the 3D material it is interfaced with. Thus 2D and 3D materials can be organized into functional assemblies with electron flow controlled by the WS2 either as the electron donor or acceptor.

  6. Caustic and its use in designing optimal absorber shapes for 2D concentrators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ries, Harald; Spirkl, Wolfgang

    1995-08-01

    The caustic of a set of edge rays is defined as the set of intersection points of adjacent edge rays. For a body having a smooth differentiable contour, the caustic of its edge rays coincides with the contour of the body. Therefore one would assume that by calculating the caustic of the edge rays as they are produced by a 2D concentrator such as a trough, the optimal shape for the absorber, e.g. the minimal surface absorber capable of intercepting all rays, should also coincide with the shape of the caustic. We show that this conjecture is not valid in general, but only if the caustic indeed forms a closed smooth curve. For parabolic trough systems, the caustic intersects and forms closed domains for half rim angles of around 60 degrees and 120 degrees. In both cases the contour is not smooth. Therefore the optimal shape is not given by the domain enclosed by the caustic. We present a general recipe of how to construct minimum surface absorbers for given caustics in 2D and apply this to the case of trough parabolic concentrators. We show practical absorber shapes for parabolic troughs with various rim angles. The optimal contour depends discontinuously on the rim angle. The area of the optimum shape for a rim angle of 90 degrees is 0.72 of the area of the smallest cylindric absorber capable of intersecting all rays.

  7. Atomistic simulations of J-integral in 2D graphene nanosystems.

    PubMed

    Jin, Y; Yuan, F G

    2005-12-01

    The J-integral is investigated in discrete atomic systems using molecular mechanics simulations. A method of calculating J-integral in specified atomic domains is developed. Two cases, a semiinfinite crack in an infinite domain under the remote K-field deformation and a finite crack length in a finite geometry under the tensile and shear deformation prescribed on the boundary, are studied in the two-dimensional graphene sheets and the values of J-integral are obtained under small-strain deformation. The comparison with energy release rates in Mode I and Mode II based on continuum theory of linear elastic fracture mechanics show good agreements. Meanwhile, the nonlinear strain and stress relation of a 2D graphene sheet is evaluated and is fitted with a power law curve. With necessary modifications on the Tersoff-Brenner potential, the critical values of J-integral of 2D graphene systems, which denoted as Jc, are eventually obtained. The results are then compared with those from the relevant references.

  8. 2dF grows up: Echidna for the AAT

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McGrath, Andrew; Barden, Sam; Miziarski, Stan; Rambold, William; Smith, Greg

    2008-07-01

    We present the concept design of a new fibre positioner and spectrograph system for the Anglo-Australian Telescope, as a proposed enhancement to the Anglo-Australian Observatory's well-known 2dF facility. A four-fold multiplex enhancement is accomplished by replacing the 400-fibre 2dF fibre positioning robot with a 1600-fibre Echidna unit, feeding three clones of the AAOmega optical spectrograph. Such a facility has the capability of a redshift 1 survey of a large fraction of the southern sky, collecting five to ten thousand spectra per night for a million-galaxy survey.

  9. Noninvasive deep Raman detection with 2D correlation analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Hyung Min; Park, Hyo Sun; Cho, Youngho; Jin, Seung Min; Lee, Kang Taek; Jung, Young Mee; Suh, Yung Doug

    2014-07-01

    The detection of poisonous chemicals enclosed in daily necessaries is prerequisite essential for homeland security with the increasing threat of terrorism. For the detection of toxic chemicals, we combined a sensitive deep Raman spectroscopic method with 2D correlation analysis. We obtained the Raman spectra from concealed chemicals employing spatially offset Raman spectroscopy in which incident line-shaped light experiences multiple scatterings before being delivered to inner component and yielding deep Raman signal. Furthermore, we restored the pure Raman spectrum of each component using 2D correlation spectroscopic analysis with chemical inspection. Using this method, we could elucidate subsurface component under thick powder and packed contents in a bottle.

  10. Evaluation of 2D ceramic matrix composites in aeroconvective environments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Riccitiello, Salvatore R.; Love, Wendell L.; Balter-Peterson, Aliza

    1992-01-01

    An evaluation is conducted of a novel ceramic-matrix composite (CMC) material system for use in the aeroconvective-heating environments encountered by the nose caps and wing leading edges of such aerospace vehicles as the Space Shuttle, during orbit-insertion and reentry from LEO. These CMCs are composed of an SiC matrix that is reinforced with Nicalon, Nextel, or carbon refractory fibers in a 2D architecture. The test program conducted for the 2D CMCs gave attention to their subsurface oxidation.

  11. Radiative heat transfer in 2D Dirac materials.

    PubMed

    Rodriguez-López, Pablo; Tse, Wang-Kong; Dalvit, Diego A R

    2015-06-03

    We compute the radiative heat transfer between two sheets of 2D Dirac materials, including topological Chern insulators and graphene, within the framework of the local approximation for the optical response of these materials. In this approximation, which neglects spatial dispersion, we derive both numerically and analytically the short-distance asymptotic of the near-field heat transfer in these systems, and show that it scales as the inverse of the distance between the two sheets. Finally, we discuss the limitations to the validity of this scaling law imposed by spatial dispersion in 2D Dirac materials.

  12. Quantum process tomography by 2D fluorescence spectroscopy

    SciTech Connect

    Pachón, Leonardo A.; Marcus, Andrew H.; Aspuru-Guzik, Alán

    2015-06-07

    Reconstruction of the dynamics (quantum process tomography) of the single-exciton manifold in energy transfer systems is proposed here on the basis of two-dimensional fluorescence spectroscopy (2D-FS) with phase-modulation. The quantum-process-tomography protocol introduced here benefits from, e.g., the sensitivity enhancement ascribed to 2D-FS. Although the isotropically averaged spectroscopic signals depend on the quantum yield parameter Γ of the doubly excited-exciton manifold, it is shown that the reconstruction of the dynamics is insensitive to this parameter. Applications to foundational and applied problems, as well as further extensions, are discussed.

  13. Radiative heat transfer in 2D Dirac materials

    DOE PAGES

    Rodriguez-López, Pablo; Tse, Wang -Kong; Dalvit, Diego A. R.

    2015-05-12

    We compute the radiative heat transfer between two sheets of 2D Dirac materials, including topological Chern insulators and graphene, within the framework of the local approximation for the optical response of these materials. In this approximation, which neglects spatial dispersion, we derive both numerically and analytically the short-distance asymptotic of the near-field heat transfer in these systems, and show that it scales as the inverse of the distance between the two sheets. In conclusion, we discuss the limitations to the validity of this scaling law imposed by spatial dispersion in 2D Dirac materials.

  14. Experimental validation of equations for 2D DIC uncertainty quantification.

    SciTech Connect

    Reu, Phillip L.; Miller, Timothy J.

    2010-03-01

    Uncertainty quantification (UQ) equations have been derived for predicting matching uncertainty in two-dimensional image correlation a priori. These equations include terms that represent the image noise and image contrast. Researchers at the University of South Carolina have extended previous 1D work to calculate matching errors in 2D. These 2D equations have been coded into a Sandia National Laboratories UQ software package to predict the uncertainty for DIC images. This paper presents those equations and the resulting error surfaces for trial speckle images. Comparison of the UQ results with experimentally subpixel-shifted images is also discussed.

  15. Scale Invariance in 2D BCS-BEC Crossover

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sensarma, Rajdeep; Taylor, Edward; Randeria, Mohit

    2013-03-01

    In 2D BCS-BEC crossover, the frequency of the breathing mode in a harmonic trap, as well as the lower edge of the radio frequency spectroscopy response, show remarkable scale-invariance throughout the crossover regime, i.e. they are independent of the coupling constant. Using functional integral methods, we study the behaviour of these quantities in the 2D BCS-BEC crossover and comment on the possible reasons for this scale independence. RS was supported by DAE, Govt. of India. MR was supported by NSF Grant No. DMR-1006532. ET was supported by NSERC and the Canadian Institute for Advanced Research.

  16. Closed-shell and open-shell 2D nanographenes.

    PubMed

    Sun, Zhe; Wu, Jishan

    2014-01-01

    This chapter describes a series of two-dimensional (2D) expanded arene networks, also known as nanographenes, with either closed-shell or open-shell electronic structure in the ground state. These systems are further categorized into three classes on a basis of different edge structures: those with zigzag edges only, those with armchair edges only, and those possessing both. Distinctive physical properties of these 2D aromatic systems are closely related to their structural characteristics and provide great potential for them as materials for different applications.

  17. 2D Log-Gabor Wavelet Based Action Recognition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Ning; Xu, De

    The frequency response of log-Gabor function matches well the frequency response of primate visual neurons. In this letter, motion-salient regions are extracted based on the 2D log-Gabor wavelet transform of the spatio-temporal form of actions. A supervised classification technique is then used to classify the actions. The proposed method is robust to the irregular segmentation of actors. Moreover, the 2D log-Gabor wavelet permits more compact representation of actions than the recent neurobiological models using Gabor wavelet.

  18. 2D molybdenum disulphide (2D-MoS2) modified electrodes explored towards the oxygen reduction reaction.

    PubMed

    Rowley-Neale, Samuel J; Fearn, Jamie M; Brownson, Dale A C; Smith, Graham C; Ji, Xiaobo; Banks, Craig E

    2016-08-21

    Two-dimensional molybdenum disulphide nanosheets (2D-MoS2) have proven to be an effective electrocatalyst, with particular attention being focused on their use towards increasing the efficiency of the reactions associated with hydrogen fuel cells. Whilst the majority of research has focused on the Hydrogen Evolution Reaction (HER), herein we explore the use of 2D-MoS2 as a potential electrocatalyst for the much less researched Oxygen Reduction Reaction (ORR). We stray from literature conventions and perform experiments in 0.1 M H2SO4 acidic electrolyte for the first time, evaluating the electrochemical performance of the ORR with 2D-MoS2 electrically wired/immobilised upon several carbon based electrodes (namely; Boron Doped Diamond (BDD), Edge Plane Pyrolytic Graphite (EPPG), Glassy Carbon (GC) and Screen-Printed Electrodes (SPE)) whilst exploring a range of 2D-MoS2 coverages/masses. Consequently, the findings of this study are highly applicable to real world fuel cell applications. We show that significant improvements in ORR activity can be achieved through the careful selection of the underlying/supporting carbon materials that electrically wire the 2D-MoS2 and utilisation of an optimal mass of 2D-MoS2. The ORR onset is observed to be reduced to ca. +0.10 V for EPPG, GC and SPEs at 2D-MoS2 (1524 ng cm(-2) modification), which is far closer to Pt at +0.46 V compared to bare/unmodified EPPG, GC and SPE counterparts. This report is the first to demonstrate such beneficial electrochemical responses in acidic conditions using a 2D-MoS2 based electrocatalyst material on a carbon-based substrate (SPEs in this case). Investigation of the beneficial reaction mechanism reveals the ORR to occur via a 4 electron process in specific conditions; elsewhere a 2 electron process is observed. This work offers valuable insights for those wishing to design, fabricate and/or electrochemically test 2D-nanosheet materials towards the ORR.

  19. Momentum Transport: 2D and 3D Cloud Resolving Model Simulations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tao, Wei-Kuo

    2001-01-01

    The major objective of this study is to investigate the momentum budgets associated with several convective systems that developed during the TOGA COARE IOP (west Pacific warm pool region) and GATE (east Atlantic region). The tool for this study is the improved Goddard Cumulas Ensemble (GCE) model which includes a 3-class ice-phase microphysical scheme, explicit cloud radiative interactive processes and air-sea interactive surface processes. The model domain contains 256 x 256 grid points (with 2 km resolution) in the horizontal and 38 grid points (to a depth of 22 km) in the vertical. The 2D domain has 1024 grid points. The simulations were performed over a 7-day time period (December 19-26, 1992, for TOGA COARE and September 1-7, 1994 for GATE). Cyclic literal boundary conditions are required for this type of long-term integration. Two well organized squall systems (TOGA, COARE February 22, 1993, and GATE September 12, 1994) were also simulated using the 3D GCE model. Only 9 h simulations were required to cover the life time of the squall systems. the lateral boundary conditions were open for these two squall systems simulations. the following will be examined: (1) the momentum budgets in the convective and stratiform regions, (2) the relationship between momentum transport and cloud organization (i.e., well organized squall lines versus less organized convective), (3) the differences and similarities in momentum transport between 2D and 3D simulated convective systems, and (4) the differences and similarities in momentum budgets between cloud systems simulated with open and cyclic lateral boundary conditions. Preliminary results indicate that there are only small differences between 2D and 3D simulated momentum budgets. Major differences occur, however, between momentum budgets associated with squall systems simulated using different lateral boundary conditions.

  20. FDTD analysis of 2D triangular-lattice photonic crystals with arbitrary-shape inclusions based on unit cell transformation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ma, Zetao; Ogusu, Kazuhiko

    2009-04-01

    A finite-difference time-domain method based on Yee's orthogonal cell is utilized to calculate the band structures of 2D triangular-lattice-based photonic crystals through a simple modification to properly shifting the boundaries of the original unit cell. A strategy is proposed for transforming the triangular unit cell into an orthogonal one, which can be used to calculate the band structures of 2D PhCs with various shapes of inclusions, such as triangular, quadrangular, and hexagonal shapes, to overcome the shortage of plane-wave expansion method for circular one. The band structures of 2D triangular-lattice-based PhCs with hexagonal air-holes are calculated and discussed for different values of its radius and rotation angle. The obtained results provide an insight to manipulate the band structures of PhCs.

  1. Compelling experimental evidence of a Dirac cone in the electronic structure of a 2D Silicon layer

    PubMed Central

    Sadeddine, Sana; Enriquez, Hanna; Bendounan, Azzedine; Kumar Das, Pranab; Vobornik, Ivana; Kara, Abdelkader; Mayne, Andrew J.; Sirotti, Fausto; Dujardin, Gérald; Oughaddou, Hamid

    2017-01-01

    The remarkable properties of graphene stem from its two-dimensional (2D) structure, with a linear dispersion of the electronic states at the corners of the Brillouin zone (BZ) forming a Dirac cone. Since then, other 2D materials have been suggested based on boron, silicon, germanium, phosphorus, tin, and metal di-chalcogenides. Here, we present an experimental investigation of a single silicon layer on Au(111) using low energy electron diffraction (LEED), high resolution angle-resolved photoemission spectroscopy (HR-ARPES), and scanning tunneling microscopy (STM). The HR-ARPES data show compelling evidence that the silicon based 2D overlayer is responsible for the observed linear dispersed feature in the valence band, with a Fermi velocity of comparable to that of graphene. The STM images show extended and homogeneous domains, offering a viable route to the fabrication of silicene-based opto-electronic devices. PMID:28281666

  2. Compelling experimental evidence of a Dirac cone in the electronic structure of a 2D Silicon layer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sadeddine, Sana; Enriquez, Hanna; Bendounan, Azzedine; Kumar Das, Pranab; Vobornik, Ivana; Kara, Abdelkader; Mayne, Andrew J.; Sirotti, Fausto; Dujardin, Gérald; Oughaddou, Hamid

    2017-03-01

    The remarkable properties of graphene stem from its two-dimensional (2D) structure, with a linear dispersion of the electronic states at the corners of the Brillouin zone (BZ) forming a Dirac cone. Since then, other 2D materials have been suggested based on boron, silicon, germanium, phosphorus, tin, and metal di-chalcogenides. Here, we present an experimental investigation of a single silicon layer on Au(111) using low energy electron diffraction (LEED), high resolution angle-resolved photoemission spectroscopy (HR-ARPES), and scanning tunneling microscopy (STM). The HR-ARPES data show compelling evidence that the silicon based 2D overlayer is responsible for the observed linear dispersed feature in the valence band, with a Fermi velocity of comparable to that of graphene. The STM images show extended and homogeneous domains, offering a viable route to the fabrication of silicene-based opto-electronic devices.

  3. Asymmetric modes decomposition in an overmoded relativistic backward wave oscillator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Dian; Zhang, Jun; Zhong, Huihuang; Jin, Zhenxing; Ju, Jinchuan

    2014-09-01

    Most of the investigated overmoded relativistic backward wave oscillators (RBWOs) are azimuthally symmetric; thus, they are designed through two dimensional (2-D) particle-in-cell (PIC) simulations. However, 2-D PIC simulations cannot reveal the effect of asymmetric modes on beam-wave interaction. In order to investigate whether asymmetric mode competition needs to be considered in the design of overmoded RBWOs, a numerical method of determining the composition of both symmetric and asymmetric modes in three dimensional (3-D) PIC simulations is introduced in this paper. The 2-D and 3-D PIC simulation results of an X-band overmoded RBWO are analyzed. Our analysis indicates that the 2-D and 3-D PIC simulation results of our device are quite different due to asymmetric mode competition. In fact, asymmetric surface waves, especially EH11 mode, can lead to serious mode competition when electron beam propagates near the surface of slow wave structures (SWSs). Therefore, additional method of suppressing asymmetric mode competition, such as adjusting the reflections at both ends of SWSs to decrease the Q-factor of asymmetric modes, needs to be utilized in the design of overmoded RBWOs. Besides, 3-D PIC simulation and modes decomposition are essential for designing overmoded RBWOs.

  4. Asymmetric modes decomposition in an overmoded relativistic backward wave oscillator

    SciTech Connect

    Zhang, Dian; Zhang, Jun Zhong, Huihuang; Jin, Zhenxing; Ju, Jinchuan

    2014-09-15

    Most of the investigated overmoded relativistic backward wave oscillators (RBWOs) are azimuthally symmetric; thus, they are designed through two dimensional (2-D) particle-in-cell (PIC) simulations. However, 2-D PIC simulations cannot reveal the effect of asymmetric modes on beam-wave interaction. In order to investigate whether asymmetric mode competition needs to be considered in the design of overmoded RBWOs, a numerical method of determining the composition of both symmetric and asymmetric modes in three dimensional (3-D) PIC simulations is introduced in this paper. The 2-D and 3-D PIC simulation results of an X-band overmoded RBWO are analyzed. Our analysis indicates that the 2-D and 3-D PIC simulation results of our device are quite different due to asymmetric mode competition. In fact, asymmetric surface waves, especially EH{sub 11} mode, can lead to serious mode competition when electron beam propagates near the surface of slow wave structures (SWSs). Therefore, additional method of suppressing asymmetric mode competition, such as adjusting the reflections at both ends of SWSs to decrease the Q-factor of asymmetric modes, needs to be utilized in the design of overmoded RBWOs. Besides, 3-D PIC simulation and modes decomposition are essential for designing overmoded RBWOs.

  5. Discrepant Results in a 2-D Marble Collision

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kalajian, Peter

    2013-01-01

    Video analysis of 2-D collisions is an excellent way to investigate conservation of linear momentum. The often-desired experimental design goal is to minimize the momentum loss in order to demonstrate the conservation law. An air table with colliding pucks is an ideal medium for this experiment, but such equipment is beyond the budget of many…

  6. 2-D Finite Element Cable and Box IEMP Analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Scivner, G.J.; Turner, C.D.

    1998-12-17

    A 2-D finite element code has been developed for the solution of arbitrary geometry cable SGEMP and box IEMP problems. The quasi- static electric field equations with radiation- induced charge deposition and radiation-induced conductivity y are numerically solved on a triangular mesh. Multiple regions of different dielectric materials and multiple conductors are permitted.

  7. 2D signature for detection and identification of drugs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Trofimov, Vyacheslav A.; Varentsova, Svetlana A.; Shen, Jingling; Zhang, Cunlin; Zhou, Qingli; Shi, Yulei

    2011-06-01

    The method of spectral dynamics analysis (SDA-method) is used for obtaining the2D THz signature of drugs. This signature is used for the detection and identification of drugs with similar Fourier spectra by transmitted THz signal. We discuss the efficiency of SDA method for the identification problem of pure methamphetamine (MA), methylenedioxyamphetamine (MDA), 3, 4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA) and Ketamine.

  8. Optoelectronics of supported and suspended 2D semiconductors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bolotin, Kirill

    2014-03-01

    Two-dimensional semiconductors, materials such monolayer molybdenum disulfide (MoS2) are characterized by strong spin-orbit and electron-electron interactions. However, both electronic and optoelectronic properties of these materials are dominated by disorder-related scattering. In this talk, we investigate approaches to reduce scattering and explore physical phenomena arising in intrinsic 2D semiconductors. First, we discuss fabrication of pristine suspended monolayer MoS2 and use photocurrent spectroscopy measurements to study excitons in this material. We observe band-edge and van Hove singularity excitons and estimate their binding energies. Furthermore, we study dissociation of these excitons and uncover the mechanism of their contribution to photoresponse of MoS2. Second, we study strain-induced modification of bandstructures of 2D semiconductors. With increasing strain, we find large and controllable band gap reduction of both single- and bi-layer MoS2. We also detect experimental signatures consistent with strain-induced transition from direct to indirect band gap in monolayer MoS2. Finally, we fabricate heterostructures of dissimilar 2D semiconductors and study their photoresponse. For closely spaced 2D semiconductors we detect charge transfer, while for separation larger than 10nm we observe Forster-like energy transfer between excitations in different layers.

  9. Graphene band structure and its 2D Raman mode

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Narula, Rohit; Reich, Stephanie

    2014-08-01

    High-precision simulations are used to generate the 2D Raman mode of graphene under a range of screening conditions and laser energies EL. We reproduce the decreasing trend of the 2D mode FWHM vs EL and the nearly linearly increasing dispersion ∂ω2D/∂EL seen experimentally in freestanding (unscreened) graphene, and propose relations between these experimentally accessible quantities and the local, two-dimensional gradients |∇ | of the electronic and TO phonon bands. In light of state-of-the-art electronic structure calculations that acutely treat the long-range e-e interactions of isolated graphene and its experimentally observed 2D Raman mode, our calculations determine a 40% greater slope of the TO phonons about K than given by explicit phonon measurements performed in graphite or GW phonon calculations in graphene. We also deduce the variation of the broadening energy γ [EL] for freestanding graphene and find a nominal value γ ˜140 meV, showing a gradually increasing trend for the range of frequencies available experimentally.

  10. Development of a MEMS 2D separations device

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bloschock, Kristen P.; Flyer, Jonathan N.; Schneider, Thomas W.; Hussam, Abul; Van Keuren, Edward R.

    2004-12-01

    A polymer based biochip for rapid 2D separations of peptides, proteins, and other biomedically relevant molecules was designed and fabricated. Like traditional 2D polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (2D-PAGE) methods, the device will allow molecules to separate based on isoelectric point (pI) and molecular weight (MW). Our design, however, integrates both an initial capillary isoelectric focusing (cIEF) step followed by capillary electrophoresis (CE) in multiple parallel channels, all on a single microfluidic chip. Not only is the "lab-on-a-chip" design easier to use and less expensive, but the miniaturization of the device produces very rapid separations. Compared to traditional 2D-PAGE, which can take hours to complete, we estimate separation times on the order of seconds. Fluorescence detection will be used in the preliminary stages of testing, but the device also is equipped with integrated electrodes in the electrophoresis channels to perform multiplexed electrochemical detection for quantitative analysis. We will present preliminary results of the chip development and testing.

  11. The 2dF Galaxy Redshift Survey: Preliminary Results

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maddox, Steve; 2DF Galaxy Redshift Survey Team; Bland-Hawthorn, Joss; Cannon, Russell; Cole, Shaun; Colless, Matthew; Collins, Chris; Couch, Warrick; Dalton, Gavin; Driver, Simon; Ellis, Richard; Efstathiou, George; Folkes, Simon; Frenk, Carlos; Glazebrook, Karl; Kaiser, Nick; Lahav, Ofer; Lumsden, Stuart; Peterson, Bruce; Peacock, John; Sutherland, Will; Taylor, Keith

    Spectroscopic observations for a new survey of 250 000 galaxy redshifts are underway, using the 2dF instrument at the AAT. The input galaxy catalogue and commissioning data are described. The first result from the preliminary data is a new estimate of the galaxy luminosity function at = 0.1.

  12. Volume Calculation of Venous Thrombosis Using 2D Ultrasound Images.

    PubMed

    Dhibi, M; Puentes, J; Bressollette, L; Guias, B; Solaiman, B

    2005-01-01

    Venous thrombosis screening exams use 2D ultrasound images, from which medical experts obtain a rough idea of the thrombosis aspect and infer an approximate volume. Such estimation is essential to follow up the thrombosis evolution. This paper proposes a method to calculate venous thrombosis volume from non-parallel 2D ultrasound images, taking advantage of a priori knowledge about the thrombosis shape. An interactive ellipse fitting contour segmentation extracts the 2D thrombosis contours. Then, a Delaunay triangulation is applied to the set of 2D segmented contours positioned in 3D, and the area that each contour defines, to obtain a global thrombosis 3D surface reconstruction, with a dense triangulation inside the contours. Volume is calculated from the obtained surface and contours triangulation, using a maximum unit normal component approach. Preliminary results obtained on 3 plastic phantoms and 3 in vitro venous thromboses, as well as one in vivo case are presented and discussed. An error rate of volume estimation inferior to 4,5% for the plastic phantoms, and 3,5% for the in vitro venous thromboses was obtained.

  13. ELLIPT2D: A Flexible Finite Element Code Written Python

    SciTech Connect

    Pletzer, A.; Mollis, J.C.

    2001-03-22

    The use of the Python scripting language for scientific applications and in particular to solve partial differential equations is explored. It is shown that Python's rich data structure and object-oriented features can be exploited to write programs that are not only significantly more concise than their counter parts written in Fortran, C or C++, but are also numerically efficient. To illustrate this, a two-dimensional finite element code (ELLIPT2D) has been written. ELLIPT2D provides a flexible and easy-to-use framework for solving a large class of second-order elliptic problems. The program allows for structured or unstructured meshes. All functions defining the elliptic operator are user supplied and so are the boundary conditions, which can be of Dirichlet, Neumann or Robbins type. ELLIPT2D makes extensive use of dictionaries (hash tables) as a way to represent sparse matrices.Other key features of the Python language that have been widely used include: operator over loading, error handling, array slicing, and the Tkinter module for building graphical use interfaces. As an example of the utility of ELLIPT2D, a nonlinear solution of the Grad-Shafranov equation is computed using a Newton iterative scheme. A second application focuses on a solution of the toroidal Laplace equation coupled to a magnetohydrodynamic stability code, a problem arising in the context of magnetic fusion research.

  14. Rheological Properties of Quasi-2D Fluids in Microgravity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stannarius, Ralf; Trittel, Torsten; Eremin, Alexey; Harth, Kirsten; Clark, Noel; Maclennan, Joseph; Glaser, Matthew; Park, Cheol; Hall, Nancy; Tin, Padetha

    2015-01-01

    In recent years, research on complex fluids and fluids in restricted geometries has attracted much attention in the scientific community. This can be attributed not only to the development of novel materials based on complex fluids but also to a variety of important physical phenomena which have barely been explored. One example is the behavior of membranes and thin fluid films, which can be described by two-dimensional (2D) rheology behavior that is quite different from 3D fluids. In this study, we have investigated the rheological properties of freely suspended films of a thermotropic liquid crystal in microgravity experiments. This model system mimics isotropic and anisotropic quasi 2D fluids [46]. We use inkjet printing technology to dispense small droplets (inclusions) onto the film surface. The motion of these inclusions provides information on the rheological properties of the films and allows the study of a variety of flow instabilities. Flat films have been investigated on a sub-orbital rocket flight and curved films (bubbles) have been studied in the ISS project OASIS. Microgravity is essential when the films are curved in order to avoid sedimentation. The experiments yield the mobility of the droplets in the films as well as the mutual mobility of pairs of particles. Experimental results will be presented for 2D-isotropic (smectic-A) and 2D-nematic (smectic-C) phases.

  15. Validation and testing of the VAM2D computer code

    SciTech Connect

    Kool, J.B.; Wu, Y.S. )

    1991-10-01

    This document describes two modeling studies conducted by HydroGeoLogic, Inc. for the US NRC under contract no. NRC-04089-090, entitled, Validation and Testing of the VAM2D Computer Code.'' VAM2D is a two-dimensional, variably saturated flow and transport code, with applications for performance assessment of nuclear waste disposal. The computer code itself is documented in a separate NUREG document (NUREG/CR-5352, 1989). The studies presented in this report involve application of the VAM2D code to two diverse subsurface modeling problems. The first one involves modeling of infiltration and redistribution of water and solutes in an initially dry, heterogeneous field soil. This application involves detailed modeling over a relatively short, 9-month time period. The second problem pertains to the application of VAM2D to the modeling of a waste disposal facility in a fractured clay, over much larger space and time scales and with particular emphasis on the applicability and reliability of using equivalent porous medium approach for simulating flow and transport in fractured geologic media. Reflecting the separate and distinct nature of the two problems studied, this report is organized in two separate parts. 61 refs., 31 figs., 9 tabs.

  16. NKG2D ligands mediate immunosurveillance of senescent cells

    PubMed Central

    Moshayev, Zhana; Vadai, Ezra; Wensveen, Felix; Ben-Dor, Shifra; Golani, Ofra; Polic, Bojan; Krizhanovsky, Valery

    2016-01-01

    Cellular senescence is a stress response mechanism that limits tumorigenesis and tissue damage. Induction of cellular senescence commonly coincides with an immunogenic phenotype that promotes self-elimination by components of the immune system, thereby facilitating tumor suppression and limiting excess fibrosis during wound repair. The mechanisms by which senescent cells regulate their immune surveillance are not completely understood. Here we show that ligands of an activating Natural Killer (NK) cell receptor (NKG2D), MICA and ULBP2 are consistently up-regulated following induction of replicative senescence, oncogene-induced senescence and DNA damage - induced senescence. MICA and ULBP2 proteins are necessary for efficient NK-mediated cytotoxicity towards senescent fibroblasts. The mechanisms regulating the initial expression of NKG2D ligands in senescent cells are dependent on a DNA damage response, whilst continuous expression of these ligands is regulated by the ERK signaling pathway. In liver fibrosis, the accumulation of senescent activated stellate cells is increased in mice lacking NKG2D receptor leading to increased fibrosis. Overall, our results provide new insights into the mechanisms regulating the expression of immune ligands in senescent cells and reveal the importance of NKG2D receptor-ligand interaction in protecting against liver fibrosis. PMID:26878797

  17. Studying Zeolite Catalysts with a 2D Model System

    ScienceCinema

    Boscoboinik, Anibal

    2016-12-14

    Anibal Boscoboinik, a materials scientist at Brookhaven’s Center for Functional Nanomaterials, discusses the surface-science tools and 2D model system he uses to study catalysis in nanoporous zeolites, which catalyze reactions in many industrial processes.

  18. 2D nanomaterials based electrochemical biosensors for cancer diagnosis.

    PubMed

    Wang, Lu; Xiong, Qirong; Xiao, Fei; Duan, Hongwei

    2017-03-15

    Cancer is a leading cause of death in the world. Increasing evidence has demonstrated that early diagnosis holds the key towards effective treatment outcome. Cancer biomarkers are extensively used in oncology for cancer diagnosis and prognosis. Electrochemical sensors play key roles in current laboratory and clinical analysis of diverse chemical and biological targets. Recent development of functional nanomaterials offers new possibilities of improving the performance of electrochemical sensors. In particular, 2D nanomaterials have stimulated intense research due to their unique array of structural and chemical properties. The 2D materials of interest cover broadly across graphene, graphene derivatives (i.e., graphene oxide and reduced graphene oxide), and graphene-like nanomaterials (i.e., 2D layered transition metal dichalcogenides, graphite carbon nitride and boron nitride nanomaterials). In this review, we summarize recent advances in the synthesis of 2D nanomaterials and their applications in electrochemical biosensing of cancer biomarkers (nucleic acids, proteins and some small molecules), and present a personal perspective on the future direction of this area.

  19. 2D molybdenum disulphide (2D-MoS2) modified electrodes explored towards the oxygen reduction reaction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rowley-Neale, Samuel J.; Fearn, Jamie M.; Brownson, Dale A. C.; Smith, Graham C.; Ji, Xiaobo; Banks, Craig E.

    2016-08-01

    Two-dimensional molybdenum disulphide nanosheets (2D-MoS2) have proven to be an effective electrocatalyst, with particular attention being focused on their use towards increasing the efficiency of the reactions associated with hydrogen fuel cells. Whilst the majority of research has focused on the Hydrogen Evolution Reaction (HER), herein we explore the use of 2D-MoS2 as a potential electrocatalyst for the much less researched Oxygen Reduction Reaction (ORR). We stray from literature conventions and perform experiments in 0.1 M H2SO4 acidic electrolyte for the first time, evaluating the electrochemical performance of the ORR with 2D-MoS2 electrically wired/immobilised upon several carbon based electrodes (namely; Boron Doped Diamond (BDD), Edge Plane Pyrolytic Graphite (EPPG), Glassy Carbon (GC) and Screen-Printed Electrodes (SPE)) whilst exploring a range of 2D-MoS2 coverages/masses. Consequently, the findings of this study are highly applicable to real world fuel cell applications. We show that significant improvements in ORR activity can be achieved through the careful selection of the underlying/supporting carbon materials that electrically wire the 2D-MoS2 and utilisation of an optimal mass of 2D-MoS2. The ORR onset is observed to be reduced to ca. +0.10 V for EPPG, GC and SPEs at 2D-MoS2 (1524 ng cm-2 modification), which is far closer to Pt at +0.46 V compared to bare/unmodified EPPG, GC and SPE counterparts. This report is the first to demonstrate such beneficial electrochemical responses in acidic conditions using a 2D-MoS2 based electrocatalyst material on a carbon-based substrate (SPEs in this case). Investigation of the beneficial reaction mechanism reveals the ORR to occur via a 4 electron process in specific conditions; elsewhere a 2 electron process is observed. This work offers valuable insights for those wishing to design, fabricate and/or electrochemically test 2D-nanosheet materials towards the ORR.Two-dimensional molybdenum disulphide nanosheets

  20. WE-AB-BRA-07: Quantitative Evaluation of 2D-2D and 2D-3D Image Guided Radiation Therapy for Clinical Trial Credentialing, NRG Oncology/RTOG

    SciTech Connect

    Giaddui, T; Yu, J; Xiao, Y; Jacobs, P; Manfredi, D; Linnemann, N

    2015-06-15

    Purpose: 2D-2D kV image guided radiation therapy (IGRT) credentialing evaluation for clinical trial qualification was historically qualitative through submitting screen captures of the fusion process. However, as quantitative DICOM 2D-2D and 2D-3D image registration tools are implemented in clinical practice for better precision, especially in centers that treat patients with protons, better IGRT credentialing techniques are needed. The aim of this work is to establish methodologies for quantitatively reviewing IGRT submissions based on DICOM 2D-2D and 2D-3D image registration and to test the methodologies in reviewing 2D-2D and 2D-3D IGRT submissions for RTOG/NRG Oncology clinical trials qualifications. Methods: DICOM 2D-2D and 2D-3D automated and manual image registration have been tested using the Harmony tool in MIM software. 2D kV orthogonal portal images are fused with the reference digital reconstructed radiographs (DRR) in the 2D-2D registration while the 2D portal images are fused with DICOM planning CT image in the 2D-3D registration. The Harmony tool allows alignment of the two images used in the registration process and also calculates the required shifts. Shifts calculated using MIM are compared with those submitted by institutions for IGRT credentialing. Reported shifts are considered to be acceptable if differences are less than 3mm. Results: Several tests have been performed on the 2D-2D and 2D-3D registration. The results indicated good agreement between submitted and calculated shifts. A workflow for reviewing these IGRT submissions has been developed and will eventually be used to review IGRT submissions. Conclusion: The IROC Philadelphia RTQA center has developed and tested a new workflow for reviewing DICOM 2D-2D and 2D-3D IGRT credentialing submissions made by different cancer clinical centers, especially proton centers. NRG Center for Innovation in Radiation Oncology (CIRO) and IROC RTQA center continue their collaborative efforts to enhance