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Sample records for 2d honeycomb lattice

  1. Self-Assembly of Cubes into 2D Hexagonal and Honeycomb Lattices by Hexapolar Capillary Interactions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Soligno, Giuseppe; Dijkstra, Marjolein; van Roij, René

    2016-06-01

    Particles adsorbed at a fluid-fluid interface induce capillary deformations that determine their orientations and generate mutual capillary interactions which drive them to assemble into 2D ordered structures. We numerically calculate, by energy minimization, the capillary deformations induced by adsorbed cubes for various Young's contact angles. First, we show that capillarity is crucial not only for quantitative, but also for qualitative predictions of equilibrium configurations of a single cube. For a Young's contact angle close to 90°, we show that a single-adsorbed cube generates a hexapolar interface deformation with three rises and three depressions. Thanks to the threefold symmetry of this hexapole, strongly directional capillary interactions drive the cubes to self-assemble into hexagonal or graphenelike honeycomb lattices. By a simple free-energy model, we predict a density-temperature phase diagram in which both the honeycomb and hexagonal lattice phases are present as stable states.

  2. Synthetic magnetic fluxes on the honeycomb lattice

    SciTech Connect

    Gorecka, Agnieszka; Gremaud, Benoit; Miniatura, Christian

    2011-08-15

    We devise experimental schemes that are able to mimic uniform and staggered magnetic fluxes acting on ultracold two-electron atoms, such as ytterbium atoms, propagating in a honeycomb lattice. The atoms are first trapped into two independent state-selective triangular lattices and then further exposed to a suitable configuration of resonant Raman laser beams. These beams induce hops between the two triangular lattices and make atoms move in a honeycomb lattice. Atoms traveling around each unit cell of this honeycomb lattice pick up a nonzero phase. In the uniform case, the artificial magnetic flux sustained by each cell can reach about two flux quanta, thereby realizing a cold-atom analog of the Harper model with its notorious Hofstadter's butterfly structure. Different condensed-matter phenomena such as the relativistic integer and fractional quantum Hall effects, as observed in graphene samples, could be targeted with this scheme.

  3. Synthetic magnetic fluxes on the honeycomb lattice

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Górecka, Agnieszka; Grémaud, Benoît; Miniatura, Christian

    2011-08-01

    We devise experimental schemes that are able to mimic uniform and staggered magnetic fluxes acting on ultracold two-electron atoms, such as ytterbium atoms, propagating in a honeycomb lattice. The atoms are first trapped into two independent state-selective triangular lattices and then further exposed to a suitable configuration of resonant Raman laser beams. These beams induce hops between the two triangular lattices and make atoms move in a honeycomb lattice. Atoms traveling around each unit cell of this honeycomb lattice pick up a nonzero phase. In the uniform case, the artificial magnetic flux sustained by each cell can reach about two flux quanta, thereby realizing a cold-atom analog of the Harper model with its notorious Hofstadter’s butterfly structure. Different condensed-matter phenomena such as the relativistic integer and fractional quantum Hall effects, as observed in graphene samples, could be targeted with this scheme.

  4. Featureless quantum insulator on the honeycomb lattice

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Panjin; Lee, Hyunyong; Jiang, Shenghan; Ware, Brayden; Jian, Chao-Ming; Zaletel, Michael; Han, Jung Hoon; Ran, Ying

    2016-08-01

    We show how to construct fully symmetric states without topological order on a honeycomb lattice for S =1/2 spins using the language of projected entangled pair states. An explicit example is given for the virtual bond dimension D =4 . Four distinct classes differing by lattice quantum numbers are found by applying the systematic classification scheme introduced by two of the authors [S. Jiang and Y. Ran, Phys. Rev. B 92, 104414 (2015), 10.1103/PhysRevB.92.104414]. Lack of topological degeneracy or other conventional forms of symmetry breaking in the proposed wave functions are checked by numerical calculations of the entanglement entropy and various correlation functions. Exponential decay of all correlation functions measured are strongly indicative of the energy gap for the putative parent Hamiltonian of the state. Our work provides the first explicit realization of a featureless quantum state for spin-1/2 particles on a honeycomb lattice.

  5. Half-metallicity in 2D organometallic honeycomb frameworks.

    PubMed

    Sun, Hao; Li, Bin; Zhao, Jin

    2016-10-26

    Half-metallic materials with a high Curie temperature (T C) have many potential applications in spintronics. Magnetic metal free two-dimensional (2D) half-metallic materials with a honeycomb structure contain graphene-like Dirac bands with π orbitals and show excellent aspects in transport properties. In this article, by investigating a series of 2D organometallic frameworks with a honeycomb structure using first principles calculations, we study the origin of forming half-metallicity in this kind of 2D organometallic framework. Our analysis shows that charge transfer and covalent bonding are two crucial factors in the formation of half-metallicity in organometallic frameworks. (i) Sufficient charge transfer from metal atoms to the molecules is essential to form the magnetic centers. (ii) These magnetic centers need to be connected through covalent bonding, which guarantee the strong ferromagnetic (FM) coupling. As examples, the organometallic frameworks composed by (1,3,5)-benzenetricarbonitrile (TCB) molecules with noble metals (Au, Ag, Cu) show half-metallic properties with T C as high as 325 K. In these organometallic frameworks, the strong electronegative cyano-groups (CN groups) drive the charge transfer from metal atoms to the TCB molecules, forming the local magnetic centers. These magnetic centers experience strong FM coupling through the d-p covalent bonding. We propose that most of the 2D organometallic frameworks composed by molecule-CN-noble metal honeycomb structures contain similar half metallicity. This is verified by replacing TCB molecules with other organic molecules. Although the TCB-noble metal organometallic framework has not yet been synthesized, we believe the development of synthesizing techniques and facility will enable the realization of them. Our study provides new insight into the 2D half-metallic material design for the potential applications in nanotechnology.

  6. Half-metallicity in 2D organometallic honeycomb frameworks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sun, Hao; Li, Bin; Zhao, Jin

    2016-10-01

    Half-metallic materials with a high Curie temperature (T C) have many potential applications in spintronics. Magnetic metal free two-dimensional (2D) half-metallic materials with a honeycomb structure contain graphene-like Dirac bands with π orbitals and show excellent aspects in transport properties. In this article, by investigating a series of 2D organometallic frameworks with a honeycomb structure using first principles calculations, we study the origin of forming half-metallicity in this kind of 2D organometallic framework. Our analysis shows that charge transfer and covalent bonding are two crucial factors in the formation of half-metallicity in organometallic frameworks. (i) Sufficient charge transfer from metal atoms to the molecules is essential to form the magnetic centers. (ii) These magnetic centers need to be connected through covalent bonding, which guarantee the strong ferromagnetic (FM) coupling. As examples, the organometallic frameworks composed by (1,3,5)-benzenetricarbonitrile (TCB) molecules with noble metals (Au, Ag, Cu) show half-metallic properties with T C as high as 325 K. In these organometallic frameworks, the strong electronegative cyano-groups (CN groups) drive the charge transfer from metal atoms to the TCB molecules, forming the local magnetic centers. These magnetic centers experience strong FM coupling through the d-p covalent bonding. We propose that most of the 2D organometallic frameworks composed by molecule—CN—noble metal honeycomb structures contain similar half metallicity. This is verified by replacing TCB molecules with other organic molecules. Although the TCB-noble metal organometallic framework has not yet been synthesized, we believe the development of synthesizing techniques and facility will enable the realization of them. Our study provides new insight into the 2D half-metallic material design for the potential applications in nanotechnology.

  7. The existence of topological edge states in honeycomb plasmonic lattices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Li; Zhang, Ruo-Yang; Xiao, Meng; Han, Dezhuan; Chan, C. T.; Wen, Weijia

    2016-10-01

    In this paper, we investigate the band properties of 2D honeycomb plasmonic lattices consisting of metallic nanoparticles. By means of the coupled dipole method and quasi-static approximation, we theoretically analyze the band structures stemming from near-field interaction of localized surface plasmon polaritons for both the infinite lattice and ribbons. Naturally, the interaction of point dipoles decouples into independent out-of-plane and in-plane polarizations. For the out-of-plane modes, both the bulk spectrum and the range of the momentum k ∥ where edge states exist in ribbons are similar to the electronic bands in graphene. Nevertheless, the in-plane polarized modes show significant differences, which do not only possess additional non-flat edge states in ribbons, but also have different distributions of the flat edge states in reciprocal space. For in-plane polarized modes, we derived the bulk-edge correspondence, namely, the relation between the number of flat edge states at a fixed {k}\\parallel , Zak phases of the bulk bands and the winding number associated with the bulk Hamiltonian, and verified it through four typical ribbon boundaries, i.e. zigzag, bearded zigzag, armchair, and bearded armchair. Our approach gives a new topological understanding of edge states in such plasmonic systems, and may also apply to other 2D ‘vector wave’ systems.

  8. Topological states in multi-orbital HgTe honeycomb lattices

    PubMed Central

    Beugeling, W.; Kalesaki, E.; Delerue, C.; Niquet, Y.-M.; Vanmaekelbergh, D.; Smith, C. Morais

    2015-01-01

    Research on graphene has revealed remarkable phenomena arising in the honeycomb lattice. However, the quantum spin Hall effect predicted at the K point could not be observed in graphene and other honeycomb structures of light elements due to an insufficiently strong spin–orbit coupling. Here we show theoretically that 2D honeycomb lattices of HgTe can combine the effects of the honeycomb geometry and strong spin–orbit coupling. The conduction bands, experimentally accessible via doping, can be described by a tight-binding lattice model as in graphene, but including multi-orbital degrees of freedom and spin–orbit coupling. This results in very large topological gaps (up to 35 meV) and a flattened band detached from the others. Owing to this flat band and the sizable Coulomb interaction, honeycomb structures of HgTe constitute a promising platform for the observation of a fractional Chern insulator or a fractional quantum spin Hall phase. PMID:25754462

  9. Dirac lines in the superconducting hyper-honeycomb lattice

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bouhon, Adrien; Black-Schaffer, Annica

    Motivated by the recent discovery of the hyper-honeycomb β-Li2IrO3 studied in the context of Kitaev spin liquids, we investigate the possibility to realize superconductivity in the hyper-honeycomb lattice. Based on a t-J model we discuss the effect of the band structure and spin-orbit coupling on the most stable superconducting state. Using group theory we construct all symmetry allowed superconducting states and show that we naturally get Dirac line nodes protected by the non-symmorphic symmetries.

  10. Topological States in Multi-Orbital Honeycomb Lattices of HgTe Quantum Dots

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Delerue, Christophe; Beugeling, Wouter; Kalesaki, Efterpi; Niquet, Yann-Michel; Vanmaekelbergh, Daniel; Morais Smith, Cristiane

    Recent works demonstrate that 2D single-crystalline sheets of semiconductors forming a honeycomb lattice can be synthesized by oriented attachment of semiconductor nanocrystals. Inspired by these results, we have performed atomistic tight-binding calculations of the band structure of CdSe and HgTe sheets with honeycomb nano-geometry. In the case of CdSe, we predict that their conduction band exhibits Dirac cones at two distinct energies. The lowest one has s-orbital character. The bands higher in energy present a Dirac cone and nontrivial flat bands because of their p-orbital character. We show that lattices of HgTe combine the effects of the honeycomb geometry and strong spin-orbit coupling. The conduction bands can be described by a tight-binding lattice model as in graphene, but including multi-orbital degrees of freedom and spin-orbit coupling. This results in very large topological gaps and a flattened band detached from the others. Honeycomb structures of HgTe constitute a promising platform for the observation of a fractional Chern insulator or a fractional quantum spin Hall phase.

  11. Spin-orbital quantum liquid on the honeycomb lattice

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Corboz, Philippe

    2013-03-01

    The symmetric Kugel-Khomskii can be seen as a minimal model describing the interactions between spin and orbital degrees of freedom in transition-metal oxides with orbital degeneracy, and it is equivalent to the SU(4) Heisenberg model of four-color fermionic atoms. We present simulation results for this model on various two-dimensional lattices obtained with infinite projected-entangled pair states (iPEPS), an efficient variational tensor-network ansatz for two dimensional wave functions in the thermodynamic limit. This approach can be seen as a two-dimensional generalization of matrix product states - the underlying ansatz of the density matrix renormalization group method. We find a rich variety of exotic phases: while on the square and checkerboard lattices the ground state exhibits dimer-Néel order and plaquette order, respectively, quantum fluctuations on the honeycomb lattice destroy any order, giving rise to a spin-orbital liquid. Our results are supported from flavor-wave theory and exact diagonalization. Furthermore, the properties of the spin-orbital liquid state on the honeycomb lattice are accurately accounted for by a projected variational wave-function based on the pi-flux state of fermions on the honeycomb lattice at 1/4-filling. In that state, correlations are algebraic because of the presence of a Dirac point at the Fermi level, suggesting that the ground state is an algebraic spin-orbital liquid. This model provides a good starting point to understand the recently discovered spin-orbital liquid behavior of Ba3CuSb2O9. The present results also suggest to choose optical lattices with honeycomb geometry in the search for quantum liquids in ultra-cold four-color fermionic atoms. We acknowledge the financial support from the Swiss National Science Foundation.

  12. Programming Self-Assembly of DNA Origami Honeycomb Two-Dimensional Lattices and Plasmonic Metamaterials.

    PubMed

    Wang, Pengfei; Gaitanaros, Stavros; Lee, Seungwoo; Bathe, Mark; Shih, William M; Ke, Yonggang

    2016-06-22

    Scaffolded DNA origami has proven to be a versatile method for generating functional nanostructures with prescribed sub-100 nm shapes. Programming DNA-origami tiles to form large-scale 2D lattices that span hundreds of nanometers to the micrometer scale could provide an enabling platform for diverse applications ranging from metamaterials to surface-based biophysical assays. Toward this end, here we design a family of hexagonal DNA-origami tiles using computer-aided design and demonstrate successful self-assembly of micrometer-scale 2D honeycomb lattices and tubes by controlling their geometric and mechanical properties including their interconnecting strands. Our results offer insight into programmed self-assembly of low-defect supra-molecular DNA-origami 2D lattices and tubes. In addition, we demonstrate that these DNA-origami hexagon tiles and honeycomb lattices are versatile platforms for assembling optical metamaterials via programmable spatial arrangement of gold nanoparticles (AuNPs) into cluster and superlattice geometries.

  13. Quarter-Filled Honeycomb Lattice with a Quantized Hall Conductance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shimshoni, Efrat; Murthy, Ganpathy; Shankar, Ramamurti; Fertig, Herbert

    2012-02-01

    We study a generic two-dimensional hopping model on a honeycomb lattice with strong spin-orbit coupling, without the requirement that the half-filled lattice be a Topological Insulator. For quarter-(or three-quarter) filling, we show that a state with a quantized Hall conductance generically arises in the presence of a Zeeman field of sufficient strength. We discuss the influence of Hubbard interactions and argue that spontaneous ferromagnetism (which breaks time-reversal) will occur, leading to a quantized anomalous Hall effect. G. Murthy, E. Shimshoni, R. Shankar, and H. A. Fertig, arxiv:1108.2010[cond-mat.mes-hall

  14. Deconfined Criticality in a J - Q model on Honeycomb lattice

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pujari, Sumiran; Alet, Fabien; Damle, Kedar

    2013-03-01

    The Deconfined Criticality scenario[1] describes in the context of quantum magnets a generic non-Landau second-order transition between two orders that break different symmetries - antiferromagnetic order that breaks SU (2) symmetry and Valence bond (VB) order breaking lattice translational symmetry. We investigate this physics in the context of a J - Q model[2] on the honeycomb lattice using both T = 0 Projector Quantum Monte Carlo (QMC) and finite- T Stochastic Series Expansion QMC techniques. We find evidence for a continuous transition from different measurements including scaling of Néel and VB order parameters, Binder ratios of staggered magnetization, stiffness and uniform susceptibility. We have indications that this critical point belongs to the same universality class as the one observed on square lattice J - Q model. Our results also suggest that this critical fixed point controlling deconfined critical behaviour remains essentially unchanged even on the honeycomb lattice which allows three-fold hedgehog defects in the Néel order to be present in the continuum description of the critical point.

  15. Phase diagram of interacting spinless fermions on the honeycomb lattice.

    PubMed

    Capponi, Sylvain

    2017-02-01

    Fermions hopping on a hexagonal lattice represent one of the most active research fields in condensed matter since the discovery of graphene in 2004 and its numerous applications. Another exciting aspect of the interplay between geometry and quantum mechanical effects is given by the Haldane model (Haldane 1988 Phys. Rev. Lett. 61 2015), where spinless fermions experiencing a certain flux pattern on the honeycomb lattice leads to the stabilization of a topological phase of matter, distinct from a Mott insulator and nowadays dubbed Chern insulator. In this context, it is crucial to understand the role of interactions and this review will describe recent results that have been obtained for a minimal model, namely spinless fermions with nearest and next-nearest neighbour density-density interactions on the honeycomb lattice at half-filling. Topics addressed include an introduction of the minimal model and a discussion of the possible instabilities of the Dirac semimetal, a presentation of various theoretical and numerical approaches, and a summary of the results with a particular emphasis on the stability or not of some exotic quantum phases such as charge ordered ones (similar to Wigner crystals) and spontaneous Chern insulator phases.

  16. Phase diagram of interacting spinless fermions on the honeycomb lattice

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Capponi, Sylvain

    2017-02-01

    Fermions hopping on a hexagonal lattice represent one of the most active research fields in condensed matter since the discovery of graphene in 2004 and its numerous applications. Another exciting aspect of the interplay between geometry and quantum mechanical effects is given by the Haldane model (Haldane 1988 Phys. Rev. Lett. 61 2015), where spinless fermions experiencing a certain flux pattern on the honeycomb lattice leads to the stabilization of a topological phase of matter, distinct from a Mott insulator and nowadays dubbed Chern insulator. In this context, it is crucial to understand the role of interactions and this review will describe recent results that have been obtained for a minimal model, namely spinless fermions with nearest and next-nearest neighbour density-density interactions on the honeycomb lattice at half-filling. Topics addressed include an introduction of the minimal model and a discussion of the possible instabilities of the Dirac semimetal, a presentation of various theoretical and numerical approaches, and a summary of the results with a particular emphasis on the stability or not of some exotic quantum phases such as charge ordered ones (similar to Wigner crystals) and spontaneous Chern insulator phases.

  17. 2D photonic crystals on the Archimedean lattices (tribute to Johannes Kepler (1571 1630))

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gajić, R.; class="cross-out">D. Jovanović,

    2008-03-01

    Results of our research on 2D Archemedean lattice photonic crystals are presented. This involves the calculations of the band structures, band-gap maps, equifrequency contours and FDTD simulations of electromagnetic propagation through the structures as well as an experimental verification of negative refraction at microwaves. The band-gap dependence on dielectric contrast is established both for dielectric rods in air and air-holes in dielectric materials. A special emphasis is placed on possibilities of negative refraction and left-handedness in these structures. Together with the familiar Archimedean lattices like square, triangular, honeycomb and Kagome' ones, we consider also, the less known, (3 2, 4, 3, 4) (ladybug) and (3, 4, 6, 4) (honeycomb-ring) structures.

  18. Hidden symmetry and protection of Dirac points on the honeycomb lattice.

    PubMed

    Hou, Jing-Min; Chen, Wei

    2015-12-07

    The honeycomb lattice possesses a novel energy band structure, which is characterized by two distinct Dirac points in the Brillouin zone, dominating most of the physical properties of the honeycomb structure materials. However, up till now, the origin of the Dirac points is unclear yet. Here, we discover a hidden symmetry on the honeycomb lattice and prove that the existence of Dirac points is exactly protected by such hidden symmetry. Furthermore, the moving and merging of the Dirac points and a quantum phase transition, which have been theoretically predicted and experimentally observed on the honeycomb lattice, can also be perfectly explained by the parameter dependent evolution of the hidden symmetry.

  19. Orbital Edge States in a Photonic Honeycomb Lattice

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Milićević, M.; Ozawa, T.; Montambaux, G.; Carusotto, I.; Galopin, E.; Lemaître, A.; Le Gratiet, L.; Sagnes, I.; Bloch, J.; Amo, A.

    2017-03-01

    We experimentally reveal the emergence of edge states in a photonic lattice with orbital bands. We use a two-dimensional honeycomb lattice of coupled micropillars whose bulk spectrum shows four gapless bands arising from the coupling of p -like photonic orbitals. We observe zero-energy edge states whose topological origin is similar to that of conventional edge states in graphene. Additionally, we report novel dispersive edge states in zigzag and armchair edges. The observations are reproduced by tight-binding and analytical calculations, which we extend to bearded edges. Our work shows the potentiality of coupled micropillars in elucidating some of the electronic properties of emergent two-dimensional materials with orbital bands.

  20. Edge magnetism of Heisenberg model on honeycomb lattice

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, Wen-Min; Hikihara, Toshiya; Lee, Yen-Chen; Lin, Hsiu-Hau

    2017-03-01

    Edge magnetism in graphene sparks intense theoretical and experimental interests. In the previous study, we demonstrated the existence of collective excitations at the zigzag edge of the honeycomb lattice with long-ranged Néel order. By employing the Schwinger-boson approach, we show that the edge magnons remain robust even when the long-ranged order is destroyed by spin fluctuations. Furthermore, in the effective field-theory limit, the dynamics of the edge magnon is captured by the one-dimensional relativistic Klein-Gordon equation. It is intriguing that the boundary field theory for the edge magnon is tied up with its bulk counterpart. By performing density-matrix renormalization group calculations, we show that the robustness may be attributed to the closeness between the ground state and the Néel state. The existence of edge magnon is not limited to the honeycomb structure, as demonstrated in the rotated-square lattice with zigzag edges as well. The universal behavior indicates that the edge magnons may attribute to the uncompensated edges and can be detected in many two-dimensional materials.

  1. Edge magnetism of Heisenberg model on honeycomb lattice.

    PubMed

    Huang, Wen-Min; Hikihara, Toshiya; Lee, Yen-Chen; Lin, Hsiu-Hau

    2017-03-07

    Edge magnetism in graphene sparks intense theoretical and experimental interests. In the previous study, we demonstrated the existence of collective excitations at the zigzag edge of the honeycomb lattice with long-ranged Néel order. By employing the Schwinger-boson approach, we show that the edge magnons remain robust even when the long-ranged order is destroyed by spin fluctuations. Furthermore, in the effective field-theory limit, the dynamics of the edge magnon is captured by the one-dimensional relativistic Klein-Gordon equation. It is intriguing that the boundary field theory for the edge magnon is tied up with its bulk counterpart. By performing density-matrix renormalization group calculations, we show that the robustness may be attributed to the closeness between the ground state and the Néel state. The existence of edge magnon is not limited to the honeycomb structure, as demonstrated in the rotated-square lattice with zigzag edges as well. The universal behavior indicates that the edge magnons may attribute to the uncompensated edges and can be detected in many two-dimensional materials.

  2. Edge magnetism of Heisenberg model on honeycomb lattice

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Wen-Min; Hikihara, Toshiya; Lee, Yen-Chen; Lin, Hsiu-Hau

    2017-01-01

    Edge magnetism in graphene sparks intense theoretical and experimental interests. In the previous study, we demonstrated the existence of collective excitations at the zigzag edge of the honeycomb lattice with long-ranged Néel order. By employing the Schwinger-boson approach, we show that the edge magnons remain robust even when the long-ranged order is destroyed by spin fluctuations. Furthermore, in the effective field-theory limit, the dynamics of the edge magnon is captured by the one-dimensional relativistic Klein-Gordon equation. It is intriguing that the boundary field theory for the edge magnon is tied up with its bulk counterpart. By performing density-matrix renormalization group calculations, we show that the robustness may be attributed to the closeness between the ground state and the Néel state. The existence of edge magnon is not limited to the honeycomb structure, as demonstrated in the rotated-square lattice with zigzag edges as well. The universal behavior indicates that the edge magnons may attribute to the uncompensated edges and can be detected in many two-dimensional materials. PMID:28266559

  3. Bloch-Zener oscillations in a tunable optical honeycomb lattice

    SciTech Connect

    Uehlinger, Thomas; Greif, Daniel; Jotzu, Gregor; Esslinger, Tilman; Tarruell, Leticia

    2013-12-04

    Ultracold gases in optical lattices have proved to be a flexible tool to simulate many different phenomena of solid state physics [1, 2]. Recently, optical lattices with complex geometries have been realized [3, 4, 5, 6, 7], paving the way to simulating more realistic systems. The honeycomb structure has recently become accessible in an optical lattice composed of mutually perpendicular laser beams. This lattice structure exhibits topological features in its band structure – the Dirac points. At these points, two energy bands intersect linearly and the particles behave as relativistic Dirac fermions. In optical lattices, Bloch oscillations [8] resolved both in time and in quasi-momentum space can be directly observed. We make use of such Bloch-Zener oscillations to probe the vanishing energy gap at the Dirac points as well as their position in the band structure. In small band gap regions, we observe Landau-Zener tunneling [7, 9] to the second band and the regions of maximum transfer can be identified with the position of the Dirac points.

  4. Discrete solitons and vortices in anisotropic hexagonal and honeycomb lattices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hoq, Q. E.; Kevrekidis, P. G.; Bishop, A. R.

    2016-02-01

    In the present work, we consider the self-focusing discrete nonlinear Schrödinger equation on hexagonal and honeycomb lattice geometries. Our emphasis is on the study of the effects of anisotropy, motivated by the tunability afforded in recent optical and atomic physics experiments. We find that multi-soliton and discrete vortex states undergo destabilizing bifurcations as the relevant anisotropy control parameter is varied. We quantify these bifurcations by means of explicit analytical calculations of the solutions, as well as of their spectral linearization eigenvalues. Finally, we corroborate the relevant stability picture through direct numerical computations. In the latter, we observe the prototypical manifestation of these instabilities to be the spontaneous rearrangement of the solution, for larger values of the coupling, into localized waveforms typically centered over fewer sites than the original unstable structure. For weak coupling, the instability appears to result in a robust breathing of the relevant waveforms.

  5. Discrete solitons and vortices in anisotropic hexagonal and honeycomb lattices

    DOE PAGES

    Hoq, Q. E.; Kevrekidis, P. G.; Bishop, A. R.

    2016-01-14

    We consider the self-focusing discrete nonlinear Schrödinger equation on hexagonal and honeycomb lattice geometries. Our emphasis is on the study of the effects of anisotropy, motivated by the tunability afforded in recent optical and atomic physics experiments. We find that multi-soliton and discrete vortex states undergo destabilizing bifurcations as the relevant anisotropy control parameter is varied. Furthermore, we quantify these bifurcations by means of explicit analytical calculations of the solutions, as well as of their spectral linearization eigenvalues. Finally, we corroborate the relevant stability picture through direct numerical computations. In the latter, we observe the prototypical manifestation of these instabilitiesmore » to be the spontaneous rearrangement of the solution, for larger values of the coupling, into localized waveforms typically centered over fewer sites than the original unstable structure. In weak coupling, the instability appears to result in a robust breathing of the relevant waveforms.« less

  6. Discrete solitons and vortices in anisotropic hexagonal and honeycomb lattices

    SciTech Connect

    Hoq, Q. E.; Kevrekidis, P. G.; Bishop, A. R.

    2016-01-14

    We consider the self-focusing discrete nonlinear Schrödinger equation on hexagonal and honeycomb lattice geometries. Our emphasis is on the study of the effects of anisotropy, motivated by the tunability afforded in recent optical and atomic physics experiments. We find that multi-soliton and discrete vortex states undergo destabilizing bifurcations as the relevant anisotropy control parameter is varied. Furthermore, we quantify these bifurcations by means of explicit analytical calculations of the solutions, as well as of their spectral linearization eigenvalues. Finally, we corroborate the relevant stability picture through direct numerical computations. In the latter, we observe the prototypical manifestation of these instabilities to be the spontaneous rearrangement of the solution, for larger values of the coupling, into localized waveforms typically centered over fewer sites than the original unstable structure. In weak coupling, the instability appears to result in a robust breathing of the relevant waveforms.

  7. Classical Spin Liquid on the Maximally Frustrated Honeycomb Lattice

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rehn, J.; Sen, Arnab; Damle, Kedar; Moessner, R.

    2016-10-01

    We show that the honeycomb Heisenberg antiferromagnet with J1/2 =J2=J3, where J1 , J2 , and J3 are first-, second-, and third-neighbor couplings, respectively, forms a classical spin liquid with pinch-point singularities in the structure factor at the Brillouin zone corners. Upon dilution with nonmagnetic ions, fractionalized degrees of freedom carrying 1 /3 of the free moment emerge. Their effective description in the limit of low temperature is that of spins randomly located on a triangular lattice, with a frustrated sublattice-sensitive interaction of long-ranged logarithmic form. The X Y version of this magnet exhibits nematic thermal order by disorder. This comes with a clear experimental diagnostic in neutron scattering, which turns out to apply also to the case of the celebrated planar order by disorder of the kagome Heisenberg antiferromagnet.

  8. Exceptional-point Dynamics in Photonic Honeycomb Lattices with PT Symmetry

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-01-17

    consider a two-dimensional honeycomb photonic lattice of coupled optical waveguides . Each waveguide supports only one mode, while light is...transferred from waveguide to waveguide through optical tunneling. A schematic of the setup is shown in Fig. 1. The lattice consist of two types of waveguides ...Honeycomb photonic lattice structure with intradimer coupling t and interdimer coupling ta = 1. Sublattice (lossy waveguide ) an,m is shown by green

  9. Topological insulator states in a honeycomb lattice of s-triazines

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Aizhu; Zhang, Xiaoming; Zhao, Mingwen

    2014-09-01

    Two-dimensional (2D) graphitic carbon nitride materials have been drawing increasing attentions in energy conversion, environment protection and spintronic devices. Here, based on first-principles calculations, we demonstrate that the already-synthesized honeycomb lattice of s-triazines with a chemical formula of C6N6 (g-C6N6) has topologically nontrivial electronic states characterized by px,y-orbital band structures with a topological invariant of Z2 = 1, and stronger spin-orbital coupling (SOC) than both graphene and silicene. The band gaps opened in the px,y-orbital bands due to SOC are 5.50 meV (K points) and 8.27 eV (Γ point), respectively, implying that the quantum spin Hall effect (QSHE) could be achieved in this 2D graphitic carbon nitride material at a temperature lower than 95 K. This offers a viable approach for searching for 2D Topological Insulators (TIs) in metal-free organic materials.Two-dimensional (2D) graphitic carbon nitride materials have been drawing increasing attentions in energy conversion, environment protection and spintronic devices. Here, based on first-principles calculations, we demonstrate that the already-synthesized honeycomb lattice of s-triazines with a chemical formula of C6N6 (g-C6N6) has topologically nontrivial electronic states characterized by px,y-orbital band structures with a topological invariant of Z2 = 1, and stronger spin-orbital coupling (SOC) than both graphene and silicene. The band gaps opened in the px,y-orbital bands due to SOC are 5.50 meV (K points) and 8.27 eV (Γ point), respectively, implying that the quantum spin Hall effect (QSHE) could be achieved in this 2D graphitic carbon nitride material at a temperature lower than 95 K. This offers a viable approach for searching for 2D Topological Insulators (TIs) in metal-free organic materials. Electronic supplementary information (ESI) available: A ruby model and the relevant tight-binding Hamiltonian, parity tables for the g-C6N6 lattice and the

  10. Magnetic Properties of Restacked 2D Spin 1/2 honeycomb RuCl3 Nanosheets.

    PubMed

    Weber, Daniel; Schoop, Leslie M; Duppel, Viola; Lippmann, Judith M; Nuss, Jürgen; Lotsch, Bettina V

    2016-06-08

    Spin 1/2 honeycomb materials have gained substantial interest due to their exotic magnetism and possible application in quantum computing. However, in all current materials out-of-plane interactions are interfering with the in-plane order, hence a true 2D magnetic honeycomb system is still in demand. Here, we report the exfoliation of the magnetic semiconductor α-RuCl3 into the first halide monolayers and the magnetic characterization of the spin 1/2 honeycomb arrangement of turbostratically stacked RuCl3 monolayers. The exfoliation is based on a reductive lithiation/hydration approach, which gives rise to a loss of cooperative magnetism due to the disruption of the spin 1/2 state by electron injection into the layers. The restacked, macroscopic pellets of RuCl3 layers lack symmetry along the stacking direction. After an oxidative treatment, cooperative magnetism similar to the bulk is restored. The oxidized pellets of restacked single layers feature a magnetic transition at TN = 7 K if the field is aligned parallel to the ab-plane, while the magnetic properties differ from bulk α-RuCl3 if the field is aligned perpendicular to the ab-plane. The deliberate introduction of turbostratic disorder to manipulate the magnetic properties of RuCl3 is of interest for research in frustrated magnetism and complex magnetic order as predicted by the Kitaev-Heisenberg model.

  11. Majorana edge modes in Kitaev model on honeycomb lattice

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thakurathi, Manisha; Sengupta, Krishnendu; Sen, Diptiman

    2015-03-01

    We study the Majorana modes, both equilibrium and Floquet, which can appear at the edges of the Kitaev model on the honeycomb lattice. We first present the analytical solutions known for the equilibrium Majorana edge modes for both zigzag and armchair edges of a semi-infinite Kitaev model and chart the parameter regimes of the model in which they appear. We then examine how edge modes can be generated if the Kitaev coupling on the bonds perpendicular to the edge is varied periodically in time as periodic δ-function kicks. We derive a general condition for the appearance and disappearance of the Floquet edge modes as a function of the drive frequency for a generic d-dimensional integrable system. We confirm this general condition for the Kitaev model with a finite width by mapping it to a one-dimensional model. Our numerical and analytical study of this problem shows that Floquet Majorana modes can appear on some edges in the kicked system even when the corresponding equilibrium Hamiltonian has no Majorana mode solutions on those edges. We support our analytical studies by numerics for finite sized system which show that periodic kicks can generate modes at the edges and the corners of the lattice. We thank CSIR, India and DST, India for financial support.

  12. Generating and moving Dirac points in a two-dimensional deformed honeycomb lattice arrayed by coupled semiconductor quantum dots

    SciTech Connect

    Peng, Juan Duan, Yifeng; Chen, PeiJian; Peng, Yan

    2015-03-15

    Analysis of the electronic properties of a two-dimensional (2D) deformed honeycomb structure arrayed by semiconductor quantum dots (QDs) is conducted theoretically by using tight-binding method in the present paper. Through the compressive or tensile deformation of the honeycomb lattice, the variation of energy spectrum has been explored. We show that, the massless Dirac fermions are generated in this adjustable system and the positions of the Dirac cones as well as slope of the linear dispersions could be manipulated. Furthermore, a clear linear correspondence between the distance of movement d (the distance from the Dirac points to the Brillouin zone corners) and the tunable bond angle α of the lattice are found in this artificial planar QD structure. These results provide the theoretical basis for manipulating Dirac fermions and should be very helpful for the fabrication and application of high-mobility semiconductor QD devices.

  13. Two-Dimensional Rectangular and Honeycomb Lattices of NbN: Emergence of Piezoelectric and Photocatalytic Properties at Nanoscale.

    PubMed

    Anand, Shashwat; Thekkepat, Krishnamohan; Waghmare, Umesh V

    2016-01-13

    Using first-principles calculations, we predict that monolayered honeycomb and rectangular two-dimensional (2D) lattice forms of NbN are metastable and naturally derivable from different orientations of its rocksalt structure. While the rectangular form is shown to retain the metallic and superconducting (SC) properties of the bulk, spectacularly contrasting properties emerge in the honeycomb form of NbN: it exhibits (a) semiconducting electronic structure suitable for valleytronics and photocatalysis of water splitting, (b) piezoelectricity with a spontaneous polarization originating from a rare sd(2)-sp(2) type hybridization, and (c) a wide gap in its phonon spectrum making it suitable for use in hot carrier solar cells. Our work demonstrates how low coordination numbers and associated strong bonding stabilize 2D nanoforms of covalently bonded solids and introduce novel functionalities of technological importance.

  14. Modulation of the photonic band structure topology of a honeycomb lattice in an atomic vapor

    SciTech Connect

    Zhang, Yiqi; Liu, Xing; Belić, Milivoj R.; Wu, Zhenkun; Zhang, Yanpeng

    2015-12-15

    In an atomic vapor, a honeycomb lattice can be constructed by utilizing the three-beam interference method. In the method, the interference of the three beams splits the dressed energy level periodically, forming a periodic refractive index modulation with the honeycomb profile. The energy band topology of the honeycomb lattice can be modulated by frequency detunings, thereby affecting the appearance (and disappearance) of Dirac points and cones in the momentum space. This effect can be usefully exploited for the generation and manipulation of topological insulators.

  15. Entanglement spectrum of fermionic bilayer honeycomb lattice: Hofstadter butterfly

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moradi, Z.; Abouie, J.

    2016-11-01

    We perform an analytical study of the energy and entanglement spectrum of non-interacting fermionic bilayer honeycomb lattices in the presence of trigonal warping in the energy spectrum, on-site energy difference and uniform magnetic field. Employing single particle correlation functions, we present an explicit form for a layer-layer entanglement Hamiltonian whose spectrum is the entanglement spectrum. We demonstrate that in the absence of trigonal warping, at zero on-site energy difference exact correspondence is established between the entanglement spectrum and energy spectrum of a monolayer which means that the entanglement spectrum perfectly reflects the edge state properties of the bilayer. We also show that trigonal warping breaks down such a perfect correspondence, however, in Γ -K direction in the hexagonal Brillouin zone, their behaviors are remarkably the same for particular relevances of hopping parameters. In the presence of an on-site energy difference the symmetry of the entanglement spectrum is broken with opening an indirect entanglement gap. We also study the effects of a perpendicular magnetic field on both energy and the entanglement spectrum of the bilayer in the presence of trigonal warping and on-site energy difference. We demonstrate that the entanglement spectrum versus magnetic flux has a self similar fractal structure, known as the Hofstadter butterfly. Our results also show that the on-site energy difference causes a transition from the Hofstadter butterfly to a tree-like picture.

  16. Dirac-like plasmons in honeycomb lattices of metallic nanoparticles.

    PubMed

    Weick, Guillaume; Woollacott, Claire; Barnes, William L; Hess, Ortwin; Mariani, Eros

    2013-03-08

    We consider a two-dimensional honeycomb lattice of metallic nanoparticles, each supporting a localized surface plasmon, and study the quantum properties of the collective plasmons resulting from the near-field dipolar interaction between the nanoparticles. We analytically investigate the dispersion, the effective Hamiltonian, and the eigenstates of the collective plasmons for an arbitrary orientation of the individual dipole moments. When the polarization points close to the normal to the plane, the spectrum presents Dirac cones, similar to those present in the electronic band structure of graphene. We derive the effective Dirac Hamiltonian for the collective plasmons and show that the corresponding spinor eigenstates represent Dirac-like massless bosonic excitations that present similar effects to electrons in graphene, such as a nontrivial Berry phase and the absence of backscattering off smooth inhomogeneities. We further discuss how one can manipulate the Dirac points in the Brillouin zone and open a gap in the collective plasmon dispersion by modifying the polarization of the localized surface plasmons, paving the way for a fully tunable plasmonic analogue of graphene.

  17. Beam-Plasma Instabilities in a 2D Yukawa Lattice

    SciTech Connect

    Kyrkos, S.; Kalman, G. J.; Rosenberg, M.

    2009-06-05

    We consider a 2D Yukawa lattice of grains, with a beam of other charged grains moving in the lattice plane. In contrast to Vlasov plasmas, where the electrostatic instability excited by the beam is only longitudinal, here both longitudinal and transverse instabilities of the lattice phonons can develop. We determine and compare the transverse and longitudinal growth rates. The growth rate spectrum in wave number space exhibits remarkable gaps where no instability can develop. Depending on the system parameters, the transverse instability can be selectively excited.

  18. Magnetic properties of Dirac fermions in a buckled honeycomb lattice

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tabert, C. J.; Carbotte, J. P.; Nicol, E. J.

    2015-01-01

    We calculate the magnetic response of a buckled honeycomb lattice with intrinsic spin-orbit coupling (such as silicene) which supports valley-spin polarized energy bands when subjected to a perpendicular electric field Ez. By changing the magnitude of the external electric field, the size of the two band gaps involved can be tuned, and a transition from a topological insulator (TI) to a trivial band insulator (BI) is induced as one of the gaps becomes zero, and the system enters a valley-spin polarized metallic state (VSPM). In an external magnetic field (B ), a distinct signature of the transition is seen in the derivative of the magnetization with respect to chemical potential μ , which gives the quantization of the Hall plateaus through the Streda relation. When plotted as a function of the external electric field, the magnetization has an abrupt change in slope at its minimum, which signals the VSPM state. The magnetic susceptibility χ shows jumps as a function of μ when a band gap is crossed, which provides a measure of the gaps' variation as a function of external electric field. Alternatively, at fixed μ , the susceptibility displays an increasingly large diamagnetic response as the electric field approaches the critical value of the VSPM phase. In the VSPM state, magnetic oscillations exist for any value of chemical potential while for the TI and BI states, μ must be larger than the minimum gap in the system. When μ is larger than both gaps, there are two fundamental cyclotron frequencies (which can also be tuned by Ez) involved in the de-Haas van-Alphen oscillations that are close in magnitude. This causes a prominent beating pattern to emerge.

  19. Detecting the BCS pairing amplitude via a sudden lattice ramp in a honeycomb lattice

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tiesinga, Eite; Nuske, Marlon; Mathey, Ludwig

    2016-05-01

    We determine the exact time evolution of an initial Bardeen-Cooper-Schrieffer (BCS) state of ultra-cold atoms in a hexagonal optical lattice. The dynamical evolution is triggered by ramping the lattice potential up, such that the interaction strength Uf is much larger than the hopping amplitude Jf. The quench initiates collective oscillations with frequency | Uf | /(2 π) in the momentum occupation numbers and imprints an oscillating phase with the same frequency on the order parameter Δ. The latter is not reproduced by treating the time evolution in mean-field theory. The momentum density-density or noise correlation functions oscillate at frequency | Uf | /(2 π) as well as its second harmonic. For a very deep lattice, with negligible tunneling energy, the oscillations of momentum occupation numbers are undamped. Non-zero tunneling after the quench leads to dephasing of the different momentum modes and a subsequent damping of the oscillations. This occurs even for a finite-temperature initial BCS state, but not for a non-interacting Fermi gas. We therefore propose to use this dephasing to detect a BCS state. Finally, we predict that the noise correlation functions in a honeycomb lattice will develop strong anti-correlations near the Dirac point. We acknowledge funding from the National Science Foundation.

  20. Quasiparticle Spectrum of 2-d Dirac Vortices in Optical Lattices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Haddad, Laith

    2009-10-01

    Bose-Einstein condensates in a honeycomb optical lattice are described by a nonlinear Dirac equaton (NLDE) in the long wavelength, mean field limit [1]. The upper and lower two-spinor equations decouple and superficially resemble the equations of previously studied NLDE's such as the Soler model for extended fermions. Although much work has been done on NLDE's, the bulk of the literature deals with models with Poincare invariant nonlinearites. In contrast our equations break Poincare symmetry providing an opportunity to study phenomenological models in cosmology and particle physics where this symmetry is not manifest. We obtain and classify localized solutions to our equations for both repulsive and attractive contact interactions. We also derive analogs of the Bogoliubov-de Gennes equations for the lattice and use these to study the stability and low energy spectrum of our solutions showing the existence of stable exotic structures such as vortices with fractional statistics.[4pt] [1] L. H. Haddad and L. D. Carr, ``The Nonlinear Dirac Equation in Bose-Einstein Condensates: Foundation and Symmetries,'' Physica D: Nonlinear Phenomena, v. 238, p. 1413 (2009). http://arxiv.org/pdf/0803.3039v1

  1. 2D Lattices of Ferromagnetic Nanoparticles as Supermagnetics

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1999-06-18

    Supermagnetics DISTRIBUTION: Approved for public release, distribution unlimited Availability: Hard copy only. This paper is part of the following report: TITLE...Technology" OAN.01 i St Petersburg, Russia, June 14-18, 1999 © 1999 loffe Institute 2D lattices of ferromagnetic nanoparticles as supermagnetics A. A...temperature the system became ordered due to the dipole interaction of particles. Such a state of the system was defined as supermagnetic [ ]. The critical

  2. Substrate-assisted 2D DNA lattices and algorithmic lattices from single-stranded tiles.

    PubMed

    Kim, Junghoon; Ha, Tai Hwan; Park, Sung Ha

    2015-08-07

    We present a simple route to circumvent kinetic traps which affect many types of DNA nanostructures in their self-assembly process. Using this method, a new 2D DNA lattice made up of short, single-stranded tile (SST) motifs was created. Previously, the growth of SST DNA assemblies was restricted to 1D (tubes and ribbons) or finite-sized 2D (molecular canvases). By utilizing the substrate-assisted growth method, sets of SSTs were designed as unit cells to self-assemble into periodic and aperiodic 2D lattices which continuously grow both along and orthogonal to the helical axis. Notably, large-scale (∼1 μm(2)) fully periodic 2D lattices were fabricated using a minimum of just 2 strand species. Furthermore, the ability to create 2D lattices from a few motifs enables certain rules to be encoded into these SSTs to carry out algorithmic self-assembly. A set of these motifs was designed to execute simple 1-input 1-output COPY and NOT algorithms, the space-time manifestations which were aperiodic 2D algorithmic SST lattices. The methodology presented here can be straightforwardly applied to other motifs which fall into this type of kinetic trap to create novel DNA crystals.

  3. Spin-orbital short-range order on a honeycomb-based lattice.

    PubMed

    Nakatsuji, S; Kuga, K; Kimura, K; Satake, R; Katayama, N; Nishibori, E; Sawa, H; Ishii, R; Hagiwara, M; Bridges, F; Ito, T U; Higemoto, W; Karaki, Y; Halim, M; Nugroho, A A; Rodriguez-Rivera, J A; Green, M A; Broholm, C

    2012-05-04

    Frustrated magnetic materials, in which local conditions for energy minimization are incompatible because of the lattice structure, can remain disordered to the lowest temperatures. Such is the case for Ba(3)CuSb(2)O(9), which is magnetically anisotropic at the atomic scale but curiously isotropic on mesoscopic length and time scales. We find that the frustration of Wannier's Ising model on the triangular lattice is imprinted in a nanostructured honeycomb lattice of Cu(2+) ions that resists a coherent static Jahn-Teller distortion. The resulting two-dimensional random-bond spin-1/2 system on the honeycomb lattice has a broad spectrum of spin-dimer-like excitations and low-energy spin degrees of freedom that retain overall hexagonal symmetry.

  4. Bifurcations of edge states—topologically protected and non-protected—in continuous 2D honeycomb structures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fefferman, C. L.; Lee-Thorp, J. P.; Weinstein, M. I.

    2016-03-01

    Edge states are time-harmonic solutions to energy-conserving wave equations, which are propagating parallel to a line-defect or ‘edge’ and are localized transverse to it. This paper summarizes and extends the authors’ work on the bifurcation of topologically protected edge states in continuous two-dimensional (2D) honeycomb structures. We consider a family of Schrödinger Hamiltonians consisting of a bulk honeycomb potential and a perturbing edge potential. The edge potential interpolates between two different periodic structures via a domain wall. We begin by reviewing our recent bifurcation theory of edge states for continuous 2D honeycomb structures (http://arxiv.org/abs/1506.06111). The topologically protected edge state bifurcation is seeded by the zero-energy eigenstate of a one-dimensional Dirac operator. We contrast these protected bifurcations with (more common) non-protected bifurcations from spectral band edges, which are induced by bound states of an effective Schrödinger operator. Numerical simulations for honeycomb structures of varying contrasts and ‘rational edges’ (zigzag, armchair and others), support the following scenario: (a) for low contrast, under a sign condition on a distinguished Fourier coefficient of the bulk honeycomb potential, there exist topologically protected edge states localized transverse to zigzag edges. Otherwise, and for general edges, we expect long lived edge quasi-modes which slowly leak energy into the bulk. (b) For an arbitrary rational edge, there is a threshold in the medium-contrast (depending on the choice of edge) above which there exist topologically protected edge states. In the special case of the armchair edge, there are two families of protected edge states; for each parallel quasimomentum (the quantum number associated with translation invariance) there are edge states which propagate in opposite directions along the armchair edge.

  5. The mobility of dual vortices in honeycomb, square, triangular, Kagome and dice lattices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jiang, Longhua; Ye, Jinwu

    2006-07-01

    It was known that by a duality transformation, interacting bosons at filling factor f = p/q hopping on a lattice can be mapped to interacting vortices hopping on the dual lattice subject to a fluctuating dual 'magnetic field' whose average strength through a dual plaquette is equal to the boson density f = p/q. So the kinetic term of the vortices is the same as the Hofstadter problem of electrons moving in a lattice in the presence of f = p/q flux per plaquette. Motivated by this mapping, we study the Hofstadter bands of vortices hopping in the presence of magnetic flux f = p/q per plaquette on five most common bipartite and frustrated lattices namely square, honeycomb, triangular, dice and Kagome lattices. We count the total number of bands, and determine the number of minima and their locations in the lowest band. We also numerically calculate the bandwidths of the lowest Hofstadter bands in these lattices that directly measure the mobility of the dual vortices. The less mobile the dual vortices are, the more likely are the bosons to be in a superfluid state. We find that apart from the Kagome lattice at odd q, they all satisfy the exponential decay law W = Ae-cq even at the smallest q. At given q, the bandwidth W decreases in the order of triangle, square and honeycomb lattice. This indicates that the domain of the superfluid state of the original bosons increases in the order of the corresponding direct lattices: honeycomb, square and triangular. When q = 2, we find that the lowest Hofstadter band is completely flat for both Kagome and dice lattices. There is a gap on the Kagome lattice, but no gap on the dice lattice. This indicates that the boson ground state at half filling with nearest neighbour hopping on Kagome lattice is always a superfluid state. The superfluid state remains stable slightly away from the half filling. Our results show that the behaviours of bosons at or near half filling on Kagome lattices are quite distinct from those in square

  6. Interplay between Anderson and Stark Localization in 2D Lattices

    SciTech Connect

    Kolovsky, A. R.

    2008-11-07

    This Letter studies the dynamics of a quantum particle in 2D lattices with on-site disorder in the presence of a static field. It is shown that the particle is localized along the field direction, while in the orthogonal direction to the field it shows diffusive dynamics for algebraically large times. For weak disorder an analytical expression for the diffusion coefficient is obtained by mapping the problem to a band random matrix. This expression is confirmed by numerical simulations of the particle's dynamics, which also indicate the existence of a universal equation for the diffusion coefficient, valid for an arbitrary disorder strength.

  7. An alternative order-parameter for non-equilibrium generalized spin models on honeycomb lattices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sastre, Francisco; Henkel, Malte

    2016-04-01

    An alternative definition for the order-parameter is proposed, for a family of non-equilibrium spin models with up-down symmetry on honeycomb lattices, and which depends on two parameters. In contrast to the usual definition, our proposal takes into account that each site of the lattice can be associated with a local temperature which depends on the local environment of each site. Using the generalised voter motel as a test case, we analyse the phase diagram and the critical exponents in the stationary state and compare the results of the standard order-parameter with the ones following from our new proposal, on the honeycomb lattice. The stationary phase transition is in the Ising universality class. Finite-size corrections are also studied and the Wegner exponent is estimated as ω =1.06(9).

  8. Topological triple-vortex lattice stabilized by mixed frustration in expanded honeycomb Kitaev-Heisenberg model

    PubMed Central

    Yao, Xiaoyan; Dong, Shuai

    2016-01-01

    The expanded classical Kitaev-Heisenberg model on a honeycomb lattice is investigated with the next-nearest-neighboring Heisenberg interaction considered. The simulation shows a rich phase diagram with periodic behavior in a wide parameter range. Beside the double 120° ordered phase, an inhomogeneous phase is uncovered to exhibit a topological triple-vortex lattice, corresponding to the hexagonal domain structure of vector chirality, which is stabilized by the mixed frustration of two sources: the geometrical frustration arising from the lattice structure as well as the frustration from the Kitaev couplings. PMID:27229486

  9. Nanostructured 2D Diporphyrin Honeycomb Film: Photoelectrochemistry, Photodegradation, and Antibacterial Activity.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Yuewu; Shang, Qiuwei; Yu, Jiachao; Zhang, Yuanjian; Liu, Songqin

    2015-06-10

    Surface patterns of well-defined nanostructures play important roles in fabrication of optoelectronic devices and applications in catalysis and biology. In this paper, the diporphyrin honeycomb film, composed of titanium dioxide, protoporphyrin IX, and hemin (TiO2/PPIX/Hem), was synthesized using a dewetting technique with the well-defined polystyrene (PS) monolayer as a template. The TiO2/PPIX/Hem honeycomb film exhibited a higher photoelectrochemical response than that of TiO2 or TiO2/PPIX, which implied a high photoelectric conversion efficiency and a synergistic effect between the two kinds of porphyrins. The TiO2/PPIX/Hem honeycomb film was also a good photosensitizer due to its ability to generate singlet oxygen ((1)O2) under irradiation by visible light. This led to the use of diporphyrin TiO2/PPIX/Hem honeycomb film for the photocatalytic inactivation of bacteria. In addition, the photocatalytic activities of other metal-diporphyrin-based honeycomb films, such as TiO2/MnPPIX/Hem, TiO2/CoPPIX/Hem, TiO2/NiPPIX/Hem, TiO2/CuPPIX/Hem, and TiO2/ZnPPIX/Hem, were investigated. The result demonstrated that the photoelectric properties of diporphyrin-based film could be effectively enhanced by further coupling of porphyrin with metal ions. Such enhanced performance of diporphyrin compounds opened a new way for potential applications in various photoelectrochemical devices and medical fields.

  10. Light confinement at a Dirac point in honeycomb-like lattice photonic crystal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mao, Qiuping; Xie, Kang; Hu, Lei; Li, Qian; Zhang, Wei; Jiang, Haiming; Hu, Zhijia; Wang, Erlei

    2017-02-01

    Optical waveguides and cavities are important components among modern optical devices. Traditional optical cavities rely on total internal reflection or photonic bandgaps to achieve field confinement. Recently, a new type of trapped mode, the Dirac mode, has been reported to occur in triangular or honeycomb lattice photonic crystal. This novel localized mode is attribute to neither of the traditional light-guiding mechanisms and owns different characteristics. Here we report the discovery of the Dirac mode in honeycomb-like photonic crystal lattice. The Dirac mode occurs at a Dirac frequency, which is beyond the complete photonic bandgaps. It has a different algebraic-decay feature. Our discovery extends applicability of the Dirac mode in designing for optical devices.

  11. Topological Properties of Electrons in Honeycomb Lattice with Detuned Hopping Energy

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Long-Hua; Hu, Xiao

    2016-01-01

    Honeycomb lattice can support electronic states exhibiting Dirac energy dispersion, with graphene as the icon. We propose to derive nontrivial topology by grouping six neighboring sites of honeycomb lattice into hexagons and enhancing the inter-hexagon hopping energies over the intra-hexagon ones. We reveal that this manipulation opens a gap in the energy dispersion and drives the system into a topological state. The nontrivial topology is characterized by the index associated with a pseudo time-reversal symmetry emerging from the C6 symmetry of the hopping texture, where the angular momentum of orbitals accommodated on the hexagonal “artificial atoms” behaves as the pseudospin. The size of topological gap is proportional to the hopping-energy difference, which can be larger than typical spin-orbit couplings by orders of magnitude and potentially renders topological electronic transports available at high temperatures. PMID:27076196

  12. Vacancies in a 3D-Kitaev model on hyper-honeycomb lattice

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sreejith, G. J.; Bhattacharjee, Subhro; Moessner, Roderich

    We study the properties of isolated single and pairs of vacancies in an exactly solvable Kitaev model on a three dimensional hyper-honeycomb lattice. We show that each vacancy in the lattice is associated with a low energy spin like degree of freedom, similar to the case of previously studied honeycomb model. We calculate the contribution from these vacancy spin-moments to the low field magnetization response to a z-directed field. Isolated vacancies in the gapped phase act as free spins. In the gapless phase, these spins interact with the surrounding spin-liquid suppressing the low-field magnetization to 1/√{ ln [ 1 /hz ] }. Pair of vacancies have a sublattice-dependent, anisotropic, spin-liquid mediated interaction with each other. In the gapless phase, interaction between vacancies in the same (opposite) sublattice enhances (suppresses) the low-field magnetization, indicating a ferromagnetic (anti-ferromagnetic) nature. We also show that, unlike vacancies in the honeycomb lattice, the vacancies here do not bind a flux at low-energies.

  13. Thermal phase transitions in a honeycomb lattice gas with three-body interactions.

    PubMed

    Lohöfer, Maximilian; Bonnes, Lars; Wessel, Stefan

    2013-11-01

    We study the thermal phase transitions in a classical (hard-core) lattice gas model with nearest-neighbor three-body interactions on the honeycomb lattice, based on parallel tempering Monte Carlo simulations. This system realizes incompressible low-temperature phases at fractional fillings of 9/16, 5/8, and 3/4 that were identified in a previous study of a related quantum model. In particular, both the 9/16 and the 5/8 phase exhibit an extensive ground-state degeneracy reflecting the frustrated nature of the three-body interactions on the honeycomb lattice. The thermal melting of the 9/16 phase is found to be a first-order, discontinuous phase transition. On the other hand, from the thermodynamic behavior we obtain indications for a four-states Potts-model thermal transition out of the 5/8 phase. We find that this thermal Potts-model transition relates to the selection of one out of four extensive sectors within the low-energy manifold of the 5/8 phase, which we obtain via an exact mapping of the ground-state manifold to a hard-core dimer model on an embedded honeycomb superlattice.

  14. Phononic band gap design in honeycomb lattice with combinations of auxetic and conventional core

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mukherjee, Sushovan; Scarpa, Fabrizio; Gopalakrishnan, S.

    2016-05-01

    We present a novel design of a honeycomb lattice geometry that uses a seamless combination of conventional and auxetic cores, i.e. elements showing positive and negative Poisson’s ratio. The design is aimed at tuning and improving the band structure of periodic cellular structures. The proposed cellular configurations show a significantly wide band gap at much lower frequencies compared to their pure counterparts, while still retaining their major dynamic features. Different topologies involving both auxetic inclusions in a conventional lattice and conversely hexagonal cellular inclusions in auxetic butterfly lattices are presented. For all these cases the impact of the varying degree of auxeticity on the band structure is evaluated. The proposed cellular designs may offer significant advantages in tuning high-frequency bandgap behaviour, which is relevant to phononics applications. The configurations shown in this paper may be made iso-volumetric and iso-weight to a given regular hexagonal topology, making possible to adapt the hybrid lattices to existing sandwich structures with fixed dimensions and weights. This work also features a comparative study of the wave speeds corresponding to different configurations vis-a vis those of a regular honeycomb to highlight the superior behaviour of the combined hybrid lattice.

  15. Thermodynamics of the Hubbard model on stacked honeycomb and square lattices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Imriška, Jakub; Gull, Emanuel; Troyer, Matthias

    2016-07-01

    We present a numerical study of the Hubbard model on simply stacked honeycomb and square lattices, motivated by a recent experimental realization of such models with ultracold atoms in optical lattices. We perform simulations with different interlayer coupling and interaction strengths and obtain Néel transition temperatures and entropies. We provide data for the equation of state to enable comparisons of experiments and theory. We find an enhancement of the short-range correlations in the anisotropic lattices compared to the isotropic cubic lattice, in parameter regimes suitable for the interaction driven adiabatic cooling. Supplementary material in the form of one zip file available from the Jounal web page at http://dx.doi.org/10.1140/epjb/e2016-70146-y

  16. Intrinsic half-metallicity in fractal carbon nitride honeycomb lattices.

    PubMed

    Wang, Aizhu; Zhao, Mingwen

    2015-09-14

    Fractals are natural phenomena that exhibit a repeating pattern "exactly the same at every scale or nearly the same at different scales". Defect-free molecular fractals were assembled successfully in a recent work [Shang et al., Nature Chem., 2015, 7, 389-393]. Here, we adopted the feature of a repeating pattern in searching two-dimensional (2D) materials with intrinsic half-metallicity and high stability that are desirable for spintronics applications. Using first-principles calculations, we demonstrate that the electronic properties of fractal frameworks of carbon nitrides have stable ferromagnetism accompanied by half-metallicity, which are highly dependent on the fractal structure. The ferromagnetism increases gradually with the increase of fractal order. The Curie temperature of these metal-free systems estimated from Monte Carlo simulations is considerably higher than room temperature. The stable ferromagnetism, intrinsic half-metallicity, and fractal characteristics of spin distribution in the carbon nitride frameworks open an avenue for the design of metal-free magnetic materials with exotic properties.

  17. Candidate Quantum Spin Liquid due to Dimensional Reduction of a Two-Dimensional Honeycomb Lattice

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Bin; Zhang, Yan; Wang, Zheming; Wang, Dongwei; Baker, Peter J.; Pratt, Francis L.; Zhu, Daoben

    2014-01-01

    As with quantum spin liquids based on two-dimensional triangular and kagome lattices, the two-dimensional honeycomb lattice with either a strong spin-orbital coupling or a frustrating second-nearest-neighbor coupling is expected to be a source of candidate quantum spin liquids. An ammonium salt [(C3H7)3NH]2[Cu2(C2O4)3](H2O)2.2 containing hexagonal layers of Cu2+ was obtained from solution. No structural transition or long-range magnetic ordering was observed from 290 K to 2 K from single crystal X-ray diffraction, specific heat and susceptibility measurements. The anionic layers are separated by sheets of ammonium and H2O with distance of 3.5 Å and no significant interaction between anionic layers. The two-dimensional honeycomb lattice is constructed from Jahn-Teller distorted Cu2+ and oxalate anions, showing a strong antiferromagnetic interaction between S = 1/2 metal atoms with θ = −120 (1) K. Orbital analysis of the Cu2+ interactions through the oxalate-bridges suggests a stripe mode pattern of coupling with weak ferromagnetic interaction along the b axis, and strong antiferromagnetic interaction along the a axis. Analysis of the magnetic susceptibility shows that it is dominated by a quasi-one-dimensional contribution with spin chains that are at least as well isolated as those of well-known quasi-one-dimensional spin liquids. PMID:25245216

  18. Quantum Lattice Algorithms for 2D and 3D Magnetohydrodynamics

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-11-01

    Vahala (William & Mary) on both quantum and entropic lattice algorithms for the solution of nonlinear physics problems. Because of the extreme...for CAP-Phase II on the 9000 core on the SGI-Altix at ASC. 15. SUBJECT TERMS Nonlinear Physics; Quantum Lattice Algorithms; Entropic Lattice...solution of nonlinear physics problems. Because of the extreme scalability of the algorithms that we have been developing, we were chosen for CAP

  19. Ferrimagnetism and single-particle excitations in a periodic Anderson model on the honeycomb lattice

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Seki, Kazuhiro; Shirakawa, Tomonori; Zhang, Qinfang; Li, Tao; Yunoki, Seiji

    2015-04-01

    By using the variationalcluster approximation and cluster perturbation theory, we investigate the magnetism and single-particle excitations of a periodic Anderson model on the honeycomb lattice as an effective model for the single-side hydrogenated graphene, namely, graphone. We calculate the magnetic moment as a function of U (Coulomb interaction on impurity sites) with showing that the ground state is ferrimagneticfor any U > 0. We then calculate the single-particle excitations and show that the single-particle excitations are gapless and exhibit quadratic dispersion relation near the Fermi energy.

  20. BCS-BEC crossover on the two-dimensional honeycomb lattice.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Erhai; Paramekanti, Arun

    2006-12-08

    The attractive Hubbard model on the honeycomb lattice exhibits, at half filling, a quantum critical point between a semimetal with massless Dirac fermions and an s-wave superconductor (SC). We study the BCS-BEC crossover in this model away from half filling at zero temperature and show that the appropriately defined crossover line (in the interaction-density plane) passes through the quantum critical point at half filling. For a range of densities around half filling, the "underlying Fermi surface" of the SC, defined as the momentum space locus of minimum energy quasiparticle excitations, encloses an area which changes nonmonotonically with interaction. We also study fluctuations in the SC and the semimetal, and show the emergence of an undamped Leggett mode deep in the SC. Finally, we consider possible implications for ultracold atoms in optical lattices and the high temperature SCs.

  1. Quantum Anomalous Hall Effect in Low-buckled Honeycomb Lattice with In-plane Magnetization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ren, Yafei; Pan, Hui; Yang, Fei; Li, Xin; Qiao, Zhenhua; Zhenhua Qiao's Group Team; Hui Pan's Group Team

    With out-of-plane magnetization, the quantum anomalous Hall effect has been extensively studied in quantum wells and two-dimensional atomic crystal layers. Here, we investigate the possibility of realizing quantum anomalous Hall effect (QAHE) in honeycomb lattices with in-plane magnetization. We show that the QAHE can only occur in low-buckled honeycomb lattice where both intrinsic and intrinsic Rashba spin-orbit coupling appear spontaneously. The extrinsic Rashba spin-orbit coupling is detrimental to this phase. In contrast to the out-of-plane magnetization induced QAHE, the QAHE from in-plane magnetization is achieved in the vicinity of the time reversal symmetric momenta at M points rather than Dirac points. In monolayer case, the QAHE can be characterized by Chern number  = +/- 1 whereas additional phases with Chern number  = +/- 2 appear in chiral stacked bilayer system. The Chern number strongly depends on the orientation of the magnetization. The bilayer system also provides additional tunability via out-of-plane electric field, which can reduce the critical magnetization strength required to induce QAHE. It can also lead to topological phase transitions from  = +/- 2 to +/- 1 and finally to 0 Equal contribution from Yafei Ren and Hui Pan.

  2. Strong-coupling approach to Mott transition of massless and massive Dirac fermions on honeycomb lattice

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Adibi, Elaheh; Jafari, S. Akbar

    2016-02-01

    Phase transitions in the Hubbard model and ionic Hubbard model at half-filling on the honeycomb lattice are investigated in the strong-coupling perturbation theory which corresponds to an expansion in powers of the hopping t around the atomic limit. Within this formulation we find analytic expressions for the single-particle spectrum, whereby the calculation of the insulating gap is reduced to a simple root finding problem. This enables high-precision determination of the insulating gap that does not require any extrapolation procedure. The critical value of Mott transition on the honeycomb lattice is obtained to be Uc≈2.38 t . Studying the ionic Hubbard model at the lowest order, we find two insulating states, one with Mott character at large U and another with single-particle gap character at large ionic potential Δ . The present approach gives a critical gapless state at U =2 Δ at lowest order. By systematically improving on the perturbation expansion, the density of states around this critical gapless phase reduces.

  3. Discrete solitons and vortices in hexagonal and honeycomb lattices: existence, stability, and dynamics.

    PubMed

    Law, K J H; Kevrekidis, P G; Koukouloyannis, V; Kourakis, I; Frantzeskakis, D J; Bishop, A R

    2008-12-01

    We consider a prototypical dynamical lattice model, namely, the discrete nonlinear Schrödinger equation on nonsquare lattice geometries. We present a systematic classification of the solutions that arise in principal six-lattice-site and three-lattice-site contours in the form of both discrete multipole solitons and discrete vortices. Additionally to identifying the possible states, we analytically track their linear stability both qualitatively and quantitatively. We find that among the six-site configurations, the "hexapole" of alternating phases (0-pi) , as well as the vortex of topological charge S=2 have intervals of stability; among three-site states, only the vortex of topological charge S=1 may be stable in the case of focusing nonlinearity. These conclusions are confirmed both for hexagonal and for honeycomb lattices by means of detailed numerical bifurcation analysis of the stationary states from the anticontinuum limit, and by direct simulations to monitor the dynamical instabilities, when the latter arise. The dynamics reveal a wealth of nonlinear behavior resulting not only in single-site solitary wave forms, but also in robust multisite breathing structures.

  4. Lattice Boltzmann Equation On a 2D Rectangular Grid

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bouzidi, MHamed; DHumieres, Dominique; Lallemand, Pierre; Luo, Li-Shi; Bushnell, Dennis M. (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    We construct a multi-relaxation lattice Boltzmann model on a two-dimensional rectangular grid. The model is partly inspired by a previous work of Koelman to construct a lattice BGK model on a two-dimensional rectangular grid. The linearized dispersion equation is analyzed to obtain the constraints on the isotropy of the transport coefficients and Galilean invariance for various wave propagations in the model. The linear stability of the model is also studied. The model is numerically tested for three cases: (a) a vortex moving with a constant velocity on a mesh periodic boundary conditions; (b) Poiseuille flow with an arbitrasy inclined angle with respect to the lattice orientation: and (c) a cylinder &symmetrically placed in a channel. The numerical results of these tests are compared with either analytic solutions or the results obtained by other methods. Satisfactory results are obtained for the numerical simulations.

  5. A new class of aperiodic, long-range ordered artificial spin ices based upon Fibonacci distortions of 2D periodic lattices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Woods, Justin; Bhat, Vinayak; Farmer, Barry; Sklenar, Joseph; Teipel, Eric; Ketterson, John; Hastings, J. Todd; de Long, Lance

    2015-03-01

    Artificial spin ice (ASI) systems are composed of nanoscale ferromagnetic segments whose shape anisotropy dictates they behave as mesoscopic Ising spins. Most ASI have segments patterned on periodic lattices and a single vertex topology. We have continuously distorted 2D honeycomb and square lattices such that the pattern vertex spacings follow a Fibonacci chain sequence along primitive lattice directions. The Fibonacci distortion is related to the aperiodic translational symmetry of 2D artificial quasicrystals1 that cannot be viewed as continuous distortions of periodic lattices due to their forbidden (e.g., fivefold) rotational symmetries. In contrast, Fibonacci distortions of 2D periodic lattices can be ``turned on'' by control of the ratio of two lattice parameters d1 and d2. Distortions alter film segments such that pattern vertices are no longer equivalent and traditional spin ice rules are no longer strictly valid. We have performed OOMMF simulations of magnetization reversal for samples having different levels of distortion, and found the magnetic reversal to be dramatically slowed by small distortions (d1/d2 ~ 1). Research at Kentucky is supported by U.S. DoE Grant DE-FG02-97ER45653 and NSF Grant EPS-0814194.

  6. Thermal hydraulic design analysis of ternary carbide fueled square-lattice honeycomb nuclear rocket engine

    SciTech Connect

    Furman, Eric M.; Anghaie, Samim

    1999-01-22

    A computational analysis is conducted to determine the optimum thermal-hydraulic design parameters for a square-lattice honeycomb nuclear rocket engine core that will incorporate ternary carbide based uranium fuels. Recent studies at the Innovative Nuclear Space Power and Propulsion Institute (INSPI) have demonstrated the feasibility of processing solid solution, ternary carbide fuels such as (U, Zr, Nb)C, (U, Zr, Ta)C, (U, Zr, Hf)C and (U, Zr, W)C. The square-lattice honeycomb design provides high strength and is amenable to the processing complexities of these ultrahigh temperature fuels. A parametric analysis is conducted to examine how core geometry, fuel thickness and the propellant flow area effect the thermal performance of the nuclear rocket engine. The principal variables include core size (length and diameter) and fuel element dimensions. The optimum core configuration requires a balance between high specific impulse and thrust level performance, and maintaining the temperature and strength limits of the fuel. A nuclear rocket engine simulation code is developed and used to examine the system performance as well as the performance of the main reactor core components. The system simulation code was originally developed for analysis of NERVA-Derivative and Pratt and Whitney XNR-2000 nuclear thermal rockets. The code is modified and adopted to the square-lattice geometry of the new fuel design. Thrust levels ranging from 44,500 to 222,400 N (10,000 to 50,000 lbf) are considered. The average hydrogen exit temperature is kept at 2800 K, which is well below the melting point of these fuels. For a nozzle area ratio of 300 and a thrust chamber pressure of 4.8 Mpa (700 psi), the specific impulse is 930 s. Hydrogen temperature and pressure distributions in the core and the fuel maximum temperatures are calculated.

  7. Nuclear design analysis of square-lattice honeycomb space nuclear rocket engine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Widargo, Reza; Anghaie, Samim

    1999-01-01

    The square-lattice honeycomb reactor is designed based on a cylindrical core that is determined to have critical diameter and length of 0.50 m and 0.50 c, respectively. A 0.10-cm thick radial graphite reflector, in addition to a 0.20-m thick axial graphite reflector are used to reduce neutron leakage from the reactor. The core is fueled with solid solution of 93% enriched (U, Zr, Nb)C, which is one of several ternary uranium carbides that are considered for this concept. The fuel is to be fabricated as 2 mm grooved (U, Zr, Nb)C wafers. The fuel wafers are used to form square-lattice honeycomb fuel assemblies, 0.10 m in length with 30% cross-sectional flow area. Five fuel assemblies are stacked up axially to form the reactor core. Based on the 30% void fraction, the width of the square flow channel is about 1.3 mm. The hydrogen propellant is passed through these flow channels and removes the heat from the reactor core. To perform nuclear design analysis, a series of neutron transport and diffusion codes are used. The preliminary results are obtained using a simple four-group cross-section model. To optimize the nuclear design, the fuel densities are varied for each assembly. Tantalum, hafnium and tungsten are considered and used as a replacement for niobium in fuel material to provide water submersion sub-criticality for the reactor. Axial and radial neutron flux and power density distributions are calculated for the core. Results of the neutronic analysis indicate that the core has a relatively fast spectrum. From the results of the thermal hydraulic analyses, eight axial temperature zones are chosen for the calculation of group average cross-sections. An iterative process is conducted to couple the neutronic calculations with the thermal hydraulics calculations. Results of the nuclear design analysis indicate that a compact core can be designed based on ternary uranium carbide square-lattice honeycomb fuel. This design provides a relatively high thrust to weight

  8. CaMn2Sb2: Spin waves on a frustrated antiferromagnetic honeycomb lattice

    DOE PAGES

    McNally, D. E.; Simonson, J. W.; Kistner-Morris, J. J.; ...

    2015-05-22

    We present inelastic neutron scattering measurements of the antiferromagnetic insulator CaMn2Sb2:, which consists of corrugated honeycomb layers of Mn. The dispersion of magnetic excitations has been measured along the H and L directions in reciprocal space, with a maximum excitation energy of ≈ 24 meV. These excitations are well described by spin waves in a Heisenberg model, including first and second neighbor exchange interactions, J1 and J2, in the Mn plane and also an exchange interaction between planes. The determined ratio J2/J1 ≈ 1/6 suggests that CaMn2Sb2: is the first example of a compound that lies very close to themore » mean field tricritical point, known for the classical Heisenberg model on the honeycomb lattice, where the N´eel phase and two different spiral phases coexist. The magnitude of the determined exchange interactions reveal a mean field ordering temperature ≈ 4 times larger than the reported N´eel temperature TN = 85 K, suggesting significant frustration arising from proximity to the tricritical point.« less

  9. Spin excitations and thermodynamics of the antiferromagnetic Heisenberg model on the layered honeycomb lattice

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vladimirov, Artem A.; Ihle, Dieter; Plakida, Nikolay M.

    2017-03-01

    We present a spin-rotation-invariant Green-function theory for the dynamic spin susceptibility in the spin-1/2 antiferromagnetic Heisenberg model on a stacked honeycomb lattice. Employing a generalized mean-field approximation for arbitrary temperatures, the thermodynamic quantities (two-spin correlation functions, internal energy, magnetic susceptibility, staggered magnetization, Néel temperature, correlation length) and the spin-excitation spectrum are calculated by solving a coupled system of self-consistency equations for the correlation functions. The temperature dependence of the magnetic (uniform static) susceptibility is ascribed to antiferromagnetic short-range order. The Néel temperature is calculated for arbitrary interlayer couplings. Our results are in a good agreement with numerical computations for finite clusters and with available experimental data on the β-Cu2V2O2 compound.

  10. Spectroscopic signatures of molecular orbitals in transition metal oxides with a honeycomb lattice

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pchelkina, Z. V.; Streltsov, S. V.; Mazin, I. I.

    2016-11-01

    A tendency to form benzenelike molecular orbitals has recently been shown to be a common feature of the 4 d and 5 d transition metal oxides with a honeycomb lattice. This tendency competes with other interactions such as the spin-orbit coupling and Hubbard correlations and can be partially or completely suppressed. In the calculations, SrRu2O6 presents the cleanest case of well-formed molecular orbitals so far; however, direct experimental evidence for or against this proposition has been missing. In this paper, we show that combined photoemission and optical studies can be used to identify molecular orbitals in SrRu2O6 . Symmetry-driven election selection rules suppress optical transitions between certain molecular orbitals, while photoemission and inverse photoemission measurements are insensitive to them. Comparing the photoemission and optical conductivity spectra, one should be able to observe clear signatures of molecular orbitals.

  11. Valence bond liquid phase in the honeycomb lattice material Li2RuO3

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kimber, Simon A. J.; Mazin, I. I.; Shen, Juan; Jeschke, Harald O.; Streltsov, Sergey V.; Argyriou, Dimitri N.; Valentí, Roser; Khomskii, Daniel I.

    2014-02-01

    The honeycomb lattice material Li2RuO3 undergoes a dimerization of Ru4+ cations on cooling below 270∘C, where the magnetic susceptibility vanishes. We use density functional theory calculations to show that this reflects the formation of a valence bond crystal, with a strong structural bond disproportionation. On warming, x-ray diffraction shows that discrete threefold symmetry is regained on average, and the dimerization apparently disappears. In contrast, local structural measurements using high-energy x rays show that disordered dimers survive at the nanoscale up to at least 650 ∘C. The high-temperature phase of Li2RuO3 is thus an example of a valence bond liquid, where thermal fluctuations drive resonance between different dimer coverages, a classic analog of the resonating valence bond state often discussed in connection with high-Tc cuprates.

  12. Magnetic hysteresis, compensation behaviors, and phase diagrams of bilayer honeycomb lattices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ersin, Kantar

    2015-10-01

    Magnetic behaviors of the Ising system with bilayer honeycomb lattice (BHL) structure are studied by using the effective-field theory (EFT) with correlations. The effects of the interaction parameters on the magnetic properties of the system such as the hysteresis and compensation behaviors as well as phase diagrams are investigated. Moreover, when the hysteresis behaviors of the system are examined, single and double hysteresis loops are observed for various values of the interaction parameters. We obtain the L-, Q-, P-, and S-type compensation behaviors in the system. We also observe that the phase diagrams only exhibit the second-order phase transition. Hence, the system does not show the tricritical point (TCP).

  13. Phase diagram of dipolar hard-core bosons on a honeycomb lattice

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nakafuji, Takashi; Ito, Takeshi; Nagamori, Yuya; Ichinose, Ikuo

    2016-08-01

    In this paper, we study phase diagrams of dipolar hard-core boson gases on a honeycomb lattice. The system is described by the Haldane-Bose-Hubbard model with complex hopping amplitudes and nearest-neighbor repulsion. By using the slave-particle representation of the hard-core bosons and also the path-integral quantum Monte Carlo simulations, we investigate the system and show that the systems have a rich phase diagram. There are Mott, superfluid, chiral superfluid, and sublattice chiral superfluid phases as well as the density-wave phase. We also found a coexisting phase of superfluid and chiral superfluid. Critical behaviors of the phase transitions are also clarified.

  14. Plaquette order in the SU(6) Heisenberg model on the honeycomb lattice

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nataf, Pierre; Lajkó, Miklós; Corboz, Philippe; Läuchli, Andreas M.; Penc, Karlo; Mila, Frédéric

    2016-05-01

    We revisit the SU(6) Heisenberg model on the honeycomb lattice, which has been predicted to be a chiral spin liquid by mean-field theory [G. Szirmai et al., Phys. Rev. A 84, 011611(R) (2011), 10.1103/PhysRevA.84.011611]. Using exact diagonalizations of finite clusters, infinite projected entangled pair state simulations, and variational Monte Carlo simulations based on Gutzwiller projected wave functions, we provide strong evidence that the model with one particle per site and nearest-neighbor exchange actually develops plaquette order. This is further confirmed by the investigation of the model with a ring-exchange term, which shows that there is a transition between the plaquette state and the chiral state at a finite value of the ring-exchange term.

  15. Zigzag order and phase competition in expanded Kitaev-Heisenberg model on honeycomb lattice

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yao, Xiaoyan

    2015-07-01

    The Kitaev-Heisenberg model on the honeycomb lattice is investigated in two cases: (I) with the Kitaev interaction between the nearest neighbors, and (II) with the Kitaev interaction between the next nearest neighbors. In the full parameter range, the ground states are searched by Monte Carlo simulation and identified by evaluating the correlation functions. The energies of different phases are calculated and compared with the simulated result to show the phase competition. It is observed from both energy calculation and the density of states that the zigzag order shows a symmetric behavior to the stripy phase in the pure Kitaev-Heisenberg model. By considering more interactions in both cases, the energy of zigzag order can be reduced lower than the energies of other states. Thus the zigzag phase may be stabilized in more parameter region and even extended to the whole parameter range.

  16. The stabilizer group of honeycomb lattices and its application to deformed monolayers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hernández-Espinosa, Y.; Rosado, A. S.; Sadurní, E.

    2016-12-01

    Isospectral transformations of exactly solvable models constitute a fruitful method for obtaining new structures with prescribed properties. In this paper we study the stability group of the Dirac algebra in honeycomb lattices representing graphene or boron nitride. New crystalline arrays with conical (Dirac) points are obtained; in particular, a model for dichalcogenide monolayers is proposed and analysed. In our studies we encounter unitary and non-unitary transformations. We show that the latter give rise to { P } { T }-symmetric Hamiltonians, in compliance with known results in the context of boosted Dirac equations. The results of the unitary part are applied to the description of invariant bandgaps and dispersion relations in materials such as MoS2. A careful construction based on atomic orbitals is proposed and the resulting dispersion relation is compared with previous results obtained through DFT.

  17. Pressure-Driven Cooperative Spin-Crossover, Large-Volume Collapse, and Semiconductor-to-Metal Transition in Manganese(II) Honeycomb Lattices.

    PubMed

    Wang, Yonggang; Zhou, Zhengyang; Wen, Ting; Zhou, Yannan; Li, Nana; Han, Fei; Xiao, Yuming; Chow, Paul; Sun, Junliang; Pravica, Michael; Cornelius, Andrew L; Yang, Wenge; Zhao, Yusheng

    2016-12-07

    Spin-crossover (SCO) is generally regarded as a spectacular molecular magnetism in 3d(4)-3d(7) metal complexes and holds great promise for various applications such as memory, displays, and sensors. In particular, SCO materials can be multifunctional when a classical light- or temperature-induced SCO occurs along with other cooperative structural and/or electrical transport alterations. However, such a cooperative SCO has rarely been observed in condensed matter under hydrostatic pressure (an alternative external stimulus to light or temperature), probably due to the lack of synergy between metal neighbors under compression. Here, we report the observation of a pressure-driven, cooperative SCO in the two-dimensional (2D) honeycomb antiferromagnets MnPS3 and MnPSe3 at room temperature. Applying pressure to this confined 2D system leads to a dramatic magnetic moment collapse of Mn(2+) (d(5)) from S = 5/2 to S = 1/2. Significantly, a number of collective phenomena were observed along with the SCO, including a large lattice collapse (∼20% in volume), the formation of metallic bonding, and a semiconductor-to-metal transition. Experimental evidence shows that all of these events occur in the honeycomb lattice, indicating a strongly cooperative mechanism that facilitates the occurrence of the abrupt pressure-driven SCO. We believe that the observation of this cooperative pressure-driven SCO in a 2D system can provide a rare model for theoretical investigations and lead to the discovery of more pressure-responsive multifunctional materials.

  18. Quantum oscillations of magnetization in tight-binding electrons on a honeycomb lattice

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kishigi, Keita; Hasegawa, Yasumasa

    2014-08-01

    We show that quantum oscillations of the magnetization can occur when the Fermi surface consists of points (massless Dirac points) or even when the chemical potential is in an energy gap by studying tight-binding electrons on a honeycomb lattice in a uniform magnetic field. The quantum oscillations of the magnetization as a function of the inverse magnetic field are known as de Haas-van Alphen (dHvA) oscillations and the frequency is proportional to the area of the Fermi surface. The dominant period of the oscillations shown in this paper corresponds to the area of the first Brillouin zone and its phase is zero. The origin of these quantum oscillations is the characteristic magnetic field dependence of the energy known as the Hofstadter butterfly and the Harper broadening of Landau levels. These oscillations are not caused by the crossing of the chemical potential and Landau levels, which is the case in dHvA oscillations. These oscillations can be observed experimentally in systems with a large supercell such as a graphene antidot lattice or ultracold atoms in an optical lattice at an external magnetic field of a few Tesla when the area of the supercell is 104 times larger than that of graphene.

  19. Design of Chern and Mott insulators in buckled 3 d oxide honeycomb lattices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Doennig, David; Baidya, Santu; Pickett, Warren E.; Pentcheva, Rossitza

    2016-04-01

    Perovskite (La X O3 )2/(LaAlO3)4(111) superlattices with X spanning the entire 3 d transition-metal series combine the strongly correlated, multiorbital nature of electrons in transition-metal oxides with a honeycomb lattice as a key feature. Based on density functional theory calculations including strong interaction effects, we establish trends in the evolution of electronic states as a function of several control parameters: band filling, interaction strength, spin-orbit coupling (SOC), and lattice instabilities. Competition between local pseudocubic and global trigonal symmetry as well as the additional flexibility provided by the magnetic and spin degrees of freedom of 3 d ions lead to a broad array of distinctive broken-symmetry ground states not accessible for the (001)-growth direction, offering a platform to design two-dimensional electronic functionalities. Constraining the symmetry between the two triangular sublattices causes X =Mn , Co, and Ti to emerge as Chern insulators driven by SOC. For X =Mn we illustrate how interaction strength and lattice distortions can tune these systems between a Dirac semimetal, a Chern and a trivial Mott insulator.

  20. Quantum spin Hall phase in 2D trigonal lattice

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Z. F.; Jin, Kyung-Hwan; Liu, Feng

    2016-01-01

    The quantum spin Hall (QSH) phase is an exotic phenomena in condensed-matter physics. Here we show that a minimal basis of three orbitals (s, px, py) is required to produce a QSH phase via nearest-neighbour hopping in a two-dimensional trigonal lattice. Tight-binding model analyses and calculations show that the QSH phase arises from a spin–orbit coupling (SOC)-induced s–p band inversion or p–p bandgap opening at Brillouin zone centre (Γ point), whose topological phase diagram is mapped out in the parameter space of orbital energy and SOC. Remarkably, based on first-principles calculations, this exact model of QSH phase is shown to be realizable in an experimental system of Au/GaAs(111) surface with an SOC gap of ∼73 meV, facilitating the possible room-temperature measurement. Our results will extend the search for substrate supported QSH materials to new lattice and orbital types. PMID:27599580

  1. Creating, moving and merging Dirac points with a Fermi gas in a tunable honeycomb lattice.

    PubMed

    Tarruell, Leticia; Greif, Daniel; Uehlinger, Thomas; Jotzu, Gregor; Esslinger, Tilman

    2012-03-14

    Dirac points are central to many phenomena in condensed-matter physics, from massless electrons in graphene to the emergence of conducting edge states in topological insulators. At a Dirac point, two energy bands intersect linearly and the electrons behave as relativistic Dirac fermions. In solids, the rigid structure of the material determines the mass and velocity of the electrons, as well as their interactions. A different, highly flexible means of studying condensed-matter phenomena is to create model systems using ultracold atoms trapped in the periodic potential of interfering laser beams. Here we report the creation of Dirac points with adjustable properties in a tunable honeycomb optical lattice. Using momentum-resolved interband transitions, we observe a minimum bandgap inside the Brillouin zone at the positions of the two Dirac points. We exploit the unique tunability of our lattice potential to adjust the effective mass of the Dirac fermions by breaking inversion symmetry. Moreover, changing the lattice anisotropy allows us to change the positions of the Dirac points inside the Brillouin zone. When the anisotropy exceeds a critical limit, the two Dirac points merge and annihilate each other-a situation that has recently attracted considerable theoretical interest but that is extremely challenging to observe in solids. We map out this topological transition in lattice parameter space and find excellent agreement with ab initio calculations. Our results not only pave the way to model materials in which the topology of the band structure is crucial, but also provide an avenue to exploring many-body phases resulting from the interplay of complex lattice geometries with interactions.

  2. Magnetic properties of the S =1/2 honeycomb lattice antiferromagnet 2 -Cl -3 ,6 -F2-V

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Okabe, Toshiki; Yamaguchi, Hironori; Kittaka, Shunichiro; Sakakibara, Toshiro; Ono, Toshio; Hosokoshi, Yuko

    2017-02-01

    We successfully synthesized single crystals of the verdazyl radical 2 -Cl -3 ,6 -F2-V [=3-(2-chloro-3,6-difluorophenyl)-1,5-diphenylverdazyl], which is a rare model compound with an S =1/2 Heisenberg antiferromagnetic (HAF) honeycomb lattice. Ab initio molecular orbital calculations indicate two dominant AF interactions, forming a slightly distorted honeycomb lattice. We explain the magnetic susceptibility and the magnetization curve up to the saturation field based on the expected spin model using the quantum Monte Carlo method. In the low-temperature regions, we found a phase transition to an AF ordered state at about 0.77 K for the zero field and obtained the magnetic field-temperature phase diagram from the magnetic susceptibility and the specific heat for various magnetic fields. Through the analysis considering the effect of lattice distortion on magnetic behavior, we confirm that the lattice distortion of the present model is small enough that it does not affect the intrinsic behavior of the uniform S =1/2 HAF honeycomb lattice.

  3. Bilayer honeycomb lattice with ultracold atoms: Multiple Fermi surfaces and incommensurate spin density wave instability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dey, Santanu; Sensarma, Rajdeep

    2016-12-01

    We propose an experimental setup using ultracold atoms to implement a bilayer honeycomb lattice with Bernal stacking. In the presence of a potential bias between the layers and at low densities, fermions placed in this lattice form an annular Fermi sea. The presence of two Fermi surfaces leads to interesting patterns in Friedel oscillations and RKKY interactions in the presence of impurities. Furthermore, a repulsive fermion-fermion interaction leads to a Stoner instability towards an incommensurate spin density wave order with a wave vector equal to the thickness of the Fermi sea. The instability occurs at a critical interaction strength which goes down with the density of the fermions. We find that the instability survives interaction renormalization due to vertex corrections and discuss how this can be seen in experiments. We also track the renormalization group flows of the different couplings between the fermionic degrees of freedom, and find that there are no perturbative instabilities, and that Stoner instability is the strongest instability which occurs at a critical threshold value of the interaction. The critical interaction goes to zero as the chemical potential is tuned towards the band bottom.

  4. Strongly frustrated triangular spin lattice emerging from triplet dimer formation in honeycomb Li2IrO3

    PubMed Central

    Nishimoto, Satoshi; Katukuri, Vamshi M.; Yushankhai, Viktor; Stoll, Hermann; Rößler, Ulrich K.; Hozoi, Liviu; Rousochatzakis, Ioannis; van den Brink, Jeroen

    2016-01-01

    Iridium oxides with a honeycomb lattice have been identified as platforms for the much anticipated Kitaev topological spin liquid: the spin-orbit entangled states of Ir4+ in principle generate precisely the required type of anisotropic exchange. However, other magnetic couplings can drive the system away from the spin-liquid phase. With this in mind, here we disentangle the different magnetic interactions in Li2IrO3, a honeycomb iridate with two crystallographically inequivalent sets of adjacent Ir sites. Our ab initio many-body calculations show that, while both Heisenberg and Kitaev nearest-neighbour couplings are present, on one set of Ir–Ir bonds the former dominates, resulting in the formation of spin-triplet dimers. The triplet dimers frame a strongly frustrated triangular lattice and by exact cluster diagonalization we show that they remain protected in a wide region of the phase diagram. PMID:26776664

  5. Electronic instabilities of the extended Hubbard model on the honeycomb lattice from functional renormalization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Volpez, Yanick; Scherer, Daniel D.; Scherer, Michael M.

    2016-10-01

    Interacting fermions on the half-filled honeycomb lattice with short-range repulsions have been suggested to host a variety of interesting many-body ground states, e.g., a topological Mott insulator. A number of recent studies of the spinless case in terms of exact diagonalization, the infinite density matrix renormalization group, and the functional renormalization group, however, indicate a suppression of the topological Mott insulating phase in the whole range of interaction parameters. Here, we complement the previous studies by investigating the quantum many-body instabilities of the physically relevant case of spin-1/2 fermions with onsite, nearest-neighbor, and second-nearest-neighbor repulsion. To this end, we employ the multipatch functional renormalization group for correlated fermions with refined momentum resolution observing the emergence of an antiferromagnetic spin-density wave and a charge-density wave for dominating onsite and nearest-neighbor repulsions, respectively. For dominating second-nearest neighbor interaction our results favor an ordering tendency towards a charge-modulated ground state over the topological Mott insulating state. The latter evades a stabilization as the leading instability by the additional onsite interaction.

  6. Absence of an interaction driven Chern insulating phase on the honeycomb lattice

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Motruk, Johannes; Grushin, Adolfo G.; Pollmann, Frank

    2015-03-01

    Mean field calculations in the literature have suggested the existence of an interaction-induced Chern insulator (CI) phase in a tight-binding model of spinless fermions on a honeycomb lattice with nearest- and next-nearest-neighbor interactions. The CI phase is an example of a state that breaks time-reversal symmetry spontaneously and possesses a quantized Hall conductance. However, it has been proven elusive in exact diagonalization (ED) studies of this system. Since ED is limited to small system sizes, the fate of this phase in the thermodynamic limit still remains unclear. Using the infinite density matrix renormalization group (iDMRG) algorithm we reach system sizes exceeding those accessible in ED calculations while keeping track of quantum fluctuations neglected in mean field studies. We map out the phase diagram as a function of both nearest- and next-nearest-neighbor interaction strengths for an infinite cylinder geometry and find different charge-ordered phases but no sign of the interaction driven Chern insulator phase.

  7. Square lattice honeycomb tri-carbide fuels for 50 to 250 KN variable thrust NTP design

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Anghaie, Samim; Knight, Travis; Gouw, Reza; Furman, Eric

    2001-02-01

    Ultrahigh temperature solid solution of tri-carbide fuels are used to design an ultracompact nuclear thermal rocket generating 950 seconds of specific impulse with scalable thrust level in range of 50 to 250 kilo Newtons. Solid solutions of tri-carbide nuclear fuels such as uranium-zirconium-niobium carbide. UZrNbC, are processed to contain certain mixing ratio between uranium carbide and two stabilizing carbides. Zirconium or niobium in the tri-carbide could be replaced by tantalum or hafnium to provide higher chemical stability in hot hydrogen environment or to provide different nuclear design characteristics. Recent studies have demonstrated the chemical compatibility of tri-carbide fuels with hydrogen propellant for a few to tens of hours of operation at temperatures ranging from 2800 K to 3300 K, respectively. Fuel elements are fabricated from thin tri-carbide wafers that are grooved and locked into a square-lattice honeycomb (SLHC) shape. The hockey puck shaped SLHC fuel elements are stacked up in a grooved graphite tube to form a SLHC fuel assembly. A total of 18 fuel assemblies are arranged circumferentially to form two concentric rings of fuel assemblies with zirconium hydride filling the space between assemblies. For 50 to 250 kilo Newtons thrust operations, the reactor diameter and length including reflectors are 57 cm and 60 cm, respectively. Results of the nuclear design and thermal fluid analyses of the SLHC nuclear thermal propulsion system are presented. .

  8. Hierarchy of Floquet gaps and edge states for driven honeycomb lattices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Perez-Piskunow, P. M.; Foa Torres, L. E. F.; Usaj, Gonzalo

    2015-04-01

    Electromagnetic driving in a honeycomb lattice can induce gaps and topological edge states with a structure of increasing complexity as the frequency of the driving lowers. While the high-frequency case is the most simple to analyze we focus on the multiple photon processes allowed in the low-frequency regime to unveil the hierarchy of Floquet edge states. In the case of low intensities an analytical approach allows us to derive effective Hamiltonians and address the topological character of each gap in a constructive manner. At high intensities we obtain the net number of edge states, given by the winding number, with a numerical calculation of the Chern numbers of each Floquet band. Using these methods, we find a hierarchy that resembles that of a Russian nesting doll. This hierarchy classifies the gaps and the associated edge states in different orders according to the electron-photon coupling strength. For large driving intensities, we rely on the numerical calculation of the winding number, illustrated in a map of topological phase transitions. The hierarchy unveiled with the low-energy effective Hamiltonians, along with the map of topological phase transitions, discloses the complexity of the Floquet band structure in the low-frequency regime. The proposed method for obtaining the effective Hamiltonian can be easily adapted to other Dirac Hamiltonians of two-dimensional materials and even the surface of a three-dimensional topological insulator.

  9. Strain-tunable topological quantum phase transition in buckled honeycomb lattices

    SciTech Connect

    Yan, Jia-An Cruz, Mack A. Dela; Barraza-Lopez, Salvador; Yang, Li

    2015-05-04

    Low-buckled silicene is a prototypical quantum spin Hall insulator with the topological quantum phase transition controlled by an out-of-plane electric field. We show that this field-induced electronic transition can be further tuned by an in-plane biaxial strain ε, owing to the curvature-dependent spin-orbit coupling (SOC): There is a Z{sub 2} = 1 topological insulator phase for biaxial strain |ε| smaller than 0.07, and the band gap can be tuned from 0.7 meV for ε=+0.07 up to 3.0 meV for ε=−0.07. First-principles calculations also show that the critical field strength E{sub c} can be tuned by more than 113%, with the absolute values nearly 10 times stronger than the theoretical predictions based on a tight-binding model. The buckling structure of the honeycomb lattice thus enhances the tunability of both the quantum phase transition and the SOC-induced band gap, which are crucial for the design of topological field-effect transistors based on two-dimensional materials.

  10. Gauge symmetry and non-Abelian topological sectors in a geometrically constrained model on the honeycomb lattice.

    PubMed

    Fendley, Paul; Moore, Joel E; Xu, Cenke

    2007-05-01

    We study a constrained statistical-mechanical model in two dimensions that has three useful descriptions. They are (i) the Ising model on the honeycomb lattice, constrained to have three up spins and three down spins on every hexagon, (ii) the three-color and fully packed loop model on the links of the honeycomb lattice, with loops around a single hexagon forbidden, and (iii) three Ising models on interleaved triangular lattices, with domain walls of the different Ising models not allowed to cross. Unlike the three-color model, the configuration space on the sphere or plane is connected under local moves. On higher-genus surfaces there are infinitely many dynamical sectors, labeled by a noncontractible set of nonintersecting loops. We demonstrate that at infinite temperature the transfer matrix admits an unusual structure related to a gauge symmetry for the same model on an anisotropic lattice. This enables us to diagonalize the original transfer matrix for up to 36 sites, finding an entropy per plaquette S/k{B} approximately 0.3661 ... centered and substantial evidence that the model is not critical. We also find the striking property that the eigenvalues of the transfer matrix on an anisotropic lattice are given in terms of Fibonacci numbers. We comment on the possibility of a topological phase, with infinite topological degeneracy, in an associated two-dimensional quantum model.

  11. Stripe order on the spin-1 stacked honeycomb lattice in Ba2Ni (PO4)2

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yogi, Arvind; Bera, A. K.; Maurya, Arvind; Kulkarni, Ruta; Yusuf, S. M.; Hoser, A.; Tsirlin, A. A.; Thamizhavel, A.

    2017-01-01

    We report a comprehensive investigation of the crystal structure and magnetic behavior of the S =1 compound Ba2Ni (PO4)2 with a honeycomblike topology of the spin lattice. Magnetic susceptibility and specific-heat data reveal two successive transitions at TN 1=5 K and TN 2=4.6 K . Additionally, these data demonstrate a broad peak at Tmax˜8 K , indicative of the short-range magnetic order above TN 1, whereas below TN 1 field-induced transitions around 4 and 10 T are identified from the magnetization measurements. Neutron diffraction in zero field establishes stripe antiferromagnetic order below TN 2 with the ordered moment of 1.75 (8 ) μB/Ni2 + at 1.5 K. Density-functional band-structure calculations reveal the leading interaction J3=3.5 K running perpendicular to the honeycomb planes, and weaker interactions J1=0.5 K and J4=1.8 K within the honeycomb planes, whereas the stripe order is stabilized by the diagonal interlayer interaction J2=1.3 K that frustrates J1. This is in contrast to the usually expected scenario where the competing second- and third-neighbor interactions on the honeycomb lattice stabilize the stripe order. The Ni2 + ions feature a sizable easy-plane anisotropy A ≃10.5 K , but the position of the easy plane changes from one atom to another, thus amplifying magnetic frustration.

  12. Frustrated honeycomb-lattice bilayer quantum antiferromagnet in a magnetic field: Unconventional phase transitions in a two-dimensional isotropic Heisenberg model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Krokhmalskii, Taras; Baliha, Vasyl; Derzhko, Oleg; Schulenburg, Jörg; Richter, Johannes

    2017-03-01

    We consider the spin-1/2 antiferromagnetic Heisenberg model on a bilayer honeycomb lattice including interlayer frustration in the presence of an external magnetic field. In the vicinity of the saturation field, we map the low-energy states of this quantum system onto the spatial configurations of hard hexagons on a honeycomb lattice. As a result, we can construct effective classical models (lattice-gas as well as Ising models) on the honeycomb lattice to calculate the properties of the frustrated quantum Heisenberg spin system in the low-temperature regime. We perform classical Monte Carlo simulations for a hard-hexagon model and adopt known results for an Ising model to discuss the finite-temperature order-disorder phase transition that is driven by a magnetic field at low temperatures. We also discuss an effective-model description around the ideal frustration case and find indications for a spin-flop-like transition in the considered isotropic spin model.

  13. 2D mapping of texture and lattice parameters of dental enamel.

    PubMed

    Al-Jawad, Maisoon; Steuwer, Axel; Kilcoyne, Susan H; Shore, Roger C; Cywinski, Robert; Wood, David J

    2007-06-01

    We have used synchrotron X-ray diffraction to study the texture and the change in lattice parameter as a function of position in a cross section of human dental enamel. Our study is the first to map changes in preferred orientation and lattice parameter as a function of position within enamel across a whole tooth section with such high resolution. Synchrotron X-ray diffraction with a micro-focused beam spot was used to collect two-dimensional (2D) diffraction images at 150 microm spatial resolution over the entire tooth crown. Contour maps of the texture and lattice parameter distribution of the hydroxyapatite phase were produced from Rietveld refinement of diffraction patterns generated by azimuthally sectioning and integrating the 2D images. The 002 Debye ring showed the largest variation in intensity. This variation is indicative of preferred orientation. Areas of high crystallite alignment on the tooth cusps match the expected biting surfaces. Additionally we found a large variation in lattice parameter when travelling from the enamel surface to the enamel-dentine junction. We believe this to be due to a change in the chemical composition within the tooth. The results provide a new insight on the texture and lattice parameter profiles within enamel.

  14. 2D Superexchange-mediated magnetization dynamics in an optical lattice

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goldschmidt, Elizabeth; Brown, Roger; Wyllie, Robert; Koller, Silvio; Foss-Feig, Michael; Porto, Trey

    2015-05-01

    The interplay of magnetic exchange interactions and tunneling underlies many complex quantum phenomena observed in real materials. We study nonequilibrium magnetization dynamics in an extended 2D system by loading effective spin-1/2 bosons into a spin-dependent optical lattice, and we use the lattice to separately control the resonance conditions for tunneling and superexchange. After preparing a nonequilibrium antiferromagnetically ordered state, we observe relaxation dynamics governed by two well-separated rates, which scale with the underlying Hamiltonian parameters associated with superexchange and tunneling. Remarkably, with tunneling off-resonantly suppressed, we are able to observe superexchange-dominated dynamics over two orders of magnitude in magnetic coupling strength, despite the presence of vacancies. In this regime, the measured timescales are in agreement with simple theoretical estimates, but the detailed dynamics of this 2D, strongly-correlated, and far-from-equilibrium quantum system remain out of reach of current computational techniques. Now at Georgia Tech Research Institute.

  15. Electrically controllable magnetic order in the bilayer Hubbard model on honeycomb lattice: A determinant quantum Monte Carlo study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sun, Jinhua; Xu, Dong-Hui; Zhou, Yi; Zhang, Fu-Chun

    2014-09-01

    In this paper, we use the determinant quantum Monte Carlo method to study the effect of the electric field on the magnetic order in a bilayer Hubbard model on a honeycomb lattice, in which only the direct interlayer hopping energy is included. Our results qualitatively support the layered antiferromagnetic, spin-density wave ground state found in the mean-field theory at the charge neutrality point. The obtained magnetic moments, however, are much smaller than what are estimated in the mean-field theory. As the electric field increases, the magnetic order parameter rapidly decreases.

  16. Influence of lattice defects on the ferromagnetic resonance behaviour of 2D magnonic crystals

    PubMed Central

    Manzin, Alessandra; Barrera, Gabriele; Celegato, Federica; Coïsson, Marco; Tiberto, Paola

    2016-01-01

    This paper studies, from a modelling point of view, the influence of randomly distributed lattice defects (non-patterned areas and variable hole size) on the ferromagnetic resonance behaviour and spin wave mode profiles of 2D magnonic crystals based on Ni80Fe20 antidot arrays with hexagonal lattice. A reference sample is first defined via the comparison of experimental and simulated hysteresis loops and magnetoresistive curves of patterned films, prepared by self-assembly of polystyrene nanospheres. Second, a parametric analysis of the dynamic response is performed, investigating how edge, quasi-uniform and localized modes are affected by alterations of the lattice geometry and bias field amplitude. Finally, some results about the possible use of magnetic antidot arrays in frequency-based sensors for magnetic bead detection are presented, highlighting the need for an accurate control of microstructural features. PMID:26911336

  17. Néel-state to valence-bond-solid transition on the honeycomb lattice: evidence for deconfined criticality.

    PubMed

    Pujari, Sumiran; Damle, Kedar; Alet, Fabien

    2013-08-23

    We study a spin-1/2 SU(2) model on the honeycomb lattice with nearest-neighbor antiferromagnetic exchange J that favors Néel order and competing six-spin interactions Q that favor a valence-bond-solid (VBS) state in which the bond energies order at the "columnar" wave vector K=(2π/3,-2π/3). We present quantum Monte Carlo evidence for a direct continuous quantum phase transition between Néel and VBS states, with exponents and logarithmic violations of scaling consistent with those at analogous deconfined critical points on the square lattice. Although this strongly suggests a description in terms of deconfined criticality, the measured threefold anisotropy of the phase of the VBS order parameter shows unusual near-marginal behavior at the critical point.

  18. 2D lattice model of a lipid bilayer: Microscopic derivation and thermodynamic exploration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hakobyan, Davit; Heuer, Andreas

    2017-02-01

    Based on all-atom Molecular Dynamics (MD) simulations of a lipid bilayer we present a systematic mapping on a 2D lattice model. Keeping the lipid type and the chain order parameter as key variables we derive a free energy functional, containing the enthalpic interaction of adjacent lipids as well as the tail entropy. The functional form of both functions is explicitly determined for saturated and polyunsaturated lipids. By studying the lattice model via Monte Carlo simulations it is possible to reproduce the temperature dependence of the distribution of order parameters of the pure lipids, including the prediction of the gel transition. Furthermore, application to a mixture of saturated and polyunsaturated lipids yields the correct phase separation behavior at lower temperatures with a simulation time reduced by approximately 7 orders of magnitude as compared to the corresponding MD simulations. Even the time-dependence of the de-mixing is reproduced on a semi-quantitative level. Due to the generality of the approach we envisage a large number of further applications, ranging from modeling larger sets of lipids, sterols, and solvent proteins to predicting nucleation barriers for the melting of lipids. Particularly, from the properties of the 2D lattice model one can directly read off the enthalpy and entropy change of the 1,2-dipalmitoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine gel-to-liquid transition in excellent agreement with experimental and MD results.

  19. Neutron Diffraction on NaNi2 BiO6 : Complex Interactions on a Honeycomb Lattice

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Scheie, Allen; Ross, Kate; Seibel, Elizabeth; Rodriguez-Rivera, Jose; Broholm, Collin; Cava, Robert; InstituteQuantum Matter Collaboration

    Magnetic crystals with a honeycomb lattice can have a very high degree of frustration when next-nearest neighbor interactions are strong. Such complex interactions can lead to Kitaev model physics, including a proposed spin liquid phase. Using neutron scattering, we studied the magnetic properties of a new spin-1/2 honeycomb compound, NaNi2BiO6, which was known to have heat capacity peaks indicative of a phase transition at 5 K. The magnetic order indicates beyond nearest-neighbor exchange as well as significant inter-plane interaction, which allows for a study of rich and complex structure. In this talk I report the magnetic structure of the compound as found with neutron powder diffraction, and discuss the exchanges necessary to lead to such a complex order. The work at IQM was supported by the U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Basic Energy Sciences, Division of Material Sciences and Engineering, under Grant No. DEFG02-08ER46544.

  20. CaMn2Sb2: Spin waves on a frustrated antiferromagnetic honeycomb lattice

    SciTech Connect

    McNally, D. E.; Simonson, J. W.; Kistner-Morris, J. J.; Smith, G. J.; Hassinger, J. E.; DeBeer-Schmidt, L.; Kolesnikov, A. I.; Zaliznyak, I.; Aronson, M. C.

    2015-05-22

    We present inelastic neutron scattering measurements of the antiferromagnetic insulator CaMn2Sb2:, which consists of corrugated honeycomb layers of Mn. The dispersion of magnetic excitations has been measured along the H and L directions in reciprocal space, with a maximum excitation energy of ≈ 24 meV. These excitations are well described by spin waves in a Heisenberg model, including first and second neighbor exchange interactions, J1 and J2, in the Mn plane and also an exchange interaction between planes. The determined ratio J2/J1 ≈ 1/6 suggests that CaMn2Sb2: is the first example of a compound that lies very close to the mean field tricritical point, known for the classical Heisenberg model on the honeycomb lattice, where the N´eel phase and two different spiral phases coexist. The magnitude of the determined exchange interactions reveal a mean field ordering temperature ≈ 4 times larger than the reported N´eel temperature TN = 85 K, suggesting significant frustration arising from proximity to the tricritical point.

  1. Analysis of the antiferromagnetic phase transitions of the 2D Kondo lattice

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jones, Barbara

    2010-03-01

    The Kondo lattice continues to present an interesting and relevant challenge, with its interactions between Kondo, RKKY, and coherent order. We present our study[1] of the antiferromagnetic quantum phase transitions of a 2D Kondo-Heisenberg square lattice. Starting from the nonlinear sigma model as a model of antiferromagnetism, we carry out a renormalization group analysis of the competing Kondo-RKKY interaction to one-loop order in an ɛ-expansion. We find a new quantum critical point (QCP) strongly affected by Kondo fluctuations. Near this QCP, there is a breakdown of hydrodynamic behavior, and the spin waves are logarithmically frozen out. The renormalization group results allow us to propose a new phase diagram near the antiferromagnetic fixed point of this 2D Kondo lattice model. The T=0 phase diagram contains four phases separated by a tetracritical point, the new QCP. For small spin fluctuations, we find a stable local magnetic moment antiferromagnet. For stronger coupling, region II is a metallic quantum disordered paramagnet. We find in region III a paramagnetic phase driven by Kondo interactions, with possible ground states of a heavy fermion liquid or a Kondo driven spin-liquid. The fourth phase is a spiral phase, or a large-Fermi-surface antiferromagnetic phase. We will describe these phases in more detail, including possible experimental confirmation of the spiral phase. The existence of the tetracritical point found here would be expected to affect the phase diagram at finite temperatures as well. In addition, It is hoped that these results, and particularly the Kondo interaction paramagnetic phase, will serve to bridge to solutions starting from the opposite limit, of a Kondo effect leading to a heavy fermion ground state. Work in collaboration with T. Tzen Ong. [4pt] [1] T. Ong and B. A. Jones, Phys. Rev. Lett. 103, 066405 (2009).

  2. Sodium layer chiral distribution and spin structure of Na2Ni2TeO6 with a Ni honeycomb lattice

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Karna, Sunil K.; Zhao, Y.; Sankar, R.; Avdeev, M.; Tseng, P. C.; Wang, C. W.; Shu, G. J.; Matan, K.; Guo, G. Y.; Chou, F. C.

    2017-03-01

    The nature of Na ion distribution, diffusion path, and the spin structure of P 2 -type Na2Ni2TeO6 with a Ni honeycomb lattice has been explored. The nuclear density distribution of Na ions reveals a two-dimensional (2D) chiral pattern within Na layers without breaking the original 3D crystal symmetry, which has been achieved uniquely via an inverse Fourier transform (iFT)-assisted neutron-diffraction technique. The Na diffusion pathway described by the calculated isosurface of the Na ion bond valence sum (BVS) map is found consistent to a chiral diffusion mechanism. The Na site occupancy and Ni2 + spin ordering were examined in detail with the neutron diffraction, magnetic susceptibility, specific heat, thermal conductivity, and transport measurements. Signatures of both strong incommensurate (ICM) and weak commensurate (CM) antiferromagnetic (AFM) spin ordering were identified in the polycrystalline sample studied, and the CM-AFM spin ordering was confirmed by using a single-crystal sample through the k scan in the momentum space corresponding to the AFM peak of (1/2 ,0 ,1 ).

  3. Honeycomb-Lattice Heisenberg-Kitaev Model in a Magnetic Field: Spin Canting, Metamagnetism, and Vortex Crystals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Janssen, Lukas; Andrade, Eric C.; Vojta, Matthias

    2016-12-01

    The Heisenberg-Kitaev model is a paradigmatic model to describe the magnetism in honeycomb-lattice Mott insulators with strong spin-orbit coupling, such as A2IrO3 (A =Na , Li ) and α -RuCl3 . Here, we study in detail the physics of the Heisenberg-Kitaev model in an external magnetic field. Using a combination of Monte Carlo simulations and spin-wave theory, we map out the classical phase diagram for different directions of the magnetic field. Broken SU(2) spin symmetry renders the magnetization process rather complex, with sequences of phases and metamagnetic transitions. In particular, we find various large-unit-cell and multi-Q phases including a vortex-crystal phase for a field in the [111 ] direction. We also discuss quantum corrections in the high-field phase.

  4. Zero-temperature transition and correlation-length exponent of the frustrated XY model on a honeycomb lattice

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Granato, Enzo

    2012-02-01

    Phase coherence and vortex order in the fully frustrated XY model on a two-dimensional honeycomb lattice are studied by extensive Monte Carlo simulations using the parallel tempering method and finite-size scaling. No evidence is found for an equilibrium order-disorder or a spin/vortex-glass transition, suggested in previous simulation works. Instead, the scaling analysis of correlations of phase and vortex variables in the full equilibrated system is consistent with a phase transition where the critical temperature vanishes and the correlation lengths diverge as a power law with decreasing temperatures and corresponding critical exponents νph and νv. This behavior and the near agreement of the critical exponents suggest a zero-temperature transition scenario where phase and vortex variables remain coupled on large length scales.

  5. Honeycomb-Lattice Heisenberg-Kitaev Model in a Magnetic Field: Spin Canting, Metamagnetism, and Vortex Crystals.

    PubMed

    Janssen, Lukas; Andrade, Eric C; Vojta, Matthias

    2016-12-30

    The Heisenberg-Kitaev model is a paradigmatic model to describe the magnetism in honeycomb-lattice Mott insulators with strong spin-orbit coupling, such as A_{2}IrO_{3} (A=Na, Li) and α-RuCl_{3}. Here, we study in detail the physics of the Heisenberg-Kitaev model in an external magnetic field. Using a combination of Monte Carlo simulations and spin-wave theory, we map out the classical phase diagram for different directions of the magnetic field. Broken SU(2) spin symmetry renders the magnetization process rather complex, with sequences of phases and metamagnetic transitions. In particular, we find various large-unit-cell and multi-Q phases including a vortex-crystal phase for a field in the [111] direction. We also discuss quantum corrections in the high-field phase.

  6. Kitaev-Heisenberg model on a honeycomb lattice: possible exotic phases in iridium oxides A2IrO3.

    PubMed

    Chaloupka, Jirí; Jackeli, George; Khaliullin, Giniyat

    2010-07-09

    We derive and study a spin one-half Hamiltonian on a honeycomb lattice describing the exchange interactions between Ir4+ ions in a family of layered iridates A2IrO3 (A=Li,Na). Depending on the microscopic parameters, the Hamiltonian interpolates between the Heisenberg and exactly solvable Kitaev models. Exact diagonalization and a complementary spin-wave analysis reveal the presence of an extended spin-liquid phase near the Kitaev limit and a conventional Néel state close to the Heisenberg limit. The two phases are separated by an unusual stripy antiferromagnetic state, which is the exact ground state of the model at the midpoint between two limits.

  7. Robust singlet dimers with fragile ordering in two-dimensional honeycomb lattice of Li2RuO3

    PubMed Central

    Park, Junghwan; Tan, Teck-Yee; Adroja, D. T.; Daoud-Aladine, A.; Choi, Seongil; Cho, Deok-Yong; Lee, Sang-Hyun; Kim, Jiyeon; Sim, Hasung; Morioka, T.; Nojiri, H.; Krishnamurthy, V. V.; Manuel, P.; Lees, M. R.; Streltsov, S. V.; Khomskii, D. I.; Park, Je-Geun

    2016-01-01

    When an electronic system has strong correlations and a large spin-orbit interaction, it often exhibits a plethora of mutually competing quantum phases. How a particular quantum ground state is selected out of several possibilities is a very interesting question. However, equally fascinating is how such a quantum entangled state breaks up due to perturbation. This important question has relevance in very diverse fields of science from strongly correlated electron physics to quantum information. Here we report that a quantum entangled dimerized state or valence bond crystal (VBC) phase of Li2RuO3 shows nontrivial doping dependence as we perturb the Ru honeycomb lattice by replacing Ru with Li. Through extensive experimental studies, we demonstrate that the VBC phase melts into a valence bond liquid phase of the RVB (resonating valence bond) type. This system offers an interesting playground where one can test and refine our current understanding of the quantum competing phases in a single compound. PMID:27143474

  8. A first theoretical realization of honeycomb topological magnon insulator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Owerre, S. A.

    2016-09-01

    It has been recently shown that in the Heisenberg (anti)ferromagnet on the honeycomb lattice, the magnons (spin wave quasipacticles) realize a massless two-dimensional (2D) Dirac-like Hamiltonian. It was shown that the Dirac magnon Hamiltonian preserves time-reversal symmetry defined with the sublattice pseudo spins and the Dirac points are robust against magnon-magnon interactions. The Dirac points also occur at nonzero energy. In this paper, we propose a simple realization of nontrivial topology (magnon edge states) in this system. We show that the Dirac points are gapped when the inversion symmetry of the lattice is broken by introducing a next-nearest neighbour Dzyaloshinskii-Moriya (DM) interaction. Thus, the system realizes magnon edge states similar to the Haldane model for quantum anomalous Hall effect in electronic systems. However, in contrast to electronic spin current where dissipation can be very large due to Ohmic heating, noninteracting topological magnons can propagate for a long time without dissipation as magnons are uncharged particles. We observe the same magnon edge states for the XY model on the honeycomb lattice. Remarkably, in this case the model maps to interacting hardcore bosons on the honeycomb lattice. Quantum magnetic systems with nontrivial magnon edge states are called topological magnon insulators. They have been studied theoretically on the kagome lattice and recently observed experimentally on the kagome magnet Cu(1-3, bdc) with three magnon bulk bands. Our results for the honeycomb lattice suggests an experimental procedure to search for honeycomb topological magnon insulators within a class of 2D quantum magnets and ultracold atoms trapped in honeycomb optical lattices. In 3D lattices, Dirac and Weyl points were recently studied theoretically, however, the criteria that give rise to them were not well-understood. We argue that the low-energy Hamiltonian near the Weyl points should break time-reversal symmetry of the pseudo spins

  9. A first theoretical realization of honeycomb topological magnon insulator.

    PubMed

    Owerre, S A

    2016-09-28

    It has been recently shown that in the Heisenberg (anti)ferromagnet on the honeycomb lattice, the magnons (spin wave quasipacticles) realize a massless two-dimensional (2D) Dirac-like Hamiltonian. It was shown that the Dirac magnon Hamiltonian preserves time-reversal symmetry defined with the sublattice pseudo spins and the Dirac points are robust against magnon-magnon interactions. The Dirac points also occur at nonzero energy. In this paper, we propose a simple realization of nontrivial topology (magnon edge states) in this system. We show that the Dirac points are gapped when the inversion symmetry of the lattice is broken by introducing a next-nearest neighbour Dzyaloshinskii-Moriya (DM) interaction. Thus, the system realizes magnon edge states similar to the Haldane model for quantum anomalous Hall effect in electronic systems. However, in contrast to electronic spin current where dissipation can be very large due to Ohmic heating, noninteracting topological magnons can propagate for a long time without dissipation as magnons are uncharged particles. We observe the same magnon edge states for the XY model on the honeycomb lattice. Remarkably, in this case the model maps to interacting hardcore bosons on the honeycomb lattice. Quantum magnetic systems with nontrivial magnon edge states are called topological magnon insulators. They have been studied theoretically on the kagome lattice and recently observed experimentally on the kagome magnet Cu(1-3, bdc) with three magnon bulk bands. Our results for the honeycomb lattice suggests an experimental procedure to search for honeycomb topological magnon insulators within a class of 2D quantum magnets and ultracold atoms trapped in honeycomb optical lattices. In 3D lattices, Dirac and Weyl points were recently studied theoretically, however, the criteria that give rise to them were not well-understood. We argue that the low-energy Hamiltonian near the Weyl points should break time-reversal symmetry of the pseudo spins

  10. Honeycomb-like S = 5/2 Spin-Lattices in Manganese(II) Vanadates.

    PubMed

    Sanjeewa, Liurukara D; McGuire, Michael A; McMillen, Colin D; Willett, Daniel; Chumanov, George; Kolis, Joseph W

    2016-09-19

    New complex manganese vanadate materials were synthesized as high-quality single crystals in multi-millimeter lengths using a high-temperature, high-pressure hydrothermal method. One compound, Mn5(VO4)2(OH)4, was grown from Mn2O3 and V2O5 in 3 M CsOH at 580 °C and 1.5 kbar. Changing the mineralizer to 1 M CsOH/3MCsCl leads to the formation of another product, Mn6O(VO4)2(OH). Both compounds were structurally characterized by single-crystal X-ray diffraction (Mn5(VO4)2(OH)4: C2/m, Z = 2, a = 9.6568(9) Å, b = 9.5627(9) Å, c = 5.4139(6) Å, β = 98.529(8)°; Mn6O(VO4)2(OH): P21/m, Z = 2, a = 8.9363(12) Å, b = 6.4678(8) Å, c = 10.4478(13) Å, β = 99.798(3)°), revealing interesting low-dimensional transition-metal features. Mn5(VO4)2(OH)4 possesses complex honeycomb-type Mn-O layers, built from edge-sharing [MnO6] octahedra in the bc plane, with bridging vanadate groups connecting these layers along the a-axis. Mn6O(VO4)2(OH) presents a more complicated structure with both octahedral [MnO6] and trigonal bipyramidal [MnO5] units. A different pattern of planar honeycomb sheets are formed by edge-shared [MnO6] octahedra, and these sublattices are connected through edge-shared dimers of [MnO5] trigonal bipyramids to form corrugated sheets. Vanadate groups again condense the sheets into a three-dimensional framework. Infrared and Raman spectroscopies indicated the presence of OH groups and displayed characteristic Raman scattering due to vanadate groups. Temperature-dependent magnetic studies indicated Curie-Weiss behavior above 100 K with significant anti-ferromagnetic coupling for both compounds, with further complex magnetic behavior at lower temperatures. The data indicate canted anti-ferromagnetic order below 57 K in Mn5(VO4)2(OH)4 and below 45 K in Mn6O(VO4)2(OH). Members of another class of compounds, K2M3(VO4)2(OH)2 (M = Mn, Co), also containing a honeycomb-type sublattice, were also synthesized to allow a comparison of the structural features across all three

  11. Topological defects of Néel order and Kondo singlet formation for Kondo-Heisenberg model on a honeycomb lattice

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Si, Qimiao; Goswami, Pallab

    2014-03-01

    Heavy fermion systems represent a prototypical setting to study magnetic quantum phase transitions. In this context, we study the spin one-half Kondo-Heisenberg model on a honeycomb lattice at half filling. The problem is approached from the Kondo destroyed, antiferromagnetically ordered insulating phase. We describe the local moments in terms of a coarse grained quantum non-linear sigma model, and show that the skyrmion defects of the antiferromagnetic order parameter host a number of competing order parameters. In addition to the spin Peierls, charge and current density wave order parameters, we identify for the first time Kondo singlets as the competing dual orders of the antiferromagnetism, which can be related to each other via generalized chiral transformations of the underlying fermions. We also show that the conduction electrons acquire a Berry phase through their coupling to the hedgehog configurations of the Néel order, which cancels the Berry phase of the local moments. Our results demonstrate the competition between the Kondo-singlet formation and spin-Peierls order when the antiferromagnetic order is suppressed, thereby shedding new light on the global phase diagram of heavy fermion systems at zero temperature. NSF.

  12. Fragile magnetic order in the honeycomb lattice Iridate Na2IrO3 revealed by magnetic impurity doping

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mehlawat, Kavita; Sharma, G.; Singh, Yogesh

    2015-10-01

    We report the structure, magnetic, and thermal property measurements on single-crystalline and polycrystalline samples of the Ru-substituted honeycomb lattice iridate Na2Ir1 -xRuxO3 (x =0 ,0.05 ,0.1 ,0.15 ,0.2 ,0.3 ,0.5 ) . The evolution of magnetism in Na2Ir1 -xRuxO3 has been studied using dc and ac magnetic susceptibilities and heat-capacity measurements. The parent compound Na2IrO3 is a spin-orbit-driven Mott insulator with magnetic order of reduced moments below TN=15 K . In the Ru-substituted samples the antiferromagnetic long-range state is replaced by a spin-glass-like state even for the smallest substitution suggesting that the magnetic order in Na2IrO3 is extremely fragile. We argue that these behaviors indicate the importance of nearest-neighbor magnetic exchange in the parent Na2IrO3 . Additionally, all samples show insulating electrical transport.

  13. Enhancement of long-range correlations in a 2D vortex lattice by an incommensurate 1D disorder potential

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guillamon, I.; Vieira, S.; Suderow, H.; Cordoba, R.; Sese, J.; de Teresa, J. M.; Ibarra, R.

    In two dimensional (2D) systems, theory has proposed that random disorder destroys long range correlations driving a transition to a glassy state. Here, I will discuss new insights into this issue obtained through the direct visualization of the critical behaviour of a 2D superconducting vortex lattice formed in a thin film with a smooth 1D thickness modulation. Using scanning tunneling microscopy at 0.1K, we have tracked the modification in the 2D vortex arrangements induced by the 1D thickness modulation while increasing the vortex density by three orders of magnitude. Upon increasing the field, we observed a two-step order-disorder transition in the 2D vortex lattice mediated by the appearance of dislocations and disclinations and accompanied by an increase in the local vortex density fluctuations. Through a detailed analysis of correlation functions, we find that the transition is driven by the incommensurate 1D thickness modulation. We calculate the critical points and exponents and find that they are well above theoretical expectation for random disorder. Our results show that long range 1D correlations in random potentials enhance the stability range of the ordered phase in a 2D vortex lattice. Work supported by Spanish MINECO, CIG Marie Curie Grant, Axa Research Fund and FBBVA.

  14. FDTD analysis of 2D triangular-lattice photonic crystals with arbitrary-shape inclusions based on unit cell transformation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ma, Zetao; Ogusu, Kazuhiko

    2009-04-01

    A finite-difference time-domain method based on Yee's orthogonal cell is utilized to calculate the band structures of 2D triangular-lattice-based photonic crystals through a simple modification to properly shifting the boundaries of the original unit cell. A strategy is proposed for transforming the triangular unit cell into an orthogonal one, which can be used to calculate the band structures of 2D PhCs with various shapes of inclusions, such as triangular, quadrangular, and hexagonal shapes, to overcome the shortage of plane-wave expansion method for circular one. The band structures of 2D triangular-lattice-based PhCs with hexagonal air-holes are calculated and discussed for different values of its radius and rotation angle. The obtained results provide an insight to manipulate the band structures of PhCs.

  15. Micropolar dissipative models for the analysis of 2D dispersive waves in periodic lattices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reda, H.; Ganghoffer, J. F.; Lakiss, H.

    2017-03-01

    The computation of the dispersion relations for dissipative periodic lattices having the attributes of metamaterials is an actual research topic raising the interest of researchers in the field of acoustics and wave propagation phenomena. We analyze in this contribution the impact of wave damping on the dispersion features of periodic lattices, which are modeled as beam-lattices. The band diagram structure and damping ratio are computed for different repetitive lattices, based on the homogenized continuum response of the initially discrete lattice architecture, modeled as Kelvin-Voigt viscoelastic beams. Three of these lattices (reentrant hexagonal, chiral diamond, hexachiral lattice) are auxetic metamaterials, since they show negative Poisson's ratio. The effective viscoelastic anisotropic continuum behavior of the lattices is first computed in terms of the homogenized stiffness and viscosity matrices, based on the discrete homogenization technique. The dynamical equations of motion are obtained for an equivalent homogenized micropolar continuum evaluated based on the homogenized properties, and the dispersion relation and damping ratio are obtained by inserting an harmonic plane waves Ansatz into these equations. The comparison of the acoustic properties obtained in the low frequency range for the four considered lattices shows that auxetic lattices attenuate waves at lower frequencies compared to the classical hexagonal lattice. The diamond chiral lattice shows the best attenuation properties of harmonic waves over the entire Brillouin zone, and the hexachiral lattice presents better acoustic properties than the reentrant hexagonal lattice. The range of validity of the effective continuum obtained by the discrete homogenization has been assessed by comparing the frequency band structure of this continuum with that obtained by a Floquet-Bloch analysis.

  16. Zigzag antiferromagnetic ground state with anisotropic correlation lengths in the quasi-two-dimensional honeycomb lattice compound N a2C o2Te O6

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bera, A. K.; Yusuf, S. M.; Kumar, Amit; Ritter, C.

    2017-03-01

    The crystal structure, magnetic ground state, and the temperature-dependent microscopic spin-spin correlations of the frustrated honeycomb lattice antiferromagnet N a2C o2Te O6 have been investigated by powder neutron diffraction. A long-range antiferromagnetic (AFM) ordering has been found below TN˜24.8 K . The magnetic ground state, determined to be zigzag antiferromagnetic and characterized by a propagation vector k =(1 /2 0 0 ) , occurs due to the competing exchange interactions up to third-nearest neighbors within the honeycomb lattice. The exceptional existence of a limited magnetic correlation length along the c axis (perpendicular to the honeycomb layers in the a b planes) has been found even at 1.8 K, well below the TN˜24.8 K . The observed limited correlation along the c axis is explained by the disorder distribution of the Na ions within the intermediate layers between honeycomb planes. The reduced ordered moments mCo (1 )=2.77 (3 ) μB/C o2 + and mCo (2 )=2.45 (2 ) μB/C o2 + at 1.8 K reflect the persistence of spin fluctuations in the ordered state. Above TN˜24.8 K , the presence of short-range magnetic correlations, manifested by broad diffuse magnetic peaks in the diffraction patterns, has been found. Reverse Monte Carlo analysis of the experimental diffuse magnetic scattering data reveals that the spin correlations are mainly confined within the two-dimensional honeycomb layers (a b plane) with a correlation length of ˜12 Å at 25 K. The nature of the spin arrangements is found to be similar in both the short-range and long-range ordered magnetic states. This implies that the short-range correlation grows with decreasing temperature and leads to the zigzag AFM ordering at T ≤TN . The present study provides a comprehensive picture of the magnetic correlations over the temperature range above and below the TN and their relation to the crystal structure. The role of intermediate soft Na layers on the magnetic coupling between honeycomb planes is

  17. On the sign problem in 2D lattice super Yang-Mills

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Catterall, Simon; Galvez, Richard; Joseph, Anosh; Mehta, Dhagash

    2012-01-01

    In recent years a new class of supersymmetric lattice theories have been proposed which retain one or more exact supersymmetries for non-zero lattice spacing. Recently there has been some controversy in the literature concerning whether these theories suffer from a sign problem. In this paper we address this issue by conducting simulations of the mathcal{N} = (2, 2) and mathcal{N} = (8, 8) supersymmetric Yang-Mills theories in two dimensions for the U(N ) theories with N = 2, 3, 4, using the new twisted lattice formulations. Our results provide evidence that these theories do not suffer from a sign problem in the continuum limit. These results thus boost confidence that the new lattice formulations can be used successfully to explore non-perturbative aspects of four-dimensional mathcal{N} = 4 supersymmetric Yang-Mills theory.

  18. Similarity between the superconductivity in the graphene with the spin transport in the two-dimensional antiferromagnet in the honeycomb lattice

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lima, L. S.

    2017-02-01

    We have used the Dirac's massless quasi-particles together with the Kubo's formula to study the spin transport by electrons in the graphene monolayer. We have calculated the electric conductivity and verified the behavior of the AC and DC currents of this system, that is a relativistic electron plasma. Our results show that the AC conductivity tends to infinity in the limit ω → 0 , similar to the behavior obtained for the spin transport in the two-dimensional frustrated antiferromagnet in the honeycomb lattice. We have made a diagrammatic expansion for the Green's function and we have not gotten significative change in the results.

  19. Interlayer states arising from anionic electrons in the honeycomb-lattice-based compounds A e AlSi (A e =Ca , Sr, Ba)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lu, Yangfan; Tada, Tomofumi; Toda, Yoshitake; Ueda, Shigenori; Wu, Jiazhen; Li, Jiang; Horiba, Koji; Kumigashira, Hiroshi; Zhang, Yaoqing; Hosono, Hideo

    2017-03-01

    We report that the interlayer states common to the compounds A e AlSi (A e =Ca , Sr, Ba) arise from F-center-like electrons arrayed in periodic cavities. The SrPtSb-type intermetallic phases exhibit electrons localized to columns of the trigonal bipyramidal A e3A l2 cages running perpendicular to the honeycomb layers. Ab initio calculations in combination with hard/soft x-ray photoemission spectroscopic measurements reveal that these features correspond to the anionic electrons that hybridize with apical Al 3 pz orbitals from the honeycomb layers above and below. Extra bands with a significant dispersion along the kz direction therefore contribute to the Fermi level in contrast to the apparent two-dimensional connectivity of the bonding in the compounds, and completely account for the presence of interlayer states. Our study demonstrates how the cage centers may serve as electronically important crystallographic sites, and extend the anionic electron concept into honeycomb lattice compounds.

  20. Hofstadter butterfly in the Falicov-Kimball model on some finite 2D lattices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pradhan, Subhasree

    2016-12-01

    Spinless, interacting electrons on a finite size triangular lattice moving in an extremely strong perpendicular magnetic field are studied in comparison to a square lattice. Using a Falicov-Kimball model, the effects of Coulomb correlation, magnetic field and finite system size on their energy spectrum are observed. Exact diagonalization and Monte Carlo simulation methods (based on a modified Metropolis algorithm) have been employed to examine the recursive structure of the Hofstadter spectrum in the presence of several electronic correlation strengths for different system sizes. It is possible to introduce a gap in the density of states even in the absence of electron correlation, which is anticipated as a metal to insulator transition driven by an orbital magnetic field. With further inclusion of the interaction, the gap in the spectrum is modified and in some cases the correlation is found to suppress extra states manifested by the finite size effects. At a certain flux, the opened gap due to magnetic field is reduced by the Coulomb interaction. An orbital current is calculated for both the square and the triangular lattice with and without electron correlation. In the non-interacting limit, the bulk current shows several patterns, while the edge current shows oscillations with magnetic flux. The oscillations persist in the interacting limit for the square lattice, but not for the triangular lattice.

  1. Hofstadter butterfly in the Falicov-Kimball model on some finite 2D lattices.

    PubMed

    Pradhan, Subhasree

    2016-12-21

    Spinless, interacting electrons on a finite size triangular lattice moving in an extremely strong perpendicular magnetic field are studied in comparison to a square lattice. Using a Falicov-Kimball model, the effects of Coulomb correlation, magnetic field and finite system size on their energy spectrum are observed. Exact diagonalization and Monte Carlo simulation methods (based on a modified Metropolis algorithm) have been employed to examine the recursive structure of the Hofstadter spectrum in the presence of several electronic correlation strengths for different system sizes. It is possible to introduce a gap in the density of states even in the absence of electron correlation, which is anticipated as a metal to insulator transition driven by an orbital magnetic field. With further inclusion of the interaction, the gap in the spectrum is modified and in some cases the correlation is found to suppress extra states manifested by the finite size effects. At a certain flux, the opened gap due to magnetic field is reduced by the Coulomb interaction. An orbital current is calculated for both the square and the triangular lattice with and without electron correlation. In the non-interacting limit, the bulk current shows several patterns, while the edge current shows oscillations with magnetic flux. The oscillations persist in the interacting limit for the square lattice, but not for the triangular lattice.

  2. New optimization problems arising in modelling of 2D-crystal lattices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Evtushenko, Yury; Lurie, Sergey; Posypkin, Mikhail

    2016-10-01

    The paper considers the problem of finding the structure of a fragment of two-dimensional crystal lattice with the minimal energy. Atoms in a lattice reside on parallel lines (layers). The interatomic distances are the same within one layer but can differ for distinct layers. The energy of the piece of material is computed using so-called potential functions. We used Lennard-Jones, Morse and Tersoff potentials. The proposed formulation can serve as a scalable complex non-smooth optimization test. The paper evaluates various optimization techniques for the problem under consideration, compares their performances and draws the conclusion about the best choice of optimization methods for the problem under test. As a result we were able to locate minima meaningful from the physical point of view, e.g. reproducing graphene lattice.

  3. Stabilization of the chiral phase of the SU (6 m ) Heisenberg model on the honeycomb lattice with m particles per site for m larger than 1

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dufour, Jérôme; Mila, Frédéric

    2016-09-01

    We show that, when N is a multiple of 6 (N =6 m , where m is an integer), the SU (N) Heisenberg model on the honeycomb lattice with m particles per site has a clear tendency toward chiral order as soon as m ≥2 . This conclusion has been reached by a systematic variational Monte Carlo investigation of Gutzwiller projected wave functions as a function of m between the case of one particle per site (m =1 ), for which the ground state has recently been shown to be in a plaquette singlet state, and the m →∞ limit, where a mean-field approach has established that the ground state has chiral order. This demonstrates that the chiral phase can indeed be stabilized for not too large values of m , opening the way to its experimental realizations in other lattices.

  4. Randomness-Induced Quantum Spin Liquid Behavior in the s = 1/2 Random J1-J2 Heisenberg Antiferromagnet on the Honeycomb Lattice

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Uematsu, Kazuki; Kawamura, Hikaru

    2017-04-01

    We investigate the ground-state and finite-temperature properties of the bond-random s = 1/2 Heisenberg model on a honeycomb lattice with frustrated nearest- and next-nearest-neighbor antiferromagnetic interactions, J1 and J2, by the exact diagonalization and the Hams-de Raedt methods. The ground-state phase diagram of the model is constructed in the randomness versus the frustration (J2/J1) plane, with the aim of clarifying the effects of randomness and frustration in stabilizing a variety of distinct phases. We find that the randomness induces the gapless quantum spin liquid (QSL)-like state, the random-singlet state, in a wide range of parameter space. The observed robustness of the random-singlet state suggests that the gapless QSL-like behaviors might be realized in a wide class of frustrated quantum magnets possessing a certain amount of randomness or inhomogeneity, without fine-tuning the interaction parameters. Possible implications to recent experiments on the honeycomb-lattice magnets Ba3CuSb2O9 and 6HB-Ba3NiSb2O9 exhibiting the gapless QSL-like behaviors are discussed.

  5. The puzzle of apparent linear lattice artifacts in the 2d non-linear σ-model and Symanzik's solution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Balog, Janos; Niedermayer, Ferenc; Weisz, Peter

    2010-01-01

    Lattice artifacts in the 2d O( n) non-linear σ-model are expected to be of the form O(a), and hence it was (when first observed) disturbing that some quantities in the O(3) model with various actions show parametrically stronger cutoff dependence, apparently O(a), up to very large correlation lengths. In a previous letter Balog et al. (2009) [1] we described the solution to this puzzle. Based on the conventional framework of Symanzik's effective action, we showed that there are logarithmic corrections to the O(a) artifacts which are especially large ( lna) for n=3 and that such artifacts are consistent with the data. In this paper we supply the technical details of this computation. Results of Monte Carlo simulations using various lattice actions for O(3) and O(4) are also presented.

  6. Interferometric Approach to Measuring Band Topology in 2D Optical Lattices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abanin, Dmitry A.; Kitagawa, Takuya; Bloch, Immanuel; Demler, Eugene

    2013-04-01

    Recently, optical lattices with nonzero Berry’s phases of Bloch bands have been realized. New approaches for measuring Berry’s phases and topological properties of bands with experimental tools appropriate for ultracold atoms need to be developed. In this Letter, we propose an interferometric method for measuring Berry’s phases of two-dimensional Bloch bands. The key idea is to use a combination of Ramsey interference and Bloch oscillations to measure Zak phases, i.e., Berry’s phases for closed trajectories corresponding to reciprocal lattice vectors. We demonstrate that this technique can be used to measure the Berry curvature of Bloch bands, the π Berry’s phase of Dirac points, and the first Chern number of topological bands. We discuss several experimentally feasible realizations of this technique, which make it robust against low-frequency magnetic noise.

  7. Lattice Boltzmann methods for some 2-D nonlinear diffusion equations:Computational results

    SciTech Connect

    Elton, B.H.; Rodrigue, G.H. . Dept. of Applied Science Lawrence Livermore National Lab., CA ); Levermore, C.D. . Dept. of Mathematics)

    1990-01-01

    In this paper we examine two lattice Boltzmann methods (that are a derivative of lattice gas methods) for computing solutions to two two-dimensional nonlinear diffusion equations of the form {partial derivative}/{partial derivative}t u = v ({partial derivative}/{partial derivative}x D(u){partial derivative}/{partial derivative}x u + {partial derivative}/{partial derivative}y D(u){partial derivative}/{partial derivative}y u), where u = u({rvec x},t), {rvec x} {element of} R{sup 2}, v is a constant, and D(u) is a nonlinear term that arises from a Chapman-Enskog asymptotic expansion. In particular, we provide computational evidence supporting recent results showing that the methods are second order convergent (in the L{sub 1}-norm), conservative, conditionally monotone finite difference methods. Solutions computed via the lattice Boltzmann methods are compared with those computed by other explicit, second order, conservative, monotone finite difference methods. Results are reported for both the L{sub 1}- and L{sub {infinity}}-norms.

  8. Fermions on the low-buckled honey-comb structured lattice plane and classical Casimir-Polder force

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goswami, Partha

    2016-05-01

    We start with the well-known expression for the vacuum polarization and suitably modify it for 2+1-dimensional spin-orbit coupled (SOC) fermions on the low-buckled honey-comb structured lattice plane described by the low-energy Liu-Yao-Feng-Ezawa (LYFE) model Hamiltonian involving the Dirac matrices in the chiral representation obeying the Clifford algebra. The silicene and germanene fit this description suitably. They have the Dirac cones similar to those of graphene and SOC is much stronger. The system could be normal or ferromagnetic in nature. The silicene turns into the latter type if there is exchange field arising due to the proximity coupling to a ferromagnet (FM) such as depositing Fe atoms to the silicene surface. For the silicene, we find that the many-body effects considerably change the bare Coulomb potential by way of the dependence of the Coulomb propagator on the real-spin, iso-spin and the potential due to an electric field applied perpendicular to the silicene plane. The computation aspect of the Casimir-Polder force (CPF) needs to be investigated in this paper. An important quantity in this process is the dielectric response function (DRF) of the material. The plasmon branch was obtained by finding the zeros of DRF in the long-wavelength limit. This leads to the plasmon frequencies. We find that the collective charge excitations at zero doping, i.e., intrinsic plasmons, in this system, are absent in the Dirac limit. The valley-spin-split intrinsic plasmons, however, come into being in the case of the massive Dirac particles with characteristic frequency close to 10 THz. Our scheme to calculate the Casimir-Polder interaction (CPI) of a micro-particle with a sheet involves replacing the dielectric constant of the sample in the CPI expression obtained on the basis of the Lifshitz theory by the static DRF obtained using the expressions for the polarization function we started with. Though the approach replaces a macroscopic constant by a microscopic

  9. ``SAFFMAN-TAYLOR'' Finger in 2d Parallel Viscous: BGK Lattice Gas Simulations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Salin, Dominique; Rakotomalala, Nicole; Watzky, Philippe

    1996-11-01

    We study the displacement of miscible fluids between two parallel plates for different values of the Peclet number Pe and of the viscosity ratio M. The full Navier-Stokes problem is addressed. We use the BGK lattice gas method, which is well suited for miscible fluids and allows to introduce molecular diffusion at the microscopic scale of the lattice. This numerical experiment leads to a symmetric concentration profile about the middle of the gap between the plates. At Pe numbers of the order of 1, mixing involves diffusion and advection in the flow direction. At large Pe, the fluids do not mix and an interface between them can be defined. Moreover, above M ~ 10, the interface becomes a well defined finger, the reduced width of which tends to λ_∞=0.56 at large values of M. Assuming that miscible fluids at high Pe numbers are similar to immiscible fluids at high capillary numbers, we find the analytical shape of the finger, using an extrapolation of the Reinelt-Saffman calculations for a Stokes immiscible flow. Surprisingly, the result is that our finger can be deduced from the celebrated Saffman-Taylor' s one, obtained in a potential flow, by a streching in the flow direction by a numerical factor of 2.125.

  10. Hubbard Model study of Off Diagonally Confined fermions in a 2D Optical Lattice

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cone, Dave; Chiesa, Simone; Scalettar, Richard; Batrouni, George

    2010-03-01

    We report Quantum Monte Carlo simulations of a Hubbard Hamiltonian which incorporates a proposed new method for confining atoms in an optical lattice employing an inhomogeneous array of hopping matrix elements which trap atoms by going to zero at the lattice edges. This has been termed ``Off Diagonal Confinement (ODC)'' [1] to distinguish it from the more conventional use of a parabolic trap coupling to (diagonal) density operators. It has the advantage of producing systems which, while still being inhomogeneous, are entirely in the Mott phase, and allow simulations which are free of the sign problem at low temperatures. We analyze the effects of using ODC traps on the local density, density fluctuation, spin, and pairing correlation functions. Finally, we will discuss the advantages and importance of this new confinement technique for modeling correlated systems. Research supported by the Department of Energy, Office of Science SCIDAC program, DOE-DE-FC0206ER25793. [1] V.G. Rousseau et al., arXiv:0909.3543

  11. Modeling Selective Local Interactions with Memory: Motion on a 2D Lattice.

    PubMed

    Weinberg, Daniel; Levy, Doron

    2014-06-15

    We consider a system of particles that simultaneously move on a two-dimensional periodic lattice at discrete times steps. Particles remember their last direction of movement and may either choose to continue moving in this direction, remain stationary, or move toward one of their neighbors. The form of motion is chosen based on predetermined stationary probabilities. Simulations of this model reveal a connection between these probabilities and the emerging patterns and size of aggregates. In addition, we develop a reaction diffusion master equation from which we derive a system of ODEs describing the dynamics of the particles on the lattice. Simulations demonstrate that solutions of the ODEs may replicate the aggregation patterns produced by the stochastic particle model. We investigate conditions on the parameters that influence the locations at which particles prefer to aggregate. This work is a two-dimensional generalization of [Galante & Levy, Physica D, http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.physd.2012.10.010], in which the corresponding one-dimensional problem was studied.

  12. Kondo lattice on the edge of a 2D topological insulator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maciejko, Joseph

    2012-02-01

    Much attention has been devoted recently to the experimental and theoretical study of the effect of magnetic impurities on the stability of the gapless boundary modes of topological insulators. When the quantum dynamics of the impurities is considered, those boundary modes constitute novel types of fermionic baths which may affect the nature of possible impurity phases and phase transitions. We study a regular one-dimensional array of quantum magnetic impurities interacting with the helical edge liquid of a two-dimensional time-reversal invariant topological insulator. Exact solutions at the special Toulouse and Luther-Emery points as well as a renormalization group analysis àla Anderson-Yuval allow us to construct a phase diagram in the space of Kondo coupling, electron-electron interaction strength, and electron density. We point out similarities and differences with the Kondo lattice in a ordinary one-dimensional electron gas.

  13. From a Quasimolecular Band Insulator to a Relativistic Mott Insulator in t2g 5 Systems with a Honeycomb Lattice Structure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Beom Hyun; Shirakawa, Tomonori; Yunoki, Seiji

    2016-10-01

    The t2 g orbitals of an edge-shared transition-metal oxide with a honeycomb lattice structure form dispersionless electronic bands when only hopping mediated by the edge-sharing oxygens is accessible. This is due to the formation of isolated quasimolecular orbitals (QMOs) in each hexagon, introduced recently by Mazin et al. [Phys. Rev. Lett. 109, 197201 (2012)], which stabilizes a band insulating phase for t2g 5 systems. However, with the help of the exact diagonalization method to treat the electron kinetics and correlations on an equal footing, we find that the QMOs are fragile against not only the spin-orbit coupling (SOC) but also the Coulomb repulsion. We show that the electronic phase of t2g 5 systems can vary from a quasimolecular band insulator to a relativistic Jeff=1 /2 Mott insulator with increasing the SOC as well as the Coulomb repulsion. The different electronic phases manifest themselves in electronic excitations observed in optical conductivity and resonant inelastic x-ray scattering. Based on our calculations, we assert that the currently known Ru3 + and Ir4 + based honeycomb systems are far from the quasimolecular band insulator but rather the relativistic Mott insulator.

  14. From a Quasimolecular Band Insulator to a Relativistic Mott Insulator in t_{2g}^{5} Systems with a Honeycomb Lattice Structure.

    PubMed

    Kim, Beom Hyun; Shirakawa, Tomonori; Yunoki, Seiji

    2016-10-28

    The t_{2g} orbitals of an edge-shared transition-metal oxide with a honeycomb lattice structure form dispersionless electronic bands when only hopping mediated by the edge-sharing oxygens is accessible. This is due to the formation of isolated quasimolecular orbitals (QMOs) in each hexagon, introduced recently by Mazin et al. [Phys. Rev. Lett. 109, 197201 (2012)], which stabilizes a band insulating phase for t_{2g}^{5} systems. However, with the help of the exact diagonalization method to treat the electron kinetics and correlations on an equal footing, we find that the QMOs are fragile against not only the spin-orbit coupling (SOC) but also the Coulomb repulsion. We show that the electronic phase of t_{2g}^{5} systems can vary from a quasimolecular band insulator to a relativistic J_{eff}=1/2 Mott insulator with increasing the SOC as well as the Coulomb repulsion. The different electronic phases manifest themselves in electronic excitations observed in optical conductivity and resonant inelastic x-ray scattering. Based on our calculations, we assert that the currently known Ru^{3+} and Ir^{4+} based honeycomb systems are far from the quasimolecular band insulator but rather the relativistic Mott insulator.

  15. A hydrodynamically-consistent MRT lattice Boltzmann model on a 2D rectangular grid

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peng, Cheng; Min, Haoda; Guo, Zhaoli; Wang, Lian-Ping

    2016-12-01

    A multiple-relaxation time (MRT) lattice Boltzmann (LB) model on a D2Q9 rectangular grid is designed theoretically and validated numerically in the present work. By introducing stress components into the equilibrium moments, this MRT-LB model restores the isotropy of diffusive momentum transport at the macroscopic level (or in the continuum limit), leading to moment equations that are fully consistent with the Navier-Stokes equations. The model is derived by an inverse design process which is described in detail. Except one moment associated with the energy square, all other eight equilibrium moments can be theoretically and uniquely determined. The model is then carefully validated using both the two-dimensional decaying Taylor-Green vortex flow and lid-driven cavity flow, with different grid aspect ratios. The corresponding results from an earlier model (Bouzidi et al. (2001) [28]) are also presented for comparison. The results of Bouzidi et al.'s model show problems associated with anisotropy of viscosity coefficients, while the present model exhibits full isotropy and is accurate and stable.

  16. Adiabatic and Hamiltonian computing on a 2D lattice with simple two-qubit interactions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lloyd, Seth; Terhal, Barbara M.

    2016-02-01

    We show how to perform universal Hamiltonian and adiabatic computing using a time-independent Hamiltonian on a 2D grid describing a system of hopping particles which string together and interact to perform the computation. In this construction, the movement of one particle is controlled by the presence or absence of other particles, an effective quantum field effect transistor that allows the construction of controlled-NOT and controlled-rotation gates. The construction translates into a model for universal quantum computation with time-independent two-qubit ZZ and XX+YY interactions on an (almost) planar grid. The effective Hamiltonian is arrived at by a single use of first-order perturbation theory avoiding the use of perturbation gadgets. The dynamics and spectral properties of the effective Hamiltonian can be fully determined as it corresponds to a particular realization of a mapping between a quantum circuit and a Hamiltonian called the space-time circuit-to-Hamiltonian construction. Because of the simple interactions required, and because no higher-order perturbation gadgets are employed, our construction is potentially realizable using superconducting or other solid-state qubits.

  17. Topologically induced swarming phase transition on a 2D percolated lattice

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Quint, David A.; Gopinathan, Ajay

    2015-07-01

    The emergence of collective motion, or swarming, in groups of moving individuals who orient themselves using only information from their neighbors is a very general phenomenon that occurs at multiple spatio-temporal scales. Swarms that occur in natural environments typically have to contend with spatial disorder such as obstacles that can hinder an individual’s motion or can disrupt communication with neighbors. We study swarming agents, possessing both aligning and mutually avoiding repulsive interactions, in a 2D percolated network representing a topologically disordered environment. We numerically find a phase transition from a collectively moving swarm to a disordered gas-like state above a critical value of the topological or environmental disorder. For agents that utilize only alignment interactions, we find that the swarming transition does not exist in the large system size limit, while the addition of a mutually repulsive interaction can restore the existence of the transition at a finite critical value of disorder. We find there is a finite range of topological disorder where swarming can occur and that this range can be maximized by an optimal amount of mutual repulsion.

  18. A hierarchical lattice spring model to simulate the mechanics of 2-D materials-based composites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brely, Lucas; Bosia, Federico; Pugno, Nicola

    2015-07-01

    In the field of engineering materials, strength and toughness are typically two mutually exclusive properties. Structural biological materials such as bone, tendon or dentin have resolved this conflict and show unprecedented damage tolerance, toughness and strength levels. The common feature of these materials is their hierarchical heterogeneous structure, which contributes to increased energy dissipation before failure occurring at different scale levels. These structural properties are the key to exceptional bioinspired material mechanical properties, in particular for nanocomposites. Here, we develop a numerical model in order to simulate the mechanisms involved in damage progression and energy dissipation at different size scales in nano- and macro-composites, which depend both on the heterogeneity of the material and on the type of hierarchical structure. Both these aspects have been incorporated into a 2-dimensional model based on a Lattice Spring Model, accounting for geometrical nonlinearities and including statistically-based fracture phenomena. The model has been validated by comparing numerical results to continuum and fracture mechanics results as well as finite elements simulations, and then employed to study how structural aspects impact on hierarchical composite material properties. Results obtained with the numerical code highlight the dependence of stress distributions on matrix properties and reinforcement dispersion, geometry and properties, and how failure of sacrificial elements is directly involved in the damage tolerance of the material. Thanks to the rapidly developing field of nanocomposite manufacture, it is already possible to artificially create materials with multi-scale hierarchical reinforcements. The developed code could be a valuable support in the design and optimization of these advanced materials, drawing inspiration and going beyond biological materials with exceptional mechanical properties.

  19. Engineering the electronic and magnetic properties of d(0) 2D dichalcogenide materials through vacancy doping and lattice strains.

    PubMed

    Ao, L; Pham, A; Xiao, H Y; Zu, X T; Li, S

    2016-03-14

    We have systematically investigated the effects of different vacancy defects in 2D d(0) materials SnS2 and ZrS2 using first principles calculations. The theoretical results show that the single cation vacancy and the vacancy complex like V-SnS6 can induce large magnetic moments (3-4 μB) in these single layer materials. Other defects, such as V-SnS3, V-S, V-ZrS3 and V-ZrS6, can result in n-type conductivity. In addition, the ab initio studies also reveal that the magnetic and conductive properties from the cation vacancy and the defect complex V-SnS6 can be modified using the compressive/tensile strain of the in-plane lattices. Specifically, the V-Zr doped ZrS2 monolayer can be tuned from a ferromagnetic semiconductor to a metallic/half-metallic material with decreasing/increasing magnetic moments depending on the external compressive/tensile strains. On the other hand, the semiconducting and magnetic properties of V-Sn doped SnS2 is preserved under different lattice compression and tension. For the defect complex like V-SnS6, only the lattice compression can tune the magnetic moments in SnS2. As a result, by manipulating the fabrication parameters, the magnetic and conductive properties of SnS2 and ZrS2 can be tuned without the need for chemical doping.

  20. Phase Transition and Spin Dynamics of the NASICON-Type Na3V2(PO4)3 with the Strongly Coupled Planes of S = 1 Pseudo-Honeycomb Lattice

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Onoda, Masashige; Kanazawa, Hiroki

    2016-04-01

    The magnetic properties and spin dynamics of the NASICON-type Na3V2(PO4)3 with the strongly coupled planes of S = 1 pseudo-honeycomb lattice via the V-O-P-O-V superexchange pathways are explored through measurements of x-ray diffraction, magnetization, and nuclear magnetic resonance. Na3V2(PO4)3 and the newly synthesized Ag3V2(PO4)3 exhibit the broad maximum of magnetic susceptibility at Tm = 9 K, which is approximately understood by the coupled S = 1 dimers connecting the honeycomb lattice planes, and they undergo the antiferromagnetic transition at around TN = 4 K. The spin-lattice relaxation rate for Na ions shows the critical slowing down of spin fluctuations above TN, while at lower temperatures, it indicates the existence of an energy gap in the magnetic excitation, which may be attributed to the uniaxial magnetic anisotropy.

  1. First-order magnetostructural transition in single crystals of the honeycomb lattice ruthenate Li2RuO3

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mehlawat, Kavita; Singh, Yogesh

    2017-02-01

    Li2RuO3 is known to crystallize in either C 2 /m or P 21/m structures at room temperature. We report the first single crystal growth of Li2RuO3 and Na substituted crystals (Li0.95Na0.05 )2RuO3 crystallizing in the P 21/m structure where a first order magnetostructural transition is observed at high temperatures. Using high temperature (T ≤1000 K) magnetic susceptibility χ measurements we study the magnetic anisotropy across the magnetostructural transition. Our results show that for Li2RuO3 the magnetic and structural transitions most likely occur at slightly different temperatures. The structural transition which is first-order-like occurs first (Tonset≈570 K) and drives the magnetic transition (T ≈540 K). Rather surprisingly, just 5 % Na substitution for Li affects the magnetostructural transition in an interesting way. The first order transition temperature remains at ≈540 K, the magnetic anisotropy is reversed, and the Ru-Ru dimerization pattern changes from two short and four long Ru-Ru bonds per honeycomb in an armchair pattern for Li2RuO3 to four short and two long bonds per honeycomb in (Li0.95Na0.05 )2RuO3 which can be viewed as two interpenetrating armchair patterns.

  2. Topological honeycomb magnon Hall effect: A calculation of thermal Hall conductivity of magnetic spin excitations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Owerre, S. A.

    2016-07-01

    Quite recently, the magnon Hall effect of spin excitations has been observed experimentally on the kagome and pyrochlore lattices. The thermal Hall conductivity κxy changes sign as a function of magnetic field or temperature on the kagome lattice, and κxy changes sign upon reversing the sign of the magnetic field on the pyrochlore lattice. Motivated by these recent exciting experimental observations, we theoretically propose a simple realization of the magnon Hall effect in a two-band model on the honeycomb lattice. The magnon Hall effect of spin excitations arises in the usual way via the breaking of inversion symmetry of the lattice, however, by a next-nearest-neighbour Dzyaloshinsky-Moriya interaction. We find that κxy has a fixed sign for all parameter regimes considered. These results are in contrast to the Lieb, kagome, and pyrochlore lattices. We further show that the low-temperature dependence on the magnon Hall conductivity follows a T2 law, as opposed to the kagome and pyrochlore lattices. These results suggest an experimental procedure to measure thermal Hall conductivity within a class of 2D honeycomb quantum magnets and ultracold atoms trapped in a honeycomb optical lattice.

  3. Impact of bounded noise on the formation and instability of spiral wave in a 2D Lattice of neurons

    PubMed Central

    Yao, Yuangen; Deng, Haiyou; Yi, Ming; Ma, Jun

    2017-01-01

    Spiral waves in the neocortex may provide a spatial framework to organize cortical oscillations, thus help signal communication. However, noise influences spiral wave. Many previous theoretical studies about noise mainly focus on unbounded Gaussian noise, which contradicts that a real physical quantity is always bounded. Furthermore, non-Gaussian noise is also important for dynamical behaviors of excitable media. Nevertheless, there are no results concerning the effect of bounded noise on spiral wave till now. Based on Hodgkin-Huxley neuron model subjected to bounded noise with the form of Asin[ωt + σW(t)], the influences of bounded noise on the formation and instability of spiral wave in a two-dimensional (2D) square lattice of neurons are investigated in detail by separately adjusting the intensity σ, amplitude A, and frequency f of bounded noise. It is found that the increased intensity σ can facilitate the formation of spiral wave while the increased amplitude A tends to destroy spiral wave. Furthermore, frequency of bounded noise has the effect of facilitation or inhibition on pattern synchronization. Interestingly, for the appropriate intensity, amplitude and frequency can separately induce resonance-like phenomenon. PMID:28220877

  4. Impact of bounded noise on the formation and instability of spiral wave in a 2D Lattice of neurons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yao, Yuangen; Deng, Haiyou; Yi, Ming; Ma, Jun

    2017-02-01

    Spiral waves in the neocortex may provide a spatial framework to organize cortical oscillations, thus help signal communication. However, noise influences spiral wave. Many previous theoretical studies about noise mainly focus on unbounded Gaussian noise, which contradicts that a real physical quantity is always bounded. Furthermore, non-Gaussian noise is also important for dynamical behaviors of excitable media. Nevertheless, there are no results concerning the effect of bounded noise on spiral wave till now. Based on Hodgkin-Huxley neuron model subjected to bounded noise with the form of Asin[ωt + σW(t)], the influences of bounded noise on the formation and instability of spiral wave in a two-dimensional (2D) square lattice of neurons are investigated in detail by separately adjusting the intensity σ, amplitude A, and frequency f of bounded noise. It is found that the increased intensity σ can facilitate the formation of spiral wave while the increased amplitude A tends to destroy spiral wave. Furthermore, frequency of bounded noise has the effect of facilitation or inhibition on pattern synchronization. Interestingly, for the appropriate intensity, amplitude and frequency can separately induce resonance-like phenomenon.

  5. Design of single-mode waveguides for enhanced light-sound interaction in honeycomb-lattice silicon slabs

    SciTech Connect

    Escalante, Jose M. Martínez, Alejandro; Laude, Vincent

    2014-02-14

    We present the design of two waveguides (ladder and slot-ladder waveguides) implemented in a silicon honeycomb photonic-phononic crystal slab, which can support slow electromagnetic and elastic guided modes simultaneously. Interestingly, the photonic bandgap extends along the first Brillouin zone; so with an appropriate design, we can suppress propagation losses that arise coupling to radiative modes. From the phononic point of view, we explain the slow elastic wave effect by considering the waveguide as a chain of coupled acoustic resonators (coupled resonant acoustic waveguide), which provides the mechanism for slow elastic wave propagation. The ladder waveguide moreover supports guided phononic modes outside the phononic bandgap, similar to photonic slab modes, resulting in highly confined phononic modes propagating with low losses. Such waveguides could find important applications to the observation of optomechanical and electrostriction effects, as well as to enhanced stimulated Brillouin scattering and other opto-acoustical effects in nanoscale silicon structures. We also suggest that they can be the basis for a “perfect” photonic-phononic cavity in which damping by coupling to the surroundings is completely forbidden.

  6. Topological defects of Néel order and Kondo singlet formation for the Kondo-Heisenberg model on a honeycomb lattice

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goswami, Pallab; Si, Qimiao

    2014-01-01

    Heavy-fermion systems represent a prototypical setting to study magnetic quantum phase transitions. A particular focus has been on the physics of Kondo destruction, which captures quantum criticality beyond the Landau framework of order-parameter fluctuations. In this context, we study the spin one-half Kondo-Heisenberg model on a honeycomb lattice at half filling. The problem is approached from the Kondo-destroyed, antiferromagnetically ordered insulating phase. We describe the local moments in terms of a coarse grained quantum nonlinear sigma model, and show that the skyrmion defects of the antiferromagnetic order parameter host a number of competing order parameters. In addition to the spin Peierls, charge and current density wave order parameters, we identify for the first time Kondo singlets as the competing orders of the antiferromagnetism. We show that the antiferromagnetism and various competing singlet orders can be related to each other via generalized chiral transformations of the underlying fermions. We also show that the conduction electrons acquire a Berry phase through their coupling to the hedgehog configurations of the Néel order, which cancels the Berry phase of the local moments. Our results demonstrate the competition between the Kondo singlet formation and spin-Peierls order when the antiferromagnetic order is suppressed, thereby shedding new light on the global phase diagram of heavy-fermion systems at zero temperature.

  7. Unconventional pairing in doped band insulators on a honeycomb lattice: the role of the disconnected Fermi surface and a possible application to superconducting β-MNCl (M=Hf, Zr).

    PubMed

    Kuroki, Kazuhiko

    2008-12-01

    We investigate the possibility of realizing unconventional superconductivity in doped band insulators on the square and honeycomb lattices. The latter lattice is found to be a good candidate due to the disconnectivity of the Fermi surface. We propose applying the theory to the superconductivity in doped layered nitride β-MNCl (M= Hf, Zr). Finally, we compare two groups of superconductors with disconnected Fermi surface, β-MNCl and the iron pnictides, which have high critical temperature Tc, despite some faults against superconductivity are present.

  8. Quantum phase transition, universality, and scaling behaviors in the spin-1/2 Heisenberg model with ferromagnetic and antiferromagnetic competing interactions on a honeycomb lattice

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, Yi-Zhen; Xi, Bin; Chen, Xi; Li, Wei; Wang, Zheng-Chuan; Su, Gang

    2016-06-01

    The quantum phase transition, scaling behaviors, and thermodynamics in the spin-1/2 quantum Heisenberg model with antiferromagnetic coupling J >0 in the armchair direction and ferromagnetic interaction J'<0 in the zigzag direction on a honeycomb lattice are systematically studied using the continuous-time quantum Monte Carlo method. By calculating the Binder ratio Q2 and spin stiffness ρ in two directions for various coupling ratios α =J'/J under different lattice sizes, we found that a quantum phase transition from the dimerized phase to the stripe phase occurs at the quantum critical point αc=-0.93 . Through the finite-size scaling analysis on Q2, ρx, and ρy, we determined the critical exponent related to the correlation length ν to be 0.7212(8), implying that this transition falls into a classical Heisenberg O(3) universality. A zero magnetization plateau is observed in the dimerized phase, whose width decreases with increasing α . A phase diagram in the coupling ratio α -magnetic field h plane is obtained, where four phases, including dimerized, stripe, canted stripe, and polarized, are identified. It is also unveiled that the temperature dependence of the specific heat C (T ) for different α 's intersects precisely at one point, similar to that of liquid 3He under different pressures and several magnetic compounds under various magnetic fields. The scaling behaviors of Q2, ρ , and C (T ) are carefully analyzed. The susceptibility is compared with the experimental data to give the magnetic parameters of both compounds.

  9. Quantum phase transition, universality, and scaling behaviors in the spin-1/2 Heisenberg model with ferromagnetic and antiferromagnetic competing interactions on a honeycomb lattice.

    PubMed

    Huang, Yi-Zhen; Xi, Bin; Chen, Xi; Li, Wei; Wang, Zheng-Chuan; Su, Gang

    2016-06-01

    The quantum phase transition, scaling behaviors, and thermodynamics in the spin-1/2 quantum Heisenberg model with antiferromagnetic coupling J>0 in the armchair direction and ferromagnetic interaction J^{'}<0 in the zigzag direction on a honeycomb lattice are systematically studied using the continuous-time quantum Monte Carlo method. By calculating the Binder ratio Q_{2} and spin stiffness ρ in two directions for various coupling ratios α=J^{'}/J under different lattice sizes, we found that a quantum phase transition from the dimerized phase to the stripe phase occurs at the quantum critical point α_{c}=-0.93. Through the finite-size scaling analysis on Q_{2}, ρ_{x}, and ρ_{y}, we determined the critical exponent related to the correlation length ν to be 0.7212(8), implying that this transition falls into a classical Heisenberg O(3) universality. A zero magnetization plateau is observed in the dimerized phase, whose width decreases with increasing α. A phase diagram in the coupling ratio α-magnetic field h plane is obtained, where four phases, including dimerized, stripe, canted stripe, and polarized, are identified. It is also unveiled that the temperature dependence of the specific heat C(T) for different α's intersects precisely at one point, similar to that of liquid ^{3}He under different pressures and several magnetic compounds under various magnetic fields. The scaling behaviors of Q_{2}, ρ, and C(T) are carefully analyzed. The susceptibility is compared with the experimental data to give the magnetic parameters of both compounds.

  10. Two-Dimensional Iron Tungstate: A Ternary Oxide Layer With Honeycomb Geometry

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    The exceptional physical properties of graphene have sparked tremendous interests toward two-dimensional (2D) materials with honeycomb structure. We report here the successful fabrication of 2D iron tungstate (FeWOx) layers with honeycomb geometry on a Pt(111) surface, using the solid-state reaction of (WO3)3 clusters with a FeO(111) monolayer on Pt(111). The formation process and the atomic structure of two commensurate FeWOx phases, with (2 × 2) and (6 × 6) periodicities, have been characterized experimentally by combination of scanning tunneling microscopy (STM), low-energy electron diffraction (LEED), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), and temperature-programmed desorption (TPD) and understood theoretically by density functional theory (DFT) modeling. The thermodynamically most stable (2 × 2) phase has a formal FeWO3 stoichiometry and corresponds to a buckled Fe2+/W4+ layer arranged in a honeycomb lattice, terminated by oxygen atoms in Fe–W bridging positions. This 2D FeWO3 layer has a novel structure and stoichiometry and has no analogues to known bulk iron tungstate phases. It is theoretically predicted to exhibit a ferromagnetic electronic ground state with a Curie temperature of 95 K, as opposed to the antiferromagnetic behavior of bulk FeWO4 materials. PMID:27110319

  11. Honeycomb superlattice pattern in a dielectric barrier discharge in argon/air

    SciTech Connect

    Zhu, Ping; Dong, Lifang Yang, Jing; Gao, Yenan; Wang, Yongjie; Li, Ben

    2015-02-15

    We report on a honeycomb superlattice pattern in a dielectric barrier discharge in argon/air for the first time. It consists of hexagon lattice and honeycomb framework and bifurcates from a hexagon pattern as the applied voltage increases. A phase diagram of the pattern as a function of the gas component and gas pressure is presented. The instantaneous images show that the hexagon lattice and honeycomb framework are ignited in turn in each half voltage cycle. The honeycomb framework is composed of filaments ignited randomly. The spatiotemporal dynamics of honeycomb superlattice pattern is discussed by wall charges.

  12. Strain induced topological phase transitions in monolayer honeycomb structures of group-V binary compounds

    PubMed Central

    Nie, Yaozhuang; Rahman, Mavlanjan; Wang, Daowei; Wang, Can; Guo, Guanghua

    2015-01-01

    We present first-principles calculations of electronic structures of a class of two-dimensional (2D) honeycomb structures of group-V binary compounds. Our results show these new 2D materials are stable semiconductors with direct or indirect band gaps. The band gap can be tuned by applying lattice strain. During their stretchable regime, they all exhibit metal-indirect gap semiconductor-direct gap semiconductor-topological insulator (TI) transitions with increasing strain from negative (compressive) to positive (tensile) values. The topological phase transition results from the band inversion at the Γ point which is due to the evolution of bonding and anti-bonding states under lattice strain. PMID:26656257

  13. Reinforced Honeycomb Panels

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bhat, Balakrishna T.; Akutagawa, Wesley; Wang, Taylor G.; Barber, Dan

    1989-01-01

    New honeycomb panel structure has increased strength and stiffness with little increase in weight. Some or all of walls of honeycomb cells reinforced with honeycomb panels having smaller cells, lightweight foam, or other reinforcing material. Strong, lightweight reinforced panels used in aircraft, car and truck bodies, cabinets for equipment and appliances, and buildings.

  14. AgRuO3 , a Strongly Exchange-Coupled Honeycomb Compound Lacking Long-Range Magnetic Order.

    PubMed

    Prasad, Beluvalli E; Kanungo, Sudipta; Jansen, Martin; Komarek, Alexander C; Yan, Binghai; Manuel, Pascal; Felser, Claudia

    2017-04-03

    Quasi two-dimensional (2D) oxide-based honeycomb lattices have attracted great attention for displaying specific electronic instabilities, which give rise to unconventional bonding patterns and unexpected magnetic exchange couplings. The synthesis of AgRuO3 , another representative exhibiting unique structural properties, is reported here. The stacking sequence of the honeycomb layers (Ru2 O6 ) differs from analogous precedents; in particular, the intercalating silver atoms are shifted from the middle of the interspaces and cap the void octahedral sites of the (□Ru2 O6 ) slabs from both sides. This way, charge neutral, giant 2D "molecules" of Ag/Ru2 O6 /Ag result; a feature that significantly enhances the overall 2D character of AgRuO3 . Measurements of magnetization have revealed extremely strong magnetic exchange coupling to be present, surviving to a temperature as high as 673 K, which is the temperature of thermal decomposition. No indication for long-range magnetic order has, however, been observed. Theoretical analyses confirm the pronounced 2D character of the electronic system, and in particular reveal the inter-honeycomb layer coupling Jc to be distinctly weak.

  15. Two-dimensional topological crystalline insulator phase in Sb/Bi planar honeycomb with tunable Dirac gap

    DOE PAGES

    Hsu, Chia -Hsiu; Huang, Zhi -Quan; Crisostomo, Christian P.; ...

    2016-01-14

    We predict planar Sb/Bi honeycomb to harbor a two-dimensional (2D) topological crystalline insulator (TCI) phase based on first-principles computations. Although buckled Sb and Bi honeycombs support 2D topological insulator (TI) phases, their structure becomes planar under tensile strain. The planar Sb/Bi honeycomb structure restores the mirror symmetry, and is shown to exhibit non-zero mirror Chern numbers, indicating that the system can host topologically protected edge states. Our computations show that the electronic spectrum of a planar Sb/Bi nanoribbon with armchair or zigzag edges contains two Dirac cones within the band gap and an even number of edge bands crossing themore » Fermi level. Lattice constant of the planar Sb honeycomb is found to nearly match that of hexagonal-BN. As a result, the Sb nanoribbon on hexagonal-BN exhibits gapped edge states, which we show to be tunable by an out-of the-plane electric field, providing controllable gating of edge state important for device applications.« less

  16. Two-dimensional topological crystalline insulator phase in Sb/Bi planar honeycomb with tunable Dirac gap

    SciTech Connect

    Hsu, Chia -Hsiu; Huang, Zhi -Quan; Crisostomo, Christian P.; Yao, Liang -Zi; Chuang, Feng -Chuan; Liu, Yu -Tzu; Wang, Baokai; Hsu, Chuang -Han; Lee, Chi -Cheng; Lin, Hsin; Bansil, Arun

    2016-01-14

    We predict planar Sb/Bi honeycomb to harbor a two-dimensional (2D) topological crystalline insulator (TCI) phase based on first-principles computations. Although buckled Sb and Bi honeycombs support 2D topological insulator (TI) phases, their structure becomes planar under tensile strain. The planar Sb/Bi honeycomb structure restores the mirror symmetry, and is shown to exhibit non-zero mirror Chern numbers, indicating that the system can host topologically protected edge states. Our computations show that the electronic spectrum of a planar Sb/Bi nanoribbon with armchair or zigzag edges contains two Dirac cones within the band gap and an even number of edge bands crossing the Fermi level. Lattice constant of the planar Sb honeycomb is found to nearly match that of hexagonal-BN. As a result, the Sb nanoribbon on hexagonal-BN exhibits gapped edge states, which we show to be tunable by an out-of the-plane electric field, providing controllable gating of edge state important for device applications.

  17. Two-dimensional Topological Crystalline Insulator Phase in Sb/Bi Planar Honeycomb with Tunable Dirac Gap.

    PubMed

    Hsu, Chia-Hsiu; Huang, Zhi-Quan; Crisostomo, Christian P; Yao, Liang-Zi; Chuang, Feng-Chuan; Liu, Yu-Tzu; Wang, Baokai; Hsu, Chuang-Han; Lee, Chi-Cheng; Lin, Hsin; Bansil, Arun

    2016-01-14

    We predict planar Sb/Bi honeycomb to harbor a two-dimensional (2D) topological crystalline insulator (TCI) phase based on first-principles computations. Although buckled Sb and Bi honeycombs support 2D topological insulator (TI) phases, their structure becomes planar under tensile strain. The planar Sb/Bi honeycomb structure restores the mirror symmetry, and is shown to exhibit non-zero mirror Chern numbers, indicating that the system can host topologically protected edge states. Our computations show that the electronic spectrum of a planar Sb/Bi nanoribbon with armchair or zigzag edges contains two Dirac cones within the band gap and an even number of edge bands crossing the Fermi level. Lattice constant of the planar Sb honeycomb is found to nearly match that of hexagonal-BN. The Sb nanoribbon on hexagonal-BN exhibits gapped edge states, which we show to be tunable by an out-of-the-plane electric field, providing controllable gating of edge state important for device applications.

  18. Two-dimensional Topological Crystalline Insulator Phase in Sb/Bi Planar Honeycomb with Tunable Dirac Gap

    PubMed Central

    Hsu, Chia-Hsiu; Huang, Zhi-Quan; Crisostomo, Christian P.; Yao, Liang-Zi; Chuang, Feng-Chuan; Liu, Yu-Tzu; Wang, Baokai; Hsu, Chuang-Han; Lee, Chi-Cheng; Lin, Hsin; Bansil, Arun

    2016-01-01

    We predict planar Sb/Bi honeycomb to harbor a two-dimensional (2D) topological crystalline insulator (TCI) phase based on first-principles computations. Although buckled Sb and Bi honeycombs support 2D topological insulator (TI) phases, their structure becomes planar under tensile strain. The planar Sb/Bi honeycomb structure restores the mirror symmetry, and is shown to exhibit non-zero mirror Chern numbers, indicating that the system can host topologically protected edge states. Our computations show that the electronic spectrum of a planar Sb/Bi nanoribbon with armchair or zigzag edges contains two Dirac cones within the band gap and an even number of edge bands crossing the Fermi level. Lattice constant of the planar Sb honeycomb is found to nearly match that of hexagonal-BN. The Sb nanoribbon on hexagonal-BN exhibits gapped edge states, which we show to be tunable by an out-of-the-plane electric field, providing controllable gating of edge state important for device applications. PMID:26764118

  19. Oxocentered Cu(II) lead selenite honeycomb lattices hosting Cu(I)Cl2 groups obtained by chemical vapor transport reactions.

    PubMed

    Kovrugin, Vadim M; Colmont, Marie; Siidra, Oleg I; Mentré, Olivier; Al-Shuray, Alexander; Gurzhiy, Vladislav V; Krivovichev, Sergey V

    2015-06-11

    Chemical vapor transport (CVT) reactions were used to prepare three modular mixed-valent Cu(I)-Cu(II) compounds, (Pb2Cu(2+)9O4)(SeO3)4(Cu(+)Cl(2))Cl5 (1), (PbCu(2+)5O2)(SeO3)2(Cu(+)Cl2)Cl3 (2), and (Pb(x)Cu(2+)(6-x)O2)(SeO3)2(Cu(+)Cl2)K(1-x)Cl(4-x) (x = 0.20) (3). In their crystal structures chains of anion-centered (OCu(2+)4) and (OCu(2+)3Pb) tetrahedra form honeycomb-like double layers with cavities occupied by linear [Cu(+)Cl2](-) groups.

  20. Structure and Magnetic Properties of Cu3Ni2SbO6 and Cu3Co2SbO6 Delafossites with Honeycomb Lattices

    SciTech Connect

    Roudebush, J. H.; Andersen, N.; Ramlau, R.; Garlea, Vasile O; Toft-Petersen, R.; Norby, P.; Schneider, R.; Hay, J. N.; Cava, R J

    2013-01-01

    The crystal structures of two Delafossites, Cu3Ni2SbO6 and Cu3Co2SbO6, are determined by high resolution synchrotron powder X-ray diffraction. The Ni and Co are ordered with respect to Sb in the layer of edge sharing octahedra, forming magnetic layers with honeycomb geometry. High-resolution electron microscopy confirms ordering, and selected-area electron diffraction patterns identify examples of the stacking polytypes. Low temperature synthetic treatments result in disordered stacking of the layers, but heating just below their melting points results in nearly fully ordered stacking variants. The major variant in both cases is a monoclinic distortion of a 6-layer Delafossite polytype, but a significant amount of a 2-layer polytype is also present for the Ni case. The antiferromagnetic ordering with transitions, at 22.3 and 18.5 K for Ni and Co variants, respectively, is investigated by temperature and field dependent magnetization, as well as specific heat. The sharp magnetic transitions support the presence of well developed 2:1 ordering of the Co:Sb or Ni:Sb ions in the honeycomb layers. Neutron diffraction measurements at 4 K are used to determine the magnetic structures. For both the Ni and Co phases, the propagation vector is k = [100], and can be described as alternating ferromagnetic chains in the metal-oxide plane giving an overall antiferromagntic zigzag alignment. While orientation of the magnetic moments of the Co is along the b-axis, the Ni moments are in the ac plane, approximately parallel to the stacking direction. Bulk magnetization properties are discussed in terms of their magnetic structures.

  1. Structure and magnetic properties of Cu3Ni2SbO6 and Cu3Co2SbO6 Delafossites with honeycomb lattices.

    PubMed

    Roudebush, J H; Andersen, N H; Ramlau, R; Garlea, V O; Toft-Petersen, R; Norby, P; Schneider, R; Hay, J N; Cava, R J

    2013-05-20

    The crystal structures of two Delafossites, Cu3Ni2SbO6 and Cu3Co2SbO6, are determined by high-resolution synchrotron powder X-ray diffraction. The Ni and Co are ordered with respect to Sb in the layer of edge sharing octahedra, forming magnetic layers with honeycomb geometry. High-resolution electron microscopy confirms ordering, and selected-area electron diffraction patterns identify examples of the stacking polytypes. Low temperature synthetic treatments result in disordered stacking of the layers, but heating just below their melting points results in nearly fully ordered stacking variants. The major variant in both cases is a monoclinic distortion of a 6-layer Delafossite polytype, but a significant amount of a 2-layer polytype is also present for the Ni case. The antiferromagnetic ordering with transitions, at 22.3 and 18.5 K for Ni and Co variants, respectively, is investigated by temperature and field dependent magnetization, as well as specific heat. The sharp magnetic transitions support the presence of well developed 2:1 ordering of the Co:Sb or Ni:Sb ions in the honeycomb layers. Neutron diffraction measurements at 4 K are used to determine the magnetic structures. For both the Ni and Co phases, the propagation vector is k = [100], and can be described as alternating ferromagnetic chains in the metal-oxide plane giving an overall antiferromagntic "zigzag" alignment. While orientation of the magnetic moments of the Co is along the b-axis, the Ni moments are in the ac plane, approximately parallel to the stacking direction. Bulk magnetization properties are discussed in terms of their magnetic structures.

  2. Designing artificial two dimensional electron lattice on metal surface: a Kagome-like lattice as an example.

    PubMed

    Li, Shuai; Qiu, Wen-Xuan; Gao, Jin-Hua

    2016-07-07

    Recently, a new kind of artificial two dimensional (2D) electron lattice on the nanoscale, i.e. molecular graphene, has drawn a lot of interest, where the metal surface electrons are transformed into a honeycomb lattice via absorbing a molecular lattice on the metal surface [Gomes et al., Nature, 2012, 438, 306; Wang et al., Phys. Rev. Lett., 2014, 113, 196803]. In this work, we theoretically demonstrate that this technique can be readily used to build other complex 2D electron lattices on a metal surface, which are of high interest in the field of condensed matter physics. The main challenge to build a complex 2D electron lattice is that this is a quantum antidot system, where the absorbed molecule normally exerts a repulsive potential on the surface electrons. Thus, there is no straightforward corresponding relation between the molecular lattice pattern and the desired 2D lattice of surface electrons. Here, we give an interesting example about the Kagome lattice, which has exotic correlated electronic states. We design a special molecular pattern and show that this molecular lattice can transform the surface electrons into a Kagome-like lattice. The numerical simulation is conducted using a Cu(111) surface and CO molecules. We first estimate the effective parameters of the Cu/CO system by fitting experimental data of the molecular graphene. Then, we calculate the corresponding energy bands and LDOS of the surface electrons in the presence of the proposed molecular lattice. Finally, we interpret the numerical results by the tight binding model of the Kagome lattice. We hope that our work can stimulate further theoretical and experimental interest in this novel artificial 2D electron lattice system.

  3. Structural Physics of Bee Honeycomb

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kaatz, Forrest; Bultheel, Adhemar; Egami, Takeshi

    2008-03-01

    Honeybee combs have aroused interest in the ability of honeybees to form regular hexagonal geometric constructs since ancient times. Here we use a real space technique based on the pair distribution function (PDF) and radial distribution function (RDF), and a reciprocal space method utilizing the Debye-Waller Factor (DWF) to quantify the order for a range of honeycombs made by Apis mellifera. The PDFs and RDFs are fit with a series of Gaussian curves. We characterize the order in the honeycomb using a real space order parameter, OP3, to describe the order in the combs and a two-dimensional Fourier transform from which a Debye-Waller order parameter, u, is derived. Both OP3 and u take values from [0, 1] where the value one represents perfect order. The analyzed combs have values of OP3 from 0.33 to 0.60 and values of u from 0.83 to 0.98. RDF fits of honeycomb histograms show that naturally made comb can be crystalline in a 2D ordered structural sense, yet is more `liquid-like' than cells made on `foundation' wax. We show that with the assistance of man-made foundation wax, honeybees can manufacture highly ordered arrays of hexagonal cells.

  4. HP-Lattice QSAR for dynein proteins: experimental proteomics (2D-electrophoresis, mass spectrometry) and theoretic study of a Leishmania infantum sequence.

    PubMed

    Dea-Ayuela, María Auxiliadora; Pérez-Castillo, Yunierkis; Meneses-Marcel, Alfredo; Ubeira, Florencio M; Bolas-Fernández, Francisco; Chou, Kuo-Chen; González-Díaz, Humberto

    2008-08-15

    The toxicity and inefficacy of actual organic drugs against Leishmaniosis justify research projects to find new molecular targets in Leishmania species including Leishmania infantum (L. infantum) and Leishmaniamajor (L. major), both important pathogens. In this sense, quantitative structure-activity relationship (QSAR) methods, which are very useful in Bioorganic and Medicinal Chemistry to discover small-sized drugs, may help to identify not only new drugs but also new drug targets, if we apply them to proteins. Dyneins are important proteins of these parasites governing fundamental processes such as cilia and flagella motion, nuclear migration, organization of the mitotic splinde, and chromosome separation during mitosis. However, despite the interest for them as potential drug targets, so far there has been no report whatsoever on dyneins with QSAR techniques. To the best of our knowledge, we report here the first QSAR for dynein proteins. We used as input the Spectral Moments of a Markov matrix associated to the HP-Lattice Network of the protein sequence. The data contain 411 protein sequences of different species selected by ClustalX to develop a QSAR that correctly discriminates on average between 92.75% and 92.51% of dyneins and other proteins in four different train and cross-validation datasets. We also report a combined experimental and theoretic study of a new dynein sequence in order to illustrate the utility of the model to search for potential drug targets with a practical example. First, we carried out a 2D-electrophoresis analysis of L. infantum biological samples. Next, we excised from 2D-E gels one spot of interest belonging to an unknown protein or protein fragment in the region M<20,200 and pI<4. We used MASCOT search engine to find proteins in the L. major data base with the highest similarity score to the MS of the protein isolated from L. infantum. We used the QSAR model to predict the new sequence as dynein with probability of 99.99% without

  5. Nano-spatial parameters from 3D to 2D lattice dimensionality by organic variant in [ZnCl4]- [R]+ hybrid materials: Structure, architecture-lattice dimensionality, microscopy, optical Eg and PL correlations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kumar, Ajit; Verma, Sanjay K.; Alvi, P. A.; Jasrotia, Dinesh

    2016-04-01

    The nanospatial morphological features of [ZnCl]- [C5H4NCH3]+ hybrid derivative depicts 28 nm granular size and 3D spreader shape packing pattern as analyzed by FESEM and single crystal XRD structural studies. The organic moiety connect the inorganic components through N-H+…Cl- hydrogen bond to form a hybrid composite, the replacement of organic derivatives from 2-methylpyridine to 2-Amino-5-choloropyridine results the increase in granular size from 28nm to 60nm and unit cell packing pattern from 3D-2D lattice dimensionality along ac plane. The change in optical energy direct band gap value from 3.01eV for [ZnCl]- [C5H4NCH3]+ (HM1) to 3.42eV for [ZnCl]- [C5H5ClN2]+ (HM2) indicates the role of organic moiety in optical properties of hybrid materials. The photoluminescence emission spectra is observed in the wavelength range of 370 to 600 nm with maximum peak intensity of 9.66a.u. at 438 nm for (HM1) and 370 to 600 nm with max peak intensity of 9.91 a.u. at 442 nm for (HM2), indicating that the emission spectra lies in visible range. PL excitation spectra depicts the maximum excitation intensity [9.8] at 245.5 nm for (HM1) and its value of 9.9 a.u. at 294 nm, specify the excitation spectra lies in UV range. Photoluminescence excitation spectra is observed in the wavelength range of 280 to 350 nm with maximum peak intensity of 9.4 a.u. at 285.5 nm and 9.9 a.u. at 294 and 297 nm, indicating excitation in the UV spectrum. Single crystal growth process and detailed physiochemical characterization such as XRD, FESEM image analysis photoluminescence property reveals the structure stability with non-covalent interactions, lattice dimensionality (3D-2D) correlations interweaving into the design of inorganic-organic hybrid materials.

  6. Honeycomb-laminate composite structure

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gilwee, W. J., Jr.; Parker, J. A. (Inventor)

    1977-01-01

    A honeycomb-laminate composite structure was comprised of: (1) a cellular core of a polyquinoxaline foam in a honeycomb structure, and (2) a layer of a noncombustible fibrous material impregnated with a polyimide resin laminated on the cellular core. A process for producing the honeycomb-laminate composite structure and articles containing the honeycomb-laminate composite structure is described.

  7. Charge transfer instability in a mixed Ir/Rh honeycomb lattice in Li2Ir1-xRhxO3 solid solution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sandhya Kumari, L.; Wallace, Maxwell; Barnes, J. T.; Tong, B.; Ramirez, A. P.; Subramanian, M. A.

    2016-11-01

    The solid solution series Li2Ir1-xRhxO3 is synthesized for several values of x between 0 and 1. The compounds possess a monoclinic layered structure (space group C2/m) throughout the solid solution range with the lattice constants following Vegard's relationship. Magnetization and resistivity data below room temperature are presented. The effective magnetic moment (μeff) is reduced below the value obtained by interpolating between the end-members, presumably due to nearest neighbor charge exchange leading to non-magnetic Ir5+/Rh3+ pairs. Surprisingly, the degree of reduction of μeff cannot be explained by a random mixture of Ir and Rh and, in particular, is strongly asymmetric around x = 0.5. This anomalous moment reduction possibly results from the difference in on-site Coulomb repulsion between Ir and Rh ions.

  8. European Composite Honeycomb Material

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tschepe, Christoph; Sauerbrey, Martin; Klebor, Maximillian; Henriksen, Torben

    2014-06-01

    A European CFRP honeycomb material for high demanding structure applications like antenna reflectors and optical benches was developed in the frame of an ESA GSTP project.The composite honeycomb was designed according to requirements defined by the European space industry. A developed manufacturing technique based on prepreg moulding enables the production of homogeneous CFRP honeycomb blocks. All characteristic material properties, including compression, tension and shear strength and CTE, were determined in a comprehensive verification test campaign. Competitiveness to comparable products was further verified by a representative breadboard.

  9. Honeycombs in honeycombs: complex liquid crystal alumina composite mesostructures.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Ruibin; Zeng, Xianbing; Prehm, Marko; Liu, Feng; Grimm, Silko; Geuss, Markus; Steinhart, Martin; Tschierske, Carsten; Ungar, Goran

    2014-05-27

    Small-angle X-ray scattering (SAXS) and atomic force microscopy (AFM) were used to study orientation patterns of two polyphilic liquid crystals (LC) confined to cylindrical pores of anodic aluminum oxide (AAO). The hierarchical hybrid systems had the LC honeycomb (lattice parameter 3.5-4 nm) inside the pores of the AAO honeycomb (diameters 60 and 400 nm). By conducting complete reciprocal space mapping using SAXS, we conclude that the columns of both compounds align in planes normal to the AAO pore axis, with a specific crystallographic direction of the LC lattice aligning strictly parallel to the pore axis. AFM of LC-containing AAO fracture surfaces further revealed that the columns of the planar anchoring LC (compound 1) formed concentric circles in the plane normal to the pore axis near the AAO wall. Toward the pore center, the circles become anisometric "racetrack" loops consisting of two straight segments and two semicircles. This mode compensates for slight ellipticity of the pore cross section. Indications are, however, that for perfectly circular pores, circular shape is maintained right to the center of the pore, the radius coming down to the size of a molecule. For the homeotropically anchoring compound 2, the columns are to the most part straight and parallel to each other, arranged in layers normal to the AAO pore axis, like logs in an ordered pile. Only near the pore wall the columns splay somewhat. In both cases, columns are confined to layers strictly perpendicular to the AAO pore axis, and there is no sign of escape to the third dimension or of axial orientation, the latter having been reported previously for some discotic LCs. The main cause of the two new LC configurations, the "racetrack" and the "logpile", and of their difference from those of confined nematic LC, is the very high splay energy and low bend energy of columnar phases.

  10. Metrology for graphene and 2D materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pollard, Andrew J.

    2016-09-01

    The application of graphene, a one atom-thick honeycomb lattice of carbon atoms with superlative properties, such as electrical conductivity, thermal conductivity and strength, has already shown that it can be used to benefit metrology itself as a new quantum standard for resistance. However, there are many application areas where graphene and other 2D materials, such as molybdenum disulphide (MoS2) and hexagonal boron nitride (h-BN), may be disruptive, areas such as flexible electronics, nanocomposites, sensing and energy storage. Applying metrology to the area of graphene is now critical to enable the new, emerging global graphene commercial world and bridge the gap between academia and industry. Measurement capabilities and expertise in a wide range of scientific areas are required to address this challenge. The combined and complementary approach of varied characterisation methods for structural, chemical, electrical and other properties, will allow the real-world issues of commercialising graphene and other 2D materials to be addressed. Here, examples of metrology challenges that have been overcome through a multi-technique or new approach are discussed. Firstly, the structural characterisation of defects in both graphene and MoS2 via Raman spectroscopy is described, and how nanoscale mapping of vacancy defects in graphene is also possible using tip-enhanced Raman spectroscopy (TERS). Furthermore, the chemical characterisation and removal of polymer residue on chemical vapour deposition (CVD) grown graphene via secondary ion mass spectrometry (SIMS) is detailed, as well as the chemical characterisation of iron films used to grow large domain single-layer h-BN through CVD growth, revealing how contamination of the substrate itself plays a role in the resulting h-BN layer. In addition, the role of international standardisation in this area is described, outlining the current work ongoing in both the International Organization of Standardization (ISO) and the

  11. Kitaev honeycomb tensor networks: Exact unitary circuits and applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schmoll, Philipp; Orús, Román

    2017-01-01

    The Kitaev honeycomb model is a paradigm of exactly solvable models, showing nontrivial physical properties such as topological quantum order, Abelian and non-Abelian anyons, and chirality. Its solution is one of the most beautiful examples of the interplay of different mathematical techniques in condensed matter physics. In this paper, we show how to derive a tensor network (TN) description of the eigenstates of this spin-1/2 model in the thermodynamic limit, and in particular for its ground state. In our setting, eigenstates are naturally encoded by an exact 3d TN structure made of fermionic unitary operators, corresponding to the unitary quantum circuit building up the many-body quantum state. In our derivation we review how the different "solution ingredients" of the Kitaev honeycomb model can be accounted for in the TN language, namely, Jordan-Wigner transformation, braidings of Majorana modes, fermionic Fourier transformation, and Bogoliubov transformation. The TN built in this way allows for a clear understanding of several properties of the model. In particular, we show how the fidelity diagram is straightforward both at zero temperature and at finite temperature in the vortex-free sector. We also show how the properties of two-point correlation functions follow easily. Finally, we also discuss the pros and cons of contracting of our 3d TN down to a 2d projected entangled pair state (PEPS) with finite bond dimension. The results in this paper can be extended to generalizations of the Kitaev model, e.g., to other lattices, spins, and dimensions.

  12. Multilayer DNA Origami Packed on a Square Lattice

    PubMed Central

    Ke, Yonggang; Douglas, Shawn M.; Liu, Minghui; Sharma, Jaswinder; Cheng, Anchi; Leung, Albert; Liu, Yan; Shih, William M.; Yan, Hao

    2009-01-01

    Molecular self-assembly using DNA as a structural building block has proven to be an efficient route to the construction of nanoscale objects and arrays of increasing complexity. Using the remarkable “scaffolded DNA origami” strategy, Rothemund demonstrated that a long single-stranded DNA from a viral genome (M13) can be folded into a variety of custom two-dimensional (2D) shapes using hundreds of short synthetic DNA molecules as staple strands. More recently, we generalized a strategy to build custom-shaped, three-dimensional (3D) objects formed as pleated layers of helices constrained to a honeycomb lattice, with precisely controlled dimensions ranging from 10 to 100 nm. Here we describe a more compact design for 3D origami, with layers of helices packed on a square lattice, that can be folded successfully into structures of designed dimensions in a one-step annealing process, despite the increased density of DNA helices. A square lattice provides a more natural framework for designing rectangular structures, the option for a more densely packed architecture, and the ability to create surfaces that are more flat than is possible with the honeycomb lattice. Thus enabling the design and construction of custom 3D shapes from helices packed on a square lattice provides a general foundational advance for increasing the versatility and scope of DNA nanotechnology. PMID:19807088

  13. Extruded ceramic honeycomb and method

    DOEpatents

    Day, J. Paul

    1995-04-04

    Extruded low-expansion ceramic honeycombs comprising beta-spodumene solid solution as the principal crystal phase and with less than 7 weight percent of included mullite are produced by compounding an extrusion batch comprising a lithium aluminosilicate glass powder and a clay additive, extruding a green honeycomb body from the batch, and drying and firing the green extruded cellular honeycomb to crystallize the glass and clay into a low-expansion spodumene ceramic honeycomb body.

  14. Two-dimensional B-C-O alloys: a promising class of 2D materials for electronic devices.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Si; Zhao, Jijun

    2016-04-28

    Graphene, a superior 2D material with high carrier mobility, has limited application in electronic devices due to zero band gap. In this regard, boron and nitrogen atoms have been integrated into the graphene lattice to fabricate 2D semiconducting heterostructures. It is an intriguing question whether oxygen can, as a replacement of nitrogen, enter the sp2 honeycomb lattice and form stable B-C-O monolayer structures. Here we explore the atomic structures, energetic and thermodynamic stability, and electronic properties of various 2D B-C-O alloys using first-principles calculations. Our results show that oxygen can be stably incorporated into the graphene lattice by bonding with boron. The B and O species favor forming alternate patterns into the chain- or ring-like structures embedded in the pristine graphene regions. These B-C-O hybrid sheets can be either metals or semiconductors depending on the B : O ratio. The semiconducting (B2O)nCm and (B6O3)nCm phases exist under the B- and O-rich conditions, and possess a tunable band gap of 1.0-3.8 eV and high carrier mobility, retaining ∼1000 cm2 V(-1) s(-1) even for half coverage of B and O atoms. These B-C-O alloys form a new class of 2D materials that are promising candidates for high-speed electronic devices.

  15. Titanium honeycomb panel testing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Richards, W. L.; Thompson, Randolph C.

    The paper describes the procedures of thermal mechanical tests carried out at the NASA Dryden Flight Research Facility on two tianium honeycomb wing panels bonded using liquid interface diffusion (LID) technique, and presents the results of these tests. The 58.4 cm square panels consisted of two 0.152-cm-thick Ti 6-2-4-2 face sheets LID-bonded to a 1.9-cm-thick honeycomb core, with bearing plates fastened to the perimeter of the upper and the lower panel surfaces. The panels were instrumented with sensors for measuring surface temperature, strain, and deflections to 315 C and 482 C. Thermal stress levels representative of those encountered during aerodynamic heating were produced by heating the upper panel surface and restraining all four edges. After more than 100 thermal cycles from room temperature to 315 C and 50 cycles from room temperature to 482 C, no significant structural degradation was detected in the panels.

  16. Titanium Honeycomb Panel Testing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Richards, W. Lance; Thompson, Randolph C.

    1996-01-01

    Thermal-mechanical tests were performed on a titanium honeycomb sandwich panel to experimentally validate the hypersonic wing panel concept and compare test data with analysis. Details of the test article, test fixture development, instrumentation, and test results are presented. After extensive testing to 900 deg. F, non-destructive evaluation of the panel has not detected any significant structural degradation caused by the applied thermal-mechanical loads.

  17. Thermally-induced single-crystal-to-single-crystal transformations from a 2D two-fold interpenetrating square lattice layer to a 3D four-fold interpenetrating diamond framework and its application in dye-sensitized solar cells.

    PubMed

    Gao, Song; Fan, Rui Qing; Wang, Xin Ming; Wei, Li Guo; Song, Yang; Du, Xi; Xing, Kai; Wang, Ping; Yang, Yu Lin

    2016-07-28

    In this work, a rare 2D → 3D single-crystal-to-single-crystal transformation (SCSC) is observed in metal-organic coordination complexes, which is triggered by thermal treatment. The 2D two-fold interpenetrating square lattice layer [Cd(IBA)2]n (1) is irreversibly converted into a 3D four-fold interpenetrating diamond framework {[Cd(IBA)2(H2O)]·2.5H2O}n (2) (HIBA = 4-(1H-imidazol-1-yl)benzoic acid). Consideration is given to these two complexes with different interpenetrating structures and dimensionality, and their influence on photovoltaic properties are studied. Encouraged by the UV-visible absorption and HOMO-LUMO energy states matched for sensitizing TiO2, the two complexes are employed in combination with N719 in dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSCs) to compensate absorption in the ultraviolet and blue-violet region, offset competitive visible light absorption of I3(-) and reducing charge the recombination of injected electrons. After co-sensitization with 1 and 2, the device co-sensitized by 1/N719 and 2/N719 to yield overall efficiencies of 7.82% and 8.39%, which are 19.94% and 28.68% higher than that of the device sensitized only by N719 (6.52%). Consequently, high dimensional interpenetrating complexes could serve as excellent co-sensitizers and have application in DSSCs.

  18. Two-dimensional electrostatic lattices for indirect excitons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Remeika, M.; Fogler, M. M.; Butov, L. V.; Hanson, M.; Gossard, A. C.

    2012-02-01

    We report on a method for the realization of two-dimensional electrostatic lattices for excitons using patterned interdigitated electrodes. Lattice structure is set by the electrode pattern and depth of the lattice potential is controlled by applied voltages. We demonstrate square, hexagonal, and honeycomb lattices created by this method.

  19. Fastening hardware to honeycomb panels

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kenger, A.

    1979-01-01

    Adhesive bonding reduces likelihood of skin failure due to excessive forces or torques by utilizing an adhesive to honeycomb skin. Concept is useful in other applications of composites such as aircraft, automobiles, and home appliances.

  20. Development of Quiet Honeycomb Panels

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Palumbo, Daniel L.; Klos, Jacob

    2009-01-01

    Sandwich honeycomb composite panels are lightweight and strong, and, therefore, provide a reasonable alternative to the aluminum ring framelstringer architecture currently used for most aircraft airframes. The drawback to honeycomb panels is that they radiate noise into the aircraft cabin very efficiently provoking the need for additional sound treatment which adds weight and reduces the material's cost advantage. A series of honeycomb panels were made which incorporated different design strategies aimed at reducing the honeycomb panels' radiation efficiency while at the same time maintaining its strength. The majority of the desi gns were centered around the concept of creatin g areas of reduced stiffness in the panel by adding voids and recesses to the core. The effort culminated with a reinforced./recessed panel which had 6 dB higher transmission loss than the baseline solid core panel while maintaining comparable strength.

  1. New honeycomb iridium(V) oxides: NaIrO3 and Sr3CaIr2O9.

    PubMed

    Wallace, David C; McQueen, Tyrel M

    2015-12-21

    We report the structures and physical properties of two new iridates, NaIrO3 and Sr3CaIr2O9, both of which contain continuous two-dimensional honeycomb connectivity. NaIrO3 is produced by room temperature oxidative deintercalation of sodium from Na2IrO3, and contains edge-sharing IrO6 octahedra that form a planar honeycomb lattice. Sr3CaIr2O9, produced via conventional solid-state synthesis, hosts a buckled honeycomb lattice with novel corner-sharing connectivity between IrO6 octahedra. Both of these new compounds are comprised of Ir(5+) (5d(4)) and exhibit negligible magnetic susceptibility. They are thus platforms to investigate the origin of the nonmagnetic behavior exhibited by Ir(5+) oxides, and provide the first examples of a J = 0 state on a honeycomb lattice.

  2. Method of fabricating a honeycomb structure

    DOEpatents

    Holleran, L.M.; Lipp, G.D.

    1999-08-03

    A method of fabricating a monolithic honeycomb structure product involves shaping a first mixture of raw materials and a binder into a green honeycomb, extruding a second mixture of raw materials and a binder into one or more green members that each define an opening extending longitudinally therethrough. The raw materials of the second mixture are compatible with the raw materials of the first mixture. The green honeycomb and member(s) are dried. The binders of the green honeycomb and member(s) are softened at the surfaces that are to be bonded. The green member(s) is inserted into the honeycomb and bonded to the honeycomb to form an assembly thereof, which is then dried and fired to form a unified monolithic honeycomb structure. The insertion is best carried out by mounting a member in the shape of a tube on a mandrel, and inserting the mandrel into the honeycomb opening to bond the tube to the honeycomb. 7 figs.

  3. Method of fabricating a honeycomb structure

    DOEpatents

    Holleran, Louis M.; Lipp, G. Daniel

    1999-01-01

    A method of fabricating a monolithic honeycomb structure product involves shaping a first mixture of raw materials and a binder into a green honeycomb, extruding a second mixture of raw materials and a binder into one or more green members that each define an opening extending longitudinally therethrough. The raw materials of the second mixture are compatible with the raw materials of the first mixture. The green honeycomb and member(s) are dried. The binders of the green honeycomb and member(s) are softened at the surfaces that are to be bonded. The green member(s) is inserted into the honeycomb and bonded to the honeycomb to form an assembly thereof, which is then dried and fired to form a unified monolithic honeycomb structure. The insertion is best carried out by mounting a member in the shape of a tube on a mandrel, and inserting the mandrel into the honeycomb opening to bond the tube to the honeycomb.

  4. Superalloy Lattice Block Structures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Whittenberger, J. D.; Nathal, M. V.; Hebsur, M. G.; Kraus, D. L.

    2003-01-01

    In their simplest form, lattice block panels are produced by direct casting and result in lightweight, fully triangulated truss-like configurations which provide strength and stiffness [2]. The earliest realizations of lattice block were made from A1 and steels, primarily under funding from the US Navy [3]. This work also showed that the mechanical efficiency (eg., specific stiffness) of lattice block structures approached that of honeycomb structures [2]. The lattice architectures are also less anisotropic, and the investment casting route should provide a large advantage in cost and temperature capability over honeycombs which are limited to alloys that can be processed into foils. Based on this early work, a program was initiated to determine the feasibility of extending the high temperature superalloy lattice block [3]. The objective of this effort was to provide an alternative to intermetallics and composites in achieving a lightweight high temperature structure without sacrificing the damage tolerance and moderate cost inherent in superalloys. To establish the feasibility of the superalloy lattice block concept, work was performed in conjunction with JAMCORP, Inc. Billerica, MA, to produce a number of lattice block panels from both IN71 8 and Mar-M247.

  5. Honeycomb and triangular domain wall networks in heteroepitaxial systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Elder, K. R.; Chen, Z.; Elder, K. L. M.; Hirvonen, P.; Mkhonta, S. K.; Ying, S.-C.; Granato, E.; Huang, Zhi-Feng; Ala-Nissila, T.

    2016-05-01

    A comprehensive study is presented for the influence of misfit strain, adhesion strength, and lattice symmetry on the complex Moiré patterns that form in ultrathin films of honeycomb symmetry adsorbed on compact triangular or honeycomb substrates. The method used is based on a complex Ginzburg-Landau model of the film that incorporates elastic strain energy and dislocations. The results indicate that different symmetries of the heteroepitaxial systems lead to distinct types of domain wall networks and phase transitions among various surface Moiré patterns and superstructures. More specifically, the results show a dramatic difference between the phase diagrams that emerge when a honeycomb film is adsorbed on substrates of honeycomb versus triangular symmetry. It is also shown that in the small deformation limit, the complex Ginzburg-Landau model reduces to a two-dimensional sine-Gordon free energy form. This free energy can be solved exactly for one dimensional patterns and reveals the role of domains walls and their crossings in determining the nature of the phase diagrams.

  6. Hierarchical honeycomb auxetic metamaterials.

    PubMed

    Mousanezhad, Davood; Babaee, Sahab; Ebrahimi, Hamid; Ghosh, Ranajay; Hamouda, Abdelmagid Salem; Bertoldi, Katia; Vaziri, Ashkan

    2015-12-16

    Most conventional materials expand in transverse directions when they are compressed uniaxially resulting in the familiar positive Poisson's ratio. Here we develop a new class of two dimensional (2D) metamaterials with negative Poisson's ratio that contract in transverse directions under uniaxial compressive loads leading to auxeticity. This is achieved through mechanical instabilities (i.e., buckling) introduced by structural hierarchy and retained over a wide range of applied compression. This unusual behavior is demonstrated experimentally and analyzed computationally. The work provides new insights into the role of structural organization and hierarchy in designing 2D auxetic metamaterials, and new opportunities for developing energy absorbing materials, tunable membrane filters, and acoustic dampeners.

  7. From 2D graphene to 1D graphene nanoribbons: dimensional crossover signals in the structural thermal fluctuations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dobry, Ariel; Costamagna, Sebastián

    2011-03-01

    I this work, by analyzing the thermal excited rippling in the graphene honeycomb lattice, we find clear signals of an existing dimensional crossover from 2D to 1D while reducing one of the dimensions of the graphene layer. Trough a joint study, using montecarlo atomistic simulations and analytical calculation based, we find that the normal-normal correlation function G (q) does not change the power law behavior valid on the long wavelength limit, however the system size dependency of the quadratic out of plane displacement h2 shows a breakdown of its corresponding scaling law. In this case we show that a new scaling law appear which correspond to a truly 1D system. On the basis of these results, and having explored a wide number of realistic systems size, we conclude that narrow nanoribbons presents strongest corrugations than the square graphene sheets. This result could have important consequences on the electron transport properties of freestanding graphene systems.

  8. Hierarchical honeycomb auxetic metamaterials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mousanezhad, Davood; Babaee, Sahab; Ebrahimi, Hamid; Ghosh, Ranajay; Hamouda, Abdelmagid Salem; Bertoldi, Katia; Vaziri, Ashkan

    2015-12-01

    Most conventional materials expand in transverse directions when they are compressed uniaxially resulting in the familiar positive Poisson’s ratio. Here we develop a new class of two dimensional (2D) metamaterials with negative Poisson’s ratio that contract in transverse directions under uniaxial compressive loads leading to auxeticity. This is achieved through mechanical instabilities (i.e., buckling) introduced by structural hierarchy and retained over a wide range of applied compression. This unusual behavior is demonstrated experimentally and analyzed computationally. The work provides new insights into the role of structural organization and hierarchy in designing 2D auxetic metamaterials, and new opportunities for developing energy absorbing materials, tunable membrane filters, and acoustic dampeners.

  9. Hierarchical honeycomb auxetic metamaterials

    PubMed Central

    Mousanezhad, Davood; Babaee, Sahab; Ebrahimi, Hamid; Ghosh, Ranajay; Hamouda, Abdelmagid Salem; Bertoldi, Katia; Vaziri, Ashkan

    2015-01-01

    Most conventional materials expand in transverse directions when they are compressed uniaxially resulting in the familiar positive Poisson’s ratio. Here we develop a new class of two dimensional (2D) metamaterials with negative Poisson’s ratio that contract in transverse directions under uniaxial compressive loads leading to auxeticity. This is achieved through mechanical instabilities (i.e., buckling) introduced by structural hierarchy and retained over a wide range of applied compression. This unusual behavior is demonstrated experimentally and analyzed computationally. The work provides new insights into the role of structural organization and hierarchy in designing 2D auxetic metamaterials, and new opportunities for developing energy absorbing materials, tunable membrane filters, and acoustic dampeners. PMID:26670417

  10. Mechanical and electrical strain response of a piezoelectric auxetic PZT lattice structure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fey, Tobias; Eichhorn, Franziska; Han, Guifang; Ebert, Kathrin; Wegener, Moritz; Roosen, Andreas; Kakimoto, Ken-ichi; Greil, Peter

    2016-01-01

    A two-dimensional auxetic lattice structure was fabricated from a PZT piezoceramic. Tape casted and sintered sheets with a thickness of 530 μm were laser cut into inverted honeycomb lattice structure with re-entrant cell geometry (θ = -25°) and poling direction oriented perpendicular to the lattice plane. The in-plane strain response upon applying an uniaxial compression load as well as an electric field perpendicular to the lattice plane were analyzed by a 2D image data detection analysis. The auxetic lattice structure exhibits orthotropic deformation behavior with a negative in-plane Poisson’s ratio of -2.05. Compared to PZT bulk material the piezoelectric auxetic lattice revealed a strain amplification by a factor of 30-70. Effective transversal coupling coefficients {{d}al}31 of the PZT lattice exceeding 4 × 103 pm V-1 were determined which result in an effective hydrostatic coefficient {{d}al}h 66 times larger than that of bulk PZT.

  11. Magnetic properties of the honeycomb oxide Na2Co2TeO6

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lefrançois, E.; Songvilay, M.; Robert, J.; Nataf, G.; Jordan, E.; Chaix, L.; Colin, C. V.; Lejay, P.; Hadj-Azzem, A.; Ballou, R.; Simonet, V.

    2016-12-01

    We have studied the magnetic properties of Na2Co2TeO6 , which features a honeycomb lattice of magnetic Co2 + ions, through macroscopic characterization and neutron diffraction on a powder sample. We have shown that this material orders in a zigzag antiferromagnetic structure. In addition to allowing a linear magnetoelectric coupling, this magnetic arrangement displays very peculiar spatial magnetic correlations, larger in the honeycomb planes than between the planes, which do not evolve with the temperature. We have investigated this behavior by classical Monte Carlo calculations using the J1-J2-J3 model on a honeycomb lattice with a small interplane interaction. Our model reproduces the experimental neutron structure factor, although its absence of temperature evolution must be due to additional ingredients, such as chemical disorder or quantum fluctuations enhanced by the proximity to a phase boundary.

  12. Capturing Gases in Carbon Honeycomb

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Krainyukova, Nina V.

    2016-12-01

    In our recent paper (Krainyukova and Zubarev in Phys Rev Lett 116:055501, 2016. doi: 10.1103/PhysRevLett.116.055501) we reported the observation of an exceptionally stable honeycomb carbon allotrope obtained by deposition of vacuum-sublimated graphite. A family of structures can be built from absolutely dominant {sp}2 -bonded carbon atoms, and may be considered as three-dimensional graphene. Such structures demonstrate high absorption capacity for gases and liquids. In this work we show that the formation of honeycomb structures is highly sensitive to the carbon evaporation temperature and deposition rates. Both parameters are controlled by the electric current flowing through thin carbon rods. Two distinctly different regimes were found. At lower electric currents almost pure honeycomb structures form owing to sublimation. At higher currents the surface-to-bulk rod melting is observed. In the latter case densification of the carbon structures and a large contribution of glassy graphite emerge. The experimental diffraction patterns from honeycomb structures filled with absorbed gases and analyzed by the advanced method are consistent with the proposed models for composites which are different for Ar, Kr and Xe atoms in carbon matrices.

  13. Capturing Gases in Carbon Honeycomb

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Krainyukova, Nina V.

    2017-04-01

    In our recent paper (Krainyukova and Zubarev in Phys Rev Lett 116:055501, 2016. doi: 10.1103/PhysRevLett.116.055501) we reported the observation of an exceptionally stable honeycomb carbon allotrope obtained by deposition of vacuum-sublimated graphite. A family of structures can be built from absolutely dominant {sp}2-bonded carbon atoms, and may be considered as three-dimensional graphene. Such structures demonstrate high absorption capacity for gases and liquids. In this work we show that the formation of honeycomb structures is highly sensitive to the carbon evaporation temperature and deposition rates. Both parameters are controlled by the electric current flowing through thin carbon rods. Two distinctly different regimes were found. At lower electric currents almost pure honeycomb structures form owing to sublimation. At higher currents the surface-to-bulk rod melting is observed. In the latter case densification of the carbon structures and a large contribution of glassy graphite emerge. The experimental diffraction patterns from honeycomb structures filled with absorbed gases and analyzed by the advanced method are consistent with the proposed models for composites which are different for Ar, Kr and Xe atoms in carbon matrices.

  14. C3 N-A 2D Crystalline, Hole-Free, Tunable-Narrow-Bandgap Semiconductor with Ferromagnetic Properties.

    PubMed

    Yang, Siwei; Li, Wei; Ye, Caichao; Wang, Gang; Tian, He; Zhu, Chong; He, Peng; Ding, Guqiao; Xie, Xiaoming; Liu, Yang; Lifshitz, Yeshayahu; Lee, Shuit-Tong; Kang, Zhenhui; Jiang, Mianheng

    2017-02-27

    Graphene has initiated intensive research efforts on 2D crystalline materials due to its extraordinary set of properties and the resulting host of possible applications. Here the authors report on the controllable large-scale synthesis of C3 N, a 2D crystalline, hole-free extension of graphene, its structural characterization, and some of its unique properties. C3 N is fabricated by polymerization of 2,3-diaminophenazine. It consists of a 2D honeycomb lattice with a homogeneous distribution of nitrogen atoms, where both N and C atoms show a D6h -symmetry. C3 N is a semiconductor with an indirect bandgap of 0.39 eV that can be tuned to cover the entire visible range by fabrication of quantum dots with different diameters. Back-gated field-effect transistors made of single-layer C3 N display an on-off current ratio reaching 5.5 × 10(10) . Surprisingly, C3 N exhibits a ferromagnetic order at low temperatures (<96 K) when doped with hydrogen. This new member of the graphene family opens the door for both fundamental basic research and possible future applications.

  15. Localized structures in Kagome lattices

    SciTech Connect

    Saxena, Avadh B; Bishop, Alan R; Law, K J H; Kevrekidis, P G

    2009-01-01

    We investigate the existence and stability of gap vortices and multi-pole gap solitons in a Kagome lattice with a defocusing nonlinearity both in a discrete case and in a continuum one with periodic external modulation. In particular, predictions are made based on expansion around a simple and analytically tractable anti-continuum (zero coupling) limit. These predictions are then confirmed for a continuum model of an optically-induced Kagome lattice in a photorefractive crystal obtained by a continuous transformation of a honeycomb lattice.

  16. Processing and characterization of honeycomb composite systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shafizadeh, Jahan Emir

    Honeycomb composite structures are widely used in the aerospace and sporting goods industries because of the superior performance and weight saving advantages they offer over traditional metal structures. However, in order to maximize the mechanical and chemical properties of honeycomb composites, the structures must be specially designed to take advantage of their inherent anisotropic, viscoelastic and heterogeneous qualities. In the open literature little work has been done to understand these relationships. Most research efforts have been focused towards studying and modeling the effects of environmental exposure, impact damage and energy absorption. The objectives of this work was to use a systemic engineering approach to explore the fundamental material relationships of honeycomb composites with an emphasis towards the industrial manufacturing, design and performance characteristics of these materials. To reach this goal, a methodology was created to develop model honeycomb systems that were characteristically similar to their commercial counterparts. From the model systems, some of the important chemical and mechanical properties that controlled the behavior of honeycomb core were identified. With the knowledge gained from the model system, studies were carried out to correlate the compressive properties of honeycomb rings to honeycomb core. This type of correlation gives paper, resin, and adhesive manufactures the ability to develop new honeycomb materials without requiring specific honeycomb manufacturers to divulge their trade secrets. After characterizing the honeycomb core, efforts were made to understand the manufacturing and in-service responses of honeycomb materials. Using three Design of Experiments, investigations were performed to measure the mechanisms of composite structures to propagate damage and water over a fourteen month service period. Collectively, this research represents a fundamental starting point for understanding the processing

  17. PREFACE: Ultrathin layers of graphene, h-BN and other honeycomb structures Ultrathin layers of graphene, h-BN and other honeycomb structures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Geber, Thomas; Oshima, Chuhei

    2012-08-01

    Since ancient times, pure carbon materials have been familiar in human society—not only diamonds in jewellery and graphite in pencils, but also charcoal and coal which have been used for centuries as fuel for living and industry. Carbon fibers are stronger, tougher and lighter than steel and increase material efficiency because of their lower weight. Today, carbon fibers and related composite materials are used to make the frames of bicycles, cars and even airplane parts. The two-dimensional allotrope, now called graphene, is just a single layer of carbon atoms, locked together in a strongly bonded honeycomb lattice. In plane, graphene is stiffer than diamond, but out-of-plane it is soft, like rubber. It is virtually invisible, may conduct electricity (heat) better than copper and weighs next to nothing. Carbon compounds with two carbon atoms as a base, such as graphene, graphite or diamond, have isoelectronic sister compounds made of boron-nitrogen pairs: hexagonal and cubic boron nitride, with almost the same lattice constant. Although the two 2D sisters, graphene and h-BN, have the same number of valence electrons, their electronic properties are very different: freestanding h-BN is an insulator, while charge carriers in graphene are highly mobile. The past ten years have seen a great expansion in studies of single-layer and few-layer graphene. This activity has been concerned with the π electron transport in graphene, in electric and magnetic fields. More than 30 years ago, however, single-layer graphene and h-BN on solid surfaces were widely investigated. It was noted that they drastically changed the chemical reactivity of surfaces, and they were known to 'poison' heterogeneous catalysts, to passivate surfaces, to prevent oxidation of surfaces and to act as surfactants. Also, it was realized that the controlled growth of h-BN and graphene on substrates yields the formation of mismatch driven superstructures with peculiar template functionality on the

  18. Order parameters from image analysis: a honeycomb example

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kaatz, Forrest H.; Bultheel, Adhemar; Egami, Takeshi

    2008-11-01

    Honeybee combs have aroused interest in the ability of honeybees to form regular hexagonal geometric constructs since ancient times. Here we use a real space technique based on the pair distribution function (PDF) and radial distribution function (RDF), and a reciprocal space method utilizing the Debye-Waller Factor (DWF) to quantify the order for a range of honeycombs made by Apis mellifera ligustica. The PDFs and RDFs are fit with a series of Gaussian curves. We characterize the order in the honeycomb using a real space order parameter, OP 3 , to describe the order in the combs and a two-dimensional Fourier transform from which a Debye-Waller order parameter, u, is derived. Both OP 3 and u take values from [0, 1] where the value one represents perfect order. The analyzed combs have values of OP 3 from 0.33 to 0.60 and values of u from 0.59 to 0.69. RDF fits of honeycomb histograms show that naturally made comb can be crystalline in a 2D ordered structural sense, yet is more ‘liquid-like’ than cells made on ‘foundation’ wax. We show that with the assistance of man-made foundation wax, honeybees can manufacture highly ordered arrays of hexagonal cells. This is the first description of honeycomb utilizing the Debye-Waller Factor, and provides a complete analysis of the order in comb from a real-space order parameter and a reciprocal space order parameter. It is noted that the techniques used are general in nature and could be applied to any digital photograph of an ordered array.

  19. Surface plasmon dispersion in hexagonal, honeycomb and kagome plasmonic crystals.

    PubMed

    Tenner, V T; de Dood, M J A; van Exter, M P

    2016-12-26

    We present a systematic experimental study on the optical properties of plasmonic crystals (PlC) with hexagonal symmetry. We compare the dispersion and avoided crossings of surface plasmon modes around the Γ-point of Au-metal hole arrays with a hexagonal, honeycomb and kagome lattice. Symmetry arguments and group theory are used to label the six modes and understand their radiative and dispersive properties. Plasmon-plasmon interaction are accurately described by a coupled mode model, that contains effective scattering amplitudes of surface plasmons on a lattice of air holes under 60°, 120°, and 180°. We determine these rates in the experiment and find that they are dominated by the hole-density and not on the complexity of the unit-cell. Our analysis shows that the observed angle-dependent scattering can be explained by a single-hole model based on electric and magnetic dipoles.

  20. 2D quasiperiodic plasmonic crystals

    PubMed Central

    Bauer, Christina; Kobiela, Georg; Giessen, Harald

    2012-01-01

    Nanophotonic structures with irregular symmetry, such as quasiperiodic plasmonic crystals, have gained an increasing amount of attention, in particular as potential candidates to enhance the absorption of solar cells in an angular insensitive fashion. To examine the photonic bandstructure of such systems that determines their optical properties, it is necessary to measure and model normal and oblique light interaction with plasmonic crystals. We determine the different propagation vectors and consider the interaction of all possible waveguide modes and particle plasmons in a 2D metallic photonic quasicrystal, in conjunction with the dispersion relations of a slab waveguide. Using a Fano model, we calculate the optical properties for normal and inclined light incidence. Comparing measurements of a quasiperiodic lattice to the modelled spectra for angle of incidence variation in both azimuthal and polar direction of the sample gives excellent agreement and confirms the predictive power of our model. PMID:23209871

  1. Exact Solution of Ising Model in 2d Shortcut Network

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shanker, O.

    We give the exact solution to the Ising model in the shortcut network in the 2D limit. The solution is found by mapping the model to the square lattice model with Brascamp and Kunz boundary conditions.

  2. Apparent rippling with honeycomb symmetry and tunable periodicity observed by scanning tunneling microscopy on suspended graphene

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Georgi, A.; Nemes-Incze, P.; Szafranek, B.; Neumaier, D.; Geringer, V.; Liebmann, M.; Morgenstern, M.

    2016-11-01

    Suspended graphene is difficult to image by scanning probe microscopy due to the inherent van der Waals and dielectric forces exerted by the tip, which are not counteracted by a substrate. Here, we report scanning tunneling microscopy data of suspended monolayer graphene in constant-current mode, revealing a surprising honeycomb structure with amplitude of 50-200 pm and lattice constant of 10-40 nm. The apparent lattice constant is reduced by increasing the tunneling current I , but does not depend systematically on tunneling voltage V or scan speed vscan. The honeycomb lattice of the rippling is aligned with the atomic structure observed on supported areas, while no atomic corrugation is found on suspended areas down to the resolution of about 3 -4 pm. We rule out that the honeycomb structure is induced by the feedback loop using a changing vscan, that it is a simple enlargement effect of the atomic lattice, as well as models predicting frozen phonons or standing phonon waves induced by the tunneling current. Although we currently do not have a convincing explanation for the observed effect, we expect that our intriguing results will inspire further research related to suspended graphene.

  3. Topological magnon bands in ferromagnetic star lattice.

    PubMed

    Owerre, S A

    2017-05-10

    The experimental observation of topological magnon bands and thermal Hall effect in a kagomé lattice ferromagnet Cu(1-3, bdc) has inspired the search for topological magnon effects in various insulating ferromagnets that lack an inversion center allowing a Dzyaloshinskii-Moriya (DM) spin-orbit interaction. The star lattice (also known as the decorated honeycomb lattice) ferromagnet is an ideal candidate for this purpose because it is a variant of the kagomé lattice with additional links that connect the up-pointing and down-pointing triangles. This gives rise to twice the unit cell of the kagomé lattice, and hence more interesting topological magnon effects. In particular, the triangular bridges on the star lattice can be coupled either ferromagnetically or antiferromagnetically which is not possible on the kagomé lattice ferromagnets. Here, we study DM-induced topological magnon bands, chiral edge modes, and thermal magnon Hall effect on the star lattice ferromagnet in different parameter regimes. The star lattice can also be visualized as the parent material from which topological magnon bands can be realized for the kagomé and honeycomb lattices in some limiting cases.

  4. A Continuum of Compass Spin Models on the Honeycomb Lattice

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2016-08-02

    algorithms Thefinite PEPS algorithm is a powerful numerical approach for two-dimensional quantum spin systems [25– 27]. For the tripodmodel, we construct...andCirac J I 2004Renormalization algorithms for quantum -many body systems in two and higher dimensions (arXiv: cond-mat/0407066) [26] Verstraete F,WolfMM...Heisenbergmodel using tensor network algorithms Phys. Rev.B 90 195102 [51] Corboz P, LajkóM, Läuchli AM, PencK andMila F 2012 Spin–orbital quantum liquid on the

  5. A novel isolation curtain to reduce turbine ingress heating and an advanced model for honeycomb labyrinth seals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Choi, Dong Chun

    A combination of 3-D and 2-D computational fluid dynamics (CFD) modeling as well as experimental testing of the labyrinth seal with hexagonal honeycomb cells on the stator wall was performed. For the 3-D and 2-D CFD models, the hexagonal honeycomb structure was modeled using the concept of the baffle (zero-thickness wall) and the simplified 2-D fin, respectively. The 3-D model showed that even a small axial change of the tooth (or honeycomb wall) location, or a small circumferential change of the honeycomb wall location significantly affected the flow patterns and leakage characteristics especially for small tooth tip clearance. Also, the local details of the flow field were investigated. The seven basic procedural steps to develop a 2-D axisymmetric honeycomb labyrinth seal leakage model were shown. Clearly demonstrated for varying test conditions was the 2-D model capability to predict the 3-D honeycomb labyrinth flow that had been measured at different operating conditions from that used in developing the 2-D model. Specifically, the 2-D model showed very close agreement with measurements. In addition, the 2-D model greatly reduced the computer resource requirement needed to obtain a solution of the 3-D honeycomb labyrinth seal leakage. The novel and advanced strategy to reduce the turbine ingress heating, and thus the coolant requirement, by injecting a "coolant isolation curtain" was developed numerically using a 3-D CFD model. The coolant isolation curtain was applied under the nozzle guide vane platform for the forward cavity of a turbine stage. Specifically, the isolation curtain serves to isolate the hot mainstream gas from the turbine outer region. The effect of the geometry change, the outer cavity axial gap clearance, the circumferential location of the injection curtain slot and the injection fluid angle on the ingress heating was investigated. Adding the chamfer to the baseline design gave a similar or higher maximum temperature T*max than did the

  6. Comparison of experimental and theoretical turbulence reduction characteristics for screens, honeycomb, and honeycomb-screen combinations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Scheiman, J.

    1981-01-01

    Turbulence reduction research using screens, honeycomb, and combinations thereof was conducted in a half-scale model of a portion of the Langley 8-foot transonic pressure tunnel. It was found that screens alone reduce axial turbulence more than lateral turbulence; whereas, honeycomb alone reduces laterial turbulence more than axial turbulence. Because of this difference, the physical mechanism for decreasing turbulence for screens and honeycomb must be completely different. It is concluded that honeycomb with a downstream screen is an excellent combination for reducing turbulences.

  7. Properties of honeycomb polyester knitted fabrics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Feng, A. F.

    2016-07-01

    The properties of honeycomb polyester weft-knitted fabrics were studied to understand their advantages. Seven honeycomb polyester weft-knitted fabrics and one common polyester weft-knitted fabric were selected for testing. Their bursting strengths, fuzzing and pilling, air permeability, abrasion resistance and moisture absorption and perspiration were studied. The results show that the honeycomb polyester weft-knitted fabrics have excellent moisture absorption and liberation. The smaller their thicknesses and area densities are, the better their moisture absorption and liberation will be. Their anti-fuzzing and anti-pilling is good, whereas their bursting strengths and abrasion resistance are poorer compared with common polyester fabric's. In order to improve the hygroscopic properties of the fabrics, the proportion of the honeycomb microporous structure modified polyester in the fabrics should not be less than 40%.

  8. Acoustic performance of reiterated hierarchical honeycomb structures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nainar, Naveen

    Sandwich panels constructed from honeycomb structures have been found to reduce sound transmission and improve vibration isolation. In this work, reiterated hierarchical honeycomb structures have been modeled for the core in sandwich panels and studied for sound transmission properties using finite element analysis. Several honeycomb unit cell geometries are considered, including, regular hexagonal, auxetic with properties of negative Poisson's ratio, and different reiterated hierarchical structures. Previous studies have shown that auxetic honeycomb structures exhibit improved sound transmission loss compared to regular honeycomb sandwich panels. Two different orientations of the honeycomb unit cell geometry have been studied, namely, the zigzag and armchair configurations, which are, rotated 90 degrees. Both regular and auxetic honeycombs have been used in both these configurations. The finite element model of the panels are used to extract natural frequencies and mode shapes and to perform steady state frequency response dynamic analysis up to 1000 Hz. The transmitted sound pressure levels on the surface of each structure is extracted and compared to study the influence of the reiterated hierarchy on sound transmission characteristics. The influence of corner reinforcement constructed by subtracting interior high-level hierarchical structure except at the vertices of the underlying lower-level honeycomb unit cell was also studied. Furthermore, a study was conducted to quantify the effect of changing the ratio of cell-wall thickness between various levels of hierarchy. Special focus on the limiting case of level-1 hierarchy with zero level-0 thickness is also studied. In all cases, the total mass was kept constant in order to isolate only stiffness and mass distribution effects. The results show that introduction of reiterated hierarchy in level-1 structures reduced the sound transmission of honeycomb sandwich panels compared to parent level-0 geometry. Results

  9. Multilayer DNA Origami Packed on Hexagonal and Hybrid Lattices

    PubMed Central

    Ke, Yonggang; Voigt, Niels V.; Gothelf, Kurt V.; Shih, William M.

    2012-01-01

    “Scaffolded DNA origami” has been proven to be a powerful and efficient approach to construct two-dimensional or three-dimensional objects with great complexity. Multilayer DNA origami has been demonstrated with helices packing along either honeycomb-lattice geometry or square-lattice geometry. Here we report successful folding of multilayer DNA origami with helices arranged on a close-packed hexagonal lattice. This arrangement yields a higher density of helical packing and therefore higher resolution of spatial addressing than has been shown previously. We also demonstrate hybrid multilayer DNA origami with honeycomb-lattice, square-lattice, and hexagonal lattice packing of helices all in one design. The availability of hexagonal close packing of helices extends our ability to build complex structures using DNA nanotechnology. PMID:22187940

  10. Vertical 2D Heterostructures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lotsch, Bettina V.

    2015-07-01

    Graphene's legacy has become an integral part of today's condensed matter science and has equipped a whole generation of scientists with an armory of concepts and techniques that open up new perspectives for the postgraphene area. In particular, the judicious combination of 2D building blocks into vertical heterostructures has recently been identified as a promising route to rationally engineer complex multilayer systems and artificial solids with intriguing properties. The present review highlights recent developments in the rapidly emerging field of 2D nanoarchitectonics from a materials chemistry perspective, with a focus on the types of heterostructures available, their assembly strategies, and their emerging properties. This overview is intended to bridge the gap between two major—yet largely disjunct—developments in 2D heterostructures, which are firmly rooted in solid-state chemistry or physics. Although the underlying types of heterostructures differ with respect to their dimensions, layer alignment, and interfacial quality, there is common ground, and future synergies between the various assembly strategies are to be expected.

  11. Interaction mechanism of biomolecules on vacancy defected 2D materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gürel, Hikmet Hakan; Salmankurt, Bahadır

    2017-02-01

    In this work, we present a first principles study of the adsorption of Adenine which is a nucleobases, Histide and Leucine molecules, which are the amino acids, on vacancy defected single layer materials such as graphene and phosphorene. Among these materials, graphene, which is a single layer honeycomb structure of carbon. Also, phosphorene is recently synthesized by mechanical exfoliation of the black phosphorus. Phosphorene forming a puckered honeycomb structure similar to silicene. However, unlike zero-bandgap graphene and silicene, phosphorene is a direct band gap semiconductor, which makes it very attractive for the nanoelectronic devices. According to the studies, local defects can always exist at any temperature. The most probable defect type is the single vacancy in the single layer honeycomb structures. Vacancy defects can be emerged during growth process and they change the properties of materials significantly. In this study, we show that how to manipulate interaction and binding mechanisms of biomolecules with 2D materials with increased chemical activity by vacancy defects.

  12. Phosphorenes with Non-Honeycomb Structures: A Much Extended Family

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Menghao; Fu, Huahua; Zhou, Ling; Yao, Kailun; Zeng, Xiao Cheng; Huazhong University of Science; Technology Team; University of Nebraska-Lincoln Team

    We predict a new class of monolayer phosphorous allotropes, namely, ɛ-P, ζ-P, η-P and θ-P. Distinctly different from the monolayer α-P (black) and previously predicted β-P (Phys. Rev. Lett. 112, 176802 (2014)), γ-P and δ-P (Phys. Rev. Lett. 113, 046804 (2014)) with buckled honeycomb lattice, the new allotropes are composed of P4 square or P5 pentagon units that favor tricoordination for P atoms. The new four phases, together with 5 hybrid phases, are confirmed stable by first-principles calculations. In particularly, the θ-P is shown to be equally stable as the α-P (black) and more stable than all previously reported phosphorene allotropes. Prediction of nonvolatile ferroelastic switching and structural transformation among different phases under strains points out their potential applications via strain engineering. MHW was supported by start-up fund from Huazhong University of Science and Technology.

  13. 2D semiconductor optoelectronics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Novoselov, Kostya

    The advent of graphene and related 2D materials has recently led to a new technology: heterostructures based on these atomically thin crystals. The paradigm proved itself extremely versatile and led to rapid demonstration of tunnelling diodes with negative differential resistance, tunnelling transistors, photovoltaic devices, etc. By taking the complexity and functionality of such van der Waals heterostructures to the next level we introduce quantum wells engineered with one atomic plane precision. Light emission from such quantum wells, quantum dots and polaritonic effects will be discussed.

  14. Synthesis, structure, lattice energy and enthalpy of 2D hybrid perovskite [NH3(CH2)4NH3]CoCl4, compared to [NH3(CH2)nNH3]CoCl4, n=3-9

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abdel-Aal, Seham K.; Abdel-Rahman, Ahmed S.

    2017-01-01

    A new organic-inorganic 2D hybrid perovskite [NH3(CH2)4NH3]CoCl4,1,4butane diammonium tetra-chlorocobaltate, has been synthesized. Blue prismatic single crystals were grown from ethanolic solution in 1:1 stoichiometric ratio (organic/inorganic) by gradual cooling to room temperature after heating at 70 °C for 1 h. The hybrid crystallizes in a triclinic phase with the centrosymetric space group P 1 bar . Its unit cell parameters are a=7.2869 (2) Å, b=8.1506 (2) Å, c=10.4127 (3) Å, α=77.2950 (12)°, β=80.0588 (11)°, γ=82.8373 (12)° and Z=2. The final R factor is 0.064. The structure consists of organic dications [NH3(CH2)4NH3]2+ which act as spacer between layers of inorganic dianions [CoCl4]2- in which CoII ions are coordinated by four Cl atoms in an isolated tetrahedral structure. The organic and inorganic layers form infinite 2D sheets which are parallel to the ac plane, stacking alternatively along the b-axis, and are connected via N-H…. Cl hydrogen bonds. The lamellar structure of the 1,4 butane diammonium tetrachlorocobaltate hybrid is typically considered as naturally self-assembled multiple quantum wells (MQW). The calculated lattice potential energy Upot (kJ/mol) and lattice enthalpy ΔHL (kJ/mol) are inversely proportional to the molecular volume Vm (nm3) of perovskite hybrid of the formula [NH3(CH2)nNH3]CoCl4, n=3-9.

  15. Adaptive reorganization of 2D molecular nanoporous network induced by coadsorbed guest molecule.

    PubMed

    Zheng, Qing-Na; Wang, Lei; Zhong, Yu-Wu; Liu, Xuan-He; Chen, Ting; Yan, Hui-Juan; Wang, Dong; Yao, Jian-Nian; Wan, Li-Jun

    2014-03-25

    The ordered array of nanovoids in nanoporous networks, such as honeycomb, Kagome, and square, provides a molecular template for the accommodation of "guest molecules". Compared with the commonly studied guest molecules featuring high symmetry evenly incorporated into the template, guest molecules featuring lower symmetry are rare to report. Herein, we report the formation of a distinct patterned superlattice of guest molecules by selective trapping of guest molecules into the honeycomb network of trimesic acid (TMA). Two distinct surface patterns have been achieved by the guest inclusion induced adaptive reconstruction of a 2D molecular nanoporous network. The honeycomb networks can synergetically tune the arrangement upon inclusion of the guest molecules with different core size but similar peripherals groups, resulting in a trihexagonal Kagome or triangular patterns.

  16. Making the cut: lattice kirigami rules.

    PubMed

    Castle, Toen; Cho, Yigil; Gong, Xingting; Jung, Euiyeon; Sussman, Daniel M; Yang, Shu; Kamien, Randall D

    2014-12-12

    In this Letter we explore and develop a simple set of rules that apply to cutting, pasting, and folding honeycomb lattices. We consider origami-like structures that are extrinsically flat away from zero-dimensional sources of Gaussian curvature and one-dimensional sources of mean curvature, and our cutting and pasting rules maintain the intrinsic bond lengths on both the lattice and its dual lattice. We find that a small set of rules is allowed providing a framework for exploring and building kirigami—folding, cutting, and pasting the edges of paper.

  17. Making the Cut: Lattice Kirigami Rules

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Castle, Toen; Cho, Yigil; Gong, Xingting; Jung, Euiyeon; Sussman, Daniel M.; Yang, Shu; Kamien, Randall D.

    2014-12-01

    In this Letter we explore and develop a simple set of rules that apply to cutting, pasting, and folding honeycomb lattices. We consider origami-like structures that are extrinsically flat away from zero-dimensional sources of Gaussian curvature and one-dimensional sources of mean curvature, and our cutting and pasting rules maintain the intrinsic bond lengths on both the lattice and its dual lattice. We find that a small set of rules is allowed providing a framework for exploring and building kirigami—folding, cutting, and pasting the edges of paper.

  18. Electronic correlations in the Hubbard model on a bi-partite lattice

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ameen, Wissam A.; Walet, Niels R.; Xian, Yang

    2017-03-01

    In this work we study the Hubbard model on a bi-partite lattice using the coupled-cluster method (CCM). We first investigate how to implement this approach in order to reproduce the lack of magnetic order in the 1D model, as predicted by the exact Bethe-Ansatz solution. This result can only be reproduced if we include an algebraic correlation in some of the coupled-cluster model coefficients. Using the correspondence between the Heisenberg model and the Hubbard model in the large-coupling limit, we use very accurate results for the CCM applied to the Heisenberg and its generalisation, the XXZ model, to determine CCM coefficients with the correct properties. Using the same approach we then study the 2D Hubbard model on a square and a honeycomb lattice, both of which can be thought of as simplified models of real 2D materials. We analyse the charge and spin excitations, and show that with care we can obtain good results.

  19. Experimental rotordynamic coefficient results for honeycomb seals

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Elrod, David A.; Childs, Dara W.

    1988-01-01

    Test results (leakage and rotordynamic coefficients) are presented for seven honeycomb-stator smooth-rotor seals. Tests were carried out with air at rotor speeds up to 16,000 cpm and supply pressures up to 8.2 bars. Test results for the seven seals are compared, and the most stable configuration is identified based on the whirl frequency ratio. Results from tests of a smooth-rotor/smooth-stator seal, a teeth-on-stator labyrinth seal, and the most stable honeycomb seal are compared.

  20. Method and apparatus for extruding large honeycombs

    DOEpatents

    Kragle, Harry A.; Lambert, David W.; Lipp, G. Daniel

    1996-09-03

    Extrusion die apparatus and an extrusion method for extruding large-cross-section honeycomb structures from plasticized ceramic batch materials are described, the apparatus comprising a die having a support rod connected to its central portion, the support rod being anchored to support means upstream of the die. The support rod and support means act to limit die distortion during extrusion, reducing die strain and stress to levels permitting large honeycomb extrusion without die failure. Dies of optimal thickness are disclosed which reduce the maximum stresses exerted on the die during extrusion.

  1. Breath Figure Method for Construction of Honeycomb Films

    PubMed Central

    Dou, Yingying; Jin, Mingliang; Zhou, Guofu; Shui, Lingling

    2015-01-01

    Honeycomb films with various building units, showing potential applications in biological, medical, physicochemical, photoelectric, and many other areas, could be prepared by the breath figure method. The ordered hexagonal structures formed by the breath figure process are related to the building units, solvents, substrates, temperature, humidity, air flow, and other factors. Therefore, by adjusting these factors, the honeycomb structures could be tuned properly. In this review, we summarized the development of the breath figure method of fabricating honeycomb films and the factors of adjusting honeycomb structures. The organic-inorganic hybrid was taken as the example building unit to discuss the preparation, mechanism, properties, and applications of the honeycomb films. PMID:26343734

  2. Honeycomb Geometry: Applied Mathematics in Nature.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roberts, William J.

    1984-01-01

    Study and exploration of the hexagonal shapes found in honeycombs is suggested as an interesting topic for geometry classes. Students learn that the hexagonal pattern maximizes the enclosed region and minimizes the wax needed for construction, while satisfying the bees' cell-size constraint. (MNS)

  3. Fiberglass honeycomb elements formed quickly and cheaply

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smith, R. H.

    1970-01-01

    Cookie cutter device initiates production of identical, double-contoured fiber glass elements used as shock absorbers. Three-bladed edges convert triangular honeycomb elements into hexagonal shapes which are then stamped to desired length by concave and convex dies. Sandpaper smoothing completes the process.

  4. Mott-Hubbard Physics in a Patterned GaAs Heterostructure with Honeycomb Topology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pellegrini, Vittorio

    2013-03-01

    This talk considers efforts directed towards the design and exploration of novel collective electron states in artificial lattice structures that are realized in semiconductor heterostructures by nanofabrication methods. These studies reveal striking interplays between electron interactions and geometrical constraints (topology). We focus on the honeycomb topology, or ``artificial graphene'' (AG), that supports Dirac fermions. Dirac fermions and the emergence of quantum phases, such as spin liquids and topologically protected states, can be studied by highly demanding inelastic light scattering methods and by electrical transport at low temperatures. In particular, we probed the excitation spectrum of electrons in the honeycomb lattice in a magnetic field identifying collective modes that emerged from the Coulomb interaction, as predicted by the Mott-Hubbard model. These observations allow us to determine the Hubbard gap and suggest the existence of a Coulomb-driven ground state. Studies of electrons confined to artificial lattices should provide key perspectives on strong electron correlation in condensed matter science. Work done in collaboration with A. Singha, M. Gibertini, M. Polini, B. Karmakar, M. Katsnelson, S. Yuan, A. Pinczuk, G. Vignale, L.N. Pfeiffer, K.W. West

  5. E-2D Advanced Hawkeye Aircraft (E-2D AHE)

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-12-01

    Selected Acquisition Report (SAR) RCS: DD-A&T(Q&A)823-364 E-2D Advanced Hawkeye Aircraft (E-2D AHE) As of FY 2017 President’s Budget Defense...Office Estimate RDT&E - Research, Development, Test, and Evaluation SAR - Selected Acquisition Report SCP - Service Cost Position TBD - To Be Determined

  6. Electronic band structure of zinc blende CdSe and rock salt PbSe semiconductors with silicene-type honeycomb geometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Delerue, Christophe; Vanmaekelbergh, D.

    2015-09-01

    We report on the electronic band structure of 2D CdSe and PbSe semiconductors that have a silicene-type honeycomb geometry. Atomistic tight-binding calculations are performed on several model systems that bear a strong resemblance to the silicene-type honeycomb structures that were recently obtained by nanocrystal self-assembly. The calculated band structures are compared both to those of 2D quantum wells and graphene-type honeycomb structures. It is found that in silicene type CdSe honeycomb structures, the lowest electron conduction bands (derived from S-type nanocrystal wave functions) form a Dirac-type dispersion, very similar as in graphene. The P-type bands are usually more complex. However, when the hybridization between S- and P-type bands increases, a second Dirac cone and a genuine non-trivial flat band is observed, similar as in the case of graphene-type honeycomb structures of CdSe. There is a strong non-trivial gap between the first and second valence band, hosting the quantum spin Hall effect. Silicene-type PbSe structures show Dirac features in their bands, which however can be clouded due to the multi-valley character of PbSe.

  7. Thermal inspection of composite honeycomb structures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zalameda, Joseph N.; Parker, F. Raymond

    2014-05-01

    Composite honeycomb structures continue to be widely used in aerospace applications due to their low weight and high strength advantages. Developing nondestructive evaluation (NDE) inspection methods are essential for their safe performance. Pulsed thermography is a commonly used technique for composite honeycomb structure inspections due to its large area and rapid inspection capability. Pulsed thermography is shown to be sensitive for detection of face sheet impact damage and face sheet to core disbond. Data processing techniques, using principal component analysis to improve the defect contrast, are presented. In addition, limitations to the thermal detection of the core are investigated. Other NDE techniques, such as computed tomography X-ray and ultrasound, are used for comparison to the thermography results.

  8. Thermographic Inspection of Metallic Honeycomb Sandwich Structures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Taylor, John O.; Dupont, H. M.

    1998-01-01

    The X-33/VentureStar has a Thermal Protection System (TPS) consisting mainly of brazed metallic honeycomb sandwich structures. Inspection of these structures is changing as a result of the extremely thin (less than 200 microns) skins, the small critical defect size (less than 2 mm long by 100 microns wide) and the large number (more than 1000) of parts to be inspected. Pulsed Infrared Thermography has been determined to be the most appropriate inspection method for manufacturing inspection based on performance comparison with other methods, cost, schedule and other factors. The results of the assessment of the different methods will be summarized and data on the performance of the final production inspection system will be given. Finite difference thermal methods have been used to model the whole inspection process. Details of correlation between the models and experimental data will be given and data on the use of pulsed infrared thermography on other metallic honeycomb sandwich structures will be given.

  9. Thermal Inspection of Composite Honeycomb Structures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zalameda, Joseph N.; Parker, F. Raymond

    2014-01-01

    Composite honeycomb structures continue to be widely used in aerospace applications due to their low weight and high strength advantages. Developing nondestructive evaluation (NDE) inspection methods are essential for their safe performance. Pulsed thermography is a commonly used technique for composite honeycomb structure inspections due to its large area and rapid inspection capability. Pulsed thermography is shown to be sensitive for detection of face sheet impact damage and face sheet to core disbond. Data processing techniques, using principal component analysis to improve the defect contrast, are presented. In addition, limitations to the thermal detection of the core are investigated. Other NDE techniques, such as computed tomography X-ray and ultrasound, are used for comparison to the thermography results.

  10. Tunable spin wave spectra in two-dimensional Ni{sub 80}Fe{sub 20} antidot lattices with varying lattice symmetry

    SciTech Connect

    Mandal, R.; Barman, S.; Saha, S.; Barman, A.; Otani, Y.

    2015-08-07

    Ferromagnetic antidot lattices are important systems for magnetic data storage and magnonic devices, and understanding their magnetization dynamics by varying their structural parameters is an important problems in magnetism. Here, we investigate the variation in spin wave spectrum in two-dimensional nanoscale Ni{sub 80}Fe{sub 20} antidot lattices with lattice symmetry. By varying the bias magnetic field values in a broadband ferromagnetic resonance spectrometer, we observed a stark variation in the spin wave spectrum with the variation of lattice symmetry. The simulated mode profiles showed further difference in the spatial nature of the modes between different lattices. While for square and rectangular lattices extended modes are observed in addition to standing spin wave modes, all modes in the hexagonal, honeycomb, and octagonal lattices are either localized or standing waves. In addition, the honeycomb and octagonal lattices showed two different types of modes confined within the honeycomb (octagonal) units and between two such consecutive units. Simulated internal magnetic fields confirm the origin of such a wide variation in the frequency and spatial nature of the spin wave modes. The tunability of spin waves with the variation of lattice symmetry is important for the design of future magnetic data storage and magnonic devices.

  11. Thermal conductivity of Rene 41 honeycomb panels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Deriugin, V.

    1980-12-01

    Effective thermal conductivities of Rene 41 panels suitable for advanced space transportation vehicle structures were determined analytically and experimentally for temperature ranges between 20.4K (423 F) and 1186K (1675 F). The cryogenic data were obtained using a cryostat whereas the high temperature data were measured using a heat flow meter and a comparative thermal conductivity instrument respectively. Comparisons were made between analysis and experimental data. Analytical methods appear to provide reasonable definition of the honeycomb panel effective thermal conductivities.

  12. Evolution of the Hofstadter butterfly in a tunable optical lattice

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oktel, Mehmet O.; Unal, Nur; Yilmaz, Firat

    Advances in realizing artificial gauge fields on optical lattices promise experimental detection of topologically non-trivial energy spectra. Self-similar fractal energy structures, known as Hofstadter butterflies, depend sensitively on the geometry of the lattice, as well as the applied magnetic field. The recent demonstration of an adjustable lattice geometry [L. Tarruell et al., Nature 483, 302 (2012)] presents a unique opportunity to study this dependence. We calculate the Hofstadter butterflies that can be obtained in such an adjustable lattice and find three qualitatively different regimes. We show that the existence of Dirac points at zero magnetic field does not imply the topological equivalence of spectra at finite field. As the real-space structure evolves from the checkerboard to the honeycomb lattice, two square lattice Hofstadter butterflies merge to form a honeycomb lattice butterfly in a topologically non-trivial way, as it is accomplished by sequential closing of infinitely many gaps. We discuss the evolution of topological properties with underlying lattice geometry by calculating the Chern numbers and comment on the validity of simulating graphene in such an adjustable lattice

  13. Special adhesion of natural honeycomb walls and their application.

    PubMed

    Guo, Tianqi; Li, Muchen; Heng, Liping; Jiang, Lei

    2015-03-07

    In this paper, we investigated the wettability and adhesive behavior of the natural honeycomb wall for water and honey droplets. The cell walls have hydrophobic and highly adhesive properties for both water and honey in air. This highly adhesive cell wall was used as a "mechanical hand" to transfer micro-droplets. These findings will help us to comprehensively understand the surface properties of honeycomb walls, and will provide a novel strategy for achieving functional biomimetics based on honeycombs.

  14. Advanced radiator concepts utilizing honeycomb panel heat pipes (stainless steel)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fleischman, G. L.; Tanzer, H. J.

    1985-08-01

    The feasibility of fabricating and processing moderate temperature range heat pipes in a low mass honeycomb sandwich panel configuration for highly efficient radiator fins for the NASA space station was investigated. A variety of honeycomb panel facesheet and core-ribbon wick concepts were evaluated within constraints dictated by existing manufacturing technology and equipment. Concepts evaluated include: type of material, material and panel thicknesses, wick type and manufacturability, liquid and vapor communication among honeycomb cells, and liquid flow return from condenser to evaporator facesheet areas. In addition, the overall performance of the honeycomb panel heat pipe was evaluated analytically.

  15. Advanced radiator concepts utilizing honeycomb panel heat pipes (stainless steel)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fleischman, G. L.; Tanzer, H. J.

    1985-01-01

    The feasibility of fabricating and processing moderate temperature range heat pipes in a low mass honeycomb sandwich panel configuration for highly efficient radiator fins for the NASA space station was investigated. A variety of honeycomb panel facesheet and core-ribbon wick concepts were evaluated within constraints dictated by existing manufacturing technology and equipment. Concepts evaluated include: type of material, material and panel thicknesses, wick type and manufacturability, liquid and vapor communication among honeycomb cells, and liquid flow return from condenser to evaporator facesheet areas. In addition, the overall performance of the honeycomb panel heat pipe was evaluated analytically.

  16. Free flexural vibration analysis of symmetric honeycomb panels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yu, S. D.; Cleghorn, W. L.

    2005-06-01

    The free flexural vibration of symmetric rectangular honeycomb panels having simple support boundary conditions is investigated in this paper using the classical plate theory, Mindlin's improved plate theory, and Reddy's third-order plate theory. The honeycomb core of hexagonal cells is modeled as a thick layer of orthotropic material whose physical and mechanical properties are determined using the Gibson and Ashby correlations. The comparative studies conducted on aluminum honeycomb panels indicate that both the classical and improved plate theories are inadequate for the flexural vibration of honeycomb panels.

  17. Titanium-silicon carbide composite lattice structures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moongkhamklang, Pimsiree

    Sandwich panel structures with stiff, strong face sheets and lightweight cellular cores are widely used for weight sensitive, bending dominated loading applications. The flexural stiffness and strength of a sandwich panel is determined by the stiffness, strength, thickness, and separation of the face sheets, and by the compressive and shear stiffness and strength of the cellular core. Panel performance can be therefore optimized using cores with high specific stiffness and strength. The specific stiffness and strength of all cellular materials depends upon the specific elastic modulus and strength of the material used to make the structure. The stiffest and strongest cores for ambient temperature applications utilize carbon fiber reinforced polymer (CFRP) honeycombs and lattice structures. Few options exist for lightweight sandwich panels intended for high temperature uses. High temperature alloys such as Ti-6A1-4V can be applied to SiC monofilaments to create very high specific modulus and strength fibers. These are interesting candidates for the cores of elevated temperature sandwich structures such as the skins of hypersonic vehicles. This dissertation explores the potential of sandwich panel concepts that utilize millimeter scale titanium matrix composite (TMC) lattice structures. A method has been developed for fabricating millimeter cell size cellular lattice structures with the square or diamond collinear truss topologies from 240 mum diameter Ti-6A1-4V coated SiC monofilaments (TMC monofilaments). Lattices with relative densities in the range 10% to 20% were manufactured and tested in compression and shear. Given the very high compressive strength of the TMC monofilaments, the compressive strengths of both the square and diamond lattices were dominated by elastic buckling of the constituent struts. However, under shear loading, some of the constituent struts of the lattices are subjected to tensile stresses and failure is then set by tensile failure of the

  18. Stopping dynamics of ions passing through correlated honeycomb clusters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Balzer, Karsten; Schlünzen, Niclas; Bonitz, Michael

    2016-12-01

    A combined nonequilibrium Green functions-Ehrenfest dynamics approach is developed that allows for a time-dependent study of the energy loss of a charged particle penetrating a strongly correlated system at zero and finite temperatures. Numerical results are presented for finite inhomogeneous two-dimensional Fermi-Hubbard models, where the many-electron dynamics in the target are treated fully quantum mechanically and the motion of the projectile is treated classically. The simulations are based on the solution of the two-time Dyson (Keldysh-Kadanoff-Baym) equations using the second-order Born, third-order, and T -matrix approximations of the self-energy. As application, we consider protons and helium nuclei with a kinetic energy between 1 and 500 keV/u passing through planar fragments of the two-dimensional honeycomb lattice and, in particular, examine the influence of electron-electron correlations on the energy exchange between projectile and electron system. We investigate the time dependence of the projectile's kinetic energy (stopping power), the electron density, the double occupancy, and the photoemission spectrum. Finally, we show that, for a suitable choice of the Hubbard model parameters, the results for the stopping power are in fair agreement with ab initio simulations for particle irradiation of single-layer graphene.

  19. Cooperon condensation and intravalley pairing states in honeycomb Dirac systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tsuchiya, Shunji; Goryo, Jun; Arahata, Emiko; Sigrist, Manfred

    2016-09-01

    Motivated by recent developments in the experimental study of superconducting graphene and transition metal dichalcogenides, we investigate superconductivity of the Kane-Mele (KM) model with short-range attractive interactions on the two-dimensional honeycomb lattice. We show that intravalley spin-triplet pairing arises from nearest-neighbor (NN) attractive interaction and the intrinsic spin-orbit coupling. We demonstrate this in two independent approaches: We study superconducting instability driven by condensation of Cooperons, which are in-gap bound states of two conduction electrons, within the T -matrix approximation and also study the superconducting ground state within the mean-field theory. We find that Cooperons with antiparallel spins condense at the K and K' points. This leads to the emergence of an intravalley spin-triplet pairing state belonging to the irreducible representation A1 of the point group C6 v. The fact that this pairing state has opposite chirality for K and K' identifies this state as a "helical" valley-triplet state, the valley analog to the 3He -B phase in two dimensions. Because of the finite center of mass momentum of Cooper pairs, the pair amplitude in NN bonds exhibits spatial modulation on the length scale of lattice constant, such that this pairing state may be viewed as a pair-density wave state. We find that the pair amplitude spontaneously breaks the translational symmetry and exhibits a p -Kekulé pattern. We also discuss the selection rule for pairing states focusing the characteristic band structure of the KM model and the Berry phase effects to the emergence of the intravalley pairing state.

  20. Additive lattice kirigami.

    PubMed

    Castle, Toen; Sussman, Daniel M; Tanis, Michael; Kamien, Randall D

    2016-09-01

    Kirigami uses bending, folding, cutting, and pasting to create complex three-dimensional (3D) structures from a flat sheet. In the case of lattice kirigami, this cutting and rejoining introduces defects into an underlying 2D lattice in the form of points of nonzero Gaussian curvature. A set of simple rules was previously used to generate a wide variety of stepped structures; we now pare back these rules to their minimum. This allows us to describe a set of techniques that unify a wide variety of cut-and-paste actions under the rubric of lattice kirigami, including adding new material and rejoining material across arbitrary cuts in the sheet. We also explore the use of more complex lattices and the different structures that consequently arise. Regardless of the choice of lattice, creating complex structures may require multiple overlapping kirigami cuts, where subsequent cuts are not performed on a locally flat lattice. Our additive kirigami method describes such cuts, providing a simple methodology and a set of techniques to build a huge variety of complex 3D shapes.

  1. Additive lattice kirigami

    PubMed Central

    Castle, Toen; Sussman, Daniel M.; Tanis, Michael; Kamien, Randall D.

    2016-01-01

    Kirigami uses bending, folding, cutting, and pasting to create complex three-dimensional (3D) structures from a flat sheet. In the case of lattice kirigami, this cutting and rejoining introduces defects into an underlying 2D lattice in the form of points of nonzero Gaussian curvature. A set of simple rules was previously used to generate a wide variety of stepped structures; we now pare back these rules to their minimum. This allows us to describe a set of techniques that unify a wide variety of cut-and-paste actions under the rubric of lattice kirigami, including adding new material and rejoining material across arbitrary cuts in the sheet. We also explore the use of more complex lattices and the different structures that consequently arise. Regardless of the choice of lattice, creating complex structures may require multiple overlapping kirigami cuts, where subsequent cuts are not performed on a locally flat lattice. Our additive kirigami method describes such cuts, providing a simple methodology and a set of techniques to build a huge variety of complex 3D shapes. PMID:27679822

  2. Proximate Kitaev quantum spin liquid behaviour in a honeycomb magnet

    SciTech Connect

    Banerjee, A.; Bridges, C. A.; Yan, J. -Q.; Aczel, A. A.; Li, L.; Stone, M. B.; Granroth, G. E.; Lumsden, M. D.; Yiu, Y.; Knolle, J.; Bhattacharjee, S.; Kovrizhin, D. L.; Moessner, R.; Tennant, D. A.; Mandrus, D. G.; Nagler, S. E.

    2016-04-04

    Quantum spin liquids (QSLs) are topological states of matter exhibiting remarkable properties such as the capacity to protect quantum information from decoherence. While their featureless ground states have precluded their straightforward experimental identification, excited states are more revealing and particularly interesting due to the emergence of fundamentally new excitations such as Majorana Fermions. Ideal probes of these excitations are inelastic neutron scattering experiments. We report these here for a ruthenium-based material α-RuCl3, continuing a major search (so far concentrated on iridium materials inimical to neutron probes) for realizations of the celebrated Kitaev honeycomb topological QSL. Our measurements confirm the requisite strong spin-orbit coupling and low-temperature magnetic order matching predictions proximate to the QSL. We find stacking faults, inherent to the highly 2D nature of the material, resolve an outstanding puzzle. Crucially, dynamical response measurements above interlayer energy scales are naturally accounted for in terms of deconfinement physics expected for QSLs. Comparing these with recent dynamical calculations involving gauge flux excitations and Majorana fermions of the pure Kitaev model, we propose the excitation spectrum of α-RuCl3 as prime candidate for realization of fractionalized Kitaev physics.

  3. Proximate Kitaev quantum spin liquid behaviour in a honeycomb magnet

    DOE PAGES

    Banerjee, A.; Bridges, C. A.; Yan, J. -Q.; ...

    2016-04-04

    Quantum spin liquids (QSLs) are topological states of matter exhibiting remarkable properties such as the capacity to protect quantum information from decoherence. While their featureless ground states have precluded their straightforward experimental identification, excited states are more revealing and particularly interesting due to the emergence of fundamentally new excitations such as Majorana Fermions. Ideal probes of these excitations are inelastic neutron scattering experiments. We report these here for a ruthenium-based material α-RuCl3, continuing a major search (so far concentrated on iridium materials inimical to neutron probes) for realizations of the celebrated Kitaev honeycomb topological QSL. Our measurements confirm the requisitemore » strong spin-orbit coupling and low-temperature magnetic order matching predictions proximate to the QSL. We find stacking faults, inherent to the highly 2D nature of the material, resolve an outstanding puzzle. Crucially, dynamical response measurements above interlayer energy scales are naturally accounted for in terms of deconfinement physics expected for QSLs. Comparing these with recent dynamical calculations involving gauge flux excitations and Majorana fermions of the pure Kitaev model, we propose the excitation spectrum of α-RuCl3 as prime candidate for realization of fractionalized Kitaev physics.« less

  4. Raman spectroscopic signature of fractionalized excitations in the harmonic-honeycomb iridates β- and γ-Li2IrO3

    PubMed Central

    Glamazda, A.; Lemmens, P.; Do, S. -H.; Choi, Y. S.; Choi, K. -Y.

    2016-01-01

    The fractionalization of elementary excitations in quantum spin systems is a central theme in current condensed matter physics. The Kitaev honeycomb spin model provides a prominent example of exotic fractionalized quasiparticles, composed of itinerant Majorana fermions and gapped gauge fluxes. However, identification of the Majorana fermions in a three-dimensional honeycomb lattice remains elusive. Here we report spectroscopic signatures of fractional excitations in the harmonic-honeycomb iridates β- and γ-Li2IrO3. Using polarization-resolved Raman spectroscopy, we find that the dynamical Raman response of β- and γ-Li2IrO3 features a broad scattering continuum with distinct polarization and composition dependence. The temperature dependence of the Raman spectral weight is dominated by the thermal damping of fermionic excitations. These results suggest the emergence of Majorana fermions from spin fractionalization in a three-dimensional Kitaev–Heisenberg system. PMID:27457278

  5. Prediction of near-room-temperature quantum anomalous Hall effect on honeycomb materials.

    PubMed

    Wu, Shu-Chun; Shan, Guangcun; Yan, Binghai

    2014-12-19

    Recently, the long-sough quantum anomalous Hall effect was realized in a magnetic topological insulator. However, the requirement of an extremely low temperature (approximately 30 mK) hinders realistic applications. Based on ab initio band structure calculations, we propose a quantum anomalous Hall platform with a large energy gap of 0.34 and 0.06 eV on honeycomb lattices comprised of Sn and Ge, respectively. The ferromagnetic (FM) order forms in one sublattice of the honeycomb structure by controlling the surface functionalization rather than dilute magnetic doping, which is expected to be visualized by spin polarized STM in experiment. Strong coupling between the inherent quantum spin Hall state and ferromagnetism results in considerable exchange splitting and, consequently, an FM insulator with a large energy gap. The estimated mean-field Curie temperature is 243 and 509 K for Sn and Ge lattices, respectively. The large energy gap and high Curie temperature indicate the feasibility of the quantum anomalous Hall effect in the near-room-temperature and even room-temperature regions.

  6. Dirac topological insulator in the dz2 manifold of a honeycomb oxide

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lado, J. L.; Pardo, V.

    2016-09-01

    We show by means of ab initio calculations and tight-binding modeling that an oxide system based on a honeycomb lattice can sustain topologically nontrivial states if a single orbital dominates the spectrum close to the Fermi level. In such a situation, the low-energy spectrum is described by two Dirac equations that become nontrivially gapped when spin-orbit coupling (SOC) is switched on. We provide one specific example but the recipe is general. We discuss a realization of this starting from a conventional spin-1/2 honeycomb antiferromagnet whose states close to the Fermi energy are dz2 orbitals. Switching off magnetism by atomic substitution and ensuring that the electronic structure becomes two-dimensional is sufficient for topologicality to arise in such a system. By deriving a tight-binding Wannier Hamiltonian, we find that the gap in such a model scales linearly with SOC, opposed to other oxide-based topological insulators, where smaller gaps tend to appear by construction of the lattice. We show that the quantum spin Hall state in this system survives in the presence of off-plane magnetism and the orbital magnetic field and we discuss its Landau level spectra, showing that our recipe provides a dz2 realization of the Kane-Mele model.

  7. Condensate fraction in a 2D Bose gas measured across the Mott-insulator transition.

    PubMed

    Spielman, I B; Phillips, W D; Porto, J V

    2008-03-28

    We realize a single-band 2D Bose-Hubbard system with Rb atoms in an optical lattice and measure the condensate fraction as a function of lattice depth, crossing from the superfluid to the Mott-insulating phase. We quantitatively identify the location of the superfluid to normal transition by observing when the condensed fraction vanishes. Our measurement agrees with recent quantum Monte Carlo calculations for a finite-sized 2D system to within experimental uncertainty.

  8. Calculation of 2D electronic band structure using matrix mechanics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pavelich, R. L.; Marsiglio, F.

    2016-12-01

    We extend previous work, applying elementary matrix mechanics to one-dimensional periodic arrays (to generate energy bands), to two-dimensional arrays. We generate band structures for the square-lattice "2D Kronig-Penney model" (square wells), the "muffin-tin" potential (circular wells), and Gaussian wells. We then apply the method to periodic arrays of more than one atomic site in a unit cell, specifically to the case of materials with hexagonal lattices like graphene. These straightforward extensions of undergraduate-level calculations allow students to readily determine band structures of current research interest.

  9. Instantons in 2D U(1) Higgs model and 2D CP(N-1) sigma models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lian, Yaogang

    2007-12-01

    In this thesis I present the results of a study of the topological structures of 2D U(1) Higgs model and 2D CP N-1 sigma models. Both models have been studied using the overlap Dirac operator construction of topological charge density. The overlap operator provides a more incisive probe into the local topological structure of gauge field configurations than the traditional plaquette-based operator. In the 2D U(1) Higgs model, we show that classical instantons with finite sizes violate the negativity of topological charge correlator by giving a positive contribution to the correlator at non-zero separation. We argue that instantons in 2D U(1) Higgs model must be accompanied by large quantum fluctuations in order to solve this contradiction. In 2D CPN-1 sigma models, we observe the anomalous scaling behavior of the topological susceptibility chi t for N ≤ 3. The divergence of chi t in these models is traced to the presence of small instantons with a radius of order a (= lattice spacing), which are directly observed on the lattice. The observation of these small instantons provides detailed confirmation of Luscher's argument that such short-distance excitations, with quantized topological charge, should be the dominant topological fluctuations in CP1 and CP 2, leading to a divergent topological susceptibility in the continuum limit. For the CPN-1 models with N > 3 the topological susceptibility is observed to scale properly with the mass gap. Another topic presented in this thesis is an implementation of the Zolotarev optimal rational approximation for the overlap Dirac operator. This new implementation has reduced the time complexity of the overlap routine from O(N3 ) to O(N), where N is the total number of sites on the lattice. This opens up a door to more accurate lattice measurements in the future.

  10. Clean Electrical-Discharge Machining Of Delicate Honeycomb

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Johnson, Clarence S.

    1993-01-01

    Precise recesses in fragile metal honeycomb blocks formed in special electrical-discharge machining process. Special tooling used, and recesses bored with workpiece in nonstandard alignment. Cutting electrode advances into workpiece along x axis to form pocket of rectangular cross section. Deionized water flows from fitting, along honeycomb tubes of workpiece, to electrode/workpiece interface.

  11. Algorithmic lattice kirigami: A route to pluripotent materials.

    PubMed

    Sussman, Daniel M; Cho, Yigil; Castle, Toen; Gong, Xingting; Jung, Euiyeon; Yang, Shu; Kamien, Randall D

    2015-06-16

    We use a regular arrangement of kirigami elements to demonstrate an inverse design paradigm for folding a flat surface into complex target configurations. We first present a scheme using arrays of disclination defect pairs on the dual to the honeycomb lattice; by arranging these defect pairs properly with respect to each other and choosing an appropriate fold pattern a target stepped surface can be designed. We then present a more general method that specifies a fixed lattice of kirigami cuts to be performed on a flat sheet. This single pluripotent lattice of cuts permits a wide variety of target surfaces to be programmed into the sheet by varying the folding directions.

  12. Algorithmic lattice kirigami: A route to pluripotent materials

    PubMed Central

    Sussman, Daniel M.; Cho, Yigil; Castle, Toen; Gong, Xingting; Jung, Euiyeon; Yang, Shu; Kamien, Randall D.

    2015-01-01

    We use a regular arrangement of kirigami elements to demonstrate an inverse design paradigm for folding a flat surface into complex target configurations. We first present a scheme using arrays of disclination defect pairs on the dual to the honeycomb lattice; by arranging these defect pairs properly with respect to each other and choosing an appropriate fold pattern a target stepped surface can be designed. We then present a more general method that specifies a fixed lattice of kirigami cuts to be performed on a flat sheet. This single pluripotent lattice of cuts permits a wide variety of target surfaces to be programmed into the sheet by varying the folding directions. PMID:26015582

  13. Optoelectronics with 2D semiconductors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mueller, Thomas

    2015-03-01

    Two-dimensional (2D) atomic crystals, such as graphene and layered transition-metal dichalcogenides, are currently receiving a lot of attention for applications in electronics and optoelectronics. In this talk, I will review our research activities on electrically driven light emission, photovoltaic energy conversion and photodetection in 2D semiconductors. In particular, WSe2 monolayer p-n junctions formed by electrostatic doping using a pair of split gate electrodes, type-II heterojunctions based on MoS2/WSe2 and MoS2/phosphorene van der Waals stacks, 2D multi-junction solar cells, and 3D/2D semiconductor interfaces will be presented. Upon optical illumination, conversion of light into electrical energy occurs in these devices. If an electrical current is driven, efficient electroluminescence is obtained. I will present measurements of the electrical characteristics, the optical properties, and the gate voltage dependence of the device response. In the second part of my talk, I will discuss photoconductivity studies of MoS2 field-effect transistors. We identify photovoltaic and photoconductive effects, which both show strong photoconductive gain. A model will be presented that reproduces our experimental findings, such as the dependence on optical power and gate voltage. We envision that the efficient photon conversion and light emission, combined with the advantages of 2D semiconductors, such as flexibility, high mechanical stability and low costs of production, could lead to new optoelectronic technologies.

  14. A comparison of mechanical properties of some foams and honeycombs

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bhat, Balakrishna T.; Wang, T. G.

    1990-01-01

    A comparative study is conducted of the mechanical properties of foam-core and honeycomb-core sandwich panels, using a normalizing procedure based on common properties of cellular solids and related properties of dense solids. Seven different honeycombs and closed-foam cells are discussed; of these, three are commercial Al alloy honeycombs, one is an Al-alloy foam, and two are polymeric foams. It is concluded that ideal, closed-cell foams may furnish compressive strengths which while isotropic can be fully comparable to the compressive strengths of honeycombs in the thickness direction. The shear strength of ideal closed-cell foams may be superior to the shear strength of honeycombs.

  15. Millimeter Wave Holographical Inspection of Honeycomb Composites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Case, J. T.; Kharkovsky, S.; Zoughi, R.; Stefes, G.; Hepburn, Frank L.; Hepburn, Frank L.

    2007-01-01

    Multi-layered composite structures manufactured with honeycomb, foam or balsa wood cores are finding increasing utility in a variety of aerospace, transportation, and infrastructure applications. Due to the low conductivity and inhomogeneity associated with these composites standard nondestructive testing (NDT) methods are not always capable of inspecting their interior for various defects caused during the manufacturing process or as a result of in-service loading. On the contrary, microwave and millimeter wave NDT methods are well-suited for inspecting these structures since signals at these frequencies readily penetrate through these structures and reflect from different interior boundaries revealing the presence of a wide range of defects such as disbond, delamination, moisture and oil intrusion, impact damage, etc. Millimeter wave frequency spectrum spans 30 GHz - 300 GHz with corresponding wavelengths of 10 - 1 mm. Due to the inherent short wavelengths at these frequencies, one can produce high spatial resolution images of these composites either using real-antenna focused or synthetic-aperture focused methods. In addition, incorporation of swept-frequency in the latter method (i.e., holography) results in high-resolution three-dimensional images. This paper presents the basic steps behind producing such images at millimeter wave frequencies and the results of two honeycomb composite panels are demonstrated at Q-band (33-50 GHz). In addition, these results are compared to previous results using X-ray computed tomography.

  16. Local feedback control of light honeycomb panels.

    PubMed

    Hong, Chinsuk; Elliott, Stephen J

    2007-01-01

    This paper summarizes theoretical and experimental work on the feedback control of sound radiation from honeycomb panels using piezoceramic actuators. It is motivated by the problem of sound transmission in aircraft, specifically the active control of trim panels. Trim panels are generally honeycomb structures designed to meet the design requirement of low weight and high stiffness. They are resiliently mounted to the fuselage for the passive reduction of noise transmission. Local coupling of the closely spaced sensor and actuator was observed experimentally and modeled using a single degree of freedom system. The effect of the local coupling was to roll off the response between the actuator and sensor at high frequencies, so that a feedback control system can have high gain margins. Unfortunately, only relatively poor global performance is then achieved because of localization of reduction around the actuator. This localization prompts the investigation of a multichannel active control system. Globalized reduction was predicted using a model of 12-channel direct velocity feedback control. The multichannel system, however, does not appear to yield a significant improvement in the performance because of decreased gain margin.

  17. Millimeter Wave Holographical Inspection of Honeycomb Composites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Case, J. T.; Kharkovsky, S.; Zoughi, R.; Steffes, G.; Hepburn, F. L.

    2008-02-01

    Multi-layered composite structures manufactured with honeycomb, foam, or balsa wood cores are finding increasing utility in a variety of aerospace, transportation, and infrastructure applications. Due to the low conductivity and inhomogeneity associated with these composites, standard nondestructive testing (NDT) methods are not always capable of inspecting their interior for various defects caused during the manufacturing process or as a result of in-service loading. On the contrary, microwave and millimeter wave NDT methods are well-suited for inspecting these structures since signals at these frequencies readily penetrate through these structures and reflect from different interior boundaries revealing the presence of a wide range of defects such as isband, delamination, moisture and oil intrusion, impact damage, etc. Millimeter wave frequency spectrum spans 30 GHz-300 GHz with corresponding wavelengths of 10-1 mm. Due to the inherent short wavelengths at these frequencies, one can produce high spatial resolution images of these composites either using real-antenna focused or synthetic-aperture focused methods. In addition, incorporation of swept-frequency in the latter method (i.e., holography) results in high-resolution three-dimensional images. This paper presents the basic steps behind producing such images at millimeter wave frequencies and the results of two honeycomb composite panels are demonstrated at Q-band (33-50 GHz). In addition, these results are compared to previous results using X-ray computed tomography.

  18. Highly crystalline 2D superconductors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saito, Yu; Nojima, Tsutomu; Iwasa, Yoshihiro

    2016-12-01

    Recent advances in materials fabrication have enabled the manufacturing of ordered 2D electron systems, such as heterogeneous interfaces, atomic layers grown by molecular beam epitaxy, exfoliated thin flakes and field-effect devices. These 2D electron systems are highly crystalline, and some of them, despite their single-layer thickness, exhibit a sheet resistance more than an order of magnitude lower than that of conventional amorphous or granular thin films. In this Review, we explore recent developments in the field of highly crystalline 2D superconductors and highlight the unprecedented physical properties of these systems. In particular, we explore the quantum metallic state (or possible metallic ground state), the quantum Griffiths phase observed in out-of-plane magnetic fields and the superconducting state maintained in anomalously large in-plane magnetic fields. These phenomena are examined in the context of weakened disorder and/or broken spatial inversion symmetry. We conclude with a discussion of how these unconventional properties make highly crystalline 2D systems promising platforms for the exploration of new quantum physics and high-temperature superconductors.

  19. Extensions of 2D gravity

    SciTech Connect

    Sevrin, A.

    1993-06-01

    After reviewing some aspects of gravity in two dimensions, I show that non-trivial embeddings of sl(2) in a semi-simple (super) Lie algebra give rise to a very large class of extensions of 2D gravity. The induced action is constructed as a gauged WZW model and an exact expression for the effective action is given.

  20. Local Topological Order Inhibits Thermal Stability in 2D

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Landon-Cardinal, Olivier; Poulin, David

    2013-03-01

    We study the robustness of quantum information stored in the degenerate ground space of a local, frustration-free Hamiltonian with commuting terms on a 2D spin lattice. On one hand, a macroscopic energy barrier separating the distinct ground states under local transformations would protect the information from thermal fluctuations. On the other hand, local topological order would shield the ground space from static perturbations. Here we demonstrate that local topological order implies a constant energy barrier, thus inhibiting thermal stability.

  1. Making the Cut: Lattice Kirigami Rules

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Castle, Toen; Cho, Yigil; Gong, Xingting; Jung, Euiyeon; Sussman, Daniel; Yang, Shu; Kamien, Randall

    2015-03-01

    Complex 3D structures can be built by bending and folding a flat sheet, as is done in origami. This paradigm can be extended by cutting and gluing the sheet as well as folding. The principles manifest in manipulating a piece of paper can translate across many length scales, limited only by fabrication methods. We explore and develop a simple set of rules that apply to cutting, pasting, and folding honeycomb lattices. We consider origami-like structures that are extrinsically flat away from zero-dimensional sources of Gaussian curvature and one-dimensional sources of mean curvature, and our cutting and pasting rules maintain the intrinsic bond lengths on both the lattice and its dual lattice. We find that a small set of rules is allowed, providing a framework for exploring and building kirigami - folding, cutting, and pasting the edges of paper. Support from NSF DMR12-62047.

  2. Twisted complex superfluids in optical lattices

    PubMed Central

    Jürgensen, Ole; Sengstock, Klaus; Lühmann, Dirk-Sören

    2015-01-01

    We show that correlated pair tunneling drives a phase transition to a twisted superfluid with a complex order parameter. This unconventional superfluid phase spontaneously breaks the time-reversal symmetry and is characterized by a twisting of the complex phase angle between adjacent lattice sites. We discuss the entire phase diagram of the extended Bose—Hubbard model for a honeycomb optical lattice showing a multitude of quantum phases including twisted superfluids, pair superfluids, supersolids and twisted supersolids. Furthermore, we show that the nearest-neighbor interactions lead to a spontaneous breaking of the inversion symmetry of the lattice and give rise to dimerized density-wave insulators, where particles are delocalized on dimers. For two components, we find twisted superfluid phases with strong correlations between the species already for surprisingly small pair-tunneling amplitudes. Interestingly, this ground state shows an infinite degeneracy ranging continuously from a supersolid to a twisted superfluid. PMID:26345721

  3. Twisted complex superfluids in optical lattices.

    PubMed

    Jürgensen, Ole; Sengstock, Klaus; Lühmann, Dirk-Sören

    2015-09-08

    We show that correlated pair tunneling drives a phase transition to a twisted superfluid with a complex order parameter. This unconventional superfluid phase spontaneously breaks the time-reversal symmetry and is characterized by a twisting of the complex phase angle between adjacent lattice sites. We discuss the entire phase diagram of the extended Bose-Hubbard model for a honeycomb optical lattice showing a multitude of quantum phases including twisted superfluids, pair superfluids, supersolids and twisted supersolids. Furthermore, we show that the nearest-neighbor interactions lead to a spontaneous breaking of the inversion symmetry of the lattice and give rise to dimerized density-wave insulators, where particles are delocalized on dimers. For two components, we find twisted superfluid phases with strong correlations between the species already for surprisingly small pair-tunneling amplitudes. Interestingly, this ground state shows an infinite degeneracy ranging continuously from a supersolid to a twisted superfluid.

  4. Topological lattice actions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bietenholz, W.; Gerber, U.; Pepe, M.; Wiese, U.-J.

    2010-12-01

    We consider lattice field theories with topological actions, which are invariant against small deformations of the fields. Some of these actions have infinite barriers separating different topological sectors. Topological actions do not have the correct classical continuum limit and they cannot be treated using perturbation theory, but they still yield the correct quantum continuum limit. To show this, we present analytic studies of the 1-d O(2) and O(3) model, as well as Monte Carlo simulations of the 2-d O(3) model using topological lattice actions. Some topological actions obey and others violate a lattice Schwarz inequality between the action and the topological charge Q. Irrespective of this, in the 2-d O(3) model the topological susceptibility {χ_t} = {{{left< {{Q^2}} rightrangle }} left/ {V} right.} is logarithmically divergent in the continuum limit. Still, at non-zero distance the correlator of the topological charge density has a finite continuum limit which is consistent with analytic predictions. Our study shows explicitly that some classically important features of an action are irrelevant for reaching the correct quantum continuum limit.

  5. Stripe states in photonic honeycomb ribbon

    PubMed Central

    Park, Sul-Ah; Son, Young-Woo; Ahn, Kang-Hun

    2015-01-01

    We reveal new stripe states in deformed hexagonal array of photonic wave guides when the array is terminated to have a ribbon-shaped geometry. Unlike the well-known zero energy edge modes of honeycomb ribbon, the new one-dimensional states are shown to originate from high-energy saddle-shaped photonic bands of the ribbon's two-dimensional counterpart. We find that the strain field deforming the ribbon generates pseudo-electric fields in contrast to pseudo-magnetic fields in other hexagonal crystals. Thus, the stripe states experience Bloch oscillation without any actual electric field so that the spatial distributions of stripes have a singular dependence on the strength of the field. The resulting stripe states are located inside the bulk and their positions depend on their energies. PMID:27547090

  6. Simulation of the honeycomb construction process

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yuanzhang, Zhang

    2010-06-01

    The construction process of the honeycomb by bees is an astonishing process. The original structure which the bees built is nothing more than a lot of rough cylinders. But keeping the beeswax semi-flow for a certain time, those rough structures become perfect hexahedral columns. A modified, simplified particle method was used here to simulate the semi-flow state of the material. Although the parameters used here were still rather subjective, the simulation still could demonstrate some behavior of that sort of material like beeswax. And the method that the bees used to build their honey comb, could be an efficient method to imitate when we are trying to manufacture cellular materials.

  7. Honeycomb Betavoltaic Battery for Space Applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Jin R.; Ulmen, Ben; Miley, George H.

    2008-01-01

    Radioisotopic batteries offer advantages relative to conventional chemical batteries for applications requiring a long lifetime with minimum maintenance. Thus, thermoelectric type cells fueled with Pu have been used extensively on NASA space missions. The design for a small beta battery using nickel-63 (Ni-63) and a vacuum direct collection method is described here. A honeycomb nickel wire structure is employed to achieve bi-directional direct collection by seeding Ni-63 onto honeycomb shaped wires that will provide structural support as well. The battery design is intended to power low power electronics and distribute power needs in space probes as well as space colonies. Ni-63 is chosen as the source emitter because it has a long half-life and ease of manufacturing. The use of vacuum is especially well mated to space use; hence, vacuum insulation is employed to gain a higher efficiency than prior beta batteries with a dielectric insulator. A unique voltage down-converter is incorporated to efficiently reduce the inherent output voltage from 17.4 kV to ~17.4 V. This converter operates like a ``reverse'' Marx circuit where capacitor charging occurs in series but the discharge is in parallel. The reference battery module described here is about 100 cm×100 cm×218 cm and has a power of ~10 W with a conversion efficiency of ~15.8%. These modules can be stacked for higher powers and are very attractive for various applications in space colonization due to their long life (half-life for Ni-63~100 yrs) and low maintenance.

  8. Three-dimensional honeycomb-like networks of birnessite manganese oxide assembled by ultrathin two-dimensional nanosheets with enhanced Li-ion battery performances

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dang, Liyun; Wei, Chengzhen; Ma, Haifeng; Lu, Qingyi; Gao, Feng

    2015-04-01

    Three-dimensional (3D) honeycomb-like birnessite networks composed of ultrathin two-dimensional (2D) nanosheets were firstly synthesized through a facile and low-cost synthetic route. By using carbon microspheres as a template instead of graphene, hierarchical birnessite structures assembled by ultrathin nanosheets including york-shell and hollow structures were obtained besides the ultrathin birnessite nanosheets with a thickness of about 0.7 nm. By assembling carbon spheres into an ordered 3D array, novel 3D honeycomb-like birnessite structures assembled by ultrathin nanosheets were firstly prepared. When evaluated as an anode material for Li-ion batteries, the 3D honeycomb-like networks show enhanced electrochemical performances with high capacities, excellent cycling stability and good rate capability, which can be ascribed to the novel 3D honeycomb-like macroporous structure with a 3D inverse opal structure, well-ordered macropores, interconnected walls and a regular periodicity.Three-dimensional (3D) honeycomb-like birnessite networks composed of ultrathin two-dimensional (2D) nanosheets were firstly synthesized through a facile and low-cost synthetic route. By using carbon microspheres as a template instead of graphene, hierarchical birnessite structures assembled by ultrathin nanosheets including york-shell and hollow structures were obtained besides the ultrathin birnessite nanosheets with a thickness of about 0.7 nm. By assembling carbon spheres into an ordered 3D array, novel 3D honeycomb-like birnessite structures assembled by ultrathin nanosheets were firstly prepared. When evaluated as an anode material for Li-ion batteries, the 3D honeycomb-like networks show enhanced electrochemical performances with high capacities, excellent cycling stability and good rate capability, which can be ascribed to the novel 3D honeycomb-like macroporous structure with a 3D inverse opal structure, well-ordered macropores, interconnected walls and a regular periodicity

  9. Percolation threshold of correlated two-dimensional lattices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mendelson, Kenneth S.

    1999-12-01

    Previous simulations of percolation on correlated square and cubic lattices [Phys. Rev. E 56, 6586 (1997)] have been extended to all of the common two-dimensional lattices, including triangular, square 1-2, honeycomb, and kagome. Simulations were performed on lattices of up to 1024×1024 sites. The results are independent of lattice size except, possibly, for a weak dependence at large correlation lengths. As in the previous studies, all results can be fit by a Gaussian function of the correlation length w, pc=p∞c+(p0c-p∞c)e-αw2. However, there is some evidence that this fit is not theoretically significant. For the self-matching triangular and the matching square and square 1-2 lattices, the percolation thresholds satisfy the Sykes-Essam relation pc(L)+pc(L*)=1.

  10. Time evolution analysis of a 2D solid gas equilibrium: a model system for molecular adsorption and diffusion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Berner, S.; Brunner, M.; Ramoino, L.; Suzuki, H.; Güntherodt, H.-J.; Jung, T. A.

    2001-11-01

    The adsorption of sub-phthalocyanine molecules on Ag(1 1 1) has been studied by means of scanning tunneling microscopy (STM). The molecules are observed in different two-dimensional (2D) phases of adsorption which coexist in thermodynamic equilibrium. In the condensed phase the molecules form well-ordered islands with a honeycomb pattern. In the gas phase single molecules can be discriminated in single scan lines by characteristic tip excursions which occur randomly. The energy barrier for surface diffusion as well as the condensation energy to form 2D islands is estimated and discussed.

  11. Moving vortex phases, dynamical symmetry breaking, and jamming for vortices in honeycomb pinning arrays

    SciTech Connect

    Reichhardt, Charles; Reichhardt, Cynthia

    2008-01-01

    We show using numerical simulations that vortices in honeycomb pinning arrays can exhibit a remarkable variety of dynamical phases that are distinct from those found for triangular and square pinning arrays. In the honeycomb arrays, it is possible for the interstitial vortices to form dimer or higher n-mer states which have an additional orientational degree of freedom that can lead to the formation of vortex molecular crystals. For filling fractions where dimer states appear, a dynamical symmetry breaking can occur when the dimers flow in one of two possible alignment directions. This leads to transport in the direction transverse to the applied drive. We show that dimerization produces distinct types of moving phases which depend on the direction of the driving force with respect to the pinning lattice symmetry. When the dimers are driven along certain directions, a reorientation of the dimers can produce a jamming phenomenon which results in a strong enhancement in the critical depinning force. The jamming can also cause unusual effects such as an increase in the critical depinning force when the size of the pinning sites is reduced.

  12. One-atom-thick 2D copper oxide clusters on graphene.

    PubMed

    Kano, Emi; Kvashnin, Dmitry G; Sakai, Seiji; Chernozatonskii, Leonid A; Sorokin, Pavel B; Hashimoto, Ayako; Takeguchi, Masaki

    2017-03-17

    The successful isolation and remarkable properties of graphene have recently triggered investigation of two-dimensional (2D) materials from layered compounds; however, one-atom-thick 2D materials without bulk layered counterparts are scarcely reported. Here we report the structure and properties of novel 2D copper oxide studied by experimental and theoretical methods. Electron microscopy observations reveal that copper oxide can form monoatomic layers with an unusual square lattice on graphene. Density functional theory calculations suggest that oxygen atoms at the centre of the square lattice stabilizes the 2D Cu structure, and that the 2D copper oxide sheets have unusual electronic and magnetic properties different from 3D bulk copper oxide.

  13. Evaluation of Ceramic Honeycomb Core Compression Behavior at Room Temperature

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bird, Richard K.; Lapointe, Thomas S.

    2013-01-01

    Room temperature flatwise compression tests were conducted on two varieties of ceramic honeycomb core specimens that have potential for high-temperature structural applications. One set of specimens was fabricated using strips of a commercially-available thin-gage "ceramic paper" sheet molded into a hexagonal core configuration. The other set was fabricated by machining honeycomb core directly from a commercially available rigid insulation tile material. This paper summarizes the results from these tests.

  14. Low voltage reversible electrowetting exploiting lubricated polymer honeycomb substrates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bormashenko, Edward; Pogreb, Roman; Bormashenko, Yelena; Grynyov, Roman; Gendelman, Oleg

    2014-04-01

    Low-voltage electrowetting-on-dielectric scheme realized with lubricated honeycomb polymer surfaces is reported. Polycarbonate honeycomb reliefs manufactured with the breath-figures self-assembly were impregnated with silicone and castor oils. The onset of the reversible electrowetting for silicone oil impregnated substrates occurred at 35 V, whereas for castor oil impregnated ones it took place at 80 V. The semi-quantitative analysis of electrowetting of impregnated surfaces is proposed.

  15. Simulations of magnetic reversal in continuously distorted artificial spin ice lattices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Farmer, Barry; Bhat, Vinayak; Woods, Justin; Hastings, J. Todd; de Long, Lance

    2014-03-01

    Artificial spin ice (ASI) systems consist of lithographically patterned ferromagnetic segments that behave as Ising spins. The honeycomb lattice is an ASI analogue of the Kagomé spin ice lattice found in bulk pyrochlore crystals. We have developed a method to continuously distort the honeycomb lattice such that the pattern vertex spacings follow a Fibonacci chain sequence. The distortions break the rotational symmetry of the honeycomb lattice and alter the segment orientations and lengths such that all vertices retain three-fold coordination, but are no longer equivalent. We have performed micromagnetic simulations (OOMMF) of magnetization reversal for many samples having different strengths of distortion, and found the kinetics of magnetic reversal to be dramatically slowed, and avalanches (sequential switching of neighboring segments) shortened by only small deviations from perfect honeycomb symmetry. The coercivity increases as the distortion is strengthened, which is consistent with the retarded reversal. Research supported by U.S. DoE Grant DE-FG02-97ER45653 and NSF Grant EPS-0814194.

  16. Dirac plasmons in bipartite lattices of metallic nanoparticles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jebb Sturges, Thomas; Woollacott, Claire; Weick, Guillaume; Mariani, Eros

    2015-03-01

    We study theoretically ‘graphene-like’ plasmonic metamaterials constituted by two-dimensional arrays of metallic nanoparticles, including perfect honeycomb structures with and without inversion symmetry, as well as generic bipartite lattices. The dipolar interactions between localized surface plasmons (LSPs) in different nanoparticles gives rise to collective plasmons (CPs) that extend over the whole lattice. We study the band structure of CPs and unveil its tunability with the orientation of the dipole moments associated with the LSPs. Depending on the dipole orientation, we identify a phase diagram of gapless or gapped phases in the CP dispersion. We show that the gapless phases in the phase diagram are characterized by CPs behaving as massless chiral Dirac particles, in analogy with electrons in graphene. When the inversion symmetry of the honeycomb structure is broken, CPs are described as gapped chiral Dirac modes with an energy-dependent Berry phase. We further relax the geometric symmetry of the honeycomb structure by analysing generic bipartite hexagonal lattices. In this case we study the evolution of the phase diagram and unveil the emergence of a sequence of topological phase transitions when one hexagonal sublattice is progressively shifted with respect to the other.

  17. Triplet FFLO superconductivity in the doped Kitaev-Heisenberg honeycomb model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Tianhan; Repellin, Cécile; Douçot, Benoît; Regnault, Nicolas; Le Hur, Karyn

    2016-11-01

    We provide analytical and numerical evidence of spin-triplet Fulde-Ferrell-Larkin-Ovchinnikov (FFLO) superconductivity in the itinerant Kitaev-Heisenberg model (antiferromagnetic Kitaev coupling and ferromagnetic Heisenberg coupling) on the honeycomb lattice around quarter filling. The strong spin-orbit coupling in our model leads to the emergence of six inversion symmetry centers for the Fermi surface at nonzero momenta in the first Brillouin zone. We show how the Cooper pairs condense into these nontrivial momenta, causing spatial modulation of the superconducting order parameter. Applying a Ginzburg-Landau expansion analysis, we find that the superconductivity has three separated degenerate ground states with three different spin-triplet pairings. Exact diagonalizations on finite clusters support this picture while ruling out a spin (charge) density wave.

  18. The growth of minicircle networks on regular lattices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Diao, Y.; Hinson, K.; Arsuaga, J.

    2012-01-01

    The mitochondrial DNA of trypanosomes is organized into a network of topologically linked minicircles. In order to investigate how key topological properties of the network change with minicircle density, the authors introduced, in an earlier study, a mathematical model in which randomly oriented minicircles were placed on the vertices of the simple square lattice. Using this model, the authors rigorously showed that when the density of minicircles increases, percolation clusters form. For higher densities, these percolation clusters are the backbones for networks of minicircles that saturate the entire lattice. An important relevant question is whether these findings are generally true. That is, whether these results are independent of the choice of the lattices on which the model is based. In this paper, we study two additional lattices (namely the honeycomb and the triangular lattices). These regular lattices are selected because they have been proposed for trypanosomes before and after replication. We compare our findings with our earlier results on the square lattice and show that the mathematical statements derived for the square lattice can be extended to these other lattices qualitatively. This finding suggests the universality of these properties. Furthermore, we performed a numerical study which provided data that are consistent with our theoretical analysis, and showed that the effect of the choice of lattices on the key network topological characteristics is rather small.

  19. Valleytronics in 2D materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schaibley, John R.; Yu, Hongyi; Clark, Genevieve; Rivera, Pasqual; Ross, Jason S.; Seyler, Kyle L.; Yao, Wang; Xu, Xiaodong

    2016-11-01

    Semiconductor technology is currently based on the manipulation of electronic charge; however, electrons have additional degrees of freedom, such as spin and valley, that can be used to encode and process information. Over the past several decades, there has been significant progress in manipulating electron spin for semiconductor spintronic devices, motivated by potential spin-based information processing and storage applications. However, experimental progress towards manipulating the valley degree of freedom for potential valleytronic devices has been limited until very recently. We review the latest advances in valleytronics, which have largely been enabled by the isolation of 2D materials (such as graphene and semiconducting transition metal dichalcogenides) that host an easily accessible electronic valley degree of freedom, allowing for dynamic control.

  20. Unparticle example in 2D.

    PubMed

    Georgi, Howard; Kats, Yevgeny

    2008-09-26

    We discuss what can be learned about unparticle physics by studying simple quantum field theories in one space and one time dimension. We argue that the exactly soluble 2D theory of a massless fermion coupled to a massive vector boson, the Sommerfield model, is an interesting analog of a Banks-Zaks model, approaching a free theory at high energies and a scale-invariant theory with nontrivial anomalous dimensions at low energies. We construct a toy standard model coupling to the fermions in the Sommerfield model and study how the transition from unparticle behavior at low energies to free particle behavior at high energies manifests itself in interactions with the toy standard model particles.

  1. Shear viscosity measurements in a 2D Yukawa liquid

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nosenko, Volodymyr

    2005-03-01

    Shear viscosity was measured for a 2D strongly-coupled Yukawa liquid. First, we formed a dilute monolayer suspension of microspheres in a partially-ionized rarefied gas, i.e., a dusty plasma. In the absence of manipulation, the suspension forms a 2D triangular lattice. We used a new in-situ method of applying a shear stress using the scattering forces applied by counter-propagating laser beams. The lattice melted and a shear flow formed. Using digital video microscopy for direct imaging and particle tracking, the microscopic dynamics of the shear flow are observed. Averaging the velocities of individual microspheres, a velocity flow profile was calculated. Using the Navier-Stokes equation with an additional frictional term to account for gas drag, we fit the velocity profile. The fit yielded the value of the shear viscosity. The kinematic viscosity of our particle suspension is of order 1 mm^2s-1, which is comparable to that for liquid water. We believe this is the first report of a rheological measurement in a 2D dusty plasma. This talk is based on V. Nosenko and J. Goree, PRL 93, 155004 (2004).

  2. Quantum coherence selective 2D Raman–2D electronic spectroscopy

    PubMed Central

    Spencer, Austin P.; Hutson, William O.; Harel, Elad

    2017-01-01

    Electronic and vibrational correlations report on the dynamics and structure of molecular species, yet revealing these correlations experimentally has proved extremely challenging. Here, we demonstrate a method that probes correlations between states within the vibrational and electronic manifold with quantum coherence selectivity. Specifically, we measure a fully coherent four-dimensional spectrum which simultaneously encodes vibrational–vibrational, electronic–vibrational and electronic–electronic interactions. By combining near-impulsive resonant and non-resonant excitation, the desired fifth-order signal of a complex organic molecule in solution is measured free of unwanted lower-order contamination. A critical feature of this method is electronic and vibrational frequency resolution, enabling isolation and assignment of individual quantum coherence pathways. The vibronic structure of the system is then revealed within an otherwise broad and featureless 2D electronic spectrum. This method is suited for studying elusive quantum effects in which electronic transitions strongly couple to phonons and vibrations, such as energy transfer in photosynthetic pigment–protein complexes. PMID:28281541

  3. Quantum coherence selective 2D Raman-2D electronic spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Spencer, Austin P.; Hutson, William O.; Harel, Elad

    2017-03-01

    Electronic and vibrational correlations report on the dynamics and structure of molecular species, yet revealing these correlations experimentally has proved extremely challenging. Here, we demonstrate a method that probes correlations between states within the vibrational and electronic manifold with quantum coherence selectivity. Specifically, we measure a fully coherent four-dimensional spectrum which simultaneously encodes vibrational-vibrational, electronic-vibrational and electronic-electronic interactions. By combining near-impulsive resonant and non-resonant excitation, the desired fifth-order signal of a complex organic molecule in solution is measured free of unwanted lower-order contamination. A critical feature of this method is electronic and vibrational frequency resolution, enabling isolation and assignment of individual quantum coherence pathways. The vibronic structure of the system is then revealed within an otherwise broad and featureless 2D electronic spectrum. This method is suited for studying elusive quantum effects in which electronic transitions strongly couple to phonons and vibrations, such as energy transfer in photosynthetic pigment-protein complexes.

  4. Quantum coherence selective 2D Raman-2D electronic spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Spencer, Austin P; Hutson, William O; Harel, Elad

    2017-03-10

    Electronic and vibrational correlations report on the dynamics and structure of molecular species, yet revealing these correlations experimentally has proved extremely challenging. Here, we demonstrate a method that probes correlations between states within the vibrational and electronic manifold with quantum coherence selectivity. Specifically, we measure a fully coherent four-dimensional spectrum which simultaneously encodes vibrational-vibrational, electronic-vibrational and electronic-electronic interactions. By combining near-impulsive resonant and non-resonant excitation, the desired fifth-order signal of a complex organic molecule in solution is measured free of unwanted lower-order contamination. A critical feature of this method is electronic and vibrational frequency resolution, enabling isolation and assignment of individual quantum coherence pathways. The vibronic structure of the system is then revealed within an otherwise broad and featureless 2D electronic spectrum. This method is suited for studying elusive quantum effects in which electronic transitions strongly couple to phonons and vibrations, such as energy transfer in photosynthetic pigment-protein complexes.

  5. Vacancies in Kitaev quantum spin liquids on the three-dimensional hyperhoneycomb lattice

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sreejith, G. J.; Bhattacharjee, Subhro; Moessner, R.

    2016-02-01

    We study the effect of adding disorder to the Kitaev model on the hyperhoneycomb lattice, which hosts both gapped and gapless spin liquid phases with an emergent Z2 gauge field. The latter has an unusual gapless spectrum of Majorana fermion excitations, with a co-dimension-two Fermi ring. We thus address the question of the interplay of topological physics and disorder by considering the properties of isolated single and pairs of vacancies. We show that near the vacancies, the local magnetic response to a field hz is parametrically enhanced in comparison to the pristine bulk. Unlike the previously studied case of the 2D honeycomb Kitaev model, the vacancies do not bind a flux of the Z2 gauge field. In the gapped phase, an isolated vacancy gives rise to effectively free spin-half moments with a nonuniversal coupling to an external field. In the gapless phase, the low-field magnetization is suppressed parametrically to (-lnhz) -1 /2 because of interactions with the surrounding spin liquid. We also show that a pair of vacancies is subject to a sublattice-dependent interaction on account of coupling through the bulk spin liquid, which is spatially anisotropic even when all Kitaev couplings have equal strength. This coupling is thus exponentially suppressed with distance in the gapped phase. In the gapless phase, two vacancies on the same (opposite) sublattice exhibit an enhanced (suppressed) low-field response, amounting to an effectively (anti-)ferromagnetic interaction.

  6. Prepreg effects on honeycomb composite manufacturing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martin, Cary Joseph

    Fiber reinforced composites offer many advantages over traditional materials and are widely utilized in aerospace applications. Advantages include a high stiffness to weight ratio and excellent fatigue resistance. However, the pace of new implementation is slow. The manufacturing processes used to transform composite intermediates into final products are poorly understood and are a source of much variability. This limits new implementation and increases the manufacturing costs of existing designs. One such problem is honeycomb core crush, in which a core-stiffened structure collapses during autoclave manufacture, making the structure unusable and increasing the overall manufacturing cost through increased scrap rates. Consequently, the major goal of this research was to investigate the scaling of core crush from prepreg process-structure-property relations to commercial composite manufacture. The material dependent nature of this defect was of particular interest. A methodology and apparatus were developed to measure the frictional resistance of prepreg materials under typical processing conditions. Through a characterization of commercial and experimental prepregs, it was found that core crush behavior was the result of differences in prepreg frictional resistance. This frictional resistance was related to prepreg morphology and matrix rheology and elasticity. Resin composition and prepreg manufacturing conditions were also found to affect manufacturing behavior. Mechanical and dimensional models were developed and demonstrated utility for predicting this crushing behavior. Collectively, this work explored and identified the process-structure-property relations as they relate to the manufacture of composite materials and suggested several avenues by which manufacturing-robust materials may be developed.

  7. Hypervelocity impact response of honeycomb sandwich panels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schonberg, William; Schäfer, Frank; Putzar, Robin

    2010-02-01

    Man-made orbital poses a serious threat to spacecraft that are launched to operate in Earth orbit because it can strike such spacecraft at very high velocities and consequently damage mission-critical systems. This paper describes the findings of a study whose objective was to develop a system of empirical equations that can be used to predict the trajectories and spread of the debris clouds that exit the rear facesheet following a high speed perforating impact of a honeycomb sandwich panel (HC/SP). These equations are based on a database containing the results of nearly 400 tests from 13 previously published papers and reports. Overall the correlation coefficient values for the various regression equations obtained are fairly reasonable, and range from near 60% to well above 90%. This indicates that the chosen forms of the equations are a good fit to the data, and that they are capable of picking up most of the variations in the data that result from changes in test conditions. These equations can now be used to estimate the amount of mass in a debris cloud if an HC/SP is perforated by a high speed impact, where this mass will travel, and what spacecraft components will be impacted by it. This information can then be fed into a risk assessment code to calculate the probability of spacecraft failure under a prescribed set of impact conditions.

  8. Method of fabricating lightweight honeycomb structures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Goela, Jitendra S. (Inventor); Pickering, Michael (Inventor); Taylor, Raymond L. (Inventor)

    1992-01-01

    A process is disclosed for fabricating lightweight honeycomb type structures out of material such as silicon carbide (SiC) and silicon (S). The lightweight structure consists of a core to define the shape and size of the structure. The core is coated with an appropriate deposit such as SiC or Si to give the lightweight structure strength and stiffness and for bonding the lightweight structure to another surface. The core is fabricated from extremely thin ribs of appropriately stiff and strong material such as graphite. First, a graphite core consisting of an outer hexagonal cell with six inner triangular cells is constructed from the graphite ribs. The graphite core may be placed on the back-up side of a SiC faceplate and then coated with SiC to produce a monolithic structure without the use of any bonding agent. Cores and methods for the fabrication thereof in which the six inner triangular cells are further divided into a plurality of cells are also disclosed.

  9. Subwavelength Lattice Optics by Evolutionary Design

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    This paper describes a new class of structured optical materials—lattice opto-materials—that can manipulate the flow of visible light into a wide range of three-dimensional profiles using evolutionary design principles. Lattice opto-materials are based on the discretization of a surface into a two-dimensional (2D) subwavelength lattice whose individual lattice sites can be controlled to achieve a programmed optical response. To access a desired optical property, we designed a lattice evolutionary algorithm that includes and optimizes contributions from every element in the lattice. Lattice opto-materials can exhibit simple properties, such as on- and off-axis focusing, and can also concentrate light into multiple, discrete spots. We expanded the unit cell shapes of the lattice to achieve distinct, polarization-dependent optical responses from the same 2D patterned substrate. Finally, these lattice opto-materials can also be combined into architectures that resemble a new type of compound flat lens. PMID:25380062

  10. Negative-viscosity lattice gases

    SciTech Connect

    Rothman, D.H. )

    1989-08-01

    A new irreversible collision rule is introduced for lattice-gas automata. The rule maximizes the flux of momentum in the direction of the local momentum gradient, yielding a negative shear viscosity. Numerically results in 2D show that the negative viscosity leads to the spontaneous ordering of the velocity field, with vorticity resolvable down to one lattice-link length. The new rule may be used in conjunction with previously proposed collision rules to yield a positive shear viscosity lower than the previous rules provide. In particular, Poiseuille flow tests demonstrate a decrease in viscosity by more than a factor of 2.

  11. Self-Assembled Si(111) Surface States: 2D Dirac Material for THz Plasmonics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Z. F.; Liu, Feng

    2015-07-01

    Graphene, the first discovered 2D Dirac material, has had a profound impact on science and technology. In the last decade, we have witnessed huge advances in graphene related fundamental and applied research. Here, based on first-principles calculations, we propose a new 2D Dirac band on the Si(111) surface with 1 /3 monolayer halogen coverage. The s p3 dangling bonds form a honeycomb superstructure on the Si(111) surface that results in an anisotropic Dirac band with a group velocity (˜106 m /s ) comparable to that in graphene. Most remarkably, the Si-based surface Dirac band can be used to excite a tunable THz plasmon through electron-hole doping. Our results demonstrate a new way to design Dirac states on a traditional semiconductor surface, so as to make them directly compatible with Si technology. We envision this new type of Dirac material to be generalized to other semiconductor surfaces with broad applications.

  12. Vibrational Properties of a Two-Dimensional Silica Kagome Lattice

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Kagome lattices are structures possessing fascinating magnetic and vibrational properties, but in spite of a large body of theoretical work, experimental realizations and investigations of their dynamics are scarce. Using a combination of Raman spectroscopy and density functional theory calculations, we study the vibrational properties of two-dimensional silica (2D-SiO2), which has a kagome lattice structure. We identify the signatures of crystalline and amorphous 2D-SiO2 structures in Raman spectra and show that, at finite temperatures, the stability of 2D-SiO2 lattice is strongly influenced by phonon–phonon interaction. Our results not only provide insights into the vibrational properties of 2D-SiO2 and kagome lattices in general but also suggest a quick nondestructive method to detect 2D-SiO2. PMID:28024359

  13. Vibrational Properties of a Two-Dimensional Silica Kagome Lattice.

    PubMed

    Björkman, Torbjörn; Skakalova, Viera; Kurasch, Simon; Kaiser, Ute; Meyer, Jannik C; Smet, Jurgen H; Krasheninnikov, Arkady V

    2016-12-27

    Kagome lattices are structures possessing fascinating magnetic and vibrational properties, but in spite of a large body of theoretical work, experimental realizations and investigations of their dynamics are scarce. Using a combination of Raman spectroscopy and density functional theory calculations, we study the vibrational properties of two-dimensional silica (2D-SiO2), which has a kagome lattice structure. We identify the signatures of crystalline and amorphous 2D-SiO2 structures in Raman spectra and show that, at finite temperatures, the stability of 2D-SiO2 lattice is strongly influenced by phonon-phonon interaction. Our results not only provide insights into the vibrational properties of 2D-SiO2 and kagome lattices in general but also suggest a quick nondestructive method to detect 2D-SiO2.

  14. Exact solution of the dimer model on the generalized finite checkerboard lattice.

    PubMed

    Izmailian, N Sh; Hu, Chin-Kun; Kenna, R

    2015-06-01

    We present the exact closed-form expression for the partition function of a dimer model on a generalized finite checkerboard rectangular lattice under periodic boundary conditions. We investigate three different sets of dimer weights, each with different critical behaviors. We then consider different limits for the model on the three lattices. In one limit, the model for each of the three lattices is reduced to the dimer model on a rectangular lattice, which belongs to the c=-2 universality class. In another limit, two of the lattices reduce to the anisotropic Kasteleyn model on a honeycomb lattice, the universality class of which is given by c=1. The result that the dimer model on a generalized checkerboard rectangular lattice can manifest different critical behaviors is consistent with early studies in the thermodynamic limit and also provides insight into corrections to scaling arising from the finite-size versions of the model.

  15. 2D photonic crystal and its angular reflective azimuthal spectrum

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Senderakova, Dagmar; Drzik, Milan; Tomekova, Juliana

    2016-12-01

    Contemporary, attention is paid to photonic crystals, which can strongly modify light propagation through them and enable a controllable light manipulation. The contribution is focused on a sub-wavelength 2D structure formed by Al2O3 layer on silicon substrate, patterned with periodic hexagonal lattice of deep air holes. Using various laser sources of light at single wavelength, azimuthal angle dependence of the mirror-like reflected light intensity was recorded photo-electrically. The results obtained can be used to sample the band-structure of leaky modes of the photonic crystal more reliably and help us to map the photonic dispersion diagram.

  16. Optical diffraction by ordered 2D arrays of silica microspheres

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shcherbakov, A. A.; Shavdina, O.; Tishchenko, A. V.; Veillas, C.; Verrier, I.; Dellea, O.; Jourlin, Y.

    2017-03-01

    The article presents experimental and theoretical studies of angular dependent diffraction properties of 2D monolayer arrays of silica microspheres. High-quality large area defect-free monolayers of 1 μm diameter silica microspheres were deposited by the Langmuir-Blodgett technique under an accurate optical control. Measured angular dependencies of zeroth and one of the first order diffraction efficiencies produced by deposited samples were simulated by the rigorous Generalized Source Method taking into account particle size dispersion and lattice nonideality.

  17. Optimal Design of Honeycomb Material Used to Mitigate Head Impact

    PubMed Central

    Caccese, Vincent; Ferguson, James R.; Edgecomb, Michael

    2013-01-01

    This paper presents a study of the impact resistance of honeycomb structure with the purpose to mitigate impact forces. The objective is to aid in the choice of optimal parameters to minimize the thickness of the honeycomb structure while providing adequate protection to prevent injury due to head impact. Studies are presented using explicit finite element analysis representing the case of an unprotected drop of a rigid impactor onto a simulated floor consisting of vinyl composition tile and concrete. Analysis of honeycomb material to reduce resulting accelerations is also presented where parameters such as honeycomb material modulus, wall thickness, cell geometry and structure depth are compared to the unprotected case. A simplified analysis technique using a genetic algorithm is presented to demonstrate the use of this method to select a minimum honeycomb depth to achieve a desired acceleration level at a given level of input energy. It is important to select a minimum material depth in that smaller dimensions lead toward more aesthetic design that increase the likelihood of that the device is used. PMID:23976812

  18. Non-trivial θ-vacuum effects in the 2-d O(3) model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bögli, M.; Niedermayer, F.; Pepe, M.; Wiese, U.-J.

    2012-04-01

    We study θ-vacua in the 2-d lattice O(3) model using the standard action and an optimized constraint action with very small cut-off effects, combined with the geometric topological charge. Remarkably, dislocation lattice artifacts do not spoil the non-trivial continuum limit at θ ne 0 , and there are different continuum theories for each value 0 ≤ θ ≤ π. A very precise Monte Carlo study of the step scaling function indirectly confirms the exact S-matrix of the 2-d O(3) model at θ = π.

  19. Effect of geometric parameters on the in-plane crushing behavior of honeycombs and honeycombs with facesheets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Atli-Veltin, Bilim

    In aerospace field, use of honeycombs in energy absorbing applications is a very attractive concept since they are relatively low weight structures and their crushing behavior satisfies the requirements of ideal energy absorbing applications. This dissertation is about the utilization of honeycomb crushing in energy absorbing applications and maximizing their specific energy absorption (SEA) capacity by modifying their geometry. In-plane direction crushing of honeycombs is investigated with the help of simulations conducted with ABAQUS. Due to the nonlinearity of the problem an optimization technique could not be implemented; however, the results of the trend studies lead to geometries with improved SEA. This study has two objectives; the first is to obtain modified cell geometry for a hexagonal honeycomb cell in order to provide higher energy absorption for minimum weight relative to the regular hexagonal cell geometry which has 30° cell angle and walls at equal length. The results of the first objective show that by increasing the cell angle, increasing wall thickness and reducing vertical wall length it is possible to increase the SEA 4.8 times; where the honeycomb with modified geometry provided 3.3 kJ/kg SEA and with regular geometry 0.68 kJ/kg SEA. The second objective considers integration of the energy absorbing honeycombs into the helicopter subfloor, possibly as the web section of a keel beam. In-plane direction crushing of a honeycomb core sandwiched between two facesheets is simulated. Effects of core and facesheet geometric parameters on the energy absorption are investigated, and modified geometries are suggested. For the sandwich structure with thin facesheets increasing cell angle, increasing wall thicknesses and decreasing the cell depth increase the SEA. For the ones with thick facesheet reducing vertical wall length, increasing wall thicknesses and reducing the cell depth increase the SEA. The results show that regular honeycomb geometry with

  20. Lattice overview

    SciTech Connect

    Creutz, M.

    1984-01-01

    After reviewing some recent developments in supercomputer access, the author discusses a few areas where perturbation theory and lattice gauge simulations make contact. The author concludes with a brief discussion of a deterministic dynamics for the Ising model. This may be useful for numerical studies of nonequilibrium phenomena. 13 references.

  1. Interfacing graphene and related 2D materials with the 3D world.

    PubMed

    Tománek, David

    2015-04-10

    An important prerequisite to translating the exceptional intrinsic performance of 2D materials such as graphene and transition metal dichalcogenides into useful devices precludes their successful integration within the current 3D technology. This review provides theoretical insight into nontrivial issues arising from interfacing 2D materials with 3D systems including epitaxy and ways to accommodate lattice mismatch, the key role of contact resistance and the effect of defects in electrical and thermal transport.

  2. Carbon Nanotube (CNT) Honeycomb Cell Area-Dependent Optical Reflectance

    PubMed Central

    Udorn, Junthorn; Hatta, Akimitsu; Furuta, Hiroshi

    2016-01-01

    The relationship between the physical structure of carbon nanotube (CNT) honeycomb structures and their total, diffuse, and specular reflectance is investigated for the first time. It is found that CNT honeycomb structures with average cell areas of smaller than 30 μm2 show a higher total reflectance. Particularly, a thinner, highly packed CNT (buckypaper) film, along with a larger wall height and higher ratio of wall height to cell area, markedly increase the total reflectance for cell areas smaller than 30 μm2, which means that a higher total area of buckypapers in CNT walls and bottom areas increases the total reflectance, including the diffuse reflectance. It is also found that the total reflection of non-absorbed light in CNT honeycomb structures consists primarily of diffuse reflectance. PMID:28335330

  3. High capacity demonstration of honeycomb panel heat pipes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tanzer, H. J.; Cerza, M. R., Jr.; Hall, J. B.

    1986-01-01

    High capacity honeycomb panel heat pipes were investigated as heat rejection radiators on future space platforms. Starting with a remnant section of honeycomb panel measuring 3.05-m long by 0.127-m wide that was originally designed and built for high-efficiency radiator fins, features were added to increase thermal transport capacity and thus permit test evaluation as an integral heat transport and rejection radiator. A series of subscale panels were fabricated and reworked to isolate individual enhancement features. Key to the enhancement was the addition of a liquid sideflow that utilizes pressure priming. A prediction model was developed and correlated with measured data, and then used to project performance to large, space-station size radiators. Results show that a honeycomb panel with 5.08-cm sideflow spacing and core modification will meet the design load of a 50 kW space heat rejection system.

  4. Graphene-like monolayer low-buckled honeycomb germanium film

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    He, Yezeng; Luo, Haibo; Li, Hui; Sui, Yanwei; Wei, Fuxiang; Meng, Qingkun; Yang, Weiming; Qi, Jiqiu

    2017-04-01

    Molecular dynamics simulations have been performed to study the cooling process of two-dimensional liquid germanium under nanoslit confinement. The results clearly indicates that the liquid germanium undergoes an obvious liquid-solid phase transition to a monolayer honeycomb film with the decrease of temperature, accompanying the rapid change in potential energy, atomic volume, coordination number and lateral radial distribution function. During the solidification process, some hexagonal atomic islands first randomly emerge in the disordered liquid film and then grow up to stable crystal grains which keep growing and finally connect together to form a honeycomb polycrystalline film. It is worth noting that the honeycomb germanium film is low-buckled, quite different from the planar graphene.

  5. Topology optimization of pressure adaptive honeycomb for a morphing flap

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vos, Roelof; Scheepstra, Jan; Barrett, Ron

    2011-03-01

    The paper begins with a brief historical overview of pressure adaptive materials and structures. By examining avian anatomy, it is seen that pressure-adaptive structures have been used successfully in the Natural world to hold structural positions for extended periods of time and yet allow for dynamic shape changes from one flight state to the next. More modern pneumatic actuators, including FAA certified autopilot servoactuators are frequently used by aircraft around the world. Pneumatic artificial muscles (PAM) show good promise as aircraft actuators, but follow the traditional model of load concentration and distribution commonly found in aircraft. A new system is proposed which leaves distributed loads distributed and manipulates structures through a distributed actuator. By using Pressure Adaptive Honeycomb (PAH), it is shown that large structural deformations in excess of 50% strains can be achieved while maintaining full structural integrity and enabling secondary flight control mechanisms like flaps. The successful implementation of pressure-adaptive honeycomb in the trailing edge of a wing section sparked the motivation for subsequent research into the optimal topology of the pressure adaptive honeycomb within the trailing edge of a morphing flap. As an input for the optimization two known shapes are required: a desired shape in cruise configuration and a desired shape in landing configuration. In addition, the boundary conditions and load cases (including aerodynamic loads and internal pressure loads) should be specified for each condition. Finally, a set of six design variables is specified relating to the honeycomb and upper skin topology of the morphing flap. A finite-element model of the pressure-adaptive honeycomb structure is developed specifically tailored to generate fast but reliable results for a given combination of external loading, input variables, and boundary conditions. Based on two bench tests it is shown that this model correlates well

  6. Honeycomb vs. Foam: Evaluating Potential Upgrades to ISS Module Shielding

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ryan, Shannon J.; Christiansen, Eric L.

    2009-01-01

    The presence of honeycomb cells in a dual-wall structure is advantageous for mechanical performance and low weight in spacecraft primary structures but detrimental for shielding against impact of micrometeoroid and orbital debris particles (MMOD). The presence of honeycomb cell walls acts to restrict the expansion of projectile and bumper fragments, resulting in the impact of a more concentrated (and thus lethal) fragment cloud upon the shield rear wall. The Multipurpose Laboratory Module (MLM) is a Russian research module scheduled for launch and ISS assembly in 2011 (currently under review). Baseline shielding of the MLM is expected to be predominantly similar to that of the existing Functional Energy Block (FGB), utilizing a baseline triple wall configuration with honeycomb sandwich panels for the dual bumpers and a thick monolithic aluminum pressure wall. The MLM module is to be docked to the nadir port of the Zvezda service module and, as such, is subject to higher debris flux than the FGB module (which is aligned along the ISS flight vector). Without upgrades to inherited shielding, the MLM penetration risk is expected to be significantly higher than that of the FGB module. Open-cell foam represents a promising alternative to honeycomb as a sandwich panel core material in spacecraft primary structures as it provides comparable mechanical performance with a minimal increase in weight while avoiding structural features (i.e. channeling cells) detrimental to MMOD shielding performance. In this study, the effect of replacing honeycomb sandwich panel structures with metallic open-cell foam structures on MMOD shielding performance is assessed for an MLM-representative configuration. A number of hypervelocity impact tests have been performed on both the baseline honeycomb configuration and upgraded foam configuration, and differences in target damage, failure limits, and derived ballistic limit equations are discussed.

  7. Soundproof characteristics of finite length orthotropic honeycomb shells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chonan, S.

    1989-01-01

    Acoustic radiation emanating from the walls of orthotropic honeycomb shells is studied analytically for the case of axisymmetric acoustic mode transmission within the shell. The shell has a finite vibrating length and is mounted on an infinite rigid baffle in a free field. The problem is studied on the basis of a shell theory in which it is assumed that the honeycomb core resists only transverse shear forces and that the facings resist only bending moments. The sound transmission loss through the shell wall, TL, is derived and calculated for various values of the physical parameters involved.

  8. Adhesion characterization and defect sizing of sandwich honeycomb composites.

    PubMed

    Ndiaye, Elhadji Barra; Maréchal, Pierre; Duflo, Hugues

    2015-09-01

    Defects may appear in composite structures during their life cycle. A 10MHz 128 elements phased array transducer was investigated to characterize join bonds and defects in sandwich honeycomb composite structures. An adequate focal law throughout the composite skin gives the ultrasonic dispersive properties of the composite skin and glue layer behind. The resulting B-scan cartographies allow characterizing locally the honeycomb adhesion. Experimental measurements are compared in good agreement with the Debye Series Method (DSM). In the processed C-scan image, flaws are detectable and measurable, localized both in the scanning plane and in the thickness of the composite skin.

  9. NKG2D ligands as therapeutic targets

    PubMed Central

    Spear, Paul; Wu, Ming-Ru; Sentman, Marie-Louise; Sentman, Charles L.

    2013-01-01

    The Natural Killer Group 2D (NKG2D) receptor plays an important role in protecting the host from infections and cancer. By recognizing ligands induced on infected or tumor cells, NKG2D modulates lymphocyte activation and promotes immunity to eliminate ligand-expressing cells. Because these ligands are not widely expressed on healthy adult tissue, NKG2D ligands may present a useful target for immunotherapeutic approaches in cancer. Novel therapies targeting NKG2D ligands for the treatment of cancer have shown preclinical success and are poised to enter into clinical trials. In this review, the NKG2D receptor and its ligands are discussed in the context of cancer, infection, and autoimmunity. In addition, therapies targeting NKG2D ligands in cancer are also reviewed. PMID:23833565

  10. Very Fast Algorithms and Detection Performance of Multi-Channel and 2-D Parametric Adaptive Matched Filters for Airborne Radar

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-06-05

    tive to the AMF, [1] and [5] discovered that multi-channel and two-dimensional parametric estimation approaches could (1) reduce the computational...dimensional (2-D) parametric estimation using the 2-D least-squares-based lattice algorithm [4]. The specifics of the inverse are found in the next...non- parametric estimation techniques • Least square error (LSE) vs mean square error (MSE) • Primarily multi-channel (M-C) structures; also try 2-D

  11. Lattice fermions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wilczek, Frank

    1987-01-01

    A simple heuristic proof of the Nielsen-Ninomaya theorem is given. A method is proposed whereby the multiplication of fermion species on a lattice is reduced to the minimal doubling, in any dimension, with retention of appropriate chiral symmetries. Also, it is suggested that use of spatially thinned fermion fields is likely to be a useful and appropriate approximation in QCD - in any case, it is a self-checking one.

  12. Cold atoms in a rotating optical lattice

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Foot, Christopher J.

    2009-05-01

    We have demonstrated a novel experimental arrangement which can rotate a two-dimensional optical lattice at frequencies up to several kilohertz. Our arrangement also allows the periodicity of the optical lattice to be varied dynamically, producing a 2D ``accordion lattice'' [1]. The angles of the laser beams are controlled by acousto-optic deflectors and this allows smooth changes with little heating of the trapped cold (rubidium) atoms. We have loaded a BEC into lattices with periodicities ranging from 1.8μm to 18μm, observing the collapse and revival of the diffraction orders of the condensate over a large range of lattice parameters as recently reported by a group in NIST [2]. We have also imaged atoms in situ in a 2D lattice over a range of lattice periodicities. Ultracold atoms in a rotating lattice can be used for the direct quantum simulation of strongly correlated systems under large effective magnetic fields, i.e. the Hamiltonian of the atoms in the rotating frame resembles that of a charged particle in a strong magnetic field. In the future, we plan to use this to investigate a range of phenomena such as the analogue of the fractional quantum Hall effect. [4pt] [1] R. A. Williams, J. D. Pillet, S. Al-Assam, B. Fletcher, M. Shotter, and C. J. Foot, ``Dynamic optical lattices: two-dimensional rotating and accordion lattices for ultracold atoms,'' Opt. Express 16, 16977-16983 (2008) [0pt] [2] J. H. Huckans, I. B. Spielman, B. Laburthe Tolra, W. D. Phillips, and J. V. Porto, Quantum and Classical Dynamics of a BEC in a Large-Period Optical Lattice, arXiv:0901.1386v1

  13. Emergent lattices with geometrical frustration in doped extended Hubbard models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kaneko, Ryui; Tocchio, Luca F.; Valentí, Roser; Gros, Claudius

    2016-11-01

    Spontaneous charge ordering occurring in correlated systems may be considered as a possible route to generate effective lattice structures with unconventional couplings. For this purpose we investigate the phase diagram of doped extended Hubbard models on two lattices: (i) the honeycomb lattice with on-site U and nearest-neighbor V Coulomb interactions at 3 /4 filling (n =3 /2 ) and (ii) the triangular lattice with on-site U , nearest-neighbor V , and next-nearest-neighbor V' Coulomb interactions at 3 /8 filling (n =3 /4 ). We consider various approaches including mean-field approximations, perturbation theory, and variational Monte Carlo. For the honeycomb case (i), charge order induces an effective triangular lattice at large values of U /t and V /t , where t is the nearest-neighbor hopping integral. The nearest-neighbor spin exchange interactions on this effective triangular lattice are antiferromagnetic in most of the phase diagram, while they become ferromagnetic when U is much larger than V . At U /t ˜(V/t ) 3 , ferromagnetic and antiferromagnetic exchange interactions nearly cancel out, leading to a system with four-spin ring-exchange interactions. On the other hand, for the triangular case (ii) at large U and finite V', we find no charge order for small V , an effective kagome lattice for intermediate V , and one-dimensional charge order for large V . These results indicate that Coulomb interactions induce [case (i)] or enhance [case(ii)] emergent geometrical frustration of the spin degrees of freedom in the system, by forming charge order.

  14. Some considerations of the performance of two honeycomb gas path seal material systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bill, R. C.; Shiembob, L. T.

    1980-01-01

    A standard Hastelloy-X honeycomb material and a pack aluminide coated honeycomb material were evaluated as to their performance as labyrinth seal materials for aircraft gas turbine engines. Consideration from published literature was given to the fluid sealing characteristics of two honeycomb materials in labyrinth seal applications, and their rub characteristics, erosion resistance, and oxidation resistance were evaluated. The increased temperature potential of the coated honeycomb material compared to the uncoated standard could be achieved without compromising the honeycomb material's rub tolerance, although there was some penalty in terms of reduced erosion resistance.

  15. Metal honeycomb to porous wireform substrate diffusion bond evaluation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vary, A.; Moorhead, P. E.; Hull, D. R.

    1982-01-01

    Two nondestructive techniques were used to evaluate diffusion bond quality between a metal foil honeycomb and porous wireform substrate. The two techniques, cryographics and acousto-ultrasonics, are complementary in revealing variations of bond integrity and quality in shroud segments from an experimental aircraft turbine engine.

  16. Adjustable knife cuts honeycomb material to specified depth

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rauschl, J. A.

    1966-01-01

    Calibrated, adjustable knife cuts aluminum honeycomb or other soft materials to a desired depth. The frame of the device accommodates standard commercial blades. Since the blade is always visible to the operator, the device can be used on any straight or irregular layout line.

  17. Ultrasonic quality inspection of bonded honeycomb assemblies is automated

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kammerer, C. C.

    1966-01-01

    Inspection system for bonded honeycomb assemblies is accurate, fast, and automated. The ultrasonic system consists of inner and outer transducer positioning assemblies with suitable motor controls, a centerless turntable assembly, water squirter assemblies, and an inspection program completely encoded on tape suitable for use on a high speed computer.

  18. Detection of entrapped moisture in honeycomb sandwich structures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hallmark, W. B.

    1967-01-01

    Thermal neutron moisture detection system detects entrapped moisture in intercellular areas of bonded honeycomb sandwich structures. A radium/beryllium fast neutron source bombards a specimen. The emitted thermal neutrons from the target nucleus are detected and counted by a boron trifluoride thermal neutron detector.

  19. Titanium honeycomb structure. [for supersonic aircraft wing structure

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Davis, R. A.; Elrod, S. D.; Lovell, D. T.

    1972-01-01

    A brazed titanium honeycomb sandwich system for supersonic transport wing cover panels provides the most efficient structure spanwise, chordwise, and loadwise. Flutter testing shows that high wing stiffness is most efficient in a sandwich structure. This structure also provides good thermal insulation if liquid fuel is carried in direct contact with the wing structure in integral fuel tanks.

  20. Apparatus measures thermal conductivity of honeycomb-core panels

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1966-01-01

    Overall thermal conductivity of honeycomb-core panels at elevated temperatures is measured by an apparatus with a heater assembly and a calibrated heat-rate transducer. The apparatus has space between the heater and transducer for insertion of a test panel and insulation.

  1. Experimental study of acoustical characteristics of honeycomb sandwich structures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peters, Portia Renee

    Loss factor measurements were performed on sandwich panels to determine the effects of different skin and core materials on the acoustical properties. Results revealed inserting a viscoelastic material in the core's mid-plane resulted in the highest loss factor. Panels constructed with carbon-fiber skins exhibited larger loss factors than glass-fiber skins. Panels designed to achieve subsonic wave speed did not show a significant increase in loss factor above the coincidence frequency. The para-aramid core had a larger loss factor value than the meta-aramid core. Acoustic absorption coefficients were measured for honeycomb sandwiches designed to incorporate multiple sound-absorbing devices, including Helmholtz resonators and porous absorbers. The structures consisted of conventional honeycomb cores filled with closed-cell polyurethane foams of various densities and covered with perforated composite facesheets. Honeycomb cores filled with higher density foam resulted in higher absorption coefficients over the frequency range of 50 -- 1250 Hz. However, this trend was not observed at frequencies greater than 1250 Hz, where the honeycomb filled with the highest density foam yielded the lowest absorption coefficient among samples with foam-filled cores. The energy-recycling semi-active vibration suppression method (ERSA) was employed to determine the relationship between vibration suppression and acoustic damping for a honeycomb sandwich panel. Results indicated the ERSA method simultaneously reduced the sound transmitted through the panel and the panel vibration. The largest reduction in sound transmitted through the panel was 14.3% when the vibrations of the panel were reduced by 7.3%. The influence of different design parameters, such as core density, core material, and cell size on wave speeds of honeycomb sandwich structures was experimentally analyzed. Bending and shear wave speeds were measured and related to the transmission loss performance for various material

  2. Honeycombing on CT; its definition, pathologic correlation, and future direction of its diagnosis.

    PubMed

    Johkoh, Takeshi; Sakai, Fumikazu; Noma, Satoshi; Akira, Masanori; Fujimoto, Kiminori; Watadani, Takeyuki; Sugiyama, Yukihiko

    2014-01-01

    Honeycombing on CT is the clue for the diagnosis of usual interstitial pneumonia (UIP) and its hallmark. According to the ATS-ERS-JRS-ALAT 2010 guideline, the patients with honeycombing on CT can be diagnosed as UIP without surgical biopsy. On CT scans, it is defined as clustered cystic airspaces, typically of comparable diameters of the order of 3-10mm, which are usually subpleural and have well-defined walls. Pathologically, honeycombing consists of both collapsing of multiple fibrotic alveoli and dilation of alveolar duct and lumen Although the definition of honeycombing seems to be strict, recognition of honeycombing on CT is various among each observer Because typical honeycombing is frequently observed in the patients with UIP, we should judge clustered cysts as honeycombing when a diagnosis of UIP is suspected.

  3. Metallic and Magnetic 2D Materials Containing Planar Tetracoordinated C and N.

    PubMed

    Jimenez-Izal, Elisa; Saeys, Mark; Alexandrova, Anastassia N

    2016-08-26

    The top monolayers of surface carbides and nitrides of Co and Ni are predicted to yield new stable 2D materials upon exfoliation. These 2D phases are p4g clock reconstructed, and contain planar tetracoordinated C or N. The stability of these flat carbides and nitrides is high, and ab-initio molecular dynamics at a simulation temperature of 1800 K suggest that the materials are thermally stable at elevated temperatures. The materials owe their stability to local triple aromaticity (π-, σ-radial, and σ-peripheral) associated with binding of the main group element to the metal. All predicted 2D phases are conductors, and the two alloys of Co are also ferromagnetic - a property especially rare among 2D materials. The preparation of 2D carbides and nitrides is envisioned to be done through surface deposition and peeling, possibly on a metal with a larger lattice constant for reduced affinity.

  4. Completeness of the classical 2D Ising model and universal quantum computation.

    PubMed

    Van den Nest, M; Dür, W; Briegel, H J

    2008-03-21

    We prove that the 2D Ising model is complete in the sense that the partition function of any classical q-state spin model (on an arbitrary graph) can be expressed as a special instance of the partition function of a 2D Ising model with complex inhomogeneous couplings and external fields. In the case where the original model is an Ising or Potts-type model, we find that the corresponding 2D square lattice requires only polynomially more spins with respect to the original one, and we give a constructive method to map such models to the 2D Ising model. For more general models the overhead in system size may be exponential. The results are established by connecting classical spin models with measurement-based quantum computation and invoking the universality of the 2D cluster states.

  5. Quantification of Honeycomb Number-Type Stacking Faults: Application to Na3Ni2BiO6 Cathodes for Na-Ion Batteries

    DOE PAGES

    Liu, Jue; Yin, Liang; Wu, Lijun; ...

    2016-08-17

    Here, ordered and disordered samples of honeycomb-lattice Na3Ni2BiO6 were investigated as cathodes for Na-ion batteries, and it was determined that the ordered sample exhibits better electrochemical performance, with a specific capacity of 104 mA h/g delivered at plateaus of 3.5 and 3.2 V (vs Na+/Na) with minimal capacity fade during extended cycling. Advanced imaging and diffraction investigations showed that the primary difference between the ordered and disordered samples is the amount of number-type stacking faults associated with the three possible centering choices for each honeycomb layer. A labeling scheme for assigning the number position of honeycomb layers is described, andmore » it is shown that the translational shift vectors between layers provide the simplest method for classifying different repeat patterns. We demonstrate that the number position of honeycomb layers can be directly determined in high-angle annular dark-field scanning transmission electron microscopy (STEM-HAADF) imaging studies. By the use of fault models derived from STEM studies, it is shown that both the sharp, symmetric subcell peaks and the broad, asymmetric superstructure peaks in powder diffraction patterns can be quantitatively modeled. About 20% of the layers in the ordered monoclinic sample are faulted in a nonrandom manner, while the disordered sample stacking is not fully random but instead contains about 4% monoclinic order. Furthermore, it is shown that the ordered sample has a series of higher-order superstructure peaks associated with 6-, 9-, 12-, and 15-layer periods whose existence is transiently driven by the presence of long-range strain that is an inherent consequence of the synthesis mechanism revealed through the present diffraction and imaging studies. This strain is closely associated with a monoclinic shear that can be directly calculated from cell lattice parameters and is strongly correlated with the degree of ordering in the samples. The present

  6. Quantitative 2D liquid-state NMR.

    PubMed

    Giraudeau, Patrick

    2014-06-01

    Two-dimensional (2D) liquid-state NMR has a very high potential to simultaneously determine the absolute concentration of small molecules in complex mixtures, thanks to its capacity to separate overlapping resonances. However, it suffers from two main drawbacks that probably explain its relatively late development. First, the 2D NMR signal is strongly molecule-dependent and site-dependent; second, the long duration of 2D NMR experiments prevents its general use for high-throughput quantitative applications and affects its quantitative performance. Fortunately, the last 10 years has witnessed an increasing number of contributions where quantitative approaches based on 2D NMR were developed and applied to solve real analytical issues. This review aims at presenting these recent efforts to reach a high trueness and precision in quantitative measurements by 2D NMR. After highlighting the interest of 2D NMR for quantitative analysis, the different strategies to determine the absolute concentrations from 2D NMR spectra are described and illustrated by recent applications. The last part of the manuscript concerns the recent development of fast quantitative 2D NMR approaches, aiming at reducing the experiment duration while preserving - or even increasing - the analytical performance. We hope that this comprehensive review will help readers to apprehend the current landscape of quantitative 2D NMR, as well as the perspectives that may arise from it.

  7. Two-dimensional honeycomb network through sequence-controlled self-assembly of oligopeptides

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abb, Sabine; Harnau, Ludger; Gutzler, Rico; Rauschenbach, Stephan; Kern, Klaus

    2016-01-01

    The sequence of a peptide programs its self-assembly and hence the expression of specific properties through non-covalent interactions. A large variety of peptide nanostructures has been designed employing different aspects of these non-covalent interactions, such as dispersive interactions, hydrogen bonding or ionic interactions. Here we demonstrate the sequence-controlled fabrication of molecular nanostructures using peptides as bio-organic building blocks for two-dimensional (2D) self-assembly. Scanning tunnelling microscopy reveals changes from compact or linear assemblies (angiotensin I) to long-range ordered, chiral honeycomb networks (angiotensin II) as a result of removal of steric hindrance by sequence modification. Guided by our observations, molecular dynamic simulations yield atomistic models for the elucidation of interpeptide-binding motifs. This new approach to 2D self-assembly on surfaces grants insight at the atomic level that will enable the use of oligo- and polypeptides as large, multi-functional bio-organic building blocks, and opens a new route towards rationally designed, bio-inspired surfaces.

  8. Two-dimensional honeycomb network through sequence-controlled self-assembly of oligopeptides

    PubMed Central

    Abb, Sabine; Harnau, Ludger; Gutzler, Rico; Rauschenbach, Stephan; Kern, Klaus

    2016-01-01

    The sequence of a peptide programs its self-assembly and hence the expression of specific properties through non-covalent interactions. A large variety of peptide nanostructures has been designed employing different aspects of these non-covalent interactions, such as dispersive interactions, hydrogen bonding or ionic interactions. Here we demonstrate the sequence-controlled fabrication of molecular nanostructures using peptides as bio-organic building blocks for two-dimensional (2D) self-assembly. Scanning tunnelling microscopy reveals changes from compact or linear assemblies (angiotensin I) to long-range ordered, chiral honeycomb networks (angiotensin II) as a result of removal of steric hindrance by sequence modification. Guided by our observations, molecular dynamic simulations yield atomistic models for the elucidation of interpeptide-binding motifs. This new approach to 2D self-assembly on surfaces grants insight at the atomic level that will enable the use of oligo- and polypeptides as large, multi-functional bio-organic building blocks, and opens a new route towards rationally designed, bio-inspired surfaces. PMID:26755352

  9. Mirror effects and optical meta-surfaces in 2d atomic arrays

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shahmoon, Ephraim; Wild, Dominik; Lukin, Mikhail; Yelin, Susanne

    2016-05-01

    Strong optical response of natural and artificial (meta-) materials typically relies on the fact that the lattice constant that separates their constituent particles (atoms or electromagnetic resonators, respectively) is much smaller than the optical wavelength. Here we consider a single layer of a 2d atom array with a lattice constant on the order of an optical wavelength, which can be thought of as a highly dilute 2d metamaterial (meta-surface). Our theoretical analysis shows how strong scattering of resonant incoming light off the array can be controlled by choosing its lattice constant, e.g. allowing the array to operate as a perfect mirror or a retro-reflector for most incident angles of the incoming light. We discuss the prospects for quantum metasurfaces, i.e. the ability to shape the output quantum state of light by controlling the atomic states, and the possible generality of our results as a universal wave phenomena.

  10. Topological spin liquids in the ruby lattice with anisotropic Kitaev interactions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jahromi, Saeed S.; Kargarian, Mehdi; Masoudi, S. Farhad; Langari, Abdollah

    2016-09-01

    The ruby lattice is a four-valent lattice interpolating between honeycomb and triangular lattices. In this work we investigate the topological spin-liquid phases of a spin Hamiltonian with Kitaev interactions on the ruby lattice using exact diagonalization and perturbative methods. The latter interactions combined with the structure of the lattice yield a model with Z2×Z2 gauge symmetry. We mapped out the phase diagram of the model and found gapped and gapless spin-liquid phases. While the low-energy sector of the gapped phase corresponds to the well-known topological color code model on a honeycomb lattice, the low-energy sector of the gapless phases is described by an effective spin model with three-body interactions on a triangular lattice. A gap is opened in the spectrum in small magnetic fields, where we showed that the ground state has a finite topological entanglement entropy. We argue that the gapped phases could be possibly described by exotic excitations, and their corresponding spectrum is richer than the Ising phase of the Kitaev model.

  11. Annotated Bibliography of EDGE2D Use

    SciTech Connect

    J.D. Strachan and G. Corrigan

    2005-06-24

    This annotated bibliography is intended to help EDGE2D users, and particularly new users, find existing published literature that has used EDGE2D. Our idea is that a person can find existing studies which may relate to his intended use, as well as gain ideas about other possible applications by scanning the attached tables.

  12. Staring 2-D hadamard transform spectral imager

    DOEpatents

    Gentry, Stephen M.; Wehlburg, Christine M.; Wehlburg, Joseph C.; Smith, Mark W.; Smith, Jody L.

    2006-02-07

    A staring imaging system inputs a 2D spatial image containing multi-frequency spectral information. This image is encoded in one dimension of the image with a cyclic Hadamarid S-matrix. The resulting image is detecting with a spatial 2D detector; and a computer applies a Hadamard transform to recover the encoded image.

  13. Demonstration of Minimally Machined Honeycomb Silicon Carbide Mirrors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Goodman, William

    2012-01-01

    Honeycomb silicon carbide composite mirrors are made from a carbon fiber preform that is molded into a honeycomb shape using a rigid mold. The carbon fiber honeycomb is densified by using polymer infiltration pyrolysis, or through a reaction with liquid silicon. A chemical vapor deposit, or chemical vapor composite (CVC), process is used to deposit a polishable silicon or silicon carbide cladding on the honeycomb structure. Alternatively, the cladding may be replaced by a freestanding, replicated CVC SiC facesheet that is bonded to the honeycomb. The resulting carbon fiber-reinforced silicon carbide honeycomb structure is a ceramic matrix composite material with high stiffness and mechanical strength, high thermal conductivity, and low CTE (coefficient of thermal expansion). This innovation enables rapid, inexpensive manufacturing. The web thickness of the new material is less than 1 millimeter, and core geometries tailored. These parameters are based on precursor carbon-carbon honeycomb material made and patented by Ultracor. It is estimated at the time of this reporting that the HoneySiC(Trademark) will have a net production cost on the order of $38,000 per square meter. This includes an Ultracor raw material cost of about $97,000 per square meter, and a Trex silicon carbide deposition cost of $27,000 per square meter. Even at double this price, HoneySiC would beat NASA's goal of $100,000 per square meter. Cost savings are estimated to be 40 to 100 times that of current mirror technologies. The organic, rich prepreg material has a density of 56 kilograms per cubic meter. A charred carbon-carbon panel (volatile organics burnt off) has a density of 270 kilograms per cubic meter. Therefore, it is estimated that a HoneySiC panel would have a density of no more than 900 kilograms per cubic meter, which is about half that of beryllium and about onethird the density of bulk silicon carbide. It is also estimated that larger mirrors could be produced in a matter of weeks

  14. Electronic bands, Fermi surface, and elastic properties of new 4.2 K superconductor SrPtAs with a honeycomb structure from first principles calculations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shein, I. R.; Ivanovskii, A. L.

    2011-10-01

    The hexagonal phase SrPtAs (s.g. P6/ mmm; #194) with a honeycomb lattice structure was recently declared as a new low-temperature ( T C ∼ 4.2 K) superconductor. Here, by means of first-principles calculations the optimized structural parameters, electronic bands, Fermi surface, total and partial densities of states, inter-atomic bonding picture, independent elastic constants, bulk and shear moduli for SrPtAs were obtained for the first time and analyzed in comparison with the related layered superconductor SrPt 2As 2.

  15. Orbitally driven low thermal conductivity of monolayer gallium nitride (GaN) with planar honeycomb structure: a comparative study.

    PubMed

    Qin, Zhenzhen; Qin, Guangzhao; Zuo, Xu; Xiong, Zhihua; Hu, Ming

    2017-03-23

    Two-dimensional (2D) materials with graphene as a representative have been intensively studied for a long time. Recently, monolayer gallium nitride (ML GaN) with honeycomb structure was successfully fabricated in experiments, generating enormous research interest for its promising applications in nano- and opto-electronics. Considering all these applications are inevitably involved with thermal transport, systematic investigation of the phonon transport properties of 2D GaN is in demand. In this paper, by solving the Boltzmann transport equation (BTE) based on first-principles calculations, we performed a comprehensive study of the phonon transport properties of ML GaN, with detailed comparison to bulk GaN, 2D graphene, silicene and ML BN with similar honeycomb structure. Considering the similar planar structure of ML GaN to graphene, it is quite intriguing to find that the thermal conductivity (κ) of ML GaN (14.93 W mK(-1)) is more than two orders of magnitude lower than that of graphene and is even lower than that of silicene with a buckled structure. Systematic analysis is performed based on the study of the contribution from phonon branches, comparison among the mode level phonon group velocity and lifetime, the detailed process and channels of phonon-phonon scattering, and phonon anharmonicity with potential energy well. We found that, different from graphene and ML BN, the phonon-phonon scattering selection rule in 2D GaN is slightly broken by the lowered symmetry due to the large difference in the atomic radius and mass between Ga and N atoms. Further deep insight is gained from the electronic structure. Resulting from the special sp orbital hybridization mediated by the Ga-d orbital in ML GaN, the strongly polarized Ga-N bond, localized charge density, and its inhomogeneous distribution induce large phonon anharmonicity and lead to the intrinsic low κ of ML GaN. The orbitally driven low κ of ML GaN unraveled in this work would make 2D GaN prospective for

  16. From lattice Hamiltonians to tunable band structures by lithographic design

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tadjine, Athmane; Allan, Guy; Delerue, Christophe

    2016-08-01

    Recently, new materials exhibiting exotic band structures characterized by Dirac cones, nontrivial flat bands, and band crossing points have been proposed on the basis of effective two-dimensional lattice Hamiltonians. Here, we show using atomistic tight-binding calculations that these theoretical predictions could be experimentally realized in the conduction band of superlattices nanolithographed in III-V and II-VI semiconductor ultrathin films. The lithographed patterns consist of periodic lattices of etched cylindrical holes that form potential barriers for the electrons in the quantum well. In the case of honeycomb lattices, the conduction minibands of the resulting artificial graphene host several Dirac cones and nontrivial flat bands. Similar features, but organized in different ways, in energy or in k -space are found in kagome, distorted honeycomb, and Lieb superlattices. Dirac cones extending over tens of meV could be obtained in superlattices with reasonable sizes of the lithographic patterns, for instance in InAs/AlSb heterostructures. Bilayer artificial graphene could be also realized by lithography of a double quantum-well heterostructure. These new materials should be interesting for the experimental exploration of Dirac-based quantum systems, for both fundamental and applied physics.

  17. Unusual dimensionality effects and surface charge density in 2D Mg(OH)2.

    PubMed

    Suslu, Aslihan; Wu, Kedi; Sahin, Hasan; Chen, Bin; Yang, Sijie; Cai, Hui; Aoki, Toshihiro; Horzum, Seyda; Kang, Jun; Peeters, Francois M; Tongay, Sefaattin

    2016-02-05

    We present two-dimensional Mg(OH)2 sheets and their vertical heterojunctions with CVD-MoS2 for the first time as flexible 2D insulators with anomalous lattice vibration and chemical and physical properties. New hydrothermal crystal growth technique enabled isolation of environmentally stable monolayer Mg(OH)2 sheets. Raman spectroscopy and vibrational calculations reveal that the lattice vibrations of Mg(OH)2 have fundamentally different signature peaks and dimensionality effects compared to other 2D material systems known to date. Sub-wavelength electron energy-loss spectroscopy measurements and theoretical calculations show that Mg(OH)2 is a 6 eV direct-gap insulator in 2D, and its optical band gap displays strong band renormalization effects from monolayer to bulk, marking the first experimental confirmation of confinement effects in 2D insulators. Interestingly, 2D-Mg(OH)2 sheets possess rather strong surface polarization (charge) effects which is in contrast to electrically neutral h-BN materials. Using 2D-Mg(OH)2 sheets together with CVD-MoS2 in the vertical stacking shows that a strong change transfer occurs from n-doped CVD-MoS2 sheets to Mg(OH)2, naturally depleting the semiconductor, pushing towards intrinsic doping limit and enhancing overall optical performance of 2D semiconductors. Results not only establish unusual confinement effects in 2D-Mg(OH)2, but also offer novel 2D-insulating material with unique physical, vibrational, and chemical properties for potential applications in flexible optoelectronics.

  18. Unusual dimensionality effects and surface charge density in 2D Mg(OH)2

    PubMed Central

    Suslu, Aslihan; Wu, Kedi; Sahin, Hasan; Chen, Bin; Yang, Sijie; Cai, Hui; Aoki, Toshihiro; Horzum, Seyda; Kang, Jun; Peeters, Francois M.; Tongay, Sefaattin

    2016-01-01

    We present two-dimensional Mg(OH)2 sheets and their vertical heterojunctions with CVD-MoS2 for the first time as flexible 2D insulators with anomalous lattice vibration and chemical and physical properties. New hydrothermal crystal growth technique enabled isolation of environmentally stable monolayer Mg(OH)2 sheets. Raman spectroscopy and vibrational calculations reveal that the lattice vibrations of Mg(OH)2 have fundamentally different signature peaks and dimensionality effects compared to other 2D material systems known to date. Sub-wavelength electron energy-loss spectroscopy measurements and theoretical calculations show that Mg(OH)2 is a 6 eV direct-gap insulator in 2D, and its optical band gap displays strong band renormalization effects from monolayer to bulk, marking the first experimental confirmation of confinement effects in 2D insulators. Interestingly, 2D-Mg(OH)2 sheets possess rather strong surface polarization (charge) effects which is in contrast to electrically neutral h-BN materials. Using 2D-Mg(OH)2 sheets together with CVD-MoS2 in the vertical stacking shows that a strong change transfer occurs from n-doped CVD-MoS2 sheets to Mg(OH)2, naturally depleting the semiconductor, pushing towards intrinsic doping limit and enhancing overall optical performance of 2D semiconductors. Results not only establish unusual confinement effects in 2D-Mg(OH)2, but also offer novel 2D-insulating material with unique physical, vibrational, and chemical properties for potential applications in flexible optoelectronics. PMID:26846617

  19. Ultracold Quantum Gases in Hexagonal Optical Lattices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sengstock, Klaus

    2010-03-01

    Hexagonal structures occur in a vast variety of systems, ranging from honeycombs of bees in life sciences to carbon nanotubes in material sciences. The latter, in particular its unfolded two-dimensional layer -- Graphene -- has rapidly grown to one of the most discussed topics in condensed-matter physics. Not only does it show proximity to various carbon-based materials but also exceptional properties owing to its unusual energy spectrum. In quantum optics, ultracold quantum gases confined in periodic light fields have shown to be very general and versatile instruments to mimic solid state systems. However, so far nearly all experiments were performed in cubic lattice geometries only. Here we report on the first experimental realization of ultracold quantum gases in a state-dependent, two-dimensional, Graphene-like optical lattice with hexagonal symmetry. The lattice is realized via a spin-dependent optical lattice structure with alternating σ^+ and σ^- -sites and thus constitutes a so called `magnetic'-lattice with `antiferromagnetic'-structure. Atoms with different spin orientation can be loaded to specific lattice sites or -- depending on the parameters -- to the whole lattice. As a consequence e.g. superpositions of a superfluid spin component with a different spin component in the Mott-insulating phase can be realized as well as spin-dependent transport properties, disorder etc. After preparing an antiferromagnetically ordered state we e.g. measure sustainable changes of the transport properties of the atoms. This manifests in a significant reduction of the tunneling as compared to a single-component system. We attribute this observation to a partial tunneling blockade for one spin component induced by population in another spin component localized at alternating lattice sites. Within a Gutzwiller-Ansatz we calculate the phase diagrams for the mixed spin-states and find very good agreement with our experimental results. Moreover, by state-resolved recording

  20. Development of Pyrrone structural forms for honeycomb filler

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kimmel, B. G.

    1973-01-01

    The development of techniques for the preparation of Pyrrone structural foams for use as honeycomb filler is described. The feasibility of preparing foams from polymers formed by the condensation of 3,3'-diaminobenzidine (DAB), or 3,3',4,4'-tetraaminobenzophenone (TABP), with 3,3',4,4'-benzophenone tetracarboxylic dianhydride (BTDA) was investigated. Initially, most of the effort was devoted to preparing Pyrrone prepolymers with improved and more reproducible foaming properties for making chemically blown foams. When it became apparent that very high curing shrinkages would not allow the use of unfilled Pyrrone prepolymers in a foam-in-place process, emphasis was shifted from chemically blown foams to syntactic foams. Syntactic foam formulations containing hollow carbon microspheres were developed. Syntactic foams made from selected formulations were found to have very low coefficients of thermal expansion. A technique was developed for the emplacement of Pyrrone syntactic foam formulations in honeycomb core structures.

  1. The Honeycomb illusion: Uniform textures not perceived as such

    PubMed Central

    Herzog, Michael H.; Bruno, Nicola

    2016-01-01

    We present a series of patterns, in which texture is perceived differently at fixation in comparison to the periphery, such that a physically uniform stimulus yields a nonuniform percept. We call this the Honeycomb illusion, and we discuss it in relation to the similar Extinction illusion (Ninio & Stevens, 2000). The effect remains strong despite multiple fixations, dynamic changes, and manipulations of the size of texture elements. We discuss the phenomenon in relation to how vision achieves a detailed and stable representation of the environment despite changes in retinal spatial resolution and dramatic changes across saccades. The Honeycomb illusion complements previous related observations in suggesting that this representation is not necessarily based on multiple fixations (i.e., memory) or on extrapolation from information available to central vision. PMID:27698980

  2. Adenomyomatosis of the gallbladder resembling honeycomb in a child.

    PubMed

    Akçam, Mustafa; Buyukyavuz, Ilker; Ciriş, Metin; Eriş, Naim

    2008-09-01

    Adenomyomatosis of the gallbladder is believed to be an uncommon pathologic condition of the gallbladder in childhood. Only three pediatric cases have been described in the literature up to now. Honeycomb gallbladder has been described in two adult patients; no patients have been reported in childhood until now. To the best of our knowledge, we report here the first case of adenomyomatosis of the gallbladder which resembled honeycomb, in a 9-year-old girl presented with recurrent abdominal pain. The diagnosis was made by ultrasound, and confirmed by magnetic resonance cholangiopancreatography and finally cholecystectomy. In conclusion, ultrasound scanning performed more generally in children presenting with recurrent abdominal pain might lead to accurate diagnosis of adenomyomotosis of the gallbladder during childhood.

  3. Fatigue and impact properties of metal honeycomb sandwich panel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zou, Guang ping; Lu, Jie; Liang, Jun; Chang, Zhong liang

    2008-11-01

    Honeycomb sandwich structures are significant to be used as applied to thermal protection system on reusable launch vehicle. In this paper the fatigue and impact properties of a novel metallic thermal protection material have been investigated and predicted at room temperature. A series of strength tests are carried out to obtain parameters firstly for further experiments. A set of tension-tension stress fatigue tests and impact tests based on split-Hopkinson pressure bar are carried out. Different high strain rate impact experiments are accomplished. The curves of dynamical stress, strain and strain rate are obtained. Also the cell units images after impact are presented. The results show the fatigue properties of honeycomb sandwich panels are comparatively better. And it has the advantages of anti-impact resistance and high, energy absorption capability.

  4. Nondestructive testing of honeycomb structures by computerized, thermographic systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Monti, R.; Mannara, G.

    Complex honeycomb space structures (i.e. antennas, solar panels, etc.) must be inspected and accurately tested before flight. The thermography can be employed with success for the detection of the position of defects (delaminations, noneffective bondings, cracks, etc.) and for the evaluation of their size and geometry in all the cases in which the defect acts as a thermal resistance due to the low conductivity of the air filling the defect volume. The basic idea is to create in the specimen a heat flow distribution that is altered by the presence of the defect. The surface temperature distribution is then measured by means of a thermograph and is correlated with the presence of the defect. A numerical analysis and preliminary experiments have been carried out which show the feasibility of the method as applied to honeycomb structures.

  5. Characterization of Thermal and Mechanical Impact on Aluminum Honeycomb Structures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Robinson, Christen M.

    2013-01-01

    This study supports NASA Kennedy Space Center's research in the area of intelligent thermal management systems and multifunctional thermal systems. This project addresses the evaluation of the mechanical and thermal properties of metallic cellular solid (MCS) materials; those that are lightweight; high strength, tunable, multifunctional and affordable. A portion of the work includes understanding the mechanical properties of honeycomb structured cellular solids upon impact testing under ambient, water-immersed, liquid nitrogen-cooled, and liquid nitrogen-immersed conditions. Additionally, this study will address characterization techniques of the aluminum honeycomb's ability to resist multiple high-rate loadings or impacts in varying environmental conditions, using various techniques for the quantitative and qualitative determination for commercial applicability.

  6. Solid oxide fuel cell stacks using extruded honeycomb type elements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wetzko, M.; Belzner, A.; Rohr, F. J.; Harbach, F.

    A solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC) stack concept is described which comprises "condensed-tubes" like extruded honeycomb sections of ceramic electrolyte (ZrO 2-based) and interconnectors of nickel sheet as key elements. According to this concept, well known and extensively tested construction principles can be realised in a low-cost production. The cells are self-supported with in-plane conduction. A demonstrator model stack of five honeycomb elements and six nickel sheet seals/interconnectors was built and operated for 860 h at 1000°C. Volumetric power densities of 160 kW/m 3 were obtained with H 2 vs. air, of close to 200 kW/m 3 with H 2 vs. O 2.

  7. Heat Loss Mechanisms In Transparent Insulation With Honeycomb Structures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wittwer, V.; Stahl, W.; Pfluger, A.; Goetzberger, A.; Schmid, J.

    1983-12-01

    The development of highly transparent insulation materials is an important step in raising the efficiency of flat plate collectors and for passive use of solar energy in buildings. The problem in combining selective absorbers and honeycomb structures is that the radiation losses due to thermal emission of the material of the structure may be larger than the losses due to convection which are present without the structure. Therefore a thorough analysis of the different loss mechanisms has been made. There are two possibilities for overcoming these difficulties. The first is the use of materials with low absorptance in the infrared or with selective surfaces for the honeycomb structure. The second possibility is the use of highly IR-absorbing materials. In the latter case a selective absorber is not needed. Results from both approaches will be presented.

  8. Liquid ingress recognition in honeycomb structure by pulsed thermography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Dapeng; Zeng, Zhi; Tao, Ning; Zhang, Cunlin; Zhang, Zheng

    2013-05-01

    Pulsed thermography has been proven to be a fast and effective method to detect fluid ingress in aircraft honeycomb structure; however, water and hydraulic oil may have similar appearance in the thermal image sequence. It is meaningful to identify what kind of liquid ingress it is for aircraft maintenance. In this study, honeycomb specimens with glass fiber and aluminum skin are injected different kinds of liquids: water and oil. Pulsed thermography is adopted; a recognition method is proposed to first get the reference curve by linear fitting the beginning of the logarithmic curve, and then an algorithm based on the thermal contrast between liquid and reference is used to recognize what kind of fluid it is by calculating their thermal properties. It is verified with the results of theory and the finite element simulation.

  9. Adsorption-induced strain of a nanoscale silicon honeycomb

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grosman, A.; Puibasset, J.; Rolley, E.

    2015-03-01

    We report on systematic measurements of both adsorption and anisotropic mechanical deformations of mesoporous silicon, using heptane at room temperature. Porous Si obtained from highly doped (100) Si can be thought of as a nanoscale random honeycomb with pores parallel to the [001] axis. We show that strains ε\\parallel and ε\\bot measured along and transversely to the pore axis exhibit a hysteretic behavior as a function of the fluid pressure, which is due to the hysteresis in fluid adsorption. The pressure dependence of the strains together with the independent measurement of the transverse stress, allows us to determine the biaxial transverse modulus and to estimate the longitudinal Young's modulus of porous Si. We argue that the value of these constants implies that Young's modulus of the 6 nm thick walls of the honeycomb is about 5 times smaller than that of bulk silicon, striking evidence of finite-size effects.

  10. Brillouin light scattering studies of 2D magnonic crystals.

    PubMed

    Tacchi, S; Gubbiotti, G; Madami, M; Carlotti, G

    2017-02-22

    Magnonic crystals, materials with periodic modulation of their magnetic properties, represent the magnetic counterpart of photonic, phononic and plasmonic crystals, and have been largely investigated in recent years because of the possibility of using spin waves as a new means for carrying and processing information over a very large frequency bandwidth. Here, we review recent Brillouin light scattering studies of 2D magnonic crystals consisting of single- and bi-component arrays of interacting magnetic dots or antidot lattices. In particular, we discuss the principal properties of the magnonic band diagram of such systems, with emphasis given to its dependence on both magnetic and the geometrical parameters. Thanks to the possibility of tailoring their band structure by means of several degrees of freedom, planar magnonic crystals offer a good opportunity to design an innovative class of nanoscale microwave devices.

  11. Brillouin light scattering studies of 2D magnonic crystals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tacchi, S.; Gubbiotti, G.; Madami, M.; Carlotti, G.

    2017-02-01

    Magnonic crystals, materials with periodic modulation of their magnetic properties, represent the magnetic counterpart of photonic, phononic and plasmonic crystals, and have been largely investigated in recent years because of the possibility of using spin waves as a new means for carrying and processing information over a very large frequency bandwidth. Here, we review recent Brillouin light scattering studies of 2D magnonic crystals consisting of single- and bi-component arrays of interacting magnetic dots or antidot lattices. In particular, we discuss the principal properties of the magnonic band diagram of such systems, with emphasis given to its dependence on both magnetic and the geometrical parameters. Thanks to the possibility of tailoring their band structure by means of several degrees of freedom, planar magnonic crystals offer a good opportunity to design an innovative class of nanoscale microwave devices.

  12. Fractional quantum Hall states of dipolar fermions in a strained optical lattice

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fujita, Hiroyuki; Nakagawa, Yuya O.; Ashida, Yuto; Furukawa, Shunsuke

    2016-10-01

    We study strongly correlated ground states of dipolar fermions in a honeycomb optical lattice with spatial variations in hopping amplitudes. Similar to strained graphene, such nonuniform hopping amplitudes produce valley-dependent pseudomagnetic fields for fermions near the two Dirac points, resulting in the formation of Landau levels. The dipole moments aligned perpendicular to the honeycomb plane yield a long-range repulsive interaction. By exact diagonalization in the zeroth-Landau-level basis, we show that this repulsive interaction stabilizes a variety of valley-polarized fractional quantum Hall states such as Laughlin and composite-fermion states. The present system thus offers an intriguing platform for emulating fractional quantum Hall physics in a static optical lattice. We calculate the energy gaps above these incompressible states and discuss the temperature scales required for their experimental realization.

  13. Thermal conductivity of Rene 41 honeycomb panels. [space transportation vehicles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Deriugin, V.

    1980-01-01

    Effective thermal conductivities of Rene 41 panels suitable for advanced space transportation vehicle structures were determined analytically and experimentally for temperature ranges between 20.4K (423 F) and 1186K (1675 F). The cryogenic data were obtained using a cryostat whereas the high temperature data were measured using a heat flow meter and a comparative thermal conductivity instrument respectively. Comparisons were made between analysis and experimental data. Analytical methods appear to provide reasonable definition of the honeycomb panel effective thermal conductivities.

  14. Aluminum honeycomb reflector panels on James Clerk Maxwell Telescope

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Greenhalgh, R. Justin S.

    1993-10-01

    The accuracy requirements and design philosophy of the JCMT reflector structure are briefly reviewed, leading to a steel space-frame with separate reflector panels. The choice of material for the panels is discussed, with particular emphasis on the properties of aluminum honeycomb composites. The development of the manufacturing process and the details of the process are described. Finally, statistics on the results of the manufacturing process are given.

  15. Fabrication of prepackaged superalloy honeycomb Thermal Protection System (TPS) panels

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Blair, W.; Meaney, J. E.; Rosenthal, H. A.

    1985-01-01

    High temperature materials were surveyed, and Inconel 617 and titanium were selected for application to a honeycomb TPS configuration designed to withstand 2000 F. The configuration was analyzed both thermally and structurally. Component and full-sized panels were fabricated and tested to obtain data for comparison with analysis. Results verified the panel design. Twenty five panels were delivered to NASA Langley Research Center for additional evaluation.

  16. Pressurized honeycombs as soft-actuators: a theoretical study

    PubMed Central

    Guiducci, Lorenzo; Fratzl, Peter; Bréchet, Yves J. M.; Dunlop, John W. C.

    2014-01-01

    The seed capsule of Delosperma nakurense is a remarkable example of a natural hygromorph, which unfolds its protecting valves upon wetting to expose its seeds. The beautiful mechanism responsible for this motion is generated by a specialized organ based on an anisotropic cellular tissue filled with a highly swelling material. Inspired by this system, we study the mechanics of a diamond honeycomb internally pressurized by a fluid phase. Numerical homogenization by means of iterative finite-element (FE) simulations is adapted to the case of cellular materials filled with a variable pressure fluid phase. Like its biological counterpart, it is shown that the material architecture controls and guides the otherwise unspecific isotropic expansion of the fluid. Deformations up to twice the original dimensions can be achieved by simply setting the value of input pressure. In turn, these deformations cause a marked change of the honeycomb geometry and hence promote a stiffening of the material along the weak direction. To understand the mechanism further, we also developed a micromechanical model based on the Born model for crystal elasticity to find an explicit relation between honeycomb geometry, swelling eigenstrains and elastic properties. The micromechanical model is in good qualitative agreement with the FE simulations. Moreover, we also provide the force-stroke characteristics of a soft actuator based on the pressurized anisotropic honeycomb and show how the internal pressure has a nonlinear effect which can result in negative values of the in-plane Poisson's ratio. As nature shows in the case of the D. nakurense seed capsule, cellular materials can be used not only as low-weight structural materials, but also as simple but convenient actuating materials. PMID:24966238

  17. Matrix models of 2d gravity

    SciTech Connect

    Ginsparg, P.

    1991-01-01

    These are introductory lectures for a general audience that give an overview of the subject of matrix models and their application to random surfaces, 2d gravity, and string theory. They are intentionally 1.5 years out of date.

  18. Matrix models of 2d gravity

    SciTech Connect

    Ginsparg, P.

    1991-12-31

    These are introductory lectures for a general audience that give an overview of the subject of matrix models and their application to random surfaces, 2d gravity, and string theory. They are intentionally 1.5 years out of date.

  19. Brittle damage models in DYNA2D

    SciTech Connect

    Faux, D.R.

    1997-09-01

    DYNA2D is an explicit Lagrangian finite element code used to model dynamic events where stress wave interactions influence the overall response of the system. DYNA2D is often used to model penetration problems involving ductile-to-ductile impacts; however, with the advent of the use of ceramics in the armor-anti-armor community and the need to model damage to laser optics components, good brittle damage models are now needed in DYNA2D. This report will detail the implementation of four brittle damage models in DYNA2D, three scalar damage models and one tensor damage model. These new brittle damage models are then used to predict experimental results from three distinctly different glass damage problems.

  20. 2D/3D switchable displays

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dekker, T.; de Zwart, S. T.; Willemsen, O. H.; Hiddink, M. G. H.; IJzerman, W. L.

    2006-02-01

    A prerequisite for a wide market acceptance of 3D displays is the ability to switch between 3D and full resolution 2D. In this paper we present a robust and cost effective concept for an auto-stereoscopic switchable 2D/3D display. The display is based on an LCD panel, equipped with switchable LC-filled lenticular lenses. We will discuss 3D image quality, with the focus on display uniformity. We show that slanting the lenticulars in combination with a good lens design can minimize non-uniformities in our 20" 2D/3D monitors. Furthermore, we introduce fractional viewing systems as a very robust concept to further improve uniformity in the case slanting the lenticulars and optimizing the lens design are not sufficient. We will discuss measurements and numerical simulations of the key optical characteristics of this display. Finally, we discuss 2D image quality, the switching characteristics and the residual lens effect.

  1. 2-d Finite Element Code Postprocessor

    SciTech Connect

    Sanford, L. A.; Hallquist, J. O.

    1996-07-15

    ORION is an interactive program that serves as a postprocessor for the analysis programs NIKE2D, DYNA2D, TOPAZ2D, and CHEMICAL TOPAZ2D. ORION reads binary plot files generated by the two-dimensional finite element codes currently used by the Methods Development Group at LLNL. Contour and color fringe plots of a large number of quantities may be displayed on meshes consisting of triangular and quadrilateral elements. ORION can compute strain measures, interface pressures along slide lines, reaction forces along constrained boundaries, and momentum. ORION has been applied to study the response of two-dimensional solids and structures undergoing finite deformations under a wide variety of large deformation transient dynamic and static problems and heat transfer analyses.

  2. Advanced radiator concepts utilizing honeycomb panel heat pipes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fleischman, G. L.; Peck, S. J.; Tanzer, H. J.

    1987-01-01

    The feasibility of fabricating and processing moderate temperature range vapor chamber type heat pipes in a low mass honeycomb panel configuration for highly efficient radiator fins for potential use on the space station was investigated. A variety of honeycomb panel facesheet and core-ribbon wick concepts were evaluated within constraints dictated by existing manufacturing technology and equipment. Concepts evaluated include type of material, material and panel thickness, wick type and manufacturability, liquid and vapor communication among honeycomb cells, and liquid flow return from condenser to evaporator facesheet areas. A thin-wall all-welded stainless steel design with methanol as the working fluid was the initial prototype unit. It was found that an aluminum panel could not be fabricated in the same manner as a stainless steel panel due to diffusion bonding and resistance welding considerations. Therefore, a formed and welded design was developed. The prototype consists of ten panels welded together into a large panel 122 by 24 by 0.15 in., with a heat rejection capability of 1000 watts and a fin efficiency of essentially 1.0.

  3. Heat Transfer in Adhesively Bonded Honeycomb Core Panels

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Daryabeigi, Kamran

    2001-01-01

    The Swann and Pittman semi-empirical relationship has been used as a standard in aerospace industry to predict the effective thermal conductivity of honeycomb core panels. Recent measurements of the effective thermal conductivity of an adhesively bonded titanium honeycomb core panel using three different techniques, two steady-state and one transient radiant step heating method, at four laboratories varied significantly from each other and from the Swann and Pittman predictions. Average differences between the measurements and the predictions varied between 17 and 61% in the temperature range of 300 to 500 K. In order to determine the correct values of the effective thermal conductivity and determine which set of the measurements or predictions were most accurate, the combined radiation and conduction heat transfer in the honeycomb core panel was modeled using a finite volume numerical formulation. The transient radiant step heating measurements provided the best agreement with the numerical results. It was found that a modification of the Swann and Pittman semi-empirical relationship which incorporated the facesheets and adhesive layers in the thermal model provided satisfactory results. Finally, a parametric study was conducted to investigate the influence of adhesive thickness and thermal conductivity on the overall heat transfer through the panel.

  4. A honeycomb composite of mollusca shell matrix and calcium alginate.

    PubMed

    You, Hua-jian; Li, Jin; Zhou, Chan; Liu, Bin; Zhang, Yao-guang

    2016-03-01

    A honeycomb composite is useful to carry cells for application in bone, cartilage, skin, and soft tissue regenerative therapies. To fabricate a composite, and expand the application of mollusca shells as well as improve preparing methods of calcium alginate in tissue engineering research, Anodonta woodiana shell powder was mixed with sodium alginate at varying mass ratios to obtain a gel mixture. The mixture was frozen and treated with dilute hydrochloric acid to generate a shell matrix/calcium alginate composite. Calcium carbonate served as the control. The composite was transplanted subcutaneously into rats. At 7, 14, 42, and 70 days after transplantation, frozen sections were stained with hematoxylin and eosin, followed by DAPI, β-actin, and collagen type-I immunofluorescence staining, and observed using laser confocal microscopy. The composite featured a honeycomb structure. The control and composite samples displayed significantly different mechanical properties. The water absorption rate of the composite and control group were respectively 205-496% and 417-586%. The composite (mass ratio of 5:5) showed good biological safety over a 70-day period; the subcutaneous structure of the samples was maintained and the degradation rate was lower than that of the control samples. Freezing the gel mixture afforded control over chemical reaction rates. Given these results, the composite is a promising honeycomb scaffold for tissue engineering.

  5. Characterizing Facesheet/Core Disbonding in Honeycomb Core Sandwich Structure

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rinker, Martin; Ratcliffe, James G.; Adams, Daniel O.; Krueger, Ronald

    2013-01-01

    Results are presented from an experimental investigation into facesheet core disbonding in carbon fiber reinforced plastic/Nomex honeycomb sandwich structures using a Single Cantilever Beam test. Specimens with three, six and twelve-ply facesheets were tested. Specimens with different honeycomb cores consisting of four different cell sizes were also tested, in addition to specimens with three different widths. Three different data reduction methods were employed for computing apparent fracture toughness values from the test data, namely an area method, a compliance calibration technique and a modified beam theory method. The compliance calibration and modified beam theory approaches yielded comparable apparent fracture toughness values, which were generally lower than those computed using the area method. Disbonding in the three-ply facesheet specimens took place at the facesheet/core interface and yielded the lowest apparent fracture toughness values. Disbonding in the six and twelve-ply facesheet specimens took place within the core, near to the facesheet/core interface. Specimen width was not found to have a significant effect on apparent fracture toughness. The amount of scatter in the apparent fracture toughness data was found to increase with honeycomb core cell size.

  6. Accordion-like honeycombs for tissue engineering of cardiac anisotropy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Engelmayr, George C.; Cheng, Mingyu; Bettinger, Christopher J.; Borenstein, Jeffrey T.; Langer, Robert; Freed, Lisa E.

    2008-12-01

    Tissue-engineered grafts may be useful in myocardial repair; however, previous scaffolds have been structurally incompatible with recapitulating cardiac anisotropy. Here, we use microfabrication techniques to create an accordion-like honeycomb microstructure in poly(glycerol sebacate), which yields porous, elastomeric three-dimensional (3D) scaffolds with controllable stiffness and anisotropy. Accordion-like honeycomb scaffolds with cultured neonatal rat heart cells demonstrated utility through: (1) closely matched mechanical properties compared to native adult rat right ventricular myocardium, with stiffnesses controlled by polymer curing time; (2) heart cell contractility inducible by electric field stimulation with directionally dependent electrical excitation thresholds (p<0.05) and (3) greater heart cell alignment (p<0.0001) than isotropic control scaffolds. Prototype bilaminar scaffolds with 3D interconnected pore networks yielded electrically excitable grafts with multi-layered neonatal rat heart cells. Accordion-like honeycombs can thus overcome principal structural-mechanical limitations of previous scaffolds, promoting the formation of grafts with aligned heart cells and mechanical properties more closely resembling native myocardium.

  7. Heat Shielding Characteristics and Thermostructural Performance of a Superalloy Honeycomb Sandwich Thermal Protection System (TPS)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ko, William L.

    2004-01-01

    Heat-transfer, thermal bending, and mechanical buckling analyses have been performed on a superalloy "honeycomb" thermal protection system (TPS) for future hypersonic flight vehicles. The studies focus on the effect of honeycomb cell geometry on the TPS heat-shielding performance, honeycomb cell wall buckling characteristics, and the effect of boundary conditions on the TPS thermal bending behavior. The results of the study show that the heat-shielding performance of a TPS panel is very sensitive to change in honeycomb core depth, but insensitive to change in honeycomb cell cross-sectional shape. The thermal deformations and thermal stresses in the TPS panel are found to be very sensitive to the edge support conditions. Slight corrugation of the honeycomb cell walls can greatly increase their buckling strength.

  8. Modeling and Analysis of Non-Uniform Honeycomb Structures Based on Topology Optimization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jin, Xin; Li, Guoxi; Zhang, Meng; Gong, Jingzhong

    2017-03-01

    Honeycomb structure infilling is an important way to achieve lightweight. Focusing on the deficiency of the non-optimized macro-material distribution in uniform honeycomb structures, a modeling method of non-uniform honeycomb structures based on topology optimization was proposed. The loaded component was topology-optimized and the density results were mapped to the relative density matrix of cells. The rapid and automatic modeling of non-uniform honeycomb structures was realized with the using of User-Defined Features and the cyclic definitions of the reference datums. The simulation results show that the mechanic performance of non-uniform honeycomb structures is better than uniform honeycomb structures and the efficiency of the proposed method is validated.

  9. Chemical Approaches to 2D Materials.

    PubMed

    Samorì, Paolo; Palermo, Vincenzo; Feng, Xinliang

    2016-08-01

    Chemistry plays an ever-increasing role in the production, functionalization, processing and applications of graphene and other 2D materials. This special issue highlights a selection of enlightening chemical approaches to 2D materials, which nicely reflect the breadth of the field and convey the excitement of the individuals involved in it, who are trying to translate graphene and related materials from the laboratory into a real, high-impact technology.

  10. Directed alternating lattices and the site-to-bond ratio for animals and trees

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ruskin, H. J.; Cadilhe, A. M. R.; Carvalho, J. A. G. S. M.

    1992-08-01

    We present here a brief summary of results on so-called ``exotic'' directed lattices having nonregular periodicity. Such lattices, e.g., the Archimedean nets, are characterized by different site types and a spread of coordination numbers. The evidence adduced here shows that the exponent structure for the growth of animals and trees on such lattices is of the form predicted, with θ0 for trees equivalent to θ for unrestricted animals, independent of the periodicity property. This supports the general form θc=θ0-c, for cycles c=0. We quote values for the growth parameter (or inverse critical fugacity) λ for bond trees and animal growth on selected directed lattices. The convergence of such series is well known to be subject to the influence of subdominant singularities in addition to θ, and we report on results obtained using the second-log-derivative scheme for the lattices of interest. Recent results from percolation studies for the alternating nets [H. J. Ruskin, Phys. Lett. A 162, 215 (1992)] have proved particularly encouraging for the Archimedean lattices, with z~=2.498+-0.010, but uncertainties for the honeycomb were found to be large. Investigation of the site-to-bond ratios for animals and trees on the honeycomb gives somewhat smoother series behavior, which, though subject to confluence effects, supports a much lower value of the effective coordination number. We quote z~=1.450+-0.050.

  11. Buckling Testing and Analysis of Honeycomb Sandwich Panel Arc Segments of a Full-Scale Fairing Barrel. Part 3; 8-ply Out-of-Autoclave Facesheets

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pineda, Evan J.; Myers, David E.; Kosareo, Daniel N.; Kellas, Sotiris

    2014-01-01

    Four honeycomb sandwich panels, representing 1/16th arc segments of a 10 m diameter barrel section of the heavy lift launch vehicle, were manufactured under the NASA Composites for Exploration program and the NASA Constellation Ares V program. Two configurations were chosen for the panels: 6-ply facesheets with 1.125 in. honeycomb core and 8-ply facesheets with 1.000 in. honeycomb core. Additionally, two separate carbon fiber/epoxy material systems were chosen for the facesheets: inautoclave IM7/977-3 and out-of-autoclave T40-800B/5320-1. Smaller 3- by 5-ft panels were cut from the 1/16th barrel sections. These panels were tested under compressive loading at the NASA Langley Research Center. Furthermore, linear eigenvalue and geometrically nonlinear finite element analyses were performed to predict the compressive response of the 3- by 5-ft panels. This manuscript summarizes the experimental and analytical modeling efforts pertaining to the panel composed of 8-ply, T40-800B/5320-1 facesheets (referred to as Panel C). To improve the robustness of the geometrically nonlinear finite element model, measured surface imperfections were included in the geometry of the model. Both the linear and nonlinear, two-dimensional (2-D) and three-dimensional (3-D), models yield good qualitative and quantitative predictions. Additionally, it was predicted correctly that the panel would fail in buckling prior to failing in strength.

  12. A design principle of polymers processable into 2D homeotropic order

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Zhen; Chan, Yi-Tsu; Miyajima, Daigo; Kajitani, Takashi; Kosaka, Atsuko; Fukushima, Takanori; Lobez, Jose M.; Aida, Takuzo

    2016-01-01

    How to orient polymers homeotropically in thin films has been a long-standing issue in polymer science because polymers intrinsically prefer to lie down. Here we provide a design principle for polymers that are processable into a 2D homeotropic order. The key to this achievement was a recognition that cylindrical polymers can be designed to possess oppositely directed local dipoles in their cross-section, which possibly force polymers to tightly connect bilaterally, affording a 2D rectangular assembly. With a physical assistance of the surface grooves on Teflon sheets that sandwich polymer samples, homeotropic ordering is likely nucleated and gradually propagates upon hot-pressing towards the interior of the film. Consequently, the 2D rectangular lattice is constructed such that its b axis (side chains) aligns along the surface grooves, while its c axis (polymer backbone) aligns homeotropically on a Teflon sheet. This finding paves the way to molecularly engineered 2D polymers with anomalous functions. PMID:27897189

  13. A design principle of polymers processable into 2D homeotropic order

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Zhen; Chan, Yi-Tsu; Miyajima, Daigo; Kajitani, Takashi; Kosaka, Atsuko; Fukushima, Takanori; Lobez, Jose M.; Aida, Takuzo

    2016-11-01

    How to orient polymers homeotropically in thin films has been a long-standing issue in polymer science because polymers intrinsically prefer to lie down. Here we provide a design principle for polymers that are processable into a 2D homeotropic order. The key to this achievement was a recognition that cylindrical polymers can be designed to possess oppositely directed local dipoles in their cross-section, which possibly force polymers to tightly connect bilaterally, affording a 2D rectangular assembly. With a physical assistance of the surface grooves on Teflon sheets that sandwich polymer samples, homeotropic ordering is likely nucleated and gradually propagates upon hot-pressing towards the interior of the film. Consequently, the 2D rectangular lattice is constructed such that its b axis (side chains) aligns along the surface grooves, while its c axis (polymer backbone) aligns homeotropically on a Teflon sheet. This finding paves the way to molecularly engineered 2D polymers with anomalous functions.

  14. Photoelectrochemical characterization of dual-layered anodic TiO2 nanotubes with honeycomb morphology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sitler, S. J.; Raja, K. S.; Karmiol, Z.; Chidambaram, D.

    2017-01-01

    Titanium dioxide (TiO2) nanotubes having a novel honeycomb like morphology were synthesized by a two-step anodization process and characterized for photoelectrochemical behavior. The titania nanotubes with honeycomb morphology showed at least 32% higher photocurrent density than the regular vertically oriented titania nanotubes at any given bias potential. The enhanced photoactivity of the honeycomb morphology was attributed to the better charge transport properties and the presence of a hemispherical surface morphology that enhanced the light harvesting behavior.

  15. Vorticity Generation by Rough Walls in 2D Decaying Turbulence

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tóth, Gábor; Jánosi, Imre M.

    2015-12-01

    In this work we present Lattice Boltzmann simulations of a decaying vortex array in a 2D rectangular domain, which is bounded by a random rough wall from one side. In order to separate the effects of the collisions with the rough wall, the opposite (smooth) rigid wall is placed at a larger distance from the center of the vortex array. Periodic boundary condition is imposed in the perpendicular direction. Well defined random roughness is generated by the widely studied Wolf-Villain surface growth algorithm. The main finding is that collisions with a rough wall generate excess vorticity compared with a smooth boundary, while the kinetic energy decreases monotonously. A proper measure is the integrated excess enstrophy, which exhibits an apparent maximum at an "optimal" roughness range. Numerical values of the excess enstrophy are very sensitive to a particular configuration (wall shape and vortex lattice randomization), however the "optimal" roughness exhibits surface features of similar characteristic sizes than that of the decaying vortices.

  16. A nonlinear mechanics model of bio-inspired hierarchical lattice materials consisting of horseshoe microstructures.

    PubMed

    Ma, Qiang; Cheng, Huanyu; Jang, Kyung-In; Luan, Haiwen; Hwang, Keh-Chih; Rogers, John A; Huang, Yonggang; Zhang, Yihui

    2016-05-01

    Development of advanced synthetic materials that can mimic the mechanical properties of non-mineralized soft biological materials has important implications in a wide range of technologies. Hierarchical lattice materials constructed with horseshoe microstructures belong to this class of bio-inspired synthetic materials, where the mechanical responses can be tailored to match the nonlinear J-shaped stress-strain curves of human skins. The underlying relations between the J-shaped stress-strain curves and their microstructure geometry are essential in designing such systems for targeted applications. Here, a theoretical model of this type of hierarchical lattice material is developed by combining a finite deformation constitutive relation of the building block (i.e., horseshoe microstructure), with the analyses of equilibrium and deformation compatibility in the periodical lattices. The nonlinear J-shaped stress-strain curves and Poisson ratios predicted by this model agree very well with results of finite element analyses (FEA) and experiment. Based on this model, analytic solutions were obtained for some key mechanical quantities, e.g., elastic modulus, Poisson ratio, peak modulus, and critical strain around which the tangent modulus increases rapidly. A negative Poisson effect is revealed in the hierarchical lattice with triangular topology, as opposed to a positive Poisson effect in hierarchical lattices with Kagome and honeycomb topologies. The lattice topology is also found to have a strong influence on the stress-strain curve. For the three isotropic lattice topologies (triangular, Kagome and honeycomb), the hierarchical triangular lattice material renders the sharpest transition in the stress-strain curve and relative high stretchability, given the same porosity and arc angle of horseshoe microstructure. Furthermore, a demonstrative example illustrates the utility of the developed model in the rapid optimization of hierarchical lattice materials for

  17. A nonlinear mechanics model of bio-inspired hierarchical lattice materials consisting of horseshoe microstructures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ma, Qiang; Cheng, Huanyu; Jang, Kyung-In; Luan, Haiwen; Hwang, Keh-Chih; Rogers, John A.; Huang, Yonggang; Zhang, Yihui

    2016-05-01

    Development of advanced synthetic materials that can mimic the mechanical properties of non-mineralized soft biological materials has important implications in a wide range of technologies. Hierarchical lattice materials constructed with horseshoe microstructures belong to this class of bio-inspired synthetic materials, where the mechanical responses can be tailored to match the nonlinear J-shaped stress-strain curves of human skins. The underlying relations between the J-shaped stress-strain curves and their microstructure geometry are essential in designing such systems for targeted applications. Here, a theoretical model of this type of hierarchical lattice material is developed by combining a finite deformation constitutive relation of the building block (i.e., horseshoe microstructure), with the analyses of equilibrium and deformation compatibility in the periodical lattices. The nonlinear J-shaped stress-strain curves and Poisson ratios predicted by this model agree very well with results of finite element analyses (FEA) and experiment. Based on this model, analytic solutions were obtained for some key mechanical quantities, e.g., elastic modulus, Poisson ratio, peak modulus, and critical strain around which the tangent modulus increases rapidly. A negative Poisson effect is revealed in the hierarchical lattice with triangular topology, as opposed to a positive Poisson effect in hierarchical lattices with Kagome and honeycomb topologies. The lattice topology is also found to have a strong influence on the stress-strain curve. For the three isotropic lattice topologies (triangular, Kagome and honeycomb), the hierarchical triangular lattice material renders the sharpest transition in the stress-strain curve and relative high stretchability, given the same porosity and arc angle of horseshoe microstructure. Furthermore, a demonstrative example illustrates the utility of the developed model in the rapid optimization of hierarchical lattice materials for

  18. Water Vapor Desorption Characteristics of Honeycomb Type Sorption Element Composed of Organic Sorbent

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Inaba, Hideo; Kida, Takahisa; Horibe, Akihiko; Kaneda, Makoto; Okamoto, Tamio; Seo, Jeong-Kyun

    This paper describes the water vapor desorption characteristics of honeycomb shape type sorbent element containing new organic sorbent of the bridged complex of sodium polyacrylate. The transient experiments in which the dry air was passed into the honeycomb type sorbent element sorbed water vapor were carried out under various conditions of air velocity, temperature, relative humidity and honeycomb length. The obtained data for desorption process were compared with those for sorption process. Finally, Sherwood number of mass transfer of the organic sorbent for desorption process was derived in terms of Reynolds number, modified Stefan number and non-dimensional honeycomb length.

  19. Design of BAs-AlN monolayered honeycomb heterojunction structures: A first-principles study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Camacho-Mojica, Dulce C.; López-Urías, Florentino

    2016-04-01

    BAs and AlN are semiconductor materials with an indirect and direct gap respectively in the bulk phase. Recently, electronic calculations have demonstrated that a single-layer or few layers of BAs and AlN exhibit a graphite-like structure with interesting electronic properties. In this work, infinite sheets single-layer heterojunction structures based on alternated strips with honeycomb BAs and AlN layers are investigated using first-principles density functional theory calculations. Optimized geometries, density of states, band-gaps, formation energies, and wave functions are studied for different strip widths joined along zigzag and armchair edges. Results in optimized heterojunction geometries revealed that BAs narrow strips exhibit a corrugation effect due to a lattice mismatch. It was found that zigzag heterojunctions are more energetically favored than armchair heterojunctions. Furthermore, the formation energy presents a maximum at the point where the heterojunction becomes a planar structure. Electronic charge density results yielded a more ionic behavior in Alsbnd N bonds than the Bsbnd As bonds in accordance with monolayer results. It was observed that the conduction band minimum for both heterojunctions exhibit confined states located mainly at the entire AlN strips whereas the valence band maximum exhibits confined states located mainly at BAs strips. We expect that the present investigation will motivate more experimental and theoretical studies on new layered materials made of III-V semiconductors.

  20. Renormalization group study of excitonic and superconducting order in doped honeycomb bilayer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Murray, James; Vafek, Oskar

    2014-03-01

    We explore the competition between spin-charge order and unconventional superconductivity in the context of the AB stacked bilayer honeycomb lattice, realized experimentally as bilayer graphene, which features approximately parabolically touching electron bands. Using a weak-coupling renormalization group theory, we show that unconventional superconductivity arises generically for repulsively interacting fermions as excitonic order is suppressed by adding charge carriers to the system. We investigate the effects of finite temperature and further-neighbor hopping, the latter of which leads to so-called ``trigonal warping'' and destroys the perfect circular symmetry of the Fermi surfaces. We show that superconductivity survives for a finite range of trigonal warping, and that the nature of the superconducting phase may change as a function of further neighbor hopping. Depending on the range of interactions and the degree of trigonal warping, we find that the most likely superconducting instabilities are to f-wave, chiral d-wave, and pair density wave phases. It is shown that unconventional superconductivity is significantly enhanced by fluctuations in particle-hole channels, with the critical temperature reaching a maximum near the excitonic phase. Supported by the NSF CAREER award under Grant No. DMR-0955561, NSF Cooperative Agreement No. DMR-0654118, and the State of Florida, as well as by ICAM-I2CAM (NSF grant DMR-0844115) and by DoE, Office of Basic Energy Sciences (Award DE-FG02-08ER46544).

  1. Simulations of two-particle interactions with 2D quantum walks in time

    SciTech Connect

    Schreiber, A.; Laiho, K.; Silberhorn, C.; Rohde, P. P.; Štefaňak, M.; Potoček, V.; Hamilton, C.; Jex, I.

    2014-12-04

    We present the experimental implementation of a quantum walk on a two-dimensional lattice and show how to employ the optical system to simulate the quantum propagation of two interacting particles. Our quantum walk in time transfers the spatial spread of a quantum walk into the time domain, which guarantees a high stability and scalability of the setup. We present with our device quantum walks over 12 steps on a 2D lattice. By changing the properties of the driving quantum coin, we investigate different kinds of two-particle interactions and reveal their impact on the occurring quantum propagation.

  2. Multi-resonant optical parametric oscillator based on 2D-PPLT nonlinear photonic crystal.

    PubMed

    Lazoul, Mohamed; Boudrioua, Azzedine; Simohamed, Lotfy-Mokhtar; Peng, Lung-Han

    2015-04-15

    The aim of this work is to achieve an optical parametric oscillator based on two-dimensional periodically poled lithium tantalate (2D-PPLT) crystals that are designed to allow multiple reciprocal lattice-vector contribution to the quasi-phase matching scheme. We are particularly interested in the effect of the multi-wavelength parametric generation performed by the 2D nonlinear photonic crystal to achieve a multi-resonant optical parametric oscillator. The performances are studied in terms of generation efficiency and multi-wavelength generation.

  3. Orthotropic Piezoelectricity in 2D Nanocellulose

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    García, Y.; Ruiz-Blanco, Yasser B.; Marrero-Ponce, Yovani; Sotomayor-Torres, C. M.

    2016-10-01

    The control of electromechanical responses within bonding regions is essential to face frontier challenges in nanotechnologies, such as molecular electronics and biotechnology. Here, we present Iβ-nanocellulose as a potentially new orthotropic 2D piezoelectric crystal. The predicted in-layer piezoelectricity is originated on a sui-generis hydrogen bonds pattern. Upon this fact and by using a combination of ab-initio and ad-hoc models, we introduce a description of electrical profiles along chemical bonds. Such developments lead to obtain a rationale for modelling the extended piezoelectric effect originated within bond scales. The order of magnitude estimated for the 2D Iβ-nanocellulose piezoelectric response, ~pm V‑1, ranks this material at the level of currently used piezoelectric energy generators and new artificial 2D designs. Such finding would be crucial for developing alternative materials to drive emerging nanotechnologies.

  4. Orthotropic Piezoelectricity in 2D Nanocellulose

    PubMed Central

    García, Y.; Ruiz-Blanco, Yasser B.; Marrero-Ponce, Yovani; Sotomayor-Torres, C. M.

    2016-01-01

    The control of electromechanical responses within bonding regions is essential to face frontier challenges in nanotechnologies, such as molecular electronics and biotechnology. Here, we present Iβ-nanocellulose as a potentially new orthotropic 2D piezoelectric crystal. The predicted in-layer piezoelectricity is originated on a sui-generis hydrogen bonds pattern. Upon this fact and by using a combination of ab-initio and ad-hoc models, we introduce a description of electrical profiles along chemical bonds. Such developments lead to obtain a rationale for modelling the extended piezoelectric effect originated within bond scales. The order of magnitude estimated for the 2D Iβ-nanocellulose piezoelectric response, ~pm V−1, ranks this material at the level of currently used piezoelectric energy generators and new artificial 2D designs. Such finding would be crucial for developing alternative materials to drive emerging nanotechnologies. PMID:27708364

  5. Orthotropic Piezoelectricity in 2D Nanocellulose.

    PubMed

    García, Y; Ruiz-Blanco, Yasser B; Marrero-Ponce, Yovani; Sotomayor-Torres, C M

    2016-10-06

    The control of electromechanical responses within bonding regions is essential to face frontier challenges in nanotechnologies, such as molecular electronics and biotechnology. Here, we present Iβ-nanocellulose as a potentially new orthotropic 2D piezoelectric crystal. The predicted in-layer piezoelectricity is originated on a sui-generis hydrogen bonds pattern. Upon this fact and by using a combination of ab-initio and ad-hoc models, we introduce a description of electrical profiles along chemical bonds. Such developments lead to obtain a rationale for modelling the extended piezoelectric effect originated within bond scales. The order of magnitude estimated for the 2D Iβ-nanocellulose piezoelectric response, ~pm V(-1), ranks this material at the level of currently used piezoelectric energy generators and new artificial 2D designs. Such finding would be crucial for developing alternative materials to drive emerging nanotechnologies.

  6. 2D microwave imaging reflectometer electronics

    SciTech Connect

    Spear, A. G.; Domier, C. W. Hu, X.; Muscatello, C. M.; Ren, X.; Luhmann, N. C.; Tobias, B. J.

    2014-11-15

    A 2D microwave imaging reflectometer system has been developed to visualize electron density fluctuations on the DIII-D tokamak. Simultaneously illuminated at four probe frequencies, large aperture optics image reflections from four density-dependent cutoff surfaces in the plasma over an extended region of the DIII-D plasma. Localized density fluctuations in the vicinity of the plasma cutoff surfaces modulate the plasma reflections, yielding a 2D image of electron density fluctuations. Details are presented of the receiver down conversion electronics that generate the in-phase (I) and quadrature (Q) reflectometer signals from which 2D density fluctuation data are obtained. Also presented are details on the control system and backplane used to manage the electronics as well as an introduction to the computer based control program.

  7. Large Area Synthesis of 2D Materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vogel, Eric

    Transition metal dichalcogenides (TMDs) have generated significant interest for numerous applications including sensors, flexible electronics, heterostructures and optoelectronics due to their interesting, thickness-dependent properties. Despite recent progress, the synthesis of high-quality and highly uniform TMDs on a large scale is still a challenge. In this talk, synthesis routes for WSe2 and MoS2 that achieve monolayer thickness uniformity across large area substrates with electrical properties equivalent to geological crystals will be described. Controlled doping of 2D semiconductors is also critically required. However, methods established for conventional semiconductors, such as ion implantation, are not easily applicable to 2D materials because of their atomically thin structure. Redox-active molecular dopants will be demonstrated which provide large changes in carrier density and workfunction through the choice of dopant, treatment time, and the solution concentration. Finally, several applications of these large-area, uniform 2D materials will be described including heterostructures, biosensors and strain sensors.

  8. 2D microwave imaging reflectometer electronics.

    PubMed

    Spear, A G; Domier, C W; Hu, X; Muscatello, C M; Ren, X; Tobias, B J; Luhmann, N C

    2014-11-01

    A 2D microwave imaging reflectometer system has been developed to visualize electron density fluctuations on the DIII-D tokamak. Simultaneously illuminated at four probe frequencies, large aperture optics image reflections from four density-dependent cutoff surfaces in the plasma over an extended region of the DIII-D plasma. Localized density fluctuations in the vicinity of the plasma cutoff surfaces modulate the plasma reflections, yielding a 2D image of electron density fluctuations. Details are presented of the receiver down conversion electronics that generate the in-phase (I) and quadrature (Q) reflectometer signals from which 2D density fluctuation data are obtained. Also presented are details on the control system and backplane used to manage the electronics as well as an introduction to the computer based control program.

  9. Guided wave propagation in a honeycomb composite sandwich structure in presence of a high density core.

    PubMed

    Sikdar, Shirsendu; Banerjee, Sauvik

    2016-09-01

    A coordinated theoretical, numerical and experimental study is carried out in an effort to interpret the characteristics of propagating guided Lamb wave modes in presence of a high-density (HD) core region in a honeycomb composite sandwich structure (HCSS). Initially, a two-dimensional (2D) semi-analytical model based on the global matrix method is used to study the response and dispersion characteristics of the HCSS with a soft core. Due to the complex structural characteristics, the study of guided wave (GW) propagation in HCSS with HD-core region inherently poses many challenges. Therefore, a numerical simulation of GW propagation in the HCSS with and without the HD-core region is carried out, using surface-bonded piezoelectric wafer transducer (PWT) network. From the numerical results, it is observed that the presence of HD-core significantly decreases both the group velocity and the amplitude of the received GW signal. Laboratory experiments are then conducted in order to verify the theoretical and numerical results. A good agreement between the theoretical, numerical and experimental results is observed in all the cases studied. An extensive parametric study is also carried out for a range of HD-core sizes and densities in order to study the effect due to the change in size and density of the HD zone on the characteristics of propagating GW modes. It is found that the amplitudes and group velocities of the GW modes decrease with the increase in HD-core width and density.

  10. Assessing 2D electrophoretic mobility spectroscopy (2D MOSY) for analytical applications.

    PubMed

    Fang, Yuan; Yushmanov, Pavel V; Furó, István

    2016-12-08

    Electrophoretic displacement of charged entity phase modulates the spectrum acquired in electrophoretic NMR experiments, and this modulation can be presented via 2D FT as 2D mobility spectroscopy (MOSY) spectra. We compare in various mixed solutions the chemical selectivity provided by 2D MOSY spectra with that provided by 2D diffusion-ordered spectroscopy (DOSY) spectra and demonstrate, under the conditions explored, a superior performance of the former method. 2D MOSY compares also favourably with closely related LC-NMR methods. The shape of 2D MOSY spectra in complex mixtures is strongly modulated by the pH of the sample, a feature that has potential for areas such as in drug discovery and metabolomics. Copyright © 2016 The Authors. Magnetic Resonance in Chemistry published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd. StartCopTextCopyright © 2016 The Authors. Magnetic Resonance in Chemistry published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  11. Quantum phase diagrams of the Jaynes–Cummings Hubbard models in non-rectangular lattices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Jun; Jiang, Ying

    2017-03-01

    In this paper, we investigate systematically the quantum phase transition between the Mott-insulator and superfluid states of the Jaynes–Cummings Hubbard model in triangular, square, honeycomb and kagomé lattices. With the help of Green’s function method, by treating the hopping term in the Jaynes–Cummings Hubbard model as perturbation, we calculate the phase boundaries of Jaynes–Cummings Hubbard models on different geometrical lattices analytically up to second order for both detuning Δ =0 and Δ \

  12. 2D Distributed Sensing Via TDR

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-11-02

    plate VEGF CompositeSensor Experimental Setup Air 279 mm 61 78 VARTM profile: slope RTM profile: rectangle 22 1 Jul 2003© 2003 University of Delaware...2003 University of Delaware All rights reserved Vision: Non-contact 2D sensing ü VARTM setup constructed within TL can be sensed by its EM field: 2D...300.0 mm/ns. 1 2 1 Jul 2003© 2003 University of Delaware All rights reserved Model Validation “ RTM Flow” TDR Response to 139 mm VEGC

  13. Inkjet printing of 2D layered materials.

    PubMed

    Li, Jiantong; Lemme, Max C; Östling, Mikael

    2014-11-10

    Inkjet printing of 2D layered materials, such as graphene and MoS2, has attracted great interests for emerging electronics. However, incompatible rheology, low concentration, severe aggregation and toxicity of solvents constitute critical challenges which hamper the manufacturing efficiency and product quality. Here, we introduce a simple and general technology concept (distillation-assisted solvent exchange) to efficiently overcome these challenges. By implementing the concept, we have demonstrated excellent jetting performance, ideal printing patterns and a variety of promising applications for inkjet printing of 2D layered materials.

  14. Parallel Stitching of 2D Materials.

    PubMed

    Ling, Xi; Lin, Yuxuan; Ma, Qiong; Wang, Ziqiang; Song, Yi; Yu, Lili; Huang, Shengxi; Fang, Wenjing; Zhang, Xu; Hsu, Allen L; Bie, Yaqing; Lee, Yi-Hsien; Zhu, Yimei; Wu, Lijun; Li, Ju; Jarillo-Herrero, Pablo; Dresselhaus, Mildred; Palacios, Tomás; Kong, Jing

    2016-03-23

    Diverse parallel stitched 2D heterostructures, including metal-semiconductor, semiconductor-semiconductor, and insulator-semiconductor, are synthesized directly through selective "sowing" of aromatic molecules as the seeds in the chemical vapor deposition (CVD) method. The methodology enables the large-scale fabrication of lateral heterostructures, which offers tremendous potential for its application in integrated circuits.

  15. The basics of 2D DIGE.

    PubMed

    Beckett, Phil

    2012-01-01

    The technique of two-dimensional (2D) gel electrophoresis is a powerful tool for separating complex mixtures of proteins, but since its inception in the mid 1970s, it acquired the stigma of being a very difficult application to master and was generally used to its best effect by experts. The introduction of commercially available immobilized pH gradients in the early 1990s provided enhanced reproducibility and easier protocols, leading to a pronounced increase in popularity of the technique. However gel-to-gel variation was still difficult to control without the use of technical replicates. In the mid 1990s (at the same time as the birth of "proteomics"), the concept of multiplexing fluorescently labeled proteins for 2D gel separation was realized by Jon Minden's group and has led to the ability to design experiments to virtually eliminate gel-to-gel variation, resulting in biological replicates being used for statistical analysis with the ability to detect very small changes in relative protein abundance. This technology is referred to as 2D difference gel electrophoresis (2D DIGE).

  16. Parallel stitching of 2D materials

    DOE PAGES

    Ling, Xi; Wu, Lijun; Lin, Yuxuan; ...

    2016-01-27

    Diverse parallel stitched 2D heterostructures, including metal–semiconductor, semiconductor–semiconductor, and insulator–semiconductor, are synthesized directly through selective “sowing” of aromatic molecules as the seeds in the chemical vapor deposition (CVD) method. Lastly, the methodology enables the large-scale fabrication of lateral heterostructures, which offers tremendous potential for its application in integrated circuits.

  17. Design data for brazed Rene 41 honeycomb sandwich

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hepler, A. K.; Arnquist, J.; Koetje, E. L.; Esposito, J. J.; Lindsay, V. E. J.; Swegle, A. R.

    1981-01-01

    Strength data, creep data and residual strength data after cyclic thermal exposure were obtained at temperatures from 78 K to 1144 K (-320 F to 1600 F). The influences of face thickness, core depth, core gage, cell size and thermal/stress exposure conditions on the mechanical design properties were investigated. A braze alloy and process was developed that is adequate to fully develop the strength of the honeycomb core while simultaneously solution treating and aging the Rene 41 fact sheets. New test procedures and test specimen configurations were developed to avoid excessive thermal stresses during cyclic thermal exposure.

  18. Electron and phonon properties and gas storage in carbon honeycombs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gao, Yan; Chen, Yuanping; Zhong, Chengyong; Zhang, Zhongwei; Xie, Yuee; Zhang, Shengbai

    2016-06-01

    A new kind of three-dimensional carbon allotrope, termed carbon honeycomb (CHC), has recently been synthesized [PRL 116, 055501 (2016)]. Based on the experimental results, a family of graphene networks has been constructed, and their electronic and phonon properties are studied by various theoretical approaches. All networks are porous metals with two types of electron transport channels along the honeycomb axis and they are isolated from each other: one type of channel originates from the orbital interactions of the carbon zigzag chains and is topologically protected, while the other type of channel is from the straight lines of the carbon atoms that link the zigzag chains and is topologically trivial. The velocity of the electrons can reach ~106 m s-1. Phonon transport in these allotropes is strongly anisotropic, and the thermal conductivities can be very low when compared with graphite by at least a factor of 15. Our calculations further indicate that these porous carbon networks possess high storage capacity for gaseous atoms and molecules in agreement with the experiments.A new kind of three-dimensional carbon allotrope, termed carbon honeycomb (CHC), has recently been synthesized [PRL 116, 055501 (2016)]. Based on the experimental results, a family of graphene networks has been constructed, and their electronic and phonon properties are studied by various theoretical approaches. All networks are porous metals with two types of electron transport channels along the honeycomb axis and they are isolated from each other: one type of channel originates from the orbital interactions of the carbon zigzag chains and is topologically protected, while the other type of channel is from the straight lines of the carbon atoms that link the zigzag chains and is topologically trivial. The velocity of the electrons can reach ~106 m s-1. Phonon transport in these allotropes is strongly anisotropic, and the thermal conductivities can be very low when compared with graphite by

  19. Emission of an intense electron beam from a ceramic honeycomb

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Friedman, M.; Myers, M.; Hegeler, F.; Swanekamp, S. B.; Sethian, J. D.; Ludeking, L.

    2003-01-01

    Inserting a slab of honeycomb ceramic in front of the emitting surface of a large-area cathode improves the electron beam emission uniformity, decreases the beam current rise and fall times, and maintains a more constant diode impedance. Moreover, changing the cathode material from velvet to carbon fiber achieved a more robust cathode that starts to emit at a higher electric field without a degradation in beam uniformity. In addition, an 80% reduction in the postshot diode pressure was also observed when gamma alumina was deposited on the ceramic. A possible explanation is that reabsorption and recycling of adsorbed gases takes place.

  20. Self-ordering dual-layered honeycomb nanotubular titania: Enhanced structural stability and energy storage capacity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sitler, S. J.; Raja, K. S.; Karmiol, Z.; Chidambaram, D.

    2017-04-01

    Electrochemical energy storage of TiO2 anodic oxide with a novel honeycomb morphology was characterized and compared with that of standard TiO2 nanotubes. The new morphology consists of several smaller-diameter (∼20 nm) nanotubes stacked inside of each honeycomb like hemisphere. The honeycomb like hemispheres are 160-200 nm in diameter with inter-wall thicknesses of 20-50 nm grown onto a planar barrier layer. The dual-layered honeycomb oxide has a total thickness of about 350-500 nm and high surface area. Cyclic voltammetry and galvanostatic charge-discharge tests were carried out on these oxide samples in as-anodized and thermally annealed conditions using 0.1 M NaOH and 0.1 M LiCl + 0.1 M HCl electrolytes. The honeycomb arrays showed an areal capacitance of 56 mF cm-2 at 100 mV s-1 scan rate, and 0.75 mF cm-2 at a current density of 0.1 mA cm-2. The areal capacitance of the honeycomb structured samples were about 60% higher than that of the regular TiO2 nanotubes. The honeycomb structured TiO2 also showed 33% higher capacitance retention after 10,000 cycles than that of regular TiO2 nanotubes. The higher capacitance retention could be attributed to the enhanced structural stability of the honeycomb structures.

  1. Finite Element Development of Honeycomb Panel Configurations with Improved Transmission Loss

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Grosveld, Ferdinand W.; Palumbo, Daniel L.; Klos, Jacob; Castle, William D.

    2006-01-01

    The higher stiffness-to-mass ratio of a honeycomb panel compared to a homogeneous panel results in a lower acoustic critical frequency. Above the critical frequency the panel flexural wave speed is acoustically fast and the structure becomes a more efficient radiator with associated lower sound transmission loss. Finite element models of honeycomb sandwich structures are presented featuring areas where the core is removed from the radiating face sheet disrupting the supersonic flexural and shear wave speeds that exist in the baseline honeycomb panel. These modified honeycomb panel structures exhibit improved transmission loss for a pre-defined diffuse field sound excitation. The models were validated by the sound transmission loss of honeycomb panels measured in the Structural Acoustic Loads and Transmission (SALT) facility at the NASA Langley Research Center. A honeycomb core panel configuration is presented exhibiting a transmission loss improvement of 3-11 dB compared to a honeycomb baseline panel over a frequency range from 170 Hz to 1000 Hz. The improved transmission loss panel configuration had a 5.1% increase in mass over the baseline honeycomb panel, and approximately twice the deflection when excited by a static force.

  2. 49 CFR 587.15 - Verification of aluminum honeycomb crush strength.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Verification of aluminum honeycomb crush strength. 587.15 Section 587.15 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) NATIONAL... Deformable Barrier § 587.15 Verification of aluminum honeycomb crush strength. The following procedure...

  3. 49 CFR 587.15 - Verification of aluminum honeycomb crush strength.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 7 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Verification of aluminum honeycomb crush strength. 587.15 Section 587.15 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) NATIONAL... Deformable Barrier § 587.15 Verification of aluminum honeycomb crush strength. The following procedure...

  4. 49 CFR 587.15 - Verification of aluminum honeycomb crush strength.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 7 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Verification of aluminum honeycomb crush strength. 587.15 Section 587.15 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) NATIONAL... Deformable Barrier § 587.15 Verification of aluminum honeycomb crush strength. The following procedure...

  5. [Catalytic ozonation by ceramic honeycomb for the degradation of oxalic acid in aqueous solution].

    PubMed

    Zhao, Lei; Sun, Zhi-Zhong; Ma, Jun

    2007-11-01

    Comparative experiments for the degradation of oxalic acid in aqueous solution were carried out in the three processes of ozonation alone, ceramic honeycomb-catalyzed ozonation and ceramic honeycomb adsorption. The results show that the degradation rates of oxalic acid in the ceramic honeycomb-catalyzed ozonation, ozonation alone and ceramic honeycomb adsorption systems are 37.6%, 2.2% and 0.4%, and the presence of ceramic honeycomb catalyst significantly improves the degradation rate of oxalic acid compared to the results from non-catalytic ozonation and adsorption. With the addition of tert-butanol, the degradation rates of oxalic acid in catalytic ozonation system decrease by 24.1%, 29.0% and 30.1%, respectively, at the concentration of 5, 10 and 15 mg x L(-1). This phenomenon indicates that ceramic honeycomb-catalyzed ozonation for the degradation of oxalic acid in aqueous solution follows the mechanism of *OH oxidation, namely the heterogeneous surface of catalyst enhances the initiation of *OH. The results of TOC analysis demonstrate that the process of ceramic honeycomb-catalyzed ozonation can achieve the complete mineralization level without the formation of intermediary degradation products. The experimental results suggest that the reaction temperature has positive relationship with the degradation rate of oxalic acid. The degradation rates of oxalic acid in the ceramic honeycomb-catalyzed ozonation system are 16.4%, 37.6%, 61.3% and 68.2%, at the respective reaction temperature of 10, 20, 30 and 40 degrees C.

  6. Kondo lattice without Nozieres exhaustion effect.

    SciTech Connect

    Kikoin, K.; Kiselev, M. N.; Materials Science Division; Ben-Gurion Univ. of the Negev; Ludwig-Maximilians Univ.

    2006-01-01

    We discuss the properties of layered Anderson/Kondo lattices with metallic electrons confined in 2D xy planes and local spins in insulating layers forming chains in the z direction. Each spin in this model possesses its own 2D Kondo cloud, so that the Nozieres exhaustion problem does not occur. The high-temperature perturbational description is matched to exact low-T Bethe-ansatz solution. The excitation spectrum of the model is gapless both in charge and spin sectors. The disordered phases and possible experimental realizations of the model are briefly discussed.

  7. Self-Assembled Si(111) Surface States: 2D Dirac Material for THz Plasmonics.

    PubMed

    Wang, Z F; Liu, Feng

    2015-07-10

    Graphene, the first discovered 2D Dirac material, has had a profound impact on science and technology. In the last decade, we have witnessed huge advances in graphene related fundamental and applied research. Here, based on first-principles calculations, we propose a new 2D Dirac band on the Si(111) surface with 1/3 monolayer halogen coverage. The sp(3) dangling bonds form a honeycomb superstructure on the Si(111) surface that results in an anisotropic Dirac band with a group velocity (∼10(6)  m/s) comparable to that in graphene. Most remarkably, the Si-based surface Dirac band can be used to excite a tunable THz plasmon through electron-hole doping. Our results demonstrate a new way to design Dirac states on a traditional semiconductor surface, so as to make them directly compatible with Si technology. We envision this new type of Dirac material to be generalized to other semiconductor surfaces with broad applications.

  8. Silicene, a promising new 2D material

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oughaddou, Hamid; Enriquez, Hanna; Tchalala, Mohammed Rachid; Yildirim, Handan; Mayne, Andrew J.; Bendounan, Azzedine; Dujardin, Gérald; Ait Ali, Mustapha; Kara, Abdelkader

    2015-02-01

    Silicene is emerging as a two-dimensional material with very attractive electronic properties for a wide range of applications; it is a particularly promising material for nano-electronics in silicon-based technology. Over the last decade, the existence and stability of silicene has been the subject of much debate. Theoretical studies were the first to predict a puckered honeycomb structure with electronic properties resembling those of graphene. Though these studies were for free-standing silicene, experimental fabrication of silicene has been achieved so far only through epitaxial growth on crystalline surfaces. Indeed, it was only in 2010 that researchers presented the first experimental evidence of the formation of silicene on Ag(1 1 0) and Ag(1 1 1), which has launched silicene in a similar way to graphene. This very active field has naturally led to the recent growth of silicene on Ir(1 1 1), ZrB2(0 0 0 1) and Au(1 1 0) substrates. However, the electronic properties of epitaxially grown silicene on metal surfaces are influenced by the strong silicene-metal interactions. This has prompted experimental studies of the growth of multi-layer silicene, though the nature of its "silicene" structure remains questionable. Of course, like graphene, synthesizing free-standing silicene represents the ultimate challenge. A first step towards this has been reported recently through chemical exfoliation from calcium disilicide (CaSi2). In this review, we discuss the experimental and theoretical studies of silicene performed to date. Special attention is given to different experimental studies of the electronic properties of silicene on metal substrates. New avenues for the growth of silicene on other substrates with different chemical characteristics are presented along with foreseeable applications such as nano-devices and novel batteries.

  9. Simulated effect on the compressive and shear mechanical properties of bionic integrated honeycomb plates.

    PubMed

    He, Chenglin; Chen, Jinxiang; Wu, Zhishen; Xie, Juan; Zu, Qiao; Lu, Yun

    2015-05-01

    Honeycomb plates can be applied in many fields, including furniture manufacturing, mechanical engineering, civil engineering, transportation and aerospace. In the present study, we discuss the simulated effect on the mechanical properties of bionic integrated honeycomb plates by investigating the compressive and shear failure modes and the mechanical properties of trabeculae reinforced by long or short fibers. The results indicate that the simulated effect represents approximately 80% and 70% of the compressive and shear strengths, respectively. Compared with existing bionic samples, the mass-specific strength was significantly improved. Therefore, this integrated honeycomb technology remains the most effective method for the trial manufacturing of bionic integrated honeycomb plates. The simulated effect of the compressive rigidity is approximately 85%. The short-fiber trabeculae have an advantage over the long-fiber trabeculae in terms of shear rigidity, which provides new evidence for the application of integrated bionic honeycomb plates.

  10. Porous silica aerogel/honeycomb ceramic composites fabricated by an ultrasound stimulation process

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hong, Sun-Wook; Song, In-Hyuck; Park, Young-Jo; Yun, Hui-suk; Hwang, Ki-Young; Rhee, Young-Woo

    2012-06-01

    The synthesis behavior of nanoporous hydrophobic silica aerogel in honeycomb-type ceramics was observed using TEOS and MTES. Silica aerogel in the honeycomb ceramic structure was synthesized under ultrasound stimulation. The synthesized aerogel/honeycomb ceramic composites were dried under supercritical CO2 drying conditions. The values for the line shrinkage of the wet gels during supercritical CO2 drying declined from 19% to 4% with an increase in the H2O/TEOS molar ratio from 8 to 24. Low shrinkage was a key factor in increasing the interface compatibility with the aerogel/honeycomb ceramic composites. The optimum condition of silica aerogel in the honeycomb-type ceramic structure had a TEOS:MTES: H2O:glycerol ratio equal to 1:1.2:24:0.05 (mol%).

  11. Application of 2D Non-Graphene Materials and 2D Oxide Nanostructures for Biosensing Technology

    PubMed Central

    Shavanova, Kateryna; Bakakina, Yulia; Burkova, Inna; Shtepliuk, Ivan; Viter, Roman; Ubelis, Arnolds; Beni, Valerio; Starodub, Nickolaj; Yakimova, Rositsa; Khranovskyy, Volodymyr

    2016-01-01

    The discovery of graphene and its unique properties has inspired researchers to try to invent other two-dimensional (2D) materials. After considerable research effort, a distinct “beyond graphene” domain has been established, comprising the library of non-graphene 2D materials. It is significant that some 2D non-graphene materials possess solid advantages over their predecessor, such as having a direct band gap, and therefore are highly promising for a number of applications. These applications are not limited to nano- and opto-electronics, but have a strong potential in biosensing technologies, as one example. However, since most of the 2D non-graphene materials have been newly discovered, most of the research efforts are concentrated on material synthesis and the investigation of the properties of the material. Applications of 2D non-graphene materials are still at the embryonic stage, and the integration of 2D non-graphene materials into devices is scarcely reported. However, in recent years, numerous reports have blossomed about 2D material-based biosensors, evidencing the growing potential of 2D non-graphene materials for biosensing applications. This review highlights the recent progress in research on the potential of using 2D non-graphene materials and similar oxide nanostructures for different types of biosensors (optical and electrochemical). A wide range of biological targets, such as glucose, dopamine, cortisol, DNA, IgG, bisphenol, ascorbic acid, cytochrome and estradiol, has been reported to be successfully detected by biosensors with transducers made of 2D non-graphene materials. PMID:26861346

  12. Application of 2D Non-Graphene Materials and 2D Oxide Nanostructures for Biosensing Technology.

    PubMed

    Shavanova, Kateryna; Bakakina, Yulia; Burkova, Inna; Shtepliuk, Ivan; Viter, Roman; Ubelis, Arnolds; Beni, Valerio; Starodub, Nickolaj; Yakimova, Rositsa; Khranovskyy, Volodymyr

    2016-02-06

    The discovery of graphene and its unique properties has inspired researchers to try to invent other two-dimensional (2D) materials. After considerable research effort, a distinct "beyond graphene" domain has been established, comprising the library of non-graphene 2D materials. It is significant that some 2D non-graphene materials possess solid advantages over their predecessor, such as having a direct band gap, and therefore are highly promising for a number of applications. These applications are not limited to nano- and opto-electronics, but have a strong potential in biosensing technologies, as one example. However, since most of the 2D non-graphene materials have been newly discovered, most of the research efforts are concentrated on material synthesis and the investigation of the properties of the material. Applications of 2D non-graphene materials are still at the embryonic stage, and the integration of 2D non-graphene materials into devices is scarcely reported. However, in recent years, numerous reports have blossomed about 2D material-based biosensors, evidencing the growing potential of 2D non-graphene materials for biosensing applications. This review highlights the recent progress in research on the potential of using 2D non-graphene materials and similar oxide nanostructures for different types of biosensors (optical and electrochemical). A wide range of biological targets, such as glucose, dopamine, cortisol, DNA, IgG, bisphenol, ascorbic acid, cytochrome and estradiol, has been reported to be successfully detected by biosensors with transducers made of 2D non-graphene materials.

  13. Simulating Dirac fermions with Abelian and non-Abelian gauge fields in optical lattices

    SciTech Connect

    Alba, E.; Fernandez-Gonzalvo, X.; Mur-Petit, J.; Garcia-Ripoll, J.J.; Pachos, J.K.

    2013-01-15

    In this work we present an optical lattice setup to realize a full Dirac Hamiltonian in 2+1 dimensions. We show how all possible external potentials coupled to the Dirac field can arise from perturbations of the existing couplings of the honeycomb lattice pattern. This greatly simplifies the proposed implementations, requiring only spatial modulations of the intensity of the laser beams to induce complex non-Abelian potentials. We finally suggest several experiments to observe the properties of the quantum field theory in the setup. - Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer This work provides a very flexible setup for simulating Dirac fermions. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The manuscript contains a detailed study of optical lattice deformations. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The link between lattice deformations and effective gauge Hamiltonians is studied.

  14. 2D to 3D transition of polymeric carbon nitride nanosheets

    SciTech Connect

    Chamorro-Posada, Pedro; Vázquez-Cabo, José; Martín-Ramos, Pablo; Martín-Gil, Jesús; Navas-Gracia, Luis M.; Dante, Roberto C.

    2014-11-15

    The transition from a prevalent turbostratic arrangement with low planar interactions (2D) to an array of polymeric carbon nitride nanosheets with stronger interplanar interactions (3D), occurring for samples treated above 650 °C, was detected by terahertz-time domain spectroscopy (THz-TDS). The simulated 3D material made of stacks of shifted quasi planar sheets composed of zigzagged polymer ribbons, delivered a XRD simulated pattern in relatively good agreement with the experimental one. The 2D to 3D transition was also supported by the simulation of THz-TDS spectra obtained from quantum chemistry calculations, in which the same broad bands around 2 THz and 1.5 THz were found for 2D and 3D arrays, respectively. This transition was also in accordance with the tightening of the interplanar distance probably due to an interplanar π bond contribution, as evidenced also by a broad absorption around 2.6 eV in the UV–vis spectrum, which appeared in the sample treated at 650 °C, and increased in the sample treated at 700 °C. The band gap was calculated for 1D and 2D cases. The value of 3.374 eV for the 2D case is, within the model accuracy and precision, in a relative good agreement with the value of 3.055 eV obtained from the experimental results. - Graphical abstract: 2D lattice mode vibrations and structural changes correlated with the so called “2D to 3D transition”. - Highlights: • A 2D to 3D transition has been detected for polymeric carbon nitride. • THz-TDS allowed us to discover and detect the 2D to 3D transition of polymeric carbon nitride. • We propose a structure for polymeric carbon nitride confirming it with THz-TDS.

  15. Bending Behavior of Porous Sintered Stainless Steel Fiber Honeycombs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zou, Shuiping; Wan, Zhenping; Lu, Longsheng; Tang, Yong

    2017-02-01

    A novel porous honeycomb-type substrate has been developed using solid-state sintering stainless steel fibers. The porous sintered stainless steel fiber honeycombs (PSSSFH) are composed of a skeleton of sintered stainless steel fibers, three-dimensionally interconnected porous structures and multiple parallel microchannels. The bending behavior of the PSSSFH is investigated using three-point bending tests. Four stages, including an elastic stage, a yielding stage with a plateau, a hardening stage and a failure stage, are observed during the bending process of the PSSSFH. In the initial yielding stage, the bending forces increase slowly with displacement increasing, and then a yielding plateau follows, which is unique compared with other porous materials. Moreover, the structure parameters of the PSSSFH are varied to investigate the influence on the bending strength. It is determined that the multiple parallel microchannels can enhance the bending strength of porous stainless steel fiber sintered substrates (PSSFSS) and do not influence the variation trend of bending strength of PSSFSS with porosity increasing. The open ratio is conducive to increasing the bending strength, and the microchannel diameters ranging from 0.5 mm to 1.5 mm have little influence on the bending strength. In addition, both the increasing of sintering temperature and sintering time can strengthen the PSSSFH.

  16. The Hamiltonian Laceability of some Generalized Honeycomb Tori

    SciTech Connect

    Hsu Liyen; Lin Tungyi; Kao Shinshin

    2008-11-06

    Assume that m, n and s are integers with m{>=}2, n{>=}4, 0{<=}s{<=}n and s is of the same parity of m. The generalized honeycomb torus GHT (m,n,s) is recognized as another attractive alternative to existing torus interconnection networks in parallel and distributed applications. It is known that any GHT (m,n,s) is 3-regular, hamiltonian, bipartite graph. We are interested in two special types of the generalized honeycomb torus, GHT (m,n,(n/2)) and GHT (m,n,0). Let G = GHT(m,n,s), where s(set-membership sign){l_brace}(n/2),0{r_brace}. We prove that any G is hamiltonian laceable. More precisely, given a pair of vertices P = {l_brace}u,v|u(set-membership sign)B,v(set-membership sign)W{r_brace} where B and W are the bipartition of V(G), there exists a path Q between u and v such that Q contains all vertices of G.

  17. Bending Behavior of Porous Sintered Stainless Steel Fiber Honeycombs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zou, Shuiping; Wan, Zhenping; Lu, Longsheng; Tang, Yong

    2016-12-01

    A novel porous honeycomb-type substrate has been developed using solid-state sintering stainless steel fibers. The porous sintered stainless steel fiber honeycombs (PSSSFH) are composed of a skeleton of sintered stainless steel fibers, three-dimensionally interconnected porous structures and multiple parallel microchannels. The bending behavior of the PSSSFH is investigated using three-point bending tests. Four stages, including an elastic stage, a yielding stage with a plateau, a hardening stage and a failure stage, are observed during the bending process of the PSSSFH. In the initial yielding stage, the bending forces increase slowly with displacement increasing, and then a yielding plateau follows, which is unique compared with other porous materials. Moreover, the structure parameters of the PSSSFH are varied to investigate the influence on the bending strength. It is determined that the multiple parallel microchannels can enhance the bending strength of porous stainless steel fiber sintered substrates (PSSFSS) and do not influence the variation trend of bending strength of PSSFSS with porosity increasing. The open ratio is conducive to increasing the bending strength, and the microchannel diameters ranging from 0.5 mm to 1.5 mm have little influence on the bending strength. In addition, both the increasing of sintering temperature and sintering time can strengthen the PSSSFH.

  18. Spin dynamics in layered honeycomb iridates: implications for Kitaev physics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Choi, Sungkyun

    2014-03-01

    We explore the spin dynamics in the frustrated honeycomb magnets Na2IrO3 and Li2IrO3, candidates to display novel magnetic states stabilized by the strong spin-orbit coupling at the 5d Ir ions. Theory predicts composite spin-orbital J =1/2 moments at the Ir ions coupled by strongly-anisotropic and bond-directional exchanges, the so-called Kitaev honeycomb model, which has in its phase diagram novel magnetically-ordered ordered phases and a quantum spin liquid with exotic excitations. To search for such physics the experimental technique of choice is inelastic neutron scattering to probe the spin dynamics, however this is technically very challenging due to the large absorption cross-section of neutrons by the Ir nuclei. Using an optimised setup to minimise neutron absorption we have been successful in observing strongly dispersive spin-wave excitations of the Ir moments in both compounds and results are compared with predictions for a Kitaev-Heisenberg model as well as a Heisenberg model with further neighbour couplings.

  19. Electron and phonon properties and gas storage in carbon honeycombs.

    PubMed

    Gao, Yan; Chen, Yuanping; Zhong, Chengyong; Zhang, Zhongwei; Xie, Yuee; Zhang, Shengbai

    2016-07-14

    A new kind of three-dimensional carbon allotrope, termed carbon honeycomb (CHC), has recently been synthesized [PRL 116, 055501 (2016)]. Based on the experimental results, a family of graphene networks has been constructed, and their electronic and phonon properties are studied by various theoretical approaches. All networks are porous metals with two types of electron transport channels along the honeycomb axis and they are isolated from each other: one type of channel originates from the orbital interactions of the carbon zigzag chains and is topologically protected, while the other type of channel is from the straight lines of the carbon atoms that link the zigzag chains and is topologically trivial. The velocity of the electrons can reach ∼10(6) m s(-1). Phonon transport in these allotropes is strongly anisotropic, and the thermal conductivities can be very low when compared with graphite by at least a factor of 15. Our calculations further indicate that these porous carbon networks possess high storage capacity for gaseous atoms and molecules in agreement with the experiments.

  20. Material Model Evaluation of a Composite Honeycomb Energy Absorber

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jackson, Karen E.; Annett, Martin S.; Fasanella, Edwin L.; Polanco, Michael A.

    2012-01-01

    A study was conducted to evaluate four different material models in predicting the dynamic crushing response of solid-element-based models of a composite honeycomb energy absorber, designated the Deployable Energy Absorber (DEA). Dynamic crush tests of three DEA components were simulated using the nonlinear, explicit transient dynamic code, LS-DYNA . In addition, a full-scale crash test of an MD-500 helicopter, retrofitted with DEA blocks, was simulated. The four material models used to represent the DEA included: *MAT_CRUSHABLE_FOAM (Mat 63), *MAT_HONEYCOMB (Mat 26), *MAT_SIMPLIFIED_RUBBER/FOAM (Mat 181), and *MAT_TRANSVERSELY_ANISOTROPIC_CRUSHABLE_FOAM (Mat 142). Test-analysis calibration metrics included simple percentage error comparisons of initial peak acceleration, sustained crush stress, and peak compaction acceleration of the DEA components. In addition, the Roadside Safety Verification and Validation Program (RSVVP) was used to assess similarities and differences between the experimental and analytical curves for the full-scale crash test.

  1. Parametric results for heat transfer across honeycomb sandwich panels

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ramohalli, K.; Sahakian, J.

    1981-01-01

    The problem of heat transfer across honeycomb sandwich panels is theoretically investigated. The basic objective is to predict the rear surface temperature as a function of time when the front surface is exposed to a prescribed heat flux; the faces are bounded by planar sheets so that the air circulation in the honeycomb cells is bounded and contained. The influence of the air circulation on convective heat transfer is explicitly included. Drawing upon previous investigators' results that indicated various relations for the Nusselt numbers vs Rayleigh numbers in different regimes of the aspect ratio (defined as the ratio of the cell height to cell width), parametric calculations are performed to predict the rear surface temperatures. Chemical degradation of the material, especially the glue holding the face material on the end, is important but has not yet been included. The results indicate that decreasing the cell width, increasing the cell wall thickness and increasing the cell height all have beneficial effects upon the heat transfer; i.e., all of these variations reduce rear surface temperature for a given time for a prescribed heat flux on the front surface.

  2. Vibroacoustic Model Validation for a Curved Honeycomb Composite Panel

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Buehrle, Ralph D.; Robinson, Jay H.; Grosveld, Ferdinand W.

    2001-01-01

    Finite element and boundary element models are developed to investigate the vibroacoustic response of a curved honeycomb composite sidewall panel. Results from vibroacoustic tests conducted in the NASA Langley Structural Acoustic Loads and Transmission facility are used to validate the numerical predictions. The sidewall panel is constructed from a flexible honeycomb core sandwiched between carbon fiber reinforced composite laminate face sheets. This type of construction is being used in the development of an all-composite aircraft fuselage. In contrast to conventional rib-stiffened aircraft fuselage structures, the composite panel has nominally uniform thickness resulting in a uniform distribution of mass and stiffness. Due to differences in the mass and stiffness distribution, the noise transmission mechanisms for the composite panel are expected to be substantially different from those of a conventional rib-stiffened structure. The development of accurate vibroacoustic models will aide in the understanding of the dominant noise transmission mechanisms and enable optimization studies to be performed that will determine the most beneficial noise control treatments. Finite element and boundary element models of the sidewall panel are described. Vibroacoustic response predictions are presented for forced vibration input and the results are compared with experimental data.

  3. Highly resolved measurements of atmospheric turbulence with the new 2d-Atmospheric Laser Cantilever Anemometer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jeromin, A.; Schaffarczyk, A. P.; Puczylowski, J.; Peinke, J.; Hölling, M.

    2014-12-01

    For the investigation of atmospheric turbulent flows on small scales a new anemometer was developed, the so-called 2d-Atmospheric Laser Cantilever Anemometer (2d-ALCA). It performs highly resolved measurements with a spatial resolution in millimeter range and temporal resolution in kHz range, thus detecting very small turbulent structures. The anemometer is a redesign of the successfully operating 2d-LCA for laboratory application. The new device was designed to withstand hostile operating environments (rain and saline, humid air). In February 2012, the 2d-ALCA was used for the first time in a test field. The device was mounted in about 53 m above ground level on a lattice tower near the German North Sea coast. Wind speed was measured by the 2d-ALCA at 10 kHz sampling rate and by cup anemometers at 1 Hz. The instantaneous wind speed ranged from 8 m/s to 19 m/s at an average turbulence level of about 7 %. Wind field characteristics were analyzed based on cup anemometer as well as 2d-ALCA. The combination of both devices allowed the study of atmospheric turbulence over several magnitudes in turbulent scales.

  4. Compatible embedding for 2D shape animation.

    PubMed

    Baxter, William V; Barla, Pascal; Anjyo, Ken-Ichi

    2009-01-01

    We present new algorithms for the compatible embedding of 2D shapes. Such embeddings offer a convenient way to interpolate shapes having complex, detailed features. Compared to existing techniques, our approach requires less user input, and is faster, more robust, and simpler to implement, making it ideal for interactive use in practical applications. Our new approach consists of three parts. First, our boundary matching algorithm locates salient features using the perceptually motivated principles of scale-space and uses these as automatic correspondences to guide an elastic curve matching algorithm. Second, we simplify boundaries while maintaining their parametric correspondence and the embedding of the original shapes. Finally, we extend the mapping to shapes' interiors via a new compatible triangulation algorithm. The combination of our algorithms allows us to demonstrate 2D shape interpolation with instant feedback. The proposed algorithms exhibit a combination of simplicity, speed, and accuracy that has not been achieved in previous work.

  5. Schottky diodes from 2D germanane

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sahoo, Nanda Gopal; Esteves, Richard J.; Punetha, Vinay Deep; Pestov, Dmitry; Arachchige, Indika U.; McLeskey, James T.

    2016-07-01

    We report on the fabrication and characterization of a Schottky diode made using 2D germanane (hydrogenated germanene). When compared to germanium, the 2D structure has higher electron mobility, an optimal band-gap, and exceptional stability making germanane an outstanding candidate for a variety of opto-electronic devices. One-atom-thick sheets of hydrogenated puckered germanium atoms have been synthesized from a CaGe2 framework via intercalation and characterized by XRD, Raman, and FTIR techniques. The material was then used to fabricate Schottky diodes by suspending the germanane in benzonitrile and drop-casting it onto interdigitated metal electrodes. The devices demonstrate significant rectifying behavior and the outstanding potential of this material.

  6. Extrinsic Cation Selectivity of 2D Membranes

    PubMed Central

    2017-01-01

    From a systematic study of the concentration driven diffusion of positive and negative ions across porous 2D membranes of graphene and hexagonal boron nitride (h-BN), we prove their cation selectivity. Using the current–voltage characteristics of graphene and h-BN monolayers separating reservoirs of different salt concentrations, we calculate the reversal potential as a measure of selectivity. We tune the Debye screening length by exchanging the salt concentrations and demonstrate that negative surface charge gives rise to cation selectivity. Surprisingly, h-BN and graphene membranes show similar characteristics, strongly suggesting a common origin of selectivity in aqueous solvents. For the first time, we demonstrate that the cation flux can be increased by using ozone to create additional pores in graphene while maintaining excellent selectivity. We discuss opportunities to exploit our scalable method to use 2D membranes for applications including osmotic power conversion. PMID:28157333

  7. Static & Dynamic Response of 2D Solids

    SciTech Connect

    Lin, Jerry

    1996-07-15

    NIKE2D is an implicit finite-element code for analyzing the finite deformation, static and dynamic response of two-dimensional, axisymmetric, plane strain, and plane stress solids. The code is fully vectorized and available on several computing platforms. A number of material models are incorporated to simulate a wide range of material behavior including elasto-placicity, anisotropy, creep, thermal effects, and rate dependence. Slideline algorithms model gaps and sliding along material interfaces, including interface friction, penetration and single surface contact. Interactive-graphics and rezoning is included for analyses with large mesh distortions. In addition to quasi-Newton and arc-length procedures, adaptive algorithms can be defined to solve the implicit equations using the solution language ISLAND. Each of these capabilities and more make NIKE2D a robust analysis tool.

  8. Explicit 2-D Hydrodynamic FEM Program

    SciTech Connect

    Lin, Jerry

    1996-08-07

    DYNA2D* is a vectorized, explicit, two-dimensional, axisymmetric and plane strain finite element program for analyzing the large deformation dynamic and hydrodynamic response of inelastic solids. DYNA2D* contains 13 material models and 9 equations of state (EOS) to cover a wide range of material behavior. The material models implemented in all machine versions are: elastic, orthotropic elastic, kinematic/isotropic elastic plasticity, thermoelastoplastic, soil and crushable foam, linear viscoelastic, rubber, high explosive burn, isotropic elastic-plastic, temperature-dependent elastic-plastic. The isotropic and temperature-dependent elastic-plastic models determine only the deviatoric stresses. Pressure is determined by one of 9 equations of state including linear polynomial, JWL high explosive, Sack Tuesday high explosive, Gruneisen, ratio of polynomials, linear polynomial with energy deposition, ignition and growth of reaction in HE, tabulated compaction, and tabulated.

  9. Quasiparticle interference in unconventional 2D systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Lan; Cheng, Peng; Wu, Kehui

    2017-03-01

    At present, research of 2D systems mainly focuses on two kinds of materials: graphene-like materials and transition-metal dichalcogenides (TMDs). Both of them host unconventional 2D electronic properties: pseudospin and the associated chirality of electrons in graphene-like materials, and spin-valley-coupled electronic structures in the TMDs. These exotic electronic properties have attracted tremendous interest for possible applications in nanodevices in the future. Investigation on the quasiparticle interference (QPI) in 2D systems is an effective way to uncover these properties. In this review, we will begin with a brief introduction to 2D systems, including their atomic structures and electronic bands. Then, we will discuss the formation of Friedel oscillation due to QPI in constant energy contours of electron bands, and show the basic concept of Fourier-transform scanning tunneling microscopy/spectroscopy (FT-STM/STS), which can resolve Friedel oscillation patterns in real space and consequently obtain the QPI patterns in reciprocal space. In the next two parts, we will summarize some pivotal results in the investigation of QPI in graphene and silicene, in which systems the low-energy quasiparticles are described by the massless Dirac equation. The FT-STM experiments show there are two different interference channels (intervalley and intravalley scattering) and backscattering suppression, which associate with the Dirac cones and the chirality of quasiparticles. The monolayer and bilayer graphene on different substrates (SiC and metal surfaces), and the monolayer and multilayer silicene on a Ag(1 1 1) surface will be addressed. The fifth part will introduce the FT-STM research on QPI in TMDs (monolayer and bilayer of WSe2), which allow us to infer the spin texture of both conduction and valence bands, and present spin-valley coupling by tracking allowed and forbidden scattering channels.

  10. Compact 2-D graphical representation of DNA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Randić, Milan; Vračko, Marjan; Zupan, Jure; Novič, Marjana

    2003-05-01

    We present a novel 2-D graphical representation for DNA sequences which has an important advantage over the existing graphical representations of DNA in being very compact. It is based on: (1) use of binary labels for the four nucleic acid bases, and (2) use of the 'worm' curve as template on which binary codes are placed. The approach is illustrated on DNA sequences of the first exon of human β-globin and gorilla β-globin.

  11. 2D Metals by Repeated Size Reduction.

    PubMed

    Liu, Hanwen; Tang, Hao; Fang, Minghao; Si, Wenjie; Zhang, Qinghua; Huang, Zhaohui; Gu, Lin; Pan, Wei; Yao, Jie; Nan, Cewen; Wu, Hui

    2016-10-01

    A general and convenient strategy for manufacturing freestanding metal nanolayers is developed on large scale. By the simple process of repeatedly folding and calendering stacked metal sheets followed by chemical etching, free-standing 2D metal (e.g., Ag, Au, Fe, Cu, and Ni) nanosheets are obtained with thicknesses as small as 1 nm and with sizes of the order of several micrometers.

  12. Realistic and efficient 2D crack simulation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yadegar, Jacob; Liu, Xiaoqing; Singh, Abhishek

    2010-04-01

    Although numerical algorithms for 2D crack simulation have been studied in Modeling and Simulation (M&S) and computer graphics for decades, realism and computational efficiency are still major challenges. In this paper, we introduce a high-fidelity, scalable, adaptive and efficient/runtime 2D crack/fracture simulation system by applying the mathematically elegant Peano-Cesaro triangular meshing/remeshing technique to model the generation of shards/fragments. The recursive fractal sweep associated with the Peano-Cesaro triangulation provides efficient local multi-resolution refinement to any level-of-detail. The generated binary decomposition tree also provides efficient neighbor retrieval mechanism used for mesh element splitting and merging with minimal memory requirements essential for realistic 2D fragment formation. Upon load impact/contact/penetration, a number of factors including impact angle, impact energy, and material properties are all taken into account to produce the criteria of crack initialization, propagation, and termination leading to realistic fractal-like rubble/fragments formation. The aforementioned parameters are used as variables of probabilistic models of cracks/shards formation, making the proposed solution highly adaptive by allowing machine learning mechanisms learn the optimal values for the variables/parameters based on prior benchmark data generated by off-line physics based simulation solutions that produce accurate fractures/shards though at highly non-real time paste. Crack/fracture simulation has been conducted on various load impacts with different initial locations at various impulse scales. The simulation results demonstrate that the proposed system has the capability to realistically and efficiently simulate 2D crack phenomena (such as window shattering and shards generation) with diverse potentials in military and civil M&S applications such as training and mission planning.

  13. Engineering light outcoupling in 2D materials.

    PubMed

    Lien, Der-Hsien; Kang, Jeong Seuk; Amani, Matin; Chen, Kevin; Tosun, Mahmut; Wang, Hsin-Ping; Roy, Tania; Eggleston, Michael S; Wu, Ming C; Dubey, Madan; Lee, Si-Chen; He, Jr-Hau; Javey, Ali

    2015-02-11

    When light is incident on 2D transition metal dichalcogenides (TMDCs), it engages in multiple reflections within underlying substrates, producing interferences that lead to enhancement or attenuation of the incoming and outgoing strength of light. Here, we report a simple method to engineer the light outcoupling in semiconducting TMDCs by modulating their dielectric surroundings. We show that by modulating the thicknesses of underlying substrates and capping layers, the interference caused by substrate can significantly enhance the light absorption and emission of WSe2, resulting in a ∼11 times increase in Raman signal and a ∼30 times increase in the photoluminescence (PL) intensity of WSe2. On the basis of the interference model, we also propose a strategy to control the photonic and optoelectronic properties of thin-layer WSe2. This work demonstrates the utilization of outcoupling engineering in 2D materials and offers a new route toward the realization of novel optoelectronic devices, such as 2D LEDs and solar cells.

  14. Irreversibility-inversions in 2D turbulence

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bragg, Andrew; de Lillo, Filippo; Boffetta, Guido

    2016-11-01

    We consider a recent theoretical prediction that for inertial particles in 2D turbulence, the nature of the irreversibility of their pair dispersion inverts when the particle inertia exceeds a certain value. In particular, when the particle Stokes number, St , is below a certain value, the forward-in-time (FIT) dispersion should be faster than the backward-in-time (BIT) dispersion, but for St above this value, this should invert so that BIT becomes faster than FIT dispersion. This non-trivial behavior arises because of the competition between two physically distinct irreversibility mechanisms that operate in different regimes of St . In 3D turbulence, both mechanisms act to produce faster BIT than FIT dispersion, but in 2D, the two mechanisms have opposite effects because of the inverse energy cascade in the turbulent velocity field. We supplement the qualitative argument given by Bragg et al. by deriving quantitative predictions of this effect in the short-time dispersion limit. These predictions are then confirmed by results of inertial particle dispersion in a direct numerical simulation of 2D turbulence.

  15. 2D superconductivity by ionic gating

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Iwasa, Yoshi

    2D superconductivity is attracting a renewed interest due to the discoveries of new highly crystalline 2D superconductors in the past decade. Superconductivity at the oxide interfaces triggered by LaAlO3/SrTiO3 has become one of the promising routes for creation of new 2D superconductors. Also, the MBE grown metallic monolayers including FeSe are also offering a new platform of 2D superconductors. In the last two years, there appear a variety of monolayer/bilayer superconductors fabricated by CVD or mechanical exfoliation. Among these, electric field induced superconductivity by electric double layer transistor (EDLT) is a unique platform of 2D superconductivity, because of its ability of high density charge accumulation, and also because of the versatility in terms of materials, stemming from oxides to organics and layered chalcogenides. In this presentation, the following issues of electric filed induced superconductivity will be addressed; (1) Tunable carrier density, (2) Weak pinning, (3) Absence of inversion symmetry. (1) Since the sheet carrier density is quasi-continuously tunable from 0 to the order of 1014 cm-2, one is able to establish an electronic phase diagram of superconductivity, which will be compared with that of bulk superconductors. (2) The thickness of superconductivity can be estimated as 2 - 10 nm, dependent on materials, and is much smaller than the in-plane coherence length. Such a thin but low resistance at normal state results in extremely weak pinning beyond the dirty Boson model in the amorphous metallic films. (3) Due to the electric filed, the inversion symmetry is inherently broken in EDLT. This feature appears in the enhancement of Pauli limit of the upper critical field for the in-plane magnetic fields. In transition metal dichalcogenide with a substantial spin-orbit interactions, we were able to confirm the stabilization of Cooper pair due to its spin-valley locking. This work has been supported by Grant-in-Aid for Specially

  16. Lattice radial quantization: 3D Ising

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brower, R. C.; Fleming, G. T.; Neuberger, H.

    2013-04-01

    Lattice radial quantization is introduced as a nonperturbative method intended to numerically solve Euclidean conformal field theories that can be realized as fixed points of known Lagrangians. As an example, we employ a lattice shaped as a cylinder with a 2D Icosahedral cross-section to discretize dilatations in the 3D Ising model. Using the integer spacing of the anomalous dimensions of the first two descendants (l = 1, 2), we obtain an estimate for η = 0.034 (10). We also observed small deviations from integer spacing for the 3rd descendant, which suggests that a further improvement of our radial lattice action will be required to guarantee conformal symmetry at the Wilson-Fisher fixed point in the continuum limit.

  17. Exotic damping ring lattices

    SciTech Connect

    Palmer, R.B.

    1987-05-01

    This paper looks at, and compares three types of damping ring lattices: conventional, wiggler lattice with finite ..cap alpha.., wiggler lattice with ..cap alpha.. = 0, and observes the attainable equilibrium emittances for the three cases assuming a constraint on the attainable longitudinal impedance of 0.2 ohms. The emittance obtained are roughly in the ratio 4:2:1 for these cases.

  18. Mechanical properties of lattice grid composites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fan, Hualin; Fang, Daining; Jin, Fengnian

    2008-08-01

    An equivalent continuum method only considering the stretching deformation of struts was used to study the in-plane stiffness and strength of planar lattice grid composite materials. The initial yield equations of lattices were deduced. Initial yield surfaces were depicted separately in different 3D and 2D stress spaces. The failure envelope is a polyhedron in 3D spaces and a polygon in 2D spaces. Each plane or line of the failure envelope is corresponding to the yield or buckling of a typical bar row. For lattices with more than three bar rows, subsequent yield of the other bar row after initial yield made the lattice achieve greater limit strength. The importance of the buckling strength of the grids was strengthened while the grids were relative sparse. The integration model of the method was used to study the nonlinear mechanical properties of strain hardening grids. It was shown that the integration equation could accurately model the complete stress-strain curves of the grids within small deformations.

  19. A 2D Rods-in-Air Square-Lattice Photonic Crystal Optical Switch

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2009-03-01

    photonic crystal switches, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 18 (2) (2006) 358–360. [8] Y. Kanamori , K. Inoue, K. Horie, K. Hane, Photonic crystal switch by...Waikoloa, Hawaii, USA, pp. 107–108. [9] K. Umemori, Y. Kanamori , K. Hane, A photonic crystal waveguide switch with a movable bridge slab, in: Proceedings of...Umemori, Yoshiaki Kanamori , Kazuhiro Hane, Photonic crystal waveguide switch with a microelectromechanical actuator, Appl. Phys. Lett. 89 (2) (2006

  20. Lattice expansion of highly oriented 2D phthalocyanine covalent organic framework films.

    PubMed

    Spitler, Eric L; Colson, John W; Uribe-Romo, Fernando J; Woll, Arthur R; Giovino, Marissa R; Saldivar, Abraham; Dichtel, William R

    2012-03-12

    Expanding into application: covalent organic framework (COF) films are ideally suited for vertical charge transport and serve as precursors of ordered heterojunctions. Their pores, however, were previously too small to accommodate continuous networks of complementary electron acceptors. Four phthalocyanine COFs with increased pore size well into the mesoporous regime are now described.

  1. Directed self-assembly of large scaffold-free multi-cellular honeycomb structures.

    PubMed

    Tejavibulya, Nalin; Youssef, Jacquelyn; Bao, Brian; Ferruccio, Toni-Marie; Morgan, Jeffrey R

    2011-09-01

    A significant challenge to the field of biofabrication is the rapid construction of large three-dimensional (3D) living tissues and organs. Multi-cellular spheroids have been used as building blocks. In this paper, we create large multi-cellular honeycomb building blocks using directed self-assembly, whereby cell-to-cell adhesion, in the context of the shape and obstacles of a micro-mold, drives the formation of a 3D structure. Computer-aided design, rapid prototyping and replica molding were used to fabricate honeycomb-shaped micro-molds. Nonadhesive hydrogels cast from these micro-molds were equilibrated in the cell culture medium and seeded with two types of mammalian cells. The cells settled into the honeycomb recess were unable to attach to the nonadhesive hydrogel and so cell-to-cell adhesion drove the self-assembly of a large multi-cellular honeycomb within 24 h. Distinct morphological changes occurred to the honeycomb and its cells indicating the presence of significant cell-mediated tension. Unlike the spheroid, whose size is constrained by a critical diffusion distance needed to maintain cell viability, the overall size of the honeycomb is not limited. The rapid production of the honeycomb building unit, with its multiple rings of high-density cells and open lumen spaces, offers interesting new possibilities for biofabrication strategies.

  2. Quantification of Honeycomb Number-Type Stacking Faults: Application to Na3Ni2BiO6 Cathodes for Na-Ion Batteries

    SciTech Connect

    Liu, Jue; Yin, Liang; Wu, Lijun; Bai, Jianming; Bak, Seong-Min; Yu, Xiqian; Zhu, Yimei; Yang, Xiao-Qing; Khalifah, Peter G.

    2016-08-17

    Here, ordered and disordered samples of honeycomb-lattice Na3Ni2BiO6 were investigated as cathodes for Na-ion batteries, and it was determined that the ordered sample exhibits better electrochemical performance, with a specific capacity of 104 mA h/g delivered at plateaus of 3.5 and 3.2 V (vs Na+/Na) with minimal capacity fade during extended cycling. Advanced imaging and diffraction investigations showed that the primary difference between the ordered and disordered samples is the amount of number-type stacking faults associated with the three possible centering choices for each honeycomb layer. A labeling scheme for assigning the number position of honeycomb layers is described, and it is shown that the translational shift vectors between layers provide the simplest method for classifying different repeat patterns. We demonstrate that the number position of honeycomb layers can be directly determined in high-angle annular dark-field scanning transmission electron microscopy (STEM-HAADF) imaging studies. By the use of fault models derived from STEM studies, it is shown that both the sharp, symmetric subcell peaks and the broad, asymmetric superstructure peaks in powder diffraction patterns can be quantitatively modeled. About 20% of the layers in the ordered monoclinic sample are faulted in a nonrandom manner, while the disordered sample stacking is not fully random but instead contains about 4% monoclinic order. Furthermore, it is shown that the ordered sample has a series of higher-order superstructure peaks associated with 6-, 9-, 12-, and 15-layer periods whose existence is transiently driven by the presence of long-range strain that is an inherent consequence of the synthesis mechanism revealed through the present diffraction and imaging studies. This strain is closely associated with a monoclinic shear that can be directly calculated from cell lattice parameters and is strongly correlated with the degree of

  3. Robust Room-Temperature Quantum Spin Hall Effect in Methyl-functionalized InBi honeycomb film

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Sheng-Shi; Ji, Wei-Xiao; Zhang, Chang-Wen; Hu, Shu-Jun; Li, Ping; Wang, Pei-Ji; Zhang, Bao-Min; Cao, Chong-Long

    2016-03-01

    Two-dimensional (2D) group-III-V honeycomb films have attracted significant interest for their potential application in fields of quantum computing and nanoelectronics. Searching for 2D III-V films with high structural stability and large-gap are crucial for the realizations of dissipationless transport edge states using quantum spin Hall (QSH) effect. Based on first-principles calculations, we predict that the methyl-functionalized InBi monolayer (InBiCH3) has no dynamic instability, and hosts QSH state with a band gap as large as 0.29 eV, exhibiting an interesting electronic behavior viable for room-temperature applications. The topological characteristic is confirmed by s-pxy band inversion, topological invariant Z2 number, and the time-reversal symmetry protected helical edge states. Noticeably, the QSH states are tunable and robust against the mechanical strain, electric field and different levels of methyl coverages. We also find that InBiCH3 supported on h-BN substrate maintains a nontrivial QSH state, which harbors the edge states lying within the band gap of substrate. These findings demonstrate that the methyl-functionalized III-V films may be a good QSH platform for device design and fabrication in spintronics.

  4. Robust Room-Temperature Quantum Spin Hall Effect in Methyl-functionalized InBi honeycomb film

    PubMed Central

    Li, Sheng-shi; Ji, Wei-xiao; Zhang, Chang-wen; Hu, Shu-jun; Li, Ping; Wang, Pei-ji; Zhang, Bao-min; Cao, Chong-long

    2016-01-01

    Two-dimensional (2D) group-III-V honeycomb films have attracted significant interest for their potential application in fields of quantum computing and nanoelectronics. Searching for 2D III-V films with high structural stability and large-gap are crucial for the realizations of dissipationless transport edge states using quantum spin Hall (QSH) effect. Based on first-principles calculations, we predict that the methyl-functionalized InBi monolayer (InBiCH3) has no dynamic instability, and hosts QSH state with a band gap as large as 0.29 eV, exhibiting an interesting electronic behavior viable for room-temperature applications. The topological characteristic is confirmed by s-pxy band inversion, topological invariant Z2 number, and the time-reversal symmetry protected helical edge states. Noticeably, the QSH states are tunable and robust against the mechanical strain, electric field and different levels of methyl coverages. We also find that InBiCH3 supported on h-BN substrate maintains a nontrivial QSH state, which harbors the edge states lying within the band gap of substrate. These findings demonstrate that the methyl-functionalized III-V films may be a good QSH platform for device design and fabrication in spintronics. PMID:26997163

  5. Cooperative dynamics in ultrasoft 2D crystals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sprakel, Joris; van der Meer, Berend; Dijkstra, Marjolein; van der Gucht, Jasper

    2015-03-01

    The creation, annihilation, and diffusion of defects in crystal lattices play an important role during crystal melting and deformation. Although it is well understood how defects form and react when crystals are subjected to external stresses, it remains unclear how crystals cope with internal stresses. We report a study in which we create a highly localized internal stress, by means of optical tweezing, in a crystal formed from micrometer-sized colloidal spheres and directly observe how the solid reacts using microscopy. We find that, even though the excitation is highly localized, a collective dance of colloidal particles results; these collective modes take the form of closed rings or open-ended strings, depending on the sequence of events which nucleate the rearrangements. Surprisingly, we find from Brownian Dynamics simulations that these cooperative dynamics are thermally-activated modes inherent to the crystal, and can even occur through a single, sufficiently large thermal fluctuation, resulting in the irreversible displacement of 100s of particles from their lattice sites.

  6. Duality Between Spin Networks and the 2D Ising Model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bonzom, Valentin; Costantino, Francesco; Livine, Etera R.

    2016-06-01

    The goal of this paper is to exhibit a deep relation between the partition function of the Ising model on a planar trivalent graph and the generating series of the spin network evaluations on the same graph. We provide respectively a fermionic and a bosonic Gaussian integral formulation for each of these functions and we show that they are the inverse of each other (up to some explicit constants) by exhibiting a supersymmetry relating the two formulations. We investigate three aspects and applications of this duality. First, we propose higher order supersymmetric theories that couple the geometry of the spin networks to the Ising model and for which supersymmetric localization still holds. Secondly, after interpreting the generating function of spin network evaluations as the projection of a coherent state of loop quantum gravity onto the flat connection state, we find the probability distribution induced by that coherent state on the edge spins and study its stationary phase approximation. It is found that the stationary points correspond to the critical values of the couplings of the 2D Ising model, at least for isoradial graphs. Third, we analyze the mapping of the correlations of the Ising model to spin network observables, and describe the phase transition on those observables on the hexagonal lattice. This opens the door to many new possibilities, especially for the study of the coarse-graining and continuum limit of spin networks in the context of quantum gravity.

  7. Phase diagram of split 2D dipolar spin ice

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roscilde, Tommaso; Henry, Louis-Paul

    2013-03-01

    Long-ranged dipolar interactions, which are very natural in artificial square-lattice spin ice, can mask some of the most relevant aspects of spin-ice physics, as they remove the extensive degeneracy of the ground state manifold to give a unique ground state, and they bind monopole pairs into localized spin flips. Following an earlier idea of G. Möller and R. Moessner [Phys. Rev. Lett. 96, 237202 (2006)] we investigate how adding a third direction to square ice allows to recover fundamental traits of spin-ice physics even in the presence of dipolar interactions. Using Monte Carlo simulations based on a generalized loop algorithm, we explore the phase diagram of square dipolar spin ice in which horizontal and vertical dipoles are spatially separated in a third direction (split 2D spin ice). As a function of the splitting we recover a two-fold degenerate staggered state for coplanar dipoles, and a four-fold degenerate ``Manhattan'' state for strongly split dipoles, separated by a first order transition. The competition between the two states at intermediate splitting leads to a strong suppression of the ordering transition temperatures, and makes space for the observation of a hallmark of spin-ice physics in the paramagnetic phase: pinch points in the static structure factor.

  8. Periodically sheared 2D Yukawa systems

    SciTech Connect

    Kovács, Anikó Zsuzsa; Hartmann, Peter; Donkó, Zoltán

    2015-10-15

    We present non-equilibrium molecular dynamics simulation studies on the dynamic (complex) shear viscosity of a 2D Yukawa system. We have identified a non-monotonic frequency dependence of the viscosity at high frequencies and shear rates, an energy absorption maximum (local resonance) at the Einstein frequency of the system at medium shear rates, an enhanced collective wave activity, when the excitation is near the plateau frequency of the longitudinal wave dispersion, and the emergence of significant configurational anisotropy at small frequencies and high shear rates.

  9. ENERGY LANDSCAPE OF 2D FLUID FORMS

    SciTech Connect

    Y. JIANG; ET AL

    2000-04-01

    The equilibrium states of 2D non-coarsening fluid foams, which consist of bubbles with fixed areas, correspond to local minima of the total perimeter. (1) The authors find an approximate value of the global minimum, and determine directly from an image how far a foam is from its ground state. (2) For (small) area disorder, small bubbles tend to sort inwards and large bubbles outwards. (3) Topological charges of the same sign repel while charges of opposite sign attract. (4) They discuss boundary conditions and the uniqueness of the pattern for fixed topology.

  10. Codon Constraints on Closed 2D Shapes,

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-09-26

    19843$ CODON CONSTRAINTS ON CLOSED 2D SHAPES Go Whitman Richards "I Donald D. Hoffman’ D T 18 Abstract: Codons are simple primitives for describing plane...RSONAL AUT"ORtIS) Richards, Whitman & Hoffman, Donald D. 13&. TYPE OF REPORT 13b. TIME COVERED N/A P8 AT F RRrT t~r. Ago..D,) is, PlE COUNT Reprint...outlines, if figure and ground are ignored. Later, we will address the problem of indexing identical codon descriptors that have different figure

  11. Electroless plating of honeycomb and pincushion polymer films prepared by self-organization.

    PubMed

    Yabu, Hiroshi; Hirai, Yuji; Shimomura, Masatsugu

    2006-11-07

    This report describes the fabrication and electroless plating of regular porous and pincushion-like polymer structures prepared by self-organization. Honeycomb-patterned films were prepared by simple casting of polymer solution under applied humid air and pincushion structures by peeling off the top layer of the former films. Silver-deposited honeycomb-patterned films and pincushion films were obtained by simple electroless plating of the respective original structures. XPS revealed Ag deposition on the honeycomb-patterned film. After thermal decomposition or solvent elution of the template polymer, unique metal mesoscopic structures were obtained.

  12. Honeycomb gallbladder: a very rare cause of right upper quadrant pain.

    PubMed

    Aydin, Ramazan; Bilgici, Meltem Ceyhan; Polat, Ahmet Veysel; Aslan, Kerim; Kalayci, Ayhan Gazi

    2013-12-01

    Honeycomb gallbladder is a rare congenital malformation of the gallbladder. In some cases, it may be asymptomatic, whereas in others, it may lead to symptoms consistent with biliary colic even in the absence of cholelithiasis. We present the clinical and imaging findings of a case of a 10-year-old boy who was admitted to the emergency department with right upper quadrant pain. Ultrasonography and magnetic resonance imaging showed a honeycomb gallbladder. Honeycomb gallbladder is safely diagnosed with ultrasonography, which should be part of the investigation of patients with right upper quadrant pain in the emergency department.

  13. Superconductivity in intercalated group-IV honeycomb structures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Flores-Livas, José A.; Sanna, Antonio

    2015-02-01

    We present a theoretical investigation on the electron-phonon superconductivity of honeycomb M X2 layered structures where X is one element of group IV (C, Si, or Ge) and M is an alkali or an alkaline-earth metal. Among the studied compositions we predict a TC of 7 K in RbGe2, 9 K in RbSi2, and 11 K in SrC2. All these compounds feature a strongly anisotropic superconducting gap. Our results show that despite the different doping levels and structural properties, the three families of materials fall into a similar description of their superconducting behavior. This allows us to estimate an upper critical temperature of about 20 K for the class of intercalated group-IV structures, including intercalated graphite and doped graphene.

  14. Single-layer honeycomb like structure of silica

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cahangirov, Seymur; Ozcelik, V. Ongun; Ciraci, Salim

    2014-03-01

    Silica or SiO2, the main constituent of earth's rocks has several 3D complex crystalline and amorphous phases, but it does not have a graphite like layered structure in 3D. Our theoretical analysis and numerical calculations from the first-principles predict that silica can have stable, suspended, single-layer honeycomb like allotrope, h α-silica (silicatene), which can be viewed to be derived from the oxidation of silicene and it has intriguing atomic structure with re-entrant angles in hexagons. It is a wide band gap semiconductor, which attains remarkable electromechanical properties showing geometrical changes under external electric field. In particular, it is an auxetic nanomaterial with negative Poisson's ratio and has high piezoelectric coefficient. Coverage of foreign adatoms can attribute new functionalities to h α-silica such that by oxidation it turns into to a wide band gap insulator like the parent quartz.

  15. Honeycomb: Visual Analysis of Large Scale Social Networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    van Ham, Frank; Schulz, Hans-Jörg; Dimicco, Joan M.

    The rise in the use of social network sites allows us to collect large amounts of user reported data on social structures and analysis of this data could provide useful insights for many of the social sciences. This analysis is typically the domain of Social Network Analysis, and visualization of these structures often proves invaluable in understanding them. However, currently available visual analysis tools are not very well suited to handle the massive scale of this network data, and often resolve to displaying small ego networks or heavily abstracted networks. In this paper, we present Honeycomb, a visualization tool that is able to deal with much larger scale data (with millions of connections), which we illustrate by using a large scale corporate social networking site as an example. Additionally, we introduce a new probability based network metric to guide users to potentially interesting or anomalous patterns and discuss lessons learned during design and implementation.

  16. Friction-factor characteristics for narrow channels with honeycomb surfaces

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ha, T. W.; Morrison, G. L.; Childs, D. W.

    1992-01-01

    The experimental determination of friction-factors for the flow of air in a narrow channel lined with various honeycomb geometries has been carried out. Test results show that, generally, the friction-factor is nearly constant or slightly decreases as the Reynolds number increases, a characteristic common to turbulent flow in pipes. However, in some test geometries this trend is remarkably different. The friction factor dramatically drops and then rises as the Reynolds number increases. This phenomenon can be characterized as a 'friction-factor jump'. Further investigations of the acoustic spectrum and friction-factor measurements for a broad range of Reynolds numbers indicate that the 'friction-factor jump' phenomenon is accompanied by an onset of a normal mode resonance excited coherent flow fluctuation structure, which occurs at Reynolds number of the order of 10,000. The purpose of this paper is to explain the friction-factor-jump phenomenon and friction-factor characteristics.

  17. Remarks on thermalization in 2D CFT

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Boer, Jan; Engelhardt, Dalit

    2016-12-01

    We revisit certain aspects of thermalization in 2D conformal field theory (CFT). In particular, we consider similarities and differences between the time dependence of correlation functions in various states in rational and non-rational CFTs. We also consider the distinction between global and local thermalization and explain how states obtained by acting with a diffeomorphism on the ground state can appear locally thermal, and we review why the time-dependent expectation value of the energy-momentum tensor is generally a poor diagnostic of global thermalization. Since all 2D CFTs have an infinite set of commuting conserved charges, generic initial states might be expected to give rise to a generalized Gibbs ensemble rather than a pure thermal ensemble at late times. We construct the holographic dual of the generalized Gibbs ensemble and show that, to leading order, it is still described by a Banados-Teitelboim-Zanelli black hole. The extra conserved charges, while rendering c <1 theories essentially integrable, therefore seem to have little effect on large-c conformal field theories.

  18. Microwave Assisted 2D Materials Exfoliation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Yanbin

    Two-dimensional materials have emerged as extremely important materials with applications ranging from energy and environmental science to electronics and biology. Here we report our discovery of a universal, ultrafast, green, solvo-thermal technology for producing excellent-quality, few-layered nanosheets in liquid phase from well-known 2D materials such as such hexagonal boron nitride (h-BN), graphite, and MoS2. We start by mixing the uniform bulk-layered material with a common organic solvent that matches its surface energy to reduce the van der Waals attractive interactions between the layers; next, the solutions are heated in a commercial microwave oven to overcome the energy barrier between bulk and few-layers states. We discovered the minutes-long rapid exfoliation process is highly temperature dependent, which requires precise thermal management to obtain high-quality inks. We hypothesize a possible mechanism of this proposed solvo-thermal process; our theory confirms the basis of this novel technique for exfoliation of high-quality, layered 2D materials by using an as yet unknown role of the solvent.

  19. Two Dimensional Honeycomb Materials: Random Fields, Dissipation and Fluctuations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Frederico, T.; Oliveira, O.; de Paula, W.; Hussein, M. S.; Cardoso, T. R.

    2017-02-01

    In this paper, we propose a method to describe the many-body problem of electrons in honeycomb materials via the introduction of random fields which are coupled to the electrons and have a Gaussian distribution. From a one-body approach to the problem, after integrating exactly the contribution of the random fields, one builds a non-hermitian and dissipative effective Hamiltonian with two-body interactions. Our approach introduces besides the usual average over the electron field a second average over the random fields. The interplay of two averages enables the definition of various types of Green's functions which allow the investigation of fluctuation-dissipation characteristics of the interactions that are a manifestation of the many-body problem. In the current work, we study only the dissipative term, through the perturbative analysis of the dynamics associated the effective Hamiltonian generated by two different kinds of couplings. For the cases analyzed, the eigenstates of the effective Hamiltonian are complex and, therefore, some of the states have a finite life time. Moreover, we also investigate, in the mean field approximation, the most general parity conserving coupling to the random fields and compute the width of charge carriers Γ as a function of the Fermi energy E F . The theoretical prediction for Γ( E F ) is compared to the available experimental data for graphene. The good agreement between Γ t h e o and Γ e x p suggests that description of the many-body problem associated to the electrons in honeycomb materials can indeed be done via the introduction of random fields.

  20. 2-D or not 2-D, that is the question: A Northern California test

    SciTech Connect

    Mayeda, K; Malagnini, L; Phillips, W S; Walter, W R; Dreger, D

    2005-06-06

    Reliable estimates of the seismic source spectrum are necessary for accurate magnitude, yield, and energy estimation. In particular, how seismic radiated energy scales with increasing earthquake size has been the focus of recent debate within the community and has direct implications on earthquake source physics studies as well as hazard mitigation. The 1-D coda methodology of Mayeda et al. has provided the lowest variance estimate of the source spectrum when compared against traditional approaches that use direct S-waves, thus making it ideal for networks that have sparse station distribution. The 1-D coda methodology has been mostly confined to regions of approximately uniform complexity. For larger, more geophysically complicated regions, 2-D path corrections may be required. The complicated tectonics of the northern California region coupled with high quality broadband seismic data provides for an ideal ''apples-to-apples'' test of 1-D and 2-D path assumptions on direct waves and their coda. Using the same station and event distribution, we compared 1-D and 2-D path corrections and observed the following results: (1) 1-D coda results reduced the amplitude variance relative to direct S-waves by roughly a factor of 8 (800%); (2) Applying a 2-D correction to the coda resulted in up to 40% variance reduction from the 1-D coda results; (3) 2-D direct S-wave results, though better than 1-D direct waves, were significantly worse than the 1-D coda. We found that coda-based moment-rate source spectra derived from the 2-D approach were essentially identical to those from the 1-D approach for frequencies less than {approx}0.7-Hz, however for the high frequencies (0.7{le} f {le} 8.0-Hz), the 2-D approach resulted in inter-station scatter that was generally 10-30% smaller. For complex regions where data are plentiful, a 2-D approach can significantly improve upon the simple 1-D assumption. In regions where only 1-D coda correction is available it is still preferable over 2

  1. Some properties of correlations of quantum lattice systems in thermal equilibrium

    SciTech Connect

    Fröhlich, Jürg; Ueltschi, Daniel

    2015-05-15

    Simple proofs of uniqueness of the thermodynamic limit of KMS states and of the decay of equilibrium correlations are presented for a large class of quantum lattice systems at high temperatures. New quantum correlation inequalities for general Heisenberg models are described. Finally, a simplified derivation of a general result on power-law decay of correlations in 2D quantum lattice systems with continuous symmetries is given, extending results of McBryan and Spencer for the 2D classical XY model.

  2. Steps toward 8m honeycomb mirror blanks. III - 1.8m honeycomb sandwich blanks cast from borosilicate glass

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Angel, J. R. P.; Hill, J. M.

    1984-01-01

    The design, fabrication techniques, and equipment used for producing two 1.8-m honeycomb sandwich blanks, eventually leading to production of 8-m blanks, are reported. The procedure employed 85 cast hexagonal tiles at the bottom section, affixed against flotation by SiC bolts. The two plano concave mirrors are 1.83 m thick, weight 500 kg, and are each designed for 19 supports of astatic-lever type. Both blanks are of high quality and with an adequately low bubble content; one is to be figured to high-precision 0.25-arcsecond images, and is to be tested on the Multiple Mirror Telescope. Construction of a spin-casting facility based on the same principle is being planned for test-fabricating spin-cast mirrors on a smaller scale.

  3. Incommensurate lattice modulations in Potassium Vanadate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chakoumakos, Bryan; Banerjee, Arnab; Mark, Lumsden; Cao, Huibo; Kim, Jong-Woo; Hoffman, Christina; Wang, Xiaoping

    Potassium Vanadate (K2V3O8) is an S = 1/2 2D square lattice antiferromagnet that shows spin reorientation indicating a strong coupling between the magnetism and its dielectric properties with a promise of rich physics that promises multiferroicity. These tangible physical properties are strongly tied through a spin-lattice coupling to the underlying lattice and superlattice behavior. It has a superlattice (SL) onsetting below Tc = 115 K with an approximate [3 x 3 x 2] modulation. Here we present our recent experiments at TOPAZ beamline at SNS which for the first time proves conclusively that the lattice modulations are incommensurate, with an in-plane Q of 0.315. We will also show our attempts to refine the data using JANA which requires a redefinition of the lattice, as well as the temperature and Q dependence of the superlattice modulation measured using neutrons at HFIR and synchrotron x-rays at APS. Our results are not only relevant for the ongoing search of multifunctional behavior in K2V3O8 but also generally for the superlattice modulations observed in a large family of fresnoites. Work performed at ORNL and ANL is supported by U.S. Dept. of Energy, Office of Basic Energy Sciences and Office of User Facilities Division.

  4. Designing an artificial Lieb lattice on a metal surface

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Qiu, Wen-Xuan; Li, Shuai; Gao, Jin-Hua; Zhou, Yi; Zhang, Fu-Chun

    2016-12-01

    Recently, several experiments [K. K. Gomes et al., Nature (London) 483, 306 (2012), 10.1038/nature10941; S. Wang et al., Phys. Rev. Lett. 113, 196803 (2014), 10.1103/PhysRevLett.113.196803] have illustrated that metal surface electrons can be manipulated to form a two-dimensional (2D) lattice by depositing a designer molecule lattice on a metal surface. This offers a promising new technique to construct artificial 2D electron lattices. Here we theoretically propose a molecule lattice pattern to realize an artificial Lieb lattice on a metal surface, which shows a flat electronic band due to the lattice geometry. We show that the localization of electrons in the flat band may be understood from the viewpoint of electron interference, which may be probed by measuring the local density of states with scanning tunneling microscopy. Our proposal may be readily implemented in experiment and may offer an ideal solid state platform to investigate the novel flat band physics of the Lieb lattice.

  5. Study on moisture absorption and sweat discharge of honeycomb polyester fiber

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Feng, Aifen; Zhang, Yongjiu

    2015-07-01

    The moisture absorption and liberation properties of honeycomb polyester fiber were studied in order to understand its moisture absorption and sweat discharge. Through testing moisture absorption and liberation regains of honeycomb polyester fiber and normal polyester fiber in standard atmospheric conditions, their moisture absorption and liberation curves were depicted, and the regression equations of moisture regains to time during their reaching the balance of moisture absorption and moisture liberation were obtained according to the curves. Their moisture absorption and liberation rate curves were analyzed and the regression equations of the rates to time were obtained. The results shows that the moisture regain of honeycomb polyester fiber is much bigger than the normal polyester fiber's, and the initial moisture absorption and moisture liberation rates of the former are much higher than the latter's, so that the moisture absorbance and sweat discharge of honeycomb polyester fiber are excellent.

  6. Effective optimization and analysis of white LED properties by using nano-honeycomb patterned phosphor film.

    PubMed

    Lin, Huang-Yu; Wang, Sheng-Wen; Lin, Chien-Chung; Tu, Zong-Yi; Lee, Po-Tsung; Chen, Huang-Ming; Kuo, Hao-Chung

    2016-08-22

    This study presents an approach for patterning a polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) phosphor film with a photonic crystal nano-honeycomb structure on a blue chip package. A phosphor film with a nano-honeycomb structure was patterned and transferred using a nanosphere and used for fabricating remote white light-emitting diodes (w-LEDs). The angular correlated color temperature deviation of the remote phosphor LED could be improved by varying nano-honeycomb structure pitches (450, 750, and 1150 nm). In particular, w-LED samples with excellent color uniformity (ΔCCT ranging from 940 to 440 K) were fabricated from 750-nm w-LED samples with nano-honeycomb-patterned tops.

  7. Load-dependent Optimization of Honeycombs for Sandwich Components - New Possibilities by Using Additive Layer Manufacturing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Riss, Fabian; Schilp, Johannes; Reinhart, Gunther

    Due to their feasible geometric complexity, additive layer manufacturing (ALM) processes show a highpotential for the production of lightweight components.Therefore, ALM processes enable the realization of bionic-designedcomponents like honeycombs, which are optimized depending upon load and outer boundary conditions.This optimization is based on a closed-loop, three-steps methodology: At first, each honeycomb is conformed to the surface of the part. Secondly, the structure is optimizedfor lightweight design.It is possible to achieve a homogeneous stress distribution in the part by varying the wall thickness, honeycombdiameter and the amount of honeycombs, depending on the subjected stresses and strains. At last, the functional components like threads or bearing carriers are integrated directly into the honeycomb core.Using all these steps as an iterative process, it is possible to reduce the mass of sandwich components about 50 percent compared to conventional approaches.

  8. Mechanical properties of the hierarchical honeycombs with stochastic Voronoi sub-structures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Du, Yinghong; Pugno, Nicola; Gong, Baoming; Wang, Dongpo; Sun, Yongtao; Ding, Qian

    2015-09-01

    The introduction of hierarchy into structures has been credited with changing mechanical properties. In this study, periodically hierarchical honeycomb with irregular sub-structure cells has been designed based on the Voronoi tessellation algorithm. Numerical investigation has been performed to determine the influence of structural hierarchy and irregularity on the in-plane elastic properties. Irregular hierarchical honeycombs can be up to 3 times stiffer than regular hexagonal honeycombs on an equal density basis. Both the stiffness and Poisson's ratio of the hierarchical honeycomb are insensitive to the degree of regularity, and depend on the cell-wall thickness-to-length ratio of the super-structure. Increasing the relative lengths of the super- and sub-structures results in the increment of Young's modulus, whereas Poisson's ratio almost remains constant varying from 1.0 to 0.7.

  9. Compressive failure modes and parameter optimization of the trabecular structure of biomimetic fully integrated honeycomb plates.

    PubMed

    Chen, Jinxiang; Tuo, Wanyong; Zhang, Xiaoming; He, Chenglin; Xie, Juan; Liu, Chang

    2016-12-01

    To develop lightweight biomimetic composite structures, the compressive failure and mechanical properties of fully integrated honeycomb plates were investigated experimentally and through the finite element method. The results indicated that: fracturing of the fully integrated honeycomb plates primarily occurred in the core layer, including the sealing edge structure. The morphological failures can be classified into two types, namely dislocations and compactions, and were caused primarily by the stress concentrations at the interfaces between the core layer and the upper and lower laminations and secondarily by the disordered short-fiber distribution in the material; although the fully integrated honeycomb plates manufactured in this experiment were imperfect, their mass-specific compressive strength was superior to that of similar biomimetic samples. Therefore, the proposed bio-inspired structure possesses good overall mechanical properties, and a range of parameters, such as the diameter of the transition arc, was defined for enhancing the design of fully integrated honeycomb plates and improving their compressive mechanical properties.

  10. Transition to turbulence: 2D directed percolation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chantry, Matthew; Tuckerman, Laurette; Barkley, Dwight

    2016-11-01

    The transition to turbulence in simple shear flows has been studied for well over a century, yet in the last few years has seen major leaps forward. In pipe flow, this transition shows the hallmarks of (1 + 1) D directed percolation, a universality class of continuous phase transitions. In spanwisely confined Taylor-Couette flow the same class is found, suggesting the phenomenon is generic to shear flows. However in plane Couette flow the largest simulations and experiments to-date find evidence for a discrete transition. Here we study a planar shear flow, called Waleffe flow, devoid of walls yet showing the fundamentals of planar transition to turbulence. Working with a quasi-2D yet Navier-Stokes derived model of this flow we are able to attack the (2 + 1) D transition problem. Going beyond the system sizes previously possible we find all of the required scalings of directed percolation and thus establish planar shears flow in this class.

  11. 2D quantum gravity from quantum entanglement.

    PubMed

    Gliozzi, F

    2011-01-21

    In quantum systems with many degrees of freedom the replica method is a useful tool to study the entanglement of arbitrary spatial regions. We apply it in a way that allows them to backreact. As a consequence, they become dynamical subsystems whose position, form, and extension are determined by their interaction with the whole system. We analyze, in particular, quantum spin chains described at criticality by a conformal field theory. Its coupling to the Gibbs' ensemble of all possible subsystems is relevant and drives the system into a new fixed point which is argued to be that of the 2D quantum gravity coupled to this system. Numerical experiments on the critical Ising model show that the new critical exponents agree with those predicted by the formula of Knizhnik, Polyakov, and Zamolodchikov.

  12. Simulation of Yeast Cooperation in 2D.

    PubMed

    Wang, M; Huang, Y; Wu, Z

    2016-03-01

    Evolution of cooperation has been an active research area in evolutionary biology in decades. An important type of cooperation is developed from group selection, when individuals form spatial groups to prevent them from foreign invasions. In this paper, we study the evolution of cooperation in a mixed population of cooperating and cheating yeast strains in 2D with the interactions among the yeast cells restricted to their small neighborhoods. We conduct a computer simulation based on a game theoretic model and show that cooperation is increased when the interactions are spatially restricted, whether the game is of a prisoner's dilemma, snow drifting, or mutual benefit type. We study the evolution of homogeneous groups of cooperators or cheaters and describe the conditions for them to sustain or expand in an opponent population. We show that under certain spatial restrictions, cooperator groups are able to sustain and expand as group sizes become large, while cheater groups fail to expand and keep them from collapse.

  13. 2D Electrostatic Actuation of Microshutter Arrays

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Burns, Devin E.; Oh, Lance H.; Li, Mary J.; Jones, Justin S.; Kelly, Daniel P.; Zheng, Yun; Kutyrev, Alexander S.; Moseley, Samuel H.

    2015-01-01

    An electrostatically actuated microshutter array consisting of rotational microshutters (shutters that rotate about a torsion bar) were designed and fabricated through the use of models and experiments. Design iterations focused on minimizing the torsional stiffness of the microshutters, while maintaining their structural integrity. Mechanical and electromechanical test systems were constructed to measure the static and dynamic behavior of the microshutters. The torsional stiffness was reduced by a factor of four over initial designs without sacrificing durability. Analysis of the resonant behavior of the microshutter arrays demonstrates that the first resonant mode is a torsional mode occurring around 3000 Hz. At low vacuum pressures, this resonant mode can be used to significantly reduce the drive voltage necessary for actuation requiring as little as 25V. 2D electrostatic latching and addressing was demonstrated using both a resonant and pulsed addressing scheme.

  14. Graphene suspensions for 2D printing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Soots, R. A.; Yakimchuk, E. A.; Nebogatikova, N. A.; Kotin, I. A.; Antonova, I. V.

    2016-04-01

    It is shown that, by processing a graphite suspension in ethanol or water by ultrasound and centrifuging, it is possible to obtain particles with thicknesses within 1-6 nm and, in the most interesting cases, 1-1.5 nm. Analogous treatment of a graphite suspension in organic solvent yields eventually thicker particles (up to 6-10 nm thick) even upon long-term treatment. Using the proposed ink based on graphene and aqueous ethanol with ethylcellulose and terpineol additives for 2D printing, thin (~5 nm thick) films with sheet resistance upon annealing ~30 MΩ/□ were obtained. With the ink based on aqueous graphene suspension, the sheet resistance was ~5-12 kΩ/□ for 6- to 15-nm-thick layers with a carrier mobility of ~30-50 cm2/(V s).

  15. Canard configured aircraft with 2-D nozzle

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Child, R. D.; Henderson, W. P.

    1978-01-01

    A closely-coupled canard fighter with vectorable two-dimensional nozzle was designed for enhanced transonic maneuvering. The HiMAT maneuver goal of a sustained 8g turn at a free-stream Mach number of 0.9 and 30,000 feet was the primary design consideration. The aerodynamic design process was initiated with a linear theory optimization minimizing the zero percent suction drag including jet effects and refined with three-dimensional nonlinear potential flow techniques. Allowances were made for mutual interference and viscous effects. The design process to arrive at the resultant configuration is described, and the design of a powered 2-D nozzle model to be tested in the LRC 16-foot Propulsion Wind Tunnel is shown.

  16. Numerical Evaluation of 2D Ground States

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kolkovska, Natalia

    2016-02-01

    A ground state is defined as the positive radial solution of the multidimensional nonlinear problem \\varepsilon propto k_ bot 1 - ξ with the function f being either f(u) =a|u|p-1u or f(u) =a|u|pu+b|u|2pu. The numerical evaluation of ground states is based on the shooting method applied to an equivalent dynamical system. A combination of fourth order Runge-Kutta method and Hermite extrapolation formula is applied to solving the resulting initial value problem. The efficiency of this procedure is demonstrated in the 1D case, where the maximal difference between the exact and numerical solution is ≈ 10-11 for a discretization step 0:00025. As a major application, we evaluate numerically the critical energy constant. This constant is defined as a functional of the ground state and is used in the study of the 2D Boussinesq equations.

  17. Lighten the Olympia of the Flatland: Probing and Manipulating the Photonic Properties of 2D Transition-Metal Dichalcogenides.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Kai-Ge; Zhang, Hao-Li

    2015-07-15

    Following the adventures of graphene, 2D transition metal dichalcogenides (TMDs) have recently seized part of the territory in the flatland. Branched by different components of metals and chalcogenides, the families of 2D TMDs have grown rapidly, in which the semiconductive ones have shown colorful photonic properties. By tuning the atomic components and reducing the thickness or planar size of the layers, one can manipulate the optical performance of 2D TMDs, e.g., the intensity, angular momentum, and frequency of the emitted light, or toward ultrafast nonlinear absorption. As a powerful optical method, the Raman characteristics of 2D TMDs have been successfully used to explore their lattices and electronic structures. Along with the maturing of 2D TMDs, their hybrids play an important role. The unique photonic properties of 2D van der Waals heterostructures and 2D alloys are introduced here. Apart from the group VI TMDs, future prospects are identified to harness the optical properties of other 2D TMDs and the related investigations of their hybrids are underway.

  18. A lattice-Boltzmann scheme of the Navier-Stokes equations on a 3D cuboid lattice

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Min, Haoda; Peng, Cheng; Wang, Lian-Ping

    2015-11-01

    The standard lattice-Boltzmann method (LBM) for fluid flow simulation is based on a square (in 2D) or cubic (in 3D) lattice grids. Recently, two new lattice Boltzmann schemes have been developed on a 2D rectangular grid using the MRT (multiple-relaxation-time) collision model, by adding a free parameter in the definition of moments or by extending the equilibrium moments. Here we developed a lattice Boltzmann model on 3D cuboid lattice, namely, a lattice grid with different grid lengths in different spatial directions. We designed our MRT-LBM model by matching the moment equations from the Chapman-Enskog expansion with the Navier-Stokes equations. The model guarantees correct hydrodynamics. A second-order term is added to the equilibrium moments in order to restore the isotropy of viscosity on a cuboid lattice. The form and the coefficients of the extended equilibrium moments are determined through an inverse design process. An additional benefit of the model is that the viscosity can be adjusted independent of the stress-moment relaxation parameter, thus improving the numerical stability of the model. The resulting cuboid MRT-LBM model is then validated through benchmark simulations using laminar channel flow, turbulent channel flow, and the 3D Taylor-Green vortex flow.

  19. ±J Ising model on homogeneous Archimedean lattices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Valdés, J. F.; Lebrecht, W.; Vogel, E. E.

    2012-04-01

    We tackle the problem of finding analytical expressions describing the ground state properties of homogeneous Archimedean lattices over which a generalized Edwards-Anderson model (±J Ising model) is defined. A local frustration analysis is performed based on representative cells for square lattices, triangular lattices and honeycomb lattices. The concentration of ferromagnetic (F) bonds x is used as the independent variable in the analysis (1-x is the concentration for antiferromagnetic (A) bonds), where x spans the range [0.0,1.0]. The presence of A bonds brings frustration, whose clear manifestation is when bonds around the minimum possible circuit of bonds (plaquette) cannot be simultaneously satisfied. The distribution of curved (frustrated) plaquettes within the representative cell is determinant for the evaluation of the parameters of interest such as average frustration segment, energy per bond, and fractional content of unfrustrated bonds. Two methods are developed to cope with this analysis: one based on the direct probability of a plaquette being curved; the other one is based on the consideration of the different ways bonds contribute to the particular plaquette configuration. Exact numerical simulations on a large number of randomly generated samples allow to validate previously described theoretical analysis. It is found that the second method presents slight advantages over the first one. However, both methods give an excellent description for most of the range for x. The small deviations at specific intervals of x for each lattice have to do with the self-imposed limitations of both methods due to practical reasons. A particular discussion for the point x=0.5 for each one of the lattices also shines light on the general trends of the properties described here.

  20. LatticeLibrary and BccFccRaycaster: Software for processing and viewing 3D data on optimal sampling lattices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Linnér, Elisabeth Schold; Morén, Max; Smed, Karl-Oskar; Nysjö, Johan; Strand, Robin

    In this paper, we present LatticeLibrary, a C++ library for general processing of 2D and 3D images sampled on arbitrary lattices. The current implementation supports the Cartesian Cubic (CC), Body-Centered Cubic (BCC) and Face-Centered Cubic (FCC) lattices, and is designed to facilitate addition of other sampling lattices. We also introduce BccFccRaycaster, a plugin for the existing volume renderer Voreen, making it possible to view CC, BCC and FCC data, using different interpolation methods, with the same application. The plugin supports nearest neighbor and trilinear interpolation at interactive frame rates. These tools will enable further studies of the possible advantages of non-Cartesian lattices in a wide range of research areas.

  1. A study of PV/T collector with honeycomb heat exchanger

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hussain, F.; Othman, M. Y. H.; Yatim, B.; Ruslan, H.; Sopian, K.; Ibarahim, Z.

    2013-11-01

    This paper present a study of a single pass photovoltaic/thermal (PV/T) solar collector combined with honeycomb heat exchanger. A PV/T system is a combination of photovoltaic panel and solar thermal components in one integrated system. In order to enhance the performance of the system, a honeycomb heat exchanger is installed horizontally into the channel located under the PV module. Air is used as the heat remover medium. The system is tested with and without the honeycomb at irradiance of 828 W/m2 and mass flow rate spanning from 0.02 kg/s to 0.13 kg/s. It is observed that the aluminum honeycomb is capable of enhancing the thermal efficiency of the system efficiently. At mass flow rate of 0.11 kg/s, the thermal efficiency of the system without honeycomb is 27% and with honeycomb is 87 %. Throughout the range of the mass flow rate, the electrical efficiency of the PV module improved by 0.1 %. The improved design is suitable to be further investigated as solar drying system and space heating.

  2. One-to-one embedding between honeycomb mesh and Petersen-Torus networks.

    PubMed

    Seo, Jung-Hyun; Sim, Hyun; Park, Dae-Heon; Park, Jang-Woo; Lee, Yang-Sun

    2011-01-01

    As wireless mobile telecommunication bases organize their structure using a honeycomb-mesh algorithm, there are many studies about parallel processing algorithms like the honeycomb mesh in Wireless Sensor Networks. This paper aims to study the Peterson-Torus graph algorithm in regard to the continuity with honeycomb-mesh algorithm in order to apply the algorithm to sensor networks. Once a new interconnection network is designed, parallel algorithms are developed with huge research costs to use such networks. If the old network is embedded in a newly designed network, a developed algorithm in the old network is reusable in a newly designed network. Petersen-Torus has been designed recently, and the honeycomb mesh has already been designed as a well-known interconnection network. In this paper, we propose a one-to-one embedding algorithm for the honeycomb mesh (HMn) in the Petersen-Torus PT(n,n), and prove that dilation of the algorithm is 5, congestion is 2, and expansion is 5/3. The proposed one-to-one embedding is applied so that processor throughput can be minimized when the honeycomb mesh algorithm runs in the Petersen-Torus.

  3. Modal analysis and acoustic transmission through offset-core honeycomb sandwich panels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mathias, Adam Dustin

    The work presented in this thesis is motivated by an earlier research that showed that double, offset-core honeycomb sandwich panels increased thermal resistance and, hence, decreased heat transfer through the panels. This result lead to the hypothesis that these panels could be used for acoustic insulation. Using commercial finite element modeling software, COMSOL Multiphysics, the acoustical properties, specifically the transmission loss across a variety of offset-core honeycomb sandwich panels, is studied for the case of a plane acoustic wave impacting the panel at normal incidence. The transmission loss results are compared with those of single-core honeycomb panels with the same cell sizes. The fundamental frequencies of the panels are also computed in an attempt to better understand the vibrational modes of these particular sandwich-structured panels. To ensure that the finite element analysis software is adequate for the task at hand, two relevant benchmark problems are solved and compared with theory. Results from these benchmark results compared well to those obtained from theory. Transmission loss results from the offset-core honeycomb sandwich panels show increased transmission loss, especially for large cell honeycombs when compared to single-core honeycomb panels.

  4. Cutting forces related with lattice orientations of graphene using an atomic force microscopy based nanorobot

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Yu; Gao, Yang; Liu, Lianqing; Xi, Ning; Wang, Yuechao; Ma, Laipeng; Dong, Zaili; Wejinya, Uchechukwu C.

    2012-11-01

    The relationship between cutting forces and lattice orientations of monolayer graphene is investigated by using an atomic force microscopy (AFM) based nanorobot. In the beginning, the atomic resolution image of the graphene lattice is obtained by using an AFM. Then, graphene cutting experiments are performed with sample rotation method, which gets rid of the tip effect completely. The experimental results show that the cutting force along the armchair orientation is larger than the force along the zigzag orientation, and the cutting forces are almost identical every 60°, which corresponds well with the 60° symmetry in graphene honeycomb lattice structure. By using Poisson analysis method, the single cutting force along zigzag orientation is 3.9 nN, and the force along armchair is 20.5 nN. This work lays the experimental foundation to build a close-loop fabrication strategy with real-time force as a feedback sensor to control the cutting direction.

  5. A hybrid-trap BEC for radiofrequency-dressed optical lattice experiments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lundblad, Nathan; Moody, Joanna

    2013-05-01

    Recent work in lattice-based ultracold atomic physics has focused on the development of increasingly precise and complex apparatus to push the boundaries of what can be measured with such systems. Historically such experiments have generally been confined to simple-cubic lattices with recent forays into systems both more fertile and more challenging, such as the honeycomb lattice or even the kagome net. We report progress towards nonstandard-geometry optical-lattice experiments using a recently-constructed BEC apparatus at Bates College. We summarize laser system construction, document the design and construction of a spin-flip Zeeman slower, present characterization of the laser cooling process, and present the results of magnetic trapping and evaporative cooling, including recent results showing transfer to a 1064 nm fiber-laser dipole trap and the resulting path to BEC. We also report on progress toward observation of adiabatic eigenstates in radiofrequency-dressed spin-dependent lattices loaded from said BEC, and present plans for observations of toroidal Wannier-function lattices. We also present a discussion of other possible nonstandard-geometry lattices that will be explored with this new apparatus. We acknowledge support from AFOSR and NSF.

  6. Contributions of ionic interactions and protein dynamics to cytochrome P450 2D6 (CYP2D6) substrate and inhibitor binding.

    PubMed

    Wang, An; Stout, C David; Zhang, Qinghai; Johnson, Eric F

    2015-02-20

    P450 2D6 contributes significantly to the metabolism of >15% of the 200 most marketed drugs. Open and closed crystal structures of P450 2D6 thioridazine complexes were obtained using different crystallization conditions. The protonated piperidine moiety of thioridazine forms a charge-stabilized hydrogen bond with Asp-301 in the active sites of both complexes. The more open conformation exhibits a second molecule of thioridazine bound in an expanded substrate access channel antechamber with its piperidine moiety forming a charge-stabilized hydrogen bond with Glu-222. Incubation of the crystalline open thioridazine complex with alternative ligands, prinomastat, quinidine, quinine, or ajmalicine, displaced both thioridazines. Quinine and ajmalicine formed charge-stabilized hydrogen bonds with Glu-216, whereas the protonated nitrogen of quinidine is equidistant from Asp-301 and Glu-216 with protonated nitrogen H-bonded to a water molecule in the access channel. Prinomastat is not ionized. Adaptations of active site side-chain rotamers and polypeptide conformations were evident between the complexes, with the binding of ajmalicine eliciting a closure of the open structure reflecting in part the inward movement of Glu-216 to form a hydrogen bond with ajmalicine as well as sparse lattice restraints that would hinder adaptations. These results indicate that P450 2D6 exhibits sufficient elasticity within the crystal lattice to allow the passage of compounds between the active site and bulk solvent and to adopt a more closed form that adapts for binding alternative ligands with different degrees of closure. These crystals provide a means to characterize substrate and inhibitor binding to the enzyme after replacement of thioridazine with alternative compounds.

  7. Synthesis, characterization and tin/copper-nitrogen substitutional effect on photocatalytic activity of honeycomb ordered P2-Na2Ni2TeO6

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kadari, Ramaswamy; Velchuri, Radha; Sreenu, K.; Ravi, Gundeboina; Munirathnam, Nagegownivari R.; Vithal, Muga

    2016-11-01

    We have successfully prepared visible light active tin/copper-nitrogen co-doped honeycomb ordered P2-Na2Ni2TeO6 photocatalysts by solid state/ion exchange methods. Powder XRD, TG analysis, SEM, surface area, O-N-H analysis, ICP-OES, FT-IR and UV-DRS measurements are employed to characterize all the samples. All the doped compositions adopted hexagonal lattice with space group P63/mcm. The photocatalytic activity of all the samples was studied against the degradation of methyl violet (MV) and methylene blue (MB) under visible light irradiation. The variation of the photocatalytic activity due to the substitution of cation, anion and co-doping in Na2Ni2TeO6 is investigated. Co-doped samples have exhibited higher activity compared to rest of the materials. The role of reactive intermediate species in the photocatalytic degradation of dyes is also studied using appropriate scavengers.

  8. Holographic method for site-resolved detection of a 2D array of ultracold atoms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hoffmann, Daniel Kai; Deissler, Benjamin; Limmer, Wolfgang; Hecker Denschlag, Johannes

    2016-08-01

    We propose a novel approach to site-resolved detection of a 2D gas of ultracold atoms in an optical lattice. A near-resonant laser beam is coherently scattered by the atomic array, and after passing a lens its interference pattern is holographically recorded by superimposing it with a reference laser beam on a CCD chip. Fourier transformation of the recorded intensity pattern reconstructs the atomic distribution in the lattice with single-site resolution. The holographic detection method requires only about two hundred scattered photons per atom in order to achieve a high reconstruction fidelity of 99.9 %. Therefore, additional cooling during detection might not be necessary even for light atomic elements such as lithium. Furthermore, first investigations suggest that small aberrations of the lens can be post-corrected in imaging processing.

  9. sd(2) Graphene: Kagome band in a hexagonal lattice.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Miao; Liu, Zheng; Ming, Wenmei; Wang, Zhengfei; Liu, Feng

    2014-12-05

    Graphene, made of sp^{2} hybridized carbon, is characterized with a Dirac band, representative of its underlying 2D hexagonal lattice. The fundamental understanding of graphene has recently spurred a surge in the search for 2D topological quantum phases in solid-state materials. Here, we propose a new form of 2D material, consisting of sd^{2} hybridized transition metal atoms in hexagonal lattice, called sd^{2} "graphene." The sd^{2} graphene is characterized by bond-centered electronic hopping, which transforms the apparent atomic hexagonal lattice into the physics of a kagome lattice that may exhibit a wide range of topological quantum phases. Based on first-principles calculations, room-temperature quantum anomalous Hall states with an energy gap of ∼0.1  eV are demonstrated for one such lattice made of W, which can be epitaxially grown on a semiconductor surface of 1/3 monolayer Cl-covered Si(111), with high thermodynamic and kinetic stability.

  10. Critical points of the O(n) loop model on the martini and the 3-12 lattices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ding, Chengxiang; Fu, Zhe; Guo, Wenan

    2012-06-01

    We derive the critical line of the O(n) loop model on the martini lattice as a function of the loop weight n basing on the critical points on the honeycomb lattice conjectured by Nienhuis [Phys. Rev. Lett.PRLTAO0031-900710.1103/PhysRevLett.49.1062 49, 1062 (1982)]. In the limit n→0 we prove the connective constant μ=1.7505645579⋯ of self-avoiding walks on the martini lattice. A finite-size scaling analysis based on transfer matrix calculations is also performed. The numerical results coincide with the theoretical predictions with a very high accuracy. Using similar numerical methods, we also study the O(n) loop model on the 3-12 lattice. We obtain similarly precise agreement with the critical points given by Batchelor [J. Stat. Phys.JSTPBS0022-471510.1023/A:1023065215233 92, 1203 (1998)].

  11. The quantum anomalous Hall effect on a star lattice with spin-orbit coupling and an exchange field.

    PubMed

    Chen, Mengsu; Wan, Shaolong

    2012-08-15

    We study a star lattice with Rashba spin-orbit coupling and an exchange field and find that there is a quantum anomalous Hall effect in this system, and that there are five energy gaps at Dirac points and quadratic band crossing points. We calculate the Berry curvature distribution and obtain the Hall conductivity (Chern number ν) quantized as integers, and find that ν =- 1,2,1,1,2 when the Fermi level lies in these five gaps. Our model can be viewed as a general quantum anomalous Hall system and, in limit cases, can give what the honeycomb lattice and kagome lattice give. We also find that there is a nearly flat band with ν = 1 which may provide an opportunity for realizing the fractional quantum anomalous Hall effect. Finally, the chiral edge states on a zigzag star lattice are given numerically, to confirm the topological property of this system.

  12. Persistence Measures for 2d Soap Froth

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Feng, Y.; Ruskin, H. J.; Zhu, B.

    Soap froths as typical disordered cellular structures, exhibiting spatial and temporal evolution, have been studied through their distributions and topological properties. Recently, persistence measures, which permit representation of the froth as a two-phase system, have been introduced to study froth dynamics at different length scales. Several aspects of the dynamics may be considered and cluster persistence has been observed through froth experiment. Using a direct simulation method, we have investigated persistent properties in 2D froth both by monitoring the persistence of survivor cells, a topologically independent measure, and in terms of cluster persistence. It appears that the area fraction behavior for both survivor and cluster persistence is similar for Voronoi froth and uniform froth (with defects). Survivor and cluster persistent fractions are also similar for a uniform froth, particularly when geometries are constrained, but differences observed for the Voronoi case appear to be attributable to the strong topological dependency inherent in cluster persistence. Survivor persistence, on the other hand, depends on the number rather than size and position of remaining bubbles and does not exhibit the characteristic decay to zero.

  13. SEM signal emulation for 2D patterns

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sukhov, Evgenii; Muelders, Thomas; Klostermann, Ulrich; Gao, Weimin; Braylovska, Mariya

    2016-03-01

    The application of accurate and predictive physical resist simulation is seen as one important use model for fast and efficient exploration of new patterning technology options, especially if fully qualified OPC models are not yet available at an early pre-production stage. The methodology of using a top-down CD-SEM metrology to extract the 3D resist profile information, such as the critical dimension (CD) at various resist heights, has to be associated with a series of presumptions which may introduce such small, but systematic CD errors. Ideally, the metrology effects should be carefully minimized during measurement process, or if possible be taken into account through proper metrology modeling. In this paper we discuss the application of a fast SEM signal emulation describing the SEM image formation. The algorithm is applied to simulated resist 3D profiles and produces emulated SEM image results for 1D and 2D patterns. It allows estimating resist simulation quality by comparing CDs which were extracted from the emulated and from the measured SEM images. Moreover, SEM emulation is applied for resist model calibration to capture subtle error signatures through dose and defocus. Finally, it should be noted that our SEM emulation methodology is based on the approximation of physical phenomena which are taking place in real SEM image formation. This approximation allows achieving better speed performance compared to a fully physical model.

  14. Competing coexisting phases in 2D water

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zanotti, Jean-Marc; Judeinstein, Patrick; Dalla-Bernardina, Simona; Creff, Gaëlle; Brubach, Jean-Blaise; Roy, Pascale; Bonetti, Marco; Ollivier, Jacques; Sakellariou, Dimitrios; Bellissent-Funel, Marie-Claire

    2016-05-01

    The properties of bulk water come from a delicate balance of interactions on length scales encompassing several orders of magnitudes: i) the Hydrogen Bond (HBond) at the molecular scale and ii) the extension of this HBond network up to the macroscopic level. Here, we address the physics of water when the three dimensional extension of the HBond network is frustrated, so that the water molecules are forced to organize in only two dimensions. We account for the large scale fluctuating HBond network by an analytical mean-field percolation model. This approach provides a coherent interpretation of the different events experimentally (calorimetry, neutron, NMR, near and far infra-red spectroscopies) detected in interfacial water at 160, 220 and 250 K. Starting from an amorphous state of water at low temperature, these transitions are respectively interpreted as the onset of creation of transient low density patches of 4-HBonded molecules at 160 K, the percolation of these domains at 220 K and finally the total invasion of the surface by them at 250 K. The source of this surprising behaviour in 2D is the frustration of the natural bulk tetrahedral local geometry and the underlying very significant increase in entropy of the interfacial water molecules.

  15. Competing coexisting phases in 2D water

    PubMed Central

    Zanotti, Jean-Marc; Judeinstein, Patrick; Dalla-Bernardina, Simona; Creff, Gaëlle; Brubach, Jean-Blaise; Roy, Pascale; Bonetti, Marco; Ollivier, Jacques; Sakellariou, Dimitrios; Bellissent-Funel, Marie-Claire

    2016-01-01

    The properties of bulk water come from a delicate balance of interactions on length scales encompassing several orders of magnitudes: i) the Hydrogen Bond (HBond) at the molecular scale and ii) the extension of this HBond network up to the macroscopic level. Here, we address the physics of water when the three dimensional extension of the HBond network is frustrated, so that the water molecules are forced to organize in only two dimensions. We account for the large scale fluctuating HBond network by an analytical mean-field percolation model. This approach provides a coherent interpretation of the different events experimentally (calorimetry, neutron, NMR, near and far infra-red spectroscopies) detected in interfacial water at 160, 220 and 250 K. Starting from an amorphous state of water at low temperature, these transitions are respectively interpreted as the onset of creation of transient low density patches of 4-HBonded molecules at 160 K, the percolation of these domains at 220 K and finally the total invasion of the surface by them at 250 K. The source of this surprising behaviour in 2D is the frustration of the natural bulk tetrahedral local geometry and the underlying very significant increase in entropy of the interfacial water molecules. PMID:27185018

  16. Spin-orbital short-range order in the honeycomb-based quantum magnet Ba3CuSb2O9

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nakatsuji, Satoru

    2013-03-01

    The realization of quantum correlated matter beyond one dimension has been vigorously pursued in geometrically frustrated spin systems for decades. In frustrated magnetic materials, however, symmetry breaking of orbital and chemical origin is usually found to induce semi-classical spin freezing. In this talk, I present a contrast case where spins and possibly orbitals remain in a liquid state down to low temperature even in a highly disordered structure of 6H-perovskite Ba3CuSb2O9. Our comprehensive experimental analysis indicates that the geometrical frustration of Wannier's Ising antiferromagnet on a triangular lattice can be exploited to build a nano-structured bipartite honeycomb lattice from electric dipolar spin-1/2 molecules. Despite a strong local Jahn-Teller distortion about the Cu2+ ion, the resulting spin-orbital random bond lattice not only retains hexagonal symmetry averaged over time and space, but it supports a gapless excitation spectrum without spin freezing down to ultralow temperatures. This is the work based on the collaboration with K. Kuga, K. Kimura, R. Satake, N. Katayama, E. Nishibori, H. Sawa, R. Ishii, M. Hagiwara, F. Bridges, T. U. Ito, W. Higemoto, Y. Karaki, M. Halim, A. A. Nugroho, J. A. Rodriguez-Rivera, M. A. Green, C. Broholm. This work is partially supported by Grant-in-Aid for Scientific Research (No. 20340089,21684019) from JSPS, by Grant-in-Aid for Scientific Research on Priority Areas (No. 1951010,19052003) from MEXT, Japan.

  17. Radiofrequency Spectroscopy and Thermodynamics of Fermi Gases in the 2D to Quasi-2D Dimensional Crossover

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cheng, Chingyun; Kangara, Jayampathi; Arakelyan, Ilya; Thomas, John

    2016-05-01

    We tune the dimensionality of a strongly interacting degenerate 6 Li Fermi gas from 2D to quasi-2D, by adjusting the radial confinement of pancake-shaped clouds to control the radial chemical potential. In the 2D regime with weak radial confinement, the measured pair binding energies are in agreement with 2D-BCS mean field theory, which predicts dimer pairing energies in the many-body regime. In the qausi-2D regime obtained with increased radial confinement, the measured pairing energy deviates significantly from 2D-BCS theory. In contrast to the pairing energy, the measured radii of the cloud profiles are not fit by 2D-BCS theory in either the 2D or quasi-2D regimes, but are fit in both regimes by a beyond mean field polaron-model of the free energy. Supported by DOE, ARO, NSF, and AFOSR.

  18. Piezoelectrically-induced guided wave propagation for health monitoring of honeycomb sandwich structures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Song, Fei

    Honeycomb sandwich structures have been widely used in marine and aerospace applications due to their high strength/stiffness-to-weight ratio. However, an excessive load or repeated loading in the core tends to induce debonding along the skin-core interface, threatening the integrity and safety of the whole structure. This dissertation focuses on development of guided wave strategies for health monitoring of honeycomb sandwich structures, based on a piezoelectric actuator/sensor network. The honeycomb sandwich panels, which are composed of aluminum alloy (T6061) skins and hexagonal-celled Nomex core, are specifically considered in the study. First, elastic wave propagation mechanism in honeycomb sandwich structures is numerically and experimentally investigated, based on a piezoelectric actuator/sensor system. Influences of cell geometry parameters upon wave propagation are also discussed. Some wave propagation characteristics, such as wave group velocity dispersion relation and mode tuning capabilities, in the honeycomb composite panels are experimentally characterized. Secondly, effects of skin-core debonding upon the leaky guided wave propagation in honeycomb sandwich structures are studied by the finite element simulation. An appropriate signal difference coefficient is defined to represent the differential features caused by debonding. By means of probability analysis of differential features of transmitted guided waves and the image fusion, the final image of the structure is constructed with improved detection precision. A multilevel sensor network strategy is proposed to detect multiple debondings in the honeycomb sandwich structure. Thirdly, an analytical model considering coupled piezo-elastodynamics is developed to quantitatively describe dynamic load transfer between a surface-bonded piezoelectric wafer actuator and a prestressed plate. The finite element method is used to evaluate the accuracy of the analytical prediction. Effects of prestresses on the

  19. Inverse statistical mechanics, lattice packings, and glasses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marcotte, Etienne

    Computer simulation methods enable the investigation of systems and properties that are intractable by purely analytical or experimental approaches. Each chapter of this dissertation contains an application of simulation methods to solve complex physical problems consisting of interacting many-particle or many-spin systems. The problems studied in this dissertation can be divided up into the following two broad categories: inverse and forward problems. The inverse problems considered are those in which we construct an interaction potential such that the corresponding ground state is a targeted configuration. In Chapters 2 and 3, we devise convex pair-potential functions that result in low-coordinated ground states. Chapter 2 describes targeted ground states that are the square and honeycomb crystals, while in Chapter 3 the targeted ground state is the diamond crystal. Chapter 4 applies similar techniques to explicitly enumerate all unique ground states up to a given system size, for spin configurations that interact according to generalized isotropic Ising potentials with finite range. We also consider forward statistical-mechanical problems. In Chapter 5, we adapt a linear programming algorithm to find the densest lattice packings across Euclidean space dimensions. In Chapter 6, we demonstrate that for two different glass models a signature of the glass transition is apparent well before the transition temperature is reached. In both models, this signature appears as nonequilibrium length scales that grow upon supercooling.

  20. Theoretical investigation on a general class of 2D quasicrystals with the rectangular projection method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yue, Yang-Yang; Lu, Rong-er; Yang, Bo; Huang, Huang; Hong, Xu-Hao; Zhang, Chao; Qin, Yi-Qiang; Zhu, Yong-Yuan

    2016-10-01

    We take a theoretical investigation on the reciprocal property of a class of 2D nonlinear photonic quasicrystal proposed by Lifshitz et al. in PRL 95, 133901 (2005). Using the rectangular projection method, the analytical expression for the Fourier spectrum of the quasicrystal structure is obtained explicitly. It is interesting to find that the result has a similar form to the corresponding expression of the well-known 1D Fibonacci lattice. In addition, we predict a further extension of the result to higher dimensions. This work is of practical importance for the photonic device design in nonlinear optical conversion progresses.