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Sample records for 2d domain decomposition

  1. Implementation of 2D domain decomposition in the UCAN gyrokinetic PIC code for non-diffusive transport studies in tokamaks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leboeuf, Jean-Noel; Decyk, Viktor; Newman, David; Sanchez, Raul

    2012-03-01

    The massively parallel, nonlinear, 3D, toroidal, electrostatic, gyrokinetic, PIC, Cartesian geometry UCAN code, with particle ions and adiabatic electrons, has been successfully exercised to identify non-diffusive transport characteristics in DIII-D-like tokamak discharges. The limitation in applying UCAN to larger scale discharges is the 1D domain decomposition in the toroidal (or z-) direction for massively parallel implementation using MPI which has restricted the calculations to a few hundred ion Larmor radii per minor radius. To exceed these sizes, we have implemented 2D domain decomposition in UCAN with the addition of the y-direction to the processor mix. This has been facilitated by use of relevant components in the 2D domain decomposed PLIB2 library of field and particle management routines developed for UCLA's UPIC framework of conventional PIC codes. The gyro-averaging in gyrokinetic codes has necessitated the use of replicated arrays for efficient charge accumulation and particle push. The 2D domain-decomposed UCAN2 code reproduces the original 1D domain results within roundoff. Production calculations at large system sizes have been performed with UCAN2 on 131072 processors of the Cray XE6 at NERSC.

  2. A pseudo-spectral method for the simulation of poro-elastic seismic wave propagation in 2D polar coordinates using domain decomposition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sidler, Rolf; Carcione, José M.; Holliger, Klaus

    2013-02-01

    We present a novel numerical approach for the comprehensive, flexible, and accurate simulation of poro-elastic wave propagation in 2D polar coordinates. An important application of this method and its extensions will be the modeling of complex seismic wave phenomena in fluid-filled boreholes, which represents a major, and as of yet largely unresolved, computational problem in exploration geophysics. In view of this, we consider a numerical mesh, which can be arbitrarily heterogeneous, consisting of two or more concentric rings representing the fluid in the center and the surrounding porous medium. The spatial discretization is based on a Chebyshev expansion in the radial direction and a Fourier expansion in the azimuthal direction and a Runge-Kutta integration scheme for the time evolution. A domain decomposition method is used to match the fluid-solid boundary conditions based on the method of characteristics. This multi-domain approach allows for significant reductions of the number of grid points in the azimuthal direction for the inner grid domain and thus for corresponding increases of the time step and enhancements of computational efficiency. The viability and accuracy of the proposed method has been rigorously tested and verified through comparisons with analytical solutions as well as with the results obtained with a corresponding, previously published, and independently benchmarked solution for 2D Cartesian coordinates. Finally, the proposed numerical solution also satisfies the reciprocity theorem, which indicates that the inherent singularity associated with the origin of the polar coordinate system is adequately handled.

  3. A pseudo-spectral method for the simulation of poro-elastic seismic wave propagation in 2D polar coordinates using domain decomposition

    SciTech Connect

    Sidler, Rolf; Carcione, José M.; Holliger, Klaus

    2013-02-15

    We present a novel numerical approach for the comprehensive, flexible, and accurate simulation of poro-elastic wave propagation in 2D polar coordinates. An important application of this method and its extensions will be the modeling of complex seismic wave phenomena in fluid-filled boreholes, which represents a major, and as of yet largely unresolved, computational problem in exploration geophysics. In view of this, we consider a numerical mesh, which can be arbitrarily heterogeneous, consisting of two or more concentric rings representing the fluid in the center and the surrounding porous medium. The spatial discretization is based on a Chebyshev expansion in the radial direction and a Fourier expansion in the azimuthal direction and a Runge–Kutta integration scheme for the time evolution. A domain decomposition method is used to match the fluid–solid boundary conditions based on the method of characteristics. This multi-domain approach allows for significant reductions of the number of grid points in the azimuthal direction for the inner grid domain and thus for corresponding increases of the time step and enhancements of computational efficiency. The viability and accuracy of the proposed method has been rigorously tested and verified through comparisons with analytical solutions as well as with the results obtained with a corresponding, previously published, and independently benchmarked solution for 2D Cartesian coordinates. Finally, the proposed numerical solution also satisfies the reciprocity theorem, which indicates that the inherent singularity associated with the origin of the polar coordinate system is adequately handled.

  4. A novel improved method for analysis of 2D diffusion relaxation data—2D PARAFAC-Laplace decomposition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tønning, Erik; Polders, Daniel; Callaghan, Paul T.; Engelsen, Søren B.

    2007-09-01

    This paper demonstrates how the multi-linear PARAFAC model can with advantage be used to decompose 2D diffusion-relaxation correlation NMR spectra prior to 2D-Laplace inversion to the T2- D domain. The decomposition is advantageous for better interpretation of the complex correlation maps as well as for the quantification of extracted T2- D components. To demonstrate the new method seventeen mixtures of wheat flour, starch, gluten, oil and water were prepared and measured with a 300 MHz nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectrometer using a pulsed gradient stimulated echo (PGSTE) pulse sequence followed by a Carr-Purcell-Meiboom-Gill (CPMG) pulse echo train. By varying the gradient strength, 2D diffusion-relaxation data were recorded for each sample. From these double exponentially decaying relaxation data the PARAFAC algorithm extracted two unique diffusion-relaxation components, explaining 99.8% of the variation in the data set. These two components were subsequently transformed to the T2- D domain using 2D-inverse Laplace transformation and quantitatively assigned to the oil and water components of the samples. The oil component was one distinct distribution with peak intensity at D = 3 × 10 -12 m 2 s -1 and T2 = 180 ms. The water component consisted of two broad populations of water molecules with diffusion coefficients and relaxation times centered around correlation pairs: D = 10 -9 m 2 s -1, T2 = 10 ms and D = 3 × 10 -13 m 2 s -1, T2 = 13 ms. Small spurious peaks observed in the inverse Laplace transformation of original complex data were effectively filtered by the PARAFAC decomposition and thus considered artefacts from the complex Laplace transformation. The oil-to-water ratio determined by PARAFAC followed by 2D-Laplace inversion was perfectly correlated with known oil-to-water ratio of the samples. The new method of using PARAFAC prior to the 2D-Laplace inversion proved to have superior potential in analysis of diffusion-relaxation spectra, as it

  5. Domain decomposition for the SPN solver MINOS

    SciTech Connect

    Jamelot, Erell; Baudron, Anne-Marie; Lautard, Jean-Jacques

    2012-07-01

    In this article we present a domain decomposition method for the mixed SPN equations, discretized with Raviart-Thomas-Nedelec finite elements. This domain decomposition is based on the iterative Schwarz algorithm with Robin interface conditions to handle communications. After having described this method, we give details on how to optimize the convergence. Finally, we give some numerical results computed in a realistic 3D domain. The computations are done with the MINOS solver of the APOLLO3 (R) code. (authors)

  6. Multilevel domain decomposition for electronic structure calculations

    SciTech Connect

    Barrault, M. . E-mail: maxime.barrault@edf.fr; Cances, E. . E-mail: cances@cermics.enpc.fr; Hager, W.W. . E-mail: hager@math.ufl.edu; Le Bris, C. . E-mail: lebris@cermics.enpc.fr

    2007-03-01

    We introduce a new multilevel domain decomposition method (MDD) for electronic structure calculations within semi-empirical and density functional theory (DFT) frameworks. This method iterates between local fine solvers and global coarse solvers, in the spirit of domain decomposition methods. Using this approach, calculations have been successfully performed on several linear polymer chains containing up to 40,000 atoms and 200,000 atomic orbitals. Both the computational cost and the memory requirement scale linearly with the number of atoms. Additional speed-up can easily be obtained by parallelization. We show that this domain decomposition method outperforms the density matrix minimization (DMM) method for poor initial guesses. Our method provides an efficient preconditioner for DMM and other linear scaling methods, variational in nature, such as the orbital minimization (OM) procedure.

  7. Convergence Analysis of a Domain Decomposition Paradigm

    SciTech Connect

    Bank, R E; Vassilevski, P S

    2006-06-12

    We describe a domain decomposition algorithm for use in several variants of the parallel adaptive meshing paradigm of Bank and Holst. This algorithm has low communication, makes extensive use of existing sequential solvers, and exploits in several important ways data generated as part of the adaptive meshing paradigm. We show that for an idealized version of the algorithm, the rate of convergence is independent of both the global problem size N and the number of subdomains p used in the domain decomposition partition. Numerical examples illustrate the effectiveness of the procedure.

  8. Layer tracking, asymptotics, and domain decomposition

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brown, D. L.; Chin, R. C. Y.; Hedstrom, G. W.; Manteuffel, T. A.

    1991-01-01

    A preliminary report is presented on the work on the tracking of internal layers in a singularly-perturbed convection-diffusion equation. It is shown why such tracking may be desirable, and it is also shown how to do it using domain decomposition based on asymptotic analysis.

  9. Domain decomposition methods for mortar finite elements

    SciTech Connect

    Widlund, O.

    1996-12-31

    In the last few years, domain decomposition methods, previously developed and tested for standard finite element methods and elliptic problems, have been extended and modified to work for mortar and other nonconforming finite element methods. A survey will be given of work carried out jointly with Yves Achdou, Mario Casarin, Maksymilian Dryja and Yvon Maday. Results on the p- and h-p-version finite elements will also be discussed.

  10. Domain decomposition multigrid for unstructured grids

    SciTech Connect

    Shapira, Yair

    1997-01-01

    A two-level preconditioning method for the solution of elliptic boundary value problems using finite element schemes on possibly unstructured meshes is introduced. It is based on a domain decomposition and a Galerkin scheme for the coarse level vertex unknowns. For both the implementation and the analysis, it is not required that the curves of discontinuity in the coefficients of the PDE match the interfaces between subdomains. Generalizations to nonmatching or overlapping grids are made.

  11. Protein Domain Decomposition Using a Graph-Theoretic Approach

    SciTech Connect

    Xu, Y.; Xu, D.; Gabow, H.N.

    2000-08-20

    This paper presents a new algorithm for the decomposition of a multi-domain protein into individual structural domains. The underlying principle used is that residue-residue contacts are denser within a domain than between domains.

  12. Combinatorial geometry domain decomposition strategies for Monte Carlo simulations

    SciTech Connect

    Li, G.; Zhang, B.; Deng, L.; Mo, Z.; Liu, Z.; Shangguan, D.; Ma, Y.; Li, S.; Hu, Z.

    2013-07-01

    Analysis and modeling of nuclear reactors can lead to memory overload for a single core processor when it comes to refined modeling. A method to solve this problem is called 'domain decomposition'. In the current work, domain decomposition algorithms for a combinatorial geometry Monte Carlo transport code are developed on the JCOGIN (J Combinatorial Geometry Monte Carlo transport INfrastructure). Tree-based decomposition and asynchronous communication of particle information between domains are described in the paper. Combination of domain decomposition and domain replication (particle parallelism) is demonstrated and compared with that of MERCURY code. A full-core reactor model is simulated to verify the domain decomposition algorithms using the Monte Carlo particle transport code JMCT (J Monte Carlo Transport Code), which has being developed on the JCOGIN infrastructure. Besides, influences of the domain decomposition algorithms to tally variances are discussed. (authors)

  13. Layout decomposition of self-aligned double patterning for 2D random logic patterning

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ban, Yongchan; Miloslavsky, Alex; Lucas, Kevin; Choi, Soo-Han; Park, Chul-Hong; Pan, David Z.

    2011-04-01

    Self-aligned double pattering (SADP) has been adapted as a promising solution for sub-30nm technology nodes due to its lower overlay problem and better process tolerance. SADP is in production use for 1D dense patterns with good pitch control such as NAND Flash memory applications, but it is still challenging to apply SADP to 2D random logic patterns. The favored type of SADP for complex logic interconnects is a two mask approach using a core mask and a trim mask. In this paper, we first describe layout decomposition methods of spacer-type double patterning lithography, then report a type of SADP compliant layouts, and finally report SADP applications on Samsung 22nm SRAM layout. For SADP decomposition, we propose several SADP-aware layout coloring algorithms and a method of generating lithography-friendly core mask patterns. Experimental results on 22nm node designs show that our proposed layout decomposition for SADP effectively decomposes any given layouts.

  14. Domain decomposition methods in computational fluid dynamics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gropp, William D.; Keyes, David E.

    1992-01-01

    The divide-and-conquer paradigm of iterative domain decomposition, or substructuring, has become a practical tool in computational fluid dynamic applications because of its flexibility in accommodating adaptive refinement through locally uniform (or quasi-uniform) grids, its ability to exploit multiple discretizations of the operator equations, and the modular pathway it provides towards parallelism. These features are illustrated on the classic model problem of flow over a backstep using Newton's method as the nonlinear iteration. Multiple discretizations (second-order in the operator and first-order in the preconditioner) and locally uniform mesh refinement pay dividends separately, and they can be combined synergistically. Sample performance results are included from an Intel iPSC/860 hypercube implementation.

  15. Domain decomposition methods in computational fluid dynamics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gropp, William D.; Keyes, David E.

    1991-01-01

    The divide-and-conquer paradigm of iterative domain decomposition, or substructuring, has become a practical tool in computational fluid dynamic applications because of its flexibility in accommodating adaptive refinement through locally uniform (or quasi-uniform) grids, its ability to exploit multiple discretizations of the operator equations, and the modular pathway it provides towards parallelism. These features are illustrated on the classic model problem of flow over a backstep using Newton's method as the nonlinear iteration. Multiple discretizations (second-order in the operator and first-order in the preconditioner) and locally uniform mesh refinement pay dividends separately, and they can be combined synergistically. Sample performance results are included from an Intel iPSC/860 hypercube implementation.

  16. Domain decomposition algorithms and computation fluid dynamics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chan, Tony F.

    1988-01-01

    In the past several years, domain decomposition was a very popular topic, partly motivated by the potential of parallelization. While a large body of theory and algorithms were developed for model elliptic problems, they are only recently starting to be tested on realistic applications. The application of some of these methods to two model problems in computational fluid dynamics are investigated. Some examples are two dimensional convection-diffusion problems and the incompressible driven cavity flow problem. The construction and analysis of efficient preconditioners for the interface operator to be used in the iterative solution of the interface solution is described. For the convection-diffusion problems, the effect of the convection term and its discretization on the performance of some of the preconditioners is discussed. For the driven cavity problem, the effectiveness of a class of boundary probe preconditioners is discussed.

  17. A computational model of the short-cut rule for 2D shape decomposition.

    PubMed

    Luo, Lei; Shen, Chunhua; Liu, Xinwang; Zhang, Chunyuan

    2015-01-01

    We propose a new 2D shape decomposition method based on the short-cut rule. The short-cut rule originates from cognition research, and states that the human visual system prefers to partition an object into parts using the shortest possible cuts. We propose and implement a computational model for the short-cut rule and apply it to the problem of shape decomposition. The model we proposed generates a set of cut hypotheses passing through the points on the silhouette, which represent the negative minima of curvature. We then show that most part-cut hypotheses can be eliminated by analysis of local properties of each. Finally, the remaining hypotheses are evaluated in ascending length order, which guarantees that of any pair of conflicting cuts only the shortest will be accepted. We demonstrate that, compared with state-of-the-art shape decomposition methods, the proposed approach achieves decomposition results, which better correspond to human intuition as revealed in psychological experiments. PMID:25438318

  18. Domain Decomposition By the Advancing-Partition Method

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pirzadeh, Shahyar Z.

    2008-01-01

    A new method of domain decomposition has been developed for generating unstructured grids in subdomains either sequentially or using multiple computers in parallel. Domain decomposition is a crucial and challenging step for parallel grid generation. Prior methods are generally based on auxiliary, complex, and computationally intensive operations for defining partition interfaces and usually produce grids of lower quality than those generated in single domains. The new technique, referred to as "Advancing Partition," is based on the Advancing-Front method, which partitions a domain as part of the volume mesh generation in a consistent and "natural" way. The benefits of this approach are: 1) the process of domain decomposition is highly automated, 2) partitioning of domain does not compromise the quality of the generated grids, and 3) the computational overhead for domain decomposition is minimal. The new method has been implemented in NASA's unstructured grid generation code VGRID.

  19. Dynamic load balancing algorithm for molecular dynamics based on Voronoi cells domain decompositions

    SciTech Connect

    Fattebert, J.-L.; Richards, D.F.; Glosli, J.N.

    2012-12-01

    We present a new algorithm for automatic parallel load balancing in classical molecular dynamics. It assumes a spatial domain decomposition of particles into Voronoi cells. It is a gradient method which attempts to minimize a cost function by displacing Voronoi sites associated with each processor/sub-domain along steepest descent directions. Excellent load balance has been obtained for quasi-2D and 3D practical applications, with up to 440·106 particles on 65,536 MPI tasks.

  20. Interface conditions for domain decomposition with radical grid refinement

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Scroggs, Jeffrey S.

    1991-01-01

    Interface conditions for coupling the domains in a physically motivated domain decomposition method are discussed. The domain decomposition is based on an asymptotic-induced method for the numerical solution of hyperbolic conservation laws with small viscosity. The method consists of multiple stages. The first stage is to obtain a first approximation using a first-order method, such as the Godunov scheme. Subsequent stages of the method involve solving internal-layer problem via a domain decomposition. The method is derived and justified via singular perturbation techniques.

  1. Domain decomposition: A bridge between nature and parallel computers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Keyes, David E.

    1992-01-01

    Domain decomposition is an intuitive organizing principle for a partial differential equation (PDE) computation, both physically and architecturally. However, its significance extends beyond the readily apparent issues of geometry and discretization, on one hand, and of modular software and distributed hardware, on the other. Engineering and computer science aspects are bridged by an old but recently enriched mathematical theory that offers the subject not only unity, but also tools for analysis and generalization. Domain decomposition induces function-space and operator decompositions with valuable properties. Function-space bases and operator splittings that are not derived from domain decompositions generally lack one or more of these properties. The evolution of domain decomposition methods for elliptically dominated problems has linked two major algorithmic developments of the last 15 years: multilevel and Krylov methods. Domain decomposition methods may be considered descendants of both classes with an inheritance from each: they are nearly optimal and at the same time efficiently parallelizable. Many computationally driven application areas are ripe for these developments. A progression is made from a mathematically informal motivation for domain decomposition methods to a specific focus on fluid dynamics applications. To be introductory rather than comprehensive, simple examples are provided while convergence proofs and algorithmic details are left to the original references; however, an attempt is made to convey their most salient features, especially where this leads to algorithmic insight.

  2. Domain decomposition for aerodynamic and aeroacoustic analyses, and optimization

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Baysal, Oktay

    1995-01-01

    The overarching theme was the domain decomposition, which intended to improve the numerical solution technique for the partial differential equations at hand; in the present study, those that governed either the fluid flow, or the aeroacoustic wave propagation, or the sensitivity analysis for a gradient-based optimization. The role of the domain decomposition extended beyond the original impetus of discretizing geometrical complex regions or writing modular software for distributed-hardware computers. It induced function-space decompositions and operator decompositions that offered the valuable property of near independence of operator evaluation tasks. The objectives have gravitated about the extensions and implementations of either the previously developed or concurrently being developed methodologies: (1) aerodynamic sensitivity analysis with domain decomposition (SADD); (2) computational aeroacoustics of cavities; and (3) dynamic, multibody computational fluid dynamics using unstructured meshes.

  3. Parallel Domain Decomposition Preconditioning for Computational Fluid Dynamics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Barth, Timothy J.; Chan, Tony F.; Tang, Wei-Pai; Kutler, Paul (Technical Monitor)

    1998-01-01

    This viewgraph presentation gives an overview of the parallel domain decomposition preconditioning for computational fluid dynamics. Details are given on some difficult fluid flow problems, stabilized spatial discretizations, and Newton's method for solving the discretized flow equations. Schur complement domain decomposition is described through basic formulation, simplifying strategies (including iterative subdomain and Schur complement solves, matrix element dropping, localized Schur complement computation, and supersparse computations), and performance evaluation.

  4. A Load Balanced Domain Decomposition Method Using Wavelet Analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Jameson, L; Johnson, J; Hesthaven, J

    2001-05-31

    Wavelet Analysis provides an orthogonal basis set which is localized in both the physical space and the Fourier transform space. We present here a domain decomposition method that uses wavelet analysis to maintain roughly uniform error throughout the computation domain while keeping the computational work balanced in a parallel computing environment.

  5. A New Domain Decomposition Approach for the Gust Response Problem

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Scott, James R.; Atassi, Hafiz M.; Susan-Resiga, Romeo F.

    2002-01-01

    A domain decomposition method is developed for solving the aerodynamic/aeroacoustic problem of an airfoil in a vortical gust. The computational domain is divided into inner and outer regions wherein the governing equations are cast in different forms suitable for accurate computations in each region. Boundary conditions which ensure continuity of pressure and velocity are imposed along the interface separating the two regions. A numerical study is presented for reduced frequencies ranging from 0.1 to 3.0. It is seen that the domain decomposition approach in providing robust and grid independent solutions.

  6. A Domain Decomposition Parallelization of the Fast Marching Method

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Herrmann, M.

    2003-01-01

    In this paper, the first domain decomposition parallelization of the Fast Marching Method for level sets has been presented. Parallel speedup has been demonstrated in both the optimal and non-optimal domain decomposition case. The parallel performance of the proposed method is strongly dependent on load balancing separately the number of nodes on each side of the interface. A load imbalance of nodes on either side of the domain leads to an increase in communication and rollback operations. Furthermore, the amount of inter-domain communication can be reduced by aligning the inter-domain boundaries with the interface normal vectors. In the case of optimal load balancing and aligned inter-domain boundaries, the proposed parallel FMM algorithm is highly efficient, reaching efficiency factors of up to 0.98. Future work will focus on the extension of the proposed parallel algorithm to higher order accuracy. Also, to further enhance parallel performance, the coupling of the domain decomposition parallelization to the G(sub 0)-based parallelization will be investigated.

  7. A multilevel preconditioner for domain decomposition boundary systems

    SciTech Connect

    Bramble, J.H.; Pasciak, J.E.; Xu, Jinchao.

    1991-12-11

    In this note, we consider multilevel preconditioning of the reduced boundary systems which arise in non-overlapping domain decomposition methods. It will be shown that the resulting preconditioned systems have condition numbers which be bounded in the case of multilevel spaces on the whole domain and grow at most proportional to the number of levels in the case of multilevel boundary spaces without multilevel extensions into the interior.

  8. Dynamic-domain-decomposition parallel molecular dynamics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Srinivasan, S. G.; Ashok, I.; Jônsson, Hannes; Kalonji, Gretchen; Zahorjan, John

    1997-05-01

    Parallel molecular dynamics with short-range forces can suffer from load-imbalance problems and attendant performance degradation due to density variations in the simulated system. In this paper, we describe an approach to dynamical load balancing, enabled by the Ādhāra runtime system. The domain assigned to each processor is automatically and dynamically resized so as to evenly distribute the molecular dynamics computations across all the processors. The algorithm was tested on an Intel Paragon parallel computer for two and three-dimensional Lennard-Jones systems containing 99 458 and 256000 atoms, respectively, and using up to 256 processors. In these benchmarks, the overhead for carrying out the load-balancing operations was found to be small and the total computation time was reduced by as much as 50%.

  9. Implementation and performance of a domain decomposition algorithm in Sisal

    SciTech Connect

    DeBoni, T.; Feo, J.; Rodrigue, G.; Muller, J.

    1993-09-23

    Sisal is a general-purpose functional language that hides the complexity of parallel processing, expedites parallel program development, and guarantees determinacy. Parallelism and management of concurrent tasks are realized automatically by the compiler and runtime system. Spatial domain decomposition is a widely-used method that focuses computational resources on the most active, or important, areas of a domain. Many complex programming issues are introduced in paralleling this method including: dynamic spatial refinement, dynamic grid partitioning and fusion, task distribution, data distribution, and load balancing. In this paper, we describe a spatial domain decomposition algorithm programmed in Sisal. We explain the compilation process, and present the execution performance of the resultant code on two different multiprocessor systems: a multiprocessor vector supercomputer, and cache-coherent scalar multiprocessor.

  10. 3D versus 2D domain wall interaction in ideal and rough nanowires

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pivano, A.; Dolocan, Voicu O.

    2015-11-01

    The interaction between transverse magnetic domain walls (TDWs) in planar (2D) and cylindrical (3D) nanowires is examined using micromagnetic simulations. We show that in perfect and surface deformed wires the free TDWs behave differently, as the 3D TDWs combine into metastable states with average lifetimes of 300 ns depending on roughness, while the 2D TDWs do not due to 2D shape anisotropy. When the 2D and 3D TDWs are pinned at artificial constrictions, they behave similarly as they interact mainly through the dipolar field. This magnetostatic interaction is well described by the point charge model with multipole expansion. In surface deformed wires with artificial constrictions, the interaction becomes more complex as the depinning field decreases and dynamical pinning can lead to local resonances. This can strongly influence the control of TDWs in DW-based devices.

  11. Separation Surfaces in the Spectral TV Domain for Texture Decomposition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Horesh, Dikla; Gilboa, Guy

    2016-09-01

    In this paper we introduce a novel notion of separation surfaces for image decomposition. A surface is embedded in the spectral total-variation (TV) three dimensional domain and encodes a spatially-varying separation scale. The method allows good separation of textures with gradually varying pattern-size, pattern-contrast or illumination. The recently proposed total variation spectral framework is used to decompose the image into a continuum of textural scales. A desired texture, within a scale range, is found by fitting a surface to the local maximal responses in the spectral domain. A band above and below the surface, referred to as the \\textit{Texture Stratum}, defines for each pixel the adaptive scale-range of the texture. Based on the decomposition an application is proposed which can attenuate or enhance textures in the image in a very natural and visually convincing manner.

  12. Domain decomposition methods for solving an image problem

    SciTech Connect

    Tsui, W.K.; Tong, C.S.

    1994-12-31

    The domain decomposition method is a technique to break up a problem so that ensuing sub-problems can be solved on a parallel computer. In order to improve the convergence rate of the capacitance systems, pre-conditioned conjugate gradient methods are commonly used. In the last decade, most of the efficient preconditioners are based on elliptic partial differential equations which are particularly useful for solving elliptic partial differential equations. In this paper, the authors apply the so called covering preconditioner, which is based on the information of the operator under investigation. Therefore, it is good for various kinds of applications, specifically, they shall apply the preconditioned domain decomposition method for solving an image restoration problem. The image restoration problem is to extract an original image which has been degraded by a known convolution process and additive Gaussian noise.

  13. Adaptive domain decomposition methods for advection-diffusion problems

    SciTech Connect

    Carlenzoli, C.; Quarteroni, A.

    1995-12-31

    Domain decomposition methods can perform poorly on advection-diffusion equations if diffusion is dominated by advection. Indeed, the hyperpolic part of the equations could affect the behavior of iterative schemes among subdomains slowing down dramatically their rate of convergence. Taking into account the direction of the characteristic lines we introduce suitable adaptive algorithms which are stable with respect to the magnitude of the convective field in the equations and very effective on bear boundary value problems.

  14. A domain decomposition scheme for Eulerian shock physics codes

    SciTech Connect

    Bell, R.L.; Hertel, E.S. Jr.

    1994-08-01

    A new algorithm which allows for complex domain decomposition in Eulerian codes was developed at Sandia National Laboratories. This new feature allows a user to customize the zoning for each portion of a calculation and to refine volumes of the computational space of particular interest This option is available in one, two, and three dimensions. The new technique will be described in detail and several examples of the effectiveness of this technique will also be discussed.

  15. Iterative image-domain decomposition for dual-energy CT

    SciTech Connect

    Niu, Tianye; Dong, Xue; Petrongolo, Michael; Zhu, Lei

    2014-04-15

    Purpose: Dual energy CT (DECT) imaging plays an important role in advanced imaging applications due to its capability of material decomposition. Direct decomposition via matrix inversion suffers from significant degradation of image signal-to-noise ratios, which reduces clinical values of DECT. Existing denoising algorithms achieve suboptimal performance since they suppress image noise either before or after the decomposition and do not fully explore the noise statistical properties of the decomposition process. In this work, the authors propose an iterative image-domain decomposition method for noise suppression in DECT, using the full variance-covariance matrix of the decomposed images. Methods: The proposed algorithm is formulated in the form of least-square estimation with smoothness regularization. Based on the design principles of a best linear unbiased estimator, the authors include the inverse of the estimated variance-covariance matrix of the decomposed images as the penalty weight in the least-square term. The regularization term enforces the image smoothness by calculating the square sum of neighboring pixel value differences. To retain the boundary sharpness of the decomposed images, the authors detect the edges in the CT images before decomposition. These edge pixels have small weights in the calculation of the regularization term. Distinct from the existing denoising algorithms applied on the images before or after decomposition, the method has an iterative process for noise suppression, with decomposition performed in each iteration. The authors implement the proposed algorithm using a standard conjugate gradient algorithm. The method performance is evaluated using an evaluation phantom (Catphan©600) and an anthropomorphic head phantom. The results are compared with those generated using direct matrix inversion with no noise suppression, a denoising method applied on the decomposed images, and an existing algorithm with similar formulation as the

  16. A Parallel Non-Overlapping Domain-Decomposition Algorithm for Compressible Fluid Flow Problems on Triangulated Domains

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Barth, Timothy J.; Chan, Tony F.; Tang, Wei-Pai

    1998-01-01

    This paper considers an algebraic preconditioning algorithm for hyperbolic-elliptic fluid flow problems. The algorithm is based on a parallel non-overlapping Schur complement domain-decomposition technique for triangulated domains. In the Schur complement technique, the triangulation is first partitioned into a number of non-overlapping subdomains and interfaces. This suggests a reordering of triangulation vertices which separates subdomain and interface solution unknowns. The reordering induces a natural 2 x 2 block partitioning of the discretization matrix. Exact LU factorization of this block system yields a Schur complement matrix which couples subdomains and the interface together. The remaining sections of this paper present a family of approximate techniques for both constructing and applying the Schur complement as a domain-decomposition preconditioner. The approximate Schur complement serves as an algebraic coarse space operator, thus avoiding the known difficulties associated with the direct formation of a coarse space discretization. In developing Schur complement approximations, particular attention has been given to improving sequential and parallel efficiency of implementations without significantly degrading the quality of the preconditioner. A computer code based on these developments has been tested on the IBM SP2 using MPI message passing protocol. A number of 2-D calculations are presented for both scalar advection-diffusion equations as well as the Euler equations governing compressible fluid flow to demonstrate performance of the preconditioning algorithm.

  17. Applications of domain decomposition methods to turbomachinery flows

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rai, M. M.

    Domain decomposition techniques can be used to great advantage by computational fluid dynamicists in computing flows about complex geometries and adapting the grid to the solution. These techniques are particularly useful in computing flows about several bodies that are in relative motion such as rotor/stator configurations in turbomachinery or helicopter rotor/fuselage configurations. This paper discusses some of the basic ideas involved in transferring information between subdomains in a multidomain calculation and presents results for a simple rotor/stator configuration.

  18. Domain decomposition approach to flexible multibody dynamics simulation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kwak, JunYoung; Chun, TaeYoung; Shin, SangJoon; Bauchau, Olivier A.

    2014-01-01

    Finite element based formulations for flexible multibody systems are becoming increasingly popular and as the complexity of the configurations to be treated increases, so does the computational cost. It seems natural to investigate the applicability of parallel processing to this type of problems; domain decomposition techniques have been used extensively for this purpose. In this approach, the computational domain is divided into non-overlapping sub-domains, and the continuity of the displacement field across sub-domain boundaries is enforced via the Lagrange multiplier technique. In the finite element literature, this approach is presented as a mathematical algorithm that enables parallel processing. In this paper, the divided system is viewed as a flexible multibody system, and the sub-domains are connected by kinematic constraints. Consequently, all the techniques applicable to the enforcement of constraints in multibody systems become applicable to the present problem. In particular, it is shown that a combination of the localized Lagrange multiplier technique with the augmented Lagrange formulation leads to interesting solution strategies. The proposed algorithm is compared with the well-known FETI approach with regards to convergence and efficiency characteristics. The present algorithm is relatively simple and leads to improved convergence and efficiency characteristics. Finally, implementation on a parallel computer was conducted for the proposed approach.

  19. Numerical computation of 2D Sommerfeld integrals - Decomposition of the angular integral

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dvorak, Steven L.; Kuester, Edward F.

    1992-02-01

    The computational efficiency of the 2D Sommerfeld integrals is shown to undergo improvement through the discovery of novel ways to compute the inner angular integral in polar representations. It is shown that the angular integral can be decomposed into a finite number of incomplete Lipschitz-Hankel integrals; these can in turn be calculated through a series of expansions, so that the angular integral can be computed by summing a series rather than applying a standard numerical integration algorithm. The technique is most efficient and accurate when piecewise-sinusoidal basis functions are employed to analyze a printed strip-dipole antenna in a layered medium.

  20. Segmented Domain Decomposition Multigrid For 3-D Turbomachinery Flows

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Celestina, M. L.; Adamczyk, J. J.; Rubin, S. G.

    2001-01-01

    A Segmented Domain Decomposition Multigrid (SDDMG) procedure was developed for three-dimensional viscous flow problems as they apply to turbomachinery flows. The procedure divides the computational domain into a coarse mesh comprised of uniformly spaced cells. To resolve smaller length scales such as the viscous layer near a surface, segments of the coarse mesh are subdivided into a finer mesh. This is repeated until adequate resolution of the smallest relevant length scale is obtained. Multigrid is used to communicate information between the different grid levels. To test the procedure, simulation results will be presented for a compressor and turbine cascade. These simulations are intended to show the ability of the present method to generate grid independent solutions. Comparisons with data will also be presented. These comparisons will further demonstrate the usefulness of the present work for they allow an estimate of the accuracy of the flow modeling equations independent of error attributed to numerical discretization.

  1. MAST solution of irrotational flow problems in 2D domains with strongly unstructured triangular meshes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tucciarelli, T.

    2012-12-01

    A new methodology for the solution of irrotational 2D flow problems in domains with strongly unstructured meshes is presented. A fractional time step procedure is applied to the original governing equations, solving consecutively a convective prediction system and a diffusive corrective system. The non linear components of the problem are concentrated in the prediction step, while the correction step leads to the solution of a linear system, of the order of the number of computational cells. A MArching in Space and Time (MAST) approach is applied for the solution of the convective prediction step. The major advantages of the model, as well as its ability to maintain the solution monotonicity even in strongly irregular meshes, are briefly described. The algorithm is applied to the solution of diffusive shallow water equations in a simple domain.

  2. A mixed finite element domain decomposition method for nearly elastic wave equations in the frequency domain

    SciTech Connect

    Feng, Xiaobing

    1996-12-31

    A non-overlapping domain decomposition iterative method is proposed and analyzed for mixed finite element methods for a sequence of noncoercive elliptic systems with radiation boundary conditions. These differential systems describe the motion of a nearly elastic solid in the frequency domain. The convergence of the iterative procedure is demonstrated and the rate of convergence is derived for the case when the domain is decomposed into subdomains in which each subdomain consists of an individual element associated with the mixed finite elements. The hybridization of mixed finite element methods plays a important role in the construction of the discrete procedure.

  3. Simplified approaches to some nonoverlapping domain decomposition methods

    SciTech Connect

    Xu, Jinchao

    1996-12-31

    An attempt will be made in this talk to present various domain decomposition methods in a way that is intuitively clear and technically coherent and concise. The basic framework used for analysis is the {open_quotes}parallel subspace correction{close_quotes} or {open_quotes}additive Schwarz{close_quotes} method, and other simple technical tools include {open_quotes}local-global{close_quotes} and {open_quotes}global-local{close_quotes} techniques, the formal one is for constructing subspace preconditioner based on a preconditioner on the whole space whereas the later one for constructing preconditioner on the whole space based on a subspace preconditioner. The domain decomposition methods discussed in this talk fall into two major categories: one, based on local Dirichlet problems, is related to the {open_quotes}substructuring method{close_quotes} and the other, based on local Neumann problems, is related to the {open_quotes}Neumann-Neumann method{close_quotes} and {open_quotes}balancing method{close_quotes}. All these methods will be presented in a systematic and coherent manner and the analysis for both two and three dimensional cases are carried out simultaneously. In particular, some intimate relationship between these algorithms are observed and some new variants of the algorithms are obtained.

  4. Recursive anisotropic 2-D Gaussian filtering based on a triple-axis decomposition.

    PubMed

    Lam, Stanley Yiu Man; Shi, Bertram E

    2007-07-01

    We describe a recursive algorithm for anisotropic 2-D Gaussian filtering, based on separating the filter into the cascade of three, rather two, 1-D filters. The filters operate along axes obtained by integer horizontal and/or vertical pixel shifts. This eliminates interpolation, which removes spatial inhomogeneity in the filter, and produces more elliptically shaped kernels. It also results in a more regular filter structure, which facilitates implementation in DSP chips. Finally, it improves matching between filters with the same eccentricity and width, but different orientations. Our analysis and experiments indicate that the computational complexity is similar to an algorithm that operates along two axes (<11 ms for a 512 x 512 image using a 3.2-GHz Pentium 4 PC). On the other hand, given a limited set of basis filter axes, there is an orientation dependent lower bound on the achievable aspect ratios. PMID:17605390

  5. 2D Seismic Imaging of Elastic Parameters by Frequency Domain Full Waveform Inversion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brossier, R.; Virieux, J.; Operto, S.

    2008-12-01

    Thanks to recent advances in parallel computing, full waveform inversion is today a tractable seismic imaging method to reconstruct physical parameters of the earth interior at different scales ranging from the near- surface to the deep crust. We present a massively parallel 2D frequency-domain full-waveform algorithm for imaging visco-elastic media from multi-component seismic data. The forward problem (i.e. the resolution of the frequency-domain 2D PSV elastodynamics equations) is based on low-order Discontinuous Galerkin (DG) method (P0 and/or P1 interpolations). Thanks to triangular unstructured meshes, the DG method allows accurate modeling of both body waves and surface waves in case of complex topography for a discretization of 10 to 15 cells per shear wavelength. The frequency-domain DG system is solved efficiently for multiple sources with the parallel direct solver MUMPS. The local inversion procedure (i.e. minimization of residuals between observed and computed data) is based on the adjoint-state method which allows to efficiently compute the gradient of the objective function. Applying the inversion hierarchically from the low frequencies to the higher ones defines a multiresolution imaging strategy which helps convergence towards the global minimum. In place of expensive Newton algorithm, the combined use of the diagonal terms of the approximate Hessian matrix and optimization algorithms based on quasi-Newton methods (Conjugate Gradient, LBFGS, ...) allows to improve the convergence of the iterative inversion. The distribution of forward problem solutions over processors driven by a mesh partitioning performed by METIS allows to apply most of the inversion in parallel. We shall present the main features of the parallel modeling/inversion algorithm, assess its scalability and illustrate its performances with realistic synthetic case studies.

  6. Parallel domain decomposition methods in fluid models with Monte Carlo transport

    SciTech Connect

    Alme, H.J.; Rodrigues, G.H.; Zimmerman, G.B.

    1996-12-01

    To examine the domain decomposition code coupled Monte Carlo-finite element calculation, it is important to use a domain decomposition that is suitable for the individual models. We have developed a code that simulates a Monte Carlo calculation ( ) on a massively parallel processor. This code is used to examine the load balancing behavior of three domain decomposition ( ) for a Monte Carlo calculation. Results are presented.

  7. Domain decomposition methods for the parallel computation of reacting flows

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Keyes, David E.

    1988-01-01

    Domain decomposition is a natural route to parallel computing for partial differential equation solvers. Subdomains of which the original domain of definition is comprised are assigned to independent processors at the price of periodic coordination between processors to compute global parameters and maintain the requisite degree of continuity of the solution at the subdomain interfaces. In the domain-decomposed solution of steady multidimensional systems of PDEs by finite difference methods using a pseudo-transient version of Newton iteration, the only portion of the computation which generally stands in the way of efficient parallelization is the solution of the large, sparse linear systems arising at each Newton step. For some Jacobian matrices drawn from an actual two-dimensional reacting flow problem, comparisons are made between relaxation-based linear solvers and also preconditioned iterative methods of Conjugate Gradient and Chebyshev type, focusing attention on both iteration count and global inner product count. The generalized minimum residual method with block-ILU preconditioning is judged the best serial method among those considered, and parallel numerical experiments on the Encore Multimax demonstrate for it approximately 10-fold speedup on 16 processors.

  8. Traffic simulations on parallel computers using domain decomposition techniques

    SciTech Connect

    Hanebutte, U.R.; Tentner, A.M.

    1995-12-31

    Large scale simulations of Intelligent Transportation Systems (ITS) can only be achieved by using the computing resources offered by parallel computing architectures. Domain decomposition techniques are proposed which allow the performance of traffic simulations with the standard simulation package TRAF-NETSIM on a 128 nodes IBM SPx parallel supercomputer as well as on a cluster of SUN workstations. Whilst this particular parallel implementation is based on NETSIM, a microscopic traffic simulation model, the presented strategy is applicable to a broad class of traffic simulations. An outer iteration loop must be introduced in order to converge to a global solution. A performance study that utilizes a scalable test network that consist of square-grids is presented, which addresses the performance penalty introduced by the additional iteration loop.

  9. Adaptive multigrid domain decomposition solutions for viscous interacting flows

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rubin, Stanley G.; Srinivasan, Kumar

    1992-01-01

    Several viscous incompressible flows with strong pressure interaction and/or axial flow reversal are considered with an adaptive multigrid domain decomposition procedure. Specific examples include the triple deck structure surrounding the trailing edge of a flat plate, the flow recirculation in a trough geometry, and the flow in a rearward facing step channel. For the latter case, there are multiple recirculation zones, of different character, for laminar and turbulent flow conditions. A pressure-based form of flux-vector splitting is applied to the Navier-Stokes equations, which are represented by an implicit lowest-order reduced Navier-Stokes (RNS) system and a purely diffusive, higher-order, deferred-corrector. A trapezoidal or box-like form of discretization insures that all mass conservation properties are satisfied at interfacial and outflow boundaries, even for this primitive-variable, non-staggered grid computation.

  10. Efficient variants of the vertex space domain decomposition algorithm

    SciTech Connect

    Chan, T.F.; Shao, J.P. . Dept. of Mathematics); Mathew, T.P. . Dept. of Mathematics)

    1994-11-01

    Several variants of the vertex space algorithm of Smith for two-dimensional elliptic problems are described. The vertex space algorithm is a domain decomposition method based on nonoverlapping subregions, in which the reduced Schur complement system on the interface is solved using a generalized block Jacobi-type preconditioner, with the blocks corresponding to the vertex space, edges, and a coarse grid. Two kinds of approximations are considered for the edge and vertex space subblocks, one based on Fourier approximation, and another based on an algebraic probing technique in which sparse approximations to these subblocks are computed. The motivation is to improve the efficiency of the algorithm without sacrificing the optimal convergence rate. Numerical and theoretical results on the performance of these algorithms, including variants of an algorithm of Bramble, Pasciak, and Schatz are presented.

  11. Analysis of generalized Schwarz alternating procedure for domain decomposition

    SciTech Connect

    Engquist, B.; Zhao, Hongkai

    1996-12-31

    The Schwartz alternating method(SAM) is the theoretical basis for domain decomposition which itself is a powerful tool both for parallel computation and for computing in complicated domains. The convergence rate of the classical SAM is very sensitive to the overlapping size between each subdomain, which is not desirable for most applications. We propose a generalized SAM procedure which is an extension of the modified SAM proposed by P.-L. Lions. Instead of using only Dirichlet data at the artificial boundary between subdomains, we take a convex combination of u and {partial_derivative}u/{partial_derivative}n, i.e. {partial_derivative}u/{partial_derivative}n + {Lambda}u, where {Lambda} is some {open_quotes}positive{close_quotes} operator. Convergence of the modified SAM without overlapping in a quite general setting has been proven by P.-L.Lions using delicate energy estimates. The important questions remain for the generalized SAM. (1) What is the most essential mechanism for convergence without overlapping? (2) Given the partial differential equation, what is the best choice for the positive operator {Lambda}? (3) In the overlapping case, is the generalized SAM superior to the classical SAM? (4) What is the convergence rate and what does it depend on? (5) Numerically can we obtain an easy to implement operator {Lambda} such that the convergence is independent of the mesh size. To analyze the convergence of the generalized SAM we focus, for simplicity, on the Poisson equation for two typical geometry in two subdomain case.

  12. Domain decomposition methods for the parallel computation of reacting flows

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Keyes, David E.

    1989-05-01

    Domain decomposition is a natural route to parallel computing for partial differential equation solvers. In this procedure, subdomains of which the original domain of definition is comprised are assigned to independent processors at the price of periodic coordination between processors to compute global parameters and maintain the requisite degree of continuity of the solution at the subdomain interfaces. In the domain-decomposed solution of steady multidimensional systems of PDEs by finite difference methods using a pseudo-transient version of Newton iteration, the only portion of the computation which generally stands in the way of efficient parallelization is the solution of the large, sparse linear systems arising at each Newton step. For some Jacobian matrices drawn from an actual two-dimensional reacting flow problem, we make comparisons between relaxation-based linear solvers and also preconditioned iterative methods of Conjugate Gradient and Chebyshev type, focusing attention on both iteration count and global inner product count. The generalized minimum residual method with block-ILU preconditioning is judged the best serial method among those considered, and parallel numerical experiments on the Encore Multimax demostrate for it approximately 10-fold speedup on 16 processsors. The three special features of reacting flow models in relation to these linear systems are: the possibly large number of degrees of freedom per gridpoint, the dominance of dense intra-point source-term coupling over inter-point convective-diffusive coupling throughout significant portions of the flow-field and strong nonlinearities which restrict the time step to small values (independent of linear algebraic considerations) throughout significant portions of the iteration history. Though these features are exploited to advantage herein, many aspects of the paper are applicable to the modeling of general convective-diffusive systems.

  13. Composite structured mesh generation with automatic domain decomposition in complex geometries

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This paper presents a novel automatic domain decomposition method to generate quality composite structured meshes in complex domains with arbitrary shapes, in which quality structured mesh generation still remains a challenge. The proposed decomposition algorithm is based on the analysis of an initi...

  14. Domain Decomposition By the Advancing-Partition Method for Parallel Unstructured Grid Generation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pirzadeh, Shahyar Z.; Zagaris, George

    2009-01-01

    A new method of domain decomposition has been developed for generating unstructured grids in subdomains either sequentially or using multiple computers in parallel. Domain decomposition is a crucial and challenging step for parallel grid generation. Prior methods are generally based on auxiliary, complex, and computationally intensive operations for defining partition interfaces and usually produce grids of lower quality than those generated in single domains. The new technique, referred to as "Advancing Partition," is based on the Advancing-Front method, which partitions a domain as part of the volume mesh generation in a consistent and "natural" way. The benefits of this approach are: 1) the process of domain decomposition is highly automated, 2) partitioning of domain does not compromise the quality of the generated grids, and 3) the computational overhead for domain decomposition is minimal. The new method has been implemented in NASA's unstructured grid generation code VGRID.

  15. Parallel Finite Element Domain Decomposition for Structural/Acoustic Analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nguyen, Duc T.; Tungkahotara, Siroj; Watson, Willie R.; Rajan, Subramaniam D.

    2005-01-01

    A domain decomposition (DD) formulation for solving sparse linear systems of equations resulting from finite element analysis is presented. The formulation incorporates mixed direct and iterative equation solving strategics and other novel algorithmic ideas that are optimized to take advantage of sparsity and exploit modern computer architecture, such as memory and parallel computing. The most time consuming part of the formulation is identified and the critical roles of direct sparse and iterative solvers within the framework of the formulation are discussed. Experiments on several computer platforms using several complex test matrices are conducted using software based on the formulation. Small-scale structural examples are used to validate thc steps in the formulation and large-scale (l,000,000+ unknowns) duct acoustic examples are used to evaluate the ORIGIN 2000 processors, and a duster of 6 PCs (running under the Windows environment). Statistics show that the formulation is efficient in both sequential and parallel computing environmental and that the formulation is significantly faster and consumes less memory than that based on one of the best available commercialized parallel sparse solvers.

  16. Investigation on Accelerating Dust Storm Simulation via Domain Decomposition Methods

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yu, M.; Gui, Z.; Yang, C. P.; Xia, J.; Chen, S.

    2014-12-01

    Dust storm simulation is a data and computing intensive process, which requires high efficiency and adequate computing resources. To speed up the process, high performance computing is widely adopted. By partitioning a large study area into small subdomains according to their geographic location and executing them on different computing nodes in a parallel fashion, the computing performance can be significantly improved. However, it is still a question worthy of consideration that how to allocate these subdomain processes into computing nodes without introducing imbalanced task loads and unnecessary communications among computing nodes. Here we propose a domain decomposition and allocation framework that can carefully leverage the computing cost and communication cost for each computing node to minimize total execution time and reduce overall communication cost for the entire system. The framework is tested in the NMM (Nonhydrostatic Mesoscale Model)-dust model, where a 72-hour processes of the dust load are simulated. Performance result using the proposed scheduling method is compared with the one using default scheduling methods of MPI. Results demonstrate that the system improves the performance of simulation by 20% up to 80%.

  17. 2D time-domain finite-difference modeling for viscoelastic seismic wave propagation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fan, Na; Zhao, Lian-Feng; Xie, Xiao-Bi; Ge, Zengxi; Yao, Zhen-Xing

    2016-07-01

    Real Earth media are not perfectly elastic. Instead, they attenuate propagating mechanical waves. This anelastic phenomenon in wave propagation can be modeled by a viscoelastic mechanical model consisting of several standard linear solids. Using this viscoelastic model, we approximate a constant Q over a frequency band of interest. We use a four-element viscoelastic model with a tradeoff between accuracy and computational costs to incorporate Q into 2D time-domain first-order velocity-stress wave equations. To improve the computational efficiency, we limit the Q in the model to a list of discrete values between 2 and 1000. The related stress and strain relaxation times that characterize the viscoelastic model are pre-calculated and stored in a database for use by the finite-difference calculation. A viscoelastic finite-difference scheme that is second-order in time and fourth-order in space is developed based on the MacCormack algorithm. The new method is validated by comparing the numerical result with analytical solutions that are calculated using the generalized reflection/transmission coefficient method. The synthetic seismograms exhibit greater than 95 per cent consistency in a two-layer viscoelastic model. The dispersion generated from the simulation is consistent with the Kolsky-Futterman dispersion relationship.

  18. An efficient modified hierarchical domain decomposition for two-dimensional magnetotelluric forward modelling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rung-Arunwan, Tawat; Siripunvaraporn, Weerachai

    2010-11-01

    We use 2-D magnetotelluric (MT) problems as a feasibility study to demonstrate that 3-D MT problems can be solved with a direct solver, even on a standard single processor PC. The scheme used is a hierarchical domain decomposition (HDD) method in which a global computational domain is uniformly split into many smaller non-overlapping subdomains. To make it more efficient, two modifications are made to the standard HDD method. Instead of three levels as in the standard HDD method, we classify the unknowns into four classes: the interiors, the horizontal interfaces, the vertical interfaces and the intersections. Four sets of smaller systems of equations are successively solved with a direct method (an LU factorization). The separation significantly reduces the large memory requirements of a direct solver. It also reduces the CPU time to almost half that of the standard HDD method although it is still slower than the conventional finite difference (FD) method. To further enhance the speed of the code, a red-black ordering is applied to solve the horizontal and vertical interface reduced systems. Numerical experiments on a 2-D MT problem of a given size running on a single processor machine shows that CPU time and memory used are almost constant for any resistivity models, frequencies and modes. This is a clear advantage of our algorithm and is of particular importance if the method is applied to 3-D problems. We show that our new method results in reductions in both memory usage and CPU time for large enough domains when compared to the standard FD and HDD schemes. In addition, we also introduce a `memory minimization map', a graphical tool we can use instead of trial-and-error to pre-select the optimal size of subdomains, which yield the best performance in both CPU time and memory even running on a serial machine.

  19. Breaking through 1D layout limitations and regaining 2D design freedom Part I: 2D layout decomposition and stitching techniques for hybrid optical and self-aligned multiple patterning

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Hongyi; Zhou, Jun; Chen, Yijian

    2015-03-01

    To break through 1-D IC layout limitations, we develop computationally efficient 2-D layout decomposition and stitching techniques which combine the optical and self-aligned multiple patterning (SAMP) processes. A polynomial time algorithm is developed to decompose the target layout into two components, each containing one or multiple sets of unidirectional features that can be formed by a SAMP+cut/block process. With no need of connecting vias, the final 2-D features are formed by directly stitching two components together. This novel patterning scheme is considered as a hybrid approach as the SAMP processes offer the capability of density scaling while the stitching process creates 2-D design freedom as well as the multiple-CD/pitch capability. Its technical advantages include significant reduction of via steps and avoiding the interdigitating types of multiple patterning (for density multiplication) to improve the processing yield. The developed decomposition and synthesis algorithms are tested using 2-D layouts from NCSU open cell library. Statistical and computational characteristics of these public layout data are investigated and discussed.

  20. Suramin blocks interaction between human FGF1 and FGFR2 D2 domain and reduces downstream signaling activity.

    PubMed

    Wu, Zong-Sian; Liu, Che Fu; Fu, Brian; Chou, Ruey-Hwang; Yu, Chin

    2016-09-01

    The extracellular portion of the human fibroblast growth factor receptor2 D2 domain (FGFR2 D2) interacts with human fibroblast growth factor 1 (hFGF1) to activate a downstream signaling cascade that ultimately affects mitosis and differentiation. Suramin is an antiparasiticdrug and a potent inhibitor of FGF-induced angiogenesis. Suramin has been shown to bind to hFGF1, and might block the interaction between hFGF1 and FGFR2 D2. Here, we titrated hFGF1 with FGFR2 D2 and suramin to elucidate their interactions using the detection of NMR. The docking results of both hFGF1-FGFR2 D2 domain and hFGF1-suramin complex were superimposed. The results indicate that suramin blocks the interaction between hFGF1 and FGFR2 D2. We used the PyMOL software to show the hydrophobic interaction of hFGF1-suramin. In addition, we used a Water-soluble Tetrazolium salts assay (WST1) to assess hFGF1 bioactivity. The results will be useful for the development of new antimitogenic activity drugs. PMID:27387234

  1. Algebraic Nonoverlapping Domain Decomposition Methods for Stabilized FEM and FV Discretizations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Barth, Timothy J.; Bailey, David (Technical Monitor)

    1998-01-01

    We consider preconditioning methods for convection dominated fluid flow problems based on a nonoverlapping Schur complement domain decomposition procedure for arbitrary triangulated domains. The triangulation is first partitioned into a number of subdomains and interfaces which induce a natural 2 x 2 partitioning of the p.d.e. discretization matrix. We view the Schur complement induced by this partitioning as an algebraically derived coarse space approximation. This avoids the known difficulties associated with the direct formation of an effective coarse discretization for advection dominated equations. By considering various approximations of the block factorization of the 2 x 2 system, we have developed a family of robust preconditioning techniques. A computer code based on these ideas has been developed and tested on the IBM SP2 using MPI message passing protocol. A number of 2-D CFD calculations will be presented for both scalar advection-diffusion equations and the Euler equations discretized using stabilized finite element and finite volume methods. These results show very good scalability of the preconditioner for various discretizations as the number of processors is increased while the number of degrees of freedom per processor is fixed.

  2. Domain decomposition finite element/finite difference method for the conductivity reconstruction in a hyperbolic equation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Beilina, Larisa

    2016-08-01

    We present domain decomposition finite element/finite difference method for the solution of hyperbolic equation. The domain decomposition is performed such that finite elements and finite differences are used in different subdomains of the computational domain: finite difference method is used on the structured part of the computational domain and finite elements on the unstructured part of the domain. Explicit discretizations for both methods are constructed such that the finite element and the finite difference schemes coincide on the common structured overlapping layer between computational subdomains. Then the resulting approach can be considered as a pure finite element scheme which avoids instabilities at the interfaces. We derive an energy estimate for the underlying hyperbolic equation with absorbing boundary conditions and illustrate efficiency of the domain decomposition method on the reconstruction of the conductivity function in three dimensions.

  3. Preconditioned domain decomposition scheme for three-dimensional aerodynamic sensitivity analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Eleshaky, Mohammed E.; Baysal, Oktay

    1993-01-01

    A preconditioned domain decomposition scheme is introduced for the solution of the 3D aerodynamic sensitivity equation. This scheme uses the iterative GMRES procedure to solve the effective sensitivity equation of the boundary-interface cells in the sensitivity analysis domain-decomposition scheme. Excluding the dense matrices and the effect of cross terms between boundary-interfaces is found to produce an efficient preconditioning matrix.

  4. Domain decomposition solvers for PDEs : some basics, practical tools, and new developments.

    SciTech Connect

    Dohrmann, Clark R.

    2010-11-01

    The first part of this talk provides a basic introduction to the building blocks of domain decomposition solvers. Specific details are given for both the classical overlapping Schwarz (OS) algorithm and a recent iterative substructuring (IS) approach called balancing domain decomposition by constraints (BDDC). A more recent hybrid OS-IS approach is also described. The success of domain decomposition solvers depends critically on the coarse space. Similarities and differences between the coarse spaces for OS and BDDC approaches are discussed, along with how they can be obtained from discrete harmonic extensions. Connections are also made between coarse spaces and multiscale modeling approaches from computational mechanics. As a specific example, details are provided on constructing coarse spaces for incompressible fluid problems. The next part of the talk deals with a variety of implementation details for domain decomposition solvers. These include mesh partitioning options, local and global solver options, reducing the coarse space dimension, dealing with constraint equations, residual weighting to accelerate the convergence of OS methods, and recycling of Krylov spaces to efficiently solve problems with multiple right hand sides. Some potential bottlenecks and remedies for domain decomposition solvers are also discussed. The final part of the talk concerns some recent theoretical advances, new algorithms, and open questions in the analysis of domain decomposition solvers. The focus will be primarily on the work of the speaker and his colleagues on elasticity, fluid mechanics, problems in H(curl), and the analysis of subdomains with irregular boundaries.

  5. On domain decomposition preconditioner of BPS type for finite element discretizations of 3D elliptic equations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Korneev, V. G.

    2012-09-01

    BPS is a well known an efficient and rather general domain decomposition Dirichlet-Dirichlet type preconditioner, suggested in the famous series of papers Bramble, Pasciak and Schatz (1986-1989). Since then, it has been serving as the origin for the whole family of domain decomposition Dirichlet-Dirichlet type preconditioners-solvers as for h so hp discretizations of elliptic problems. For its original version, designed for h discretizations, the named authors proved the bound O(1 + log2 H/ h) for the relative condition number under some restricting conditions on the domain decomposition and finite element discretization. Here H/ h is the maximal relation of the characteristic size H of a decomposition subdomain to the mesh parameter h of its discretization. It was assumed that subdomains are images of the reference unite cube by trilinear mappings. Later similar bounds related to h discretizations were proved for more general domain decompositions, defined by means of coarse tetrahedral meshes. These results, accompanied by the development of some special tools of analysis aimed at such type of decompositions, were summarized in the book of Toselli and Widlund (2005). This paper is also confined to h discretizations. We further expand the range of admissible domain decompositions for constructing BPS preconditioners, in which decomposition subdomains can be convex polyhedrons, satisfying some conditions of shape regularity. We prove the bound for the relative condition number with the same dependence on H/ h as in the bound given above. Along the way to this result, we simplify the proof of the so called abstract bound for the relative condition number of the domain decomposition preconditioner. In the part, related to the analysis of the interface sub-problem preconditioning, our technical tools are generalization of those used by Bramble, Pasciak and Schatz.

  6. FWT2D: A massively parallel program for frequency-domain full-waveform tomography of wide-aperture seismic data—Part 1: Algorithm

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sourbier, Florent; Operto, Stéphane; Virieux, Jean; Amestoy, Patrick; L'Excellent, Jean-Yves

    2009-03-01

    This is the first paper in a two-part series that describes a massively parallel code that performs 2D frequency-domain full-waveform inversion of wide-aperture seismic data for imaging complex structures. Full-waveform inversion methods, namely quantitative seismic imaging methods based on the resolution of the full wave equation, are computationally expensive. Therefore, designing efficient algorithms which take advantage of parallel computing facilities is critical for the appraisal of these approaches when applied to representative case studies and for further improvements. Full-waveform modelling requires the resolution of a large sparse system of linear equations which is performed with the massively parallel direct solver MUMPS for efficient multiple-shot simulations. Efficiency of the multiple-shot solution phase (forward/backward substitutions) is improved by using the BLAS3 library. The inverse problem relies on a classic local optimization approach implemented with a gradient method. The direct solver returns the multiple-shot wavefield solutions distributed over the processors according to a domain decomposition driven by the distribution of the LU factors. The domain decomposition of the wavefield solutions is used to compute in parallel the gradient of the objective function and the diagonal Hessian, this latter providing a suitable scaling of the gradient. The algorithm allows one to test different strategies for multiscale frequency inversion ranging from successive mono-frequency inversion to simultaneous multifrequency inversion. These different inversion strategies will be illustrated in the following companion paper. The parallel efficiency and the scalability of the code will also be quantified.

  7. Extreme value statistics of 2D Gaussian free field: effect of finite domains

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cao, X.; Rosso, A.; Santachiara, R.

    2016-01-01

    We study minima statistics of the 2D Gaussian free field (GFF) on circles in the unit disk with Dirichlet boundary condition. Free energy distributions of the associated random energy models are exactly calculated in the high temperature phase, and shown to satisfy the duality property, which enables us to predict the minima distribution by assuming the freezing scenario. Numerical tests are provided. Related questions concerning the GFF on a sphere are also considered.

  8. Two dimensional spectroscopy of Liquids in THz-domain: THz analogue of 2D Raman spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Okumura, K.; Tanimura, Y.

    1998-03-01

    After the initial proposal(Y. Tanimura and S. Mukamel, J. Chem. Phys. 99, 9496 (1993)), the two dimensional Raman spectroscopy in the liquid phase has been received a considerable attention. Both experimental and theoretical activity of this field has been quite high. Since we have two controllable delay times, we can obtain more information than the lower-order experiments such as OKE. The new information includes that on heterogeneous distribution in liquids. Recently, it is found that the coupling between the modes in liquids can be investigated by the technique, both experimentally and theoretically(A. Tokmakoff, M.J. Lang, D.S. Larsen, G.R. Fleming, V. Chernyak, and S. Mukamel, Phys. Rev. Lett. (in press))^,(K. Okumura and Y. Tanimura, Chem. Phys. Lett. 278, 175 (1997)) In this talk, we will emphasize that we can perform the THz analogue of the 2D Raman spectroscopy if the THz short-pulse laser becomes available, which may not be in the far future. Theoretically, we can formulate this novel THz spectroscopy on the same footing as the 2D Raman spectroscopy. We will clarify new aspects of this technique comparing with the 2D Raman spectroscopy--- the reason it worth trying the tough experiment. See

  9. Efficient integration of a realistic two-dimensional cardiac tissue model by domain decomposition.

    PubMed

    Quan, W; Evans, S J; Hastings, H M

    1998-03-01

    The size of realistic cardiac tissue models has been limited by their high computational demands. In particular, the Luo-Rudy phase II membrane model, used to simulate a thin sheet of ventricular tissue with arrays of coupled ventricular myocytes, is usually limited to 100 x 100 arrays. We introduce a new numerical method based on domain decomposition and a priority queue integration scheme which reduces the computational cost by a factor of 3-17. In the standard algorithm all the nodes advance with the same time step delta t, whose size is limited by the time scale of activation. However, at any given time, many regions may be inactive and do not require the same small delta t and consequent extensive computations. Hence, adjusting delta t locally is a key factor in improving computational efficiency, since most of the computing time is spent calculating ionic currents. This paper proposes an efficient adaptive numerical scheme for integrating a two-dimensional (2-D) propagation model, by incorporating local adjustments of delta t. In this method, alternating direction Cooley-Dodge and Rush-Larsen methods were used for numerical integration. Between consecutive integrations over the whole domain using an implicit method, the model was spatially decomposed into many subdomains, and delta t adjusted locally. The Euler method was used for numerical integration in the subdomains. Local boundary values were determined from the boundary mesh elements of the neighboring subdomains using linear interpolation. Because delta t was defined locally, a priority queue was used to store and order next update times for each subdomain. The subdomain with the earliest update time was given the highest priority and advanced first. This new method yielded stable solutions with relative errors less than 1% and reduced computation time by a factor of 3-17 and will allow much larger (e.g., 500 x 500) models based on realistic membrane kinetics and realistic dimensions to simulate

  10. Lattice QCD with Domain Decomposition on Intel Xeon Phi Co-Processors

    SciTech Connect

    Heybrock, Simon; Joo, Balint; Kalamkar, Dhiraj D; Smelyanskiy, Mikhail; Vaidyanathan, Karthikeyan; Wettig, Tilo; Dubey, Pradeep

    2014-12-01

    The gap between the cost of moving data and the cost of computing continues to grow, making it ever harder to design iterative solvers on extreme-scale architectures. This problem can be alleviated by alternative algorithms that reduce the amount of data movement. We investigate this in the context of Lattice Quantum Chromodynamics and implement such an alternative solver algorithm, based on domain decomposition, on Intel Xeon Phi co-processor (KNC) clusters. We demonstrate close-to-linear on-chip scaling to all 60 cores of the KNC. With a mix of single- and half-precision the domain-decomposition method sustains 400-500 Gflop/s per chip. Compared to an optimized KNC implementation of a standard solver [1], our full multi-node domain-decomposition solver strong-scales to more nodes and reduces the time-to-solution by a factor of 5.

  11. Non-conformal domain decomposition methods for time-harmonic Maxwell equations

    PubMed Central

    Shao, Yang; Peng, Zhen; Lim, Kheng Hwee; Lee, Jin-Fa

    2012-01-01

    We review non-conformal domain decomposition methods (DDMs) and their applications in solving electrically large and multi-scale electromagnetic (EM) radiation and scattering problems. In particular, a finite-element DDM, together with a finite-element tearing and interconnecting (FETI)-like algorithm, incorporating Robin transmission conditions and an edge corner penalty term, are discussed in detail. We address in full the formulations, and subsequently, their applications to problems with significant amounts of repetitions. The non-conformal DDM approach has also been extended into surface integral equation methods. We elucidate a non-conformal integral equation domain decomposition method and a generalized combined field integral equation method for modelling EM wave scattering from non-penetrable and penetrable targets, respectively. Moreover, a plane wave scattering from a composite mockup fighter jet has been simulated using the newly developed multi-solver domain decomposition method. PMID:22870061

  12. Parallel domain decomposition and the solution of nonlinear systems of equations

    SciTech Connect

    Gropp, W.D. ); Keyes, D.E. . Dept. of Mechanical Engineering)

    1990-01-01

    Many linear systems arise as subproblems in the solution of nonlinear equations, either as part of a simple fixed-point of a Newton's method iteration. This paper considers the use of domain decomposition techniques for the solution of these linear problems in the context of solving a multicomponent system of nonlinear equations on two types of parallel processors. One of the computations is drawn from fluid dynamics and includes locally refined grids. Such problems require great computational resources, and domain, decomposition seems to offer a way to efficiently solve these problems on computers with significant parallelism. The domain decomposition approach used is as in Gropp and Keyes, modified to achieve better parallelism and to reduce the computational work. 13 refs., 2 figs., 5 tabs.

  13. Domain decomposition for a mixed finite element method in three dimensions

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Cai, Z.; Parashkevov, R.R.; Russell, T.F.; Wilson, J.D.; Ye, X.

    2003-01-01

    We consider the solution of the discrete linear system resulting from a mixed finite element discretization applied to a second-order elliptic boundary value problem in three dimensions. Based on a decomposition of the velocity space, these equations can be reduced to a discrete elliptic problem by eliminating the pressure through the use of substructures of the domain. The practicality of the reduction relies on a local basis, presented here, for the divergence-free subspace of the velocity space. We consider additive and multiplicative domain decomposition methods for solving the reduced elliptic problem, and their uniform convergence is established.

  14. Statistical CT noise reduction with multiscale decomposition and penalized weighted least squares in the projection domain

    SciTech Connect

    Tang Shaojie; Tang Xiangyang

    2012-09-15

    Purposes: The suppression of noise in x-ray computed tomography (CT) imaging is of clinical relevance for diagnostic image quality and the potential for radiation dose saving. Toward this purpose, statistical noise reduction methods in either the image or projection domain have been proposed, which employ a multiscale decomposition to enhance the performance of noise suppression while maintaining image sharpness. Recognizing the advantages of noise suppression in the projection domain, the authors propose a projection domain multiscale penalized weighted least squares (PWLS) method, in which the angular sampling rate is explicitly taken into consideration to account for the possible variation of interview sampling rate in advanced clinical or preclinical applications. Methods: The projection domain multiscale PWLS method is derived by converting an isotropic diffusion partial differential equation in the image domain into the projection domain, wherein a multiscale decomposition is carried out. With adoption of the Markov random field or soft thresholding objective function, the projection domain multiscale PWLS method deals with noise at each scale. To compensate for the degradation in image sharpness caused by the projection domain multiscale PWLS method, an edge enhancement is carried out following the noise reduction. The performance of the proposed method is experimentally evaluated and verified using the projection data simulated by computer and acquired by a CT scanner. Results: The preliminary results show that the proposed projection domain multiscale PWLS method outperforms the projection domain single-scale PWLS method and the image domain multiscale anisotropic diffusion method in noise reduction. In addition, the proposed method can preserve image sharpness very well while the occurrence of 'salt-and-pepper' noise and mosaic artifacts can be avoided. Conclusions: Since the interview sampling rate is taken into account in the projection domain

  15. Random attractors for stochastic 2D-Navier-Stokes equations in some unbounded domains

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brzeźniak, Z.; Caraballo, T.; Langa, J. A.; Li, Y.; Łukaszewicz, G.; Real, J.

    We show that the stochastic flow generated by the 2-dimensional Stochastic Navier-Stokes equations with rough noise on a Poincaré-like domain has a unique random attractor. One of the technical problems associated with the rough noise is overcomed by the use of the corresponding Cameron-Martin (or reproducing kernel Hilbert) space. Our results complement the result by Brzeźniak and Li (2006) [10] who showed that the corresponding flow is asymptotically compact and also generalize Caraballo et al. (2006) [12] who proved existence of a unique attractor for the time-dependent deterministic Navier-Stokes equations.

  16. Unusual Domain Structure and Filamentary Superfluidity for 2D Hard-Core Bosons in Insulating Charge-Ordered Phase

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Panov, Yu. D.; Moskvin, A. S.; Rybakov, F. N.; Borisov, A. B.

    2016-01-01

    We made use of a special algorithm for compute unified device architecture for NVIDIA graphics cards, a nonlinear conjugate-gradient method to minimize energy functional, and Monte-Carlo technique to directly observe the forming of the ground state configuration for the 2D hard-core bosons by lowering the temperature and its evolution with deviation away from half-filling. The novel technique allowed us to examine earlier implications and uncover novel features of the phase transitions, in particular, look upon the nucleation of the odd domain structure, emergence of filamentary superfluidity nucleated at the antiphase domain walls of the charge-ordered phase, and nucleation and evolution of different topological structures.

  17. Domain decomposition by the advancing-partition method for parallel unstructured grid generation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pirzadeh, Shahyar Z. (Inventor); Banihashemi, legal representative, Soheila (Inventor)

    2012-01-01

    In a method for domain decomposition for generating unstructured grids, a surface mesh is generated for a spatial domain. A location of a partition plane dividing the domain into two sections is determined. Triangular faces on the surface mesh that intersect the partition plane are identified. A partition grid of tetrahedral cells, dividing the domain into two sub-domains, is generated using a marching process in which a front comprises only faces of new cells which intersect the partition plane. The partition grid is generated until no active faces remain on the front. Triangular faces on each side of the partition plane are collected into two separate subsets. Each subset of triangular faces is renumbered locally and a local/global mapping is created for each sub-domain. A volume grid is generated for each sub-domain. The partition grid and volume grids are then merged using the local-global mapping.

  18. Iterative stability analysis of spatial domain decomposition based on block Jacobi algorithm for the diamond-difference scheme

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Anistratov, Dmitriy Y.; Azmy, Yousry Y.

    2015-09-01

    We study convergence of the integral transport matrix method (ITMM) based on a parallel block Jacobi (PBJ) iterative strategy for solving particle transport problems. The ITMM is a spatial domain decomposition method proposed for massively parallel computations. A Fourier analysis of the PBJ-based iterations applied to SN diamond-difference equations in 1D slab and 2D Cartesian geometries is performed. It is carried out for infinite-medium problems with homogeneous material properties. To analyze the performance of the ITMM with the PBJ algorithm and evaluate its potential in scalability we consider a limiting case of one spatial cell per subdomain. The analysis shows that in such limit the spectral radius of the iteration method is one without regard to values of the scattering ratio and optical thickness of the spatial cells. This implies lack of convergence in infinite medium. Numerical results of finite-medium problems are presented. They demonstrate effects of finite size of spatial domain on the performance of the iteration algorithm as well as its asymptotic behavior when the extent of the spatial domain increases. These numerical experiments also show that for finite domains iterative convergence to a finite criterion is achievable in a multiple of the sum of number of cells in each dimension.

  19. MAST-2D diffusive model for flood prediction on domains with triangular Delaunay unstructured meshes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aricò, C.; Sinagra, M.; Begnudelli, L.; Tucciarelli, T.

    2011-11-01

    A new methodology for the solution of the 2D diffusive shallow water equations over Delaunay unstructured triangular meshes is presented. Before developing the new algorithm, the following question is addressed: it is worth developing and using a simplified shallow water model, when well established algorithms for the solution of the complete one do exist? The governing Partial Differential Equations are discretized using a procedure similar to the linear conforming Finite Element Galerkin scheme, with a different flux formulation and a special flux treatment that requires Delaunay triangulation but entire solution monotonicity. A simple mesh adjustment is suggested, that attains the Delaunay condition for all the triangle sides without changing the original nodes location and also maintains the internal boundaries. The original governing system is solved applying a fractional time step procedure, that solves consecutively a convective prediction system and a diffusive correction system. The non linear components of the problem are concentrated in the prediction step, while the correction step leads to the solution of a linear system of the order of the number of computational cells. A semi-analytical procedure is applied for the solution of the prediction step. The discretized formulation of the governing equations allows to handle also wetting and drying processes without any additional specific treatment. Local energy dissipations, mainly the effect of vertical walls and hydraulic jumps, can be easily included in the model. Several numerical experiments have been carried out in order to test (1) the stability of the proposed model with regard to the size of the Courant number and to the mesh irregularity, (2) its computational performance, (3) the convergence order by means of mesh refinement. The model results are also compared with the results obtained by a fully dynamic model. Finally, the application to a real field case with a Venturi channel is presented.

  20. Src Homology 2 Domain Containing Protein 5 (SH2D5) Binds the Breakpoint Cluster Region Protein, BCR, and Regulates Levels of Rac1-GTP*

    PubMed Central

    Gray, Elizabeth J.; Petsalaki, Evangelia; James, D. Andrew; Bagshaw, Richard D.; Stacey, Melissa M.; Rocks, Oliver; Gingras, Anne-Claude; Pawson, Tony

    2014-01-01

    SH2D5 is a mammalian-specific, uncharacterized adaptor-like protein that contains an N-terminal phosphotyrosine-binding domain and a C-terminal Src homology 2 (SH2) domain. We show that SH2D5 is highly enriched in adult mouse brain, particularly in Purkinjie cells in the cerebellum and the cornu ammonis of the hippocampus. Despite harboring two potential phosphotyrosine (Tyr(P)) recognition domains, SH2D5 binds minimally to Tyr(P) ligands, consistent with the absence of a conserved Tyr(P)-binding arginine residue in the SH2 domain. Immunoprecipitation coupled to mass spectrometry (IP-MS) from cultured cells revealed a prominent association of SH2D5 with breakpoint cluster region protein, a RacGAP that is also highly expressed in brain. This interaction occurred between the phosphotyrosine-binding domain of SH2D5 and an NxxF motif located within the N-terminal region of the breakpoint cluster region. siRNA-mediated depletion of SH2D5 in a neuroblastoma cell line, B35, induced a cell rounding phenotype correlated with low levels of activated Rac1-GTP, suggesting that SH2D5 affects Rac1-GTP levels. Taken together, our data provide the first characterization of the SH2D5 signaling protein. PMID:25331951

  1. TU-F-18A-02: Iterative Image-Domain Decomposition for Dual-Energy CT

    SciTech Connect

    Niu, T; Dong, X; Petrongolo, M; Zhu, L

    2014-06-15

    Purpose: Dual energy CT (DECT) imaging plays an important role in advanced imaging applications due to its material decomposition capability. Direct decomposition via matrix inversion suffers from significant degradation of image signal-to-noise ratios, which reduces clinical value. Existing de-noising algorithms achieve suboptimal performance since they suppress image noise either before or after the decomposition and do not fully explore the noise statistical properties of the decomposition process. We propose an iterative image-domain decomposition method for noise suppression in DECT, using the full variance-covariance matrix of the decomposed images. Methods: The proposed algorithm is formulated in the form of least-square estimation with smoothness regularization. It includes the inverse of the estimated variance-covariance matrix of the decomposed images as the penalty weight in the least-square term. Performance is evaluated using an evaluation phantom (Catphan 600) and an anthropomorphic head phantom. Results are compared to those generated using direct matrix inversion with no noise suppression, a de-noising method applied on the decomposed images, and an existing algorithm with similar formulation but with an edge-preserving regularization term. Results: On the Catphan phantom, our method retains the same spatial resolution as the CT images before decomposition while reducing the noise standard deviation of decomposed images by over 98%. The other methods either degrade spatial resolution or achieve less low-contrast detectability. Also, our method yields lower electron density measurement error than direct matrix inversion and reduces error variation by over 97%. On the head phantom, it reduces the noise standard deviation of decomposed images by over 97% without blurring the sinus structures. Conclusion: We propose an iterative image-domain decomposition method for DECT. The method combines noise suppression and material decomposition into an iterative

  2. Statistical abstraction of high-fidelity CO2 pressure histories in 2-D, uniform, cylindrical domains

    SciTech Connect

    Letellier, Bruce C; Sanzo, Dean L; Pawar, Rajesh J

    2010-01-01

    Long-term, deep, geologic sequestration of carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}) is being evaluated as a world-wide strategy for limiting anthropogenic carbon emissions to the atmosphere. A key element of this evaluation is quantification of the ancillary risks associated with this fundamentally new linkage between the global energy economy and the subsurface ecosphere. Quantitative risk assessment methods traditionally enumerate operational scenarios and describe the multiple physical responses that may ensue from each scenario depending on the quality of information that is available to describe identified system dependencies. For example, multiplepoint injection of compressed CO{sub 2} into a geologic reservoir having a nominal stratigraphy will create a pressurized zone of liquid that migrates through the rock. Scenarios that postulate CO{sub 2} encountering previously undetected wells or natural fractures in the caprock that represent leakage paths to the surface must be treated in a probabilistic format that accommodates unknown details in the subsurface geology. Fluid pressure in the reservoir at the location of the potential transport path drives any potential leakage that might occur, so the spatial and temporal distribution of CO{sub 2} overpressure represents an important metric for numeric simulation. State-of-the-art geologic transport models like FEHM, TUFF, and ECLIPSE (Refs. 1, 2, 3) can accurately simulate multi phase gas migration in a fully characterized geologic domain. However, each simulation can require time periods ranging between minutes and hours to achieve acceptable numerical performance, so it is often impractical to link predictive physics models directly in a quantitative risk assessment that will require transport estimates for thousands of scenarios. When direct computation is not possible, a library of high-fidelity calculations can sometimes be distilled to a simplified statistical correlation that spans the variability in all relevant input

  3. A domain decomposition algorithm for solving large elliptic problems

    SciTech Connect

    Nolan, M.P.

    1991-01-01

    AN algorithm which efficiently solves large systems of equations arising from the discretization of a single second-order elliptic partial differential equation is discussed. The global domain is partitioned into not necessarily disjoint subdomains which are traversed using the Schwarz Alternating Procedure. On each subdomain the multigrid method is used to advance the solution. The algorithm has the potential to decrease solution time when data is stored across multiple levels of a memory hierarchy. Results are presented for a virtual memory, vector multiprocessor architecture. A study of choice of inner iteration procedure and subdomain overlap is presented for a model problem, solved with two and four subdomains, sequentially and in parallel. Microtasking multiprocessing results are reported for multigrid on the Alliant FX-8 vector-multiprocessor. A convergence proof for a class of matrix splittings for the two-dimensional Helmholtz equation is given. 70 refs., 3 figs., 20 tabs.

  4. Multi-Zone Liquid Thrust Chamber Performance Code with Domain Decomposition for Parallel Processing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Navaz, Homayun K.

    2002-01-01

    Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) has considerably evolved in the last decade. There are many computer programs that can perform computations on viscous internal or external flows with chemical reactions. CFD has become a commonly used tool in the design and analysis of gas turbines, ramjet combustors, turbo-machinery, inlet ducts, rocket engines, jet interaction, missile, and ramjet nozzles. One of the problems of interest to NASA has always been the performance prediction for rocket and air-breathing engines. Due to the complexity of flow in these engines it is necessary to resolve the flowfield into a fine mesh to capture quantities like turbulence and heat transfer. However, calculation on a high-resolution grid is associated with a prohibitively increasing computational time that can downgrade the value of the CFD for practical engineering calculations. The Liquid Thrust Chamber Performance (LTCP) code was developed for NASA/MSFC (Marshall Space Flight Center) to perform liquid rocket engine performance calculations. This code is a 2D/axisymmetric full Navier-Stokes (NS) solver with fully coupled finite rate chemistry and Eulerian treatment of liquid fuel and/or oxidizer droplets. One of the advantages of this code has been the resemblance of its input file to the JANNAF (Joint Army Navy NASA Air Force Interagency Propulsion Committee) standard TDK code, and its automatic grid generation for JANNAF defined combustion chamber wall geometry. These options minimize the learning effort for TDK users, and make the code a good candidate for performing engineering calculations. Although the LTCP code was developed for liquid rocket engines, it is a general-purpose code and has been used for solving many engineering problems. However, the single zone formulation of the LTCP has limited the code to be applicable to problems with complex geometry. Furthermore, the computational time becomes prohibitively large for high-resolution problems with chemistry, two

  5. Image characterization by fractal descriptors in variational mode decomposition domain: Application to brain magnetic resonance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lahmiri, Salim

    2016-08-01

    The main purpose of this work is to explore the usefulness of fractal descriptors estimated in multi-resolution domains to characterize biomedical digital image texture. In this regard, three multi-resolution techniques are considered: the well-known discrete wavelet transform (DWT) and the empirical mode decomposition (EMD), and; the newly introduced; variational mode decomposition mode (VMD). The original image is decomposed by the DWT, EMD, and VMD into different scales. Then, Fourier spectrum based fractal descriptors is estimated at specific scales and directions to characterize the image. The support vector machine (SVM) was used to perform supervised classification. The empirical study was applied to the problem of distinguishing between normal and abnormal brain magnetic resonance images (MRI) affected with Alzheimer disease (AD). Our results demonstrate that fractal descriptors estimated in VMD domain outperform those estimated in DWT and EMD domains; and also those directly estimated from the original image.

  6. Multi-resolution flow simulations by smoothed particle hydrodynamics via domain decomposition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bian, Xin; Li, Zhen; Tang, Yu-Hang; Karniadakis, George

    2015-11-01

    We present a methodology to concurrently couple particle-based methods via a domain decomposition (DD) technique for simulating viscous flows. In particular, we select two resolutions of the smoothed particle hydrodynamics (SPH) method as demonstration. Within the DD framework, a simulation domain is decomposed into two (or more) overlapping sub-domains, each of which has an individual particle scale determined by the local flow physics. Consistency of the two sub-domains is achieved in the overlap region by matching the two independent simulations based on Lagrangian interpolation of state variables and fluxes. The domain decomposition based SPH method (DD-SPH) employs different spatial and temporal resolutions, and hence, each sub-domain has its own smoothing length and time step. As a consequence, particle refinement and de-refinement are performed asynchronously according to individual time advancement of each sub-domain. The proposed strategy avoids SPH force interactions between different resolutions on purpose, so that coupling, in principle, can go beyond SPH - SPH, and may allow SPH to be coupled with other mesoscopic or microscopic particle methods. The DD-SPH method is validated first for a transient Couette flow, where simulation results base. US DOE Collaboratory on Mathematics for Mesoscopic Modeling of Materials (CM4).

  7. Controlling integrin specificity and stem cell differentiation in 2-D and 3-D environments through regulation of fibronectin domain stability

    PubMed Central

    Martino, Mikaël M.; Mochizuki, Mayumi; Rothenfluh, Dominique A.; Rempel, Sandra A.; Hubbell, Jeffrey A.; Barker, Thomas H.

    2009-01-01

    The extracellular matrix (ECM) exerts powerful control over many cellular phenomena, including stem cell differentiation. As such, design and modulation of ECM analogs to ligate specific integrin is a promising approach to control cellular processes in vitro and in vivo for regenerative medicine strategies. Although fibronectin (FN), a crucial ECM protein in tissue development and repair, and its RGD peptide are widely used for cell adhesion, the promiscuity with which they engage integrins leads to difficulty in control of receptor-specific interactions. Recent simulations of force-mediated unfolding of FN domains and sequences analysis of human versus mouse FN suggest that the structural stability of the FN’s central cell-binding domains (FN III9-10) affects its integrin specificity. Through production of FN III9-10 variants with variable stabilities, we obtained ligands that present different specificities for the integrin α5β1 and that can be covalently linked into fibrin matrices. Here, we demonstrate the capacity of α5β1 integrin-specific engagement to influence human mesenchymal stem cell (MSC) behavior in 2D and 3D environments. Our data indicate that α5β1 has an important role in the control of MSC osteogenic differentiation. FN fragments with increased specificity for α5β1 versus αvβ3 results in significantly enhanced osteogenic differentiation of MSCs in 2D and in a clinically relevant 3D fibrin matrix system, although attachment/spreading and proliferation were comparable with that on full-length FN. This work shows how integrin-dependant cellular interactions with the ECM can be engineered to control stem cell fate, within a system appropriate for both 3D cell culture and tissue engineering. PMID:19027948

  8. The domain interface method: a general-purpose non-intrusive technique for non-conforming domain decomposition problems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cafiero, M.; Lloberas-Valls, O.; Cante, J.; Oliver, J.

    2016-04-01

    A domain decomposition technique is proposed which is capable of properly connecting arbitrary non-conforming interfaces. The strategy essentially consists in considering a fictitious zero-width interface between the non-matching meshes which is discretized using a Delaunay triangulation. Continuity is satisfied across domains through normal and tangential stresses provided by the discretized interface and inserted in the formulation in the form of Lagrange multipliers. The final structure of the global system of equations resembles the dual assembly of substructures where the Lagrange multipliers are employed to nullify the gap between domains. A new approach to handle floating subdomains is outlined which can be implemented without significantly altering the structure of standard industrial finite element codes. The effectiveness of the developed algorithm is demonstrated through a patch test example and a number of tests that highlight the accuracy of the methodology and independence of the results with respect to the framework parameters. Considering its high degree of flexibility and non-intrusive character, the proposed domain decomposition framework is regarded as an attractive alternative to other established techniques such as the mortar approach.

  9. Sapphire decomposition and inversion domains in N-polar aluminum nitride

    SciTech Connect

    Hussey, Lindsay White, Ryan M.; Kirste, Ronny; Bryan, Isaac; Guo, Wei; Osterman, Katherine; Haidet, Brian; Bryan, Zachary; Bobea, Milena; Collazo, Ramón; Sitar, Zlatko; Mita, Seiji

    2014-01-20

    Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) techniques and potassium hydroxide (KOH) etching confirmed that inversion domains in the N-polar AlN grown on c-plane sapphire were due to the decomposition of sapphire in the presence of hydrogen. The inversion domains were found to correspond to voids at the AlN and sapphire interface, and transmission electron microscopy results showed a V-shaped, columnar inversion domain with staggered domain boundary sidewalls. Voids were also observed in the simultaneously grown Al-polar AlN, however no inversion domains were present. The polarity of AlN grown above the decomposed regions of the sapphire substrate was confirmed to be Al-polar by KOH etching and TEM.

  10. Transverse Strains in Muscle Fascicles during Voluntary Contraction: A 2D Frequency Decomposition of B-Mode Ultrasound Images

    PubMed Central

    Wakeling, James M.

    2014-01-01

    When skeletal muscle fibres shorten, they must increase in their transverse dimensions in order to maintain a constant volume. In pennate muscle, this transverse expansion results in the fibres rotating to greater pennation angle, with a consequent reduction in their contractile velocity in a process known as gearing. Understanding the nature and extent of this transverse expansion is necessary to understand the mechanisms driving the changes in internal geometry of whole muscles during contraction. Current methodologies allow the fascicle lengths, orientations, and curvatures to be quantified, but not the transverse expansion. The purpose of this study was to develop and validate techniques for quantifying transverse strain in skeletal muscle fascicles during contraction from B-mode ultrasound images. Images were acquired from the medial and lateral gastrocnemii during cyclic contractions, enhanced using multiscale vessel enhancement filtering and the spatial frequencies resolved using 2D discrete Fourier transforms. The frequency information was resolved into the fascicle orientations that were validated against manually digitized values. The transverse fascicle strains were calculated from their wavelengths within the images. These methods showed that the transverse strain increases while the longitudinal fascicle length decreases; however, the extent of these strains was smaller than expected. PMID:25328509

  11. Acquisition of a single EZH2 D1 domain mutation confers acquired resistance to EZH2-targeted inhibitors

    PubMed Central

    Baker, Theresa; Nerle, Sujata; Pritchard, Justin; Zhao, Boyang; Rivera, Victor M.

    2015-01-01

    Although targeted therapies have revolutionized cancer treatment, overcoming acquired resistance remains a major clinical challenge. EZH2 inhibitors (EZH2i), EPZ-6438 and GSK126, are currently in the early stages of clinical evaluation and the first encouraging signs of efficacy have recently emerged in the clinic. To anticipate mechanisms of resistance to EZH2i, we used a forward genetic platform combining a mutagenesis screen with next generation sequencing technology and identified a hotspot of secondary mutations in the EZH2 D1 domain (Y111 and I109). Y111D mutation within the WT or A677G EZH2 allele conferred robust resistance to both EPZ-6438 and GSK126, but it only drove a partial resistance within the Y641F allele. EZH2 mutants required histone methyltransferase (HMT) catalytic activity and the polycomb repressive complex 2 (PRC2) components, SUZ12 and EED, to drive drug resistance. Furthermore, D1 domain mutations not only blocked the ability of EZH2i to bind to WT and A677G mutant, but also abrogated drug binding to the Y641F mutant. These data provide the first cellular validation of the mechanistic model underpinning the oncogenic function of WT and mutant EZH2. Importantly, our findings suggest that acquired-resistance to EZH2i may arise in WT and mutant EZH2 patients through a single mutation that remains targetable by second generation EZH2i. PMID:26360609

  12. Comparative study of ECG signal denoising by wavelet thresholding in empirical and variational mode decomposition domains.

    PubMed

    Lahmiri, Salim

    2014-09-01

    Hybrid denoising models based on combining empirical mode decomposition (EMD) and discrete wavelet transform (DWT) were found to be effective in removing additive Gaussian noise from electrocardiogram (ECG) signals. Recently, variational mode decomposition (VMD) has been proposed as a multiresolution technique that overcomes some of the limits of the EMD. Two ECG denoising approaches are compared. The first is based on denoising in the EMD domain by DWT thresholding, whereas the second is based on noise reduction in the VMD domain by DWT thresholding. Using signal-to-noise ratio and mean of squared errors as performance measures, simulation results show that the VMD-DWT approach outperforms the conventional EMD-DWT. In addition, a non-local means approach used as a reference technique provides better results than the VMD-DWT approach. PMID:26609387

  13. Parallel domain decomposition method with non-blocking communication for flow through porous media

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lemmer, Andreas; Hilfer, Rudolf

    2015-01-01

    This paper introduces a domain decomposition method for numerically solving the Stokes equation for very large, complex geometries. Examples arise from realistic porous media. The computational method is based on the SIMPLE (Semi-Implicit Method for Pressure Linked Equations) algorithm which uses a finite-differences approach for discretizing the underlying equations. It achieves comparable speed and efficiency as lattice Boltzmann methods. The domain decomposition method splits a large three-dimensional region into slices that can be processed in parallel on multi-processor computation environments with only minimal communication between the computation nodes. With this method, the flow through a porous medium with grid sizes up to 20483 voxel has been calculated.

  14. Domain Decomposition of a Constructive Solid Geometry Monte Carlo Transport Code

    SciTech Connect

    O'Brien, M J; Joy, K I; Procassini, R J; Greenman, G M

    2008-12-07

    Domain decomposition has been implemented in a Constructive Solid Geometry (CSG) Monte Carlo neutron transport code. Previous methods to parallelize a CSG code relied entirely on particle parallelism; but in our approach we distribute the geometry as well as the particles across processors. This enables calculations whose geometric description is larger than what could fit in memory of a single processor, thus it must be distributed across processors. In addition to enabling very large calculations, we show that domain decomposition can speed up calculations compared to particle parallelism alone. We also show results of a calculation of the proposed Laser Inertial-Confinement Fusion-Fission Energy (LIFE) facility, which has 5.6 million CSG parts.

  15. Comparative study of ECG signal denoising by wavelet thresholding in empirical and variational mode decomposition domains

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Hybrid denoising models based on combining empirical mode decomposition (EMD) and discrete wavelet transform (DWT) were found to be effective in removing additive Gaussian noise from electrocardiogram (ECG) signals. Recently, variational mode decomposition (VMD) has been proposed as a multiresolution technique that overcomes some of the limits of the EMD. Two ECG denoising approaches are compared. The first is based on denoising in the EMD domain by DWT thresholding, whereas the second is based on noise reduction in the VMD domain by DWT thresholding. Using signal-to-noise ratio and mean of squared errors as performance measures, simulation results show that the VMD-DWT approach outperforms the conventional EMD–DWT. In addition, a non-local means approach used as a reference technique provides better results than the VMD-DWT approach. PMID:26609387

  16. A domain decomposition study of massively parallel computing in compressible gas dynamics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wong, C. C.; Blottner, F. G.; Payne, J. L.; Soetrisno, M.

    1995-03-01

    The appropriate utilization of massively parallel computers for solving the Navier-Stokes equations is investigated and determined from an engineering perspective. The issues investigated are: (1) Should strip or patch domain decomposition of the spatial mesh be used to reduce computer time? (2) How many computer nodes should be used for a problem with a given sized mesh to reduce computer time? (3) Is the convergence of the Navier-Stokes solution procedure (LU-SGS) adversely influenced by the domain decomposition approach? The results of the paper show that the present Navier-Stokes solution technique has good performance on a massively parallel computer for transient flow problems. For steady-state problems with a large number of mesh cells, the solution procedure will require significant computer time due to an increased number of iterations to achieve a converged solution. There is an optimum number of computer nodes to use for a problem with a given global mesh size.

  17. Bi-planar 2D-to-3D registration in Fourier domain for stereoscopic x-ray motion tracking

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zosso, Dominique; Le Callennec, Benoît; Bach Cuadra, Meritxell; Aminian, Kamiar; Jolles, Brigitte M.; Thiran, Jean-Philippe

    2008-03-01

    In this paper we present a new method to track bone movements in stereoscopic X-ray image series of the knee joint. The method is based on two different X-ray image sets: a rotational series of acquisitions of the still subject knee that allows the tomographic reconstruction of the three-dimensional volume (model), and a stereoscopic image series of orthogonal projections as the subject performs movements. Tracking the movements of bones throughout the stereoscopic image series means to determine, for each frame, the best pose of every moving element (bone) previously identified in the 3D reconstructed model. The quality of a pose is reflected in the similarity between its theoretical projections and the actual radiographs. We use direct Fourier reconstruction to approximate the three-dimensional volume of the knee joint. Then, to avoid the expensive computation of digitally rendered radiographs (DRR) for pose recovery, we develop a corollary to the 3-dimensional central-slice theorem and reformulate the tracking problem in the Fourier domain. Under the hypothesis of parallel X-ray beams, the heavy 2D-to-3D registration of projections in the signal domain is replaced by efficient slice-to-volume registration in the Fourier domain. Focusing on rotational movements, the translation-relevant phase information can be discarded and we only consider scalar Fourier amplitudes. The core of our motion tracking algorithm can be implemented as a classical frame-wise slice-to-volume registration task. Results on both synthetic and real images confirm the validity of our approach.

  18. Comparison and Characterization of Proteomes in the ThreeDomains of Life Using 2D Correlation Analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fujishima, K.; Komasa, M.; Kitamura, S.; Tomita, M.; Kanai, A.

    Proteins are a major regulatory component in complex biological systems.Among them, DNA/RNA-binding proteins, the key components of the central dogma of molecular biology, and membrane proteins, which are necessary for both signal transduction and metabolite transport, are suggested to be the most important protein families that arose in the early stage of life. In this study, we computationally analyzed the whole proteome data of six model species to overview the protein diversity in the three domains of life (Bacteria, Archaea and Eukaryota), especially focusing on the above two protein families. To compare the protein distribution among the six model species, we calculated various protein profiles: hydropathy, molecular weight, amino acid composition and periodicity for each protein. We found a domain-specific distribution of the proteome based on 2D correlation analysis of hydropathy and molecular weight. Further, the merged protein distribution of Archaea and other do mains revealed many membrane proteins localized in Bacteria-specific regions with a high ratio of hydropathy and many DNA/RNA-binding proteins localized in Eukaryota-specific regions with a low ratio of hydropathy. Since about half of the proteins encoded in the genome are still functionally unknown, we further conducted Support Vector Machine (SVM)-based functional prediction using amino acid composition (CO score) and periodicity (PD score) as feature vectors to predict the overall number of DNA/RNA-binding proteins and membrane proteins in the proteome. Our estimation indicated that two functional categories occupy approximately 60% to 80% of the proteome, and further, the proportion of the two categories varied among the three domains of life, suggesting that the proteome has gone through different selective pressure during evolution.

  19. Large structure rearrangement of colicin ia channel domain after membrane binding from 2D 13C spin diffusion NMR.

    PubMed

    Luo, Wenbin; Yao, Xiaolan; Hong, Mei

    2005-05-01

    One of the main mechanisms of membrane protein folding is by spontaneous insertion into the lipid bilayer from the aqueous environment. The bacterial toxin, colicin Ia, is one such protein. To shed light on the conformational changes involved in this dramatic transfer from the polar to the hydrophobic milieu, we carried out 2D magic-angle spinning (13)C NMR experiments on the water-soluble and membrane-bound states of the channel-forming domain of colicin Ia. Proton-driven (13)C spin diffusion spectra of selectively (13)C-labeled protein show unequivocal attenuation of cross-peaks after membrane binding. This attenuation can be assigned to distance increases but not reduction of the diffusion coefficient. Analysis of the statistics of the interhelical and intrahelical (13)C-(13)C distances in the soluble protein structure indicates that the observed cross-peak reduction is well correlated with a high percentage of short interhelical contacts in the soluble protein. This suggests that colicin Ia channel domain becomes open and extended upon membrane binding, thus lengthening interhelical distances. In comparison, cross-peaks with similar intensities between the two states are dominated by intrahelical contacts in the soluble state. This suggests that the membrane-bound structure of colicin Ia channel domain may be described as a "molten globule", in which the helical secondary structure is retained while the tertiary structure is unfolded. This study demonstrates that (13)C spin diffusion NMR is a valuable tool for obtaining qualitative long-range distance constraints on membrane protein folding. PMID:15853348

  20. Scaling of domain size during spinodal decomposition : dislocation discreteness and mobility effects.

    SciTech Connect

    Provatas, Nikolas; Leonard, Francois Leonard; Mahon, Jennifer; Haataja, Mikko

    2005-06-01

    In this letter, we examine the effects of discrete mobile dislocations on spinodal decomposition kinetics in lattice mismatched binary alloys. By employing a novel continuum model, we demonstrate that the effects of dislocation mobility on domain coarsening kinetics can be expressed in a unified manner through a scaling function, describing a crossover from t{sup 1/2} to t{sup 1/3} behavior.

  1. On the relation between traditional iterative methods and modern multilevel/domain decomposition methods

    SciTech Connect

    Griebel, M.

    1994-12-31

    In recent years, it has turned out that many modern iterative algorithms (multigrid schemes, multilevel preconditioners, domain decomposition methods etc.) for solving problems resulting from the discretization of PDEs can be interpreted as additive (Jacobi-like) or multiplicative (Gauss-Seidel-like) subspace correction methods. The key to their analysis is the study of certain metric properties of the underlying splitting of the discretization space V into a sum of subspaces V{sub j}, j = 1{hor_ellipsis}, J resp. of the variational problem on V into auxiliary problems on these subspaces. Here, the author proposes a modified approach to the abstract convergence theory of these additive and multiplicative Schwarz iterative methods, that makes the relation to traditional iteration methods more explicit. To this end he introduces the enlarged Hilbert space V = V{sub 0} x {hor_ellipsis} x V{sub j} which is nothing else but the usual construction of the Cartesian product of the Hilbert spaces V{sub j} and use it now in the discretization process. This results in an enlarged, semidefinite linear system to be solved instead of the usual definite system. Then, modern multilevel methods as well as domain decomposition methods simplify to just traditional (block-) iteration methods. Now, the convergence analysis can be carried out directly for these traditional iterations on the enlarged system, making convergence proofs of multilevel and domain decomposition methods more clear, or, at least, more classical. The terms that enter the convergence proofs are exactly the ones of the classical iterative methods. It remains to estimate them properly. The convergence proof itself follow basically line by line the old proofs of the respective traditional iterative methods. Additionally, new multilevel/domain decomposition methods are constructed straightforwardly by now applying just other old and well known traditional iterative methods to the enlarged system.

  2. Algebraic multigrid domain and range decomposition (AMG-DD / AMG-RD)*

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Bank, R.; Falgout, R. D.; Jones, T.; Manteuffel, T. A.; McCormick, S. F.; Ruge, J. W.

    2015-10-29

    In modern large-scale supercomputing applications, algebraic multigrid (AMG) is a leading choice for solving matrix equations. However, the high cost of communication relative to that of computation is a concern for the scalability of traditional implementations of AMG on emerging architectures. This paper introduces two new algebraic multilevel algorithms, algebraic multigrid domain decomposition (AMG-DD) and algebraic multigrid range decomposition (AMG-RD), that replace traditional AMG V-cycles with a fully overlapping domain decomposition approach. While the methods introduced here are similar in spirit to the geometric methods developed by Brandt and Diskin [Multigrid solvers on decomposed domains, in Domain Decomposition Methods inmore » Science and Engineering, Contemp. Math. 157, AMS, Providence, RI, 1994, pp. 135--155], Mitchell [Electron. Trans. Numer. Anal., 6 (1997), pp. 224--233], and Bank and Holst [SIAM J. Sci. Comput., 22 (2000), pp. 1411--1443], they differ primarily in that they are purely algebraic: AMG-RD and AMG-DD trade communication for computation by forming global composite “grids” based only on the matrix, not the geometry. (As is the usual AMG convention, “grids” here should be taken only in the algebraic sense, regardless of whether or not it corresponds to any geometry.) Another important distinguishing feature of AMG-RD and AMG-DD is their novel residual communication process that enables effective parallel computation on composite grids, avoiding the all-to-all communication costs of the geometric methods. The main purpose of this paper is to study the potential of these two algebraic methods as possible alternatives to existing AMG approaches for future parallel machines. As a result, this paper develops some theoretical properties of these methods and reports on serial numerical tests of their convergence properties over a spectrum of problem parameters.« less

  3. Algebraic multigrid domain and range decomposition (AMG-DD / AMG-RD)*

    SciTech Connect

    Bank, R.; Falgout, R. D.; Jones, T.; Manteuffel, T. A.; McCormick, S. F.; Ruge, J. W.

    2015-10-29

    In modern large-scale supercomputing applications, algebraic multigrid (AMG) is a leading choice for solving matrix equations. However, the high cost of communication relative to that of computation is a concern for the scalability of traditional implementations of AMG on emerging architectures. This paper introduces two new algebraic multilevel algorithms, algebraic multigrid domain decomposition (AMG-DD) and algebraic multigrid range decomposition (AMG-RD), that replace traditional AMG V-cycles with a fully overlapping domain decomposition approach. While the methods introduced here are similar in spirit to the geometric methods developed by Brandt and Diskin [Multigrid solvers on decomposed domains, in Domain Decomposition Methods in Science and Engineering, Contemp. Math. 157, AMS, Providence, RI, 1994, pp. 135--155], Mitchell [Electron. Trans. Numer. Anal., 6 (1997), pp. 224--233], and Bank and Holst [SIAM J. Sci. Comput., 22 (2000), pp. 1411--1443], they differ primarily in that they are purely algebraic: AMG-RD and AMG-DD trade communication for computation by forming global composite “grids” based only on the matrix, not the geometry. (As is the usual AMG convention, “grids” here should be taken only in the algebraic sense, regardless of whether or not it corresponds to any geometry.) Another important distinguishing feature of AMG-RD and AMG-DD is their novel residual communication process that enables effective parallel computation on composite grids, avoiding the all-to-all communication costs of the geometric methods. The main purpose of this paper is to study the potential of these two algebraic methods as possible alternatives to existing AMG approaches for future parallel machines. As a result, this paper develops some theoretical properties of these methods and reports on serial numerical tests of their convergence properties over a spectrum of problem parameters.

  4. Representation of discrete Steklov-Poincare operator arising in domain decomposition methods in wavelet basis

    SciTech Connect

    Jemcov, A.; Matovic, M.D.

    1996-12-31

    This paper examines the sparse representation and preconditioning of a discrete Steklov-Poincare operator which arises in domain decomposition methods. A non-overlapping domain decomposition method is applied to a second order self-adjoint elliptic operator (Poisson equation), with homogeneous boundary conditions, as a model problem. It is shown that the discrete Steklov-Poincare operator allows sparse representation with a bounded condition number in wavelet basis if the transformation is followed by thresholding and resealing. These two steps combined enable the effective use of Krylov subspace methods as an iterative solution procedure for the system of linear equations. Finding the solution of an interface problem in domain decomposition methods, known as a Schur complement problem, has been shown to be equivalent to the discrete form of Steklov-Poincare operator. A common way to obtain Schur complement matrix is by ordering the matrix of discrete differential operator in subdomain node groups then block eliminating interface nodes. The result is a dense matrix which corresponds to the interface problem. This is equivalent to reducing the original problem to several smaller differential problems and one boundary integral equation problem for the subdomain interface.

  5. A study of domain decomposition methods applied to the discretized Helmholtz equation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tramel, Robert Wallace

    2001-09-01

    In this work a domain decomposition based preconditioner of the additive Schwarz type is developed and tested on the linear systems which arise out of the application of the Green's Function/Wave Expansion Discretization. (GFD/WED) method to Helmholtz's equation. In order to develop the additive Schwarz preconditioner, use is made of a class of one-sided Artificial Radiation Boundary Conditions (ARBC) developed during the course of this work. These ARBCs are computationally shown to be quite accurate for use on their own. The ARBC's are used to radiatively couple the various sub-domains which are naturally part of domain decomposition based methods in such a manner as to ensure that the system matrix, when restricted to the sub-domains, is non-singular. In addition, the inter-domain ARBC is constructed such that the solution to the global linear system is unaffected by the presence of the artificial boundaries. The efficacy and efficiency of the method is demonstrated on one, two, and three-dimensional test cases.

  6. A three-dimensional domain decomposition method for large-scale DFT electronic structure calculations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Duy, Truong Vinh Truong; Ozaki, Taisuke

    2014-03-01

    With tens of petaflops supercomputers already in operation and exaflops machines expected to appear within the next 10 years, efficient parallel computational methods are required to take advantage of such extreme-scale machines. In this paper, we present a three-dimensional domain decomposition scheme for enabling large-scale electronic structure calculations based on density functional theory (DFT) on massively parallel computers. It is composed of two methods: (i) the atom decomposition method and (ii) the grid decomposition method. In the former method, we develop a modified recursive bisection method based on the moment of inertia tensor to reorder the atoms along a principal axis so that atoms that are close in real space are also close on the axis to ensure data locality. The atoms are then divided into sub-domains depending on their projections onto the principal axis in a balanced way among the processes. In the latter method, we define four data structures for the partitioning of grid points that are carefully constructed to make data locality consistent with that of the clustered atoms for minimizing data communications between the processes. We also propose a decomposition method for solving the Poisson equation using the three-dimensional FFT in Hartree potential calculation, which is shown to be better in terms of communication efficiency than a previously proposed parallelization method based on a two-dimensional decomposition. For evaluation, we perform benchmark calculations with our open-source DFT code, OpenMX, paying particular attention to the O(N) Krylov subspace method. The results show that our scheme exhibits good strong and weak scaling properties, with the parallel efficiency at 131,072 cores being 67.7% compared to the baseline of 16,384 cores with 131,072 atoms of the diamond structure on the K computer.

  7. 2D multi-parameter elastic seismic imaging by frequency-domain L1-norm full waveform inversion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brossier, Romain; Operto, Stéphane; Virieux, Jean

    2010-05-01

    Full waveform inversion (FWI) is becoming a powerful and efficient tool to derive high-resolution quantitative models of the subsurface. In the frequency-domain, computationally efficient FWI algorithms can be designed for wide-aperture acquisition geometries by limiting inversion to few discrete frequencies. However, FWI remains an ill-posed and highly non-linear data-fitting procedure that is sensitive to noise, inaccuracies of the starting model and definition of multiparameter classes. The footprint of the noise in seismic imaging is conventionally mitigated by stacking highly redundant multifold data. However, when the data redundancy is decimated in the framework of efficient frequency-domain FWI, it is essential to assess the sensitivity of the inversion to noise. The impact of the noise in FWI, when applied to decimated data sets, has been marginally illustrated in the past and least-squares minimisation has remained the most popular approach. We investigate in this study the sensitivity of frequency-domain elastic FWI to noise for realistic onshore and offshore synthetic data sets contaminated by ambient random white noise. Four minimisation functionals are assessed in the framework of frequency domain FWI of decimated data: the classical least-square norm (L2), the least-absolute-values norm (L1), and some combinations of both (the Huber and the so-called Hybrid criteria). These functionals are implemented in a massively-parallel, 2D elastic frequency-domain FWI algorithm. A two-level hierarchical algorithm is implemented to mitigate the non-linearity of the inversion in complex environments. The first outer level consists of successive inversions of frequency groups of increasing high-frequency content. This level defines a multi-scale approach while preserving some data redundancy by means of simultaneous inversion of multiple frequencies. The second inner level used complex-valued frequencies for data preconditioning. This preconditioning controls the

  8. Decomposition

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Middleton, Beth A.

    2014-01-01

    A cornerstone of ecosystem ecology, decomposition was recognized as a fundamental process driving the exchange of energy in ecosystems by early ecologists such as Lindeman 1942 and Odum 1960). In the history of ecology, studies of decomposition were incorporated into the International Biological Program in the 1960s to compare the nature of organic matter breakdown in various ecosystem types. Such studies still have an important role in ecological studies of today. More recent refinements have brought debates on the relative role microbes, invertebrates and environment in the breakdown and release of carbon into the atmosphere, as well as how nutrient cycling, production and other ecosystem processes regulated by decomposition may shift with climate change. Therefore, this bibliography examines the primary literature related to organic matter breakdown, but it also explores topics in which decomposition plays a key supporting role including vegetation composition, latitudinal gradients, altered ecosystems, anthropogenic impacts, carbon storage, and climate change models. Knowledge of these topics is relevant to both the study of ecosystem ecology as well projections of future conditions for human societies.

  9. Convergence analysis of a balalncing domain decomposition method for solving interior Helmholtz equations

    SciTech Connect

    Li,Jing; Tu, Xuemin

    2008-12-10

    A variant of balancing domain decomposition method by constraints (BDDC) is proposed for solving a class of indefinite system of linear equations, which arises from the finite element discretization of the Helmholtz equation of time-harmonic wave propagation in a bounded interior domain. The proposed BDDC algorithm is closely related to the dual-primal finite element tearing and interconnecting algorithm for solving Helmholtz equations (FETI-DPH). Under the condition that the diameters of the subdomains are small enough, the rate of convergence is established which depends polylogarithmically on the dimension of the individual subdomain problems and which improves with the decrease of the subdomain diameters. These results are supported by numerical experiments of solving a Helmholtz equation on a two-dimensional square domain.

  10. Multi-resolution flow simulations by smoothed particle hydrodynamics via domain decomposition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bian, Xin; Li, Zhen; Karniadakis, George Em

    2015-09-01

    We present a methodology to concurrently couple particle-based methods via a domain decomposition (DD) technique for simulating viscous flows. In particular, we select two resolutions of the smoothed particle hydrodynamics (SPH) method as demonstration. Within the DD framework, a simulation domain is decomposed into two (or more) overlapping sub-domains, each of which has an individual particle scale determined by the local flow physics. Consistency of the two sub-domains is achieved in the overlap region by matching the two independent simulations based on Lagrangian interpolation of state variables and fluxes. The domain decomposition based SPH method (DD-SPH) employs different spatial and temporal resolutions, and hence, each sub-domain has its own smoothing length and time step. As a consequence, particle refinement and de-refinement are performed asynchronously according to individual time advancement of each sub-domain. The proposed strategy avoids SPH force interactions between different resolutions on purpose, so that coupling, in principle, can go beyond SPH-SPH, and may allow SPH to be coupled with other mesoscopic or microscopic particle methods. The DD-SPH method is validated first for a transient Couette flow, where simulation results based on proper coupling of spatial-temporal scales agree well with analytical solutions. In particular, we find that the size of the overlap region should be at least rc,1 + 2rc,2, where rc,1 and rc,2 are cut off radii in the two sub-domains with rc,1 ≤rc,2. Subsequently, a perturbation wave is considered traveling either parallel or perpendicular to the hybrid interface. Compressibility is significant if transient behavior at short sonic-time-scale is relevant, while the fluid can be treated as quasi-incompressible at sufficiently long time scale. To this end, we propose a coupling of density fields from the two sub-domains. Finally, a steady Wannier flow is simulated, where a rotating cylinder is placed next to a

  11. GRID2D/3D: A computer program for generating grid systems in complex-shaped two- and three-dimensional spatial domains. Part 1: Theory and method

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shih, T. I.-P.; Bailey, R. T.; Nguyen, H. L.; Roelke, R. J.

    1990-01-01

    An efficient computer program, called GRID2D/3D was developed to generate single and composite grid systems within geometrically complex two- and three-dimensional (2- and 3-D) spatial domains that can deform with time. GRID2D/3D generates single grid systems by using algebraic grid generation methods based on transfinite interpolation in which the distribution of grid points within the spatial domain is controlled by stretching functions. All single grid systems generated by GRID2D/3D can have grid lines that are continuous and differentiable everywhere up to the second-order. Also, grid lines can intersect boundaries of the spatial domain orthogonally. GRID2D/3D generates composite grid systems by patching together two or more single grid systems. The patching can be discontinuous or continuous. For continuous composite grid systems, the grid lines are continuous and differentiable everywhere up to the second-order except at interfaces where different single grid systems meet. At interfaces where different single grid systems meet, the grid lines are only differentiable up to the first-order. For 2-D spatial domains, the boundary curves are described by using either cubic or tension spline interpolation. For 3-D spatial domains, the boundary surfaces are described by using either linear Coon's interpolation, bi-hyperbolic spline interpolation, or a new technique referred to as 3-D bi-directional Hermite interpolation. Since grid systems generated by algebraic methods can have grid lines that overlap one another, GRID2D/3D contains a graphics package for evaluating the grid systems generated. With the graphics package, the user can generate grid systems in an interactive manner with the grid generation part of GRID2D/3D. GRID2D/3D is written in FORTRAN 77 and can be run on any IBM PC, XT, or AT compatible computer. In order to use GRID2D/3D on workstations or mainframe computers, some minor modifications must be made in the graphics part of the program; no

  12. Non-overlapping domain decomposition for near-wall turbulence modeling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Utyuzhnikov, Sergey

    2016-06-01

    Near-wall turbulence modeling is computationally a very expensive problem. The talk considers a novel approach based on non-overlapping domain decomposition. It allows us to avoid calculations of the region with high gradients in the vicinity of the wall while retaining sufficient overall accuracy. The technique is introduced in application to low-Reynolds number RANS models. The domain decomposition is achieved via the transfer of the boundary condition from the wall to an interface boundary. If the governing equations in the inner domain are simplified, then the interface boundary conditions are of Robin type. These boundary conditions can be obtained in an analytical form despite the fact that they are nonlinear. Possible ways to achieve a reasonable trade-off between efficiency and accuracy are discussed. The obtained interface boundary conditions are mesh-independent. They can be used to avoid the computationally expensive resolution of a high-gradient region near the wall. Moreover, once the solution is constructed in the outer region, the near-wall profile can be restored if required. In two extreme cases, if the interface boundary is too close to the wall or too far from it, the so-constructed solution to the problem automatically corresponds to low- and high-Reynolds number RANS models, respectively. Different applications are considered including unsteady problems and complex geometries. The developed approach proved to be quite robust and relatively universal. It does not contain any tuning parameters. The technique might be extended to other multiscale problems.

  13. Parallel computing of a climate model on the dawn 1000 by domain decomposition method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bi, Xunqiang

    1997-12-01

    In this paper the parallel computing of a grid-point nine-level atmospheric general circulation model on the Dawn 1000 is introduced. The model was developed by the Institute of Atmospheric Physics (IAP), Chinese Academy of Sciences (CAS). The Dawn 1000 is a MIMD massive parallel computer made by National Research Center for Intelligent Computer (NCIC), CAS. A two-dimensional domain decomposition method is adopted to perform the parallel computing. The potential ways to increase the speed-up ratio and exploit more resources of future massively parallel supercomputation are also discussed.

  14. Domain decomposition methods for nonconforming finite element spaces of Lagrange-type

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cowsar, Lawrence C.

    1993-01-01

    In this article, we consider the application of three popular domain decomposition methods to Lagrange-type nonconforming finite element discretizations of scalar, self-adjoint, second order elliptic equations. The additive Schwarz method of Dryja and Widlund, the vertex space method of Smith, and the balancing method of Mandel applied to nonconforming elements are shown to converge at a rate no worse than their applications to the standard conforming piecewise linear Galerkin discretization. Essentially, the theory for the nonconforming elements is inherited from the existing theory for the conforming elements with only modest modification by constructing an isomorphism between the nonconforming finite element space and a space of continuous piecewise linear functions.

  15. Domain Decomposition Algorithms for First-Order System Least Squares Methods

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pavarino, Luca F.

    1996-01-01

    Least squares methods based on first-order systems have been recently proposed and analyzed for second-order elliptic equations and systems. They produce symmetric and positive definite discrete systems by using standard finite element spaces, which are not required to satisfy the inf-sup condition. In this paper, several domain decomposition algorithms for these first-order least squares methods are studied. Some representative overlapping and substructuring algorithms are considered in their additive and multiplicative variants. The theoretical and numerical results obtained show that the classical convergence bounds (on the iteration operator) for standard Galerkin discretizations are also valid for least squares methods.

  16. Adaptive dynamic load-balancing with irregular domain decomposition for particle simulations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Begau, Christoph; Sutmann, Godehard

    2015-05-01

    We present a flexible and fully adaptive dynamic load-balancing scheme, which is designed for particle simulations of three-dimensional systems with short ranged interactions. The method is based on domain decomposition with non-orthogonal non-convex domains, which are constructed based on a local repartitioning of computational work between neighbouring processors. Domains are dynamically adjusted in a flexible way under the condition that the original topology is not changed, i.e. neighbour relations between domains are retained, which guarantees a fixed communication pattern for each domain during a simulation. Extensions of this scheme are discussed and illustrated with examples, which generalise the communication patterns and do not fully restrict data exchange to direct neighbours. The proposed method relies on a linked cell algorithm, which makes it compatible with existing implementations in particle codes and does not modify the underlying algorithm for calculating the forces between particles. The method has been implemented into the molecular dynamics community code IMD and performance has been measured for various molecular dynamics simulations of systems representing realistic problems from materials science. It is found that the method proves to balance the work between processors in simulations with strongly inhomogeneous and dynamically changing particle distributions, which results in a significant increase of the efficiency of the parallel code compared both to unbalanced simulations and conventional load-balancing strategies.

  17. Color information verification system based on singular value decomposition in gyrator transform domains

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abuturab, Muhammad Rafiq

    2014-06-01

    A new color image security system based on singular value decomposition (SVD) in gyrator transform (GT) domains is proposed. In the encryption process, a color image is decomposed into red, green and blue channels. Each channel is independently modulated by random phase masks and then separately gyrator transformed at different parameters. The three gyrator spectra are joined by multiplication to get one gray ciphertext. The ciphertext is separated into U, S, and V parts by SVD. All the three parts are individually gyrator transformed at different transformation angles. The three encoded information can be assigned to different authorized users for highly secure verification. Only when all the authorized users place the U, S, and V parts in correct multiplication order in the verification system, the correct information can be obtained with all the right keys. In the proposed method, SVD offers one-way asymmetrical decomposition algorithm and it is an optimal matrix decomposition in a least-square sense. The transformation angles of GT provide very sensitive additional keys. The pre-generated keys for red, green and blue channels are served as decryption (private) keys. As all the three encrypted parts are the gray scale ciphertexts with stationary white noise distributions, which have camouflage property to some extent. These advantages enhance the security and robustness. Numerical simulations are presented to support the viability of the proposed verification system.

  18. Multiple color-image authentication system using HSI color space and QR decomposition in gyrator domains

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rafiq Abuturab, Muhammad

    2016-06-01

    A new multiple color-image authentication system based on HSI (Hue-Saturation-Intensity) color space and QR decomposition in gyrator domains is proposed. In this scheme, original color images are converted from RGB (Red-Green-Blue) color spaces to HSI color spaces, divided into their H, S, and I components, and then obtained corresponding phase-encoded components. All the phase-encoded H, S, and I components are individually multiplied, and then modulated by random phase functions. The modulated H, S, and I components are convoluted into a single gray image with asymmetric cryptosystem. The resulting image is segregated into Q and R parts by QR decomposition. Finally, they are independently gyrator transformed to get their encoded parts. The encoded Q and R parts should be gathered without missing anyone for decryption. The angles of gyrator transform afford sensitive keys. The protocol based on QR decomposition of encoded matrix and getting back decoded matrix after multiplying matrices Q and R, enhances the security level. The random phase keys, individual phase keys, and asymmetric phase keys provide high robustness to the cryptosystem. Numerical simulation results demonstrate that this scheme is the superior than the existing techniques.

  19. Parallel Domain Decomposition Formulation and Software for Large-Scale Sparse Symmetrical/Unsymmetrical Aeroacoustic Applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nguyen, D. T.; Watson, Willie R. (Technical Monitor)

    2005-01-01

    The overall objectives of this research work are to formulate and validate efficient parallel algorithms, and to efficiently design/implement computer software for solving large-scale acoustic problems, arised from the unified frameworks of the finite element procedures. The adopted parallel Finite Element (FE) Domain Decomposition (DD) procedures should fully take advantages of multiple processing capabilities offered by most modern high performance computing platforms for efficient parallel computation. To achieve this objective. the formulation needs to integrate efficient sparse (and dense) assembly techniques, hybrid (or mixed) direct and iterative equation solvers, proper pre-conditioned strategies, unrolling strategies, and effective processors' communicating schemes. Finally, the numerical performance of the developed parallel finite element procedures will be evaluated by solving series of structural, and acoustic (symmetrical and un-symmetrical) problems (in different computing platforms). Comparisons with existing "commercialized" and/or "public domain" software are also included, whenever possible.

  20. Spatiotemporal Domain Decomposition for Massive Parallel Computation of Space-Time Kernel Density

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hohl, A.; Delmelle, E. M.; Tang, W.

    2015-07-01

    Accelerated processing capabilities are deemed critical when conducting analysis on spatiotemporal datasets of increasing size, diversity and availability. High-performance parallel computing offers the capacity to solve computationally demanding problems in a limited timeframe, but likewise poses the challenge of preventing processing inefficiency due to workload imbalance between computing resources. Therefore, when designing new algorithms capable of implementing parallel strategies, careful spatiotemporal domain decomposition is necessary to account for heterogeneity in the data. In this study, we perform octtree-based adaptive decomposition of the spatiotemporal domain for parallel computation of space-time kernel density. In order to avoid edge effects near subdomain boundaries, we establish spatiotemporal buffers to include adjacent data-points that are within the spatial and temporal kernel bandwidths. Then, we quantify computational intensity of each subdomain to balance workloads among processors. We illustrate the benefits of our methodology using a space-time epidemiological dataset of Dengue fever, an infectious vector-borne disease that poses a severe threat to communities in tropical climates. Our parallel implementation of kernel density reaches substantial speedup compared to sequential processing, and achieves high levels of workload balance among processors due to great accuracy in quantifying computational intensity. Our approach is portable of other space-time analytical tests.

  1. Mechanical and Assembly Units of Viral Capsids Identified via Quasi-Rigid Domain Decomposition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Polles, Guido; Indelicato, Giuliana; Potestio, Raffaello; Cermelli, Paolo; Twarock, Reidun; Micheletti, Cristian

    2014-03-01

    Key steps in a viral life-cycle, such as self-assembly of a protective protein container or in some cases also subsequent maturation events, are governed by the interplay of physico-chemical mechanisms involving various spatial and temporal scales. These salient aspects of a viral life cycle are hence well described and rationalised from a mesoscopic perspective. Accordingly, various experimental and computational efforts have been directed towards identifying the fundamental building blocks that are instrumental for the mechanical response, or constitute the assembly units, of a few specific viral shells. Motivated by these earlier studies we introduce and apply a general and efficient computational scheme for identifying the stable domains of a given viral capsid. The method is based on elastic network models and quasi-rigid domain decomposition. It is first applied to a heterogeneous set of well-characterized viruses (CCMV, MS2, STNV, STMV) for which the known mechanical or assembly domains are correctly identified. The validated method is next applied to other viral particles such as L-A, Pariacoto and polyoma viruses, whose fundamental functional domains are still unknown or debated and for which we formulate verifiable predictions.

  2. A new domain decomposition method with overlapping patches for ultrascale simulations: Application to biological flows

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grinberg, L.; Karniadakis, G. E.

    2010-08-01

    We address the failure in scalability of large-scale parallel simulations that are based on (semi-)implicit time-stepping and hence on the solution of linear systems on thousands of processors. We develop a general algorithmic framework based on domain decomposition that removes the scalability limitations and leads to optimal allocation of available computational resources. It is a non-intrusive approach as it does not require modification of existing codes. Specifically, we present here a two-stage domain decomposition method for the Navier-Stokes equations that combines features of discontinuous and continuous Galerkin formulations. At the first stage the domain is subdivided into overlapping patches and within each patch a C0 spectral element discretization (second stage) is employed. Solution within each patch is obtained separately by applying an efficient parallel solver. Proper inter-patch boundary conditions are developed to provide solution continuity, while a Multilevel Communicating Interface (MCI) is developed to provide efficient communication between the non-overlapping groups of processors of each patch. The overall strong scaling of the method depends on the number of patches and on the scalability of the standard solver within each patch. This dual path to scalability provides great flexibility in balancing accuracy with parallel efficiency. The accuracy of the method has been evaluated in solutions of steady and unsteady 3D flow problems including blood flow in the human intracranial arterial tree. Benchmarks on BlueGene/P, CRAY XT5 and Sun Constellation Linux Cluster have demonstrated good performance on up to 96,000 cores, solving up to 8.21B degrees of freedom in unsteady flow problem. The proposed method is general and can be potentially used with other discretization methods or in other applications.

  3. Parallel computation for reservoir thermal simulation: An overlapping domain decomposition approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Zhongxiao

    2005-11-01

    In this dissertation, we are involved in parallel computing for the thermal simulation of multicomponent, multiphase fluid flow in petroleum reservoirs. We report the development and applications of such a simulator. Unlike many efforts made to parallelize locally the solver of a linear equations system which affects the performance the most, this research takes a global parallelization strategy by decomposing the computational domain into smaller subdomains. This dissertation addresses the domain decomposition techniques and, based on the comparison, adopts an overlapping domain decomposition method. This global parallelization method hands over each subdomain to a single processor of the parallel computer to process. Communication is required when handling overlapping regions between subdomains. For this purpose, MPI (message passing interface) is used for data communication and communication control. A physical and mathematical model is introduced for the reservoir thermal simulation. Numerical tests on two sets of industrial data of practical oilfields indicate that this model and the parallel implementation match the history data accurately. Therefore, we expect to use both the model and the parallel code to predict oil production and guide the design, implementation and real-time fine tuning of new well operating schemes. A new adaptive mechanism to synchronize processes on different processors has been introduced, which not only ensures the computational accuracy but also improves the time performance. To accelerate the convergence rate of iterative solution of the large linear equations systems derived from the discretization of governing equations of our physical and mathematical model in space and time, we adopt the ORTHOMIN method in conjunction with an incomplete LU factorization preconditioning technique. Important improvements have been made in both ORTHOMIN method and incomplete LU factorization in order to enhance time performance without affecting

  4. Single-channel color information security system using LU decomposition in gyrator transform domains

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abuturab, Muhammad Rafiq

    2014-07-01

    A novel single-channel color information security system based on LU decomposition in gyrator transform domains is proposed. The original color image to be encoded is separated into its red, green and blue channels. They are modulated by corresponding random phase functions and then independently Fourier transformed. The transformed images of red and green channels are multiplied and then inverse Fourier transformed. The resulting image is phase- and amplitude truncated to obtain an encrypted image and an asymmetric decryption key, respectively. The encrypted image is multiplied by transformed image of blue channel and then performed LU decomposition. Finally, L and U parts are individually gyrator transformed at different transformation angles, which can be assigned to two different authorized users. The proposed single-channel encryption system is more compact than conventional three-channel encryption systems. Additionally, the ciphertexts are not color images but they are gray images which have obscure properties. The presented LU form is asymmetric. The two transformation angles of GT, three decryption keys for three channels and one asymmetric decryption key significantly improve the security and robustness of the proposed method. The encryption system can be realized digitally or optically. Numerical simulations demonstrate the feasibility and effectiveness of the suggested algorithms.

  5. A balancing domain decomposition method by constraints for advection-diffusion problems

    SciTech Connect

    Tu, Xuemin; Li, Jing

    2008-12-10

    The balancing domain decomposition methods by constraints are extended to solving nonsymmetric, positive definite linear systems resulting from the finite element discretization of advection-diffusion equations. A pre-conditioned GMRES iteration is used to solve a Schur complement system of equations for the subdomain interface variables. In the preconditioning step of each iteration, a partially sub-assembled finite element problem is solved. A convergence rate estimate for the GMRES iteration is established, under the condition that the diameters of subdomains are small enough. It is independent of the number of subdomains and grows only slowly with the subdomain problem size. Numerical experiments for several two-dimensional advection-diffusion problems illustrate the fast convergence of the proposed algorithm.

  6. Domain Decomposition PN Solutions to the 3D Transport Benchmark over a Range in Parameter Space

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Van Criekingen, S.

    2014-06-01

    The objectives of this contribution are twofold. First, the Domain Decomposition (DD) method used in the parafish parallel transport solver is re-interpreted as a Generalized Schwarz Splitting as defined by Tang [SIAM J Sci Stat Comput, vol.13 (2), pp. 573-595, 1992]. Second, parafish provides spherical harmonic (i.e., PN) solutions to the NEA benchmark suite for 3D transport methods and codes over a range in parameter space. To the best of the author's knowledge, these are the first spherical harmonic solutions provided for this demanding benchmark suite. They have been obtained using 512 CPU cores of the JuRoPa machine installed at the Jülich Computing Center (Germany).

  7. Parallel two-level domain decomposition based Jacobi-Davidson algorithms for pyramidal quantum dot simulation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, Tao; Hwang, Feng-Nan; Cai, Xiao-Chuan

    2016-07-01

    We consider a quintic polynomial eigenvalue problem arising from the finite volume discretization of a quantum dot simulation problem. The problem is solved by the Jacobi-Davidson (JD) algorithm. Our focus is on how to achieve the quadratic convergence of JD in a way that is not only efficient but also scalable when the number of processor cores is large. For this purpose, we develop a projected two-level Schwarz preconditioned JD algorithm that exploits multilevel domain decomposition techniques. The pyramidal quantum dot calculation is carefully studied to illustrate the efficiency of the proposed method. Numerical experiments confirm that the proposed method has a good scalability for problems with hundreds of millions of unknowns on a parallel computer with more than 10,000 processor cores.

  8. Computational transport methodology based on decomposition of a problem domain into transport and diffusive subdomains

    SciTech Connect

    Anistratov, Dmitriy Y.; Stehle, Nicholas D.

    2012-10-15

    A large class of radiative transfer and particle transport problems contain highly diffusive regions. It is possible to reduce computational costs by solving a diffusion problem in diffusive subdomains instead of the transport equation. This enables one to decrease the dimensionality of the transport problem. In this paper we present a methodology for decomposition of a spatial domain of a transport problem into transport and diffusion subregions. We develop methods for solving one-group problems in 1D slab geometry. To identify and locate diffusive regions, we develop metrics for measuring transport effects that are based on the quasidiffusion (Eddington) factor. We present the results of test problems that demonstrate the accuracy of the proposed methodology.

  9. Final Report, DE-FG01-06ER25718 Domain Decomposition and Parallel Computing

    SciTech Connect

    Widlund, Olof B.

    2015-06-09

    The goal of this project is to develop and improve domain decomposition algorithms for a variety of partial differential equations such as those of linear elasticity and electro-magnetics.These iterative methods are designed for massively parallel computing systems and allow the fast solution of the very large systems of algebraic equations that arise in large scale and complicated simulations. A special emphasis is placed on problems arising from Maxwell's equation. The approximate solvers, the preconditioners, are combined with the conjugate gradient method and must always include a solver of a coarse model in order to have a performance which is independent of the number of processors used in the computer simulation. A recent development allows for an adaptive construction of this coarse component of the preconditioner.

  10. FETI Prime Domain Decomposition base Parallel Iterative Solver Library Ver.1.0

    2003-09-15

    FETI Prime is a library for the iterative solution of linear equations in solid and structural mechanics. The algorithm employs preconditioned conjugate gradients, with a domain decomposition-based preconditioner. The software is written in C++ and is designed for use with massively parallel computers, using MPI. The algorithm is based on the FETI-DP method, with additional capabilities for handling constraint equations, as well as interfacing with the Salinas structural dynamics code and the Finite Element Interfacemore » (FEI) library. Practical Application: FETI Prime is designed for use with finite element-based simulation codes for solid and structural mechanics. The solver uses element matrices, connectivity information, nodal information, and force vectors computed by the host code and provides back the solution to the linear system of equations, to the user specified level of accuracy, The library is compiled with the host code and becomes an integral part of the host code executable.« less

  11. Domain decomposition, multilevel integration, and exponential noise reduction in lattice QCD

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cè, Marco; Giusti, Leonardo; Schaefer, Stefan

    2016-05-01

    We explore the possibility of computing fermionic correlators on the lattice by combining a domain decomposition with a multilevel integration scheme. The quark propagator is expanded in series of terms with a well-defined hierarchical structure. The higher the order of a term, the (exponentially) smaller its magnitude, the less local is its dependence on the gauge field. Once inserted in a Wick contraction, the gauge-field dependence of the terms in the resulting series can be factorized so that it is suitable for multilevel Monte Carlo integration. We test the strategy in quenched QCD by computing the disconnected correlator of two flavor-diagonal pseudoscalar densities, and a nucleon two-point function. In either case we observe a significant exponential increase of the signal-to-noise ratio.

  12. Wavefront reconstruction for extremely large telescopes via CuRe with domain decomposition.

    PubMed

    Rosensteiner, Matthias

    2012-11-01

    The Cumulative Reconstructor is an accurate, extremely fast reconstruction algorithm for Shack-Hartmann wavefront sensor data. But it has shown an unacceptable high noise propagation for large apertures. Therefore, in this paper we describe a domain decomposition approach to deal with this drawback. We show that this adaptation of the algorithm gives the same reconstruction quality as the original algorithm and leads to a significant improvement with respect to noise propagation. The method is combined with an integral control and compared to the classical matrix vector multiplication algorithm on an end-to-end simulation of a single conjugate adaptive optics system. The reconstruction time is 20n (number of subapertures), and the method is parallelizable. PMID:23201793

  13. Fast non-overlapping Schwarz domain decomposition methods for solving the neutron diffusion equation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jamelot, Erell; Ciarlet, Patrick

    2013-05-01

    Studying numerically the steady state of a nuclear core reactor is expensive, in terms of memory storage and computational time. In order to address both requirements, one can use a domain decomposition method, implemented on a parallel computer. We present here such a method for the mixed neutron diffusion equations, discretized with Raviart-Thomas-Nédélec finite elements. This method is based on the Schwarz iterative algorithm with Robin interface conditions to handle communications. We analyse this method from the continuous point of view to the discrete point of view, and we give some numerical results in a realistic highly heterogeneous 3D configuration. Computations are carried out with the MINOS solver of the APOLLO3® neutronics code. APOLLO3 is a registered trademark in France.

  14. Fast non-overlapping Schwarz domain decomposition methods for solving the neutron diffusion equation

    SciTech Connect

    Jamelot, Erell; Ciarlet, Patrick

    2013-05-15

    Studying numerically the steady state of a nuclear core reactor is expensive, in terms of memory storage and computational time. In order to address both requirements, one can use a domain decomposition method, implemented on a parallel computer. We present here such a method for the mixed neutron diffusion equations, discretized with Raviart–Thomas–Nédélec finite elements. This method is based on the Schwarz iterative algorithm with Robin interface conditions to handle communications. We analyse this method from the continuous point of view to the discrete point of view, and we give some numerical results in a realistic highly heterogeneous 3D configuration. Computations are carried out with the MINOS solver of the APOLLO3® neutronics code.

  15. Schwarz type domain decomposition and subcycling multi-time step approach for solving Richards equation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kuraz, Michal

    2016-06-01

    Modelling the transport processes in a vadose zone, e.g. modelling contaminant transport or the effect of the soil water regime on changes in soil structure and composition, plays an important role in predicting the reactions of soil biotopes to anthropogenic activity. Water flow is governed by the quasilinear Richards equation. The paper concerns the implementation of a multi-time-step approach for solving a nonlinear Richards equation. When modelling porous media flow with a Richards equation, due to a possible convection dominance and a convergence of a nonlinear solver, a stable finite element approximation requires accurate temporal and spatial integration. The method presented here enables adaptive domain decomposition algorithm together with a multi-time-step treatment of actively changing subdomains.

  16. An iterative finite-element collocation method for parabolic problems using domain decomposition

    SciTech Connect

    Curran, M.C.

    1992-01-01

    Advection-dominated flows occur widely in the transport of groundwater contaminants, the movements of fluids in enhanced oil recovery projects, and many other contexts. In numerical models of such flows, adaptive local grid refinement is a conceptually attractive approach for resolving the sharp fronts or layers that tend to characterize the solutions. However, this approach can be difficult to implement in practice. A domain decomposition method developed by Bramble, Ewing, Pasciak, and Schatz, known as the BEPS method, overcomes many of the difficulties. We demonstrate the applicability of the iterative BEPS ideas to finite-element collocation on trial spaces of piecewise Hermite bicubics. The resulting scheme allows one to refine selected parts of a spatial grid without destroying algebraic efficiencies associated with the original coarse grid. We apply the method to two dimensional time-dependent advection-diffusion problems.

  17. An iterative finite-element collocation method for parabolic problems using domain decomposition

    SciTech Connect

    Curran, M.C.

    1992-11-01

    Advection-dominated flows occur widely in the transport of groundwater contaminants, the movements of fluids in enhanced oil recovery projects, and many other contexts. In numerical models of such flows, adaptive local grid refinement is a conceptually attractive approach for resolving the sharp fronts or layers that tend to characterize the solutions. However, this approach can be difficult to implement in practice. A domain decomposition method developed by Bramble, Ewing, Pasciak, and Schatz, known as the BEPS method, overcomes many of the difficulties. We demonstrate the applicability of the iterative BEPS ideas to finite-element collocation on trial spaces of piecewise Hermite bicubics. The resulting scheme allows one to refine selected parts of a spatial grid without destroying algebraic efficiencies associated with the original coarse grid. We apply the method to two dimensional time-dependent advection-diffusion problems.

  18. Domain decomposition method for nonconforming finite element approximations of anisotropic elliptic problems on nonmatching grids

    SciTech Connect

    Maliassov, S.Y.

    1996-12-31

    An approach to the construction of an iterative method for solving systems of linear algebraic equations arising from nonconforming finite element discretizations with nonmatching grids for second order elliptic boundary value problems with anisotropic coefficients is considered. The technique suggested is based on decomposition of the original domain into nonoverlapping subdomains. The elliptic problem is presented in the macro-hybrid form with Lagrange multipliers at the interfaces between subdomains. A block diagonal preconditioner is proposed which is spectrally equivalent to the original saddle point matrix and has the optimal order of arithmetical complexity. The preconditioner includes blocks for preconditioning subdomain and interface problems. It is shown that constants of spectral equivalence axe independent of values of coefficients and mesh step size.

  19. Stabilizing a solution of the 2D Navier-Stokes system in the exterior of a bounded domain by means of a control on the boundary

    SciTech Connect

    Gorshkov, Aleksei V

    2012-09-30

    The problem of stabilizing a solution of the 2D Navier-Stokes system defined in the exterior of a bounded domain with smooth boundary is investigated. For a given initial velocity field a control on the boundary of the domain must be constructed such that the solution stabilizes to a prescribed vortex solution or trivial solution at the rate of 1/t{sup k}. On the way, related questions are investigated, concerning the behaviour of the spectrum of an operator under a relatively compact perturbation and the existence of attracting invariant manifolds. Bibliography: 21 titles.

  20. Wavelet modelling of the gravity field by domain decomposition methods: an example over Japan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Panet, Isabelle; Kuroishi, Yuki; Holschneider, Matthias

    2011-01-01

    With the advent of satellite gravity, large gravity data sets of unprecedented quality at low and medium resolution become available. For local, high resolution field modelling, they need to be combined with the surface gravity data. Such models are then used for various applications, from the study of the Earth interior to the determination of oceanic currents. Here we show how to realize such a combination in a flexible way using spherical wavelets and applying a domain decomposition approach. This iterative method, based on the Schwarz algorithms, allows to split a large problem into smaller ones, and avoids the calculation of the entire normal system, which may be huge if high resolution is sought over wide areas. A subdomain is defined as the harmonic space spanned by a subset of the wavelet family. Based on the localization properties of the wavelets in space and frequency, we define hierarchical subdomains of wavelets at different scales. On each scale, blocks of subdomains are defined by using a tailored spatial splitting of the area. The data weighting and regularization are iteratively adjusted for the subdomains, which allows to handle heterogeneity in the data quality or the gravity variations. Different levels of approximations of the subdomains normals are also introduced, corresponding to building local averages of the data at different resolution levels. We first provide the theoretical background on domain decomposition methods. Then, we validate the method with synthetic data, considering two kinds of noise: white noise and coloured noise. We then apply the method to data over Japan, where we combine a satellite-based geopotential model, EIGEN-GL04S, and a local gravity model from a combination of land and marine gravity data and an altimetry-derived marine gravity model. A hybrid spherical harmonics/wavelet model of the geoid is obtained at about 15 km resolution and a corrector grid for the surface model is derived.

  1. Image denoising in bidimensional empirical mode decomposition domain: the role of Student's probability distribution function.

    PubMed

    Lahmiri, Salim

    2016-03-01

    Hybridisation of the bi-dimensional empirical mode decomposition (BEMD) with denoising techniques has been proposed in the literature as an effective approach for image denoising. In this Letter, the Student's probability density function is introduced in the computation of the mean envelope of the data during the BEMD sifting process to make it robust to values that are far from the mean. The resulting BEMD is denoted tBEMD. In order to show the effectiveness of the tBEMD, several image denoising techniques in tBEMD domain are employed; namely, fourth order partial differential equation (PDE), linear complex diffusion process (LCDP), non-linear complex diffusion process (NLCDP), and the discrete wavelet transform (DWT). Two biomedical images and a standard digital image were considered for experiments. The original images were corrupted with additive Gaussian noise with three different levels. Based on peak-signal-to-noise ratio, the experimental results show that PDE, LCDP, NLCDP, and DWT all perform better in the tBEMD than in the classical BEMD domain. It is also found that tBEMD is faster than classical BEMD when the noise level is low. When it is high, the computational cost in terms of processing time is similar. The effectiveness of the presented approach makes it promising for clinical applications. PMID:27222723

  2. Global well-posedness for the 2D MHD equations without magnetic diffusion in a strip domain

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ren, Xiaoxia; Xiang, Zhaoyin; Zhang, Zhifei

    2016-04-01

    We study the initial boundary value problem of two dimensional MHD equations without magnetic diffusion in a strip domain. It was proved that the MHD equations have a unique global strong solution around the equilibrium state ≤ft(0,{{\\mathbf{e}}1}\\right) for both the non-slip boundary condition and Navier slip boundary condition on the velocity.

  3. Unsteady Flow Simulations about Moving Boundary Configurations Using Dynamic Domain Decomposition Techniques.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yen, Guan-Wei

    1994-01-01

    A computational method is developed to solve the coupled governing equations of an unsteady flowfield and those of rigid-body dynamics in six degrees-of-freedom (6-DOF). This method is capable of simulating the unsteady flowfields around multiple component configurations with at least one of the components in relative motion with respect to the others. Two of the important phenomena that such analyses can help us to understand are the unsteady aerodynamic interference and the boundary-induced component of such a flowfield. By hybridizing two dynamic domain decomposition techniques, the grid generation task is simplified, the computer memory requirement is reduced, and the governing equations of the rigid-body dynamics are simplified with certain assumptions. Three dimensional, unsteady Navier -Stokes equations are solved on each of the subdomains by a fully-vectorized, finite-volume, upwind-biased, and approximately -factored method. These equations are solved on the composite meshes of hybrid subdomain grids that can move with respect to each other. Hence, the present method combines the advantages of an efficient, geometrically conservative, minimally and automatically dissipative algorithm with the advantages and flexibility of the domain decomposition techniques. Several measures that reduce the numerical error are studied and compared with the exact solution of a moving normal shock in a tube. This solution compares very well with the analytic solution of the isentropic equations. It is concluded, that as a minimum measure, the connectivity of nonconservative overlapped scheme needs to be second-order accurate for spatial and temporal discretizations, as well as for the moving subdomain interpolations. Furthermore, the CFL numbers should be restricted to below unity, if affordable, for flows with high flow gradients. The method is further scrutinized by simulating the flow past a sinusoidally pitching airfoil, and the flow past a sinusoidally pitching and

  4. A Mass Conservative Method for Integrating 1-D Vadose Zone Simulations Discretized in the Moisture Content Domain with 2-D Groundwater Interflow Simulations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Steinke, R. C.

    2015-12-01

    Discretizing 1-D vadose zone simulations in the moisture content domain, such as is done in the Talbot-Ogden method, provides some advantages over discretizing in depth, such as is done in Richards' Equation. These advantages include inherent mass conservation and lower computational cost. However, doing so presents a difficulty for integration with 2-D groundwater interflow simulations. The equations of motion of the bins of discrete moisture content take the depth of the water table as an input. They do not produce it as an output. Finding the correct water table depth so that the groundwater recharge from the 1-D vadose zone simulation mass balances with the lateral flows from the 2-D groundwater interflow simulation was a previously unsolved problem. In this paper we present a net-groundwater-recharge method to solve to this problem and compare it with the source-term method used with Richards' Equation.

  5. Smooth 2-D ocean sound speed from Laplace and Laplace-Fourier domain inversion of seismic oceanography data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Blacic, Tanya M.; Jun, Hyunggu; Rosado, Hayley; Shin, Changsoo

    2016-02-01

    In seismic oceanography, processed images highlight small temperature changes, but inversion is needed to obtain absolute temperatures. Local search-based full waveform inversion has a lower computational cost than global search but requires accurate starting models. Unfortunately, most marine seismic data have little associated hydrographic data and the band-limited nature of seismic data makes extracting the long wavelength sound speed trend directly from seismic data inherently challenging. Laplace and Laplace-Fourier domain inversion (LDI) can use rudimentary starting models without prior information about the medium. Data are transformed to the Laplace domain, and a smooth sound speed model is extracted by examining the zero and low frequency components of the damped wavefield. We applied LDI to five synthetic data sets based on oceanographic features and recovered smoothed versions of our synthetic models, showing the viability of LDI for creating starting models suitable for more detailed inversions.

  6. Time-domain calculations of the 1D and 2D spectra of resonantly-coupled vibrations in liquids and proteins

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Torii, Hajime

    2012-12-01

    A time-domain computational method for calculating 1D and 2D spectra of resonantly-coupled vibrations in condensed-phase systems is presented. This method simultaneously takes into account the diagonal frequency modulations, the off-diagonal vibrational couplings, and the dynamics of the system, and is applicable to systems of wide interest, e.g., the O-H stretching modes of water and alcohols, and the amide I modes of proteins. The case of the amide I mode of (Ala-d)4 in D2O solution is shown as an example.

  7. Reconstructing photorealistic 3D models from image sequence using domain decomposition method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xiong, Hanwei; Pan, Ming; Zhang, Xiangwei

    2009-11-01

    In the fields of industrial design, artistic design and heritage conservation, physical objects are usually digitalized by reverse engineering through some 3D scanning methods. Structured light and photogrammetry are two main methods to acquire 3D information, and both are expensive. Even if these expensive instruments are used, photorealistic 3D models are seldom available. In this paper, a new method to reconstruction photorealistic 3D models using a single camera is proposed. A square plate glued with coded marks is used to place the objects, and a sequence of about 20 images is taken. From the coded marks, the images are calibrated, and a snake algorithm is used to segment object from the background. A rough 3d model is obtained using shape from silhouettes algorithm. The silhouettes are decomposed into a combination of convex curves, which are used to partition the rough 3d model into some convex mesh patches. For each patch, the multi-view photo consistency constraints and smooth regulations are expressed as a finite element formulation, which can be resolved locally, and the information can be exchanged along the patches boundaries. The rough model is deformed into a fine 3d model through such a domain decomposition finite element method. The textures are assigned to each element mesh, and a photorealistic 3D model is got finally. A toy pig is used to verify the algorithm, and the result is exciting.

  8. Parallel finite element simulations of incompressible viscous fluid flow by domain decomposition with Lagrange multipliers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rivera, Christian A.; Heniche, Mourad; Glowinski, Roland; Tanguy, Philippe A.

    2010-07-01

    A parallel approach to solve three-dimensional viscous incompressible fluid flow problems using discontinuous pressure finite elements and a Lagrange multiplier technique is presented. The strategy is based on non-overlapping domain decomposition methods, and Lagrange multipliers are used to enforce continuity at the boundaries between subdomains. The novelty of the work is the coupled approach for solving the velocity-pressure-Lagrange multiplier algebraic system of the discrete Navier-Stokes equations by a distributed memory parallel ILU (0) preconditioned Krylov method. A penalty function on the interface constraints equations is introduced to avoid the failure of the ILU factorization algorithm. To ensure portability of the code, a message based memory distributed model with MPI is employed. The method has been tested over different benchmark cases such as the lid-driven cavity and pipe flow with unstructured tetrahedral grids. It is found that the partition algorithm and the order of the physical variables are central to parallelization performance. A speed-up in the range of 5-13 is obtained with 16 processors. Finally, the algorithm is tested over an industrial case using up to 128 processors. In considering the literature, the obtained speed-ups on distributed and shared memory computers are found very competitive.

  9. Global Regularity and Long-time Behavior of the Solutions to the 2D Boussinesq Equations without Diffusivity in a Bounded Domain

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ju, Ning

    2016-07-01

    New results are obtained for global regularity and long-time behavior of the solutions to the 2D Boussinesq equations for the flow of an incompressible fluid with positive viscosity and zero diffusivity in a smooth bounded domain. Our first result for global boundedness of the solution {(u, θ)} in {D(A)× H^1} improves considerably the main result of the recent article (Hu et al. in J Math Phys 54(8):081507, 2013). Our second result on global boundedness of the solution {(u, θ)} in {V× H^1} for both bounded domain and the whole space {{R}2} is a new one. It has been open and also seems much more challenging than the first result. Global regularity of the solution {(u, θ)} in {D(A)× H2} is also proved.

  10. Rapid Transient Pressure Field Computations in the Nearfield of Circular Transducers using Frequency Domain Time-Space Decomposition

    PubMed Central

    Alles, E. J.; Zhu, Y.; van Dongen, K. W. A.; McGough, R. J.

    2013-01-01

    The fast nearfield method, when combined with time-space decomposition, is a rapid and accurate approach for calculating transient nearfield pressures generated by ultrasound transducers. However, the standard time-space decomposition approach is only applicable to certain analytical representations of the temporal transducer surface velocity that, when applied to the fast nearfield method, are expressed as a finite sum of products of separate temporal and spatial terms. To extend time-space decomposition such that accelerated transient field simulations are enabled in the nearfield for an arbitrary transducer surface velocity, a new transient simulation method, frequency domain time-space decomposition (FDTSD), is derived. With this method, the temporal transducer surface velocity is transformed into the frequency domain, and then each complex-valued term is processed separately. Further improvements are achieved by spectral clipping, which reduces the number of terms and the computation time. Trade-offs between speed and accuracy are established for FDTSD calculations, and pressure fields obtained with the FDTSD method for a circular transducer are compared to those obtained with Field II and the impulse response method. The FDTSD approach, when combined with the fast nearfield method and spectral clipping, consistently achieves smaller errors in less time and requires less memory than Field II or the impulse response method. PMID:23160476

  11. Unsteady flow simulations about moving boundary configurations using dynamic domain decomposition techniques

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yen, Guan-Wei

    A computational method is developed to solve the coupled governing equations of an unsteady flowfield and those of rigid-body dynamics in six degrees-of-freedom (6-DOF). This method is capable of simulating the unsteady flowfields around multiple component configurations with at least one of the components in relative motion with respect to the others. Two of the important phenomena that such analyses can help us to understand are the unsteady aerodynamic interference and the boundary-induced component of such a flowfield. By hybridizing two dynamic domain decomposition techniques, the grid generation task is simplified, the computer memory requirement is reduced, and the governing equations of the rigid-body dynamics are simplified with certain assumptions. Three dimensional, unsteady Navier-Stokes equations are solved on each of the subdomains by a fully-vectorized, finite-volume, upwind-biased, and approximately-factored method. These equations are solved on the composite meshes of hybrid subdomain grids that can move with respect to each other. Hence, the present method combines the advantages of an efficient, geometrically conservative, minimally and automatically dissipative algorithm with the advantages and flexibility of the domain decomposition techniques. Several measures that reduce the numerical error are studied and compared with the exact solution of a moving normal shock in a tube. This solution compares very well with the analytic solution of the isentropic equations. It is concluded, that as a minimum measure, the connectivity of nonconservative overlapped scheme needs to be second-order accurate for spatial and temporal discretizations, as well as for the moving subdomain interpolations. Furthermore, the CFL numbers should be restricted to below unity, if affordable, for flows with high flow gradients. The method is further scrutinized by simulating the flow past a sinusoidally pitching airfoil, and the flow past a sinusoidally pitching and

  12. Semi-automated 2D Bruch's membrane shape analysis in papilledema using spectral-domain optical coherence tomography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Jui-Kai; Sibony, Patrick A.; Kardon, Randy H.; Kupersmith, Mark J.; Garvin, Mona K.

    2015-03-01

    Recent studies have shown that the Bruch's membrane (BM) and retinal pigment epithelium (RPE), visualized on spectral-domain optical coherence tomography (SD-OCT), is deformed anteriorly towards the vitreous in patients with intracranial hypertension and papilledema. The BM/RPE shape has been quantified using a statistical-shape-model approach; however, to date, the approach has involved the tedious and time-consuming manual placement of landmarks and correspondingly, only the shape (and shape changes) of a limited number of patients has been studied. In this work, we first present a semi-automated approach for the extraction of 20 landmarks along the BM from an optic-nerve-head (ONH) centered OCT slice from each patient. In the approach, after the manual placement of the two Bruch's membrane opening (BMO) points, the remaining 18 landmarks are automatically determined using a graph-based segmentation approach. We apply the approach to the OCT scans of 116 patients (at baseline) enrolled in the Idiopathic Intracranial Hypertension Treatment Trial and generate a statistical shape model using principal components analysis. Using the resulting shape model, the coefficient (shape measure) corresponding to the second principal component (eigenvector) for each set of landmarks indicates the degree of the BM/RPE is oriented away from the vitreous. Using a subset of 20 patients, we compare the shape measure computed using this semi-automated approach with the resulting shape measure when (1) all landmarks are specified manually (Experiment I); and (2) a different expert specifies the two BMO points (Experiment II). In each case, a correlation coefficient >= 0.99 is obtained.

  13. A dual-field domain-decomposition method for the time-domain finite-element analysis of large finite arrays

    SciTech Connect

    Lou, Zheng; Jin, Jian-Ming . E-mail: j-jin1@uiuc.edu

    2007-03-01

    A novel dual-field time-domain finite-element domain-decomposition method is presented for an efficient and broadband numerical simulation of electromagnetic properties of large finite arrays. Instead of treating the entire array as a single computation domain, the method considers each array element as a smaller subdomain and computes both the electric and magnetic fields inside each subdomain. Adjacent subdomains are related to each other by the equivalent surface currents on the subdomain interfaces in an explicit manner. Furthermore, the method exploits the identical geometry of the array elements and further reduces the memory requirement and CPU time. The proposed method is highly efficient for the simulation of large finite arrays. Numerical stability and computational performance of the method are discussed. Several radiation examples are presented to demonstrate the accuracy and efficiency of the method.

  14. A Domain Decomposition Approach for Large-Scale Simulations of Flow Processes in Hydrate-Bearing Geologic Media

    SciTech Connect

    Zhang, Keni; Moridis, G.J.; Wu, Y.-S.; Pruess, K.

    2008-07-01

    Simulation of the system behavior of hydrate-bearing geologic media involves solving fully coupled mass- and heat-balance equations. In this study, we develop a domain decomposition approach for large-scale gas hydrate simulations with coarse-granularity parallel computation. This approach partitions a simulation domain into small subdomains. The full model domain, consisting of discrete subdomains, is still simulated simultaneously by using multiple processes/processors. Each processor is dedicated to following tasks of the partitioned subdomain: updating thermophysical properties, assembling mass- and energy-balance equations, solving linear equation systems, and performing various other local computations. The linearized equation systems are solved in parallel with a parallel linear solver, using an efficient interprocess communication scheme. This new domain decomposition approach has been implemented into the TOUGH+HYDRATE code and has demonstrated excellent speedup and good scalability. In this paper, we will demonstrate applications for the new approach in simulating field-scale models for gas production from gas-hydrate deposits.

  15. A catalogue of 2D photometric decompositions in the SDSS-DR7 spectroscopic main galaxy sample: preferred models and systematics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meert, Alan; Vikram, Vinu; Bernardi, Mariangela

    2015-02-01

    We present a catalogue of 2D, point spread function-corrected de Vacouleurs, Sérsic, de Vacouleurs+Exponential, and Sérsic+Exponential fits of ˜7 × 105 spectroscopically selected galaxies drawn from the Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS) Data Release 7. Fits are performed for the SDSS r band utilizing the fitting routine GALFIT and analysis pipeline PYMORPH. We compare these fits to prior catalogues. Fits are analysed using a physically motivated flagging system. The flags suggest that more than 90 per cent of two-component fits can be used for analysis. We show that the fits follow the expected behaviour for early and late galaxy types. The catalogues provide a robust set of structural and photometric parameters for future galaxy studies. We show that some biases remain in the measurements, e.g. the presence of bars significantly affect the bulge measurements although the bulge ellipticity may be used to separate barred and non-barred galaxies, and about 15 per cent of bulges of two-component fits are also affected by resolution. The catalogues are available in electronic format. We also provide an interface for generating postage stamp images of the 2D model and residual as well as the 1D profile. These images can be generated for a user-uploaded list of galaxies on demand.

  16. Full waveform time domain solutions for source and induced magnetotelluric and controlled-source electromagnetic fields using quasi-equivalent time domain decomposition and GPU parallelization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Imamura, N.; Schultz, A.

    2015-12-01

    Recently, a full waveform time domain solution has been developed for the magnetotelluric (MT) and controlled-source electromagnetic (CSEM) methods. The ultimate goal of this approach is to obtain a computationally tractable direct waveform joint inversion for source fields and earth conductivity structure in three and four dimensions. This is desirable on several grounds, including the improved spatial resolving power expected from use of a multitude of source illuminations of non-zero wavenumber, the ability to operate in areas of high levels of source signal spatial complexity and non-stationarity, etc. This goal would not be obtainable if one were to adopt the finite difference time-domain (FDTD) approach for the forward problem. This is particularly true for the case of MT surveys, since an enormous number of degrees of freedom are required to represent the observed MT waveforms across the large frequency bandwidth. It means that for FDTD simulation, the smallest time steps should be finer than that required to represent the highest frequency, while the number of time steps should also cover the lowest frequency. This leads to a linear system that is computationally burdensome to solve. We have implemented our code that addresses this situation through the use of a fictitious wave domain method and GPUs to speed up the computation time. We also substantially reduce the size of the linear systems by applying concepts from successive cascade decimation, through quasi-equivalent time domain decomposition. By combining these refinements, we have made good progress toward implementing the core of a full waveform joint source field/earth conductivity inverse modeling method. From results, we found the use of previous generation of CPU/GPU speeds computations by an order of magnitude over a parallel CPU only approach. In part, this arises from the use of the quasi-equivalent time domain decomposition, which shrinks the size of the linear system dramatically.

  17. Simulations of magnetic reconnection with Parsek2D-MLMD, a new Multi Level Multi Domain (MLMD) Implicit Moment Method (IMM) Particle in Cell (PIC) code

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Innocenti, M.; Beck, A.; Lapenta, G.; Markidis, S.

    2012-12-01

    The kinetic simulation of intrinsically multi scale processes such as magnetic reconnection events with realistic mass ratios is a daunting task for explicit Particle In Cell (PIC) codes, which require to use resolutions of the order of the electron Debye length even when simulating dramatically bigger domains. As an example, a simulation of reconnection in the magnetotail, with domain sizes of the order of 20 di x 10 di (˜ 7.2 106 m x 3.6 106 m, with di being the ion skin depth) and a resolution of λD,e= 687 m, with λD,e the electron Debye length, requires the astounding number of 10500 x 5240 cells. Higher grid spacings can be used if the simulation is performed with an implicit PIC code, which substitutes a much less strict accuracy constraint to the stability constraint of explicit PIC codes. The same reconnection problem as before can be simulated, with an implicit PIC code resolving the scale of interest of de /2 instead of the electron Debye length (de is the electron skin depth), with the much more manageable number of 1920 x 958 cells. However, an even smaller number of cells can be used if, instead of using the same, high resolution on the entire domain, the domain to simulate is divided into subdomains each resolved with a grid spacing related to the physical scale of interest in the specific subdomain. In the case of reconnection, the division which immediately springs to mind is between electron diffusion region, ion diffusion region and outer region, where resolutions respectively of the order of fractions of the electron skin depth, of the ion skin depth and bigger can be used. We present here a new Multi Level Multi Domain (MLMD) Implicit Moment Method (IMM) Particle In Cell (PIC) code, Parsek2D-MLMD, able to perform simulations of magnetic reconnection where the expensive high resolutions are used only when needed, while the rest of the domain is simulated with grid spacings chosen according to the local scales of interest. The major difference

  18. Aniso2D

    2005-07-01

    Aniso2d is a two-dimensional seismic forward modeling code. The earth is parameterized by an X-Z plane in which the seismic properties Can have monoclinic with x-z plane symmetry. The program uses a user define time-domain wavelet to produce synthetic seismograms anrwhere within the two-dimensional media.

  19. Quantifying the lateral lipid domain properties in erythrocyte ghost membranes using EPR-spectra decomposition.

    PubMed

    Arsov, Zoran; Schara, Milan; Strancar, Janez

    2002-07-01

    Using EPR spectroscopy a typical lateral domain structure was detected in the membranes of spin-labeled bovine erythrocyte ghosts. The spectral parameters were determined by decomposing the EPR spectrum into three spectral components and tuned by a hybrid-evolutionary-optimization method. In our experiments the lateral domain structure and its properties were influenced by the variation in the temperature and by the addition of n-butanol. The specific responses of the particular domain types were detected. For the most-ordered domain type a break was seen in the temperature dependence of its order parameter, while the order parameters of the two less-ordered domain types exhibited a continuous decrease. Below the break-point temperature the alcohol-induced membrane fluidity variation is mainly a consequence of the change in the proportions of the least- and the most-ordered domain type and not the change of the domain-type ordering or dynamics (with n-butanol concentration). On the other hand, the fluidity variation above the break-point temperature arises from both types of changes. Interestingly, the proportion of the domain type that has its order parameter between that of the least- and the most-ordered domain type remains almost constant with concentration as well as with temperature, which implies its stability. Such characterization of the lateral membrane domain structure could be beneficial when considering the lipid-protein interactions, because it can be assumed that the activity of the membrane-bound enzyme depends on the properties of the particular domain type. PMID:12202132

  20. Asynchronous space-time algorithm based on a domain decomposition method for structural dynamics problems on non-matching meshes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Subber, Waad; Matouš, Karel

    2016-02-01

    Large-scale practical engineering problems featuring localized phenomena often benefit from local control of mesh and time resolutions to efficiently capture the spatial and temporal scales of interest. To this end, we propose an asynchronous space-time algorithm based on a domain decomposition method for structural dynamics problems on non-matching meshes. The three-field algorithm is based on the dual-primal like domain decomposition approach utilizing the localized Lagrange multipliers along the space and time common-refinement-based interface. The proposed algorithm is parallel in nature and well suited for a heterogeneous computing environment. Moreover, two-levels of parallelism are embedded in this novel scheme. For linear dynamical problems, the algorithm is unconditionally stable, shows an optimal order of convergence with respect to space and time discretizations as well as ensures conservation of mass, momentum and energy across the non-matching grid interfaces. The method of manufactured solutions is used to verify the implementation, and an engineering application is considered, where a sandwich plate is impacted by a projectile.

  1. A domain decomposition method of stochastic PDEs: An iterative solution techniques using a two-level scalable preconditioner

    SciTech Connect

    Subber, Waad Sarkar, Abhijit

    2014-01-15

    Recent advances in high performance computing systems and sensing technologies motivate computational simulations with extremely high resolution models with capabilities to quantify uncertainties for credible numerical predictions. A two-level domain decomposition method is reported in this investigation to devise a linear solver for the large-scale system in the Galerkin spectral stochastic finite element method (SSFEM). In particular, a two-level scalable preconditioner is introduced in order to iteratively solve the large-scale linear system in the intrusive SSFEM using an iterative substructuring based domain decomposition solver. The implementation of the algorithm involves solving a local problem on each subdomain that constructs the local part of the preconditioner and a coarse problem that propagates information globally among the subdomains. The numerical and parallel scalabilities of the two-level preconditioner are contrasted with the previously developed one-level preconditioner for two-dimensional flow through porous media and elasticity problems with spatially varying non-Gaussian material properties. A distributed implementation of the parallel algorithm is carried out using MPI and PETSc parallel libraries. The scalabilities of the algorithm are investigated in a Linux cluster.

  2. Parallelized Characteristic Basis Finite Element Method (CBFEM-MPI)-A non-iterative domain decomposition algorithm for electromagnetic scattering problems

    SciTech Connect

    Ozgun, Ozlem Mittra, Raj; Kuzuoglu, Mustafa

    2009-04-01

    In this paper, we introduce a parallelized version of a novel, non-iterative domain decomposition algorithm, called Characteristic Basis Finite Element Method (CBFEM-MPI), for efficient solution of large-scale electromagnetic scattering problems, by utilizing a set of specially defined characteristic basis functions (CBFs). This approach is based on the decomposition of the computational domain into a number of non-overlapping subdomains wherein the CBFs are generated by employing a novel procedure, which differs from all those that have been used in the past. Clearly, the CBFs are obtained by calculating the fields radiated by a finite number of dipole-type sources, which are placed hypothetically along the boundary of the conducting object. The major advantages of the proposed technique are twofold: (i) it provides a substantial reduction in the matrix size, and thus, makes use of direct solvers efficiently and (ii) it enables the utilization of parallel processing techniques that considerably decrease the overall computation time. We illustrate the application of the proposed approach via several 3D electromagnetic scattering problems.

  3. A new scheme for the Navier-Stokes equations employing alternating-direction operator splitting and domain decomposition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Spyropoulos, John T.

    This thesis extends earlier research in numerical analysis and computational fluid dynamics (CFD) to obtain a novel finite element method for the transient, 3-D, incompressible Navier-Stokes equations, along with efficient, parallelizable algorithms to carry out an implementation of the method in such a fashion as to be useful in mainstream industrial settings. This new finite element procedure employs alternating-direction operator splittings to model problems of increasing complexity in a step-by-step and natural manner. The scheme employs a characteristic-Galerkin method for the numerical treatment of the nonlinear advection operator. Non-overlapping domain decomposition schemes are employed for the solution of linear Stokes-type subproblems and for the matching of the inviscid and viscous solutions in different subdomains. These problems are solved by Bramble-Pasciak-Schatz wirebasket domain decomposition methods in a stabilized mixed finite element method formulation. The scheme is coupled to an existing grid generator code that provides globally unstructured, but locally structured grids, within each subdomain. Numerical results obtained include incompressible viscous flows over a backward facing steps at various Reynolds numbers and show very good to excellent agreement with experiments as well as other published numerical results.

  4. Efficient training of convolutional deep belief networks in the frequency domain for application to high-resolution 2D and 3D images.

    PubMed

    Brosch, Tom; Tam, Roger

    2015-01-01

    Deep learning has traditionally been computationally expensive, and advances in training methods have been the prerequisite for improving its efficiency in order to expand its application to a variety of image classification problems. In this letter, we address the problem of efficient training of convolutional deep belief networks by learning the weights in the frequency domain, which eliminates the time-consuming calculation of convolutions. An essential consideration in the design of the algorithm is to minimize the number of transformations to and from frequency space. We have evaluated the running time improvements using two standard benchmark data sets, showing a speed-up of up to 8 times on 2D images and up to 200 times on 3D volumes. Our training algorithm makes training of convolutional deep belief networks on 3D medical images with a resolution of up to 128×128×128 voxels practical, which opens new directions for using deep learning for medical image analysis. PMID:25380341

  5. Sample Optimization and Identification of Signal Patterns of Amino Acid Side Chains in 2D RFDR Spectra of the α-Spectrin SH3 Domain

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pauli, Jutta; van Rossum, Barth; Förster, Hans; de Groot, Huub J. M.; Oschkinat, Hartmut

    2000-04-01

    Future structural investigations of proteins by solid-state CPMAS NMR will rely on uniformly labeled protein samples showing spectra with an excellent resolution. NMR samples of the solid α-spectrin SH3 domain were generated in four different ways, and their 13C CPMAS spectra were compared. The spectrum of a [u-13C, 15N]-labeled sample generated by precipitation shows very narrow 13C signals and resolved scalar carbon-carbon couplings. Linewidths of 16-19 Hz were found for the three alanine Cβ signals of a selectively labeled [70% 3-13C]alanine-enriched SH3 sample. The signal pattern of the isoleucine, of all prolines, valines, alanines, and serines, and of three of the four threonines were identified in 2D 13C-13C RFDR spectra of the [u-13C,15N]-labeled SH3 sample. A comparison of the 13C chemical shifts of the found signal patterns with the 13C assignment obtained in solution shows an intriguing match.

  6. DOMAIN DECOMPOSITION METHOD APPLIED TO A FLOW PROBLEM Norberto C. Vera Guzmán Institute of Geophysics, UNAM

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vera, N. C.; GMMC

    2013-05-01

    In this paper we present the results of macrohybrid mixed Darcian flow in porous media in a general three-dimensional domain. The global problem is solved as a set of local subproblems which are posed using a domain decomposition method. Unknown fields of local problems, velocity and pressure are approximated using mixed finite elements. For this application, a general three-dimensional domain is considered which is discretized using tetrahedra. The discrete domain is decomposed into subdomains and reformulated the original problem as a set of subproblems, communicated through their interfaces. To solve this set of subproblems, we use finite element mixed and parallel computing. The parallelization of a problem using this methodology can, in principle, to fully exploit a computer equipment and also provides results in less time, two very important elements in modeling. Referencias G.Alduncin and N.Vera-Guzmán Parallel proximal-point algorithms for mixed _nite element models of _ow in the subsurface, Commun. Numer. Meth. Engng 2004; 20:83-104 (DOI: 10.1002/cnm.647) Z. Chen, G.Huan and Y. Ma Computational Methods for Multiphase Flows in Porous Media, SIAM, Society for Industrial and Applied Mathematics, Philadelphia, 2006. A. Quarteroni and A. Valli, Numerical Approximation of Partial Differential Equations, Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 1994. Brezzi F, Fortin M. Mixed and Hybrid Finite Element Methods. Springer: New York, 1991.

  7. A Linked-Cell Domain Decomposition Method for Molecular Dynamics Simulation on a Scalable Multiprocessor

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Yang, L. H.; Brooks III, E. D.; Belak, J.

    1992-01-01

    A molecular dynamics algorithm for performing large-scale simulations using the Parallel C Preprocessor (PCP) programming paradigm on the BBN TC2000, a massively parallel computer, is discussed. The algorithm uses a linked-cell data structure to obtain the near neighbors of each atom as time evoles. Each processor is assigned to a geometric domain containing many subcells and the storage for that domain is private to the processor. Within this scheme, the interdomain (i.e., interprocessor) communication is minimized.

  8. GRID2D/3D: A computer program for generating grid systems in complex-shaped two- and three-dimensional spatial domains. Part 2: User's manual and program listing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bailey, R. T.; Shih, T. I.-P.; Nguyen, H. L.; Roelke, R. J.

    1990-01-01

    An efficient computer program, called GRID2D/3D, was developed to generate single and composite grid systems within geometrically complex two- and three-dimensional (2- and 3-D) spatial domains that can deform with time. GRID2D/3D generates single grid systems by using algebraic grid generation methods based on transfinite interpolation in which the distribution of grid points within the spatial domain is controlled by stretching functions. All single grid systems generated by GRID2D/3D can have grid lines that are continuous and differentiable everywhere up to the second-order. Also, grid lines can intersect boundaries of the spatial domain orthogonally. GRID2D/3D generates composite grid systems by patching together two or more single grid systems. The patching can be discontinuous or continuous. For continuous composite grid systems, the grid lines are continuous and differentiable everywhere up to the second-order except at interfaces where different single grid systems meet. At interfaces where different single grid systems meet, the grid lines are only differentiable up to the first-order. For 2-D spatial domains, the boundary curves are described by using either cubic or tension spline interpolation. For 3-D spatial domains, the boundary surfaces are described by using either linear Coon's interpolation, bi-hyperbolic spline interpolation, or a new technique referred to as 3-D bi-directional Hermite interpolation. Since grid systems generated by algebraic methods can have grid lines that overlap one another, GRID2D/3D contains a graphics package for evaluating the grid systems generated. With the graphics package, the user can generate grid systems in an interactive manner with the grid generation part of GRID2D/3D. GRID2D/3D is written in FORTRAN 77 and can be run on any IBM PC, XT, or AT compatible computer. In order to use GRID2D/3D on workstations or mainframe computers, some minor modifications must be made in the graphics part of the program; no

  9. A parallel algorithm for 2D visco-acoustic frequency-domain full-waveform inversion: application to a dense OBS data set

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sourbier, F.; Operto, S.; Virieux, J.

    2006-12-01

    We present a distributed-memory parallel algorithm for 2D visco-acoustic full-waveform inversion of wide-angle seismic data. Our code is written in fortran90 and use MPI for parallelism. The algorithm was applied to real wide-angle data set recorded by 100 OBSs with a 1-km spacing in the eastern-Nankai trough (Japan) to image the deep structure of the subduction zone. Full-waveform inversion is applied sequentially to discrete frequencies by proceeding from the low to the high frequencies. The inverse problem is solved with a classic gradient method. Full-waveform modeling is performed with a frequency-domain finite-difference method. In the frequency-domain, solving the wave equation requires resolution of a large unsymmetric system of linear equations. We use the massively parallel direct solver MUMPS (http://www.enseeiht.fr/irit/apo/MUMPS) for distributed-memory computer to solve this system. The MUMPS solver is based on a multifrontal method for the parallel factorization. The MUMPS algorithm is subdivided in 3 main steps: a symbolic analysis step that performs re-ordering of the matrix coefficients to minimize the fill-in of the matrix during the subsequent factorization and an estimation of the assembly tree of the matrix. Second, the factorization is performed with dynamic scheduling to accomodate numerical pivoting and provides the LU factors distributed over all the processors. Third, the resolution is performed for multiple sources. To compute the gradient of the cost function, 2 simulations per shot are required (one to compute the forward wavefield and one to back-propagate residuals). The multi-source resolutions can be performed in parallel with MUMPS. In the end, each processor stores in core a sub-domain of all the solutions. These distributed solutions can be exploited to compute in parallel the gradient of the cost function. Since the gradient of the cost function is a weighted stack of the shot and residual solutions of MUMPS, each processor

  10. Effective transmission conditions for domain decomposition methods applied to the time-harmonic curl-curl Maxwell's equations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dolean, Victorita; Gander, Martin J.; Lanteri, Stephane; Lee, Jin-Fa; Peng, Zhen

    2015-01-01

    The time-harmonic Maxwell equations describe the propagation of electromagnetic waves and are therefore fundamental for the simulation of many modern devices we have become used to in everyday life. The numerical solution of these equations is hampered by two fundamental problems: first, in the high frequency regime, very fine meshes need to be used in order to avoid the pollution effect well known for the Helmholtz equation, and second the large scale systems obtained from the vector valued equations in three spatial dimensions need to be solved by iterative methods, since direct factorizations are not feasible any more at that scale. As for the Helmholtz equation, classical iterative methods applied to discretized Maxwell equations have severe convergence problems. We explain in this paper a family of domain decomposition methods based on well chosen transmission conditions. We show that all transmission conditions proposed so far in the literature, both for the first and second order formulation of Maxwell's equations, can be written and optimized in the common framework of optimized Schwarz methods, independently of the first or second order formulation one uses, and the performance of the corresponding algorithms is identical. We use a decomposition into transverse electric and transverse magnetic fields to describe these algorithms, which greatly simplifies the convergence analysis of the methods. We illustrate the performance of our algorithms with large scale numerical simulations.

  11. Texture analysis by fractal descriptors over the wavelet domain using a best basis decomposition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Florindo, J. B.; Bruno, O. M.

    2016-02-01

    This work proposes the development and study of a novel set of fractal descriptors for texture analysis. These descriptors are obtained by exploring the fractal-like relation among the coefficients and magnitudes of a particular type of wavelet decomposition, to know, the best basis selection. The proposed method is tested in the classification of three sets of textures from the literature: Brodatz, Vistex and USPTex. The method is also applied to a challenging real-world problem, which is the identification of species of plants from the Brazilian flora. The results are compared with other classical and state-of-the-art texture descriptors and demonstrate the efficiency of the proposed technique in this task.

  12. NON-CONFORMING FINITE ELEMENTS; MESH GENERATION, ADAPTIVITY AND RELATED ALGEBRAIC MULTIGRID AND DOMAIN DECOMPOSITION METHODS IN MASSIVELY PARALLEL COMPUTING ENVIRONMENT

    SciTech Connect

    Lazarov, R; Pasciak, J; Jones, J

    2002-02-01

    Construction, analysis and numerical testing of efficient solution techniques for solving elliptic PDEs that allow for parallel implementation have been the focus of the research. A number of discretization and solution methods for solving second order elliptic problems that include mortar and penalty approximations and domain decomposition methods for finite elements and finite volumes have been investigated and analyzed. Techniques for parallel domain decomposition algorithms in the framework of PETC and HYPRE have been studied and tested. Hierarchical parallel grid refinement and adaptive solution methods have been implemented and tested on various model problems. A parallel code implementing the mortar method with algebraically constructed multiplier spaces was developed.

  13. Enhancements to the Combinatorial Geometry Particle Tracker in the Mercury Monte Carlo Transport Code: Embedded Meshes and Domain Decomposition

    SciTech Connect

    Greenman, G M; O'Brien, M J; Procassini, R J; Joy, K I

    2009-03-09

    Two enhancements to the combinatorial geometry (CG) particle tracker in the Mercury Monte Carlo transport code are presented. The first enhancement is a hybrid particle tracker wherein a mesh region is embedded within a CG region. This method permits efficient calculations of problems with contain both large-scale heterogeneous and homogeneous regions. The second enhancement relates to the addition of parallelism within the CG tracker via spatial domain decomposition. This permits calculations of problems with a large degree of geometric complexity, which are not possible through particle parallelism alone. In this method, the cells are decomposed across processors and a particles is communicated to an adjacent processor when it tracks to an interprocessor boundary. Applications that demonstrate the efficacy of these new methods are presented.

  14. An asymptotic preserving automatic domain decomposition method for the Vlasov–Poisson–BGK system with applications to plasmas

    SciTech Connect

    Dimarco, Giacomo; Mieussens, Luc; Rispoli, Vittorio

    2014-10-01

    In this work we present an efficient strategy to deal with plasma physics simulations in which localized departures from thermodynamical equilibrium are present. The method is based on the introduction of intermediate regions which allows smooth transitions between kinetic and fluid zones. In this paper we extend Domain Decomposition techniques, obtained through dynamic coupling and buffer zones, to the study of plasmas and, moreover, we combine them with Asymptotic Preserving and Asymptotically Accurate strategies for the time integration. We use a hybrid scheme in which both kinetic and fluid descriptions are considered and coupled together while the kinetic model is solved by asymptotic preserving and accurate methods, in order to guarantee high efficiency and accuracy in all regimes. The numerical scheme is validated and its performances are analyzed by numerical simulations.

  15. An efficient, robust, domain-decomposition algorithm for particle Monte Carlo

    SciTech Connect

    Brunner, Thomas A. Brantley, Patrick S.

    2009-06-01

    A previously described algorithm [T.A. Brunner, T.J. Urbatsch, T.M. Evans, N.A. Gentile, Comparison of four parallel algorithms for domain decomposed implicit Monte Carlo, Journal of Computational Physics 212 (2) (2006) 527-539] for doing domain decomposed particle Monte Carlo calculations in the context of thermal radiation transport has been improved. It has been extended to support cases where the number of particles in a time step are unknown at the beginning of the time step. This situation arises when various physical processes, such as neutron transport, can generate additional particles during the time step, or when particle splitting is used for variance reduction. Additionally, several race conditions that existed in the previous algorithm and could cause code hangs have been fixed. This new algorithm is believed to be robust against all race conditions. The parallel scalability of the new algorithm remains excellent.

  16. Time Domain Strain/Stress Reconstruction Based on Empirical Mode Decomposition: Numerical Study and Experimental Validation.

    PubMed

    He, Jingjing; Zhou, Yibin; Guan, Xuefei; Zhang, Wei; Zhang, Weifang; Liu, Yongming

    2016-01-01

    Structural health monitoring has been studied by a number of researchers as well as various industries to keep up with the increasing demand for preventive maintenance routines. This work presents a novel method for reconstruct prompt, informed strain/stress responses at the hot spots of the structures based on strain measurements at remote locations. The structural responses measured from usage monitoring system at available locations are decomposed into modal responses using empirical mode decomposition. Transformation equations based on finite element modeling are derived to extrapolate the modal responses from the measured locations to critical locations where direct sensor measurements are not available. Then, two numerical examples (a two-span beam and a 19956-degree of freedom simplified airfoil) are used to demonstrate the overall reconstruction method. Finally, the present work investigates the effectiveness and accuracy of the method through a set of experiments conducted on an aluminium alloy cantilever beam commonly used in air vehicle and spacecraft. The experiments collect the vibration strain signals of the beam via optical fiber sensors. Reconstruction results are compared with theoretical solutions and a detailed error analysis is also provided. PMID:27537889

  17. Domain decomposition based iterative methods for nonlinear elliptic finite element problems

    SciTech Connect

    Cai, X.C.

    1994-12-31

    The class of overlapping Schwarz algorithms has been extensively studied for linear elliptic finite element problems. In this presentation, the author considers the solution of systems of nonlinear algebraic equations arising from the finite element discretization of some nonlinear elliptic equations. Several overlapping Schwarz algorithms, including the additive and multiplicative versions, with inexact Newton acceleration will be discussed. The author shows that the convergence rate of the Newton`s method is independent of the mesh size used in the finite element discretization, and also independent of the number of subdomains into which the original domain in decomposed. Numerical examples will be presented.

  18. Domain decomposition methods for systems of conservation laws: Spectral collocation approximations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Quarteroni, Alfio

    1989-01-01

    Hyperbolic systems of conversation laws are considered which are discretized in space by spectral collocation methods and advanced in time by finite difference schemes. At any time-level a domain deposition method based on an iteration by subdomain procedure was introduced yielding at each step a sequence of independent subproblems (one for each subdomain) that can be solved simultaneously. The method is set for a general nonlinear problem in several space variables. The convergence analysis, however, is carried out only for a linear one-dimensional system with continuous solutions. A precise form of the error reduction factor at each iteration is derived. Although the method is applied here to the case of spectral collocation approximation only, the idea is fairly general and can be used in a different context as well. For instance, its application to space discretization by finite differences is straight forward.

  19. Effects of temperature on spinodal decomposition and domain growth of liquid-vapor systems with smoothed particle hydrodynamics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pütz, Martin; Nielaba, Peter

    2015-03-01

    We present a numerical method for simulations of spinodal decomposition of liquid-vapor systems. The results are in excellent agreement with theoretical predictions for all expected time regimes from the initial growth of "homophase fluctuations" up to the inertial hydrodynamics regime. The numerical approach follows a modern formulation of the smoothed particle hydrodynamics method with a van der Waals equation of state and thermal conduction. The dynamics and thermal evolution of instantaneously temperature-quenched systems are investigated. Therefore, we introduce a simple scaling thermostat that allows thermal fluctuations at a constant predicted mean temperature. We find that the initial stage spinodal decomposition is strongly affected by the temperature field. The separated phases react on density changes with a change in temperature. Although, the thermal conduction acts very slowly, thermal deviations are eventually compensated. The domain growth in the late stage of demixing is found to be rather unaffected by thermal fluctuations. We observe a transition from the Lifshitz-Slyozov growth rate with 1 /3 exponent to the inertial hydrodynamics regime with a rate of 2 /3 , only excepted from simulations near the critical point where the liquid droplets are observed to nucleate directly in a spherical shape. The transition between the growth regimes is found to occur earlier for higher initial temperatures. We explain this time dependency with the phase interfaces that become more diffuse and overlap with approaching the critical point. A prolonging behavior of the demixing process is observed and also expected to depend on temperature. It is further found that the observations can excellently explain the growth behavior for pure nonisothermal simulations that are performed without thermostat.

  20. Effects of temperature on spinodal decomposition and domain growth of liquid-vapor systems with smoothed particle hydrodynamics.

    PubMed

    Pütz, Martin; Nielaba, Peter

    2015-03-01

    We present a numerical method for simulations of spinodal decomposition of liquid-vapor systems. The results are in excellent agreement with theoretical predictions for all expected time regimes from the initial growth of "homophase fluctuations" up to the inertial hydrodynamics regime. The numerical approach follows a modern formulation of the smoothed particle hydrodynamics method with a van der Waals equation of state and thermal conduction. The dynamics and thermal evolution of instantaneously temperature-quenched systems are investigated. Therefore, we introduce a simple scaling thermostat that allows thermal fluctuations at a constant predicted mean temperature. We find that the initial stage spinodal decomposition is strongly affected by the temperature field. The separated phases react on density changes with a change in temperature. Although, the thermal conduction acts very slowly, thermal deviations are eventually compensated. The domain growth in the late stage of demixing is found to be rather unaffected by thermal fluctuations. We observe a transition from the Lifshitz-Slyozov growth rate with 1/3 exponent to the inertial hydrodynamics regime with a rate of 2/3, only excepted from simulations near the critical point where the liquid droplets are observed to nucleate directly in a spherical shape. The transition between the growth regimes is found to occur earlier for higher initial temperatures. We explain this time dependency with the phase interfaces that become more diffuse and overlap with approaching the critical point. A prolonging behavior of the demixing process is observed and also expected to depend on temperature. It is further found that the observations can excellently explain the growth behavior for pure nonisothermal simulations that are performed without thermostat. PMID:25871106

  1. A 2D domain decomposition, a customized immersed boundary method and a zest of numerical dissipation: a successful cocktail to tackle turbulence on HPC systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Laizet, Sylvain; Lamballais, Eric; Vassilicos, J. Christos

    2015-11-01

    Incompact3d is a high-order flow solver dedicated to Direct and Large Eddy Simulations (DNS/LES) using High Performance Computing (HPC) systems which isdevoted to turbulent flows at the interface between academic research and upstream industrial R&D. It is originating from the University of Poitiers (France) and was developed there as well as, more recently, in the Turbulence, Mixing and Flow Control Group at Imperial College London (UK). This high-order flow solver can reconcile accuracy, efficiency, versatility and scalability using a simple Cartesian mesh and up to one million computational cores. The three key ingredients of this successful cocktail to tackle turbulence on HPC systemswill be given in this talkfollowed by various applications such as fractal-generated turbulence, gravity currents in an open basin, impinging jets on a heated plate and a micro-jet device to control a turbulent jet.

  2. Efficient Solvers for Linear Elasticity Problems Based on the Discrete Fourier Transform and TFETI Decomposition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mocek, Lukas; Kozubek, Tomas

    2011-09-01

    The paper deals with the numerical solution of elliptic boundary value problems for 2D linear elasticity using the fictitious domain method in combination with the discrete Fourier transform and the FETI domain decomposition. We briefly mention the theoretical background of these methods, introduce resulting solvers, and demonstrate their efficiency on model benchmarks.

  3. Frequency Domain Decomposition performed on the strain data obtained from the aluminium model of an offshore support structure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mieloszyk, M.; Opoka, S.; Ostachowicz, W.

    2015-07-01

    This paper presents an application of Fibre Bragg Grating (FBG) sensors for Structural Health Monitoring (SHM) of offshore wind energy support structure model. The analysed structure is a tripod equipped with 16 FBG sensors. From a wide variety of Operational Modal Analysis (OMA) methods Frequency Domain Decomposition (FDD) technique is used in this paper under assumption that the input loading is similar to a white noise excitation. The FDD method can be applied using different sets of sensors, i.e. the one which contains all FBG sensors and the other set of sensors localised only on a particular tripod's leg. The cases considered during investigation were as follows: damaged and undamaged scenarios, different support conditions. The damage was simulated as an dismantled flange on an upper brace in one of the tripod legs. First the model was fixed to an antishaker table and investigated in the air under impulse excitations. Next the tripod was submerged into water basin in order to check the quality of the measurement set-up in different environmental condition. In this case the model was excited by regular waves.

  4. Multi-grid domain decomposition approach for solution of Navier-Stokes equations in primitive variable form

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ku, Hwar-Ching; Ramaswamy, Bala

    1993-01-01

    The new multigrid (or adaptive) pseudospectral element method was carried out for the solution of incompressible flow in terms of primitive variable formulation. The desired features of the proposed method include the following: (1) the ability to treat complex geometry; (2) high resolution adapted in the interesting areas; (3) requires minimal working space; and (4) effective in a multiprocessing environment. The approach for flow problems, complex geometry or not, is to first divide the computational domain into a number of fine-grid and coarse-grid subdomains with the inter-overlapping area. Next, it is necessary to implement the Schwarz alternating procedure (SAP) to exchange the data among subdomains, where the coarse-grid correction is used to remove the high frequency error that occurs when the data interpolation from the fine-grid subdomain to the coarse-grid subdomain is conducted. The strategy behind the coarse-grid correction is to adopt the operator of the divergence of the velocity field, which intrinsically links the pressure equation, into this process. The solution of each subdomain can be efficiently solved by the direct (or iterative) eigenfunction expansion technique with the least storage requirement, i.e. O(N(exp 3)) in 3-D and O(N(exp 2)) in 2-D. Numerical results of both driven cavity and jet flow will be presented in the paper to account for the versatility of the proposed method.

  5. Using edge-preserving algorithm with non-local mean for significantly improved image-domain material decomposition in dual-energy CT

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, Wei; Niu, Tianye; Xing, Lei; Xie, Yaoqin; Xiong, Guanglei; Elmore, Kimberly; Zhu, Jun; Wang, Luyao; Min, James K.

    2016-02-01

    Increased noise is a general concern for dual-energy material decomposition. Here, we develop an image-domain material decomposition algorithm for dual-energy CT (DECT) by incorporating an edge-preserving filter into the Local HighlY constrained backPRojection reconstruction (HYPR-LR) framework. With effective use of the non-local mean, the proposed algorithm, which is referred to as HYPR-NLM, reduces the noise in dual-energy decomposition while preserving the accuracy of quantitative measurement and spatial resolution of the material-specific dual-energy images. We demonstrate the noise reduction and resolution preservation of the algorithm with an iodine concentrate numerical phantom by comparing the HYPR-NLM algorithm to the direct matrix inversion, HYPR-LR and iterative image-domain material decomposition (Iter-DECT). We also show the superior performance of the HYPR-NLM over the existing methods by using two sets of cardiac perfusing imaging data. The DECT material decomposition comparison study shows that all four algorithms yield acceptable quantitative measurements of iodine concentrate. Direct matrix inversion yields the highest noise level, followed by HYPR-LR and Iter-DECT. HYPR-NLM in an iterative formulation significantly reduces image noise and the image noise is comparable to or even lower than that generated using Iter-DECT. For the HYPR-NLM method, there are marginal edge effects in the difference image, suggesting the high-frequency details are well preserved. In addition, when the search window size increases from 11× 11 to 19× 19 , there are no significant changes or marginal edge effects in the HYPR-NLM difference images. The reference drawn from the comparison study includes: (1) HYPR-NLM significantly reduces the DECT material decomposition noise while preserving quantitative measurements and high-frequency edge information, and (2) HYPR-NLM is robust with respect to parameter selection.

  6. Massive parallelization of a 3D finite difference electromagnetic forward solution using domain decomposition methods on multiple CUDA enabled GPUs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schultz, A.

    2010-12-01

    describe our ongoing efforts to achieve massive parallelization on a novel hybrid GPU testbed machine currently configured with 12 Intel Westmere Xeon CPU cores (or 24 parallel computational threads) with 96 GB DDR3 system memory, 4 GPU subsystems which in aggregate contain 960 NVidia Tesla GPU cores with 16 GB dedicated DDR3 GPU memory, and a second interleved bank of 4 GPU subsystems containing in aggregate 1792 NVidia Fermi GPU cores with 12 GB dedicated DDR5 GPU memory. We are applying domain decomposition methods to a modified version of Weiss' (2001) 3D frequency domain full physics EM finite difference code, an open source GPL licensed f90 code available for download from www.OpenEM.org. This will be the core of a new hybrid 3D inversion that parallelizes frequencies across CPUs and individual forward solutions across GPUs. We describe progress made in modifying the code to use direct solvers in GPU cores dedicated to each small subdomain, iteratively improving the solution by matching adjacent subdomain boundary solutions, rather than iterative Krylov space sparse solvers as currently applied to the whole domain.

  7. A semi-alternating direction method for a 2-D fractional FitzHugh-Nagumo monodomain model on an approximate irregular domain

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, F.; Zhuang, P.; Turner, I.; Anh, V.; Burrage, K.

    2015-07-01

    A FitzHugh-Nagumo monodomain model has been used to describe the propagation of the electrical potential in heterogeneous cardiac tissue. In this paper, we consider a two-dimensional fractional FitzHugh-Nagumo monodomain model on an irregular domain. The model consists of a coupled Riesz space fractional nonlinear reaction-diffusion model and an ordinary differential equation, describing the ionic fluxes as a function of the membrane potential. Second, we use a decoupling technique and focus on solving the Riesz space fractional nonlinear reaction-diffusion model. A novel spatially second-order accurate semi-implicit alternating direction method (SIADM) for this model on an approximate irregular domain is proposed. Third, stability and convergence of the SIADM are proved. Finally, some numerical examples are given to support our theoretical analysis and these numerical techniques are employed to simulate a two-dimensional fractional FitzHugh-Nagumo model on both an approximate circular and an approximate irregular domain.

  8. A New Coarsening Operator for the Optimal Preconditioning of the Dual and Primal Domain Decomposition Methods: Application to Problems with Severe Coefficient Jumps

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Farhat, Charbel; Rixen, Daniel

    1996-01-01

    We present an optimal preconditioning algorithm that is equally applicable to the dual (FETI) and primal (Balancing) Schur complement domain decomposition methods, and which successfully addresses the problems of subdomain heterogeneities including the effects of large jumps of coefficients. The proposed preconditioner is derived from energy principles and embeds a new coarsening operator that propagates the error globally and accelerates convergence. The resulting iterative solver is illustrated with the solution of highly heterogeneous elasticity problems.

  9. 2D time domain spectral phase encoding/wavelength hopping coherent DPSK-OCDMA system using fiber Bragg gratings and phase modulator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gao, Zhensen; Dai, Bo; Wang, Xu; Kataoka, Nobuyuki; Wada, Naoya

    2010-12-01

    We propose and experimentally demonstrate a reconfigurable two-dimensional (temporal-spectral) time domain spectral phase encoding (SPE) scheme for coherent optical code-division-multiple-access (OCDMA) application. The time-domain SPE scheme is robust to wavelength drift of the light source and is very flexible and compatible with the fiber optical system. In the proposed scheme, the ultra-short optical pulse is stretched by dispersive device and the SPE is done in time domain using high speed phase modulator. A Fiber Bragg Gratings array is used for generating the two-dimensional wavelength hopping pattern while the high speed phase modulator is used for generating the spectral phase pattern. The proposed scheme can enable simultaneous generation of the time domain spectral phase encoding and DPSK data modulation using only a single phase modulator. In the experiment, the two-dimensional SPE codes have been generated and modulated with 2.5-Gb/s DPSK data using a single phase modulator. Transmission of the 2.5-Gb/s DPSK data over 49km fiber with BER<10-9 has been demonstrated successfully. The proposed scheme exhibits the potential to simplify the architecture and improve the security of the OCDMA system.

  10. Tensor representation of color images and fast 2D quaternion discrete Fourier transform

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grigoryan, Artyom M.; Agaian, Sos S.

    2015-03-01

    In this paper, a general, efficient, split algorithm to compute the two-dimensional quaternion discrete Fourier transform (2-D QDFT), by using the special partitioning in the frequency domain, is introduced. The partition determines an effective transformation, or color image representation in the form of 1-D quaternion signals which allow for splitting the N × M-point 2-D QDFT into a set of 1-D QDFTs. Comparative estimates revealing the efficiency of the proposed algorithms with respect to the known ones are given. In particular, a proposed method of calculating the 2r × 2r -point 2-D QDFT uses 18N2 less multiplications than the well-known column-row method and method of calculation based on the symplectic decomposition. The proposed algorithm is simple to apply and design, which makes it very practical in color image processing in the frequency domain.

  11. A parallel domain decomposition-based implicit method for the Cahn-Hilliard-Cook phase-field equation in 3D

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zheng, Xiang; Yang, Chao; Cai, Xiao-Chuan; Keyes, David

    2015-03-01

    We present a numerical algorithm for simulating the spinodal decomposition described by the three dimensional Cahn-Hilliard-Cook (CHC) equation, which is a fourth-order stochastic partial differential equation with a noise term. The equation is discretized in space and time based on a fully implicit, cell-centered finite difference scheme, with an adaptive time-stepping strategy designed to accelerate the progress to equilibrium. At each time step, a parallel Newton-Krylov-Schwarz algorithm is used to solve the nonlinear system. We discuss various numerical and computational challenges associated with the method. The numerical scheme is validated by a comparison with an explicit scheme of high accuracy (and unreasonably high cost). We present steady state solutions of the CHC equation in two and three dimensions. The effect of the thermal fluctuation on the spinodal decomposition process is studied. We show that the existence of the thermal fluctuation accelerates the spinodal decomposition process and that the final steady morphology is sensitive to the stochastic noise. We also show the evolution of the energies and statistical moments. In terms of the parallel performance, it is found that the implicit domain decomposition approach scales well on supercomputers with a large number of processors.

  12. A parallel domain decomposition-based implicit method for the Cahn–Hilliard–Cook phase-field equation in 3D

    SciTech Connect

    Zheng, Xiang; Yang, Chao; Cai, Xiao-Chuan; Keyes, David

    2015-03-15

    We present a numerical algorithm for simulating the spinodal decomposition described by the three dimensional Cahn–Hilliard–Cook (CHC) equation, which is a fourth-order stochastic partial differential equation with a noise term. The equation is discretized in space and time based on a fully implicit, cell-centered finite difference scheme, with an adaptive time-stepping strategy designed to accelerate the progress to equilibrium. At each time step, a parallel Newton–Krylov–Schwarz algorithm is used to solve the nonlinear system. We discuss various numerical and computational challenges associated with the method. The numerical scheme is validated by a comparison with an explicit scheme of high accuracy (and unreasonably high cost). We present steady state solutions of the CHC equation in two and three dimensions. The effect of the thermal fluctuation on the spinodal decomposition process is studied. We show that the existence of the thermal fluctuation accelerates the spinodal decomposition process and that the final steady morphology is sensitive to the stochastic noise. We also show the evolution of the energies and statistical moments. In terms of the parallel performance, it is found that the implicit domain decomposition approach scales well on supercomputers with a large number of processors.

  13. Combined iterative reconstruction and image-domain decomposition for dual energy CT using total-variation regularization

    SciTech Connect

    Dong, Xue; Niu, Tianye; Zhu, Lei

    2014-05-15

    Purpose: Dual-energy CT (DECT) is being increasingly used for its capability of material decomposition and energy-selective imaging. A generic problem of DECT, however, is that the decomposition process is unstable in the sense that the relative magnitude of decomposed signals is reduced due to signal cancellation while the image noise is accumulating from the two CT images of independent scans. Direct image decomposition, therefore, leads to severe degradation of signal-to-noise ratio on the resultant images. Existing noise suppression techniques are typically implemented in DECT with the procedures of reconstruction and decomposition performed independently, which do not explore the statistical properties of decomposed images during the reconstruction for noise reduction. In this work, the authors propose an iterative approach that combines the reconstruction and the signal decomposition procedures to minimize the DECT image noise without noticeable loss of resolution. Methods: The proposed algorithm is formulated as an optimization problem, which balances the data fidelity and total variation of decomposed images in one framework, and the decomposition step is carried out iteratively together with reconstruction. The noise in the CT images from the proposed algorithm becomes well correlated even though the noise of the raw projections is independent on the two CT scans. Due to this feature, the proposed algorithm avoids noise accumulation during the decomposition process. The authors evaluate the method performance on noise suppression and spatial resolution using phantom studies and compare the algorithm with conventional denoising approaches as well as combined iterative reconstruction methods with different forms of regularization. Results: On the Catphan©600 phantom, the proposed method outperforms the existing denoising methods on preserving spatial resolution at the same level of noise suppression, i.e., a reduction of noise standard deviation by one

  14. Magnetic structure and domain conversion of the quasi-2D frustrated antiferromagnet CuCrO{sub 2} probed by NMR

    SciTech Connect

    Sakhratov, Yu. A.; Svistov, L. E.; Kuhns, P. L.; Zhou, H. D.; Reyes, A. P.

    2014-11-15

    We have carried out {sup 63,65}Cu NMR spectra measurements in a magnetic field up to about 15.5 T on a single crystal of the multiferroic triangular-lattice antiferromagnet CuCrO{sub 2}. The measurements were performed for perpendicular and parallel orientations of the magnetic field with respect to the c axis of the crystal, and the detailed angle dependence of the spectra on the magnetic field direction in the ab plane was studied. The shape of the spectra can be well described in the model of spiral spin structure proposed by recent neutron diffraction experiments. When the field is rotated perpendicular to the crystal c axis, we observed, directly for the first time, a remarkable reorientation of the spin plane simultaneous with rotation of the incommensurate wavevector, by quantitatively deducing the conversion of the energetically less favorable domain to a more favorable one. At high enough fields parallel to the c axis, the data are consistent with either a field-induced commensurate spiral magnetic structure or an incommensurate spiral magnetic structure with a disorder in the c direction, suggesting that high fields may have influence on interplanar ordering.

  15. Higher-order in time "quasi-unconditionally stable" ADI solvers for the compressible Navier-Stokes equations in 2D and 3D curvilinear domains

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bruno, Oscar P.; Cubillos, Max

    2016-02-01

    This paper introduces alternating-direction implicit (ADI) solvers of higher order of time-accuracy (orders two to six) for the compressible Navier-Stokes equations in two- and three-dimensional curvilinear domains. The higher-order accuracy in time results from 1) An application of the backward differentiation formulae time-stepping algorithm (BDF) in conjunction with 2) A BDF-like extrapolation technique for certain components of the nonlinear terms (which makes use of nonlinear solves unnecessary), as well as 3) A novel application of the Douglas-Gunn splitting (which greatly facilitates handling of boundary conditions while preserving higher-order accuracy in time). As suggested by our theoretical analysis of the algorithms for a variety of special cases, an extensive set of numerical experiments clearly indicate that all of the BDF-based ADI algorithms proposed in this paper are "quasi-unconditionally stable" in the following sense: each algorithm is stable for all couples (h , Δt)of spatial and temporal mesh sizes in a problem-dependent rectangular neighborhood of the form (0 ,Mh) × (0 ,Mt). In other words, for each fixed value of Δt below a certain threshold, the Navier-Stokes solvers presented in this paper are stable for arbitrarily small spatial mesh-sizes. The second-order formulation has further been rigorously shown to be unconditionally stable for linear hyperbolic and parabolic equations in two-dimensional space. Although implicit ADI solvers for the Navier-Stokes equations with nominal second-order of temporal accuracy have been proposed in the past, the algorithms presented in this paper are the first ADI-based Navier-Stokes solvers for which second-order or better accuracy has been verified in practice under non-trivial (non-periodic) boundary conditions.

  16. A fully implicit domain decomposition based ALE framework for three-dimensional fluid-structure interaction with application in blood flow computation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Yuqi; Cai, Xiao-Chuan

    2014-02-01

    Due to the rapid advancement of supercomputing hardware, there is a growing interest in parallel algorithms for modeling the full three-dimensional interaction between the blood flow and the arterial wall. In [4], Barker and Cai developed a parallel framework for solving fluid-structure interaction problems in two dimensions. In this paper, we extend the idea to three dimensions. We introduce and study a parallel scalable domain decomposition method for solving nonlinear monolithically coupled systems arising from the discretization of the coupled system in an arbitrary Lagrangian-Eulerian framework with a fully implicit stabilized finite element method. The investigation focuses on the robustness and parallel scalability of the Newton-Krylov algorithm preconditioned with an overlapping additive Schwarz method. We validate the proposed approach and report the parallel performance for some patient-specific pulmonary artery problems. The algorithm is shown to be scalable with a large number of processors and for problems with millions of unknowns.

  17. Frozen Gaussian approximation based domain decomposition methods for the linear Schrödinger equation beyond the semi-classical regime

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lorin, E.; Yang, X.; Antoine, X.

    2016-06-01

    The paper is devoted to develop efficient domain decomposition methods for the linear Schrödinger equation beyond the semiclassical regime, which does not carry a small enough rescaled Planck constant for asymptotic methods (e.g. geometric optics) to produce a good accuracy, but which is too computationally expensive if direct methods (e.g. finite difference) are applied. This belongs to the category of computing middle-frequency wave propagation, where neither asymptotic nor direct methods can be directly used with both efficiency and accuracy. Motivated by recent works of the authors on absorbing boundary conditions (Antoine et al. (2014) [13] and Yang and Zhang (2014) [43]), we introduce Semiclassical Schwarz Waveform Relaxation methods (SSWR), which are seamless integrations of semiclassical approximation to Schwarz Waveform Relaxation methods. Two versions are proposed respectively based on Herman-Kluk propagation and geometric optics, and we prove the convergence and provide numerical evidence of efficiency and accuracy of these methods.

  18. A domain decomposition approach to implementing fault slip in finite-element models of quasi-static and dynamic crustal deformation

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Aagaard, B.T.; Knepley, M.G.; Williams, C.A.

    2013-01-01

    We employ a domain decomposition approach with Lagrange multipliers to implement fault slip in a finite-element code, PyLith, for use in both quasi-static and dynamic crustal deformation applications. This integrated approach to solving both quasi-static and dynamic simulations leverages common finite-element data structures and implementations of various boundary conditions, discretization schemes, and bulk and fault rheologies. We have developed a custom preconditioner for the Lagrange multiplier portion of the system of equations that provides excellent scalability with problem size compared to conventional additive Schwarz methods. We demonstrate application of this approach using benchmarks for both quasi-static viscoelastic deformation and dynamic spontaneous rupture propagation that verify the numerical implementation in PyLith.

  19. Mesh2d

    SciTech Connect

    Greg Flach, Frank Smith

    2011-12-31

    Mesh2d is a Fortran90 program designed to generate two-dimensional structured grids of the form [x(i),y(i,j)] where [x,y] are grid coordinates identified by indices (i,j). The x(i) coordinates alone can be used to specify a one-dimensional grid. Because the x-coordinates vary only with the i index, a two-dimensional grid is composed in part of straight vertical lines. However, the nominally horizontal y(i,j0) coordinates along index i are permitted to undulate or otherwise vary. Mesh2d also assigns an integer material type to each grid cell, mtyp(i,j), in a user-specified manner. The complete grid is specified through three separate input files defining the x(i), y(i,j), and mtyp(i,j) variations.

  20. Mesh2d

    2011-12-31

    Mesh2d is a Fortran90 program designed to generate two-dimensional structured grids of the form [x(i),y(i,j)] where [x,y] are grid coordinates identified by indices (i,j). The x(i) coordinates alone can be used to specify a one-dimensional grid. Because the x-coordinates vary only with the i index, a two-dimensional grid is composed in part of straight vertical lines. However, the nominally horizontal y(i,j0) coordinates along index i are permitted to undulate or otherwise vary. Mesh2d also assignsmore » an integer material type to each grid cell, mtyp(i,j), in a user-specified manner. The complete grid is specified through three separate input files defining the x(i), y(i,j), and mtyp(i,j) variations.« less

  1. Vertical 2D Heterostructures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lotsch, Bettina V.

    2015-07-01

    Graphene's legacy has become an integral part of today's condensed matter science and has equipped a whole generation of scientists with an armory of concepts and techniques that open up new perspectives for the postgraphene area. In particular, the judicious combination of 2D building blocks into vertical heterostructures has recently been identified as a promising route to rationally engineer complex multilayer systems and artificial solids with intriguing properties. The present review highlights recent developments in the rapidly emerging field of 2D nanoarchitectonics from a materials chemistry perspective, with a focus on the types of heterostructures available, their assembly strategies, and their emerging properties. This overview is intended to bridge the gap between two major—yet largely disjunct—developments in 2D heterostructures, which are firmly rooted in solid-state chemistry or physics. Although the underlying types of heterostructures differ with respect to their dimensions, layer alignment, and interfacial quality, there is common ground, and future synergies between the various assembly strategies are to be expected.

  2. On the Hodge-type decomposition and cohomology groups of k-Cauchy-Fueter complexes over domains in the quaternionic space

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chang, Der-Chen; Markina, Irina; Wang, Wei

    2016-09-01

    The k-Cauchy-Fueter operator D0(k) on one dimensional quaternionic space H is the Euclidean version of spin k / 2 massless field operator on the Minkowski space in physics. The k-Cauchy-Fueter equation for k ≥ 2 is overdetermined and its compatibility condition is given by the k-Cauchy-Fueter complex. In quaternionic analysis, these complexes play the role of Dolbeault complex in several complex variables. We prove that a natural boundary value problem associated to this complex is regular. Then by using the theory of regular boundary value problems, we show the Hodge-type orthogonal decomposition, and the fact that the non-homogeneous k-Cauchy-Fueter equation D0(k) u = f on a smooth domain Ω in H is solvable if and only if f satisfies the compatibility condition and is orthogonal to the set ℋ(k)1 (Ω) of Hodge-type elements. This set is isomorphic to the first cohomology group of the k-Cauchy-Fueter complex over Ω, which is finite dimensional, while the second cohomology group is always trivial.

  3. A scalable 2-D parallel sparse solver

    SciTech Connect

    Kothari, S.C.; Mitra, S.

    1995-12-01

    Scalability beyond a small number of processors, typically 32 or less, is known to be a problem for existing parallel general sparse (PGS) direct solvers. This paper presents a parallel general sparse PGS direct solver for general sparse linear systems on distributed memory machines. The algorithm is based on the well-known sequential sparse algorithm Y12M. To achieve efficient parallelization, a 2-D scattered decomposition of the sparse matrix is used. The proposed algorithm is more scalable than existing parallel sparse direct solvers. Its scalability is evaluated on a 256 processor nCUBE2s machine using Boeing/Harwell benchmark matrices.

  4. A new inversion method for (T2, D) 2D NMR logging and fluid typing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tan, Maojin; Zou, Youlong; Zhou, Cancan

    2013-02-01

    One-dimensional nuclear magnetic resonance (1D NMR) logging technology has some significant limitations in fluid typing. However, not only can two-dimensional nuclear magnetic resonance (2D NMR) provide some accurate porosity parameters, but it can also identify fluids more accurately than 1D NMR. In this paper, based on the relaxation mechanism of (T2, D) 2D NMR in a gradient magnetic field, a hybrid inversion method that combines least-squares-based QR decomposition (LSQR) and truncated singular value decomposition (TSVD) is examined in the 2D NMR inversion of various fluid models. The forward modeling and inversion tests are performed in detail with different acquisition parameters, such as magnetic field gradients (G) and echo spacing (TE) groups. The simulated results are discussed and described in detail, the influence of the above-mentioned observation parameters on the inversion accuracy is investigated and analyzed, and the observation parameters in multi-TE activation are optimized. Furthermore, the hybrid inversion can be applied to quantitatively determine the fluid saturation. To study the effects of noise level on the hybrid method and inversion results, the numerical simulation experiments are performed using different signal-to-noise-ratios (SNRs), and the effect of different SNRs on fluid typing using three fluid models are discussed and analyzed in detail.

  5. Fast and Memory-Efficient Topological Denoising of 2D and 3D Scalar Fields.

    PubMed

    Günther, David; Jacobson, Alec; Reininghaus, Jan; Seidel, Hans-Peter; Sorkine-Hornung, Olga; Weinkauf, Tino

    2014-12-01

    Data acquisition, numerical inaccuracies, and sampling often introduce noise in measurements and simulations. Removing this noise is often necessary for efficient analysis and visualization of this data, yet many denoising techniques change the minima and maxima of a scalar field. For example, the extrema can appear or disappear, spatially move, and change their value. This can lead to wrong interpretations of the data, e.g., when the maximum temperature over an area is falsely reported being a few degrees cooler because the denoising method is unaware of these features. Recently, a topological denoising technique based on a global energy optimization was proposed, which allows the topology-controlled denoising of 2D scalar fields. While this method preserves the minima and maxima, it is constrained by the size of the data. We extend this work to large 2D data and medium-sized 3D data by introducing a novel domain decomposition approach. It allows processing small patches of the domain independently while still avoiding the introduction of new critical points. Furthermore, we propose an iterative refinement of the solution, which decreases the optimization energy compared to the previous approach and therefore gives smoother results that are closer to the input. We illustrate our technique on synthetic and real-world 2D and 3D data sets that highlight potential applications. PMID:26356972

  6. Layer Engineering of 2D Semiconductor Junctions.

    PubMed

    He, Yongmin; Sobhani, Ali; Lei, Sidong; Zhang, Zhuhua; Gong, Yongji; Jin, Zehua; Zhou, Wu; Yang, Yingchao; Zhang, Yuan; Wang, Xifan; Yakobson, Boris; Vajtai, Robert; Halas, Naomi J; Li, Bo; Xie, Erqing; Ajayan, Pulickel

    2016-07-01

    A new concept for junction fabrication by connecting multiple regions with varying layer thicknesses, based on the thickness dependence, is demonstrated. This type of junction is only possible in super-thin-layered 2D materials, and exhibits similar characteristics as p-n junctions. Rectification and photovoltaic effects are observed in chemically homogeneous MoSe2 junctions between domains of different thicknesses. PMID:27136275

  7. Application of 2D Non-Graphene Materials and 2D Oxide Nanostructures for Biosensing Technology

    PubMed Central

    Shavanova, Kateryna; Bakakina, Yulia; Burkova, Inna; Shtepliuk, Ivan; Viter, Roman; Ubelis, Arnolds; Beni, Valerio; Starodub, Nickolaj; Yakimova, Rositsa; Khranovskyy, Volodymyr

    2016-01-01

    The discovery of graphene and its unique properties has inspired researchers to try to invent other two-dimensional (2D) materials. After considerable research effort, a distinct “beyond graphene” domain has been established, comprising the library of non-graphene 2D materials. It is significant that some 2D non-graphene materials possess solid advantages over their predecessor, such as having a direct band gap, and therefore are highly promising for a number of applications. These applications are not limited to nano- and opto-electronics, but have a strong potential in biosensing technologies, as one example. However, since most of the 2D non-graphene materials have been newly discovered, most of the research efforts are concentrated on material synthesis and the investigation of the properties of the material. Applications of 2D non-graphene materials are still at the embryonic stage, and the integration of 2D non-graphene materials into devices is scarcely reported. However, in recent years, numerous reports have blossomed about 2D material-based biosensors, evidencing the growing potential of 2D non-graphene materials for biosensing applications. This review highlights the recent progress in research on the potential of using 2D non-graphene materials and similar oxide nanostructures for different types of biosensors (optical and electrochemical). A wide range of biological targets, such as glucose, dopamine, cortisol, DNA, IgG, bisphenol, ascorbic acid, cytochrome and estradiol, has been reported to be successfully detected by biosensors with transducers made of 2D non-graphene materials. PMID:26861346

  8. Application of 2D Non-Graphene Materials and 2D Oxide Nanostructures for Biosensing Technology.

    PubMed

    Shavanova, Kateryna; Bakakina, Yulia; Burkova, Inna; Shtepliuk, Ivan; Viter, Roman; Ubelis, Arnolds; Beni, Valerio; Starodub, Nickolaj; Yakimova, Rositsa; Khranovskyy, Volodymyr

    2016-01-01

    The discovery of graphene and its unique properties has inspired researchers to try to invent other two-dimensional (2D) materials. After considerable research effort, a distinct "beyond graphene" domain has been established, comprising the library of non-graphene 2D materials. It is significant that some 2D non-graphene materials possess solid advantages over their predecessor, such as having a direct band gap, and therefore are highly promising for a number of applications. These applications are not limited to nano- and opto-electronics, but have a strong potential in biosensing technologies, as one example. However, since most of the 2D non-graphene materials have been newly discovered, most of the research efforts are concentrated on material synthesis and the investigation of the properties of the material. Applications of 2D non-graphene materials are still at the embryonic stage, and the integration of 2D non-graphene materials into devices is scarcely reported. However, in recent years, numerous reports have blossomed about 2D material-based biosensors, evidencing the growing potential of 2D non-graphene materials for biosensing applications. This review highlights the recent progress in research on the potential of using 2D non-graphene materials and similar oxide nanostructures for different types of biosensors (optical and electrochemical). A wide range of biological targets, such as glucose, dopamine, cortisol, DNA, IgG, bisphenol, ascorbic acid, cytochrome and estradiol, has been reported to be successfully detected by biosensors with transducers made of 2D non-graphene materials. PMID:26861346

  9. Proper Orthogonal Decomposition of Flow-Field in Non-Stationary Geometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Troshin, Victor; Seifert, Avraham; Sidilkover, David; Tadmor, Gilead

    2015-11-01

    This work presents a proper orthogonal decomposition (POD) methodology for a flow field in a domain with moving boundaries. A relatively simple volume preserving mapping which transforms a deforming to stationary domain is described. This mapping was created by combining a transfinite interpolation and volume adjustment algorithm. The algorithm is based on iterative solution of the Laplace equation with respect to the displacement potential of the grid points. The transformed domain is suitable for proper orthogonal decomposition procedure. The presented mapping can be applied to a wide variety of flow problems which contain single or in some cases multiple deforming boundaries. Currently, this method is presented for 2D geometries, however, it can be expanded to 3D cases. This approach can assist in creation of low order models for complex aero-elastic systems which to date could not be analysed by existing POD approaches. Finally, the method is demonstrated on CFD results of pitching and plunging ellipse in still fluid.

  10. High divergent 2D grating

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Jin; Ma, Jianyong; Zhou, Changhe

    2014-11-01

    A 3×3 high divergent 2D-grating with period of 3.842μm at wavelength of 850nm under normal incidence is designed and fabricated in this paper. This high divergent 2D-grating is designed by the vector theory. The Rigorous Coupled Wave Analysis (RCWA) in association with the simulated annealing (SA) is adopted to calculate and optimize this 2D-grating.The properties of this grating are also investigated by the RCWA. The diffraction angles are more than 10 degrees in the whole wavelength band, which are bigger than the traditional 2D-grating. In addition, the small period of grating increases the difficulties of fabrication. So we fabricate the 2D-gratings by direct laser writing (DLW) instead of traditional manufacturing method. Then the method of ICP etching is used to obtain the high divergent 2D-grating.

  11. Realistic and efficient 2D crack simulation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yadegar, Jacob; Liu, Xiaoqing; Singh, Abhishek

    2010-04-01

    Although numerical algorithms for 2D crack simulation have been studied in Modeling and Simulation (M&S) and computer graphics for decades, realism and computational efficiency are still major challenges. In this paper, we introduce a high-fidelity, scalable, adaptive and efficient/runtime 2D crack/fracture simulation system by applying the mathematically elegant Peano-Cesaro triangular meshing/remeshing technique to model the generation of shards/fragments. The recursive fractal sweep associated with the Peano-Cesaro triangulation provides efficient local multi-resolution refinement to any level-of-detail. The generated binary decomposition tree also provides efficient neighbor retrieval mechanism used for mesh element splitting and merging with minimal memory requirements essential for realistic 2D fragment formation. Upon load impact/contact/penetration, a number of factors including impact angle, impact energy, and material properties are all taken into account to produce the criteria of crack initialization, propagation, and termination leading to realistic fractal-like rubble/fragments formation. The aforementioned parameters are used as variables of probabilistic models of cracks/shards formation, making the proposed solution highly adaptive by allowing machine learning mechanisms learn the optimal values for the variables/parameters based on prior benchmark data generated by off-line physics based simulation solutions that produce accurate fractures/shards though at highly non-real time paste. Crack/fracture simulation has been conducted on various load impacts with different initial locations at various impulse scales. The simulation results demonstrate that the proposed system has the capability to realistically and efficiently simulate 2D crack phenomena (such as window shattering and shards generation) with diverse potentials in military and civil M&S applications such as training and mission planning.

  12. New Advances In Multiphase Flow Numerical Modelling Using A General Domain Decomposition and Non-orthogonal Collocated Finite Volume Algorithm: Application To Industrial Fluid Catalytical Cracking Process and Large Scale Geophysical Fluids.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martin, R.; Gonzalez Ortiz, A.

    In the industry as well as in the geophysical community, multiphase flows are mod- elled using a finite volume approach and a multicorrector algorithm in time in order to determine implicitly the pressures, velocities and volume fractions for each phase. Pressures, and velocities are generally determined at mid-half mesh step from each other following the staggered grid approach. This ensures stability and prevents os- cillations in pressure. It allows to treat almost all the Reynolds number ranges for all speeds and viscosities. The disadvantages appear when we want to treat more complex geometries or if a generalized curvilinear formulation of the conservation equations is considered. Too many interpolations have to be done and accuracy is then lost. In order to overcome these problems, we use here a similar algorithm in time and a Rhie and Chow interpolation (1983) of the collocated variables and essentially the velocities at the interface. The Rhie and Chow interpolation of the velocities at the finite volume interfaces allows to have no oscillatons of the pressure without checkerboard effects and to stabilize all the algorithm. In a first predictor step, fluxes at the interfaces of the finite volumes are then computed using 2nd and 3rd order shock capturing schemes of MUSCL/TVD or Van Leer type, and the orthogonal stress components are treated implicitly while cross viscous/diffusion terms are treated explicitly. A pentadiagonal system in 2D or a septadiagonal in 3D must be solve but here we have chosen to solve 3 tridiagonal linear systems (the so called Alternate Direction Implicit algorithm), one in each spatial direction, to reduce the cost of computation. Then a multi-correction of interpolated velocities, pressures and volumic fractions of each phase are done in the cartesian frame or the deformed local curvilinear coordinate system till convergence and mass conservation. At the end the energy conservation equations are solved. In all this process the

  13. Toward an Efficient Icing CFD Process Using an Interactive Software Toolkit: Smagglce 2D

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vickerman, Mary B.; Choo, Yung K.; Schilling, Herbert W.; Baez, Marivell; Braun, Donald C.; Cotton, Barbara J.

    2001-01-01

    Two-dimensional CID analysis for iced airfoils can be a labor-intensive task. The software toolkit SmaggIce 2D is being developed to help streamline the CID process and provide the unique features needed for icing. When complete, it will include a combination of partially automated and fully interactive tools for all aspects of the tasks leading up to the flow analysis: geometry preparation, domain decomposition. block boundary demoralization. gridding, and linking with a flow solver. It also includes tools to perform ice shape characterization, an important aid in determining the relationship between ice characteristics and their effects on aerodynamic performance. Completed tools, work-in-progress, and planned features of the software toolkit are presented here.

  14. Stochastic Inversion of 2D Magnetotelluric Data

    2010-07-01

    The algorithm is developed to invert 2D magnetotelluric (MT) data based on sharp boundary parametrization using a Bayesian framework. Within the algorithm, we consider the locations and the resistivity of regions formed by the interfaces are as unknowns. We use a parallel, adaptive finite-element algorithm to forward simulate frequency-domain MT responses of 2D conductivity structure. Those unknown parameters are spatially correlated and are described by a geostatistical model. The joint posterior probability distribution function ismore » explored by Markov Chain Monte Carlo (MCMC) sampling methods. The developed stochastic model is effective for estimating the interface locations and resistivity. Most importantly, it provides details uncertainty information on each unknown parameter. Hardware requirements: PC, Supercomputer, Multi-platform, Workstation; Software requirements C and Fortan; Operation Systems/version is Linux/Unix or Windows« less

  15. Stochastic Inversion of 2D Magnetotelluric Data

    SciTech Connect

    Chen, Jinsong

    2010-07-01

    The algorithm is developed to invert 2D magnetotelluric (MT) data based on sharp boundary parametrization using a Bayesian framework. Within the algorithm, we consider the locations and the resistivity of regions formed by the interfaces are as unknowns. We use a parallel, adaptive finite-element algorithm to forward simulate frequency-domain MT responses of 2D conductivity structure. Those unknown parameters are spatially correlated and are described by a geostatistical model. The joint posterior probability distribution function is explored by Markov Chain Monte Carlo (MCMC) sampling methods. The developed stochastic model is effective for estimating the interface locations and resistivity. Most importantly, it provides details uncertainty information on each unknown parameter. Hardware requirements: PC, Supercomputer, Multi-platform, Workstation; Software requirements C and Fortan; Operation Systems/version is Linux/Unix or Windows

  16. AnisWave 2D

    2004-08-01

    AnisWave2D is a 2D finite-difference code for a simulating seismic wave propagation in fully anisotropic materials. The code is implemented to run in parallel over multiple processors and is fully portable. A mesh refinement algorithm has been utilized to allow the grid-spacing to be tailored to the velocity model, avoiding the over-sampling of high-velocity materials that usually occurs in fixed-grid schemes.

  17. Ozone decomposition

    PubMed Central

    Batakliev, Todor; Georgiev, Vladimir; Anachkov, Metody; Rakovsky, Slavcho

    2014-01-01

    Catalytic ozone decomposition is of great significance because ozone is a toxic substance commonly found or generated in human environments (aircraft cabins, offices with photocopiers, laser printers, sterilizers). Considerable work has been done on ozone decomposition reported in the literature. This review provides a comprehensive summary of the literature, concentrating on analysis of the physico-chemical properties, synthesis and catalytic decomposition of ozone. This is supplemented by a review on kinetics and catalyst characterization which ties together the previously reported results. Noble metals and oxides of transition metals have been found to be the most active substances for ozone decomposition. The high price of precious metals stimulated the use of metal oxide catalysts and particularly the catalysts based on manganese oxide. It has been determined that the kinetics of ozone decomposition is of first order importance. A mechanism of the reaction of catalytic ozone decomposition is discussed, based on detailed spectroscopic investigations of the catalytic surface, showing the existence of peroxide and superoxide surface intermediates. PMID:26109880

  18. Ozone decomposition.

    PubMed

    Batakliev, Todor; Georgiev, Vladimir; Anachkov, Metody; Rakovsky, Slavcho; Zaikov, Gennadi E

    2014-06-01

    Catalytic ozone decomposition is of great significance because ozone is a toxic substance commonly found or generated in human environments (aircraft cabins, offices with photocopiers, laser printers, sterilizers). Considerable work has been done on ozone decomposition reported in the literature. This review provides a comprehensive summary of the literature, concentrating on analysis of the physico-chemical properties, synthesis and catalytic decomposition of ozone. This is supplemented by a review on kinetics and catalyst characterization which ties together the previously reported results. Noble metals and oxides of transition metals have been found to be the most active substances for ozone decomposition. The high price of precious metals stimulated the use of metal oxide catalysts and particularly the catalysts based on manganese oxide. It has been determined that the kinetics of ozone decomposition is of first order importance. A mechanism of the reaction of catalytic ozone decomposition is discussed, based on detailed spectroscopic investigations of the catalytic surface, showing the existence of peroxide and superoxide surface intermediates. PMID:26109880

  19. GRID3D-v2: An updated version of the GRID2D/3D computer program for generating grid systems in complex-shaped three-dimensional spatial domains

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Steinthorsson, E.; Shih, T. I-P.; Roelke, R. J.

    1991-01-01

    In order to generate good quality systems for complicated three-dimensional spatial domains, the grid-generation method used must be able to exert rather precise controls over grid-point distributions. Several techniques are presented that enhance control of grid-point distribution for a class of algebraic grid-generation methods known as the two-, four-, and six-boundary methods. These techniques include variable stretching functions from bilinear interpolation, interpolating functions based on tension splines, and normalized K-factors. The techniques developed in this study were incorporated into a new version of GRID3D called GRID3D-v2. The usefulness of GRID3D-v2 was demonstrated by using it to generate a three-dimensional grid system in the coolent passage of a radial turbine blade with serpentine channels and pin fins.

  20. Some nonlinear space decomposition algorithms

    SciTech Connect

    Tai, Xue-Cheng; Espedal, M.

    1996-12-31

    Convergence of a space decomposition method is proved for a general convex programming problem. The space decomposition refers to methods that decompose a space into sums of subspaces, which could be a domain decomposition or a multigrid method for partial differential equations. Two algorithms are proposed. Both can be used for linear as well as nonlinear elliptic problems and they reduce to the standard additive and multiplicative Schwarz methods for linear elliptic problems. Two {open_quotes}hybrid{close_quotes} algorithms are also presented. They converge faster than the additive one and have better parallelism than the multiplicative method. Numerical tests with a two level domain decomposition for linear, nonlinear and interface elliptic problems are presented for the proposed algorithms.

  1. Decomposition techniques

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Chao, T.T.; Sanzolone, R.F.

    1992-01-01

    Sample decomposition is a fundamental and integral step in the procedure of geochemical analysis. It is often the limiting factor to sample throughput, especially with the recent application of the fast and modern multi-element measurement instrumentation. The complexity of geological materials makes it necessary to choose the sample decomposition technique that is compatible with the specific objective of the analysis. When selecting a decomposition technique, consideration should be given to the chemical and mineralogical characteristics of the sample, elements to be determined, precision and accuracy requirements, sample throughput, technical capability of personnel, and time constraints. This paper addresses these concerns and discusses the attributes and limitations of many techniques of sample decomposition along with examples of their application to geochemical analysis. The chemical properties of reagents as to their function as decomposition agents are also reviewed. The section on acid dissolution techniques addresses the various inorganic acids that are used individually or in combination in both open and closed systems. Fluxes used in sample fusion are discussed. The promising microwave-oven technology and the emerging field of automation are also examined. A section on applications highlights the use of decomposition techniques for the determination of Au, platinum group elements (PGEs), Hg, U, hydride-forming elements, rare earth elements (REEs), and multi-elements in geological materials. Partial dissolution techniques used for geochemical exploration which have been treated in detail elsewhere are not discussed here; nor are fire-assaying for noble metals and decomposition techniques for X-ray fluorescence or nuclear methods be discussed. ?? 1992.

  2. MAGNUM-2D computer code: user's guide

    SciTech Connect

    England, R.L.; Kline, N.W.; Ekblad, K.J.; Baca, R.G.

    1985-01-01

    Information relevant to the general use of the MAGNUM-2D computer code is presented. This computer code was developed for the purpose of modeling (i.e., simulating) the thermal and hydraulic conditions in the vicinity of a waste package emplaced in a deep geologic repository. The MAGNUM-2D computer computes (1) the temperature field surrounding the waste package as a function of the heat generation rate of the nuclear waste and thermal properties of the basalt and (2) the hydraulic head distribution and associated groundwater flow fields as a function of the temperature gradients and hydraulic properties of the basalt. MAGNUM-2D is a two-dimensional numerical model for transient or steady-state analysis of coupled heat transfer and groundwater flow in a fractured porous medium. The governing equations consist of a set of coupled, quasi-linear partial differential equations that are solved using a Galerkin finite-element technique. A Newton-Raphson algorithm is embedded in the Galerkin functional to formulate the problem in terms of the incremental changes in the dependent variables. Both triangular and quadrilateral finite elements are used to represent the continuum portions of the spatial domain. Line elements may be used to represent discrete conduits. 18 refs., 4 figs., 1 tab.

  3. A secure double-image sharing scheme based on Shamir's three-pass protocol and 2D Sine Logistic modulation map in discrete multiple-parameter fractional angular transform domain

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sui, Liansheng; Duan, Kuaikuai; Liang, Junli

    2016-05-01

    A secure double-image sharing scheme is proposed by using the Shamir's three-pass protocol in the discrete multiple-parameter fractional angular transform domain. First, an enlarged image is formed by assembling two plain images successively in the horizontal direction and scrambled in the chaotic permutation process, in which the sequences of chaotic pairs are generated by the two-dimensional Sine Logistic modulation map. Second, the scrambled image is divided into two components which are used to constitute a complex image. One component is normalized and regarded as the phase part of the complex image as well as other is considered as the amplitude part. Finally, the complex image is shared between the sender and the receiver by using the Shamir's three-pass protocol, in which the discrete multiple-parameter fractional angular transform is used as the encryption function due to its commutative property. The proposed double-image sharing scheme has an obvious advantage that the key management is convenient without distributing the random phase mask keys in advance. Moreover, the security of the image sharing scheme is enhanced with the help of extra parameters of the discrete multiple-parameter fractional angular transform. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report on integrating the Shamir's three-pass protocol with double-image sharing scheme in the information security field. Simulation results and security analysis verify the feasibility and effectiveness of the proposed scheme.

  4. 2D constant-loss taper for mode conversion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Horth, Alexandre; Kashyap, Raman; Quitoriano, Nathaniel J.

    2015-03-01

    Proposed in this manuscript is a novel taper geometry, the constant-loss taper (CLT). This geometry is derived with 1D slabs of silicon embedded in silicon dioxide using coupled-mode theory (CMT). The efficiency of the CLT is compared to both linear and parabolic tapers using CMT and 2D finite-difference time-domain simulations. It is shown that over a short 2D, 4.45 μm long taper the CLT's mode conversion efficiency is ~90% which is 10% and 18% more efficient than a 2D parabolic or linear taper, respectively.

  5. Stacking up 2D materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mayor, Louise

    2016-05-01

    Graphene might be the most famous example, but there are other 2D materials and compounds too. Louise Mayor explains how these atomically thin sheets can be layered together to create flexible “van der Waals heterostructures”, which could lead to a range of novel applications.

  6. Woodland Decomposition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Napier, J.

    1988-01-01

    Outlines the role of the main organisms involved in woodland decomposition and discusses some of the variables affecting the rate of nutrient cycling. Suggests practical work that may be of value to high school students either as standard practice or long-term projects. (CW)

  7. An analysis of scatter decomposition

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nicol, David M.; Saltz, Joel H.

    1990-01-01

    A formal analysis of a powerful mapping technique known as scatter decomposition is presented. Scatter decomposition divides an irregular computational domain into a large number of equal sized pieces, and distributes them modularly among processors. A probabilistic model of workload in one dimension is used to formally explain why, and when scatter decomposition works. The first result is that if correlation in workload is a convex function of distance, then scattering a more finely decomposed domain yields a lower average processor workload variance. The second result shows that if the workload process is stationary Gaussian and the correlation function decreases linearly in distance until becoming zero and then remains zero, scattering a more finely decomposed domain yields a lower expected maximum processor workload. Finally it is shown that if the correlation function decreases linearly across the entire domain, then among all mappings that assign an equal number of domain pieces to each processor, scatter decomposition minimizes the average processor workload variance. The dependence of these results on the assumption of decreasing correlation is illustrated with situations where a coarser granularity actually achieves better load balance.

  8. MOSS2D V1

    2001-01-31

    This software reduces the data from two-dimensional kSA MOS program, k-Space Associates, Ann Arbor, MI. Initial MOS data is recorded without headers in 38 columns, with one row of data per acquisition per lase beam tracked. The final MOSS 2d data file is reduced, graphed, and saved in a tab-delimited column format with headers that can be plotted in any graphing software.

  9. Nanoimprint lithography: 2D or not 2D? A review

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schift, Helmut

    2015-11-01

    Nanoimprint lithography (NIL) is more than a planar high-end technology for the patterning of wafer-like substrates. It is essentially a 3D process, because it replicates various stamp topographies by 3D displacement of material and takes advantage of the bending of stamps while the mold cavities are filled. But at the same time, it keeps all assets of a 2D technique being able to pattern thin masking layers like in photon- and electron-based traditional lithography. This review reports about 20 years of development of replication techniques at Paul Scherrer Institut, with a focus on 3D aspects of molding, which enable NIL to stay 2D, but at the same time enable 3D applications which are "more than Moore." As an example, the manufacturing of a demonstrator for backlighting applications based on thermally activated selective topography equilibration will be presented. This technique allows generating almost arbitrary sloped, convex and concave profiles in the same polymer film with dimensions in micro- and nanometer scale.

  10. Dispersionless 2D Toda hierarchy, Hurwitz numbers and Riemann theorem

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Natanzon, Sergey M.

    2016-01-01

    We describe all formal symmetric solutions of dispersionless 2D Toda hierarchy. This classification we use for solving of two classical problems: 1) The calculation of conformal mapping of an arbitrary simply connected domain to the standard disk; 2) Calculation of 2- Hurwitz numbers of genus 0.

  11. Alloyed 2D Metal-Semiconductor Atomic Layer Junctions.

    PubMed

    Kim, Ah Ra; Kim, Yonghun; Nam, Jaewook; Chung, Hee-Suk; Kim, Dong Jae; Kwon, Jung-Dae; Park, Sang Won; Park, Jucheol; Choi, Sun Young; Lee, Byoung Hun; Park, Ji Hyeon; Lee, Kyu Hwan; Kim, Dong-Ho; Choi, Sung Mook; Ajayan, Pulickel M; Hahm, Myung Gwan; Cho, Byungjin

    2016-03-01

    Heterostructures of compositionally and electronically variant two-dimensional (2D) atomic layers are viable building blocks for ultrathin optoelectronic devices. We show that the composition of interfacial transition region between semiconducting WSe2 atomic layer channels and metallic NbSe2 contact layers can be engineered through interfacial doping with Nb atoms. WxNb1-xSe2 interfacial regions considerably lower the potential barrier height of the junction, significantly improving the performance of the corresponding WSe2-based field-effect transistor devices. The creation of such alloyed 2D junctions between dissimilar atomic layer domains could be the most important factor in controlling the electronic properties of 2D junctions and the design and fabrication of 2D atomic layer devices. PMID:26839956

  12. Sparse radar imaging using 2D compressed sensing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hou, Qingkai; Liu, Yang; Chen, Zengping; Su, Shaoying

    2014-10-01

    Radar imaging is an ill-posed linear inverse problem and compressed sensing (CS) has been proved to have tremendous potential in this field. This paper surveys the theory of radar imaging and a conclusion is drawn that the processing of ISAR imaging can be denoted mathematically as a problem of 2D sparse decomposition. Based on CS, we propose a novel measuring strategy for ISAR imaging radar and utilize random sub-sampling in both range and azimuth dimensions, which will reduce the amount of sampling data tremendously. In order to handle 2D reconstructing problem, the ordinary solution is converting the 2D problem into 1D by Kronecker product, which will increase the size of dictionary and computational cost sharply. In this paper, we introduce the 2D-SL0 algorithm into the reconstruction of imaging. It is proved that 2D-SL0 can achieve equivalent result as other 1D reconstructing methods, but the computational complexity and memory usage is reduced significantly. Moreover, we will state the results of simulating experiments and prove the effectiveness and feasibility of our method.

  13. 2D Turbulence with Complicated Boundaries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roullet, G.; McWilliams, J. C.

    2014-12-01

    We examine the consequences of lateral viscous boundary layers on the 2D turbulence that arises in domains with complicated boundaries (headlands, bays etc). The study is carried out numerically with LES. The numerics are carefully designed to ensure all global conservation laws, proper boundary conditions and a minimal range of dissipation scales. The turbulence dramatically differs from the classical bi-periodic case. Boundary layer separations lead to creation of many small vortices and act as a continuing energy source exciting the inverse cascade of energy throughout the domain. The detachments are very intermittent in time. In free decay, the final state depends on the effective numerical resolution: laminar with a single dominant vortex for low Re and turbulent with many vortices for large enough Re. After very long time, the turbulent end-state exhibits a striking tendency for the emergence of shielded vortices which then interact almost elastically. In the forced case, the boundary layers allow the turbulence to reach a statistical steady state without any artificial hypo-viscosity or other large-scale dissipation. Implications are discussed for the oceanic mesoscale and submesoscale turbulence.

  14. Growth and Characterization of Silicon at the 2D Limit

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mannix, Andrew; Kiraly, Brian; Hersam, Mark; Guisinger, Nathan

    2015-03-01

    Because bulk silicon has dominated the development of microelectronics over the past 50 years, the recent interest in two-dimensional (2D) materials (e.g., graphene, MoS2, phosphorene, etc.) naturally raises questions regarding the growth and properties of silicon at the 2D limit. Utilizing atomic-scale, ultra-high vacuum (UHV) scanning tunneling microscopy (STM), we have investigated the 2D limits of silicon growth on Ag(111). In agreement with previous reports of sp2-bonded silicene phases, we observe the temperature-dependent evolution of ordered 2D phases. However, we attribute these to apparent Ag-Si surface alloys. At sufficiently high silicon coverage, we observe the precipitation of crystalline, sp3-bonded Si(111) domains. These domains are capped with a √3 honeycomb phase that is indistinguishable from the silver-induced √3 honeycomb-chained-trimer reconstruction on bulk Si(111). Further ex-situcharacterization with Raman spectroscopy, atomic force microscopy, cross-sectional transmission electron microscopy, Raman spectroscopy, and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy reveals that these sheets are ultrathin sheets of bulk-like, (111) oriented, sp3 silicon. Even at the 2D limit, scanning tunneling spectroscopy shows that these silicon nanosheets exhibit semiconducting electronic characteristics.

  15. Harmonic decomposition to describe the nonlinear evolution of stimulated Brillouin scattering

    SciTech Connect

    Hueller, S.; Masson-Laborde, P.E.; Pesme, D.; Casanova, M.; Detering, F.; Maximov, A.

    2006-02-15

    An efficient method to describe the nonlinear evolution of stimulated Brillouin scattering (SBS) in long scale-length plasmas is presented in the limit of a fluid description. The method is based on the decomposition of the various functions characterizing the plasma into their long- and short-wavelength components. It makes it possible to describe self-consistently the interplay between the plasma hydrodynamics, stimulated Brillouin scattering, and the generation of harmonics of the excited ion acoustic wave (IAW). This description is benchmarked numerically in one and two spatial dimensions [one dimensional (1D), two dimensional (2D)], by comparing the numerical results obtained along this method with those provided by a numerical code in which the decomposition into separate spatial scales is not made. The decomposition method proves to be very efficient in terms of computing time, especially in 2D, and very reliable, even in the extreme case of undamped ion acoustic waves. A novel picture of the SBS nonlinear behavior arises, in which the IAW harmonics generation gives rise to local defects appearing in the density and velocity hydrodynamics profiles. Consequently, SBS develops in various spatial domains which seem to be decorrelated one from each other, so that the backscattered Brillouin light is the sum of various backscattered waves generated in several independent spatial domains. It follows that the SBS reflectivity is chaotic in time and the resulting time-averaged value is significantly reduced as compared to the case when the IAW harmonics generation and flow modification are ignored. From the results of extensive numerical simulations carried out in 1D and 2D, we are able to infer the SBS reflectivity scaling law as a function of the plasma parameters and laser intensity, in the limit where the kinetic effects are negligible. It appears that this scaling law can be derived in the limit where the IAW harmonics generation is modeled simply by a

  16. Metrology for graphene and 2D materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pollard, Andrew J.

    2016-09-01

    The application of graphene, a one atom-thick honeycomb lattice of carbon atoms with superlative properties, such as electrical conductivity, thermal conductivity and strength, has already shown that it can be used to benefit metrology itself as a new quantum standard for resistance. However, there are many application areas where graphene and other 2D materials, such as molybdenum disulphide (MoS2) and hexagonal boron nitride (h-BN), may be disruptive, areas such as flexible electronics, nanocomposites, sensing and energy storage. Applying metrology to the area of graphene is now critical to enable the new, emerging global graphene commercial world and bridge the gap between academia and industry. Measurement capabilities and expertise in a wide range of scientific areas are required to address this challenge. The combined and complementary approach of varied characterisation methods for structural, chemical, electrical and other properties, will allow the real-world issues of commercialising graphene and other 2D materials to be addressed. Here, examples of metrology challenges that have been overcome through a multi-technique or new approach are discussed. Firstly, the structural characterisation of defects in both graphene and MoS2 via Raman spectroscopy is described, and how nanoscale mapping of vacancy defects in graphene is also possible using tip-enhanced Raman spectroscopy (TERS). Furthermore, the chemical characterisation and removal of polymer residue on chemical vapour deposition (CVD) grown graphene via secondary ion mass spectrometry (SIMS) is detailed, as well as the chemical characterisation of iron films used to grow large domain single-layer h-BN through CVD growth, revealing how contamination of the substrate itself plays a role in the resulting h-BN layer. In addition, the role of international standardisation in this area is described, outlining the current work ongoing in both the International Organization of Standardization (ISO) and the

  17. Competing coexisting phases in 2D water

    PubMed Central

    Zanotti, Jean-Marc; Judeinstein, Patrick; Dalla-Bernardina, Simona; Creff, Gaëlle; Brubach, Jean-Blaise; Roy, Pascale; Bonetti, Marco; Ollivier, Jacques; Sakellariou, Dimitrios; Bellissent-Funel, Marie-Claire

    2016-01-01

    The properties of bulk water come from a delicate balance of interactions on length scales encompassing several orders of magnitudes: i) the Hydrogen Bond (HBond) at the molecular scale and ii) the extension of this HBond network up to the macroscopic level. Here, we address the physics of water when the three dimensional extension of the HBond network is frustrated, so that the water molecules are forced to organize in only two dimensions. We account for the large scale fluctuating HBond network by an analytical mean-field percolation model. This approach provides a coherent interpretation of the different events experimentally (calorimetry, neutron, NMR, near and far infra-red spectroscopies) detected in interfacial water at 160, 220 and 250 K. Starting from an amorphous state of water at low temperature, these transitions are respectively interpreted as the onset of creation of transient low density patches of 4-HBonded molecules at 160 K, the percolation of these domains at 220 K and finally the total invasion of the surface by them at 250 K. The source of this surprising behaviour in 2D is the frustration of the natural bulk tetrahedral local geometry and the underlying very significant increase in entropy of the interfacial water molecules. PMID:27185018

  18. Competing coexisting phases in 2D water

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zanotti, Jean-Marc; Judeinstein, Patrick; Dalla-Bernardina, Simona; Creff, Gaëlle; Brubach, Jean-Blaise; Roy, Pascale; Bonetti, Marco; Ollivier, Jacques; Sakellariou, Dimitrios; Bellissent-Funel, Marie-Claire

    2016-05-01

    The properties of bulk water come from a delicate balance of interactions on length scales encompassing several orders of magnitudes: i) the Hydrogen Bond (HBond) at the molecular scale and ii) the extension of this HBond network up to the macroscopic level. Here, we address the physics of water when the three dimensional extension of the HBond network is frustrated, so that the water molecules are forced to organize in only two dimensions. We account for the large scale fluctuating HBond network by an analytical mean-field percolation model. This approach provides a coherent interpretation of the different events experimentally (calorimetry, neutron, NMR, near and far infra-red spectroscopies) detected in interfacial water at 160, 220 and 250 K. Starting from an amorphous state of water at low temperature, these transitions are respectively interpreted as the onset of creation of transient low density patches of 4-HBonded molecules at 160 K, the percolation of these domains at 220 K and finally the total invasion of the surface by them at 250 K. The source of this surprising behaviour in 2D is the frustration of the natural bulk tetrahedral local geometry and the underlying very significant increase in entropy of the interfacial water molecules.

  19. Competing coexisting phases in 2D water.

    PubMed

    Zanotti, Jean-Marc; Judeinstein, Patrick; Dalla-Bernardina, Simona; Creff, Gaëlle; Brubach, Jean-Blaise; Roy, Pascale; Bonetti, Marco; Ollivier, Jacques; Sakellariou, Dimitrios; Bellissent-Funel, Marie-Claire

    2016-01-01

    The properties of bulk water come from a delicate balance of interactions on length scales encompassing several orders of magnitudes: i) the Hydrogen Bond (HBond) at the molecular scale and ii) the extension of this HBond network up to the macroscopic level. Here, we address the physics of water when the three dimensional extension of the HBond network is frustrated, so that the water molecules are forced to organize in only two dimensions. We account for the large scale fluctuating HBond network by an analytical mean-field percolation model. This approach provides a coherent interpretation of the different events experimentally (calorimetry, neutron, NMR, near and far infra-red spectroscopies) detected in interfacial water at 160, 220 and 250 K. Starting from an amorphous state of water at low temperature, these transitions are respectively interpreted as the onset of creation of transient low density patches of 4-HBonded molecules at 160 K, the percolation of these domains at 220 K and finally the total invasion of the surface by them at 250 K. The source of this surprising behaviour in 2D is the frustration of the natural bulk tetrahedral local geometry and the underlying very significant increase in entropy of the interfacial water molecules. PMID:27185018

  20. NKG2D ligands as therapeutic targets

    PubMed Central

    Spear, Paul; Wu, Ming-Ru; Sentman, Marie-Louise; Sentman, Charles L.

    2013-01-01

    The Natural Killer Group 2D (NKG2D) receptor plays an important role in protecting the host from infections and cancer. By recognizing ligands induced on infected or tumor cells, NKG2D modulates lymphocyte activation and promotes immunity to eliminate ligand-expressing cells. Because these ligands are not widely expressed on healthy adult tissue, NKG2D ligands may present a useful target for immunotherapeutic approaches in cancer. Novel therapies targeting NKG2D ligands for the treatment of cancer have shown preclinical success and are poised to enter into clinical trials. In this review, the NKG2D receptor and its ligands are discussed in the context of cancer, infection, and autoimmunity. In addition, therapies targeting NKG2D ligands in cancer are also reviewed. PMID:23833565

  1. Ultrafast 2D NMR: an emerging tool in analytical spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Giraudeau, Patrick; Frydman, Lucio

    2014-01-01

    Two-dimensional nuclear magnetic resonance (2D NMR) spectroscopy is widely used in chemical and biochemical analyses. Multidimensional NMR is also witnessing increased use in quantitative and metabolic screening applications. Conventional 2D NMR experiments, however, are affected by inherently long acquisition durations, arising from their need to sample the frequencies involved along their indirect domains in an incremented, scan-by-scan nature. A decade ago, a so-called ultrafast (UF) approach was proposed, capable of delivering arbitrary 2D NMR spectra involving any kind of homo- or heteronuclear correlation, in a single scan. During the intervening years, the performance of this subsecond 2D NMR methodology has been greatly improved, and UF 2D NMR is rapidly becoming a powerful analytical tool experiencing an expanded scope of applications. This review summarizes the principles and main developments that have contributed to the success of this approach and focuses on applications that have been recently demonstrated in various areas of analytical chemistry--from the real-time monitoring of chemical and biochemical processes, to extensions in hyphenated techniques and in quantitative applications. PMID:25014342

  2. Ultrafast 2D NMR: An Emerging Tool in Analytical Spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Giraudeau, Patrick; Frydman, Lucio

    2014-06-01

    Two-dimensional nuclear magnetic resonance (2D NMR) spectroscopy is widely used in chemical and biochemical analyses. Multidimensional NMR is also witnessing increased use in quantitative and metabolic screening applications. Conventional 2D NMR experiments, however, are affected by inherently long acquisition durations, arising from their need to sample the frequencies involved along their indirect domains in an incremented, scan-by-scan nature. A decade ago, a so-called ultrafast (UF) approach was proposed, capable of delivering arbitrary 2D NMR spectra involving any kind of homo- or heteronuclear correlation, in a single scan. During the intervening years, the performance of this subsecond 2D NMR methodology has been greatly improved, and UF 2D NMR is rapidly becoming a powerful analytical tool experiencing an expanded scope of applications. This review summarizes the principles and main developments that have contributed to the success of this approach and focuses on applications that have been recently demonstrated in various areas of analytical chemistry—from the real-time monitoring of chemical and biochemical processes, to extensions in hyphenated techniques and in quantitative applications.

  3. Mode decomposition evolution equations

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Yang; Wei, Guo-Wei; Yang, Siyang

    2011-01-01

    Partial differential equation (PDE) based methods have become some of the most powerful tools for exploring the fundamental problems in signal processing, image processing, computer vision, machine vision and artificial intelligence in the past two decades. The advantages of PDE based approaches are that they can be made fully automatic, robust for the analysis of images, videos and high dimensional data. A fundamental question is whether one can use PDEs to perform all the basic tasks in the image processing. If one can devise PDEs to perform full-scale mode decomposition for signals and images, the modes thus generated would be very useful for secondary processing to meet the needs in various types of signal and image processing. Despite of great progress in PDE based image analysis in the past two decades, the basic roles of PDEs in image/signal analysis are only limited to PDE based low-pass filters, and their applications to noise removal, edge detection, segmentation, etc. At present, it is not clear how to construct PDE based methods for full-scale mode decomposition. The above-mentioned limitation of most current PDE based image/signal processing methods is addressed in the proposed work, in which we introduce a family of mode decomposition evolution equations (MoDEEs) for a vast variety of applications. The MoDEEs are constructed as an extension of a PDE based high-pass filter (Europhys. Lett., 59(6): 814, 2002) by using arbitrarily high order PDE based low-pass filters introduced by Wei (IEEE Signal Process. Lett., 6(7): 165, 1999). The use of arbitrarily high order PDEs is essential to the frequency localization in the mode decomposition. Similar to the wavelet transform, the present MoDEEs have a controllable time-frequency localization and allow a perfect reconstruction of the original function. Therefore, the MoDEE operation is also called a PDE transform. However, modes generated from the present approach are in the spatial or time domain and can be

  4. Perspectives for spintronics in 2D materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Han, Wei

    2016-03-01

    The past decade has been especially creative for spintronics since the (re)discovery of various two dimensional (2D) materials. Due to the unusual physical characteristics, 2D materials have provided new platforms to probe the spin interaction with other degrees of freedom for electrons, as well as to be used for novel spintronics applications. This review briefly presents the most important recent and ongoing research for spintronics in 2D materials.

  5. Fast 2D FWI on a multi and many-cores workstation.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thierry, Philippe; Donno, Daniela; Noble, Mark

    2014-05-01

    Following the introduction of x86 co-processors (Xeon Phi) and the performance increase of standard 2-socket workstations using the latest 12 cores E5-v2 x86-64 CPU, we present here a MPI + OpenMP implementation of an acoustic 2D FWI (full waveform inversion) code which simultaneously runs on the CPUs and on the co-processors installed in a workstation. The main advantage of running a 2D FWI on a workstation is to be able to quickly evaluate new features such as more complicated wave equations, new cost functions, finite-difference stencils or boundary conditions. Since the co-processor is made of 61 in-order x86 cores, each of them having up to 4 threads, this many-core can be seen as a shared memory SMP (symmetric multiprocessing) machine with its own IP address. Depending on the vendor, a single workstation can handle several co-processors making the workstation as a personal cluster under the desk. The original Fortran 90 CPU version of the 2D FWI code is just recompiled to get a Xeon Phi x86 binary. This multi and many-core configuration uses standard compilers and associated MPI as well as math libraries under Linux; therefore, the cost of code development remains constant, while improving computation time. We choose to implement the code with the so-called symmetric mode to fully use the capacity of the workstation, but we also evaluate the scalability of the code in native mode (i.e running only on the co-processor) thanks to the Linux ssh and NFS capabilities. Usual care of optimization and SIMD vectorization is used to ensure optimal performances, and to analyze the application performances and bottlenecks on both platforms. The 2D FWI implementation uses finite-difference time-domain forward modeling and a quasi-Newton (with L-BFGS algorithm) optimization scheme for the model parameters update. Parallelization is achieved through standard MPI shot gathers distribution and OpenMP for domain decomposition within the co-processor. Taking advantage of the 16

  6. Annotated Bibliography of EDGE2D Use

    SciTech Connect

    J.D. Strachan and G. Corrigan

    2005-06-24

    This annotated bibliography is intended to help EDGE2D users, and particularly new users, find existing published literature that has used EDGE2D. Our idea is that a person can find existing studies which may relate to his intended use, as well as gain ideas about other possible applications by scanning the attached tables.

  7. Staring 2-D hadamard transform spectral imager

    DOEpatents

    Gentry, Stephen M.; Wehlburg, Christine M.; Wehlburg, Joseph C.; Smith, Mark W.; Smith, Jody L.

    2006-02-07

    A staring imaging system inputs a 2D spatial image containing multi-frequency spectral information. This image is encoded in one dimension of the image with a cyclic Hadamarid S-matrix. The resulting image is detecting with a spatial 2D detector; and a computer applies a Hadamard transform to recover the encoded image.

  8. Multiple-Parameter Estimation Method Based on Spatio-Temporal 2-D Processing for Bistatic MIMO Radar

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Shouguo; Li, Yong; Zhang, Kunhui; Tang, Weiping

    2015-01-01

    A novel spatio-temporal 2-dimensional (2-D) processing method that can jointly estimate the transmitting-receiving azimuth and Doppler frequency for bistatic multiple-input multiple-output (MIMO) radar in the presence of spatial colored noise and an unknown number of targets is proposed. In the temporal domain, the cross-correlation of the matched filters’ outputs for different time-delay sampling is used to eliminate the spatial colored noise. In the spatial domain, the proposed method uses a diagonal loading method and subspace theory to estimate the direction of departure (DOD) and direction of arrival (DOA), and the Doppler frequency can then be accurately estimated through the estimation of the DOD and DOA. By skipping target number estimation and the eigenvalue decomposition (EVD) of the data covariance matrix estimation and only requiring a one-dimensional search, the proposed method achieves low computational complexity. Furthermore, the proposed method is suitable for bistatic MIMO radar with an arbitrary transmitted and received geometrical configuration. The correction and efficiency of the proposed method are verified by computer simulation results. PMID:26694385

  9. Multiple-Parameter Estimation Method Based on Spatio-Temporal 2-D Processing for Bistatic MIMO Radar.

    PubMed

    Yang, Shouguo; Li, Yong; Zhang, Kunhui; Tang, Weiping

    2015-01-01

    A novel spatio-temporal 2-dimensional (2-D) processing method that can jointly estimate the transmitting-receiving azimuth and Doppler frequency for bistatic multiple-input multiple-output (MIMO) radar in the presence of spatial colored noise and an unknown number of targets is proposed. In the temporal domain, the cross-correlation of the matched filters' outputs for different time-delay sampling is used to eliminate the spatial colored noise. In the spatial domain, the proposed method uses a diagonal loading method and subspace theory to estimate the direction of departure (DOD) and direction of arrival (DOA), and the Doppler frequency can then be accurately estimated through the estimation of the DOD and DOA. By skipping target number estimation and the eigenvalue decomposition (EVD) of the data covariance matrix estimation and only requiring a one-dimensional search, the proposed method achieves low computational complexity. Furthermore, the proposed method is suitable for bistatic MIMO radar with an arbitrary transmitted and received geometrical configuration. The correction and efficiency of the proposed method are verified by computer simulation results. PMID:26694385

  10. Light field morphing using 2D features.

    PubMed

    Wang, Lifeng; Lin, Stephen; Lee, Seungyong; Guo, Baining; Shum, Heung-Yeung

    2005-01-01

    We present a 2D feature-based technique for morphing 3D objects represented by light fields. Existing light field morphing methods require the user to specify corresponding 3D feature elements to guide morph computation. Since slight errors in 3D specification can lead to significant morphing artifacts, we propose a scheme based on 2D feature elements that is less sensitive to imprecise marking of features. First, 2D features are specified by the user in a number of key views in the source and target light fields. Then the two light fields are warped view by view as guided by the corresponding 2D features. Finally, the two warped light fields are blended together to yield the desired light field morph. Two key issues in light field morphing are feature specification and warping of light field rays. For feature specification, we introduce a user interface for delineating 2D features in key views of a light field, which are automatically interpolated to other views. For ray warping, we describe a 2D technique that accounts for visibility changes and present a comparison to the ideal morphing of light fields. Light field morphing based on 2D features makes it simple to incorporate previous image morphing techniques such as nonuniform blending, as well as to morph between an image and a light field. PMID:15631126

  11. 2D materials for nanophotonic devices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Renjing; Yang, Jiong; Zhang, Shuang; Pei, Jiajie; Lu, Yuerui

    2015-12-01

    Two-dimensional (2D) materials have become very important building blocks for electronic, photonic, and phononic devices. The 2D material family has four key members, including the metallic graphene, transition metal dichalcogenide (TMD) layered semiconductors, semiconducting black phosphorous, and the insulating h-BN. Owing to the strong quantum confinements and defect-free surfaces, these atomically thin layers have offered us perfect platforms to investigate the interactions among photons, electrons and phonons. The unique interactions in these 2D materials are very important for both scientific research and application engineering. In this talk, I would like to briefly summarize and highlight the key findings, opportunities and challenges in this field. Next, I will introduce/highlight our recent achievements. We demonstrated atomically thin micro-lens and gratings using 2D MoS2, which is the thinnest optical component around the world. These devices are based on our discovery that the elastic light-matter interactions in highindex 2D materials is very strong. Also, I would like to introduce a new two-dimensional material phosphorene. Phosphorene has strongly anisotropic optical response, which creates 1D excitons in a 2D system. The strong confinement in phosphorene also enables the ultra-high trion (charged exciton) binding energies, which have been successfully measured in our experiments. Finally, I will briefly talk about the potential applications of 2D materials in energy harvesting.

  12. Inertial solvation in femtosecond 2D spectra

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hybl, John; Albrecht Ferro, Allison; Farrow, Darcie; Jonas, David

    2001-03-01

    We have used 2D Fourier transform spectroscopy to investigate polar solvation. 2D spectroscopy can reveal molecular lineshapes beneath ensemble averaged spectra and freeze molecular motions to give an undistorted picture of the microscopic dynamics of polar solvation. The transition from "inhomogeneous" to "homogeneous" 2D spectra is governed by both vibrational relaxation and solvent motion. Therefore, the time dependence of the 2D spectrum directly reflects the total response of the solvent-solute system. IR144, a cyanine dye with a dipole moment change upon electronic excitation, was used to probe inertial solvation in methanol and propylene carbonate. Since the static Stokes' shift of IR144 in each of these solvents is similar, differences in the 2D spectra result from solvation dynamics. Initial results indicate that the larger propylene carbonate responds more slowly than methanol, but appear to be inconsistent with rotational estimates of the inertial response. To disentangle intra-molecular vibrations from solvent motion, the 2D spectra of IR144 will be compared to the time-dependent 2D spectra of the structurally related nonpolar cyanine dye HDITCP.

  13. Internal Photoemission Spectroscopy of 2-D Materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nguyen, Nhan; Li, Mingda; Vishwanath, Suresh; Yan, Rusen; Xiao, Shudong; Xing, Huili; Cheng, Guangjun; Hight Walker, Angela; Zhang, Qin

    Recent research has shown the great benefits of using 2-D materials in the tunnel field-effect transistor (TFET), which is considered a promising candidate for the beyond-CMOS technology. The on-state current of TFET can be enhanced by engineering the band alignment of different 2D-2D or 2D-3D heterostructures. Here we present the internal photoemission spectroscopy (IPE) approach to determine the band alignments of various 2-D materials, in particular SnSe2 and WSe2, which have been proposed for new TFET designs. The metal-oxide-2-D semiconductor test structures are fabricated and characterized by IPE, where the band offsets from the 2-D semiconductor to the oxide conduction band minimum are determined by the threshold of the cube root of IPE yields as a function of photon energy. In particular, we find that SnSe2 has a larger electron affinity than most semiconductors and can be combined with other semiconductors to form near broken-gap heterojunctions with low barrier heights which can produce a higher on-state current. The details of data analysis of IPE and the results from Raman spectroscopy and spectroscopic ellipsometry measurements will also be presented and discussed.

  14. Parallel decomposition methods for the solution of electromagnetic scattering problems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cwik, Tom

    1992-01-01

    This paper contains a overview of the methods used in decomposing solutions to scattering problems onto coarse-grained parallel processors. Initially, a short summary of relevant computer architecture is presented as background to the subsequent discussion. After the introduction of a programming model for problem decomposition, specific decompositions of finite difference time domain, finite element, and integral equation solutions to Maxwell's equations are presented. The paper concludes with an outline of possible software-assisted decomposition methods and a summary.

  15. Brittle damage models in DYNA2D

    SciTech Connect

    Faux, D.R.

    1997-09-01

    DYNA2D is an explicit Lagrangian finite element code used to model dynamic events where stress wave interactions influence the overall response of the system. DYNA2D is often used to model penetration problems involving ductile-to-ductile impacts; however, with the advent of the use of ceramics in the armor-anti-armor community and the need to model damage to laser optics components, good brittle damage models are now needed in DYNA2D. This report will detail the implementation of four brittle damage models in DYNA2D, three scalar damage models and one tensor damage model. These new brittle damage models are then used to predict experimental results from three distinctly different glass damage problems.

  16. Matrix models of 2d gravity

    SciTech Connect

    Ginsparg, P.

    1991-01-01

    These are introductory lectures for a general audience that give an overview of the subject of matrix models and their application to random surfaces, 2d gravity, and string theory. They are intentionally 1.5 years out of date.

  17. Matrix models of 2d gravity

    SciTech Connect

    Ginsparg, P.

    1991-12-31

    These are introductory lectures for a general audience that give an overview of the subject of matrix models and their application to random surfaces, 2d gravity, and string theory. They are intentionally 1.5 years out of date.

  18. 2D electronic materials for army applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    O'Regan, Terrance; Perconti, Philip

    2015-05-01

    The record electronic properties achieved in monolayer graphene and related 2D materials such as molybdenum disulfide and hexagonal boron nitride show promise for revolutionary high-speed and low-power electronic devices. Heterogeneous 2D-stacked materials may create enabling technology for future communication and computation applications to meet soldier requirements. For instance, transparent, flexible and even wearable systems may become feasible. With soldier and squad level electronic power demands increasing, the Army is committed to developing and harnessing graphene-like 2D materials for compact low size-weight-and-power-cost (SWAP-C) systems. This paper will review developments in 2D electronic materials at the Army Research Laboratory over the last five years and discuss directions for future army applications.

  19. 2-d Finite Element Code Postprocessor

    1996-07-15

    ORION is an interactive program that serves as a postprocessor for the analysis programs NIKE2D, DYNA2D, TOPAZ2D, and CHEMICAL TOPAZ2D. ORION reads binary plot files generated by the two-dimensional finite element codes currently used by the Methods Development Group at LLNL. Contour and color fringe plots of a large number of quantities may be displayed on meshes consisting of triangular and quadrilateral elements. ORION can compute strain measures, interface pressures along slide lines, reaction forcesmore » along constrained boundaries, and momentum. ORION has been applied to study the response of two-dimensional solids and structures undergoing finite deformations under a wide variety of large deformation transient dynamic and static problems and heat transfer analyses.« less

  20. Crystal structure of the cowpox virus-encoded NKG2D ligand OMCP.

    PubMed

    Lazear, Eric; Peterson, Lance W; Nelson, Chris A; Fremont, Daved H

    2013-01-01

    The NKG2D receptor is expressed on the surface of NK, T, and macrophage lineage cells and plays an important role in antiviral and antitumor immunity. To evade NKG2D recognition, herpesviruses block the expression of NKG2D ligands on the surface of infected cells using a diverse repertoire of sabotage methods. Cowpox and monkeypox viruses have taken an alternate approach by encoding a soluble NKG2D ligand, the orthopoxvirus major histocompatibility complex (MHC) class I-like protein (OMCP), which can block NKG2D-mediated cytotoxicity. This approach has the advantage of targeting a single conserved receptor instead of numerous host ligands that exhibit significant sequence diversity. Here, we show that OMCP binds the NKG2D homodimer as a monomer and competitively blocks host ligand engagement. We have also determined the 2.25-Å-resolution crystal structure of OMCP from the cowpox virus Brighton Red strain, revealing a truncated MHC class I-like platform domain consisting of a beta sheet flanked with two antiparallel alpha helices. OMCP is generally similar in structure to known host NKG2D ligands but has notable variations in regions typically used to engage NKG2D. Additionally, the determinants responsible for the 14-fold-higher affinity of OMCP for human than for murine NKG2D were mapped to a single loop in the NKG2D ligand-binding pocket. PMID:23115291

  1. Chemical Approaches to 2D Materials.

    PubMed

    Samorì, Paolo; Palermo, Vincenzo; Feng, Xinliang

    2016-08-01

    Chemistry plays an ever-increasing role in the production, functionalization, processing and applications of graphene and other 2D materials. This special issue highlights a selection of enlightening chemical approaches to 2D materials, which nicely reflect the breadth of the field and convey the excitement of the individuals involved in it, who are trying to translate graphene and related materials from the laboratory into a real, high-impact technology. PMID:27478083

  2. Efficient 2d full waveform inversion using Fortran coarray

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ryu, Donghyun; Kim, ahreum; Ha, Wansoo

    2016-04-01

    We developed a time-domain seismic inversion program using the coarray feature of the Fortran 2008 standard to parallelize the algorithm. We converted a 2d acoustic parallel full waveform inversion program with Message Passing Interface (MPI) to a coarray program and examined performance of the two inversion programs. The results show that the speed of the waveform inversion program using the coarray is slightly faster than that of the MPI version. The standard coarray lacks features for collective communication; however, it can be improved in following standards since it is introduced recently. The parallel algorithm can be applied for 3D seismic data processing.

  3. Extended 2D generalized dilaton gravity theories

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Mello, R. O.

    2008-09-01

    We show that an anomaly-free description of matter in (1+1) dimensions requires a deformation of the 2D relativity principle, which introduces a non-trivial centre in the 2D Poincaré algebra. Then we work out the reduced phase space of the anomaly-free 2D relativistic particle, in order to show that it lives in a noncommutative 2D Minkowski space. Moreover, we build a Gaussian wave packet to show that a Planck length is well defined in two dimensions. In order to provide a gravitational interpretation for this noncommutativity, we propose to extend the usual 2D generalized dilaton gravity models by a specific Maxwell component, which guages the extra symmetry associated with the centre of the 2D Poincaré algebra. In addition, we show that this extension is a high energy correction to the unextended dilaton theories that can affect the topology of spacetime. Further, we couple a test particle to the general extended dilaton models with the purpose of showing that they predict a noncommutativity in curved spacetime, which is locally described by a Moyal star product in the low energy limit. We also conjecture a probable generalization of this result, which provides strong evidence that the noncommutativity is described by a certain star product which is not of the Moyal type at high energies. Finally, we prove that the extended dilaton theories can be formulated as Poisson Sigma models based on a nonlinear deformation of the extended Poincaré algebra.

  4. Nested Taylor decomposition in multivariate function decomposition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baykara, N. A.; Gürvit, Ercan

    2014-12-01

    Fluctuationlessness approximation applied to the remainder term of a Taylor decomposition expressed in integral form is already used in many articles. Some forms of multi-point Taylor expansion also are considered in some articles. This work is somehow a combination these where the Taylor decomposition of a function is taken where the remainder is expressed in integral form. Then the integrand is decomposed to Taylor again, not necessarily around the same point as the first decomposition and a second remainder is obtained. After taking into consideration the necessary change of variables and converting the integration limits to the universal [0;1] interval a multiple integration system formed by a multivariate function is formed. Then it is intended to apply the Fluctuationlessness approximation to each of these integrals one by one and get better results as compared with the single node Taylor decomposition on which the Fluctuationlessness is applied.

  5. Human erythrocytes analyzed by generalized 2D Raman correlation spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wesełucha-Birczyńska, Aleksandra; Kozicki, Mateusz; Czepiel, Jacek; Łabanowska, Maria; Nowak, Piotr; Kowalczyk, Grzegorz; Kurdziel, Magdalena; Birczyńska, Malwina; Biesiada, Grażyna; Mach, Tomasz; Garlicki, Aleksander

    2014-07-01

    The most numerous elements of the blood cells, erythrocytes, consist mainly of two components: homogeneous interior filled with hemoglobin and closure which is the cell membrane. To gain insight into their specific properties we studied the process of disintegration, considering these two constituents, and comparing the natural aging process of human healthy blood cells. MicroRaman spectra of hemoglobin within the single RBC were recorded using 514.5, and 785 nm laser lines. The generalized 2D correlation method was applied to analyze the collected spectra. The time passed from blood donation was regarded as an external perturbation. The time was no more than 40 days according to the current storage limit of blood banks, although, the average RBC life span is 120 days. An analysis of the prominent synchronous and asynchronous cross peaks allow us to get insight into the mechanism of hemoglobin decomposition. Appearing asynchronous cross-peaks point towards globin and heme separation from each other, while synchronous shows already broken globin into individual amino acids. Raman scattering analysis of hemoglobin “wrapping”, i.e. healthy erythrocyte ghosts, allows for the following peculiarity of their behavior. The increasing power of the excitation laser induced alterations in the assemblage of membrane lipids. 2D correlation maps, obtained with increasing laser power recognized as an external perturbation, allows for the consideration of alterations in the erythrocyte membrane structure and composition, which occurs first in the proteins. Cross-peaks were observed indicating an asynchronous correlation between the senescent-cell antigen (SCA) and heme or proteins vibrations. The EPR spectra of the whole blood was analyzed regarding time as an external stimulus. The 2D correlation spectra points towards participation of the selected metal ion centers in the disintegration process.

  6. Comparison of Analysis Results Between 2D/1D Synthesis and RAPTOR-M3G in the Korea Standard Nuclear Plant (KSNP)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Joung Lim, Mi; Maeng, Young Jae; Fero, Arnold H.; Anderson, Stanwood L.

    2016-02-01

    The 2D/1D synthesis methodology has been used to calculate the fast neutron (E > 1.0 MeV) exposure to the beltline region of the reactor pressure vessel. This method uses the DORT 3.1 discrete ordinates code and the BUGLE-96 cross-section library based on ENDF/B-VI. RAPTOR-M3G (RApid Parallel Transport Of Radiation-Multiple 3D Geometries) which performs full 3D calculations was developed and is based on domain decomposition algorithms, where the spatial and angular domains are allocated and processed on multi-processor computer architecture. As compared to traditional single-processor applications, this approach reduces the computational load as well as the memory requirement per processor. Both methods are applied to surveillance test results for the Korea Standard Nuclear Plant (KSNP)-OPR (Optimized Power Reactor) 1000 MW. The objective of this paper is to compare the results of the KSNP surveillance program between 2D/1D synthesis and RAPTOR-M3G. Each operating KSNP has a reactor vessel surveillance program consisting of six surveillance capsules located between the core and the reactor vessel in the downcomer region near the reactor vessel wall. In addition to the In-Vessel surveillance program, an Ex-Vessel Neutron Dosimetry (EVND) program has been implemented. In order to estimate surveillance test results, cycle-specific forward transport calculations were performed by 2D/1D synthesis and by RAPTOR-M3G. The ratio between measured and calculated (M/C) reaction rates will be discussed. The current plan is to install an EVND system in all of the Korea PWRs including the new reactor type, APR (Advanced Power Reactor) 1400 MW. This work will play an important role in establishing a KSNP-specific database of surveillance test results and will employ RAPTOR-M3G for surveillance dosimetry location as well as positions in the KSNP reactor vessel.

  7. 2D luminescence imaging of pH in vivo

    PubMed Central

    Schreml, Stephan; Meier, Robert J.; Wolfbeis, Otto S.; Landthaler, Michael; Szeimies, Rolf-Markus; Babilas, Philipp

    2011-01-01

    Luminescence imaging of biological parameters is an emerging field in biomedical sciences. Tools to study 2D pH distribution are needed to gain new insights into complex disease processes, such as wound healing and tumor metabolism. In recent years, luminescence-based methods for pH measurement have been developed. However, for in vivo applications, especially for studies on humans, biocompatibility and reliability under varying conditions have to be ensured. Here, we present a referenced luminescent sensor for 2D high-resolution imaging of pH in vivo. The ratiometric sensing scheme is based on time-domain luminescence imaging of FITC and ruthenium(II)tris-(4,7-diphenyl-1,10-phenanthroline). To create a biocompatible 2D sensor, these dyes were bound to or incorporated into microparticles (aminocellulose and polyacrylonitrile), and particles were immobilized in polyurethane hydrogel on transparent foils. We show sensor precision and validity by conducting in vitro and in vivo experiments, and we show the versatility in imaging pH during physiological and chronic cutaneous wound healing in humans. Implementation of this technique may open vistas in wound healing, tumor biology, and other biomedical fields. PMID:21262842

  8. Sigma-delta cellular neural network for 2D modulation.

    PubMed

    Aomori, Hisashi; Otake, Tsuyoshi; Takahashi, Nobuaki; Tanaka, Mamoru

    2008-01-01

    Although sigma-delta modulation is widely used for analog-to-digital (A/D) converters, sigma-delta concepts are only for 1D signals. Signal processing in the digital domain is extremely useful for 2D signals such as used in image processing, medical imaging, ultrasound imaging, and so on. The intricate task that provides true 2D sigma-delta modulation is feasible in the spatial domain sigma-delta modulation using the discrete-time cellular neural network (DT-CNN) with a C-template. In the proposed architecture, the A-template is used for a digital-to-analog converter (DAC), the C-template works as an integrator, and the nonlinear output function is used for the bilevel output. In addition, due to the cellular neural network (CNN) characteristics, each pixel of an image corresponds to a cell of a CNN, and each cell is connected spatially by the A-template. Therefore, the proposed system can be thought of as a very large-scale and super-parallel sigma-delta modulator. Moreover, the spatio-temporal dynamics is designed to obtain an optimal reconstruction signal. The experimental results show the excellent reconstruction performance and capabilities of the CNN as a sigma-delta modulator. PMID:18215502

  9. Optical modulators with 2D layered materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sun, Zhipei; Martinez, Amos; Wang, Feng

    2016-04-01

    Light modulation is an essential operation in photonics and optoelectronics. With existing and emerging technologies increasingly demanding compact, efficient, fast and broadband optical modulators, high-performance light modulation solutions are becoming indispensable. The recent realization that 2D layered materials could modulate light with superior performance has prompted intense research and significant advances, paving the way for realistic applications. In this Review, we cover the state of the art of optical modulators based on 2D materials, including graphene, transition metal dichalcogenides and black phosphorus. We discuss recent advances employing hybrid structures, such as 2D heterostructures, plasmonic structures, and silicon and fibre integrated structures. We also take a look at the future perspectives and discuss the potential of yet relatively unexplored mechanisms, such as magneto-optic and acousto-optic modulation.

  10. Large Area Synthesis of 2D Materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vogel, Eric

    Transition metal dichalcogenides (TMDs) have generated significant interest for numerous applications including sensors, flexible electronics, heterostructures and optoelectronics due to their interesting, thickness-dependent properties. Despite recent progress, the synthesis of high-quality and highly uniform TMDs on a large scale is still a challenge. In this talk, synthesis routes for WSe2 and MoS2 that achieve monolayer thickness uniformity across large area substrates with electrical properties equivalent to geological crystals will be described. Controlled doping of 2D semiconductors is also critically required. However, methods established for conventional semiconductors, such as ion implantation, are not easily applicable to 2D materials because of their atomically thin structure. Redox-active molecular dopants will be demonstrated which provide large changes in carrier density and workfunction through the choice of dopant, treatment time, and the solution concentration. Finally, several applications of these large-area, uniform 2D materials will be described including heterostructures, biosensors and strain sensors.

  11. 2D microwave imaging reflectometer electronics

    SciTech Connect

    Spear, A. G.; Domier, C. W. Hu, X.; Muscatello, C. M.; Ren, X.; Luhmann, N. C.; Tobias, B. J.

    2014-11-15

    A 2D microwave imaging reflectometer system has been developed to visualize electron density fluctuations on the DIII-D tokamak. Simultaneously illuminated at four probe frequencies, large aperture optics image reflections from four density-dependent cutoff surfaces in the plasma over an extended region of the DIII-D plasma. Localized density fluctuations in the vicinity of the plasma cutoff surfaces modulate the plasma reflections, yielding a 2D image of electron density fluctuations. Details are presented of the receiver down conversion electronics that generate the in-phase (I) and quadrature (Q) reflectometer signals from which 2D density fluctuation data are obtained. Also presented are details on the control system and backplane used to manage the electronics as well as an introduction to the computer based control program.

  12. 2D microwave imaging reflectometer electronics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Spear, A. G.; Domier, C. W.; Hu, X.; Muscatello, C. M.; Ren, X.; Tobias, B. J.; Luhmann, N. C.

    2014-11-01

    A 2D microwave imaging reflectometer system has been developed to visualize electron density fluctuations on the DIII-D tokamak. Simultaneously illuminated at four probe frequencies, large aperture optics image reflections from four density-dependent cutoff surfaces in the plasma over an extended region of the DIII-D plasma. Localized density fluctuations in the vicinity of the plasma cutoff surfaces modulate the plasma reflections, yielding a 2D image of electron density fluctuations. Details are presented of the receiver down conversion electronics that generate the in-phase (I) and quadrature (Q) reflectometer signals from which 2D density fluctuation data are obtained. Also presented are details on the control system and backplane used to manage the electronics as well as an introduction to the computer based control program.

  13. 2D microwave imaging reflectometer electronics.

    PubMed

    Spear, A G; Domier, C W; Hu, X; Muscatello, C M; Ren, X; Tobias, B J; Luhmann, N C

    2014-11-01

    A 2D microwave imaging reflectometer system has been developed to visualize electron density fluctuations on the DIII-D tokamak. Simultaneously illuminated at four probe frequencies, large aperture optics image reflections from four density-dependent cutoff surfaces in the plasma over an extended region of the DIII-D plasma. Localized density fluctuations in the vicinity of the plasma cutoff surfaces modulate the plasma reflections, yielding a 2D image of electron density fluctuations. Details are presented of the receiver down conversion electronics that generate the in-phase (I) and quadrature (Q) reflectometer signals from which 2D density fluctuation data are obtained. Also presented are details on the control system and backplane used to manage the electronics as well as an introduction to the computer based control program. PMID:25430247

  14. 2D-Crystal-Based Functional Inks.

    PubMed

    Bonaccorso, Francesco; Bartolotta, Antonino; Coleman, Jonathan N; Backes, Claudia

    2016-08-01

    The possibility to produce and process graphene, related 2D crystals, and heterostructures in the liquid phase makes them promising materials for an ever-growing class of applications as composite materials, sensors, in flexible optoelectronics, and energy storage and conversion. In particular, the ability to formulate functional inks with on-demand rheological and morphological properties, i.e., lateral size and thickness of the dispersed 2D crystals, is a step forward toward the development of industrial-scale, reliable, inexpensive printing/coating processes, a boost for the full exploitation of such nanomaterials. Here, the exfoliation strategies of graphite and other layered crystals are reviewed, along with the advances in the sorting of lateral size and thickness of the exfoliated sheets together with the formulation of functional inks and the current development of printing/coating processes of interest for the realization of 2D-crystal-based devices. PMID:27273554

  15. The 2D lingual appliance system.

    PubMed

    Cacciafesta, Vittorio

    2013-09-01

    The two-dimensional (2D) lingual bracket system represents a valuable treatment option for adult patients seeking a completely invisible orthodontic appliance. The ease of direct or simplified indirect bonding of 2D lingual brackets in combination with low friction mechanics makes it possible to achieve a good functional and aesthetic occlusion, even in the presence of a severe malocclusion. The use of a self-ligating bracket significantly reduces chair-side time for the orthodontist, and the low-profile bracket design greatly improves patient comfort. PMID:24005953

  16. Inkjet printing of 2D layered materials.

    PubMed

    Li, Jiantong; Lemme, Max C; Östling, Mikael

    2014-11-10

    Inkjet printing of 2D layered materials, such as graphene and MoS2, has attracted great interests for emerging electronics. However, incompatible rheology, low concentration, severe aggregation and toxicity of solvents constitute critical challenges which hamper the manufacturing efficiency and product quality. Here, we introduce a simple and general technology concept (distillation-assisted solvent exchange) to efficiently overcome these challenges. By implementing the concept, we have demonstrated excellent jetting performance, ideal printing patterns and a variety of promising applications for inkjet printing of 2D layered materials. PMID:25169938

  17. Measurement of 2D birefringence distribution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Noguchi, Masato; Ishikawa, Tsuyoshi; Ohno, Masahiro; Tachihara, Satoru

    1992-10-01

    A new measuring method of 2-D birefringence distribution has been developed. It has not been an easy job to get a birefringence distribution in an optical element with conventional ellipsometry because of its lack of scanning means. Finding an analogy between the rotating analyzer method in ellipsometry and the phase-shifting method in recently developed digital interferometry, we have applied the phase-shifting algorithm to ellipsometry, and have developed a new method that makes the measurement of 2-D birefringence distribution easy and possible. The system contains few moving parts, assuring reliability, and measures a large area of a sample at one time, making the measuring time very short.

  18. Parallel stitching of 2D materials

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Ling, Xi; Wu, Lijun; Lin, Yuxuan; Ma, Qiong; Wang, Ziqiang; Song, Yi; Yu, Lili; Huang, Shengxi; Fang, Wenjing; Zhang, Xu; et al

    2016-01-27

    Diverse parallel stitched 2D heterostructures, including metal–semiconductor, semiconductor–semiconductor, and insulator–semiconductor, are synthesized directly through selective “sowing” of aromatic molecules as the seeds in the chemical vapor deposition (CVD) method. Lastly, the methodology enables the large-scale fabrication of lateral heterostructures, which offers tremendous potential for its application in integrated circuits.

  19. Parallel Stitching of 2D Materials.

    PubMed

    Ling, Xi; Lin, Yuxuan; Ma, Qiong; Wang, Ziqiang; Song, Yi; Yu, Lili; Huang, Shengxi; Fang, Wenjing; Zhang, Xu; Hsu, Allen L; Bie, Yaqing; Lee, Yi-Hsien; Zhu, Yimei; Wu, Lijun; Li, Ju; Jarillo-Herrero, Pablo; Dresselhaus, Mildred; Palacios, Tomás; Kong, Jing

    2016-03-01

    Diverse parallel stitched 2D heterostructures, including metal-semiconductor, semiconductor-semiconductor, and insulator-semiconductor, are synthesized directly through selective "sowing" of aromatic molecules as the seeds in the chemical vapor deposition (CVD) method. The methodology enables the large-scale fabrication of lateral heterostructures, which offers tremendous potential for its application in integrated circuits. PMID:26813882

  20. Baby universes in 2d quantum gravity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ambjørn, Jan; Jain, Sanjay; Thorleifsson, Gudmar

    1993-06-01

    We investigate the fractal structure of 2d quantum gravity, both for pure gravity and for gravity coupled to multiple gaussian fields and for gravity coupled to Ising spins. The roughness of the surfaces is described in terms of baby universes and using numerical simulations we measure their distribution which is related to the string susceptibility exponent γstring.

  1. Application of 2D-Nonlinear Shallow Water Model of Tsunami by using Adomian Decomposition Method

    SciTech Connect

    Waewcharoen, Sribudh; Boonyapibanwong, Supachai; Koonprasert, Sanoe

    2008-09-01

    One of the most important questions in tsunami modeling is the estimation of tsunami run-up heights at different points along a coastline. Methods for numerical simulation of tsunami wave propagation in deep and shallow seas are well developed and have been widely used by many scientists (2001-2008). In this paper, we consider a two-dimensional nonlinear shallow water model of tsunami given by Tivon Jacobson is work [1]. u{sub t}+uu{sub x}+{nu}u{sub y} -c{sup 2}(h{sub x}+(h{sub b}){sub x}) {nu}{sub t}+u{nu}{sub x}+{nu}{nu}{sub y} = -c{sup 2}(h{sub y}+(h{sub b}){sub y}) h{sub t}+(hu){sub x}+(h{nu}){sub y} = 0 g-shore, h is surface elevation and s, t is time, u is velocity of cross-shore, {nu} is velocity of along-shore, h is surface elevation and h{sub b} is function of shore. This is a nondimensionalized model with the gravity g and constant reference depth H factored into c = {radical}(gH). We apply the Adomian Decompostion Method (ADM) to solve the tsunami model. This powerful method has been used to obtain explicit and numerical solutions of three types of diffusion-convection-reaction (DECR) equations. The ADM results for the tsunami model yield analytical solutions in terms of a rapidly convergent infinite power series. Symbolic computation, numerical results and graphs of solutions are obtained by Maple program.

  2. Development of LGA & LBE 2D Parallel Programs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ujita, Hiroshi; Nagata, Satoru; Akiyama, Minoru; Naitoh, Masanori; Ohashi, Hirotada

    A lattice-gas Automata two-dimensional program was developed for analysis of single and two-phase flow behaviors, to support the development of integrated software modules for Nuclear Power Plant mechanistic simulations. The program has single-color, which includes FHP I, II, and III models, two-color (Immiscible lattice gas), and two-velocity methods including a gravity effect model. Parameter surveys have been performed for Karman vortex street, two-phase separation for understanding flow regimes, and natural circulation flow for demonstrating passive reactor safety due to the chimney structure vessel. In addition, lattice-Boltzmann Equation two-dimensional programs were also developed. For analyzing single-phase flow behavior, a lattice-Boltzmann-BGK program was developed, which has multi-block treatments. A Finite Differential lattice-Boltzmann Equation program of parallelized version was introduced to analyze boiling two-phase flow behaviors. Parameter surveys have been performed for backward facing flow, Karman vortex street, bent piping flow with/without obstacles for piping system applications, flow in the porous media for demonstrating porous debris coolability, Couette flow, and spinodal decomposition to understand basic phase separation mechanisms. Parallelization was completed by using a domain decomposition method for all of the programs. An increase in calculation speed of at least 25 times, by parallel processing on 32 processors, demonstrated high parallelization efficiency. Application fields for microscopic model simulation to hypothetical severe conditions in large plants were also discussed.

  3. Dual Element Intercalation into 2D Layered Bi₂Se₃ Nanoribbons.

    PubMed

    Chen, Karen P; Chung, Frank R; Wang, Mengjing; Koski, Kristie J

    2015-04-29

    We demonstrate the intercalation of multiple zero-valent atomic species into two-dimensional (2D) layered Bi2Se3 nanoribbons. Intercalation is performed chemically through a stepwise combination of disproportionation redox reactions, hydrazine reduction, or carbonyl decomposition. Traditional intercalation is electrochemical thus limiting intercalant guests to a single atomic species. We show that multiple zero-valent atoms can be intercalated through this chemical route into the host lattice of a 2D crystal. Intermetallic species exhibit unique structural ordering demonstrated in a variety of superlattice diffraction patterns. We believe this method is general and can be used to achieve a wide variety of new 2D materials previously inaccessible. PMID:25851420

  4. Static & Dynamic Response of 2D Solids

    1996-07-15

    NIKE2D is an implicit finite-element code for analyzing the finite deformation, static and dynamic response of two-dimensional, axisymmetric, plane strain, and plane stress solids. The code is fully vectorized and available on several computing platforms. A number of material models are incorporated to simulate a wide range of material behavior including elasto-placicity, anisotropy, creep, thermal effects, and rate dependence. Slideline algorithms model gaps and sliding along material interfaces, including interface friction, penetration and single surfacemore » contact. Interactive-graphics and rezoning is included for analyses with large mesh distortions. In addition to quasi-Newton and arc-length procedures, adaptive algorithms can be defined to solve the implicit equations using the solution language ISLAND. Each of these capabilities and more make NIKE2D a robust analysis tool.« less

  5. Explicit 2-D Hydrodynamic FEM Program

    1996-08-07

    DYNA2D* is a vectorized, explicit, two-dimensional, axisymmetric and plane strain finite element program for analyzing the large deformation dynamic and hydrodynamic response of inelastic solids. DYNA2D* contains 13 material models and 9 equations of state (EOS) to cover a wide range of material behavior. The material models implemented in all machine versions are: elastic, orthotropic elastic, kinematic/isotropic elastic plasticity, thermoelastoplastic, soil and crushable foam, linear viscoelastic, rubber, high explosive burn, isotropic elastic-plastic, temperature-dependent elastic-plastic. Themore » isotropic and temperature-dependent elastic-plastic models determine only the deviatoric stresses. Pressure is determined by one of 9 equations of state including linear polynomial, JWL high explosive, Sack Tuesday high explosive, Gruneisen, ratio of polynomials, linear polynomial with energy deposition, ignition and growth of reaction in HE, tabulated compaction, and tabulated.« less

  6. Schottky diodes from 2D germanane

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sahoo, Nanda Gopal; Esteves, Richard J.; Punetha, Vinay Deep; Pestov, Dmitry; Arachchige, Indika U.; McLeskey, James T.

    2016-07-01

    We report on the fabrication and characterization of a Schottky diode made using 2D germanane (hydrogenated germanene). When compared to germanium, the 2D structure has higher electron mobility, an optimal band-gap, and exceptional stability making germanane an outstanding candidate for a variety of opto-electronic devices. One-atom-thick sheets of hydrogenated puckered germanium atoms have been synthesized from a CaGe2 framework via intercalation and characterized by XRD, Raman, and FTIR techniques. The material was then used to fabricate Schottky diodes by suspending the germanane in benzonitrile and drop-casting it onto interdigitated metal electrodes. The devices demonstrate significant rectifying behavior and the outstanding potential of this material.

  7. 2dF mechanical engineering

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smith, Greg; Lankshear, Allan

    1998-07-01

    2dF is a multi-object instrument mounted at prime focus at the AAT capable of spectroscopic analysis of 400 objects in a single 2 degree field. It also prepares a second 2 degree 400 object field while the first field is being observed. At its heart is a high precision robotic positioner that places individual fiber end magnetic buttons on one of two field plates. The button gripper is carried on orthogonal gantries powered by linear synchronous motors and contains a TV camera which precisely locates backlit buttons to allow placement in user defined locations to 10 (mu) accuracy. Fiducial points on both plates can also be observed by the camera to allow repeated checks on positioning accuracy. Field plates rotate to follow apparent sky rotation. The spectrographs both analyze light from the 200 observing fibers each and back- illuminate the 400 fibers being re-positioned during the observing run. The 2dF fiber position and spectrograph system is a large and complex instrument located at the prime focus of the Anglo Australian Telescope. The mechanical design has departed somewhat from the earlier concepts of Gray et al, but still reflects the audacity of those first ideas. The positioner is capable of positioning 400 fibers on a field plate while another 400 fibers on another plate are observing at the focus of the telescope and feeding the twin spectrographs. When first proposed it must have seemed like ingenuity unfettered by caution. Yet now it works, and works wonderfully well. 2dF is a system which functions as the result of the combined and coordinated efforts of the astronomers, the mechanical designers and tradespeople, the electronic designers, the programmers, the support staff at the telescope, and the manufacturing subcontractors. The mechanical design of the 2dF positioner and spectrographs was carried out by the mechanical engineering staff of the AAO and the majority of the manufacture was carried out in the AAO workshops.

  8. Compact 2-D graphical representation of DNA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Randić, Milan; Vračko, Marjan; Zupan, Jure; Novič, Marjana

    2003-05-01

    We present a novel 2-D graphical representation for DNA sequences which has an important advantage over the existing graphical representations of DNA in being very compact. It is based on: (1) use of binary labels for the four nucleic acid bases, and (2) use of the 'worm' curve as template on which binary codes are placed. The approach is illustrated on DNA sequences of the first exon of human β-globin and gorilla β-globin.

  9. 2D materials: Graphene and others

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bansal, Suneev Anil; Singh, Amrinder Pal; Kumar, Suresh

    2016-05-01

    Present report reviews the recent advancements in new atomically thick 2D materials. Materials covered in this review are Graphene, Silicene, Germanene, Boron Nitride (BN) and Transition metal chalcogenides (TMC). These materials show extraordinary mechanical, electronic and optical properties which make them suitable candidates for future applications. Apart from unique properties, tune-ability of highly desirable properties of these materials is also an important area to be emphasized on.

  10. TACO (2D AND 3D). Taco

    SciTech Connect

    Mason, W.E.

    1983-03-01

    A set of finite element codes for the solution of nonlinear, two-dimensional (TACO2D) and three-dimensional (TACO3D) heat transfer problems. Performs linear and nonlinear analyses of both transient and steady state heat transfer problems. Has the capability to handle time or temperature dependent material properties. Materials may be either isotropic or orthotropic. A variety of time and temperature dependent boundary conditions and loadings are available including temperature, flux, convection, radiation, and internal heat generation.

  11. Tomosynthesis imaging with 2D scanning trajectories

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khare, Kedar; Claus, Bernhard E. H.; Eberhard, Jeffrey W.

    2011-03-01

    Tomosynthesis imaging in chest radiography provides volumetric information with the potential for improved diagnostic value when compared to the standard AP or LAT projections. In this paper we explore the image quality benefits of 2D scanning trajectories when coupled with advanced image reconstruction approaches. It is intuitively clear that 2D trajectories provide projection data that is more complete in terms of Radon space filling, when compared with conventional tomosynthesis using a linearly scanned source. Incorporating this additional information for obtaining improved image quality is, however, not a straightforward problem. The typical tomosynthesis reconstruction algorithms are based on direct inversion methods e.g. Filtered Backprojection (FBP) or iterative algorithms that are variants of the Algebraic Reconstruction Technique (ART). The FBP approach is fast and provides high frequency details in the image but at the same time introduces streaking artifacts degrading the image quality. The iterative methods can reduce the image artifacts by using image priors but suffer from a slow convergence rate, thereby producing images lacking high frequency details. In this paper we propose using a fast converging optimal gradient iterative scheme that has advantages of both the FBP and iterative methods in that it produces images with high frequency details while reducing the image artifacts. We show that using favorable 2D scanning trajectories along with the proposed reconstruction method has the advantage of providing improved depth information for structures such as the spine and potentially producing images with more isotropic resolution.

  12. Engineering light outcoupling in 2D materials.

    PubMed

    Lien, Der-Hsien; Kang, Jeong Seuk; Amani, Matin; Chen, Kevin; Tosun, Mahmut; Wang, Hsin-Ping; Roy, Tania; Eggleston, Michael S; Wu, Ming C; Dubey, Madan; Lee, Si-Chen; He, Jr-Hau; Javey, Ali

    2015-02-11

    When light is incident on 2D transition metal dichalcogenides (TMDCs), it engages in multiple reflections within underlying substrates, producing interferences that lead to enhancement or attenuation of the incoming and outgoing strength of light. Here, we report a simple method to engineer the light outcoupling in semiconducting TMDCs by modulating their dielectric surroundings. We show that by modulating the thicknesses of underlying substrates and capping layers, the interference caused by substrate can significantly enhance the light absorption and emission of WSe2, resulting in a ∼11 times increase in Raman signal and a ∼30 times increase in the photoluminescence (PL) intensity of WSe2. On the basis of the interference model, we also propose a strategy to control the photonic and optoelectronic properties of thin-layer WSe2. This work demonstrates the utilization of outcoupling engineering in 2D materials and offers a new route toward the realization of novel optoelectronic devices, such as 2D LEDs and solar cells. PMID:25602462

  13. 2D superconductivity by ionic gating

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Iwasa, Yoshi

    2D superconductivity is attracting a renewed interest due to the discoveries of new highly crystalline 2D superconductors in the past decade. Superconductivity at the oxide interfaces triggered by LaAlO3/SrTiO3 has become one of the promising routes for creation of new 2D superconductors. Also, the MBE grown metallic monolayers including FeSe are also offering a new platform of 2D superconductors. In the last two years, there appear a variety of monolayer/bilayer superconductors fabricated by CVD or mechanical exfoliation. Among these, electric field induced superconductivity by electric double layer transistor (EDLT) is a unique platform of 2D superconductivity, because of its ability of high density charge accumulation, and also because of the versatility in terms of materials, stemming from oxides to organics and layered chalcogenides. In this presentation, the following issues of electric filed induced superconductivity will be addressed; (1) Tunable carrier density, (2) Weak pinning, (3) Absence of inversion symmetry. (1) Since the sheet carrier density is quasi-continuously tunable from 0 to the order of 1014 cm-2, one is able to establish an electronic phase diagram of superconductivity, which will be compared with that of bulk superconductors. (2) The thickness of superconductivity can be estimated as 2 - 10 nm, dependent on materials, and is much smaller than the in-plane coherence length. Such a thin but low resistance at normal state results in extremely weak pinning beyond the dirty Boson model in the amorphous metallic films. (3) Due to the electric filed, the inversion symmetry is inherently broken in EDLT. This feature appears in the enhancement of Pauli limit of the upper critical field for the in-plane magnetic fields. In transition metal dichalcogenide with a substantial spin-orbit interactions, we were able to confirm the stabilization of Cooper pair due to its spin-valley locking. This work has been supported by Grant-in-Aid for Specially

  14. In-Cell Protein Structures from 2D NMR Experiments.

    PubMed

    Müntener, Thomas; Häussinger, Daniel; Selenko, Philipp; Theillet, Francois-Xavier

    2016-07-21

    In-cell NMR spectroscopy provides atomic resolution insights into the structural properties of proteins in cells, but it is rarely used to solve entire protein structures de novo. Here, we introduce a paramagnetic lanthanide-tag to simultaneously measure protein pseudocontact shifts (PCSs) and residual dipolar couplings (RDCs) to be used as input for structure calculation routines within the Rosetta program. We employ this approach to determine the structure of the protein G B1 domain (GB1) in intact Xenopus laevis oocytes from a single set of 2D in-cell NMR experiments. Specifically, we derive well-defined GB1 ensembles from low concentration in-cell NMR samples (∼50 μM) measured at moderate magnetic field strengths (600 MHz), thus offering an easily accessible alternative for determining intracellular protein structures. PMID:27379949

  15. Facial biometrics based on 2D vector geometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Malek, Obaidul; Venetsanopoulos, Anastasios; Androutsos, Dimitrios

    2014-05-01

    The main challenge of facial biometrics is its robustness and ability to adapt to changes in position orientation, facial expression, and illumination effects. This research addresses the predominant deficiencies in this regard and systematically investigates a facial authentication system in the Euclidean domain. In the proposed method, Euclidean geometry in 2D vector space is being constructed for features extraction and the authentication method. In particular, each assigned point of the candidates' biometric features is considered to be a 2D geometrical coordinate in the Euclidean vector space. Algebraic shapes of the extracted candidate features are also computed and compared. The proposed authentication method is being tested on images from the public "Put Face Database". The performance of the proposed method is evaluated based on Correct Recognition (CRR), False Acceptance (FAR), and False Rejection (FRR) rates. The theoretical foundation of the proposed method along with the experimental results are also presented in this paper. The experimental results demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed method.

  16. GBL-2D Version 1.0: a 2D geometry boolean library.

    SciTech Connect

    McBride, Cory L. (Elemental Technologies, American Fort, UT); Schmidt, Rodney Cannon; Yarberry, Victor R.; Meyers, Ray J.

    2006-11-01

    This report describes version 1.0 of GBL-2D, a geometric Boolean library for 2D objects. The library is written in C++ and consists of a set of classes and routines. The classes primarily represent geometric data and relationships. Classes are provided for 2D points, lines, arcs, edge uses, loops, surfaces and mask sets. The routines contain algorithms for geometric Boolean operations and utility functions. Routines are provided that incorporate the Boolean operations: Union(OR), XOR, Intersection and Difference. A variety of additional analytical geometry routines and routines for importing and exporting the data in various file formats are also provided. The GBL-2D library was originally developed as a geometric modeling engine for use with a separate software tool, called SummitView [1], that manipulates the 2D mask sets created by designers of Micro-Electro-Mechanical Systems (MEMS). However, many other practical applications for this type of software can be envisioned because the need to perform 2D Boolean operations can arise in many contexts.

  17. Orthogonal tensor decompositions

    SciTech Connect

    Tamara G. Kolda

    2000-03-01

    The authors explore the orthogonal decomposition of tensors (also known as multi-dimensional arrays or n-way arrays) using two different definitions of orthogonality. They present numerous examples to illustrate the difficulties in understanding such decompositions. They conclude with a counterexample to a tensor extension of the Eckart-Young SVD approximation theorem by Leibovici and Sabatier [Linear Algebra Appl. 269(1998):307--329].

  18. Interparticle Attraction in 2D Complex Plasmas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kompaneets, Roman; Morfill, Gregor E.; Ivlev, Alexei V.

    2016-03-01

    Complex (dusty) plasmas allow experimental studies of various physical processes occurring in classical liquids and solids by directly observing individual microparticles. A major problem is that the interaction between microparticles is generally not molecularlike. In this Letter, we propose how to achieve a molecularlike interaction potential in laboratory 2D complex plasmas. We argue that this principal aim can be achieved by using relatively small microparticles and properly adjusting discharge parameters. If experimentally confirmed, this will make it possible to employ complex plasmas as a model system with an interaction potential resembling that of conventional liquids.

  19. Periodically sheared 2D Yukawa systems

    SciTech Connect

    Kovács, Anikó Zsuzsa; Hartmann, Peter; Donkó, Zoltán

    2015-10-15

    We present non-equilibrium molecular dynamics simulation studies on the dynamic (complex) shear viscosity of a 2D Yukawa system. We have identified a non-monotonic frequency dependence of the viscosity at high frequencies and shear rates, an energy absorption maximum (local resonance) at the Einstein frequency of the system at medium shear rates, an enhanced collective wave activity, when the excitation is near the plateau frequency of the longitudinal wave dispersion, and the emergence of significant configurational anisotropy at small frequencies and high shear rates.

  20. ENERGY LANDSCAPE OF 2D FLUID FORMS

    SciTech Connect

    Y. JIANG; ET AL

    2000-04-01

    The equilibrium states of 2D non-coarsening fluid foams, which consist of bubbles with fixed areas, correspond to local minima of the total perimeter. (1) The authors find an approximate value of the global minimum, and determine directly from an image how far a foam is from its ground state. (2) For (small) area disorder, small bubbles tend to sort inwards and large bubbles outwards. (3) Topological charges of the same sign repel while charges of opposite sign attract. (4) They discuss boundary conditions and the uniqueness of the pattern for fixed topology.

  1. 2D stepping drive for hyperspectral systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Endrödy, Csaba; Mehner, Hannes; Grewe, Adrian; Sinzinger, Stefan; Hoffmann, Martin

    2015-07-01

    We present the design, fabrication and characterization of a compact 2D stepping microdrive for pinhole array positioning. The miniaturized solution enables a highly integrated compact hyperspectral imaging system. Based on the geometry of the pinhole array, an inch-worm drive with electrostatic actuators was designed resulting in a compact (1 cm2) positioning system featuring a step size of about 15 µm in a 170 µm displacement range. The high payload (20 mg) as required for the pinhole array and the compact system design exceed the known electrostatic inch-worm-based microdrives.

  2. ELRIS2D: A MATLAB Package for the 2D Inversion of DC Resistivity/IP Data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Akca, Irfan

    2016-04-01

    ELRIS2D is an open source code written in MATLAB for the two-dimensional inversion of direct current resistivity (DCR) and time domain induced polarization (IP) data. The user interface of the program is designed for functionality and ease of use. All available settings of the program can be reached from the main window. The subsurface is discretized using a hybrid mesh generated by the combination of structured and unstructured meshes, which reduces the computational cost of the whole inversion procedure. The inversion routine is based on the smoothness constrained least squares method. In order to verify the program, responses of two test models and field data sets were inverted. The models inverted from the synthetic data sets are consistent with the original test models in both DC resistivity and IP cases. A field data set acquired in an archaeological site is also used for the verification of outcomes of the program in comparison with the excavation results.

  3. A 2-D spectral-element method for computing spherical-earth seismograms-II. Waves in solid-fluid media

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nissen-Meyer, Tarje; Fournier, Alexandre; Dahlen, F. A.

    2008-09-01

    We portray a dedicated spectral-element method to solve the elastodynamic wave equation upon spherically symmetric earth models at the expense of a 2-D domain. Using this method, 3-D wavefields of arbitrary resolution may be computed to obtain Fréchet sensitivity kernels, especially for diffracted arrivals. The meshing process is presented for varying frequencies in terms of its efficiency as measured by the total number of elements, their spacing variations and stability criteria. We assess the mesh quantitatively by defining these numerical parameters in a general non-dimensionalized form such that comparisons to other grid-based methods are straightforward. Efficient-mesh generation for the PREM example and a minimum-messaging domain decomposition and parallelization strategy lay foundations for waveforms up to frequencies of 1 Hz on moderate PC clusters. The discretization of fluid, solid and respective boundary regions is similar to previous spectral-element implementations, save for a fluid potential formulation that incorporates the density, thereby yielding identical boundary terms on fluid and solid sides. We compare the second-order Newmark time extrapolation scheme with a newly implemented fourth-order symplectic scheme and argue in favour of the latter in cases of propagation over many wavelengths due to drastic accuracy improvements. Various validation examples such as full moment-tensor seismograms, wavefield snapshots, and energy conservation illustrate the favourable behaviour and potential of the method.

  4. Kolmogorov spectrum consistent optimization for multi-scale flow decomposition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mishra, M.; Liu, X.; Skote, M.; Fu, C.-W.

    2014-05-01

    Multi-scale analysis is widely adopted in turbulence research for studying flow structures corresponding to specific length scales in the Kolmogorov spectrum. In the present work, a new methodology based on novel optimization techniques for scale decomposition is introduced, which leads to a bandpass filter with prescribed properties. With this filter, we can efficiently perform scale decomposition using Fourier transform directly while adequately suppressing Gibbs ringing artifacts. Both 2D and 3D scale decomposition results are presented, together with qualitative and quantitative analysis. The comparison with existing multi-scale analysis technique is conducted to verify the effectiveness of our method. Validation of this decomposition technique is demonstrated both qualitatively and quantitatively. The advantage of the proposed methodology enables a precise specification of continuous length scales while preserving the original structures. These unique features of the proposed methodology may provide future insights into the evolution of turbulent flow structures.

  5. WFR-2D: an analytical model for PWAS-generated 2D ultrasonic guided wave propagation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shen, Yanfeng; Giurgiutiu, Victor

    2014-03-01

    This paper presents WaveFormRevealer 2-D (WFR-2D), an analytical predictive tool for the simulation of 2-D ultrasonic guided wave propagation and interaction with damage. The design of structural health monitoring (SHM) systems and self-aware smart structures requires the exploration of a wide range of parameters to achieve best detection and quantification of certain types of damage. Such need for parameter exploration on sensor dimension, location, guided wave characteristics (mode type, frequency, wavelength, etc.) can be best satisfied with analytical models which are fast and efficient. The analytical model was constructed based on the exact 2-D Lamb wave solution using Bessel and Hankel functions. Damage effects were inserted in the model by considering the damage as a secondary wave source with complex-valued directivity scattering coefficients containing both amplitude and phase information from wave-damage interaction. The analytical procedure was coded with MATLAB, and a predictive simulation tool called WaveFormRevealer 2-D was developed. The wave-damage interaction coefficients (WDICs) were extracted from harmonic analysis of local finite element model (FEM) with artificial non-reflective boundaries (NRB). The WFR-2D analytical simulation results were compared and verified with full scale multiphysics finite element models and experiments with scanning laser vibrometer. First, Lamb wave propagation in a pristine aluminum plate was simulated with WFR-2D, compared with finite element results, and verified by experiments. Then, an inhomogeneity was machined into the plate to represent damage. Analytical modeling was carried out, and verified by finite element simulation and experiments. This paper finishes with conclusions and suggestions for future work.

  6. Microwave Assisted 2D Materials Exfoliation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Yanbin

    Two-dimensional materials have emerged as extremely important materials with applications ranging from energy and environmental science to electronics and biology. Here we report our discovery of a universal, ultrafast, green, solvo-thermal technology for producing excellent-quality, few-layered nanosheets in liquid phase from well-known 2D materials such as such hexagonal boron nitride (h-BN), graphite, and MoS2. We start by mixing the uniform bulk-layered material with a common organic solvent that matches its surface energy to reduce the van der Waals attractive interactions between the layers; next, the solutions are heated in a commercial microwave oven to overcome the energy barrier between bulk and few-layers states. We discovered the minutes-long rapid exfoliation process is highly temperature dependent, which requires precise thermal management to obtain high-quality inks. We hypothesize a possible mechanism of this proposed solvo-thermal process; our theory confirms the basis of this novel technique for exfoliation of high-quality, layered 2D materials by using an as yet unknown role of the solvent.

  7. Photocurrent spectroscopy of 2D materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cobden, David

    Confocal photocurrent measurements provide a powerful means of studying many aspects of the optoelectronic and electrical properties of a 2D device or material. At a diffraction-limited point they can provide a detailed absorption spectrum, and they can probe local symmetry, ultrafast relaxation rates and processes, electron-electron interaction strengths, and transport coefficients. We illustrate this with several examples, once being the photo-Nernst effect. In gapless 2D materials, such as graphene, in a perpendicular magnetic field a photocurrent antisymmetric in the field is generated near to the free edges, with opposite sign at opposite edges. Its origin is the transverse thermoelectric current associated with the laser-induced electron temperature gradient. This effect provides an unambiguous demonstration of the Shockley-Ramo nature of long-range photocurrent generation in gapless materials. It also provides a means of investigating quasiparticle properties. For example, in the case of graphene on hBN, it can be used to probe the Lifshitz transition that occurs due to the minibands formed by the Moire superlattice. We also observe and discuss photocurrent generated in other semimetallic (WTe2) and semiconducting (WSe2) monolayers. Work supported by DoE BES and NSF EFRI grants.

  8. Multienzyme Inkjet Printed 2D Arrays.

    PubMed

    Gdor, Efrat; Shemesh, Shay; Magdassi, Shlomo; Mandler, Daniel

    2015-08-19

    The use of printing to produce 2D arrays is well established, and should be relatively facile to adapt for the purpose of printing biomaterials; however, very few studies have been published using enzyme solutions as inks. Among the printing technologies, inkjet printing is highly suitable for printing biomaterials and specifically enzymes, as it offers many advantages. Formulation of the inkjet inks is relatively simple and can be adjusted to a variety of biomaterials, while providing nonharmful environment to the enzymes. Here we demonstrate the applicability of inkjet printing for patterning multiple enzymes in a predefined array in a very straightforward, noncontact method. Specifically, various arrays of the enzymes glucose oxidase (GOx), invertase (INV) and horseradish peroxidase (HP) were printed on aminated glass surfaces, followed by immobilization using glutardialdehyde after printing. Scanning electrochemical microscopy (SECM) was used for imaging the printed patterns and to ascertain the enzyme activity. The successful formation of 2D arrays consisting of enzymes was explored as a means of developing the first surface confined enzyme based logic gates. Principally, XOR and AND gates, each consisting of two enzymes as the Boolean operators, were assembled, and their operation was studied by SECM. PMID:26214072

  9. FluoRender: An Application of 2D Image Space Methods for 3D and 4D Confocal Microscopy Data Visualization in Neurobiology Research

    PubMed Central

    Wan, Yong; Otsuna, Hideo; Chien, Chi-Bin; Hansen, Charles

    2013-01-01

    2D image space methods are processing methods applied after the volumetric data are projected and rendered into the 2D image space, such as 2D filtering, tone mapping and compositing. In the application domain of volume visualization, most 2D image space methods can be carried out more efficiently than their 3D counterparts. Most importantly, 2D image space methods can be used to enhance volume visualization quality when applied together with volume rendering methods. In this paper, we present and discuss the applications of a series of 2D image space methods as enhancements to confocal microscopy visualizations, including 2D tone mapping, 2D compositing, and 2D color mapping. These methods are easily integrated with our existing confocal visualization tool, FluoRender, and the outcome is a full-featured visualization system that meets neurobiologists’ demands for qualitative analysis of confocal microscopy data. PMID:23584131

  10. Homogenization models for 2-D grid structures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Banks, H. T.; Cioranescu, D.; Rebnord, D. A.

    1992-01-01

    In the past several years, we have pursued efforts related to the development of accurate models for the dynamics of flexible structures made of composite materials. Rather than viewing periodicity and sparseness as obstacles to be overcome, we exploit them to our advantage. We consider a variational problem on a domain that has large, periodically distributed holes. Using homogenization techniques we show that the solution to this problem is in some topology 'close' to the solution of a similar problem that holds on a much simpler domain. We study the behavior of the solution of the variational problem as the holes increase in number, but decrease in size in such a way that the total amount of material remains constant. The result is an equation that is in general more complex, but with a domain that is simply connected rather than perforated. We study the limit of the solution as the amount of material goes to zero. This second limit will, in most cases, retrieve much of the simplicity that was lost in the first limit without sacrificing the simplicity of the domain. Finally, we show that these results can be applied to the case of a vibrating Love-Kirchhoff plate with Kelvin-Voigt damping. We rely heavily on earlier results of (Du), (CS) for the static, undamped Love-Kirchhoff equation. Our efforts here result in a modification of those results to include both time dependence and Kelvin-Voigt damping.

  11. 2-D or not 2-D, that is the question: A Northern California test

    SciTech Connect

    Mayeda, K; Malagnini, L; Phillips, W S; Walter, W R; Dreger, D

    2005-06-06

    Reliable estimates of the seismic source spectrum are necessary for accurate magnitude, yield, and energy estimation. In particular, how seismic radiated energy scales with increasing earthquake size has been the focus of recent debate within the community and has direct implications on earthquake source physics studies as well as hazard mitigation. The 1-D coda methodology of Mayeda et al. has provided the lowest variance estimate of the source spectrum when compared against traditional approaches that use direct S-waves, thus making it ideal for networks that have sparse station distribution. The 1-D coda methodology has been mostly confined to regions of approximately uniform complexity. For larger, more geophysically complicated regions, 2-D path corrections may be required. The complicated tectonics of the northern California region coupled with high quality broadband seismic data provides for an ideal ''apples-to-apples'' test of 1-D and 2-D path assumptions on direct waves and their coda. Using the same station and event distribution, we compared 1-D and 2-D path corrections and observed the following results: (1) 1-D coda results reduced the amplitude variance relative to direct S-waves by roughly a factor of 8 (800%); (2) Applying a 2-D correction to the coda resulted in up to 40% variance reduction from the 1-D coda results; (3) 2-D direct S-wave results, though better than 1-D direct waves, were significantly worse than the 1-D coda. We found that coda-based moment-rate source spectra derived from the 2-D approach were essentially identical to those from the 1-D approach for frequencies less than {approx}0.7-Hz, however for the high frequencies (0.7{le} f {le} 8.0-Hz), the 2-D approach resulted in inter-station scatter that was generally 10-30% smaller. For complex regions where data are plentiful, a 2-D approach can significantly improve upon the simple 1-D assumption. In regions where only 1-D coda correction is available it is still preferable over 2

  12. Accelerating Dynamic Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) for Lung Tumor Tracking Based on Low-Rank Decomposition in the Spatial–Temporal Domain: A Feasibility Study Based on Simulation and Preliminary Prospective Undersampled MRI

    SciTech Connect

    Sarma, Manoj; Hu, Peng; Rapacchi, Stanislas; Ennis, Daniel; Thomas, Albert; Lee, Percy; Kupelian, Patrick; Sheng, Ke

    2014-03-01

    Purpose: To evaluate a low-rank decomposition method to reconstruct down-sampled k-space data for the purpose of tumor tracking. Methods and Materials: Seven retrospective lung cancer patients were included in the simulation study. The fully-sampled k-space data were first generated from existing 2-dimensional dynamic MR images and then down-sampled by 5 × -20 × before reconstruction using a Cartesian undersampling mask. Two methods, a low-rank decomposition method using combined dynamic MR images (k-t SLR based on sparsity and low-rank penalties) and a total variation (TV) method using individual dynamic MR frames, were used to reconstruct images. The tumor trajectories were derived on the basis of autosegmentation of the resultant images. To further test its feasibility, k-t SLR was used to reconstruct prospective data of a healthy subject. An undersampled balanced steady-state free precession sequence with the same undersampling mask was used to acquire the imaging data. Results: In the simulation study, higher imaging fidelity and low noise levels were achieved with the k-t SLR compared with TV. At 10 × undersampling, the k-t SLR method resulted in an average normalized mean square error <0.05, as opposed to 0.23 by using the TV reconstruction on individual frames. Less than 6% showed tracking errors >1 mm with 10 × down-sampling using k-t SLR, as opposed to 17% using TV. In the prospective study, k-t SLR substantially reduced reconstruction artifacts and retained anatomic details. Conclusions: Magnetic resonance reconstruction using k-t SLR on highly undersampled dynamic MR imaging data results in high image quality useful for tumor tracking. The k-t SLR was superior to TV by better exploiting the intrinsic anatomic coherence of the same patient. The feasibility of k-t SLR was demonstrated by prospective imaging acquisition and reconstruction.

  13. Discovery, Characterization, and Functional Study of a Novel MEF2D CAG Repeat in Duck (Anas platyrhynchos).

    PubMed

    Wang, Yushi; Wang, Jiwen; Liu, Hehe; Zhang, Rongping; Zhang, Tao; Gan, Xiang; Huang, Huilan; Chen, Da; Li, Liang

    2016-08-01

    Myocyte enhancer transcription factor 2D (MEF2D) is an important transcription factor for promoting the growth and development of muscle. CAG repeats have been found in the coding sequence (CDS) of avian MEF2D; however, their functions remain unknown and require further investigation. Here, we examined the characteristics and functional role of MEF2D CAG repeat in duck. The full-length CDS of duck MEF2D was cloned for the first time, and a novel CAG repeat was identified and located in exon 9. Sequence analysis indicated that the protein domains of duck MEF2D are highly conserved relative to other vertebrates, whereas MEF2D CAG repeats with variable repeat numbers are specific to avian species. Furthermore, sequencing has revealed polymorphisms in MEF2D CAG repeat at both DNA and mRNA levels. Four MEF2D CAG repeat genotypes and 10 MEF2D cDNA variants with different CAG repeat numbers were detected in two duck populations. A t-test showed that the expanded CAG repeat generated significantly longer transcription products (p < 0.05). Association analysis demonstrated positive correlations between the expansion of the CAG repeat and five muscle-related traits. By using protein structure prediction, we suggested that the polymorphisms of the CAG repeat affect protein structures within protein domains. Taken together, these findings reveal that duck MEF2D CAG repeat is a potential functional element with polymorphisms and may cause differences in MEF2D function between duck and other vertebrate species. PMID:27064738

  14. Constraint directed CAD tool for automatic latency-optimal implementation of 1-D and 2-D Fourier transforms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nash, J. Gregory

    2002-07-01

    A specialized CAD tool is described that will take a user's high level code description of a non-uniform affinely indexed algorithm and automatically generate abstract latency-optimal systolic arrays. Emphasis has been placed on ease of use and the ability to either force conformation to specific design criteria or perform unconstrained explorations. How such design goals are achieved is illustrated in the context of LU decomposition and the matrix Lyapunov equation. The tool is then used to generate new 1-D and 2-D hardware efficient systolic arrays for the discreet Fourier transform that take advantage of the use of the radix-4 matrix decomposition.

  15. Numerical Evaluation of 2D Ground States

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kolkovska, Natalia

    2016-02-01

    A ground state is defined as the positive radial solution of the multidimensional nonlinear problem \\varepsilon propto k_ bot 1 - ξ with the function f being either f(u) =a|u|p-1u or f(u) =a|u|pu+b|u|2pu. The numerical evaluation of ground states is based on the shooting method applied to an equivalent dynamical system. A combination of fourth order Runge-Kutta method and Hermite extrapolation formula is applied to solving the resulting initial value problem. The efficiency of this procedure is demonstrated in the 1D case, where the maximal difference between the exact and numerical solution is ≈ 10-11 for a discretization step 0:00025. As a major application, we evaluate numerically the critical energy constant. This constant is defined as a functional of the ground state and is used in the study of the 2D Boussinesq equations.

  16. Canard configured aircraft with 2-D nozzle

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Child, R. D.; Henderson, W. P.

    1978-01-01

    A closely-coupled canard fighter with vectorable two-dimensional nozzle was designed for enhanced transonic maneuvering. The HiMAT maneuver goal of a sustained 8g turn at a free-stream Mach number of 0.9 and 30,000 feet was the primary design consideration. The aerodynamic design process was initiated with a linear theory optimization minimizing the zero percent suction drag including jet effects and refined with three-dimensional nonlinear potential flow techniques. Allowances were made for mutual interference and viscous effects. The design process to arrive at the resultant configuration is described, and the design of a powered 2-D nozzle model to be tested in the LRC 16-foot Propulsion Wind Tunnel is shown.

  17. 2D Electrostatic Actuation of Microshutter Arrays

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Burns, Devin E.; Oh, Lance H.; Li, Mary J.; Jones, Justin S.; Kelly, Daniel P.; Zheng, Yun; Kutyrev, Alexander S.; Moseley, Samuel H.

    2015-01-01

    An electrostatically actuated microshutter array consisting of rotational microshutters (shutters that rotate about a torsion bar) were designed and fabricated through the use of models and experiments. Design iterations focused on minimizing the torsional stiffness of the microshutters, while maintaining their structural integrity. Mechanical and electromechanical test systems were constructed to measure the static and dynamic behavior of the microshutters. The torsional stiffness was reduced by a factor of four over initial designs without sacrificing durability. Analysis of the resonant behavior of the microshutter arrays demonstrates that the first resonant mode is a torsional mode occurring around 3000 Hz. At low vacuum pressures, this resonant mode can be used to significantly reduce the drive voltage necessary for actuation requiring as little as 25V. 2D electrostatic latching and addressing was demonstrated using both a resonant and pulsed addressing scheme.

  18. 2D Electrostatic Actuation of Microshutter Arrays

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Burns, Devin E.; Oh, Lance H.; Li, Mary J.; Kelly, Daniel P.; Kutyrev, Alexander S.; Moseley, Samuel H.

    2015-01-01

    Electrostatically actuated microshutter arrays consisting of rotational microshutters (shutters that rotate about a torsion bar) were designed and fabricated through the use of models and experiments. Design iterations focused on minimizing the torsional stiffness of the microshutters, while maintaining their structural integrity. Mechanical and electromechanical test systems were constructed to measure the static and dynamic behavior of the microshutters. The torsional stiffness was reduced by a factor of four over initial designs without sacrificing durability. Analysis of the resonant behavior of the microshutters demonstrates that the first resonant mode is a torsional mode occurring around 3000 Hz. At low vacuum pressures, this resonant mode can be used to significantly reduce the drive voltage necessary for actuation requiring as little as 25V. 2D electrostatic latching and addressing was demonstrated using both a resonant and pulsed addressing scheme.

  19. Graphene suspensions for 2D printing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Soots, R. A.; Yakimchuk, E. A.; Nebogatikova, N. A.; Kotin, I. A.; Antonova, I. V.

    2016-04-01

    It is shown that, by processing a graphite suspension in ethanol or water by ultrasound and centrifuging, it is possible to obtain particles with thicknesses within 1-6 nm and, in the most interesting cases, 1-1.5 nm. Analogous treatment of a graphite suspension in organic solvent yields eventually thicker particles (up to 6-10 nm thick) even upon long-term treatment. Using the proposed ink based on graphene and aqueous ethanol with ethylcellulose and terpineol additives for 2D printing, thin (~5 nm thick) films with sheet resistance upon annealing ~30 MΩ/□ were obtained. With the ink based on aqueous graphene suspension, the sheet resistance was ~5-12 kΩ/□ for 6- to 15-nm-thick layers with a carrier mobility of ~30-50 cm2/(V s).

  20. 2D to 3D transition of polymeric carbon nitride nanosheets

    SciTech Connect

    Chamorro-Posada, Pedro; Vázquez-Cabo, José; Martín-Ramos, Pablo; Martín-Gil, Jesús; Navas-Gracia, Luis M.; Dante, Roberto C.

    2014-11-15

    The transition from a prevalent turbostratic arrangement with low planar interactions (2D) to an array of polymeric carbon nitride nanosheets with stronger interplanar interactions (3D), occurring for samples treated above 650 °C, was detected by terahertz-time domain spectroscopy (THz-TDS). The simulated 3D material made of stacks of shifted quasi planar sheets composed of zigzagged polymer ribbons, delivered a XRD simulated pattern in relatively good agreement with the experimental one. The 2D to 3D transition was also supported by the simulation of THz-TDS spectra obtained from quantum chemistry calculations, in which the same broad bands around 2 THz and 1.5 THz were found for 2D and 3D arrays, respectively. This transition was also in accordance with the tightening of the interplanar distance probably due to an interplanar π bond contribution, as evidenced also by a broad absorption around 2.6 eV in the UV–vis spectrum, which appeared in the sample treated at 650 °C, and increased in the sample treated at 700 °C. The band gap was calculated for 1D and 2D cases. The value of 3.374 eV for the 2D case is, within the model accuracy and precision, in a relative good agreement with the value of 3.055 eV obtained from the experimental results. - Graphical abstract: 2D lattice mode vibrations and structural changes correlated with the so called “2D to 3D transition”. - Highlights: • A 2D to 3D transition has been detected for polymeric carbon nitride. • THz-TDS allowed us to discover and detect the 2D to 3D transition of polymeric carbon nitride. • We propose a structure for polymeric carbon nitride confirming it with THz-TDS.

  1. The mouse ruby-eye 2(d) (ru2(d) /Hps5(ru2-d) ) allele inhibits eumelanin but not pheomelanin synthesis.

    PubMed

    Hirobe, Tomohisa; Ito, Shosuke; Wakamatsu, Kazumasa

    2013-09-01

    The novel mutation named ru2(d) /Hps5(ru2-d) , characterized by light-colored coats and ruby-eyes, prohibits differentiation of melanocytes by inhibiting tyrosinase (Tyr) activity, expression of Tyr, Tyr-related protein 1 (Tyrp1), Tyrp2, and Kit. However, it is not known whether the ru2(d) allele affects pheomelanin synthesis in recessive yellow (e/Mc1r(e) ) or in pheomelanic stage in agouti (A) mice. In this study, effects of the ru2(d) allele on pheomelanin synthesis were investigated by chemical analysis of melanin present in dorsal hairs of 5-week-old mice from F2 generation between C57BL/10JHir (B10)-co-isogenic ruby-eye 2(d) and B10-congenic recessive yellow or agouti. Eumelanin content was decreased in ruby-eye 2(d) and ruby-eye 2(d) agouti mice, whereas pheomelanin content in ruby-eye 2(d) recessive yellow and ruby-eye 2(d) agouti mice did not differ from the corresponding Ru2(d) /- mice, suggesting that the ru2(d) allele inhibits eumelanin but not pheomelanin synthesis. PMID:23672590

  2. Decomposing Nekrasov decomposition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Morozov, A.; Zenkevich, Y.

    2016-02-01

    AGT relations imply that the four-point conformal block admits a decomposition into a sum over pairs of Young diagrams of essentially rational Nekrasov functions — this is immediately seen when conformal block is represented in the form of a matrix model. However, the q-deformation of the same block has a deeper decomposition — into a sum over a quadruple of Young diagrams of a product of four topological vertices. We analyze the interplay between these two decompositions, their properties and their generalization to multi-point conformal blocks. In the latter case we explain how Dotsenko-Fateev all-with-all (star) pair "interaction" is reduced to the quiver model nearest-neighbor (chain) one. We give new identities for q-Selberg averages of pairs of generalized Macdonald polynomials. We also translate the slicing invariance of refined topological strings into the language of conformal blocks and interpret it as abelianization of generalized Macdonald polynomials.

  3. Delay-dependent stability and stabilisation of continuous 2D delayed systems with saturating control

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hmamed, Abdelaziz; Kririm, Said; Benzaouia, Abdellah; Tadeo, Fernando

    2016-09-01

    This paper deals with the stabilisation problem of continuous two-dimensional (2D) delayed systems, in the presence of saturations on the control signals. For this, a new delay decomposition approach is proposed to deal with the stability and stabilisation issues. The idea is that the range of variation of each delay is divided into segments, and a specific Lyapunov- Krasovskii functional is used that contains different weight matrices in each segment. Then, based on this approach, new delay-dependent stability and stabilisation criteria for continuous 2D delayed systems are derived. These criteria are less conservative and include some existing results as special cases. Some numerical examples are provided to show that a significant improvement is achieved using the proposed approach.

  4. 2-D magnetotelluric experiment to investigate the Nassugtoqidian orogeny in South-East Greenland

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Heincke, Björn; Chen, Jin; Riisager, Peter; Kolb, Jochen; Jørgensen, Asta F.

    2015-04-01

    The northwest-trending Palaeoproterozoic Nagssugtoqidian orogen extends over 250 km along the east coast of Greenland in the area around the village Tasiilaq. The geological evolution of this area closely compares with the ones of the Lewisian complex of Scotland and the Nagssugtoqidian orogen in western Greenland and, hence, leads to the suggestion that they belong to the same continental-scale orogenic belt. However, an accurate correlation across the inland ice is challenging and still ambiguous and therefore more detailed knowledge about the individual orogens might help to understand their relationship. Details about the large-scale tectonic evolution during the Nagssugtoqidian orogeny in this remote Arctic region are not known due to complex geology, relatively coarse geological mapping and the lack of extensive geophysical investigations. E.g. the vergence of the orogen, subduction-related magmatism and accretion history are matters of ongoing discussion (Kalsbeek et al., 1993; Nutman et al., 2008 and Kolb, 2013). We performed a 2-D magnetotelluric (MT) experiment across the southern part of the orogen along the Sermilik Fjord in order to improve our understanding of the orogenic process in general and to better constrain the location and vergence of the suture zone. However, because of the rough climate and the lack of infrastructure, this study is considered as a first test to investigate how MT surveys can be most efficiently performed in this remote part of the world. The NE-SW trending profile consists of eight MT stations and has a total length of ~70 km using long period LEMI-420 systems. The quality of the data is severely affected by polar electrojets that do not satisfy the plane wave assumptions, which is typical for regions close to the magnetic poles. In order to reduce the distortion from these signals onto the impedance estimates, we tested different advanced processing schemes. In addition to the more conventional robust response function

  5. NTO decomposition studies

    SciTech Connect

    Oxley, J.C.; Smith, J.L.; Yeager, K.E.; Rogers, E.; Dong, X.X.

    1996-07-01

    To examine the thermal decomposition of 5-nitro-2,4-dihydro-3H-1,2,4-triazol-3-one (NTO) in detail, isotopic labeling studies were undertaken. NTO samples labeled with {sup 15}N in three different locations [N(1) and N(2), N(4), and N(6)] were prepared. Upon thermolysis, the majority of the NTO condensed-phase product was a brown, insoluble residue, but small quantities of 2,4-dihydro-3H-1,2,4-triazol-3-one (TO) and triazole were detected. Gases comprised the remainder of the NTO decomposition products. The analysis of these gases is reported along with mechanistic implications of these observations.

  6. Flow-assisted 2D polymorph selection: stabilizing metastable monolayers at the liquid-solid interface.

    PubMed

    Lee, Shern-Long; Yuan, Zhongyi; Chen, Long; Mali, Kunal S; Müllen, Klaus; De Feyter, Steven

    2014-05-28

    Controlling crystal polymorphism constitutes a formidable challenge in contemporary chemistry. Two-dimensional (2D) crystals often provide model systems to decipher the complications in 3D crystals. In this contribution, we explore a unique way of governing 2D polymorphism at the organic liquid-solid interface. We demonstrate that a directional solvent flow could be used to stabilize crystalline monolayers of a metastable polymorph. Furthermore, flow fields active within the applied flow generate millimeter-sized domains of either polymorph in a controlled and reproducible fashion. PMID:24867142

  7. A 2-D orientation-adaptive prediction filter in lifting structures for image coding.

    PubMed

    Gerek, Omer N; Cetin, A Enis

    2006-01-01

    Lifting-style implementations of wavelets are widely used in image coders. A two-dimensional (2-D) edge adaptive lifting structure, which is similar to Daubechies 5/3 wavelet, is presented. The 2-D prediction filter predicts the value of the next polyphase component according to an edge orientation estimator of the image. Consequently, the prediction domain is allowed to rotate +/-45 degrees in regions with diagonal gradient. The gradient estimator is computationally inexpensive with additional costs of only six subtractions per lifting instruction, and no multiplications are required. PMID:16435541

  8. A Real-time D-bar Algorithm for 2-D Electrical Impedance Tomography Data

    PubMed Central

    Dodd, Melody; Mueller, Jennifer L.

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this paper is to show the feasibility of the D-bar method for real-time 2-D EIT reconstructions. A fast implementation of the D-bar method for reconstructing conductivity changes on a 2-D chest-shaped domain is described. Cross-sectional difference images from the chest of a healthy human subject are presented, demonstrating what can be achieved in real time. The images constitute the first D-bar images from EIT data on a human subject collected on a pairwise current injection system. PMID:25937856

  9. Numerical simulation of ( T 2, T 1) 2D NMR and fluid responses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tan, Mao-Jin; Zou, You-Long; Zhang, Jin-Yan; Zhao, Xin

    2012-12-01

    One-dimensional nuclear magnetic resonance (1D NMR) logging technology is limited for fluid typing, while two-dimensional nuclear magnetic resonance (2D NMR) logging can provide more parameters including longitudinal relaxation time ( T 1) and transverse relaxation time ( T 2) relative to fluid types in porous media. Based on the 2D NMR relaxation mechanism in a gradient magnetic field, echo train simulation and 2D NMR inversion are discussed in detail. For 2D NMR inversion, a hybrid inversion method is proposed based on the damping least squares method (LSQR) and an improved truncated singular value decomposition (TSVD) algorithm. A series of spin echoes are first simulated with multiple waiting times ( T W s) in a gradient magnetic field for given fluid models and these synthesized echo trains are inverted by the hybrid method. The inversion results are consistent with given models. Moreover, the numerical simulation of various fluid models such as the gas-water, light oil-water, and vicious oil-water models were carried out with different echo spacings ( T E s) and T W s by this hybrid method. Finally, the influences of different signal-to-noise ratios (SNRs) on inversion results in various fluid models are studied. The numerical simulations show that the hybrid method and optimized observation parameters are applicable to fluid typing of gas-water and oil-water models.

  10. Radiofrequency Spectroscopy and Thermodynamics of Fermi Gases in the 2D to Quasi-2D Dimensional Crossover

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cheng, Chingyun; Kangara, Jayampathi; Arakelyan, Ilya; Thomas, John

    2016-05-01

    We tune the dimensionality of a strongly interacting degenerate 6 Li Fermi gas from 2D to quasi-2D, by adjusting the radial confinement of pancake-shaped clouds to control the radial chemical potential. In the 2D regime with weak radial confinement, the measured pair binding energies are in agreement with 2D-BCS mean field theory, which predicts dimer pairing energies in the many-body regime. In the qausi-2D regime obtained with increased radial confinement, the measured pairing energy deviates significantly from 2D-BCS theory. In contrast to the pairing energy, the measured radii of the cloud profiles are not fit by 2D-BCS theory in either the 2D or quasi-2D regimes, but are fit in both regimes by a beyond mean field polaron-model of the free energy. Supported by DOE, ARO, NSF, and AFOSR.

  11. 2D Radiative Processes Near Cloud Edges

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Varnai, T.

    2012-01-01

    Because of the importance and complexity of dynamical, microphysical, and radiative processes taking place near cloud edges, the transition zone between clouds and cloud free air has been the subject of intense research both in the ASR program and in the wider community. One challenge in this research is that the one-dimensional (1D) radiative models widely used in both remote sensing and dynamical simulations become less accurate near cloud edges: The large horizontal gradients in particle concentrations imply that accurate radiative calculations need to consider multi-dimensional radiative interactions among areas that have widely different optical properties. This study examines the way the importance of multidimensional shortwave radiative interactions changes as we approach cloud edges. For this, the study relies on radiative simulations performed for a multiyear dataset of clouds observed over the NSA, SGP, and TWP sites. This dataset is based on Microbase cloud profiles as well as wind measurements and ARM cloud classification products. The study analyzes the way the difference between 1D and 2D simulation results increases near cloud edges. It considers both monochromatic radiances and broadband radiative heating, and it also examines the influence of factors such as cloud type and height, and solar elevation. The results provide insights into the workings of radiative processes and may help better interpret radiance measurements and better estimate the radiative impacts of this critical region.

  12. Simulation of Yeast Cooperation in 2D.

    PubMed

    Wang, M; Huang, Y; Wu, Z

    2016-03-01

    Evolution of cooperation has been an active research area in evolutionary biology in decades. An important type of cooperation is developed from group selection, when individuals form spatial groups to prevent them from foreign invasions. In this paper, we study the evolution of cooperation in a mixed population of cooperating and cheating yeast strains in 2D with the interactions among the yeast cells restricted to their small neighborhoods. We conduct a computer simulation based on a game theoretic model and show that cooperation is increased when the interactions are spatially restricted, whether the game is of a prisoner's dilemma, snow drifting, or mutual benefit type. We study the evolution of homogeneous groups of cooperators or cheaters and describe the conditions for them to sustain or expand in an opponent population. We show that under certain spatial restrictions, cooperator groups are able to sustain and expand as group sizes become large, while cheater groups fail to expand and keep them from collapse. PMID:26988702

  13. Phase Engineering of 2D Tin Sulfides.

    PubMed

    Mutlu, Zafer; Wu, Ryan J; Wickramaratne, Darshana; Shahrezaei, Sina; Liu, Chueh; Temiz, Selcuk; Patalano, Andrew; Ozkan, Mihrimah; Lake, Roger K; Mkhoyan, K A; Ozkan, Cengiz S

    2016-06-01

    Tin sulfides can exist in a variety of phases and polytypes due to the different oxidation states of Sn. A subset of these phases and polytypes take the form of layered 2D structures that give rise to a wide host of electronic and optical properties. Hence, achieving control over the phase, polytype, and thickness of tin sulfides is necessary to utilize this wide range of properties exhibited by the compound. This study reports on phase-selective growth of both hexagonal tin (IV) sulfide SnS2 and orthorhombic tin (II) sulfide SnS crystals with diameters of over tens of microns on SiO2 substrates through atmospheric pressure vapor-phase method in a conventional horizontal quartz tube furnace with SnO2 and S powders as the source materials. Detailed characterization of each phase of tin sulfide crystals is performed using various microscopy and spectroscopy methods, and the results are corroborated by ab initio density functional theory calculations. PMID:27099950

  14. Ion Transport in 2-D Graphene Nanochannels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xie, Quan; Foo, Elbert; Duan, Chuanhua

    2015-11-01

    Graphene membranes have recently attracted wide attention due to its great potential in water desalination and selective molecular sieving. Further developments of these membranes, including enhancing their mass transport rate and/or molecular selectivity, rely on the understanding of fundamental transport mechanisms through graphene membranes, which has not been studied experimentally before due to fabrication and measurement difficulties. Herein we report the fabrication of the basic constituent of graphene membranes, i.e. 2-D single graphene nanochannels (GNCs) and the study of ion transport in these channels. A modified bonding technique was developed to form GNCs with well-defined geometry and uniform channel height. Ion transport in such GNCs was studied using DC conductance measurement. Our preliminary results showed that the ion transport in GNCs is still governed by surface charge at low concentrations (10-6M to 10-4M). However, GNCs exhibits much higher ionic conductances than silica nanochannels with the same geometries in the surface-charge-governed regime. This conductance enhancement can be attributed to the pre-accumulation of charges on graphene surfaces. The work is supported by the Faculty Startup Fund (Boston University, USA).

  15. Parallel map analysis on 2-D grids

    SciTech Connect

    Berry, M.; Comiskey, J.; Minser, K.

    1993-12-31

    In landscape ecology, computer modeling is used to assess habitat fragmentation and its ecological iMPLications. Specifically, maps (2-D grids) of habitat clusters must be analyzed to determine number, sizes and geometry of clusters. Models prior to this study relied upon sequential Fortran-77 programs which limited the sizes of maps and densities of clusters which could be analyzed. In this paper, we present more efficient computer models which can exploit recursion or parallelism. Significant improvements over the original Fortran-77 programs have been achieved using both recursive and nonrecursive C implementations on a variety of workstations such as the Sun Sparc 2, IBM RS/6000-350, and HP 9000-750. Parallel implementations on a 4096-processor MasPar MP-1 and a 32-processor CM-5 are also studied. Preliminary experiments suggest that speed improvements for the parallel model on the MasPar MP-1 (written in MPL) and on the CM-5 (written in C using CMMD) can be as much as 39 and 34 times faster, respectively, than the most efficient sequential C program on a Sun Sparc 2 for a 512 map. An important goal in this research effort is to produce a scalable map analysis algorithm for the identification and characterization of clusters for relatively large maps on massively-parallel computers.

  16. 2-D wavelet with position controlled resolution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Walczak, Andrzej; Puzio, Leszek

    2005-09-01

    Wavelet transformation localizes all irregularities in the scene. It is most effective in the case when intensities in the scene have no sharp details. It is the case often present in a medical imaging. To identify the shape one has to extract it from the scene as typical irregularity. When the scene does not contain sharp changes then common differential filters are not efficient tool for a shape extraction. The new 2-D wavelet for such task has been proposed. Described wavelet transform is axially symmetric and has varied scale in dependence on the distance from the centre of the wavelet symmetry. The analytical form of the wavelet has been presented as well as its application for details extraction in the scene. Most important feature of the wavelet transform is that it gives a multi-scale transformation, and if zoom is on the wavelet selectivity varies proportionally to the zoom step. As a result, the extracted shape does not change during zoom operation. What is more the wavelet selectivity can be fit to the local intensity gradient properly to obtain best extraction of the irregularities.

  17. The H-super(anti)magic decompositions of antiprism graphs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hendy

    2016-02-01

    Let H and G be two simple graphs. The concept of an H-magic decomposition of G arises from the combination between graph decompositions and graph labeling. A family 𝔹 = {G1, G2, …, Gt } of subgraphs of G is an H-decomposition of G, if all subgraphs are isomorphic to graph H, E(Gi) ∩ E(G j) = Ø for i ≠ j, and ∪i=1t E (Gi)=E (G ) . The graph G is said to be H-magic, if there exists a bijection f : V (G) ∪ E(G) → {1, 2,…, |V (G) ∪ E(G)|} such that the sum of labels of all edges and vertices of each copy of H in a decomposition is constant. The graph G is said to be (a, d)H-anti magic, if there exists a bijection f : V (G) ∪ E(G) → {1, 2, …, |V (G) ∪ E(G)|} such that the sum of labels of all edges and vertices of each copy of H in a decomposition is element of {a, a + d, a + 2d,…, a + (k - 1)d}. In this paper we show that the Antiprism graph, An, for n ≥ 3 are H- decomposable, where H isomorf with sun graph, S(Cn), 3-cycle with a pendant, L, and path with length two, P2. Also we show that for n ≥ 3, the Antiprism graph An, has super magic S(Cn)-decompositions, super edge magic L-decompositions and super edge magic P2-decompositions. In addition we show that for n ≥ 3, the Antiprism graph An, has super antimagic (8n2 + 2n, 4n2)- S(Cn)- decompositions.

  18. 2-D Animation's Not Just for Mickey Mouse.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weinman, Lynda

    1995-01-01

    Discusses characteristics of two-dimensional (2-D) animation; highlights include character animation, painting issues, and motion graphics. Sidebars present Silicon Graphics animations tools and 2-D animation programs for the desktop computer. (DGM)

  19. Hydrazine decomposition and other reactions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Armstrong, Warren E. (Inventor); La France, Donald S. (Inventor); Voge, Hervey H. (Inventor)

    1978-01-01

    This invention relates to the catalytic decomposition of hydrazine, catalysts useful for this decomposition and other reactions, and to reactions in hydrogen atmospheres generally using carbon-containing catalysts.

  20. MAZE96. Generates 2D Input for DYNA NIKE & TOPAZ

    SciTech Connect

    Sanford, L.; Hallquist, J.O.

    1992-02-24

    MAZE is an interactive program that serves as an input and two-dimensional mesh generator for DYNA2D, NIKE2D, TOPAZ2D, and CHEMICAL TOPAZ2D. MAZE also generates a basic template for ISLAND input. MAZE has been applied to the generation of input data to study the response of two-dimensional solids and structures undergoing finite deformations under a wide variety of large deformation transient dynamic and static problems and heat transfer analyses.

  1. On 2D graphical representation of DNA sequence of nondegeneracy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Yusen; Liao, Bo; Ding, Kequan

    2005-08-01

    Some two-dimensional (2D) graphical representations of DNA sequences have been given by Gates, Nandy, Leong and Mogenthaler, Randić, and Liao et al., which give visual characterizations of DNA sequences. In this Letter, we introduce a nondegeneracy 2D graphical representation of DNA sequence, which is different from Randić's novel 2D representation and Liao's 2D representation. We also present the nondegeneracy forms corresponding to the representations of Gates, Nandy, Leong and Mogenthaler.

  2. Generates 2D Input for DYNA NIKE & TOPAZ

    1996-07-15

    MAZE is an interactive program that serves as an input and two-dimensional mesh generator for DYNA2D, NIKE2D, TOPAZ2D, and CHEMICAL TOPAZ2D. MAZE also generates a basic template for ISLAND input. MAZE has been applied to the generation of input data to study the response of two-dimensional solids and structures undergoing finite deformations under a wide variety of large deformation transient dynamic and static problems and heat transfer analyses.

  3. 2d PDE Linear Symmetric Matrix Solver

    1983-10-01

    ICCG2 (Incomplete Cholesky factorized Conjugate Gradient algorithm for 2d symmetric problems) was developed to solve a linear symmetric matrix system arising from a 9-point discretization of two-dimensional elliptic and parabolic partial differential equations found in plasma physics applications, such as resistive MHD, spatial diffusive transport, and phase space transport (Fokker-Planck equation) problems. These problems share the common feature of being stiff and requiring implicit solution techniques. When these parabolic or elliptic PDE''s are discretized withmore » finite-difference or finite-element methods,the resulting matrix system is frequently of block-tridiagonal form. To use ICCG2, the discretization of the two-dimensional partial differential equation and its boundary conditions must result in a block-tridiagonal supermatrix composed of elementary tridiagonal matrices. The incomplete Cholesky conjugate gradient algorithm is used to solve the linear symmetric matrix equation. Loops are arranged to vectorize on the Cray1 with the CFT compiler, wherever possible. Recursive loops, which cannot be vectorized, are written for optimum scalar speed. For matrices lacking symmetry, ILUCG2 should be used. Similar methods in three dimensions are available in ICCG3 and ILUCG3. A general source containing extensions and macros, which must be processed by a pre-compiler to obtain the standard FORTRAN source, is provided along with the standard FORTRAN source because it is believed to be more readable. The pre-compiler is not included, but pre-compilation may be performed by a text editor as described in the UCRL-88746 Preprint.« less

  4. 2d PDE Linear Asymmetric Matrix Solver

    1983-10-01

    ILUCG2 (Incomplete LU factorized Conjugate Gradient algorithm for 2d problems) was developed to solve a linear asymmetric matrix system arising from a 9-point discretization of two-dimensional elliptic and parabolic partial differential equations found in plasma physics applications, such as plasma diffusion, equilibria, and phase space transport (Fokker-Planck equation) problems. These equations share the common feature of being stiff and requiring implicit solution techniques. When these parabolic or elliptic PDE''s are discretized with finite-difference or finite-elementmore » methods, the resulting matrix system is frequently of block-tridiagonal form. To use ILUCG2, the discretization of the two-dimensional partial differential equation and its boundary conditions must result in a block-tridiagonal supermatrix composed of elementary tridiagonal matrices. A generalization of the incomplete Cholesky conjugate gradient algorithm is used to solve the matrix equation. Loops are arranged to vectorize on the Cray1 with the CFT compiler, wherever possible. Recursive loops, which cannot be vectorized, are written for optimum scalar speed. For problems having a symmetric matrix ICCG2 should be used since it runs up to four times faster and uses approximately 30% less storage. Similar methods in three dimensions are available in ICCG3 and ILUCG3. A general source, containing extensions and macros, which must be processed by a pre-compiler to obtain the standard FORTRAN source, is provided along with the standard FORTRAN source because it is believed to be more readable. The pre-compiler is not included, but pre-compilation may be performed by a text editor as described in the UCRL-88746 Preprint.« less

  5. Ultrasonic 2D matrix PVDF transducer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ptchelintsev, A.; Maev, R. Gr.

    2000-05-01

    During the past decade a substantial amount of work has been done in the area of ultrasonic imaging technology using 2D arrays. The main problems arising for the two-dimensional matrix transducers at megahertz frequencies are small size and huge count of the elements, high electrical impedance, low sensitivity, bad SNR and slower data acquisition rate. The major technological difficulty remains the high density of the interconnect. To solve these problems numerous approaches have been suggested. In the present work, a 24×24 elements (24 transmit+24 receive) matrix and a switching board were developed. The transducer consists of two 52 μm PVDF layers each representing a linear array of 24 elements placed one on the top of the other. Electrodes in these two layers are perpendicular and form the grid of 0.5×0.5 mm pitch. The layers are bonded together with the ground electrode being monolithic and located between the layers. The matrix is backed from the rear surface with an epoxy composition. During the emission, a linear element from the emitting layer generates a longitudinal wave pulse propagating inside the test object. Reflected pulses are picked-up by the receiving layer. During one transmit-receive cycle one transmit element and one receive element are selected by corresponding multiplexers. These crossed elements emulate a small element formed by their intersection. The present design presents the following advantages: minimizes number of active channels and density of the interconnect; reduces the electrical impedance of the element improving electrical matching; enables the transmit-receive mode; due to the efficient backing provides bandwidth and good time resolution; and, significantly reduces the electronics complexity. The matrix can not be used for the beam steering and focusing. Owing to this impossibility of focusing, the penetration depth is limited as well by the diffraction phenomena.

  6. T Cells Engineered With Chimeric Antigen Receptors Targeting NKG2D Ligands Display Lethal Toxicity in Mice.

    PubMed

    VanSeggelen, Heather; Hammill, Joanne A; Dvorkin-Gheva, Anna; Tantalo, Daniela G M; Kwiecien, Jacek M; Denisova, Galina F; Rabinovich, Brian; Wan, Yonghong; Bramson, Jonathan L

    2015-10-01

    Ligands for the NKG2D receptor are overexpressed on tumors, making them interesting immunotherapy targets. To assess the tumoricidal properties of T cells directed to attack NKG2D ligands, we engineered murine T cells with two distinct NKG2D-based chimeric antigen receptors (CARs): (i) a fusion between the NKG2D receptor and the CD3ζ chain and (ii) a conventional second-generation CAR, where the extracellular domain of NKG2D was fused to CD28 and CD3ζ. To enhance the CAR surface expression, we also engineered T cells to coexpress DAP10. In vitro functionality and surface expression levels of all three CARs was greater in BALB/c T cells than C57BL/6 T cells, indicating strain-specific differences. Upon adoptive transfer of NKG2D-CAR-T cells into syngeneic animals, we observed significant clinical toxicity resulting in morbidity and mortality. The severity of these toxicities varied between the CAR configurations and paralleled their in vitro NKG2D surface expression. BALB/c mice were more sensitive to these toxicities than C57BL/6 mice, consistent with the higher in vitro functionality of BALB/c T cells. Treatment with cyclophosphamide prior to adoptive transfer exacerbated the toxicity. We conclude that while NKG2D ligands may be useful targets for immunotherapy, the pursuit of NKG2D-based CAR-T cell therapies should be undertaken with caution. PMID:26122933

  7. A Planar Quantum Transistor Based on 2D-2D Tunneling in Double Quantum Well Heterostructures

    SciTech Connect

    Baca, W.E.; Blount, M.A.; Hafich, M.J.; Lyo, S.K.; Moon, J.S.; Reno, J.L.; Simmons, J.A.; Wendt, J.R.

    1998-12-14

    We report on our work on the double electron layer tunneling transistor (DELTT), based on the gate-control of two-dimensional -- two-dimensional (2D-2D) tunneling in a double quantum well heterostructure. While previous quantum transistors have typically required tiny laterally-defined features, by contrast the DELTT is entirely planar and can be reliably fabricated in large numbers. We use a novel epoxy-bond-and-stop-etch (EBASE) flip-chip process, whereby submicron gating on opposite sides of semiconductor epitaxial layers as thin as 0.24 microns can be achieved. Because both electron layers in the DELTT are 2D, the resonant tunneling features are unusually sharp, and can be easily modulated with one or more surface gates. We demonstrate DELTTs with peak-to-valley ratios in the source-drain I-V curve of order 20:1 below 1 K. Both the height and position of the resonant current peak can be controlled by gate voltage over a wide range. DELTTs with larger subband energy offsets ({approximately} 21 meV) exhibit characteristics that are nearly as good at 77 K, in good agreement with our theoretical calculations. Using these devices, we also demonstrate bistable memories operating at 77 K. Finally, we briefly discuss the prospects for room temperature operation, increases in gain, and high-speed.

  8. Sparse decomposition learning based dynamic MRI reconstruction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhu, Peifei; Zhang, Qieshi; Kamata, Sei-ichiro

    2015-02-01

    Dynamic MRI is widely used for many clinical exams but slow data acquisition becomes a serious problem. The application of Compressed Sensing (CS) demonstrated great potential to increase imaging speed. However, the performance of CS is largely depending on the sparsity of image sequence in the transform domain, where there are still a lot to be improved. In this work, the sparsity is exploited by proposed Sparse Decomposition Learning (SDL) algorithm, which is a combination of low-rank plus sparsity and Blind Compressed Sensing (BCS). With this decomposition, only sparsity component is modeled as a sparse linear combination of temporal basis functions. This enables coefficients to be sparser and remain more details of dynamic components comparing learning the whole images. A reconstruction is performed on the undersampled data where joint multicoil data consistency is enforced by combing Parallel Imaging (PI). The experimental results show the proposed methods decrease about 15~20% of Mean Square Error (MSE) compared to other existing methods.

  9. Chaotic advection in 2D anisotropic porous media

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Varghese, Stephen; Speetjens, Michel; Trieling, Ruben; Toschi, Federico

    2015-11-01

    Traditional methods for heat recovery from underground geothermal reservoirs employ a static system of injector-producer wells. Recent studies in literature have shown that using a well-devised pumping scheme, through actuation of multiple injector-producer wells, can dramatically enhance production rates due to the increased scalar / heat transport by means of chaotic advection. However the effect of reservoir anisotropy on kinematic mixing and heat transport is unknown and has to be incorporated and studied for practical deployment in the field. As a first step, we numerically investigate the effect of anisotropy (both magnitude and direction) on (chaotic) advection of passive tracers in a time-periodic Darcy flow within a 2D circular domain driven by periodically reoriented diametrically opposite source-sink pairs. Preliminary results indicate that anisotropy has a significant impact on the location, shape and size of coherent structures in the Poincare sections. This implies that the optimal operating parameters (well spacing, time period of well actuation) may vary strongly and must be carefully chosen so as to enhance subsurface transport. This work is part of the research program of the Foundation for Fundamental Research on Matter (FOM), which is part of Netherlands Organisation for Scientific Research (NWO). This research program is co-financed by Shell Global Solutions International B.V.

  10. Vorticity Generation by Rough Walls in 2D Decaying Turbulence

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tóth, Gábor; Jánosi, Imre M.

    2015-12-01

    In this work we present Lattice Boltzmann simulations of a decaying vortex array in a 2D rectangular domain, which is bounded by a random rough wall from one side. In order to separate the effects of the collisions with the rough wall, the opposite (smooth) rigid wall is placed at a larger distance from the center of the vortex array. Periodic boundary condition is imposed in the perpendicular direction. Well defined random roughness is generated by the widely studied Wolf-Villain surface growth algorithm. The main finding is that collisions with a rough wall generate excess vorticity compared with a smooth boundary, while the kinetic energy decreases monotonously. A proper measure is the integrated excess enstrophy, which exhibits an apparent maximum at an "optimal" roughness range. Numerical values of the excess enstrophy are very sensitive to a particular configuration (wall shape and vortex lattice randomization), however the "optimal" roughness exhibits surface features of similar characteristic sizes than that of the decaying vortices.

  11. Steady propagation of Bingham plugs in 2D channels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zamankhan, Parsa; Takayama, Shuichi; Grotberg, James

    2009-11-01

    The displacement of the yield-stress liquid plugs in channels and tubes occur in many biological systems and industrial processes. Among them is the propagation of mucus plugs in the respiratory tracts as may occur in asthma, cystic fibrosis, or emphysema. In this work the steady propagation of mucus plugs in a 2D channel is studied numerically, assuming that the mucus is a pure Bingham fluid. The governing equations are solved by a mixed-discontinuous finite element formulation and the free surface is resolved with the method of spines. The constitutive equation for a pure Bingham fluid is modeled by a regularization method. Fluid inertia is neglected, so the controlling parameters in a steady displacement are; the capillary number, Ca, Bingham number ,Bn, and the plug length. According to the numerical results, the yield stress behavior of the plug modifies the plug shape, the pattern of the streamlines and the distribution of stresses in the plug domain and along the walls in a significant way. The distribution along the walls is a major factor in studying cell injuries. This work is supported through the grant NIH HL84370.

  12. Correlated Electron Phenomena in 2D Materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lambert, Joseph G.

    In this thesis, I present experimental results on coherent electron phenomena in layered two-dimensional materials: single layer graphene and van der Waals coupled 2D TiSe2. Graphene is a two-dimensional single-atom thick sheet of carbon atoms first derived from bulk graphite by the mechanical exfoliation technique in 2004. Low-energy charge carriers in graphene behave like massless Dirac fermions, and their density can be easily tuned between electron-rich and hole-rich quasiparticles with electrostatic gating techniques. The sharp interfaces between regions of different carrier densities form barriers with selective transmission, making them behave as partially reflecting mirrors. When two of these interfaces are set at a separation distance within the phase coherence length of the carriers, they form an electronic version of a Fabry-Perot cavity. I present measurements and analysis of multiple Fabry-Perot modes in graphene with parallel electrodes spaced a few hundred nanometers apart. Transition metal dichalcogenide (TMD) TiSe2 is part of the family of materials that coined the term "materials beyond graphene". It contains van der Waals coupled trilayer stacks of Se-Ti-Se. Many TMD materials exhibit a host of interesting correlated electronic phases. In particular, TiSe2 exhibits chiral charge density waves (CDW) below TCDW ˜ 200 K. Upon doping with copper, the CDW state gets suppressed with Cu concentration, and CuxTiSe2 becomes superconducting with critical temperature of T c = 4.15 K. There is still much debate over the mechanisms governing the coexistence of the two correlated electronic phases---CDW and superconductivity. I will present some of the first conductance spectroscopy measurements of proximity coupled superconductor-CDW systems. Measurements reveal a proximity-induced critical current at the Nb-TiSe2 interfaces, suggesting pair correlations in the pure TiSe2. The results indicate that superconducting order is present concurrently with CDW in

  13. Image encryption using P-Fibonacci transform and decomposition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhou, Yicong; Panetta, Karen; Agaian, Sos; Chen, C. L. Philip

    2012-03-01

    Image encryption is an effective method to protect images or videos by transferring them into unrecognizable formats for different security purposes. To improve the security level of bit-plane decomposition based encryption approaches, this paper introduces a new image encryption algorithm by using a combination of parametric bit-plane decomposition along with bit-plane shuffling and resizing, pixel scrambling and data mapping. The algorithm utilizes the Fibonacci P-code for image bit-plane decomposition and the 2D P-Fibonacci transform for image encryption because they are parameter dependent. Any new or existing method can be used for shuffling the order of the bit-planes. Simulation analysis and comparisons are provided to demonstrate the algorithm's performance for image encryption. Security analysis shows the algorithm's ability against several common attacks. The algorithm can be used to encrypt images, biometrics and videos.

  14. CYP2D7 Sequence Variation Interferes with TaqMan CYP2D6*15 and *35 Genotyping

    PubMed Central

    Riffel, Amanda K.; Dehghani, Mehdi; Hartshorne, Toinette; Floyd, Kristen C.; Leeder, J. Steven; Rosenblatt, Kevin P.; Gaedigk, Andrea

    2016-01-01

    TaqMan™ genotyping assays are widely used to genotype CYP2D6, which encodes a major drug metabolizing enzyme. Assay design for CYP2D6 can be challenging owing to the presence of two pseudogenes, CYP2D7 and CYP2D8, structural and copy number variation and numerous single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) some of which reflect the wild-type sequence of the CYP2D7 pseudogene. The aim of this study was to identify the mechanism causing false-positive CYP2D6*15 calls and remediate those by redesigning and validating alternative TaqMan genotype assays. Among 13,866 DNA samples genotyped by the CompanionDx® lab on the OpenArray platform, 70 samples were identified as heterozygotes for 137Tins, the key SNP of CYP2D6*15. However, only 15 samples were confirmed when tested with the Luminex xTAG CYP2D6 Kit and sequencing of CYP2D6-specific long range (XL)-PCR products. Genotype and gene resequencing of CYP2D6 and CYP2D7-specific XL-PCR products revealed a CC>GT dinucleotide SNP in exon 1 of CYP2D7 that reverts the sequence to CYP2D6 and allows a TaqMan assay PCR primer to bind. Because CYP2D7 also carries a Tins, a false-positive mutation signal is generated. This CYP2D7 SNP was also responsible for generating false-positive signals for rs769258 (CYP2D6*35) which is also located in exon 1. Although alternative CYP2D6*15 and *35 assays resolved the issue, we discovered a novel CYP2D6*15 subvariant in one sample that carries additional SNPs preventing detection with the alternate assay. The frequency of CYP2D6*15 was 0.1% in this ethnically diverse U.S. population sample. In addition, we also discovered linkage between the CYP2D7 CC>GT dinucleotide SNP and the 77G>A (rs28371696) SNP of CYP2D6*43. The frequency of this tentatively functional allele was 0.2%. Taken together, these findings emphasize that regardless of how careful genotyping assays are designed and evaluated before being commercially marketed, rare or unknown SNPs underneath primer and/or probe regions can impact

  15. CYP2D7 Sequence Variation Interferes with TaqMan CYP2D6 (*) 15 and (*) 35 Genotyping.

    PubMed

    Riffel, Amanda K; Dehghani, Mehdi; Hartshorne, Toinette; Floyd, Kristen C; Leeder, J Steven; Rosenblatt, Kevin P; Gaedigk, Andrea

    2015-01-01

    TaqMan™ genotyping assays are widely used to genotype CYP2D6, which encodes a major drug metabolizing enzyme. Assay design for CYP2D6 can be challenging owing to the presence of two pseudogenes, CYP2D7 and CYP2D8, structural and copy number variation and numerous single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) some of which reflect the wild-type sequence of the CYP2D7 pseudogene. The aim of this study was to identify the mechanism causing false-positive CYP2D6 (*) 15 calls and remediate those by redesigning and validating alternative TaqMan genotype assays. Among 13,866 DNA samples genotyped by the CompanionDx® lab on the OpenArray platform, 70 samples were identified as heterozygotes for 137Tins, the key SNP of CYP2D6 (*) 15. However, only 15 samples were confirmed when tested with the Luminex xTAG CYP2D6 Kit and sequencing of CYP2D6-specific long range (XL)-PCR products. Genotype and gene resequencing of CYP2D6 and CYP2D7-specific XL-PCR products revealed a CC>GT dinucleotide SNP in exon 1 of CYP2D7 that reverts the sequence to CYP2D6 and allows a TaqMan assay PCR primer to bind. Because CYP2D7 also carries a Tins, a false-positive mutation signal is generated. This CYP2D7 SNP was also responsible for generating false-positive signals for rs769258 (CYP2D6 (*) 35) which is also located in exon 1. Although alternative CYP2D6 (*) 15 and (*) 35 assays resolved the issue, we discovered a novel CYP2D6 (*) 15 subvariant in one sample that carries additional SNPs preventing detection with the alternate assay. The frequency of CYP2D6 (*) 15 was 0.1% in this ethnically diverse U.S. population sample. In addition, we also discovered linkage between the CYP2D7 CC>GT dinucleotide SNP and the 77G>A (rs28371696) SNP of CYP2D6 (*) 43. The frequency of this tentatively functional allele was 0.2%. Taken together, these findings emphasize that regardless of how careful genotyping assays are designed and evaluated before being commercially marketed, rare or unknown SNPs underneath primer

  16. Multicriteria approximation through decomposition

    SciTech Connect

    Burch, C. |; Krumke, S.; Marathe, M.; Phillips, C.; Sundberg, E. |

    1997-12-01

    The authors propose a general technique called solution decomposition to devise approximation algorithms with provable performance guarantees. The technique is applicable to a large class of combinatorial optimization problems that can be formulated as integer linear programs. Two key ingredients of the technique involve finding a decomposition of a fractional solution into a convex combination of feasible integral solutions and devising generic approximation algorithms based on calls to such decompositions as oracles. The technique is closely related to randomized rounding. The method yields as corollaries unified solutions to a number of well studied problems and it provides the first approximation algorithms with provable guarantees for a number of new problems. The particular results obtained in this paper include the following: (1) The authors demonstrate how the technique can be used to provide more understanding of previous results and new algorithms for classical problems such as Multicriteria Spanning Trees, and Suitcase Packing. (2) They show how the ideas can be extended to apply to multicriteria optimization problems, in which they wish to minimize a certain objective function subject to one or more budget constraints. As corollaries they obtain first non-trivial multicriteria approximation algorithms for problems including the k-Hurdle and the Network Inhibition problems.

  17. Multicriteria approximation through decomposition

    SciTech Connect

    Burch, C.; Krumke, S.; Marathe, M.; Phillips, C.; Sundberg, E.

    1998-06-01

    The authors propose a general technique called solution decomposition to devise approximation algorithms with provable performance guarantees. The technique is applicable to a large class of combinatorial optimization problems that can be formulated as integer linear programs. Two key ingredients of their technique involve finding a decomposition of a fractional solution into a convex combination of feasible integral solutions and devising generic approximation algorithms based on calls to such decompositions as oracles. The technique is closely related to randomized rounding. Their method yields as corollaries unified solutions to a number of well studied problems and it provides the first approximation algorithms with provable guarantees for a number of new problems. The particular results obtained in this paper include the following: (1) the authors demonstrate how the technique can be used to provide more understanding of previous results and new algorithms for classical problems such as Multicriteria Spanning Trees, and Suitcase Packing; (2) they also show how the ideas can be extended to apply to multicriteria optimization problems, in which they wish to minimize a certain objective function subject to one or more budget constraints. As corollaries they obtain first non-trivial multicriteria approximation algorithms for problems including the k-Hurdle and the Network Inhibition problems.

  18. Regulation of CHMP4/ESCRT-III function in human immunodeficiency virus type 1 budding by CC2D1A.

    PubMed

    Usami, Yoshiko; Popov, Sergei; Weiss, Eric R; Vriesema-Magnuson, Christie; Calistri, Arianna; Göttlinger, Heinrich G

    2012-04-01

    The detachment of human immunodeficiency type 1 (HIV-1) virions depends on CHPM4 family members, which are late-acting components of the ESCRT pathway that mediate the cleavage of bud necks from the cytosolic side. We now show that in human cells, CHMP4 proteins are to a considerable extent bound to two high-molecular-weight proteins that we have identified as CC2D1A and CC2D1B. Both proteins bind to the core domain of CHMP4B, which has a strong propensity to polymerize and to inhibit HIV-1 budding. Further mapping showed that CC2D1A binds to an N-terminal hairpin within the CHMP4 core that has been implicated in polymerization. Consistent with a model in which CC2D1A and CC2D1B regulate CHMP4 polymerization, the overexpression of CC2D1A inhibited both the release of wild-type HIV-1 and the CHMP4-dependent rescue of an HIV-1 L domain mutant by exogenous ALIX. Furthermore, small interfering RNA against CC2D1A or CC2D1B increased HIV-1 budding under certain conditions. CC2D1A and CC2D1B possess four Drosophila melanogaster 14 (DM14) domains, and we demonstrate that these constitute novel CHMP4 binding modules. The DM14 domain that bound most avidly to CHMP4B was by itself sufficient to inhibit the function of ALIX in HIV-1 budding, indicating that the inhibition occurred through CHMP4 sequestration. However, N-terminal fragments of CC2D1A that did not interact with CHMP4B nevertheless retained a significant level of inhibitory activity. Thus, CC2D1A may also affect HIV-1 budding in a CHMP4-independent manner. PMID:22258254

  19. MARE2DEM: an open-source code for anisotropic inversion of controlled-source electromagnetic and magnetotelluric data using parallel adaptive 2D finite elements (Invited)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Key, K.

    2013-12-01

    This work announces the public release of an open-source inversion code named MARE2DEM (Modeling with Adaptively Refined Elements for 2D Electromagnetics). Although initially designed for the rapid inversion of marine electromagnetic data, MARE2DEM now supports a wide variety of acquisition configurations for both offshore and onshore surveys that utilize electric and magnetic dipole transmitters or magnetotelluric plane waves. The model domain is flexibly parameterized using a grid of arbitrarily shaped polygonal regions, allowing for complicated structures such as topography or seismically imaged horizons to be easily assimilated. MARE2DEM efficiently solves the forward problem in parallel by dividing the input data parameters into smaller subsets using a parallel data decomposition algorithm. The data subsets are then solved in parallel using an automatic adaptive finite element method that iterative solves the forward problem on successively refined finite element meshes until a specified accuracy tolerance is met, thus freeing the end user from the burden of designing an accurate numerical modeling grid. Regularized non-linear inversion for isotropic or anisotropic conductivity is accomplished with a new implementation of Occam's method referred to as fast-Occam, which is able to minimize the objective function in much fewer forward evaluations than the required by the original method. This presentation will review the theoretical considerations behind MARE2DEM and use a few recent offshore EM data sets to demonstrate its capabilities and to showcase the software interface tools that streamline model building and data inversion.

  20. Differential CYP 2D6 Metabolism Alters Primaquine Pharmacokinetics

    PubMed Central

    Potter, Brittney M. J.; Xie, Lisa H.; Vuong, Chau; Zhang, Jing; Zhang, Ping; Duan, Dehui; Luong, Thu-Lan T.; Bandara Herath, H. M. T.; Dhammika Nanayakkara, N. P.; Tekwani, Babu L.; Walker, Larry A.; Nolan, Christina K.; Sciotti, Richard J.; Zottig, Victor E.; Smith, Philip L.; Paris, Robert M.; Read, Lisa T.; Li, Qigui; Pybus, Brandon S.; Sousa, Jason C.; Reichard, Gregory A.

    2015-01-01

    Primaquine (PQ) metabolism by the cytochrome P450 (CYP) 2D family of enzymes is required for antimalarial activity in both humans (2D6) and mice (2D). Human CYP 2D6 is highly polymorphic, and decreased CYP 2D6 enzyme activity has been linked to decreased PQ antimalarial activity. Despite the importance of CYP 2D metabolism in PQ efficacy, the exact role that these enzymes play in PQ metabolism and pharmacokinetics has not been extensively studied in vivo. In this study, a series of PQ pharmacokinetic experiments were conducted in mice with differential CYP 2D metabolism characteristics, including wild-type (WT), CYP 2D knockout (KO), and humanized CYP 2D6 (KO/knock-in [KO/KI]) mice. Plasma and liver pharmacokinetic profiles from a single PQ dose (20 mg/kg of body weight) differed significantly among the strains for PQ and carboxy-PQ. Additionally, due to the suspected role of phenolic metabolites in PQ efficacy, these were probed using reference standards. Levels of phenolic metabolites were highest in mice capable of metabolizing CYP 2D6 substrates (WT and KO/KI 2D6 mice). PQ phenolic metabolites were present in different quantities in the two strains, illustrating species-specific differences in PQ metabolism between the human and mouse enzymes. Taking the data together, this report furthers understanding of PQ pharmacokinetics in the context of differential CYP 2D metabolism and has important implications for PQ administration in humans with different levels of CYP 2D6 enzyme activity. PMID:25645856

  1. 2D to 3D to 2D Dimensionality Crossovers in Thin BSCCO Films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Williams, Gary A.

    2003-03-01

    With increasing temperature the superfluid fraction in very thin BSCCO films undergoes a series of dimensionality crossovers. At low temperatures the strong anisotropy causes the thermal excitations to be 2D pancake-antipancake pairs in uncoupled layers. At higher temperatures where the c-axis correlation length becomes larger than a layer there is a crossover to 3D vortex loops. These are initially elliptical, but as the 3D Tc is approached they become more circular as the anisotropy scales away, as modeled by Shenoy and Chattopadhyay [1]. Close to Tc when the correlation length becomes comparable to the film thickness there is a further crossover to a 2D Kosterlitz-Thouless transition, with a drop of the superfluid fraction to zero at T_KT which can be of the order of 1 K below T_c. Good agreement with this model is found for experiments on thin BSCCO 2212 films [2]. 1. S. R. Shenoy and B. Chattopadhyay, Phys. Rev. B 51, 9129 (1995). 2. K. Osborn et al., cond-mat/0204417.

  2. Mechanical characterization of 2D, 2D stitched, and 3D braided/RTM materials

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Deaton, Jerry W.; Kullerd, Susan M.; Portanova, Marc A.

    1993-01-01

    Braided composite materials have potential for application in aircraft structures. Fuselage frames, floor beams, wing spars, and stiffeners are examples where braided composites could find application if cost effective processing and damage tolerance requirements are met. Another important consideration for braided composites relates to their mechanical properties and how they compare to the properties of composites produced by other textile composite processes being proposed for these applications. Unfortunately, mechanical property data for braided composites do not appear extensively in the literature. Data are presented in this paper on the mechanical characterization of 2D triaxial braid, 2D triaxial braid plus stitching, and 3D (through-the-thickness) braid composite materials. The braided preforms all had the same graphite tow size and the same nominal braid architectures, (+/- 30 deg/0 deg), and were resin transfer molded (RTM) using the same mold for each of two different resin systems. Static data are presented for notched and unnotched tension, notched and unnotched compression, and compression after impact strengths at room temperature. In addition, some static results, after environmental conditioning, are included. Baseline tension and compression fatigue results are also presented, but only for the 3D braided composite material with one of the resin systems.

  3. Decoupled 2D direction-of-arrival estimation based on sparse signal reconstruction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Feng; Cui, Xiaowei; Lu, Mingquan; Feng, Zhenming

    2015-12-01

    A new two-dimensional direction-of-arrival estimation algorithm called 2D- l 1-singular value decomposition (SVD) and its improved version called enhanced-2D- l 1-SVD are proposed in this paper. They are designed for rectangular arrays and can also be extended to rectangular arrays with faulty or missing elements. The key idea is to represent direction-of-arrival with two decoupled angles and then successively estimate them. Therefore, two-dimensional direction finding can be achieved by applying several times of one-dimensional sparse reconstruction-based direction finding methods instead of directly extending them to two-dimensional situation. Performance analysis and simulation results reveal that the proposed method has a much lower computational complexity and a similar statistical performance compared with the well-known l 1-SVD algorithm, which has several advantages over conventional direction finding techniques due to the application of sparse signal reconstruction. Moreover, 2D- l 1-SVD has better robustness to the assumed number of sources over l 1-SVD.

  4. Fulvenallene decomposition kinetics.

    PubMed

    Polino, Daniela; Cavallotti, Carlo

    2011-09-22

    While the decomposition kinetics of the benzyl radical has been studied in depth both from the experimental and the theoretical standpoint, much less is known about the reactivity of what is likely to be its main decomposition product, fulvenallene. In this work the high temperature reactivity of fulvenallene was investigated on a Potential Energy Surface (PES) consisting of 10 wells interconnected through 11 transition states using a 1 D Master Equation (ME). Rate constants were calculated using RRKM theory and the ME was integrated using a stochastic kinetic Monte Carlo code. It was found that two main decomposition channels are possible, the first is active on the singlet PES and leads to the formation of the fulvenallenyl radical and atomic hydrogen. The second requires intersystem crossing to the triplet PES and leads to acetylene and cyclopentadienylidene. ME simulations were performed calculating the microcanonical intersystem crossing frequency using Landau-Zener theory convoluting the crossing probability with RRKM rates evaluated at the conical intersection. It was found that the reaction channel leading to the cyclopentadienylidene diradical is only slightly faster than that leading to the fulvenallenyl radical, so that it can be concluded that both reactions are likely to be active in the investigated temperature (1500-2000 K) and pressure (0.05-50 bar) ranges. However, the simulations show that intersystem crossing is rate limiting for the first reaction channel, as the removal of this barrier leads to an increase of the rate constant by a factor of 2-3. Channel specific rate constants are reported as a function of temperature and pressure. PMID:21819060

  5. Differential Cytochrome P450 2D Metabolism Alters Tafenoquine Pharmacokinetics

    PubMed Central

    Vuong, Chau; Xie, Lisa H.; Potter, Brittney M. J.; Zhang, Jing; Zhang, Ping; Duan, Dehui; Nolan, Christina K.; Sciotti, Richard J.; Zottig, Victor E.; Nanayakkara, N. P. Dhammika; Tekwani, Babu L.; Walker, Larry A.; Smith, Philip L.; Paris, Robert M.; Read, Lisa T.; Li, Qigui; Pybus, Brandon S.; Sousa, Jason C.; Reichard, Gregory A.; Smith, Bryan

    2015-01-01

    Cytochrome P450 (CYP) 2D metabolism is required for the liver-stage antimalarial efficacy of the 8-aminoquinoline molecule tafenoquine in mice. This could be problematic for Plasmodium vivax radical cure, as the human CYP 2D ortholog (2D6) is highly polymorphic. Diminished CYP 2D6 enzyme activity, as in the poor-metabolizer phenotype, could compromise radical curative efficacy in humans. Despite the importance of CYP 2D metabolism for tafenoquine liver-stage efficacy, the exact role that CYP 2D metabolism plays in the metabolism and pharmacokinetics of tafenoquine and other 8-aminoquinoline molecules has not been extensively studied. In this study, a series of tafenoquine pharmacokinetic experiments were conducted in mice with different CYP 2D metabolism statuses, including wild-type (WT) (reflecting extensive metabolizers for CYP 2D6 substrates) and CYPmouse 2D knockout (KO) (reflecting poor metabolizers for CYP 2D6 substrates) mice. Plasma and liver pharmacokinetic profiles from a single 20-mg/kg of body weight dose of tafenoquine differed between the strains; however, the differences were less striking than previous results obtained for primaquine in the same model. Additionally, the presence of a 5,6-ortho-quinone tafenoquine metabolite was examined in both mouse strains. The 5,6-ortho-quinone species of tafenoquine was observed, and concentrations of the metabolite were highest in the WT extensive-metabolizer phenotype. Altogether, this study indicates that CYP 2D metabolism in mice affects tafenoquine pharmacokinetics and could have implications for human tafenoquine pharmacokinetics in polymorphic CYP 2D6 human populations. PMID:25870069

  6. Hydrogen peroxide catalytic decomposition

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Parrish, Clyde F. (Inventor)

    2010-01-01

    Nitric oxide in a gaseous stream is converted to nitrogen dioxide using oxidizing species generated through the use of concentrated hydrogen peroxide fed as a monopropellant into a catalyzed thruster assembly. The hydrogen peroxide is preferably stored at stable concentration levels, i.e., approximately 50%-70% by volume, and may be increased in concentration in a continuous process preceding decomposition in the thruster assembly. The exhaust of the thruster assembly, rich in hydroxyl and/or hydroperoxy radicals, may be fed into a stream containing oxidizable components, such as nitric oxide, to facilitate their oxidation.

  7. A Geometric Boolean Library for 2D Objects

    2006-01-05

    The 2D Boolean Library is a collection of C++ classes -- which primarily represent 2D geometric data and relationships, and routines -- which contain algorithms for 2D geometric Boolean operations and utility functions. Classes are provided for 2D points, lines, arcs, edgeuses, loops, surfaces and mask sets. Routines are provided that incorporate the Boolean operations Union(OR), XOR, Intersection and Difference. Various analytical geometry routines and routines for importing and exporting the data in various filemore » formats, are also provided in the library.« less

  8. A Geometric Boolean Library for 2D Objects

    SciTech Connect

    McBride, Corey L.; Yarberry, Victor; Jorgensen, Craig

    2006-01-05

    The 2D Boolean Library is a collection of C++ classes -- which primarily represent 2D geometric data and relationships, and routines -- which contain algorithms for 2D geometric Boolean operations and utility functions. Classes are provided for 2D points, lines, arcs, edgeuses, loops, surfaces and mask sets. Routines are provided that incorporate the Boolean operations Union(OR), XOR, Intersection and Difference. Various analytical geometry routines and routines for importing and exporting the data in various file formats, are also provided in the library.

  9. AnisWave2D: User's Guide to the 2d Anisotropic Finite-DifferenceCode

    SciTech Connect

    Toomey, Aoife

    2005-01-06

    This document describes a parallel finite-difference code for modeling wave propagation in 2D, fully anisotropic materials. The code utilizes a mesh refinement scheme to improve computational efficiency. Mesh refinement allows the grid spacing to be tailored to the velocity model, so that fine grid spacing can be used in low velocity zones where the seismic wavelength is short, and coarse grid spacing can be used in zones with higher material velocities. Over-sampling of the seismic wavefield in high velocity zones is therefore avoided. The code has been implemented to run in parallel over multiple processors and allows large-scale models and models with large velocity contrasts to be simulated with ease.

  10. Klassifikation von Standardebenen in der 2D-Echokardiographie mittels 2D-3D-Bildregistrierung

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bergmeir, Christoph; Subramanian, Navneeth

    Zum Zweck der Entwicklung eines Systems, das einen unerfahrenen Anwender von Ultraschall (US) zur Aufnahme relevanter anatomischer Strukturen leitet, untersuchen wir die Machbarkeit von 2D-US zu 3D-CT Registrierung. Wir verwenden US-Aufnahmen von Standardebenen des Herzens, welche zu einem 3D-CT-Modell registriert werden. Unser Algorithmus unterzieht sowohl die US-Bilder als auch den CT-Datensatz Vorverarbeitungsschritten, welche die Daten durch Segmentierung auf wesentliche Informationen in Form von Labein für Muskel und Blut reduzieren. Anschließend werden diese Label zur Registrierung mittels der Match-Cardinality-Metrik genutzt. Durch mehrmaliges Registrieren mit verschiedenen Initialisierungen ermitteln wir die im US-Bild sichtbare Standardebene. Wir evaluierten die Methode auf sieben US-Bildern von Standardebenen. Fünf davon wurden korrekt zugeordnet.

  11. Upscaling of upward CO2 migration in 2D system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Behzadi, Hamid; Alvarado, Vladimir

    2012-09-01

    A procedure for upscaling CO2 buoyancy driven upward migration in finite-difference simulation models is presented in this work. This upscaling procedure accounts for capillary and buoyancy forces to enable CO2 upward migration modeling in coarser grids while accounting for dominant fine-scaled geological effects. The developed method is applied to 2D domains with no-flow boundary conditions. The absolute permeability field is correlated in the horizontal direction, with zero correlation in the vertical direction. Capillary pressure is parameterized using a Leveret J-function. A Dykstra-Parsons coefficient of 0.7 was used to generate a relatively heterogeneous absolute permeability field and hence test the developed algorithm under more stringent conditions. Multiphase flow upscaling is improved by accounting for spatial connectivity (percolation), which enables us to obtain more realistic rock-fluid pseudo-functions and capture effects of local capillary trapping at the fine scale (meso-scale trapping). The upscaling method and estimation of rock-fluid functions are numerically tested and compared with currently accepted single and multiphase flow upscaling methods. Results show that single-phase flow upscaling is insufficient, because it fails to adequately predict mobility and residual saturation, and hence multiphase flow upscaling should be employed. Significant improvement in gas travel time (representative of mobility) and trapped CO2 saturation (representative of trapped saturation) are observed when spatial connectivity (percolation) is included. The simulation execution time reduces 17-fold through upscaling. This speedup will enable simulating 3D CO2 sequestration simulation scenarios.

  12. 2D Potential theory using complex functions and conformal mapping

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Le Maire, Pauline; Munschy, Marc

    2016-04-01

    For infinitely horizontally extended bodies, functions that describe potential and field equations (gravity and magnetics) outside bodies are 2D and harmonic. The consequence of this property is that potential and field equations can be written as complex analytic functions. We define these complex functions whose real part is the commonly used real function and imaginary part is its Hilbert transform. Using data or synthetic cases the transformation is easily performed in the Fourier domain by setting to zero all values for negative frequencies. Written as complex functions of the complex variable, equations of potential and field in gravity and magnetics for different kinds of geometries are simple and correspond to powers of the inverse of the distance. For example, it is easily shown that for a tilted dyke, the dip and the apparent inclination have the same effect on the function and consequently that it is not possible, with data, to compute one of both values without knowing the other. Conformal mapping is an original way to display potential field functions. Considering that the complex variable corresponds to the real axis, complex potential field functions resume to a limaçon, a curve formed by the path of the point fixed to a circle when that circle rolls around the outside of another circle. For example, the point corresponding to the maximum distance to the origin of the complex magnetic field due to a cylinder, corresponds to the maximum of the analytic signal as defined by Nabighan in 1972 and its phase corresponds to the apparent inclination. Several applications are shown in different geological contexts using aeromagnetic data.

  13. Canonical decomposition of magnetotelluric responses: Experiment on 1D anisotropic structures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guo, Ze-qiu; Wei, Wen-bo; Ye, Gao-feng; Jin, Sheng; Jing, Jian-en

    2015-08-01

    Horizontal electrical heterogeneity of subsurface earth is mostly originated from structural complexity and electrical anisotropy, and local near-surface electrical heterogeneity will severely distort regional electromagnetic responses. Conventional distortion analyses for magnetotelluric soundings are primarily physical decomposition methods with respect to isotropic models, which mostly presume that the geoelectric distribution of geological structures is of local and regional patterns represented by 3D/2D models. Due to the widespread anisotropy of earth media, the confusion between 1D anisotropic responses and 2D isotropic responses, and the defects of physical decomposition methods, we propose to conduct modeling experiments with canonical decomposition in terms of 1D layered anisotropic models, and the method is one of the mathematical decomposition methods based on eigenstate analyses differentiated from distortion analyses, which can be used to recover electrical information such as strike directions, and maximum and minimum conductivity. We tested this method with numerical simulation experiments on several 1D synthetic models, which turned out that canonical decomposition is quite effective to reveal geological anisotropic information. Finally, for the background of anisotropy from previous study by geological and seismological methods, canonical decomposition is applied to real data acquired in North China Craton for 1D anisotropy analyses, and the result shows that, with effective modeling and cautious interpretation, canonical decomposition could be another good method to detect anisotropy of geological media.

  14. Autocatalytic behavior of trimethylindium during thermal decomposition

    SciTech Connect

    McDaniel, A.H.; Allendorf, M.D.

    2000-02-01

    Pyrolysis of trimethylindium (TMIn) in a hot-wall flow-tube reactor has been investigated at temperatures between 573 and 723 K using a modulated molecular-beam mass-sampling technique and detailed numerical modeling. The TMIn was exposed to various mixtures of carrier gases: He, H{sub 2}, D{sub 2}, and C{sub 2}H{sub 4}, in an effort to elucidated the behavior exhibited by this compound in different chemical environments. The decomposition of TMIn is a heterogeneous, autocatalytic process with an induction period that is carrier-gas dependent and lasts on the order of minutes. After activation of the tube wall, the thermolysis exhibits a steady-state behavior that is surface mediated. This result is contrary to prior literature reports, which state that decomposition occurs in the gas phase via successive loss of the CH{sub 3} ligands. This finding also suggests that the bond dissociation energy for the (CH{sub 3}){sub 2}In-CH{sub 3} bond derived from flow-tube investigations is erroneous and should be reevaluated.

  15. Structured Volume Decomposition via Generalized Sweeping.

    PubMed

    Gao, Xifeng; Martin, Tobias; Deng, Sai; Cohen, Elaine; Deng, Zhigang; Chen, Guoning

    2016-07-01

    In this paper, we introduce a volumetric partitioning strategy based on a generalized sweeping framework to seamlessly partition the volume of an input triangle mesh into a collection of deformed cuboids. This is achieved by a user-designed volumetric harmonic function that guides the decomposition of the input volume into a sequence of two-manifold level sets. A skeletal structure whose corners correspond to corner vertices of a 2D parameterization is extracted for each level set. Corners are placed so that the skeletal structure aligns with features of the input object. Then, a skeletal surface is constructed by matching the skeletal structures of adjacent level sets. The surface sheets of this skeletal surface partition the input volume into the deformed cuboids. The collection of cuboids does not exhibit T-junctions, significantly simplifying the hexahedral mesh generation process, and in particular, it simplifies fitting trivariate B-splines to the deformed cuboids. Intersections of the surface sheets of the skeletal surface correspond to the singular edges of the generated hex-meshes. We apply our technique to a variety of 3D objects and demonstrate the benefit of the structure decomposition in data fitting. PMID:26336127

  16. Hydrogen iodide decomposition

    DOEpatents

    O'Keefe, Dennis R.; Norman, John H.

    1983-01-01

    Liquid hydrogen iodide is decomposed to form hydrogen and iodine in the presence of water using a soluble catalyst. Decomposition is carried out at a temperature between about 350.degree. K. and about 525.degree. K. and at a corresponding pressure between about 25 and about 300 atmospheres in the presence of an aqueous solution which acts as a carrier for the homogeneous catalyst. Various halides of the platinum group metals, particularly Pd, Rh and Pt, are used, particularly the chlorides and iodides which exhibit good solubility. After separation of the H.sub.2, the stream from the decomposer is countercurrently extracted with nearly dry HI to remove I.sub.2. The wet phase contains most of the catalyst and is recycled directly to the decomposition step. The catalyst in the remaining almost dry HI-I.sub.2 phase is then extracted into a wet phase which is also recycled. The catalyst-free HI-I.sub.2 phase is finally distilled to separate the HI and I.sub.2. The HI is recycled to the reactor; the I.sub.2 is returned to a reactor operating in accordance with the Bunsen equation to create more HI.

  17. Coxeter decompositions of hyperbolic simplexes

    SciTech Connect

    Felikson, A A

    2002-12-31

    A Coxeter decomposition of a polyhedron in a hyperbolic space H{sup n} is a decomposition of it into finitely many Coxeter polyhedra such that any two tiles having a common facet are symmetric with respect to it. The classification of Coxeter decompositions is closely related to the problem of the classification of finite-index subgroups generated by reflections in discrete hyperbolic groups generated by reflections. All Coxeter decompositions of simplexes in the hyperbolic spaces H{sup n} with n>3 are described in this paper.

  18. Functional characterization of CYP2D6 enhancer polymorphisms

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Danxin; Papp, Audrey C.; Sun, Xiaochun

    2015-01-01

    CYP2D6 metabolizes nearly 25% of clinically used drugs. Genetic polymorphisms cause large inter-individual variability in CYP2D6 enzyme activity and are currently used as biomarker to predict CYP2D6 metabolizer phenotype. Previously, we had identified a region 115 kb downstream of CYP2D6 as enhancer for CYP2D6, containing two completely linked single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs), rs133333 and rs5758550, associated with enhanced transcription. However, the enhancer effect on CYP2D6 expression, and the causative variant, remained to be ascertained. To characterize the CYP2D6 enhancer element, we applied chromatin conformation capture combined with the next-generation sequencing (4C assays) and chromatin immunoprecipitation with P300 antibody, in HepG2 and human primary culture hepatocytes. The results confirmed the role of the previously identified enhancer region in CYP2D6 expression, expanding the number of candidate variants to three highly linked SNPs (rs133333, rs5758550 and rs4822082). Among these, only rs5758550 demonstrated regulating enhancer activity in a reporter gene assay. Use of clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats mediated genome editing in HepG2 cells targeting suspected enhancer regions decreased CYP2D6 mRNA expression by 70%, only upon deletion of the rs5758550 region. These results demonstrate robust effects of both the enhancer element and SNP rs5758550 on CYP2D6 expression, supporting consideration of rs5758550 for CYP2D6 genotyping panels to yield more accurate phenotype prediction. PMID:25381333

  19. The Wavelet Element Method. Part 2; Realization and Additional Features in 2D and 3D

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Canuto, Claudio; Tabacco, Anita; Urban, Karsten

    1998-01-01

    The Wavelet Element Method (WEM) provides a construction of multiresolution systems and biorthogonal wavelets on fairly general domains. These are split into subdomains that are mapped to a single reference hypercube. Tensor products of scaling functions and wavelets defined on the unit interval are used on the reference domain. By introducing appropriate matching conditions across the interelement boundaries, a globally continuous biorthogonal wavelet basis on the general domain is obtained. This construction does not uniquely define the basis functions but rather leaves some freedom for fulfilling additional features. In this paper we detail the general construction principle of the WEM to the 1D, 2D and 3D cases. We address additional features such as symmetry, vanishing moments and minimal support of the wavelet functions in each particular dimension. The construction is illustrated by using biorthogonal spline wavelets on the interval.

  20. An Incompressible 2D Didactic Model with Singularity and Explicit Solutions of the 2D Boussinesq Equations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chae, Dongho; Constantin, Peter; Wu, Jiahong

    2014-09-01

    We give an example of a well posed, finite energy, 2D incompressible active scalar equation with the same scaling as the surface quasi-geostrophic equation and prove that it can produce finite time singularities. In spite of its simplicity, this seems to be the first such example. Further, we construct explicit solutions of the 2D Boussinesq equations whose gradients grow exponentially in time for all time. In addition, we introduce a variant of the 2D Boussinesq equations which is perhaps a more faithful companion of the 3D axisymmetric Euler equations than the usual 2D Boussinesq equations.

  1. 2D resistivity inversion using conjugate gradients for a finite element discretization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bortolozo, C. A.; Santos, F. M.; Porsani, J. L.

    2014-12-01

    In this work we present a DC 2D inversion algorithm using conjugate gradients relaxation to solve the maximum likelihood inverse equations. We apply, according to Zhang (1995), the maximum likelihood inverse theory developed by Tarantola and Valette (1982) to our 2D resistivity inversion. This algorithm was chosen to this research because it doesn't need to calculate the field's derivatives. Since conjugate gradient techniques only need the results of the sensitivity matrix à or its transpose ÃT multiplying a vector, the actual computation of the sensitivity matrix are not performed, according to the methodology described in Zhang (1995). In Zhang (1995), the terms Ãx and ÃTy, are dependent of the stiffness matrix K and its partial derivative ∂K⁄∂ρ. The inversion methodology described in Zhang (1995) is for the case of 3D electrical resistivity by finite differences discretization. So it was necessary to make a series of adjustments to obtain a satisfactory result for 2D electrical inversion using finite element method. The difference between the modeling of 3D resistivity with finite difference and the 2D finite element method are in the integration variable, used in the 2D case. In the 2D case the electrical potential are initially calculated in the transformed domain, including the stiffness matrix, and only in the end is transformed in Cartesian domain. In the case of 3D, described by Zhang (1995) this is done differently, the calculation is done directly in the Cartesian domain. In the literature was not found any work describing how to deal with this problem. Because the calculations of Ãx and ÃTy must be done without having the real stiffness matrix, the adaptation consist in calculate the stiffness matrix and its partial derivative using a set of integration variables. We transform those matrix in the same form has in the potential case, but with different sets of variables. The results will be presented and are very promising.

  2. Domain Engineering

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bjørner, Dines

    Before software can be designed we must know its requirements. Before requirements can be expressed we must understand the domain. So it follows, from our dogma, that we must first establish precise descriptions of domains; then, from such descriptions, “derive” at least domain and interface requirements; and from those and machine requirements design the software, or, more generally, the computing systems.

  3. Whole-exome sequencing defines the mutational landscape of pheochromocytoma and identifies KMT2D as a recurrently mutated gene.

    PubMed

    Juhlin, C Christofer; Stenman, Adam; Haglund, Felix; Clark, Victoria E; Brown, Taylor C; Baranoski, Jacob; Bilguvar, Kaya; Goh, Gerald; Welander, Jenny; Svahn, Fredrika; Rubinstein, Jill C; Caramuta, Stefano; Yasuno, Katsuhito; Günel, Murat; Bäckdahl, Martin; Gimm, Oliver; Söderkvist, Peter; Prasad, Manju L; Korah, Reju; Lifton, Richard P; Carling, Tobias

    2015-09-01

    As subsets of pheochromocytomas (PCCs) lack a defined molecular etiology, we sought to characterize the mutational landscape of PCCs to identify novel gene candidates involved in disease development. A discovery cohort of 15 PCCs wild type for mutations in PCC susceptibility genes underwent whole-exome sequencing, and an additional 83 PCCs served as a verification cohort for targeted sequencing of candidate mutations. A low rate of nonsilent single nucleotide variants (SNVs) was detected (6.1/sample). Somatic HRAS and EPAS1 mutations were observed in one case each, whereas the remaining 13 cases did not exhibit variants in established PCC genes. SNVs aggregated in apoptosis-related pathways, and mutations in COSMIC genes not previously reported in PCCs included ZAN, MITF, WDTC1, and CAMTA1. Two somatic mutations and one constitutional variant in the well-established cancer gene lysine (K)-specific methyltransferase 2D (KMT2D, MLL2) were discovered in one sample each, prompting KMT2D screening using focused exome-sequencing in the verification cohort. An additional 11 PCCs displayed KMT2D variants, of which two were recurrent. In total, missense KMT2D variants were found in 14 (11 somatic, two constitutional, one undetermined) of 99 PCCs (14%). Five cases displayed somatic mutations in the functional FYR/SET domains of KMT2D, constituting 36% of all KMT2D-mutated PCCs. KMT2D expression was upregulated in PCCs compared to normal adrenals, and KMT2D overexpression positively affected cell migration in a PCC cell line. We conclude that KMT2D represents a recurrently mutated gene with potential implication for PCC development. PMID:26032282

  4. Efficient Visible Quasi-2D Perovskite Light-Emitting Diodes.

    PubMed

    Byun, Jinwoo; Cho, Himchan; Wolf, Christoph; Jang, Mi; Sadhanala, Aditya; Friend, Richard H; Yang, Hoichang; Lee, Tae-Woo

    2016-09-01

    Efficient quasi-2D-structure perovskite light-emitting diodes (4.90 cd A(-1) ) are demonstrated by mixing a 3D-structured perovskite material (methyl ammonium lead bromide) and a 2D-structured perovskite material (phenylethyl ammonium lead bromide), which can be ascribed to better film uniformity, enhanced exciton confinement, and reduced trap density. PMID:27334788

  5. Integrating Mobile Multimedia into Textbooks: 2D Barcodes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Uluyol, Celebi; Agca, R. Kagan

    2012-01-01

    The major goal of this study was to empirically compare text-plus-mobile phone learning using an integrated 2D barcode tag in a printed text with three other conditions described in multimedia learning theory. The method examined in the study involved modifications of the instructional material such that: a 2D barcode was used near the text, the…

  6. Van der Waals stacked 2D layered materials for optoelectronics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Wenjing; Wang, Qixing; Chen, Yu; Wang, Zhuo; Wee, Andrew T. S.

    2016-06-01

    The band gaps of many atomically thin 2D layered materials such as graphene, black phosphorus, monolayer semiconducting transition metal dichalcogenides and hBN range from 0 to 6 eV. These isolated atomic planes can be reassembled into hybrid heterostructures made layer by layer in a precisely chosen sequence. Thus, the electronic properties of 2D materials can be engineered by van der Waals stacking, and the interlayer coupling can be tuned, which opens up avenues for creating new material systems with rich functionalities and novel physical properties. Early studies suggest that van der Waals stacked 2D materials work exceptionally well, dramatically enriching the optoelectronics applications of 2D materials. Here we review recent progress in van der Waals stacked 2D materials, and discuss their potential applications in optoelectronics.

  7. Unitary quantum lattice gas representation of 2D quantum turbulence

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Bo; Vahala, George; Vahala, Linda; Soe, Min

    2011-05-01

    Quantum vortex structures and energy cascades are examined for two dimensional quantum turbulence (2D QT) using a special unitary evolution algorithm. The qubit lattice gas (QLG) algorithm, is employed to simulate the weakly-coupled Bose-Einstein condensate (BEC) governed by the Gross-Pitaevskii (GP) equation. A parameter regime is uncovered in which, as in 3D QT, there is a very short Poincare recurrence time. This short recurrence time is destroyed as the nonlinear interaction energy is increased. Energy cascades for 2D QT are considered to examine whether 2D QT exhibits the inverse cascades of 2D classical turbulence. In the parameter regime considered, the spectra analysis reveals no such dual cascades---dual cascades being a hallmark of 2D classical turbulence.

  8. CYP2D6 polymorphism in patients with eating disorders.

    PubMed

    Peñas-Lledó, E M; Dorado, P; Agüera, Z; Gratacós, M; Estivill, X; Fernández-Aranda, F; Llerena, A

    2012-04-01

    CYP2D6 polymorphism is associated with variability in drug response, endogenous metabolism (that is, serotonin), personality, neurocognition and psychopathology. The relationship between CYP2D6 genetic polymorphism and the risk of eating disorders (ED) was analyzed in 267 patients with ED and in 285 controls. A difference in the CYP2D6 active allele distribution was found between these groups. Women carrying more than two active genes (ultrarapid metabolizers) (7.5 vs 4.6%) or two (67 vs 58.9%) active genes were more frequent among patients with ED, whereas those with one (20.6 vs 30.2%) or zero active genes (4.9 vs 6.3%) were more frequent among controls (P<0.05). Although further research is needed, present findings suggest an association between CYP2D6 and ED. CYP2D6 allele distribution in patients with ED seems related to increased enzyme activity. PMID:20877302

  9. 2D materials and van der Waals heterostructures.

    PubMed

    Novoselov, K S; Mishchenko, A; Carvalho, A; Castro Neto, A H

    2016-07-29

    The physics of two-dimensional (2D) materials and heterostructures based on such crystals has been developing extremely fast. With these new materials, truly 2D physics has begun to appear (for instance, the absence of long-range order, 2D excitons, commensurate-incommensurate transition, etc.). Novel heterostructure devices--such as tunneling transistors, resonant tunneling diodes, and light-emitting diodes--are also starting to emerge. Composed from individual 2D crystals, such devices use the properties of those materials to create functionalities that are not accessible in other heterostructures. Here we review the properties of novel 2D crystals and examine how their properties are used in new heterostructure devices. PMID:27471306

  10. 2D-3D hybrid stabilized finite element method for tsunami runup simulations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Takase, S.; Moriguchi, S.; Terada, K.; Kato, J.; Kyoya, T.; Kashiyama, K.; Kotani, T.

    2016-09-01

    This paper presents a two-dimensional (2D)-three-dimensional (3D) hybrid stabilized finite element method that enables us to predict a propagation process of tsunami generated in a hypocentral region, which ranges from offshore propagation to runup to urban areas, with high accuracy and relatively low computational costs. To be more specific, the 2D shallow water equation is employed to simulate the propagation of offshore waves, while the 3D Navier-Stokes equation is employed for the runup in urban areas. The stabilized finite element method is utilized for numerical simulations for both of the 2D and 3D domains that are independently discretized with unstructured meshes. The multi-point constraint and transmission methods are applied to satisfy the continuity of flow velocities and pressures at the interface between the resulting 2D and 3D meshes, since neither their spatial dimensions nor node arrangements are consistent. Numerical examples are presented to demonstrate the performance of the proposed hybrid method to simulate tsunami behavior, including offshore propagation and runup to urban areas, with substantially lower computation costs in comparison with full 3D computations.

  11. 2D-3D hybrid stabilized finite element method for tsunami runup simulations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Takase, S.; Moriguchi, S.; Terada, K.; Kato, J.; Kyoya, T.; Kashiyama, K.; Kotani, T.

    2016-05-01

    This paper presents a two-dimensional (2D)-three-dimensional (3D) hybrid stabilized finite element method that enables us to predict a propagation process of tsunami generated in a hypocentral region, which ranges from offshore propagation to runup to urban areas, with high accuracy and relatively low computational costs. To be more specific, the 2D shallow water equation is employed to simulate the propagation of offshore waves, while the 3D Navier-Stokes equation is employed for the runup in urban areas. The stabilized finite element method is utilized for numerical simulations for both of the 2D and 3D domains that are independently discretized with unstructured meshes. The multi-point constraint and transmission methods are applied to satisfy the continuity of flow velocities and pressures at the interface between the resulting 2D and 3D meshes, since neither their spatial dimensions nor node arrangements are consistent. Numerical examples are presented to demonstrate the performance of the proposed hybrid method to simulate tsunami behavior, including offshore propagation and runup to urban areas, with substantially lower computation costs in comparison with full 3D computations.

  12. Erbium hydride decomposition kinetics.

    SciTech Connect

    Ferrizz, Robert Matthew

    2006-11-01

    Thermal desorption spectroscopy (TDS) is used to study the decomposition kinetics of erbium hydride thin films. The TDS results presented in this report are analyzed quantitatively using Redhead's method to yield kinetic parameters (E{sub A} {approx} 54.2 kcal/mol), which are then utilized to predict hydrogen outgassing in vacuum for a variety of thermal treatments. Interestingly, it was found that the activation energy for desorption can vary by more than 7 kcal/mol (0.30 eV) for seemingly similar samples. In addition, small amounts of less-stable hydrogen were observed for all erbium dihydride films. A detailed explanation of several approaches for analyzing thermal desorption spectra to obtain kinetic information is included as an appendix.

  13. Art of spin decomposition

    SciTech Connect

    Chen Xiangsong; Sun Weimin; Wang Fan; Goldman, T.

    2011-04-01

    We analyze the problem of spin decomposition for an interacting system from a natural perspective of constructing angular-momentum eigenstates. We split, from the total angular-momentum operator, a proper part which can be separately conserved for a stationary state. This part commutes with the total Hamiltonian and thus specifies the quantum angular momentum. We first show how this can be done in a gauge-dependent way, by seeking a specific gauge in which part of the total angular-momentum operator vanishes identically. We then construct a gauge-invariant operator with the desired property. Our analysis clarifies what is the most pertinent choice among the various proposals for decomposing the nucleon spin. A similar analysis is performed for extracting a proper part from the total Hamiltonian to construct energy eigenstates.

  14. Direct Sum Decomposition of Groups

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thaheem, A. B.

    2005-01-01

    Direct sum decomposition of Abelian groups appears in almost all textbooks on algebra for undergraduate students. This concept plays an important role in group theory. One simple example of this decomposition is obtained by using the kernel and range of a projection map on an Abelian group. The aim in this pedagogical note is to establish a direct…

  15. Fast 2D DOA Estimation Algorithm by an Array Manifold Matching Method with Parallel Linear Arrays.

    PubMed

    Yang, Lisheng; Liu, Sheng; Li, Dong; Jiang, Qingping; Cao, Hailin

    2016-01-01

    In this paper, the problem of two-dimensional (2D) direction-of-arrival (DOA) estimation with parallel linear arrays is addressed. Two array manifold matching (AMM) approaches, in this work, are developed for the incoherent and coherent signals, respectively. The proposed AMM methods estimate the azimuth angle only with the assumption that the elevation angles are known or estimated. The proposed methods are time efficient since they do not require eigenvalue decomposition (EVD) or peak searching. In addition, the complexity analysis shows the proposed AMM approaches have lower computational complexity than many current state-of-the-art algorithms. The estimated azimuth angles produced by the AMM approaches are automatically paired with the elevation angles. More importantly, for estimating the azimuth angles of coherent signals, the aperture loss issue is avoided since a decorrelation procedure is not required for the proposed AMM method. Numerical studies demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed approaches. PMID:26907301

  16. Fast 2D DOA Estimation Algorithm by an Array Manifold Matching Method with Parallel Linear Arrays

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Lisheng; Liu, Sheng; Li, Dong; Jiang, Qingping; Cao, Hailin

    2016-01-01

    In this paper, the problem of two-dimensional (2D) direction-of-arrival (DOA) estimation with parallel linear arrays is addressed. Two array manifold matching (AMM) approaches, in this work, are developed for the incoherent and coherent signals, respectively. The proposed AMM methods estimate the azimuth angle only with the assumption that the elevation angles are known or estimated. The proposed methods are time efficient since they do not require eigenvalue decomposition (EVD) or peak searching. In addition, the complexity analysis shows the proposed AMM approaches have lower computational complexity than many current state-of-the-art algorithms. The estimated azimuth angles produced by the AMM approaches are automatically paired with the elevation angles. More importantly, for estimating the azimuth angles of coherent signals, the aperture loss issue is avoided since a decorrelation procedure is not required for the proposed AMM method. Numerical studies demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed approaches. PMID:26907301

  17. Targeted fluorescence imaging enhanced by 2D materials: a comparison between 2D MoS2 and graphene oxide.

    PubMed

    Xie, Donghao; Ji, Ding-Kun; Zhang, Yue; Cao, Jun; Zheng, Hu; Liu, Lin; Zang, Yi; Li, Jia; Chen, Guo-Rong; James, Tony D; He, Xiao-Peng

    2016-08-01

    Here we demonstrate that 2D MoS2 can enhance the receptor-targeting and imaging ability of a fluorophore-labelled ligand. The 2D MoS2 has an enhanced working concentration range when compared with graphene oxide, resulting in the improved imaging of both cell and tissue samples. PMID:27378648

  18. Domain decomposition in time for PDE-constrained optimization

    SciTech Connect

    Barker, Andrew T.; Stoll, Martin

    2015-08-28

    Here, PDE-constrained optimization problems have a wide range of applications, but they lead to very large and ill-conditioned linear systems, especially if the problems are time dependent. In this paper we outline an approach for dealing with such problems by decomposing them in time and applying an additive Schwarz preconditioner in time, so that we can take advantage of parallel computers to deal with the very large linear systems. We then illustrate the performance of our method on a variety of problems.

  19. Kinematic domain decomposition for boundary-motion-induced flow simulations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Baysal, Oktay; Yen, Guan-Wei

    1991-01-01

    A method is developed to solve the unsteady Navier-Stokes equations on a composite grid, which consists of subdomain grids moving with respect to each other. These subdomains are structured grids with different topologies. This method eliminates assuming the moving components to be instantaneously stationary, where deciding on the particular frozen instants is difficult and affects the solution adversely. Moreover, this method captures the boundary-motion-induced flow component. The method is demonstrated through a transonic flow past an airfoil, which experiences a combined motion of pitching and plunging. An O-grid around the airfoil is overlapped on a fine Cartesian grid, which is zonally embedded in a coarse Cartesian grid. The coarse grid is stationary but the other two grids are plunging. Only the O-grid is also sinusoidally pitching. The results are compared successfully with the experimental data.

  20. Multigrid and multilevel domain decomposition for unstructured grids

    SciTech Connect

    Chan, T.; Smith, B.

    1994-12-31

    Multigrid has proven itself to be a very versatile method for the iterative solution of linear and nonlinear systems of equations arising from the discretization of PDES. In some applications, however, no natural multilevel structure of grids is available, and these must be generated as part of the solution procedure. In this presentation the authors will consider the problem of generating a multigrid algorithm when only a fine, unstructured grid is given. Their techniques generate a sequence of coarser grids by first forming an approximate maximal independent set of the vertices and then applying a Cavendish type algorithm to form the coarser triangulation. Numerical tests indicate that convergence using this approach can be as fast as standard multigrid on a structured mesh, at least in two dimensions.

  1. Domain decomposition preconditioners for the spectral collocation method

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Quarteroni, Alfio; Sacchilandriani, Giovanni

    1988-01-01

    Several block iteration preconditioners are proposed and analyzed for the solution of elliptic problems by spectral collocation methods in a region partitioned into several rectangles. It is shown that convergence is achieved with a rate which does not depend on the polynomial degree of the spectral solution. The iterative methods here presented can be effectively implemented on multiprocessor systems due to their high degree of parallelism.

  2. Building a symbolic computer algebra toolbox to compute 2D Fourier transforms in polar coordinates.

    PubMed

    Dovlo, Edem; Baddour, Natalie

    2015-01-01

    The development of a symbolic computer algebra toolbox for the computation of two dimensional (2D) Fourier transforms in polar coordinates is presented. Multidimensional Fourier transforms are widely used in image processing, tomographic reconstructions and in fact any application that requires a multidimensional convolution. By examining a function in the frequency domain, additional information and insights may be obtained. The advantages of our method include: •The implementation of the 2D Fourier transform in polar coordinates within the toolbox via the combination of two significantly simpler transforms.•The modular approach along with the idea of lookup tables implemented help avoid the issue of indeterminate results which may occur when attempting to directly evaluate the transform.•The concept also helps prevent unnecessary computation of already known transforms thereby saving memory and processing time. PMID:26150988

  3. Metal-organic extended 2D structures: Fe-PTCDA on Au(111).

    PubMed

    Alvarez, Lucía; Peláez, Samuel; Caillard, Renaud; Serena, Pedro A; Martín-Gago, José A; Méndez, Javier

    2010-07-30

    In this work we combine organic molecules of 3,4,9,10-perylenetetracarboxylic dianhydride (PTCDA) with iron atoms on an Au (111) substrate in ultra-high vacuum conditions at different temperatures. By means of scanning tunnelling microscopy (STM) we study the formation of stable 2D metal-organic structures. We show that at certain growth conditions (temperature, time and coverage) stable 'ladder-like' nanostructures are obtained. These are the result of connecting together two metal-organic chains through PTCDA molecules placed perpendicularly, as rungs of a ladder. These structures, stable up to 450 K, can be extended in a 2D layer covering the entire surface and presenting different rotation domains. STM images at both polarities show a contrast reversal between the two molecules at the unit cell. By means of density functional theory (DFT) calculations, we confirm the stability of these structures and that their molecular orbitals are placed separately at the different molecules. PMID:20603531

  4. Mach number validation of a new zonal CFD method (ZAP2D) for airfoil simulations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Strash, Daniel J.; Summa, Michael; Yoo, Sungyul

    1991-01-01

    A closed-loop overlapped velocity coupling procedure has been utilized to combine a two-dimensional potential-flow panel code and a Navier-Stokes code. The fully coupled two-zone code (ZAP2D) has been used to compute the flow past a NACA 0012 airfoil at Mach numbers ranging from 0.3 to 0.84 near the two-dimensional airfoil C(lmax) point for a Reynolds number of 3 million. For these cases, the grid domain size can be reduced to 3 chord lengths with less than 3-percent loss in accuracy for freestream Mach numbers through 0.8. Earlier validation work with ZAP2D has demonstrated a reduction in the required Navier-Stokes computation time by a factor of 4 for subsonic Mach numbers. For this more challenging condition of high lift and Mach number, the saving in CPU time is reduced to a factor of 2.

  5. Approximate analytic solutions to 3D unconfined groundwater flow within regional 2D models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Luther, K.; Haitjema, H. M.

    2000-04-01

    We present methods for finding approximate analytic solutions to three-dimensional (3D) unconfined steady state groundwater flow near partially penetrating and horizontal wells, and for combining those solutions with regional two-dimensional (2D) models. The 3D solutions use distributed singularities (analytic elements) to enforce boundary conditions on the phreatic surface and seepage faces at vertical wells, and to maintain fixed-head boundary conditions, obtained from the 2D model, at the perimeter of the 3D model. The approximate 3D solutions are analytic (continuous and differentiable) everywhere, including on the phreatic surface itself. While continuity of flow is satisfied exactly in the infinite 3D flow domain, water balance errors can occur across the phreatic surface.

  6. 2D vs. 3D mammography observer study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fernandez, James Reza F.; Hovanessian-Larsen, Linda; Liu, Brent

    2011-03-01

    Breast cancer is the most common type of non-skin cancer in women. 2D mammography is a screening tool to aid in the early detection of breast cancer, but has diagnostic limitations of overlapping tissues, especially in dense breasts. 3D mammography has the potential to improve detection outcomes by increasing specificity, and a new 3D screening tool with a 3D display for mammography aims to improve performance and efficiency as compared to 2D mammography. An observer study using a mammography phantom was performed to compare traditional 2D mammography with this ne 3D mammography technique. In comparing 3D and 2D mammography there was no difference in calcification detection, and mass detection was better in 2D as compared to 3D. There was a significant decrease in reading time for masses, calcifications, and normals in 3D compared to 2D, however, as well as more favorable confidence levels in reading normal cases. Given the limitations of the mammography phantom used, however, a clearer picture in comparing 3D and 2D mammography may be better acquired with the incorporation of human studies in the future.

  7. Efficient 2D MRI relaxometry using compressed sensing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bai, Ruiliang; Cloninger, Alexander; Czaja, Wojciech; Basser, Peter J.

    2015-06-01

    Potential applications of 2D relaxation spectrum NMR and MRI to characterize complex water dynamics (e.g., compartmental exchange) in biology and other disciplines have increased in recent years. However, the large amount of data and long MR acquisition times required for conventional 2D MR relaxometry limits its applicability for in vivo preclinical and clinical MRI. We present a new MR pipeline for 2D relaxometry that incorporates compressed sensing (CS) as a means to vastly reduce the amount of 2D relaxation data needed for material and tissue characterization without compromising data quality. Unlike the conventional CS reconstruction in the Fourier space (k-space), the proposed CS algorithm is directly applied onto the Laplace space (the joint 2D relaxation data) without compressing k-space to reduce the amount of data required for 2D relaxation spectra. This framework is validated using synthetic data, with NMR data acquired in a well-characterized urea/water phantom, and on fixed porcine spinal cord tissue. The quality of the CS-reconstructed spectra was comparable to that of the conventional 2D relaxation spectra, as assessed using global correlation, local contrast between peaks, peak amplitude and relaxation parameters, etc. This result brings this important type of contrast closer to being realized in preclinical, clinical, and other applications.

  8. NKG2D receptor and its ligands in host defense

    PubMed Central

    Lanier, Lewis L.

    2015-01-01

    NKG2D is an activating receptor expressed on the surface of natural killer (NK) cells, CD8+ T cells, and subsets of CD4+ T cells, iNKT cells, and γδ T cells. In humans NKG2D transmits signals by its association with the DAP10 adapter subunit and in mice alternatively spliced isoforms transmit signals either using DAP10 or DAP12 adapter subunits. Although NKG2D is encoded by a highly conserved gene (KLRK1) with limited polymorphism, the receptor recognizes an extensive repertoire of ligands, encoded by at least 8 genes in humans (MICA, MICB, RAET1E, RAET1G, RAET1H, RAET1I, RAET1L, and RAET1N), some with extensive allelic polymorphism. Expression of the NKG2D ligands is tightly regulated at the level of transcription, translation, and post-translation. In general healthy adult tissues do not express NKG2D glycoproteins on the cell surface, but these ligands can be induced by hyper-proliferation and transformation, as well as when cells are infected by pathogens. Thus, the NKG2D pathway serves a mechanism for the immune system to detect and eliminate cells that have undergone “stress”. Viruses and tumor cells have devised numerous strategies to evade detection by the NKG2D surveillance system and diversification of the NKG2D ligand genes likely has been driven by selective pressures imposed by pathogens. NKG2D provides an attractive target for therapeutics in the treatment of infectious diseases, cancer, and autoimmune diseases. PMID:26041808

  9. Recent advances in 2D materials for photocatalysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Luo, Bin; Liu, Gang; Wang, Lianzhou

    2016-03-01

    Two-dimensional (2D) materials have attracted increasing attention for photocatalytic applications because of their unique thickness dependent physical and chemical properties. This review gives a brief overview of the recent developments concerning the chemical synthesis and structural design of 2D materials at the nanoscale and their applications in photocatalytic areas. In particular, recent progress on the emerging strategies for tailoring 2D material-based photocatalysts to improve their photo-activity including elemental doping, heterostructure design and functional architecture assembly is discussed.

  10. Comparison of 2D and 3D gamma analyses

    SciTech Connect

    Pulliam, Kiley B.; Huang, Jessie Y.; Howell, Rebecca M.; Followill, David; Kry, Stephen F.; Bosca, Ryan; O’Daniel, Jennifer

    2014-02-15

    Purpose: As clinics begin to use 3D metrics for intensity-modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) quality assurance, it must be noted that these metrics will often produce results different from those produced by their 2D counterparts. 3D and 2D gamma analyses would be expected to produce different values, in part because of the different search space available. In the present investigation, the authors compared the results of 2D and 3D gamma analysis (where both datasets were generated in the same manner) for clinical treatment plans. Methods: Fifty IMRT plans were selected from the authors’ clinical database, and recalculated using Monte Carlo. Treatment planning system-calculated (“evaluated dose distributions”) and Monte Carlo-recalculated (“reference dose distributions”) dose distributions were compared using 2D and 3D gamma analysis. This analysis was performed using a variety of dose-difference (5%, 3%, 2%, and 1%) and distance-to-agreement (5, 3, 2, and 1 mm) acceptance criteria, low-dose thresholds (5%, 10%, and 15% of the prescription dose), and data grid sizes (1.0, 1.5, and 3.0 mm). Each comparison was evaluated to determine the average 2D and 3D gamma, lower 95th percentile gamma value, and percentage of pixels passing gamma. Results: The average gamma, lower 95th percentile gamma value, and percentage of passing pixels for each acceptance criterion demonstrated better agreement for 3D than for 2D analysis for every plan comparison. The average difference in the percentage of passing pixels between the 2D and 3D analyses with no low-dose threshold ranged from 0.9% to 2.1%. Similarly, using a low-dose threshold resulted in a difference between the mean 2D and 3D results, ranging from 0.8% to 1.5%. The authors observed no appreciable differences in gamma with changes in the data density (constant difference: 0.8% for 2D vs 3D). Conclusions: The authors found that 3D gamma analysis resulted in up to 2.9% more pixels passing than 2D analysis. It must

  11. Materials for Flexible, Stretchable Electronics: Graphene and 2D Materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Sang Jin; Choi, Kyoungjun; Lee, Bora; Kim, Yuna; Hong, Byung Hee

    2015-07-01

    Recently, 2D materials have been intensively studied as emerging materials for future electronics, including flexible electronics, photonics, and electrochemical energy storage devices. Among representative 2D materials (such as graphene, boron nitride, and transition metal dichalcogenides) that exhibit extraordinary properties, graphene stands out in the flexible electronics field due to its combination of high electron mobility, high thermal conductivity, high specific surface area, high optical transparency, excellent mechanical flexibility, and environmental stability. This review covers the synthesis, transfer, and characterization methods of graphene and 2D materials and graphene's application to flexible devices as well as comparison with other competing materials.

  12. Whole‐exome sequencing defines the mutational landscape of pheochromocytoma and identifies KMT2D as a recurrently mutated gene

    PubMed Central

    Stenman, Adam; Haglund, Felix; Clark, Victoria E.; Brown, Taylor C.; Baranoski, Jacob; Bilguvar, Kaya; Goh, Gerald; Welander, Jenny; Svahn, Fredrika; Rubinstein, Jill C.; Caramuta, Stefano; Yasuno, Katsuhito; Günel, Murat; Bäckdahl, Martin; Gimm, Oliver; Söderkvist, Peter; Prasad, Manju L.; Korah, Reju; Lifton, Richard P.

    2015-01-01

    As subsets of pheochromocytomas (PCCs) lack a defined molecular etiology, we sought to characterize the mutational landscape of PCCs to identify novel gene candidates involved in disease development. A discovery cohort of 15 PCCs wild type for mutations in PCC susceptibility genes underwent whole‐exome sequencing, and an additional 83 PCCs served as a verification cohort for targeted sequencing of candidate mutations. A low rate of nonsilent single nucleotide variants (SNVs) was detected (6.1/sample). Somatic HRAS and EPAS1 mutations were observed in one case each, whereas the remaining 13 cases did not exhibit variants in established PCC genes. SNVs aggregated in apoptosis‐related pathways, and mutations in COSMIC genes not previously reported in PCCs included ZAN, MITF, WDTC1, and CAMTA1. Two somatic mutations and one constitutional variant in the well‐established cancer gene lysine (K)‐specific methyltransferase 2D (KMT2D, MLL2) were discovered in one sample each, prompting KMT2D screening using focused exome‐sequencing in the verification cohort. An additional 11 PCCs displayed KMT2D variants, of which two were recurrent. In total, missense KMT2D variants were found in 14 (11 somatic, two constitutional, one undetermined) of 99 PCCs (14%). Five cases displayed somatic mutations in the functional FYR/SET domains of KMT2D, constituting 36% of all KMT2D‐mutated PCCs. KMT2D expression was upregulated in PCCs compared to normal adrenals, and KMT2D overexpression positively affected cell migration in a PCC cell line. We conclude that KMT2D represents a recurrently mutated gene with potential implication for PCC development. © 2015 The Authors. Genes, Chromosomes & Cancer Published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:26032282

  13. Decomposition in northern Minnesota peatlands

    SciTech Connect

    Farrish, K.W.

    1985-01-01

    Decomposition in peatlands was investigated in northern Minnesota. Four sites, an ombrotrophic raised bog, an ombrotrophic perched bog and two groundwater minerotrophic fens, were studied. Decomposition rates of peat and paper were estimated using mass-loss techniques. Environmental and substrate factors that were most likely to be responsible for limiting decomposition were monitored. Laboratory incubation experiments complemented the field work. Mass-loss over one year in one of the bogs, ranged from 11 percent in the upper 10 cm of hummocks to 1 percent at 60 to 100 cm depth in hollows. Regression analysis of the data for that bog predicted no mass-loss below 87 cm. Decomposition estimates on an area basis were 2720 and 6460 km/ha yr for the two bogs; 17,000 and 5900 kg/ha yr for the two fens. Environmental factors found to limit decomposition in these peatlands were reducing/anaerobic conditions below the water table and cool peat temperatures. Substrate factors found to limit decomposition were low pH, high content of resistant organics such as lignin, and shortages of available N and K. Greater groundwater influence was found to favor decomposition through raising the pH and perhaps by introducing limited amounts of dissolved oxygen.

  14. Recent developments in 2D layered inorganic nanomaterials for sensing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kannan, Padmanathan Karthick; Late, Dattatray J.; Morgan, Hywel; Rout, Chandra Sekhar

    2015-08-01

    Two dimensional layered inorganic nanomaterials (2D-LINs) have recently attracted huge interest because of their unique thickness dependent physical and chemical properties and potential technological applications. The properties of these layered materials can be tuned via both physical and chemical processes. Some 2D layered inorganic nanomaterials like MoS2, WS2 and SnS2 have been recently developed and employed in various applications, including new sensors because of their layer-dependent electrical properties. This article presents a comprehensive overview of recent developments in the application of 2D layered inorganic nanomaterials as sensors. Some of the salient features of 2D materials for different sensing applications are discussed, including gas sensing, electrochemical sensing, SERS and biosensing, SERS sensing and photodetection. The working principles of the sensors are also discussed together with examples.

  15. 2. D Street facade and rear (east) blank wall of ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    2. D Street facade and rear (east) blank wall of parking garage. Farther east is 408 8th Street (National Art And Frame Company). - PMI Parking Garage, 403-407 Ninth Street, Northwest, Washington, District of Columbia, DC

  16. Collective excitations in 2D hard-disc fluid.

    PubMed

    Huerta, Adrian; Bryk, Taras; Trokhymchuk, Andrij

    2015-07-01

    Collective dynamics of a two-dimensional (2D) hard-disc fluid was studied by molecular dynamics simulations in the range of packing fractions that covers states up to the freezing. Some striking features concerning collective excitations in this system were observed. In particular, the short-wavelength shear waves while being absent at low packing fractions were observed in the range of high packing fractions, just before the freezing transition in a 2D hard-disc fluid. In contrast, the so-called "positive sound dispersion" typically observed in dense Lennard-Jones-like fluids, was not detected for the 2D hard-disc fluid. The ratio of specific heats in the 2D hard-disc fluid shows a monotonic increase with density approaching the freezing, resembling in this way the similar behavior in the vicinity of the Widom line in the case of supercritical fluids. PMID:25595625

  17. Technical Review of the UNET2D Hydraulic Model

    SciTech Connect

    Perkins, William A.; Richmond, Marshall C.

    2009-05-18

    The Kansas City District of the US Army Corps of Engineers is engaged in a broad range of river management projects that require knowledge of spatially-varied hydraulic conditions such as velocities and water surface elevations. This information is needed to design new structures, improve existing operations, and assess aquatic habitat. Two-dimensional (2D) depth-averaged numerical hydraulic models are a common tool that can be used to provide velocity and depth information. Kansas City District is currently using a specific 2D model, UNET2D, that has been developed to meet the needs of their river engineering applications. This report documents a tech- nical review of UNET2D.

  18. From weakly to strongly interacting 2D Fermi gases

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dyke, Paul; Fenech, Kristian; Lingham, Marcus; Peppler, Tyson; Hoinka, Sascha; Vale, Chris

    2014-05-01

    We study ultracold 2D Fermi gases of 6Li formed in a highly oblate trapping potential. The potential is generated by a cylindrically focused, blue detuned TEM01 mode laser beam. Weak magnetic field curvature provides highly harmonic confinement in the radial direction and we can readily produce single clouds with an aspect ratio of 230. Our experiments investigate the dimensional crossover from 3D to 2D for a two component Fermi gas in the Bose-Einstein Condensate to Bardeen Cooper Schrieffer crossover. Observation of an elbow in measurements of the cloud width vs. atom number is consistent with populating only the lowest transverse harmonic oscillator state for weak attractive interactions. This measurement is extended to the strongly interacting region using the broad Feshbach resonance at 832 G. We also report our progress towards measurement of the 2D equation of state for an interacting 2D Fermi gas via in-situ absorption imaging.

  19. Chemical vapour deposition: Transition metal carbides go 2D

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gogotsi, Yury

    2015-11-01

    The unique properties of 2D materials, such as graphene or transition metal dichalcogenides, have been attracting much attention in the past decade. Now, metallically conductive and even superconducting transition metal carbides are entering the game.

  20. Dominant 2D magnetic turbulence in the solar wind

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bieber, John W.; Wanner, Wolfgang; Matthaeus, William H.

    1995-01-01

    There have been recent suggestions that solar wind magnetic turbulence may be a composite of slab geometry (wavevector aligned with the mean magnetic field) and 2D geometry (wavevectors perpendicular to the mean field). We report results of two new tests of this hypothesis using Helios measurements of inertial ranged magnetic spectra in the solar wind. The first test is based upon a characteristic difference between perpendicular and parallel reduced power spectra which is expected for the 2D component but not for the slab component. The second test examines the dependence of power spectrum density upon the magnetic field angle (i.e., the angle between the mean magnetic field and the radial direction), a relationship which is expected to be in opposite directions for the slab and 2D components. Both tests support the presence of a dominant (approximately 85 percent by energy) 2D component in solar wind magnetic turbulence.

  1. Dominant 2D magnetic turbulence in the solar wind

    SciTech Connect

    Bieber, John W.; Wanner, Wolfgang; Matthaeus, William H.

    1996-07-20

    There have been recent suggestions that solar wind magnetic turbulence may be a composite of slab geometry (wavevectors aligned with the mean magnetic field) and 2D geometry (wavevectors perpendicular to the mean field). We report results of two new tests of this hypothesis using Helios measurements of mid-inertial range magnetic spectra in the solar wind. The first test is based upon a characteristic difference between reduced magnetic power spectra in the two different directions perpendicular to the mean field. Such a difference is expected for 2D geometry but not for slab geometry. The second test examines the dependence of power spectrum density upon the magnetic field angle (i.e., the angle between the mean magnetic field and the radial direction), a relationship which is expected to be in opposite directions for the slab and 2D components. Both tests support the presence of a dominant ({approx}85% by energy) 2D component in solar wind magnetic turbulence.

  2. Efficient framework for deformable 2D-3D registration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fluck, Oliver; Aharon, Shmuel; Khamene, Ali

    2008-03-01

    Using 2D-3D registration it is possible to extract the body transformation between the coordinate systems of X-ray and volumetric CT images. Our initial motivation is the improvement of accuracy of external beam radiation therapy, an effective method for treating cancer, where CT data play a central role in radiation treatment planning. Rigid body transformation is used to compute the correct patient setup. The drawback of such approaches is that the rigidity assumption on the imaged object is not valid for most of the patient cases, mainly due to respiratory motion. In the present work, we address this limitation by proposing a flexible framework for deformable 2D-3D registration consisting of a learning phase incorporating 4D CT data sets and hardware accelerated free form DRR generation, 2D motion computation, and 2D-3D back projection.

  3. Computational Design of 2D materials for Energy Applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sun, Qiang

    2015-03-01

    Since the successful synthesis of graphene, tremendous efforts have been devoted to two-dimensional monolayers such as boron nitride (BN), silicene and MoS2. These 2D materials exhibit a large variety of physical and chemical properties with unprecedented applications. Here we report our recent studies of computational design of 2D materials for fuel cell applications which include hydrogen storage, CO2 capture, CO conversion and O2 reduction.

  4. Generating a 2D Representation of a Complex Data Structure

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    James, Mark

    2006-01-01

    A computer program, designed to assist in the development and debugging of other software, generates a two-dimensional (2D) representation of a possibly complex n-dimensional (where n is an integer >2) data structure or abstract rank-n object in that other software. The nature of the 2D representation is such that it can be displayed on a non-graphical output device and distributed by non-graphical means.

  5. Phylogenetic tree construction based on 2D graphical representation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liao, Bo; Shan, Xinzhou; Zhu, Wen; Li, Renfa

    2006-04-01

    A new approach based on the two-dimensional (2D) graphical representation of the whole genome sequence [Bo Liao, Chem. Phys. Lett., 401(2005) 196.] is proposed to analyze the phylogenetic relationships of genomes. The evolutionary distances are obtained through measuring the differences among the 2D curves. The fuzzy theory is used to construct phylogenetic tree. The phylogenetic relationships of H5N1 avian influenza virus illustrate the utility of our approach.

  6. In situ fluid typing and quantification with 1D and 2D NMR logging.

    PubMed

    Sun, Boqin

    2007-05-01

    In situ nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) fluid typing has recently gained momentum due to data acquisition and inversion algorithm enhancement of NMR logging tools. T(2) distributions derived from NMR logging contain information on bulk fluids and pore size distributions. However, the accuracy of fluid typing is greatly overshadowed by the overlap between T(2) peaks arising from different fluids with similar apparent T(2) relaxation times. Nevertheless, the shapes of T(2) distributions from different fluid components are often different and can be predetermined. Inversion with predetermined T(2) distributions allows us to perform fluid component decomposition to yield individual fluid volume ratios. Another effective method for in situ fluid typing is two-dimensional (2D) NMR logging, which results in proton population distribution as a function of T(2) relaxation time and fluid diffusion coefficient (or T(1) relaxation time). Since diffusion coefficients (or T(1) relaxation time) for different fluid components can be very different, it is relatively easy to separate oil (especially heavy oil) from water signal in a 2D NMR map and to perform accurate fluid typing. Combining NMR logging with resistivity and/or neutron/density logs provides a third method for in situ fluid typing. We shall describe these techniques with field examples. PMID:17466778

  7. Full-waveform inversion in 2D VTI media

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kamath, Nishant

    Full-waveform inversion (FWI) is a technique designed to produce a high-resolution model of the subsurface by using information contained in entire seismic waveforms. This thesis presents a methodology for FWI in elastic VTI (transversely isotropic with a vertical axis of symmetry) media and discusses synthetic results for heterogeneous VTI models. First, I develop FWI for multicomponent data from a horizontally layered VTI model. The reflectivity method, which permits computation of only PP reflections or a combination of PP and PSV events, is employed to model the data. The Gauss-Newton technique is used to invert for the interval Thomsen parameters, while keeping the densities fixed at the correct values. Eigenvalue/eigenvector decompostion of the Hessian matrix helps analyze the sensitivity of the objective function to the model parameters. Whereas PP data alone are generally sufficient to constrain all four Thomsen parameters even for conventional spreads, including PS reflections provides better constraints, especially for the deeper part of the model. Next, I derive the gradients of the FWI objective function with respect to the stiffness coefficients of arbitrarily anisotropic media by employing the adjoint-state method. From these expressions, it is straightforward to compute the gradients for parameters of 2D heterogeneous VTI media. FWI is implemented in the time domain with the steepest-descent method used to iteratively update the model. The algorithm is tested on transmitted multicomponent data generated for Gaussian anomalies in Thomsen parameters embedded in homogeneous VTI media. To test the sensitivity of the objective function to different model parameters, I derive an an- alytic expression for the Frechet kernel of FWI for arbitrary anisotropic symmetry by using the Born approximation and asymptotic Green's functions. The amplitude of the kernel, which represents the radiation pattern of a secondary source (that source describes a perturbation

  8. Optical properties of GaAs 2D hexagonal and cubic photonic crystal

    SciTech Connect

    Arab, F. Assali, A.; Grain, R.; Kanouni, F.

    2015-03-30

    In this paper we present our theoretical study of 2D hexagonal and cubic rods GaAs in air, with plan wave expansion (PWE) and finite difference time domain (FDTD) by using BandSOLVE and FullWAVE of Rsoft photonic CAD package. In order to investigate the effect of symmetry and radius, we performed calculations of the band structures for both TM and TE polarization, contour and electromagnetic propagation and transmission spectra. Our calculations show that the hexagonal structure gives a largest band gaps compare to cubic one for a same filling factor.

  9. Nonlinear soil-structure interaction calculations simulating the SIMQUAKE experiment using STEALTH 2D

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tang, H. T.; Hofmann, R.; Yee, G.; Vaughan, D. K.

    1980-01-01

    Transient, nonlinear soil-structure interaction simulations of an Electric Power Research Institute, SIMQUAKE experiment were performed using the large strain, time domain STEALTH 2D code and a cyclic, kinematically hardening cap soil model. Results from the STEALTH simulations were compared to identical simulations performed with the TRANAL code and indicate relatively good agreement between all the STEALTH and TRANAL calculations. The differences that are seen can probably be attributed to: (1) large (STEALTH) vs. small (TRANAL) strain formulation and/or (2) grid discretization differences.

  10. Image denoising with 2D scale-mixing complex wavelet transforms.

    PubMed

    Remenyi, Norbert; Nicolis, Orietta; Nason, Guy; Vidakovic, Brani

    2014-12-01

    This paper introduces an image denoising procedure based on a 2D scale-mixing complex-valued wavelet transform. Both the minimal (unitary) and redundant (maximum overlap) versions of the transform are used. The covariance structure of white noise in wavelet domain is established. Estimation is performed via empirical Bayesian techniques, including versions that preserve the phase of the complex-valued wavelet coefficients and those that do not. The new procedure exhibits excellent quantitative and visual performance, which is demonstrated by simulation on standard test images. PMID:25312931

  11. Dispersion properties of a 2D magnetized plasma metallic photonic crystal

    SciTech Connect

    Fu, T.; Yang, Z.; Shi, Z.; Lan, F.; Li, D.; Gao, X.

    2013-02-15

    This is a study on a 2D magnetized plasma-filled metal photonic crystal (PMPC). We analyze the dispersion relation of the magnetized PMPC by using the finite-difference time-domain method. Results show a cutoff frequency for the PMPC, and two flat bands and new forbidden band gaps appear due to the external magnetic field. Adjusting the external magnetic field can control the positions of the flat bands, cutoff frequency, and location and width of the local gap. These results provide theoretical basis for designing tunable photonic crystal devices.

  12. Structural optimization by multilevel decomposition

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sobieszczanski-Sobieski, J.; James, B.; Dovi, A.

    1983-01-01

    A method is described for decomposing an optimization problem into a set of subproblems and a coordination problem which preserves coupling between the subproblems. The method is introduced as a special case of multilevel, multidisciplinary system optimization and its algorithm is fully described for two level optimization for structures assembled of finite elements of arbitrary type. Numerical results are given for an example of a framework to show that the decomposition method converges and yields results comparable to those obtained without decomposition. It is pointed out that optimization by decomposition should reduce the design time by allowing groups of engineers, using different computers to work concurrently on the same large problem.

  13. Perfluoropolyalkylether decomposition on catalytic aluminas

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Morales, Wilfredo

    1994-01-01

    The decomposition of Fomblin Z25, a commercial perfluoropolyalkylether liquid lubricant, was studied using the Penn State Micro-oxidation Test, and a thermal gravimetric/differential scanning calorimetry unit. The micro-oxidation test was conducted using 440C stainless steel and pure iron metal catalyst specimens, whereas the thermal gravimetric/differential scanning calorimetry tests were conducted using catalytic alumina pellets. Analysis of the thermal data, high pressure liquid chromatography data, and x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy data support evidence that there are two different decomposition mechanisms for Fomblin Z25, and that reductive sites on the catalytic surfaces are responsible for the decomposition of Fomblin Z25.

  14. Autonomous Gaussian Decomposition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lindner, Robert R.; Vera-Ciro, Carlos; Murray, Claire E.; Stanimirović, Snežana; Babler, Brian; Heiles, Carl; Hennebelle, Patrick; Goss, W. M.; Dickey, John

    2015-04-01

    We present a new algorithm, named Autonomous Gaussian Decomposition (AGD), for automatically decomposing spectra into Gaussian components. AGD uses derivative spectroscopy and machine learning to provide optimized guesses for the number of Gaussian components in the data, and also their locations, widths, and amplitudes. We test AGD and find that it produces results comparable to human-derived solutions on 21 cm absorption spectra from the 21 cm SPectral line Observations of Neutral Gas with the EVLA (21-SPONGE) survey. We use AGD with Monte Carlo methods to derive the H i line completeness as a function of peak optical depth and velocity width for the 21-SPONGE data, and also show that the results of AGD are stable against varying observational noise intensity. The autonomy and computational efficiency of the method over traditional manual Gaussian fits allow for truly unbiased comparisons between observations and simulations, and for the ability to scale up and interpret the very large data volumes from the upcoming Square Kilometer Array and pathfinder telescopes.

  15. Simulating MEMS Chevron Actuator for Strain Engineering 2D Materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vutukuru, Mounika; Christopher, Jason; Bishop, David; Swan, Anna

    2D materials pose an exciting paradigm shift in the world of electronics. These crystalline materials have demonstrated high electric and thermal conductivities and tensile strength, showing great potential as the new building blocks of basic electronic circuits. However, strain engineering 2D materials for novel devices remains a difficult experimental feat. We propose the integration of 2D materials with MEMS devices to investigate the strain dependence on material properties such as electrical and thermal conductivity, refractive index, mechanical elasticity, and band gap. MEMS Chevron actuators, provides the most accessible framework to study strain in 2D materials due to their high output force displacements for low input power. Here, we simulate Chevron actuators on COMSOL to optimize actuator design parameters and accurately capture the behavior of the devices while under the external force of a 2D material. Through stationary state analysis, we analyze the response of the device through IV characteristics, displacement and temperature curves. We conclude that the simulation precisely models the real-world device through experimental confirmation, proving that the integration of 2D materials with MEMS is a viable option for constructing novel strain engineered devices. The authors acknowledge support from NSF DMR1411008.

  16. Fast parallel implementation of multidimensional data-domain FORTRAN codes on distributed-memory processor arrays

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reale, F.; Barbera, M.; Sciortino, S.

    1992-11-01

    We illustrate a general and straightforward approach to develop FORTRAN parallel two-dimensional data-domain applications on distributed-memory systems, such as those based on transputers. We have aimed at achieving flexibility for different processor topologies and processor numbers, non-homogeneous processor configurations and coarse load-balancing. We have assumed a master-slave architecture as basic programming model in the framework of a domain decomposition approach. After developing a library of high-level general network and communication routines, based on low-level system-dependent libraries, we have used it to parallelize some specific applications: an elementary 2-D code, useful as a pattern and guide for other more complex applications, and a 2-D hydrodynamic code for astrophysical studies. Code parallelization is achieved by splitting the original code into two independent codes, one for the master and the other for the slaves, and then by adding coordinated calls to network setting and message-passing routines into the programs. The parallel applications have been implemented on a Meiko Computing Surface hosted by a SUN 4 workstation and running CSTools software package. After the basic network and communication routines were developed, the task of parallelizing the 2-D hydrodynamic code took approximately 12 man hours. The parallel efficiency of the code ranges between 98% and 58% on arrays between 2 and 20 T800 transputers, on a relatively small computational mesh (≈3000 cells). Arrays consisting of a limited number of faster Intel i860 processors achieve a high parallel efficiency on large computational grids (> 10000 grid points) with performances in the class of minisupercomputers.

  17. A time domain technique for mechanism extraction

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dominek, Allen K.; Peters, Leon, Jr.; Burnside, Walter D.

    1987-01-01

    The properties of scattered fields from a structure can be better evaluated from the characteristics of the individual scatterers. Decomposition techniques can be classified either as a matrix or an integral formulation. With either formulation, aspect pattern of frequency information of a scattering center can be obtained. Emphasis is placed on an integral (time domain) isolation extraction technique to obtain the frequency characteristics of scattering mechanisms. This technique has its origins in the time domain interpretation of scattered fields.

  18. A 2-D Interface Element for Coupled Analysis of Independently Modeled 3-D Finite Element Subdomains

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kandil, Osama A.

    1998-01-01

    Over the past few years, the development of the interface technology has provided an analysis framework for embedding detailed finite element models within finite element models which are less refined. This development has enabled the use of cascading substructure domains without the constraint of coincident nodes along substructure boundaries. The approach used for the interface element is based on an alternate variational principle often used in deriving hybrid finite elements. The resulting system of equations exhibits a high degree of sparsity but gives rise to a non-positive definite system which causes difficulties with many of the equation solvers in general-purpose finite element codes. Hence the global system of equations is generally solved using, a decomposition procedure with pivoting. The research reported to-date for the interface element includes the one-dimensional line interface element and two-dimensional surface interface element. Several large-scale simulations, including geometrically nonlinear problems, have been reported using the one-dimensional interface element technology; however, only limited applications are available for the surface interface element. In the applications reported to-date, the geometry of the interfaced domains exactly match each other even though the spatial discretization within each domain may be different. As such, the spatial modeling of each domain, the interface elements and the assembled system is still laborious. The present research is focused on developing a rapid modeling procedure based on a parametric interface representation of independently defined subdomains which are also independently discretized.

  19. Delivery of human NKG2D-IL-15 fusion gene by chitosan nanoparticles to enhance antitumor immunity

    SciTech Connect

    Yan, Chen; Jie, Leng; Yongqi, Wang; Weiming, Xiao; Juqun, Xi; Yanbing, Ding; Li, Qian; Xingyuan, Pan; Mingchun, Ji; Weijuan, Gong

    2015-07-31

    Nanoparticles are becoming promising carriers for gene delivery because of their high capacity in gene loading and low cell cytotoxicity. In this study, a chitosan-based nanoparticle encapsulated within a recombinant pcDNA3.1-dsNKG2D-IL-15 plasmid was generated. The fused dsNKG2D-IL-15 gene fragment consisted of double extracellular domains of NKG2D with IL-15 gene at downstream. The average diameter of the gene nanoparticles ranged from 200 nm to 400 nm, with mean zeta potential value of 53.8 ± 6.56 mV. The nanoparticles which were loaded with the dsNKG2D-IL-15 gene were uptaken by tumor cells with low cytotoxicity. Tumor cells pre-transfected by gene nanopartilces stimulated NK and T cells in vitro. Intramuscular injection of gene nanoparticles suppressed tumor growth and prolonged survival of tumor-bearing mice through activation of NK and CD8{sup +} T cells. Thus, chitosan-based nanoparticle delivery of dsNKG2D-IL-15 gene vaccine can be potentially used for tumor therapy. - Highlights: • Generation of a nanoparticle for delivery of dsNKG2D-IL-15 gene. • Characterization of the gene nanoparticle. • Antitumor activity mediated by the gene nanoparticle.

  20. VizieR Online Data Catalog: galaxies 2D phot. decompositions in SDSS-DR7 (Meert+, 2015)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meert, A.; Vikram, V.; Bernardi, M.

    2015-07-01

    The data used in this analysis were drawn from the spectroscopic sample of the Legacy area1 of the Sloan Digital Sky Survey Data Release 7 (DR7; Abazajian et al. 2009ApJS..182..543A). The spectroscopic sample provides a well-established sample with well-defined and tested selection criteria. The criteria are presented in Strauss et al. (2002AJ....124.1810S). (11 data files).

  1. Embedding color watermarks in color images based on Schur decomposition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Su, Qingtang; Niu, Yugang; Liu, Xianxi; Zhu, Yu

    2012-04-01

    In this paper, a blind dual color image watermarking scheme based on Schur decomposition is introduced. This is the first time to use Schur decomposition to embed color image watermark in color host image, which is different from using the binary image as watermark. By analyzing the 4 × 4 unitary matrix U via Schur decomposition, we can find that there is a strong correlation between the second row first column element and the third row first column element. This property can be explored for embedding watermark and extracting watermark in the blind manner. Since Schur decomposition is an intermediate step in SVD decomposition, the proposed method requires less number of computations. Experimental results show that the proposed scheme is robust against most common attacks including JPEG lossy compression, JPEG 2000 compression, low-pass filtering, cropping, noise addition, blurring, rotation, scaling and sharpening et al. Moreover, the proposed algorithm outperforms the closely related SVD-based algorithm and the spatial-domain algorithm.

  2. Lignocellulose decomposition by microbial secretions

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Carbon storage in terrestrial ecosystems is contingent upon the natural resistance of plant cell wall polymers to rapid biological degradation. Nevertheless, certain microorganisms have evolved remarkable means to overcome this natural resistance. Lignocellulose decomposition by microorganisms com...

  3. Investigation on the conformations of AOT in water-in-oil microemulsions using 2D-ATR-FTIR correlation spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lai, Zuliang; Wu, Peiyi

    2008-07-01

    The carbonyl groups of sodium bis(2-ethylhexyl) sulfosuccinate (AOT) in the water-in-oil (W/O) microemulsions of AOT/tetrachloromethane/water were investigated by using two-dimensional attenuated total reflection Fourier transform infrared (2D-ATR-FTIR) correlation spectroscopy under a perturbation of temperature. The results of a traditional curve fitting method were compared with the 2D correlation spectra results. The peaks at 1718 and 1736 cm -1 were assigned to different carbonyl groups in trans conformation and gauche conformation of AOT molecules, respectively. With the increase of temperature, the trans conformation increased quickly at the lower temperature below 35 °C and decreased slowly at the higher temperature. The special phenomenon owed to the composition and decomposition of the hydrogen bonding between water of the inner polar core and carbonyl groups of AOT molecules. Two new peaks at 1707 and 1747 cm -1 in the 2D correlation spectra implied the process of the transition of AOT molecule conformation and the deviation of correlation coefficients of curve fitting method. 2D-ATR-FTIR correlation spectroscopy exhibited the superiority over the traditional curve fitting method.

  4. Numerical method of crack analysis in 2D finite magnetoelectroelastic media

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, Minghao; Xu, Guangtao; Fan, Cuiying

    2010-04-01

    The present paper extends the hybrid extended displacement discontinuity fundamental solution method (HEDD-FSM) (Eng Anal Bound Elem 33:592-600, 2009) to analysis of cracks in 2D finite magnetoelectroelastic media. The solution of the crack is expressed approximately by a linear combination of fundamental solutions of the governing equations, which includes the extended point force fundamental solutions with sources placed at chosen points outside the domain of the problem under consideration, and the extended Crouch fundamental solutions with extended displacement discontinuities placed on the crack. The coefficients of the fundamental solutions are determined by letting the approximated solution satisfy the prescribed boundary conditions on the boundary of the domain and on the crack face. The Crouch fundamental solution for a parabolic element at the crack tip is derived to model the square root variations of near tip fields. The extended stress intensity factors are calculated under different electric and magnetic boundary conditions.

  5. Optimization by nonhierarchical asynchronous decomposition

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shankar, Jayashree; Ribbens, Calvin J.; Haftka, Raphael T.; Watson, Layne T.

    1992-01-01

    Large scale optimization problems are tractable only if they are somehow decomposed. Hierarchical decompositions are inappropriate for some types of problems and do not parallelize well. Sobieszczanski-Sobieski has proposed a nonhierarchical decomposition strategy for nonlinear constrained optimization that is naturally parallel. Despite some successes on engineering problems, the algorithm as originally proposed fails on simple two dimensional quadratic programs. The algorithm is carefully analyzed for quadratic programs, and a number of modifications are suggested to improve its robustness.

  6. Nontraditional tensor decompositions and applications.

    SciTech Connect

    Bader, Brett William

    2010-07-01

    This presentation will discuss two tensor decompositions that are not as well known as PARAFAC (parallel factors) and Tucker, but have proven useful in informatics applications. Three-way DEDICOM (decomposition into directional components) is an algebraic model for the analysis of 3-way arrays with nonsymmetric slices. PARAFAC2 is a related model that is less constrained than PARAFAC and allows for different objects in one mode. Applications of both models to informatics problems will be shown.

  7. Decomposition of indwelling EMG signals

    PubMed Central

    Nawab, S. Hamid; Wotiz, Robert P.; De Luca, Carlo J.

    2008-01-01

    Decomposition of indwelling electromyographic (EMG) signals is challenging in view of the complex and often unpredictable behaviors and interactions of the action potential trains of different motor units that constitute the indwelling EMG signal. These phenomena create a myriad of problem situations that a decomposition technique needs to address to attain completeness and accuracy levels required for various scientific and clinical applications. Starting with the maximum a posteriori probability classifier adapted from the original precision decomposition system (PD I) of LeFever and De Luca (25, 26), an artificial intelligence approach has been used to develop a multiclassifier system (PD II) for addressing some of the experimentally identified problem situations. On a database of indwelling EMG signals reflecting such conditions, the fully automatic PD II system is found to achieve a decomposition accuracy of 86.0% despite the fact that its results include low-amplitude action potential trains that are not decomposable at all via systems such as PD I. Accuracy was established by comparing the decompositions of indwelling EMG signals obtained from two sensors. At the end of the automatic PD II decomposition procedure, the accuracy may be enhanced to nearly 100% via an interactive editor, a particularly significant fact for the previously indecomposable trains. PMID:18483170

  8. Colloid-in-Liquid Crystal Gels Formed via Spinodal Decomposition

    PubMed Central

    Pal, Santanu Kumar; de Pablo, Juan J.

    2014-01-01

    We report that colloid-in-liquid crystal (CLC) gels can be formed via a two-step process that involves spinodal decomposition of a dispersion of colloidal particles in an isotropic phase of mesogens followed by nucleation of nematic domains within the colloidal network defined by the spinodal process. This pathway contrasts to previously reported routes leading to the formation of CLC gels, which have involved entanglement of defects or exclusion of particles from growing nematic domains. The new route provides the basis of simple design rules that enable control of the microstructure and dynamic mechanical properties of the gels. PMID:24651134

  9. Validation of a 2-D semi-coupled numerical model for fluid-structure-seabed interaction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ye, Jianhong; Jeng, Dongsheng; Wang, Ren; Zhu, Changqi

    2013-10-01

    A 2-D semi-coupled model PORO-WSSI 2D (also be referred as FSSI-CAS 2D) for the Fluid-Structure-Seabed Interaction (FSSI) has been developed by employing RANS equations for wave motion in fluid domain, VARANS equations for porous flow in porous structures; and taking the dynamic Biot's equations (known as "u - p" approximation) for soil as the governing equations. The finite difference two-step projection method and the forward time difference method are adopted to solve the RANS, VARANS equations; and the finite element method is adopted to solve the "u - p" approximation. A data exchange port is developed to couple the RANS, VARANS equations and the dynamic Biot's equations together. The analytical solution proposed by Hsu and Jeng (1994) and some experiments conducted in wave flume or geotechnical centrifuge in which various waves involved are used to validate the developed semi-coupled numerical model. The sandy bed involved in these experiments is poro-elastic or poro-elastoplastic. The inclusion of the interaction between fluid, marine structures and poro-elastoplastic seabed foundation is a special point and highlight in this paper, which is essentially different with other previous coupled models The excellent agreement between the numerical results and the experiment data indicates that the developed coupled model is highly reliablefor the FSSI problem.

  10. Digital Transfer Growth of Patterned 2D Metal Chalcogenides by Confined Nanoparticle Evaporation

    SciTech Connect

    Mahjouri-Samani, Masoud; Tian, Mengkun; Wang, Kai; Boulesbaa, Abdelaziz; Rouleau, Christopher M.; Puretzky, Alexander A.; McGuire, Michael A.; Srijanto, Bernadeta R.; Xiao, Kai; Eres, Gyula; Duscher, Gerd; Geohegan, David B.

    2014-10-19

    Developing methods for the facile synthesis of two-dimensional (2D) metal chalcogenides and other layered materials is crucial for emerging applications in functional devices. Controlling the stoichiometry, number of the layers, crystallite size, growth location, and areal uniformity is challenging in conventional vapor phase synthesis. Here, we demonstrate a new route to control these parameters in the growth of metal chalcogenide (GaSe) and dichalcogenide (MoSe2) 2D crystals by precisely defining the mass and location of the source materials in a confined transfer growth system. A uniform and precise amount of stoichiometric nanoparticles are first synthesized and deposited onto a substrate by pulsed laser deposition (PLD) at room temperature. This source substrate is then covered with a receiver substrate to form a confined vapor transport growth (VTG) system. By simply heating the source substrate in an inert background gas, a natural temperature gradient is formed that evaporates the confined nanoparticles to grow large, crystalline 2D nanosheets on the cooler receiver substrate, the temperature of which is controlled by the background gas pressure. Large monolayer crystalline domains (~ 100 m lateral sizes) of GaSe and MoSe2 are demonstrated, as well as continuous monolayer films through the deposition of additional precursor materials. This novel PLD-VTG synthesis and processing method offers a unique approach for the controlled growth of large-area, metal chalcogenides with a controlled number of layers in patterned growth locations for optoelectronics and energy related applications.

  11. 2D nanostructures for water purification: graphene and beyond.

    PubMed

    Dervin, Saoirse; Dionysiou, Dionysios D; Pillai, Suresh C

    2016-08-18

    Owing to their atomically thin structure, large surface area and mechanical strength, 2D nanoporous materials are considered to be suitable alternatives for existing desalination and water purification membrane materials. Recent progress in the development of nanoporous graphene based materials has generated enormous potential for water purification technologies. Progress in the development of nanoporous graphene and graphene oxide (GO) membranes, the mechanism of graphene molecular sieve action, structural design, hydrophilic nature, mechanical strength and antifouling properties and the principal challenges associated with nanopore generation are discussed in detail. Subsequently, the recent applications and performance of newly developed 2D materials such as 2D boron nitride (BN) nanosheets, graphyne, molybdenum disulfide (MoS2), tungsten chalcogenides (WS2) and titanium carbide (Ti3C2Tx) are highlighted. In addition, the challenges affecting 2D nanostructures for water purification are highlighted and their applications in the water purification industry are discussed. Though only a few 2D materials have been explored so far for water treatment applications, this emerging field of research is set to attract a great deal of attention in the near future. PMID:27506268

  12. Phosphorene: A New High-Mobility 2D Semiconductor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Han; Neal, Adam; Zhu, Zhen; Tomanek, David; Ye, Peide

    2014-03-01

    The rise of 2D crystals has opened various possibilities for future electrical and optical applications. MoS2 n-type transistors are showing great potential in ultra-scaled and low-power electronics. Here, we introduce phosphorene, a name we coined for 2D few-layer black phosphorus, a new 2D material with layered structure. We perform ab initio band structure calculations and show that the fundamental band gap depends sensitively on the number of layers. We observe transport behavior, which shows a mobility variation in the 2D plane. High on-current of 194 mA/mm, high hole mobility up to 286 cm2/V .s and on/off ratio up to 104 was achieved with phosphorene transistors at room temperature. Schottky barrier height at the metal/phosphorene interface was also measured as a function of temperature. We demonstrate a CMOS inverter with combination to MoS2 NMOS transistors, which shows great potential for semiconducting 2D crystals in future electronic, optoelectronic and flexible electronic devices.

  13. Mean flow and anisotropic cascades in decaying 2D turbulence

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Chien-Chia; Cerbus, Rory; Gioia, Gustavo; Chakraborty, Pinaki

    2015-11-01

    Many large-scale atmospheric and oceanic flows are decaying 2D turbulent flows embedded in a non-uniform mean flow. Despite its importance for large-scale weather systems, the affect of non-uniform mean flows on decaying 2D turbulence remains unknown. In the absence of mean flow it is well known that decaying 2D turbulent flows exhibit the enstrophy cascade. More generally, for any 2D turbulent flow, all computational, experimental and field data amassed to date indicate that the spectrum of longitudinal and transverse velocity fluctuations correspond to the same cascade, signifying isotropy of cascades. Here we report experiments on decaying 2D turbulence in soap films with a non-uniform mean flow. We find that the flow transitions from the usual isotropic enstrophy cascade to a series of unusual and, to our knowledge, never before observed or predicted, anisotropic cascades where the longitudinal and transverse spectra are mutually independent. We discuss implications of our results for decaying geophysical turbulence.

  14. Supervised Single-Channel Speech Separation via Sparse Decomposition Using Periodic Signal Models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nakashizuka, Makoto; Okumura, Hiroyuki; Iiguni, Youji

    In this paper, we propose a method for supervised single-channel speech separation through sparse decomposition using periodic signal models. The proposed separation method employs sparse decomposition, which decomposes a signal into a set of periodic signals under a sparsity penalty. In order to achieve separation through sparse decomposition, the decomposed periodic signals have to be assigned to the corresponding sources. For the assignment of the periodic signal, we introduce clustering using a K-means algorithm to group the decomposed periodic signals into as many clusters as the number of speakers. After the clustering, each cluster is assigned to its corresponding speaker using preliminarily learnt codebooks. Through separation experiments, we compare our method with MaxVQ, which performs separation on the frequency spectrum domain. The experimental results in terms of signal-to-distortion ratio show that the proposed sparse decomposition method is comparable to the frequency domain approach and has less computational costs for assignment of speech components.

  15. Asymmetric modes decomposition in an overmoded relativistic backward wave oscillator

    SciTech Connect

    Zhang, Dian; Zhang, Jun Zhong, Huihuang; Jin, Zhenxing; Ju, Jinchuan

    2014-09-15

    Most of the investigated overmoded relativistic backward wave oscillators (RBWOs) are azimuthally symmetric; thus, they are designed through two dimensional (2-D) particle-in-cell (PIC) simulations. However, 2-D PIC simulations cannot reveal the effect of asymmetric modes on beam-wave interaction. In order to investigate whether asymmetric mode competition needs to be considered in the design of overmoded RBWOs, a numerical method of determining the composition of both symmetric and asymmetric modes in three dimensional (3-D) PIC simulations is introduced in this paper. The 2-D and 3-D PIC simulation results of an X-band overmoded RBWO are analyzed. Our analysis indicates that the 2-D and 3-D PIC simulation results of our device are quite different due to asymmetric mode competition. In fact, asymmetric surface waves, especially EH{sub 11} mode, can lead to serious mode competition when electron beam propagates near the surface of slow wave structures (SWSs). Therefore, additional method of suppressing asymmetric mode competition, such as adjusting the reflections at both ends of SWSs to decrease the Q-factor of asymmetric modes, needs to be utilized in the design of overmoded RBWOs. Besides, 3-D PIC simulation and modes decomposition are essential for designing overmoded RBWOs.

  16. 2D materials for photon conversion and nanophotonics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tahersima, Mohammad H.; Sorger, Volker J.

    2015-09-01

    The field of two-dimensional (2D) materials has the potential to enable unique applications across a wide range of the electromagnetic spectrum. While 2D-layered materials hold promise for next-generation photon-conversion intrinsic limitations and challenges exist that shall be overcome. Here we discuss the intrinsic limitations as well as application opportunities of this new class of materials, and is sponsored by the NSF program Designing Materials to Revolutionize and Engineer our Future (DMREF) program, which links to the President's Materials Genome Initiative. We present general material-related details for photon conversion, and show that taking advantage of the mechanical flexibility of 2D materials by rolling MoS2/graphene/hexagonal boron nitride stack to a spiral solar cell allows for solar absorption up to 90%.

  17. Perception-based reversible watermarking for 2D vector maps

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Men, Chaoguang; Cao, Liujuan; Li, Xiang

    2010-07-01

    This paper presents an effective and reversible watermarking approach for digital copyright protection of 2D-vector maps. To ensure that the embedded watermark is insensitive for human perception, we only select the noise non-sensitive regions for watermark embedding by estimating vertex density within each polyline. To ensure the exact recovery of original 2D-vector map after watermark extraction, we introduce a new reversible watermarking scheme based on reversible high-frequency wavelet coefficients modification. Within the former-selected non-sensitive regions, our watermarking operates on the lower-order vertex coordinate decimals with integer wavelet transform. Such operation further reduces the visual distortion caused by watermark embedding. We have validated the effectiveness of our scheme on our real-world city river/building 2D-vector maps. We give extensive experimental comparisons with state-of-the-art methods, including embedding capability, invisibility, and robustness over watermark attacking.

  18. Graphene based 2D-materials for supercapacitors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Palaniselvam, Thangavelu; Baek, Jong-Beom

    2015-09-01

    Ever-increasing energy demands and the depletion of fossil fuels are compelling humanity toward the development of suitable electrochemical energy conversion and storage devices to attain a more sustainable society with adequate renewable energy and zero environmental pollution. In this regard, supercapacitors are being contemplated as potential energy storage devices to afford cleaner, environmentally friendly energy. Recently, a great deal of attention has been paid to two-dimensional (2D) nanomaterials, including 2D graphene and its inorganic analogues (transition metal double layer hydroxides, chalcogenides, etc), as potential electrodes for the development of supercapacitors with high electrochemical performance. This review provides an overview of the recent progress in using these graphene-based 2D materials as potential electrodes for supercapacitors. In addition, future research trends including notable challenges and opportunities are also discussed.

  19. Simultaneous 2D Strain Sensing Using Polymer Planar Bragg Gratings

    PubMed Central

    Rosenberger, Manuel; Eisenbeil, Waltraud; Schmauss, Bernhard; Hellmann, Ralf

    2015-01-01

    We demonstrate the application of polymer planar Bragg gratings for multi-axial strain sensing and particularly highlight simultaneous 2D strain measurement. A polymer planar Bragg grating (PPBG) fabricated with a single writing step in bulk polymethylmethacrylate is used for measuring both tensile and compressive strain at various angles. It is shown that the sensitivity of the PPBG strongly depends on the angle between the optical waveguide into which the grating is inscribed and the direction along which the mechanical load is applied. Additionally, a 2D PPBG fabricated by writing two Bragg gratings angularly displaced from each other into a single polymer platelet is bonded to a stainless steel plate. The two reflected wavelengths exhibit different sensitivities while tested toward tensile and compressive strain. These characteristics make 2D PPBG suitable for measuring multi-axial tensile and compressive strain. PMID:25686313

  20. Simultaneous 2D strain sensing using polymer planar Bragg gratings.

    PubMed

    Rosenberger, Manuel; Eisenbeil, Waltraud; Schmauss, Bernhard; Hellmann, Ralf

    2015-01-01

    We demonstrate the application of polymer planar Bragg gratings for multi-axial strain sensing and particularly highlight simultaneous 2D strain measurement. A polymer planar Bragg grating (PPBG) fabricated with a single writing step in bulk polymethylmethacrylate is used for measuring both tensile and compressive strain at various angles. It is shown that the sensitivity of the PPBG strongly depends on the angle between the optical waveguide into which the grating is inscribed and the direction along which the mechanical load is applied. Additionally, a 2D PPBG fabricated by writing two Bragg gratings angularly displaced from each other into a single polymer platelet is bonded to a stainless steel plate. The two reflected wavelengths exhibit different sensitivities while tested toward tensile and compressive strain. These characteristics make 2D PPBG suitable for measuring multi-axial tensile and compressive strain. PMID:25686313

  1. Focusing surface wave imaging with flexible 2D array

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhou, Shiyuan; Fu, Junqiang; Li, Zhe; Xu, Chunguang; Xiao, Dingguo; Wang, Shaohan

    2016-04-01

    Curved surface is widely exist in key parts of energy and power equipment, such as, turbine blade cylinder block and so on. Cycling loading and harsh working condition of enable fatigue cracks appear on the surface. The crack should be found in time to avoid catastrophic damage to the equipment. A flexible 2D array transducer was developed. 2D Phased Array focusing method (2DPA), Mode-Spatial Double Phased focusing method (MSDPF) and the imaging method using the flexible 2D array probe are studied. Experiments using these focusing and imaging method are carried out. Surface crack image is obtained with both 2DPA and MSDPF focusing method. It have been proved that MSDPF can be more adaptable for curved surface and more calculate efficient than 2DPA.

  2. 2D bifurcations and Newtonian properties of memristive Chua's circuits

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marszalek, W.; Podhaisky, H.

    2016-01-01

    Two interesting properties of Chua's circuits are presented. First, two-parameter bifurcation diagrams of Chua's oscillatory circuits with memristors are presented. To obtain various 2D bifurcation images a substantial numerical effort, possibly with parallel computations, is needed. The numerical algorithm is described first and its numerical code for 2D bifurcation image creation is available for free downloading. Several color 2D images and the corresponding 1D greyscale bifurcation diagrams are included. Secondly, Chua's circuits are linked to Newton's law φ ''= F(t,φ,φ')/m with φ=\\text{flux} , constant m > 0, and the force term F(t,φ,φ') containing memory terms. Finally, the jounce scalar equations for Chua's circuits are also discussed.

  3. Microscale 2D separation systems for proteomic analysis

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Xin; Liu, Ke; Fan, Z. Hugh

    2012-01-01

    Microscale 2D separation systems have been implemented in capillaries and microfabricated channels. They offer advantages of faster analysis, higher separation efficiency and less sample consumption than the conventional methods, such as liquid chromatography (LC) in a column and slab gel electrophoresis. In this article, we review their recent advancement, focusing on three types of platforms, including 2D capillary electrophoresis (CE), CE coupling with capillary LC, and microfluidic devices. A variety of CE and LC modes have been employed to construct 2D separation systems via sophistically designed interfaces. Coupling of different separation modes has also been realized in a number of microfluidic devices. These separation systems have been applied for the proteomic analysis of various biological samples, ranging from a single cell to tumor tissues. PMID:22462786

  4. Real-time 2-D temperature imaging using ultrasound.

    PubMed

    Liu, Dalong; Ebbini, Emad S

    2010-01-01

    We have previously introduced methods for noninvasive estimation of temperature change using diagnostic ultrasound. The basic principle was validated both in vitro and in vivo by several groups worldwide. Some limitations remain, however, that have prevented these methods from being adopted in monitoring and guidance of minimally invasive thermal therapies, e.g., RF ablation and high-intensity-focused ultrasound (HIFU). In this letter, we present first results from a real-time system for 2-D imaging of temperature change using pulse-echo ultrasound. The front end of the system is a commercially available scanner equipped with a research interface, which allows the control of imaging sequence and access to the RF data in real time. A high-frame-rate 2-D RF acquisition mode, M2D, is used to capture the transients of tissue motion/deformations in response to pulsed HIFU. The M2D RF data is streamlined to the back end of the system, where a 2-D temperature imaging algorithm based on speckle tracking is implemented on a graphics processing unit. The real-time images of temperature change are computed on the same spatial and temporal grid of the M2D RF data, i.e., no decimation. Verification of the algorithm was performed by monitoring localized HIFU-induced heating of a tissue-mimicking elastography phantom. These results clearly demonstrate the repeatability and sensitivity of the algorithm. Furthermore, we present in vitro results demonstrating the possible use of this algorithm for imaging changes in tissue parameters due to HIFU-induced lesions. These results clearly demonstrate the value of the real-time data streaming and processing in monitoring, and guidance of minimally invasive thermotherapy. PMID:19884075

  5. Momentum Transport: 2D and 3D Cloud Resolving Model Simulations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tao, Wei-Kuo

    2001-01-01

    The major objective of this study is to investigate the momentum budgets associated with several convective systems that developed during the TOGA COARE IOP (west Pacific warm pool region) and GATE (east Atlantic region). The tool for this study is the improved Goddard Cumulas Ensemble (GCE) model which includes a 3-class ice-phase microphysical scheme, explicit cloud radiative interactive processes and air-sea interactive surface processes. The model domain contains 256 x 256 grid points (with 2 km resolution) in the horizontal and 38 grid points (to a depth of 22 km) in the vertical. The 2D domain has 1024 grid points. The simulations were performed over a 7-day time period (December 19-26, 1992, for TOGA COARE and September 1-7, 1994 for GATE). Cyclic literal boundary conditions are required for this type of long-term integration. Two well organized squall systems (TOGA, COARE February 22, 1993, and GATE September 12, 1994) were also simulated using the 3D GCE model. Only 9 h simulations were required to cover the life time of the squall systems. the lateral boundary conditions were open for these two squall systems simulations. the following will be examined: (1) the momentum budgets in the convective and stratiform regions, (2) the relationship between momentum transport and cloud organization (i.e., well organized squall lines versus less organized convective), (3) the differences and similarities in momentum transport between 2D and 3D simulated convective systems, and (4) the differences and similarities in momentum budgets between cloud systems simulated with open and cyclic lateral boundary conditions. Preliminary results indicate that there are only small differences between 2D and 3D simulated momentum budgets. Major differences occur, however, between momentum budgets associated with squall systems simulated using different lateral boundary conditions.

  6. Design of the LRP airfoil series using 2D CFD

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zahle, Frederik; Bak, Christian; Sørensen, Niels N.; Vronsky, Tomas; Gaudern, Nicholas

    2014-06-01

    This paper describes the design and wind tunnel testing of a high-Reynolds number, high lift airfoil series designed for wind turbines. The airfoils were designed using direct gradient- based numerical multi-point optimization based on a Bezier parameterization of the shape, coupled to the 2D Navier-Stokes flow solver EllipSys2D. The resulting airfoils, the LRP2-30 and LRP2-36, achieve both higher operational lift coefficients and higher lift to drag ratios compared to the equivalent FFA-W3 airfoils.

  7. Quantum process tomography by 2D fluorescence spectroscopy

    SciTech Connect

    Pachón, Leonardo A.; Marcus, Andrew H.; Aspuru-Guzik, Alán

    2015-06-07

    Reconstruction of the dynamics (quantum process tomography) of the single-exciton manifold in energy transfer systems is proposed here on the basis of two-dimensional fluorescence spectroscopy (2D-FS) with phase-modulation. The quantum-process-tomography protocol introduced here benefits from, e.g., the sensitivity enhancement ascribed to 2D-FS. Although the isotropically averaged spectroscopic signals depend on the quantum yield parameter Γ of the doubly excited-exciton manifold, it is shown that the reconstruction of the dynamics is insensitive to this parameter. Applications to foundational and applied problems, as well as further extensions, are discussed.

  8. Evaluation of 2D ceramic matrix composites in aeroconvective environments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Riccitiello, Salvatore R.; Love, Wendell L.; Balter-Peterson, Aliza

    1992-01-01

    An evaluation is conducted of a novel ceramic-matrix composite (CMC) material system for use in the aeroconvective-heating environments encountered by the nose caps and wing leading edges of such aerospace vehicles as the Space Shuttle, during orbit-insertion and reentry from LEO. These CMCs are composed of an SiC matrix that is reinforced with Nicalon, Nextel, or carbon refractory fibers in a 2D architecture. The test program conducted for the 2D CMCs gave attention to their subsurface oxidation.

  9. Radiative heat transfer in 2D Dirac materials

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Rodriguez-López, Pablo; Tse, Wang -Kong; Dalvit, Diego A. R.

    2015-05-12

    We compute the radiative heat transfer between two sheets of 2D Dirac materials, including topological Chern insulators and graphene, within the framework of the local approximation for the optical response of these materials. In this approximation, which neglects spatial dispersion, we derive both numerically and analytically the short-distance asymptotic of the near-field heat transfer in these systems, and show that it scales as the inverse of the distance between the two sheets. In conclusion, we discuss the limitations to the validity of this scaling law imposed by spatial dispersion in 2D Dirac materials.

  10. Nomenclature for human CYP2D6 alleles.

    PubMed

    Daly, A K; Brockmöller, J; Broly, F; Eichelbaum, M; Evans, W E; Gonzalez, F J; Huang, J D; Idle, J R; Ingelman-Sundberg, M; Ishizaki, T; Jacqz-Aigrain, E; Meyer, U A; Nebert, D W; Steen, V M; Wolf, C R; Zanger, U M

    1996-06-01

    To standardize CYP2D6 allele nomenclature, and to conform with international human gene nomenclature guidelines, an alternative to the current arbitrary system is described. Based on recommendations for human genome nomenclature, we propose that alleles be designated by CYP2D6 followed by an asterisk and a combination of roman letters and arabic numerals distinct for each allele with the number specifying the key mutation and, where appropriate, a letter specifying additional mutations. Criteria for classification as a separate allele and protein nomenclature are also presented. PMID:8807658

  11. The 2D large deformation analysis using Daubechies wavelet

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Yanan; Qin, Fei; Liu, Yinghua; Cen, Zhangzhi

    2010-01-01

    In this paper, Daubechies (DB) wavelet is used for solution of 2D large deformation problems. Because the DB wavelet scaling functions are directly used as basis function, no meshes are needed in function approximation. Using the DB wavelet, the solution formulations based on total Lagrangian approach for two-dimensional large deformation problems are established. Due to the lack of Kroneker delta properties in wavelet scaling functions, Lagrange multipliers are used for imposition of boundary condition. Numerical examples of 2D large deformation problems illustrate that this method is effective and stable.

  12. Optical imaging systems analyzed with a 2D template.

    PubMed

    Haim, Harel; Konforti, Naim; Marom, Emanuel

    2012-05-10

    Present determination of optical imaging systems specifications are based on performance values and modulation transfer function results carried with a 1D resolution template (such as the USAF resolution target or spoke templates). Such a template allows determining image quality, resolution limit, and contrast. Nevertheless, the conventional 1D template does not provide satisfactory results, since most optical imaging systems handle 2D objects for which imaging system response may be different by virtue of some not readily observable spatial frequencies. In this paper we derive and analyze contrast transfer function results obtained with 1D as well as 2D templates. PMID:22614498

  13. 2dF grows up: Echidna for the AAT

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McGrath, Andrew; Barden, Sam; Miziarski, Stan; Rambold, William; Smith, Greg

    2008-07-01

    We present the concept design of a new fibre positioner and spectrograph system for the Anglo-Australian Telescope, as a proposed enhancement to the Anglo-Australian Observatory's well-known 2dF facility. A four-fold multiplex enhancement is accomplished by replacing the 400-fibre 2dF fibre positioning robot with a 1600-fibre Echidna unit, feeding three clones of the AAOmega optical spectrograph. Such a facility has the capability of a redshift 1 survey of a large fraction of the southern sky, collecting five to ten thousand spectra per night for a million-galaxy survey.

  14. CH2D+, the Search for the Holy Grail

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roueff, Evelyne; Gerin, Maryvonne; Lis, Dariusz C.; Wootten, Alwyn; Marcelino, Nuria; Cernicharo, Jose; Tercero, Belen

    2013-10-01

    CH2D+, the singly deuterated counterpart of CH3+, offers an alternative way to mediate formation of deuterated species at temperatures of several tens of Kelvin, as compared to the release of deuterated species from grains. We report a longstanding observational search for this molecular ion, whose rotational spectroscopy is not yet completely secure. We summarize the main spectroscopic properties of this molecule and discuss the chemical network leading to the formation of CH2D+, with explicit account of the ortho/para forms of H2, H3+, and CH3+. Astrochemical models support the presence of this molecular ion in moderately warm environments at a marginal level.

  15. EM 2dV1.0.F

    2012-01-05

    Code is for a layered electric medium with 2d structure. Includes air-earth interface at node z=2.. The electric ex and ez fields are calculated on edges of elemental grid and magnetic field hy is calculated on the face of the elemental grid. The code allows for a layered earth with 2d structures. Solutions of coupled first order Maxwell's equations are solved in the two dimensional environment using a finite- difference scheme on a staggered spationamore » and temporal grid.« less

  16. Noninvasive deep Raman detection with 2D correlation analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Hyung Min; Park, Hyo Sun; Cho, Youngho; Jin, Seung Min; Lee, Kang Taek; Jung, Young Mee; Suh, Yung Doug

    2014-07-01

    The detection of poisonous chemicals enclosed in daily necessaries is prerequisite essential for homeland security with the increasing threat of terrorism. For the detection of toxic chemicals, we combined a sensitive deep Raman spectroscopic method with 2D correlation analysis. We obtained the Raman spectra from concealed chemicals employing spatially offset Raman spectroscopy in which incident line-shaped light experiences multiple scatterings before being delivered to inner component and yielding deep Raman signal. Furthermore, we restored the pure Raman spectrum of each component using 2D correlation spectroscopic analysis with chemical inspection. Using this method, we could elucidate subsurface component under thick powder and packed contents in a bottle.

  17. On 2D bisection method for double eigenvalue problems

    SciTech Connect

    Ji, X.

    1996-06-01

    The two-dimensional bisection method presented in (SIAM J. Matrix Anal. Appl. 13(4), 1085 (1992)) is efficient for solving a class of double eigenvalue problems. This paper further extends the 2D bisection method of full matrix cases and analyses its stability. As in a single parameter case, the 2D bisection method is very stable for the tridiagonal matrix triples satisfying the symmetric-definite condition. Since the double eigenvalue problems arise from two-parameter boundary value problems, an estimate of the discretization error in eigenpairs is also given. Some numerical examples are included. 42 refs., 1 tab.

  18. Experimental validation of equations for 2D DIC uncertainty quantification.

    SciTech Connect

    Reu, Phillip L.; Miller, Timothy J.

    2010-03-01

    Uncertainty quantification (UQ) equations have been derived for predicting matching uncertainty in two-dimensional image correlation a priori. These equations include terms that represent the image noise and image contrast. Researchers at the University of South Carolina have extended previous 1D work to calculate matching errors in 2D. These 2D equations have been coded into a Sandia National Laboratories UQ software package to predict the uncertainty for DIC images. This paper presents those equations and the resulting error surfaces for trial speckle images. Comparison of the UQ results with experimentally subpixel-shifted images is also discussed.

  19. 2D molybdenum disulphide (2D-MoS2) modified electrodes explored towards the oxygen reduction reaction.

    PubMed

    Rowley-Neale, Samuel J; Fearn, Jamie M; Brownson, Dale A C; Smith, Graham C; Ji, Xiaobo; Banks, Craig E

    2016-08-21

    Two-dimensional molybdenum disulphide nanosheets (2D-MoS2) have proven to be an effective electrocatalyst, with particular attention being focused on their use towards increasing the efficiency of the reactions associated with hydrogen fuel cells. Whilst the majority of research has focused on the Hydrogen Evolution Reaction (HER), herein we explore the use of 2D-MoS2 as a potential electrocatalyst for the much less researched Oxygen Reduction Reaction (ORR). We stray from literature conventions and perform experiments in 0.1 M H2SO4 acidic electrolyte for the first time, evaluating the electrochemical performance of the ORR with 2D-MoS2 electrically wired/immobilised upon several carbon based electrodes (namely; Boron Doped Diamond (BDD), Edge Plane Pyrolytic Graphite (EPPG), Glassy Carbon (GC) and Screen-Printed Electrodes (SPE)) whilst exploring a range of 2D-MoS2 coverages/masses. Consequently, the findings of this study are highly applicable to real world fuel cell applications. We show that significant improvements in ORR activity can be achieved through the careful selection of the underlying/supporting carbon materials that electrically wire the 2D-MoS2 and utilisation of an optimal mass of 2D-MoS2. The ORR onset is observed to be reduced to ca. +0.10 V for EPPG, GC and SPEs at 2D-MoS2 (1524 ng cm(-2) modification), which is far closer to Pt at +0.46 V compared to bare/unmodified EPPG, GC and SPE counterparts. This report is the first to demonstrate such beneficial electrochemical responses in acidic conditions using a 2D-MoS2 based electrocatalyst material on a carbon-based substrate (SPEs in this case). Investigation of the beneficial reaction mechanism reveals the ORR to occur via a 4 electron process in specific conditions; elsewhere a 2 electron process is observed. This work offers valuable insights for those wishing to design, fabricate and/or electrochemically test 2D-nanosheet materials towards the ORR. PMID:27448174

  20. Alternative Splice Transcripts for MHC Class I-like MICA Encode Novel NKG2D Ligands with Agonist or Antagonist Functions.

    PubMed

    Gavlovsky, Pierre-Jean; Tonnerre, Pierre; Gérard, Nathalie; Nedellec, Steven; Daman, Andrew W; McFarland, Benjamin J; Charreau, Béatrice

    2016-08-01

    MHC class I chain-related proteins A and B (MICA and MICB) and UL16-binding proteins are ligands of the activating NKG2D receptor involved in cancer and immune surveillance of infection. Structurally, MICA/B proteins contain an α3 domain, whereas UL16-binding proteins do not. We identified novel alternative splice transcripts for MICA encoding five novel MICA isoforms: MICA-A, -B1, -B2, -C, and -D. Alternative splicing associates with MICA*015 and *017 and results from a point deletion (G) in the 5' splice donor site of MICA intron 4 leading to exon 3 and exon 4 skipping and/or deletions. These changes delete the α3 domain in all isoforms, and the α2 domain in the majority of isoforms (A, B1, C, and D). Endothelial and hematopoietic cells contained endogenous alternative splice transcripts and isoforms. MICA-B1, -B2, and -D bound NKG2D by surface plasmon resonance and were expressed at the cell surface. Functionally, MICA-B2 contains two extracellular domains (α1 and α2) and is a novel potent agonist ligand for NKG2D. We found that MICA-D is a new truncated form of MICA with weak affinity for NKG2D despite lacking α2 and α3 domains. MICA-D may functionally impair NKG2D activation by competing with full-length MICA or MICA-B2 for NKG2D engagement. Our study established NKG2D binding for recombinant MICA-B1 but found no function for this isoform. New truncated MICA isoforms exhibit a range of functions that may drive unexpected immune mechanisms and provide new tools for immunotherapy. PMID:27342847

  1. A 2D simulation model for urban flood management

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Price, Roland; van der Wielen, Jonathan; Velickov, Slavco; Galvao, Diogo

    2014-05-01

    The European Floods Directive, which came into force on 26 November 2007, requires member states to assess all their water courses and coast lines for risk of flooding, to map flood extents and assets and humans at risk, and to take adequate and coordinated measures to reduce the flood risk in consultation with the public. Flood Risk Management Plans are to be in place by 2015. There are a number of reasons for the promotion of this Directive, not least because there has been much urban and other infrastructural development in flood plains, which puts many at risk of flooding along with vital societal assets. In addition there is growing awareness that the changing climate appears to be inducing more frequent extremes of rainfall with a consequent increases in the frequency of flooding. Thirdly, the growing urban populations in Europe, and especially in the developing countries, means that more people are being put at risk from a greater frequency of urban flooding in particular. There are urgent needs therefore to assess flood risk accurately and consistently, to reduce this risk where it is important to do so or where the benefit is greater than the damage cost, to improve flood forecasting and warning, to provide where necessary (and possible) flood insurance cover, and to involve all stakeholders in decision making affecting flood protection and flood risk management plans. Key data for assessing risk are water levels achieved or forecasted during a flood. Such levels should of course be monitored, but they also need to be predicted, whether for design or simulation. A 2D simulation model (PriceXD) solving the shallow water wave equations is presented specifically for determining flood risk, assessing flood defense schemes and generating flood forecasts and warnings. The simulation model is required to have a number of important properties: -Solve the full shallow water wave equations using a range of possible solutions; -Automatically adjust the time step and

  2. Microphase formation at a 2D solid-gas phase transition.

    PubMed

    Schuman, Adam W; Bsaibes, Thomas S; Schlossman, Mark L

    2014-10-01

    Density modulated micro-separated phases (microphases) occur at 2D liquid interfaces in the form of alternating regions of high and low density domains. Brewster angle microscopy (BAM) images demonstrate the existence of microphases in cluster, stripe, and mosaic morphologies at the buried interface between hexane and water with fluoro-alkanol surfactant dissolved in the bulk hexane. At high temperature, the surfactant assembles at the interface in a 2D gaseous state. As the system is cooled additional surfactants condense onto the interface, which undergoes a 2D gas-solid phase transition. Microphase structure is observed within a few degrees of this transition in the form of clusters and labyrinthine stripes. Microphases have been observed previously in a number of other systems; nevertheless, we demonstrate that adsorption transitions at the liquid-liquid interface provide a convenient way to observe a full sequence of temperature-dependent 2D phases, from gas to cluster to stripe to mosaic to inverted stripe phases, as well as coexistence between some of these microphases. Cracking and fracture of the clusters reveal that they are a solid microphase. Theories of microphases often predict a single length scale for cluster and stripe phases as a result of the competition between an attractive and a repulsive interaction. Our observation that two characteristic length scales are required to describe clusters whose diameter is much larger than the stripe period, combined with the solid nature of the clusters, suggests that a long-range elastic interaction is relevant. These results complement earlier X-ray measurements on the same system. PMID:25088351

  3. 2D Fourier series representation of gravitational functionals in spherical coordinates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ghobadi-Far, Khosro; Sharifi, Mohammad Ali; Sneeuw, Nico

    2016-05-01

    2D Fourier series representation of a scalar field like gravitational potential is conventionally derived by making use of the Fourier series of the Legendre functions in the spherical harmonic representation. This representation has been employed so far only in the case of a scalar field or the functionals that are related to it through a radial derivative. This paper provides a unified scheme to represent any gravitational functional in terms of spherical coordinates using a 2D Fourier series representation. The 2D Fourier series representation for each individual point is derived by transforming the spherical harmonics from the geocentric Earth-fixed frame to a rotated frame so that its equator coincides with the local meridian plane of that point. In the obtained formulation, each functional is linked to the potential in the spectral domain using a spectral transfer. We provide the spectral transfers of the first-, second- and third-order gradients of the gravitational potential in the local north-oriented reference frame and also those of some functionals of frequent use in the physical geodesy. The obtained representation is verified numerically. Moreover, spherical harmonic analysis of anisotropic functionals and contribution analysis of the third-order gradient tensor are provided as two numerical examples to show the power of the formulation. In conclusion, the 2D Fourier series representation on the sphere is generalized to functionals of the potential. In addition, the set of the spectral transfers can be considered as a pocket guide that provides the spectral characteristics of the functionals. Therefore, it extends the so-called Meissl scheme.

  4. Ligand-specific Deactivation Time Course of GluN1/GluN2D NMDA Receptors

    SciTech Connect

    K Vance; N Simorowski; S Traynelis; H Furukawa

    2011-12-31

    N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) receptors belong to the family of ionotropic glutamate receptors that mediate a majority of excitatory synaptic transmission. One unique property of GluN1/GluN2D NMDA receptors is an unusually prolonged deactivation time course following the removal of L-glutamate. Here we show, using x-ray crystallography and electrophysiology, that the deactivation time course of GluN1/GluN2D receptors is influenced by the conformational variability of the ligand-binding domain (LBD) as well as the structure of the activating ligand. L-glutamate and L-CCG-IV induce significantly slower deactivation time courses compared with other agonists. Crystal structures of the isolated GluN2D LBD in complex with various ligands reveal that the binding of L-glutamate induces a unique conformation at the backside of the ligand-binding site in proximity to the region at which the transmembrane domain would be located in the intact receptors. These data suggest that the activity of the GluN1/GluN2D NMDA receptor is controlled distinctively by the endogenous neurotransmitter L-glutamate.

  5. A new optical image cryptosystem based on two-beam coherent superposition and unequal modulus decomposition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Linfei; Gao, Xiong; Chen, Xudong; He, Bingyu; Liu, Jingyu; Li, Dan

    2016-04-01

    In this paper, a new optical image cryptosystem is proposed based on two-beam coherent superposition and unequal modulus decomposition. Different from the equal modulus decomposition or unit vector decomposition, the proposed method applies common vector decomposition to accomplish encryption process. In the proposed method, the original image is firstly Fourier transformed and the complex function in spectrum domain will be obtained. The complex distribution is decomposed into two vector components with unequal amplitude and phase by the common vector decomposition method. Subsequently, the two components are modulated by two random phases and transformed from spectrum domain to spatial domain, and amplitude parts are extracted as encryption results and phase parts are extracted as private keys. The advantages of the proposed cryptosystem are: four different phase and amplitude information created by the method of common vector decomposition strengthens the security of the cryptosystem, and it fully solves the silhouette problem. Simulation results are presented to show the feasibility and the security of the proposed cryptosystem.

  6. Theory for spiralling ions for 2D FT-ICR and comparison with precessing magnetization vectors in 2D NMR.

    PubMed

    Sehgal, Akansha Ashvani; Pelupessy, Philippe; Rolando, Christian; Bodenhausen, Geoffrey

    2016-04-01

    Two-dimensional (2D) Fourier transform ion cyclotron resonance (FT-ICR) offers an approach to mass spectrometry (MS) that pursuits similar objectives as MS/MS experiments. While the latter must focus on one ion species at a time, 2D FT ICR can examine all possible correlations due to ion fragmentation in a single experiment: correlations between precursors, charged and neutral fragments. We revisited the original 2D FT-ICR experiment that has hitherto fallen short of stimulating significant analytical applications, probably because it is technically demanding. These shortcomings can now be overcome by improved FT-ICR instrumentation and computer hard- and software. We seek to achieve a better understanding of the intricacies of the behavior of ions during a basic two-dimensional ICR sequence comprising three simple monochromatic pulses. Through simulations based on Lorentzian equations, we have mapped the ion trajectories for different pulse durations and phases. PMID:26974979

  7. Efficient elastic reverse-time migration for the decomposed P-wavefield using stress tensor in the time domain

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ha, Jiho; Shin, Sungryul; Shin, Changsoo; Chung, Wookeen

    2015-05-01

    Because complex mixed waves are typically generated in elastic media, wavefield decomposition is required for such media to obtain migration images accurately. In isotropic media, this is achieved according to the Helmholtz decomposition theorem; in particular, the divergence operator is commonly applied to P-wavefield decomposition. In this study, two types of elastic reverse-time migration algorithms are proposed for decomposition of the P-wavefield without requiring the divergence operator. The first algorithm involves formulation of the stress tensor by spatially differentiated displacement according to the stress-strain relationship and is utilized to construct an imaging condition for the decomposed P-wavefield. We demonstrate this approach through numerical testing. The second algorithm allows us to obtain emphasized interfaces through the application of the absolute value function to decomposed wavefield in imaging condition. Because reverse-time migration can be defined by a zero-lag cross-correlation relationship between the partial-derivative wavefield and the observed wavefield data, we derive the virtual source to construct the partial-derivative wavefield based on a 2D staggered-grid finite-difference modeling method in the time domain. The explicitly computed partial-derivative wavefield from virtual sources with the stress tensor is in agreement with the partial-derivative wavefield directly computed from residual by between with and without a perturbation point in the subsurface. Moreover, the back-propagation technique is used to enhance the computational efficiency. To validate our two types of imaging conditions, numerical tests are conducted. The migration images created according to our imaging conditions can represent the subsurface structure accurately. Thus, we can confirm the feasibility of obtaining migration images of the decomposed P-wavefield without requiring the application of the divergence operator.

  8. Domain-decomposed preconditionings for transport operators

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chan, Tony F.; Gropp, William D.; Keyes, David E.

    1991-01-01

    The performance was tested of five different interface preconditionings for domain decomposed convection diffusion problems, including a novel one known as the spectral probe, while varying mesh parameters, Reynolds number, ratio of subdomain diffusion coefficients, and domain aspect ratio. The preconditioners are representative of the range of practically computable possibilities that have appeared in the domain decomposition literature for the treatment of nonoverlapping subdomains. It is shown that through a large number of numerical examples that no single preconditioner can be considered uniformly superior or uniformly inferior to the rest, but that knowledge of particulars, including the shape and strength of the convection, is important in selecting among them in a given problem.

  9. ELLIPT2D: A Flexible Finite Element Code Written Python

    SciTech Connect

    Pletzer, A.; Mollis, J.C.

    2001-03-22

    The use of the Python scripting language for scientific applications and in particular to solve partial differential equations is explored. It is shown that Python's rich data structure and object-oriented features can be exploited to write programs that are not only significantly more concise than their counter parts written in Fortran, C or C++, but are also numerically efficient. To illustrate this, a two-dimensional finite element code (ELLIPT2D) has been written. ELLIPT2D provides a flexible and easy-to-use framework for solving a large class of second-order elliptic problems. The program allows for structured or unstructured meshes. All functions defining the elliptic operator are user supplied and so are the boundary conditions, which can be of Dirichlet, Neumann or Robbins type. ELLIPT2D makes extensive use of dictionaries (hash tables) as a way to represent sparse matrices.Other key features of the Python language that have been widely used include: operator over loading, error handling, array slicing, and the Tkinter module for building graphical use interfaces. As an example of the utility of ELLIPT2D, a nonlinear solution of the Grad-Shafranov equation is computed using a Newton iterative scheme. A second application focuses on a solution of the toroidal Laplace equation coupled to a magnetohydrodynamic stability code, a problem arising in the context of magnetic fusion research.

  10. Rheological Properties of Quasi-2D Fluids in Microgravity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stannarius, Ralf; Trittel, Torsten; Eremin, Alexey; Harth, Kirsten; Clark, Noel; Maclennan, Joseph; Glaser, Matthew; Park, Cheol; Hall, Nancy; Tin, Padetha

    2015-01-01

    In recent years, research on complex fluids and fluids in restricted geometries has attracted much attention in the scientific community. This can be attributed not only to the development of novel materials based on complex fluids but also to a variety of important physical phenomena which have barely been explored. One example is the behavior of membranes and thin fluid films, which can be described by two-dimensional (2D) rheology behavior that is quite different from 3D fluids. In this study, we have investigated the rheological properties of freely suspended films of a thermotropic liquid crystal in microgravity experiments. This model system mimics isotropic and anisotropic quasi 2D fluids [46]. We use inkjet printing technology to dispense small droplets (inclusions) onto the film surface. The motion of these inclusions provides information on the rheological properties of the films and allows the study of a variety of flow instabilities. Flat films have been investigated on a sub-orbital rocket flight and curved films (bubbles) have been studied in the ISS project OASIS. Microgravity is essential when the films are curved in order to avoid sedimentation. The experiments yield the mobility of the droplets in the films as well as the mutual mobility of pairs of particles. Experimental results will be presented for 2D-isotropic (smectic-A) and 2D-nematic (smectic-C) phases.

  11. Creation of a scalar potential in 2D dilaton gravity

    SciTech Connect

    Behrndt, K.

    1994-09-01

    The authors investigate quantum corrections of the 2-d dilaton gravity near the singularity. Their motivation comes from a s-wave reduced cosmological solution which is classically singular in the scalar fields (dilaton and moduli). As a result they find, that the singularity disappears and a dilaton/moduli potential is created.

  12. NKG2D ligands mediate immunosurveillance of senescent cells

    PubMed Central

    Moshayev, Zhana; Vadai, Ezra; Wensveen, Felix; Ben-Dor, Shifra; Golani, Ofra; Polic, Bojan; Krizhanovsky, Valery

    2016-01-01

    Cellular senescence is a stress response mechanism that limits tumorigenesis and tissue damage. Induction of cellular senescence commonly coincides with an immunogenic phenotype that promotes self-elimination by components of the immune system, thereby facilitating tumor suppression and limiting excess fibrosis during wound repair. The mechanisms by which senescent cells regulate their immune surveillance are not completely understood. Here we show that ligands of an activating Natural Killer (NK) cell receptor (NKG2D), MICA and ULBP2 are consistently up-regulated following induction of replicative senescence, oncogene-induced senescence and DNA damage - induced senescence. MICA and ULBP2 proteins are necessary for efficient NK-mediated cytotoxicity towards senescent fibroblasts. The mechanisms regulating the initial expression of NKG2D ligands in senescent cells are dependent on a DNA damage response, whilst continuous expression of these ligands is regulated by the ERK signaling pathway. In liver fibrosis, the accumulation of senescent activated stellate cells is increased in mice lacking NKG2D receptor leading to increased fibrosis. Overall, our results provide new insights into the mechanisms regulating the expression of immune ligands in senescent cells and reveal the importance of NKG2D receptor-ligand interaction in protecting against liver fibrosis. PMID:26878797

  13. Discrepant Results in a 2-D Marble Collision

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kalajian, Peter

    2013-01-01

    Video analysis of 2-D collisions is an excellent way to investigate conservation of linear momentum. The often-desired experimental design goal is to minimize the momentum loss in order to demonstrate the conservation law. An air table with colliding pucks is an ideal medium for this experiment, but such equipment is beyond the budget of many…

  14. Validation and testing of the VAM2D computer code

    SciTech Connect

    Kool, J.B.; Wu, Y.S. )

    1991-10-01

    This document describes two modeling studies conducted by HydroGeoLogic, Inc. for the US NRC under contract no. NRC-04089-090, entitled, Validation and Testing of the VAM2D Computer Code.'' VAM2D is a two-dimensional, variably saturated flow and transport code, with applications for performance assessment of nuclear waste disposal. The computer code itself is documented in a separate NUREG document (NUREG/CR-5352, 1989). The studies presented in this report involve application of the VAM2D code to two diverse subsurface modeling problems. The first one involves modeling of infiltration and redistribution of water and solutes in an initially dry, heterogeneous field soil. This application involves detailed modeling over a relatively short, 9-month time period. The second problem pertains to the application of VAM2D to the modeling of a waste disposal facility in a fractured clay, over much larger space and time scales and with particular emphasis on the applicability and reliability of using equivalent porous medium approach for simulating flow and transport in fractured geologic media. Reflecting the separate and distinct nature of the two problems studied, this report is organized in two separate parts. 61 refs., 31 figs., 9 tabs.

  15. On Regularity Criteria for the 2D Generalized MHD System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jiang, Zaihong; Wang, Yanan; Zhou, Yong

    2016-06-01

    This paper deals with the problem of regularity criteria for the 2D generalized MHD system with fractional dissipative terms {-Λ^{2α}u} for the velocity field and {-Λ^{2β}b} for the magnetic field respectively. Various regularity criteria are established to guarantee smoothness of solutions. It turns out that our regularity criteria imply previous global existence results naturally.

  16. 2D signature for detection and identification of drugs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Trofimov, Vyacheslav A.; Varentsova, Svetlana A.; Shen, Jingling; Zhang, Cunlin; Zhou, Qingli; Shi, Yulei

    2011-06-01

    The method of spectral dynamics analysis (SDA-method) is used for obtaining the2D THz signature of drugs. This signature is used for the detection and identification of drugs with similar Fourier spectra by transmitted THz signal. We discuss the efficiency of SDA method for the identification problem of pure methamphetamine (MA), methylenedioxyamphetamine (MDA), 3, 4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA) and Ketamine.

  17. RADMC: A 2-D Continuum Radiative Transfer Tool

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dullemond, C. P.

    2011-08-01

    RADMC is a 2-D Monte-Carlo code for dust continuum radiative transfer circumstellar disks and envelopes. It is based on the method of Bjorkman & Wood (ApJ 2001, 554, 615), but with several modifications to produce smoother results with fewer photon packages.

  18. Kinematics of segregating granular mixtures in quasi-2D heaps

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fan, Yi; Umbanhowar, Paul; Ottino, Julio; Lueptow, Richard

    2012-11-01

    Segregation of granular mixtures of different sized particles in heap flow appears in a variety of contexts. Our recent experiments showed that when bi-disperse mixtures of different sized spherical particles fill a quasi-two dimensional (2D) silo, three different final heap configurations - stratified, segregated, and mixed - occur, depending on either 2D flow rate or heap rise velocity. However, since it is difficult to measure the kinematic details of the segregating granular mixtures in heap flow experimentally, the underlying mechanisms for how 2D flow rate or heap rise velocity influences final particle configurations have not been well understood. In this work, we use the discrete element method (DEM) to simulate heap flow of bi-disperse mixtures in experimental scale quasi-2D heaps. The final particle distributions in the simulations agree quantitatively with experiments. We measure several key kinematic properties of the segregating granular mixtures including the local flow rate, velocity, and flowing layer thickness. We correlate the characteristics of these kinematic properties with the local particle distributions of the mixtures. This provides new insights for understanding the mechanisms of segregation and stratification in heap flow including the linear decrease in flow rate and maximum velocity down the heap as well as the relatively constant flowing layer thickness along the length of the heap. Funded by Dow Chemical Co.

  19. On the phase diagram of 2d Lorentzian Quantum Gravity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ambjørn, Jan; Anagnostopoulos, K. N.; Loll, R.

    The phase diagram of 2d Lorentzian quantum gravity (LQG) coupled to conformal matter is studied. A phase transition is observed at c = c crit ( {1}/{2} < c crit < 4) which can be thought of as the analogue of the c = 1 barrier of Euclidean quantum gravity (EQG). The non-trivial properties of the quantum geometry are discussed.

  20. Optoelectronics of supported and suspended 2D semiconductors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bolotin, Kirill

    2014-03-01

    Two-dimensional semiconductors, materials such monolayer molybdenum disulfide (MoS2) are characterized by strong spin-orbit and electron-electron interactions. However, both electronic and optoelectronic properties of these materials are dominated by disorder-related scattering. In this talk, we investigate approaches to reduce scattering and explore physical phenomena arising in intrinsic 2D semiconductors. First, we discuss fabrication of pristine suspended monolayer MoS2 and use photocurrent spectroscopy measurements to study excitons in this material. We observe band-edge and van Hove singularity excitons and estimate their binding energies. Furthermore, we study dissociation of these excitons and uncover the mechanism of their contribution to photoresponse of MoS2. Second, we study strain-induced modification of bandstructures of 2D semiconductors. With increasing strain, we find large and controllable band gap reduction of both single- and bi-layer MoS2. We also detect experimental signatures consistent with strain-induced transition from direct to indirect band gap in monolayer MoS2. Finally, we fabricate heterostructures of dissimilar 2D semiconductors and study their photoresponse. For closely spaced 2D semiconductors we detect charge transfer, while for separation larger than 10nm we observe Forster-like energy transfer between excitations in different layers.