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Sample records for 2d fluorescence difference

  1. Proteomic Analysis of Bovine Pregnancy-specific Serum Proteins by 2D Fluorescence Difference Gel Electrophoresis

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Jae Eun; Lee, Jae Young; Kim, Hong Rye; Shin, Hyun Young; Lin, Tao; Jin, Dong Il

    2015-01-01

    Two dimensional-fluorescence difference gel electrophoresis (2D DIGE) is an emerging technique for comparative proteomics, which improves the reproducibility and reliability of differential protein expression analysis between samples. The purpose of this study was to investigate bovine pregnancy-specific proteins in the proteome between bovine pregnant and non-pregnant serum using DIGE technique. Serums of 2 pregnant Holstein dairy cattle at day 21 after artificial insemination and those of 2 non-pregnant were used in this study. The pre-electrophoretic labeling of pregnant and non-pregnant serum proteins were mixed with Cy3 and Cy5 fluorescent dyes, respectively, and an internal standard was labeled with Cy2. Labeled proteins with Cy2, Cy3, and Cy5 were separated together in a single gel, and then were detected by fluorescence image analyzer. The 2D DIGE method using fluorescence CyDye DIGE flour had higher sensitivity than conventional 2D gel electrophoresis, and showed reproducible results. Approximately 1,500 protein spots were detected by 2D DIGE. Several proteins showed a more than 1.5-fold up and down regulation between non-pregnant and pregnant serum proteins. The differentially expressed proteins were identified by MALDI-TOF mass spectrometer. A total 16 protein spots were detected to regulate differentially in the pregnant serum, among which 7 spots were up-regulated proteins such as conglutinin precursor, modified bovine fibrinogen and IgG1, and 6 spots were down-regulated proteins such as hemoglobin, complement component 3, bovine fibrinogen and IgG2a three spots were not identified. The identified proteins demonstrate that early pregnant bovine serum may have several pregnancy-specific proteins, and these could be a valuable information for the development of pregnancy-diagnostic markers in early pregnancy bovine serum. PMID:25925056

  2. Comparing the heterogeneity of copper-binding characteristics for two different-sized soil humic acid fractions using fluorescence quenching combined with 2D-COS.

    PubMed

    Hur, Jin; Lee, Bo-Mi

    2011-01-01

    Heterogeneous distributions of copper-binding characteristics were compared for two ultrafiltered size fractions of a soil HA using fluorescence quenching combined with two-dimensional correlation spectroscopy (2D-COS). The apparent shapes of the original synchronous fluorescence spectra and the extent of the fluorescence quenching upon the addition of copper were similar for the two fractions. The stability constants calculated at their highest peaks were not significantly different. However, the 2D-COS results revealed that the fluorescence quenching behaviors were strongly affected by the associated wavelengths and the fraction's size. The spectral change preferentially occurred in the wavelength order of 467 nm → 451 nm → 357 nm for the 1-10 K fraction and of 376 nm → 464 nm for the >100 K fraction. The extent of the binding affinities exactly followed the sequential orders interpreted from the 2D-COS, and they exhibited the distinctive ranges of the logarithmic values from 5.86 to 4.91 and from 6.48 to 5.95 for the 1-10 K and the >100 K fractions, respectively. Our studies demonstrated that fluorescence quenching combined with 2D-COS could be successfully utilized to give insight into the chemical heterogeneity associated with metal-binding sites within the relatively homogeneous HA size fractions.

  3. Rapid-scan coherent 2D fluorescence spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Draeger, Simon; Roeding, Sebastian; Brixner, Tobias

    2017-02-20

    We developed pulse-shaper-assisted coherent two-dimensional (2D) electronic spectroscopy in liquids using fluorescence detection. A customized pulse shaper facilitates shot-to-shot modulation at 1 kHz and is employed for rapid scanning over all time delays. A full 2D spectrum with 15 × 15 pixels is obtained in approximately 6 s of measurement time (plus further averaging if needed). Coherent information is extracted from the incoherent fluorescence signal via 27-step phase cycling. We exemplify the technique on cresyl violet in ethanol and recover literature-known oscillations as a function of population time. Signal-to-noise behavior is analyzed as a function of the amount of averaging. Rapid scanning provides a 2D spectrum with a root-mean-square error of < 0.05 after 1 min of measurement time.

  4. Solution conformation of 2-aminopurine (2-AP) dinucleotide determined by ultraviolet 2D fluorescence spectroscopy (UV-2D FS).

    PubMed

    Widom, Julia R; Johnson, Neil P; von Hippel, Peter H; Marcus, Andrew H

    2013-02-01

    We have observed the conformation-dependent electronic coupling between the monomeric subunits of a dinucleotide of 2-aminopurine (2-AP), a fluorescent analog of the nucleic acid base adenine. This was accomplished by extending two-dimensional fluorescence spectroscopy (2D FS) - a fluorescence-detected variation of 2D electronic spectroscopy - to excite molecular transitions in the ultraviolet (UV) regime. A collinear sequence of four ultrafast laser pulses centered at 323 nm was used to resonantly excite the coupled transitions of 2-AP dinucleotide. The phases of the optical pulses were continuously swept at kilohertz frequencies, and the ensuing nonlinear fluorescence was phase-synchronously detected at 370 nm. Upon optimization of a point-dipole coupling model to our data, we found that in aqueous buffer the 2-AP dinucleotide adopts an average conformation in which the purine bases are non-helically stacked (center-to-center distance R12 = 3.5 Å ± 0.5 Å, twist angle θ12 = 5° ± 5°), which differs from the conformation of such adjacent bases in duplex DNA. These experiments establish UV-2D FS as a method for examining the local conformations of an adjacent pair of fluorescent nucleotides substituted into specific DNA or RNA constructs, which will serve as a powerful probe to interpret, in structural terms, biologically significant local conformational changes within the nucleic acid framework of protein-nucleic acid complexes.

  5. Quantum process tomography by 2D fluorescence spectroscopy

    SciTech Connect

    Pachón, Leonardo A.; Marcus, Andrew H.; Aspuru-Guzik, Alán

    2015-06-07

    Reconstruction of the dynamics (quantum process tomography) of the single-exciton manifold in energy transfer systems is proposed here on the basis of two-dimensional fluorescence spectroscopy (2D-FS) with phase-modulation. The quantum-process-tomography protocol introduced here benefits from, e.g., the sensitivity enhancement ascribed to 2D-FS. Although the isotropically averaged spectroscopic signals depend on the quantum yield parameter Γ of the doubly excited-exciton manifold, it is shown that the reconstruction of the dynamics is insensitive to this parameter. Applications to foundational and applied problems, as well as further extensions, are discussed.

  6. Application of highly sensitive fluorescent dyes (CyDye DIGE Fluor saturation dyes) to laser microdissection and two-dimensional difference gel electrophoresis (2D-DIGE) for cancer proteomics.

    PubMed

    Kondo, Tadashi; Hirohashi, Setsuo

    2006-01-01

    Proteome data combined with histopathological information provides important, novel clues for understanding cancer biology and reveals candidates for tumor markers and therapeutic targets. We have established an application of a highly sensitive fluorescent dye (CyDye DIGE Fluor saturation dye), developed for two-dimensional difference gel electrophoresis (2D-DIGE), to the labeling of proteins extracted from laser microdissected tissues. The use of the dye dramatically decreases the protein amount and, in turn, the number of cells required for 2D-DIGE; the cells obtained from a 1 mm2 area of an 8-12 microm thick tissue section generate up to 5,000 protein spots in a large-format 2D gel. This protocol allows the execution of large-scale proteomics in a more efficient, accurate and reproducible way. The protocol can be used to examine a single sample in 5 d or to examine hundreds of samples in large-scale proteomics.

  7. 2-D fluorescence lifetime imaging using a time-gated image intensifier

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dowling, K.; Hyde, S. C. W.; Dainty, J. C.; French, P. M. W.; Hares, J. D.

    1997-02-01

    We report a 2-D fluorescence lifetime imaging system based on a time-gated image intensifier and a Cr:LiSAF regenerative amplifier. We have demonstrated 185 ps temporal resolution. The deleterious effects of optical scattering are demonstrated.

  8. Direct Formation of Large-Area 2D Nanosheets from Fluorescent Semiconducting Homopolymer with Orthorhombic Crystalline Orientation.

    PubMed

    Yang, Sanghee; Shin, Suyong; Choi, Inho; Lee, Jaeho; Choi, Tae-Lim

    2017-03-01

    Semiconducting polymers have been widely investigated due to their intriguing optoelectronic properties and their high crystallinity that provides a strong driving force for self-assembly. Although there are various reports of successful self-assembly of nanostructures using semiconducting polymers, direct in situ self-assembly of these polymers into two-dimensional (2D) nanostructures has proven difficult, despite their importance for optoelectronics applications. Here, we report the synthesis of a simple conjugated homopolymer by living cyclopolymerization of a 1,6-heptadiyne (having a fluorene moiety) and its efficient in situ formation of large-area 2D fluorescent semiconducting nanostructures. Using high-resolution imaging tools such as atomic force microscopy and transmission electron microscopy, we observed the solvent-dependent self-assembly behaviors of this homopolymer; the identical starting polymer formed 2D nanosheets with different shapes, such as rectangle, raft, and leaf, when dissolved in different solvents. Furthermore, super-resolution optical microscopy enabled the real-time imaging of the fluorescent 2D nanosheets, revealing their stable and uniform shapes, fluorescence, and solution dynamics. Notably, we propose an orthorhombic crystalline packing model to explain the direct formation of 2D nanostructures based on various diffraction patterns, providing important insight for their shape modulation during the self-assembly.

  9. 2D map projections for visualization and quantitative analysis of 3D fluorescence micrographs

    PubMed Central

    Sendra, G. Hernán; Hoerth, Christian H.; Wunder, Christian; Lorenz, Holger

    2015-01-01

    We introduce Map3-2D, a freely available software to accurately project up to five-dimensional (5D) fluorescence microscopy image data onto full-content 2D maps. Similar to the Earth’s projection onto cartographic maps, Map3-2D unfolds surface information from a stack of images onto a single, structurally connected map. We demonstrate its applicability for visualization and quantitative analyses of spherical and uneven surfaces in fixed and dynamic live samples by using mammalian and yeast cells, and giant unilamellar vesicles. Map3-2D software is available at http://www.zmbh.uni-heidelberg.de//Central_Services/Imaging_Facility/Map3-2D.html. PMID:26208256

  10. Temperature-dependent conformations of a membrane supported zinc porphyrin tweezer by 2D fluorescence spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Widom, Julia R; Lee, Wonbae; Perdomo-Ortiz, Alejandro; Rappoport, Dmitrij; Molinski, Tadeusz F; Aspuru-Guzik, Alán; Marcus, Andrew H

    2013-07-25

    We studied the equilibrium conformations of a zinc porphyrin tweezer composed of two carboxylphenyl-functionalized zinc tetraphenyl porphyrin subunits connected by a 1,4-butyndiol spacer, which was suspended inside the amphiphilic regions of 1,2-distearoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine (DSPC) liposomes. By combining phase-modulation two-dimensional fluorescence spectroscopy (2D FS) with linear absorbance and fluorimetry, we determined that the zinc porphyrin tweezer adopts a mixture of folded and extended conformations in the membrane. By fitting an exciton-coupling model to a series of data sets recorded over a range of temperatures (17-85 °C) and at different laser center wavelengths, we determined that the folded form of the tweezer is stabilized by a favorable change in the entropy of the local membrane environment. Our results provide insights toward understanding the balance of thermodynamic factors that govern molecular assembly in membranes.

  11. Investigation on the spectral properties of 2D asynchronous fluorescence spectra generated by using variable excitation wavelengths as a perturbation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Jingdan; He, Anqi; Guo, Ran; Wei, Yongju; Feng, Juan; Xu, Yizhuang; Noda, Isao; Wu, Jinguang

    2016-11-01

    Properties of 2D asynchronous spectra generated from a series of fluorescence emission spectra are investigated. Variable excitation wavelengths are utilized as an external perturbation. Based on the results of mathematical analysis and computer simulation, we find that no cross peak will be produced on the 2D asynchronous spectrum if the fluorescent solute under investigation occurs in a single micro-environment. The observation of cross peaks implies that the fluorescent molecule may occur in different micro-environments in a solution. Based on these results, we use 2D asynchronous spectra to investigate the emission spectra of anthracene dissolved in cyclohexane. When the concentration of anthracene is low, no cross peak is produced in the resultant 2D asynchronous spectrum, confirming that anthracene is dissolved as single molecule in the solution. As the concentration elevated, cross peaks appear in the corresponding 2D asynchronous spectra. A plausible explanation of this phenomenon is that anthracene may undergo aggregation via π-π interaction or π-C-H interaction.

  12. 2D fluorescence spectroscopy for monitoring ion-exchange membrane based technologies - Reverse electrodialysis (RED).

    PubMed

    Pawlowski, Sylwin; Galinha, Claudia F; Crespo, João G; Velizarov, Svetlozar

    2016-01-01

    Reverse electrodialysis (RED) is one of the emerging, membrane-based technologies for harvesting salinity gradient energy. In RED process, fouling is an undesirable operation constraint since it leads to a decrease of the obtainable net power density due to increasing stack electric resistance and pressure drop. Therefore, early fouling detection is one of the main challenges for successful RED technology implementation. In the present study, two-dimensional (2D) fluorescence spectroscopy was used, for the first time, as a tool for fouling monitoring in RED. Fluorescence excitation-emission matrices (EEMs) of ion-exchange membrane surfaces and of natural aqueous streams were acquired during one month of a RED stack operation. Fouling evolvement on the ion-exchange membrane surfaces was successfully followed by 2D fluorescence spectroscopy and quantified using principal components analysis (PCA). Additionally, the efficiency of cleaning strategy was assessed by measuring the membrane fluorescence emission intensity before and after cleaning. The anion-exchange membrane (AEM) surface in contact with river water showed to be significantly affected due to fouling by humic compounds, which were found to cross through the membrane from the lower salinity (river water) to higher salinity (sea water) stream. The results obtained show that the combined approach of using 2D fluorescence spectroscopy and PCA has a high potential for studying fouling development and membrane cleaning efficiency in ion exchange membrane processes. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Protein profiling using two-dimensional difference gel electrophoresis (2-D DIGE).

    PubMed

    Feret, Renata; Lilley, Kathryn S

    2014-02-03

    2-D DIGE relies on pre-electrophoretic labeling of samples with one of three spectrally distinct fluorescent dyes, followed by electrophoresis of all samples in one 2-D gel. The dye-labeled samples are then viewed individually by scanning the gel at different wavelengths, which circumvents problems with gel-to-gel variation and spot matching between gels. Image analysis programs are used to generate volume ratios for each spot, which essentially describe the intensity of a particular spot in each test sample, and thus enable protein abundance level changes to be identified and quantified. This unit describes the 2-D DIGE procedure including sample preparation from various cell types, labeling of proteins, and points to consider in the downstream processing of fluorescently labeled samples.

  14. Laser irradiated fluorescent perfluorocarbon microparticles in 2-D and 3-D breast cancer cell models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Niu, Chengcheng; Wang, Long; Wang, Zhigang; Xu, Yan; Hu, Yihe; Peng, Qinghai

    2017-03-01

    Perfluorocarbon (PFC) droplets were studied as new generation ultrasound contrast agents via acoustic or optical droplet vaporization (ADV or ODV). Little is known about the ODV irradiated vaporization mechanisms of PFC-microparticle complexs and the stability of the new bubbles produced. In this study, fluorescent perfluorohexane (PFH) poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid) (PLGA) particles were used as a model to study the process of particle vaporization and bubble stability following excitation in two-dimensional (2-D) and three-dimensional (3-D) cell models. We observed localization of the fluorescent agent on the microparticle coating material initially and after vaporization under fluorescence microscopy. Furthermore, the stability and growth dynamics of the newly created bubbles were observed for 11 min following vaporization. The particles were co-cultured with 2-D cells to form 3-D spheroids and could be vaporized even when encapsulated within the spheroids via laser irradiation, which provides an effective basis for further work.

  15. Targeted fluorescence imaging enhanced by 2D materials: a comparison between 2D MoS2 and graphene oxide.

    PubMed

    Xie, Donghao; Ji, Ding-Kun; Zhang, Yue; Cao, Jun; Zheng, Hu; Liu, Lin; Zang, Yi; Li, Jia; Chen, Guo-Rong; James, Tony D; He, Xiao-Peng

    2016-08-04

    Here we demonstrate that 2D MoS2 can enhance the receptor-targeting and imaging ability of a fluorophore-labelled ligand. The 2D MoS2 has an enhanced working concentration range when compared with graphene oxide, resulting in the improved imaging of both cell and tissue samples.

  16. Computational efficient segmentation of cell nuclei in 2D and 3D fluorescent micrographs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    De Vylder, Jonas; Philips, Wilfried

    2011-02-01

    This paper proposes a new segmentation technique developed for the segmentation of cell nuclei in both 2D and 3D fluorescent micrographs. The proposed method can deal with both blurred edges as with touching nuclei. Using a dual scan line algorithm its both memory as computational efficient, making it interesting for the analysis of images coming from high throughput systems or the analysis of 3D microscopic images. Experiments show good results, i.e. recall of over 0.98.

  17. Low-frequency phased-array 2D fluorescence localization in breast cancer detection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Qian; Chen, Yu; Chance, Britton; Luo, Qingming

    2003-12-01

    A method for rapid, non-invasive 2D fluorescence localization of breast cancer using low frequency phased array near-infrared technique is presented in this article. In our study, we have developed a dual-channel fluorescence detection system to locate breast cancer. This system consists two pair of in-phase and out-of-phase light emitting diodes (LEDs) as the light sources and Photomultiplier Tube (PMT) as the detector. Two null planes generated by cancellation of diffusion photon density waves (DPDW) will indicate the 2D position of breast cancer with exogenous contrast agents. The fluorescent contrast agent used in this study is Indocyanine Green (ICG) and the minimum amount of ICG detected by our system is 0.5 μM. With the 2 cm separation of sources and detector, the maximum depth our system can detect is 10 mm. The whole system is in compact size and portable. Phantom experiments show that the system can provide real time detection and localization of small hidden absorbing-fluorescent objects inside the highly scattering medium with high accuracy of +/-3 mm. The potential application is that it is low-cost and can be used for breast cancer localization as operation aid and self-examination.

  18. Fluorescence Intensity and Polarization from Photodissociated H2, D2 and HD

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Machacek, J. R.; Andrianarijaona, V. M.; Furst, J. E.; Gay, T. J.; Kilcoyne, A. L. D.; Landers, A. L.; McLaughlin, K. W.

    2009-05-01

    We have measured the intensity and linear polarization of Hα (n=3->n=2) 656.3 nm fluorescence resulting from H and D atoms created by photodissociation of H2, D2 and HD using linearly-polarized photons with energies ranging from 16.5 to 17.6 eV. Between the threshold for atomic n=3 production at 16.6 eV and the n=4 production threshold at 17.3 eV, the relative cross section and polarization data are free from cascade contributions due to higher-lying atomic states. The photon beam energy width used for this work was 3 meV. Comparison of relative intensities to previous measurements [1] show marked differences. However, the polarization is in qualitative agreement. [1] H. Frohlich et al., Z. Phys. D 34, 119 (1995). Support provided by the NSF (Grant PHY-0653379), DOE (LBNL/ALS) and ANSTO (Access to Major Research Facilities Programme).

  19. 2D to 3D conversion implemented in different hardware

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ramos-Diaz, Eduardo; Gonzalez-Huitron, Victor; Ponomaryov, Volodymyr I.; Hernandez-Fragoso, Araceli

    2015-02-01

    Conversion of available 2D data for release in 3D content is a hot topic for providers and for success of the 3D applications, in general. It naturally completely relies on virtual view synthesis of a second view given by original 2D video. Disparity map (DM) estimation is a central task in 3D generation but still follows a very difficult problem for rendering novel images precisely. There exist different approaches in DM reconstruction, among them manually and semiautomatic methods that can produce high quality DMs but they demonstrate hard time consuming and are computationally expensive. In this paper, several hardware implementations of designed frameworks for an automatic 3D color video generation based on 2D real video sequence are proposed. The novel framework includes simultaneous processing of stereo pairs using the following blocks: CIE L*a*b* color space conversions, stereo matching via pyramidal scheme, color segmentation by k-means on an a*b* color plane, and adaptive post-filtering, DM estimation using stereo matching between left and right images (or neighboring frames in a video), adaptive post-filtering, and finally, the anaglyph 3D scene generation. Novel technique has been implemented on DSP TMS320DM648, Matlab's Simulink module over a PC with Windows 7, and using graphic card (NVIDIA Quadro K2000) demonstrating that the proposed approach can be applied in real-time processing mode. The time values needed, mean Similarity Structural Index Measure (SSIM) and Bad Matching Pixels (B) values for different hardware implementations (GPU, Single CPU, and DSP) are exposed in this paper.

  20. Laser irradiated fluorescent perfluorocarbon microparticles in 2-D and 3-D breast cancer cell models

    PubMed Central

    Niu, Chengcheng; Wang, Long; Wang, Zhigang; Xu, Yan; Hu, Yihe; Peng, Qinghai

    2017-01-01

    Perfluorocarbon (PFC) droplets were studied as new generation ultrasound contrast agents via acoustic or optical droplet vaporization (ADV or ODV). Little is known about the ODV irradiated vaporization mechanisms of PFC-microparticle complexs and the stability of the new bubbles produced. In this study, fluorescent perfluorohexane (PFH) poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid) (PLGA) particles were used as a model to study the process of particle vaporization and bubble stability following excitation in two-dimensional (2-D) and three-dimensional (3-D) cell models. We observed localization of the fluorescent agent on the microparticle coating material initially and after vaporization under fluorescence microscopy. Furthermore, the stability and growth dynamics of the newly created bubbles were observed for 11 min following vaporization. The particles were co-cultured with 2-D cells to form 3-D spheroids and could be vaporized even when encapsulated within the spheroids via laser irradiation, which provides an effective basis for further work. PMID:28262671

  1. A Two-Dimensional Difference Gel Electrophoresis (2D-DIGE) Protocol for Studies of Neural Precursor Cells.

    PubMed

    Guest, Paul C

    2017-01-01

    This chapter describes the basics of two-dimensional difference gel electrophoresis (2D-DIGE) for multiplex analysis of up to distinct proteomes. The example given describes the analysis of undifferentiated and differentiated neural precursor cells labelled with fluorescent Cy3 and Cy5 dyes in comparison to a pooled standard labelled with Cy2. After labelling, the proteomes are mixed together and electrophoresed on the same 2D gels. Scanning the gels at wavelengths specific for each dye allows direct overlay of the two different proteomes and the differences in abundance of specific protein spots can be determined through comparison to the pooled standard.

  2. Chemometric modelling based on 2D-fluorescence spectra without a calibration measurement.

    PubMed

    Solle, D; Geissler, D; Stärk, E; Scheper, T; Hitzmann, B

    2003-01-22

    2D fluorescence spectra provide information from intracellular compounds. Fluorophores like trytophan, tyrosine and phenylalanin as well as NADH and flavins make the corresponding measurement systems very important for bioprocess supervision and control. The evaluation is usually based on chemometric modelling using for their calibration procedure off-line measurements of the desired process variables. Due to the data driven approach lots of off-line measurements are required. Here a methodology is presented, which enables to perform a calibration procedure of chemometric models without any further measurement. The necessary information for the calibration procedure is provided by means of the a priori knowledge about the process, i.e. a mathematical model, whose model parameters are estimated during the calibration procedure, as well as the fact that the substrate should be consumed at the end of the process run. The new methodology for chemometric calibration is applied for a batch cultivation of aerobically grown S. cerevisiae on the glucose Schatzmann medium. As will be presented the chemometric models, which are determined by this method, can be used for prediction during new process runs. The MATHLAB routine is free available on request from the authors.

  3. Parallel online multi-wavelength (2D) fluorescence spectroscopy in each well of a continuously shaken microtiter plate.

    PubMed

    Ladner, Tobias; Beckers, Mario; Hitzmann, Bernd; Büchs, Jochen

    2016-12-01

    Small-scale high-throughput screening devices are becoming increasingly important in bioprocess development. Conventional dipping probes for process monitoring are often too large to be used in these devices. Thus, optical measurements are often the method of choice. Even some parameters that cannot directly be measured by fluorescence become accessible via sensitive fluorescence dyes. However, not all compounds of interest are measurable by this technique. Recent studies applying multi-wavelength (2D) fluorescence spectroscopy in combination with chemometrics have shown that information on numerous analytes is obscured by the fluorescence data. Hitherto, this measurement technique has only been available on the scale of stirred tank fermenters. This work introduces a new device for multi-wavelength (2D) fluorescence spectroscopy in each well of a continuously shaken microtiter plate. Using a combination of spectrograph and CCD detector, the required time per measurement cycle in a 48-well microtiter plate was 0.5 h. Cultures of Hansenula polymorpha and Escherichia coli are monitored. The concentrations of glycerol, glucose and acetate as well as pH are determined using partial least square (PLS) models. Because a pH-sensitive fluorescence dye was not required, no dependency of the pKa of a fluorescence dye exists, and measurements in the low pH range can be obtained.

  4. Model-based segmentation and quantification of subcellular structures in 2D and 3D fluorescent microscopy images

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wörz, Stefan; Heinzer, Stephan; Weiss, Matthias; Rohr, Karl

    2008-03-01

    We introduce a model-based approach for segmenting and quantifying GFP-tagged subcellular structures of the Golgi apparatus in 2D and 3D microscopy images. The approach is based on 2D and 3D intensity models, which are directly fitted to an image within 2D circular or 3D spherical regions-of-interest (ROIs). We also propose automatic approaches for the detection of candidates, for the initialization of the model parameters, and for adapting the size of the ROI used for model fitting. Based on the fitting results, we determine statistical information about the spatial distribution and the total amount of intensity (fluorescence) of the subcellular structures. We demonstrate the applicability of our new approach based on 2D and 3D microscopy images.

  5. Imaging With Synthesized 2D Mammography: Differences, Advantages, and Pitfalls Compared With Digital Mammography.

    PubMed

    Zuckerman, Samantha P; Maidment, Andrew D A; Weinstein, Susan P; McDonald, Elizabeth S; Conant, Emily F

    2017-07-01

    Synthesized 2D (s2D) mammography is rapidly replacing digital mammography in breast imaging with digital breast tomosynthesis (DBT) to reduce radiation dose and maintain screening outcomes. We illustrate variations in the appearance of s2D and digital mammograms to aid in implementation of this technology. Despite subjective differences in the appearance of s2D and digital mammograms, early outcomes of screening using s2D mammography and DBT are not inferior to those achieved with digital mammography and DBT. Understanding these variations may aid in implementing this technique and improving patient outcomes.

  6. Melting of Boltzmann particles in different 2D trapping potential

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bhattacharya, Dyuti; Filinov, Alexei; Ghosal, Amit; Bonitz, Michael

    2015-03-01

    We analyze the quantum melting of two dimensional Wigner solid in several confined geometries and compare them with corresponding thermal melting in a purely classical system. Our results show that the geometry play little role in deciding the crossover quantum parameter nX, as the effects from boundary is well screened by the quantum zero point motion. The unique phase diagram in the plane of thermal and quantum fluctuations determined from independent melting criteria separates out the Wigner molecule ``phase'' from the classical and quantum ``liquids''. An intriguing signature of weakening liquidity with increasing temperature T have been found in the extreme quantum regime (n). This crossover is associated with production of defects, just like in case of thermal melting, though the role of them in determining the mechanism of the crossover appears different. Our study will help comprehending melting in a variety of experimental realization of confined system - from quantum dots to complex plasma.

  7. CYP2D6 Genetic Polymorphisms and Phenotypes in Different Ethnicities of Malaysian Breast Cancer Patients.

    PubMed

    Chin, Fee Wai; Chan, Soon Choy; Abdul Rahman, Sabariah; Noor Akmal, Sharifah; Rosli, Rozita

    2016-01-01

    The cytochrome P450, family 2, subfamily D, polypeptide 6 (CYP2D6) is an enzyme that is predominantly involved in the metabolism of tamoxifen. Genetic polymorphisms of the CYP2D6 gene may contribute to inter-individual variability in tamoxifen metabolism, which leads to the differences in clinical response to tamoxifen among breast cancer patients. In Malaysia, the knowledge on CYP2D6 genetic polymorphisms as well as metabolizer status in Malaysian breast cancer patients remains unknown. Hence, this study aimed to comprehensively identify CYP2D6 genetic polymorphisms among 80 Malaysian breast cancer patients. The genetic polymorphisms of all the 9 exons of CYP2D6 gene were identified using high-resolution melting analysis and confirmed by DNA sequencing. Seven CYP2D6 alleles consisting of CYP2D6*1, CYP2D6*2, CYP2D6*4, CYP2D6*10, CYP2D6*39, CYP2D6*49, and CYP2D6*75 were identified in this study. Among these alleles, CYP2D6*10 is the most common allele in both Malaysian Malay (54.8%) and Chinese (71.4%) breast cancer patients, whereas CYP2D6*4 in Malaysian Indian (28.6%) breast cancer patients. In relation to CYP2D6 genotype, CYP2D6*10/*10 is more frequently observed in both Malaysian Malay (28.9%) and Chinese (57.1%) breast cancer patients, whereas CYP2D6*4/*10 is more frequently observed in Malaysian Indian (42.8%) breast cancer patients. In terms of CYP2D6 phenotype, 61.5% of Malaysian Malay breast cancer patients are predicted as extensive metabolizers in which they are most likely to respond well to tamoxifen therapy. However, 57.1% of Chinese as well as Indian breast cancer patients are predicted as intermediate metabolizers and they are less likely to gain optimal benefit from the tamoxifen therapy. This is the first report of CYP2D6 genetic polymorphisms and phenotypes in Malaysian breast cancer patients for different ethnicities. These data may aid clinicians in selecting an optimal drug therapy for Malaysian breast cancer patients, hence improve the

  8. A fluorescent sensor for highly selective detection of nitroaromatic explosives based on a 2D, extremely stable, metal-organic framework.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Shu-Ran; Du, Dong-Ying; Qin, Jun-Sheng; Bao, Shao-Juan; Li, Shun-Li; He, Wen-Wen; Lan, Ya-Qian; Shen, Ping; Su, Zhong-Min

    2014-03-24

    A 2D, extremely stable, metal-organic framework (MOF), NENU-503, was successfully constructed. It displays highly selective and recyclable properties in detection of nitroaromatic explosives as a fluorescent sensor. This is the first MOF that can distinguish between nitroaromatic molecules with different numbers of NO2 groups. © 2014 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  9. Combined 3D photoacoustic and 2D fluorescence imaging of indocyanine green contrast agent flow

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kosik, Ivan; Carson, Jeffrey J. L.

    2013-03-01

    Photoacoustic imaging uses laser induced ultrasound transients to generate optical absorption maps of the illuminated volume. In this work, we used a custom built photoacoustic imaging system consisting of a 60-channel transducer array, a 50 MHz data acquisition system, and an Nd:YAG pumped OPO laser, to perform simultaneous photoacoustic and fluorescence imaging. A single 780 nm laser pulse generated both ultrasound and fluorescence, enabling reconstruction of images for both modalities with near perfect temporal co-registration. The result highlighted the ability of photoacoustic imaging to supplement fluorescence data when optical scatter reduces fluorescence resolution beyond its useful range.

  10. Conformation and electronic population transfer in membrane-supported self-assembled porphyrin dimers by 2D fluorescence spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Perdomo-Ortiz, Alejandro; Widom, Julia R; Lott, Geoffrey A; Aspuru-Guzik, Alán; Marcus, Andrew H

    2012-09-06

    Two-dimensional fluorescence spectroscopy (2D FS) is applied to determine the conformation and femtosecond electronic population transfer in a dimer of magnesium meso tetraphenylporphyrin. The dimers are prepared by self-assembly of the monomer within the amphiphilic regions of 1,2-distearoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine liposomes. A theoretical framework to describe 2D FS experiments is presented, and a direct comparison is made between the observables of this measurement and those of 2D electronic spectroscopy (2D ES). The sensitivity of the method to varying dimer conformation is explored. A global multivariable fitting analysis of linear and 2D FS data indicates that the dimer adopts a "bent T-shaped" conformation. Moreover, the manifold of singly excited excitons undergoes rapid electronic dephasing and downhill population transfer on the time scale of ∼95 fs. The open conformation of the dimer suggests that its self-assembly is favored by an increase in entropy of the local membrane environment.

  11. Site-specific difference 2D-IR spectroscopy of bacteriorhodopsin.

    PubMed

    Andresen, Esben Ravn; Hamm, Peter

    2009-05-07

    We demonstrate the extension of the principle of difference Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy to difference 2D-IR spectroscopy. To this end, we measure difference 2D-IR spectra of the protein bacteriorhodopsin in its early J- and K-intermediates. By comparing with the static 2D-IR spectrum of the protonated Schiff base of all-trans retinal, we demonstrate that the 2D-IR spectrum of the all-trans retinal chromophore in bacteriorhodopsin can be measured with the background from the remainder of the protein completely suppressed. We discuss several models to interpret the detailed line shape of the difference 2D-IR spectrum.

  12. Cloning and characterization of a novel human phosphatidic acid phosphatase type 2, PAP2d, with two different transcripts PAP2d_v1 and PAP2d_v2.

    PubMed

    Sun, Liyun; Gu, Shaohua; Sun, Yaqiong; Zheng, Dan; Wu, Qihan; Li, Xin; Dai, Jianfeng; Dai, Jianliang; Ji, Chaoneng; Xie, Yi; Mao, Yumin

    2005-04-01

    This study reports the cloning and characterization of a novel human phosphatidic acid phosphatase type 2 isoform cDNAs (PAP2d) from the foetal brain cDNA library. The PAP2d gene is localized on chromosome 1p21.3. It contains six exons and spans 112 kb of the genomic DNA. By large-scale cDNA sequencing we found two splice variants of PAP2d, PAP2d_v1 and PAP2d_v2. The PAP2d_v1 cDNA is 1722 bp in length and spans an open reading frame from nucleotide 56 to 1021, encoding a 321aa protein. The PAP2d_v2 cDNA is 1707 bp in length encoding a 316aa protein from nucleotide 56-1006. The PAP2d_v1 cDNA is 15 bp longer than the PAP2d_v2 cDNA in the terminal of the fifth exon and it creates different ORF. Both of the proteins contain a well-conserved PAP2 motif. The PAP2d_v1 is mainly expressed in human brain, lung, kidney, testis and colon, while PAP2d_v2 is restricted to human placenta, skeletal muscle, and kidney. The two splice variants are co-expressed only in kidney.

  13. 2d:4d, sex steroid hormones and human psychological sex differences.

    PubMed

    Vermeersch, Hans; T'Sjoen, Guy; Kaufman, J M; Vincke, J

    2008-08-01

    Studies on 2d:4d, the ratio between the second and the fourth digit, as a possible indicator of prenatal androgen exposure, have failed to produce consistent results. This paper analyzes the relation between 2d:4d, sex steroids and well-documented sex differences in characteristics such as depression, dominance, and aggressive (ART) and non-aggressive adolescent risk-taking (NART) in a comparatively large sample of adolescent boys (N=301, mean age: 14.4 years) and girls (N=298, mean age: 14.3 years). Boys had on average a lower 2d:4d than girls (F=42.15; p<0.001). With respect to boys, controlling for age and pubertal development (PD), a small but marginally significant positive association was found between 2d:4d and total testosterone (TT) (r=0.11; p<0.05). In girls a significant association was found between 2d:4d and SHBG (r=0.18; p<0.01). However, relationships between 2d:4d and hormones depended on the phase of the menstrual cycle, with 2d:4d being negatively associated with FT (B=-0.013; p<0.05) once a positive association between 2d:4d and FT for girls in the mid-cycle group (B=0.019; p<0.01) is taken into account. With respect to sex differences in characteristics, we found evidence of a relationship between 2d:4d and depression in boys (r=-0.14; p<0.05) but not between 2d:4d and dominance, ART or NART. No relationships were found between 2d:4d and any of these variables in girls.

  14. 2D ratiometric fluorescent pH sensor for tracking of cells proliferation and metabolism.

    PubMed

    Ma, Jun; Ding, Changqin; Zhou, Jie; Tian, Yang

    2015-08-15

    Extracellular pH plays a vital role no matter in physiological or pathological studies. In this work, a hydrogel, CD@Nile-FITC@Gel (Gel sensor), entrapping the ratiometric fluorescent probe CD@Nile-FITC was developed. The Gel sensor was successfully used for real-time extracellular pH monitoring. In the case of CD@Nile-FITC, pH-sensitive fluorescent dye fluorescein isothiocyanate (FITC) was chosen as the response signal for H(+) and Nile blue chloride (Nile) as the reference signal. The developed fluorescent probe exhibited high selectivity for pH over other metal ions and amino acids. Meanwhile, the carbon-dots-based inorganic-organic probe demonstrated excellent photostability against long-term light illumination. In order to study the extracellular pH change in processes of cell proliferation and metabolism, CD@Nile-FITC probe was entrapped in sodium alginate gel and consequently formed CD@Nile-FITC@Gel. The MTT assay showed low cytotoxicity of the Gel and the pH titration indicated that it could monitor the pH fluctuations linearly and rapidly within the pH range of 6.0-9.0, which is valuable for physiological pH determination. As expected, the real-time bioimaging of the probe was successfully achieved.

  15. An algorithm to correct 2D near-infrared fluorescence signals using 3D intravascular ultrasound architectural information

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mallas, Georgios; Brooks, Dana H.; Rosenthal, Amir; Vinegoni, Claudio; Calfon, Marcella A.; Razansky, R. Nika; Jaffer, Farouc A.; Ntziachristos, Vasilis

    2011-03-01

    Intravascular Near-Infrared Fluorescence (NIRF) imaging is a promising imaging modality to image vessel biology and high-risk plaques in vivo. We have developed a NIRF fiber optic catheter and have presented the ability to image atherosclerotic plaques in vivo, using appropriate NIR fluorescent probes. Our catheter consists of a 100/140 μm core/clad diameter housed in polyethylene tubing, emitting NIR laser light at a 90 degree angle compared to the fiber's axis. The system utilizes a rotational and a translational motor for true 2D imaging and operates in conjunction with a coaxial intravascular ultrasound (IVUS) device. IVUS datasets provide 3D images of the internal structure of arteries and are used in our system for anatomical mapping. Using the IVUS images, we are building an accurate hybrid fluorescence-IVUS data inversion scheme that takes into account photon propagation through the blood filled lumen. This hybrid imaging approach can then correct for the non-linear dependence of light intensity on the distance of the fluorescence region from the fiber tip, leading to quantitative imaging. The experimental and algorithmic developments will be presented and the effectiveness of the algorithm showcased with experimental results in both saline and blood-like preparations. The combined structural and molecular information obtained from these two imaging modalities are positioned to enable the accurate diagnosis of biologically high-risk atherosclerotic plaques in the coronary arteries that are responsible for heart attacks.

  16. 2D laser-collision induced fluorescence in low-pressure argon discharges

    SciTech Connect

    Barnat, E. V.; Weatherford, B. R.

    2015-09-25

    Development and application of laser-collision induced fluorescence (LCIF) diagnostic technique is presented for the use of interrogating argon plasma discharges. Key atomic states of argon utilized for the LCIF method are identified. A simplified two-state collisional radiative model is then used to establish scaling relations between the LCIF, electron density, and reduced electric fields (E/N). The procedure used to generate, detect and calibrate the LCIF in controlled plasma environments is discussed in detail. LCIF emanating from an argon discharge is then presented for electron densities spanning 109 e cm–3 to 1012 e cm–3 and reduced electric fields spanning 0.1 Td to 40 Td. Lastly, application of the LCIF technique for measuring the spatial distribution of both electron densities and reduced electric field is demonstrated.

  17. 2D laser-collision induced fluorescence in low-pressure argon discharges

    DOE PAGES

    Barnat, E. V.; Weatherford, B. R.

    2015-09-25

    Development and application of laser-collision induced fluorescence (LCIF) diagnostic technique is presented for the use of interrogating argon plasma discharges. Key atomic states of argon utilized for the LCIF method are identified. A simplified two-state collisional radiative model is then used to establish scaling relations between the LCIF, electron density, and reduced electric fields (E/N). The procedure used to generate, detect and calibrate the LCIF in controlled plasma environments is discussed in detail. LCIF emanating from an argon discharge is then presented for electron densities spanning 109 e cm–3 to 1012 e cm–3 and reduced electric fields spanning 0.1 Tdmore » to 40 Td. Lastly, application of the LCIF technique for measuring the spatial distribution of both electron densities and reduced electric field is demonstrated.« less

  18. Nearly incompressible turbulence for different 2D and slab energy ratios

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Adhikari, L.; Zank, G. P.; Hunana, P.; Bruno, R.; Telloni, D.; Hu, Q.; Shiota, D.

    2017-09-01

    Zank et al 2017 [1] developed equations describing the transport of 2D and slab turbulence based on nearly incompressible magnetohydrodynamic (NI MHD) theory. Zank et al [1] discussed preliminary solutions of the model equations, and Adhikari et al [2] provided a detailed analysis of the model equations. Their analyses of the 2D and slab turbulence transport model equations were based on the ratio of the inner boundary values of the 2D and slab energies being of the order 80:20. Here, we investigate the effect of choosing the 2D and slab energy ratios to be 80:20, 70:30, 60:40, and 55:45 for the boundary energy values, and solve the 2D and slab turbulence transport model equations. We compare our theoretical results with observations made by Voyager 2 and Ulysses. We find that the 2D and slab turbulent quantities such as the energy in forward and backward propagating modes, the fluctuating kinetic and magnetic energy, for example, are different for different boundary values, but show similar trends with increasing heliocentric distance. In addition, we also investigate the model equations by including a shear source of turbulence in the slab turbulence transport equations. This was not considered by [1] and [2]. We find that the slab turbulent quantities behave more reasonably in the presence of both shear and pickup ion sources of turbulence.

  19. Compensation of inhomogeneous fluorescence signal distribution in 2D images acquired by confocal microscopy.

    PubMed

    Michálek, Jan; Capek, Martin; Kubínová, Lucie

    2011-09-01

    In images acquired by confocal laser scanning microscopy (CLSM), regions corresponding to the same concentration of fluorophores in the specimen should be mapped to the same grayscale levels. However, in practice, due to multiple distortion effects, CLSM images of even homogeneous specimen regions suffer from irregular brightness variations, e.g., darkening of image edges and lightening of the center. The effects are yet more pronounced in images of real biological specimens. A spatially varying grayscale map complicates image postprocessing, e.g., in alignment of overlapping regions of two images and in 3D reconstructions, since measures of similarity usually assume a spatially independent grayscale map. We present a fast correction method based on estimating a spatially variable illumination gain, and multiplying acquired CLSM images by the inverse of the estimated gain. The method does not require any special calibration of reference images since the gain estimate is extracted from the CLSM image being corrected itself. The proposed approach exploits two types of morphological filters: the median filter and the upper Lipschitz cover. The presented correction method, tested on images of both artificial (homogeneous fluorescent layer) and real biological specimens, namely sections of a rat embryo and a rat brain, proved to be very fast and yielded a significant visual improvement. Copyright © 2010 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  20. 2D numerical simulation of the MEP energy-transport model with a finite difference scheme

    SciTech Connect

    Romano, V. . E-mail: romano@dmi.unict.it

    2007-02-10

    A finite difference scheme of Scharfetter-Gummel type is used to simulate a consistent energy-transport model for electron transport in semiconductors devices, free of any fitting parameters, formulated on the basis of the maximum entropy principle. Simulations of silicon n{sup +}-n-n{sup +} diodes, 2D-MESFET and 2D-MOSFET and comparisons with the results obtained by a direct simulation of the Boltzmann transport equation and with other energy-transport models, known in the literature, show the validity of the model and the robustness of the numerical scheme.

  1. Interpreting digit ratio (2D:4D)-behavior correlations: 2D:4D sex difference, stability, and behavioral correlates and their replicability in young children.

    PubMed

    Wong, Wang I; Hines, Melissa

    2016-02-01

    The popularity of using the ratio of the second to the fourth digit (2D:4D) to study influences of early androgen exposure on human behavior relies, in part, on a report that the ratio is sex-dimorphic and stable from age 2 years (Manning etal., 1998). However, subsequent research has rarely replicated this finding. Moreover, although 2D:4D has been correlated with many behaviors, these correlations are often inconsistent. Young children's 2D:4D-behavior correlations may be more consistent than those of older individuals, because young children have experienced fewer postnatal influences. To evaluate the usefulness of 2D:4D as a biomarker of prenatal androgen exposure in studies of 2D:4D-behavior correlations, we assessed its sex difference, temporal stability, and behavioral correlates over a 6- to 8-month period in 126, 2- to 3-year-old children, providing a rare same-sample replicability test. We found a moderate sex difference on both hands and high temporal stability. However, between-sex overlap and within-sex variability were also large. Only 3 of 24 correlations with sex-typed behaviors-scores on the Preschool Activities Inventory (PSAI), preference for a boy-typical toy, preference for a girl-typical toy, were significant and in the predicted direction, all of which involved the PSAI, partially confirming findings from another study. Correlation coefficients were larger for behaviors that showed larger sex differences. But, as in older samples, the overall pattern showed inconsistency across time, sex, and hand. Therefore, although sex-dimorphic and stable, 2D:4D-behavior correlations are no more consistent for young children than for older samples. Theoretical and methodological implications are discussed. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Vibrating sample magnetometer 2D and 3D magnetization effects associated with different initial magnetization states

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lukins, Ronald E.

    2017-05-01

    Differences in VSM magnetization vector rotation associated with various initial magnetization states were demonstrated. Procedures and criteria were developed to select sample orientation and initial magnetization states to allow for the combination of two different 2D measurements runs (with the same field profiles) to generate a dataset that can be representative of actual 3D magnetization rotation. Nickel, cast iron, and low moment magnetic tape media were used to demonstrate these effects using hysteresis and remanent magnetization test sequences. These results can be used to generate 2D and 3D magnetic properties to better characterize magnetic phenomena which are inherently three dimensional. Example applications are magnetic tape-head orientation sensitivity, reinterpretation of 3D coercivity and other standard magnetic properties, and multi-dimensional shielding effectiveness.

  3. Spatial Solitons in 2D Graded-Index Waveguides with Different Distributed Transverse Diffractions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Yi-Xiang

    2014-02-01

    We discuss the nonlinear Schrödinger equation with variable coefficients in 2D graded-index waveguides with different distributed transverse diffractions and obtain exact bright and dark soliton solutions. Based on these solutions, we mainly investigate the dynamical behaviors of solitons in three different diffraction decreasing waveguides with the hyperbolic, Gaussian and Logarithmic profiles. Results indicate that for the same parameters, the amplitude of bright solitons in the Logarithmic profile and the amplitude of dark solitons in the Gaussian profile are biggest respectively, and the amplitude in the hyperbolic profile is smallest, while the width of solitons has the opposite case.

  4. Interfractional trend analysis of dose differences based on 2D transit portal dosimetry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Persoon, L. C. G. G.; Nijsten, S. M. J. J. G.; Wilbrink, F. J.; Podesta, M.; Snaith, J. A. D.; Lustberg, T.; van Elmpt, W. J. C.; van Gils, F.; Verhaegen, F.

    2012-10-01

    Dose delivery of a radiotherapy treatment can be influenced by a number of factors. It has been demonstrated that the electronic portal imaging device (EPID) is valuable for transit portal dosimetry verification. Patient related dose differences can emerge at any time during treatment and can be categorized in two types: (1) systematic—appearing repeatedly, (2) random—appearing sporadically during treatment. The aim of this study is to investigate how systematic and random information appears in 2D transit dose distributions measured in the EPID plane over the entire course of a treatment and how this information can be used to examine interfractional trends, building toward a methodology to support adaptive radiotherapy. To create a trend overview of the interfractional changes in transit dose, the predicted portal dose for the different beams is compared to a measured portal dose using a γ evaluation. For each beam of the delivered fraction, information is extracted from the γ images to differentiate systematic from random dose delivery errors. From the systematic differences of a fraction for a projected anatomical structures, several metrics are extracted like percentage pixels with |γ| > 1. We demonstrate for four example cases the trends and dose difference causes which can be detected with this method. Two sample prostate cases show the occurrence of a random and systematic difference and identify the organ that causes the difference. In a lung cancer case a trend is shown of a rapidly diminishing atelectasis (lung fluid) during the course of treatment, which was detected with this trend analysis method. The final example is a breast cancer case where we show the influence of set-up differences on the 2D transit dose. A method is presented based on 2D portal transit dosimetry to record dose changes throughout the course of treatment, and to allow trend analysis of dose discrepancies. We show in example cases that this method can identify the causes of

  5. 2D:4D asymmetry and gender differences in academic performance.

    PubMed

    Nye, John V C; Androuschak, Gregory; Desierto, Desirée; Jones, Garett; Yudkevich, Maria

    2012-01-01

    Exposure to prenatal androgens affects both future behavior and life choices. However, there is still relatively limited evidence on its effects on academic performance. Moreover, the predicted effect of exposure to prenatal testosterone (T)-which is inversely correlated with the relative length of the second to fourth finger lengths (2D:4D)-would seem to have ambiguous effects on academic achievement since traits like aggressiveness or risk-taking are not uniformly positive for success in school. We provide the first evidence of a non-linear, quadratic, relationship between 2D:4D and academic achievement using samples from Moscow and Manila. We also find that there is a gender differentiated link between various measures of academic achievement and measured digit ratios. These effects are different depending on the field of study, choice of achievement measure, and use of the right hand or left digit ratios. The results seem to be asymmetric between Moscow and Manila where the right (left) hand generates inverted-U (U-shaped) curves in Moscow while the pattern for hands reverses in Manila. Drawing from unusually large and detailed samples of university students in two countries not studied in the digit literature, our work is the first to have a large cross country comparison that includes two groups with very different ethnic compositions.

  6. 2D:4D Asymmetry and Gender Differences in Academic Performance

    PubMed Central

    Nye, John V. C.; Androuschak, Gregory; Desierto, Desirée; Jones, Garett; Yudkevich, Maria

    2012-01-01

    Exposure to prenatal androgens affects both future behavior and life choices. However, there is still relatively limited evidence on its effects on academic performance. Moreover, the predicted effect of exposure to prenatal testosterone (T)–which is inversely correlated with the relative length of the second to fourth finger lengths (2D:4D)–would seem to have ambiguous effects on academic achievement since traits like aggressiveness or risk-taking are not uniformly positive for success in school. We provide the first evidence of a non-linear, quadratic, relationship between 2D:4D and academic achievement using samples from Moscow and Manila. We also find that there is a gender differentiated link between various measures of academic achievement and measured digit ratios. These effects are different depending on the field of study, choice of achievement measure, and use of the right hand or left digit ratios. The results seem to be asymmetric between Moscow and Manila where the right (left) hand generates inverted-U (U-shaped) curves in Moscow while the pattern for hands reverses in Manila. Drawing from unusually large and detailed samples of university students in two countries not studied in the digit literature, our work is the first to have a large cross country comparison that includes two groups with very different ethnic compositions. PMID:23056282

  7. A 2D/3D image analysis system to track fluorescently labeled structures in rod-shaped cells: application to measure spindle pole asymmetry during mitosis.

    PubMed

    Schmitter, Daniel; Wachowicz, Paulina; Sage, Daniel; Chasapi, Anastasia; Xenarios, Ioannis; Simanis; Unser, Michael

    2013-01-01

    The yeast Schizosaccharomyces pombe is frequently used as a model for studying the cell cycle. The cells are rod-shaped and divide by medial fission. The process of cell division, or cytokinesis, is controlled by a network of signaling proteins called the Septation Initiation Network (SIN); SIN proteins associate with the SPBs during nuclear division (mitosis). Some SIN proteins associate with both SPBs early in mitosis, and then display strongly asymmetric signal intensity at the SPBs in late mitosis, just before cytokinesis. This asymmetry is thought to be important for correct regulation of SIN signaling, and coordination of cytokinesis and mitosis. In order to study the dynamics of organelles or large protein complexes such as the spindle pole body (SPB), which have been labeled with a fluorescent protein tag in living cells, a number of the image analysis problems must be solved; the cell outline must be detected automatically, and the position and signal intensity associated with the structures of interest within the cell must be determined. We present a new 2D and 3D image analysis system that permits versatile and robust analysis of motile, fluorescently labeled structures in rod-shaped cells. We have designed an image analysis system that we have implemented as a user-friendly software package allowing the fast and robust image-analysis of large numbers of rod-shaped cells. We have developed new robust algorithms, which we combined with existing methodologies to facilitate fast and accurate analysis. Our software permits the detection and segmentation of rod-shaped cells in either static or dynamic (i.e. time lapse) multi-channel images. It enables tracking of two structures (for example SPBs) in two different image channels. For 2D or 3D static images, the locations of the structures are identified, and then intensity values are extracted together with several quantitative parameters, such as length, width, cell orientation, background fluorescence and

  8. 2D ion velocity distribution function measurements by laser-induced fluorescence above a radio-frequency biased silicon wafer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moore, Nathaniel; Gekelman, Walter; Pribyl, Patrick; Zhang, Yiting; Kushner, Mark

    2012-10-01

    Ion dynamics have been measured in the sheath above a 30 cm diameter, 2.2 MHz-biased silicon wafer in a plasma processing etch tool using laser-induced fluorescence (LIF). The velocity distribution function of argon ions was measured at thousands of positions above and radially along the edge of the wafer by sending a planar laser sheet from a pulsed, tunable dye laser into the tool. The RF sheath is clearly resolved. The laser sheet entered the machine both parallel and perpendicular to the wafer in order to measure the distribution function for both parallel and perpendicular velocities/energies (0.4 eV < Emax<600 eV). The resulting fluorescence was recorded using a fast CCD camera, which provided spatial (0.4 mm) and temporal (30 ns) resolution. Data was taken at eight different phases of the 2.2 MHz cycle. The distribution functions were found to be spatially non-uniform near the edge of the wafer and the distribution of energies extremely phase-dependent. Several cm above the wafer the distribution is Maxwellian and independent of phase. Results are compared with simulations; for example, the experimental time-averaged ion energy distribution function compares favorably with a computer model carefully constructed to emulate the device.

  9. 2D ion velocity distribution function measurements by laser-induced fluorescence above a radio-frequency biased silicon wafer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moore, Nathaniel; Gekelman, Walter; Pribyl, Patrick; Zhang, Yiting; Kushner, Mark

    2012-10-01

    Ion dynamics have been measured in the sheath above a 30 cm diameter, 2.2 MHz-biased silicon wafer in a plasma processing etch tool using laser-induced fluorescence (LIF). The velocity distribution function of argon ions was measured at thousands of positions above and radially along the edge of the wafer by sending a planar laser sheet from a pulsed, tunable dye laser into the tool. The RF sheath is clearly resolved. The laser sheet entered the machine both parallel and perpendicular to the wafer in order to measure the distribution function for both parallel and perpendicular velocities/energies (0.4 eV < Emax< 600 eV). The resulting fluorescence was recorded using a fast CCD camera, which provided spatial (0.4 mm) and temporal (30 ns) resolution. Data was taken at eight different phases of the 2.2 MHz cycle. The distribution functions were found to be spatially non-uniform near the edge of the wafer and the distribution of energies extremely phase-dependent. Several cm above the wafer the distribution is Maxwellian and independent of phase. Results are compared with simulations; for example, the experimental time-averaged ion energy distribution function compares favorably with a computer model carefully constructed to emulate the device.

  10. Meta-analysis of digit ratio 2D:4D shows greater sex difference in the right hand.

    PubMed

    Hönekopp, Johannes; Watson, Steven

    2010-01-01

    Our aims are, first, to describe the sex difference in the length ratio of the second and fourth digits (2D:4D), which likely reflects prenatal testosterone levels in humans. Second, to infer the loss of reliability observed in 2D:4D based on self-measured finger lengths. We used random-effects meta-analysis of 2D:4D based on expert-measured finger lengths (116 samples with 13,260 females and 11,789 males). We find a moderate sex difference (with lower 2D:4D for males), which shows substantial heterogeneity (which is unrelated to age). The sex difference is moderated by the type of finger length measurement and by hand. Measurement involving the distortion of soft tissue leads to a significantly larger sex difference than finger length measurement avoiding this. The sex difference in 2D:4D is larger in the right hand than in the left. The reliability of self-measured 2D:4D in the BBC internet study, by far the largest study on 2D:4D, is estimated to be 46% of that of expert-measured 2D:4D. Right-hand 2D:4D might be a better indicator of prenatal androgenisation than left-hand 2D:4D. The view that 2D:4D has allometric properties (Kratochvil L, Flegr J. 2009. Differences in 2nd to 4th digit length ratio in humans reflect shifts along the common allometric line. Biol Lett 5:643-646.) is not supported. Bone lengths contribute to the sex difference in 2D:4D. In addition, there might be a sex difference in fingers' soft tissue, which should be investigated. Because of measurement unreliability, correlations between 2D:4D and variables of interest are about one-third smaller in the BBC internet study than in studies in which 2D:4D is based on expert-measured finger lengths. (c) 2010 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  11. Expression of green fluorescent protein in human foreskin fibroblasts for use in 2D and 3D culture models.

    PubMed

    Chao, Jie; Peña, Tiffany; Heimann, Dean G; Hansen, Chris; Doyle, David A; Yanala, Ujwal R; Guenther, Timothy M; Carlson, Mark A

    2014-01-01

    The availability of fibroblasts that express green fluorescent protein (GFP) would be of interest for the monitoring of cell growth, migration, contraction, and other processes within the fibroblast-populated collagen matrix and other culture systems. A plasmid lentiviral vector-GFP (pLV-GFP) was utilized for gene delivery to produce primary human foreskin fibroblasts (HFFs) that stably express GFP. Cell morphology, cell migration, and collagen contraction were compared between nontransduced HFFs and transduced GFP-HFFs; no differences were observed. Immunocytochemical staining showed no differences in cell morphology between nontransduced and GFP-HFFs in both two-dimensional and three-dimensional culture systems. Furthermore, there was no significant difference in cellular population growth within the collagen matrix populated with nontransduced vs. GFP-HFFs. Within the limits of our assays, we conclude that transduction of GFP into HFFs did not alter the observed properties of HFFs compared with nontransduced fibroblasts. The GFP-HFFs may represent a new tool for the convenient monitoring of living primary fibroblast processes in two-dimensional or three-dimensional culture.

  12. M2Di: Concise and efficient MATLAB 2-D Stokes solvers using the Finite Difference Method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Räss, Ludovic; Duretz, Thibault; Podladchikov, Yury Y.; Schmalholz, Stefan M.

    2017-02-01

    Recent development of many multiphysics modeling tools reflects the currently growing interest for studying coupled processes in Earth Sciences. The core of such tools should rely on fast and robust mechanical solvers. Here we provide M2Di, a set of routines for 2-D linear and power law incompressible viscous flow based on Finite Difference discretizations. The 2-D codes are written in a concise vectorized MATLAB fashion and can achieve a time to solution of 22 s for linear viscous flow on 10002 grid points using a standard personal computer. We provide application examples spanning from finely resolved crystal-melt dynamics, deformation of heterogeneous power law viscous fluids to instantaneous models of mantle flow in cylindrical coordinates. The routines are validated against analytical solution for linear viscous flow with highly variable viscosity and compared against analytical and numerical solutions of power law viscous folding and necking. In the power law case, both Picard and Newton iterations schemes are implemented. For linear Stokes flow and Picard linearization, the discretization results in symmetric positive-definite matrix operators on Cartesian grids with either regular or variable grid spacing allowing for an optimized solving procedure. For Newton linearization, the matrix operator is no longer symmetric and an adequate solving procedure is provided. The reported performance of linear and power law Stokes flow is finally analyzed in terms of wall time. All MATLAB codes are provided and can readily be used for educational as well as research purposes. The M2Di routines are available from Bitbucket and the University of Lausanne Scientific Computing Group website, and are also supplementary material to this article.

  13. Frequencies of CYP2D6 mutant alleles in a normal Japanese population and metabolic activity of dextromethorphan O-demethylation in different CYP2D6 genotypes

    PubMed Central

    Kubota, T; Yamaura, Y; Ohkawa, N; Hara, H; Chiba, K

    2000-01-01

    Aims To determine the frequencies of 11 CYP2D6 mutant alleles (CYP2D6*2,*3,*4,*5,*8,*10,*11,*12,*14,*17 and *18), and their relation to the metabolic capacity of CYP2D6 in Japanese subjects. Methods One hundred and sixty-two unrelated healthy Japanese subjects were genotyped with the polymerase chain reaction amplification method and 35 subjects were phenotyped with dextromethorphan. Results The frequencies of CYP2D6*2,*5, *10 and *14 were 12.9, 6.2, 38.6 and 2.2% in our Japanese subjects, respectively. CYP2D6*3, *4, *8, *11, *12, *17 and *18 were not detected. The mean log metabolic ratio of dextromethorphan in subjects with genotypes predicting intermediate metabolizers was significantly greater than that of heterozygotes for functional and defective alleles. Conclusions CYP2D6*5 and CYP2D6*14 are the major defective alleles found in Japanese subjects. In addition, CYP2D6*10 may play a more important role than previously thought for the treatment of Japanese patients with drugs metabolized by CYP2D6. PMID:10886115

  14. Binding of 7-methoxy-4-(aminomethyl)-coumarin to wild-type and W128F mutant cytochrome P450 2D6 studied by time-resolved fluorescence spectroscopy

    PubMed Central

    Stortelder, Aike; Keizers, Peter H. J.; Oostenbrink, Chris; De Graaf, Chris; De Kruijf, Petra; Vermeulen, Nico P. E.; Gooijer, Cees; Commandeur, Jan N. M.; Van Der Zwan, Gert

    2005-01-01

    Enzyme structure and dynamics may play a main role in substrate binding and the subsequent steps in the CYP (cytochrome P450) catalytic cycle. In the present study, changes in the structure of human CYP2D6 upon binding of the substrate are studied using steady-state and time-resolved fluorescence methods, focusing not only on the emission of the tryptophan residues, but also on emission of the substrate. As a substrate, MAMC [7-methoxy-4-(aminomethyl)-coumarin] was selected, a compound exhibiting native fluorescence. As well as the wild-type, the W128F (Trp128→Phe) mutant of CYP2D6 was studied. After binding, a variety of energy transfer possibilities exist, and molecular dynamics simulations were performed to calculate distances and relative orientations of donors and acceptors. Energy transfer from Trp128 to haem appeared to be important; its emission was related to the shortest of the three average tryptophan fluorescence lifetimes observed for CYP2D6. MAMC to haem energy transfer was very efficient as well: when bound in the active site, the emission of MAMC was fully quenched. Steady-state anisotropy revealed that besides the MAMC in the active site, another 2.4% of MAMC was bound outside of the active site to wild-type CYP2D6. The tryptophan residues in CYP2D6 appeared to be less accessible for the external quenchers iodide and acrylamide in presence of MAMC, indicating a tightening of the enzyme structure upon substrate binding. However, the changes in the overall enzyme structure were not very large, since the emission characteristics of the enzyme were not very different in the presence of MAMC. PMID:16190863

  15. Characterization and quantification of humic substances 2D-Fluorescence by usage of extended size exclusion chromatography.

    PubMed

    Wagner, Martin; Schmidt, Wido; Imhof, Lutz; Grübel, Anika; Jähn, Camilla; Georgi, Denise; Petzoldt, Heike

    2016-04-15

    In this article, two methods for in-depth analysis of humic substances fluorescence are presented. The first one allows the combined analysis of fluorescence excitation-emission matrix (EEM) with chromatography technique. The main issue is the coupling of size exclusion chromatography (SEC) with spectroscopy by the use of an absorption and a fluorescence spectrometer as additional detectors. These allow a detailed characterization of humic substances depending on their molecular size, concentration and optical properties. For the evaluation of the resulting complex data, a model based on non-negative matrix factorization, which is also presented in this article, was developed. From the results of the examined humic substances standards, the second method was developed. It allows the characterization and quantification of humic substances fluorescence of a natural water sample solely on the basis of an excitation-emission matrix. The validation of the model is carried out within the framework of extensive analysis of real water samples.

  16. Full 2D observation of water surface elevation from SWOT under different flow conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Domeneghetti, Alessio; Schumann, Guy; Rui, Wei; Durand, Michael; Pavelsky, Tamlin

    2016-04-01

    The upcoming Surface Water and Ocean Topography (SWOT) satellite mission is a joint project of NASA, Centre National d'Etudes Spatiales (CNES, France), the Canadian Space Agency, and the Space Agency of the UK that will provide a first global, high-resolution observation of ocean and terrestrial water surface heights. Characterized by an observation swath of 120 km and an orbit repeat interval of about 21 days, SWOT will provide unprecedented bi-dimensional observations of rivers wider than 50-100 m. Despite many research activities that have investigated potential uses of remotely sensed data from SWOT, potentials and limitations of the spatial observations provided by the satellite mission for flood modeling still remain poorly understood and investigated. In this study we present a first analysis of the spatial observation of water surface elevation that is expected from SWOT for a 140 km reach of the middle-lower portion of the Po River, in Northern Italy. The river stretch is characterized by a main channel varying from 200-500 m in width and a floodplain that can be as wide as 5 km and that is delimited by a system of major embankments. The reconstruction of the hydraulic behavior of the Po River is performed by means of a quasi-2d model built with detailed topographic and bathymetric information (LiDAR, 2 m resolution), while the simulation of the spatial observation sensed by SWOT is performed with a SWOT simulator that mimics the satellite sensor characteristics. Referring to water surface elevations associated with different flow conditions (maximum, minimum and average flow reproduced by means of the quasi-2d numerical model) this work provides a first characterization of the spatial observations provided by SWOT and highlights the strengths and limitations of the expected products. By referring to a real river reach the analysis provides a credible example of the type of spatial observations that will be available after launch of SWOT and offers a first

  17. Crystal structures and fluorescence properties of two 2D MnII/CdII trimellitic complexes containing terpyridine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ren, Yixia; Chai, Hongmei; Hou, Xiangyang; Wang, Jijiang; Fu, Feng

    2015-12-01

    Hydrothermal reactions of manganese (II)/cadmium(II) salts with 1,2,4-trimellitic acid (H3tma) and 2,2‧:6‧,2-terpyridine (tpy) result in two novel complexes formulated with [M(Htma)(tpy)]·H2O (M = Mn(1) and Cd(2)). X-ray diffraction structural analyses of two complexes reveal they are isomorphic except for the different center metal ions and crystallize in the monoclinic crystal system of P(2)/n space group. The metal ion lies in a six-coordinated distorted octahedral environment coordinated with three Htma2- anions and one tpy ligand. There is an infinite two-dimensional rhombic network based on the metallic dimmers and Htma2- anions with the tpy ligands in void. Furthermore, the tpy ligands from the adjacent network weakly interact each other by π⋯π packing interactions into 3D supramolecular structure. The fluorescence properties could be assigned to the π - π* transition of organic ligands.

  18. M2Di: MATLAB 2D Stokes solvers using the Finite Difference method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Räss, Ludovic; Duretz, Thibault; Schmalholz, Stefan; Podladchikov, Yury

    2017-04-01

    The study of coupled processes in Earth Sciences leads to the development of multiphysics modelling tools. Mechanical solvers represent the essential ingredient of any of these tools such that their performance and robustness is generally dictated by that of the mechanical solver. Here, we present M2Di, a collection of MATLAB routines designed for studying 2D linear and power law incompressible viscous flow using Finite Difference discretisation. The scripts are written in a concise vectorised MATLAB fashion and rely on fast and robust linear and non-linear solvers (Picard and Newton iterations). As a result, time to solution of 22 seconds for linear viscous flow with 104 viscosity jump on 10002 grid points can be achieved on a standard personal computer. We will present a numerous example of applications that span from high resolution crystal-melt dynamics, deformation of heterogeneous power law viscous fluids, instantaneous mantle flow patterns in cylindrical coordinates, and calculation of pressure gradients around inclusions using variable grid spacing. We use analytical solution for linear viscous flow with highly variable viscosity to validate the linear flow solver. Validation of the non-linear solver is achieved by comparing numerical solution to analytic and benchmark solutions of power law viscous folding and necking. The M2Di codes are open source and can hence be used for research or educational purposes.

  19. Optimal implicit 2-D finite differences to model wave propagation in poroelastic media

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Itzá, Reymundo; Iturrarán-Viveros, Ursula; Parra, Jorge O.

    2016-08-01

    Numerical modeling of seismic waves in heterogeneous porous reservoir rocks is an important tool for the interpretation of seismic surveys in reservoir engineering. We apply globally optimal implicit staggered-grid finite differences (FD) to model 2-D wave propagation in heterogeneous poroelastic media at a low-frequency range (<10 kHz). We validate the numerical solution by comparing it to an analytical-transient solution obtaining clear seismic wavefields including fast P and slow P and S waves (for a porous media saturated with fluid). The numerical dispersion and stability conditions are derived using von Neumann analysis, showing that over a wide range of porous materials the Courant condition governs the stability and this optimal implicit scheme improves the stability of explicit schemes. High-order explicit FD can be replaced by some lower order optimal implicit FD so computational cost will not be as expensive while maintaining the accuracy. Here, we compute weights for the optimal implicit FD scheme to attain an accuracy of γ = 10-8. The implicit spatial differentiation involves solving tridiagonal linear systems of equations through Thomas' algorithm.

  20. Comparison of different sets of array configurations for multichannel 2D ERT acquisition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martorana, R.; Capizzi, P.; D'Alessandro, A.; Luzio, D.

    2017-02-01

    Traditional electrode arrays such Wenner-Schlumberger or dipole-dipole are still widely used thanks to their well-known properties but the array configurations are generally not optimized for multi-channel resistivity measures. Synthetic datasets relating to four different arrays, dipole-dipole (DD), pole-dipole (PD), Wenner-Schlumberger (WS) and a modified version of multiple gradient (MG), have been made for a systematic comparison between 2D resistivity models and their inverted images. Different sets of array configurations generated from simple combinations of geometric parameters (potential dipole lengths and dipole separation factors) were tested with synthetic and field data sets, even considering the influence of errors and the acquisition velocity. The purpose is to establish array configurations capable to provide reliable results but, at the same time, not involving excessive survey costs, even linked to the acquiring time and therefore to the number of current dipoles used. For DD, PD and WS arrays a progression of different datasets were considered increasing the number of current dipoles trying to get about the same amount of measures. A multi-coverage MG array configuration is proposed by increasing the lateral coverage and so the number of current dipoles. Noise simulating errors both on the electrode positions and on the electric potential was added. The array configurations have been tested on field data acquired in the landfill site of Bellolampo (Palermo, Italy), to detect and locate the leachate plumes and to identify the HDPE bottom of the landfill. The inversion results were compared using a quantitative analysis of data misfit, relative model resolution and model misfit. The results show that the trends of the first two parameters are linked on the array configuration and that a cumulative analysis of these parameters can help to choose the best array configuration in order to obtain a good resolution and reliability of a survey, according

  1. 2D/3D cryo x-ray fluorescence imaging at the bionanoprobe at the advanced photon source

    SciTech Connect

    Chen, S. Vine, D. J.; Lai, B.; Paunesku, T.; Yuan, Y.; Woloschak, G. E.; Deng, J.; Jin, Q.; Hong, Y. P.; Flachenecker, C.; Hornberger, B.; Brister, K.; Jacobsen, C.; Vogt, S.

    2016-01-28

    Trace elements, particularly metals, play very important roles in biological systems. Synchrotron-based hard X-ray fluorescence microscopy offers the most suitable capabilities to quantitatively study trace metals in thick biological samples, such as whole cells and tissues. In this manuscript, we have demonstrated X-ray fluorescence imaging of frozen-hydrated whole cells using the recent developed Bionanoprobe (BNP). The BNP provides spatial resolution down to 30 nm and cryogenic capabilities. Frozen-hydrated biological cells have been directly examined on a sub-cellular level at liquid nitrogen temperatures with minimal sample preparation.

  2. Sex differences in 2D:4D and aggression in children and adolescents from five regions of Russia.

    PubMed

    Butovskaya, Marina; Fedenok, Julija; Burkova, Valentina; Manning, John

    2013-09-01

    The aim of this study was to consider digit ratio (2D:4D: a putative marker of prenatal testosterone and estrogen levels) and aggression in a sample of 1,452 children and adolescents (mean age 13.6 years) from five regions of Russia. The 2D:4D was calculated from direct measurements of the fingers, and aggression scores were obtained from completed Buss and Perry (J Pers Soc Psychol 63 (1992) 452-459) aggression questionnaires. The 2D:4D demonstrated significant sexual dimorphism, with lower 2D:4D in boys in all regions. Physical aggression scores were highest in boys, but verbal aggression, anger and hostility were highest in girls. The highest right hand 2D:4D in boys was found in the most northerly population (Central Russia Region). Our data revealed small, but highly significant negative correlations between right 2D:4D, right-left 2D:4D (DR-L ) and self-ratings on physical aggression in boys, but not in girls. These relationships remained after considering Russian ethnics only, and controlling for region. We suggest that the associations may be due to sex differences in prenatal androgen secretion. Copyright © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  3. Proteomic investigation of human burn wounds by 2D-difference gel electrophoresis and mass spectrometry

    PubMed Central

    Pollins, Alonda C.; Friedman, David B.; Nanney, Lillian B.

    2009-01-01

    Background In humans, thermal cutaneous injury represents a serious traumatic event that induces a host of dynamic alterations. Unfortunately the molecular mechanisms that underlie these serious perturbations remain poorly understood. We applied a global analysis method to identify dynamically changing proteins within the burn environment, which could eventually become biomarkers or targets for treatment. Materials and Methods Protein extracts of normal/unwounded skin and burn wounds were assayed by 2D difference gel electrophoresis (DIGE), a proteomic technology by which abundance levels of intact proteins (including isoforms) were simultaneously quantified from multiple samples with statistical confidence. Through unsupervised multivariate principal component analysis, protein expression patterns from individual samples were appropriately clustered into their correct temporal healing periods grouped into postburn periods of 1–3 days, 4–6 days or 7–10 days after injury. Forty-six proteins were subsequently selected for identification by matrix assisted laser desorption/ionization-time of flight-mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF-MS). Results Proteins identified with differential temporal patterns of expression included predictable cytoskeletal proteins such as vimentin, and keratins 1, 5, 6, 16, and 17. Other candidate proteins with potential involvement in healing included HSP90, members of the serpin family (Serpin B1, SCCA1 & 2), haptoglobin, gelsolin, eIF4A1, IQGAP1, and TCTP. Conclusions We have utilized the combined technique, DIGE/MS, to capture new insights into cutaneous responses to burn trauma and subsequent processes of early wound healing in humans. This pilot study provides a proteomic snapshot of temporal events that can be used to weave together the interconnected processes that define the response to serious cutaneous injury. PMID:17604053

  4. Mean cell size and collagen orientation from 2D Fourier analysis on confocal laser scanning microscopy and two-photon fluorescence microscopy on human skin in vivo

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lucassen, Gerald W.; Bakker, Bernard L.; Neerken, Sieglinde; Hendriks, Rob F. M.

    2003-07-01

    We present results from 2D Fourier analysis on 3D stacks of images obtained by confocal laser scanning reflectance microscopy (CLSM) and two-photon fluorescence microscopy (2PM) on human skin in vivo. CLSM images were obtained with a modified commercial system (Vivascope1000, Lucid Inc, excitation wavelength 830 nm) equipped with a piezo-focusing element (350 μm range) for depth positioning of the objective lens. 2PM was performed with a specially designed set-up with excitation wavelength 730 nm. Mean cell size in the epidermal layer and structural orientation in the dermal layer have been determined as a function of depth by 2D Fourier analysis. Fourier analysis on microscopic images enables automatic non-invasive quantitative structural analysis (mean cell size and orientation) of living human skin.

  5. 2D warp-and-woof interwoven networks constructed by helical chains with different chirality.

    PubMed

    Feng, Yuhua; Guo, Yang; OuYang, Yan; Liu, Zhanquan; Liao, Daizheng; Cheng, Peng; Yan, Shiping; Jiang, Zonghui

    2007-09-21

    Two unprecedented 2D entangled layers of warp-and-woof threads interwoven by left- and right-handed helical chains, {[Mn(salen)Au(CN)2]4(H2O)}n (salen = N,N'-ethylenebis(salicylideneaminato)) and {Mn(acacen)Ag(CN)2}n (acacen = N,N'-ethylenebis(acetylacetonylideneiminate)) 2, have been synthesized and characterized.

  6. 2D-imaging of sampling-probe perturbations in laminar premixed flames using Kr X-ray fluorescence

    DOE PAGES

    Hansen, N.; Tranter, R. S.; Moshammer, K.; ...

    2017-04-14

    The perturbation of the temperature field caused by a quartz sampling probe has been investigated in a fuel-rich low-pressure premixed ethylene/oxygen/argon/krypton flame using X-ray fluorescence. The experiments were performed at the 7-BM beamline at the Advanced Photon Source (APS) at the Argonne National Laboratory where a continuous beam of X-rays at 15 keV was used to excite krypton atoms that were added to the unburnt flame gases in a concentration of 5% (by volume). The resulting krypton X-ray fluorescence at 12.65 keV was collected and the spatially resolved signal was subsequently converted into the local temperature of the imaged spot.more » One and two dimensional scans of the temperature field were obtained by translating the entire flame chamber through a pre-programmed sequence of positions on high precision translation stages and measuring the X-ray fluorescence at each location. Multiple measurements were performed at various separations between the burner surface and probe tip, representing sampling positions from the preheat, reaction, and postflame zones of the low-pressure flame. Distortions of up to 1000 K of the burner-probe centerline flame temperature were found with the tip of the probe in the preheat zone and distortions of up to 500 K were observed with it in the reaction and postflame zones. Furthermore, perturbations of the temperature field have been revealed that radially reach as far as 20 mm from the burner-probe centerline and about 3 mm in front of the probe tip. Finally, these results clearly reveal the limitations of one-dimensional models for predicting flame-sampling experiments and comments are made with regard to model developments and validations based on quantitative speciation data from low-pressure flames obtained via intrusive sampling techniques.« less

  7. Protein quantification and its tolerance for different interfering reagents using the BCA-method with regard to 2D SDS PAGE.

    PubMed

    Krieg, Rene C; Dong, Yan; Schwamborn, Kristina; Knuechel, Ruth

    2005-10-31

    Measuring the protein content of a sample is a mandatory and frequently practiced procedure in the lab. Although the procedure is quite simple and convenient to perform with commercially available kits, incompatible reagents in the lysate can cause problems in the quality of measurement. Unfortunately these reagents are cornerstones of high efficiency lysing buffers, e.g. high amounts of urea or beta-mercaptoethanol. In this study we addressed the tolerance of the well-known BCA-assay (bicinchoninic acid) to various reagents in different concentrations, with special regard to a subsequent 2D-gelelectrophoresis. As a result, the kit is incompatible with the recipes of regular 2D-buffers. Also, when mixing two different reagents interfering effects will occur in a non-predictable way. Therefore we established a new method to quantify protein content in lysates ready for 2D-gelelectrophoresis: by mixing an aliquot with SDS, an equilibration is performed to that the sample can be run on a regular 1D SDS PAGE. Image analysis following fluorescence staining (SYPRO Ruby) reveals the absolute protein content in comparison to a BSA dilution curve processed accordingly.

  8. On the uniqueness of quantitative DNA difference descriptors in 2D graphical representation models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nandy, A.; Nandy, P.

    2003-01-01

    The rapid growth in additions to databases of DNA primary sequence data have led to searches for methods to numerically characterize these data and help in fast identification and retrieval of relevant sequences. The DNA descriptors derived from the 2D graphical representation technique have already been proposed to index chemical toxicity and single nucleotide polymorphic (SNP) genes but the inherent degeneracies in this representation have given rise to doubts about their suitability. We prove in this paper that such degeneracies will exist only in very restricted cases and that the method can be relied upon to provide unique descriptors for, in particular, the SNP genes and several other classes of DNA sequences.

  9. Nuclear Resonance Fluorescence Using Different Photon Sources

    SciTech Connect

    Warren, Glen A.; Caggiano, Joseph A.; Ahmed, Mohammad; Bertozzi, William; Hunt, Alan W.; Johnson, James; Jones, James L.; Korbly, Steve; Reedy, Edward; Seipel, Heather; Stave, Sean; Watson, Scott; Weller, Henry

    2008-11-14

    Abstract–Nuclear resonance fluorescence (NRF) is a photon-based active interrogation approach that provides isotope-specific signatures that can be used to detect and characterize samples. As NRF systems are designed to address specific appli¬cations, an obvious first question to address is the type of photon source to be employed for the application. Our collaboration has conducted a series of NRF measurements using different photon sources to begin to examine this issue. The measurements were designed to be as similar as possible to facilitate a straightforward comparison of the different sources. Measurements were conducted with a high-duty factor electron accelerator using bremsstrahlung photons, with a pulsed linear accelerator using bremsstrahlung photons, and with a narrow bandwidth photon source using Compton backscattered photons. We present our observations on the advantages and disadvantages of each photon source type. Issues such as signal rate, the signal-to-noise ratio, and absorbed dose are discussed.

  10. Combining different design strategies for rational affinity maturation of the MICA-NKG2D interface

    PubMed Central

    Henager, Samuel H; Hale, Melissa A; Maurice, Nicholas J; Dunnington, Erin C; Swanson, Carter J; Peterson, Megan J; Ban, Joseph J; Culpepper, David J; Davies, Luke D; Sanders, Lisa K; McFarland, Benjamin J

    2012-01-01

    We redesigned residues on the surface of MICA, a protein that binds the homodimeric immunoreceptor NKG2D, to increase binding affinity with a series of rational, incremental changes. A fixed-backbone RosettaDesign protocol scored a set of initial mutations, which we tested by surface plasmon resonance for thermodynamics and kinetics of NKG2D binding, both singly and in combination. We combined the best four mutations at the surface with three affinity-enhancing mutations below the binding interface found with a previous design strategy. After curating design scores with three cross-validated tests, we found a linear relationship between free energy of binding and design score, and to a lesser extent, enthalpy and design score. Multiple mutants bound with substantial subadditivity, but in at least one case full additivity was observed when combining distant mutations. Altogether, combining the best mutations from the two strategies into a septuple mutant enhanced affinity by 50-fold, to 50 nM, demonstrating a simple, effective protocol for affinity enhancement. PMID:22761154

  11. Comparison of 2D transmon coherence for different capacitive shunt fabrication methods

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yoder, Jonilyn; Kamal, Archana; Yan, Fei; Gudmundsen, Theodore; Welander, Paul; Gustavsson, Simon; Hover, David; Kerman, Andrew; Sears, Adam; Oliver, William

    2015-03-01

    Improvements in superconducting qubit coherence times and reproducibility have been demonstrated using capacitive shunting. In this study, we present a side-by-side comparison of two distinct methods for preparing the aluminum shunt capacitor material for 2D transmon superconducting qubit devices. The first method involved in situ wafer outgassing prior to molecular beam epitaxy aluminum evaporation. The second method involved ex situ wafer annealing prior to electron gun aluminum evaporation. Materials analysis for each process will be detailed. Experimental results, including qubit coherence times and superconducting coplanar waveguide resonator internal quality factors, will be presented for representative devices prepared using both methods. This work is sponsored by the Assistant Secretary of Defense for Research and Engineering under Air Force Contract FA8721-05-0002. Opinions, interpretations, conclusions, and recommendations are those of the authors and are not necessarily endorsed by the United States Government.

  12. The 2D:4D ratio, a proxy for prenatal androgen levels, differs in men with and without MS.

    PubMed

    Bove, Riley; Malik, Muhammed T; Diaz-Cruz, Camilo; Chua, Alicia; Saraceno, Taylor J; Bargiela, David; Greeke, Emily; Glanz, Bonnie I; Healy, Brian C; Chitnis, Tanuja

    2015-10-06

    To determine whether the 2D:4D ratio (ratio of the second and fourth digit lengths), a proxy for lower prenatal androgen to estrogen ratio, differs in men with and without multiple sclerosis (MS) using a case-control study design. We obtained 2 digital scans of the right hand for men with MS presenting to a scheduled clinic visit at a large MS referral center, and for men without autoimmune or endocrine diseases. All individuals were aged 18 to 65 years, right-handed, and reported no prior digit trauma. We calculated a mean 2D:4D ratio using digital calipers. In participants with MS, we assessed age at first MS symptoms, MS type, and the MS Severity Score; 51 had provided a testosterone level within 10 years of symptom onset. Our primary analysis was a cross-sectional comparison of the 2D:4D ratio between men with and without MS, using a 2-sample t test for independent samples assuming unequal variance. In total, we scanned 137 men with MS and 145 men without MS. A statistically significant association between 2D:4D ratio and MS status was observed in the univariate logistic regression model (p<0.05). These differences were not associated with age or race, which differed between the 2 groups. In participants with MS, the 2D:4D ratio was not correlated with MS type, age at first symptoms, or MS Severity Score (p>0.15 for each), and it was not correlated with adult testosterone levels (r=0.06, p=0.68, n=51). During the prenatal period, low androgens could represent a risk factor for MS. © 2015 American Academy of Neurology.

  13. The 2D:4D ratio, a proxy for prenatal androgen levels, differs in men with and without MS

    PubMed Central

    Bove, Riley; Malik, Muhammed T.; Diaz-Cruz, Camilo; Chua, Alicia; Saraceno, Taylor J.; Bargiela, David; Greeke, Emily; Glanz, Bonnie I.; Healy, Brian C.

    2015-01-01

    Objective: To determine whether the 2D:4D ratio (ratio of the second and fourth digit lengths), a proxy for lower prenatal androgen to estrogen ratio, differs in men with and without multiple sclerosis (MS) using a case-control study design. Methods: We obtained 2 digital scans of the right hand for men with MS presenting to a scheduled clinic visit at a large MS referral center, and for men without autoimmune or endocrine diseases. All individuals were aged 18 to 65 years, right-handed, and reported no prior digit trauma. We calculated a mean 2D:4D ratio using digital calipers. In participants with MS, we assessed age at first MS symptoms, MS type, and the MS Severity Score; 51 had provided a testosterone level within 10 years of symptom onset. Our primary analysis was a cross-sectional comparison of the 2D:4D ratio between men with and without MS, using a 2-sample t test for independent samples assuming unequal variance. Results: In total, we scanned 137 men with MS and 145 men without MS. A statistically significant association between 2D:4D ratio and MS status was observed in the univariate logistic regression model (p < 0.05). These differences were not associated with age or race, which differed between the 2 groups. In participants with MS, the 2D:4D ratio was not correlated with MS type, age at first symptoms, or MS Severity Score (p > 0.15 for each), and it was not correlated with adult testosterone levels (r = 0.06, p = 0.68, n = 51). Conclusions: During the prenatal period, low androgens could represent a risk factor for MS. PMID:26341868

  14. Differences in the Toxicological Potential of 2D versus Aggregated Molybdenum Disulfide in the Lung.

    PubMed

    Wang, Xiang; Mansukhani, Nikhita D; Guiney, Linda M; Ji, Zhaoxia; Chang, Chong Hyun; Wang, Meiying; Liao, Yu-Pei; Song, Tze-Bin; Sun, Bingbing; Li, Ruibin; Xia, Tian; Hersam, Mark C; Nel, André E

    2015-10-01

    2D molybdenum disulfide (MoS2 ) has distinct optical and electronic properties compared to aggregated MoS2 , enabling wide use of these materials for electronic and biomedical applications. However, the hazard potential of MoS2 has not been studied extensively. Here, a comprehensive analysis of the pulmonary hazard potential of three aqueous suspended forms of MoS2 -aggregated MoS2 (Agg-MoS2 ), MoS2 exfoliated by lithiation (Lit-MoS2 ), and MoS2 dispersed by Pluronic F87 (PF87-MoS2 )-is presented. No cytotoxicity is detected in THP-1 and BEAS-2B cell lines. However, Agg-MoS2 induces strong proinflammatory and profibrogenic responses in vitro. In contrast, Lit- and PF87-MoS2 have little or no effect. In an acute toxicity study in mice, Agg-MoS2 induces acute lung inflammation, while Lit-MoS2 and PF87-MoS2 have little or no effect. In a subchronic study, there is no evidence of pulmonary fibrosis in response to all forms of MoS2 . These data suggest that exfoliation attenuates the toxicity of Agg-MoS2 , which is an important consideration toward the safety evaluation and use of nanoscale MoS2 materials for industrial and biological applications. © 2015 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  15. 2-D difference gel electrophoresis approach to assess protein expression profiles in Bathymodiolus azoricus from Mid-Atlantic Ridge hydrothermal vents.

    PubMed

    Company, Rui; Antúnez, Oreto; Bebianno, Maria João; Cajaraville, Miren P; Torreblanca, Amparo

    2011-11-18

    Hydrothermal vent mussels Bathymodiolus azoricus are naturally exposed to toxic chemical species originated directly from vent chimneys. The amount of toxic elements varies significantly among vent sites along the Mid-Atlantic Ridge and B. azoricus must be able to adapt to changes in hydrothermal fluid composition, temperature and pressure. The aim of this work was to study changes in the proteome in the "gill-bacteria complex" of mussels B. azoricus from three hydrothermal vent sites with distinct environmental characteristics using 2-D Fluorescence Difference Gel Electrophoresis (2-D DIGE). Results showed that 31 proteins had different expression profiles among vent sites and both cluster and principal component analysis confirm a clear separation of mussels between sites. This suggests the existence of specific parameters grouping individuals from the same hydrothermal site. Protein spots of the more abundant differentially expressed proteins were excised, digested with trypsin and identified by mass spectrometry. All identified proteins (actin, ubiquinone, S-adenosylhomocysteine hydrolase, cysteine peptidases, chaperonin and catalase) have been related previously with oxidative stress conditions and are known to be affected by ROS inducing stressors, including metals. Results point out to specific adaptations at the proteome level of B. azoricus depending on the level of toxicants present in their environment. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Stochastic rank correlation: a robust merit function for 2D/3D registration of image data obtained at different energies.

    PubMed

    Birkfellner, Wolfgang; Stock, Markus; Figl, Michael; Gendrin, Christelle; Hummel, Johann; Dong, Shuo; Kettenbach, Joachim; Georg, Dietmar; Bergmann, Helmar

    2009-08-01

    In this article, the authors evaluate a merit function for 2D/3D registration called stochastic rank correlation (SRC). SRC is characterized by the fact that differences in image intensity do not influence the registration result; it therefore combines the numerical advantages of cross correlation (CC)-type merit functions with the flexibility of mutual-information-type merit functions. The basic idea is that registration is achieved on a random subset of the image, which allows for an efficient computation of Spearman's rank correlation coefficient. This measure is, by nature, invariant to monotonic intensity transforms in the images under comparison, which renders it an ideal solution for intramodal images acquired at different energy levels as encountered in intrafractional kV imaging in image-guided radiotherapy. Initial evaluation was undertaken using a 2D/3D registration reference image dataset of a cadaver spine. Even with no radiometric calibration, SRC shows a significant improvement in robustness and stability compared to CC. Pattern intensity, another merit function that was evaluated for comparison, gave rather poor results due to its limited convergence range. The time required for SRC with 5% image content compares well to the other merit functions; increasing the image content does not significantly influence the algorithm accuracy. The authors conclude that SRC is a promising measure for 2D/3D registration in IGRT and image-guided therapy in general.

  17. High Order Finite Difference Methods with Subcell Resolution for 2D Detonation Waves

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wang, W.; Shu, C. W.; Yee, H. C.; Sjogreen, B.

    2012-01-01

    In simulating hyperbolic conservation laws in conjunction with an inhomogeneous stiff source term, if the solution is discontinuous, spurious numerical results may be produced due to different time scales of the transport part and the source term. This numerical issue often arises in combustion and high speed chemical reacting flows.

  18. 2D-PAGE protein analysis of dinoflagellate Alexandrium minutum based on three different temperatures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Latib, Norhidayu Abdul; Norshaha, Safida Anira; Usup, Gires; Yusof, Nurul Yuziana Mohd

    2015-09-01

    Harmful algae bloom or red tide seems to be considered as threat to ecosystem, especially to human consumption because of the production of neurotoxin by dinoflagellates species such as Alexandrium minutum which can lead to paralytic shellfish poisoning. The aim of this study is to determine the most suitable method for protein extraction of A. minutum followed by determination of differential protein expression of A. minutum on three different temperatures (15°C, 26°C and 31.5°C). After the optimization, the protein extract was subjected to two-dimensional polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (2-DE) to compare the intensity and distribution of the protein spots. Based on quantitative and qualitative protein assessment, use of Trizol reagent is the most suitable method to extract protein from A. minutum. 2-DE analysis of the samples results in different distribution and intensity of the protein spots were compared between 15°C, 26°C and 31.5°C.

  19. Digit ratio (2D:4D), sex differences, allometry, and finger length of 12-30-year olds: evidence from the British Broadcasting Corporation (BBC) Internet study.

    PubMed

    Manning, John T

    2010-01-01

    Many studies have reported digit ratio (2D:4D) to be sexually dimorphic, (males lower 2D:4D than females). However, Kratochvíl and Flegr ([2009]: Biol Lett 5:643-646) have suggested that 2D regressed on 4D has an allometric regression line with nonzero Y-intercept that is shared by males and females. Thus, 2D is shorter than expected when 4D is long, and males have lower 2D:4D than females because they have longer fingers. In this study, it is shown that this suggestion may be incorrect because sex differences in slope were not considered. Participants were recruited in an Internet study and had an age range of 12-30 years. The expected sex difference in 2D:4D was found, and the regression of 2D on 4D showed a significant sex difference in slope (males lower than females). A comparison of 10 age groups (12 years, 13 years..., 21-30 years) showed that sexual dimorphism for fingers was age dependent, varying from monomorphic to very dimorphic. Changes in sexual dimorphism of 2D:4D were much less marked, but there was a significant reduction in mean 2D:4D with age. The tendency for slopes of 2D regressed on 4D to be lower in males compared with females was significant in eight age groups. Sex difference in 2D:4D varied across the age groups and was positively related to the magnitude of the difference in female and male slopes. In contrast to the report of Kratochvíl and Flegr, it was found that the regression of 2D on 4D showed sex differences in slope, and such differences gave rise to the sexual dimorphism in 2D:4D.

  20. An energy stable, hexagonal finite difference scheme for the 2D phase field crystal amplitude equations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guan, Zhen; Heinonen, Vili; Lowengrub, John; Wang, Cheng; Wise, Steven M.

    2016-09-01

    In this paper we construct an energy stable finite difference scheme for the amplitude expansion equations for the two-dimensional phase field crystal (PFC) model. The equations are formulated in a periodic hexagonal domain with respect to the reciprocal lattice vectors to achieve a provably unconditionally energy stable and solvable scheme. To our knowledge, this is the first such energy stable scheme for the PFC amplitude equations. The convexity of each part in the amplitude equations is analyzed, in both the semi-discrete and fully-discrete cases. Energy stability is based on a careful convexity analysis for the energy (in both the spatially continuous and discrete cases). As a result, unique solvability and unconditional energy stability are available for the resulting scheme. Moreover, we show that the scheme is point-wise stable for any time and space step sizes. An efficient multigrid solver is devised to solve the scheme, and a few numerical experiments are presented, including grain rotation and shrinkage and grain growth studies, as examples of the strength and robustness of the proposed scheme and solver.

  1. Two-Dimensional Fluorescence Difference Spectroscopy to Characterize Nanoparticles and their Interactions

    PubMed Central

    Hurst, Miranda N.; DeLong, Robert K.

    2016-01-01

    Two dimensional fluorescence difference spectroscopy (2D FDS) detects nanoparticle interactions following surface functionalization and biomolecule loading by generating a spectral signature of the fluorescent intensity per excitation and emission wavelengths. Comparing metal oxide nanoparticles revealed a unique spectral signature per material composition. 2D FDS showed to be sensitive to changes in surface properties between ZnO NPs synthesized by different methods. ZnO NP loaded with glycol chitosan, polyacrylic acid (PAA), or methoxy polyethylene glycol (mPEG) exhibited a distinct spectral signature shift. ZnO NP loaded with Torula Yeast RNA (TYRNA)(640 nm), polyinosinic: polycytidylic acid (pIC)(680 nm), or splice switching oligonucleotide (SSO)(650 nm) each revealed a shift in emission. Ras-Binding domain (RBD) at three concentrations (25, 37.5, 50 μg/mL) showed that fluorescent intensity was inversely related to the concentration of protein loaded. These data support 2D FDS as a novel technique in identifying nanoparticles and their surface interactions as a quality assurance tool. PMID:27624316

  2. Two-Dimensional Fluorescence Difference Spectroscopy to Characterize Nanoparticles and their Interactions.

    PubMed

    Hurst, Miranda N; DeLong, Robert K

    2016-09-14

    Two dimensional fluorescence difference spectroscopy (2D FDS) detects nanoparticle interactions following surface functionalization and biomolecule loading by generating a spectral signature of the fluorescent intensity per excitation and emission wavelengths. Comparing metal oxide nanoparticles revealed a unique spectral signature per material composition. 2D FDS showed to be sensitive to changes in surface properties between ZnO NPs synthesized by different methods. ZnO NP loaded with glycol chitosan, polyacrylic acid (PAA), or methoxy polyethylene glycol (mPEG) exhibited a distinct spectral signature shift. ZnO NP loaded with Torula Yeast RNA (TYRNA)(640 nm), polyinosinic: polycytidylic acid (pIC)(680 nm), or splice switching oligonucleotide (SSO)(650 nm) each revealed a shift in emission. Ras-Binding domain (RBD) at three concentrations (25, 37.5, 50 μg/mL) showed that fluorescent intensity was inversely related to the concentration of protein loaded. These data support 2D FDS as a novel technique in identifying nanoparticles and their surface interactions as a quality assurance tool.

  3. Two-Dimensional Fluorescence Difference Spectroscopy to Characterize Nanoparticles and their Interactions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hurst, Miranda N.; Delong, Robert K.

    2016-09-01

    Two dimensional fluorescence difference spectroscopy (2D FDS) detects nanoparticle interactions following surface functionalization and biomolecule loading by generating a spectral signature of the fluorescent intensity per excitation and emission wavelengths. Comparing metal oxide nanoparticles revealed a unique spectral signature per material composition. 2D FDS showed to be sensitive to changes in surface properties between ZnO NPs synthesized by different methods. ZnO NP loaded with glycol chitosan, polyacrylic acid (PAA), or methoxy polyethylene glycol (mPEG) exhibited a distinct spectral signature shift. ZnO NP loaded with Torula Yeast RNA (TYRNA)(640 nm), polyinosinic: polycytidylic acid (pIC)(680 nm), or splice switching oligonucleotide (SSO)(650 nm) each revealed a shift in emission. Ras-Binding domain (RBD) at three concentrations (25, 37.5, 50 μg/mL) showed that fluorescent intensity was inversely related to the concentration of protein loaded. These data support 2D FDS as a novel technique in identifying nanoparticles and their surface interactions as a quality assurance tool.

  4. Evaluation of a 2D detector array for patient-specific VMAT QA with different setups

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boggula, Ramesh; Birkner, Mattias; Lohr, Frank; Steil, Volker; Wenz, Frederik; Wertz, Hansjoerg

    2011-11-01

    For pre-treatment plan verification of advanced treatment techniques such as intensity-modulated arc therapy, a fast and reliable dosimetric device is required. In this study, we investigated the suitability of MatriXX in different setups for verification of volumetric modulated arc therapy (VMAT) plans. If MatriXX is used in a stationary phantom (MULTICube), the measured dose is dependent on the beam angle. For the first setup (MatriXX/MULTICube), we developed correction factors (CFs) for each detector element (1020 CFs). We investigated the accuracy of these CFs by verifying 12 VMAT plans. In the second setup, we also assessed the suitability of MatriXX in a dedicated holder. Using this setup (MatriXX/Holder), 30 additional VMAT plans were verified. Deviations of up to ~17% and ~11% were noted for one of the ion chambers at 90° and 180° gantry positions. The influence of the beam angle dependence (MULTICube) can explicitly be seen when a gamma criterion of 2%/2 mm was chosen. An overall improvement of 4.3% of passing pixels (pp) was noted after applying beam angular-dependent CFs. When the gamma criterion was 3%/3 mm, the %pp was >=95% without and ~100% with correction. With the second setup, MatriXX/holder, we showed excellent agreement between measurements and calculations. The %pp averaged over all plans (30 VMAT treatment plans) was nearly ~100%. The combination of MatriXX with MULTICube or with holder proved to be a fast and reliable method for pretreatment verification of arc therapy with sufficient accuracy.

  5. A Pedestrian Detection Scheme Using a Coherent Phase Difference Method Based on 2D Range-Doppler FMCW Radar.

    PubMed

    Hyun, Eugin; Jin, Young-Seok; Lee, Jong-Hun

    2016-01-20

    For an automotive pedestrian detection radar system, fast-ramp based 2D range-Doppler Frequency Modulated Continuous Wave (FMCW) radar is effective for distinguishing between moving targets and unwanted clutter. However, when a weak moving target such as a pedestrian exists together with strong clutter, the pedestrian may be masked by the side-lobe of the clutter even though they are notably separated in the Doppler dimension. To prevent this problem, one popular solution is the use of a windowing scheme with a weighting function. However, this method leads to a spread spectrum, so the pedestrian with weak signal power and slow Doppler may also be masked by the main-lobe of clutter. With a fast-ramp based FMCW radar, if the target is moving, the complex spectrum of the range- Fast Fourier Transform (FFT) is changed with a constant phase difference over ramps. In contrast, the clutter exhibits constant phase irrespective of the ramps. Based on this fact, in this paper we propose a pedestrian detection for highly cluttered environments using a coherent phase difference method. By detecting the coherent phase difference from the complex spectrum of the range-FFT, we first extract the range profile of the moving pedestrians. Then, through the Doppler FFT, we obtain the 2D range-Doppler map for only the pedestrian. To test the proposed detection scheme, we have developed a real-time data logging system with a 24 GHz FMCW transceiver. In laboratory tests, we verified that the signal processing results from the proposed method were much better than those expected from the conventional 2D FFT-based detection method.

  6. A Pedestrian Detection Scheme Using a Coherent Phase Difference Method Based on 2D Range-Doppler FMCW Radar

    PubMed Central

    Hyun, Eugin; Jin, Young-Seok; Lee, Jong-Hun

    2016-01-01

    For an automotive pedestrian detection radar system, fast-ramp based 2D range-Doppler Frequency Modulated Continuous Wave (FMCW) radar is effective for distinguishing between moving targets and unwanted clutter. However, when a weak moving target such as a pedestrian exists together with strong clutter, the pedestrian may be masked by the side-lobe of the clutter even though they are notably separated in the Doppler dimension. To prevent this problem, one popular solution is the use of a windowing scheme with a weighting function. However, this method leads to a spread spectrum, so the pedestrian with weak signal power and slow Doppler may also be masked by the main-lobe of clutter. With a fast-ramp based FMCW radar, if the target is moving, the complex spectrum of the range- Fast Fourier Transform (FFT) is changed with a constant phase difference over ramps. In contrast, the clutter exhibits constant phase irrespective of the ramps. Based on this fact, in this paper we propose a pedestrian detection for highly cluttered environments using a coherent phase difference method. By detecting the coherent phase difference from the complex spectrum of the range-FFT, we first extract the range profile of the moving pedestrians. Then, through the Doppler FFT, we obtain the 2D range-Doppler map for only the pedestrian. To test the proposed detection scheme, we have developed a real-time data logging system with a 24 GHz FMCW transceiver. In laboratory tests, we verified that the signal processing results from the proposed method were much better than those expected from the conventional 2D FFT-based detection method. PMID:26805835

  7. 2D FTIR correlation spectroscopy and EPR analysis of Urtica dioica leaves from areas of different environmental pollution.

    PubMed

    Moskal, Paulina; Wesełucha-Birczyńska, Aleksandra; Łabanowska, Maria; Kurdziel, Magdalena; Filek, Maria

    2018-01-15

    Leaves of Urtica dioica collected from two areas of different environmental pollution were analysed by fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) and electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) spectroscopy. Analysis of FTIR spectra allows to describe main component of plant like proteins, lipids and carbohydrates. Although the FTIR spectra of plants from these two geographical locations of different environmental pollution appear to be relatively similar, 2D correlation shows completely different patterns. Synchronous and asynchronous correlation maps showed sequences of changes occurring during development of plant, manly in Amide I and Amide II, lignin, lipids and cellulose. In addition, 2D analysis revealed another sequence of changes as the function of plant growth depending on the degree of the environmental pollution. Two various kinds of paramagnetic species, transition metal ions (Mn(II), Fe(III)) and stable organic radicals (chlorophyll, semiquinone, tyrosyl and carbon centered) were found in leaves of nettle collected at different stages of development and growing in clean and polluted environment. In plants growing in polluted area the injuries of protein molecules bonding metal ions and the disturbances of photosynthesis and redox equilibrium in cells, as well as instability of polysaccharide structure of cell walls were observed. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Verification of a non-hydrostatic dynamical core using horizontally spectral element vertically finite difference method: 2-D aspects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Choi, S.-J.; Giraldo, F. X.; Kim, J.; Shin, S.

    2014-06-01

    The non-hydrostatic (NH) compressible Euler equations of dry atmosphere are solved in a simplified two dimensional (2-D) slice framework employing a spectral element method (SEM) for the horizontal discretization and a finite difference method (FDM) for the vertical discretization. The SEM uses high-order nodal basis functions associated with Lagrange polynomials based on Gauss-Lobatto-Legendre (GLL) quadrature points. The FDM employs a third-order upwind biased scheme for the vertical flux terms and a centered finite difference scheme for the vertical derivative terms and quadrature. The Euler equations used here are in a flux form based on the hydrostatic pressure vertical coordinate, which are the same as those used in the Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) model, but a hybrid sigma-pressure vertical coordinate is implemented in this model. We verified the model by conducting widely used standard benchmark tests: the inertia-gravity wave, rising thermal bubble, density current wave, and linear hydrostatic mountain wave. The results from those tests demonstrate that the horizontally spectral element vertically finite difference model is accurate and robust. By using the 2-D slice model, we effectively show that the combined spatial discretization method of the spectral element and finite difference method in the horizontal and vertical directions, respectively, offers a viable method for the development of a NH dynamical core.

  9. Assessing HYDRUS-2D model to estimate soil water contents and olive tree transpiration fluxes under different water distribution systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Autovino, Dario; Negm, Amro; Rallo, Giovanni; Provenzano, Giuseppe

    2016-04-01

    In Mediterranean countries characterized by limited water resources for agricultural and societal sectors, irrigation management plays a major role to improve water use efficiency at farm scale, mainly where irrigation systems are correctly designed to guarantee a suitable application efficiency and the uniform water distribution throughout the field. In the last two decades, physically-based agro-hydrological models have been developed to simulate mass and energy exchange processes in the soil-plant-atmosphere (SPA) system. Mechanistic models like HYDRUS 2D/3D (Šimunek et al., 2011) have been proposed to simulate all the components of water balance, including actual crop transpiration fluxes estimated according to a soil potential-dependent sink term. Even though the suitability of these models to simulate the temporal dynamics of soil and crop water status has been reported in the literature for different horticultural crops, a few researches have been considering arboreal crops where the higher gradients of root water uptake are the combination between the localized irrigation supply and the three dimensional root system distribution. The main objective of the paper was to assess the performance of HYDRUS-2D model to evaluate soil water contents and transpiration fluxes of an olive orchard irrigated with two different water distribution systems. Experiments were carried out in Castelvetrano (Sicily) during irrigation seasons 2011 and 2012, in a commercial farm specialized in the production of table olives (Olea europaea L., var. Nocellara del Belice), representing the typical variety of the surrounding area. During the first season, irrigation water was provided by a single lateral placed along the plant row with four emitters per plant (ordinary irrigation), whereas during the second season a grid of emitters laid on the soil was installed in order to irrigate the whole soil surface around the selected trees. The model performance was assessed based on the

  10. Analysis of the high Reynolds number 2D tests on a wind turbine airfoil performed at two different wind tunnels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pires, O.; Munduate, X.; Ceyhan, O.; Jacobs, M.; Madsen, J.; Schepers, J. G.

    2016-09-01

    2D wind tunnel tests at high Reynolds numbers have been done within the EU FP7 AVATAR project (Advanced Aerodynamic Tools of lArge Rotors) on the DU00-W-212 airfoil and at two different test facilities: the DNW High Pressure Wind Tunnel in Gottingen (HDG) and the LM Wind Power in-house wind tunnel. Two conditions of Reynolds numbers have been performed in both tests: 3 and 6 million. The Mach number and turbulence intensity values are similar in both wind tunnels at the 3 million Reynolds number test, while they are significantly different at 6 million Reynolds number. The paper presents a comparison of the data obtained from the two wind tunnels, showing good repeatability at 3 million Reynolds number and differences at 6 million Reynolds number that are consistent with the different Mach number and turbulence intensity values.

  11. Analysis of Leishmania chagasi by 2-D difference gel electrophoresis (2-D DIGE) and immunoproteomic: identification of novel candidate antigens for diagnostic tests and vaccine.

    PubMed

    Costa, Míriam M; Andrade, Hélida M; Bartholomeu, Daniella C; Freitas, Leandro M; Pires, Simone F; Chapeaurouge, Alexander D; Perales, Jonas; Ferreira, André T; Giusta, Mário S; Melo, Maria N; Gazzinelli, Ricardo T

    2011-05-06

    Identification of novel antigens is essential for developing new diagnostic tests and vaccines. We used DIGE to compare protein expression in amastigote and promastigote forms of Leishmania chagasi. Nine hundred amastigote and promastigote spots were visualized. Five amastigote-specific, 25 promastigote-specific, and 10 proteins shared by the two parasite stages were identified. Furthermore, 41 proteins were identified in the Western blot employing 2-DE and sera from infected dogs. From these proteins, 3 and 38 were reactive with IgM and total IgG, respectively. The proteins recognized by total IgG presented different patterns in terms of their recognition by IgG1 and/or IgG2 isotypes. All the proteins selected by Western blot were mapped for B-cell epitopes. One hundred and eighty peptides were submitted to SPOT synthesis and immunoassay. A total of 25 peptides were shown of interest for serodiagnosis to visceral leishmaniasis. In addition, all proteins identified in this study were mapped for T cell epitopes by using the NetCTL software, and candidates for vaccine development were selected. Therefore, a large-scale screening of L. chagasi proteome was performed to identify new B and T cell epitopes with potential use for developing diagnostic tests and vaccines.

  12. Estimating strength differences within the Monte Rosa nappe using a combination of field observations and 2D modelling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vaughan Hammon, Joshua; Luisier, Cindy; Schmalholz, Stefan; Baumgartner, Lukas

    2017-04-01

    The Monte Rosa nappe is a major high-pressure (HP) tectonic unit within the Western Alps. However, the tectono-metamorphic evolution during subduction and subsequent exhumation still remains ambiguous. One reason for this ambiguity is that the published estimates of peak metamorphic pressure and temperature vary significantly between 1.2 - 2.7 GPa and 490 - 650 ˚C, respectively. Several mechanisms have been proposed to explain the exhumation of this HP nappe: i) synconvergent return flow within a subduction channel, ii) lithospheric extension associated with slab rollback, and iii) buoyancy driven Stokes flow during subduction or associated with slab detachment. This study will consider exhumation of the Monte Rosa nappe by buoyancy driven processes. Field observation of the Monte Rosa basement complex show remarkable differences in deformation intensity between: relatively undeformed granite with undistributed igneous textures, variably deformed HP 'whiteschist' lenses, and highly deformed metapelites. These differences in deformation intensity provide a unique setting to quantify strength differences within an exhuming tectonic body. Assuming that the Monte Rosa peak and retrogressive pressure relates directly to lithostatic pressure, it is possible to estimate an exhumation velocity using age estimates for the respective pressures. This estimate provides an exhumation velocity of approximately 1 to 2 cm/yr. Using this velocity to solve Stokes' law for a rising sphere enables a first-order viscosity estimate for the lithology surrounding the Monte Rosa nappe, which is in the order of 102⁰ Pas. Implementing this viscosity within a simple 2D Stokes numerical model for buoyant rise of a circle, mimicking the granitic Monte Rosa unit, can produce viscosity estimates for the Monte Rosa unit by requiring that the unit does not deform significantly during its rise. Both linear and non-linear flow laws are applied together with reasonable model conditions. The

  13. Analysis of Telomere-Homologous DNA with Different Conformations Using 2D Agarose Electrophoresis and In-Gel Hybridization.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Zepeng; Hu, Qian; Zhao, Yong

    2017-01-01

    In mammalian cells, in addition to double-stranded telomeric DNA at chromosome ends, extra telomere-homologous DNA is present that adopts different conformations, including single-stranded G- or C-rich DNA, extrachromosomal circular DNA (T-circle), and telomeric complex (T-complex) with an unidentified structure. The formation of such telomere-homologous DNA is closely related to telomeric DNA metabolism and chromosome end protection by telomeres. Conventional agarose gel electrophoresis is unable to separate DNA based on conformation. Here, we introduce the method of two-dimensional (2D) agarose electrophoresis in combination with in-gel native/denatured hybridization to determine different conformations formed by telomere-homologous DNA.

  14. SWAT and River-2D Modelling of Pinder River for Analysing Snow Trout Habitat under Different Flow Abstraction Scenarios

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nale, J. P.; Gosain, A. K.; Khosa, R.

    2015-12-01

    Pinder River, one of major headstreams of River Ganga, originates in Pindari Glaciers of Kumaon Himalayas and after passing through rugged gorges meets Alaknanda at Karanprayag forming one of the five celestial confluences of Upper Ganga region. While other sub-basins of Upper Ganga are facing severe ecological losses, Pinder basin is still in its virginal state and is well known for its beautiful valleys besides being host to unique and rare biodiversity. A proposed 252 MW run-of-river hydroelectric project at Devsari on this river has been a major concern on account of its perceived potential for egregious environmental and social impacts. In this context, the study presented tries to analyse the expected changes in aquatic habitat conditions after this project is operational (with different operation policies). SWAT hydrological modelling platform has been used to derive stream flow simulations under various scenarios ranging from the present to the likely future conditions. To analyse the habitat conditions, a two dimensional hydraulic-habitat model 'River-2D', a module of iRIC software, is used. Snow trout has been identified as the target keystone species and its habitat preferences, in the form of flow depths, flow velocity and substrate condition, are obtained from diverse sources of related literature and are provided as Habitat Suitability Indices to River-2D. Bed morphology constitutes an important River-2D input and has been obtained, for the designated 1 km long study reach of Pinder upto Karanprayag, from a combination of actual field observations and supplemented by SRTM 1 Arc-Second Global digital elevation data. Monthly Weighted Usable Area for three different life stages (Spawning, Juvenile and Adult) of Snow Trout are obtained corresponding to seven different flow discharges ranging from 10 cumec to 1000 cumec. Comparing the present and proposed future river flow conditions obtained from SWAT modelling, losses in Weighted Usable Area, for the

  15. Breaking the Diffraction Barrier Using Fluorescence Emission Difference Microscopy

    PubMed Central

    Kuang, Cuifang; Li, Shuai; Liu, Wei; Hao, Xiang; Gu, Zhaotai; Wang, Yifan; Ge, Jianhong; Li, Haifeng; Liu, Xu

    2013-01-01

    We propose a novel physical mechanism for breaking the diffraction barrier in the far field. Termed fluorescence emission difference microscopy (FED), our approach is based on the intensity difference between two differently acquired images. When fluorescence saturation is applied, the resolving ability of FED can be further enhanced. A detailed theoretical analysis and a series of simulation tests are performed. The validity of FED in practical use is demonstrated by experiments on fluorescent nanoparticles and biological cells in which a spatial resolution of <λ/4 is achieved. Featuring the potential to realize a high imaging speed, this approach may be widely applied in nanoscale investigations. PMID:23486546

  16. Application of Implicit Finite Difference Method to Determine the 2D Patterns of Unsteady State Thermal Spreading of Geothermal Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sampurno, Joko; Apriansyah; Adriat, Riza; Diah Faryuni, Irfana; Srigutomo, Wahyu

    2017-07-01

    In this study, we built a thermal numerical modelling scheme using finite difference method based on the implicit Crank-Nicholson algorithm. The aim of the study is to describe the process of heat transfer, which is calculated using a thermal diffusion equation (2D vertical) at the unsteady-state conditions, in the geothermal area. The physical parameter used as the input is the thermal diffusivity of the rocks. This parameter was calculated from the other parameters (thermal conductivity, heat capacity, and density). The model was applied to the Wapsalit geothermal area whose geological structure has been known. The model successfully describes the heat flow that spread from the bottom layer to the surface by adjusting to the conditions of the rock.

  17. Stream function-velocity-magnetic induction compact difference method for the 2D steady incompressible full magnetohydrodynamic equations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yu, P. X.; Tian, Z. F.; Ying, A. Y.; Abdou, M. A.

    2017-10-01

    In this paper, an effective and accurate numerical model that involves a suggested mathematical formulation, viz., the stream functions (ψ and A)-velocity-magnetic induction formulation and a fourth-order compact difference algorithm is proposed for solving the two-dimensional (2D) steady incompressible full magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) flow equations. The stream functions-velocity-magnetic induction formulation of the 2D incompressible full MHD equations is able to circumvent the difficulty of handling the pressure variable in the primitive variable formulation or determining the vorticity values on the boundary in the stream function-vorticity formulation, and also ensure the divergence-free constraint condition of the magnetic field inherently. A test problem with the analytical solution, the well-studied lid-driven cavity problem in viscous fluid flow and the lid-driven MHD flow in a square cavity are performed to assess and verify the accuracy and the behavior of the method proposed currently. Numerical results for the present method are compared with the analytical solution and the other high-order accurate results. It is shown that the proposed stream function-velocity-magnetic induction compact difference method not only has the excellent performances in computational accuracy and efficiency, but also matches well with the divergence-free constraint of the magnetic field. Moreover, the benchmark solutions for the lid-driven cavity MHD flow in the presence of the aligned and transverse magnetic field for Reynolds number (Re) up to 5000 are provided for the wide range of magnetic Reynolds number (Rem) from 0.01 to 100 and Hartmann number (Ha) up to 4000.

  18. Sex differences in digit ratio (2D:4D) are disrupted in adolescents with schizotypal personality disorder: altered prenatal gonadal hormone levels as a risk factor.

    PubMed

    Walder, Deborah J; Andersson, Terese L C; McMillan, Amanda L; Breedlove, S Marc; Walker, Elaine F

    2006-09-01

    The 2nd to 4th finger digit ratio (2D:4D) is a sexually dimorphic feature determined during gestation indexing prenatal androgen/estrogen levels. More 'feminized' 2D:4D phenotype has been demonstrated in schizophrenia versus same-sex controls. This study examined 2D:4D in adolescents with schizotypal personality disorder (SPD). Among normal controls, right 2D:4D was significantly greater (more feminized) in females than males. We replicated laterality effects; significant sex differences only on right. There were no significant sex differences among SPDs. Diagnostic group differences were restricted to White/Caucasian males with greater right 2D:4D in SPDs. Findings suggest disruptions in prenatal gonadal hormones in vulnerability for schizophrenia.

  19. SU-E-T-422: Correlation Between 2D Passing Rates and 3D Dose Differences for Pretreatment VMAT QA

    SciTech Connect

    Jin, X; Xie, C

    2014-06-01

    Purpose: Volumetric modulated arc therapy (VMAT) quality assurance (QA) is typically using QA methods and action levels taken from fixedbeam intensity-modulated radiotherapy (IMRT) QA methods. However, recent studies demonstrated that there is no correlation between the percent gamma passing rate (%GP) and the magnitude of dose discrepancy between the planned dose and the actual delivered dose for IMRT. The purpose of this study is to investigate whether %GP is correlated with clinical dosimetric difference for VMAT. Methods: Twenty nasopharyngeal cancer (NPC) patients treated with dual-arc simultaneous integrated boost VMAT and 20 esophageal cancer patients treated with one-arc VMAT were enrolled in this study. Pretreatment VMAT QA was performed by a 3D diode array ArcCheck. Acceptance criteria of 2%/2mm, 3%/3mm, and 4%/4mm were applied for 2D %GP. Dose values below 10% of the per-measured normalization maximum dose were ignored.Mean DVH values obtained from 3DVH software and TPS were calculated and percentage dose differences were calculated. Statistical correlation between %GP and percent dose difference was studied by using Pearson correlation. Results: The %GP for criteria 2%/2mm, 3%/3mm, and 4%/4mm were 82.33±4.45, 93.47±2.31, 97.13±2.41, respectively. Dose differences calculated from 3DVH and TPS for beam isocenter, mean dose of PTV, maximum dose of PTV, D2 of PTV and D98 of PTV were -1.04±3.24, -0.74±1.71, 2.92±3.62, 0.89±3.29, -1.46±1.97, respectively. No correction were found between %GP and dose differences. Conclusion: There are weak correlations between the 2D %GP and dose differences calculated from 3DVH. The %GP acceptance criteria of 3%/3mm usually applied for pretreatment QA of IMRT and VMAT is not indicating strong clinical correlation with 3D dose difference. 3D dose reconstructions on patient anatomy may be necessary for physicist to predict the accuracy of delivered dose for VMAT QA.

  20. [Fluorescence characteristics of different chlorophyll a concentration in Lake Taihu].

    PubMed

    Li, Li; Yin, Qiu; Gong, Cai-Lan; Xu, Hua; Chen, Li-Xiong

    2011-01-01

    The spectral reflectance and water qualities of 27 stations were acquired in the lake Taihu during the months from May to August, 2008 when blue algal bloomed. Based on the fluorescence characteristics analysis of different chlorophyll a concentration, it was obvious that the position and height of fluorescence peak both have a positive correlation with chlorophyll a concentration, and the correlation coefficients between chlorophyll a concentration and position and half width of fluorescence peak are larger than those of the reference baseline and the normalized height of fluorescence. Estimating of chlorophyll a concentration in case 2 water using fluorescence characteristics is obviously better than the empirical algorithm based on blue to green ratio. Moreover, the common algorithm based on near infrared band to red band ratio is essentially consistent with the normalized height method.

  1. Wheat quality related differential expressions of albumins and globulins revealed by two-dimensional difference gel electrophoresis (2-D DIGE).

    PubMed

    Gao, Liyan; Wang, Aili; Li, Xiaohui; Dong, Kun; Wang, Ke; Appels, Rudi; Ma, Wujun; Yan, Yueming

    2009-12-01

    Comparative proteomics analysis offers a new approach to identify differential proteins among different wheat genotypes and developmental stages. In this study, the non-prolamin expression profiles during grain development of two common or bread wheat cultivars (Triticum aestivum L.), Jing 411 and Sunstate, with different quality properties were analyzed using two-dimensional difference gel electrophoresis (2-D DIGE). Five grain developmental stages during the post-anthesis period were sampled corresponding to the cumulative averages of daily temperatures ( degrees C: 156 degrees C, 250 degrees C, 354 degrees C, 447 degrees C and 749.5 degrees C). More than 400 differential protein spots detected at one or more of the developmental stages of the two cultivars were monitored, among which 230 proteins were identified by MS. Of the identified proteins, more than 85% were enzymes possessing different physiological functions. A total of 36 differential proteins were characterized between the two varieties, which are likely to be related to wheat quality attributes. About one quarter of the proteins identified expressed in multiple spots with different pIs and molecular masses, implying certain post-translational modifications (PTMs) of proteins such as phosphorylations and glycosylations. The results provide new insights into biochemical mechanisms for grain development and quality.

  2. Digit ratio (2D:4D) in Lithuania once and now: testing for sex differences, relations with eye and hair color, and a possible secular change.

    PubMed

    Voracek, Martin; Bagdonas, Albinas; Dressler, Stefan G

    2007-09-01

    The second-to-fourth digit ratio (2D:4D) is a sexually dimorphic somatic trait and has been proposed as a biomarker for the organizational, i.e., permanent, effects of prenatal testosterone on the human brain. Accordingly, recent research has related 2D:4D to a variety of sex-dependent, hormonally influenced traits and phenotypes. The geographical variation in typical 2D:4D is marked and presently poorly understood. This study presents the first investigation into the 2D:4D ratio in a Baltic country. A contemporary sample of 109 Lithuanian men and women was compared with data from a historical sample of 100 Lithuanian men and women, collected and published in the 1880s and rediscovered only now. The findings included the following lines of evidence: (i) seen in an international perspective, the average 2D:4D in Lithuania is low; (ii) there was a sex difference in 2D:4D in the expected direction in both samples; (iii) a previously adduced hypothesis of an association of lighter eye and hair color with higher, i.e., more feminized, 2D:4D received no support in both samples; and (iv) the average 2D:4D in the contemporary sample was higher than in the historical sample. In view of a hypothesized increase in 2D:4D in modern populations, owing to increased environmental levels of endocrine disruptors such as xenoestrogens, this latter finding appears to be of particular notice. However, because finger-length measurement methods differed across the samples, it cannot be safely ruled out that the apparent time trend in Lithuanian 2D:4D in truth is an artifact. The puzzling geographical pattern seen in the 2D:4D ratio and the question of possible time trends therein deserve further investigations.

  3. Capabilities using 2-D DIGE in proteomics research : the new gold standard for 2-D gel electrophoresis.

    PubMed

    Rozanas, Christine R; Loyland, Stacey M

    2008-01-01

    The use of two-dimensional gel electrophoresis for differential analysis in proteomics was revolutionized by the introduction of 2-D fluorescence difference gel electrophoresis (2-D DIGE). This fluorescence-based technique allows the use of multiplexed samples and an internal standard that virtually eliminates gel-to-gel variability, resulting in increased confidence that differences found between samples are due to real induced changes, rather than inherent biological variation or experimental variability. 2-D DIGE has quickly become the "gold standard" for gel-based proteomics for studying tissues, as well as cell culture and bodily fluids such as serum or plasma. This chapter will describe the basic 2-D DIGE technique using minimal labeling, image acquisition using high-quality fluorescence scanners, and software capable of analyzing the multiplexed images and normalizing the data using the internal standard.

  4. Effective finite-difference modelling methods with 2-D acoustic wave equation using a combination of cross and rhombus stencils

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Enjiang; Liu, Yang; Sen, Mrinal K.

    2016-09-01

    The 2-D acoustic wave equation is commonly solved numerically by finite-difference (FD) methods in which the accuracy of solution is significantly affected by the FD stencils. The commonly used cross stencil can reach either only second-order accuracy for space domain dispersion-relation-based FD method or (2M)th-order accuracy along eight specific propagation directions for time-space domain dispersion-relation-based FD method, if the conventional (2M)th-order spatial FD and second-order temporal FD are used to discretize the equation. One other newly developed rhombus stencil can reach arbitrary even-order accuracy. However, this stencil adds significantly to computational cost when the operator length is large. To achieve a balance between the solution accuracy and efficiency, we develop a new FD stencil to solve the 2-D acoustic wave equation. This stencil is a combination of the cross stencil and rhombus stencil. A cross stencil with an operator length parameter M is used to approximate the spatial partial derivatives while a rhombus stencil with an operator length parameter N together with the conventional second-order temporal FD is employed in approximating the temporal partial derivatives. Using this stencil, a new FD scheme is developed; we demonstrate that this scheme can reach (2M)th-order accuracy in space and (2N)th-order accuracy in time when spatial FD coefficients and temporal FD coefficients are derived from respective dispersion relation using Taylor-series expansion (TE) method. To further increase the accuracy, we derive the FD coefficients by employing the time-space domain dispersion relation of this FD scheme using TE. We also use least-squares (LS) optimization method to reduce dispersion at high wavenumbers. Dispersion analysis, stability analysis and modelling examples demonstrate that our new scheme has greater accuracy and better stability than conventional FD schemes, and thus can adopt large time steps. To reduce the extra

  5. Large eddy simulations for quasi-2D turbulence in shallow flows: A comparison between different subgrid scale models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Awad, Esam; Toorman, Erik; Lacor, Chris

    2009-06-01

    In this study, the performance of the horizontal large eddy simulation module, developed at the University of Leuven (HLES-KULeuven module) is assessed. A comparison between different subgrid scale models has been carried out. The study is concerned with the non-rotating and unstratified flows. The results of the simulation for an oscillatory backward facing (BFS) flow are presented in case of an expanding flume based on a one-length scale approach and a two-length scale approach. Three subgrid scale (SGS) models have been tested: Smagorinsky SGS model (Smagorinsky, J., (1963). General circulation experiments with the primitive equations, I. the basic experiments. Monthly Weather Review, 91(3), 99-164), Uittenbogaard SGS model (Uittenbogaard, R.E., and van Vossen, B., (2004). Subgrid-scale model for quasi-2D turbulence in shallow water. Shallow Flows. Jirka and Uijttewaal (Eds.), Taylor & Francis Group, London, ISBN 90 5809 700 5) and a proposed two-length scale approach. The first two models are considered to be a one-length scale models. A simulation without a subgrid scale model for the horizontal mixing has also been conducted. In all simulations, a quadratic friction model parameterizes the dissipation produced by the 3D-subdepth scale turbulence. The two-length scale concept uses a newly mixing length formulation for the quasi-2D turbulence and doesn't depend on the filter width in contrast to the one-length scale approach, in which the mixing length is function of the filter width. The outputs of the HLES-KULeuven module have been compared with the experimental data taken from Stelling, G.S., and Wang, L.X., (1984). Experiments and computations on separating flow in an expanding flume. Dept. Civil Engineering, Delft University of Technology, Report 2-84.). The two-length scale approach has been validated with experimental data from SERC Flood Channel Facility at HR Wallingford. In general, there is a qualitative agreement with the experimental data. It has

  6. Simulations of P-SV wave scattering due to cracks by the 2-D finite difference method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Suzuki, Yuji; Shiina, Takahiro; Kawahara, Jun; Okamoto, Taro; Miyashita, Kaoru

    2013-12-01

    We simulate P-SV wave scattering by 2-D parallel cracks using the finite difference method (FDM). Here, special emphasis is put on simplicity; we apply a standard FDM (second-order velocity-stress scheme with a staggered grid) to media including traction-free, infinitesimally thin cracks, which are expressed in a simple manner. As an accuracy test of the present method, we calculate the displacement discontinuity along an isolated crack caused by harmonic waves using the method, which is compared with the corresponding results based on a reliable boundary integral equation method. The test resultantly indicates that the present method yields sufficient accuracy. As an application of this method, we also simulate wave propagation in media with randomly distributed cracks. We experimentally determine the attenuation and velocity dispersion induced by scattering from the synthetic seismograms, using a waveform averaging technique. It is shown that the results are well explained by a theory based on the Foldy approximation, if the crack density is sufficiently low. The theory appears valid with a crack density up to at least 0.1 for SV wave incidence, whereas the validity limit appears lower for P wave incidence.

  7. Characterization of Phenotypic and Transcriptional Differences in Human Pluripotent Stem Cells under 2D and 3D Culture Conditions.

    PubMed

    Kamei, Ken-Ichiro; Koyama, Yoshie; Tokunaga, Yumie; Mashimo, Yasumasa; Yoshioka, Momoko; Fockenberg, Christopher; Mosbergen, Rowland; Korn, Othmar; Wells, Christine; Chen, Yong

    2016-11-01

    Human pluripotent stem cells hold great promise for applications in drug discovery and regenerative medicine. Microfluidic technology is a promising approach for creating artificial microenvironments; however, although a proper 3D microenvironment is required to achieve robust control of cellular phenotypes, most current microfluidic devices provide only 2D cell culture and do not allow tuning of physical and chemical environmental cues simultaneously. Here, the authors report a 3D cellular microenvironment plate (3D-CEP), which consists of a microfluidic device filled with thermoresponsive poly(N-isopropylacrylamide)-β-poly(ethylene glycol) hydrogel (HG), which enables systematic tuning of both chemical and physical environmental cues as well as in situ cell monitoring. The authors show that H9 human embryonic stem cells (hESCs) and 253G1 human induced pluripotent stem cells in the HG/3D-CEP system maintain their pluripotent marker expression under HG/3D-CEP self-renewing conditions. Additionally, global gene expression analyses are used to elucidate small variations among different test environments. Interestingly, the authors find that treatment of H9 hESCs under HG/3D-CEP self-renewing conditions results in initiation of entry into the neural differentiation process by induction of PAX3 and OTX1 expression. The authors believe that this HG/3D-CEP system will serve as a versatile platform for developing targeted functional cell lines and facilitate advances in drug screening and regenerative medicine.

  8. 2D Numerical Modeling for Transducers with Combined Pseudospectral and Finite Difference Methods: Application to High Frequency Linear Arrays

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guiroy, Axel; Certon, Dominique; Boy, Philippe; Lethiecq, Marc; Levassort, Franck

    A 2D numerical model based on a hybrid finite-difference (FD) and pseudospectral (PS) method adapted to high frequency linear arrays is presented. This model, coupled with the DREAM toolbox, was used to simulate the 1-way radiation pattern in water of a 50 MHz linear array with 64 elements (at a focal distance of 10 mm). The influence of several parameters of the internal structure of the array on the radiation pattern was studied. The variation of element widths, kerf widths and kerf depths was evaluated on the main properties of the pressure field (i.e. spatial resolutions, sensitivity and depth of field) in the focal zone. These simulations were performed using experimental data previously measured for materials used and in particular for the PZT piezoelectric thick film. Results show that a trade-off can be found between the technological aspects (width of elements and kerf) and performance of the array. Finally, a kerfless configuration was evaluated and it is shown that this is also a viable option.

  9. Prevalence of the CYP2D6*10 (C100T), *4 (G1846A), and *14 (G1758A) alleles among Iranians of different ethnicities.

    PubMed

    Bagheri, Ali; Kamalidehghan, Behnam; Haghshenas, Maryam; Azadfar, Parisa; Akbari, Leila; Sangtarash, Mohammad Hossein; Vejdandoust, Faramarz; Ahmadipour, Fatemeh; Meng, Goh Yong; Houshmand, Massoud

    2015-01-01

    The presence of polymorphisms in the CYP2D6 gene may modulate enzyme level and activity, thereby affecting individual responses to pharmacological treatment. Here, we compared the prevalence of the CYP2D6*10, *4, and 14* alleles in an Iranian population of different ethnicities with those of other populations. Allele and genotype frequency distributions of CYP2D6*10 variants and predicted phenotypes including extensive metabolizers, intermediate metabolizers, and poor metabolizers were analysed in blood samples of 300 unrelated healthy individuals in an Iranian population using polymerase chain reaction (PCR)-restriction fragment length polymorphism, PCR-single-strand conformation polymorphism, and direct genomic DNA sequencing. The CYP2D6*4 (G1846A) and *14 (G1758A) allelic frequencies were not detected in different ethnicities, demonstrating the absence of a significant contribution of these alleles in Iranian populations. However, the T/T, C/T, and C/C genotype frequencies of the CYP2D6*10 allele were significantly different (P<0.01) in all Iranian ethnic groups. Additionally, the frequency of the homozygous T/T variant of the CYP2D6*10 allele was significantly high in the Lure (P<0.017) and low in the Kurd (P<0.002) ethnicities. The frequency of the T/T variant of the CYP2D6*10 allele in central Iran was the highest (P<0.001), while the south of Iran had the lowest frequency (P<0.001). The frequency of the C/T variant of the CYP2D6*10 allele was significantly a bit high (P<0.001) in females compare to males, while the frequencies of the T/T variant in females is similar to males, which are 24.4% and 24.3%, respectively. In contrast to absence of the CYP2D6*4 (G1846A) and *14 (G1758A) alleles in Iranian populations of different ethnicities, the prediction of the CYP2D6*10 allele is required in drug research and routine treatment, where the information would be helpful for clinicians to optimize therapy or identify persons at risk of adverse drug reactions before

  10. Sex differences in college students' free drawings and their relationship to 2D:4D ratio and recalled childhood play behavior.

    PubMed

    Rothkopf, Ian; Turgeon, Sarah M

    2014-02-01

    In a prior study, we observed that female-typical characteristics in elementary school girls' drawings were correlated with a feminized digit ratio (2D:4D), a marker for prenatal androgen exposure. However, this observation was limited to older girls, suggesting that social factors mediate the relationship between 2D:4D and drawing. To examine the hypothesis that the influence of prenatal androgen on girls' drawing is mediated by an effect of early androgens on sex-typical behavior, we examined 2D:4D, free drawings, and scores on the Recalled Childhood Gender Identity (RCGI) Questionnaire in a population of college students. Characteristics of participants' free drawings were assessed and those that showed sex differences were compared with 2D:4D and RCGI scores. Men had smaller 2D:4D ratios than women, used fewer total colors, used fewer pinks, purples, and blues, and had higher gender-typical scores on the RCGI. Women's drawings were more likely to contain flowers and animals and men's drawings were more likely to represent sports. Within-sex RCGI and 2D:4D scores were not significantly correlated. Significant within-sex relationships between 2D:4D and RCGI and drawing behavior were observed but the effects appeared to be independent; the hypothesis that gender-typical childhood behavior mediates the effect of prenatal androgen on drawing characteristics was not supported.

  11. Fluorescence two-dimensional difference gel electrophoresis for biomaterial applications

    PubMed Central

    McNamara, Laura E.; Dalby, Matthew J.; Riehle, Mathis O.; Burchmore, Richard

    2010-01-01

    Fluorescence two-dimensional difference gel electrophoresis (DiGE) is rapidly becoming established as a powerful technique for the characterization of differences in protein expression levels between two or more conditions. In this review, we consider the application of DiGE—both minimal and saturation labelling—to biomaterials research, considering the challenges and rewards of this approach. PMID:19570793

  12. Comparison of Different 2D and 3D-QSAR Methods on Activity Prediction of Histamine H3 Receptor Antagonists.

    PubMed

    Dastmalchi, Siavoush; Hamzeh-Mivehroud, Maryam; Asadpour-Zeynali, Karim

    2012-01-01

    Histamine H3 receptor subtype has been the target of several recent drug development programs. Quantitative structure-activity relationship (QSAR) methods are used to predict the pharmaceutically relevant properties of drug candidates whenever it is applicable. The aim of this study was to compare the predictive powers of three different QSAR techniques, namely, multiple linear regression (MLR), artificial neural network (ANN), and HASL as a 3D QSAR method, in predicting the receptor binding affinities of arylbenzofuran histamine H3 receptor antagonists. Genetic algorithm coupled partial least square as well as stepwise multiple regression methods were used to select a number of calculated molecular descriptors to be used in MLR and ANN-based QSAR studies. Using the leave-group-out cross-validation technique, the performances of the MLR and ANN methods were evaluated. The calculated values for the mean absolute percentage error (MAPE), ranging from 2.9 to 3.6, and standard deviation of error of prediction (SDEP), ranging from 0.31 to 0.36, for both MLR and ANN methods were statistically comparable, indicating that both methods perform equally well in predicting the binding affinities of the studied compounds toward the H3 receptors. On the other hand, the results from 3D-QSAR studies using HASL method were not as good as those obtained by 2D methods. It can be concluded that simple traditional approaches such as MLR method can be as reliable as those of more advanced and sophisticated methods like ANN and 3D-QSAR analyses.

  13. Estimation of percentage breast tissue density: comparison between digital mammography (2D full field digital mammography) and digital breast tomosynthesis according to different BI-RADS categories

    PubMed Central

    Cavagnetto, F; Calabrese, M; Houssami, N

    2013-01-01

    Objective: To compare breast density estimated from two-dimensional full-field digital mammography (2D FFDM) and from digital breast tomosynthesis (DBT) according to different Breast Imaging–Reporting and Data System (BI-RADS) categories, using automated software. Methods: Institutional review board approval and written informed patient consent were obtained. DBT and 2D FFDM were performed in the same patients to allow within-patient comparison. A total of 160 consecutive patients (mean age: 50±14 years; mean body mass index: 22±3) were included to create paired data sets of 40 patients for each BI-RADS category. Automatic software (MedDensity©, developed by Giulio Tagliafico) was used to compare the percentage breast density between DBT and 2D FFDM. The estimated breast percentage density obtained using DBT and 2D FFDM was examined for correlation with the radiologists' visual BI-RADS density classification. Results: The 2D FFDM differed from DBT by 16.0% in BI-RADS Category 1, by 11.9% in Category 2, by 3.5% in Category 3 and by 18.1% in Category 4. These differences were highly significant (p<0.0001). There was a good correlation between the BI-RADS categories and the density evaluated using 2D FFDM and DBT (r=0.56, p<0.01 and r=0.48, p<0.01, respectively). Conclusion: Using DBT, breast density values were lower than those obtained using 2D FFDM, with a non-linear relationship across the BI-RADS categories. These data are relevant for clinical practice and research studies using density in determining the risk. Advances in knowledge: On DBT, breast density values were lower than with 2D FFDM, with a non-linear relationship across the classical BI-RADS categories. PMID:24029631

  14. Does the index-to-ring finger length ratio (2D:4D) differ in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS)? Results from an international online case-control study.

    PubMed

    Parkin Kullmann, Jane Alana; Pamphlett, Roger

    2017-08-07

    The ratio of the length of the index finger (2D) to the ring finger (4D) (2D:4D) has been reported to be lower (ie, 2D<4D) in people with amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) than non-ALS controls. This has led to suggestions that exposure to increased prenatal testosterone, which also lowers this ratio, could be a risk factor for ALS. In an attempt to test this hypothesis, we examined 2D:4Ds from large numbers of patients with ALS and controls. An online multilingual questionnaire enabling respondents to measure their own index and ring finger lengths. Of the initial 949 respondents, 572 remained for analysis after elimination for inability to straighten fingers, not answering the question, statistical outliers and aged <40 years. Respondents remaining for analysis were 202 patients with ALS (125 males, 77 females) and 370 non-ALS controls (112 males, 258 females). Unpaired t-tests with 95% CIs were used to assess differences in mean 2D:4Ds. Males had significantly lower mean 2D:4Ds than females, in both ALS and control groups, for both left and right hands. No significant differences were found in 2D:4Ds between ALS and control groups, in either males or females, for either left or right hands. Receiver operating characteristic curves showed no power for 2D:4Ds to predict ALS status in either males or females. 2D:4Ds did not differ between patients with ALS and controls in this study. This was despite the dataset being large enough to confirm the established finding of lower 2D:4Ds in males compared with females. These findings do not support the hypothesis that exposure to increased prenatal testosterone is a risk factor for ALS. A putative lower 2D:4D has been proposed to explain the link between ALS and exercise, but our results indicate that other exercise-related factors are more likely to explain this association. © Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2017. All rights reserved. No commercial use is

  15. Origin of the different energetic ion populations in the quasi-perpendicular Ion Foreshock: 2D Full-particle simulation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Savoini, P.; Lembege, B.; Stienlet, J.

    2012-04-01

    The foreshock region is located upstream of the terrestrial bow shock and is characterized by energetic backstreaming particles (electrons and ions) issued from the shock and by an important wave activity as observed by many space missions. In order to analyse the foreshock region, a curved shock is simulated with the help of a 2 - D full particle (PIC) code, where full curvature and time of flight effects, and where both electrons and ions dynamics are fully described by a self consistent approach. The analysis is presently restricted to the quasi-perpendicular angular range defined by 45°≤ θBn ≤ 90°, where θBn is the angle between the shock normal and the upstream magnetostatic field, and we focus only on the ion foreshock. In a good agreement with experimental data, present preliminary results evidence two distinct ion populations collimated along the interplanetary magnetic field (IMF): (i) the Field-Aligned Beam population (hereafter named "FAB") and (ii) the gyro-phase bunch population (hereafter named "GPB") which differ from each other by their gyrotropic or non-gyrotropic behavior, respectively. Additionally, the "FAB" population is observed at the edge of the ion foreshock and near the curved shock front, while the "'GPB" population is observed deeper in the foreshock and further from the shock front. The analysis shows that no pitch angle scattering mechanism needs to be invoked to account for the generation of the "GPB", but rather additional criteria are necessary namely: the interaction time Δtint of backstreaming ions with the shock front and their downstream penetration depth. These criteria allow to evidence that (i) the "FAB" population corresponds to particles which move back and forth between the upstream edge of the front and the overshoot, and are characterized by a quite large Δtint (covering several local gyro-periods, 4 ≤ τci ≤ 12). In contrast, (ii) the "GPB" ions have suffered a very short interaction time (i.e. Δtint < 1

  16. Individual Recognition in Domestic Cattle (Bos taurus): Evidence from 2D-Images of Heads from Different Breeds

    PubMed Central

    Coulon, Marjorie; Deputte, Bertrand L.; Heyman, Yvan; Baudoin, Claude

    2009-01-01

    Background In order to maintain cohesion of groups, social animals need to process social information efficiently. Visual individual recognition, which is distinguished from mere visual discrimination, has been studied in only few mammalian species. In addition, most previous studies used either a small number of subjects or a few various views as test stimuli. Dairy cattle, as a domestic species allow the testing of a good sample size and provide a large variety of test stimuli due to the morphological diversity of breeds. Hence cattle are a suitable model for studying individual visual recognition. This study demonstrates that cattle display visual individual recognition and shows the effect of both familiarity and coat diversity in discrimination. Methodology/Principal Findings We tested whether 8 Prim'Holstein heifers could recognize 2D-images of heads of one cow (face, profiles, ¾ views) from those of other cows. Experiments were based on a simultaneous discrimination paradigm through instrumental conditioning using food rewards. In Experiment 1, all images represented familiar cows (belonging to the same social group) from the Prim'Holstein breed. In Experiments 2, 3 and 4, images were from unfamiliar (unknown) individuals either from the same breed or other breeds. All heifers displayed individual recognition of familiar and unfamiliar individuals from their own breed. Subjects reached criterion sooner when recognizing a familiar individual than when recognizing an unfamiliar one (Exp 1: 3.1±0.7 vs. Exp 2: 5.2±1.2 sessions; Z = 1.99, N = 8, P = 0.046). In addition almost all subjects recognized unknown individuals from different breeds, however with greater difficulty. Conclusions/Significance Our results demonstrated that cattle have efficient individual recognition based on categorization capacities. Social familiarity improved their performance. The recognition of individuals with very different coat characteristics from the subjects was

  17. Multiplexed Spectral Imaging of 120 Different Fluorescent Labels

    PubMed Central

    Valm, Alex M.; Oldenbourg, Rudolf; Borisy, Gary G.

    2016-01-01

    The number of fluorescent labels that can unambiguously be distinguished in a single image when acquired through band pass filters is severely limited by the spectral overlap of available fluorophores. The recent development of spectral microscopy and the application of linear unmixing algorithms to spectrally recorded image data have allowed simultaneous imaging of fluorophores with highly overlapping spectra. However, the number of distinguishable fluorophores is still limited by the unavoidable decrease in signal to noise ratio when fluorescence signals are fractionated over multiple wavelength bins. Here we present a spectral image analysis algorithm to greatly expand the number of distinguishable objects labeled with binary combinations of fluorophores. Our algorithm utilizes a priori knowledge about labeled specimens and imposes a binary label constraint on the unmixing solution. We have applied our labeling and analysis strategy to identify microbes labeled by fluorescence in situ hybridization and here demonstrate the ability to distinguish 120 differently labeled microbes in a single image. PMID:27391327

  18. Simultaneous measurement of J(HH) and two different (n)J(CH) coupling constants from a single multiply edited 2D cross-peak.

    PubMed

    Saurí, Josep; Parella, Teodor

    2013-07-01

    Three different J-editing methods (IPAP, E.COSY and J-resolved) are implemented in a single NMR experiment to provide spin-state-edited 2D cross-peaks from which a simultaneous measurement of different homonuclear and heteronuclear coupling constants can be performed. A new J-selHSQMBC-IPAP experiment is proposed for the independent measurement of two different (n)J(CH) coupling constants along the F2 and F1 dimensions of the same 2D cross-peak. In addition, the E.COSY pattern provides additional information about the magnitude and relative sign between J(HH) and (n)J(CH) coupling constants.

  19. Differences in growth properties of endometrial cancer in three dimensional (3D) culture and 2D cell monolayer

    SciTech Connect

    Chitcholtan, Kenny; Asselin, Eric; Parent, Sophie; Sykes, Peter H.; Evans, John J.

    2013-01-01

    Three-dimensional (3D) in vitro models have an invaluable role in understanding the behaviour of tumour cells in a well defined microenvironment. This is because some aspects of tumour characteristics cannot be fully recapitulated in a cell monolayer (2D). In the present study, we compared growth patterns, expression of signalling molecules, and metabolism-associated proteins of endometrial cancer cell lines in 3D and 2D cell cultures. Cancer cells formed spherical structures in 3D reconstituted basement membrane (3D rBM), and the morphological appearance was cell line dependent. Cell differentiation was observed after 8 days in the 3D rBM. There was reduced proliferation, detected by less expression of PCNA in 3D rBM than in 2D cell monolayers. The addition of exogenous epidermal growth factor (EGF) to cancer cells induced phosphorylation of EGFR and Akt in both cell culture conditions. The uptake of glucose was selectively altered in the 3D rBM, but there was a lack of association with Glut-1 expression. The secretion of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) and prostaglandin E{sub 2} (PGE{sub 2}) was selectively altered in 3D rBM, and it was cell line dependent. Our data demonstrated that 3D rBM as an in vitro model can influence proliferation and metabolism of endometrial cancer cell behaviour compared to 2D cell monolayer. Changes are specific to individual cell types. The use of 3D rBM is, therefore, important in the in vitro study of targeted anticancer therapies.

  20. 2D-QSAR study of some 2,5-diaminobenzophenone farnesyltransferase inhibitors by different chemometric methods

    PubMed Central

    Ghanbarzadeh, Saeed; Ghasemi, Saeed; Shayanfar, Ali; Ebrahimi-Najafabadi, Heshmatollah

    2015-01-01

    Quantitative structure activity relationship (QSAR) models can be used to predict the activity of new drug candidates in early stages of drug discovery. In the present study, the information of the ninety two 2,5-diaminobenzophenone-containing farnesyltranaferase inhibitors (FTIs) were taken from the literature. Subsequently, the structures of the molecules were optimized using Hyperchem software and molecular descriptors were obtained using Dragon software. The most suitable descriptors were selected using genetic algorithms-partial least squares and stepwise regression, where exhibited that the volume, shape and polarity of the FTIs are important for their activities. The two-dimensional QSAR models (2D-QSAR) were obtained using both linear methods (multiple linear regression) and non-linear methods (artificial neural networks and support vector machines). The proposed QSAR models were validated using internal validation method. The results showed that the proposed 2D-QSAR models were valid and they can be used for prediction of the activities of the 2,5-diaminobenzophenone-containing FTIs. In conclusion, the 2D-QSAR models (both linear and non-linear) showed good prediction capability and the non-linear models were exhibited more accuracy than the linear models. PMID:26600747

  1. 2D and 3D imaging of the gas phase close to an operating model catalyst by planar laser induced fluorescence

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Blomberg, Sara; Zhou, Jianfeng; Gustafson, Johan; Zetterberg, Johan; Lundgren, Edvin

    2016-11-01

    In recent years, efforts have been made in catalysis related surface science studies to explore the possibilities to perform experiments at conditions closer to those of a technical catalyst, in particular at increased pressures. Techniques such as high pressure scanning tunneling/atomic force microscopy (HPSTM/AFM), near ambient pressure x-ray photoemission spectroscopy (NAPXPS), surface x-ray diffraction (SXRD) and polarization-modulation infrared reflection absorption spectroscopy (PM-IRAS) at semi-realistic conditions have been used to study the surface structure of model catalysts under reaction conditions, combined with simultaneous mass spectrometry (MS). These studies have provided an increased understanding of the surface dynamics and the structure of the active phase of surfaces and nano particles as a reaction occurs, providing novel information on the structure/activity relationship. However, the surface structure detected during the reaction is sensitive to the composition of the gas phase close to the catalyst surface. Therefore, the catalytic activity of the sample itself will act as a gas-source or gas-sink, and will affect the surface structure, which in turn may complicate the assignment of the active phase. For this reason, we have applied planar laser induced fluorescence (PLIF) to the gas phase in the vicinity of an active model catalysts. Our measurements demonstrate that the gas composition differs significantly close to the catalyst and at the position of the MS, which indeed should have a profound effect on the surface structure. However, PLIF applied to catalytic reactions presents several beneficial properties in addition to investigate the effect of the catalyst on the effective gas composition close to the model catalyst. The high spatial and temporal resolution of PLIF provides a unique tool to visualize the on-set of catalytic reactions and to compare different model catalysts in the same reactive environment. The technique can be

  2. 2D and 3D imaging of the gas phase close to an operating model catalyst by planar laser induced fluorescence.

    PubMed

    Blomberg, Sara; Zhou, Jianfeng; Gustafson, Johan; Zetterberg, Johan; Lundgren, Edvin

    2016-11-16

    In recent years, efforts have been made in catalysis related surface science studies to explore the possibilities to perform experiments at conditions closer to those of a technical catalyst, in particular at increased pressures. Techniques such as high pressure scanning tunneling/atomic force microscopy (HPSTM/AFM), near ambient pressure x-ray photoemission spectroscopy (NAPXPS), surface x-ray diffraction (SXRD) and polarization-modulation infrared reflection absorption spectroscopy (PM-IRAS) at semi-realistic conditions have been used to study the surface structure of model catalysts under reaction conditions, combined with simultaneous mass spectrometry (MS). These studies have provided an increased understanding of the surface dynamics and the structure of the active phase of surfaces and nano particles as a reaction occurs, providing novel information on the structure/activity relationship. However, the surface structure detected during the reaction is sensitive to the composition of the gas phase close to the catalyst surface. Therefore, the catalytic activity of the sample itself will act as a gas-source or gas-sink, and will affect the surface structure, which in turn may complicate the assignment of the active phase. For this reason, we have applied planar laser induced fluorescence (PLIF) to the gas phase in the vicinity of an active model catalysts. Our measurements demonstrate that the gas composition differs significantly close to the catalyst and at the position of the MS, which indeed should have a profound effect on the surface structure. However, PLIF applied to catalytic reactions presents several beneficial properties in addition to investigate the effect of the catalyst on the effective gas composition close to the model catalyst. The high spatial and temporal resolution of PLIF provides a unique tool to visualize the on-set of catalytic reactions and to compare different model catalysts in the same reactive environment. The technique can be

  3. SEX DIFFERENCES IN DIGIT RATIO (2D:4D) AMONG MILITARY AND CIVIL COHORTS AT A MILITARY ACADEMY IN WROCŁAW, POLAND.

    PubMed

    Kociuba, Marek; Kozieł, Slawomir; Chakraborty, Raja

    2016-09-01

    The ratio of second-to-fourth digit length (2D:4D), which is generally higher in women compared with men, is a putative marker of prenatal testosterone (PT) exposure. Lower 2D:4D is linked with greater physical ability and strength, better sporting performance and a propensity towards jobs demanding greater physical ability. The objectives of this paper were to examine the sexual dimorphism in 2D:4D in both hands 1and compare this dimorphism in the students of military and civil courses at the General Kuściuszko Military Academy of Land Forces in Wrocław. The cross-sectional study compared 59 female and 118 male students from the military courses and 53 females and 64 male students from the civil courses. Besides calculating 2D:4D (2D/4D) for each hand, height and weight were also recorded. Physical fitness and endurance were assessed using Eurofit tests. Handgrip strength was measured using a standardized isometric dynamometer. In almost all physical tests, students in the military cohort showed highly significant greater physical ability and strength (e.g. handgrip strength) when compared with the civil cohort. Male participants had a significantly lower 2D:4D than females for each hand, as well as for the average value for both hands. The sexual dimorphism was, however, a little more pronounced in the right hand than in the left. Both sex and course type were significant predictors of 2D:4D. There were significant interactions between sex and the student type. Among females, but not in males, the military cohort had a significantly lower, i.e. more 'masculine', 2D:4D for the left hand and right hand and average for both hands (t=3.290, p<0.001) than the civil cohort. This was not the case in males. However, the sex difference in 2D:4D was only significant among the civil students, and not among the military cadets. In conclusion, higher PT exposure, as represented by a lower 2D:4D, among the Polish females might be an indicator of relatively increased physical

  4. Synthesis and characterization of DNA fluorescent probes containing a single site-specific stereoisomer of anti-benzo[a]pyrene diol epoxide-N2-dG.

    PubMed

    Wang, Chao; Feng, Feng; Wang, Zhixin; Li, Tao; Le, X Chris; Wang, Hailin

    2009-04-01

    We present a comprehensive study of synthesis and characterization of DNA probes containing covalently bound benzo[a]pyrene diol epoxide (BPDE) isomers at a defined site. Short oligonucleotides of 16mers containing a single trans-(+)- or trans-(-)-anti-BPDE-N(2)-guanine adducts (BPDE-16mer) were first synthesized and then ligated with a fluorescently labeled single-stranded oligonucleotide. The ligation products (double-stranded or single-stranded 90mers) contained a single BPDE adduct of defined stereochemistry and a fluorescent label. The BPDE adduct could be recognized by a specific antibody, and the fluorescent label was useful for highly sensitive laser-induced fluorescence detection. The incorporation of single BPDE in the 16mers was validated by liquid chromatography, UV spectroscopy, and tandem mass spectrometry analysis. The stereochemistry of the single BPDE adducts in the 16mers was further identified by enzyme digestion-coupled stereoselective chromatography analysis. The ligation of BPDE-16mer with normal oligonucleotides for the synthesis of tetramethylrhodamine (TMR)-BPDE-90mers was evaluated. It was found that the modification of the 16mer by anti-BPDE could significantly reduce the ligation yield of ds90mer and lead to the formation of gapped DNA. The incorporation of a single anti-BPDE adduct in ligated ds90mers was confirmed using an antibody specific to the anti-BPDE-dG and affinity capillary electrophoresis. The detection limits of the TMR-BPDE-90mers by capillary electrophoresis coupled with laser-induced fluorescence are below 4 x 10(-19) mol.

  5. Molar concentration from sequential 2-D water-window X-ray ptychography and X-ray fluorescence in hydrated cells

    PubMed Central

    Jones, M. W. M.; Elgass, K. D.; Junker, M. D.; de Jonge, M. D.; van Riessen, G. A.

    2016-01-01

    Recent developments in biological X-ray microscopy have allowed structural information and elemental distribution to be simultaneously obtained by combining X-ray ptychography and X-ray fluorescence microscopy. Experimentally, these methods can be performed simultaneously; however, the optimal conditions for each measurement may not be compatible. Here, we combine two distinct measurements of ultrastructure and elemental distribution, with each measurement performed under optimised conditions. By combining optimised ptychography and fluorescence information we are able to determine molar concentrations from two-dimensional images, allowing an investigation into the interactions between the environment sensing filopodia in fibroblasts and extracellular calcium. Furthermore, the biological ptychography results we present illustrate a point of maturity where the technique can be applied to solve significant problems in structural biology. PMID:27067957

  6. Lifetime measurements on electronically excited C 2(A 1Π u) and C 2(d 3Π g) by laser-induced fluorescence

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bauer, W.; Becker, K. H.; Bielefeld, M.; Meuser, R.

    1986-01-01

    The radiative lifetimes of C 2(A 1Π u, ν'= 0 and 3) were determined by laser-induced fluorescence to be τ 0(0) = 18.5 ± 3 and τ 0(3) = 11.4 ± 2 μs. In addition, the lifetimes of C 2C 2(A 1Π u,ν' = 0 and 1) were measured as τ 0 = 106 ± 15 ns and 105 ± 15 ns, respectively. The error is 3σ.

  7. Effects of Spatial Ability, Gender Differences, and Pictorial Training on Children Using 2-D and 3-D Environments to Recall Landmark Locations from Memory

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kopcha, Theodore J.; Otumfuor, Beryl A.; Wang, Lu

    2015-01-01

    This study examines the effects of spatial ability, gender differences, and pictorial training on fourth grade students' ability to recall landmark locations from memory. Ninety-six students used Google Earth over a 3-week period to locate landmarks (3-D) and mark their location on a 2-D topographical map. Analysis of covariance on posttest scores…

  8. Effects of Spatial Ability, Gender Differences, and Pictorial Training on Children Using 2-D and 3-D Environments to Recall Landmark Locations from Memory

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kopcha, Theodore J.; Otumfuor, Beryl A.; Wang, Lu

    2015-01-01

    This study examines the effects of spatial ability, gender differences, and pictorial training on fourth grade students' ability to recall landmark locations from memory. Ninety-six students used Google Earth over a 3-week period to locate landmarks (3-D) and mark their location on a 2-D topographical map. Analysis of covariance on posttest scores…

  9. Reliability Criteria for Liver Stiffness Measurements with Real-Time 2D Shear Wave Elastography in Different Clinical Scenarios of Chronic Liver Disease.

    PubMed

    Thiele, M; Madsen, B S; Procopet, B; Hansen, J F; Møller, L M S; Detlefsen, S; Berzigotti, A; Krag, A

    2016-06-07

    Purpose: Liver stiffness measurement by real-time 2-dimensional shear wave elastography (2D-SWE) lacks universal reliability criteria. We sought to assess whether previously published 2D-SWE reliability criteria for portal hypertension were applicable for the evaluation of liver fibrosis and cirrhosis, and to look for criteria that minimize the risk of misclassification in this setting. Materials and Methods: In a biopsy-controlled diagnostic study, we obtained five 2D-SWE measurements of optimal image quality. Correctly classified cases of fibrosis and cirrhosis were compared to misclassified cases. We compared reliability predictors (standard deviation (SD), SD/mean, size of region of interest (ROI) and difference between a single measurement and the patient's median) with those obtained in a prior study on clinically significant portal hypertension. Results: We obtained 678 2D-SWE measurements from 142 patients. Overall, the variability in liver stiffness within single 2D-SWE measurements was low (SD = 1.1 ± 1.5kPa; SD/mean = 12 ± 9 %). Intra-observer analysis showed almost perfect concordance (intraclass correlation coefficient = 0.95; 95 % CI 0.94 - 0.96; average difference from median = 0.4 ± 0.9kPa). For the diagnosis of cirrhosis, a smaller SD (optimally ≤ 1.75 kPa) and larger ROI size (optimally ≥ 18 mm) were associated with higher accuracy. Similarly, within the published cohort of patients assessed for portal hypertension, a low variability of measurements was associated with high reliability. Conclusion: A high quality 2D-SWE elastogram ensures low variability and high reliability, regardless of indication. We recommend aiming for a combination of low standard deviation and large ROI.

  10. Individual differences in in vitro and in vivo metabolic clearances of antipsychotic risperidone from Japanese subjects genotyped for cytochrome P450 2D6 and 3A5.

    PubMed

    Okubo, Maho; Morita, Shoko; Murayama, Norie; Akimoto, Youichi; Goto, Akiko; Yamazaki, Hiroshi

    2016-03-01

    There are conflicting reports regarding the effects of cytochrome P450 (P450, CYP) genotypes on the plasma concentrations of risperidone and its pharmacologically active metabolite, 9-hydroxyrisperidone (paliperidone), in clinical patients. The aim of this study was to investigate individual differences in the metabolic clearance of risperidone in vitro and in vivo. In vitro liver microsomal risperidone 9-hydroxylation activities and in vivo plasma concentrations of risperidone and paliperidone were investigated in 15 male and 12 female Japanese subjects (mean age 52 years, range: 24-75 years) genotyped for CYP2D6 and CYP3A5. CYP2D6 intermediate and poor metabolizers showed significantly lower liver microsomal risperidone 9-hydroxylation activities than extensive metabolizers did at 5 μM of risperidone; this difference was not evident at 50 μM of risperidone. The recombinant CYP3A5 Vmax/Km value for risperidone 9-hydroxylation was 30% that of CYP3A4, and liver microsomes from CYP3A5 expressers had similar risperidone 9-hydroxylation activities to those of CYP3A5 poor expressers. The plasma concentration/dose ratios for risperidone and paliperidone in 27 Japanese patients were not significantly influenced by the CYP2D6 or CYP3A5 genotypes. Individual differences in metabolic clearance of risperidone under the present conditions were not significantly influenced by the genotypes of CYP2D6 or CYP3A5. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  11. Quantifying the flow dynamics of supercritical CO2-water displacement in a 2D porous micromodel using fluorescent microscopy and microscopic PIV

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kazemifar, Farzan; Blois, Gianluca; Kyritsis, Dimitrios C.; Christensen, Kenneth T.

    2016-09-01

    The multi-phase flow of liquid/supercritical CO2 and water (non-wetting and wetting phases, respectively) in a two-dimensional silicon micromodel was investigated at reservoir conditions (80 bar, 24 °C and 40 °C). The fluorescent microscopy and microscopic particle image velocimetry (micro-PIV) techniques were combined to quantify the flow dynamics associated with displacement of water by CO2 (drainage) in the porous matrix. To this end, water was seeded with fluorescent tracer particles, CO2 was tagged with a fluorescent dye and each phase was imaged independently using spectral separation in conjunction with microscopic imaging. This approach allowed simultaneous measurement of the spatially-resolved instantaneous velocity field in the water and quantification of the spatial configuration of the two fluid phases. The results, acquired with sufficient time resolution to follow the dynamic progression of both phases, provide a comprehensive picture of the flow physics during the migration of the CO2 front, the temporal evolution of individual menisci, and the growth of fingers within the porous microstructure. During that growth process, velocity jumps 20-25 times larger in magnitude than the bulk velocity were measured in the water phase and these bursts of water flow occurred both in-line with and against the bulk flow direction. These unsteady velocity events support the notion of pressure bursts and Haines jumps during pore drainage events as previously reported in the literature [1-3]. After passage of the CO2 front, shear-induced flow was detected in the trapped water ganglia in the form of circulation zones near the CO2-water interfaces as well as in the thin water films wetting the surfaces of the silicon micromodel. To our knowledge, the results presented herein represent the first quantitative spatially and temporally resolved velocity-field measurements at high pressure for water displacement by liquid/supercritical CO2 injection in a porous micromodel.

  12. Sensitive fluorescent staining for proteomic analysis of proteins in 1-D and 2-D SDS-PAGE and its comparison with SYPRO Ruby by PMF.

    PubMed

    Cong, Wei-Tao; Hwang, Sun-Young; Jin, Li-Tai; Choi, Jung-Kap

    2008-11-01

    A novel fluorescence-based method for protein staining on SDS polyacrylamide gel is described. In this method, proteins are stained using counterion (palmatine and SDS) staining solution, which is inexpensive, easy to perform, and does not involve a destaining step. Fixing and staining of proteins using the counterion protocol take less than an hour. As little as 2 ng of protein can be detected. Another interesting feature of the staining protocol described here is the compatibility with MALDI-TOF MS which shows a similar number of identification score and sequence coverage compared with those of SYPRO Ruby.

  13. 2D-DIGE as a strategy to identify serum biomarkers in Mexican patients with Type-2 diabetes with different body mass index

    PubMed Central

    Gómez-Cardona, Erik E.; Hernández-Domínguez, Eric E.; Velarde-Salcedo, Aída J.; Pacheco, Alberto-Barrera-; Diaz-Gois, Agustín; De León-Rodríguez, Antonio; Barba de la Rosa, Ana P.

    2017-01-01

    Obesity and type 2 diabetes(T2D) are the most prevalent and serious metabolic diseases affecting people worldwide. However racial and ethnic disparities seems to be a risk factor for their development. Mexico has been named as one of the largest populations with the highest prevalence of diabetes and obesity. The aim of this study was to identify novel T2D-associated proteins in Mexican patients. Blood samples were collected from 62 Mexican patients with T2D and they were grouped according to their body mass index(BMI). A panel of 10 diabetes and obesity serum markers was determined using MAGPIX. A comparative proteomics study was performed using two-dimensional difference in-gel electrophoresis(2D-DIGE) followed by mass spectrometry(LC-MS/MS). We detected 113 spots differentially accumulated, in which 64 unique proteins were identified, proteins that were involved in metabolism pathways, molecular transport, and cellular signalling. Four proteins(14-3-3, ApoH, ZAG, and OTO3) showing diabetes-related variation and also changes in relation to obesity were selected for further validation by western blotting. Our results reveal new diabetes related proteins present in the Mexican population. These could provide additional insight into the understanding of diabetes development in Mexican population and may also be useful candidate biomarkers. PMID:28425473

  14. Rapid authentication of different ages of tissue-cultured and wild Dendrobium huoshanense as well as wild Dendrobium henanense using FTIR and 2D-COS IR

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Nai-Dong; Chen, Nai-Fu; Li, Jun; Cao, Cai-Yun; Wang, Jin-Mei

    2015-12-01

    The accumulating of pharmaceutical chemicals in medicinal plants would greatly be affected by their ages and establishing a fast quality-identification method to evaluate the similarity of medicinal herbs at different cultivated ages is a critical step for assurance of quality and safety in the TCM industry. In this work, tri-step IR macro-fingerprinting and 2D-COS IR spectrum techniques combined with statistical pattern recognition were applied for discrimination and similarity evaluation of different ages of tissue-cultured and wild Dendrobium huoshanense C. Z. Tang et S. J. Cheng as well as Dendrobium henanense J.L.Lu et L.X Gao. Both tissue-cultured and wild D. huoshanense were easily differentiated from D. henanense by FTIR and SD-IR spectra, while it's quite difficult to discriminate different cultivated years of the three investigated Dendrobiums. In 2D-COS IR spectra, 1-5 auto-peaks with different indensity and positions were located in the region 1160-1030 cm-1 of the twelve Dendrobium samples and thus could be used to identify Dendrobium samples at different ages. Principle component analysis (PCA) of synchronous 2D-COS data showed that the twelve samples were effectively identified and evaluated. The results indicated that the tri-step infrared macro-fingerprinting combined with PCA method was suitable to differentiate the cultivated ages of Dendrobiums with species and orgins rapidly and nondestructively.

  15. Comparison of the effect of simple and complex acquisition trajectories on the 2D SPR and 3D voxelized differences for dedicated breast CT imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shah, Jainil P.; Mann, Steve D.; McKinley, Randolph L.; Tornai, Martin P.

    2014-03-01

    The 2D scatter-to-primary (SPR) ratios and 3D voxelized difference volumes were characterized for a cone beam breast CT scanner capable of arbitrary (non-traditional) 3D trajectories. The CT system uses a 30x30cm2 flat panel imager with 197 micron pixellation and a rotating tungsten anode x-ray source with 0.3mm focal spot, with an SID of 70cm. Data were acquired for two cylindrical phantoms (12.5cm and 15cm diameter) filled with three different combinations of water and methanol yielding a range of uniform densities. Projections were acquired with two acquisition trajectories: 1) simple-circular azimuthal orbit with fixed tilt; and 2) saddle orbit following a +/-15° sinusoidal trajectory around the object. Projection data were acquired in 2x2 binned mode. Projections were scatter corrected using a beam stop array method, and the 2D SPR was measured on the projections. The scatter corrected and uncorrected data were then reconstructed individually using an iterative ordered subsets convex algorithm, and the 3D difference volumes were calculated as the absolute difference between the two. Results indicate that the 2D SPR is ~7-15% higher on projections with greatest tilt for the saddle orbit, due to the longer x-ray path length through the volume, compared to the 0° tilt projections. Additionally, the 2D SPR increases with object diameter as well as density. The 3D voxelized difference volumes are an estimate of the scatter contribution to the reconstructed attenuation coefficients on a voxel level. They help visualize minor deficiencies and artifacts in the volumes due to correction methods.

  16. Volatility-dependent 2D IR correlation analysis of traditional Chinese medicine ‘Red Flower Oil’ preparation from different manufacturers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Yan-Wen; Sun, Su-Qin; Zhou, Qun; Tao, Jia-Xun; Noda, Isao

    2008-06-01

    As a traditional Chinese medicine (TCM), 'Red Flower Oil' preparation is widely used as a household remedy in China and Southeast Asia. Usually, the preparation is a mixture of several plant essential oils with different volatile features, such as wintergreen oil, turpentine oil and clove oil. The proportions of these plant essential oils in 'Red Flower Oil' vary from different manufacturers. Thus, it is important to develop a simple and rapid evaluation method for quality assurance of the preparations. Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) was applied and two-dimensional correlation infrared spectroscopy (2D IR) based on the volatile characteristic of samples was used to enhance the resolution of FT-IR spectra. 2D IR technique could, not only easily provide the composition and their volatile sequences in 'Red flower Oil' preparations, but also rapidly discriminate the subtle differences in products from different manufacturers. Therefore, FT-IR combined with volatility-dependent 2D IR correlation analysis provides a very fast and effective method for the quality control of essential oil mixtures in TCM.

  17. Vertical 2D Heterostructures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lotsch, Bettina V.

    2015-07-01

    Graphene's legacy has become an integral part of today's condensed matter science and has equipped a whole generation of scientists with an armory of concepts and techniques that open up new perspectives for the postgraphene area. In particular, the judicious combination of 2D building blocks into vertical heterostructures has recently been identified as a promising route to rationally engineer complex multilayer systems and artificial solids with intriguing properties. The present review highlights recent developments in the rapidly emerging field of 2D nanoarchitectonics from a materials chemistry perspective, with a focus on the types of heterostructures available, their assembly strategies, and their emerging properties. This overview is intended to bridge the gap between two major—yet largely disjunct—developments in 2D heterostructures, which are firmly rooted in solid-state chemistry or physics. Although the underlying types of heterostructures differ with respect to their dimensions, layer alignment, and interfacial quality, there is common ground, and future synergies between the various assembly strategies are to be expected.

  18. Investigation of kinetics and thermodynamics of DNA hybridization by means of 2-D fluorescence spectroscopy and soft/hard modeling techniques.

    PubMed

    Ebrahimi, Sara; Kompany-Zareh, Mohsen

    2016-02-04

    Reversible hybridization reaction plays a key role in fundamental biological processes, in many laboratory techniques, and also in DNA based sensing devices. Comprehensive investigation of this process is, therefore, essential for the development of more sophisticated applications. Kinetics and thermodynamics of the hybridization reaction, as a second order process, are systematically investigated with the aid of the soft and hard chemometric methods. Labeling two complementary 21 mer DNA single strands with FAM and Texas red fluorophores, enabled recording of the florescence excitation-emission matrices during the experiments which led to three-way data sets. The presence of fluorescence resonance energy transfer in excitation and emission modes and the closure in concentration mode, made the three-way data arrays rank deficient. To acquire primary chemical information, restricted Tucker3 as a soft method was employed. Herein a model-based method, hard restricted trilinear decomposition, is introduced for in depth analysis of rank deficient three-way data sets. By employing proposed hard method, the nonlinear model parameters as well as the correct profiles could be estimated. In addition, a simple constraint is presented to extract chemically reasonable output profiles regarding the core elements of restricted Tucker3 model.

  19. The basics of 2D DIGE.

    PubMed

    Beckett, Phil

    2012-01-01

    The technique of two-dimensional (2D) gel electrophoresis is a powerful tool for separating complex mixtures of proteins, but since its inception in the mid 1970s, it acquired the stigma of being a very difficult application to master and was generally used to its best effect by experts. The introduction of commercially available immobilized pH gradients in the early 1990s provided enhanced reproducibility and easier protocols, leading to a pronounced increase in popularity of the technique. However gel-to-gel variation was still difficult to control without the use of technical replicates. In the mid 1990s (at the same time as the birth of "proteomics"), the concept of multiplexing fluorescently labeled proteins for 2D gel separation was realized by Jon Minden's group and has led to the ability to design experiments to virtually eliminate gel-to-gel variation, resulting in biological replicates being used for statistical analysis with the ability to detect very small changes in relative protein abundance. This technology is referred to as 2D difference gel electrophoresis (2D DIGE).

  20. Two-Dimensional Gel Electrophoresis and 2D-DIGE.

    PubMed

    Meleady, Paula

    2018-01-01

    Two-dimensional polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (2D-PAGE) continues to be one of the most versatile and widely used techniques to study the proteome of a biological system. In particular, a modified version of 2D-PAGE, two-dimensional difference gel electrophoresis (2D-DIGE), which uses differential labeling of protein samples with up to three fluorescent tags, offers greater sensitivity and reproducibility over conventional 2D-PAGE gels for differential quantitative analysis of protein expression between experimental groups. Both these methods have distinct advantages in the separation and identification of thousands of individual proteins species including protein isoforms and post-translational modifications. This review will discuss the principles of 2D-PAGE and 2D-DIGE including limitations to the methods. 2D-PAGE and 2D-DIGE continue to be popular methods in bioprocessing-related research (particularly on recombinant Chinese hamster ovary cells), which will also be discussed in the review chapter.

  1. Correlation between gamma index passing rate and clinical dosimetric difference for pre-treatment 2D and 3D volumetric modulated arc therapy dosimetric verification.

    PubMed

    Jin, X; Yan, H; Han, C; Zhou, Y; Yi, J; Xie, C

    2015-03-01

    To investigate comparatively the percentage gamma passing rate (%GP) of two-dimensional (2D) and three-dimensional (3D) pre-treatment volumetric modulated arc therapy (VMAT) dosimetric verification and their correlation and sensitivity with percentage dosimetric errors (%DE). %GP of 2D and 3D pre-treatment VMAT quality assurance (QA) with different acceptance criteria was obtained by ArcCHECK® (Sun Nuclear Corporation, Melbourne, FL) for 20 patients with nasopharyngeal cancer (NPC) and 20 patients with oesophageal cancer. %DE were calculated from planned dose-volume histogram (DVH) and patients' predicted DVH calculated by 3DVH® software (Sun Nuclear Corporation). Correlation and sensitivity between %GP and %DE were investigated using Pearson's correlation coefficient (r) and receiver operating characteristics (ROCs). Relatively higher %DE on some DVH-based metrics were observed for both patients with NPC and oesophageal cancer. Except for 2%/2 mm criterion, the average %GPs for all patients undergoing VMAT were acceptable with average rates of 97.11% ± 1.54% and 97.39% ± 1.37% for 2D and 3D 3%/3 mm criteria, respectively. The number of correlations for 3D was higher than that for 2D (21 vs 8). However, the general correlation was still poor for all the analysed metrics (9 out of 26 for 3D 3%/3 mm criterion). The average area under the curve (AUC) of ROCs was 0.66 ± 0.12 and 0.71 ± 0.21 for 2D and 3D evaluations, respectively. There is a lack of correlation between %GP and %DE for both 2D and 3D pre-treatment VMAT dosimetric evaluation. DVH-based dose metrics evaluation obtained from 3DVH will provide more useful analysis. Correlation and sensitivity of %GP with %DE for VMAT QA were studied for the first time.

  2. Correlation between gamma index passing rate and clinical dosimetric difference for pre-treatment 2D and 3D volumetric modulated arc therapy dosimetric verification

    PubMed Central

    Jin, X; Yan, H; Han, C; Zhou, Y; Yi, J

    2015-01-01

    Objective: To investigate comparatively the percentage gamma passing rate (%GP) of two-dimensional (2D) and three-dimensional (3D) pre-treatment volumetric modulated arc therapy (VMAT) dosimetric verification and their correlation and sensitivity with percentage dosimetric errors (%DE). Methods: %GP of 2D and 3D pre-treatment VMAT quality assurance (QA) with different acceptance criteria was obtained by ArcCHECK® (Sun Nuclear Corporation, Melbourne, FL) for 20 patients with nasopharyngeal cancer (NPC) and 20 patients with oesophageal cancer. %DE were calculated from planned dose–volume histogram (DVH) and patients' predicted DVH calculated by 3DVH® software (Sun Nuclear Corporation). Correlation and sensitivity between %GP and %DE were investigated using Pearson's correlation coefficient (r) and receiver operating characteristics (ROCs). Results: Relatively higher %DE on some DVH-based metrics were observed for both patients with NPC and oesophageal cancer. Except for 2%/2 mm criterion, the average %GPs for all patients undergoing VMAT were acceptable with average rates of 97.11% ± 1.54% and 97.39% ± 1.37% for 2D and 3D 3%/3 mm criteria, respectively. The number of correlations for 3D was higher than that for 2D (21 vs 8). However, the general correlation was still poor for all the analysed metrics (9 out of 26 for 3D 3%/3 mm criterion). The average area under the curve (AUC) of ROCs was 0.66 ± 0.12 and 0.71 ± 0.21 for 2D and 3D evaluations, respectively. Conclusions: There is a lack of correlation between %GP and %DE for both 2D and 3D pre-treatment VMAT dosimetric evaluation. DVH-based dose metrics evaluation obtained from 3DVH will provide more useful analysis. Advances in knowledge: Correlation and sensitivity of %GP with %DE for VMAT QA were studied for the first time. PMID:25494412

  3. A comparative method for protein extraction and 2-D gel electrophoresis from different tissues of Cajanus cajan.

    PubMed

    Singh, Nisha; Jain, Neha; Kumar, Ram; Jain, Ajay; Singh, Nagendra K; Rai, Vandna

    2015-01-01

    Pigeonpea is an important legume crop with high protein content. However, it is often subjected to various abiotic and biotic stresses. Proteomics is a state-of-the-art technique used to analyze the protein profiling of a tissue for deciphering the molecular entities that could be manipulated for developing crops resistant to these stresses. In this context, developing a comprehensive proteome profile from different vegetative and reproductive tissues has become mandatory. Although several protein extraction protocols from different tissues of diverse plant species have been reported, there is no report for pigeonpea. Here, we report tissue-specific protein extraction protocols representing vegetative (young leaves), and reproductive (flowers and seeds) organs and their subsequent analysis on 2-dimensional gel electrophoresis. The study explicitly demonstrated that the efficacy of a particular protein extraction protocol is dependent on the different tissues, such as leaves, flowers and seeds that differ in their structure and metabolic constituents. For instance, phenol-based protocol showed an efficacy toward higher protein yield, better spot resolution and a minimal streaking on 2-DE gel for both leaves and flowers. Protein extraction from seeds was best achieved by employing phosphate-TCA-acetone protocol.

  4. A comparative method for protein extraction and 2-D gel electrophoresis from different tissues of Cajanus cajan

    PubMed Central

    Singh, Nisha; Jain, Neha; Kumar, Ram; Jain, Ajay; Singh, Nagendra K.; Rai, Vandna

    2015-01-01

    Pigeonpea is an important legume crop with high protein content. However, it is often subjected to various abiotic and biotic stresses. Proteomics is a state-of-the-art technique used to analyze the protein profiling of a tissue for deciphering the molecular entities that could be manipulated for developing crops resistant to these stresses. In this context, developing a comprehensive proteome profile from different vegetative and reproductive tissues has become mandatory. Although several protein extraction protocols from different tissues of diverse plant species have been reported, there is no report for pigeonpea. Here, we report tissue-specific protein extraction protocols representing vegetative (young leaves), and reproductive (flowers and seeds) organs and their subsequent analysis on 2-dimensional gel electrophoresis. The study explicitly demonstrated that the efficacy of a particular protein extraction protocol is dependent on the different tissues, such as leaves, flowers and seeds that differ in their structure and metabolic constituents. For instance, phenol-based protocol showed an efficacy toward higher protein yield, better spot resolution and a minimal streaking on 2-DE gel for both leaves and flowers. Protein extraction from seeds was best achieved by employing phosphate-TCA-acetone protocol. PMID:26300903

  5. A new method to make 2-D wear measurements less sensitive to projection differences of cemented THAs.

    PubMed

    The, Bertram; Flivik, Gunnar; Diercks, Ron L; Verdonschot, Nico

    2008-03-01

    Wear curves from individual patients often show unexplained irregular wear curves or impossible values (negative wear). We postulated errors of two-dimensional wear measurements are mainly the result of radiographic projection differences. We tested a new method that makes two-dimensional wear measurements less sensitive for radiograph projection differences of cemented THAs. The measurement errors that occur when radiographically projecting a three-dimensional THA were modeled. Based on the model, we developed a method to reduce the errors, thus approximating three-dimensional linear wear values, which are less sensitive for projection differences. An error analysis was performed by virtually simulating 144 wear measurements under varying conditions with and without application of the correction: the mean absolute error was reduced from 1.8 mm (range, 0-4.51 mm) to 0.11 mm (range, 0-0.27 mm). For clinical validation, radiostereometric analysis was performed on 47 patients to determine the true wear at 1, 2, and 5 years. Subsequently, wear was measured on conventional radiographs with and without the correction: the overall occurrence of errors greater than 0.2 mm was reduced from 35% to 15%. Wear measurements are less sensitive to differences in two-dimensional projection of the THA when using the correction method.

  6. A New Method to Make 2-D Wear Measurements Less Sensitive to Projection Differences of Cemented THAs

    PubMed Central

    Flivik, Gunnar; Diercks, Ron L.; Verdonschot, Nico

    2008-01-01

    Wear curves from individual patients often show unexplained irregular wear curves or impossible values (negative wear). We postulated errors of two-dimensional wear measurements are mainly the result of radiographic projection differences. We tested a new method that makes two-dimensional wear measurements less sensitive for radiograph projection differences of cemented THAs. The measurement errors that occur when radiographically projecting a three-dimensional THA were modeled. Based on the model, we developed a method to reduce the errors, thus approximating three-dimensional linear wear values, which are less sensitive for projection differences. An error analysis was performed by virtually simulating 144 wear measurements under varying conditions with and without application of the correction: the mean absolute error was reduced from 1.8 mm (range, 0–4.51 mm) to 0.11 mm (range, 0–0.27 mm). For clinical validation, radiostereometric analysis was performed on 47 patients to determine the true wear at 1, 2, and 5 years. Subsequently, wear was measured on conventional radiographs with and without the correction: the overall occurrence of errors greater than 0.2 mm was reduced from 35% to 15%. Wear measurements are less sensitive to differences in two-dimensional projection of the THA when using the correction method. PMID:18264857

  7. Systematic Comparison of the Performance of Different 2D and 3D Ligand-Based Virtual Screening Methodologies to Discover Anticonvulsant Drugs.

    PubMed

    Di Ianni, Mauricio E; Gantner, Melisa E; Ruiz, María E; Castro, Eduardo A; Bruno-Blanch, Luis E; Talevi, Alan

    2015-01-01

    Virtual screening encompasses a wide range of computational approaches aimed at the high-throughput, cost-efficient exploration of chemical libraries or databases to discover new bioactive compounds or novel medical indications of known drugs. Here, we have performed a systematic comparison of the performance of a large number of 2D and 3D ligand-based approaches (2D and 3D similarity, QSAR models, pharmacophoric hypothesis) in a simulated virtual campaign on a chemical library containing 50 known anticonvulsant drugs and 950 decoys with no previous reports of anticonvulsant effect. To perform such comparison, we resorted to Receiver Operating Characteristic curves. We also tested the relative performance of consensus methodologies. Our results indicate that the selective combination of the individual approaches (through voting and ranking combination schemes) significantly outperforms the individual algorithms and/or models. Among the best-performing individual approaches, 2D similarity search based on circular fingerprints and 3D similarity approaches should be highlighted. Combining the results from different query molecules also led to enhanced enrichment.

  8. Differences in serum protein 2D gel electrophoresis patterns of Przewalski's (Mongolian wild horse) and thoroughbred horses.

    PubMed

    Barsuren, Enkhbolor; Namkhai, Bandi; Kong, Hong Sik

    2015-04-01

    The objective of this study was to assess differences in serum protein expression profiles of Przewalski's (Mongolian wild horse) and thoroughbred horses using proteome analysis. The serum proteins were separated by two-dimensional electrophoresis (2-DE) and five different gene products were identified. Proteins represented by the five spots were identified by matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization-time-of-flight (MALDI-TOF) mass spectrometry (MS)/MS technology. The identities of all proteins were deduced based on their similarity to proteins in the human plasma protein database. Three proteins (a haptoglobin-2 alpha glycoprotein and two haptoglobin-2beta glycoproteins with different accession numbers) were downregulated in Przewalski's horse sera compared to thoroughbred horse sera. Moreover, two proteins (tetraspanin-18 and pM5) were upregulated in Przewalski's horses compared to thoroughbred horses. Haptoglobin-2 alpha and haptoglobin-2beta may serve as candidate molecules in future studies of inflammation, coagulation, immune modulation and pro-oxidant and antioxidant activity with consequential effects on the entire metabolism of the horse.

  9. Comparison of different fluorescence fluctuation methods for their use in FRET assays: monitoring a protease reaction.

    PubMed

    Eggeling, C; Jäger, S; Winkler, D; Kask, Peet

    2005-10-01

    We compare the accuracy of a variety of Fluorescence Fluctuation Spectroscopy (FFS) methods for the study of Förster Resonance Energy Transfer (FRET) assays. As an example, the cleavage of a doubly labeled, FRET-active peptide substrate by the protease Trypsin is monitored and analyzed using methods based on fluorescence intensity, Fluorescence Correlation Spectroscopy (FCS) and Fluorescence Intensity Distribution Analysis (FIDA). The presented fluorescence data are compared to High-Pressure Liquid Chromatography (HPLC) data obtained from the same assay. The HPLC analysis discloses general disadvantages of the FRET approach, such as incomplete labeling and the need for aliquots. However, the simultaneous use of two photon detectors monitoring the fluorescence signal of both labels significantly improves the analysis. In particular, the two global analysis tools Two-Dimensional Fluorescence Intensity Distribution Analysis (2D-FIDA) and Two-Color Global Fluorescence Correlation Spectroscopy (2CG-FCS) highlight the potential of a combination of FFS and FRET. While conventional FIDA and FCS auto- or cross-correlation analysis leaves the user with drawbacks inherent in two-color and FRET applications, these effects are overcome by the global analysis on the molecular level. Furthermore, it is advantageous to analyze the unnormalized as opposed to the normalized correlation data when combining any fluorescence correlation method with FRET, since the analysis of the unnormalized data introduces more accuracy and is less sensitive to the experimental drawbacks.

  10. One-step construction of two different kinds of pores in a 2D covalent organic framework.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Tian-You; Xu, Shun-Qi; Wen, Qiang; Pang, Zhong-Fu; Zhao, Xin

    2014-11-12

    Covalent organic frameworks (COFs) are crystalline porous materials bearing microporous or mesoporous pores. The type and size of pores play crucial roles in regulating the properties of COFs. In this work, a novel COF, which bears two different kinds of ordered pores with controllable sizes: one within microporous range (7.1 Å) and the other in mesoporous range (26.9 Å), has been constructed via one-step synthesis. The structure of the dual-pore COF was confirmed by PXRD investigation, nitrogen adsorption-desorption study, and theoretical calculations.

  11. 2D nano-Y2O3:Eu3+ photoluminescence with different preparation methods and annealing temperatures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhou, Jun; Zhu, Yanhua; Liu, Huangqing; Chai, Yifeng; Yang, Yibo; Zhang, Qingjun; Wang, Lingling

    2017-03-01

    Y2O3:Eu3+ (YOE) material is an important photoluminescence (PL) material. In this paper, YOE nano-powder was prepared by the low-temperature combustion method (LTC) and sol-gel method (SG), and annealed with different temperatures, respectively. The influence of the preparation methods and annealing temperature on the optical properties of YOE were well studied. The as-synthesized nano-YOE samples were characterized by x-ray diffraction (XRD), PL spectra, and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR). Results show that with the increase in annealing temperature, the charge transfer band (CTB) of samples blue-shifts and shows higher intensity. FTIR results indicate that low emission intensity decreases luminescence intensity and deteriorates the optical properties of nano-YOE. We also studied the spectral intensity changes before and after laser-induced, which shows the intensity of significant changes over time.

  12. High velocity impact on different hybrid architectures of 2D laminated and 3D warp interlock fabric composite

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Provost, B.; Boussu, F.; Coutellier, D.; Vallee, D.; Rondot, F.

    2012-08-01

    For decades, conventional amour shield is mainly oriented on metallic materials which are today well-known. Since the use of non conventional threats as IEDs, performances of those protections are required to be upgraded. The expected improvements that manufacturers are looking for are mainly oriented to the weight reduction which is the key parameter to reduce the fuel consumption, increase the payload, and offer more manoeuvrability to vehicles [1]. However, the difficulty is to reduce as cautiously as possible the total mass of the protection solution while ensuring the safety of the vehicle. One of the possible solutions is to use new combinations of materials, able to be more efficient against new threats and lighter than the traditional steel armour. It is in this context that the combination between some well-known ballistic alloys and textile composite material appear as a high potential solution for armour plated protection. Indeed, used as a backing, textile composite material present some interesting properties such as a very low density compared with steel and good behaviour in term of ballistic efficiency. This study proposes to test and compare the behaviour and efficiency of three different textile composite backings.

  13. SU-E-T-83: A Study On Evaluating the Directional Dependency of 2D Seven 29 Ion Chamber Array Clinically with Different IMRT Plans

    SciTech Connect

    Kumar, Syam; Aswathi, C.P.

    2015-06-15

    Purpose: To evaluate the directional dependency of 2D seven 29 ion chamber array clinically with different IMRT plans. Methods: 25 patients already treated with IMRT plans were selected for the study. Verification plans were created for each treatment plan in eclipse 10 treatment planning system using the AAA algorithm with the 2D array and the Octavius CT phantom. Verification plans were done 2 times for a single patient. First plan with real IMRT (plan-related approach) and second plan with zero degree gantry angle (field-related approach). Measurements were performed on a Varian Clinac-iX, linear accelerator equipped with a millennium 120 multileaf collimator. Fluence was measured for all the delivered plans and analyzed using the verisoft software. Comparison was done by selecting the fluence delivered in static gantry (zero degree gantry) versus IMRT with real gantry angles. Results: The gamma pass percentage is greater than 97 % for all IMRT delivered with zero gantry angle and between 95%–98% for real gantry angles. Dose difference between the TPS calculated and measured for IMRT delivered with zero gantry angle was found to be between (0.03 to 0.06Gy) and with real gantry angles between (0.02 to 0.05Gy). There is a significant difference between the gamma analysis between the zero degree and true angle with a significance of 0.002. Standard deviation of gamma pass percentage between the IMRT plans with zero gantry angle was 0.68 and for IMRT with true gantry angle was found to be 0.74. Conclusion: The gamma analysis for IMRT with zero degree gantry angles shows higher pass percentage than IMRT delivered with true gantry angles. Verification plans delivered with true gantry angles lower the verification accuracy when 2D array is used for measurement.

  14. [Comparative proteomics study of different processing technology for pilose antler using iTRAQ technology coupled with 2D LC-MS].

    PubMed

    Jin, Meng-ya; Dong, Ling; Luo, Yuan-ming; Yu, Li; Mo, Mei; Hou, Cheng-bo; Li, Zhi-yuan

    2015-12-01

    This study was designed to use iTRAQ technology coupled with 2D LC-MS/MS to study the comparative proteomics of different processing technology for pilose antler. 1015 proteins were identified with 2D LC combined with MOLDI TOF/TOF mass spectrometry. Comparative analysis with Protein Pilot (Version 4.5) revealed that 87 proteins were changed (P ≤ 0.05, the ratio of > 1.50 or < 0.60 as the threshold selection of difference proteins), of which 24 were up regulated and 33 were down regulated in the traditional frying process (TFP) compared with the fresh pilose antler (P ≤ 0.05). 7 significant different proteins (P ≤ 0.001), most of these significantly changed proteins were found to be involved in calcium ion binding and ATP binding associated with human healthy. Freeze drying with protective agent (FDP) (Trehalose) can improve the content of significantly different proteins (P ≤ 0.001) including Collagen alpha-1 (XII) chain (COL12A1) and Collagen alpha-1 (II) chain (COL2A1). The significant function involves in platelets activating, maintenance of spermatogonium, and disorder expression in tumor cells. The functional annotation by Hierarchical clustering and GO (gene ontology) showed that the main molecule functions of the proteins significantly changed in these processes were involved in binding (52.7%), catalytic (25.3%), structural molecule and transporter (6.6%).

  15. 2D and 3D Stem Cell Models of Primate Cortical Development Identify Species-Specific Differences in Progenitor Behavior Contributing to Brain Size.

    PubMed

    Otani, Tomoki; Marchetto, Maria C; Gage, Fred H; Simons, Benjamin D; Livesey, Frederick J

    2016-04-07

    Variation in cerebral cortex size and complexity is thought to contribute to differences in cognitive ability between humans and other animals. Here we compare cortical progenitor cell output in humans and three nonhuman primates using directed differentiation of pluripotent stem cells (PSCs) in adherent two-dimensional (2D) and organoid three-dimensional (3D) culture systems. Clonal lineage analysis showed that primate cortical progenitors proliferate for a protracted period of time, during which they generate early-born neurons, in contrast to rodents, where this expansion phase largely ceases before neurogenesis begins. The extent of this additional cortical progenitor expansion differs among primates, leading to differences in the number of neurons generated by each progenitor cell. We found that this mechanism for controlling cortical size is regulated cell autonomously in culture, suggesting that primate cerebral cortex size is regulated at least in part at the level of individual cortical progenitor cell clonal output.

  16. 2D and 3D Stem Cell Models of Primate Cortical Development Identify Species-Specific Differences in Progenitor Behavior Contributing to Brain Size

    PubMed Central

    Otani, Tomoki; Marchetto, Maria C.; Gage, Fred H.; Simons, Benjamin D.; Livesey, Frederick J.

    2016-01-01

    Summary Variation in cerebral cortex size and complexity is thought to contribute to differences in cognitive ability between humans and other animals. Here we compare cortical progenitor cell output in humans and three nonhuman primates using directed differentiation of pluripotent stem cells (PSCs) in adherent two-dimensional (2D) and organoid three-dimensional (3D) culture systems. Clonal lineage analysis showed that primate cortical progenitors proliferate for a protracted period of time, during which they generate early-born neurons, in contrast to rodents, where this expansion phase largely ceases before neurogenesis begins. The extent of this additional cortical progenitor expansion differs among primates, leading to differences in the number of neurons generated by each progenitor cell. We found that this mechanism for controlling cortical size is regulated cell autonomously in culture, suggesting that primate cerebral cortex size is regulated at least in part at the level of individual cortical progenitor cell clonal output. PMID:27049876

  17. Motion corrected photoacoustic difference imaging of fluorescent contrast agents

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Märk, Julia; Wagener, Asja; Pönick, Sarah; Grötzinger, Carsten; Zhang, Edward; Laufer, Jan

    2016-03-01

    In fluorophores, such as exogenous dyes and genetically expressed proteins, the excited state lifetime can be modulated using pump-probe excitation at wavelengths corresponding to the absorption and fluorescence spectra. Simultaneous pump-probe pulses induce stimulated emission (SE) which, in turn, modulates the thermalized energy, and hence the photoacoustic (PA) signal amplitude. For time-delayed pulses, by contrast, SE is suppressed. Since this is not observed in endogenous chromophores, the location of the fluorophore can be determined by subtracting images acquired using simultaneous and time-delayed pump-probe excitation. This simple experimental approach exploits a fluorophorespecific contrast mechanism, and has the potential to enable deep-tissue molecular imaging at fluences below the MPE. In this study, some of the challenges to its in vivo implementation are addressed. First, the PA signal amplitude generated in fluorophores in vivo is often much smaller than that in blood. Second, tissue motion can give rise to artifacts that correspond to endogenous chromophores in the difference image. This would not allow the unambiguous detection of fluorophores. A method to suppress motion artifacts based on fast switching between simultaneous and time-delayed pump-probe excitation was developed. This enables the acquisition of PA signals using the two excitation modes with minimal time delay (20 ms), thus minimizing the effects of tissue motion. The feasibility of this method is demonstrated by visualizing a fluorophore (Atto680) in tissue phantoms, which were moved during the image acquisition to mimic tissue motion.

  18. Evidencing different neurochemical profiles between thalamic nuclei using high resolution 2D-PRESS semi-LASER (1)H-MRSI at 7 T.

    PubMed

    Donadieu, Maxime; Le Fur, Yann; Confort-Gouny, Sylviane; Le Troter, Arnaud; Guye, Maxime; Ranjeva, Jean-Philippe

    2016-06-01

    To demonstrate that high resolution (1)H semi-LASER MRSI acquired at 7 T permits discrimination of metabolic patterns of different thalamic nuclei. Thirteen right-handed healthy volunteers were explored at 7 T using a high-resolution 2D-semi-LASER (1)H-MRSI sequence to determine the relative levels of N-Acetyl Aspartate (NAA), choline (Cho) and creatine-phosphocreatine (Cr) in eight VOIs (volume <0.3 ml) centered on four different thalamic nuclei located on the Oxford thalamic connectivity atlas. Post-processing was done using the CSIAPO software. Chemical shift displacement of metabolites was evaluated on a phantom and correction factors were applied to in vivo data. The global assessment (ANOVA p < 0.05) of the neurochemical profiles (NAA, Cho and Cr levels) with thalamic nuclei and hemispheres as factors showed a significant global effect (F = 11.98, p < 0.0001), with significant effect of nucleus type (p < 0.0001) and hemisphere (p < 0.0001). Post hoc analyses showed differences in neurochemical profiles between the left and the right hemisphere (p < 0.05), and differences in neurochemical profiles between nuclei within each hemisphere (p < 0.05). For the first time, using high resolution 2D-PRESS semi-LASER (1)H-MRSI acquired at 7 T, we demonstrated that the neurochemical profiles were different between thalamic nuclei, and that these profiles were dependent on the brain hemisphere.

  19. In situ hybridization study of CYP2D mRNA in the common marmoset brain

    PubMed Central

    Shimamoto, Yoshinori; Niimi, Kimie; Kitamura, Hiroshi; Tsubakishita, Sae; Takahashi, Eiki

    2016-01-01

    The common marmoset is a non-human primate that has increasingly employed in the biomedical research including the fields of neuroscience and behavioral studies. Cytochrome P450 (CYP) 2D has been speculated to be involved in psycho-neurologic actions in the human brain. In the present study, to clarify the role of CYP2D in the marmoset brain, we investigated the expression patterns of CYP2D mRNA in the brain using in situ hybridization (ISH). In addition, to identify the gene location of CYP2D19, a well-studied CYP2D isoform in the common marmoset, a fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) study was performed. Consistent with findings for the human brain, CYP2D mRNA was localized in the neuronal cells of different brain regions; e.g., the cerebral cortex, hippocampus, substantia nigra, and cerebellum. FISH analysis showed that the CYP2D19 gene was located on chromosome 1q, which is homologous to human chromosome 22 on which the CYP2D6 gene exists. These results suggest that CYP2D in the marmoset brain may play the same role as human CYP2D6 in terms of brain actions, and that the CYP2D19 gene is conserved in a syntenic manner. Taken together, these findings suggest that the common marmoset is a useful model for studying psychiatric disorders related to CYP2D dysfunction in the brain. PMID:27356856

  20. Plasmonic spectrum on 1D and 2D periodic arrays of rod-shape metal nanoparticle pairs with different core patterns for biosensor and solar cell applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kumara, N. T. R. N.; Chou Chau, Yuan-Fong; Huang, Jin-Wei; Huang, Hung Ji; Lin, Chun-Ting; Chiang, Hai-Pang

    2016-11-01

    Simulations of surface plasmon resonance (SPR) on the near field intensity and absorption spectra of one-dimensional (1D) and two-dimensional (2D) periodic arrays of rod-shape metal nanoparticle (MNP) pairs using the finite element method (FEM) and taking into account the different core patterns for biosensor and solar cell applications are investigated. A tunable optical spectrum corresponding to the transverse SPR modes is observed. The peak resonance wavelength (λ res) can be shifted to red as the core patterns in rod-shape MNPs have been changed. We find that the 2D periodic array of core-shell MNP pairs (case 2) exhibit a red shifted SPR that can be tuned the gap enhancement and absorption efficiency simultaneously over an extended wavelength range. The tunable optical performances give us a qualitative idea of the geometrical properties of the periodic array of rod-shape MNP pairs on SPRs that can be as a promising candidate for plasmonic biosensor and solar cell applications.

  1. Hydrothermal synthesis of zinc(II)-phosphonate coordination polymers with different dimensionality (0D, 2D, 3D) and dimensionality change in the solid phase (0D→3D) induced by temperature

    SciTech Connect

    Fernández-Zapico, Eva; Montejo-Bernardo, Jose; Fernández-González, Alfonso; García, José R. García-Granda, Santiago

    2015-05-15

    Three new zinc(II) coordination polymers, [Zn(HO{sub 3}PCH{sub 2}CH{sub 2}COO)(C{sub 12}H{sub 8}N{sub 2})(H{sub 2}O)] (1), [Zn{sub 3}(O{sub 3}PCH{sub 2}CH{sub 2}COO){sub 2}(C{sub 12}H{sub 8}N{sub 2})](H{sub 2}O){sub 3.40} (2) and [Zn{sub 5}(HO{sub 3}PCH{sub 2}CH{sub 2}COO){sub 2}(O{sub 3}PCH{sub 2}CH{sub 2}COO){sub 2}(C{sub 12}H{sub 8}N{sub 2}){sub 4}](H{sub 2}O){sub 0.32} (3), with different structural dimensionality (0D, 2D and 3D, respectively) have been prepared by hydrothermal synthesis, and their structures were determined by single-crystal X-ray diffraction. Compound 1 crystallizes in the monoclinic system (P2{sub 1}/c) forming discrete dimeric units bonded through H-bonds, while compounds 2 and 3 crystallize in the triclinic (P−1) and the monoclinic (C2/c) systems, respectively. Compound 3, showing three different coordination numbers (4, 5 and 6) for the zinc atoms, has also been obtained by thermal treatment of 1 (probed by high-temperature XRPD experiments). The crystalline features of these compounds, related to the coordination environments for the zinc atoms in each structure, provoke the increase of the relative fluorescence for 2 and 3, compared to the free phenanthroline. Thermal analysis (TG and DSC) and XPS studies have been also carried out for all compounds. - Graphical abstract: Three new coordination compounds of zinc with 2-carboxyethylphosphonic acid (H{sub 2}PPA) and phenanthroline have been obtained by hydrothermal synthesis. The crystalline structure depends on the different coordination environments of the zinc atoms (see two comparative Zn{sub 6}-moieties). The influence of the different coordination modes of H{sub 2}PPA with the central atom in all structures have been studied, being found new coordination modes for this ligand. Several compounds show a significant increase in relative fluorescence with respect to the free phenanthroline. - Highlights: • Compounds have been obtained modifying the reaction time and the rate of

  2. Growth mechanisms of 2D organic assemblies generated from dialkylated melaminium derivatives: the length difference of the two alkyl chains that matters.

    PubMed

    Xu, Jun; Wu, Guanglu; Wang, Zhiqiang; Zhang, Xi

    2013-08-27

    This research is aimed to understand the growth mechanisms for self-assembly of dialkylated melamine derivatives. The dialkylated melamine derivatives with different alkyl chains (Mela-m-n) are able to self-assemble with hydrochloric acid in dichloromethane to form 2D organic assemblies, exhibiting similar lamellar structures as Mela-n·HCl with identical alkyl chains. The most interesting finding is that the growth mechanism of Mela-n·HCl with identical alkyl chains is revealed to be layer growth, while Mela-m-n·HCl with asymmetric alkyl chains adopts a spiral growth mechanism. The asymmetric alkyl chains in Mela-m-n may lead to the formation of dislocation, which is responsible for the spiral growth mechanism.

  3. Accumulative difference image protocol for particle tracking in fluorescence microscopy tested in mouse lymphonodes.

    PubMed

    Villa, Carlo E; Caccia, Michele; Sironi, Laura; D'Alfonso, Laura; Collini, Maddalena; Rivolta, Ilaria; Miserocchi, Giuseppe; Gorletta, Tatiana; Zanoni, Ivan; Granucci, Francesca; Chirico, Giuseppe

    2010-08-17

    The basic research in cell biology and in medical sciences makes large use of imaging tools mainly based on confocal fluorescence and, more recently, on non-linear excitation microscopy. Substantially the aim is the recognition of selected targets in the image and their tracking in time. We have developed a particle tracking algorithm optimized for low signal/noise images with a minimum set of requirements on the target size and with no a priori knowledge of the type of motion. The image segmentation, based on a combination of size sensitive filters, does not rely on edge detection and is tailored for targets acquired at low resolution as in most of the in-vivo studies. The particle tracking is performed by building, from a stack of Accumulative Difference Images, a single 2D image in which the motion of the whole set of the particles is coded in time by a color level. This algorithm, tested here on solid-lipid nanoparticles diffusing within cells and on lymphocytes diffusing in lymphonodes, appears to be particularly useful for the cellular and the in-vivo microscopy image processing in which few a priori assumption on the type, the extent and the variability of particle motions, can be done.

  4. Fluorescence: An Interdisciplinary Phenomenon for Different Education Levels

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    García, J. A.; Moreno, J. M.; Perales, F. J.; Romero, J.; Sánchez, P.; Gómez-Robledo, L.

    2012-01-01

    This paper shows the scientific foundations of a natural phenomenon of undoubted interest and applicability in our day, fluorescence, and its possibilities for teaching at three educational levels: primary, secondary and university. It begins by describing the nature of the phenomenon and continues by explaining how we work with students of the…

  5. Efficacy of very fast simulated annealing global optimization method for interpretation of self-potential anomaly by different forward formulation over 2D inclined sheet type structure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Biswas, A.; Sharma, S. P.

    2012-12-01

    best result without any ambiguity and smaller uncertainty. Keywords: SP anomaly, inclined sheet, 2D structure, forward problems, VFSA Optimization,

  6. The NKG2D ligands RAE-1δ and RAE-1ε differ with respect to their receptor affinity, expression profiles and transcriptional regulation.

    PubMed

    Cédile, Oriane; Popa, Natalia; Pollet-Villard, Frédéric; Garmy, Nicolas; Ibrahim, El Chérif; Boucraut, José

    2010-10-19

    RAE-1 is a ligand of the activating receptor NKG2D expressed by NK cells, NKT, γδT and some CD8(+)T lymphocytes. RAE-1 is overexpressed in tumor cell lines and its expression is induced after viral infection and genotoxic stress. We have recently demonstrated that RAE-1 is expressed in the adult subventricular zone (SVZ) from C57BL/6 mice. RAE-1 is also expressed in vitro by neural stem/progenitor cells (NSPCs) and plays a non-immune role in cell proliferation. The C57BL/6 mouse genome contains two rae-1 genes, rae-1δ and rae-1ε encoding two different proteins. The goals of this study are first to characterize the in vivo and in vitro expression of each gene and secondly to elucidate the mechanisms underlying their respective expression, which are far from known. We observed that Rae-1δ and Rae-1ε transcripts are differentially expressed according to tissues, pathological conditions and cell lines. Embryonic tissue and the adult SVZ mainly expressed Rae-1δ transcripts. The NSPCs derived from the SVZ also mainly expressed RAE-1δ. The interest of this result is especially related to the observation that RAE-1δ is a weak NKG2D ligand compared to RAE-1ε. On the contrary, cell lines expressed either similar levels of RAE-1δ and RAE-1ε proteins or only RAE-1ε. Since the protein expression correlated with the level of transcripts for each rae-1 gene, we postulated that transcriptional regulation is one of the main processes explaining the difference between RAE-1δ and RAE-1ε expression. We indeed identified two different promoter regions for each gene: one mainly involved in the control of rae-1δ gene expression and the other in the control of rae-1ε expression. RAE-1δ and RAE-1ε differ with respect to their function and the control of their expression. Immune function would be mainly exerted by RAE-1ε and non-immune function by RAE-1δ.

  7. The NKG2D Ligands RAE-1δ and RAE-1ε Differ with Respect to Their Receptor Affinity, Expression Profiles and Transcriptional Regulation

    PubMed Central

    Cédile, Oriane; Popa, Natalia; Pollet-Villard, Frédéric; Garmy, Nicolas; Ibrahim, El Chérif; Boucraut, José

    2010-01-01

    Background RAE-1 is a ligand of the activating receptor NKG2D expressed by NK cells, NKT, γδT and some CD8+T lymphocytes. RAE-1 is overexpressed in tumor cell lines and its expression is induced after viral infection and genotoxic stress. We have recently demonstrated that RAE-1 is expressed in the adult subventricular zone (SVZ) from C57BL/6 mice. RAE-1 is also expressed in vitro by neural stem/progenitor cells (NSPCs) and plays a non-immune role in cell proliferation. The C57BL/6 mouse genome contains two rae-1 genes, rae-1δ and rae-1ε encoding two different proteins. The goals of this study are first to characterize the in vivo and in vitro expression of each gene and secondly to elucidate the mechanisms underlying their respective expression, which are far from known. Principal Findings We observed that Rae-1δ and Rae-1ε transcripts are differentially expressed according to tissues, pathological conditions and cell lines. Embryonic tissue and the adult SVZ mainly expressed Rae-1δ transcripts. The NSPCs derived from the SVZ also mainly expressed RAE-1δ. The interest of this result is especially related to the observation that RAE-1δ is a weak NKG2D ligand compared to RAE-1ε. On the contrary, cell lines expressed either similar levels of RAE-1δ and RAE-1ε proteins or only RAE-1ε. Since the protein expression correlated with the level of transcripts for each rae-1 gene, we postulated that transcriptional regulation is one of the main processes explaining the difference between RAE-1δ and RAE-1ε expression. We indeed identified two different promoter regions for each gene: one mainly involved in the control of rae-1δ gene expression and the other in the control of rae-1ε expression. Conclusions/Significance RAE-1δ and RAE-1ε differ with respect to their function and the control of their expression. Immune function would be mainly exerted by RAE-1ε and non-immune function by RAE-1δ. PMID:20976056

  8. Scholte-wave Inversion for shallow 2D shear-wave velocity models at different locations in North- and Baltic sea using a hybrid particle swarm optimization scheme

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wilken, Dennis; Rabbel, Wolfgang

    2010-05-01

    In the years 2006 to 2008 we performed Airgun profiles to excite Scholte-waves at different locations in the North and Baltic sea. Scholte-wave energy was recorded using a specially developed Ocean-Bottom-Seismometer. The system is able to sample signals up to 11kHz and can thus be localised at seafloor with an accuracy of a few meters using traveltimes of high frequent seismic signals that are excited in the watercolumn. Scholte-wave recordings are added to common-receiver-gathers which are then inverted for shear-wave velocity structure by fitting modelled phase-slowness frequency dispersion spectra to spectra of the wavefield. By extracting local wavefields from the profile-gathers, multiple 1D Inversions of these fields at different offset-points lead to a 2D shear-wave velocity model of the profile. A new spectral misfit calculation was developed, working without the requirement of identification of the Scholte-wave dispersed modes in the spectra. For minimization of the misfit we implemented a new hybrid method using a combination of particle swarm optimization and a local downhill-simplex resulting in a resolution of global misfit minimum of about 7%. The method was used for shear-wave velocity inversion at four different locations in North and Baltic sea. Resulting models show very good coherence along each Profile and especially a very good correlation to high resolution reflection seismic sections of the same profiles.

  9. Verification of a non-hydrostatic dynamical core using the horizontal spectral element method and vertical finite difference method: 2-D aspects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Choi, S.-J.; Giraldo, F. X.; Kim, J.; Shin, S.

    2014-11-01

    The non-hydrostatic (NH) compressible Euler equations for dry atmosphere were solved in a simplified two-dimensional (2-D) slice framework employing a spectral element method (SEM) for the horizontal discretization and a finite difference method (FDM) for the vertical discretization. By using horizontal SEM, which decomposes the physical domain into smaller pieces with a small communication stencil, a high level of scalability can be achieved. By using vertical FDM, an easy method for coupling the dynamics and existing physics packages can be provided. The SEM uses high-order nodal basis functions associated with Lagrange polynomials based on Gauss-Lobatto-Legendre (GLL) quadrature points. The FDM employs a third-order upwind-biased scheme for the vertical flux terms and a centered finite difference scheme for the vertical derivative and integral terms. For temporal integration, a time-split, third-order Runge-Kutta (RK3) integration technique was applied. The Euler equations that were used here are in flux form based on the hydrostatic pressure vertical coordinate. The equations are the same as those used in the Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) model, but a hybrid sigma-pressure vertical coordinate was implemented in this model. We validated the model by conducting the widely used standard tests: linear hydrostatic mountain wave, tracer advection, and gravity wave over the Schär-type mountain, as well as density current, inertia-gravity wave, and rising thermal bubble. The results from these tests demonstrated that the model using the horizontal SEM and the vertical FDM is accurate and robust provided sufficient diffusion is applied. The results with various horizontal resolutions also showed convergence of second-order accuracy due to the accuracy of the time integration scheme and that of the vertical direction, although high-order basis functions were used in the horizontal. By using the 2-D slice model, we effectively showed that the combined spatial

  10. Microstructural Characterization of Yttria-Stabilized Zirconia Sintered at Different Temperatures Using 3D EBSD, 2D EBSD and Stereological Calculations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bobrowski, Piotr; Faryna, Marek; Pędzich, Zbigniew

    2017-06-01

    A set of yttria-stabilized zirconia samples sintered at increasing temperatures was investigated using two-dimensional (2D) and three-dimensional (3D) electron backscatter diffraction (EBSD) techniques to calculate grain size distributions and grain boundary densities. The obtained results were compared to the results of stereological calculations and revealed that mean intercept length, a commonly used stereological parameter, is ca. 20% lower than an average grain diameter derived from 2D and 3D EBSD data. Moreover, the results based on 2D and 3D EBSD analyses were similar to each other in grain boundary density, while the values obtained from the stereological approach were noticeably lower.

  11. Self-assembly and morphology change of four organic-polyoxometalate hybrids with different solid structures from 2D lamellar to 3D hexagonal forms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    TAN, Chunxia

    2017-02-01

    A series of organic-polyoxometalate hybrids L-EuW11, L-EuW10, L-EuW22 and L-Mo132 were fabricated by the same organic cations with different polyoxometalate anions from K5[Eu(SiW11O39)(H2O)2], K13[Eu(SiW11O39)2]·15H2O, Na9[EuW10O36]·36H2O to "Keplerate" -type (NH4)72[Mo132O372(SO4)30(H2O)72]. The structures of hybrids were characterized by elemental analysis, thermogravimetric analysis (TGA), infrared spectra (IR) and small-angle X-ray scattering (SAXS). Self-assembly behaviors and aggregates morphology of these hybrids in mixed solution of chloroform-methanol are obtained by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). L-EuW11, L-EuW10 and L-EuW22 have different aggregation morphology but the similarly layered structures. Micron-sized vesicular structures of L-Mo132 rupture in solvent and eventually turn into approximate hexagon. SAXS analysis of L-EuW11, L-EuW10 and L-EuW22 shows that these hybrids aggregates change from two-dimensional (2D) lamellar to three-dimensional (3D) hexagonal structure in solid state.

  12. Physiologically Based Pharmacokinetic Predictions of Tramadol Exposure Throughout Pediatric Life: an Analysis of the Different Clearance Contributors with Emphasis on CYP2D6 Maturation.

    PubMed

    T'jollyn, Huybrecht; Snoeys, Jan; Vermeulen, An; Michelet, Robin; Cuyckens, Filip; Mannens, Geert; Van Peer, Achiel; Annaert, Pieter; Allegaert, Karel; Van Bocxlaer, Jan; Boussery, Koen

    2015-11-01

    This paper focuses on the retrospective evaluation of physiologically based pharmacokinetic (PBPK) techniques used to mechanistically predict clearance throughout pediatric life. An intravenous tramadol retrograde PBPK model was set up in Simcyp® using adult clearance values, qualified for CYP2D6, CYP3A4, CYP2B6, and renal contributions. Subsequently, the model was evaluated for mechanistic prediction of total, CYP2D6-related, and renal clearance predictions in very early life. In two in vitro pediatric human liver microsomal (HLM) batches (1 and 3 months), O-desmethyltramadol and N-desmethyltramadol formation rates were compared with CYP2D6 and CYP3A4 activity, respectively. O-desmethyltramadol formation was mediated only by CYP2D6, while N-desmethyltramadol was mediated in part by CYP3A4. Additionally, the clearance maturation of the PBPK model predictions was compared to two in vivo maturation models (Hill and exponential) based on plasma concentration data, and to clearance estimations from a WinNonlin® fit of plasma concentration and urinary excretion data. Maturation of renal and CYP2D6 clearance is captured well in the PBPK model predictions, but total tramadol clearance is underpredicted. The most pronounced underprediction of total and CYP2D6-mediated clearance was observed in the age range of 2-13 years. In conclusion, the PBPK technique showed to be a powerful mechanistic tool capable of predicting maturation of CYP2D6 and renal tramadol clearance in early infancy, although some underprediction occurs between 2 and 13 years for total and CYP2D6-mediated tramadol clearance.

  13. Emerging photoluminescence from bilayer large-area 2D MoS2 films grown by pulsed laser deposition on different substrates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barvat, Arun; Prakash, Nisha; Satpati, Biswarup; Singha, Shib Shankar; Kumar, Gaurav; Singh, Dilip K.; Dogra, Anjana; Khanna, Suraj P.; Singha, Achintya; Pal, Prabir

    2017-07-01

    We report the growth of continuous large area bilayer films of MoS2 on different substrates by pulsed laser deposition (PLD). The growth parameters for PLD were modified in such a way that results in bilayer 2D-MoS2 films on both c-Al2O3 (0001) (sapphire) and SiO2/Si (SO) substrates. The bilayer large area crystalline nature of growth in the 2 H-phase is determined by Raman spectroscopy. Cross-sectional transmission electron microscopy confirms the distinct thinnest ordered layered structure of MoS2. Chemical analysis reveals an almost stoichiometric 2 H-phase on both the substrates. The photoluminescence intensities of both the films match very well with those of the corresponding exfoliated flakes, as well as chemical vapor deposited (CVD) films as reported in the literature. The in-situ post growth annealing with optimal film thickness acts as a solid phase epitaxy process which provides continuous crystalline layers with a smooth interface and regulates the photoluminescence properties. In contrast, the PLD grown MoS2 monolayer shows poor crystalline quality and non-uniform coverage compared to that with the exfoliated and CVD grown films.

  14. Differences in the intensity of light-induced fluorescence emitted by resin composites.

    PubMed

    Kim, Bo-Ra; Kang, Si-Mook; Kim, Gyung-Min; Kim, Baek-Il

    2016-03-01

    The aims of this study were to compare the intensities of fluorescence emitted by different resin composites as detected using quantitative light-induced fluorescence (QLF) technology, and to compare the fluorescence intensity contrast with the color contrast between a restored composite and the adjacent region of the tooth. Six brands of light-cured resin composites (shade A2) were investigated. The composites were used to prepare composite discs, and fill holes that had been prepared in extracted human teeth. White-light and fluorescence images of all specimens were obtained using a fluorescence camera based on QLF technology (QLF-D) and converted into 8-bit grayscale images. The fluorescence intensity of the discs as well as the fluorescence intensity contrast and the color contrast between the composite restoration and adjacent tooth region were calculated as grayscale levels. The grayscale levels for the composite discs differed significantly with the brand (p<0.001): DenFil (10.84±0.35, mean±SD), Filtek Z350 (58.28±1.37), Premisa (156.94±1.58), Grandio (177.20±0.81), Charisma (207.05±0.77), and Gradia direct posterior (211.52±1.66). The difference in grayscale levels between a resin restoration and the adjacent tooth was significantly greater in fluorescence images for each brand than in white-light images, except for the Filtek Z350 (p<0.05). However, the Filtek Z350 restoration was distinguishable from the adjacent tooth in a fluorescence image. The intensities of fluorescence detected from the resin composites varied. The differences between the composite and adjacent tooth were greater for the fluorescence intensity contrast than for the colors observed in the white-light images. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. 2D DIGE analysis of the bursa of Fabricius reveals characteristic proteome profiles for different stages of chicken B-cell development.

    PubMed

    Korte, Julia; Fröhlich, Thomas; Kohn, Marina; Kaspers, Bernd; Arnold, Georg J; Härtle, Sonja

    2013-01-01

    Antibody producing B-cells are an essential component of the immune system. In contrast to human and mice where B-cells develop in the bone marrow, chicken B-cells develop in defined stages in the bursa of Fabricius, a gut associated lymphoid tissue. In order to gain a better understanding of critical biological processes like immigration of B-cell precursors into the bursa anlage, their differentiation and final emigration from the bursa we analyzed the proteome dynamics of this organ during embryonic and posthatch development. Samples were taken from four representative developmental stages (embryonic day (ED) 10, ED18, day 2, and day 28) and compared in an extensive 2D DIGE approach comprising six biological replicates per time point. Cluster analysis and PCA demonstrated high reliability and reproducibility of the obtained data set and revealed distinctive proteome profiles for the selected time points, which precisely reflect the differentiation processes. One hundred fifty three protein spots with significantly different intensities were identified by MS. We detected alterations in the abundance of several proteins assigned to retinoic acid metabolism (e.g. retinal-binding protein 5) and the actin-cytoskeleton (e.g. vinculin and gelsolin). By immunohistochemistry, desmin was identified as stromal cell protein associated with the maturation of B-cell follicles. Strongest protein expression difference (10.8-fold) was observed for chloride intracellular channel 2. This protein was thus far not associated with B-cell biology but our data suggest an important function in bursa B-cell development.

  16. Assessment of changes in expression and presentation of NKG2D under influence of MICA serum factor in different stages of breast cancer.

    PubMed

    Roshani, R; Boroujerdnia, M Ghafourian; Talaiezadeh, A H; Khodadadi, A

    2016-05-01

    Breast cancer is the most common cancer in women worldwide. In this study, we correlated the serum level of major histocompatibility complex class I-related chain A (sMICA) with expression and presentation of NKG2D receptors on NK cells among patients with breast cancer. Peripheral blood (PB) samples were collected from 49 healthy and 49 breast cancer patients before surgery and chemotherapy. The expression and presentation of NKG2D were assessed using qRT-PCR and flow cytometry, respectively. Furthermore, sMICA levels were determined using ELISA. In flow cytometry, whole blood samples were stained with anti-CD56/NKG2D/CD3 and the obtained results were analyzed using WinMDI software. In addition, SPSS software was used for statistical analysis of data. Significantly higher levels sMICA were detected in the sera of the majority of cancer patients in contrast to healthy volunteers (P < 0.001). The expression and presentation of NKG2D receptor were significantly lower than those in healthy persons, and with an inverse correlation to sMICA and positively correlated with tumor stage. Our study showed that sMICA may have an important role in diminishing the expression and presentation of NKG2D receptor in breast cancer patients and proposes the notion that sMICA can be a target candidate for treatment of breast cancer.

  17. Characterization of metabolites in different kiwifruit varieties by NMR and fluorescence spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Abdul Hamid, Nur Ashikin; Mediani, Ahmed; Maulidiani, M; Abas, Faridah; Park, Yong Seo; Leontowicz, Hanna; Leontowicz, Maria; Namiesnik, Jacek; Gorinstein, S

    2017-05-10

    It is known from our previous studies that kiwifruits, which are used in common human diet, have preventive properties of coronary artery disease. This study describes a combination of (1)H NMR spectroscopy, multivariate data analyses and fluorescence measurements in differentiating of some kiwifruit varieties, their quenching and antioxidant properties. A total of 41 metabolites were identified by comparing with literature data Chenomx database and 2D NMR. The binding properties of the extracted polyphenols against HSA showed higher reactivity of studied two cultivars in comparison with the common Hayward. The results showed that the fluorescence of HSA was quenched by Bidan as much as twice than by other fruits. The correlation between the binding properties of polyphenols in the investigated fruits, their relative quantification and suggested metabolic pathway was established. These results can provide possible application of fruit extracts in pharmaceutical industry.

  18. Assembly of 1D nanofibers into a 2D bi-layered composite nanofibrous film with different functionalities at the two layers via layer-by-layer electrospinning.

    PubMed

    Wang, Zijiao; Ma, Qianli; Dong, Xiangting; Li, Dan; Xi, Xue; Yu, Wensheng; Wang, Jinxian; Liu, Guixia

    2016-12-21

    A two-dimensional (2D) bi-layered composite nanofibrous film assembled by one-dimensional (1D) nanofibers with trifunctionality of electrical conduction, magnetism and photoluminescence has been successfully fabricated by layer-by-layer electrospinning. The composite film consists of a polyaniline (PANI)/Fe3O4 nanoparticle (NP)/polyacrylonitrile (PAN) tuned electrical-magnetic bifunctional layer on one side and a Tb(TTA)3(TPPO)2/polyvinylpyrrolidone (PVP) photoluminescent layer on the other side, and the two layers are tightly combined face-to-face together into the novel bi-layered composite film of trifunctionality. The brand-new film has totally different characteristics at the double layers. The electrical conductivity and magnetism of the electrical-magnetic bifunctional layer can be, respectively, tunable via modulating the PANI and Fe3O4 NP contents, and the highest electrical conductivity can reach up to the order of 10(-2) S cm(-1), and predominant intense green emission at 545 nm is obviously observed in the photoluminescent layer under the excitation of 357 nm single-wavelength ultraviolet light. More importantly, the luminescence intensity of the photoluminescent layer remains almost unaffected by the electrical-magnetic bifunctional layer because the photoluminescent materials have been successfully isolated from dark-colored PANI and Fe3O4 NPs. By comparing with the counterpart single-layered composite nanofibrous film, it is found that the bi-layered composite nanofibrous film has better performance. The novel bi-layered composite nanofibrous film with trifunctionality has potential in the fields of nanodevices, molecular electronics and biomedicine. Furthermore, the design conception and fabrication technique for the bi-layered multifunctional film provide a new and facile strategy towards other films of multifunctionality.

  19. Accurate modeling of fluorescence line narrowing difference spectra: Direct measurement of the single-site fluorescence spectrum

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reppert, Mike; Naibo, Virginia; Jankowiak, Ryszard

    2010-07-01

    Accurate lineshape functions for modeling fluorescence line narrowing (FLN) difference spectra (ΔFLN spectra) in the low-fluence limit are derived and examined in terms of the physical interpretation of various contributions, including photoproduct absorption and emission. While in agreement with the earlier results of Jaaniso [Proc. Est. Acad. Sci., Phys., Math. 34, 277 (1985)] and Fünfschilling et al. [J. Lumin. 36, 85 (1986)], the derived formulas differ substantially from functions used recently [e.g., M. Rätsep et al., Chem. Phys. Lett. 479, 140 (2009)] to model ΔFLN spectra. In contrast to traditional FLN spectra, it is demonstrated that for most physically reasonable parameters, the ΔFLN spectrum reduces simply to the single-site fluorescence lineshape function. These results imply that direct measurement of a bulk-averaged single-site fluorescence lineshape function can be accomplished with no complicated extraction process or knowledge of any additional parameters such as site distribution function shape and width. We argue that previous analysis of ΔFLN spectra obtained for many photosynthetic complexes led to strong artificial lowering of apparent electron-phonon coupling strength, especially on the high-energy side of the pigment site distribution function.

  20. Fluorescently tuned nitrogen-doped carbon dots from carbon source with different content of carboxyl groups

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, Hao; Wang, Yun; Dai, Xiao; Zou, Guifu E-mail: zouguifu@suda.edu.cn; Gao, Peng; Zhang, Ke-Qin E-mail: zouguifu@suda.edu.cn; Du, Dezhuang; Guo, Jun

    2015-08-01

    In this study, fluorescent nitrogen-doped carbon dots (NCDs) were tuned via varying the sources with different number of carboxyl groups. Owing to the interaction between amino and carboxyl, more amino groups conjugate the surface of the NCDs by the source with more carboxyl groups. Fluorescent NCDs were tuned via varying the sources with different content of carboxyl groups. Correspondingly, the nitrogen content, fluorescence quantum yields and lifetime of NCDs increases with the content of carboxyl groups from the source. Furthermore, cytotoxicity assay and cell imaging test indicate that the resultant NCDs possess low cytotoxicity and excellent biocompatibility.

  1. Molecular environments of divinyl chlorophylls in Prochlorococcus and Synechocystis: differences in fluorescence properties with chlorophyll replacement.

    PubMed

    Mimuro, Mamoru; Murakami, Akio; Tomo, Tatsuya; Tsuchiya, Tohru; Watabe, Kazuyuki; Yokono, Makio; Akimoto, Seiji

    2011-05-01

    A marine cyanobacterium, Prochlorococcus, is a unique oxygenic photosynthetic organism, which accumulates divinyl chlorophylls instead of the monovinyl chlorophylls. To investigate the molecular environment of pigments after pigment replacement but before optimization of the protein moiety in photosynthetic organisms, we compared the fluorescence properties of the divinyl Chl a-containing cyanobacteria, Prochlorococcus marinus (CCMP 1986, CCMP 2773 and CCMP 1375), by a Synechocystis sp. PCC 6803 (Synechocystis) mutant in which monovinyl Chl a was replaced with divinyl Chl a. P. marinus showed a single fluorescence band for photosystem (PS) II at 687nm at 77K; this was accompanied with change in pigment, because the Synechocystis mutant showed the identical shift. No fluorescence bands corresponding to the PS II 696-nm component and PS I longer-wavelength component were detected in P. marinus, although the presence of the former was suggested using time-resolved fluorescence spectra. Delayed fluorescence (DF) was detected at approximately 688nm with a lifetime of approximately 29ns. In striking contrast, the Synechocystis mutant showed three fluorescence bands at 687, 696, and 727nm, but suppressed DF. These differences in fluorescence behaviors might not only reflect differences in the molecular structure of pigments but also differences in molecular environments of pigments, including pigment-pigment and/or pigment-protein interactions, in the antenna and electron transfer systems. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. 2D semiconductor optoelectronics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Novoselov, Kostya

    The advent of graphene and related 2D materials has recently led to a new technology: heterostructures based on these atomically thin crystals. The paradigm proved itself extremely versatile and led to rapid demonstration of tunnelling diodes with negative differential resistance, tunnelling transistors, photovoltaic devices, etc. By taking the complexity and functionality of such van der Waals heterostructures to the next level we introduce quantum wells engineered with one atomic plane precision. Light emission from such quantum wells, quantum dots and polaritonic effects will be discussed.

  3. Nucleoplasmic and cytoplasmic differences in the fluorescence properties of the calcium indicator Fluo-3.

    PubMed

    Perez-Terzic, C; Stehno-Bittel, L; Clapham, D E

    1997-04-01

    The fluorescent indicator Fluo-3 is widely used to monitor the calcium concentration ([Ca2+]) in the cytoplasm and nucleus of various cells. Estimates of nuclear [Ca2+] are based on the assumption of identical behavior of Fluo-3 in different cellular compartments. The assumption is not valid if the fluorescence properties of the dye are altered by the nuclear environment, independent of the [Ca2+]. To determine the effects of the nucleoplasm on the behavior of Fluo-3, we applied laser scanning confocal microscopy and spectrophotometry to measure fluorescence intensity as well as emission and absorbance spectra of the Ca2+ indicator, Fluo-3. Spectra were measured in intact Xenopus oocytes, neuroblastoma cells, and cytoplasmic and nucleoplasmic homogenates. The fluorescence signal in intact cells loaded with Fluo-3 was approximately 2-times higher in the nucleus when compared to the cytoplasm. The fluorescence intensity of Fluo-3 in nucleoplasmic homogenates was higher than in cytoplasmic homogenates or internal buffers even when [Ca2+] was clamped. Despite identical [Ca2+], pH, and temperature, the emission and absorbance spectra of Fluo-3 from nuclear homogenates displayed a higher fluorescence at each wavelength measured when compared to spectra from cytoplasmic homogenates or internal buffer solutions, and saturated above 100 nM. These findings demonstrate that the composition of the nucleoplasm changes the fluorescence properties of the calcium indicator Fluo-3. Consequently, analysis of nuclear calcium dynamics must take into account the distinct behavior of Fluo-3 in different cellular compartments.

  4. Calculation of effective conductivity of 2D and 3D composite materials with anisotropic constituents and different inclusion shapes in Mathematica

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gómez-Muñoz, José Luis; Bravo-Castillero, Julián

    2008-08-01

    The study of the effective properties of composite materials with anisotropic constituents and different inclusion shapes has motivated the development of the Mathematica 6.0 package "CompositeMaterials". This package can be used to calculate the effective anisotropic conductivity tensor of two-phase composites. Any fiber cross section, even percolating ones, can be studied in the 2D composites. "Rectangular Prism" and "Ellipsoidal" inclusion shapes with arbitrary orientations can be investigated in the 3D composites. This package combines the Asymptotic Homogenization Method and the Finite Element Method in order to obtain the effective conductivity tensor. The commands and options of the package are illustrated with two sample applications for two- and three-dimensional composites. Program summaryProgram title:CompositeMaterials Catalogue identifier:AEAU_v1_0 Program summary URL:http://cpc.cs.qub.ac.uk/summaries/AEAU_v1_0.html Program obtainable from:CPC Program Library, Queen's University, Belfast, N. Ireland Licensing provisions:Standard CPC licence, http://cpc.cs.qub.ac.uk/licence/licence.html No. of lines in distributed program, including test data, etc.:132 183 No. of bytes in distributed program, including test data, etc.:1 334 908 Distribution format:tar.gz Programming language:Mathematica 6.0 Computer:Any that can run Mathematica 6.0 and where the open-source free C-programs Triangle ( http://www.cs.cmu.edu/ quake/triangle.html) and TetGen ( http://tetgen.berlios.de/) can be compiled and executed. Tested in Intel Pentium computers. Operating system:Any that can run Mathematica 6.0 and where the open-source free C-programs Triangle ( http://www.cs.cmu.edu/ quake/triangle.html) and TetGen ( http://tetgen.berlios.de/) can be compiled and executed. Tested in Windows XP. RAM:Small two-dimensional calculations require less than 100 MB. Large three-dimensional calculations require 500 MB or more. Classification:7.9 External routines:One Mathematica Add-on and

  5. Protochlorophyll complexes with similar steady-state fluorescence characteristics can differ in fluorescence lifetimes. A model study in Triton X-100.

    PubMed

    Myśliwa-Kurdziel, Beata; Solymosi, Katalin; Kruk, Jerzy; Böddi, Béla; Strzałka, Kazimierz

    2007-03-01

    The steady-state and time-resolved fluorescence characteristics of protochlorophyll (Pchl) dissolved in neat Triton X-100 and in Triton X-100 micelles were investigated, and the fluorescence lifetimes of different Pchl spectral forms were studied. Varying the concentration of Pchl or diluting the micellar solutions either with a buffer or with a micellar solution, 631-634, 645-655, 680-692 and above 700 nm emitting Pchl complexes were prepared, the ratios of which varied from one another. The fluorescence decay of the 631-634 nm emitting (monomeric) form had a mono-exponential character with a 5.4-ns fluorescence lifetime. The long-wavelength Pchl complexes (aggregates) had two fluorescence lifetime values within a range of 1.4-3.9 ns and 0.15-0.84 ns, which showed high variability in different environments. Depending on the conditions, either mono- or double-exponential fluorescence decay was found for a fluorescence band at 680-685 nm. These data show that despite their very similar steady-state fluorescence properties, Pchl complexes can differ in fluorescence lifetimes, which may reflect different molecular structures, intrinsic geometries or different molecular interactions. This underlines the importance of complex spectroscopic analysis for a precise description of native and artificial chlorophyllous pigment forms.

  6. Analysis of 5-aminolevulinic acid-induced fluorescence in 55 different spinal tumors.

    PubMed

    Millesi, Matthias; Kiesel, Barbara; Woehrer, Adelheid; Hainfellner, Johannes A; Novak, Klaus; Martínez-Moreno, Mauricio; Wolfsberger, Stefan; Knosp, Engelbert; Widhalm, Georg

    2014-02-01

    Subtotal resection (STR) of spinal tumors can result in tumor recurrence. Currently, no clinically reliable marker is available for intraoperative visualization of spinal tumor tissue. Protoporphyrin IX (PpIX) fluorescence induced by 5-aminolevulinic acid (5-ALA) is capable of visualizing malignant gliomas. Fluorescence-guided resections of malignant cerebral gliomas using 5-ALA have resulted in an increased rate of complete tumor removal. Recently, the application of 5-ALA has also been described in the first cases of spinal tumors. Therefore, the aim of this observational study was to systematically investigate 5-ALA-induced fluorescence characteristics in different spinal tumor entities. Three hours before the induction of anesthesia, 5-ALA was administered to patients with different intra- and extradural spinal tumors. In all patients a neurosurgical resection or biopsy of the spinal tumor was performed under conventional white-light microscopy. During each surgery, the presence of PpIX fluorescence was additionally assessed using a modified neurosurgical microscope. At the end of an assumed gross-total resection (GTR) under white-light microscopy, a final inspection of the surgical cavity of fluorescing intramedullary tumors was performed to look for any remaining fluorescing foci. Histopathological tumor diagnosis was established according to the current WHO classification. Fifty-two patients with 55 spinal tumors were included in this study. Resection was performed in 50 of 55 cases, whereas 5 of 55 cases underwent biopsy. Gross-total resection was achieved in 37 cases, STR in 5, and partial resection in 8 cases. Protoporphyrin IX fluorescence was visible in 30 (55%) of 55 cases, but not in 25 (45%) of 55 cases. Positive PpIX fluorescence was mainly detected in ependymomas (12 of 12), meningiomas (12 of 12), hemangiopericytomas (3 of 3), and in drop metastases of primary CNS tumors (2 of 2). In contrast, none of the neurinomas (8 of 8), carcinoma metastases

  7. Quantitative 2D liquid-state NMR.

    PubMed

    Giraudeau, Patrick

    2014-06-01

    Two-dimensional (2D) liquid-state NMR has a very high potential to simultaneously determine the absolute concentration of small molecules in complex mixtures, thanks to its capacity to separate overlapping resonances. However, it suffers from two main drawbacks that probably explain its relatively late development. First, the 2D NMR signal is strongly molecule-dependent and site-dependent; second, the long duration of 2D NMR experiments prevents its general use for high-throughput quantitative applications and affects its quantitative performance. Fortunately, the last 10 years has witnessed an increasing number of contributions where quantitative approaches based on 2D NMR were developed and applied to solve real analytical issues. This review aims at presenting these recent efforts to reach a high trueness and precision in quantitative measurements by 2D NMR. After highlighting the interest of 2D NMR for quantitative analysis, the different strategies to determine the absolute concentrations from 2D NMR spectra are described and illustrated by recent applications. The last part of the manuscript concerns the recent development of fast quantitative 2D NMR approaches, aiming at reducing the experiment duration while preserving - or even increasing - the analytical performance. We hope that this comprehensive review will help readers to apprehend the current landscape of quantitative 2D NMR, as well as the perspectives that may arise from it.

  8. 2D and 3D bimetallic oxalate-based ferromagnets prepared by insertion of different Fe(III) spin crossover complexes.

    PubMed

    Clemente-León, Miguel; Coronado, Eugenio; López-Jordà, Maurici

    2010-05-28

    The syntheses, structures and magnetic properties of the compounds of formula [Fe(III)(5-NO(2)sal(2)-trien)][Mn(II)Cr(III)(ox)(3)]·CH(3)NO(2).0.5H(2)O (1) and [Fe(III)(5-CH(3)Osal(2)-trien)][Mn(II)Cr(III)(ox)(3)] (2) are reported. The structure of 1, that crystallizes in the P2(1) chiral space group, presents a 2D honeycomb anionic layer formed by Mn(II) and Cr(III) ions linked through oxalate ligands and a cationic layer of [Fe(III)(5-NO(2)sal(2)-trien)](+) complexes intercalated between the 2D oxalate network. The structure of 2, that crystallizes in the Pna2(1) acentric space group, presents a 3D achiral anionic network formed by Mn(II) and Cr(III) ions linked through oxalate ligands with [Fe(5-CH(3)Osal(2)-trien)](+) complexes intercalated within the 3D oxalate network. The magnetic properties of 1 and 2 indicate that both compounds undergo a long-range ferromagnetic ordering at ca. 5 K. On the other hand, the inserted Fe(III) cations remain mainly in the low-spin (LS) state in the case of 1 and in the high-spin (HS) state in the case of 2.

  9. Variable-temperature Fourier-transform infrared studies of poly(L-lactic acid) in different states of order: A 2DCOS and PCMW2D analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Pudun; Unger, Miriam; Pfeifer, Frank; Siesler, Heinz W.

    2016-11-01

    Variable-temperature Fourier-transform infrared (FT-IR) spectra of a predominantly amorphous and a semi-crystalline poly(L-lactic acid) (PLLA) film were measured between 30 °C and 170 °C in order to investigate their temperature-dependent structural changes as a function of the initial state of order. For an in-depth analysis of the spectral variations in the carbonyl stretching band region (1803-1722 cm-1) two-dimensional correlation spectroscopy (2DCOS) and perturbation-correlation moving-window two-dimensional (PCMW2D) analyses were applied. Significant spectral changes were observed during heating of the amorphous PLLA sample whereas the semi-crystalline specimen showed only slight band shifts as a function of the external perturbation. The PCMW2D results suggested that for efficient 2DCOS analyses the heating process should be split up in two temperature intervals. These analyses then provided information on the recrystallization of the amorphous regions, the presence of an intermediate state of order and a sequence scenario for the observed spectral changes.

  10. Females are the brighter sex: Differences in external fluorescence across sexes and life stages of a crab spider

    PubMed Central

    Brandt, Erin E.

    2017-01-01

    Fluorescence is increasingly recognized to be widespread in nature. In particular, some arachnids fluoresce externally, and in spiders the hemolymph fluoresces. In this study, we examined the external fluorescence and the fluorophores of different sexes and life stages of the crab spider Misumena vatia (Clerk 1757), a sit-and-wait predator that feeds on insects as they visit flowers. We designed novel instrumentation to measure external fluorescence in whole specimens. We found that although males and females possess internal fluorophores with similar properties, the external expression of fluorescence varies across sexes and life stages. Spiders fluoresce brightly as immatures. Females maintain their brightness to adulthood, whereas males become increasingly dim as they mature. We suggest that external fluorescence likely contributes to visual signaling in these animals, and that it differs between the sexes as a result of differences in foraging ecology and behavior. PMID:28467416

  11. Chlorophyll fluorescence, photochemical reflective index and normalized difference vegetative index during plant senescence.

    PubMed

    Cordon, Gabriela; Lagorio, M Gabriela; Paruelo, José M

    2016-07-20

    The relationship between the Photochemical Reflectance Index (PRI), Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI) and chlorophyll fluorescence along senescence was investigated in this work. Reflectance and radiance measurements were performed at canopy level in grass species presenting different photosynthetic metabolism: Avena sativa (C3) and Setaria italica (C4), at different stages of the natural senescence process. Sun induced-chlorophyll fluorescence at 760nm (SIF760) and the apparent fluorescence yield (SIF760/a, with a=irradiance at time of measurement) were extracted from the radiance spectra of canopies using the Fraunhofer Line Discrimination-method. The photosynthetic parameters derived from Kautsky kinetics and pigment content were also calculated at leaf level. Whilst stand level NDVI patterns were related to changes in the structure of canopies and not in pigment content, stand level PRI patterns suggested changes both in terms of canopy and of pigment content in leaves. Both SIF760/a and ΦPSII decreased progressively along senescence in both species. A strong increment in NPQ was evident in A. sativa while in S. italica NPQ values were lower. Our most important finding was that two chlorophyll fluorescence signals, ΦPSII and SIF760/a, correlated with the canopy PRI values in the two grasses assessed, even when tissues at different ontogenic stages were present. Even though significant changes occurred in the Total Chlr/Car ratio along senescence in both studied species, significant correlations between PRI and chlorophyll fluorescence signals might indicate the usefulness of this reflectance index as a proxy of photosynthetic RUE, at least under the conditions of this study. The relationships between stand level PRI and the fluorescence estimators (ΦPSII and SIF760/a) were positive in both cases. Therefore, an increase in PRI values as in the fluorescence parameters would indicate higher RUE. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  12. Fluorescence Enhancement of Fluorophores Tethered to Different Sized Silver Colloids Deposited on Glass Substrate

    PubMed Central

    Lukomska, Joanna; Malicka, Joanna; Gryczynski, Ignacy; Leonenko, Zoya; Lakowicz, Joseph R.

    2009-01-01

    We studied fluorescence enhancements of fluorescein tethered to silver colloids of different size. Thiolated 23-mer oligonucleotide (ss DNA-SH) was bound selectively to silver colloids deposited on 3-aminopropyltriethoxysilane (APS)-treated quartz slides. Fluoresceinlabeled complementary oligonucleotide (ss Fl-DNA) was added in an amount significantly lower than the amount of unlabeled DNA tethered to the colloids. The hybridization kinetics, observed as an increase in fluorescence emission, on small (30-40 nm) and large (> 120 nm) colloids were similar. However, the final fluorescence intensity of the sample with large colloids was about 50% higher than that observed for the sample with small colloids. The reference sample without ss DNA-SH was used to estimate the fluorescence enhancements of fluorescein tethered to the small colloids (E = 2.7) and to the large colloids (E = 4.1) due to its steady fluorescence signal. The proposed method, based on controlled hybridization with minimal amount of fluorophore labeled ss DNA, can be used to reliably estimate the fluorescence enhancements on any silver nanostructures. PMID:15578680

  13. Fluorescence anisotropy and FRET studies of G-quadruplex formation in presence of different cations.

    PubMed

    Juskowiak, Bernard; Galezowska, Elzbieta; Zawadzka, Anna; Gluszynska, Agata; Takenaka, Shigeori

    2006-07-01

    Results of the steady-state fluorescence, anisotropy and FRET measurements of G-quadruplex formation in the presence of selected cations (Li(+), Na(+), K(+), NEt(4)(+) and Mg(2+)) are reported. Three different fluorescent oligonucleotides with human telomeric sequence labeled with fluorescein (FAM) and tetramethylrhodamine (TAMRA) were investigated: a dual-labeled 21-mer denoted as PSO (Potassium Sensing Oligonucleotide) and two 5'- and 3'- single-labeled probes, FAM-21 and 21-TAMRA, respectively. The fluorescence signal of FAM-21 increased significantly for all systems and the fluorescence enhancement was comparable in magnitude for monovalent cations but it was more pronounced for Mg(2+) cation. This phenomenon was attributed to the protolytic equilibria of FAM affected by the variation in ionic strength. On the other hand, fluorescence of TAMRA was enhanced selectively by Na(I) cation that was explained by the dequenching of TAMRA emission originated from the peculiarity of the basket-type structure of Na(I)-quadruplex. Anisotropy of FAM-21 (but not 21-TAMRA) appeared to be sensitive to the G-quadruplex formation, showing significant increase with an increase in cation concentration and indicating some restrictions in rotational depolarization of FAM. FRET experiments revealed that all tested cations caused quenching of FAM fluorescence in PSO, but only Na(+) and K(+) ions produced sensitized emission of TAMRA acceptor. Higher FRET efficiency observed in the presence of sodium ion was attributed to the specific spectral factor and steric interactions in the basket-type Na(I)-quadruplex.

  14. ON THE STAINING OF PARAAGGLUTINATING E. COLI STRAINS WITH FLUORESCENT SERA OF DIFFERENT SPECIFICITY,

    DTIC Science & Technology

    Paraagglutinizing E . coli strains, both isolated naturally and obtained experimentally, were able in different degrees to adsorb serum proteins of...various specificity. In staining E . coli parastrains with fluorescent sera of different specificity (through the direct and indirect method), microbe

  15. Bioinformatics research on inter-racial difference in drug metabolism I. Analysis on frequencies of mutant alleles and poor metabolizers on CYP2D6 and CYP2C19.

    PubMed

    Shimizu, Takako; Ochiai, Hirohide; Asell, Fredrik; Shimizu, Hiroshi; Saitoh, Ryuta; Hama, Yoshimasa; Katada, Jun; Hashimoto, Munehiro; Matsui, Hitoshi; Taki, Katsuhiko; Kaminuma, Tsuguchika; Yamamoto, Michiko; Aida, Yoshitaka; Ohashi, Akira; Ozawa, Naoki

    2003-01-01

    The enzyme activities of CYP2D6 and CYP2C19 show a genetic polymorphism, and the frequency of poor metabolizers (PMs) on these enzymes depends on races. In the present study, the frequencies of mutant alleles and PMs in each race were analyzed based on information from published studies, considering the genetic polymorphisms of CYP2D6 and CYP2C19 as the causal factors of racial and inter-individual differences in pharmacokinetics. As a result, it was shown that there were racial differences in the frequencies of each mutant allele and PMs. The frequencies of PMs on CYP2D6 are 1.9% of Asians and 7.7% of Caucasians, and those of PMs on CYP2C19 are 15.8% of Asians and 2.2% of Caucasians. Based on the results, it was suggested that there would be racial differences in the frequencies of PM subjects whose blood concentrations might be higher for drugs metabolized by these enzymes. Additionally, it was suggested that enzyme activities would vary according to the number of functional alleles even in subjects judged to be extensive metabolizers (EMs). In the bridging study, genetic information regarding CYP2D6 and CYP2C19 of the subjects will help extrapolate foreign clinical data to a domestic population.

  16. Denaturation studies reveal significant differences between GFP and blue fluorescent protein.

    PubMed

    Saeed, Ibtesam A; Ashraf, S Salman

    2009-10-01

    Green fluorescent protein (GFP) is an unusually stable fluorescent protein that belongs to a family of related auto-fluorescent proteins (AFPs). These AFPs have been generated from jellyfish GFP by mutating the amino acids in the chromophore or its vicinity. Variants that emit light in the blue region (Blue Fluorescent Protein, BFP), red region, or yellow region are readily available and are widely used in diverse applications. Previously, we had used fluorescence spectroscopy to study the effect of pH on the denaturation of GFP with SDS, urea, and heat. Surprisingly, we found that SDS, urea or heat, did not have any significant effect on the fluorescence of GFP at pH 7.5 or 8.5, however, at pH 6.5, the protein lost all fluorescence within a very short period of time. These results suggested that GFP undergoes a structural/stability shift between pH 6.5 and 7.5, with the GFP structure at pH 6.5 being very sensitive to denaturation by SDS, urea, and heat. In the present study, we wanted to explore whether the stability or structure of the closely related BFP is also pH dependent. As expected, we found heat-induced denaturation and renaturation of BFP to be pH dependent, very much like GFP. However, when exposed to other denaturants like urea/heat or SDS we found BFP to behave very differently than GFP. Unlike GFP, which at pH 8.5 and 7.5 is very resistant to SDS-induced denaturation, BFP readily lost about 20% of its fluorescence at pH 8.5 and about 60% fluorescence at pH 7.5. Also, our denaturation and renaturation studies show that under certain conditions, BFP is more stable than GFP, such that under conditions where GFP is completely denatured, BFP still retained significant fluorescence. Taken together, our preliminary results show that despite being very similar in both amino acid sequences and overall structures, there may be subtle and important structural/conformational differences between BFP and GFP.

  17. Different modes of continental break-up triggered by a sole mantle plume: a 2D and 3D numerical study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Beniest, Anouk; Koptev, Alexander; Leroy, Sylvie; Burov, Evgueni

    2017-04-01

    We used 2D and 3D numerical models to investigate the impact of a single mantle plume on continental rifting and breakup processes. We varied the thermo-rheological structure of the continental lithosphere, its geometry and the initial plume position. Based on the results of our 2D experiments, three continental break-up modes can be distinguished: A) 'central' continental break-up, the break-up center is located directly above the original mantle anomaly position, B) 'shifted' break-up, the break-up center is 50 to 200 km displaced from the initial plume location and C) 'distant' break-up, due to convection and/or slab-subduction/delamination, the break-up center is considerably shifted (300 to 800 km) from the primary plume position. Our 3D model, with a laterally homogeneous initial setup also results in continental break-up with the axis of continental break-up hundreds of kilometers shifted from the original plume location. The model results show that the classical, 'central' view of mantle plume induced continental break-up is not the only mode of break-up. When considering a diversity of break-up styles, it is possible to explain a variety of observed geophysical and geological features. For example, the mantle material glued to the base of the lithosphere at shallower depths corresponds geometrically and location-wise to high-velocity/high-density bodies observed on seismic data below the thinned continental lithosphere and the transition zone of the South Atlantic domain. During migration, products of partial melting of the mantle material can move vertically to (shallow) lower crustal levels. They might resemble high density bodies observed at lower crustal levels inside continental crust with similar geometries observed with gravity modelling. Also, topographic variation form in the very early stages of rifting on the first impingement of upwelled plume material. These variations remain visible, as the final position of the spreading center is shifted

  18. Fluorescence quenching of 7-amino-4-methylcoumarin by different TEMPO derivatives.

    PubMed

    Żamojć, Krzysztof; Wiczk, Wiesław; Zaborowski, Bartłomiej; Jacewicz, Dagmara; Chmurzyński, Lech

    2015-02-05

    The fluorescence quenching of 7-amino-4-methylcoumarin by different TEMPO derivatives was studied in aqueous solutions with the use of steady-state, time-resolved fluorescence spectroscopy as well as UV-VIS absorption spectroscopy methods. In order to distinguish each TEMPO derivative from the others and to understand the mechanism of quenching, the absorption and fluorescence emission spectra as well as decays of the fluorescence of 7-amino-4-methylcoumarin were registered as a function of each TEMPO derivative concentration. There were no deviations from a linearity in the Stern-Volmer plots (determined from both, steady-state and time-resolved measurements). The fluorescence quenching mechanism was found to be entirely collisional, what was additionally confirmed by the registration of Stern-Volmer plots at 5 temperatures ranging from 15 to 55°C. Based on theoretical calculations of molecular radii and ionization potentials of all TEMPO derivatives the mechanism of electron transfer was rejected. The fluorescence quenching which was being studied seems to be diffusion-limited and caused by the increase of non-radiative processes, such as an internal conversion and an intersystem crossing. The Stern-Volmer quenching constants and bimolecular quenching constants were determined at the room temperature for all TEMPO derivatives studied. Among all TEMPO derivatives studied TEMPO-4-amino-4-carboxylic acid (TOAC) was found to be the most effective quencher of 7-amino-4-methylcoumarin fluorescence (kq for TOAC was approximately 1.5 higher than kq for other TEMPO compounds studied). The findings demonstrate the possibility of developing an analytical method for the quantitative determination of TOAC, which incorporation into membrane proteins may provide a direct detection of peptide backbone dynamics.

  19. Fluorescence quenching of 7-amino-4-methylcoumarin by different TEMPO derivatives

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Żamojć, Krzysztof; Wiczk, Wiesław; Zaborowski, Bartłomiej; Jacewicz, Dagmara; Chmurzyński, Lech

    2015-02-01

    The fluorescence quenching of 7-amino-4-methylcoumarin by different TEMPO derivatives was studied in aqueous solutions with the use of steady-state, time-resolved fluorescence spectroscopy as well as UV-VIS absorption spectroscopy methods. In order to distinguish each TEMPO derivative from the others and to understand the mechanism of quenching, the absorption and fluorescence emission spectra as well as decays of the fluorescence of 7-amino-4-methylcoumarin were registered as a function of each TEMPO derivative concentration. There were no deviations from a linearity in the Stern-Volmer plots (determined from both, steady-state and time-resolved measurements). The fluorescence quenching mechanism was found to be entirely collisional, what was additionally confirmed by the registration of Stern-Volmer plots at 5 temperatures ranging from 15 to 55 °C. Based on theoretical calculations of molecular radii and ionization potentials of all TEMPO derivatives the mechanism of electron transfer was rejected. The fluorescence quenching which was being studied seems to be diffusion-limited and caused by the increase of non-radiative processes, such as an internal conversion and an intersystem crossing. The Stern-Volmer quenching constants and bimolecular quenching constants were determined at the room temperature for all TEMPO derivatives studied. Among all TEMPO derivatives studied TEMPO-4-amino-4-carboxylic acid (TOAC) was found to be the most effective quencher of 7-amino-4-methylcoumarin fluorescence (kq for TOAC was approximately 1.5 higher than kq for other TEMPO compounds studied). The findings demonstrate the possibility of developing an analytical method for the quantitative determination of TOAC, which incorporation into membrane proteins may provide a direct detection of peptide backbone dynamics.

  20. Variability in chlorophyll fluorescence spectra of eggplant fruit grown under different light environments: a case study.

    PubMed

    Ospina Calvo, Brian; Parapugna, Tamara L; Lagorio, M Gabriela

    2017-03-13

    The main goal of the present work was to clarify physiological strategies in plants whose chloroplasts were developed under different light environments. The specific objective was to elucidate the influence of the spectral distribution of light on the chlorophyll fluorescence ratio and on photosynthetic parameters. To achieve this purpose, three species of eggplant fruit (black, purple and white striped and white) were used as a case study and their chlorophyll fluorescence was analyzed in detail. Spectra of the non-variable fluorescence in each part of the fruit were corrected for distortions by light reabsorption processes using a physical model. The main conclusion of this work was that the corrected fluorescence ratio was dependent on the contribution of each photosystem to the fluorescence and consequently on the environmental lighting conditions, becoming higher when illumination was rich in long wavelengths. Variable chlorophyll fluorescence, similar to that observed from plant leaves, was detected for the pulp of the black eggplant, for the pulp of the purple and white striped eggplant and for the intact fruit of the black eggplant. The maximum quantum efficiency of photosystem II in the light-adapted state (F'v/F'm), the quantum efficiency of photosystem II (ΦPSII), and the photochemical and non-photochemical quenching coefficients (qP and qNP/NPQ respectively) were determined in each case. The results could be explained very interestingly, in relation with the proportion of exciting light reaching each photosystem (I and II). The photochemical parameters obtained from variable chlorophyll fluorescence, allowed us to monitor non-destructively the physiological state of the black fruit during storage under both chilled or room-temperature conditions.

  1. Different scenarios for inverse estimation of soil hydraulic parameters from double-ring infiltrometer data using HYDRUS-2D/3D

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mashayekhi, Parisa; Ghorbani-Dashtaki, Shoja; Mosaddeghi, Mohammad Reza; Shirani, Hossein; Nodoushan, Ali Reza Mohammadi

    2016-04-01

    In this study, HYDRUS-2D/3D was used to simulate ponded infiltration through double-ring infiltrometers into a hypothetical loamy soil profile. Twelve scenarios of inverse modelling (divided into three groups) were considered for estimation of Mualem-van Genuchten hydraulic parameters. In the first group, simulation was carried out solely using cumulative infiltration data. In the second group, cumulative infiltration data plus water content at h = -330 cm (field capacity) were used as inputs. In the third group, cumulative infiltration data plus water contents at h = -330 cm (field capacity) and h = -15 000 cm (permanent wilting point) were used simultaneously as predictors. The results showed that numerical inverse modelling of the double-ring infiltrometer data provided a reliable alternative method for determining soil hydraulic parameters. The results also indicated that by reducing the number of hydraulic parameters involved in the optimization process, the simulation error is reduced. The best one in infiltration simulation which parameters α, n, and Ks were optimized using the infiltration data and field capacity as inputs. Including field capacity as additional data was important for better optimization/definition of soil hydraulic functions, but using field capacity and permanent wilting point simultaneously as additional data increased the simulation error.

  2. Histologic differences between orthotopic xenograft pancreas models affect Verteporfin uptake measured by fluorescence microscopy and spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    O'Hara, Julia A.; Samkoe, Kimberley S.; Chen, Alina; Isabelle, Martin; Hoopes, P. J.; Hasan, Tayyaba; Pogue, Brian W.

    2012-02-01

    Photodynamic therapy (PDT) that uses the second generation photosensitizer, verteporfin (VP), is a developing therapy for pancreatic cancer. The optimal timing of light delivery related to VP uptake and distribution in pancreatic tumors will be important information to obtain to improve treatment for this intractable disease. In this work we examined uptake and distribution of VP in two orthotopic pancreatic tumors with different histological structure. ASPC-1 (fast-growing) and Panc-1 (slower growing) tumors were implanted in SCID mice and studied when tumors were approximately 100mm3. In a pilot study, these tumors had been shown to differ in uptake of VP using lightinduced fluorescence spectroscopy (LIFS) in vivo and fluorescence imaging ex vivo and that work is extended here. In vivo fluorescence mean readings of tumor and liver increased rapidly up to 15 minutes after photosensitizer injection for both tumor types, and then continued to increase up to 60 minutes post injection to a higher level in ASPC-1 than in Panc-1. There was variability among animals with the same tumor type, in both liver and tumor uptake and no selectivity of tumor over liver. In this work we further examined VP uptake at multiple time points in relation to microvascular density and perfusion, using DiOC7 (to mark blood vessels) and VP fluorescence in the same tissue slices. Analysis of DiOC7 fluorescence indicates that AsPC-1 and Panc-1 have different vascular densities but AsPC-1 vasculature is more perfusive. Analysis of colocalized DiOC7 and VP fluorescence showed ASPC-1 with higher accumulation of VP 3 hrs after injection and more VP at a distance from blood vessels compared to Panc-1. This work shows the need for techniques to analyze photosensitizer distribution in order to optimize photodynamic therapy as an effective treatment for pancreatic tumors.

  3. Fluorescent probe ABM and estimation of immune state in patients with different pathologies (review article).

    PubMed

    Kalnina, Inta; Bruvere, Ruta; Zvagule, Tija; Gabruseva, Natalija; Klimkane, Laura; Kirilova, Elena; Meirovics, Imants; Kizane, Gunta

    2010-01-01

    The fluorescent probe ABM (3-aminobenzanthrone derivative) one of the fluorescent probes synthesized in Riga Technical University proved to be an excellent, independent model for studying cell membranes. In our work we have investigated the possibility of using the fluorescent probe ABM for detection of immune state in patients with different pathologies. There is a strong correlation among all studied ABM spectral parameters, immunological characteristics, clinical and laboratory investigations of the all observed patients groups. The obtained results suggest that ABM spectral parameters in cell suspension reflect the alterations of the cellular mechanisms of immunity. Therefore fluorescent method could be used as preliminary screening test in immune diagnostics instead of more expensive, time consuming methods (subset detection, radioisotope method etc.) used as routine in clinics. Spectral parameters of ABM reflect a wide range of interrelated (interdependent) characteristics of cells (physico-chemical state and microviscosity of membrane, proliferating and lipid metabolic activity of cells, distribution of cells among subsets). The observed change of the studied parameters reflects alterations of the cellular mechanisms of immunity which is a main focus for its application as preliminary screening test in immune diagnostics. The fluorescence based method is sensitive, less expensive and time consuming, technically simple and convenient.

  4. Syntheses, structures and properties of two 2-D layered hybrid organic-inorganic materials based on different V4O12 building units.

    PubMed

    Hou, Wentao; Guo, Jiuyu; Xu, Xiao; Wang, Zuoxiang; Zhang, Deng; Wan, Hongxiang; Song, You; Zhu, Dunru; Xu, Yan

    2014-01-14

    Two new layered hybrid organic-inorganic compounds [Zn(pyim)]2V4O12 () (pyim = 2-(2-pyridyl)imidazole) and [Cu(bim)2]2V4O12(H2O)·CH3CH2OH () (bim = bis(1-imidazolyl)methane) based on polyoxovanadates (POVs) and organic ligands decorated transition metal units have been synthesized by hydrothermal and solvothermal methods respectively. Single crystal XRD, fluorescence spectrum, magnetic measurement, IR spectra, powder XRD and thermogravimetric (TG) measurements were performed to analyze the structures and properties of and . The structural analysis reveals that compound features a two-dimensional {[Zn(pyim)]2V4O12}n layered structure, constructed by sine wave-like {V4O12}n(4n-) chains, Zn(2+) ions and pyim ligands. In the layered structure of , {V4O12}(4-) circles are connected by Cu(2+) ions to form {Cu(V4O12)}n(2n-) chains, which are further linked by {Cu(bim)4}(2+) subunits to generate a hybrid layer of . The magnetic susceptibility measurement indicates strong antiferromagnetic interactions between Cu(2+) ions in .

  5. The use of fluorescent tissue phantoms (as a light source) to standardize responsivity of different imaging systems (Conference Presentation)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Litorja, Maritoni

    2017-02-01

    Fluorescent tissue phantoms are useful constructs in tracking the daily performance of a fluorescence imaging system. However, fluorescence imaging systems vary according to intended use, such as with an endoscope, or a camera with wide field optics. They also vary in terms of spectral bandwidth, or the sensor. We present a method on how the fluorescence measurement results of a calibrated tissue phantom from two different fluorescence imaging systems can be compared. This demonstrates how tissue phantoms, when calibrated with units of optical radiance, can be used beyond a single optical system.

  6. Precise diagnosis in different scenarios using photoacoustic and fluorescence imaging with dual-modality nanoparticles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peng, Dong; Du, Yang; Shi, Yiwen; Mao, Duo; Jia, Xiaohua; Li, Hui; Zhu, Yukun; Wang, Kun; Tian, Jie

    2016-07-01

    Photoacoustic imaging and fluorescence molecular imaging are emerging as important research tools for biomedical studies. Photoacoustic imaging offers both strong optical absorption contrast and high ultrasonic resolution, and fluorescence molecular imaging provides excellent superficial resolution, high sensitivity, high throughput, and the ability for real-time imaging. Therefore, combining the imaging information of both modalities can provide comprehensive in vivo physiological and pathological information. However, currently there are limited probes available that can realize both fluorescence and photoacoustic imaging, and advanced biomedical applications for applying this dual-modality imaging approach remain underexplored. In this study, we developed a dual-modality photoacoustic-fluorescence imaging nanoprobe, ICG-loaded Au@SiO2, which was uniquely designed, consisting of gold nanorod cores and indocyanine green with silica shell spacer layers to overcome fluorophore quenching. This nanoprobe was examined by both PAI and FMI for in vivo imaging on tumor and ischemia mouse models. Our results demonstrated that the nanoparticles can specifically accumulate at the tumor and ischemic areas and be detected by both imaging modalities. Moreover, this dual-modality imaging strategy exhibited superior advantages for a precise diagnosis in different scenarios. The new nanoprobe with the dual-modality imaging approach holds great potential for diagnosis and stage classification of tumor and ischemia related diseases.Photoacoustic imaging and fluorescence molecular imaging are emerging as important research tools for biomedical studies. Photoacoustic imaging offers both strong optical absorption contrast and high ultrasonic resolution, and fluorescence molecular imaging provides excellent superficial resolution, high sensitivity, high throughput, and the ability for real-time imaging. Therefore, combining the imaging information of both modalities can provide

  7. 2D quasiperiodic plasmonic crystals

    PubMed Central

    Bauer, Christina; Kobiela, Georg; Giessen, Harald

    2012-01-01

    Nanophotonic structures with irregular symmetry, such as quasiperiodic plasmonic crystals, have gained an increasing amount of attention, in particular as potential candidates to enhance the absorption of solar cells in an angular insensitive fashion. To examine the photonic bandstructure of such systems that determines their optical properties, it is necessary to measure and model normal and oblique light interaction with plasmonic crystals. We determine the different propagation vectors and consider the interaction of all possible waveguide modes and particle plasmons in a 2D metallic photonic quasicrystal, in conjunction with the dispersion relations of a slab waveguide. Using a Fano model, we calculate the optical properties for normal and inclined light incidence. Comparing measurements of a quasiperiodic lattice to the modelled spectra for angle of incidence variation in both azimuthal and polar direction of the sample gives excellent agreement and confirms the predictive power of our model. PMID:23209871

  8. 2D quasiperiodic plasmonic crystals.

    PubMed

    Bauer, Christina; Kobiela, Georg; Giessen, Harald

    2012-01-01

    Nanophotonic structures with irregular symmetry, such as quasiperiodic plasmonic crystals, have gained an increasing amount of attention, in particular as potential candidates to enhance the absorption of solar cells in an angular insensitive fashion. To examine the photonic bandstructure of such systems that determines their optical properties, it is necessary to measure and model normal and oblique light interaction with plasmonic crystals. We determine the different propagation vectors and consider the interaction of all possible waveguide modes and particle plasmons in a 2D metallic photonic quasicrystal, in conjunction with the dispersion relations of a slab waveguide. Using a Fano model, we calculate the optical properties for normal and inclined light incidence. Comparing measurements of a quasiperiodic lattice to the modelled spectra for angle of incidence variation in both azimuthal and polar direction of the sample gives excellent agreement and confirms the predictive power of our model.

  9. Can Sex Differences in Science Be Tied to the Long Reach of Prenatal Hormones? Brain Organization Theory, Digit Ratio (2D/4D), and Sex Differences in Preferences and Cognition.

    PubMed

    Valla, Jeffrey; Ceci, Stephen J

    2011-03-01

    Brain organization theory posits a cascade of physiological and behavioral changes initiated and shaped by prenatal hormones. Recently, this theory has been associated with outcomes including gendered toy preference, 2D/4D digit ratio, personality characteristics, sexual orientation, and cognitive profile (spatial, verbal, and mathematical abilities). We examine the evidence for this claim, focusing on 2D/4D and its putative role as a biomarker for organizational features that influence cognitive abilities/interests predisposing males toward mathematically and spatially intensive careers. Although massive support exists for early brain organization theory overall, there are myriad inconsistencies, alternative explanations, and outright contradictions that must be addressed while still taking the entire theory into account. Like a fractal within the larger theory, the 2D/4D hypothesis mirrors this overall support on a smaller scale while likewise suffering from inconsistencies (positive, negative, and sex-dependent correlations), alternative explanations (2D/4D related to spatial preferences rather than abilities per se), and contradictions (feminine 2D/4D in men associated with higher spatial ability). Using the debate over brain organization theory as the theoretical stage, we focus on 2D/4D evidence as an increasingly important player on this stage, a demonstrative case in point of the evidential complexities of the broader debate, and an increasingly important topic in its own right.

  10. Can Sex Differences in Science Be Tied to the Long Reach of Prenatal Hormones? Brain Organization Theory, Digit Ratio (2D/4D), and Sex Differences in Preferences and Cognition

    PubMed Central

    Valla, Jeffrey; Ceci, Stephen J.

    2011-01-01

    Brain organization theory posits a cascade of physiological and behavioral changes initiated and shaped by prenatal hormones. Recently, this theory has been associated with outcomes including gendered toy preference, 2D/4D digit ratio, personality characteristics, sexual orientation, and cognitive profile (spatial, verbal, and mathematical abilities). We examine the evidence for this claim, focusing on 2D/4D and its putative role as a biomarker for organizational features that influence cognitive abilities/interests predisposing males toward mathematically and spatially intensive careers. Although massive support exists for early brain organization theory overall, there are myriad inconsistencies, alternative explanations, and outright contradictions that must be addressed while still taking the entire theory into account. Like a fractal within the larger theory, the 2D/4D hypothesis mirrors this overall support on a smaller scale while likewise suffering from inconsistencies (positive, negative, and sex-dependent correlations), alternative explanations (2D/4D related to spatial preferences rather than abilities per se), and contradictions (feminine 2D/4D in men associated with higher spatial ability). Using the debate over brain organization theory as the theoretical stage, we focus on 2D/4D evidence as an increasingly important player on this stage, a demonstrative case in point of the evidential complexities of the broader debate, and an increasingly important topic in its own right. PMID:22164187

  11. Fluorescent Phthalocyanine Assembly Distinguishes Chiral Isomers of Different Types of Amino Acids and Sugars.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Yuying; Liu, Chenxi; Wang, Xiqian; Wang, Tianyu; Jiang, Jianzhuang

    2017-07-25

    The functions of some natural supramolecular architectures, such as ribosomes, are dependent on the recognition of different types of chiral biomolecules. However, the recognition of different types of chiral molecules (multiobject chiral recognition), such as amino acids and sugars, by independent and identically artificial supramolecular assembly, was rarely achieved. In this article, simple amphiphilic achiral phthalocyanine was found to form supramolecular chiral assemblies with charged water-soluble polymers upon host-guest interactions at the air/water interface. Among these systems, one identical phthalocyanine/poly(l-lysine) assembly not only can distinguish enantiomers of different amino acids but also can recognize several epimers of monose. The chiral recognitions were achieved by comparing either the steady-state fluorescence intensity or fluorescence quenching rate of phthalocyanine/poly(l-lysine) assemblies, before and after interaction with different small chiral molecules. It was demonstrated that the interactions between poly(l-lysine) and different small chiral molecules could change the aggregation of phthalocyanines. And the sensitivity of fluorescence and the excellent multiobject chiral recognition properties of the phthalocyanine/poly(l-lysine) assembly are dependent on the subtle molecular packing mode and the cooperation of different noncovalent interactions.

  12. Diffusion behavior of the fluorescent proteins eGFP and Dreiklang in solvents of different viscosity monitored by fluorescence correlation spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Junghans, Cornelia; Schmitt, Franz-Josef; Vukojević, Vladana; Friedrich, Thomas

    2016-12-01

    Fluorescence correlation spectroscopy relies on temporal autocorrelation analysis of fluorescence intensity fluctuations that spontaneously arise in systems at equilibrium due to molecular motion and changes of state that cause changes in fluorescence, such as triplet state transition, photoisomerization and other photophysical transformations, to determine the rates of these processes. The stability of a fluorescent molecule against dark state conversion is of particular concern for chromophores intended to be used as reference tags for comparing diffusion processes on multiple time scales. In this work, we analyzed properties of two fluorescent proteins, the photoswitchable Dreiklang and its parental eGFP, in solvents of different viscosity to vary the diffusion time through the observation volume element by several orders of magnitude. In contrast to eGFP, Dreiklang undergoes a dark-state conversion on the time scale of tens to hundreds of microseconds under conditions of intense fluorescence excitation, which results in artificially shortened diffusion times if the diffusional motion through the observation volume is sufficiently slowed down. Such photophysical quenching processes have also been observed in FCS studies on other photoswitchable fluorescent proteins including Citrine, from which Dreiklang was derived by genetic engineering. This property readily explains the discrepancies observed previously between the diffusion times of eGFP- and Dreiklang-labeled plasma membrane protein complexes.

  13. Brittle damage models in DYNA2D

    SciTech Connect

    Faux, D.R.

    1997-09-01

    DYNA2D is an explicit Lagrangian finite element code used to model dynamic events where stress wave interactions influence the overall response of the system. DYNA2D is often used to model penetration problems involving ductile-to-ductile impacts; however, with the advent of the use of ceramics in the armor-anti-armor community and the need to model damage to laser optics components, good brittle damage models are now needed in DYNA2D. This report will detail the implementation of four brittle damage models in DYNA2D, three scalar damage models and one tensor damage model. These new brittle damage models are then used to predict experimental results from three distinctly different glass damage problems.

  14. Fluorescent sensing and electrocatalytic properties of three Zn(II)/Co(II) coordination complexes containing two different dicarboxylates and two various bis(pyridyl)-bis(amide) ligands

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lin, Hongyan; Rong, Xing; Liu, Guocheng; Wang, Xiang; Wang, Xiuli; Duan, Surui

    2016-09-01

    Three new transition metal(II) coordination complexes constructed from two different dicarboxylates (1,3-H2BDC = 1,3-benzenedicarboxylic acid, 1,4-H2NDC = 1,4-naphthalenedicarboxylic acid) and two bis(pyridyl)-bis(amide) ligands (3-bpcd = N,N‧-bis(3-pyridyl)cyclohexane-1,4-dicarboxamide, 3-bpod = N,N‧-bis(3-pyridyl)octandiamide), [Zn(1,3-BDC)(3-bpcd)0.5(H2O)]·H2O (1), [Zn(1,3-BDC)(3-bpod)0.5(H2O)] (2) and [Co(1,4-NDC)(3-bpod)1.5(H2O)] (3) have been synthesized in the hydrothermal environments and structurally characterized by IR, TG and single crystal X-ray diffraction. Complexes 1 and 2 possess the similar 1D ladder-like chain based on [Zn(1,3-BDC)]n zigzag chain and the bidentate ligands 3-bpcd/or 3-bpod. Complex 3 shows a 2D layered structure with a 5-connected {410} topology, which consists of 1D linear [Co(1,4-NDC)]n chain and [Co(3-bpod)1.5]n chain with alternating arrangement of 3-bpod ligands and Co2(3-bpod)2 dinuclear loops. The adjacent 1D chains for 1-2 or the 2D layers for 3 are further extended into 2D or 3D supramolecular frameworks through the hydrogen bonding interactions. Additionally, the solid state fluorescent properties for the title complexes 1-3, the fluorescent sensing behaviors of complexes 1-2 and the electrochemical behaviour of complex 3 have been investigated.

  15. [Fluorescence parameters of chlorophyll in leaves of caules plants in different environmental conditions].

    PubMed

    Iakovleva, O V; Talipova, E V; Kukarskikh, G P; Krendeleeva, T E; Rubin, A B

    2005-01-01

    The functional state of medicinal plants of Convallaria majalis L., Vaccinium vitis-idaeae L., Arctostaphylos uva-ursi L. in connection with heavy metal accumulation in their leaves under man impact was studied by the pulse-amplitude-modulation (PAM) fluorometric method. The relative yield of variable fluorescence (F(v)/F(m)), induction of fluorescence of chlorophyll, and fluorescence quenching processes in leaves at different distances from the local Kirov-Sovetsk, Kirov-Omutninsk road in Kirov region were analyzed. Changes in biophysical characteristics with the increasing content of heavy metals in leaves were demonstrated. The most informative characteristic is F(v)/F(m). Its value correlates with the activity of the photosynthetic apparatus and reflects the potential effeciency of photosynthesis. The better are the environmental conditions of plant growth, the higher is the F(v)/F(m) ratio and the lower is its average statistical deviation. Fluorescence induction curves do not always vary in shape under our ecological conditions, indicating relatively favorable conditions at places of plant growth investigated. The rate of the environmental pollution in the investigated region is not critical, since the content of heavy metal in leaves does not change considerably with the distance from the road.

  16. Analysis of the Fluorescence Correlation Function of Quantum Rods with Different Lengths.

    PubMed

    Lee, Jaeran; Kim, Sok Won

    2015-11-01

    We built a polarization fluorescence correlation spectroscopy system to analyze the variation of the correlation function in rotational diffusion based on the length of rod-like fluorescent particles. Because the rotational diffusion of particles in liquid depends on the relative polarization states of the laser source and particle fluorescence, we compared the amplitudes of the rotational diffusion using the autocorrelation function in different polarization states. For experiments that depend on the length of the fluorescent particles, we prepared three kinds of quantum rod samples with a width of 6.5 ± 0.5 nm and lengths of 17 ± 3, 40 ± 3, and 46 ± 3 nm. Through the experiment, we obtained the hydrodynamic radii of each particle using the rotational diffusion coefficient: 10.7 ± 0.8, 13.4 ± 0.7, and 14.1 ± 0.4 nm with the length of the particles. All the obtained values for radii are 3 nm larger than the calculated equivalent radii of spheres with the same volume as the rod samples. Through a fraction analysis by polarization state, we confirmed that the ratio of rotational fraction for polarization increases with the aspect ratio of the actual particle.

  17. Poster - Thur Eve - 68: Evaluation and analytical comparison of different 2D and 3D treatment planning systems using dosimetry in anthropomorphic phantom.

    PubMed

    Khosravi, H R; Nodehi, Mr Golrokh; Asnaashari, Kh; Mahdavi, S R; Shirazi, A R; Gholami, S

    2012-07-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate and analytically compare different calculation algorithms applied in our country radiotherapy centers base on the methodology developed by IAEA for treatment planning systems (TPS) commissioning (IAEA TEC-DOC 1583). Thorax anthropomorphic phantom (002LFC CIRS inc.), was used to measure 7 tests that simulate the whole chain of external beam TPS. The dose were measured with ion chambers and the deviation between measured and TPS calculated dose was reported. This methodology, which employs the same phantom and the same setup test cases, was tested in 4 different hospitals which were using 5 different algorithms/ inhomogeneity correction methods implemented in different TPS. The algorithms in this study were divided into two groups including correction based and model based algorithms. A total of 84 clinical test case datasets for different energies and calculation algorithms were produced, which amounts of differences in inhomogeneity points with low density (lung) and high density (bone) was decreased meaningfully with advanced algorithms. The number of deviations outside agreement criteria was increased with the beam energy and decreased with advancement of the TPS calculation algorithm. Large deviations were seen in some correction based algorithms, so sophisticated algorithms, would be preferred in clinical practices, especially for calculation in inhomogeneous media. Use of model based algorithms with lateral transport calculation, is recommended. Some systematic errors which were revealed during this study, is showing necessity of performing periodic audits on TPS in radiotherapy centers. © 2012 American Association of Physicists in Medicine.

  18. Comparison between the indocyanine green fluorescence and blue dye methods for sentinel lymph node biopsy using novel fluorescence image-guided resection equipment in different types of hospitals.

    PubMed

    He, Kunshan; Chi, Chongwei; Kou, Deqiang; Huang, Wenhe; Wu, Jundong; Wang, Yabing; He, Lifang; Ye, Jinzuo; Mao, Yamin; Zhang, Guo-Jun; Wang, Jiandong; Tian, Jie

    2016-12-01

    Sentinel lymph node biopsy (SLNB) has become a standard of care to detect axillary lymph metastasis in early-stage breast cancer patients with clinically negative axillary lymph nodes. Current SLNB detection modalities comprising a blue dye, a radioactive tracer, or a combination of both have advantages as well as disadvantages. Thus, near-infrared fluorescence imaging using indocyanine green (ICG) has recently been regarded as a novel method that has generated interest for SLNB around the world. However, the lack of appropriate fluorescence imaging systems has hindered further research and wide application of this method. Therefore, we developed novel fluorescence image-guided resection equipment (FIRE) to detect sentinel lymph nodes (SLNs). Moreover, to compare the ICG fluorescence imaging method with the blue dye method and to explore the universal feasibility of the former, a different type of hospital study was conducted. Ninety-nine eligible patients participated in the study at 3 different types of hospitals. After subcutaneous ICG allergy testing, all the patients were subcutaneously injected with methylene blue and ICG into the subareolar area. Consequently, 276 SLNs (range 1-7) were identified in 98 subjects (detection rate: 99%) by using the ICG fluorescence imaging method. In contrast, the blue dye method only identified 202 SLNs (range 1-7) in 91 subjects (detection rate: 91.92%). Besides, the results of the fluorescence imaging method were similar in the 3 hospitals. Our findings indicate the universal feasibility of the ICG fluorescence imaging method for SLNB using the fluorescence image-guided resection equipment in early breast cancer detection. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Three-dimensional super-resolution imaging for fluorescence emission difference microscopy

    SciTech Connect

    You, Shangting; Kuang, Cuifang Li, Shuai; Liu, Xu; Ding, Zhihua

    2015-08-15

    We propose a method theoretically to break the diffraction limit and to improve the resolution in all three dimensions for fluorescence emission difference microscopy. We produce two kinds of hollow focal spot by phase modulation. By incoherent superposition, these two kinds of focal spot yield a 3D hollow focal spot. The optimal proportion of these two kinds of spot is given in the paper. By employing 3D hollow focal spot, super-resolution image can be yielded by means of fluorescence emission difference microscopy, with resolution enhanced both laterally and axially. According to computation result, size of point spread function of three-dimensional super-resolution imaging is reduced by about 40% in all three spatial directions with respect to confocal imaging.

  20. Bioinformatics research on inter-racial difference in drug metabolism II. Analysis on relationship between enzyme activities of CYP2D6 and CYP2C19 and their relevant genotypes.

    PubMed

    Shimizu, Takako; Ochiai, Hirohide; Asell, Fredrik; Yokono, Yoshiya; Kikuchi, Yoshiharu; Nitta, Masashi; Hama, Yoshimasa; Yamaguchi, Shizuyo; Hashimoto, Munehiro; Taki, Katsuhiko; Nakata, Kotoko; Aida, Yoshitaka; Ohashi, Akira; Ozawa, Naoki

    2003-01-01

    The enzyme activities of CYP2D6 and CYP2C19 show a genetic polymorphism, and the frequency of poor metabolizers (PMs) on these enzymes depends on races. We have analyzed frequencies of mutant alleles and PMs based on the published data in previous study (Shimizu, T. et al.: Bioinformatics research on inter-racial difference in drug metabolism, I. Analysis on frequencies of mutant alleles and poor metabolizers on CYP2D6 and CYP2C19.). The study shows that there were racial differences in the frequencies of each mutant allele and PMs. In the present study, the correlation between genotypes and drug-metabolizing enzyme activities was investigated. The result showed that enzyme activities varied according to the genotypes of subjects even in the same race. On the other hand, if subjects had the same genotypes, almost no racial differences were observed in drug-metabolizing enzyme activities. From these results, it was supposed that the racial differences in activities of these enzymes could be explained by the differences in distribution of genotypes. It would be possible to explain the racial differences in drug-metabolizing enzyme activities based on the differences on individual pharmacogenetic background information, not merely by comparison of frameworks such as races and nations.

  1. The antioxidative power AP—A new quantitative time dependent (2D) parameter for the determination of the antioxidant capacity and reactivity of different plants

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jung, Katinka; Richter, J.; Kabrodt, K.; Lücke, I. M.; Schellenberg, I.; Herrling, Th.

    2006-03-01

    In the last decade, naturally occurring antioxidants continue to play an important role in the food-supplement industry. The content of antioxidants in a plant depends on the species, temperature, humidity, period of growth, harvest month, part of the plant used and many other variables. Herein, we present a new method able to determine the all over antioxidative power (AP) of plant extracts or lyophilised plant parts based on the reducing activity against a stable test radical. The method is performed by ESR spectroscopy and is based on the well-known 1,1-diphenyl-2-picryl-hydrazil (DPPH) method with the major difference that both the antioxidative capacity and the antioxidative activity are used to characterise an antioxidant. The resulting antioxidative power is expressed in antioxidative units (AU), where 1 AU corresponds to the activity of a 1 ppm solution of Vitamin C as a benchmark. This method allows a rapid, unexpensive and general applicable technique for the measurement of the antioxidative power of very different kinds of substances. The inclusion of the kinetic behaviour of the reducing process of the antioxidant for the determination of the AP allows the identification of the main antioxidant present in a sample. Herein, we present the application example of seeds, sprouts and adult parts of dandelion, amaranth, quinoa, fenugreek, broccoli, red clover and mugwort, where the AP method permits to characterise the plants with the highest antioxidant capacity and reaction velocity. The method permits to select active plant extracts for the food and nutrition industry.

  2. Simulation of seismic wave propagation in 2-D poroelastic media using weighted-averaging finite difference stencils in the frequency-space domain

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Qingjie; Mao, Weijian

    2017-01-01

    The poroelastodynamic equations are used to describe the dynamic solid-fluid interaction in the reservoir. To obtain the intrinsic properties of reservoir rocks from geophysical data measured in both laboratory and field, we need an accurate solution of the wave propagation in porous media. At present, the poroelastic wave equations are mostly solved in the time domain, which involves a difficult and complicated time convolution. In order to avoid the issues caused by the time convolution, we propose a frequency-space domain method. The poroelastic wave equations are composed of a linear system in the frequency domain, which easily takes into account the effects of all frequencies on the dispersion and attenuation of seismic wave. A 25-point weighted-averaging finite different scheme is proposed to discretize the equations. For the finite model, the perfectly matched layer technique is applied at the model boundaries. We validated the proposed algorithm by testing three numerical examples of poroelastic models, which are homogenous, two-layered and heterogeneous with different fluids, respectively. The testing results are encouraging in the aspects of both computational accuracy and efficiency.

  3. Convergent validity and sex differences in healthy elderly adults for performance on 3D virtual reality navigation learning and 2D hidden maze tasks.

    PubMed

    Tippett, William J; Lee, Jang-Han; Mraz, Richard; Zakzanis, Konstantine K; Snyder, Peter J; Black, Sandra E; Graham, Simon J

    2009-04-01

    This study assessed the convergent validity of a virtual environment (VE) navigation learning task, the Groton Maze Learning Test (GMLT), and selected traditional neuropsychological tests performed in a group of healthy elderly adults (n = 24). The cohort was divided equally between males and females to explore performance variability due to sex differences, which were subsequently characterized and reported as part of the analysis. To facilitate performance comparisons, specific "efficiency" scores were created for both the VE navigation task and the GMLT. Men reached peak performance more rapidly than women during VE navigation and on the GMLT and significantly outperformed women on the first learning trial in the VE. Results suggest reasonable convergent validity across the VE task, GMLT, and selected neuropsychological tests for assessment of spatial memory.

  4. Photosensitizer fluorescence dynamics at its diffusion in blood flow for different means of cells concentrations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maryakhina, V. S.; Gun'kov, V. V.

    2016-04-01

    In the paper the mathematical model of kinetics of interaction of the injected compound with biological liquid flow has been described for different means of cells concentrations connected on packed cell volume. It is considered that biological liquid contains a three phases such as water, peptides and cells. At the time, the injected compound can interact with peptides and cells which are "trap" for him. The obtained distribution of the compound connects on changes of its fluorescence spectra. It is shown that fluorescence intensivity change is different at 560, 580 and 590 nm. The curves do not have monotonic nature. There is a sharp curves decline in the first few seconds, next, it are increasing. Curves inflection time slightly depends on the cells concentration and is 7-9 seconds. At the time stationary concentration significantly depends on this parameter in contrast to blood viscosity. As long s cells concentration is primarily mean of the packed cell volume, the model can be important for pharmacokinetics and preparations delivery. It can be also used for fluorescent biomedical diagnostics of cancer tumour.

  5. Mismatch discrimination in fluorescent in situ hybridization using different types of nucleic acids.

    PubMed

    Fontenete, Silvia; Silvia, Fontenete; Barros, Joana; Joana, Barros; Madureira, Pedro; Pedro, Madureira; Figueiredo, Céu; Céu, Figueiredo; Wengel, Jesper; Jesper, Wengel; Azevedo, Nuno Filipe; Filipe, Azevedo Nuno

    2015-05-01

    In the past few years, several researchers have focused their attention on nucleic acid mimics due to the increasing necessity of developing a more robust recognition of DNA or RNA sequences. Fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) is an example of a method where the use of these novel nucleic acid monomers might be crucial to the success of the analysis. To achieve the expected accuracy in detection, FISH probes should have high binding affinity towards their complementary strands and discriminate effectively the noncomplementary strands. In this study, we investigate the effect of different chemical modifications in fluorescent probes on their ability to successfully detect the complementary target and discriminate the mismatched base pairs by FISH. To our knowledge, this paper presents the first study where this analysis is performed with different types of FISH probes directly in biological targets, Helicobacter pylori and Helicobacter acinonychis. This is also the first study where unlocked nucleic acids (UNA) were used as chemistry modification in oligonucleotides for FISH methodologies. The effectiveness in detecting the specific target and in mismatch discrimination appears to be improved using locked nucleic acids (LNA)/2'-O-methyl RNA (2'OMe) or peptide nucleic acid (PNA) in comparison to LNA/DNA, LNA/UNA, or DNA probes. Further, the use of LNA modifications together with 2'OMe monomers allowed the use of shorter fluorescent probes and increased the range of hybridization temperatures at which FISH would work.

  6. Influence of different environments on the excited-state proton transfer and dual fluorescence of fisetin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guharay, Jayanti; Dennison, S. Moses; Sengupta, Pradeep K.

    1999-05-01

    The influence of different protic and aprotic solvent environments on the excited-state intramolecular proton transfer (ESIPT) leading to a dual fluorescence behaviour of a biologically important, naturally occurring, polyhydroxyflavone, fisetin (3,3',4',7-tetrahydroxyflavone), has been investigated. The normal fluorescence band, in particular, is extremely sensitive to solvent polarity with νmax shifting from 24 510 cm -1 in dioxane ( ET(30)=36.0) to 20 790 cm -1 in methanol ( ET(30)=55.5). This is rationalized in terms of solvent dipolar relaxation process, which also accounts for the red edge excitation shifts (REES) observed in viscous environments such as glycerol at low temperatures. Significant solvent dependence of the tautomer fluorescence properties ( νmax, yield and decay kinetics) reveals the influence of external hydrogen bonding perturbation on the internal hydrogen bond of the molecule. These excited-state relaxation phenomena and their relevant parameters have been used to probe the microenvironment of fisetin in a membrane mimetic system, namely AOT reverse micelles in n-heptane at different water/surfactant molar ratio ( w0).

  7. Absorption, fluorescence, and SERS spectra of sanguinarine at different pH values

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Motevich, I. G.; Strekal', N. D.; Nowicky, J. W.; Maskevich, S. A.

    2007-09-01

    We have studied the absorption, fluorescence, and surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) spectra of sanguinarine using a silver hydrosol and an electrochemical cell with a silver working electrode for different pH values in the medium. We carried out quantum chemical calculations in order to interpret the electronic and vibrational spectra and to establish their correlations with the structure of the molecules. We optimized the structure and determined the spectral characteristics of the cationic and neutral forms of the sanguinarine molecules in solution and adsorbed on the surface of an anodized Ag electrode for different potentials.

  8. Rapid and high-efficiency discrimination of different sialic acid species using dipeptide-based fluorescent sensors.

    PubMed

    Lu, Qi; Zhan, Mimi; Deng, Lijing; Qing, Guangyan; Sun, Taolei

    2017-09-05

    A series of dipeptide-based fluorescent sensors were developed that exhibit sensitive and distinct responses to six typical sialic acid (SA) species despite the interference of 300-fold d-glucose or other saccharides, thus contributing to a novel fluorescence sensing matrix allowing the rapid and high-efficiency discrimination of different SA species.

  9. Caffeine and sulfadiazine interact differently with human serum albumin: A combined fluorescence and molecular docking study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Islam, Mullah Muhaiminul; Sonu, Vikash K.; Gashnga, Pynsakhiat Miki; Moyon, N. Shaemningwar; Mitra, Sivaprasad

    2016-01-01

    The interaction and binding behavior of the well-known drug sulfadiazine (SDZ) and psychoactive stimulant caffeine (CAF) with human serum albumin (HSA) was monitored by in vitro fluorescence titration and molecular docking calculations under physiological condition. The quenching of protein fluorescence on addition of CAF is due to the formation of protein-drug complex in the ground state; whereas in case of SDZ, the experimental results were explained on the basis of sphere of action model. Although both these compounds bind preferentially in Sudlow's site 1 of the protein, the association constant is approximately two fold higher in case of SDZ (∼4.0 × 104 M-1) in comparison with CAF (∼9.3 × 102 M-1) and correlates well with physico-chemical properties like pKa and lipophilicity of the drugs. Temperature dependent fluorescence study reveals that both SDZ and CAF bind spontaneously with HSA. However, the binding of SDZ with the protein is mainly governed by the hydrophobic forces in contrast with that of CAF; where, the interaction is best explained in terms of electrostatic mechanism. Molecular docking calculation predicts the binding of these drugs in different location of sub-domain IIA in the protein structure.

  10. Directly labeled DNA probes using fluorescent nucleotides with different length linkers.

    PubMed Central

    Zhu, Z; Chao, J; Yu, H; Waggoner, A S

    1994-01-01

    Directly labeled fluorescent DNA probes have been made by nick translation and PCR using dUTP attached to the fluorescent label, Cy3, with different length linkers. With preparation of probes by PCR we find that linker length affects the efficiency of incorporation of Cy3-dUTP, the yield of labeled probe, and the signal intensity of labeled probes hybridized to chromosome target sequences. For nick translation and PCR, both the level of incorporation and the hybridization fluorescence signal increased in parallel when the length of the linker arm is increased. Under optimal conditions, PCR yielded more densely labeled probes, however, the yield of PCR labeled probe decreased with greater linear density of labeling. By using a Cy3-modified dUTP with the longest linker under optimal conditions it was possible to label up to 28% of the possible substitution sites on the target DNA with reasonable yield by PCR and 18% by nick translation. A mechanism involving steric interactions between the polymerase, cyanine-labeled sites on template and extending chains and the modified dUTP substrate is proposed to explain the inverse correlation between the labeling efficiency and the yield of DNA probe synthesis by PCR. Images PMID:8078779

  11. Caffeine and sulfadiazine interact differently with human serum albumin: A combined fluorescence and molecular docking study.

    PubMed

    Islam, Mullah Muhaiminul; Sonu, Vikash K; Gashnga, Pynsakhiat Miki; Moyon, N Shaemningwar; Mitra, Sivaprasad

    2016-01-05

    The interaction and binding behavior of the well-known drug sulfadiazine (SDZ) and psychoactive stimulant caffeine (CAF) with human serum albumin (HSA) was monitored by in vitro fluorescence titration and molecular docking calculations under physiological condition. The quenching of protein fluorescence on addition of CAF is due to the formation of protein-drug complex in the ground state; whereas in case of SDZ, the experimental results were explained on the basis of sphere of action model. Although both these compounds bind preferentially in Sudlow's site 1 of the protein, the association constant is approximately two fold higher in case of SDZ (∼4.0×10(4)M(-1)) in comparison with CAF (∼9.3×10(2)M(-1)) and correlates well with physico-chemical properties like pKa and lipophilicity of the drugs. Temperature dependent fluorescence study reveals that both SDZ and CAF bind spontaneously with HSA. However, the binding of SDZ with the protein is mainly governed by the hydrophobic forces in contrast with that of CAF; where, the interaction is best explained in terms of electrostatic mechanism. Molecular docking calculation predicts the binding of these drugs in different location of sub-domain IIA in the protein structure. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Probing Zeolite Crystal Architecture and Structural Imperfections using Differently Sized Fluorescent Organic Probe Molecules

    PubMed Central

    Hendriks, Frank C.; Schmidt, Joel E.; Rombouts, Jeroen A.; Lammertsma, Koop; Bruijnincx, Pieter C. A.

    2017-01-01

    Abstract A micro‐spectroscopic method has been developed to probe the accessibility of zeolite crystals using a series of fluorescent 4‐(4‐diethylaminostyryl)‐1‐methylpyridinium iodide (DAMPI) probes of increasing molecular size. Staining large zeolite crystals with MFI (ZSM‐5) topology and subsequent mapping of the resulting fluorescence using confocal fluorescence microscopy reveal differences in structural integrity: the 90° intergrowth sections of MFI crystals are prone to develop structural imperfections, which act as entrance routes for the probes into the zeolite crystal. Polarization‐dependent measurements provide evidence for the probe molecule's alignment within the MFI zeolite pore system. The developed method was extended to BEA (Beta) crystals, showing that the previously observed hourglass pattern is a general feature of BEA crystals with this morphology. Furthermore, the probes can accurately identify at which crystal faces of BEA straight or sinusoidal pores open to the surface. The results show this method can spatially resolve the architecture‐dependent internal pore structure of microporous materials, which is difficult to assess using other characterization techniques such as X‐ray diffraction. PMID:28217845

  13. Multistimuli two-color luminescence switching via different slip-stacking of highly fluorescent molecular sheets.

    PubMed

    Yoon, Seong-Jun; Chung, Jong Won; Gierschner, Johannes; Kim, Kil Suk; Choi, Moon-Gun; Kim, Dongho; Park, Soo Young

    2010-10-06

    Color tuning and switching of the solid-state luminescence of organic materials are attractive subjects for both the fundamental research and practical applications such as optical recording. We report herein cyanostilbene-based highly luminescent molecular sheets which exhibit two-color fluorescence switching in response to pressure, temperature, and solvent vapor. The origin for the multistimuli luminescence switching is the two-directional shear-sliding capability of molecular sheets, which are formed via intermolecular multiple C-H···N and C-H···O hydrogen bonds. The resulting two distinctive crystal phases are promoted by different modes of local dipole coupling, which cause a substantial alternation of π-π overlap. These changes can be directly correlated with the subsequent intermolecular excitonic and excimeric coupling in both phases, as demonstrated by an in-depth theory-assisted spectroscopic and structural study. Finally, we have prepared a first device demonstrator for rewritable fluorescent optical recording media which showed multistimuli luminescence tuning with fast response. Our multistimuli responsive system is unique in terms of the slip-stacking of molecular sheets and thus provides a novel concept of rewritable fluorescent optical recording media.

  14. Application of 2D Non-Graphene Materials and 2D Oxide Nanostructures for Biosensing Technology

    PubMed Central

    Shavanova, Kateryna; Bakakina, Yulia; Burkova, Inna; Shtepliuk, Ivan; Viter, Roman; Ubelis, Arnolds; Beni, Valerio; Starodub, Nickolaj; Yakimova, Rositsa; Khranovskyy, Volodymyr

    2016-01-01

    The discovery of graphene and its unique properties has inspired researchers to try to invent other two-dimensional (2D) materials. After considerable research effort, a distinct “beyond graphene” domain has been established, comprising the library of non-graphene 2D materials. It is significant that some 2D non-graphene materials possess solid advantages over their predecessor, such as having a direct band gap, and therefore are highly promising for a number of applications. These applications are not limited to nano- and opto-electronics, but have a strong potential in biosensing technologies, as one example. However, since most of the 2D non-graphene materials have been newly discovered, most of the research efforts are concentrated on material synthesis and the investigation of the properties of the material. Applications of 2D non-graphene materials are still at the embryonic stage, and the integration of 2D non-graphene materials into devices is scarcely reported. However, in recent years, numerous reports have blossomed about 2D material-based biosensors, evidencing the growing potential of 2D non-graphene materials for biosensing applications. This review highlights the recent progress in research on the potential of using 2D non-graphene materials and similar oxide nanostructures for different types of biosensors (optical and electrochemical). A wide range of biological targets, such as glucose, dopamine, cortisol, DNA, IgG, bisphenol, ascorbic acid, cytochrome and estradiol, has been reported to be successfully detected by biosensors with transducers made of 2D non-graphene materials. PMID:26861346

  15. Application of 2D Non-Graphene Materials and 2D Oxide Nanostructures for Biosensing Technology.

    PubMed

    Shavanova, Kateryna; Bakakina, Yulia; Burkova, Inna; Shtepliuk, Ivan; Viter, Roman; Ubelis, Arnolds; Beni, Valerio; Starodub, Nickolaj; Yakimova, Rositsa; Khranovskyy, Volodymyr

    2016-02-06

    The discovery of graphene and its unique properties has inspired researchers to try to invent other two-dimensional (2D) materials. After considerable research effort, a distinct "beyond graphene" domain has been established, comprising the library of non-graphene 2D materials. It is significant that some 2D non-graphene materials possess solid advantages over their predecessor, such as having a direct band gap, and therefore are highly promising for a number of applications. These applications are not limited to nano- and opto-electronics, but have a strong potential in biosensing technologies, as one example. However, since most of the 2D non-graphene materials have been newly discovered, most of the research efforts are concentrated on material synthesis and the investigation of the properties of the material. Applications of 2D non-graphene materials are still at the embryonic stage, and the integration of 2D non-graphene materials into devices is scarcely reported. However, in recent years, numerous reports have blossomed about 2D material-based biosensors, evidencing the growing potential of 2D non-graphene materials for biosensing applications. This review highlights the recent progress in research on the potential of using 2D non-graphene materials and similar oxide nanostructures for different types of biosensors (optical and electrochemical). A wide range of biological targets, such as glucose, dopamine, cortisol, DNA, IgG, bisphenol, ascorbic acid, cytochrome and estradiol, has been reported to be successfully detected by biosensors with transducers made of 2D non-graphene materials.

  16. Application of multiplexed cysteine-labeled complex protein sample for 2D electrophoretic gel alignment.

    PubMed

    Haimi, Perttu; Sikorskaite-Gudziuniene, Sidona; Baniulis, Danas

    2015-06-01

    The analysis of cellular subproteomes by 2DE is hampered by the difficulty of aligning gel images from samples that have very different protein composition. Here, we present a sensitive and cost-effective fluorescent labeling method for analyzing protein samples that is not dependent on their composition. The alignment is guided by inclusion of a complex mixture of proteins that is co-run with the sample. Maleimide-conjugated fluorescent dyes Dy-560 and Dy-635 are used to label the cysteine residues of the sample of interest and the alignment standard, respectively. The two differently labeled mixtures are then combined and separated on a 2D gel and, after selective fluorescence detection, an unsupervised image registration process is used to align the protein patters. In a pilot study, this protocol significantly improved the accuracy of alignment of nuclear proteins with total cellular proteins.

  17. Predicting the fluorescent enhancement rate by gold and silver nanospheres using finite-difference time-domain analysis.

    PubMed

    Centeno, Anthony; Xie, Fang; Alford, Neil

    2013-06-01

    Metal-induced fluorescence enhancement (MIFE) is a promising strategy for increasing the sensitivity of fluorophores used in biological sensors. This study uses the finite-difference time-domain technique to predict the fluorescent enhancement rate of a fluorophore molecule in close proximity to a gold or silver spherical nanoparticle. By considering commercially available fluorescent dyes the computed results are compared with the published experimental data. The results show that MIFE is a complex coupling process between the fluorophore molecule and the metal nanoparticle. Nevertheless using computational electromagnetic techniques to perform calculations it is possible to calculate, with reasonable accuracy, the fluorescent enhancement. Using this methodology it will be possible to consider different shaped metal nanoparticles and any supporting substrate material in the future, an important step in building reliable biosensors capable of detecting low levels of proteins tagged with fluorescence molecules.

  18. Optoelectronics with 2D semiconductors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mueller, Thomas

    2015-03-01

    Two-dimensional (2D) atomic crystals, such as graphene and layered transition-metal dichalcogenides, are currently receiving a lot of attention for applications in electronics and optoelectronics. In this talk, I will review our research activities on electrically driven light emission, photovoltaic energy conversion and photodetection in 2D semiconductors. In particular, WSe2 monolayer p-n junctions formed by electrostatic doping using a pair of split gate electrodes, type-II heterojunctions based on MoS2/WSe2 and MoS2/phosphorene van der Waals stacks, 2D multi-junction solar cells, and 3D/2D semiconductor interfaces will be presented. Upon optical illumination, conversion of light into electrical energy occurs in these devices. If an electrical current is driven, efficient electroluminescence is obtained. I will present measurements of the electrical characteristics, the optical properties, and the gate voltage dependence of the device response. In the second part of my talk, I will discuss photoconductivity studies of MoS2 field-effect transistors. We identify photovoltaic and photoconductive effects, which both show strong photoconductive gain. A model will be presented that reproduces our experimental findings, such as the dependence on optical power and gate voltage. We envision that the efficient photon conversion and light emission, combined with the advantages of 2D semiconductors, such as flexibility, high mechanical stability and low costs of production, could lead to new optoelectronic technologies.

  19. The mouse ruby-eye 2(d) (ru2(d) /Hps5(ru2-d) ) allele inhibits eumelanin but not pheomelanin synthesis.

    PubMed

    Hirobe, Tomohisa; Ito, Shosuke; Wakamatsu, Kazumasa

    2013-09-01

    The novel mutation named ru2(d) /Hps5(ru2-d) , characterized by light-colored coats and ruby-eyes, prohibits differentiation of melanocytes by inhibiting tyrosinase (Tyr) activity, expression of Tyr, Tyr-related protein 1 (Tyrp1), Tyrp2, and Kit. However, it is not known whether the ru2(d) allele affects pheomelanin synthesis in recessive yellow (e/Mc1r(e) ) or in pheomelanic stage in agouti (A) mice. In this study, effects of the ru2(d) allele on pheomelanin synthesis were investigated by chemical analysis of melanin present in dorsal hairs of 5-week-old mice from F2 generation between C57BL/10JHir (B10)-co-isogenic ruby-eye 2(d) and B10-congenic recessive yellow or agouti. Eumelanin content was decreased in ruby-eye 2(d) and ruby-eye 2(d) agouti mice, whereas pheomelanin content in ruby-eye 2(d) recessive yellow and ruby-eye 2(d) agouti mice did not differ from the corresponding Ru2(d) /- mice, suggesting that the ru2(d) allele inhibits eumelanin but not pheomelanin synthesis. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  20. Effect of different agents onto multidrug resistant cells revealed by fluorescence correlation spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boutin, C.; Roche, Y.; Jaffiol, R.; Millot, J.-M.; Millot, C.; Plain, J.; Deturche, R.; Jeannesson, P.; Manfait, M.; Royer, P.

    Fluorescence correlation spectroscopy (FCS), which is a sensitive and non invasive technique, has been used to characterize the plasma membrane fluidity and heterogeneity of multidrug resistant living cells. At the single cell level, the effects of different membrane agents present in the extra-cellular medium have been analyzed. Firstly, we reveal a modification of plasma membrane microviscosity according to the addition of a fluidity modulator, benzyl alcohol. In the other hand, revertant such as verapamil and cyclosporin-A appears to act more specifically on the slow diffusion sites as microdomains.

  1. Effect of fluorescence characteristics and different algorithms on the estimation of leaf nitrogen content based on laser-induced fluorescence lidar in paddy rice.

    PubMed

    Yang, Jian; Sun, Jia; Du, Lin; Chen, Biwu; Zhang, Zhenbing; Shi, Shuo; Gong, Wei

    2017-02-20

    Paddy rice is one of the most significant food sources and an important part of the ecosystem. Thus, accurate monitoring of paddy rice growth is highly necessary. Leaf nitrogen content (LNC) serves as a crucial indicator of growth status of paddy rice and determines the dose of nitrogen (N) fertilizer to be used. This study aims to compare the predictive ability of the fluorescence spectra excited by different excitation wavelengths (EWs) combined with traditional multivariate analysis algorithms, such as principal component analysis (PCA), back-propagation neural network (BPNN), and support vector machine (SVM), for estimating paddy rice LNC from the leaf level with three different fluorescence characteristics as input variables. Then, six estimation models were proposed. Compared with the five other models, PCA-BPNN was the most suitable model for the estimation of LNC by improving R2 and reducing RMSE and RE. For 355, 460 and 556 nm EWs, R2 was 0.89, 0.80 and 0.88, respectively. Experimental results demonstrated that the fluorescence spectra excited by 355 and 556 nm EWs were superior to those excited by 460 nm for the estimation of LNC with different models. BPNN algorithm combined with PCA may provide a helpful exploratory and predictive tool for fluorescence spectra excited by appropriate EW based on practical application requirements for monitoring the N status of crops.

  2. Comparative metabolic capabilities and inhibitory profiles of CYP2D6.1, CYP2D6.10, and CYP2D6.17.

    PubMed

    Shen, Hongwu; He, Minxia M; Liu, Houfu; Wrighton, Steven A; Wang, Li; Guo, Bin; Li, Chuan

    2007-08-01

    Polymorphisms in the cytochrome P450 2D6 (CYP2D6) gene are a major cause of pharmacokinetic variability in human. Although the poor metabolizer phenotype is known to be caused by two null alleles leading to absence of functional CYP2D6 protein, the large variability among individuals with functional alleles remains mostly unexplained. Thus, the goal of this study was to examine the intrinsic enzymatic differences that exist among the several active CYP2D6 allelic variants. The relative catalytic activities (enzyme kinetics) of three functionally active human CYP2D6 allelic variants, CYP2D6.1, CYP2D6.10, and CYP2D6.17, were systematically investigated for their ability to metabolize a structurally diverse set of clinically important CYP2D6-metabolized drugs [atomoxetine, bufuralol, codeine, debrisoquine, dextromethorphan, (S)-fluoxetine, nortriptyline, and tramadol] and the effects of various CYP2D6-inhibitors [cocaine, (S)-fluoxetine, (S)-norfluoxetine, imipramine, quinidine, and thioridazine] on these three variants. The most significant difference observed was a consistent but substrate-dependent decease in the catalytic efficiencies of cDNA-expressed CYP2D6.10 and CYP2D6.17 compared with CYP2D6.1, yielding 1.32 to 27.9 and 7.33 to 80.4% of the efficiency of CYP2D6.1, respectively. The most important finding from this study is that there are mixed effects on the functionally reduced allelic variants in enzyme-substrate affinity or enzyme-inhibitor affinity, which is lower, higher, or comparable to that for CYP2D6.1. Considering the rather high frequencies of CYP2D6*10 and CYP2D6*17 alleles for Asians and African Americans, respectively, these data provide further insight into ethnic differences in CYP2D6-mediated drug metabolism. However, as with all in vitro to in vivo extrapolations, caution should be applied to the clinical consequences.

  3. Two-dimensional fluorescence difference gel electrophoresis analysis of Listeria monocytogenes submitted to a redox shock.

    PubMed

    Ignatova, Maria; Guével, Blandine; Com, Emmanuelle; Haddad, Nabila; Rossero, Albert; Bogard, Philippe; Prévost, Hervé; Guillou, Sandrine

    2013-02-21

    The influence of redox alteration on the growth and proteomic pattern of Listeria monocytogenes was investigated. A redox shock was induced in cultures by addition of 3mM ferricyanide (FeCN) and 6mM dithiothreitol (DTT) to increase or to decrease respectively the redox potential naturally occurring at the beginning of growth. In both conditions, the reducing and oxidizing redox shock had a strong influence, decreasing the maximum growth rate by half compared to a control culture. The proteomic analysis of L. monocytogenes performed by two-dimensional difference gel electrophoresis (2D-DIGE) exhibited twenty-three proteins differentially expressed (P<0.05), among these, many were oxidoreductases, and proteins involved in cellular metabolism (glycolysis, protein synthesis), detoxification (kat) or adhesion (Lmo1634).

  4. Interregional difference in spring neap variations in stratification and chlorophyll fluorescence during summer in a tidal sea (Yatsushiro Sea, Japan)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aoki, Kazuhiro; Onitsuka, Goh; Shimizu, Manabu; Matsuo, Hitoshi; Kitadai, Yuuki; Ochiai, Hironori; Yamamoto, Takeshi; Furukawa, Shinpei

    2016-10-01

    Spring neap variations in stratification and chlorophyll fluorescence were studied during the summers of 2011-2014 in a tidal sea (Yatsushiro Sea, Japan) using monitoring data and hydrodynamic models. Vertical profiles of salinity, temperature and chlorophyll fluorescence were collected nearly weekly from nine stations in this sea during the same period. Composite analysis using vertical profiles of density clearly indicated enhancement of the stratification during the neap tide and a vertically mixed water column during the spring tide in the tidal area. Interregional differences were revealed in the variation of chlorophyll fluorescence with the spring neap tidal cycle. More notable increases in chlorophyll fluorescence were observed during the neap tide in the tidal area around the narrow strait than in the inner area. Temporal stratification led to an increase in the chlorophyll fluorescence in the tidal strait during the neap tide.

  5. Results from an indirect fluorescent antibody test using three different strains of Ehrlichia canis.

    PubMed

    Aguirre, Enara; Ayllón, Tania; Sainz, Angel; Amusategui, Inmaculada; Villaescusa, Alejandra; Rodríguez-Franco, Fernando; Tesouro, Miguel A

    2009-11-01

    An indirect fluorescent antibody (IFA) test is usually performed to detect antibodies in dogs naturally infected by Ehrlichia canis. In this work, results obtained using three different E. canis strains as antigen (a commercial antigen, the E. canis Oklahoma strain and the E. canis Madrid strain) were compared. One hundred and forty-nine serum samples obtained from dogs living in the centre of Spain were analysed. When qualitative results were evaluated, identical results were detected in 87.2% of samples for the three antigens tested. When comparing antibody titre results, differences between the Madrid strain and the commercial antigen, and between the Madrid and Oklahoma strains were statistically significant (P<0.0001). No differences were found when comparing the Oklahoma strain with the commercial antigen (P=0.562). Subtle intra-laboratory variations shown in this study suggest a higher sensitivity of the IFA test when an autochthonous strain is used as antigen.

  6. Extensions of 2D gravity

    SciTech Connect

    Sevrin, A.

    1993-06-01

    After reviewing some aspects of gravity in two dimensions, I show that non-trivial embeddings of sl(2) in a semi-simple (super) Lie algebra give rise to a very large class of extensions of 2D gravity. The induced action is constructed as a gauged WZW model and an exact expression for the effective action is given.

  7. Highly crystalline 2D superconductors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saito, Yu; Nojima, Tsutomu; Iwasa, Yoshihiro

    2017-02-01

    Recent advances in materials fabrication have enabled the manufacturing of ordered 2D electron systems, such as heterogeneous interfaces, atomic layers grown by molecular beam epitaxy, exfoliated thin flakes and field-effect devices. These 2D electron systems are highly crystalline, and some of them, despite their single-layer thickness, exhibit a sheet resistance more than an order of magnitude lower than that of conventional amorphous or granular thin films. In this Review, we explore recent developments in the field of highly crystalline 2D superconductors and highlight the unprecedented physical properties of these systems. In particular, we explore the quantum metallic state (or possible metallic ground state), the quantum Griffiths phase observed in out-of-plane magnetic fields and the superconducting state maintained in anomalously large in-plane magnetic fields. These phenomena are examined in the context of weakened disorder and/or broken spatial inversion symmetry. We conclude with a discussion of how these unconventional properties make highly crystalline 2D systems promising platforms for the exploration of new quantum physics and high-temperature superconductors.

  8. Highly crystalline 2D superconductors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saito, Yu; Nojima, Tsutomu; Iwasa, Yoshihiro

    2016-12-01

    Recent advances in materials fabrication have enabled the manufacturing of ordered 2D electron systems, such as heterogeneous interfaces, atomic layers grown by molecular beam epitaxy, exfoliated thin flakes and field-effect devices. These 2D electron systems are highly crystalline, and some of them, despite their single-layer thickness, exhibit a sheet resistance more than an order of magnitude lower than that of conventional amorphous or granular thin films. In this Review, we explore recent developments in the field of highly crystalline 2D superconductors and highlight the unprecedented physical properties of these systems. In particular, we explore the quantum metallic state (or possible metallic ground state), the quantum Griffiths phase observed in out-of-plane magnetic fields and the superconducting state maintained in anomalously large in-plane magnetic fields. These phenomena are examined in the context of weakened disorder and/or broken spatial inversion symmetry. We conclude with a discussion of how these unconventional properties make highly crystalline 2D systems promising platforms for the exploration of new quantum physics and high-temperature superconductors.

  9. The application of fluorescence in situ hybridization in different ploidy levels cross-breeding of lily.

    PubMed

    Wang, Qing; Wang, Jingmao; Zhang, Yiying; Zhang, Yue; Xu, Shunchao; Lu, Yingmin

    2015-01-01

    21 crossing were conducted between Asiatic Lily with different ploidy levels, the results showed that the interploidy hybridization between diploid and tetraploid lilies was not as successful as intraploidy hybridization. Regardless of male sterility, triploid lilies could be used as female parents in the hybridization which the progenies were aneuploidy. 3x×4x crosses could be cultured more successfully than 3x×2x crosses. 45S rDNA was mapped on the chromosomes of seven Lilium species and their progenies using fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH). FISH revealed six to sixteen 45S rDNA gene loci, and normally the sites were not in pairs. The asymmetry indexes of LA (Longiflorum hybrids × Asiatic hybrids) hybrids was higher than Asiatic hybrids, the evolution degree was LA hybrids > Asiatic hybrids. 45S rDNA distributed variably on chromosome 1-10 and 12 among Asiatic hybrids. Chromosome 1 had invariable sites of 45S rDNA in all Asiatic hybrids, which could be considered as the characteristic of Asiatic hybrids. LA hybrid 'Freya' had two sites of 45S rDNA on one homologous chromosome 5, and also it could be found in the progenies. The karyotype and fluorescence in situ hybridization with 45S rDNA as probe were applied to identify the different genotypes of 9 hybrids. Typical chromosomes with parental signal sites could be observed in all the genotypes of hybrids, it was confirmed that all the hybrids were true.

  10. Comparison of different fluorescence spectrum analysis techniques to characterize humification levels of waste-derived dissolved organic matter.

    PubMed

    Shao, L M; Zhang, C Y; He, P J; Lü, F

    2012-12-01

    In the present work, the humification level of waste-derived dissolved organic matter (DOM) at different waste biostability was investigated, by using fluorescent excitation-emission matrix (EEM) scanning. Different fluorescence spectrum analysis techniques were applied and compared. Experimental results demonstrate that parallel factor (PARAFAC) analysis was sensitive to reflect DOM humification, and the most reasonable to deconstruct DOM compositions, when compared with other spectrum analysis techniques. It suggests applying the DOM-EEM-PARAFAC pipeline for rapid estimation of waste biostability.

  11. E-2D Advanced Hawkeye Aircraft (E-2D AHE)

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-12-01

    and Homeland Defense. As a part of the E-2D AHE radar modernization effort, the Navy also invested in integrating a full glass cockpit and full...Communication Navigation Surveillance/Air Traffic Management capability. The glass cockpit will also provide the capability for the pilot or co-pilot to...hours at a station distance of 200nm Flat Turn Service Ceiling =>25,000 feet above MSL at mission profile =>25,000 feet above MSL at mission

  12. Method for determining surface coverage by materials exhibiting different fluorescent properties

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chappelle, Emmett W. (Inventor); Daughtry, Craig S. T. (Inventor); Mcmurtrey, James E., III (Inventor)

    1995-01-01

    An improved method for detecting, measuring, and distinguishing crop residue, live vegetation, and mineral soil is presented. By measuring fluorescence in multiple bands, live and dead vegetation are distinguished. The surface of the ground is illuminated with ultraviolet radiation, inducing fluorescence in certain molecules. The emitted fluorescent emission induced by the ultraviolet radiation is measured by means of a fluorescence detector, consisting of a photodetector or video camera and filters. The spectral content of the emitted fluorescent emission is characterized at each point sampled, and the proportion of the sampled area covered by residue or vegetation is calculated.

  13. Evaluation of buccal enamel of deciduous incisors stored in three different solutions with DIAGNOdent laser fluorescence

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    De Martin Teles, Flavia; Pettorossi Imaparatto, Jose C.; Zanin, Fatima A. A.; Brugnera, Aldo, Jr.

    2003-06-01

    This study evaluated the influence of different storage solutions on teeth from a tooth bank, using DIAGNOdent laser fluorescence at 3 time periods. The storage solutions used in the study were: refrigerated water, saline, and 10% formol. Eighteen visually intact deciduous incisors were divided into three groups of six samples each. The teeth were previously cleaned, dehydrated and measured using DIAGNOdent at the most prominent buccal region of each tooth. Three subsequent measurements were taken at 1, 7 and 15 days. All measurements were taken by the same examiner and averages were recorded for each time period. Results showed that the three solutions had similar responses to laser. ANOVA was applied to verify the correlation between measurements, time periods, and storage solutions. Statistically significant differences were found only between the time periods. In this in vitro study, all three storage solutions influenced the DIAGNOdent measurement results as time elapsed until the 24 h period.

  14. Absorption and fluorescence properties of aryl substituted porphyrins in different media

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bozkurt, Serap Seyhan; Merdivan, Melek; Ayata, Sevda

    2010-02-01

    Absorption and fluorescence properties of aryl substituted porphyrins, 5,10,15,20-tetra-4-oxy(aceticacid)phenylporphyrin (TAPP), 5,10,15,20-tetra-(4-phenoxyphenyl) porphyrin (TPPP), 5,10,15,20-tetra-(3-bromo-4-hydroxyphenyl) porphyrin (TBHPP), and 5,10,15,20-tetra-p-chloromethylphenyl porphyrin (CMPP) were investigated. The UV/vis absorption, fluorescence and excited spectra as the fluorescence quantum yields and fluorescence lifetimes for the compounds were measured in organic solvents (chloroform (CHCl 3), tetrahydrofuran (THF)) and immobilized media (PVC film, sol-gel matrix). The fluorescence quantum yields of TAPP and TPPP were higher than the others. The fluorescence lifetimes of all studied porphyrin derivates were found to be fifty percent lower and their fluorescence intensities were increased fifty percent more in both of immobilized mediums, as compared to organic solvents.

  15. Theoretical investigation on ESIPT mechanism of a new fluorescent sensor in different solvents.

    PubMed

    Yang, Dapeng; Zheng, Rui; Wang, Yusheng; Lv, Jian

    2016-04-15

    In the present work, a new phenylbenzimidazole derivatized fluorescent sensor (L) (J. Lumin. 147 (2014) 179), has been investigated on the excited state proton transfer (ESPT) based on the time-dependent density functional theory (TDDFT) method. The calculated absorption and fluorescence spectra based on the TDDFT method are in agreement with the experimental results. Two kinds of structures of L chromophore are found in the first excited (S1) state, which may be due to the proton transfer reactive. Hydrogen bond strengthening has been testified in the S1 state based on comparing staple bond lengths and bond angles involved in hydrogen bonding between the S0 state and the S1 state. In addition, the calculated infrared spectra at the N-H stretching vibrational region and calculated hydrogen bond energy also declare the phenomenon of hydrogen bond strengthening. The frontier molecular orbitals (MOs) and Mulliken's charge distribution analysis method as well as natural bond orbital (NBO) demonstrate the charge distribution, which provides the tendency of ESIPT reaction. The potential energy surfaces of the S0 and S1 states are constructed to explain the mechanism of the proton transfer in the excited state in detail. In addition, the ESIPT process of sensor L is dependent on different solvents. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. The substrate specificities of four different lysophospholipases as determined by a novel fluorescence assay.

    PubMed Central

    She, H S; Garsetti, D E; Steiner, M R; Egan, R W; Clark, M A

    1994-01-01

    A novel fluorescence assay for quantifying lysophospholipase activity is described which utilizes a commercially available acrylodated intestinal fatty-acid-binding protein (ADIFAB) and non-radiolabelled substrate. Quantification of enzyme activity is based on the decrease in ADIFAB fluorescence at 432 nm in the presence of nanomolar concentrations of non-esterified ('free') fatty acids. Lysophospholipase activity measured by the ADIFAB assay and a conventional radiometric assay yield comparable results and have comparable levels of sensitivity (approximately 10 pmol/min per ml). The ADIFAB assay has the advantageous features of continuous monitoring of enzyme activity and the availability of a broad range of potential substrates, because non-radiolabelled lysophospholipids can be employed in the assay. The hydrolytic activities of four lysophospholipases were determined, including a bacterial secreted phospholipase A2/lysophospholipase, the human-eosinophil-secreted lysophospholipase, a human intracellular lysophospholipase (peak 3) isolated from HL-60 cells and a high-molecular-mass cytosolic phospholipase A2/lysophospholipase from a mouse mammary carcinoma. Each of these enzymes was found to have a distinctive hydrolytic profile as determined by an array of lysophospholipids differing in their polar headgroups and sn-1 fatty-acyl substituents. PMID:8129724

  17. Performance comparison of different compact NIR fluorescent imaging systems with goggle display for intraoperative image-guidance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gao, Shengkui; Mondal, Suman; Zhu, Nan; Liang, Rongguang; Achilefu, Samuel; Gruev, Viktor

    2015-03-01

    Near-infrared (NIR) fluorescent imaging system has been widely used for intraoperative image-guided application. In this paper, we present performance comparison from three compact NIR fluorescence imaging system prototypes with goggle display that we developed for intraoperative guidance: threshold detection based two camera system, feature matching based three cameras system and miniature beam-splitter single camera system. Their performance is evaluated according to sensitivity regarding different ICG concentrations, accuracy of image overlay between NIR-visible channels, compactness and practicability in intraoperative use. The comparison results show great potentials of using these NIR fluorescence imaging systems to improve user experience and surgical outcomes in intraoperative use.

  18. Sensitivity of detection of bacteria with fluorescent and luminescent phenotypes using different instruments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brovko, Lubov Y.; Griffiths, Mansel W.

    2000-04-01

    The problem of bacterial enumeration in different samples is of great importance in many fields of research. Construction of recombinant fluorescent and luminescent bacteria that can be easily detected by nondestructive instrumental methods proves us with an opportunity to monitor bacteria in a wide variety of clinical, environmental and food samples in real time. Three different labels were employed: Green Fluorescent Protein (GFP), Bacterial luciferase (BL) and Firefly Luciferase (FFL). Both plasmid and chromosomal transformants of different strains of E. coli, P. putida and S. enteritidis were used. For the detection of the in vivo GFP the Shimadzu RF 540 spectrofluorimeter, Labsystems FL- 500 plate fluorimeter and Night Owl LB 98 CCD-camera from EG and G Berthold supplied with excitation light source and proper spectral filters both in macroscopic and microscopic mode were used. For the detection of in vivo luminescence of BL and FFL, tube luminometer BG-P from GEM Biomedical Inc., luminometric plate reader from BioOrbit, BIQ Bioview CCD camera from Cambridge Imaging Ltd and Night Owl LB 98 CCD camera both in macroscopic and microscopic mode were used. The expression levels of the labels, their stability, stability of the signal and detection limits of tagged bacteria were investigated. The detection limits for GFP tagged bacteria were 5 X 104 - 6 X 106, for BL tagged bacteria 5 X 102 - 2 X 105, and for FFL tagged bacteria - 4 X 103 - 106 CFU/ml, depending on the instrument used. Single bacteria could be detected with the help of the Night Owl in the microscopic mode.

  19. Differential CYP 2D6 metabolism alters primaquine pharmacokinetics.

    PubMed

    Potter, Brittney M J; Xie, Lisa H; Vuong, Chau; Zhang, Jing; Zhang, Ping; Duan, Dehui; Luong, Thu-Lan T; Bandara Herath, H M T; Dhammika Nanayakkara, N P; Tekwani, Babu L; Walker, Larry A; Nolan, Christina K; Sciotti, Richard J; Zottig, Victor E; Smith, Philip L; Paris, Robert M; Read, Lisa T; Li, Qigui; Pybus, Brandon S; Sousa, Jason C; Reichard, Gregory A; Marcsisin, Sean R

    2015-04-01

    Primaquine (PQ) metabolism by the cytochrome P450 (CYP) 2D family of enzymes is required for antimalarial activity in both humans (2D6) and mice (2D). Human CYP 2D6 is highly polymorphic, and decreased CYP 2D6 enzyme activity has been linked to decreased PQ antimalarial activity. Despite the importance of CYP 2D metabolism in PQ efficacy, the exact role that these enzymes play in PQ metabolism and pharmacokinetics has not been extensively studied in vivo. In this study, a series of PQ pharmacokinetic experiments were conducted in mice with differential CYP 2D metabolism characteristics, including wild-type (WT), CYP 2D knockout (KO), and humanized CYP 2D6 (KO/knock-in [KO/KI]) mice. Plasma and liver pharmacokinetic profiles from a single PQ dose (20 mg/kg of body weight) differed significantly among the strains for PQ and carboxy-PQ. Additionally, due to the suspected role of phenolic metabolites in PQ efficacy, these were probed using reference standards. Levels of phenolic metabolites were highest in mice capable of metabolizing CYP 2D6 substrates (WT and KO/KI 2D6 mice). PQ phenolic metabolites were present in different quantities in the two strains, illustrating species-specific differences in PQ metabolism between the human and mouse enzymes. Taking the data together, this report furthers understanding of PQ pharmacokinetics in the context of differential CYP 2D metabolism and has important implications for PQ administration in humans with different levels of CYP 2D6 enzyme activity.

  20. Super-resolution microscopy based on fluorescence emission difference of cylindrical vector beams

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rong, Zihao; Kuang, Cuifang; Fang, Yue; Zhao, Guangyuan; Xu, Yingke; Liu, Xu

    2015-11-01

    We propose a novel fluorescence emission difference microscopy (FED) system based on focusing cylindrical vector beams. In conventional FED, a Gaussian beam and a 0-2π vortex phase plate are used to generate solid and hollow spots. We focus radially polarized and azimuthally polarized cylindrical vector beams to obtain an expanded solid spot and a shrunken hollow spot, taking advantage of the optical properties of cylindrical vector beams to improve the conventional FED performance. Our novel method enhances FED performance because the hollow spot size determines the FED resolution and an expanded solid spot effectively reduces negative side-lobe emergence during image processing. We demonstrate improved performance theoretically and experimentally using an in-house built FED. Our FED achieved resolution of less than λ/4 in test images of 100 nm nanoparticles, better than the confocal image resolution by a factor of approximately 1/3. We also discuss detailed simulation analyses and FED imaging of biological cells.

  1. Differences in in vivo fluorescence yield between three phytoplankton size classes

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Alpine, Andrea E.; Cloern, James E.

    1985-01-01

    The size-dependent relationship between in vivo fluorescence (IVF) and chlorophyll a was determined for monthly phytoplankton samples from the San Francisco Bay estuary. Chlorophyll a and IVF were both measured on netplankton (>22 μm), nanoplankton (5–22 μm), and ultraplankton (<5 μm) samples that were separated with screens. IVF and chlorophyll a were linearly related for each size class, but the IVF per unit chlorophyll a (R) was significantly different between these three size classes. The ultraplankton R was twice that of the nanoplankton which was in turn twice the netplankton R. Hence, accurate size fractionation of phytoplankton biomass from measures of IVF requires correction for size-dependent variations in R.

  2. The Application of Fluorescence In Situ Hybridization in Different Ploidy Levels Cross-Breeding of Lily

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Qing; Wang, Jingmao; Zhang, Yiying; Zhang, Yue; Xu, Shunchao; Lu, Yingmin

    2015-01-01

    21 crossing were conducted between Asiatic Lily with different ploidy levels, the results showed that the interploidy hybridization between diploid and tetraploid lilies was not as successful as intraploidy hybridization. Regardless of male sterility, triploid lilies could be used as female parents in the hybridization which the progenies were aneuploidy. 3x×4x crosses could be cultured more successfully than 3x×2x crosses. 45S rDNA was mapped on the chromosomes of seven Lilium species and their progenies using fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH). FISH revealed six to sixteen 45S rDNA gene loci, and normally the sites were not in pairs. The asymmetry indexes of LA (Longiflorum hybrids × Asiatic hybrids) hybrids was higher than Asiatic hybrids, the evolution degree was LA hybrids > Asiatic hybrids. 45S rDNA distributed variably on chromosome 1-10 and 12 among Asiatic hybrids. Chromosome 1 had invariable sites of 45S rDNA in all Asiatic hybrids, which could be considered as the characteristic of Asiatic hybrids. LA hybrid ‘Freya’ had two sites of 45S rDNA on one homologous chromosome 5, and also it could be found in the progenies. The karyotype and fluorescence in situ hybridization with 45S rDNA as probe were applied to identify the different genotypes of 9 hybrids. Typical chromosomes with parental signal sites could be observed in all the genotypes of hybrids, it was confirmed that all the hybrids were true. PMID:26010356

  3. Different mechanisms of action of antimicrobial peptides: insights from fluorescence spectroscopy experiments and molecular dynamics simulations.

    PubMed

    Bocchinfuso, Gianfranco; Palleschi, Antonio; Orioni, Barbara; Grande, Giacinto; Formaggio, Fernando; Toniolo, Claudio; Park, Yoonkyung; Hahm, Kyung-Soo; Stella, Lorenzo

    2009-09-01

    Most antimicrobial peptides exert their activity by interacting with bacterial membranes, thus perturbing their permeability. They are investigated as a possible solution to the insurgence of bacteria resistant to the presently available antibiotic drugs. However, several different models have been proposed for their mechanism of membrane perturbation, and the molecular details of this process are still debated. Here, we compare fluorescence spectroscopy experiments and molecular dynamics (MD) simulations regarding the association with lipid bilayers and lipid perturbation for two different amphiphilic helical antimicrobial peptides, PMAP-23 and trichogin GA IV. PMAP-23, a cationic peptide member of the cathelicidin family, is considered to induce membrane permeability according to the Shai-Matsuzaki-Huang "carpet" model, while trichogin GA IV is a neutral peptide, member of the peptaibol family. Although several lines of evidence suggest a "barrel-stave" mechanism of pore formation for the latter peptide, its length is only half the normal thickness of a lipid bilayer. Both fluorescence spectroscopy experiments and MD simulations indicated that PMAP-23 associates with membranes close to their surface and parallel to it, and in this arrangement it causes a severe perturbation to the bilayer, both regarding its surface tension and lipid order. By contrast, trichogin GA IV can undergo a transition from a surface-bound state to a transmembrane orientation. In the first arrangement, it does not cause any strong membrane perturbation, while in the second orientation it might be able to span the bilayer from one side to the other, despite its relatively short length, by causing a significant thinning of the membrane.

  4. Single Fluorescent Probe for Dual-Imaging Viscosity and H2O2 in Mitochondria with Different Fluorescence Signals in Living Cells.

    PubMed

    Ren, Mingguang; Deng, Beibei; Zhou, Kai; Kong, Xiuqi; Wang, Jian-Yong; Lin, Weiying

    2017-01-03

    Mitochondria, as essential and interesting organelles within the eukaryotic cells, play key roles in a variety of pathologies, and its abnormalities are closely associated with Alzheimer's disease (AD) and other diseases. Studies have shown that the abnormal of viscosity and concentration of hydrogen peroxide in mitochondria were all associated with AD. Accordingly, the detection of viscosity and hydrogen peroxide in mitochondria has attracted great attention. However, it remains a great challenge to explore a single probe, which can dual-detect the viscosity and H2O2 in mitochondria. Herein, in two ways to prevent the twisted internal charge transfer (TICT) process, we designed and sythesized the first dual-detection fluorescent probe Mito-VH that can visualize viscosity and H2O2 in mitochondria with different fluorescence signals in living cells.

  5. A fluorescent probe for the efficient discrimination of Cys, Hcy and GSH based on different cascade reactions.

    PubMed

    Li, Ying; Liu, Weimin; Zhang, Panpan; Zhang, Hongyan; Wu, Jiasheng; Ge, Jiechao; Wang, Pengfei

    2017-04-15

    A fluorescent probe (1) for distinguishing amongst biothiols, including cysteine (Cys), homocysteine (Hcy) and glutathione (GSH), is developed based on different cascade reactions. The key design feature of fluorescent probe 1 is the integration of two potential reaction groups for the thiol and amino groups of biothiols in one molecule. By reacting with the halogen atom and α, β-unsaturated malonitrile in probe 1, Cys, Hcy and GSH can generate a total of three main products with distinct photophysical properties. Probe 1 shows a strong fluorescence turn-on response to Cys with blue-green emission by using an excitation wavelength of 390nm. At an excitation wavelength of 500nm, probe 1 responds to GSH over Cys and Hcy and emits strong orange fluorescence. The discrimination of biothiols can be demonstrated by cell imaging experiments, indicating that probe 1 can be a useful tool for the selective imaging of Cys and GSH in living cells.

  6. Ultrasensitive detection of genetically modified maize DNA by capillary gel electrophoresis with laser-induced fluorescence using different fluorescent intercalating dyes.

    PubMed

    García-Cañas, Virginia; González, Ramón; Cifuentes, Alejandro

    2002-07-31

    In this work, four different fluorescent intercalating dyes are compared for the ultrasensitive CGE-LIF detection of DNA from transgenic maize in flours. The fluorescent intercalating dyes compared are YOPRO-1, SYBR-Green-I, Ethidium bromide (EthBr), and EnhanCE. For all the four dyes optimum concentrations are established, and efficient separations of DNA fragments ranging in size from 80 to 1000 bp are obtained. The comparative study demonstrates that SYBR-Green-I and YOPRO-1 provide better limits of detection (LODs) than EnhanCE or EthBr (i.e., LODs are, respectively, 700, 1000, 11300, and 97400 zmol, calculated for a 200-bp DNA fragment). Separations using YOPRO-1 are faster than those using SYBR-Green-I (30 min vs 47 min for the analysis of the 80-1000 bp DNA fragments). Also, separations using YOPRO-1 are more efficient than those using SYBR-Green-I (e.g., 2.4 x 10(6) plates/m vs 1.6 x 10(6) plates/m, respectively, calculated for the 200-bp fragment). Also, buffer depletion and cost per analysis are worse with SYBR-Green-I than with YOPRO-1. Therefore, YOPRO-1 was selected as the preferred intercalating dye. Using this fluorescent compound, analysis time reproducibility for the CGE-LIF separation of the DNA fragments is determined to be better than 1.7% (% RSD, n = 10) within the same day, and better than 1.9% (% RSD, n = 30) for three different days. Moreover, the fluorescence signal obtained using this dye is shown to vary linearly with the DNA concentration in the range studied, i.e., 1-500 ng/microL. It is demonstrated that by using this method 0.01% of transgenic maize can be detected in flour by direct injection of the PCR-amplified sample.

  7. Nanoscale Packing Differences in Sphingomyelin and Phosphatidylcholine Revealed by BODIPY Fluorescence in Monolayers: Physiological Implications

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Phosphatidycholines (PC) with two saturated acyl chains (e.g., dipalmitoyl) mimic natural sphingomyelin (SM) by promoting raft formation in model membranes. However, sphingoid-based lipids, such as SM, rather than saturated-chain PCs have been implicated as key components of lipid rafts in biomembranes. These observations raise questions about the physical packing properties of the phase states that can be formed by these two major plasma membrane lipids with identical phosphocholine headgroups. To investigate, we developed a monolayer platform capable of monitoring changes in surface fluorescence by acquiring multiple spectra during measurement of a lipid force–area isotherm. We relied on the concentration-dependent emission changes of 4,4-difluoro-4-bora-3a,4a-diaza-s-indacene (BODIPY)-labeled PC to detect nanoscale alterations in lipid packing and phase state induced by monolayer lateral compression. The BODIPY-PC probe contained an indacene ring with four symmetrically located methyl (Me) substituents to enhance localization to the lipid hydrocarbon region. Surface fluorescence spectra indicated changes in miscibility even when force–area isotherms showed no deviation from ideal mixing behavior in the surface pressure versus cross-sectional molecular area response. We detected slightly better mixing of Me4-BODIPY-8-PC with the fluid-like, liquid expanded phase of 1-palmitoyl-2-oleoyl-PC compared to N-oleoyl-SM. Remarkably, in the gel-like, liquid condensed phase, Me4-BODIPY-8-PC mixed better with N-palmitoyl-SM than dipalmitoyl-PC, suggesting naturally abundant SMs with saturated acyl chains form gel-like lipid phase(s) with enhanced ability to accommodate deeply embedded components compared to dipalmitoyl-PC gel phase. The findings reveal a fundamental difference in the lateral packing properties of SM and PC that occurs even when their acyl chains match. PMID:24564829

  8. Extrinsic Cation Selectivity of 2D Membranes

    PubMed Central

    2017-01-01

    From a systematic study of the concentration driven diffusion of positive and negative ions across porous 2D membranes of graphene and hexagonal boron nitride (h-BN), we prove their cation selectivity. Using the current–voltage characteristics of graphene and h-BN monolayers separating reservoirs of different salt concentrations, we calculate the reversal potential as a measure of selectivity. We tune the Debye screening length by exchanging the salt concentrations and demonstrate that negative surface charge gives rise to cation selectivity. Surprisingly, h-BN and graphene membranes show similar characteristics, strongly suggesting a common origin of selectivity in aqueous solvents. For the first time, we demonstrate that the cation flux can be increased by using ozone to create additional pores in graphene while maintaining excellent selectivity. We discuss opportunities to exploit our scalable method to use 2D membranes for applications including osmotic power conversion. PMID:28157333

  9. Differential cytochrome P450 2D metabolism alters tafenoquine pharmacokinetics.

    PubMed

    Vuong, Chau; Xie, Lisa H; Potter, Brittney M J; Zhang, Jing; Zhang, Ping; Duan, Dehui; Nolan, Christina K; Sciotti, Richard J; Zottig, Victor E; Nanayakkara, N P Dhammika; Tekwani, Babu L; Walker, Larry A; Smith, Philip L; Paris, Robert M; Read, Lisa T; Li, Qigui; Pybus, Brandon S; Sousa, Jason C; Reichard, Gregory A; Smith, Bryan; Marcsisin, Sean R

    2015-07-01

    Cytochrome P450 (CYP) 2D metabolism is required for the liver-stage antimalarial efficacy of the 8-aminoquinoline molecule tafenoquine in mice. This could be problematic for Plasmodium vivax radical cure, as the human CYP 2D ortholog (2D6) is highly polymorphic. Diminished CYP 2D6 enzyme activity, as in the poor-metabolizer phenotype, could compromise radical curative efficacy in humans. Despite the importance of CYP 2D metabolism for tafenoquine liver-stage efficacy, the exact role that CYP 2D metabolism plays in the metabolism and pharmacokinetics of tafenoquine and other 8-aminoquinoline molecules has not been extensively studied. In this study, a series of tafenoquine pharmacokinetic experiments were conducted in mice with different CYP 2D metabolism statuses, including wild-type (WT) (reflecting extensive metabolizers for CYP 2D6 substrates) and CYPmouse 2D knockout (KO) (reflecting poor metabolizers for CYP 2D6 substrates) mice. Plasma and liver pharmacokinetic profiles from a single 20-mg/kg of body weight dose of tafenoquine differed between the strains; however, the differences were less striking than previous results obtained for primaquine in the same model. Additionally, the presence of a 5,6-ortho-quinone tafenoquine metabolite was examined in both mouse strains. The 5,6-ortho-quinone species of tafenoquine was observed, and concentrations of the metabolite were highest in the WT extensive-metabolizer phenotype. Altogether, this study indicates that CYP 2D metabolism in mice affects tafenoquine pharmacokinetics and could have implications for human tafenoquine pharmacokinetics in polymorphic CYP 2D6 human populations. Copyright © 2015, American Society for Microbiology. All Rights Reserved.

  10. Differential Cytochrome P450 2D Metabolism Alters Tafenoquine Pharmacokinetics

    PubMed Central

    Vuong, Chau; Xie, Lisa H.; Potter, Brittney M. J.; Zhang, Jing; Zhang, Ping; Duan, Dehui; Nolan, Christina K.; Sciotti, Richard J.; Zottig, Victor E.; Nanayakkara, N. P. Dhammika; Tekwani, Babu L.; Walker, Larry A.; Smith, Philip L.; Paris, Robert M.; Read, Lisa T.; Li, Qigui; Pybus, Brandon S.; Sousa, Jason C.; Reichard, Gregory A.; Smith, Bryan

    2015-01-01

    Cytochrome P450 (CYP) 2D metabolism is required for the liver-stage antimalarial efficacy of the 8-aminoquinoline molecule tafenoquine in mice. This could be problematic for Plasmodium vivax radical cure, as the human CYP 2D ortholog (2D6) is highly polymorphic. Diminished CYP 2D6 enzyme activity, as in the poor-metabolizer phenotype, could compromise radical curative efficacy in humans. Despite the importance of CYP 2D metabolism for tafenoquine liver-stage efficacy, the exact role that CYP 2D metabolism plays in the metabolism and pharmacokinetics of tafenoquine and other 8-aminoquinoline molecules has not been extensively studied. In this study, a series of tafenoquine pharmacokinetic experiments were conducted in mice with different CYP 2D metabolism statuses, including wild-type (WT) (reflecting extensive metabolizers for CYP 2D6 substrates) and CYPmouse 2D knockout (KO) (reflecting poor metabolizers for CYP 2D6 substrates) mice. Plasma and liver pharmacokinetic profiles from a single 20-mg/kg of body weight dose of tafenoquine differed between the strains; however, the differences were less striking than previous results obtained for primaquine in the same model. Additionally, the presence of a 5,6-ortho-quinone tafenoquine metabolite was examined in both mouse strains. The 5,6-ortho-quinone species of tafenoquine was observed, and concentrations of the metabolite were highest in the WT extensive-metabolizer phenotype. Altogether, this study indicates that CYP 2D metabolism in mice affects tafenoquine pharmacokinetics and could have implications for human tafenoquine pharmacokinetics in polymorphic CYP 2D6 human populations. PMID:25870069

  11. Quasiparticle interference in unconventional 2D systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Lan; Cheng, Peng; Wu, Kehui

    2017-03-01

    At present, research of 2D systems mainly focuses on two kinds of materials: graphene-like materials and transition-metal dichalcogenides (TMDs). Both of them host unconventional 2D electronic properties: pseudospin and the associated chirality of electrons in graphene-like materials, and spin-valley-coupled electronic structures in the TMDs. These exotic electronic properties have attracted tremendous interest for possible applications in nanodevices in the future. Investigation on the quasiparticle interference (QPI) in 2D systems is an effective way to uncover these properties. In this review, we will begin with a brief introduction to 2D systems, including their atomic structures and electronic bands. Then, we will discuss the formation of Friedel oscillation due to QPI in constant energy contours of electron bands, and show the basic concept of Fourier-transform scanning tunneling microscopy/spectroscopy (FT-STM/STS), which can resolve Friedel oscillation patterns in real space and consequently obtain the QPI patterns in reciprocal space. In the next two parts, we will summarize some pivotal results in the investigation of QPI in graphene and silicene, in which systems the low-energy quasiparticles are described by the massless Dirac equation. The FT-STM experiments show there are two different interference channels (intervalley and intravalley scattering) and backscattering suppression, which associate with the Dirac cones and the chirality of quasiparticles. The monolayer and bilayer graphene on different substrates (SiC and metal surfaces), and the monolayer and multilayer silicene on a Ag(1 1 1) surface will be addressed. The fifth part will introduce the FT-STM research on QPI in TMDs (monolayer and bilayer of WSe2), which allow us to infer the spin texture of both conduction and valence bands, and present spin-valley coupling by tracking allowed and forbidden scattering channels.

  12. Monitoring the Photosynthetic Apparatus During Space Flight: Interspecific Variation in Chlorophyll Fluorescence Signatures Induced by Different Root Zone Stresses

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bubenheim, David L.; Patterson, Mark T.; Kliss, Mark H. (Technical Monitor)

    1996-01-01

    Chlorophyll fluorescence has been used extensively as a tool to indicate stress to the photosynthetic apparatus in green plants. A rise in fluorescence has been attributed to the blockage of photosystem II photochemistry, and patterns of fluorescence decay (quenching) from dark adapted leaves can be related to specific photochemical and non-photochemical deexcitation pathways of light trapped by the photosynthetic apparatus and thus result in characteristically different fluorescence signatures. Four distantly related plant species, Hypocharis radicata (Asteraceae), Brassica rapa (Brassicaceae), Spinacea oleracea (Chenopodiaceae) and Triticum aestivum (Poaceae), were grown hydroponically for three weeks before the initiation of three different root zone stresses (10 mM Cu, 100 mM NaCl and nitrogen deficient nutrition). After 10 days, characteristic fluorescence signatures for each stress could be noted although the degree varied between species. Fast kinetics analysis showed a reduction in plastoquinone pool size for copper and nitrogen stress for all species but a more species specific result with NaCl stress. Photochemical quenching kinetics varied between species and stress treatments from no quenching in S. oleracea in copper treatments to increased photochemical quenching in NaCl treatments. Non-photochemical quenching kinetics demonstrated a distinct pattern between stresses for all species. Copper treatments characteristically exhibited a shallow, flat non-photochemical quenching profile suggesting a general blockage of electron transport whereas NaCl treatments exhibited a slow rising profile that suggested damage to thylakoid acidification kinetics and nitrogen deficiency exhibited a fast rising and declining profile that suggested an altered state 1-state 2 transition regulated by the phosphorylation of LHCII. These results demonstrate characteristic fluorescence signatures for specific plant stresses that may be applied to different, unrelated plant

  13. Monitoring the Photosynthetic Apparatus During Space Flight: Interspecific Variation in Chlorophyll Fluorescence Signatures Induced by Different Root Zone Stresses

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bubenheim, David L.; Patterson, Mark T.; Kliss, Mark H. (Technical Monitor)

    1996-01-01

    Chlorophyll fluorescence has been used extensively as a tool to indicate stress to the photosynthetic apparatus in green plants. A rise in fluorescence has been attributed to the blockage of photosystem II photochemistry, and patterns of fluorescence decay (quenching) from dark adapted leaves can be related to specific photochemical and non-photochemical deexcitation pathways of light trapped by the photosynthetic apparatus and thus result in characteristically different fluorescence signatures. Four distantly related plant species, Hypocharis radicata (Asteraceae), Brassica rapa (Brassicaceae), Spinacea oleracea (Chenopodiaceae) and Triticum aestivum (Poaceae), were grown hydroponically for three weeks before the initiation of three different root zone stresses (10 mM Cu, 100 mM NaCl and nitrogen deficient nutrition). After 10 days, characteristic fluorescence signatures for each stress could be noted although the degree varied between species. Fast kinetics analysis showed a reduction in plastoquinone pool size for copper and nitrogen stress for all species but a more species specific result with NaCl stress. Photochemical quenching kinetics varied between species and stress treatments from no quenching in S. oleracea in copper treatments to increased photochemical quenching in NaCl treatments. Non-photochemical quenching kinetics demonstrated a distinct pattern between stresses for all species. Copper treatments characteristically exhibited a shallow, flat non-photochemical quenching profile suggesting a general blockage of electron transport whereas NaCl treatments exhibited a slow rising profile that suggested damage to thylakoid acidification kinetics and nitrogen deficiency exhibited a fast rising and declining profile that suggested an altered state 1-state 2 transition regulated by the phosphorylation of LHCII. These results demonstrate characteristic fluorescence signatures for specific plant stresses that may be applied to different, unrelated plant

  14. Two-dimensional fluorescence intensity distribution analysis: theory and applications.

    PubMed

    Kask, P; Palo, K; Fay, N; Brand, L; Mets, U; Ullmann, D; Jungmann, J; Pschorr, J; Gall, K

    2000-04-01

    A method of sample analysis is presented which is based on fitting a joint distribution of photon count numbers. In experiments, fluorescence from a microscopic volume containing a fluctuating number of molecules is monitored by two detectors, using a confocal microscope. The two detectors may have different polarizational or spectral responses. Concentrations of fluorescent species together with two specific brightness values per species are determined. The two-dimensional fluorescence intensity distribution analysis (2D-FIDA), if used with a polarization cube, is a tool that is able to distinguish fluorescent species with different specific polarization ratios. As an example of polarization studies by 2D-FIDA, binding of 5'-(6-carboxytetramethylrhodamine) (TAMRA)-labeled theophylline to an anti-theophylline antibody has been studied. Alternatively, if two-color equipment is used, 2D-FIDA can determine concentrations and specific brightness values of fluorescent species corresponding to individual labels alone and their complex. As an example of two-color 2D-FIDA, binding of TAMRA-labeled somatostatin-14 to the human type-2 high-affinity somatostatin receptors present in stained vesicles has been studied. The presented method is unusually accurate among fluorescence fluctuation methods. It is well suited for monitoring a variety of molecular interactions, including receptors and ligands or antibodies and antigens.

  15. Computational Screening of 2D Materials for Photocatalysis.

    PubMed

    Singh, Arunima K; Mathew, Kiran; Zhuang, Houlong L; Hennig, Richard G

    2015-03-19

    Two-dimensional (2D) materials exhibit a range of extraordinary electronic, optical, and mechanical properties different from their bulk counterparts with potential applications for 2D materials emerging in energy storage and conversion technologies. In this Perspective, we summarize the recent developments in the field of solar water splitting using 2D materials and review a computational screening approach to rapidly and efficiently discover more 2D materials that possess properties suitable for solar water splitting. Computational tools based on density-functional theory can predict the intrinsic properties of potential photocatalyst such as their electronic properties, optical absorbance, and solubility in aqueous solutions. Computational tools enable the exploration of possible routes to enhance the photocatalytic activity of 2D materials by use of mechanical strain, bias potential, doping, and pH. We discuss future research directions and needed method developments for the computational design and optimization of 2D materials for photocatalysis.

  16. Genomic diversity amongst Vibrio isolates from different sources determined by fluorescent amplified fragment length polymorphism.

    PubMed

    Thompson, F L; Hoste, B; Vandemeulebroecke, K; Swings, J

    2001-12-01

    The genomic diversity among 506 strains of the family Vibrionaceae was analysed using Fluorescent Amplified Fragments Length Polymorphisms (FAFLP). Isolates were from different sources (e.g. fish, mollusc, shrimp, rotifers, artemia, and their culture water) in different countries, mainly from the aquacultural environment. Clustering of the FAFLP band patterns resulted in 69 clusters. A majority of the actually known species of the family Vibrionaceae formed separate clusters. Certain species e.g. V. alginolyticus, V. cholerae, V. cincinnatiensis, V. diabolicus, V. diazotrophicus, V. harveyi, V. logei, V. natriegens, V. nereis, V. splendidus and V. tubiashii were found to be ubiquitous, whereas V. halioticoli, V. ichthyoenteri, V. pectenicida and V. wodanis appear to be exclusively associated with a particular host or geographical region. Three main categories of isolates could be distinguished: (1) isolates with genomes related (i.e. with > or =45% FAFLP pattern similarity) to one of the known type strains; (2) isolates clustering (> or =45% pattern similarity) with more than one type strain; (3) isolates with genomes unrelated (<45% pattern similarity) to any of the type strains. The latter group consisted of 236 isolates distributed in 31 clusters indicating that many culturable taxa of the Vibrionaceae remain as yet to be described.

  17. [Discussion of the characteristic indexs in using three-dimensional fluorescence method to identify different crude oils].

    PubMed

    Zhao, Yan; Zhang, Shi-Yuan; Ling, Ping; Li, Si-Yuan; Huang, Kai-Sheng; Zhou, Yong-Sheng; Xie, Yue-Liang

    2009-12-01

    The present paper investigates the influence of solvent purity on the test of three-dimensional fluorescence spectra, determines the process of its pre-purification, and studies the influence of the concentrations on the three-dimensional fluorescence characteristic indexes such as the characteristic peaks position, fluorescence intensity (F), and ratio (R) of fluorescence intensity when the phenomena of fluorescence quenching won't appear. The result shows that the concentration affects the value F and value R largely but its effect on the relative peak intensity (R(s)) is relatively small. Different crude oils has different value R(s). According to those characteristics, this paper presents that the value R(s) can be used as a new characteristic index for identification of crude oil. This conclusion was confirmed by testing many crude oils stably and reliably from different areas with their concentrations at 5 mg x L(-1). This method can be applied to identify most crude oils preliminary and further accurate analysis can be carried out together with other index.

  18. Valleytronics in 2D materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schaibley, John R.; Yu, Hongyi; Clark, Genevieve; Rivera, Pasqual; Ross, Jason S.; Seyler, Kyle L.; Yao, Wang; Xu, Xiaodong

    2016-11-01

    Semiconductor technology is currently based on the manipulation of electronic charge; however, electrons have additional degrees of freedom, such as spin and valley, that can be used to encode and process information. Over the past several decades, there has been significant progress in manipulating electron spin for semiconductor spintronic devices, motivated by potential spin-based information processing and storage applications. However, experimental progress towards manipulating the valley degree of freedom for potential valleytronic devices has been limited until very recently. We review the latest advances in valleytronics, which have largely been enabled by the isolation of 2D materials (such as graphene and semiconducting transition metal dichalcogenides) that host an easily accessible electronic valley degree of freedom, allowing for dynamic control.

  19. Unparticle example in 2D.

    PubMed

    Georgi, Howard; Kats, Yevgeny

    2008-09-26

    We discuss what can be learned about unparticle physics by studying simple quantum field theories in one space and one time dimension. We argue that the exactly soluble 2D theory of a massless fermion coupled to a massive vector boson, the Sommerfield model, is an interesting analog of a Banks-Zaks model, approaching a free theory at high energies and a scale-invariant theory with nontrivial anomalous dimensions at low energies. We construct a toy standard model coupling to the fermions in the Sommerfield model and study how the transition from unparticle behavior at low energies to free particle behavior at high energies manifests itself in interactions with the toy standard model particles.

  20. Alamar blue reagent interacts with cell-culture media giving different fluorescence over time: potential for false positives.

    PubMed

    Munshi, Soumyabrata; Twining, Robert C; Dahl, Russell

    2014-01-01

    The cell viability assay by alamar blue is based on the principle of reduction of the non-fluorescent reagent (resazurin) to a fluorescent compound (resarufin) by the intracellular reducing environment of living cells over time. In the present study, we have for the first time shown that even in the absence of cells, there occurs significant interaction between alamar blue and cell-culture media causing an increase in fluorescence. We have used Opti-MEM, DMEM and 1:1 DMEM:Opti-MEM as three different media and determined the changes in their relative fluorescence units (RFUs) over time after the addition of 10% (v/v) alamar blue using two-way repeated measures analysis of variance (RM-ANOVA) followed by Tukey's post-hoc test. Our results show that upon the addition of alamar blue, there occurs a significant increase in RFUs in all the three media over time along with a significantly higher RFU for the Opti-MEM overall (p<0.05). We also show that the time-dependent change in RFU of 1:1 DMEM:Opti-MEM was more gradual compared to that of the other two media. These findings indicate that the reagent can itself interact with the media causing significantly different fluorescence over time in a manner independent from the effect of intracellular reducing environment of living cells on alamar blue. In addition our results indicate that fluorescence varies as a function of incubation time with the reagent. These findings signify the need for routine subtraction of the background fluorescence of media-only with alamar blue reagent during measurement of cell viability by this method in order to determine an accurate measurement of cell viability. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Standoff laser-induced fluorescence of suspensions from different bacterial strains

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Duschek, Frank; Walter, Arne; Fellner, Lea; Grünewald, Karin; Pargmann, Carsten; Handke, Jürgen; Tomaso, Herbert

    2016-10-01

    Biological hazardous substances like certain fungi and bacteria represent a high risk for the broad public if fallen into wrong hands. Incidents based on bio agents are commonly considered to have incalculable and complex consequences for first responders and people. The impact of such an event can be minimized by a combination of different sensor technologies that have been developed to detect bio-threats and to gather information after an incident. Sensors for bio-agents can be grouped into two categories. Sampling devices collect material from locations supposed to be contaminated, and they are able to identify biological material with high sensitivity and selectivity. However, these point sensors need to be positioned correctly in advance of an attack, and moving sources of biological material cannot be tracked. A different approach is based on optical standoff detection. For biological samples laser induced florescence (LIF) has been proven to get real time data on location and type of hazards without being in contact with the suspicious substance. This work is based on a bio-detector developed at the DLR Lampoldshausen. The LIF detection has been designed for outdoor operation at standoff distances from 20 m up to more than 100 m. The detector acquires LIF spectral data for two different excitation wavelengths (280 and 355 nm) as well as time resolved information for the fluorescence decay which can be used to classify suspicious samples. While the classification device had been trained on uncritical samples (like amino acids, NADH, yeast, chemicals, oils), this work presents the progress to more relevant, living bacteria of different strains. The low risk and non-pathogenic bacteria Bacillus thuringensis, Bacillus atrophaeus, Bacillus subtilis, Brevibacillus brevis, Micrococcus luteus, Oligella urethralis, Paenibacillus polymyxa and Escherichia coli (K12) have been investigated with the above set-up at both excitation wavelengths

  2. 2D imaging and 3D sensing data acquisition and mutual registration for painting conservation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fontana, Raffaella; Gambino, Maria Chiara; Greco, Marinella; Marras, Luciano; Pampaloni, Enrico M.; Pelagotti, Anna; Pezzati, Luca; Poggi, Pasquale

    2004-12-01

    We describe the application of 2D and 3D data acquisition and mutual registration to the conservation of paintings. RGB color image acquisition, IR and UV fluorescence imaging, together with the more recent hyperspectral imaging (32 bands) are among the most useful techniques in this field. They generally are meant to provide information on the painting materials, on the employed techniques and on the object state of conservation. However, only when the various images are perfectly registered on each other and on the 3D model, no ambiguity is possible and safe conclusions may be drawn. We present the integration of 2D and 3D measurements carried out on two different paintings: "Madonna of the Yarnwinder" by Leonardo da Vinci, and "Portrait of Lionello d'Este", by Pisanello, both painted in the XV century.

  3. 2D imaging and 3D sensing data acquisition and mutual registration for painting conservation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fontana, Raffaella; Gambino, Maria Chiara; Greco, Marinella; Marras, Luciano; Pampaloni, Enrico M.; Pelagotti, Anna; Pezzati, Luca; Poggi, Pasquale

    2005-01-01

    We describe the application of 2D and 3D data acquisition and mutual registration to the conservation of paintings. RGB color image acquisition, IR and UV fluorescence imaging, together with the more recent hyperspectral imaging (32 bands) are among the most useful techniques in this field. They generally are meant to provide information on the painting materials, on the employed techniques and on the object state of conservation. However, only when the various images are perfectly registered on each other and on the 3D model, no ambiguity is possible and safe conclusions may be drawn. We present the integration of 2D and 3D measurements carried out on two different paintings: "Madonna of the Yarnwinder" by Leonardo da Vinci, and "Portrait of Lionello d'Este", by Pisanello, both painted in the XV century.

  4. Irreversibility-inversions in 2D turbulence

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bragg, Andrew; de Lillo, Filippo; Boffetta, Guido

    2016-11-01

    We consider a recent theoretical prediction that for inertial particles in 2D turbulence, the nature of the irreversibility of their pair dispersion inverts when the particle inertia exceeds a certain value. In particular, when the particle Stokes number, St , is below a certain value, the forward-in-time (FIT) dispersion should be faster than the backward-in-time (BIT) dispersion, but for St above this value, this should invert so that BIT becomes faster than FIT dispersion. This non-trivial behavior arises because of the competition between two physically distinct irreversibility mechanisms that operate in different regimes of St . In 3D turbulence, both mechanisms act to produce faster BIT than FIT dispersion, but in 2D, the two mechanisms have opposite effects because of the inverse energy cascade in the turbulent velocity field. We supplement the qualitative argument given by Bragg et al. by deriving quantitative predictions of this effect in the short-time dispersion limit. These predictions are then confirmed by results of inertial particle dispersion in a direct numerical simulation of 2D turbulence.

  5. Quantum coherence selective 2D Raman-2D electronic spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Spencer, Austin P.; Hutson, William O.; Harel, Elad

    2017-03-01

    Electronic and vibrational correlations report on the dynamics and structure of molecular species, yet revealing these correlations experimentally has proved extremely challenging. Here, we demonstrate a method that probes correlations between states within the vibrational and electronic manifold with quantum coherence selectivity. Specifically, we measure a fully coherent four-dimensional spectrum which simultaneously encodes vibrational-vibrational, electronic-vibrational and electronic-electronic interactions. By combining near-impulsive resonant and non-resonant excitation, the desired fifth-order signal of a complex organic molecule in solution is measured free of unwanted lower-order contamination. A critical feature of this method is electronic and vibrational frequency resolution, enabling isolation and assignment of individual quantum coherence pathways. The vibronic structure of the system is then revealed within an otherwise broad and featureless 2D electronic spectrum. This method is suited for studying elusive quantum effects in which electronic transitions strongly couple to phonons and vibrations, such as energy transfer in photosynthetic pigment-protein complexes.

  6. Quantum coherence selective 2D Raman–2D electronic spectroscopy

    PubMed Central

    Spencer, Austin P.; Hutson, William O.; Harel, Elad

    2017-01-01

    Electronic and vibrational correlations report on the dynamics and structure of molecular species, yet revealing these correlations experimentally has proved extremely challenging. Here, we demonstrate a method that probes correlations between states within the vibrational and electronic manifold with quantum coherence selectivity. Specifically, we measure a fully coherent four-dimensional spectrum which simultaneously encodes vibrational–vibrational, electronic–vibrational and electronic–electronic interactions. By combining near-impulsive resonant and non-resonant excitation, the desired fifth-order signal of a complex organic molecule in solution is measured free of unwanted lower-order contamination. A critical feature of this method is electronic and vibrational frequency resolution, enabling isolation and assignment of individual quantum coherence pathways. The vibronic structure of the system is then revealed within an otherwise broad and featureless 2D electronic spectrum. This method is suited for studying elusive quantum effects in which electronic transitions strongly couple to phonons and vibrations, such as energy transfer in photosynthetic pigment–protein complexes. PMID:28281541

  7. Quantum coherence selective 2D Raman-2D electronic spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Spencer, Austin P; Hutson, William O; Harel, Elad

    2017-03-10

    Electronic and vibrational correlations report on the dynamics and structure of molecular species, yet revealing these correlations experimentally has proved extremely challenging. Here, we demonstrate a method that probes correlations between states within the vibrational and electronic manifold with quantum coherence selectivity. Specifically, we measure a fully coherent four-dimensional spectrum which simultaneously encodes vibrational-vibrational, electronic-vibrational and electronic-electronic interactions. By combining near-impulsive resonant and non-resonant excitation, the desired fifth-order signal of a complex organic molecule in solution is measured free of unwanted lower-order contamination. A critical feature of this method is electronic and vibrational frequency resolution, enabling isolation and assignment of individual quantum coherence pathways. The vibronic structure of the system is then revealed within an otherwise broad and featureless 2D electronic spectrum. This method is suited for studying elusive quantum effects in which electronic transitions strongly couple to phonons and vibrations, such as energy transfer in photosynthetic pigment-protein complexes.

  8. Fabrication of 2D sheet-like BiOCl/carbon quantum dot hybrids via a template-free coprecipitation method and their tunable visible-light photocatalytic activities derived from different size distributions of carbon quantum dots

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Deng, Fang; Lu, Xiaoying; Zhong, Fei; Pei, Xule; Luo, Xubiao; Luo, Shenglian; Dionysiou, Dionysios D.; Au, Chaktong

    2016-02-01

    A series of two-dimensional (2D) interlaced BiOCl/carbon quantum dot composites (denoted as BiOCl/CQD composites) were synthesized by a template-free coprecipitation method at room temperature, and the influence of different particle size distributions of the CQDs on the physiochemical properties and photocatalytic activities of the BiOCl/CQD composites was studied. CQDs can change the morphology and increase the specific surface area of the BiOCl/CQD composites. Moreover, the particle size distribution of the CQDs (CQD loading amount) has some effect on the light absorption, separation of photogenerated charge carriers, and photocatalytic performance of the BiOCl/CQD composites. The optimized size distribution of the CQDs is 50-150 nm. BiOCl/CQD (50-150 nm) composites showed the best improvement of light absorption and the highest photocurrent density of 0.44 μA cm-2, and exhibited the highest photocatalytic activity with almost 100% 2-nitrophenol removal under visible-light irradiation. The high efficacy of BiOCl/CQD (50-150 nm) composites could be attributed to their excellent light absorption and highly effective separation of photogenerated charge carriers.

  9. Numerical simulation of 2-D seismic wave propagation in the presence of a topographic fluid-solid interface at the sea bottom by the curvilinear grid finite-difference method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sun, Yao-Chong; Zhang, Wei; Xu, Jian-Kuan; Chen, Xiaofei

    2017-09-01

    This study simulates seismic wave propagation across a 2-D topographic fluid (acoustic) and solid (elastic) interface at the sea bottom by the finite-difference method (FDM). In this method, seismic waves in sea water are governed by acoustic wave equations, whereas seismic waves in solid earth are governed by elastic wave equations. The fluid-solid interface condition is implemented on the interface. Body-conforming grids are used to fit the topographic fluid-solid interface which naturally avoids spurious diffractions due to staircase approximation. A collocated-grid MacCormack FDM is utilized to update the wavefields in the fluid and solid media. The fluid-solid interface condition is explicitly implemented by decomposing the velocity and stress components to the normal and tangential directions with respect to the interface within a fourth-order Runge-Kutta time-marching scheme. The algorithm solutions for both flat and topographic fluid-solid interface models are compared with analytical solutions and spectral element solutions to validate the proposed method. Results show a suitable agreement with the reference solutions and hence confirms the validity of this method. The proposed FDM enforces the numerical solutions to satisfy the exact interface condition and it is more accurate than the conventional FDM that uses effective media parameters to approximate the interface condition.

  10. Realistic and efficient 2D crack simulation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yadegar, Jacob; Liu, Xiaoqing; Singh, Abhishek

    2010-04-01

    Although numerical algorithms for 2D crack simulation have been studied in Modeling and Simulation (M&S) and computer graphics for decades, realism and computational efficiency are still major challenges. In this paper, we introduce a high-fidelity, scalable, adaptive and efficient/runtime 2D crack/fracture simulation system by applying the mathematically elegant Peano-Cesaro triangular meshing/remeshing technique to model the generation of shards/fragments. The recursive fractal sweep associated with the Peano-Cesaro triangulation provides efficient local multi-resolution refinement to any level-of-detail. The generated binary decomposition tree also provides efficient neighbor retrieval mechanism used for mesh element splitting and merging with minimal memory requirements essential for realistic 2D fragment formation. Upon load impact/contact/penetration, a number of factors including impact angle, impact energy, and material properties are all taken into account to produce the criteria of crack initialization, propagation, and termination leading to realistic fractal-like rubble/fragments formation. The aforementioned parameters are used as variables of probabilistic models of cracks/shards formation, making the proposed solution highly adaptive by allowing machine learning mechanisms learn the optimal values for the variables/parameters based on prior benchmark data generated by off-line physics based simulation solutions that produce accurate fractures/shards though at highly non-real time paste. Crack/fracture simulation has been conducted on various load impacts with different initial locations at various impulse scales. The simulation results demonstrate that the proposed system has the capability to realistically and efficiently simulate 2D crack phenomena (such as window shattering and shards generation) with diverse potentials in military and civil M&S applications such as training and mission planning.

  11. [Vermicomposting of different organic materials and three-dimensional excitation emission matrix fluorescence spectroscopic characterization of their dissolved organic matter].

    PubMed

    Yang, Wei; Wang, Dong-sheng; Liu, Man-qiang; Hu, Feng; Li, Hui-xin; Huang, Zhong-yang; Chang, Yi-jun; Jiao, Jia-guo

    2015-10-01

    In this experiment, different proportions of the cattle manure, tea-leaf, herb and mushroom residues, were used as food for earthworm (Eisenia fetida) to study the growth of the earth-worm. Then the characteristics and transformation of nutrient content and three-dimensional excitation emission matrix fluorescence (3DEEM) of dissolved organic matter (DOM) during vermistabilization were investigated by means of chemical and spectroscopic methods. The result showed that the mixture of different ratios of cattle manure with herb residue, and cattle manure with tea-leaf were conducive to the growth of earthworm, while the materials compounded with mushroom residue inhibited the growth of earthworm. With the increasing time of verimcomposting, the pH in vermicompost tended to be circumneutral and weakly acidic, and there were increases in electrical conductivity, and the contents of total nitrogen, total phosphorus, available nitrogen, and available phosphorus, while the total potassium and available potassium increased first and then decreased, and the organic matter content decreased. 3DEEM and fluorescence regional integration results indicated that, the fluorescence of protein-like fluorescence peaks declined significantly, while the intensity of humic-like fluorescence peak increased significantly in DOM. Vermicomposting process might change the compositions of DOM with elevated concentrations of humic acid and fulvic acid in the organics. In all, this study suggested the suitability of 3DEEM for monitoring the organics transformation and assessing the maturity in the vermicomposting.

  12. Interaction of differently functionalized fluorescent silica nanoparticles with neural stem- and tissue-type cells.

    PubMed

    Izak-Nau, Emilia; Kenesei, Kata; Murali, Kumarasamy; Voetz, Matthias; Eiden, Stefanie; Puntes, Victor F; Duschl, Albert; Madarász, Emilia

    2014-08-01

    Engineered amorphous silica nanoparticles (SiO2 NPs), due to simple and low cost production, are increasingly used in commercial products and produced on an industrial scale. Despite the potential benefits, there is a concern that exposure to certain types of SiO2 NPs may lead to adverse health effects. As some NPs can cross the blood--brain barrier and may, in addition, reach the central nervous system through the nasal epithelium, this study addresses the responses of different neural tissue-type cells including neural stem cells, neurons, astrocytes and microglia cells to increasing doses of 50 nm fluorescent core/shell SiO2 NPs with different [-NH2, -SH and polyvinylpyrrolidone (PVP)] surface chemistry. The SiO2 NPs are characterized using a variety of physicochemical methods. Assays of cytotoxicity and cellular metabolism indicates that SiO2 NPs cause cell death only at high particle doses, except PVP-coated SiO2 NPs which do not harm cells even at very high concentrations. All SiO2 NPs, except those coated with PVP, form large agglomerates in physiological solutions and adsorb a variety of proteins. Except PVP-NPs, all SiO2 NPs adhere strongly to cell surfaces, but internalization differs depending on neural cell type. Neural stem cells and astrocytes internalize plain SiO2, SiO2-NH2 and SiO2-SH NPs, while neurons do not take up any NPs. The data indicates that the PVP coat, by lowering the particle-biomolecular component interactions, reduces the biological effects of SiO2 NPs on the investigated neural cells.

  13. Different crystal morphologies lead to slightly different conformations of light-harvesting complex II as monitored by variations of the intrinsic fluorescence lifetime.

    PubMed

    van Oort, Bart; Maréchal, Amandine; Ruban, Alexander V; Robert, Bruno; Pascal, Andrew A; de Ruijter, Norbert C A; van Grondelle, Rienk; van Amerongen, Herbert

    2011-07-21

    In 2005, it was found that the fluorescence of crystals of the major light-harvesting complex LHCII of green plants is significantly quenched when compared to the fluorescence of isolated LHCII (A. A. Pascal et al., Nature, 2005, 436, 134-137). The Raman spectrum of crystallized LHCII was also found to be different from that of isolated LHCII but very similar to that of aggregated LHCII, which has often been considered a good model system for studying nonphotochemical quenching (NPQ), the major protection mechanism of plants against photodamage in high light. It was proposed that in the crystal LHCII adopts a similar (quenching) conformation as during NPQ and indeed similar changes in the Raman spectrum were observed during NPQ in vivo (A. V. Ruban et al., Nature, 2007, 450, 575-579). We now compared the fluorescence of various types of crystals, differing in morphology and age. Each type gave rise to its own characteristic mono-exponential fluorescence lifetime, which was 5 to 10 times shorter than that of isolated LHCII. This indicates that fluorescence is not quenched by random impurities and packing defects (as proposed recently by T. Barros et al., EMBO Journal, 2009, 28, 298-306), but that LHCII adopts a particular structure in each crystal type, that leads to fluorescence quenching. Most interestingly, the extent of quenching appears to depend on the crystal morphology, indicating that also the crystal structure depends on this crystal morphology but at the moment no data are available to correlate the crystals' structural changes to changes in fluorescence lifetime.

  14. Plant chlorophyll fluorescence: active and passive measurements at canopy and leaf scales with different nitrogen treatments

    PubMed Central

    Cendrero-Mateo, M. Pilar; Moran, M. Susan; Papuga, Shirley A.; Thorp, K.R.; Alonso, L.; Moreno, J.; Ponce-Campos, G.; Rascher, U.; Wang, G.

    2016-01-01

    Most studies assessing chlorophyll fluorescence (ChlF) have examined leaf responses to environmental stress conditions using active techniques. Alternatively, passive techniques are able to measure ChlF at both leaf and canopy scales. However, the measurement principles of both techniques are different, and only a few datasets concerning the relationships between them are reported in the literature. In this study, we investigated the potential for interchanging ChlF measurements using active techniques with passive measurements at different temporal and spatial scales. The ultimate objective was to determine the limits within which active and passive techniques are comparable. The results presented in this study showed that active and passive measurements were highly correlated over the growing season across nitrogen treatments at both canopy and leaf-average scale. At the single-leaf scale, the seasonal relation between techniques was weaker, but still significant. The variability within single-leaf measurements was largely related to leaf heterogeneity associated with variations in CO2 assimilation and stomatal conductance, and less so to variations in leaf chlorophyll content, leaf size or measurement inputs (e.g. light reflected and emitted by the leaf and illumination conditions and leaf spectrum). This uncertainty was exacerbated when single-leaf analysis was limited to a particular day rather than the entire season. We concluded that daily measurements of active and passive ChlF at the single-leaf scale are not comparable. However, canopy and leaf-average active measurements can be used to better understand the daily and seasonal behaviour of passive ChlF measurements. In turn, this can be used to better estimate plant photosynthetic capacity and therefore to provide improved information for crop management. PMID:26482242

  15. Plant chlorophyll fluorescence: active and passive measurements at canopy and leaf scales with different nitrogen treatments.

    PubMed

    Cendrero-Mateo, M Pilar; Moran, M Susan; Papuga, Shirley A; Thorp, K R; Alonso, L; Moreno, J; Ponce-Campos, G; Rascher, U; Wang, G

    2016-01-01

    Most studies assessing chlorophyll fluorescence (ChlF) have examined leaf responses to environmental stress conditions using active techniques. Alternatively, passive techniques are able to measure ChlF at both leaf and canopy scales. However, the measurement principles of both techniques are different, and only a few datasets concerning the relationships between them are reported in the literature. In this study, we investigated the potential for interchanging ChlF measurements using active techniques with passive measurements at different temporal and spatial scales. The ultimate objective was to determine the limits within which active and passive techniques are comparable. The results presented in this study showed that active and passive measurements were highly correlated over the growing season across nitrogen treatments at both canopy and leaf-average scale. At the single-leaf scale, the seasonal relation between techniques was weaker, but still significant. The variability within single-leaf measurements was largely related to leaf heterogeneity associated with variations in CO2 assimilation and stomatal conductance, and less so to variations in leaf chlorophyll content, leaf size or measurement inputs (e.g. light reflected and emitted by the leaf and illumination conditions and leaf spectrum). This uncertainty was exacerbated when single-leaf analysis was limited to a particular day rather than the entire season. We concluded that daily measurements of active and passive ChlF at the single-leaf scale are not comparable. However, canopy and leaf-average active measurements can be used to better understand the daily and seasonal behaviour of passive ChlF measurements. In turn, this can be used to better estimate plant photosynthetic capacity and therefore to provide improved information for crop management. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society for Experimental Biology.

  16. 2D transition metal dichalcogenides

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Manzeli, Sajedeh; Ovchinnikov, Dmitry; Pasquier, Diego; Yazyev, Oleg V.; Kis, Andras

    2017-08-01

    Graphene is very popular because of its many fascinating properties, but its lack of an electronic bandgap has stimulated the search for 2D materials with semiconducting character. Transition metal dichalcogenides (TMDCs), which are semiconductors of the type MX2, where M is a transition metal atom (such as Mo or W) and X is a chalcogen atom (such as S, Se or Te), provide a promising alternative. Because of its robustness, MoS2 is the most studied material in this family. TMDCs exhibit a unique combination of atomic-scale thickness, direct bandgap, strong spin-orbit coupling and favourable electronic and mechanical properties, which make them interesting for fundamental studies and for applications in high-end electronics, spintronics, optoelectronics, energy harvesting, flexible electronics, DNA sequencing and personalized medicine. In this Review, the methods used to synthesize TMDCs are examined and their properties are discussed, with particular attention to their charge density wave, superconductive and topological phases. The use of TMCDs in nanoelectronic devices is also explored, along with strategies to improve charge carrier mobility, high frequency operation and the use of strain engineering to tailor their properties.

  17. Protein staining influences the quality of mass spectra obtained by peptide mass fingerprinting after separation on 2-d gels. A comparison of staining with coomassie brilliant blue and sypro ruby.

    PubMed

    Lanne, Boel; Panfilov, Oleg

    2005-01-01

    When separating protein mixtures on 2-D gels for proteomics purposes, fluorescent staining is superior in sensitivity and linear response as compared to Coomassie Brilliant Blue (CBB) and silver staining, respectively. We have compared the quality of mass spectra for proteins obtained from gels stained with CBB and SYPRO Ruby (SR) and found significant differences. These differences can be seen both in inferior signal/noise ratios and number of peptides detected with the fluorescent stain.

  18. Use of fluorescent proteins and color-coded imaging to visualize cancer cells with different genetic properties.

    PubMed

    Hoffman, Robert M

    2016-03-01

    Fluorescent proteins are very bright and available in spectrally-distinct colors, enable the imaging of color-coded cancer cells growing in vivo and therefore the distinction of cancer cells with different genetic properties. Non-invasive and intravital imaging of cancer cells with fluorescent proteins allows the visualization of distinct genetic variants of cancer cells down to the cellular level in vivo. Cancer cells with increased or decreased ability to metastasize can be distinguished in vivo. Gene exchange in vivo which enables low metastatic cancer cells to convert to high metastatic can be color-coded imaged in vivo. Cancer stem-like and non-stem cells can be distinguished in vivo by color-coded imaging. These properties also demonstrate the vast superiority of imaging cancer cells in vivo with fluorescent proteins over photon counting of luciferase-labeled cancer cells.

  19. Codon Constraints on Closed 2D Shapes,

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-09-26

    19843$ CODON CONSTRAINTS ON CLOSED 2D SHAPES Go Whitman Richards "I Donald D. Hoffman’ D T 18 Abstract: Codons are simple primitives for describing plane...RSONAL AUT"ORtIS) Richards, Whitman & Hoffman, Donald D. 13&. TYPE OF REPORT 13b. TIME COVERED N/A P8 AT F RRrT t~r. Ago..D,) is, PlE COUNT Reprint...outlines, if figure and ground are ignored. Later, we will address the problem of indexing identical codon descriptors that have different figure

  20. The Fluorescent Properties of Dissolved Organic Matter and Assessment of Total Nitrogen in Overlying Water with Different Dissolved Oxygen Conditions.

    PubMed

    Zhang Hua; Kuan, Wang; Song, Jian; Zhang, Yong; Huang, Ming; Huang, Jian; Zhu, Jing; Huang, Shan; Wang, Meng

    2016-03-01

    This paper used excitation-emission matrix spectroscopy (EEMs) to probe the fluorescence properties of dissolved organic matter (DOM) in the overlying water with different dissolved oxygen (DO) conditions, investigating the relationship between protein-like fluorescence intensity and total nitrogen concentration. The resulting fluorescence spectra revealed three protein-like components (high-excitation wavelength tyrosine, low-excitation wavelength tyrosine, low-excitation wavelength tryptophan) and two fulvic-like components (ultraviolet fulvic-like components, visible fulvic-like components) in the overlying water. Moreover, the protein-like components were dominant in the overlying water's DOM. The fluorescence intensity of the protein-like components decreased significantly after aeration. Two of the protein-like components--the low-excitation wavelength tyrosine and the low-excitation wavelength tryptophan--were more susceptible to degradation by microorganisms within the degradable organic matter with respect to the high-excitation wavelength tyrosine. In contrast, the ultraviolet and visible fulvic-like fluorescence intensity increased along with increasing DO concentration, indicating that the fulvic-like components were part of the refractory organics. The fluorescence indices of the DOM in the overlying water were between 1.65-1.80, suggesting that the sources of the DOM were related to terrigenous sediments and microbial metabolic processes, with the primary source being the contribution from microbial metabolism. The fluorescence indices increased along with DO growth, which showed that microbial biomass and microbial activity gradually increased with increasing DO while microbial metabolism also improved, which also increased the biogenic components in the overlying water. The fluorescence intensity of the high-excitation wavelength tyrosine peak A showed a good linear relationship with the total nitrogen concentration at higher DO concentrations of 2

  1. RRM1, TUBB3, TOP2A, CYP19A1, CYP2D6: Difference between mRNA and protein expression in predicting prognosis of breast cancer patients.

    PubMed

    Xu, Ying-Chun; Zhang, Feng-Chun; Li, Jun-Jian; Dai, Jia-Qi; Liu, Qiang; Tang, Lei; Ma, Yue; Xu, Qi; Lin, Xiao-Lin; Fan, Hong-Bin; Wang, Hong-Xia

    2015-10-01

    The study investigated the clinical significance of RRM1 (ribonucleoside reductase subunit M1), TUBB3 (tubulin-β-III), TOP2A (DNA topoisomerase II), CYP19A1 (cytochrome P450, family 19, subfamily A, polypeptide 1) and CYP2D6 (cytochrome P450, family 2, subfamily D, polypeptide 6) for the diagnosis and possible predictive roles in breast cancer. Tissue microarray detected the expression of RRM1, tubulin-β-III, Topo IIα, CYP19A1 and CYP2D6 protein in breast cancer tissue and tissue adjacent to tumors (TATs). In addition, a publically available tool, was used to assess the prognostic value of their gene expression in breast cancer (http://kmplot.com). Analysis for relapse-free survival (RFS), disease-free survival (DFS) and overall survival (OS) was performed. Cytoplasmic RRM1, tubulin-β-III, CYP19A1 and Topo IIα staining were significantly higher in breast cancer tissues compared with TATs (P<0.050). Significant correlation occurred between RRM1 expression with pathological classification (P=0.018), lymph node involvement (P=0.035) and ER status (P=0.003). Tubulin-β-III and CYP2D6 expression correlated significantly with tumor grade (P=0.021 for tubulin-β-III and P=0.029 for CYP2D6, respectively). Cox analysis showed that the protein expression of CYP2D6, CYP19A1, RRM1, Topo IIα or tubulin-β-III was not an independent prognostic factor. A significant association occurred between RFS and TUBB3, TOP2A, CYP19A1, and CYP2D6 mRNA expression. With CYP19A1 (P<0.001) and CYP2D6 (P<0.001), a high expression was associated with good clinical outcome. Conversely, a low expression of TUBB3 (P<0.001) and TOP2A (P<0.001) was associated with good clinical outcome. TUBB3 (P=0.0004) and TOP2A (P<0.001) were significant prognostic factors in predicting the patient OS. The expression of RRM1, tubulin-β-III, Topo IIα and CYP19A1 in tumor tissues was significantly higher than that in TATs. TUBB3, TOP2A, CYP19A1 and CYP2D6 gene expression, but not protein expression, was

  2. Fluorescent Beads Are a Versatile Tool for Staging Caenorhabditis elegans in Different Life Histories.

    PubMed

    Nika, Liberta; Gibson, Taylor; Konkus, Rebecca; Karp, Xantha

    2016-07-07

    Precise staging of Caenorhabditis elegans is essential for developmental studies in different environmental conditions. In favorable conditions, larvae develop continuously through four larval stages separated by molting periods. Distinguishing molting from intermolt larvae has been achieved using transgenes with molting reporters, therefore requiring strain constructions, or careful observation of individuals for pharyngeal pumping or behavioral quiescence. In unfavorable conditions, larvae can enter the stress-resistant and developmentally arrested dauer larva stage. Identifying dauer larvae has been based on their ability to withstand detergent selection, precluding identification of recovering animals or of mutants with defects in dauer morphogenesis. Here, we describe a simple method to distinguish molting larvae or dauer larvae from intermolt larvae that bypasses the limitations of current methods. Fluorescent latex beads are mixed with the bacterial food source and ingested by intermolt larvae and adults. Molting and dauer larvae do not feed, and therefore lack beads in their digestive tract. The presence of beads can be determined using a dissecting microscope at magnifications as low as 100 ×, or by using a wormsorter for high-throughput experiments. We find that continuously developing bead-lacking larvae display hallmarks of molting, including expression of the mlt-10::gfp molting marker and a lack of pharyngeal pumping. Furthermore, wild-type and mutant dauer larvae produced by any of three common methods are accurately identified by a lack of beads. Importantly, this method is effective in SDS-sensitive mutant backgrounds and can identify recovering dauer larvae, a stage for which there is no other method of positive selection. Copyright © 2016 Nika et al.

  3. Fluorescent Beads Are a Versatile Tool for Staging Caenorhabditis elegans in Different Life Histories

    PubMed Central

    Nika, Liberta; Gibson, Taylor; Konkus, Rebecca; Karp, Xantha

    2016-01-01

    Precise staging of Caenorhabditis elegans is essential for developmental studies in different environmental conditions. In favorable conditions, larvae develop continuously through four larval stages separated by molting periods. Distinguishing molting from intermolt larvae has been achieved using transgenes with molting reporters, therefore requiring strain constructions, or careful observation of individuals for pharyngeal pumping or behavioral quiescence. In unfavorable conditions, larvae can enter the stress-resistant and developmentally arrested dauer larva stage. Identifying dauer larvae has been based on their ability to withstand detergent selection, precluding identification of recovering animals or of mutants with defects in dauer morphogenesis. Here, we describe a simple method to distinguish molting larvae or dauer larvae from intermolt larvae that bypasses the limitations of current methods. Fluorescent latex beads are mixed with the bacterial food source and ingested by intermolt larvae and adults. Molting and dauer larvae do not feed, and therefore lack beads in their digestive tract. The presence of beads can be determined using a dissecting microscope at magnifications as low as 100 ×, or by using a wormsorter for high-throughput experiments. We find that continuously developing bead-lacking larvae display hallmarks of molting, including expression of the mlt-10::gfp molting marker and a lack of pharyngeal pumping. Furthermore, wild-type and mutant dauer larvae produced by any of three common methods are accurately identified by a lack of beads. Importantly, this method is effective in SDS-sensitive mutant backgrounds and can identify recovering dauer larvae, a stage for which there is no other method of positive selection. PMID:27172224

  4. Different quantum optical response in fluorescence of gold and silver nanoparticles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bagheri, Zahra; Allameh, Ziba; Massudi, Reza

    2015-06-01

    Electrical permittivity and fluorescence emission behavior of gold and silver nanoparticles with radii range from 1 to 10 nm are studied in quantum mechanical regime and compared with classical results. It is observed that electrical permittivity of gold and silver nanoparticles is significantly modified considering quantum mechanical effects. Furthermore, it varies by wavelength while the size of nanoparticles decreases. The results indicate clear blue shift for silver and red shift for gold and also weakening of fluorescence peaks for both types of nanospheres. These quantum plasmonics particles which can pass through walls of living cells due to their small size can also serve as a fluorescent probe and delivery system for imaging and targeted delivery of bio-systems.

  5. Comparison of Fluorescence Microscopy and Different Growth Media Culture Methods for Acanthamoeba Keratitis Diagnosis

    PubMed Central

    Peretz, Avi; Geffen, Yuval; Socea, Soergiu D.; Pastukh, Nina; Graffi, Shmuel

    2015-01-01

    Acanthamoeba keratitis (AK), a potentially blinding infection of the cornea, is caused by a free-living protozoan. Culture and microscopic examination of corneal scraping tissue material is the conventional method for identifying Acanthamoeba. In this article, we compared several methods for AK diagnosis of 32 patients: microscopic examination using fluorescent dye, specific culture on growth media—non-nutrient agar (NNA), culture on liquid growth media—peptone yeast glucose (PYG), and TYI-S-33. AK was found in 14 patients. Thirteen of the specimens were found AK positive by fluorescence microscopic examination, 11 specimens were found AK positive on PYG growth media, and 9 specimens were found AK positive on TYI-S-33 growth media. Only five specimens were found AK positive on NNA growth media. Therefore, we recommend using fluorescence microscopy technique and culture method, especially PYG liquid media. PMID:25962772

  6. Optical and fluorescence properties of corn leaves from different nitrogen regimes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Middleton, Elizabeth M.; McMurtrey, James E., III; Entcheva Campbell, Petya K.; Corp, Lawrence A.; Butcher, L. M.; Chappelle, Emmett W.

    2003-03-01

    The important role of nitrogen (N) in limiting or enhancing vegetation productivity is relatively well understood, although the interaction of N with other environmental variables in natural and agricultural ecosystems needs more study. In 2001, a suite of optical, fluorescence, and biophysical measurements were collected on leaves of corn (Zea Mays L.) from field plots provided four N fertilizer application rates: 20%, 50%, 100% and 150% of optimal N levels. Two complementary sets of high-resolution (< 2 nm) optical spectra were acquired for both adaxial and abaxial leaf surfaces. The first was comprised of leaf optical properties (350-2500 nm) for reflectance, transmittance, and absorptance. The second was comprised of reflectance spectra (500-1000 nm) acquired with and without a long pass 665 nm filter to determine the fluorescence contribution to "apparent reflectance" in the 670-750 nm spectrum that includes the 685 and 740 nm chlorophyll fluorescence (ChlF) peaks. Two types of fluorescence measurements were also made on adaxial and abaxial surfaces: 1) fluorescence images in four 10 nm bands (blue, green, red, far-red) resulting from broadband irradiance excitation; and 2) emission spectra at 5 nm resolution produced by three excitation wavelengths (280, 380, and 532 nm). The strongest relationships between optical properties and foliar chemistry were obtained for a "red-edge" optical parameter versus C/N and chlorophyll b. Select optical indices and ChlF parameters were correlated. A significant contribution of steady-state ChlF to apparent reflectance was observed, averaging 10-25% at 685 nm and 2-6% at 740 nm over the range of N treatments. From all measurements assessing fluorescence, higher ChlF was measured from the abaxial leaf surfaces.

  7. Comparison of 2D and 3D gamma analyses

    SciTech Connect

    Pulliam, Kiley B.; Huang, Jessie Y.; Howell, Rebecca M.; Followill, David; Kry, Stephen F.; Bosca, Ryan; O’Daniel, Jennifer

    2014-02-15

    Purpose: As clinics begin to use 3D metrics for intensity-modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) quality assurance, it must be noted that these metrics will often produce results different from those produced by their 2D counterparts. 3D and 2D gamma analyses would be expected to produce different values, in part because of the different search space available. In the present investigation, the authors compared the results of 2D and 3D gamma analysis (where both datasets were generated in the same manner) for clinical treatment plans. Methods: Fifty IMRT plans were selected from the authors’ clinical database, and recalculated using Monte Carlo. Treatment planning system-calculated (“evaluated dose distributions”) and Monte Carlo-recalculated (“reference dose distributions”) dose distributions were compared using 2D and 3D gamma analysis. This analysis was performed using a variety of dose-difference (5%, 3%, 2%, and 1%) and distance-to-agreement (5, 3, 2, and 1 mm) acceptance criteria, low-dose thresholds (5%, 10%, and 15% of the prescription dose), and data grid sizes (1.0, 1.5, and 3.0 mm). Each comparison was evaluated to determine the average 2D and 3D gamma, lower 95th percentile gamma value, and percentage of pixels passing gamma. Results: The average gamma, lower 95th percentile gamma value, and percentage of passing pixels for each acceptance criterion demonstrated better agreement for 3D than for 2D analysis for every plan comparison. The average difference in the percentage of passing pixels between the 2D and 3D analyses with no low-dose threshold ranged from 0.9% to 2.1%. Similarly, using a low-dose threshold resulted in a difference between the mean 2D and 3D results, ranging from 0.8% to 1.5%. The authors observed no appreciable differences in gamma with changes in the data density (constant difference: 0.8% for 2D vs 3D). Conclusions: The authors found that 3D gamma analysis resulted in up to 2.9% more pixels passing than 2D analysis. It must

  8. WE-AB-BRA-07: Quantitative Evaluation of 2D-2D and 2D-3D Image Guided Radiation Therapy for Clinical Trial Credentialing, NRG Oncology/RTOG

    SciTech Connect

    Giaddui, T; Yu, J; Xiao, Y; Jacobs, P; Manfredi, D; Linnemann, N

    2015-06-15

    Purpose: 2D-2D kV image guided radiation therapy (IGRT) credentialing evaluation for clinical trial qualification was historically qualitative through submitting screen captures of the fusion process. However, as quantitative DICOM 2D-2D and 2D-3D image registration tools are implemented in clinical practice for better precision, especially in centers that treat patients with protons, better IGRT credentialing techniques are needed. The aim of this work is to establish methodologies for quantitatively reviewing IGRT submissions based on DICOM 2D-2D and 2D-3D image registration and to test the methodologies in reviewing 2D-2D and 2D-3D IGRT submissions for RTOG/NRG Oncology clinical trials qualifications. Methods: DICOM 2D-2D and 2D-3D automated and manual image registration have been tested using the Harmony tool in MIM software. 2D kV orthogonal portal images are fused with the reference digital reconstructed radiographs (DRR) in the 2D-2D registration while the 2D portal images are fused with DICOM planning CT image in the 2D-3D registration. The Harmony tool allows alignment of the two images used in the registration process and also calculates the required shifts. Shifts calculated using MIM are compared with those submitted by institutions for IGRT credentialing. Reported shifts are considered to be acceptable if differences are less than 3mm. Results: Several tests have been performed on the 2D-2D and 2D-3D registration. The results indicated good agreement between submitted and calculated shifts. A workflow for reviewing these IGRT submissions has been developed and will eventually be used to review IGRT submissions. Conclusion: The IROC Philadelphia RTQA center has developed and tested a new workflow for reviewing DICOM 2D-2D and 2D-3D IGRT credentialing submissions made by different cancer clinical centers, especially proton centers. NRG Center for Innovation in Radiation Oncology (CIRO) and IROC RTQA center continue their collaborative efforts to enhance

  9. Production and laser-induced fluorescence spectroscopy (L.I.F.S.) of different Hypericum perforatum L. extracts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Skalkos, Dimitris; Filippidis, George; Kapsokalyvas, Dimitris; Meyer, Heiko; Papazoglou, Theodore; Karentzou, Eleni; Dimitriou, Heleni; Kalmanti, M.

    2005-04-01

    We are reporting elsewhere, the promising photodynamic effect of Hypericum perforatum L. extract (PMF) against T24, NBT-II tumor bladder cells, and HL-60 leukemic cells (using 630nm, and 530nm laser light respectively). The main advantages of the extract as a photosensitizer are its low cost, extensive availability, adequate solubility, minimal toxicity, and use with a range of wavelengths. Extraction of dry herb with methanol yields the methanolic extract (ME) in 11%, which is then fractionated using liquid / liquid extraction, yielding the polar methanolic fraction (PMF) in 9,9% overall yield. Hypericin, a photosensitizing ingredient of the herb, was found in these extracts in concentrations as low as 0,51%, and 0,57% respectively. Laser induced fluorescence spectra from the ME and PMF were recorded in order to evaluate their photodiagnostic capacity. An Argon-ion laser was employed for the excitation of the samples. It was shown that the extracts resulted in different fluorescence spectra related both to their intensity, and shape. The intensities of these spectra were only 8 times less compared to the fluorescence of pure hypericin. The dependence of the signal on the pH of the medium of pure hypericin and of PMF was also investigated in order to determine specific spectra variations. According to the results hypericin fluorescence signal fades smoothly in highly acidic medium, while it decreases sharply in highly basic environment. On the contrary PMF gives a slow decrease of fluorescence in both acidic and basic medium. These data suggest that PMF-induced fluorescence is highly sensitive in basic and acidic environment.

  10. Detection and characterization of chemical-induced abnormal tissue and rat tumors at different stages using fluorescence spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Wei R.; Jassemnejad, Baha; Crull, Jason; Knobbe, Edward T.; Nordquist, Robert E.

    1996-04-01

    Fluorescence spectroscopy of diseased tissues, including chemical-induced rat liver, kidney and testis lesions, as well as murine mammary tumor, was studied. The rat liver, kidney and testis tissues were excited by radiation of 350 and 366 nm, which appeared to provide the optimal differentiation between normal and lesion tissues; the tumor tissues were excited by both 350 nm and 775 nm wavelengths. In comparison with normal liver tissue, at (lambda) ex equals 366 nm, the fluorescent spectrum of liver lesion showed a clear red shift around the emission peak of 470 nm, the major native fluorescent peak of organized tissue. When excited by 350 nm wavelength, all the chemically induced lesion tissues (liver, kidney and testis) appeared to cause a significant reduction of emission intensity at the 470 nm peak. While the 775 nm excitation did not reveal any significant difference among tumor, muscle and skin tissues, the 350 nm excitation did provide some interesting features among the tumor tissues at different stages. Compared with muscle tissue, the viable tumor showed an overall reduction of emission intensity around 470 nm. In addition, the viable tumor tissue showed a secondary emission peak at 390 nm with necrotic tumor tissue having a reduced intensity. The histology of both viable and necrotic tumor tissue was examined and appeared to correlate with the results of the fluorescent spectroscopy observation.

  11. Quality of sour cream packaged in cups with different light barrier properties measured by fluorescence spectroscopy and sensory analysis.

    PubMed

    Larsen, Hanne; Tellefsen, Siri Birgitte Geiner; Dahl, Annette Veberg

    2009-10-01

    In this study, photooxidation of sour cream packaged in cups with different light barrier properties was investigated. The sour cream was light exposed for 36 h with a standard fluorescent light tube, simulating storage conditions in many Norwegian grocery stores. Three different cups were evaluated: a white cup, a cup with medium light barrier (LB), and a cup with high LB. The quality of the sour cream was evaluated by sensory analysis and front face fluorescence spectroscopy. The sour cream stored in white cups became very rancid during the light exposure, with a rancid flavor score of 7.8 on a scale from 1 to 9, where 9 is the highest intensity. Cups with high LB gave best protection against the light. The sensory assessors could not distinguish between sour cream stored in cups with high LB and sour cream stored in the dark. The rancid flavor intensity for the cups with medium LB was significantly different (P < 0.05) from both the white cup and the cup with high LB. The sensory flavor intensities indicated that with 36 h of light exposure, only a cup with high LB will protect the sour cream sufficiently. The fluorescence measurements corresponded well with the sensory analysis as the photosensitizers were somewhat degraded for sour cream stored in cups with medium LB and most degraded in the white cups. For the cups with high LB, the fluorescence peaks that originated from the photosensitizers were all intact. Dairy products such as sour cream will develop off-odor and taste faults ("sunlight taste") in a few hours if exposed to sufficient fluorescent lightning in the grocery stores. A light barrier can be incorporated in the packaging material to protect the dairy products from the light. Our experiment showed that the incorporation of a black pigment into 1 of the 3 plastic layers in the cup for packaging of sour cream protected the sour cream from degradation when exposed to light.

  12. Plant Chlorophyll fluorescence: active and passive measurements at canopy and leaf scales with different nitrogen treatments

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Most studies assessing chlorophyll fluorescence (ChlF) have examined leaf responses to environmental stress conditions using active techniques. Alternatively, passive techniques are able to measure ChlF at both leaf and canopy scales. However, although the measurement principles of both techniques a...

  13. Estrogen-Induced Cholestasis Leads to Repressed CYP2D6 Expression in CYP2D6-Humanized Mice.

    PubMed

    Pan, Xian; Jeong, Hyunyoung

    2015-07-01

    Cholestasis activates bile acid receptor farnesoid X receptor (FXR) and subsequently enhances hepatic expression of small heterodimer partner (SHP). We previously demonstrated that SHP represses the transactivation of cytochrome P450 2D6 (CYP2D6) promoter by hepatocyte nuclear factor (HNF) 4α. In this study, we investigated the effects of estrogen-induced cholestasis on CYP2D6 expression. Estrogen-induced cholestasis occurs in subjects receiving estrogen for contraception or hormone replacement, or in susceptible women during pregnancy. In CYP2D6-humanized transgenic (Tg-CYP2D6) mice, cholestasis triggered by administration of 17α-ethinylestradiol (EE2) at a high dose led to 2- to 3-fold decreases in CYP2D6 expression. This was accompanied by increased hepatic SHP expression and subsequent decreases in the recruitment of HNF4α to CYP2D6 promoter. Interestingly, estrogen-induced cholestasis also led to increased recruitment of estrogen receptor (ER) α, but not that of FXR, to Shp promoter, suggesting a predominant role of ERα in transcriptional regulation of SHP in estrogen-induced cholestasis. EE2 at a low dose (that does not cause cholestasis) also increased SHP (by ∼ 50%) and decreased CYP2D6 expression (by 1.5-fold) in Tg-CYP2D6 mice, the magnitude of differences being much smaller than that shown in EE2-induced cholestasis. Taken together, our data indicate that EE2-induced cholestasis increases SHP and represses CYP2D6 expression in Tg-CYP2D6 mice in part through ERα transactivation of Shp promoter.

  14. Estrogen-Induced Cholestasis Leads to Repressed CYP2D6 Expression in CYP2D6-Humanized Mice

    PubMed Central

    Pan, Xian

    2015-01-01

    Cholestasis activates bile acid receptor farnesoid X receptor (FXR) and subsequently enhances hepatic expression of small heterodimer partner (SHP). We previously demonstrated that SHP represses the transactivation of cytochrome P450 2D6 (CYP2D6) promoter by hepatocyte nuclear factor (HNF) 4α. In this study, we investigated the effects of estrogen-induced cholestasis on CYP2D6 expression. Estrogen-induced cholestasis occurs in subjects receiving estrogen for contraception or hormone replacement, or in susceptible women during pregnancy. In CYP2D6-humanized transgenic (Tg-CYP2D6) mice, cholestasis triggered by administration of 17α-ethinylestradiol (EE2) at a high dose led to 2- to 3-fold decreases in CYP2D6 expression. This was accompanied by increased hepatic SHP expression and subsequent decreases in the recruitment of HNF4α to CYP2D6 promoter. Interestingly, estrogen-induced cholestasis also led to increased recruitment of estrogen receptor (ER) α, but not that of FXR, to Shp promoter, suggesting a predominant role of ERα in transcriptional regulation of SHP in estrogen-induced cholestasis. EE2 at a low dose (that does not cause cholestasis) also increased SHP (by ∼50%) and decreased CYP2D6 expression (by 1.5-fold) in Tg-CYP2D6 mice, the magnitude of differences being much smaller than that shown in EE2-induced cholestasis. Taken together, our data indicate that EE2-induced cholestasis increases SHP and represses CYP2D6 expression in Tg-CYP2D6 mice in part through ERα transactivation of Shp promoter. PMID:25943116

  15. NKG2D ligands as therapeutic targets

    PubMed Central

    Spear, Paul; Wu, Ming-Ru; Sentman, Marie-Louise; Sentman, Charles L.

    2013-01-01

    The Natural Killer Group 2D (NKG2D) receptor plays an important role in protecting the host from infections and cancer. By recognizing ligands induced on infected or tumor cells, NKG2D modulates lymphocyte activation and promotes immunity to eliminate ligand-expressing cells. Because these ligands are not widely expressed on healthy adult tissue, NKG2D ligands may present a useful target for immunotherapeutic approaches in cancer. Novel therapies targeting NKG2D ligands for the treatment of cancer have shown preclinical success and are poised to enter into clinical trials. In this review, the NKG2D receptor and its ligands are discussed in the context of cancer, infection, and autoimmunity. In addition, therapies targeting NKG2D ligands in cancer are also reviewed. PMID:23833565

  16. Two-dimensional fluorescence correlation spectroscopy IV: Resolution of fluorescence of tryptophan residues in alcohol dehydrogenase and lysozyme

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fukuma, Hiroaki; Nakashima, Kenichi; Ozaki, Yukihiro; Noda, Isao

    2006-11-01

    Generalized two-dimensional (2D) fluorescence correlation spectroscopy has been used to resolve the fluorescence spectra of two tryptophan (Trp) residues in alcohol dehydrogenase and lysozyme. In each protein, one Trp residue is buried in a hydrophobic domain of the protein matrix and the other Trp residue is located at a hydrophilic domain close to the protein-water interface. Fluorescence quenching by iodide ion, a hydrophilic quencher, was employed as a perturbation to induce the intensity change in the spectra. The Trp residue which is located at the hydrophilic domain is effectively quenched by the quencher, while the Trp residue located at the hydrophobic domain is protected from the quenching. Therefore, the fluorescence of these two Trp residues have a different sensitivity to the quenching, showing a different response to the concentration of the quencher. Fluorescence spectra of the two Trp residues in alcohol dehydrogenase, which are heavily overlapped in conventional one-dimensional spectra, have been successfully resolved by the 2D correlation technique. From the asynchronous correlation map, it was revealed that the quenching of Trp located at the hydrophobic part was brought about after that of Trp located at the hydrophilic part. In contrast, the fluorescence spectra of the two Trp residues could not be resolved after the alcohol dehydrogenase was denatured with guanidine hydrochloride. These results are consistent with the well-known structure of alcohol dehydrogenase. Furthermore, it was elucidated that the present 2D analysis is not interfered by Raman bands of the solvent, which sometimes bring difficulty into the conventional fluorescence analysis. Fluorescence spectra of the Trp residues in lysozyme could not be resolved by the 2D correlation technique. The differences between the two proteins are attributed to the fact that the Trp residue in the hydrophobic site of lysozyme is not sufficiently protected from the quenching.

  17. Selective recognition of parallel and anti-parallel thrombin-binding aptamer G-quadruplexes by different fluorescent dyes

    PubMed Central

    Zhao, Dan; Dong, Xiongwei; Jiang, Nan; Zhang, Dan; Liu, Changlin

    2014-01-01

    G-quadruplexes (G4) have been found increasing potential in applications, such as molecular therapeutics, diagnostics and sensing. Both Thioflavin T (ThT) and N-Methyl mesoporphyrin IX (NMM) become fluorescent in the presence of most G4, but thrombin-binding aptamer (TBA) has been reported as the only exception of the known G4-forming oligonucleotides when ThT is used as a high-throughput assay to identify G4 formation. Here, we investigate the interactions between ThT/NMM and TBA through fluorescence spectroscopy, circular dichroism and molecular docking simulation experiments in the absence or presence of cations. The results display that a large ThT fluorescence enhancement can be observed only when ThT bind to the parallel TBA quadruplex, which is induced to form by ThT in the absence of cations. On the other hand, great promotion in NMM fluorescence can be obtained only in the presence of anti-parallel TBA quadruplex, which is induced to fold by K+ or thrombin. The highly selective recognition of TBA quadruplex with different topologies by the two probes may be useful to investigate the interactions between conformation-specific G4 and the associated proteins, and could also be applied in label-free fluorescent sensing of other biomolecules. PMID:25245945

  18. Dental fluorosis in populations from Chiang Mai, Thailand with different fluoride exposures - paper 2: the ability of fluorescence imaging to detect differences in fluorosis prevalence and severity for different fluoride intakes from water.

    PubMed

    McGrady, Michael G; Ellwood, Roger P; Srisilapanan, Patcharawan; Korwanich, Narumanas; Taylor, Andrew; Goodwin, Michaela; Pretty, Iain A

    2012-08-21

    To assess the ability of fluorescence imaging to detect a dose response relationship between fluorosis severity and different levels of fluoride in water supplies compared to remote photographic scoring in selected populations participating in an observational, epidemiological survey in Chiang Mai, Thailand. Subjects were male and female lifetime residents aged 8-13 years. For each child the fluoride content of cooking water samples (CWS) was assessed to create categorical intervals of water fluoride concentration. Fluorescence images were taken of the maxillary central incisors and analyzed for dental fluorosis using two different software techniques. Output metrics for the fluorescence imaging techniques were compared to TF scores from blinded photographic scores obtained from the survey. Data from 553 subjects were available. Both software analysis techniques demonstrated significant correlations with the photographic scores. The metrics for area effected by fluorosis and the overall fluorescence loss had the strongest association with the photographic TF score (Spearman's rho 0.664 and 0.652 respectively). Both software techniques performed well for comparison of repeat fluorescence images with ICC values of 0.95 and 0.85 respectively. This study supports the potential use of fluorescence imaging for the objective quantification of dental fluorosis. Fluorescence imaging was able to discriminate between populations with different fluoride exposures on a comparable level to remote photographic scoring with acceptable levels of repeatability.

  19. Dental fluorosis in populations from Chiang Mai, Thailand with different fluoride exposures - Paper 2: The ability of fluorescence imaging to detect differences in fluorosis prevalence and severity for different fluoride intakes from water

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background To assess the ability of fluorescence imaging to detect a dose response relationship between fluorosis severity and different levels of fluoride in water supplies compared to remote photographic scoring in selected populations participating in an observational, epidemiological survey in Chiang Mai, Thailand. Methods Subjects were male and female lifetime residents aged 8-13 years. For each child the fluoride content of cooking water samples (CWS) was assessed to create categorical intervals of water fluoride concentration. Fluorescence images were taken of the maxillary central incisors and analyzed for dental fluorosis using two different software techniques. Output metrics for the fluorescence imaging techniques were compared to TF scores from blinded photographic scores obtained from the survey. Results Data from 553 subjects were available. Both software analysis techniques demonstrated significant correlations with the photographic scores. The metrics for area effected by fluorosis and the overall fluorescence loss had the strongest association with the photographic TF score (Spearman’s rho 0.664 and 0.652 respectively). Both software techniques performed well for comparison of repeat fluorescence images with ICC values of 0.95 and 0.85 respectively. Conclusions This study supports the potential use of fluorescence imaging for the objective quantification of dental fluorosis. Fluorescence imaging was able to discriminate between populations with different fluoride exposures on a comparable level to remote photographic scoring with acceptable levels of repeatability. PMID:22908997

  20. Remarks on thermalization in 2D CFT

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Boer, Jan; Engelhardt, Dalit

    2016-12-01

    We revisit certain aspects of thermalization in 2D conformal field theory (CFT). In particular, we consider similarities and differences between the time dependence of correlation functions in various states in rational and non-rational CFTs. We also consider the distinction between global and local thermalization and explain how states obtained by acting with a diffeomorphism on the ground state can appear locally thermal, and we review why the time-dependent expectation value of the energy-momentum tensor is generally a poor diagnostic of global thermalization. Since all 2D CFTs have an infinite set of commuting conserved charges, generic initial states might be expected to give rise to a generalized Gibbs ensemble rather than a pure thermal ensemble at late times. We construct the holographic dual of the generalized Gibbs ensemble and show that, to leading order, it is still described by a Banados-Teitelboim-Zanelli black hole. The extra conserved charges, while rendering c <1 theories essentially integrable, therefore seem to have little effect on large-c conformal field theories.

  1. 2D packing using the Myriad framework

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chatburn, Luke T.; Batchelor, Bruce G.

    2004-02-01

    Myriad is a framework for building networked and distributed vision systems and is described in a companion paper in this conference. Myriad allows the components of a multi-camera, multi-user vision system (web-cameras, image processing engines, intelligent device controllers, databases and the user interface terminals) to be interconnected and operated together, even if they are physically separated by many hundreds, or thousands, of kilometres. This is achieved by operating them as Internet services. The principal objective in this article is to illustrate the simplicity of harmonising visual control with an existing system using Myriad. However, packing of 2-dimensional blob-like objects is of considerable commercial importance in some industries and involves robotic handling and/or cutting. The shapes to be packed may be cut from sheet metal, glass, cloth, leather, wood, card, paper, composite board, or flat food materials. In addition, many 3D packing applications can realistically be tackled only by regarding them as multi-layer 2D applications. Using Myriad to perform 2D packing, a set of blob-like input objects ("shapes") can be digitised using a standard camera (e.g. a "webcam"). The resulting digital images are then analysed, using a separate processing engine, perhaps located on a different continent. The packing is planned by another processing system, perhaps on a third continent. Finally, the assembly is performed using a robot, usually but not necessarily, located close to the camera.

  2. Structural investigation of nuclear RNP particles containing pre-mRNA by different fluorescence techniques.

    PubMed Central

    Borissova, O F; Krichevskaya, A A; Samarina, O P

    1981-01-01

    Ethidium bromide (EB) adsorption isotherms on 30S nuclear RNP particles isolated from liver nuclei has revealed 6% of double-stranded regions in pre-mRNA (dsRNA). It has been established by measurements of the EB fluorescence polarization that the bulk of dsRNA regions in RNP is rigidly attached to RNP. They are longer than 45 degree A. The increase of NaCl concentration from 0.1 up to 0.4 M causes a significant loosening of dsRNA-protein bonds. As a result the dsRNA segments become more flexible. Measurements of energy transfer from fluorescamine (covalently bound to the protein) to EB (adsorbed on dsRNA) have yielded information about dsRNA location. The fact that absorbtion of exciting light by fluorescamine causes pronounced increase of EB fluorescence is consistent with the idea that helical regions of RNA are located outside the RNP particles. PMID:7220348

  3. Classification of different kinds of pesticide residues on lettuce based on fluorescence spectra and WT-BCC-SVM algorithm

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhou, Xin; Jun, Sun; Zhang, Bing; Jun, Wu

    2017-07-01

    In order to improve the reliability of the spectrum feature extracted by wavelet transform, a method combining wavelet transform (WT) with bacterial colony chemotaxis algorithm and support vector machine (BCC-SVM) algorithm (WT-BCC-SVM) was proposed in this paper. Besides, we aimed to identify different kinds of pesticide residues on lettuce leaves in a novel and rapid non-destructive way by using fluorescence spectra technology. The fluorescence spectral data of 150 lettuce leaf samples of five different kinds of pesticide residues on the surface of lettuce were obtained using Cary Eclipse fluorescence spectrometer. Standard normalized variable detrending (SNV detrending), Savitzky-Golay coupled with Standard normalized variable detrending (SG-SNV detrending) were used to preprocess the raw spectra, respectively. Bacterial colony chemotaxis combined with support vector machine (BCC-SVM) and support vector machine (SVM) classification models were established based on full spectra (FS) and wavelet transform characteristics (WTC), respectively. Moreover, WTC were selected by WT. The results showed that the accuracy of training set, calibration set and the prediction set of the best optimal classification model (SG-SNV detrending-WT-BCC-SVM) were 100%, 98% and 93.33%, respectively. In addition, the results indicated that it was feasible to use WT-BCC-SVM to establish diagnostic model of different kinds of pesticide residues on lettuce leaves.

  4. Joint 2D and 3D phase processing for quantitative susceptibility mapping: application to 2D echo-planar imaging.

    PubMed

    Wei, Hongjiang; Zhang, Yuyao; Gibbs, Eric; Chen, Nan-Kuei; Wang, Nian; Liu, Chunlei

    2017-04-01

    Quantitative susceptibility mapping (QSM) measures tissue magnetic susceptibility and typically relies on time-consuming three-dimensional (3D) gradient-echo (GRE) MRI. Recent studies have shown that two-dimensional (2D) multi-slice gradient-echo echo-planar imaging (GRE-EPI), which is commonly used in functional MRI (fMRI) and other dynamic imaging techniques, can also be used to produce data suitable for QSM with much shorter scan times. However, the production of high-quality QSM maps is difficult because data obtained by 2D multi-slice scans often have phase inconsistencies across adjacent slices and strong susceptibility field gradients near air-tissue interfaces. To address these challenges in 2D EPI-based QSM studies, we present a new data processing procedure that integrates 2D and 3D phase processing. First, 2D Laplacian-based phase unwrapping and 2D background phase removal are performed to reduce phase inconsistencies between slices and remove in-plane harmonic components of the background phase. This is followed by 3D background phase removal for the through-plane harmonic components. The proposed phase processing was evaluated with 2D EPI data obtained from healthy volunteers, and compared against conventional 3D phase processing using the same 2D EPI datasets. Our QSM results were also compared with QSM values from time-consuming 3D GRE data, which were taken as ground truth. The experimental results show that this new 2D EPI-based QSM technique can produce quantitative susceptibility measures that are comparable with those of 3D GRE-based QSM across different brain regions (e.g. subcortical iron-rich gray matter, cortical gray and white matter). This new 2D EPI QSM reconstruction method is implemented within STI Suite, which is a comprehensive shareware for susceptibility imaging and quantification. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  5. Phagocytosis of live versus killed or fluorescently labeled bacteria by macrophages differ in both magnitude and receptor specificity.

    PubMed

    Peruń, Angelika; Biedroń, Rafał; Konopiński, Maciej K; Białecka, Anna; Marcinkiewicz, Janusz; Józefowski, Szczepan

    2017-05-01

    Scavenger receptor (SR)-mediated opsonin-independent phagocytosis of bacteria by macrophages has been suggested to represent an important, early mechanism of anti-bacterial host defense. However, although the ability to bind bacteria has been demonstrated to be a shared feature of all types of SRs, in many cases the evidence is limited to the demonstration of increased binding of killed, fluorescently labeled bacteria to non-phagocytic cells transfected with these receptors. We sought to verify the ability of SRs to mediate non-opsonic phagocytosis of live Escherichia coli (Ec) and Staphylococcus aureus (Sa), model species of Gram-negative and -positive bacteria, respectively, and to assess the relative contributions of different SRs expressed on murine macrophages in this process. We found that the class A SR SR-A/CD204 was the major receptor mediating phagocytosis of fluorescently labeled Sa, whereas different SRs had highly redundant roles in the phagocytosis of live Sa. Conversely, different SRs contributed to the phagocytosis of fluorescently labeled Ec. In comparison, phagocytosis of live Ec was of much lower magnitude and was selectively mediated by SR-A. These results question the use of fluorescently labeled bacteria as valid replacements for live bacteria. The low magnitude of opsonin-independent phagocytosis of Ec and unimpaired phagocytosis of Sa in SR-A- or CD36-deficient macrophages indicate that the defect in this process might not be responsible for the reported impaired bacteria clearance in mice deficient in these receptors. We postulate that this impairment might result to a larger extent from inhibition of intracellular bacteria killing caused by pro-inflammatory cytokines, produced in excessive amounts by SR-deficient cells in response to bacterial products.

  6. 2D vs. 3D mammography observer study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fernandez, James Reza F.; Hovanessian-Larsen, Linda; Liu, Brent

    2011-03-01

    Breast cancer is the most common type of non-skin cancer in women. 2D mammography is a screening tool to aid in the early detection of breast cancer, but has diagnostic limitations of overlapping tissues, especially in dense breasts. 3D mammography has the potential to improve detection outcomes by increasing specificity, and a new 3D screening tool with a 3D display for mammography aims to improve performance and efficiency as compared to 2D mammography. An observer study using a mammography phantom was performed to compare traditional 2D mammography with this ne 3D mammography technique. In comparing 3D and 2D mammography there was no difference in calcification detection, and mass detection was better in 2D as compared to 3D. There was a significant decrease in reading time for masses, calcifications, and normals in 3D compared to 2D, however, as well as more favorable confidence levels in reading normal cases. Given the limitations of the mammography phantom used, however, a clearer picture in comparing 3D and 2D mammography may be better acquired with the incorporation of human studies in the future.

  7. Fluorescence of dental porcelain.

    PubMed

    Monsénégo, G; Burdairon, G; Clerjaud, B

    1993-01-01

    This study of the fluorescence of natural enamel and of dental ceramics shows the fluorescence of ceramics not containing rare earths decreases when the color saturation increases; the fluorescence of samples of the same shade guide are not homogenous; some guides show a strong green fluorescence; and two shade guides of the same origin can present completely different fluorescence. The cementing medium can affect the fluorescence of a ceramic prosthesis.

  8. Development of a MEMS 2D separations device

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bloschock, Kristen P.; Flyer, Jonathan N.; Schneider, Thomas W.; Hussam, Abul; Van Keuren, Edward R.

    2004-12-01

    A polymer based biochip for rapid 2D separations of peptides, proteins, and other biomedically relevant molecules was designed and fabricated. Like traditional 2D polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (2D-PAGE) methods, the device will allow molecules to separate based on isoelectric point (pI) and molecular weight (MW). Our design, however, integrates both an initial capillary isoelectric focusing (cIEF) step followed by capillary electrophoresis (CE) in multiple parallel channels, all on a single microfluidic chip. Not only is the "lab-on-a-chip" design easier to use and less expensive, but the miniaturization of the device produces very rapid separations. Compared to traditional 2D-PAGE, which can take hours to complete, we estimate separation times on the order of seconds. Fluorescence detection will be used in the preliminary stages of testing, but the device also is equipped with integrated electrodes in the electrophoresis channels to perform multiplexed electrochemical detection for quantitative analysis. We will present preliminary results of the chip development and testing.

  9. Numerical Evaluation of 2D Ground States

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kolkovska, Natalia

    2016-02-01

    A ground state is defined as the positive radial solution of the multidimensional nonlinear problem \\varepsilon propto k_ bot 1 - ξ with the function f being either f(u) =a|u|p-1u or f(u) =a|u|pu+b|u|2pu. The numerical evaluation of ground states is based on the shooting method applied to an equivalent dynamical system. A combination of fourth order Runge-Kutta method and Hermite extrapolation formula is applied to solving the resulting initial value problem. The efficiency of this procedure is demonstrated in the 1D case, where the maximal difference between the exact and numerical solution is ≈ 10-11 for a discretization step 0:00025. As a major application, we evaluate numerically the critical energy constant. This constant is defined as a functional of the ground state and is used in the study of the 2D Boussinesq equations.

  10. Application of 2-D graphical representation of DNA sequence

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liao, Bo; Tan, Mingshu; Ding, Kequan

    2005-10-01

    Recently, we proposed a 2-D graphical representation of DNA sequence [Bo Liao, A 2-D graphical representation of DNA sequence, Chem. Phys. Lett. 401 (2005) 196-199]. Based on this representation, we consider properties of mutations and compute the similarities among 11 mitochondrial sequences belonging to different species. The elements of the similarity matrix are used to construct phylogenic tree. Unlike most existing phylogeny construction methods, the proposed method does not require multiple alignment.

  11. Phylogenetic tree construction based on 2D graphical representation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liao, Bo; Shan, Xinzhou; Zhu, Wen; Li, Renfa

    2006-04-01

    A new approach based on the two-dimensional (2D) graphical representation of the whole genome sequence [Bo Liao, Chem. Phys. Lett., 401(2005) 196.] is proposed to analyze the phylogenetic relationships of genomes. The evolutionary distances are obtained through measuring the differences among the 2D curves. The fuzzy theory is used to construct phylogenetic tree. The phylogenetic relationships of H5N1 avian influenza virus illustrate the utility of our approach.

  12. Compact and cost effective instrument for detecting drug precursors in different environments based on fluorescence polarization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Antolín-Urbaneja, J. C.; Eguizabal, I.; Briz, N.; Dominguez, A.; Estensoro, P.; Secchi, A.; Varriale, A.; Di Giovanni, S.; D'Auria, S.

    2013-05-01

    Several techniques for detecting chemical drug precursors have been developed in the last decade. Most of them are able to identify molecules at very low concentration under lab conditions. Other commercial devices are able to detect a fixed number and type of target substances based on a single detection technique providing an absence of flexibility with respect to target compounds. The construction of compact and easy to use detection systems providing screening for a large number of compounds being able to discriminate them with low false alarm rate and high probability of detection is still an open concern. Under CUSTOM project, funded by the European Commission within the FP7, a stand-alone portable sensing device based on multiple techniques is being developed. One of these techniques is based on the LED induced fluorescence polarization to detect Ephedrine and Benzyl Methyl Keton (BMK) as a first approach. This technique is highly selective with respect to the target compounds due to the generation of properly engineered fluorescent proteins which are able to bind the target analytes, as it happens in an "immune-type reaction". This paper deals with the advances in the design, construction and validation of the LED induced fluorescence sensor to detect BMK analytes. This sensor includes an analysis module based on high performance LED and PMT detector, a fluidic system to dose suitable quantities of reagents and some printed circuit boards, all of them fixed in a small structure (167mm × 193mm × 228mm) with the capability of working as a stand-alone application.

  13. Synchrotron-induced X-ray fluorescence from rat bone and lumber vertebra of different age groups

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rao, Donepudi V.; Swapna, Medasani; Cesareo, Roberto; Brunetti, Antonio; Akatsuka, Tako; Yuasa, Tetsuya; Takeda, Tohoru; Tromba, Giuliana; Gigante, Giovanni E.

    2009-02-01

    The fluorescence spectra from rat bones of different age groups (8, 56 and 78 weeks) and lumber vertebra were measured with 8, 10 and 12 keV synchrotron X-rays. We have utilized the new hard X-ray micro-spectroscopy beamline facility, X27A, available at NSLS with a primary beam spot size of the order of ˜10 μm. With this spatial resolution and high flux throughput, X-ray fluorescent intensities for Ca and other trace elements were measured using a liquid-nitrogen-cooled 13-element energy-dispersive high-purity germanium detector. Regarding the lumber vertebra, we acquired the fluorescence spectra from the left, right and middle portions and calcium accumulation was evaluated and compared with the other samples. We have identified the major trace elements of Ca, Ni, Fe and Zn and minor trace elements of Ti, Cr and Mn in the sample. The percentage of scattered radiation and trace element contributions from these samples were highlighted at different energies.

  14. Exciton energy transfer-based quantum dot fluorescence sensing array: "chemical noses" for discrimination of different nucleobases.

    PubMed

    Liu, Jianbo; Li, Gui; Yang, Xiaohai; Wang, Kemin; Li, Li; Liu, Wei; Shi, Xing; Guo, Yali

    2015-01-20

    A novel exciton energy transfer-based fluorescence sensing array for the discrimination of different nucleobases was developed through target nucleobase-triggered self-assembly of quantum dots (QDs). Four QD nanoprobes with different ligand receptors, including mercaptoethylamine, N-acetyl-l-cysteine, 2-dimethyl-aminethanethiol, and thioglycolic acid, were created to detect and identify nucleobase targets. These QDs served as both selective recognition scaffolds and signal transduction elements for a biomolecule target. The extent of particle assembly, induced by the analyte-triggered self-assembly of QDs, led to an exciton energy transfer effect between interparticles that gave a readily detectable fluorescence quenching and distinct fluorescence response patterns. These patterns are characteristic for each nucleobase and can be quantitatively differentiated by linear discriminate analysis. Furthermore, a fingerprint-based barcode was established to conveniently discriminate the nucleobases. This pattern sensing was successfully used to identify nucleobase samples at unknown concentrations and five rare bases. In this "chemical noses" strategy, the robust characteristics of QD nanoprobes, coupled with the diversity of surface functionality that can be readily obtained using nanoparticles, provides a simple and label-free biosensing approach that shows great promise for biomedical applications.

  15. Smooth 2D manifold extraction from 3D image stack

    PubMed Central

    Shihavuddin, Asm; Basu, Sreetama; Rexhepaj, Elton; Delestro, Felipe; Menezes, Nikita; Sigoillot, Séverine M; Del Nery, Elaine; Selimi, Fekrije; Spassky, Nathalie; Genovesio, Auguste

    2017-01-01

    Three-dimensional fluorescence microscopy followed by image processing is routinely used to study biological objects at various scales such as cells and tissue. However, maximum intensity projection, the most broadly used rendering tool, extracts a discontinuous layer of voxels, obliviously creating important artifacts and possibly misleading interpretation. Here we propose smooth manifold extraction, an algorithm that produces a continuous focused 2D extraction from a 3D volume, hence preserving local spatial relationships. We demonstrate the usefulness of our approach by applying it to various biological applications using confocal and wide-field microscopy 3D image stacks. We provide a parameter-free ImageJ/Fiji plugin that allows 2D visualization and interpretation of 3D image stacks with maximum accuracy. PMID:28561033

  16. Computational analysis of fluorescence induction curves in intact spinach leaves treated at different pH.

    PubMed

    Tongra, Teena; Mehta, Pooja; Mathur, Sonal; Agrawal, Divya; Bharti, Sudhakar; Los, Dmitry A; Allakhverdiev, Suleyman I; Jajoo, Anjana

    2011-02-01

    Effects of change in pH have been investigated on spinach leaf discs by measuring fluorescence induction kinetics using plant efficiency analyzer (PEA). On the basis of computational analysis of the results, we have reported that acidic pH causes a significant inhibition of the donor and the acceptor side of PS II. Energy flux models have been presented using the software Biolyzer HP 3. Effects of pH were investigated on the antenna size heterogeneity of PS II and a relative change in the proportions of α, β, and γ centers was observed.

  17. Controlling Structural Anisotropy of Anisotropic 2D Layers in Pseudo-1D/2D Material Heterojunctions.

    PubMed

    Chen, Bin; Wu, Kedi; Suslu, Aslihan; Yang, Sijie; Cai, Hui; Yano, Aliya; Soignard, Emmanuel; Aoki, Toshihiro; March, Katia; Shen, Yuxia; Tongay, Sefaattin

    2017-07-10

    Chemical vapor deposition and growth dynamics of highly anisotropic 2D lateral heterojunctions between pseudo-1D ReS2 and isotropic WS2 monolayers are reported for the first time. Constituent ReS2 and WS2 layers have vastly different atomic structure, crystallizing in anisotropic 1T' and isotropic 2H phases, respectively. Through high-resolution scanning transmission electron microscopy, electron energy loss spectroscopy, and angle-resolved Raman spectroscopy, this study is able to provide the very first atomic look at intimate interfaces between these dissimilar 2D materials. Surprisingly, the results reveal that ReS2 lateral heterojunctions to WS2 produce well-oriented (highly anisotropic) Re-chains perpendicular to WS2 edges. When vertically stacked, Re-chains orient themselves along the WS2 zigzag direction, and consequently, Re-chains exhibit six-fold rotation, resulting in loss of macroscopic scale anisotropy. The degree of anisotropy of ReS2 on WS2 largely depends on the domain size, and decreases for increasing domain size due to randomization of Re-chains and formation of ReS2 subdomains. Present work establishes the growth dynamics of atomic junctions between novel anisotropic/isotropic 2D materials, and overall results mark the very first demonstration of control over anisotropy direction, which is a significant leap forward for large-scale nanomanufacturing of anisotropic systems. © 2017 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  18. Absorption, Fluorescence and Emission Anisotropy Spectra of 4-Cyano-N,N-dimethylaniline in Different Media and at Different Temperatures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kawski, A.; Piszczek, G.

    1997-05-01

    The effect of temperature on fluorescence and emission anisotropy spectra of 4-cyano-N,N-dimethylaniline (CDMA) was investigated in viscous (glycerol and paraffin oil) and rigid (polyvinyl alcohol) PVA and polyvinyl chloride) PVC) media. A strong effect of temperature on the intensity of a and b emission bands was observed. It was also found that the emission anisotropy, r, does not vary in the longwave emission band a at a fixed temperature but decreases in the emission band b together with the decreasing wavelength. The latter effect is due to the fact that the transition moment in this band is perpendicular to the long axis of the CDMA molecule. For CDMA in paraffin oil, a normal b band with negative emission anisotropy only occurs. In all other media used, the emission anisotropy has lower values, approaching zero, which results from the considerable covering of band b with a broad emission band a.

  19. Regulation of NKG2D ligand gene expression.

    PubMed

    Eagle, Robert A; Traherne, James A; Ashiru, Omodele; Wills, Mark R; Trowsdale, John

    2006-03-01

    The activating immunoreceptor NKG2D has seven known host ligands encoded by the MHC class I chain-related MIC and ULBP/RAET genes. Why there is such diversity of NKG2D ligands is not known but one hypothesis is that they are differentially expressed in different tissues in response to different stresses. To explore this, we compared expression patterns and promoters of NKG2D ligand genes. ULBP/RAET genes were transcribed independent of each other in a panel of cell lines. ULBP/RAET gene expression was upregulated on infection with human cytomegalovirus; however, a clinical strain, Toledo, induced expression more slowly than did a laboratory strain, AD169. ULBP4/RAET1E was not induced by infection with either strain. To investigate the mechanisms behind the similarities and differences in NKG2D ligand gene expression a comparative sequence analysis of NKG2D ligand gene putative promoter regions was conducted. Sequence alignments demonstrated that there was significant sequence diversity; however, one region of high similarity between most of the genes is evident. This region contains a number of potential transcription factor binding sites, including those involved in shock responses and sites for retinoic acid-induced factors. Promoters of some NKG2D ligand genes are polymorphic and several sequence alterations in these alleles abolished putative transcription factor binding.

  20. Endogenous and exogenous fluorescence of gastrointestinal tumors: initial clinical observations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Borisova, Ekaterina; Plamenova, Lilia; Keremedchiev, Momchil; Vladimirov, Borislav; Avramov, Latchezar

    2013-03-01

    The limitations of standard endoscopy for detection and evaluation of cancerous changes in gastrointestinal tract (GIT) are significant challenge and initiate development of new diagnostic modalities. Therefore many spectral and optical techniques are applied recently into the clinical practice for obtaining qualitatively and quantitatively new data from gastrointestinal neoplasia with different level of clinical applicability and diagnostic success. One of the most promising approaches is fluorescence detection using naturally existing fluorescent molecules or added fluorescent markers. Deltaaminolevulinic acid / protoporphyrin IX is applied for exogenous fluorescent tumor detection in the upper part of gastrointestinal tract. The 5-ALA is administered per os six hours before measurements at dose 20mg/kg weight. Highpower light-emitting diode at 405 nm is used as a source and the excitation light is passed through the light-guide of standard video-endoscopic system to obtain 2-D visualization. Both kinds of spectra - autofluorescence signals and protoporphyrin IX signal are recorded and stored using a fiber-optic microspectrometer, as in endoscopy instrumental channel a fiber is applied to return information about fluorescence signals. In such way 1-D detection and 2-D visualization of the lesions' fluorescence are received. The results from in vivo detection show significant differentiation between normal and abnormal tissues in 1-D spectroscopic regime, but only moderate discrimination in 2-D imaging.

  1. Recovering fluorescent spectra with an RGB digital camera and color filters using different matrix factorizations.

    PubMed

    Nieves, Juan L; Valero, Eva M; Hernández-Andrés, Javier; Romero, Javier

    2007-07-01

    The aim of a multispectral system is to recover a spectral function at each image pixel, but when a scene is digitally imaged under a light of unknown spectral power distribution (SPD), the image pixels give incomplete information about the spectral reflectances of objects in the scene. We have analyzed how accurately the spectra of artificial fluorescent light sources can be recovered with a digital CCD camera. The red-green-blue (RGB) sensor outputs are modified by the use of successive cutoff color filters. Four algorithms for simplifying the spectra datasets are used: nonnegative matrix factorization (NMF), independent component analysis (ICA), a direct pseudoinverse method, and principal component analysis (PCA). The algorithms are tested using both simulated data and data from a real RGB digital camera. The methods are compared in terms of the minimum rank of factorization and the number of sensors required to derive acceptable spectral and colorimetric SPD estimations; the PCA results are also given for the sake of comparison. The results show that all the algorithms surpass the PCA when a reduced number of sensors is used. The experimental results suggest a significant loss of quality when more than one color filter is used, which agrees with the previous results for reflectances. Nevertheless, an RGB digital camera with or without a prefilter is found to provide good spectral and colorimetric recovery of indoor fluorescent lighting and can be used for color correction without the need of a telespectroradiometer.

  2. Ultrathin 2D Metal-Organic Framework Nanosheets.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Meiting; Wang, Yixian; Ma, Qinglang; Huang, Ying; Zhang, Xiao; Ping, Jianfeng; Zhang, Zhicheng; Lu, Qipeng; Yu, Yifu; Xu, Huan; Zhao, Yanli; Zhang, Hua

    2015-12-02

    A facile surfactant-assisted bottom-up synthetic method to prepare a series of freestanding ultrathin 2D M-TCPP (M = Zn, Cu, Cd or Co, TCPP = tetrakis(4-carboxyphenyl)porphyrin) nanosheets with a thickness of sub-10 nm is developed. As a proof-of-concept application, some of them are successfully used as new platforms for DNA detection. The Cu-TCPP nanosheet-based sensor shows excellent fluorescent sensing performance and is used for the simultaneous detection of multiple DNA targets.

  3. Reconstruction-based 3D/2D image registration.

    PubMed

    Tomazevic, Dejan; Likar, Bostjan; Pernus, Franjo

    2005-01-01

    In this paper we present a novel 3D/2D registration method, where first, a 3D image is reconstructed from a few 2D X-ray images and next, the preoperative 3D image is brought into the best possible spatial correspondence with the reconstructed image by optimizing a similarity measure. Because the quality of the reconstructed image is generally low, we introduce a novel asymmetric mutual information similarity measure, which is able to cope with low image quality as well as with different imaging modalities. The novel 3D/2D registration method has been evaluated using standardized evaluation methodology and publicly available 3D CT, 3DRX, and MR and 2D X-ray images of two spine phantoms, for which gold standard registrations were known. In terms of robustness, reliability and capture range the proposed method outperformed the gradient-based method and the method based on digitally reconstructed radiographs (DRRs).

  4. Recovering 3D particle size distributions from 2D sections

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cuzzi, Jeffrey N.; Olson, Daniel M.

    2017-03-01

    We discuss different ways to convert observed, apparent particle size distributions from 2D sections (thin sections, SEM maps on planar surfaces, etc.) into true 3D particle size distributions. We give a simple, flexible, and practical method to do this; show which of these techniques gives the most faithful conversions; and provide (online) short computer codes to calculate both 2D-3D recoveries and simulations of 2D observations by random sectioning. The most important systematic bias of 2D sectioning, from the standpoint of most chondrite studies, is an overestimate of the abundance of the larger particles. We show that fairly good recoveries can be achieved from observed size distributions containing 100-300 individual measurements of apparent particle diameter.

  5. Negative Terahertz Photoconductivity in 2D Layered Materials.

    PubMed

    Lu, Junpeng; Liu, Hongwei; Sun, Jing

    2017-09-13

    The remarkable specialties of 2D layered materials like the wide spectral coverage, high strength and great flexibility endow ultrathin 2D layered materials the potential to meet the criteria of next generation optoelectronic devices. Photoconductivity is one of the critical parameters of materials applied to optoelectronics. Different to the traditional semiconductors, specific ultrathin 2D layers present anomalous negative photoconductivity. This opens a new avenue for designing novel optoelectronic devices. Deep understanding of the fundamentals in this anomalous response is important for design and optimization of devices. In this review, we provide an overview into the observation of negative photoconductivity in 2D layered materials including graphene, topological insulators and transitional mental dichalcogenides. We also summarize the recent reports about the investigations of the fundamental mechanism using ultrafast terahertz spectroscopies. Finally, we conclude the review by discussing the existing challenges and proposing the possible prospects of this research direction. © 2017 IOP Publishing Ltd.

  6. Phonon thermal conduction in novel 2D materials.

    PubMed

    Xu, Xiangfan; Chen, Jie; Li, Baowen

    2016-12-07

    Recently, there has been increasing interest in phonon thermal transport in low-dimensional materials, due to the crucial importance of dissipating and managing heat in micro- and nano-electronic devices. Significant progress has been achieved for one-dimensional (1D) systems, both theoretically and experimentally. However, the study of heat conduction in two-dimensional (2D) systems is still in its infancy due to the limited availability of 2D materials and the technical challenges of fabricating suspended samples that are suitable for thermal measurements. In this review, we outline different experimental techniques and theoretical approaches for phonon thermal transport in 2D materials, discuss the problems and challenges of phonon thermal transport measurements and provide a comparison between existing experimental data. Special attention will be given to the effects of size, dimensionality, anisotropy and mode contributions in novel 2D systems, including graphene, boron nitride, MoS2, black phosphorous and silicene.

  7. Phonon thermal conduction in novel 2D materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Xiangfan; Chen, Jie; Li, Baowen

    2016-12-01

    Recently, there has been increasing interest in phonon thermal transport in low-dimensional materials, due to the crucial importance of dissipating and managing heat in micro- and nano-electronic devices. Significant progress has been achieved for one-dimensional (1D) systems, both theoretically and experimentally. However, the study of heat conduction in two-dimensional (2D) systems is still in its infancy due to the limited availability of 2D materials and the technical challenges of fabricating suspended samples that are suitable for thermal measurements. In this review, we outline different experimental techniques and theoretical approaches for phonon thermal transport in 2D materials, discuss the problems and challenges of phonon thermal transport measurements and provide a comparison between existing experimental data. Special attention will be given to the effects of size, dimensionality, anisotropy and mode contributions in novel 2D systems, including graphene, boron nitride, MoS2, black phosphorous and silicene.

  8. Dominant 2D magnetic turbulence in the solar wind

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bieber, John W.; Wanner, Wolfgang; Matthaeus, William H.

    1995-01-01

    There have been recent suggestions that solar wind magnetic turbulence may be a composite of slab geometry (wavevector aligned with the mean magnetic field) and 2D geometry (wavevectors perpendicular to the mean field). We report results of two new tests of this hypothesis using Helios measurements of inertial ranged magnetic spectra in the solar wind. The first test is based upon a characteristic difference between perpendicular and parallel reduced power spectra which is expected for the 2D component but not for the slab component. The second test examines the dependence of power spectrum density upon the magnetic field angle (i.e., the angle between the mean magnetic field and the radial direction), a relationship which is expected to be in opposite directions for the slab and 2D components. Both tests support the presence of a dominant (approximately 85 percent by energy) 2D component in solar wind magnetic turbulence.

  9. Recent developments in 2D layered inorganic nanomaterials for sensing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kannan, Padmanathan Karthick; Late, Dattatray J.; Morgan, Hywel; Rout, Chandra Sekhar

    2015-08-01

    Two dimensional layered inorganic nanomaterials (2D-LINs) have recently attracted huge interest because of their unique thickness dependent physical and chemical properties and potential technological applications. The properties of these layered materials can be tuned via both physical and chemical processes. Some 2D layered inorganic nanomaterials like MoS2, WS2 and SnS2 have been recently developed and employed in various applications, including new sensors because of their layer-dependent electrical properties. This article presents a comprehensive overview of recent developments in the application of 2D layered inorganic nanomaterials as sensors. Some of the salient features of 2D materials for different sensing applications are discussed, including gas sensing, electrochemical sensing, SERS and biosensing, SERS sensing and photodetection. The working principles of the sensors are also discussed together with examples.

  10. Staring 2-D hadamard transform spectral imager

    DOEpatents

    Gentry, Stephen M.; Wehlburg, Christine M.; Wehlburg, Joseph C.; Smith, Mark W.; Smith, Jody L.

    2006-02-07

    A staring imaging system inputs a 2D spatial image containing multi-frequency spectral information. This image is encoded in one dimension of the image with a cyclic Hadamarid S-matrix. The resulting image is detecting with a spatial 2D detector; and a computer applies a Hadamard transform to recover the encoded image.

  11. Annotated Bibliography of EDGE2D Use

    SciTech Connect

    J.D. Strachan and G. Corrigan

    2005-06-24

    This annotated bibliography is intended to help EDGE2D users, and particularly new users, find existing published literature that has used EDGE2D. Our idea is that a person can find existing studies which may relate to his intended use, as well as gain ideas about other possible applications by scanning the attached tables.

  12. Proteomic expression of microfungal ripening starter Geotrichum candidum submitted to cold stress is strain-dependent: studies using 2d-dige technology and samespots software analysis.

    PubMed

    Missous, Ghalia; Thammavongs, Bouachanh; Dieuleveux, Virginie; Houssin, Maryline; Henry, Joël; Panoff, Jean-Michel

    2012-01-01

    Geotrichum candidum is a micro-fungus widely used as a ripening starter in cheese making. In anthropogenic environments such as dairy industries, this microorganism is subjected to many environmental and technological stresses including low temperature exposure. Our aim was to study the proteomic response of G. candidum to cold stress using a comparative proteomic approach by two-dimensional Differential In Gel Electrophoresis (2D DIGE). This technique consists on the labeling of proteins by specific fluorescent dyes (CyDyes). The results, obtained with G. candidum cells subjected to cold temperature, show significant proteomic patterns differences compared with the standard conditions. Furthermore, this biochemical response seems strain specific. 2D DIGE technology combined with SameSpots™ software analysis support these results through an important statistical validity. The comparative studies in a single gel, using two different fluorescent CyDyes (Cy3 and Cy5), lead to proteins differentiation. Selected spots were treated and analyzed by mass spectrometry.

  13. Total-reflection X-ray fluorescence — a tool to obtain information about different air masses and air pollution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schmeling, Martina

    2001-11-01

    Atmospheric aerosols are solid particles dissolved in air and change their chemical composition frequently depending on various parameters. In order to identify regional air circulation atmospheric aerosol filter samples were taken at Loyola University Chicago's Lake Shore Campus during the months of July and August 2000 with sampling times ranging between 1 and 2 h. The samples were digested in a microwave oven and analyzed by total-reflection X-ray fluorescence (TXRF) spectrometry. One diurnal variation comprising five consecutive sampling events was selected and discussed as well as 4 days experiencing different meteorology were compared to exemplify the variation in trace elemental concentration according to air mass movements and highlight the capability of total-reflection X-ray fluorescence analysis. It was found that due to changes in meteorological conditions particularly wind direction and wind speed, trace elemental compositions varied rapidly and could be used to distinguish between 'Lake Michigan air' and 'metropolitan Chicago air' on such short-term time scale like one hour. Back trajectory analysis was applied to support and corroborate the results. The outcome of this study clearly shows that total-reflection X-ray fluorescence is an optimal tool for analysis of atmospheric aerosols.

  14. Calibration of the response of 9-amino acridine fluorescence to transmembrane pH differences in bacterial chromatophores.

    PubMed

    Casadio, R; Melandri, B A

    1985-04-01

    The spectral characteristics of absorption and fluorescence emission of 9-amino acridine are not altered by the interaction with bacterial chromatophores, except for the attenuation of both the absorption and emission following the formation of a protonic gradient. The lifetime of fluorescence of the dye is significantly affected in the presence of membranes, and even more following illumination. The shortening of the lifetime induced by light is reversible and prevented by nigericin and K+. The onset kinetics of the fluorescence quenching following the generation of an artificial transmembrane pH difference is temperature dependent, with an activation energy of 17 +/- 3 kcal/mol. The effect of pH on the rate constants is consistent with a model assuming that the diffusion of the unprotonated species is the limiting step in the quenching phenomenon. The response of 9-amino acridine to artificially imposed delta pH's has been utilized as a calibration method for the measurements of the light-induced protonic gradient. The apparent inner volume of chromatophores, evaluated from the extraplation of the response at delta pH = 0, was found to be much larger (15- to 40-fold) than the true osmotic volume, indicating that most of the dye is bound to the membrane when accumulated into the inner lumen.

  15. Stability of curcumin in different solvent and solution media: UV-visible and steady-state fluorescence spectral study.

    PubMed

    Mondal, Satyajit; Ghosh, Soumen; Moulik, Satya P

    2016-05-01

    In aqueous solution, curcumin is photodegradable (light sensitive), it is also self-degradable in the dark. In basic medium, the second process is enhanced. The dark process has been studied in water and also in a number of protic and aprotic solvents, and aqueous solutions of ionic liquids, pluronics, reverse micelles and salt. The kinetics of the process followed the first order rate law; a comparative as well as individual assessment of which has been made. The kinetics of curcumin self-degradation has been found to be fairly dependent on salt (NaCl) concentration. Curcumin molecules in solution may remain in the enol or keto-enol form. From the visible spectral analysis, an estimate of the proportions of these forms in aqueous ethanol medium has been made. The temperature effect on the visible and fluorescence spectra of curcumin has been also studied. The steady state fluorescence anisotropy of the photoactive curcumin has been evaluated in different solvent and solution media. The reversibility of the steady state fluorescence anisotropy of curcumin on heating and cooling conditions has been examined. The results herein presented are new and ought to be useful as the study of physicochemistry of curcumin has been gaining importance in the light of its biological importance.

  16. Revealing Invisible Beauty, Ultra Detailed: The Influence of Low Cost UV Exposure on Natural History Specimens in 2D+ Digitization

    PubMed Central

    Brecko, Jonathan; Mathys, Aurore; Dekoninck, Wouter; De Ceukelaire, Marleen; VandenSpiegel, Didier; Semal, Patrick

    2016-01-01

    Digitization of the natural history specimens usually occurs by taking detailed pictures from different sides or producing 3D models. Additionally this is normally limited to imaging the specimen while exposed by light of the visual spectrum. However many specimens can see in or react to other spectra as well. Fluorescence is a well known reaction to the ultraviolet (UV) spectrum by animals, plants, minerals etc. but rarely taken into account while examining natural history specimens. Our tests show that museum specimens still fluoresce when exposed to UV light of 395 nm and 365 nm, even after many years of preservation. When the UV exposure is used in the digitization of specimens using our low cost focus stacking (2D+) setup, the resulting pictures reveal more detail than the conventional 2D+ images. Differences in fluorescence using 395 nm or 365 nm UV lights were noticed, however there isn’t a preferred wavelength as some specimens react more to the first, while others have better results with the latter exposure. Given the increased detail and the low cost of the system, UV exposure should be considered while digitizing natural history museum collections. PMID:27536993

  17. Revealing Invisible Beauty, Ultra Detailed: The Influence of Low Cost UV Exposure on Natural History Specimens in 2D+ Digitization.

    PubMed

    Brecko, Jonathan; Mathys, Aurore; Dekoninck, Wouter; De Ceukelaire, Marleen; VandenSpiegel, Didier; Semal, Patrick

    2016-01-01

    Digitization of the natural history specimens usually occurs by taking detailed pictures from different sides or producing 3D models. Additionally this is normally limited to imaging the specimen while exposed by light of the visual spectrum. However many specimens can see in or react to other spectra as well. Fluorescence is a well known reaction to the ultraviolet (UV) spectrum by animals, plants, minerals etc. but rarely taken into account while examining natural history specimens. Our tests show that museum specimens still fluoresce when exposed to UV light of 395 nm and 365 nm, even after many years of preservation. When the UV exposure is used in the digitization of specimens using our low cost focus stacking (2D+) setup, the resulting pictures reveal more detail than the conventional 2D+ images. Differences in fluorescence using 395 nm or 365 nm UV lights were noticed, however there isn't a preferred wavelength as some specimens react more to the first, while others have better results with the latter exposure. Given the increased detail and the low cost of the system, UV exposure should be considered while digitizing natural history museum collections.

  18. Hapten-specific T cell responses to 4-hydroxy-3-nitrophenyl acetyl. VI. Evidence for different T cell receptors in cells that mediate H-21-restricted and H-2D-restricted cutaneous sensitivity responses.

    PubMed

    Sunday, M E; Benacerraf, B; Dorf, M E

    1980-12-01

    We have previously shown that cross-reactive sensitivity (CS) responses induced by 4-hydroxy-3-nitrophenyl acetyl-O-succinimide (NP-O-Su) and elicited by its 5-iodo analogue, 4-hydroxy-5-iodo-3-nitrophenyl acetyl-O-succinimide were observed in strains of mice possessing the Igh-1b allotype, but not in strains bearing allotypes Igh-1c or Igh-1j. These CS responses are mediated by T cells and can be transferred to naive recipients that are homologous at either the H-2K, H-2I, or H-2D regions of the major histocompatibility complex. We now extend our analysis of cross-reactive 4-hydroxy-3-nitrophenyl-acetyl (NP)-induced CS responses to inbred strains of mice expressing additional Igh-1 allotypes. In contrast to NP-induced delayed-type hypersensitivity responses, which only display 4-hydroxy-5-iodo-3-nitrophenyl acetyl (NIP) cross-reactivity in Igh-1b-bearing mice, cross-reactive CS responses can also be elicited in NP-primed mice carrying the Igh-1d, Igh-1e, or Igh-1f allotypes. Moreover, cross-reactive NP-induced CS responses could be transferred by NP-O-Su-primed lymph node cells from the AKR (Igh-1d) strain, into naive recipients homologous at the H-2D region, but only non-cross-reactive NP responses could be transferred into strains homologous at the H-2I region. Furthermore, the lack of cross-reactivity in the Igh-1j-bearing C3H strain was not the result of an inability of these mice to recognize NP in association with H-2K/D products, because NP-O-Su-primed cells from C3H donors transferred NP-specific CS responses into both H-2D and H02I homologous recipients. The results are discussed with respect to the nature of the T cell receptors that control NP responses.

  19. Hapten-specific T cell responses to 4-hydroxy-3-nitrophenyl acetyl. VI. Evidence for different T cell receptors in cells that mediate H-21- restricted and H-2D-restricted cutaneous sensitivity responses

    PubMed Central

    1980-01-01

    We have previously shown that cross-reactive sensitivity (CS) responses induced by 4-hydroxy-3-nitrophenyl acetyl-O-succinimide (NP-O-Su) and elicited by its 5-iodo analogue, 4-hydroxy-5-iodo-3-nitrophenyl acetyl- O-succinimide were observed in strains of mice possessing the Igh-1b allotype, but not in strains bearing allotypes Igh-1c or Igh-1j. These CS responses are mediated by T cells and can be transferred to naive recipients that are homologous at either the H-2K, H-2I, or H-2D regions of the major histocompatibility complex. We now extend our analysis of cross-reactive 4-hydroxy-3-nitrophenyl-acetyl (NP)-induced CS responses to inbred strains of mice expressing additional Igh-1 allotypes. In contrast to NP-induced delayed-type hypersensitivity responses, which only display 4-hydroxy-5-iodo-3-nitrophenyl acetyl (NIP) cross-reactivity in Igh-1b-bearing mice, cross-reactive CS responses can also be elicited in NP-primed mice carrying the Igh-1d, Igh-1e, or Igh-1f allotypes. Moreover, cross-reactive NP-induced CS responses could be transferred by NP-O-Su-primed lymph node cells from the AKR (Igh-1d) strain, into naive recipients homologous at the H-2D region, but only non-cross-reactive NP responses could be transferred into strains homologous at the H-2I region. Furthermore, the lack of cross-reactivity in the Igh-1j-bearing C3H strain was not the result of an inability of these mice to recognize NP in association with H-2K/D products, because NP-O-Su-primed cells from C3H donors transferred NP- specific CS responses into both H-2D and H02I homologous recipients. The results are discussed with respect to the nature of the T cell receptors that control NP responses. PMID:6969772

  20. Quantitative determinations and imaging in different structures of buried human bones from the XVIII-XIXth centuries by energy dispersive X-ray fluorescence - Postmortem evaluation.

    PubMed

    Guimarães, D; Dias, A A; Carvalho, M; Carvalho, M L; Santos, J P; Henriques, F R; Curate, F; Pessanha, S

    2016-08-01

    In this work, a non-commercial triaxial geometry energy dispersive X-ray Fluorescence (EDXRF) setup and a benchtop µ-XRF system were used to identify postmortem contamination in buried bones. For two of the individuals, unusually high concentrations of Cu and Pb, but also Zn (in one individual) were observed. The pigments of the burial shroud coverings have been identified as the source of contamination. Accurate and precise quantitative results were obtained by nondestructive process using fundamental parameters method taking into account the matrix absorption effects. A total of 30 bones from 13 individuals, buried between the mid-XVIIIth to early XIXth centuries, were analyzed to study the elemental composition and elemental distribution. The bones were collected from a church in Almada (Portugal), called Ermida do Espírito Santo, located near the Tagus River and at the sea neighbourhood. The triaxial geometry setup was used to quantify Ca, Fe, Cu, Zn, Br, Sr and Pb of powder pressed bone pellets (n=9 for each bone). Cluster analysis was performed considering the elemental concentrations for the different bones. There was a clear association between some bones regarding Fe, Cu, Zn, Br and Pb content but not a categorization between cortical and trabecular bones. The elemental distribution of Cu, Zn and Pb were assessed by the benchtop μ-analysis, the M4 Tornado, based on a polycapillary system which provides multi-elemental 2D maps. The results showed that contamination was mostly on the surface of the bone confirming that it was related to the burial shroud covering the individuals.

  1. CYP2D6 variability in populations from Venezuela.

    PubMed

    Moreno, Nancy; Flores-Angulo, Carlos; Villegas, Cecilia; Mora, Yuselin

    2016-12-01

    CYP2D6 is an important cytochrome P450 enzyme that plays an important role in the metabolism of about 25% of currently prescribed drugs. The presence of polymorphisms in the CYP2D6 gene may modulate enzyme level and activity, thereby affecting individual responses to pharmacological treatments. The most prevalent diseases in the admixed population from Venezuela are cardiovascular and cancer, whereas viral, bacterial and parasitic diseases, particularly malaria, are prevalent in Amerindian populations; in the treatment of these diseases, several drugs that are metabolized by CYP2D6 are used. In this work, we reviewed the data on CYP2D6 variability and predicted metabolizer phenotypes, in healthy volunteers of two admixed and five Amerindian populations from Venezuela. The Venezuelan population is very heterogeneous as a result of the genetic admixture of three major ethnical components: Europeans, Africans and Amerindians. There are noticeable inter-regional and inter-population differences in the process of mixing of this population. Hitherto, there are few published studies in Venezuela on CYP2D6; therefore, it is necessary to increase research in this regard, in particular to develop studies with a larger sample size. There is a considerable amount of work remaining before CYP2D6 is integrated into clinical practice in Venezuela.

  2. A fluorescently labeled dendronized polymer-enzyme conjugate carrying multiple copies of two different types of active enzymes.

    PubMed

    Grotzky, Andrea; Nauser, Thomas; Erdogan, Huriye; Schlüter, A Dieter; Walde, Peter

    2012-07-18

    A hybrid structure of a synthetic dendronized polymer, two different types of enzymes (superoxide dismutase and horseradish peroxidase), and a fluorescent dye (fluorescein) was synthesized. Thereby, a single polymer chain carried multiple copies of the two enzymes and the fluorescein. The entire attachment chemistry is based on UV/vis-quantifiable bis-aryl hydrazone bond formation that allows direct quantification of bound molecules: 60 superoxide dismutase, 120 horseradish peroxidase, and 20 fluorescein molecules on an average polymer chain of 2000 repeating units. To obtain other enzyme ratios the experimental conditions were altered accordingly. Moreover, it could be shown that both enzymes remained fully active and catalyzed a two-step cascade reaction.

  3. Heavy metal stress and leaf senescence induce the barley gene HvC2d1 encoding a calcium-dependent novel C2 domain-like protein.

    PubMed

    Ouelhadj, Akli; Kuschk, Peter; Humbeck, Klaus

    2006-01-01

    By comparing cDNA populations derived from chromium-stressed primary leaves of barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) with controls, differentially expressed cDNA fragments could be identified. The deduced amino acid sequence of one of these cDNAs [named 'C2 domain 1' (HvC2d1)] exhibits a motif that is similar to the known C2 domain and a nuclear localization signal (NLS). Expression of this member of a novel class of plant C2 domain-like proteins was studied using real-time PCR, and subcellular localization was investigated using green fluorescent protein (GFP) fusion constructs. Calcium binding was analysed using a (45)Ca(2+) overlay assay. HvC2d1 was transiently induced after exposure to different heavy metals and its mRNA accumulated during the phase of leaf senescence. HvC2d1 expression responded to changes in calcium levels caused by the calcium ionophore A23187 and to treatment with methylviologen resulting in the production of reactive oxygen species (ROS). Using overexpressed and purified HvC2d1, the binding of calcium could be confirmed. Chimeric HvC2d1-GFP protein was localized in onion epidermal cells at the plasma membrane, cytoplasm and the nucleus. After addition of calcium ionophore A23187 green fluorescence was only visible in the nucleus. The data suggest a calcium-dependent translocation of HvC2d1 to the nucleus. A possible role of HvC2d1 in stress- and development-dependent signalling in the nucleus is discussed.

  4. Persistence Measures for 2d Soap Froth

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Feng, Y.; Ruskin, H. J.; Zhu, B.

    Soap froths as typical disordered cellular structures, exhibiting spatial and temporal evolution, have been studied through their distributions and topological properties. Recently, persistence measures, which permit representation of the froth as a two-phase system, have been introduced to study froth dynamics at different length scales. Several aspects of the dynamics may be considered and cluster persistence has been observed through froth experiment. Using a direct simulation method, we have investigated persistent properties in 2D froth both by monitoring the persistence of survivor cells, a topologically independent measure, and in terms of cluster persistence. It appears that the area fraction behavior for both survivor and cluster persistence is similar for Voronoi froth and uniform froth (with defects). Survivor and cluster persistent fractions are also similar for a uniform froth, particularly when geometries are constrained, but differences observed for the Voronoi case appear to be attributable to the strong topological dependency inherent in cluster persistence. Survivor persistence, on the other hand, depends on the number rather than size and position of remaining bubbles and does not exhibit the characteristic decay to zero.

  5. 2D Radiative Processes Near Cloud Edges

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Varnai, T.

    2012-01-01

    Because of the importance and complexity of dynamical, microphysical, and radiative processes taking place near cloud edges, the transition zone between clouds and cloud free air has been the subject of intense research both in the ASR program and in the wider community. One challenge in this research is that the one-dimensional (1D) radiative models widely used in both remote sensing and dynamical simulations become less accurate near cloud edges: The large horizontal gradients in particle concentrations imply that accurate radiative calculations need to consider multi-dimensional radiative interactions among areas that have widely different optical properties. This study examines the way the importance of multidimensional shortwave radiative interactions changes as we approach cloud edges. For this, the study relies on radiative simulations performed for a multiyear dataset of clouds observed over the NSA, SGP, and TWP sites. This dataset is based on Microbase cloud profiles as well as wind measurements and ARM cloud classification products. The study analyzes the way the difference between 1D and 2D simulation results increases near cloud edges. It considers both monochromatic radiances and broadband radiative heating, and it also examines the influence of factors such as cloud type and height, and solar elevation. The results provide insights into the workings of radiative processes and may help better interpret radiance measurements and better estimate the radiative impacts of this critical region.

  6. Evaluation of different synchrotron beamline configurations for X-ray fluorescence analysis of environmental samples.

    PubMed

    Barberie, Sean R; Iceman, Christopher R; Cahill, Catherine F; Cahill, Thomas M

    2014-08-19

    Synchrotron radiation X-ray fluorescence (SR-XRF) is a powerful elemental analysis tool, yet synchrotrons are large, multiuser facilities that are generally not amenable to modification. However, the X-ray beamlines from synchrotrons can be modified by simply including X-ray filters or removing monochromators to improve the SR-XRF analysis. In this study, we evaluated four easily applied beamline configurations for the analysis of three representative environmental samples, namely a thin aerosol sample, an intermediate thickness biological sample, and a thick rare earth mineral specimen. The results showed that the "white beam" configuration, which was simply the full, polychromatic output of the synchrotron, was the optimal configuration for the analysis of thin samples with little mass. The "filtered white beam" configuration removed the lower energy X-rays from the excitation beam so it gave better sensitivity for elements emitting more energetic X-rays. The "filtered white beam-filtered detector" configuration sacrifices the lower energy part of the spectrum (<15 keV) for improved sensitivity in the higher end (∼26 to 48 keV range). The use of a monochromatic beam, which tends to be the standard mode of operation for most SR-XRF analyses reported in the literature, gave the least sensitive analysis.

  7. DNA interaction with DAPI fluorescent dye: Force spectroscopy decouples two different binding modes.

    PubMed

    Reis, L A; Rocha, M S

    2017-05-01

    In this work, we use force spectroscopy to investigate the interaction between the DAPI fluorescent dye and the λ-DNA molecule under high (174 mM) and low (34 mM) ionic strengths. Firstly, we have measured the changes on the mechanical properties (persistence and contour lengths) of the DNA-DAPI complexes as a function of the dye concentration in the sample. Then, we use recently developed models in order to connect the behavior of both mechanical properties to the physical chemistry of the interaction. Such analysis has allowed us to identify and to decouple two main binding modes, determining the relevant physicochemical (binding) parameters for each of these modes: minor groove binding, which saturates at very low DAPI concentrations ( CT ∼ 0.50 μM) and presents equilibrium binding constants of the order of ∼10(7) M(-1) for the two ionic strengths studied; and intercalation, which starts to play a significant role only after the saturation of the first mode, presenting much smaller equilibrium binding constants (∼10(5) M(-1) ).

  8. Interactions of different polyphenols with bovine serum albumin using fluorescence quenching and molecular docking.

    PubMed

    Skrt, Mihaela; Benedik, Evgen; Podlipnik, Crtomir; Ulrih, Nataša Poklar

    2012-12-15

    Polyphenols are responsible for the major organoleptic characteristics of plant-derived foods and beverages. Here, we investigated the binding of several polyphenols to bovine serum albumin (BSA) at pH 7.5 and 25°C: catechins [(-)-epigallocatechin-3-gallate, (-)-epigallocatechin, (-)-epicatechin-3-gallate], flavones (kaempferol, kaempferol-3-glucoside, quercetin, naringenin) and hydroxycinnamic acids (rosmarinic acid, caffeic acid, p-coumaric acid). Fluorescence emission spectrometry and molecular docking were applied to compare experimentally determined binding parameters with molecular modelling. Among these polyphenols, (-)-epicatechin-3-gallate showed the highest Stern-Volmer modified quenching constant, followed by (-)-epigallocatechin-3-gallate. Similarly, (-)-epicatechin-3-gallate had the highest effect on the Circular Dichroic spectrum of BSA, while the changes induced by other polyphenols were negligible. Molecular docking predicted high binding energies for (-)-epicatechin-3-gallate and (-)-epigallocatechin-3-gallate for the binding site on BSA near Trp213. Our data reveal that the polyphenol structures significantly affect the binding process: the binding affinity generally decreases with glycosylation and reduced numbers of hydroxyl groups on the second aromatic ring. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Capturing tumor complexity in vitro: Comparative analysis of 2D and 3D tumor models for drug discovery.

    PubMed

    Stock, Kristin; Estrada, Marta F; Vidic, Suzana; Gjerde, Kjersti; Rudisch, Albin; Santo, Vítor E; Barbier, Michaël; Blom, Sami; Arundkar, Sharath C; Selvam, Irwin; Osswald, Annika; Stein, Yan; Gruenewald, Sylvia; Brito, Catarina; van Weerden, Wytske; Rotter, Varda; Boghaert, Erwin; Oren, Moshe; Sommergruber, Wolfgang; Chong, Yolanda; de Hoogt, Ronald; Graeser, Ralph

    2016-07-01

    Two-dimensional (2D) cell cultures growing on plastic do not recapitulate the three dimensional (3D) architecture and complexity of human tumors. More representative models are required for drug discovery and validation. Here, 2D culture and 3D mono- and stromal co-culture models of increasing complexity have been established and cross-comparisons made using three standard cell carcinoma lines: MCF7, LNCaP, NCI-H1437. Fluorescence-based growth curves, 3D image analysis, immunohistochemistry and treatment responses showed that end points differed according to cell type, stromal co-culture and culture format. The adaptable methodologies described here should guide the choice of appropriate simple and complex in vitro models.

  10. Capturing tumor complexity in vitro: Comparative analysis of 2D and 3D tumor models for drug discovery

    PubMed Central

    Stock, Kristin; Estrada, Marta F.; Vidic, Suzana; Gjerde, Kjersti; Rudisch, Albin; Santo, Vítor E.; Barbier, Michaël; Blom, Sami; Arundkar, Sharath C.; Selvam, Irwin; Osswald, Annika; Stein, Yan; Gruenewald, Sylvia; Brito, Catarina; van Weerden, Wytske; Rotter, Varda; Boghaert, Erwin; Oren, Moshe; Sommergruber, Wolfgang; Chong, Yolanda; de Hoogt, Ronald; Graeser, Ralph

    2016-01-01

    Two-dimensional (2D) cell cultures growing on plastic do not recapitulate the three dimensional (3D) architecture and complexity of human tumors. More representative models are required for drug discovery and validation. Here, 2D culture and 3D mono- and stromal co-culture models of increasing complexity have been established and cross-comparisons made using three standard cell carcinoma lines: MCF7, LNCaP, NCI-H1437. Fluorescence-based growth curves, 3D image analysis, immunohistochemistry and treatment responses showed that end points differed according to cell type, stromal co-culture and culture format. The adaptable methodologies described here should guide the choice of appropriate simple and complex in vitro models. PMID:27364600

  11. Influence of amino acid residue 374 of cytochrome P-450 2D6 (CYP2D6) on the regio- and enantio-selective metabolism of metoprolol.

    PubMed Central

    Ellis, S W; Rowland, K; Ackland, M J; Rekka, E; Simula, A P; Lennard, M S; Wolf, C R; Tucker, G T

    1996-01-01

    Cytochrome P-450 2D6 (CYP2D6) is an important human drug-metabolizing enzyme responsible for the oxidation of more than 30 widely used therapeutic agents. The enzymes encoded by the published genomic [Kimura, Umeno, Skoda, Meyer and Gonzalez (1989) Am. J. Hum. Genet. 45, 889-904] and cDNA [Gonzalez, Skoda, Kimura, Umeno, Zanger, Nebert, Gelboin, Hardwick and Meyer (1988) Nature 331, 442-446] sequences of CYP2D6, and presumed to represent wild-type sequences, differ at residue 374 and encode valine (CYP2D6-Val) and methionine (CYP2D6-Met) respectively. The influence of this amino acid difference on cytochrome P-450 expression, ligand binding, catalysis and stereoselective oxidation of metoprolol was investigated by the heterologous expression of the corresponding cDNAs in the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae. The level of expression of apo- and holo-protein was similar with each form of CYP2D6 cDNA, and the binding affinities of a series of ligands to CYP2D6-Val and CYP2D6-Met were identical. The enantioselective O-demethylation and alpha-hydroxylation of metoprolol were also similar with each form of CYP2D6, O-demethylation being R-(+)- enantioselective (CYP2D6-Val: R/S, 1.6; CYP2D6-Met: R/S, 1.4), whereas alpha-hydroxylation showed a preference for S-(-)-metoprolol (CYP2D6-Val: R/S, 0.7; CYP2D6-Met: R/S, 0.8). However, although the favoured regiomer overall was O-demethylmetoprolol (ODM), the regioselectivity for O-demethylation of each metoprolol enantiomer was significantly greater for CYP2D6-Val [R-(+)-: ODM/alpha-hydroxymetoprolol (alpha OH), 5.9; S-(-)-: ODM/alpha OH, 2.5) than that observed for CYP2D6-Met [R-(+)-: ODM/alpha OH, 2.2; S-(-)-: ODM/alpha OH, 1.4]. The stereoselective properties of CYP2D6-Val were consistent with those observed for CYP2D6 in human liver microsomes. The difference in the stereoselective properties of CYP2D6-Val and CYP2D6-Met were rationalized with respect to a homology model of the active site of CYP2D6 based on an alignment with

  12. Matrix models of 2d gravity

    SciTech Connect

    Ginsparg, P.

    1991-01-01

    These are introductory lectures for a general audience that give an overview of the subject of matrix models and their application to random surfaces, 2d gravity, and string theory. They are intentionally 1.5 years out of date.

  13. Matrix models of 2d gravity

    SciTech Connect

    Ginsparg, P.

    1991-12-31

    These are introductory lectures for a general audience that give an overview of the subject of matrix models and their application to random surfaces, 2d gravity, and string theory. They are intentionally 1.5 years out of date.

  14. 2D/3D switchable displays

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dekker, T.; de Zwart, S. T.; Willemsen, O. H.; Hiddink, M. G. H.; IJzerman, W. L.

    2006-02-01

    A prerequisite for a wide market acceptance of 3D displays is the ability to switch between 3D and full resolution 2D. In this paper we present a robust and cost effective concept for an auto-stereoscopic switchable 2D/3D display. The display is based on an LCD panel, equipped with switchable LC-filled lenticular lenses. We will discuss 3D image quality, with the focus on display uniformity. We show that slanting the lenticulars in combination with a good lens design can minimize non-uniformities in our 20" 2D/3D monitors. Furthermore, we introduce fractional viewing systems as a very robust concept to further improve uniformity in the case slanting the lenticulars and optimizing the lens design are not sufficient. We will discuss measurements and numerical simulations of the key optical characteristics of this display. Finally, we discuss 2D image quality, the switching characteristics and the residual lens effect.

  15. 2-d Finite Element Code Postprocessor

    SciTech Connect

    Sanford, L. A.; Hallquist, J. O.

    1996-07-15

    ORION is an interactive program that serves as a postprocessor for the analysis programs NIKE2D, DYNA2D, TOPAZ2D, and CHEMICAL TOPAZ2D. ORION reads binary plot files generated by the two-dimensional finite element codes currently used by the Methods Development Group at LLNL. Contour and color fringe plots of a large number of quantities may be displayed on meshes consisting of triangular and quadrilateral elements. ORION can compute strain measures, interface pressures along slide lines, reaction forces along constrained boundaries, and momentum. ORION has been applied to study the response of two-dimensional solids and structures undergoing finite deformations under a wide variety of large deformation transient dynamic and static problems and heat transfer analyses.

  16. Chemical Approaches to 2D Materials.

    PubMed

    Samorì, Paolo; Palermo, Vincenzo; Feng, Xinliang

    2016-08-01

    Chemistry plays an ever-increasing role in the production, functionalization, processing and applications of graphene and other 2D materials. This special issue highlights a selection of enlightening chemical approaches to 2D materials, which nicely reflect the breadth of the field and convey the excitement of the individuals involved in it, who are trying to translate graphene and related materials from the laboratory into a real, high-impact technology.

  17. The agreement between 3D, standard 2D and triplane 2D speckle tracking: effects of image quality and 3D volume rate.

    PubMed

    Trache, Tudor; Stöbe, Stephan; Tarr, Adrienn; Pfeiffer, Dietrich; Hagendorff, Andreas

    2014-12-01

    Comparison of 3D and 2D speckle tracking performed on standard 2D and triplane 2D datasets of normal and pathological left ventricular (LV) wall-motion patterns with a focus on the effect that 3D volume rate (3DVR), image quality and tracking artifacts have on the agreement between 2D and 3D speckle tracking. 37 patients with normal LV function and 18 patients with ischaemic wall-motion abnormalities underwent 2D and 3D echocardiography, followed by offline speckle tracking measurements. The values of 3D global, regional and segmental strain were compared with the standard 2D and triplane 2D strain values. Correlation analysis with the LV ejection fraction (LVEF) was also performed. The 3D and 2D global strain values correlated good in both normally and abnormally contracting hearts, though systematic differences between the two methods were observed. Of the 3D strain parameters, the area strain showed the best correlation with the LVEF. The numerical agreement of 3D and 2D analyses varied significantly with the volume rate and image quality of the 3D datasets. The highest correlation between 2D and 3D peak systolic strain values was found between 3D area and standard 2D longitudinal strain. Regional wall-motion abnormalities were similarly detected by 2D and 3D speckle tracking. 2DST of triplane datasets showed similar results to those of conventional 2D datasets. 2D and 3D speckle tracking similarly detect normal and pathological wall-motion patterns. Limited image quality has a significant impact on the agreement between 3D and 2D numerical strain values.

  18. The agreement between 3D, standard 2D and triplane 2D speckle tracking: effects of image quality and 3D volume rate

    PubMed Central

    Stöbe, Stephan; Tarr, Adrienn; Pfeiffer, Dietrich; Hagendorff, Andreas

    2014-01-01

    Comparison of 3D and 2D speckle tracking performed on standard 2D and triplane 2D datasets of normal and pathological left ventricular (LV) wall-motion patterns with a focus on the effect that 3D volume rate (3DVR), image quality and tracking artifacts have on the agreement between 2D and 3D speckle tracking. 37 patients with normal LV function and 18 patients with ischaemic wall-motion abnormalities underwent 2D and 3D echocardiography, followed by offline speckle tracking measurements. The values of 3D global, regional and segmental strain were compared with the standard 2D and triplane 2D strain values. Correlation analysis with the LV ejection fraction (LVEF) was also performed. The 3D and 2D global strain values correlated good in both normally and abnormally contracting hearts, though systematic differences between the two methods were observed. Of the 3D strain parameters, the area strain showed the best correlation with the LVEF. The numerical agreement of 3D and 2D analyses varied significantly with the volume rate and image quality of the 3D datasets. The highest correlation between 2D and 3D peak systolic strain values was found between 3D area and standard 2D longitudinal strain. Regional wall-motion abnormalities were similarly detected by 2D and 3D speckle tracking. 2DST of triplane datasets showed similar results to those of conventional 2D datasets. 2D and 3D speckle tracking similarly detect normal and pathological wall-motion patterns. Limited image quality has a significant impact on the agreement between 3D and 2D numerical strain values. PMID:26693303

  19. A new mutation of mouse ruby-eye 2, ru2(d)/Hps5(ru2-d) inhibits eumelanin synthesis but stimulates pheomelanin synthesis in melanocytes.

    PubMed

    Hirobe, Tomohisa; Wakamatsu, Kazumasa; Ito, Shosuke

    2012-10-01

    We previously demonstrated that a novel mutation, characterized by light-colored coats and ruby eyes, which occurred spontaneously in mice in our laboratory, exhibited deletion in the Hps5 gene (ru2(d)/Hps5(ru2-d)). To clarify the mechanism of this hypopigmentation, the characteristics of the neonatal development of ru2(d)/ru2(d) melanocytes were investigated in detail with special reference to those of +/+ melanocytes. In ru2(d)/ru2(d) mice, there were fewer epidermal melanocytes than in +/+ mice, whereas there was no difference in numbers of epidermal melanoblasts in +/+ and ru2(d)/ru2(d)mice, both in dorsal and ventral skin. Epidermal melanocytes with increased dopa-melanin deposition and dendritogenesis were greatly increased by injecting L-Tyr subcutaneously into newborn ru2(d)/ru2(d) mice. The eumelanin content in the epidermis and dermis in postnatal ru2(d)/ru2(d) mice was much lower than in +/+ mice, whereas similar pheomelanin content was observed 5.5 or 7.5 days after birth both in dorsal and ventral skins. Moreover, the eumelanin content in the dorsal and ventral hairs in 5-week-old ru2(d)/ru2(d) mice was much lower than in +/+ mice, whereas pheomelanin content was two to four times greater than in +/+ mice. These results suggest that the ru2(d) allele suppresses the differentiation of melanocytes through the inhibition of eumelanin synthesis, but stimulates pheomelanin synthesis in melanocytes.

  20. Impact of two different types of heat stress on chloroplast movement and fluorescence signal of tobacco leaves.

    PubMed

    Frolec, Jirí; Rebícek, Jirí; Lazár, Dusan; Naus, Jan

    2010-07-01

    Although the chloroplast movement can be strongly affected by ambient temperature, the information about chloroplast movement especially related to high temperatures is scarce. For detailed investigation of the effects of heat stress (HS) on tobacco leaves (Nicotiana tabacum L. cv. Samsun), we used two different HS treatments in dark with wide range of elevated temperatures (25-45 degrees C). The leaf segments were either linearly heated in water bath at heating rate of 2 degrees C min(-1) from room temperature up to maximal temperature (T (m)) and then linearly cooled down to 25 degrees C or incubated for 5 min in water bath at the same T (m) followed by 5 min incubation at 25 degrees C (T-jump). The changes in light-induced chloroplast movement caused by the HS pretreatment were detected after the particular heating regime at 25 degrees C using a method of time-dependent collimated transmittance (CT) and compared with the chlorophyll O-J-I-P fluorescence rise (FLR) measurements. The inhibition of chloroplast movement started at about 40 degrees C while the fluorescence parameters responded generally at higher T (m). This difference in sensitivity of CT and FLR was higher for the T-jump than for the linear HS indicating importance of applied heating regime. A possible influence of chloroplast movement on the FLR measurement and a physiological role of the HS-impaired chloroplast movement are discussed.

  1. Closed-shell and open-shell 2D nanographenes.

    PubMed

    Sun, Zhe; Wu, Jishan

    2014-01-01

    This chapter describes a series of two-dimensional (2D) expanded arene networks, also known as nanographenes, with either closed-shell or open-shell electronic structure in the ground state. These systems are further categorized into three classes on a basis of different edge structures: those with zigzag edges only, those with armchair edges only, and those possessing both. Distinctive physical properties of these 2D aromatic systems are closely related to their structural characteristics and provide great potential for them as materials for different applications.

  2. Competing coexisting phases in 2D water

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zanotti, Jean-Marc; Judeinstein, Patrick; Dalla-Bernardina, Simona; Creff, Gaëlle; Brubach, Jean-Blaise; Roy, Pascale; Bonetti, Marco; Ollivier, Jacques; Sakellariou, Dimitrios; Bellissent-Funel, Marie-Claire

    2016-05-01

    The properties of bulk water come from a delicate balance of interactions on length scales encompassing several orders of magnitudes: i) the Hydrogen Bond (HBond) at the molecular scale and ii) the extension of this HBond network up to the macroscopic level. Here, we address the physics of water when the three dimensional extension of the HBond network is frustrated, so that the water molecules are forced to organize in only two dimensions. We account for the large scale fluctuating HBond network by an analytical mean-field percolation model. This approach provides a coherent interpretation of the different events experimentally (calorimetry, neutron, NMR, near and far infra-red spectroscopies) detected in interfacial water at 160, 220 and 250 K. Starting from an amorphous state of water at low temperature, these transitions are respectively interpreted as the onset of creation of transient low density patches of 4-HBonded molecules at 160 K, the percolation of these domains at 220 K and finally the total invasion of the surface by them at 250 K. The source of this surprising behaviour in 2D is the frustration of the natural bulk tetrahedral local geometry and the underlying very significant increase in entropy of the interfacial water molecules.

  3. Competing coexisting phases in 2D water

    PubMed Central

    Zanotti, Jean-Marc; Judeinstein, Patrick; Dalla-Bernardina, Simona; Creff, Gaëlle; Brubach, Jean-Blaise; Roy, Pascale; Bonetti, Marco; Ollivier, Jacques; Sakellariou, Dimitrios; Bellissent-Funel, Marie-Claire

    2016-01-01

    The properties of bulk water come from a delicate balance of interactions on length scales encompassing several orders of magnitudes: i) the Hydrogen Bond (HBond) at the molecular scale and ii) the extension of this HBond network up to the macroscopic level. Here, we address the physics of water when the three dimensional extension of the HBond network is frustrated, so that the water molecules are forced to organize in only two dimensions. We account for the large scale fluctuating HBond network by an analytical mean-field percolation model. This approach provides a coherent interpretation of the different events experimentally (calorimetry, neutron, NMR, near and far infra-red spectroscopies) detected in interfacial water at 160, 220 and 250 K. Starting from an amorphous state of water at low temperature, these transitions are respectively interpreted as the onset of creation of transient low density patches of 4-HBonded molecules at 160 K, the percolation of these domains at 220 K and finally the total invasion of the surface by them at 250 K. The source of this surprising behaviour in 2D is the frustration of the natural bulk tetrahedral local geometry and the underlying very significant increase in entropy of the interfacial water molecules. PMID:27185018

  4. Differential mitochondrial calcium responses in different cell types detected with a mitochondrial calcium fluorescent indicator, mito-GCaMP2.

    PubMed

    Chen, Min; Wang, Yanru; Hou, Tingting; Zhang, Huiliang; Qu, Aijuan; Wang, Xianhua

    2011-10-01

    Mitochondrial calcium plays a crucial role in mitochondrial metabolism, cell calcium handling, and cell death. However, some mechanisms concerning mitochondrial calcium regulation are still unknown, especially how mitochondrial calcium couples with cytosolic calcium. In this work, we constructed a novel mitochondrial calcium fluorescent indicator (mito-GCaMP2) by genetic manipulation. Mito-GCaMP2 was imported into mitochondria with high efficiency and the fluorescent signals co-localized with that of tetramethyl rhodamine methyl ester, a mitochondrial membrane potential indicator. The mitochondrial inhibitors specifically decreased the signals of mito-GCaMP2. The apparent K(d) of mito-GCaMP2 was 195.0 nmol/L at pH 8.0 in adult rat cardiomyocytes. Furthermore, we observed that mito-GCaMP2 preferred the alkaline pH surrounding of mitochondria. In HeLa cells, we found that mitochondrial calcium ([Ca(2+)](mito)) responded to the changes of cytosolic calcium ([Ca(2+)](cyto)) induced by histamine or thapasigargin. Moreover, external Ca(2+) (100 μmol/L) directly induced an increase of [Ca(2+)](mito) in permeabilized HeLa cells. However, in rat cardiomyocytes [Ca(2+)](mito) did not respond to cytosolic calcium transients stimulated by electric pacing or caffeine. In permeabilized cardiomyocytes, 600 nmol/L free Ca(2+) repeatedly increased the fluorescent signals of mito-GCaMP2, which excluded the possibility that mito-GCaMP2 lost its function in cardiomyocytes mitochondria. These results showed that the response of mitochondrial calcium is diverse in different cell lineages and suggested that mitochondria in cardiomyocytes may have a special defense mechanism to control calcium flux.

  5. Live fluorescent RNA-based detection of pluripotency gene expression in embryonic and induced pluripotent stem cells of different species.

    PubMed

    Lahm, Harald; Doppler, Stefanie; Dreßen, Martina; Werner, Astrid; Adamczyk, Klaudia; Schrambke, Dominic; Brade, Thomas; Laugwitz, Karl-Ludwig; Deutsch, Marcus-André; Schiemann, Matthias; Lange, Rüdiger; Moretti, Alessandra; Krane, Markus

    2015-02-01

    The generation of induced pluripotent stem (iPS) cells has successfully been achieved in many species. However, the identification of truly reprogrammed iPS cells still remains laborious and the detection of pluripotency markers requires fixation of cells in most cases. Here, we report an approach with nanoparticles carrying Cy3-labeled sense oligonucleotide reporter strands coupled to gold-particles. These molecules are directly added to cultured cells without any manipulation and gene expression is evaluated microscopically after overnight incubation. To simultaneously detect gene expression in different species, probe sequences were chosen according to interspecies homology. With a common target-specific probe we could successfully demonstrate expression of the GAPDH house-keeping gene in somatic cells and expression of the pluripotency markers NANOG and GDF3 in embryonic stem cells and iPS cells of murine, human, and porcine origin. The population of target gene positive cells could be purified by fluorescence-activated cell sorting. After lentiviral transduction of murine tail-tip fibroblasts Nanog-specific probes identified truly reprogrammed murine iPS cells in situ during development based on their Cy3-fluorescence. The intensity of Nanog-specific fluorescence correlated positively with an increased capacity of individual clones to differentiate into cells of all three germ layers. Our approach offers a universal tool to detect intracellular gene expression directly in live cells of any desired origin without the need for manipulation, thus allowing conservation of the genetic background of the target cell. Furthermore, it represents an easy, scalable method for efficient screening of pluripotency which is highly desirable during high-throughput cell reprogramming and after genomic editing of pluripotent stem cells. © 2014 AlphaMed Press.

  6. P187-S Differential Proteome Analysis of the Cerebrospinal Fluid of Normal and Equine Protozoal Myeloencephalitis Affected Horses Using Two-Dimensional Fluorescence Difference Gel Electrophoresis and Mass Spectrometry

    PubMed Central

    Terry, D. E.; Levy, M.; Isaac, I.; Sharma, N.

    2007-01-01

    Equine protozoal myeloencephalitis (EPM) is a common and costly neurologic disease of horses caused by Sarcocystis neurona, protozoa that parasitize the nervous system. Confirmation of the clinical diagnosis is a challenge for veterinarians because the current immunologic tests lack specificity. Multiplexing strategy approaches including two-dimensional fluorescence difference gel electrophoresis (2D DIGE) and mass spectrometry were employed to identify differential protein expression associated with EPM. Cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) samples were collected from normal and EPM horses. EPM was diagnosed if neurological signs were present, Western blot against S. neurona on the CSF was positive, and other neurological diseases were excluded by ancillary tests and/or necropsy. CSF was collected under general anesthesia, at the atlanto-occipital site to avoid blood contamination. The CSF proteins were precipitated, labeled with CyDye DIGE fluor dyes, and separated on 2D gels. The 2D gels were scanned with Typhoon, and the digitized images were analyzed with DeCyder software. The differentially expressed proteins were excised with a ProPic II spot picker, in-gel trypsin digested, and the tryptic peptides were analyzed with the electrospray ionization mass spectrometer. A number of differentially expressed proteins were identified in the various horse CSF, including serum albumin, haptoglobin, prostaglandin-D synthase, and apolipo-proteins E and A-I. Various isoforms of serum albumin were up-regulated with EPM compared to the normal horse CSF. The above proteins, including the isoforms, may be associated with EPM, and the characterization of differentially expressed additional proteins could give insight into the pathogenesis and diagnosis of EPM.

  7. Longevity of daily oral vitamin D3 supplementation: differences in 25OHD and 24,25(OH)2D observed 2 years after cessation of a 1-year randomised controlled trial (VICtORy RECALL).

    PubMed

    Macdonald, H M; Gryka, A; Tang, J C Y; Aucott, L S; Fraser, W D; Wood, A D

    2017-09-15

    To determine how long vitamin D lasts after supplementation ceases, the marker of status was measured 2 and 3 years after a 1-year trial. Compared to placebo, the proportion of vitamin D-deficient women was still lower, if they had taken daily vitamin D3, after 2 years, indicating its longevity. The purpose of this study was to determine longevity of vitamin D status following cessation of vitamin D3 supplementation, 2 and 3 years after a 1-year randomised, double-blind placebo controlled trial and to investigate possible predictive factors. Caucasian non-smoking postmenopausal women randomised to ViCtORY (2009-2010), who had not taken vitamin D supplements since the trial ended, were invited to attend follow-up visits. Total 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25OHD) and 24,25-dihydroxyvitamin D (24,25OH2D) were measured by dual tandem mass spectrometry of serum samples following removal of protein and de-lipidation; the original randomised controlled trial (RCT) samples were re-analysed simultaneously. Vitamin D-binding protein (VDBP) was measured by monoclonal immunoassay. In March 2012 and March 2013, 159 women (mean (SD) age 67.6 (2.1) years) re-attended, equally distributed between the original treatment groups: daily vitamin D3 (400 IU, 1000 IU) and placebo. One month after the RCT ended (March 2010), the proportion of women in placebo, 400 IU and 1000 IU vitamin D3 groups, respectively, with 25OHD < 25 nmol/L was 15, 0 and 0 (chi-square p < 0.001, n = 46, 44, 54). After 2 years (March 2012), it was 22, 4 and 4% (p = 0.002, n = 50, 48, 57); after 3 years, it was 23, 13 and 15% (p = 0.429, n = 48, 45, 52). The respective proportions of women with 24,25OH2D < 2.2 nmol/L were 50, 2 and 2% (1 month, p < 0.001, n = 46, 44, 54); 42, 33 and 12% (2 years, p = 0.002, n = 50, 48, 57); and 45, 27 and 29% (3 years, p = 0.138, n = 47, 45, 51). VDBP was a predictor of circulating 25OHD longevity (beta for VDBP in μg/mL 0.736; 95% CI 0.216-1.255, p

  8. Characterization of a 2D soft x-ray tomography camera with discrimination in energy bands

    SciTech Connect

    Romano, A.; Pacella, D.; Gabellieri, L.; Tilia, B.; Piergotti, V.; Mazon, D.; Malard, P.

    2010-10-15

    A gas detector with a 2D pixel readout is proposed for a future soft x-ray (SXR) tomography with discrimination in energy bands separately per pixel. The detector has three gas electron multiplier foils for the electron amplification and it offers the advantage, compared with the single stage, to be less sensitive to neutrons and gammas. The energy resolution and the detection efficiency of the detector have been accurately studied in the laboratory with continuous SXR spectra produced by an electronic tube and line emissions produced by fluorescence (K, Fe, and Mo) in the range of 3-17 keV. The front-end electronics, working in photon counting mode with a selectable threshold for pulse discrimination, is optimized for high rates. The distribution of the pulse amplitude has been indirectly derived by means of scans of the threshold. Scans in detector gain have also been performed to assess the capability of selecting different energy ranges.

  9. Mechanical characterization of 2D, 2D stitched, and 3D braided/RTM materials

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Deaton, Jerry W.; Kullerd, Susan M.; Portanova, Marc A.

    1993-01-01

    Braided composite materials have potential for application in aircraft structures. Fuselage frames, floor beams, wing spars, and stiffeners are examples where braided composites could find application if cost effective processing and damage tolerance requirements are met. Another important consideration for braided composites relates to their mechanical properties and how they compare to the properties of composites produced by other textile composite processes being proposed for these applications. Unfortunately, mechanical property data for braided composites do not appear extensively in the literature. Data are presented in this paper on the mechanical characterization of 2D triaxial braid, 2D triaxial braid plus stitching, and 3D (through-the-thickness) braid composite materials. The braided preforms all had the same graphite tow size and the same nominal braid architectures, (+/- 30 deg/0 deg), and were resin transfer molded (RTM) using the same mold for each of two different resin systems. Static data are presented for notched and unnotched tension, notched and unnotched compression, and compression after impact strengths at room temperature. In addition, some static results, after environmental conditioning, are included. Baseline tension and compression fatigue results are also presented, but only for the 3D braided composite material with one of the resin systems.

  10. Digit ratio (2D:4D) and postoperative pain perception.

    PubMed

    Kasielska-Trojan, Anna; Stabryła, Piotr; Antoszewski, Bogusław

    2017-07-01

    It has not been established whether sex differences in pain perception are influenced by prenatal sex hormones. Digit ratio as an indicator of prenatal hormone exposure can be used as a simple measure of the influence of prenatal hormones on pain sensitivity or perception in adulthood. The aim of this study was to determine a correlation between the 2D:4D ratio and pain perception in the postoperative period after rhinoplasty. A prospective cohort study of 100 patients (50 women of the mean age of 30.74±8.09years and 50 men of the mean age of 30.98±10.86years) who underwent posttraumatic rhinoplasty due to the nose trauma in Plastic, Reconstructive and Aesthetic Surgery Clinic. The following measurements were taken the day before a surgery: body height, waist and hip circumference, II and IV digits' lengths and body weight. All subjects filled in a questionnaire including 0-10-point VAS scales to assess postoperative pain 1h after an operation (AO), 6h AO, 12h AO, 24h AO and 48h AO. Women with low 2D:4D reported significantly more pain 1h after an operation than women with high 2D:4D. Similar correlation was observed for low 2D:4D in women 48h AO. In men, low 2D:4D was associated with lower postoperative pain 12h AO (p=0.029). In conclusion, we showed that low 2D:4D in women was associated with high postoperative pain, and low right 2D:4D in men was associated with low postoperative pain. This may suggest that intrauterine estrogen exposure makes women more resistant to pain. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. An automated pipeline to screen membrane protein 2D crystallization

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Changki; Vink, Martin; Hu, Minghui; Love, James; Stokes, David L.; Ubarretxena-Belandia, Iban

    2011-01-01

    Electron crystallography relies on electron cryomicroscopy of two-dimensional (2D) crystals and is particularly well suited for studying the structure of membrane proteins in their native lipid bilayer environment. To obtain 2D crystals from purified membrane proteins, the detergent in a protein-lipid-detergent ternary mixture must be removed, generally by dialysis, under conditions favoring reconstitution into proteoliposomes and formation of well-ordered lattices. To identify these conditions a wide range of parameters such as pH, lipid composition, lipid-to-protein ratio, ionic strength and ligands must be screened in a procedure involving four steps: crystallization, specimen preparation for electron microscopy, image acquisition, and evaluation. Traditionally, these steps have been carried out manually and, as a result, the scope of 2D crystallization trials has been limited. We have therefore developed an automated pipeline to screen the formation of 2D crystals. We employed a 96-well dialysis block for reconstitution of the target protein over a wide range of conditions designed to promote crystallization. A 96-position magnetic platform and a liquid handling robot were used to prepare negatively stained specimens in parallel. Robotic grid insertion into the electron microscope and computerized image acquisition ensures rapid evaluation of the crystallization screen. To date, 38 2D crystallization screens have been conducted for 15 different membrane proteins, totaling over 3000 individual crystallization experiments. Three of these proteins have yielded diffracting 2D crystals. Our automated pipeline outperforms traditional 2D crystallization methods in terms of throughput and reproducibility. PMID:20349145

  12. Application of X-Ray Fluorescence Analysis to Determine the Elemental Composition of Tissues from Different Ovarian Neoplasms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Motevich, I. G.; Strekal, N. D.; Papko, N. M.; Glebovich, M. I.; Shulha, A. V.; Maskevich, S. A.

    2015-03-01

    We present the results of x-ray fluorescence analysis of tissues from healthy ovaries and from ovaries with different pathologies: benign and borderline tumors, mucinous and endometrioid cancers, serous carcinomas. We determine the average copper, zinc, calcium, selenium, cadmium, lead, and mercury levels. We observed that in the benign ovarian tumors, we see a significant decrease in the cadmium, mercury, and lead levels compared with healthy tissues. In the borderline neoplasms, the copper level is reduced relative to zinc (Cu/Zn), cadmium, mercury, and lead, and also the zinc concentration is increased. In the ovarian carcinomas, we observed changes in the ratio of the chemical elements in the tumor tissues, depending on the histologic type. The results obtained can be used for differentiation, diagnosis, and adjustment of treatment for different ovarian neoplasms.

  13. Digit ratio (2D:4D) and hand preference for writing in the BBC Internet Study.

    PubMed

    Manning, J T; Peters, M

    2009-09-01

    The ratio of the length of the second to the fourth digit (2D:4D) may be negatively correlated with prenatal testosterone. Hand preference has been linked with prenatal testosterone and 2D:4D. Here we show that 2D:4D is associated with hand preference for writing in a large internet sample (n>170,000) in which participants self-reported their finger lengths. We replicated a significant association between right 2D:4D and writing hand preference (low right 2D:4D associated with left hand preference) as well as a significant correlation between writing hand preference and the difference between left and right 2D:4D or Dr-l (low Dr-l associated with left hand preference). A new significant correlation between left 2D:4D and writing hand preference was also shown (high left 2D:4D associated with left hand preference). There was a clear interaction between writing hand preference and 2D:4D: The left 2D:4D was significantly larger than the right 2D:4D in male and female left-handed writers, and the right hand 2D:4D was significantly larger than the left hand 2D:4D in male and female right-handed writers.

  14. 2D Materials for Optical Modulation: Challenges and Opportunities.

    PubMed

    Yu, Shaoliang; Wu, Xiaoqin; Wang, Yipei; Guo, Xin; Tong, Limin

    2017-02-21

    Owing to their atomic layer thickness, strong light-material interaction, high nonlinearity, broadband optical response, fast relaxation, controllable optoelectronic properties, and high compatibility with other photonic structures, 2D materials, including graphene, transition metal dichalcogenides and black phosphorus, have been attracting increasing attention for photonic applications. By tuning the carrier density via electrical or optical means that modifies their physical properties (e.g., Fermi level or nonlinear absorption), optical response of the 2D materials can be instantly changed, making them versatile nanostructures for optical modulation. Here, up-to-date 2D material-based optical modulation in three categories is reviewed: free-space, fiber-based, and on-chip configurations. By analysing cons and pros of different modulation approaches from material and mechanism aspects, the challenges faced by using these materials for device applications are presented. In addition, thermal effects (e.g., laser induced damage) in 2D materials, which are critical to practical applications, are also discussed. Finally, the outlook for future opportunities of these 2D materials for optical modulation is given.

  15. Regulation of ligands for the activating receptor NKG2D

    PubMed Central

    Mistry, Anita R; O'Callaghan, Chris A

    2007-01-01

    The outcome of an encounter between a cytotoxic cell and a potential target cell depends on the balance of signals from inhibitory and activating receptors. Natural Killer group 2D (NKG2D) has recently emerged as a major activating receptor on T lymphocytes and natural killer cells. In both humans and mice, multiple different genes encode ligands for NKG2D, and these ligands are non-classical major histocompatibility complex class I molecules. The NKG2D–ligand interaction triggers an activating signal in the cell expressing NKG2D and this promotes cytotoxic lysis of the cell expressing the ligand. Most normal tissues do not express ligands for NKG2D, but ligand expression has been documented in tumour and virus-infected cells, leading to lysis of these cells. Tight regulation of ligand expression is important. If there is inappropriate expression in normal tissues, this will favour autoimmune processes, whilst failure to up-regulate the ligands in pathological conditions would favour cancer development or dissemination of intracellular infection. PMID:17614877

  16. Perspective: Echoes in 2D-Raman-THz spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hamm, Peter; Shalit, Andrey

    2017-04-01

    Recently, various spectroscopic techniques have been developed, which can measure the 2D response of the inter-molecular degrees of freedom of liquids in the THz regime. By employing hybrid Raman-THz pulse sequences, the inherent experimental problems of 2D-Raman spectroscopy are circumvented completely, culminating in the recent measurement of the 2D-Raman-THz responses of water and aqueous salt solutions. This review article focuses on the possibility to observe echoes in such experiments, which would directly reveal the inhomogeneity of the typically extremely blurred THz bands of liquids, and hence the heterogeneity of local structures that are transiently formed, in particular, in a hydrogen-bonding liquid such as water. The generation mechanisms of echoes in 2D-Raman-THz spectroscopy are explained, which differ from those in "conventional" 2D-IR spectroscopy in a subtle but important manner. Subsequently, the circumstances are discussed, under which echoes are expected, revealing a physical picture of the information content of an echo. That is, the echo decay reflects the lifetime of local structures in the liquid on a length scale that equals the delocalization length of the intermolecular modes. Finally, recent experimental results are reviewed from an echo perspective.

  17. Fluorescent-increase kinetics of different fluorescent reporters used for qPCR depend on monitoring chemistry, targeted sequence, type of DNA input and PCR efficiency.

    PubMed

    Ruijter, Jan M; Lorenz, Peter; Tuomi, Jari M; Hecker, Michael; van den Hoff, Maurice J B

    2014-01-01

    The analysis of quantitative PCR data usually does not take into account the fact that the increase in fluorescence depends on the monitoring chemistry, the input of ds-DNA or ss-cDNA, and the directionality of the targeting of probes or primers. The monitoring chemistries currently available can be categorized into six groups: (A) DNA-binding dyes; (B) hybridization probes; (C) hydrolysis probes; (D) LUX primers; (E) hairpin primers; and (F) the QZyme system. We have determined the kinetics of the increase in fluorescence for each of these groups with respect to the input of both ds-DNA and ss-cDNA. For the latter, we also evaluated mRNA and cDNA targeting probes or primers. This analysis revealed three situations. Hydrolysis probes and LUX primers, compared to DNA-binding dyes, do not require a correction of the observed quantification cycle. Hybridization probes and hairpin primers require a correction of -1 cycle (dubbed C-lag), while the QZyme system requires the C-lag correction and an efficiency-dependent C-shift correction. A PCR efficiency value can be derived from the relative increase in fluorescence in the exponential phase of the amplification curve for all monitoring chemistries. In case of hydrolysis probes, LUX primers and hairpin primers, however, this should be performed after cycle 12, and for the QZyme system after cycle 19, to keep the overestimation of the PCR efficiency below 0.5 %. FigureThe qPCR monitoring chemistries form six groups with distinct fluorescence kinetics. The displacement of the amplification curve depends on the chemistry, DNA input and probe-targeting. The observed shift in Cq values can be corrected and PCR efficiencies can be derived.

  18. Spatial discrimination against background with different optical systems for collection of fluorescence in laser-excited atomic fluorescence spectrometry with a graphite tube electrothermal atomizer.

    PubMed

    Yuzefovsky, A I; Lonardo, R F; Michel, R G

    1995-07-01

    A single 90 degrees off-axis ellipsoidal mirror fragment was used in a dispersive detection system for electrothermal atomization laser-excited atomic fluorescence spectrometry. The performance of the new optical arrangement was compared with those of optical arrangements that employed a plane mirror in combination with biconvex or plano-convex lenses. All the optical arrangements collected fluorescence in a scheme called front surface illustration. BEAM-4, an optical ray tracing program, was used for calculations of spatial ray distributions and optical collection efficiency for the various optical configurations. Experimentally, the best collection efficiency was obtained by use of the ellipsoidal mirror, in qualitative agreement with simulations done by use of the BEAM-4 software. The best detection limit for cobalt with the new optical arrangement was 20 fg, which was a factor of 5 better than that obtained with conventional optical arrangements with otherwise the same instrumentation. The signal-to-background ratio and the fluorescence collection efficiency were also studied as a function of position of the optical components for the various optical arrangements. For both cobalt and phosphorus, the signal-to-background ratio with the new optical arrangement remained stable within 10-20% during +/- 8 mm shifts in the position of the detection system from the focal plane of the optics. Overall, the new optical arrangement offered high collection efficiency, excellent sensitivity, and facile optical alignment due to efficient spatial separation between the fluorescence signal and the background radiation. The advantages of the new optical arrangement were particularly important during measurements in the presence of high levels of blackbody radiation.

  19. 2D microwave imaging reflectometer electronics

    SciTech Connect

    Spear, A. G.; Domier, C. W. Hu, X.; Muscatello, C. M.; Ren, X.; Luhmann, N. C.; Tobias, B. J.

    2014-11-15

    A 2D microwave imaging reflectometer system has been developed to visualize electron density fluctuations on the DIII-D tokamak. Simultaneously illuminated at four probe frequencies, large aperture optics image reflections from four density-dependent cutoff surfaces in the plasma over an extended region of the DIII-D plasma. Localized density fluctuations in the vicinity of the plasma cutoff surfaces modulate the plasma reflections, yielding a 2D image of electron density fluctuations. Details are presented of the receiver down conversion electronics that generate the in-phase (I) and quadrature (Q) reflectometer signals from which 2D density fluctuation data are obtained. Also presented are details on the control system and backplane used to manage the electronics as well as an introduction to the computer based control program.

  20. Large Area Synthesis of 2D Materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vogel, Eric

    Transition metal dichalcogenides (TMDs) have generated significant interest for numerous applications including sensors, flexible electronics, heterostructures and optoelectronics due to their interesting, thickness-dependent properties. Despite recent progress, the synthesis of high-quality and highly uniform TMDs on a large scale is still a challenge. In this talk, synthesis routes for WSe2 and MoS2 that achieve monolayer thickness uniformity across large area substrates with electrical properties equivalent to geological crystals will be described. Controlled doping of 2D semiconductors is also critically required. However, methods established for conventional semiconductors, such as ion implantation, are not easily applicable to 2D materials because of their atomically thin structure. Redox-active molecular dopants will be demonstrated which provide large changes in carrier density and workfunction through the choice of dopant, treatment time, and the solution concentration. Finally, several applications of these large-area, uniform 2D materials will be described including heterostructures, biosensors and strain sensors.

  1. Orthotropic Piezoelectricity in 2D Nanocellulose

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    García, Y.; Ruiz-Blanco, Yasser B.; Marrero-Ponce, Yovani; Sotomayor-Torres, C. M.

    2016-10-01

    The control of electromechanical responses within bonding regions is essential to face frontier challenges in nanotechnologies, such as molecular electronics and biotechnology. Here, we present Iβ-nanocellulose as a potentially new orthotropic 2D piezoelectric crystal. The predicted in-layer piezoelectricity is originated on a sui-generis hydrogen bonds pattern. Upon this fact and by using a combination of ab-initio and ad-hoc models, we introduce a description of electrical profiles along chemical bonds. Such developments lead to obtain a rationale for modelling the extended piezoelectric effect originated within bond scales. The order of magnitude estimated for the 2D Iβ-nanocellulose piezoelectric response, ~pm V‑1, ranks this material at the level of currently used piezoelectric energy generators and new artificial 2D designs. Such finding would be crucial for developing alternative materials to drive emerging nanotechnologies.

  2. Orthotropic Piezoelectricity in 2D Nanocellulose

    PubMed Central

    García, Y.; Ruiz-Blanco, Yasser B.; Marrero-Ponce, Yovani; Sotomayor-Torres, C. M.

    2016-01-01

    The control of electromechanical responses within bonding regions is essential to face frontier challenges in nanotechnologies, such as molecular electronics and biotechnology. Here, we present Iβ-nanocellulose as a potentially new orthotropic 2D piezoelectric crystal. The predicted in-layer piezoelectricity is originated on a sui-generis hydrogen bonds pattern. Upon this fact and by using a combination of ab-initio and ad-hoc models, we introduce a description of electrical profiles along chemical bonds. Such developments lead to obtain a rationale for modelling the extended piezoelectric effect originated within bond scales. The order of magnitude estimated for the 2D Iβ-nanocellulose piezoelectric response, ~pm V−1, ranks this material at the level of currently used piezoelectric energy generators and new artificial 2D designs. Such finding would be crucial for developing alternative materials to drive emerging nanotechnologies. PMID:27708364

  3. Orthotropic Piezoelectricity in 2D Nanocellulose.

    PubMed

    García, Y; Ruiz-Blanco, Yasser B; Marrero-Ponce, Yovani; Sotomayor-Torres, C M

    2016-10-06

    The control of electromechanical responses within bonding regions is essential to face frontier challenges in nanotechnologies, such as molecular electronics and biotechnology. Here, we present Iβ-nanocellulose as a potentially new orthotropic 2D piezoelectric crystal. The predicted in-layer piezoelectricity is originated on a sui-generis hydrogen bonds pattern. Upon this fact and by using a combination of ab-initio and ad-hoc models, we introduce a description of electrical profiles along chemical bonds. Such developments lead to obtain a rationale for modelling the extended piezoelectric effect originated within bond scales. The order of magnitude estimated for the 2D Iβ-nanocellulose piezoelectric response, ~pm V(-1), ranks this material at the level of currently used piezoelectric energy generators and new artificial 2D designs. Such finding would be crucial for developing alternative materials to drive emerging nanotechnologies.

  4. 2D microwave imaging reflectometer electronics.

    PubMed

    Spear, A G; Domier, C W; Hu, X; Muscatello, C M; Ren, X; Tobias, B J; Luhmann, N C

    2014-11-01

    A 2D microwave imaging reflectometer system has been developed to visualize electron density fluctuations on the DIII-D tokamak. Simultaneously illuminated at four probe frequencies, large aperture optics image reflections from four density-dependent cutoff surfaces in the plasma over an extended region of the DIII-D plasma. Localized density fluctuations in the vicinity of the plasma cutoff surfaces modulate the plasma reflections, yielding a 2D image of electron density fluctuations. Details are presented of the receiver down conversion electronics that generate the in-phase (I) and quadrature (Q) reflectometer signals from which 2D density fluctuation data are obtained. Also presented are details on the control system and backplane used to manage the electronics as well as an introduction to the computer based control program.

  5. IUPAP Award: Ion transport in 2D materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bao, Wenzhong

    Intercalation in 2D materials drastically influences both physical and chemical properties, which leads to a new degree of freedom for fundamental studies and expands the potential applications of 2D materials. In this talk, I will discuss our work in the past two years related to ion intercalation of 2D materials, including insertion of Li and Na ions in graphene and MoS2. We focused on both fundamental mechanism and potential application, e.g. we measured in-situ optical transmittance spectra and electrical transport properties of few-layer graphene (FLG) nanostructures upon electrochemical lithiation/delithiation. By observing a simultaneous increase of both optical transmittance and DC conductivity, strikingly different from other materials, we proposed its application as a next generation transparent electrode.

  6. 2D-3D transition of gold cluster anions resolved

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Johansson, Mikael P.; Lechtken, Anne; Schooss, Detlef; Kappes, Manfred M.; Furche, Filipp

    2008-05-01

    Small gold cluster anions Aun- are known for their unusual two-dimensional (2D) structures, giving rise to properties very different from those of bulk gold. Previous experiments and calculations disagree about the number of gold atoms nc where the transition to 3D structures occurs. We combine trapped ion electron diffraction and state of the art electronic structure calculations to resolve this puzzle and establish nc=12 . It is shown that theoretical studies using traditional generalized gradient functionals are heavily biased towards 2D structures. For a correct prediction of the 2D-3D crossover point it is crucial to use density functionals yielding accurate jellium surface energies, such as the Tao-Perdew-Staroverov-Scuseria (TPSS) functional or the Perdew-Burke-Ernzerhof functional modified for solids (PBEsol). Further, spin-orbit effects have to be included, and large, flexible basis sets employed. This combined theoretical-experimental approach is promising for larger gold and other metal clusters.

  7. Change in the amount of epsilon-hexosyllysine, UV absorbance, and fluorescence of collagen with age in different animal species

    SciTech Connect

    Miksik, I.; Deyl, Z. )

    1991-05-01

    Skin and aorta collagen specimens of Wistar rats, white mice, beagle dogs, cats, horses, and human necropsies of different ages were examined with respect to the content of glycated products. The data presented show that (a) glycation and accumulation of the chromophore(s) are comparable in collagen samples from different species of comparable age; (b) glycation and pigmented accumulation increase markedly during the first 5-10 years of age; (c) the extent of glycation is different in different tissues (in particular, glycation of aortal collagen is about twice that of skin collagen); and (d) collagen pigmentation as followed by fluorescence is comparable in aortal and skin collagen (except below 10 years); pigmentation measured by absorbance at 350 nm is, on the contrary, lower in aortal than in skin collagen. Based on the assumption of constant blood glucose level during the life span, it appears feasible to conclude that the degree of nonenzymatic collagen glycation reflects the time period for which the protein was exposed to the action of sugars. This period, because of increased cross-linking, is likely to be extended in older animals. Other factors, such as differences in collagen turnover between different tissues and the intensity of the removal process of the glycated products, should be taken into consideration as well.

  8. Assessing 2D electrophoretic mobility spectroscopy (2D MOSY) for analytical applications.

    PubMed

    Fang, Yuan; Yushmanov, Pavel V; Furó, István

    2016-12-08

    Electrophoretic displacement of charged entity phase modulates the spectrum acquired in electrophoretic NMR experiments, and this modulation can be presented via 2D FT as 2D mobility spectroscopy (MOSY) spectra. We compare in various mixed solutions the chemical selectivity provided by 2D MOSY spectra with that provided by 2D diffusion-ordered spectroscopy (DOSY) spectra and demonstrate, under the conditions explored, a superior performance of the former method. 2D MOSY compares also favourably with closely related LC-NMR methods. The shape of 2D MOSY spectra in complex mixtures is strongly modulated by the pH of the sample, a feature that has potential for areas such as in drug discovery and metabolomics. Copyright © 2016 The Authors. Magnetic Resonance in Chemistry published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd. StartCopTextCopyright © 2016 The Authors. Magnetic Resonance in Chemistry published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  9. 2-D Finite Element Cable and Box IEMP Analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Scivner, G.J.; Turner, C.D.

    1998-12-17

    A 2-D finite element code has been developed for the solution of arbitrary geometry cable SGEMP and box IEMP problems. The quasi- static electric field equations with radiation- induced charge deposition and radiation-induced conductivity y are numerically solved on a triangular mesh. Multiple regions of different dielectric materials and multiple conductors are permitted.

  10. 2D Distributed Sensing Via TDR

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-11-02

    plate VEGF CompositeSensor Experimental Setup Air 279 mm 61 78 VARTM profile: slope RTM profile: rectangle 22 1 Jul 2003© 2003 University of Delaware...2003 University of Delaware All rights reserved Vision: Non-contact 2D sensing ü VARTM setup constructed within TL can be sensed by its EM field: 2D...300.0 mm/ns. 1 2 1 Jul 2003© 2003 University of Delaware All rights reserved Model Validation “ RTM Flow” TDR Response to 139 mm VEGC

  11. Inkjet printing of 2D layered materials.

    PubMed

    Li, Jiantong; Lemme, Max C; Östling, Mikael

    2014-11-10

    Inkjet printing of 2D layered materials, such as graphene and MoS2, has attracted great interests for emerging electronics. However, incompatible rheology, low concentration, severe aggregation and toxicity of solvents constitute critical challenges which hamper the manufacturing efficiency and product quality. Here, we introduce a simple and general technology concept (distillation-assisted solvent exchange) to efficiently overcome these challenges. By implementing the concept, we have demonstrated excellent jetting performance, ideal printing patterns and a variety of promising applications for inkjet printing of 2D layered materials.

  12. Design of multi-functional 2D open-shell organic networks with mechanically controllable properties† †Electronic supplementary information (ESI) available: (1) plot of twist angle vs. energy profiles for TPM and PTM molecules, (2) plot of bi-axial vs. uni-axial strain, (3) plots of structure and spin density for PTM 2D-COF upon strain, (4) plots of band structure of PTM 2D-COF upon strain, (5) plot of SOMO–SUMO energy difference for TPM and PTM molecules, (6) full details of magnetic coupling calculations. See DOI: 10.1039/c6sc01412g Click here for additional data file.

    PubMed Central

    Alcón, Isaac; Reta, Daniel; Moreira, Iberio de P. R.

    2017-01-01

    Triarylmethyls (TAMs) are prominent highly attractive open shell organic molecular building blocks for materials science, having been used in breakthrough syntheses of organic magnetic polymers and metal organic frameworks. With their radical π-conjugated nature and a proven capacity to possess high stability via suitable chemical design, TAMs display a variety of desirable characteristics which can be exploited for a wide range of applications. Due to their particular molecular and electronic structure, the spin localization in TAMs almost entirely depends on the dihedral angles of their three aryl rings with respect to the central methyl carbon atom plane, which opens up the possibility of controlling their fundamental properties by twisting the three aryl rings. Aryl ring twist angles can be tuned to a single value by specific chemical functionalisation but controlling them by external means in organic materials or devices represents a challenging task which has not yet been experimentally achieved. Herein, through rational chemical design we propose two 2D covalent organic frameworks (2D-COFs) based on specific TAM building blocks. By employing ab initio computational modeling we demonstrate that it is possible to externally manipulate the aryl ring twist angles in these 2D-linked TAM frameworks by external mechanical means. Furthermore, we show this structural manipulation allows for finely tuning the most important characteristics of these materials such as spin localization, optical electronic transitions and magnetic interactions. Due to the enormous technological potential offered by this new class of material and the fact that our work is guided by real advances in organic materials synthesis, we believe that our predictions will inspire the experimental realization of radical-2D-COFs with externally controllable characteristics. PMID:28451241

  13. Reliability of aneuploidy estimates in human sperm: Results of fluorescence in situ hybridization studies using two different scoring criteria

    SciTech Connect

    Martin, R.H. |; Rademaker, A.

    1994-09-01

    Aneuploidy estimates for individual chromosomes in human sperm have varied more than 10-fold in different laboratories using fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH). These laboratories use different scoring criteria in the assessment of a disomic sperm. In order to determine reliable estimates of aneuploidy, we have investigated whether scoring criteria affect the aneuploidy frequency in human sperm. Aneuploidy estimates for chromosomes 1(pUC1.77), 12(pBR12), X(XC) and Y(DYZ3Z) were obtained in human sperm from five donors using multicolor FISH analysis to provide an internal control to differentiate between nullisomy and lack of hybridization and between disomy and diploidy. Disomy frequencies were obtained by scoring a minimum of 10,000 sperm for each chromosome probe per donor. This analysis was replicated for two scoring criteria: one scoring criterion used one-half a signal domain as the minimum distance between two signals to be counted as two and thus disomic; the other scoring criterion set one signal domain as the minimum distance between two signals. A total of 120,870 sperm were assessed using one half domain as the scoring criterion and 113,478 were scored using one domain as the criterion. The mean percent disomy for chromosomes 1, 12, X, Y and XY was .18, .16, .15, .19, .25 respectively using the one-half domain criterion and .08, .17, .07, .12, .16 respectively using the one domain criterion. The percent disomy decreased significantly with use of one domain as the minimum distance for signal separation for all chromosomes except chromosome number 12. These lower disomy frequencies correlated well with frequencies derived from human sperm karyotypes analyzed in our laboratory. This suggests that the fluorescent signals for chromosomes 1, X and Y split into more than one domain in decondensed interphase sperm and use of the one-half domain criterion leads to an overestimate of aneuploidy frequencies.

  14. Digit ratio (2D:4D) in homosexual and heterosexual men from Austria.

    PubMed

    Voracek, Martin; Manning, John T; Ponocny, Ivo

    2005-06-01

    Neurohormonal theories of sexual orientation emphasize the organizational effects of testosterone on the developing brain. A recent suggestion, that the ratio of the length of the 2nd and 4th digits (2D:4D) is negatively correlated with prenatal testosterone, has led to a number of studies of 2D:4D in homosexual and heterosexual men and women. The results have been mixed. In comparison to heterosexual men, mean 2D:4D in gay men has been reported to be hypermasculinized (lower 2D:4D), hypomasculinized (higher 2D:4D), or to show no significant difference. Here, we report mean 2D:4D in Austrian homosexual and heterosexual men. We found no significant difference between means for homosexual and heterosexual 2D:4D, with values for both falling between 0.96 to 0.97. There are now 6 reports of 2D:4D in heterosexual and homosexual men. Considering Caucasian men, the studies from the United States show low heterosexual mean 2D:4D, and homosexual mean 2D:4D is higher or similar to that of heterosexuals. The European studies show high heterosexual mean 2D:4D, and comparisons with homosexuals reveal the latter to have lower or similar mean 2D:4D to that of heterosexuals. We discuss these results in relation to the suggestion that mean 2D:4D in heterosexual men differs across populations but mean 2D:4D in homosexuals shows less geographical variation (the "uniform mean hypothesis"). It is concluded that more data are required to clarify whether or not there is a 2D:4D effect for sexual orientation in men.

  15. Origin of pronounced differences in 77 K fluorescence of the green alga Chlamydomonas reinhardtii in state 1 and 2.

    PubMed

    Ünlü, Caner; Polukhina, Iryna; van Amerongen, Herbert

    2016-04-01

    In response to changes in the reduction state of the plastoquinone pool in its thylakoid membrane, the green alga Chlamydomonas reinhardtti is performing state transitions: remodelling of its thylakoid membrane leads to a redistribution of excitations over photosystems I and II (PSI and PSII). These transitions are accompanied by marked changes in the 77 K fluorescence spectrum, which form the accepted signature of state transitions. The changes are generally thought to reflect a redistribution of light-harvesting complexes (LHCs) over PSII (fluorescing below 700 nm) and PSI (fluorescing above 700 nm). Here we studied the picosecond fluorescence properties of C. reinhardtti over a broad range of wavelengths with very low excitation intensities (0.2 nJ per laser pulse). Cells were directly used for time-resolved fluorescence measurements at 77 K without further treatment, such as medium exchange with glycerol. It is observed that upon going from state 1 (relatively more fluorescence below 700 nm) to state 2 (relatively more fluorescence above 700 nm), a large part of the fluorescence of LHC/PSII becomes substantially quenched in concurrence with LHC detachment from PSII, whereas the absolute amount of PSI fluorescence hardly changes. These results are in agreement with the recent proposal that the amount of LHC moving from PSII to PSI upon going from state 1 to state 2 is rather limited (Unlu et al. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 111 (9):3460-3465, 2014).

  16. Parallel Stitching of 2D Materials.

    PubMed

    Ling, Xi; Lin, Yuxuan; Ma, Qiong; Wang, Ziqiang; Song, Yi; Yu, Lili; Huang, Shengxi; Fang, Wenjing; Zhang, Xu; Hsu, Allen L; Bie, Yaqing; Lee, Yi-Hsien; Zhu, Yimei; Wu, Lijun; Li, Ju; Jarillo-Herrero, Pablo; Dresselhaus, Mildred; Palacios, Tomás; Kong, Jing

    2016-03-23

    Diverse parallel stitched 2D heterostructures, including metal-semiconductor, semiconductor-semiconductor, and insulator-semiconductor, are synthesized directly through selective "sowing" of aromatic molecules as the seeds in the chemical vapor deposition (CVD) method. The methodology enables the large-scale fabrication of lateral heterostructures, which offers tremendous potential for its application in integrated circuits.

  17. Parallel stitching of 2D materials

    SciTech Connect

    Ling, Xi; Wu, Lijun; Lin, Yuxuan; Ma, Qiong; Wang, Ziqiang; Song, Yi; Yu, Lili; Huang, Shengxi; Fang, Wenjing; Zhang, Xu; Hsu, Allen L.; Bie, Yaqing; Lee, Yi -Hsien; Zhu, Yimei; Li, Ju; Jarillo-Herrero, Pablo; Dresselhaus, Mildred; Palacios, Tomas; Kong, Jing

    2016-01-27

    Diverse parallel stitched 2D heterostructures, including metal–semiconductor, semiconductor–semiconductor, and insulator–semiconductor, are synthesized directly through selective “sowing” of aromatic molecules as the seeds in the chemical vapor deposition (CVD) method. Lastly, the methodology enables the large-scale fabrication of lateral heterostructures, which offers tremendous potential for its application in integrated circuits.

  18. Parallel stitching of 2D materials

    DOE PAGES

    Ling, Xi; Wu, Lijun; Lin, Yuxuan; ...

    2016-01-27

    Diverse parallel stitched 2D heterostructures, including metal–semiconductor, semiconductor–semiconductor, and insulator–semiconductor, are synthesized directly through selective “sowing” of aromatic molecules as the seeds in the chemical vapor deposition (CVD) method. Lastly, the methodology enables the large-scale fabrication of lateral heterostructures, which offers tremendous potential for its application in integrated circuits.

  19. The digit ratio (2D:4D) in China: A meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    Xu, Yin; Zheng, Yong

    2015-01-01

    To explore the 2D:4D in China (mainland and Taiwan) and to analyze the influences of ethnicity, digit measurement methods, age, and latitude on Chinese 2D:4D. We here conducted a meta-analysis of the results of 28 studies. A total of 112 independent samples and 19,093 participants were included. The sex difference in left 2D:4D only approached significance when outliers were removed (P = 0.078), whereas the right 2D:4D was significantly lower in males compared to females, showing that the magnitude of sex difference was greater for the right hand than for the left hand. No significant differences were found in the 2D:4D between Han and ethnic minorities. The 2D:4D of samples measured using indirect digit measurement tended to be lower than in samples measured using direct digit measurement. Moreover, there were no effects of age and latitude on the 2D:4D in China. We concluded that the sex differences in Chinese 2D:4D are consistent with the results from western studies, and that genetic pool differences rather than latitude-related environmental variables affect the 2D:4D in China. In addition, 2D:4D measurements obtained by different digit measurement techniques should not be combined within one study, or used together in comparative studies. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  20. An Intercomparison of 2-D Models Within a Common Framework

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Weisenstein, Debra K.; Ko, Malcolm K. W.; Scott, Courtney J.; Jackman, Charles H.; Fleming, Eric L.; Considine, David B.; Kinnison, Douglas E.; Connell, Peter S.; Rotman, Douglas A.; Bhartia, P. K. (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    A model intercomparison among the Atmospheric and Environmental Research (AER) 2-D model, the Goddard Space Flight Center (GSFC) 2-D model, and the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory 2-D model allows us to separate differences due to model transport from those due to the model's chemical formulation. This is accomplished by constructing two hybrid models incorporating the transport parameters of the GSFC and LLNL models within the AER model framework. By comparing the results from the native models (AER and e.g. GSFC) with those from the hybrid model (e.g. AER chemistry with GSFC transport), differences due to chemistry and transport can be identified. For the analysis, we examined an inert tracer whose emission pattern is based on emission from a High Speed Civil Transport (HSCT) fleet; distributions of trace species in the 2015 atmosphere; and the response of stratospheric ozone to an HSCT fleet. Differences in NO(y) in the upper stratosphere are found between models with identical transport, implying different model representations of atmospheric chemical processes. The response of O3 concentration to HSCT aircraft emissions differs in the models from both transport-dominated differences in the HSCT-induced perturbations of H2O and NO(y) as well as from differences in the model represent at ions of O3 chemical processes. The model formulations of cold polar processes are found to be the most significant factor in creating large differences in the calculated ozone perturbations

  1. E-2D Advanced Hawkeye: primary flight display

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Paolillo, Paul W.; Saxena, Ragini; Garruba, Jonathan; Tripathi, Sanjay; Blanchard, Randy

    2006-05-01

    This paper is a response to the challenge of providing a large area avionics display for the E-2D AHE aircraft. The resulting display design provides a pilot with high-resolution visual information content covering an image area of almost three square feet (Active Area of Samsung display = 33.792cm x 27.0336 cm = 13.304" x 10.643" = 141.596 square inches = 0.983 sq. ft x 3 = 2.95 sq. ft). The avionics display application, design and performance being described is the Primary Flight Display for the E-2D Advanced Hawkeye aircraft. This cockpit display has a screen diagonal size of 17 inches. Three displays, with minimum bezel width, just fit within the available instrument panel area. The significant design constraints of supporting an upgrade installation have been addressed. These constraints include a display image size that is larger than the mounting opening in the instrument panel. This, therefore, requires that the Electromagnetic Interference (EMI) window, LCD panel and backlight all fit within the limited available bezel depth. High brightness and a wide dimming range are supported with a dual mode Cold Cathode Fluorescent Tube (CCFT) and LED backlight. Packaging constraints dictated the use of multiple U shaped fluorescent lamps in a direct view backlight design for a maximum display brightness of 300 foot-Lamberts. The low intensity backlight levels are provided by remote LEDs coupled through a fiber optic mesh. This architecture generates luminous uniformity within a minimum backlight depth. Cross-cockpit viewing is supported with ultra-wide field-of-view performance including contrast and the color stability of an advanced LCD cell design supports. Display system design tradeoffs directed a priority to high optical efficiency for minimum power and weight.

  2. Domain specific relationships of 2D:4D digit ratio in risk perception and risk behavior.

    PubMed

    Kim, Youngjun; Kim, Kyungil; Kim, Tae Hoon

    2014-01-01

    The 2D:4D digit ratio (henceforth, 2D:4D) is accepted as a marker of prenatal testosterone, demonstrating gender differences. The present study reveals that 2D:4D shows not only gender differences but also individual differences in personality and risk-taking behavior. We measured individual participants' 2D:4D, structural personality, and risk-taking attitude scores. The result of the current study replicates the gender difference in 2D:4D in previous researches. However, we found different aspects of the correlations among 2D:4D, personality, and risk-taking attitude. Path analyses indicated that 2D:4D passes through personality factors before reaching the risk-taking attitude, particularly in the financial domain activities of investing and gambling. Also we observed a specific relationship between right-hand 2D:4D and emotionality and between left-hand 2D:4D and agreeableness. Finally, we suggest multiple path models of 2D:4D and personality in risk taking depending on the domain.

  3. Relationships between the photochemical reflectance index (PRI) and chlorophyll fluorescence parameters and plant pigment indices at different leaf growth stages.

    PubMed

    Rahimzadeh-Bajgiran, Parinaz; Munehiro, Masashi; Omasa, Kenji

    2012-09-01

    This study aimed to evaluate the photochemical reflectance index (PRI) for assessing plant photosynthetic performance throughout the plant life cycle. The relationships between PRI, chlorophyll fluorescence parameters, and leaf pigment indices in Solanum melongena L. (aubergine; eggplant) were studied using photosynthetic induction curves both in short-term (diurnal) and long-term (seasonal) periods under different light intensities. We found good correlations between PRI/non-photochemical quenching (NPQ) and PRI/electron transport rate (ETR) in the short term at the same site of a single leaf but these relationships did not hold throughout the life of the plant. In general, changes in PRI owing to NPQ or ETR variations in the short term were <20 % of those that occurred with leaf aging. Results also showed that PRI was highly correlated to plant pigments, especially chlorophyll indices measured by spectral reflectance. Moreover, relationships of steady-state PRI/ETR and steady-state PRI/photochemical yield of photosystem II (Φ(PSII)) measured at uniform light intensity at different life stages proved that overall photosynthesis capacity and steady-state PRI were better correlated through chlorophyll content than NPQ and xanthophylls. The calibrated PRI index accommodated these pigments effects and gave better correlation with NPQ and ETR than PRI. Further studies of PRI indices based on pigments other than xanthophylls, and studies on PRI mechanisms in different species are recommended.

  4. Graphene and graphene-like 2D materials for optical biosensing and bioimaging: a review

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhu, Chengzhou; Du, Dan; Lin, Yuehe

    2015-09-01

    The increasing demands of bioassay and biomedical applications have significantly promoted the rational design and fabrication of a wide range of functional nanomaterials. Coupling these advanced nanomaterials with biomolecule recognition events leads to novel sensing and diagnostic platforms. Because of their unique structures and multifunctionalities, two-dimensional nanomaterials, such as graphene and graphene-like materials (e.g., graphitic carbon nitride, transition metal dichalcogenides, boron nitride, and transition metal oxides), have stimulated great interest in the field of optical biosensors and imaging because of their innovative mechanical, physicochemical and optical properties. Depending on the different applications, the graphene and graphene-like nanomaterials can be tailored to form either fluorescent emitters or efficient fluorescence quenchers, making them powerful platforms for fabricating a series of optical biosensors to sensitively detect various targets including ions, small biomolecules, DNA/RNA and proteins. This review highlights the recent progress in optical biosensors based on graphene and graphene-like 2D materials and their imaging applications. Finally, the opportunities and some critical challenges in this field are also addressed.

  5. A chimeric virus created by DNA shuffling of the capsid genes of different subtypes of porcine circovirus type 2 (PCV2) in the backbone of the non-pathogenic PCV1 induces protective immunity against the predominant PCV2b and the emerging PCV2d in pigs.

    PubMed

    Matzinger, Shannon R; Opriessnig, Tanja; Xiao, Chao-Ting; Catanzaro, Nicholas; Beach, Nathan M; Slade, David E; Nitzel, Gregory P; Meng, Xiang-Jin

    2016-11-01

    Porcine circovirus type 2 (PCV2) is the primary causative agent of porcine circovirus-associated disease (PCVAD). Available commercial vaccines all target PCV2a subtype, although the circulating predominant subtype worldwide is PCV2b, and the emerging PCV2d subtype is also increasingly associated with PCVAD. Here we molecularly bred genetically-divergent strains representing PCV2a, PCV2b, PCV2c, PCV2d, and "divergent PCV2a" subtypes by DNA-shuffling of the capsid genes to produce a chimeric virus representing PCV2 global genetic diversity. When placed in the PCV2a backbone, one chimeric virus (PCV2-3cl14) induced higher neutralizing antibody titers against different PCV2 subtypes. Subsequently, a candidate vaccine (PCV1-3cl14) was produced by cloning the shuffled 3cl14 capsid into the backbone of the non-pathogenic PCV1. A vaccine efficacy study revealed that chimeric virus PCV1-3cl14 induces protective immunity against challenge with PCV2b or PCV2d in pigs. The chimeric PCV1-3cl14 virus is a strong candidate for a novel vaccine in pigs infected with variable PCV2 strains.

  6. A gluten-free diet lowers NKG2D and ligand expression in BALB/c and non-obese diabetic (NOD) mice.

    PubMed

    Adlercreutz, E H; Weile, C; Larsen, J; Engkilde, K; Agardh, D; Buschard, K; Antvorskov, J C

    2014-08-01

    The interplay between diet and immune parameters which could affect type 1 diabetes (T1D) pathogenesis is not sufficiently clarified. Intestinal up-regulation of the activating receptor natural killer group 2D (NKG2D) (CD314) and its ligands is a hallmark of coeliac disease. However, the direct effect of gluten on NKG2D expression is not known. We studied, by fluorescence activated cell sorter (lymphoid tissues) and reverse transcription-quantitative polymerase chain reaction (intestine and pancreatic islets), if a gluten-free diet (GF diet) from 4 weeks of age or a gluten-free diet introduced in breeding pairs (SGF diet), induced changes in NKG2D expression on DX5(+) (CD49b) natural killer (NK) cells, CD8(+) T cells and in intestinal and islet levels of NKG2D and ligands in BALB/c and non-obese diabetic (NOD) mice. Gluten-free NOD mice had lower insulitis (P < 0·0001); reduced expression of NKG2D on DX5(+) NK cells in spleen and auricular lymph nodes (P < 0·05); and on CD8(+) T cells in pancreas-associated lymph nodes (P = 0·04). Moreover, the level of CD71 on DX5(+) NK cells and CD8(+) T cells (P < 0·005) was markedly reduced. GF and SGF mice had reduced expression of NKG2D and DX5 mRNA in intestine (P < 0·05). Differences in intestinal mRNA expression were found in mice at 8, 13 and 20 weeks. Intestinal expression of NKG2D ligands was reduced in SGF mice with lower expression of all ligands. In isolated islets, a SGF diet induced a higher expression of specific NKG2D ligands. Our data show that a gluten-free diet reduces the level of NKG2D and the expression of NKG2D ligands. These immunological changes may contribute to the lower T1D incidence associated with a gluten-free diet.

  7. Schottky diodes from 2D germanane

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sahoo, Nanda Gopal; Esteves, Richard J.; Punetha, Vinay Deep; Pestov, Dmitry; Arachchige, Indika U.; McLeskey, James T.

    2016-07-01

    We report on the fabrication and characterization of a Schottky diode made using 2D germanane (hydrogenated germanene). When compared to germanium, the 2D structure has higher electron mobility, an optimal band-gap, and exceptional stability making germanane an outstanding candidate for a variety of opto-electronic devices. One-atom-thick sheets of hydrogenated puckered germanium atoms have been synthesized from a CaGe2 framework via intercalation and characterized by XRD, Raman, and FTIR techniques. The material was then used to fabricate Schottky diodes by suspending the germanane in benzonitrile and drop-casting it onto interdigitated metal electrodes. The devices demonstrate significant rectifying behavior and the outstanding potential of this material.

  8. Schottky diodes from 2D germanane

    SciTech Connect

    Sahoo, Nanda Gopal; Punetha, Vinay Deep; Esteves, Richard J; Arachchige, Indika U.; Pestov, Dmitry; McLeskey, James T.

    2016-07-11

    We report on the fabrication and characterization of a Schottky diode made using 2D germanane (hydrogenated germanene). When compared to germanium, the 2D structure has higher electron mobility, an optimal band-gap, and exceptional stability making germanane an outstanding candidate for a variety of opto-electronic devices. One-atom-thick sheets of hydrogenated puckered germanium atoms have been synthesized from a CaGe{sub 2} framework via intercalation and characterized by XRD, Raman, and FTIR techniques. The material was then used to fabricate Schottky diodes by suspending the germanane in benzonitrile and drop-casting it onto interdigitated metal electrodes. The devices demonstrate significant rectifying behavior and the outstanding potential of this material.

  9. Compatible embedding for 2D shape animation.

    PubMed

    Baxter, William V; Barla, Pascal; Anjyo, Ken-Ichi

    2009-01-01

    We present new algorithms for the compatible embedding of 2D shapes. Such embeddings offer a convenient way to interpolate shapes having complex, detailed features. Compared to existing techniques, our approach requires less user input, and is faster, more robust, and simpler to implement, making it ideal for interactive use in practical applications. Our new approach consists of three parts. First, our boundary matching algorithm locates salient features using the perceptually motivated principles of scale-space and uses these as automatic correspondences to guide an elastic curve matching algorithm. Second, we simplify boundaries while maintaining their parametric correspondence and the embedding of the original shapes. Finally, we extend the mapping to shapes' interiors via a new compatible triangulation algorithm. The combination of our algorithms allows us to demonstrate 2D shape interpolation with instant feedback. The proposed algorithms exhibit a combination of simplicity, speed, and accuracy that has not been achieved in previous work.

  10. Stochastic Inversion of 2D Magnetotelluric Data

    SciTech Connect

    Chen, Jinsong

    2010-07-01

    The algorithm is developed to invert 2D magnetotelluric (MT) data based on sharp boundary parametrization using a Bayesian framework. Within the algorithm, we consider the locations and the resistivity of regions formed by the interfaces are as unknowns. We use a parallel, adaptive finite-element algorithm to forward simulate frequency-domain MT responses of 2D conductivity structure. Those unknown parameters are spatially correlated and are described by a geostatistical model. The joint posterior probability distribution function is explored by Markov Chain Monte Carlo (MCMC) sampling methods. The developed stochastic model is effective for estimating the interface locations and resistivity. Most importantly, it provides details uncertainty information on each unknown parameter. Hardware requirements: PC, Supercomputer, Multi-platform, Workstation; Software requirements C and Fortan; Operation Systems/version is Linux/Unix or Windows

  11. Static & Dynamic Response of 2D Solids

    SciTech Connect

    Lin, Jerry

    1996-07-15

    NIKE2D is an implicit finite-element code for analyzing the finite deformation, static and dynamic response of two-dimensional, axisymmetric, plane strain, and plane stress solids. The code is fully vectorized and available on several computing platforms. A number of material models are incorporated to simulate a wide range of material behavior including elasto-placicity, anisotropy, creep, thermal effects, and rate dependence. Slideline algorithms model gaps and sliding along material interfaces, including interface friction, penetration and single surface contact. Interactive-graphics and rezoning is included for analyses with large mesh distortions. In addition to quasi-Newton and arc-length procedures, adaptive algorithms can be defined to solve the implicit equations using the solution language ISLAND. Each of these capabilities and more make NIKE2D a robust analysis tool.

  12. Explicit 2-D Hydrodynamic FEM Program

    SciTech Connect

    Lin, Jerry

    1996-08-07

    DYNA2D* is a vectorized, explicit, two-dimensional, axisymmetric and plane strain finite element program for analyzing the large deformation dynamic and hydrodynamic response of inelastic solids. DYNA2D* contains 13 material models and 9 equations of state (EOS) to cover a wide range of material behavior. The material models implemented in all machine versions are: elastic, orthotropic elastic, kinematic/isotropic elastic plasticity, thermoelastoplastic, soil and crushable foam, linear viscoelastic, rubber, high explosive burn, isotropic elastic-plastic, temperature-dependent elastic-plastic. The isotropic and temperature-dependent elastic-plastic models determine only the deviatoric stresses. Pressure is determined by one of 9 equations of state including linear polynomial, JWL high explosive, Sack Tuesday high explosive, Gruneisen, ratio of polynomials, linear polynomial with energy deposition, ignition and growth of reaction in HE, tabulated compaction, and tabulated.

  13. Randomized, Prospective Double-Blinded Study Comparing 3 Different Doses of 5-Aminolevulinic Acid for Fluorescence-Guided Resections of Malignant Gliomas.

    PubMed

    Stummer, Walter; Stepp, Herbert; Wiestler, Otmar D; Pichlmeier, Uwe

    2017-08-01

    Five-aminolevulinic acid (5-ALA) is used for fluorescence-guided resections of malignant glioma at a dose of 20 mg/kg; yet, it is unknown whether lower doses may also provide efficacy. To perform a double-blinded randomized study comparing 3 different doses of 5-ALA. Twenty-one patients with suspected malignant glioma were randomly assigned to 0.2, 2, or 20 mg/kg 5-ALA. Investigators were unaware of dose. Intraoperatively, regions of interest were first defined in tumor core, margin, and adjacent white matter under white light. Under violet-blue illumination, the surgeon's impression of fluorescence was recorded per region, followed by spectrometry and biopsy. Plasma was collected after administration and analyzed for 5-ALA and protoporphyrin IX (PPIX) content. The positive predictive value of fluorescence was 100%. Visual and spectrometric fluorescence assessment showed 20 mg/kg to elicit the strongest fluorescence in tumor core and margins, which correlated with cell density. Spectrometric and visual fluorescence correlated significantly. A 10-fold increase in 5-ALA dose (2-20 mg/kg) resulted in a 4-fold increase of fluorescence contrast between marginal tumor and adjacent brain. t max for 5-ALA was 0.94 h for 20 mg/kg (0.2 kg: 0.50 h, 2 mg/kg: 0.61 h). Integrated PPIX plasma levels were 255.8 and 779.9 mcg*h/l (2 vs 20 mg/kg). Peak plasma concentrations were observed at 1.89 ± 0.71 and 7.83 ± 0.68 h (2 vs 20 mg/kg; average ± Standard Error of Mean [SEM]). The highest visible and measurable fluorescence was yielded by 20 mg/kg. No fluorescence was elicited at 0.2 mg/kg. Increasing 5-ALA doses did not result in proportional increases in tissue fluorescence or PPIX accumulation in plasma, indicating that doses higher than 20 mg/kg will not elicit useful increases in fluorescence.

  14. Digit ratio (2D:4D) and performance in elite rugby players.

    PubMed

    Bennett, M; Manning, J T; Cook, C J; Kilduff, L P

    2010-11-01

    The relative length of the second and fourth digits (2D:4D) is a putative marker for prenatal testosterone. Low 2D:4D has been reported to correlate with high performance in sport in general. Here, for the first time, we examine the relationship between 2D:4D and performance in elite rugby players. The 44 players (28 forwards, 16 backs) were drawn from the Ospreys Rugby Union Club and 44 age-matched controls. The measures of performance comprised age-adjusted number of international performances (caps) for Wales, a comparison of coaches' first-choice League team with others, and the number of tries scored by backs in club matches. Compared with controls, players were larger and had lower 2D:4D for the right and left hand. With regard to number of caps, players with low 2D:4D in their right hand and low right 2D:4D compared with their left (right - left 2D:4D difference) had high numbers of caps. First-choice players did not differ significantly from second-choice players in their 2D:4D but they did have a lower right - left 2D:4D difference than second-choice players. Low right 2D:4D and low right - left 2D:4D difference were significantly linked with large numbers of tries. We conclude that low right 2D:4D and low right - left 2D:4D difference are predictors of high rugby performance.

  15. 2D Metals by Repeated Size Reduction.

    PubMed

    Liu, Hanwen; Tang, Hao; Fang, Minghao; Si, Wenjie; Zhang, Qinghua; Huang, Zhaohui; Gu, Lin; Pan, Wei; Yao, Jie; Nan, Cewen; Wu, Hui

    2016-10-01

    A general and convenient strategy for manufacturing freestanding metal nanolayers is developed on large scale. By the simple process of repeatedly folding and calendering stacked metal sheets followed by chemical etching, free-standing 2D metal (e.g., Ag, Au, Fe, Cu, and Ni) nanosheets are obtained with thicknesses as small as 1 nm and with sizes of the order of several micrometers.

  16. Compact 2-D graphical representation of DNA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Randić, Milan; Vračko, Marjan; Zupan, Jure; Novič, Marjana

    2003-05-01

    We present a novel 2-D graphical representation for DNA sequences which has an important advantage over the existing graphical representations of DNA in being very compact. It is based on: (1) use of binary labels for the four nucleic acid bases, and (2) use of the 'worm' curve as template on which binary codes are placed. The approach is illustrated on DNA sequences of the first exon of human β-globin and gorilla β-globin.

  17. 2D materials: Graphene and others

    SciTech Connect

    Bansal, Suneev Anil Singh, Amrinder Pal; Kumar, Suresh

    2016-05-06

    Present report reviews the recent advancements in new atomically thick 2D materials. Materials covered in this review are Graphene, Silicene, Germanene, Boron Nitride (BN) and Transition metal chalcogenides (TMC). These materials show extraordinary mechanical, electronic and optical properties which make them suitable candidates for future applications. Apart from unique properties, tune-ability of highly desirable properties of these materials is also an important area to be emphasized on.

  18. 2dF mechanical engineering

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smith, Greg; Lankshear, Allan

    1998-07-01

    2dF is a multi-object instrument mounted at prime focus at the AAT capable of spectroscopic analysis of 400 objects in a single 2 degree field. It also prepares a second 2 degree 400 object field while the first field is being observed. At its heart is a high precision robotic positioner that places individual fiber end magnetic buttons on one of two field plates. The button gripper is carried on orthogonal gantries powered by linear synchronous motors and contains a TV camera which precisely locates backlit buttons to allow placement in user defined locations to 10 (mu) accuracy. Fiducial points on both plates can also be observed by the camera to allow repeated checks on positioning accuracy. Field plates rotate to follow apparent sky rotation. The spectrographs both analyze light from the 200 observing fibers each and back- illuminate the 400 fibers being re-positioned during the observing run. The 2dF fiber position and spectrograph system is a large and complex instrument located at the prime focus of the Anglo Australian Telescope. The mechanical design has departed somewhat from the earlier concepts of Gray et al, but still reflects the audacity of those first ideas. The positioner is capable of positioning 400 fibers on a field plate while another 400 fibers on another plate are observing at the focus of the telescope and feeding the twin spectrographs. When first proposed it must have seemed like ingenuity unfettered by caution. Yet now it works, and works wonderfully well. 2dF is a system which functions as the result of the combined and coordinated efforts of the astronomers, the mechanical designers and tradespeople, the electronic designers, the programmers, the support staff at the telescope, and the manufacturing subcontractors. The mechanical design of the 2dF positioner and spectrographs was carried out by the mechanical engineering staff of the AAO and the majority of the manufacture was carried out in the AAO workshops.

  19. Fluorescence of the various red antenna states in photosystem I complexes from cyanobacteria is affected differently by the redox state of P700.

    PubMed

    Schlodder, Eberhard; Hussels, Martin; Cetin, Marianne; Karapetyan, Navassard V; Brecht, Marc

    2011-11-01

    Photosystem I of cyanobacteria contains different spectral pools of chlorophylls called red or long-wavelength chlorophylls that absorb at longer wavelengths than the primary electron donor P700. We measured the fluorescence spectra at the ensemble and the single-molecule level at low temperatures in the presence of oxidized and reduced P700. In accordance with the literature, it was observed that the fluorescence is quenched by P700(+). However, the efficiency of the fluorescence quenching by oxidized P700(+) was found to be extremely different for the various red states in PS I from different cyanobacteria. The emission of the longest-wavelength absorbing antenna state in PS I trimers from Thermosynechococcus elongatus (absorption maximum at 5K: ≈ 719nm; emission maximum at 5K: ≈ 740nm) was found to be strongly quenched by P700(+) similar to the reddest state in PS I trimers from Arthrospira platensis emitting at 760nm at 5K. The fluorescence of these red states is diminished by more than a factor of 10 in the presence of oxidized P700. For the first time, the emission of the reddest states in A. platensis and T. elongatus has been monitored using single-molecule fluorescence techniques.

  20. Rheological Properties of Quasi-2D Fluids in Microgravity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stannarius, Ralf; Trittel, Torsten; Eremin, Alexey; Harth, Kirsten; Clark, Noel; Maclennan, Joseph; Glaser, Matthew; Park, Cheol; Hall, Nancy; Tin, Padetha

    2015-01-01

    In recent years, research on complex fluids and fluids in restricted geometries has attracted much attention in the scientific community. This can be attributed not only to the development of novel materials based on complex fluids but also to a variety of important physical phenomena which have barely been explored. One example is the behavior of membranes and thin fluid films, which can be described by two-dimensional (2D) rheology behavior that is quite different from 3D fluids. In this study, we have investigated the rheological properties of freely suspended films of a thermotropic liquid crystal in microgravity experiments. This model system mimics isotropic and anisotropic quasi 2D fluids [46]. We use inkjet printing technology to dispense small droplets (inclusions) onto the film surface. The motion of these inclusions provides information on the rheological properties of the films and allows the study of a variety of flow instabilities. Flat films have been investigated on a sub-orbital rocket flight and curved films (bubbles) have been studied in the ISS project OASIS. Microgravity is essential when the films are curved in order to avoid sedimentation. The experiments yield the mobility of the droplets in the films as well as the mutual mobility of pairs of particles. Experimental results will be presented for 2D-isotropic (smectic-A) and 2D-nematic (smectic-C) phases.

  1. Optoelectronics of supported and suspended 2D semiconductors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bolotin, Kirill

    2014-03-01

    Two-dimensional semiconductors, materials such monolayer molybdenum disulfide (MoS2) are characterized by strong spin-orbit and electron-electron interactions. However, both electronic and optoelectronic properties of these materials are dominated by disorder-related scattering. In this talk, we investigate approaches to reduce scattering and explore physical phenomena arising in intrinsic 2D semiconductors. First, we discuss fabrication of pristine suspended monolayer MoS2 and use photocurrent spectroscopy measurements to study excitons in this material. We observe band-edge and van Hove singularity excitons and estimate their binding energies. Furthermore, we study dissociation of these excitons and uncover the mechanism of their contribution to photoresponse of MoS2. Second, we study strain-induced modification of bandstructures of 2D semiconductors. With increasing strain, we find large and controllable band gap reduction of both single- and bi-layer MoS2. We also detect experimental signatures consistent with strain-induced transition from direct to indirect band gap in monolayer MoS2. Finally, we fabricate heterostructures of dissimilar 2D semiconductors and study their photoresponse. For closely spaced 2D semiconductors we detect charge transfer, while for separation larger than 10nm we observe Forster-like energy transfer between excitations in different layers.

  2. Engineering light outcoupling in 2D materials.

    PubMed

    Lien, Der-Hsien; Kang, Jeong Seuk; Amani, Matin; Chen, Kevin; Tosun, Mahmut; Wang, Hsin-Ping; Roy, Tania; Eggleston, Michael S; Wu, Ming C; Dubey, Madan; Lee, Si-Chen; He, Jr-Hau; Javey, Ali

    2015-02-11

    When light is incident on 2D transition metal dichalcogenides (TMDCs), it engages in multiple reflections within underlying substrates, producing interferences that lead to enhancement or attenuation of the incoming and outgoing strength of light. Here, we report a simple method to engineer the light outcoupling in semiconducting TMDCs by modulating their dielectric surroundings. We show that by modulating the thicknesses of underlying substrates and capping layers, the interference caused by substrate can significantly enhance the light absorption and emission of WSe2, resulting in a ∼11 times increase in Raman signal and a ∼30 times increase in the photoluminescence (PL) intensity of WSe2. On the basis of the interference model, we also propose a strategy to control the photonic and optoelectronic properties of thin-layer WSe2. This work demonstrates the utilization of outcoupling engineering in 2D materials and offers a new route toward the realization of novel optoelectronic devices, such as 2D LEDs and solar cells.

  3. MAGNUM-2D computer code: user's guide

    SciTech Connect

    England, R.L.; Kline, N.W.; Ekblad, K.J.; Baca, R.G.

    1985-01-01

    Information relevant to the general use of the MAGNUM-2D computer code is presented. This computer code was developed for the purpose of modeling (i.e., simulating) the thermal and hydraulic conditions in the vicinity of a waste package emplaced in a deep geologic repository. The MAGNUM-2D computer computes (1) the temperature field surrounding the waste package as a function of the heat generation rate of the nuclear waste and thermal properties of the basalt and (2) the hydraulic head distribution and associated groundwater flow fields as a function of the temperature gradients and hydraulic properties of the basalt. MAGNUM-2D is a two-dimensional numerical model for transient or steady-state analysis of coupled heat transfer and groundwater flow in a fractured porous medium. The governing equations consist of a set of coupled, quasi-linear partial differential equations that are solved using a Galerkin finite-element technique. A Newton-Raphson algorithm is embedded in the Galerkin functional to formulate the problem in terms of the incremental changes in the dependent variables. Both triangular and quadrilateral finite elements are used to represent the continuum portions of the spatial domain. Line elements may be used to represent discrete conduits. 18 refs., 4 figs., 1 tab.

  4. Vector correlations study of the reaction N(2D)+H2(X1Σg+)→NH(a1Δ)+H(2S) with different collision energies and reagent vibration excitations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Yong-Qing; Zhang, Yong-Jia; Zhao, Jin-Feng; Zhao, Mei-Yu; Ding, Yong

    2015-11-01

    Vector correlations of the reaction are studied based on a recent DMBE-SEC PES for the first excited state of NH2 [J. Phys. Chem. A 114 9644 (2010)] by using a quasi-classical trajectory method. The effects of collision energy and the reagent initial vibrational excitation on cross section and product polarization are investigated for v = 0-5 and j = 0 states in a wide collision energy range (10-50 kcal/mol). The integral cross section could be increased by H2 vibration excitation remarkably based on the DMBE-SEC PES. The different phenomena of differential cross sections with different collision energies and reagent vibration excitations are explained. Particularly, the NH molecules are scattered mainly in the backward hemisphere at low vibration quantum number and evolve from backward to forward direction with increasing vibration quantum number, which could be explained by the fact that the vibrational excitation enlarges the H-H distance in the entrance channel, thus enhancing the probability of collision between N atom and H atom. A further study on product polarization demonstrates that the collision energy and vibrational excitation of the reagent remarkably influence the distributions of P(θr), P(ϕr), and P(θr, ϕr). Project supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Grant Nos. 11474141 and 11404080), the Special Fund Based Research New Technology of Methanol conversion and Coal Instead of Oil, the China Postdoctoral Science Foundation (Grant No. 2014M550158) , the Scientific Research Foundation for the Returned Overseas Chinese Scholars, State Education Ministry of China (Grant No. 2014-1685), and the Program for Liaoning Excellent Talents in University, China (Grant Nos. LJQ2015040 and LJQ2014001).

  5. 2D superconductivity by ionic gating

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Iwasa, Yoshi

    2D superconductivity is attracting a renewed interest due to the discoveries of new highly crystalline 2D superconductors in the past decade. Superconductivity at the oxide interfaces triggered by LaAlO3/SrTiO3 has become one of the promising routes for creation of new 2D superconductors. Also, the MBE grown metallic monolayers including FeSe are also offering a new platform of 2D superconductors. In the last two years, there appear a variety of monolayer/bilayer superconductors fabricated by CVD or mechanical exfoliation. Among these, electric field induced superconductivity by electric double layer transistor (EDLT) is a unique platform of 2D superconductivity, because of its ability of high density charge accumulation, and also because of the versatility in terms of materials, stemming from oxides to organics and layered chalcogenides. In this presentation, the following issues of electric filed induced superconductivity will be addressed; (1) Tunable carrier density, (2) Weak pinning, (3) Absence of inversion symmetry. (1) Since the sheet carrier density is quasi-continuously tunable from 0 to the order of 1014 cm-2, one is able to establish an electronic phase diagram of superconductivity, which will be compared with that of bulk superconductors. (2) The thickness of superconductivity can be estimated as 2 - 10 nm, dependent on materials, and is much smaller than the in-plane coherence length. Such a thin but low resistance at normal state results in extremely weak pinning beyond the dirty Boson model in the amorphous metallic films. (3) Due to the electric filed, the inversion symmetry is inherently broken in EDLT. This feature appears in the enhancement of Pauli limit of the upper critical field for the in-plane magnetic fields. In transition metal dichalcogenide with a substantial spin-orbit interactions, we were able to confirm the stabilization of Cooper pair due to its spin-valley locking. This work has been supported by Grant-in-Aid for Specially

  6. Quantification of pulmonary regurgitation in patients with repaired Tetralogy of Fallot by 2D phase-contrast MRI: Differences between the standard method of velocity averaging and a pixel-wise analysis.

    PubMed

    Sotelo, Julio; Bächler, Pablo; Urbina, Jesús; Crelier, Gerard; Toro, Lida; Ferreiro, Myriam; Valverde, Israel; Andia, Marcelo; Tejos, Cristian; Irarrazaval, Pablo; Uribe, Sergio

    2017-01-01

    To compare the values of pulmonary regurgitation in patients with repaired Tetralogy of Fallot quantified from two-dimensional phase-contrast data, by using a new pixel-wise analysis and the standard velocity-averaging method. Quantitative in silico and in vivo analysis. Hospital Sótero del Río. The magnetic resonance images were acquired using a Philips Achieva 1.5T scanner. Twenty-five patients with repaired Tetralogy of Fallot who underwent cardiovascular magnetic resonance imaging requested by their referring physicians were included in this study. Using a computational fluid dynamics simulation, we validated our pixel-wise method, quantifying the error of our method in comparison with the standard method. The patients underwent a standard two-dimensional phase-contrast magnetic resonance imaging acquisition for quantifying pulmonary artery flow. Pulmonary regurgitation fraction was estimated by using our pixel-wise and the standard method. The two-dimensional flow profiles were inspected looking for simultaneous antegrade and retrograde flows in the same cardiac phase. Statistical analysis was performed with t-test for related samples, Bland-Altman plots, and Pearson correlation coefficient. Estimation of pulmonary regurgitation fraction using the pixel-wise analysis revealed higher values compared with the standard method (39 ± 16% vs. 30 ± 22%, p-value <0.01). Eight patients (32%) had a difference of more than 10% between methods. Analysis of two-dimensional flow profiles in these patients revealed simultaneous antegrade and retrograde flows through the pulmonary artery during systole-early diastole. Quantification of pulmonary regurgitation fraction in patients with repaired Tetralogy of Fallot through a pixel-wise analysis yields higher values of pulmonary regurgitation compared with the standard velocity-averaging method.

  7. Determining cyclooxygenase-2 activity in three different test systems utilizing online-solid phase extraction-liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry for parallel quantification of prostaglandin E(2), D(2) and thromboxane B(2).

    PubMed

    Willenberg, Ina; Meschede, Anna K; Schebb, Nils Helge

    2015-04-24

    Cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) catalyzes the formation of PGH2 from arachidonic acid. PGH2 is further converted to different prostaglandins (PG), such as PGE2, PGD2 and TxB2. In this study a rapid online-SPE-LC-MS method for the simultaneous quantification of PGE2, PGD2 and TxB2 streamlined for COX-2 enzyme assays is presented. Baseline separation of all analytes was achieved in only 7.1 min per sample, including sample preparation by online SPE. The method showed high sensitivity (LODs of 0.65-1.25 fmol on column) and accuracy (89-113%) in protein containing media. Because of online-SPE, no manual sample preparation was required, except for addition of IS solution, allowing to use the approach as rapid read-out in COX-2 activity assays. This was demonstrated by applying the method on three in vitro test systems: a cell-free enzyme assay, an assay using HCA-7 cells constitutively expressing COX-2 and primary human monocytes. In these assays, the potency of three popular drugs celecoxib, indomethacin and dexamethasone was successfully characterized with the new online-LC-MS method. The comparison of the results showed that the inhibitory effects of PG formation strongly depend on the test system. Thus we suggest that the modulation of COX-2 activity of a test compound should be at least characterized in two assay systems. With the online-SPE-LC-MS described in here we present a versatile tool as read-out for these types of assays.

  8. The NH2D hyperfine structure revealed by astrophysical observations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Daniel, F.; Coudert, L. H.; Punanova, A.; Harju, J.; Faure, A.; Roueff, E.; Sipilä, O.; Caselli, P.; Güsten, R.; Pon, A.; Pineda, J. E.

    2016-02-01

    Context. The 111-101 lines of ortho- and para-NH2D (o/p-NH2D) at 86 and 110 GHz, respectively, are commonly observed to provide constraints on the deuterium fractionation in the interstellar medium. In cold regions, the hyperfine structure that is due to the nitrogen (14N) nucleus is resolved. To date, this splitting is the only one that is taken into account in the NH2D column density estimates. Aims: We investigate how including the hyperfine splitting caused by the deuterium (D) nucleus affects the analysis of the rotational lines of NH2D. Methods: We present 30 m IRAM observations of the above mentioned lines and APEX o/p-NH2D observations of the 101-000 lines at 333 GHz. The hyperfine patterns of the observed lines were calculated taking into account the splitting induced by the D nucleus. The analysis then relies on line lists that either neglect or include the splitting induced by the D nucleus. Results: The hyperfine spectra are first analyzed with a line list that only includes the hyperfine splitting that is due to the 14N nucleus. We find inconsistencies between the line widths of the 101-000 and 111-101 lines, the latter being larger by a factor of ~1.6 ± 0.3. Such a large difference is unexpected because the two sets of lines probably originate from the same region. We next employed a newly computed line list for the o/p-NH2D transitions where the hyperfine structure induced by both nitrogen and deuterium nuclei was included. With this new line list, the analysis of the previous spectra leads to compatible line widths. Conclusions: Neglecting the hyperfine structure caused by D leads to overestimating the line widths of the o/p-NH2D lines at 3 mm. The error for a cold molecular core is about 50%. This error propagates directly to the column density estimate. We therefore recommend to take the hyperfine splittings caused by both the 14N and D nuclei into account in any analysis that relies on these lines. Based on observations carried out with the IRAM

  9. Scanning-mode 2D acoustic radiation force impulse (s2D-ARFI) imaging based on GPU acceleration.

    PubMed

    Wang, Congzhi; Zeng, Bo; Qiu, Weibao; Zheng, Hairong

    2014-01-01

    Acoustic radiation force impulse (ARFI) technique is a quantitative method for tissue stiffness assessment. It has been proved to be less operator dependent than the quasi-static elastography, and has more simple hardware architecture than the supersonic shearwave imaging (SSI) technique, which make it easier to be miniaturized for some special clinical applications. However, unlike the SSI, ARFI cannot provide real-time 2D images of tissue stiffness distribution mainly due to its data-intensive and time-consuming algorithms. In this study, the algorithms of ARFI were modified and improved to fit for the parallel computation on graphics processing unit (GPU), and the quasi-real-time scanning-mode 2D ARFI images (s2D-ARFI) were implemented on a self-developed compact system. High ratio of the time consumptions between the algorithms using CPU and using GPU has been verified, and it was also proved that there was no distinct difference between the stiffness images obtained by these two methods. The s2D-ARFI provides us an additional choice for quantitatively imaging the tissue stiffness, and has a potential to be miniaturized and used in the emergency treatments in field first-aid and the donor evaluation for organ transplantation.

  10. Characterization of a versatile reference instrument for traceable fluorescence measurements using different illumination and viewing geometries specified in practical colorimetry—part 1: bidirectional geometry (45:0)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zwinkels, Joanne; Neil, William; Noël, Mario

    2016-10-01

    For highest accuracy fluorescence colorimetry, standardizing organizations recommend the use of a two-monochromator method with a bidirectional illumination and viewing geometry (45:0 or 0:45). For this reason, reference fluorescence instruments developed by National Measurement Institutes (NMIs) have largely conformed to this bidirectional geometry. However, for many practical applications in colorimetry where the samples exhibit texture, surface roughness or other spatial non-uniformities, the relevant standard test methods specify a sphere geometry with diffuse illumination or viewing (e.g. d:8 or 8:d) which gives improved measurement precision. This difference in the measurement geometry between the primary instrument used to realize the fluorescence scale and the secondary testing instruments used for practical measurements, compromises the traceability of these fluorescence calibrations. To address this metrology issue, a two-monochromator goniospectrofluorimeter instrument has been developed at the National Research Council of Canada (NRC). This instrument can be configured for different illumination and viewing geometries to conform with international standards for different colorimetric applications. To improve the traceability chain for measurements using different geometries, the instrument has been thoroughly characterized and validated by means of comparison measurements with NRC’s other spectrophotometric and fluorescence reference instruments. This uncertainty analysis has been carried out in a step-wise manner; first, for a bidirectional geometry (45:0) and then for a sphere geometry (8:d) to provide an uninterrupted traceability to primary radiometric scales. The first paper in this two paper series reviews the background to this work and provides details of the basic design of the new instrument and its characterization for measurements using a bidirectional geometry (45:0), including a representative uncertainty budget. In part 2, the major

  11. 2D non-separable linear canonical transform (2D-NS-LCT) based cryptography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, Liang; Muniraj, Inbarasan; Healy, John J.; Malallah, Ra'ed; Cui, Xiao-Guang; Ryle, James P.; Sheridan, John T.

    2017-05-01

    The 2D non-separable linear canonical transform (2D-NS-LCT) can describe a variety of paraxial optical systems. Digital algorithms to numerically evaluate the 2D-NS-LCTs are not only important in modeling the light field propagations but also of interest in various signal processing based applications, for instance optical encryption. Therefore, in this paper, for the first time, a 2D-NS-LCT based optical Double-random- Phase-Encryption (DRPE) system is proposed which offers encrypting information in multiple degrees of freedom. Compared with the traditional systems, i.e. (i) Fourier transform (FT); (ii) Fresnel transform (FST); (iii) Fractional Fourier transform (FRT); and (iv) Linear Canonical transform (LCT), based DRPE systems, the proposed system is more secure and robust as it encrypts the data with more degrees of freedom with an augmented key-space.

  12. Structural Complexity and Phonon Physics in 2D Arsenenes.

    PubMed

    Carrete, Jesús; Gallego, Luis J; Mingo, Natalio

    2017-03-15

    In the quest for stable 2D arsenic phases, four different structures have been recently claimed to be stable. We show that, due to phonon contributions, the relative stability of those structures differs from previous reports and depends crucially on temperature. We also show that one of those four phases is in fact mechanically unstable. Furthermore, our results challenge the common assumption of an inverse correlation between structural complexity and thermal conductivity. Instead, a richer picture emerges from our results, showing how harmonic interactions, anharmonicity, and symmetries all play a role in modulating thermal conduction in arsenenes. More generally, our conclusions highlight how vibrational properties are an essential element to be carefully taken into account in theoretical searches for new 2D materials.

  13. Elemental changes in the hippocampal formation following two different formulas of ketogenic diet: an X-ray fluorescence microscopy study.

    PubMed

    Chwiej, J; Patulska, A; Skoczen, A; Janeczko, K; Ciarach, M; Simon, R; Setkowicz, Z

    2015-12-01

    The main purpose of the following study was the determination of elemental changes occurring within hippocampal formation as a result of high-fat and carbohydrate-restricted ketogenic diet (KD). To realize it, X-ray fluorescence microscopy was applied for topographic and quantitative analysis of P, S, K, Ca, Fe, Cu, Zn and Se in hippocampal formations taken from rats fed with two different KDs and naive controls. The detailed comparisons were done for sectors 1 and 3 of the Ammon's, the dentate gyrus and hilus of dentate gyrus. The results of elemental analysis showed that the KDs induced statistically significant changes in the accumulation of P, K, Ca, Zn and Se in particular areas of hippocampal formation and these alterations strongly depended on the composition of the diets. Much greater influence on the hippocampal areal densities of examined elements was found for the KD which was characterized by a lower content of carbohydrates, higher content of fats and increased proportion of unsaturated fatty acids. The levels of P, K and Zn decreased whilst those of Ca and Se increased as a result of the treatment with the KDs.

  14. Comparison Between Digital and Synthetic 2D Mammograms in Breast Density Interpretation.

    PubMed

    Alshafeiy, Taghreed I; Wadih, Antoine; Nicholson, Brandi T; Rochman, Carrie M; Peppard, Heather R; Patrie, James T; Harvey, Jennifer A

    2017-07-01

    The purpose of this study was to compare assessments of breast density on synthetic 2D images as compared with digital 2D mammograms. This retrospective study included consecutive women undergoing screening with digital 2D mammography and tomosynthesis during May 2015 with a negative or benign outcome. In separate reading sessions, three radiologists with 5-25 years of clinical experience and 1 year of experience with synthetic 2D mammography read digital 2D and synthetic 2D images and assigned breast density categories according to the 5th edition of BI-RADS. Inter- and intrareader agreement was assessed for each BI-RADS density assessment and combined dense and nondense categories using percent agreement and Cohen kappa coefficient for consensus and all reads. A total of 309 patients met study inclusion criteria. Agreement between consensus BI-RADS density categories assigned for digital and synthetic 2D mammography was 80.3% (95% CI, 75.4-84.5%) with κ = 0.73 (95% CI, 0.66-0.79). For combined dense and nondense categories, agreement reached 91.9% (95% CI, 88.2-94.7%). For consensus readings, similar numbers of patients were shifted between nondense and dense categories (11 and 14, respectively) with the synthetic 2D compared with digital 2D mammography. Interreader differences were apparent; assignment to dense categories was greater with digital 2D mammography for reader 1 (odds ratio [OR], 1.26; p = 0.002), the same for reader 2 (OR, 0.91; p = 0.262), and greater with synthetic 2D mammography for reader 3 (OR, 0.86; p = 0.033). Overall, synthetic 2D mammography is comparable with digital 2D mammography in assessment of breast density, though there is some variability by reader. Practices can readily adopt synthetic 2D mammography without concern that it will affect density assessment and subsequent recommendations for supplemental screening.

  15. Effect of Different Light Qualities on Growth, Pigment Content, Chlorophyll Fluorescence, and Antioxidant Enzyme Activity in the Red Alga Pyropia haitanensis (Bangiales, Rhodophyta).

    PubMed

    Wu, Huanyang

    2016-01-01

    Spectral light changes evoke different morphogenetic and photosynthetic responses that can vary among different algae species. The aim of this study is to investigate the photosynthetic characteristics of the red macroalgae grown under different spectrum environments. In this study, Pyropia haitanensis were cultured under blue, red, and green LED and fluorescent tubes light. The growth rate, photopigment composition, chlorophyll fluorescence, and antioxidative enzymes activities in different light spectrums were investigated. The results revealed that growth rate was significantly higher in the thalli grown under blue, green, and fluorescent tubes light. Contents of Chl a and phycobiliprotein in red light were lower among all the growth conditions. Furthermore, a striking increase in SOD and CAT activity was observed in red light treatment along with the NPQ increase. The results revealed that the photosynthetic efficiency and increased growth rate of P. haitanensis benefitted from light spectrums such as blue, green, and fluorescent tubes light by pigment composition and photochemical efficiency manipulation, whereas red light has disadvantageous effects. Accordingly, the results for improving quality and the economic yield of algae species in some extent and the combination of different wavelengths could allow better economic resource exploitation.

  16. Effect of Different Light Qualities on Growth, Pigment Content, Chlorophyll Fluorescence, and Antioxidant Enzyme Activity in the Red Alga Pyropia haitanensis (Bangiales, Rhodophyta)

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Spectral light changes evoke different morphogenetic and photosynthetic responses that can vary among different algae species. The aim of this study is to investigate the photosynthetic characteristics of the red macroalgae grown under different spectrum environments. In this study, Pyropia haitanensis were cultured under blue, red, and green LED and fluorescent tubes light. The growth rate, photopigment composition, chlorophyll fluorescence, and antioxidative enzymes activities in different light spectrums were investigated. The results revealed that growth rate was significantly higher in the thalli grown under blue, green, and fluorescent tubes light. Contents of Chl a and phycobiliprotein in red light were lower among all the growth conditions. Furthermore, a striking increase in SOD and CAT activity was observed in red light treatment along with the NPQ increase. The results revealed that the photosynthetic efficiency and increased growth rate of P. haitanensis benefitted from light spectrums such as blue, green, and fluorescent tubes light by pigment composition and photochemical efficiency manipulation, whereas red light has disadvantageous effects. Accordingly, the results for improving quality and the economic yield of algae species in some extent and the combination of different wavelengths could allow better economic resource exploitation. PMID:27642603

  17. Theoretical and experimental study on the difference of the time-resolved fluorescence spectrum between the tumor and the adjacent normal tissue

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Mingzhao; Xu, Tao

    2006-09-01

    The objective of this paper is to study the difference of the time-resolved fluorescence spectrum between the tumor and the adja